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Sample records for a2 regulates phagocytosis

  1. Regulation of phagocytosis by TAM receptors and their ligands

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qingxian; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingjun

    2010-01-01

    The TAM family of receptors is preferentially expressed by professional and non-professional phagocytes, including macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer cells in the immune system, osteoclasts in bone, Sertoli cells in testis, and retinal pigmental epithelium cells in the retina. Mutations in the Mertk single gene or in different combinations of the double or triple gene mutations in the same cell cause complete or partial impairment in phagocytosis of their preys; and as a result, either the normal apoptotic cells cannot be efficiently removed or the tissue neighbor cells die by apoptosis. This scenario of TAM regulation represents a widely adapted model system used by phagocytes in all different tissues. The present review will summarize current known functional roles of TAM receptors and their ligands, Gas 6 and protein S, in the regulation of phagocytosis. PMID:21057587

  2. Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis is regulated by mechanical properties of the target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beningo, Karen A.; Wang, Yu-li

    2002-01-01

    Phagocytosis is an actin-based process used by macrophages to clear particles greater than 0.5 microm in diameter. In addition to its role in immunological responses, phagocytosis is also necessary for tissue remodeling and repair. To prevent catastrophic autoimmune reactions, phagocytosis must be tightly regulated. It is commonly assumed that the recognition/selection of phagocytic targets is based solely upon receptor-ligand binding. Here we report an important new criterion, that mechanical parameters of the target can dramatically affect the efficiency of phagocytosis. When presented with particles of identical chemical properties but different rigidity, macrophages showed a strong preference to engulf rigid objects. Furthermore, phagocytosis of soft particles can be stimulated with the microinjection of constitutively active Rac1 but not RhoA, and with lysophosphatidic acid, an agent known to activate the small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family. These data suggest a Rac1-dependent mechanosensory mechanism for phagocytosis, which probably plays an important role in a number of physiological and pathological processes from embryonic development to autoimmune diseases.

  3. Essential role of integrin-linked kinase in regulation of phagocytosis in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sayedyahossein, Samar; Nini, Lylia; Irvine, Timothy S; Dagnino, Lina

    2012-10-01

    Phagocytic melanosome uptake by epidermal keratinocytes is a central protective mechanism against damage induced by ultraviolet radiation. Phagocytosis requires formation of pseudopodia via actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an important modulator of actin cytoskeletal dynamics. We have examined the role of ILK in regulation of phagocytosis, using epidermal keratinocytes isolated from mice with epidermis-restricted Ilk gene inactivation. ILK-deficient cells exhibited severely impaired capacity to engulf fluorescent microspheres in response to stimulation of the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) receptor or the protease-activated receptor-2. KGF induced ERK phosphorylation in ILK-expressing and ILK-deficient cells, suggesting that ILK is not essential for KGF receptor signaling. In contrast, KGF promoted activation of Rac1 and formation of pseudopodia in ILK-expressing, but not in ILK-deficient cells. Rac1-deficient keratinocytes also showed substantially impaired phagocytic ability, underlining the importance of ILK-dependent Rac1 function for particle engulfment. Finally, cross-modulation of KGF receptors by integrins may be another important element, as integrin β1-deficient keratinocytes also fail to show significant phagocytosis in response to KGF. Thus, we have identified a novel signaling pathway essential for phagocytosis in keratinocytes, which involves ILK-dependent activation of Rac1 in response to KGF, resulting in the formation of pseudopodia and particle uptake.

  4. Regulation of CRIg Expression and Phagocytosis in Human Macrophages by Arachidonate, Dexamethasone, and Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Gorgani, Nick N.; Thathaisong, Umaporn; Mukaro, Violet R.S.; Poungpair, Ornnuthchar; Tirimacco, Amanda; Hii, Charles S.T.; Ferrante, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of the macrophage complement receptor immunoglobulin (CRIg) in the phagocytosis of complement opsonized bacteria and in inflammation has been established, the regulation of CRIg expression remains undefined. Because cellular activation during inflammation leads to the release of arachidonate, a stimulator of leukocyte function, we sought to determine whether arachidonate regulates CRIg expression. Adding arachidonate to maturing human macrophages and to prematured CRIg+ macrophages caused a significant decrease in the expression of cell-surface CRIg and CRIg mRNA. This effect was independent of the metabolism of arachidonate via the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways, because it was not inhibited by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Studies with specific pharmacological inhibitors of arachidonate-mediated signaling pathways showed that protein kinase C was involved. Administration of dexamethasone to macrophages caused an increase in CRIg expression. Studies with proinflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines showed that IL-10 increased, but interferon-γ, IL-4, and transforming growth factor-β1 decreased CRIg expression on macrophages. This down- and up-regulation of CRIg expression was reflected in a decrease and increase, respectively, in the phagocytosis of complement opsonized Candida albicans. These data suggest that a unique inflammatory mediator network regulates CRIg expression and point to a mechanism by which arachidonate and dexamethasone have reciprocal effects on inflammation. PMID:21741936

  5. Differentiation and Glucocorticoid Regulated Apopto-Phagocytic Gene Expression Patterns in Human Macrophages. Role of Mertk in Enhanced Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Zahuczky, Gábor; Kristóf, Endre; Majai, Gyöngyike; Fésüs, László

    2011-01-01

    The daily clearance of physiologically dying cells is performed safely mainly by cells in the mononuclear phagocyte system. They can recognize and engulf dying cells utilizing several cooperative mechanisms. In our study we show that the expression of a broad range of apopto-phagocytic genes is strongly up-regulated during differentiation of human monocytes to macrophages with different donor variability. The glucocorticoid dexamethasone has a profound effect on this process by selectively up-regulating six genes and down-regulating several others. The key role of the up-regulated mer tyrosine kinase (Mertk) in dexamethasone induced enhancement of phagocytosis could be demonstrated in human monocyte derived macrophages by gene silencing as well as blocking antibodies, and also in a monocyte-macrophage like cell line. However, the additional role of other glucocorticoid induced elements must be also considered since the presence of autologous serum during phagocytosis could almost completely compensate for the blocked function of Mertk. PMID:21731712

  6. CD300b regulates the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells via phosphatidylserine recognition

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Y; Tian, L; Voss, O H; Margulies, D H; Krzewski, K; Coligan, J E

    2014-01-01

    The CD300 receptor family members are a group of molecules that modulate a variety of immune cell processes. We show that mouse CD300b (CLM7/LMIR5), expressed on myeloid cells, recognizes outer membrane-exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) and does not, as previously reported, directly recognize TIM1 or TIM4. CD300b accumulates in phagocytic cups along with F-actin at apoptotic cell contacts, thereby facilitating their engulfment. The CD300b-mediated activation signal is conveyed through CD300b association with the adaptor molecule DAP12, and requires a functional DAP12 ITAM motif. Binding of apoptotic cells promotes the activation of the PI3K-Akt kinase pathway in macrophages, while silencing of CD300b expression diminishes PI3K-Akt kinase activation and impairs efferocytosis. Collectively, our data show that CD300b recognizes PS as a ligand, and regulates the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells via the DAP12 signaling pathway. PMID:25034781

  7. Quantitative Phagocytosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallister, Zane Gary; McCallister, Gary Loren

    1996-01-01

    Presents a model experiment for quantifying phagocytosis using earthworm coelomocytes and determining the optimum length of time necessary to obtain maximum phagocytosis. Involves incubating coelomocytes from invertebrates with an antigen, staining the cells, counting the number of antigen particles ingested, and measuring the effect of different…

  8. Signal Regulatory Protein α Negatively Regulates β2 Integrin-Mediated Monocyte Adhesion, Transendothelial Migration and Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan-Qing; Li, Li-Min; Guo, Ya-Lan; Bai, Rui; Wang, Chen; Bian, Zhen; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke

    2008-01-01

    Background Signal regulate protein α (SIRPα) is involved in many functional aspects of monocytes. Here we investigate the role of SIRPα in regulating β2 integrin-mediated monocyte adhesion, transendothelial migration (TEM) and phagocytosis. Methodology/Principal Findings THP-1 monocytes/macropahges treated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) resulted in a decrease of SIRPα expression but an increase of β2 integrin cell surface expression and β2 integrin-mediated adhesion to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)–stimulated human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) monolayers. In contrast, SIRPα overexpression in THP-1 cells showed a significant less monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)–triggered cell surface expression of β2 integrins, in particular CD11b/CD18. SIRPα overexpression reduced β2 integrin-mediated firm adhesion of THP-1 cells to either TNFα–stimulated HMEC-1 monolayers or to immobilized intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). SIRPα overexpression also reduced MCP-1–initiated migration of THP-1 cells across TNFα–stimulated HMEC-1 monolayers. Furthermore, β2 integrin-mediated THP-1 cell spreading and actin polymerization in response to MCP-1, and phagocytosis of bacteria were both inhibited by SIRPα overexpression. Conclusions/Significance SIRPα negatively regulates β2 integrin-mediated monocyte adhesion, transendothelial migration and phagocytosis, thus may serve as a critical molecule in preventing excessive activation and accumulation of monocytes in the arterial wall during early stage of atherosclerosis. PMID:18820737

  9. The inositol phosphatase SHIP-2 down-regulates FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in murine macrophages independently of SHIP-1

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Jing; Maturu, Amita; Johnson, Wesley; Wang, Yijie; Marsh, Clay B.; Tridandapani, Susheela

    2006-01-01

    FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles is a complex process involving the activation of multiple signaling enzymes and is regulated by the inositol phosphatases PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and SHIP-1 (Src homology [SH2] domain-containing inositol phosphatase). In a recent study we have demonstrated that SHIP-2, an inositol phosphatase with high-level homology to SHIP-1, is involved in FcγR signaling. However, it is not known whether SHIP-2 plays a role in modulating phagocytosis. In this study we have analyzed the role of SHIP-2 in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis using independent cell models that allow for manipulation of SHIP-2 function without influencing the highly homologous SHIP-1. We present evidence that SHIP-2 translocates to the site of phagocytosis and down-regulates FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. Our data indicate that SHIP-2 must contain both the N-terminal SH2 domain and the C-terminal proline-rich domain to mediate its inhibitory effect. The effect of SHIP-2 is independent of SHIP-1, as overexpression of dominant-negative SHIP-2 in SHIP-1-deficient primary macrophages resulted in enhanced phagocytic efficiency. Likewise, specific knockdown of SHIP-2 expression using siRNA resulted in enhanced phagocytosis. Finally, analysis of the molecular mechanism of SHIP-2 down-regulation of phagocytosis revealed that SHIP-2 down-regulates upstream activation of Rac. Thus, we conclude that SHIP-2 is a novel negative regulator of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis independent of SHIP-1. (Blood. 2006;107:813-820) PMID:16179375

  10. Emerging roles for the BAI1 protein family in the regulation of phagocytosis, synaptogenesis, neurovasculature, and tumor development

    PubMed Central

    Cork, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    While G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have received considerable attention for their biological activity in a diversity of physiological functions and have become targets for therapeutic intervention in many diseases, the function of the cell adhesion subfamily of GPCRs remains poorly understood. Within this group, the family of brain angiogenesis inhibitor molecules (BAI1-3) has become increasingly appreciated for their diverse roles in biology and disease. In particular, recent findings suggest emerging roles for BAI1 in the regulation of phenomena including phagocytosis, synaptogenesis, and the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis via the processing of its extracellular domain into secreted vasculostatins. Here we summarize the known biological features of the BAI proteins, including their structure, proteolysis events, and interacting partners, and their recently identified ability to regulate certain signaling pathways. Finally, we discuss the potential of the BAIs as therapeutics or targets for diseases as varied as cancer, stroke, and schizophrenia. PMID:21509575

  11. Interferon-γ acts as a regulator in the trade-off between phagocytosis and production performance in dwarf chickens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yitong; Liu, Shunqi; Zhao, Yue; Lian, Ling; Lian, Zhengxing

    2018-01-01

    Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is critical for innate and adaptive immunity against viral and bacterial infections. IFN-γ reportedly affects the phagocytic ability of monocytes and macrophages as well as regulates pituitary function in humans and mice. The present study analyzed the impact of IFN-γ on monocyte and macrophage phagocytosis, production performance, and pituitary function in vivo and in vitro (in dwarf chickens). IFN-γ was injected into dwarf chickens through a vein, and then, the laying rate, average egg weight, and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and IFN-γ were measured in treatment and control groups. For the in vitro experiment, the pituitary tissues were supplemented with IFN-γ, and the mRNA expression levels of follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit ( FSH-β ), interferon gamma receptor 1 ( IFNGR 1), and interferon gamma receptor 2 ( IFNGR 2) in the pituitary were assessed. Monocyte and macrophage phagocytosis product (PP) was decreased by IFN-γ treatment in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. In the in vivo experiment, the level of IFN-γ in the treatment group was higher than that in the control group at 7 d ( P  < 0.05), 14 d ( P  < 0.01), and 21 d ( P  < 0.01) post-injection. Compared with the control group, monocyte and macrophage PP was lower in the treatment group after injection ( P  < 0.01). The laying rate was higher in the treatment group than in the control group at 2 and 3 wk post-injection ( P  < 0.05). There was a significant difference between the treatment and control groups in the levels of FSH at 1, 3, 7, and 14 d post-injection ( P  < 0.01). In the in vitro experiment, increased mRNA expression levels of FSH-β , IFNGR 1, and IFNGR 2 were observed in the treatment group after stimulation with 100 U/mL IFN-γ for 24 h compared to those in the control group ( P  < 0.05). IFN-γ inhibited the phagocytosis of monocytes and macrophages; up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of the FSH

  12. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Fahey, Jed W; Bryan, Kelley E; Healy, Zachary R; Talalay, Paul

    2011-02-04

    Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-μm diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2(-/-) mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    SciTech Connect

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hsuganu1@jhmi.edu; Fahey, Jed W., E-mail: jfahey@jhmi.edu; Bryan, Kelley E., E-mail: kbryanm1@jhmi.edu

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. {yields} This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. {yields} Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatorymore » and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-{mu}m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2{sup -/-} mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.« less

  14. Cross-talk between miR-471-5p and autophagy component proteins regulates LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) of apoptotic germ cells.

    PubMed

    Panneerdoss, Subbarayalu; Viswanadhapalli, Suryavathi; Abdelfattah, Nourhan; Onyeagucha, Benjamin C; Timilsina, Santosh; Mohammad, Tabrez A; Chen, Yidong; Drake, Michael; Vuori, Kristiina; Kumar, T Rajendra; Rao, Manjeet K

    2017-09-19

    Phagocytic clearance of apoptotic germ cells by Sertoli cells is vital for germ cell development and differentiation. Here, using a tissue-specific miRNA transgenic mouse model, we show that interaction between miR-471-5p and autophagy member proteins regulates clearance of apoptotic germ cells via LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Transgenic mice expressing miR-471-5p in Sertoli cells show increased germ cell apoptosis and compromised male fertility. Those effects are due to defective engulfment and impaired LAP-mediated clearance of apoptotic germ cells as miR-471-5p transgenic mice show lower levels of Dock180, LC3, Atg12, Becn1, Rab5 and Rubicon in Sertoli cells. Our results reveal that Dock180 interacts with autophagy member proteins to constitute a functional LC3-dependent phagocytic complex. We find that androgen regulates Sertoli cell phagocytosis by controlling expression of miR-471-5p and its target proteins. These findings suggest that recruitment of autophagy machinery is essential for efficient clearance of apoptotic germ cells by Sertoli cells using LAP.Although phagocytic clearance of apoptotic germ cells by Sertoli cells is essential for spermatogenesis, little of the mechanism is known. Here the authors show that Sertoli cells employ LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) by recruiting autophagy member proteins to clear apoptotic germ cells.

  15. C-type lectin B (SpCTL-B) regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides and promotes phagocytosis in mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Limin; Sun, Wanwei; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Hongyu; Zhang, Yueling; Zhang, Xinxu; Li, Shengkang

    2018-07-01

    As pattern recognition receptors, C-type lectins (CTLs) play important roles in immune system of crustaceans through identifying and binding to the conservative pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on pathogen surfaces. In this study, a new CTL, SpCTL-B, was identified from the hemocytes of mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The full-length of SpCTL-B cDNA was 1278 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 348 bp. The predicted SpCTL-B protein contains a single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). SpCTL-B transcripts were distributed in all examined tissues with the highest levels in hepatopancreas. After challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, LPS, polyI:C and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the mRNA levels of SpCTL-B in hemocytes and hepatopancreas were up-regulated. The recombinant SpCTL-B (rSpCTL-B) purified by Ni-affinity chromatography showed stronger binding activities with Staphylococcus aureus, β-hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio alginolyticus than those with V. parahaemolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. rSpCTL-B exhibited a broad spectrum of microorganism-agglutination activities against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, β-hemolytic Streptococcus) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, V. parahaemolyticus, A. hydrophila, V. alginolyticus) in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. The agglutination activities of rSpCTL-B could be inhibited by D-mannose and LPS, but not by d-fructose and galactose. The antimicrobial assay showed that rSpCTL-B exhibited the growth inhibition against all examined gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. When SpCTL-B was silenced by RNAi, the bacterial clearance ability in mud crab was decreased and the transcript levels of five antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) (SpCrustin, SpHistin, SpALF4 (anti-lipopolysaccharide factor), SpALF5 and SpALF6) were significantly decreased in hemocytes. In our study, knockdown of SpCTL-B could down-regulate the expression of SpSTAT at m

  16. Effect of a 2.45-GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis in differentiated human HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shin; Narita, Eijiro; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Taki, Masao; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2015-01-01

    The potential public health risks of radiofrequency (RF) fields have been discussed at length, especially with the use of mobile phones spreading extensively throughout the world. In order to investigate the properties of RF fields, we examined the effect of 2.45-GHz RF fields at the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2 and 10 W/kg for 4 and 24 h on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis in differentiated human HL-60 cells. Neutrophil chemotaxis was not affected by RF-field exposure, and subsequent phagocytosis was not affected either compared with that under sham exposure conditions. These studies demonstrated an initial immune response in the human body exposed to 2.45-GHz RF fields at the SAR of 2 W/kg, which is the maximum value recommended by the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The results of our experiments for RF-field exposure at an SAR under 10 W/kg showed very little or no effects on either chemotaxis or phagocytosis in neutrophil-like human HL-60 cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  17. Plasminogen promotes macrophage phagocytosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, Swetha; Settle, Megan; Plow, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The phagocytic function of macrophages plays a pivotal role in eliminating apoptotic cells and invading pathogens. Evidence implicating plasminogen (Plg), the zymogen of plasmin, in phagocytosis is extremely limited with the most recent in vitro study showing that plasmin acts on prey cells rather than on macrophages. Here, we use apoptotic thymocytes and immunoglobulin opsonized bodies to show that Plg exerts a profound effect on macrophage-mediated phagocytosis in vitro and in vivo. Plg enhanced the uptake of these prey by J774A.1 macrophage-like cells by 3.5- to fivefold Plg receptors and plasmin proteolytic activity were required for phagocytosis of both preys. Compared with Plg+/+ mice, Plg−/− mice exhibited a 60% delay in clearance of apoptotic thymocytes by spleen and an 85% reduction in uptake by peritoneal macrophages. Phagocytosis of antibody-mediated erythrocyte clearance by liver Kupffer cells was reduced by 90% in Plg−/− mice compared with Plg+/+ mice. A gene array of splenic and hepatic tissues from Plg−/− and Plg+/+ mice showed downregulation of numerous genes in Plg−/− mice involved in phagocytosis and regulation of phagocytic gene expression was confirmed in macrophage-like cells. Thus, Plg may play an important role in innate immunity by changing expression of genes that contribute to phagocytosis. PMID:24876560

  18. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) regulates TNF production and haemocyte phagocytosis in the immune response of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Jia, Zhihao; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Zhaoqun; Yang, Bin; Jia, Yunke; Song, Xiaorui; Yi, Qilin; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2017-08-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase firstly identified as a regulator of glycogen synthesis. Recently, it has been proved to be a key regulator of the immune reaction. In the present study, a GSK3 homolog gene (designated as EsGSK3) was cloned from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. The open reading frame (ORF) was 1824 bp, which encoded a predicted polypeptide of 607 amino acids. There was a conserved Serine/Threonine Kinase domain and a DNA binding domain found in EsGSK3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EsGSK3 was firstly clustered with GSK3-β from oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in the invertebrate branch, while GSK3s from vertebrates formed the other distinct branch. EsGSK3 mRNA transcripts could be detected in all tested tissues of the crab including haepatopancreas, eyestalk, muscle, gonad, haemocytes and haematopoietic tissue with the highest expression level in haepatopancreas. And EsGSK3 protein was mostly detected in the cytoplasm of haemocyte by immunofluorescence analysis. The expression levels of EsGSK3 mRNA increased significantly at 6 h after Aeromonas hydrophila challenge (p < 0.05) in comparison with control group, and then gradually decreased to the initial level at 48 h (p > 0.05). The mRNA expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α factor (EsLITAF) was also induced by A. hydrophila challenge. However, the mRNA expression of EsLITAF and TNF-α production was significantly suppressed after EsGSK3 was blocked in vivo with specific inhibitor lithium, while the phagocytosis of crab haemocytes was significantly promoted. These results collectively demonstrated that EsGSK3 could regulate the innate immune responses of E. sinensis by promoting TNF-α production and inhibiting haemocyte phagocytosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phagocytosis: Hungry, Hungry Cells.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew; Botelho, Roberto J

    2017-01-01

    Phagocytosis is the cellular internalization and sequestration of particulate matter into a `phagosome, which then matures into a phagolysosome. The phagolysosome then offers a specialized acidic and hydrolytic milieu that ultimately degrades the engulfed particle. In multicellular organisms, phagocytosis and phagosome maturation play two key physiological roles. First, phagocytic cells have an important function in tissue remodeling and homeostasis by eliminating apoptotic bodies, senescent cells and cell fragments. Second, phagocytosis is a critical weapon of the immune system, whereby cells like macrophages and neutrophils hunt and engulf a variety of pathogens and foreign particles. Not surprisingly, pathogens have evolved mechanisms to either block or alter phagocytosis and phagosome maturation, ultimately usurping the cellular machinery for their own survival. Here, we review past and recent discoveries that highlight how phagocytes recognize target particles, key signals that emanate after phagocyte-particle engagement, and how these signals help modulate actin-dependent remodeling of the plasma membrane that culminates in the release of the phagosome. We then explore processes related to early and late stages of phagosome maturation, which requires fusion with endosomes and lysosomes. We end this review by acknowledging that little is known about phagosome fission and even less is known about how phagosomes are resolved after particle digestion.

  20. Regulation of myeloid cell phagocytosis by LRRK2 via WAVE2 complex stabilization is altered in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Soo; Marcogliese, Paul C; Yang, Jungwoo; Callaghan, Steve M; Resende, Virginia; Abdel-Messih, Elizabeth; Marras, Connie; Visanji, Naomi P; Huang, Jana; Schlossmacher, Michael G; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Slack, Ruth S; Lang, Anthony E; Park, David S

    2018-05-14

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 ( LRRK2 ) has been implicated in both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), yet its pathogenic role remains unclear. A previous screen in Drosophila identified Scar/WAVE (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-family verproline) proteins as potential genetic interactors of LRRK2 Here, we provide evidence that LRRK2 modulates the phagocytic response of myeloid cells via specific modulation of the actin-cytoskeletal regulator, WAVE2. We demonstrate that macrophages and microglia from LRRK2-G2019S PD patients and mice display a WAVE2-mediated increase in phagocytic response, respectively. Lrrk2 loss results in the opposite effect. LRRK2 binds and phosphorylates Wave2 at Thr470, stabilizing and preventing its proteasomal degradation. Finally, we show that Wave2 also mediates Lrrk2 - G2019S-induced dopaminergic neuronal death in both macrophage-midbrain cocultures and in vivo. Taken together, a LRRK2-WAVE2 pathway, which modulates the phagocytic response in mice and human leukocytes, may define an important role for altered immune function in PD.

  1. Phagocytosis imprints heterogeneity in tissue-resident macrophages

    PubMed Central

    A-Gonzalez, Noelia; Quintana, Juan A.; Mazariegos, Marina; González de la Aleja, Arturo; Nicolás-Ávila, José A.; Crainiciuc, Georgiana; Rothlin, Carla V.; Peinado, Héctor; Castrillo, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Tissue-resident macrophages display varying phenotypic and functional properties that are largely specified by their local environment. One of these functions, phagocytosis, mediates the natural disposal of billions of cells, but its mechanisms and consequences within living tissues are poorly defined. Using a parabiosis-based strategy, we identified and isolated macrophages from multiple tissues as they phagocytosed blood-borne cellular material. Phagocytosis was circadianally regulated and mediated by distinct repertoires of receptors, opsonins, and transcription factors in macrophages from each tissue. Although the tissue of residence defined the core signature of macrophages, phagocytosis imprinted a distinct antiinflammatory profile. Phagocytic macrophages expressed CD206, displayed blunted expression of Il1b, and supported tissue homeostasis. Thus, phagocytosis is a source of macrophage heterogeneity that acts together with tissue-derived factors to preserve homeostasis. PMID:28432199

  2. Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) oligopeptides regulate innate and adaptive immune responses in mice via increased macrophage phagocytosis capacity, NK cell activity and Th cells secretion.

    PubMed

    He, Li-Xia; Ren, Jin-Wei; Liu, Rui; Chen, Qi-He; Zhao, Jian; Wu, Xin; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Wang, Jun-Bo; Pettinato, Giuseppe; Li, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Traditionally used as a restorative medicine, ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) has been the most widely used and acclaimed herb in Chinese communities for thousands of years. To investigate the immune-modulating activity of ginseng oligopeptides (GOP), 420 healthy female BALB/c mice were intragastrically administered distilled water (control), whey protein (0.15 g per kg body weight (BW)), and GOP 0.0375, 0.075, 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 g per kg BW for 30 days. Blood samples from mice were collected from the ophthalmic venous plexus and then sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Seven assays were conducted to determine the immunomodulatory effects of GOP on innate and adaptive immune responses, followed by flow cytometry to investigate spleen T lymphocyte sub-populations, multiplex sandwich immunoassays to investigate serum cytokine and immunoglobulin levels, and ELISA to investigate intestinally secreted immunoglobulin to study the mechanism of GOP affecting the immune system. Our results showed that GOP was able to enhance innate and adaptive immune responses in mice by improving cell-mediated and humoral immunity, macrophage phagocytosis capacity and NK cell activity. Notably, the use of GOP revealed a better immune-modulating activity compared to whey protein. We conclude that the immune-modulating activity might be due to the increased macrophage phagocytosis capacity and NK cell activity, and the enhancement of T and Th cells, as well as IL-2, IL-6 and IL-12 secretion and IgA, IgG1 and IgG2b production. These results indicate that GOP could be considered a good candidate that may improve immune functions if used as a dietary supplement, with a dosage that ranges from 0.3 to 0.6 g per kg BW.

  3. Phagocytosis

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Macrophages are scavenger cells that can ingest dead tissue and foreign cells. Macrophages form tentacles called pseudopods to surround an invader. Once inside the macrophage, the invader is walled off and ...

  4. Characterization of myosin light chain in shrimp hemocytic phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Wang, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2010-11-01

    Myosin light chain, a well-known cytoskeleton gene, regulates multiple processes that are involved in material transport, muscle shrink and cell division. However, its function in phagocytosis against invading pathogens in crustacean remains unknown. In this investigation, a myosin light chain gene was obtained from Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp. The full-length cDNA of this gene was of 766 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 462 bp encoding a polypeptide of 153 amino acids. The myosin light chain protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Subsequently the specific antibody was raised using the purified GST fusion protein. As revealed by immuno-electron microscopy, the myosin light chain protein was only expressed in the dark bands of muscle. In the present study, the myosin light chain gene was up-regulated in the WSSV-resistant shrimp as revealed by real-time PCR and western blot. And the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index using FITC-labeled Vibrio parahemolyticus were remarkably increased in the WSSV-resistant shrimp, suggesting that the myosin light chain protein was essential in hemocytic phagocytosis. On the other hand, RNAi assays indicated that the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index were significantly decreased when the myosin light chain gene was silenced by sequence-specific siRNA. These findings suggested that myosin light chain protein was involved in the regulation of hemocytic phagocytosis of shrimp. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physalin B inhibits Rhodnius prolixus hemocyte phagocytosis and microaggregation by the activation of endogenous PAF-acetyl hydrolase activities.

    PubMed

    Castro, D P; Figueiredo, M B; Genta, F A; Ribeiro, I M; Tomassini, T C B; Azambuja, P; Garcia, E S

    2009-06-01

    The effects of physalin B (a natural secosteroidal chemical from Physalis angulata, Solanaceae) on phagocytosis and microaggregation by hemocytes of 5th-instar larvae of Rhodnius prolixus were investigated. In this insect, hemocyte phagocytosis and microaggregation are known to be induced by the platelet-activating factor (PAF) or arachidonic acid (AA) and regulated by phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and PAF-acetyl hydrolase (PAF-AH) activities. Phagocytic activity and formation of hemocyte microaggregates by Rhodnius hemocytes were strongly blocked by oral treatment of this insect with physalin B (1mug/mL of blood meal). The inhibition induced by physalin B was reversed for both phagocytosis and microaggregation by exogenous arachidonic acid (10microg/insect) or PAF (1microg/insect) applied by hemocelic injection. Following treatment with physalin B there were no significant alterations in PLA(2) activities, but a significant enhancement of PAF-AH was observed. These results show that physalin B inhibits hemocytic activity by depressing insect PAF analogous (iPAF) levels in hemolymph and confirm the role of PAF-AH in the cellular immune reactions in R. prolixus.

  6. Attempted caveolae-mediated phagocytosis of surface-fixed micro-pillars by human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Moerke, Caroline; Mueller, Petra; Nebe, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Cells are sensitive to their underlying micro- and nano-topography, but the complex interplay is not completely understood especially if sharp edges and ridges of stochastically modified surfaces interfere with an attached cell body. Micro-topography offers cues that evoke a large range of cell responses e.g. altered adhesion behavior and integrin expression resulting in disturbed cell functions. In this study, we analyzed why osteoblastic cells mimic the underlying geometrical micro-pillar structure (5 × 5 × 5 μm, spacing of 5 μm) with their actin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, we discovered an attempted caveolae-mediated phagocytosis of each micro-pillar beneath the cells, which was accompanied by increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reduced intracellular ATP levels. This energy consuming process hampered the cells in their function as osteoblasts at the interface. The raft-dependent/caveolae-mediated phagocytic pathway is regulated by diverse cellular components including caveolin-1 (Cav-1), cholesterol, actin cytoskeleton as well as actin-binding proteins like annexin A2 (AnxA2). Our results show a new aspect of osteoblast-material interaction and give insight into how cells behave on extraordinary micro-structures. We conclude that stochastically structured implants used in orthopedic surgery should avoid any topographical heights which induce phagocytosis to prevent their successful ingrowth. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The protease-activated receptor-2 upregulates keratinocyte phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sharlow, E R; Paine, C S; Babiarz, L; Eisinger, M; Shapiro, S; Seiberg, M

    2000-09-01

    The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) belongs to the family of seven transmembrane domain receptors, which are activated by the specific enzymatic cleavage of their extracellular amino termini. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the tethered ligand domain (SLIGRL in mouse, SLIGKV in human) can activate PAR-2 without the need for receptor cleavage. PAR-2 activation is involved in cell growth, differentiation and inflammatory processes, and was shown to affect melanin and melanosome ingestion by human keratinocytes. Data presented here suggest that PAR-2 activation may regulate human keratinocyte phagocytosis. PAR-2 activation by trypsin, SLIGRL or SLIGKV increased the ability of keratinocytes to ingest fluorescently labeled microspheres or E. coli K-12 bioparticles. This PAR-2 mediated increase in keratinocyte phagocytic capability correlated with an increase in actin polymerization and *-actinin reorganization, cell surface morphological changes and increased soluble protease activity. Moreover, addition of serine protease inhibitors downmodulated both the constitutive and the PAR-2 mediated increases in phagocytosis, suggesting that serine proteases mediate this functional activity in keratinocytes. PAR-2 involvement in keratinocyte phagocytosis is a novel function for this receptor.

  8. Ocean Acidification Affects the Cytoskeleton, Lysozymes, and Nitric Oxide of Hemocytes: A Possible Explanation for the Hampered Phagocytosis in Blood Clams, Tegillarca granosa.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenhao; Rong, Jiahuan; Zha, Shanjie; Yan, Maocang; Fang, Jun; Liu, Guangxu

    2018-01-01

    An enormous amount of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been dissolved into the ocean, leading to a lower pH and changes in the chemical properties of seawater, which has been termed ocean acidification (OA). The impacts of p CO 2 -driven acidification on immunity have been revealed recently in various marine organisms. However, the mechanism causing the reduction in phagocytosis still remains unclear. Therefore, the impacts of p CO 2 -driven OA at present and near-future levels (pH values of 8.1, 7.8, and 7.4) on the rate of phagocytosis, the abundance of cytoskeleton components, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), and the concentration and activity of lysozymes (LZM) of hemocytes were investigated in a commercial bivalve species, the blood clam ( Tegillarca granosa ). In addition, the effects of OA on the expression of genes regulating actin skeleton and nitric oxide synthesis 2 ( NOS2 ) were also analyzed. The results obtained showed that the phagocytic rate, cytoskeleton component abundance, concentration and activity of LZM of hemocytes were all significantly reduced after a 2-week exposure to the future OA scenario of a pH of 7.4. On the contrary, a remarkable increase in the concentration of NO compared to that of the control was detected in clams exposed to OA. Furthermore, the expression of genes regulating the actin cytoskeleton and NOS were significantly up-regulated after OA exposure. Though the mechanism causing phagocytosis seemed to be complicated based on the results obtained in the present study and those reported previously, our results suggested that OA may reduce the phagocytosis of hemocytes by (1) decreasing the abundance of cytoskeleton components and therefore hampering the cytoskeleton-mediated process of engulfment, (2) reducing the concentration and activity of LZM and therefore constraining the degradation of the engulfed pathogen through an oxygen-independent pathway, and (3) inducing the production of NO, which may negatively

  9. Coiling Phagocytosis of Trypanosomatids and Fungal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rittig, M. G.; Schröppel, K.; Seack, K.-H.; Sander, U.; N’Diaye, E.-N.; Maridonneau-Parini, I.; Solbach, W.; Bogdan, C.

    1998-01-01

    Coiling phagocytosis has previously been studied only with the bacteria Legionella pneumophila and Borrelia burgdorferi, and the results were inconsistent. To learn more about this unconventional phagocytic mechanism, the uptake of various eukaryotic microorganisms by human monocytes, murine macrophages, and murine dendritic cells was investigated in vitro by video and electron microscopy. Unconventional phagocytosis of Leishmania spp. promastigotes, Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes, Candida albicans hyphae, and zymosan particles from Saccharomyces cerevisiae differed in (i) morphology (rotating unilateral pseudopods with the trypanosomatids, overlapping bilateral pseudopods with the fungi), (ii) frequency (high with Leishmania; occasional with the fungi; rare with T. cruzi), (iii) duration (rapid with zymosan; moderate with the trypanosomatids; slow with C. albicans), (iv) localization along the promastigotes (flagellum of Leishmania major and L. aethiopica; flagellum or posterior pole of L. donovani), and (v) dependence on complement (strong with L. major and L. donovani; moderate with the fungi; none with L. aethiopica). All of these various types of unconventional phagocytosis gave rise to similar pseudopod stacks which eventually transformed to a regular phagosome. Further video microscopic studies with L. major provided evidence for a cytosolic localization, synchronized replication, and exocytic release of the parasites, extending traditional concepts about leishmanial infection of host cells. It is concluded that coiling phagocytosis comprises phenotypically similar consequences of various disturbances in conventional phagocytosis rather than representing a single separate mechanism. PMID:9712785

  10. Entamoeba histolytica. Phagocytosis as a virulence factor

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, we attempted to define the role of phagocytosis in the virulence of Entamoeba histolytica. We have isolated, from a highly phagocytic and virulent strain, a clone deficient in phagocytosis. Trophozoites of wild-type strain HM1:IMSS were fed with Escherichia coli strain CR34-Thy- grown on 5-bromo,2'-deoxyuridine. The trophozoites that had incorporated the base analog through phagocytosis of the bacteria were killed by irradiation with 310 nm light. The survivors, presumably trophozoites defective in phagocytosis, were grown until log phase and submitted two more times to the selection procedure. Clone L-6, isolated from a subpopulation resulting from this selection procedure, showed 75-85% less erythrophagocytic activity than the wild-type strain. The virulence of clone L-6 and strain HM1:IMSS was measured. The inoculum required to induce liver abscesses in 50% of the newborn hamsters inoculated (AD50) of HM1:IMSS was 1.5 X 10(4) trophozoites. Clone L-6 trophozoites failed to induce liver abscesses in newborn hamsters even with inocula of 5 X 10(5) trophozoites. Virulence revertants were obtained by successive passage of L-6 trophozoites through the liver of young hamsters. The trophozoites that recovered the ability to produce liver abscesses simultaneously recuperate high erythrophagocytic rates. These results show that phagocytosis is involved in the aggressive mechanisms of E. histolytica. PMID:6313842

  11. Allograft tolerance induced by donor apoptotic lymphocytes requires phagocytosis in the recipient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, E.; Gao, Y.; Chen, J.; Roberts, A. I.; Wang, X.; Chen, Z.; Shi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cell death through apoptosis plays a critical role in regulating cellular homeostasis. Whether the disposal of apoptotic cells through phagocytosis can actively induce immune tolerance in vivo, however, remains controversial. Here, we report in a rat model that without using immunosuppressants, transfusion of apoptotic splenocytes from the donor strain prior to transplant dramatically prolonged survival of heart allografts. Histological analysis verified that rejection signs were significantly ameliorated. Splenocytes from rats transfused with donor apoptotic cells showed a dramatically decreased response to donor lymphocyte stimulation. Most importantly, blockade of phagocytosis in vivo, either with gadolinium chloride to disrupt phagocyte function or with annexin V to block binding of exposed phosphotidylserine to its receptor on phagocytes, abolished the beneficial effect of transfused apoptotic cells on heart allograft survival. Our results demonstrate that donor apoptotic cells promote specific allograft acceptance and that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in vivo plays a crucial role in maintaining immune tolerance.

  12. Phagocytosis as a biomarker for stress responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, K.; Krotz-Fahning, M.; Hock, B.

    2005-08-01

    An in vitro test has been developed for the detection of immunotoxic events. It will be used within the project "TRIPLE LUX" on the International Space Station to investigate the effects of single and combined space flight conditions on mammalian phagocytes. The intensity of the respiratory burst during phagocytosis can be followed by the luminol-based chemiluminescence response after stimulation with zymosan. We adapted this test system for polymorphonuclear leukocytes, purified from sheep blood and stored by cryoconservation. In this report we show the immunostimulating effect of hydrocortisone and the immunosuppressive impact of cadmium as an example for alterations that can be detected by this test.

  13. [Update views on the theory of phagocytosis].

    PubMed

    Freĭdlin, I S

    2008-01-01

    Developer of the phagocytosis theory I.I Mechnikov forecasted the most fruitful directions of its development. Macrophages express on the plasma membranes broad spectrum of receptors, which mediate their interaction with altered organism's own components as well as with exogenous agents, including various microorganisms. Recognition leads to changes of expression of surface molecules, enhancement of phagocytic activity as well as production and secretion of cytokines, presentation functions, signaling and genes expression. This reflected on maintenance of homeostasis, as well as on host defense effectiveness, including mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity.

  14. Orexin Impairs the Phagocytosis and Degradation of Amyloid-β Fibrils by Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    An, Hoyoung; Cho, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Dong-Hou; Chung, Seockhoon; Yoon, Seung-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a characteristic finding of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is thought to be the result of Aβ overproduction by neurons and impaired clearance by several systems, including degradation by microglia. Sleep disturbance is now considered a risk factor for AD, but studies focusing on how sleep modulates microglial handling of Aβ have been scarce. To determine whether phagocytosis and degradation of extracellular Aβ fibrils by BV2 microglial cells were impaired by treatment with orexin-A/B, a major modulator of the sleep-wake cycle, which may mimic sleep deprivation conditions. BV2 cells were treated with orexin and Aβ for various durations and phagocytic and autophagic processes for degradation of extracellular Aβ were examined. After treatment with orexin, the formation of actin filaments around Aβ fibrils, which is needed for phagocytosis, was impaired, and phagocytosis regulating molecules such as PI3K, Akt, and p38-MAPK were downregulated in BV2 cells. Orexin also suppressed autophagic flux, through disruption of the autophagosome-lysosome fusion process, resulting in impaired Aβ degradation in BV2 cells. Our results demonstrate that orexin can hinder clearance of Aβ through the suppression of phagocytosis and autophagic flux in microglia. This is a novel mechanism linking AD and sleep, and suggests that attenuated microglial function, due to sleep deprivation, may increase Aβ accumulation in the brain.

  15. Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Impairs Bacterial Phagocytosis in Macrophages by Modulating CFTR Dependent Lipid-Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Inzer; Ji, Changhoon; Vij, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction First/Second-hand cigarette-smoke (FHS/SHS) exposure weakens immune defenses inducing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Hence, we evaluated if SHS induced changes in membrane/lipid-raft (m-/r)-CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) expression/activity is a potential mechanism for impaired bacterial phagocytosis in COPD. Methods RAW264.7 murine macrophages were exposed to freshly prepared CS-extract (CSE) containing culture media and/or Pseudomonas-aeruginosa-PA01-GFP for phagocytosis (fluorescence-microscopy), bacterial survival (colony-forming-units-CFU), and immunoblotting assays. The CFTR-expression/activity and lipid-rafts were modulated by transient-transfection or inhibitors/inducers. Next, mice were exposed to acute/sub-chronic-SHS or room-air (5-days/3-weeks) and infected with PA01-GFP, followed by quantification of bacterial survival by CFU-assay. Results We investigated the effect of CSE treatment on RAW264.7 cells infected by PA01-GFP and observed that CSE treatment significantly (p<0.01) inhibits PA01-GFP phagocytosis as compared to the controls. We also verified this in murine model, exposed to acute/sub-chronic-SHS and found significant (p<0.05, p<0.02) increase in bacterial survival in the SHS-exposed lungs as compared to the room-air controls. Next, we examined the effect of impaired CFTR ion-channel-activity on PA01-GFP infection of RAW264.7 cells using CFTR172-inhibitor and found no significant change in phagocytosis. We also similarly evaluated the effect of a CFTR corrector-potentiator compound, VRT-532, and observed no significant rescue of CSE impaired PA01-GFP phagocytosis although it significantly (p<0.05) decreases CSE induced bacterial survival. Moreover, induction of CFTR expression in macrophages significantly (p<0.03) improves CSE impaired PA01-GFP phagocytosis as compared to the control. Next, we verified the link between m

  16. A novel real time imaging platform to quantify macrophage phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kapellos, Theodore S; Taylor, Lewis; Lee, Heyne; Cowley, Sally A; James, William S; Iqbal, Asif J; Greaves, David R

    2016-09-15

    Phagocytosis of pathogens, apoptotic cells and debris is a key feature of macrophage function in host defense and tissue homeostasis. Quantification of macrophage phagocytosis in vitro has traditionally been technically challenging. Here we report the optimization and validation of the IncuCyte ZOOM® real time imaging platform for macrophage phagocytosis based on pHrodo® pathogen bioparticles, which only fluoresce when localized in the acidic environment of the phagolysosome. Image analysis and fluorescence quantification were performed with the automated IncuCyte™ Basic Software. Titration of the bioparticle number showed that the system is more sensitive than a spectrofluorometer, as it can detect phagocytosis when using 20× less E. coli bioparticles. We exemplified the power of this real time imaging platform by studying phagocytosis of murine alveolar, bone marrow and peritoneal macrophages. We further demonstrate the ability of this platform to study modulation of the phagocytic process, as pharmacological inhibitors of phagocytosis suppressed bioparticle uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas opsonins augmented phagocytosis. We also investigated the effects of macrophage polarization on E. coli phagocytosis. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) priming with M2 stimuli, such as IL-4 and IL-10 resulted in higher engulfment of bioparticles in comparison with M1 polarization. Moreover, we demonstrated that tolerization of BMDMs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in impaired E. coli bioparticle phagocytosis. This novel real time assay will enable researchers to quantify macrophage phagocytosis with a higher degree of accuracy and sensitivity and will allow investigation of limited populations of primary phagocytes in vitro. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Titan Cells Confer Protection from Phagocytosis in Cryptococcus neoformans Infections

    PubMed Central

    Okagaki, Laura H.

    2012-01-01

    The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans produces an enlarged “titan” cell morphology when exposed to the host pulmonary environment. Titan cells exhibit traits that promote survival in the host. Previous studies showed that titan cells are not phagocytosed and that increased titan cell production in the lungs results in reduced phagocytosis of cryptococcal cells by host immune cells. Here, the effect of titan cell production on host-pathogen interactions during early stages of pulmonary cryptococcosis was explored. The relationship between titan cell production and phagocytosis was found to be nonlinear; moderate increases in titan cell production resulted in profound decreases in phagocytosis, with significant differences occurring within the first 24 h of the infection. Not only were titan cells themselves protected from phagocytosis, but titan cell formation also conferred protection from phagocytosis to normal-size cryptococcal cells. Large particles introduced into the lungs were not phagocytosed, suggesting the large size of titan cells protects against phagocytosis. The presence of large particles was unable to protect smaller particles from phagocytosis, revealing that titan cell size alone is not sufficient to provide the observed cross-protection of normal-size cryptococcal cells. These data suggest that titan cells play a critical role in establishment of the pulmonary infection by promoting the survival of the entire population of cryptococcal cells. PMID:22544904

  18. Titan cells confer protection from phagocytosis in Cryptococcus neoformans infections.

    PubMed

    Okagaki, Laura H; Nielsen, Kirsten

    2012-06-01

    The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans produces an enlarged "titan" cell morphology when exposed to the host pulmonary environment. Titan cells exhibit traits that promote survival in the host. Previous studies showed that titan cells are not phagocytosed and that increased titan cell production in the lungs results in reduced phagocytosis of cryptococcal cells by host immune cells. Here, the effect of titan cell production on host-pathogen interactions during early stages of pulmonary cryptococcosis was explored. The relationship between titan cell production and phagocytosis was found to be nonlinear; moderate increases in titan cell production resulted in profound decreases in phagocytosis, with significant differences occurring within the first 24 h of the infection. Not only were titan cells themselves protected from phagocytosis, but titan cell formation also conferred protection from phagocytosis to normal-size cryptococcal cells. Large particles introduced into the lungs were not phagocytosed, suggesting the large size of titan cells protects against phagocytosis. The presence of large particles was unable to protect smaller particles from phagocytosis, revealing that titan cell size alone is not sufficient to provide the observed cross-protection of normal-size cryptococcal cells. These data suggest that titan cells play a critical role in establishment of the pulmonary infection by promoting the survival of the entire population of cryptococcal cells.

  19. A Regulatory Role for Src Homology 2 Domain–Containing Inositol 5′-Phosphatase (Ship) in Phagocytosis Mediated by Fcγ Receptors and Complement Receptor 3 (αMβ2; Cd11b/Cd18)

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Dianne; Dale, Benjamin M.; Kashiwada, Masaki; Helgason, Cheryl D.; Greenberg, Steven

    2001-01-01

    The Src homology 2 domain–containing inositol 5′-phosphatase (SHIP) is recruited to immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM)–containing proteins, thereby suppressing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)–dependent pathways. The role of SHIP in phagocytosis, a PI 3-kinase–dependent pathway, is unknown. Overexpression of SHIP in macrophages led to an inhibition of phagocytosis mediated by receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (FcγRs). In contrast, macrophages expressing catalytically inactive SHIP or lacking SHIP expression demonstrated enhanced phagocytosis. To determine whether SHIP regulates phagocytosis mediated by receptors that are not known to recruit ITIMs, we determined the effect of SHIP expression on complement receptor 3 (CR3; CD11b/CD18; αMβ2)–dependent phagocytosis. Macrophages overexpressing SHIP demonstrated impaired CR3-mediated phagocytosis, whereas macrophages expressing catalytically inactive SHIP demonstrated enhanced phagocytosis. CR3-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages derived from SHIP−/− mice was up to 2.5 times as efficient as that observed in macrophages derived from littermate controls. SHIP was localized to FcγR- and CR3-containing phagocytic cups and was recruited to the cytoskeleton upon clustering of CR3. In a transfected COS cell model of activation-independent CR3-mediated phagocytosis, catalytically active but not inactive SHIP also inhibited phagocytosis. We conclude that PI 3-kinase(s) and SHIP regulate multiple forms of phagocytosis and that endogenous SHIP plays a role in modulating β2 integrin outside-in signaling. PMID:11136821

  20. microRNA-34a-Mediated Down-Regulation of the Microglial-Enriched Triggering Receptor and Phagocytosis-Sensor TREM2 in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Surjyadipta; Zhao, Yuhai; Dua, Prerna; Rogaev, Evgeny I; Lukiw, Walter J

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation of Aβ42-peptides and the formation of drusen in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are due in part to the inability of homeostatic phagocytic mechanisms to clear self-aggregating Aβ42-peptides from the extracellular space. The triggering receptor expressed in myeloid/microglial cells-2 (TREM2), a trans-membrane-spanning, sensor-receptor of the immune-globulin/lectin-like gene superfamily is a critical component of Aβ42-peptide clearance. Here we report a significant deficit in TREM2 in AMD retina and in cytokine- or oxidatively-stressed microglial (MG) cells. RT-PCR, miRNA-array, LED-Northern and Western blot studies indicated up-regulation of a microglial-enriched NF-кB-sensitive miRNA-34a coupled to a down-regulation of TREM2 in the same samples. Bioinformatics/transfection-luciferase reporter assays indicated that miRNA-34a targets the 299 nucleotide TREM2-mRNA-3'UTR, resulting in TREM2 down-regulation. C8B4-microglial cells challenged with Aβ42 were able to phagocytose these peptides, while miRNA-34a down-regulated both TREM2 and the ability of microglial-cells to phagocytose. Treatment of TNFα-stressed MG cells with phenyl-butyl nitrone (PBN), caffeic-acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), the NF-kB - [corrected] inhibitor/resveratrol analog CAY10512 or curcumin abrogated these responses. Incubation of anti-miRNA-34a (AM-34a) normalized miRNA-34a abundance and restored TREM2 back to homeostatic levels. These data support five novel observations: (i) that a ROS- and NF-kB - [corrected] sensitive, miRNA-34a-mediated modulation of TREM2 may in part regulate the phagocytic response; (ii) that gene products encoded on two different chromosomes (miRNA-34a at chr1q36.22 and TREM2 at chr6p21.1) orchestrate a phagocytic-Aβ42-peptide clearance-system; (iii) that this NF-kB-mediated-miRNA-34a-TREM2 mechanism is inducible from outside of the cell; (iv) that when operating normally, this pathway can clear Aβ42 peptide monomers from the extracellular

  1. microRNA-34a-Mediated Down-Regulation of the Microglial-Enriched Triggering Receptor and Phagocytosis-Sensor TREM2 in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Prerna; Rogaev, Evgeny I.; Lukiw, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation of Aβ42-peptides and the formation of drusen in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are due in part to the inability of homeostatic phagocytic mechanisms to clear self-aggregating Aβ42-peptides from the extracellular space. The triggering receptor expressed in myeloid/microglial cells-2 (TREM2), a trans-membrane-spanning, sensor-receptor of the immune-globulin/lectin-like gene superfamily is a critical component of Aβ42-peptide clearance. Here we report a significant deficit in TREM2 in AMD retina and in cytokine- or oxidatively-stressed microglial (MG) cells. RT-PCR, miRNA-array, LED-Northern and Western blot studies indicated up-regulation of a microglial-enriched NF-кB-sensitive miRNA-34a coupled to a down-regulation of TREM2 in the same samples. Bioinformatics/transfection-luciferase reporter assays indicated that miRNA-34a targets the 299 nucleotide TREM2-mRNA-3’UTR, resulting in TREM2 down-regulation. C8B4-microglial cells challenged with Aβ42 were able to phagocytose these peptides, while miRNA-34a down-regulated both TREM2 and the ability of microglial-cells to phagocytose. Treatment of TNFα-stressed MG cells with phenyl-butyl nitrone (PBN), caffeic-acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), the NF-B-inhibitor/resveratrol analog CAY10512 or curcumin abrogated these responses. Incubation of anti-miRNA-34a (AM-34a) normalized miRNA-34a abundance and restored TREM2 back to homeostatic levels. These data support five novel observations: (i) that a ROS- and NF-B-sensitive, miRNA-34a-mediated modulation of TREM2 may in part regulate the phagocytic response; (ii) that gene products encoded on two different chromosomes (miRNA-34a at chr1q36.22 and TREM2 at chr6p21.1) orchestrate a phagocytic-Aβ42-peptide clearance-system; (iii) that this NF-kB-mediated-miRNA-34a-TREM2 mechanism is inducible from outside of the cell; (iv) that when operating normally, this pathway can clear Aβ42 peptide monomers from the extracellular medium; and (v) that anti

  2. Regulation of LH/FSH expression by secretoglobin 3A2 in the mouse pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Yuki; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Sakata, Ichiro; Sakai, Takafumi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Shioko; Kurotani, Reiko

    2014-04-01

    Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2 was originally identified as a downstream target for the homeodomain transcription factor NKX2-1 in the lung. NKX2-1 plays a role in the genesis and expression of genes in the thyroid, lung and ventral forebrain; Nkx2-1-null mice have no thyroid and pituitary and severely hypoplastic lungs and hypothalamus. To demonstrate whether SCGB3A2 plays any role in pituitary hormone production, NKX2-1 and SCGB3A2 expression in the mouse pituitary gland was examined by immunohistochemical analysis and RT-PCR. NKX2-1 was localized in the posterior pituitary lobe, whereas SCGB3A2 was observed in both anterior and posterior lobes as shown by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Expression of CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs), which regulate mouse Scgb3a2 transcription, was also examined by RT-PCR. C/EBPβ, γ, δ and ζ were expressed in the adult mouse pituitary gland. SCGB3A2 was expressed in the anterior and posterior lobes from postnatal days 1 and 5, respectively and the areas where SCGB3A2 expression was found coincided with the area where FSH-secreting cells were found. Double-staining for SCGB3A2 and pituitary hormones revealed that SCGB3A2 was mainly localized in gonadotrophs in 49 % of FSH-secreting cells and 47 % of LH-secreting cells. In addition, SCGB3A2 dramatically inhibited LH and FSH mRNA expression in rat pituitary primary cell cultures. These results suggest that SCGB3A2 regulates FSH/LH production in the anterior pituitary lobe and that transcription factors other than NKX2-1 may regulate SCGB3A2 expression.

  3. The Phagocytosis and Toxicity of Amorphous Silica

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Lindsey M.; Gilberti, Renée M.; Knecht, David A.

    2011-01-01

    cases. However, the result suggests a mechanistic difference between FcγRIIA receptor-mediated and non-opsonized silica particle phagocytosis. PMID:21311600

  4. The phagocytosis and toxicity of amorphous silica.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Lindsey M; Gilberti, Renée M; Knecht, David A

    2011-02-02

    between FcγRIIA receptor-mediated and non-opsonized silica particle phagocytosis.

  5. SOCS2 Binds to and Regulates EphA2 through Multiple Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Carissa; Cooper, Jonathan A

    2017-09-07

    Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins inhibit signaling by serving as substrate receptors for the Cullin5-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL5) and through a variety of CRL5-independent mechanisms. CRL5, SOCS2 and SOCS6 are implicated in suppressing transformation of epithelial cells. We identified cell proteins that interact with SOCS2 and SOCS6 using two parallel proteomics techniques: BioID and Flag affinity purification mass spectrometry. The receptor tyrosine kinase ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) was identified as a SOCS2-interacting protein. SOCS2-EphA2 binding requires the SOCS2 SH2 domain and EphA2 activation loop autophosphorylation, which is stimulated by Ephrin A1 (EfnA1) or by phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibition. Surprisingly, EfnA1-stimulated EphA2-SOCS2 binding is delayed until EphA2 has been internalized into endosomes. This suggests that SOCS2 binds to EphA2 in the context of endosomal membranes. We also found that SOCS2 overexpression decreases steady state levels of EphA2, consistent with increased EphA2 degradation. This effect is indirect: SOCS2 induces EfnA1 expression, and EfnA1 induces EphA2 down-regulation. Other RTKs have been reported to bind, and be regulated by, over-expressed SOCS proteins. Our data suggest that SOCS protein over-expression may regulate receptor tyrosine kinases through indirect and direct mechanisms.

  6. EphA2 Expression Regulates Inflammation and Fibroproliferative Remodeling in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Finney, Alexandra C; Funk, Steven D; Green, Jonette M; Yurdagul, Arif; Rana, Mohammad Atif; Pistorius, Rebecca; Henry, Miriam; Yurochko, Andrew; Pattillo, Christopher B; Traylor, James G; Chen, Jin; Woolard, Matthew D; Kevil, Christopher G; Orr, A Wayne

    2017-08-08

    Atherosclerotic plaque formation results from chronic inflammation and fibroproliferative remodeling in the vascular wall. We previously demonstrated that both human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques show elevated expression of EphA2, a guidance molecule involved in cell-cell interactions and tumorigenesis. Here, we assessed the role of EphA2 in atherosclerosis by deleting EphA2 in a mouse model of atherosclerosis (Apoe - /- ) and by assessing EphA2 function in multiple vascular cell culture models. After 8 to 16 weeks on a Western diet, male and female mice were assessed for atherosclerotic burden in the large vessels, and plasma lipid levels were analyzed. Despite enhanced weight gain and plasma lipid levels compared with Apoe -/- controls, EphA2 -/- Apoe -/- knockout mice show diminished atherosclerotic plaque formation, characterized by reduced proinflammatory gene expression and plaque macrophage content. Although plaque macrophages express EphA2, EphA2 deletion does not affect macrophage phenotype, inflammatory responses, and lipid uptake, and bone marrow chimeras suggest that hematopoietic EphA2 deletion does not affect plaque formation. In contrast, endothelial EphA2 knockdown significantly reduces monocyte firm adhesion under flow. In addition, EphA2 -/- Apoe -/- mice show reduced progression to advanced atherosclerotic plaques with diminished smooth muscle and collagen content. Consistent with this phenotype, EphA2 shows enhanced expression after smooth muscle transition to a synthetic phenotype, and EphA2 depletion reduces smooth muscle proliferation, mitogenic signaling, and extracellular matrix deposition both in atherosclerotic plaques and in vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. Together, these data identify a novel role for EphA2 in atherosclerosis, regulating both plaque inflammation and progression to advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Cell culture studies suggest that endothelial EphA2 contributes to atherosclerotic inflammation by promoting

  7. Phagocytosis of Candida albicans Inhibits Autophagic Flux in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhimin; Chen, Qing; Du, Leilei; Tong, Jianbo; Xu, Song; Zeng, Rong; Ma, Yuting; Chen, Xu; Li, Min

    2018-01-01

    Autophagy machinery has roles in the defense against microorganisms such as Candida albicans . Lipidated LC3, the marker protein of autophagy, participates in the elimination of C. albicans by forming a single-membrane phagosome; this process is called LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). However, the influence of C. albicans on autophagic flux is not clear. In this study, we found that C. albicans inhibited LC3 turnover in macrophages. After the phagocytosis of C. albicans in macrophages, we observed fewer acridine orange-positive vacuoles and RFP-GFP-LC3 puncta without colocalization with phagocytized C. albicans . However, phagocytosis of C. albicans led to LC3 recruitment, but p62 and ATG9A did not colocalize with LC3 or C. albicans . These effects are due to an MTOR-independent pathway. Nevertheless, we found that the C. albicans pattern-associated molecular pattern β -glucan increased LC3 turnover. In addition, phagocytosis of C. albicans caused a decrease in BrdU incorporation. Blocking autophagic flux aggravated this effect. Our findings suggest that phagocytosis of C. albicans decreases autophagic flux but induces LAP in an MTOR-independent manner in macrophages. Occupation of LC3 by recruiting engulfed C. albicans might contribute to the inhibition of autophagic flux. Our study highlights the coordinated machinery between canonical autophagy and LAP that defends against C. albicans challenge.

  8. Neutralization of B. anthracis toxins during ex vivo phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, Olga; Scott, Ashley; Jones, April; Soderberg, Lee; Alusta, Pierre

    2013-07-01

    Glycoconjugates (GCs) are recognized as stimulation and signaling agents, affecting cell adhesion, activation, and growth of living organisms. Among GC targets, macrophages are considered ideal since they play a central role in inflammation and immune responses against foreign agents. In this context, we studied the effects of highly selective GCs in neutralizing toxin factors produced by B. anthracis during phagocytosis using murine macrophages. The effects of GCs were studied under three conditions: A) prior to, B) during, and C) following exposure of macrophages to B. anthracis individual toxin (protective antigen [PA], edema factor [EF], lethal factor [LF] or toxin complexes (PA-EF-LF, PA-EF, and PA-LF). We employed ex vivo phagocytosis and post-phagocytosis analysis including direct microscopic observation of macrophage viability, and macrophage activation. Our results demonstrated that macrophages are more prone to adhere to GC-altered PA-EF-LF, PA-EF, and PA-LF toxin complexes. This adhesion results in a higher phagocytosis rate and toxin complex neutralization during phagocytosis. In addition, GCs enhance macrophage viability, activate macrophages, and stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production. The present study may be helpful in identifying GC ligands with toxin-neutralizing and/or immunomodulating properties. In addition, our study could suggest GCs as new targets for existing vaccines and the prospective development of vaccines and immunomodulators used to combat the effects of B. anthracis.

  9. Aliphatic alcohols in spirits inhibit phagocytosis by human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Pál, László; Árnyas, Ervin M; Bujdosó, Orsolya; Baranyi, Gergő; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2015-04-01

    A large volume of alcoholic beverages containing aliphatic alcohols is consumed worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of ethanol-induced immunosuppression in heavy drinkers, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the aliphatic alcohols contained in alcoholic beverages might also impair immune cell function, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity. Previous research has shown that aliphatic alcohols inhibit phagocytosis by granulocytes but their effect on human monocytes has not been studied. This is important as they play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms and a decrease in their phagocytic activity could lead to impaired antimicrobial defence in heavy drinkers. The aim of this study was to measure monocyte phagocytosis following their treatment with those aliphatic alcohols detected in alcoholic beverages. Monocytes were separated from human peripheral blood and phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by monocytes treated with ethanol and aliphatic alcohols individually and in combination was determined. It was shown that these alcohols could suppress the phagocytic activity of monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner and when combined with ethanol, they caused a further decrease in phagocytosis. Due to their additive effects, it is possible that they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in alcoholics and episodic heavy drinkers thereby contribute to their increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, further research is needed to address this question.

  10. Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) Binds to Phosphatidylserine Exposing Cells with Implications in the Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells and Activated Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Daniela; Assinger, Alice; Einfinger, Katrin; Sokolikova, Barbora; Geiger, Margarethe

    2014-01-01

    Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) is a secreted serine protease inhibitor, belonging to the family of serpins. In addition to activated protein C PCI inactivates several other proteases of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, suggesting a regulatory role in hemostasis. Glycosaminoglycans and certain negatively charged phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, bind to PCI and modulate its activity. Phosphatidylerine (PS) is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells and known as a phagocytosis marker. We hypothesized that PCI might bind to PS exposed on apoptotic cells and thereby influence their removal by phagocytosis. Using Jurkat T-lymphocytes and U937 myeloid cells, we show here that PCI binds to apoptotic cells to a similar extent at the same sites as Annexin V, but in a different manner as compared to live cells (defined spots on ∼10–30% of cells). PCI dose dependently decreased phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells by U937 macrophages. Moreover, the phagocytosis of PS exposing, activated platelets by human blood derived monocytes declined in the presence of PCI. In U937 cells the expression of PCI as well as the surface binding of PCI increased with time of phorbol ester treatment/macrophage differentiation. The results of this study suggest a role of PCI not only for the function and/or maturation of macrophages, but also as a negative regulator of apoptotic cell and activated platelets removal. PMID:25000564

  11. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum attenuate microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and modulate microglial phagocytosis and behavioural response.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Li, Yuanyuan; Pei, Gang

    2017-03-24

    Ganoderma lucidum (GL) has been widely used in Asian countries for hundreds of years to promote health and longevity. The pharmacological functions of which had been classified, including the activation of innate immune responses, suppression of tumour and modulation of cell proliferations. Effective fractions of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) had already been reported to regulate the immune system. Nevertheless, the role of GLP in the microglia-mediated neuroinflammation has not been sufficiently elucidated. Further, GLP effect on microglial behavioural modulations in correlation with the inflammatory responses remains to be unravelled. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the contributions of GLP on microglia. The BV2 microglia and primary mouse microglia were stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and amyloid beta 42 (Aβ 42 ) oligomer, respectively. Investigation on the effect of GLP was carried by quantitative determination of the microglial pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expressions and behavioural modulations including migration, morphology and phagocytosis. Analysis of microglial morphology and phagocytosis modulations was confirmed in the zebrafish brain. Quantitative results revealed that GLP down-regulates LPS- or Aβ-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes anti-inflammatory cytokine expressions in BV-2 and primary microglia. In addition, GLP attenuates inflammation-related microglial migration, morphological alterations and phagocytosis probabilities. We also showed that modulations of microglial behavioural responses were associated with MCP-1 and C1q expressions. Overall, our study provides an insight into the GLP regulation of LPS- and Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and serves an implication that the neuroprotective function of GLP might be achieved through modulation of microglial inflammatory and behavioural responses.

  12. Progranulin increases phagocytosis by retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Murase, Hiromi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Kuse, Yoshiki; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-12-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells take part in retinal preservation, such as phagocytizing the shed photoreceptor outer segments (POS), every day. The incomplete phagocytic function accelerates RPE degeneration and formation of the toxic by-product lipofuscin. Excessive lipofuscin accumulation is characteristic of various blinding diseases in the human eye. Progranulin is a cysteine-rich protein that has multiple biological activities, and it has a high presence in the retina. Progranulin has been recognized to be involved in macrophage phagocytosis in the brain. The purpose of this study is to determine whether progranulin influences phagocytosis by RPE cells. All experiments were performed on primary human RPE (hRPE) cells in culture. pHrodo was used to label the isolated porcine POS, and quantification of pHrodo fluorescence was used to determine the degree of phagocytosis. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of key proteins involved in phagocytosis were used to clarify the mechanism of progranulin. Progranulin increased RPE phagocytosis in hydrogen peroxide-treated and nontreated RPE cells. The phosphorylated form of Mer tyrosine kinase, which is important for POS internalization, was significantly increased in the progranulin-exposed cells. This increase was attenuated by SU11274, an inhibitor of hepatic growth factor receptor. Under the oxidative stress condition, exposure to progranulin led to an approximately twofold increase in integrin alpha-v, which is associated with the first step in recognition of POS by RPE cells. These results suggest that progranulin could be an effective stimulator for RPE phagocytosis and could repair RPE function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II is necessary for macrophage M1 polarization and phagocytosis via toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Ting; You, Huey-Ling; Li, Changgui; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Chang, Shun-Jen; Chen, Chung-Jen

    2015-05-01

    Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII; PRKG2) phosphorylates a variety of biological targets and has been identified as a gout-susceptible gene. However, the regulatory role of cGKII in triggering gout disease has yet to be clarified. Thus, we plan to explore the specific function of cGKII in macrophages related to gout disease. By using cGKII gene knockdown method, we detected macrophage M1/M2 polarization, phagocytosis, and their responses to stimulation by monosodium urate (MSU). cGKII was highly expressed in M1 phenotype, but not in M2, and cGKII knockdown significantly inhibited macrophage M1 polarization by decreasing M1 chemokine markers (CXCL10 and CCL2) and downregulating phagocytosis function. We further identified that cGKII-associated phagocytosis was mediated by upregulating toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expression, but not by TLR4. Mimicking gout condition by MSU treatments, we found that MSU alone induced cGKII and TLR2 expression with increased M1 polarization markers and phagocytosis activity. It means that cGKII knockdown significantly inhibited this MSU-induced cGKII-TLR2-phagocytosis axis. Our study showed that cGKII plays a key role in M1 polarization, especially in TLR2-mediated phagocytosis under MSU exposure. The findings provide evidence for the possible role of cGKII as an inflammation exciter in gout disease. Gout-susceptible gene cGKII is necessary for macrophage M1 polarization. cGKII regulates M1 phagocytosis function via TLR2. Monosodium urate treatments increase cGKII expression and related function. This study reveals the role of cGKII in enhancing gouty inflammatory responses.

  14. ACTIVATED NEUTROPHILS INHIBIT PHAGOCYTOSIS BY HUMAN MONOCYTE CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously reported the correlation of decreased phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan by sputum monocytic cells with the increase in sputum neutrophils in volunteers 6h after inhalation of endotoxin (20,000 EU) (Alexis, et al. JACI, 2003;112:353). To define whether an intrin...

  15. Dictyostelium discoideum mutants with conditional defects in phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized Dictyostelium discoideum mutants with conditional defects in phagocytosis. Under suspension conditions, the mutants exhibited dramatic reductions in the uptake of bacteria and polystyrene latex beads. The initial binding of these ligands was unaffected, however, indicating that the defect was not in a plasma membrane receptor: Because of the phagocytosis defect, the mutants were unable to grow when cultured in suspensions of heat-killed bacteria. The mutants exhibited normal capacities for fluid phase endocytosis and grew as rapidly as parental (AX4) cells in axenic medium. Both the defects in phagocytosis and growth on bacteria were corrected when the mutant Dictyostelium cells were cultured on solid substrates. Reversion and genetic complementation analysis suggested that the mutant phenotypes were caused by single gene defects. While the precise site of action of the mutations was not established, the mutations are likely to affect an early signaling event because the binding of bacteria to mutant cells in suspension was unable to trigger the localized polymerization of actin filaments required for ingestion; other aspects of actin function appeared normal. This class of conditional phagocytosis mutant should prove to be useful for the expression cloning of the affected gene(s). PMID:7519624

  16. Dead cell phagocytosis and innate immune checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyoung Wan

    2017-01-01

    The human body loses several billions of cells daily. When cells die in vivo, the corpse of each dead cell is immediately cleared. Specifically, dead cells are efficiently recognized and cleared by multiple types of neighboring phagocytes. Early research on cell death focused more on molecular mechanisms of cell death regulation while the cellular corpses were merely considered cellular debris. However, it has come to light that various biological stimuli following cell death are important for immune regulation. Clearance of normal dead cells occurs silently in immune tolerance. Exogenous or mutated antigens of malignant or infected cells can initiate adaptive immunity, thereby inducing immunogenicity by adjuvant signals. Several pathogens and cancer cells have strategies to limit the adjuvant signals and escape immune surveillance. In this review, we present an overview of the mechanisms of dead cell clearance and its immune regulations. PMID:28768566

  17. Dead cell phagocytosis and innate immune checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyoung Wan

    2017-10-01

    The human body loses several billions of cells daily. When cells die in vivo, the corpse of each dead cell is immediately cleared. Specifically, dead cells are efficiently recognized and cleared by multiple types of neighboring phagocytes. Early research on cell death focused more on molecular mechanisms of cell death regulation while the cellular corpses were merely considered cellular debris. However, it has come to light that various biological stimuli following cell death are important for immune regulation. Clearance of normal dead cells occurs silently in immune tolerance. Exogenous or mutated antigens of malignant or infected cells can initiate adaptive immunity, thereby inducing immunogenicity by adjuvant signals. Several pathogens and cancer cells have strategies to limit the adjuvant signals and escape immune surveillance. In this review, we present an overview of the mechanisms of dead cell clearance and its immune regulations. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(10): 496-503].

  18. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation is required for phagocytosis of staphylococcus aureus by RAW 264.7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Fei, E-mail: zhufei@zju.edu.cn; Yue, Wanfu; Wang, Yongxia

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor which controls the expression of various genes involved in immune responses. However, it is not clear whether NF-κB activation is critical for phagocytosis when Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we investigated whether NF-κB cascade genes are altered in a mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) when the cells were stimulated to activate a host innate immune response against live S. aureus or heat-inactivated S. aureus (HISA). NF-κB cascade genes such as Nfκb1, Nfκbiz, Nfκbie, Rel, Traf1 and Tnfaip3 were up-regulated by all treatments at onemore » hour after incubation. NF-κB play an important role in activating phagocytosis in RAW 264.7 cells infected with S. aureus. Inhibition of NF-κB significantly blocked phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled S. aureus and decreased the expression of NFκB1, IL1α, IL1β and TLR2 in this cell line. Our results demonstrate that S. aureus may activate the NF-κB pathway and that NF-κB activation is required for phagocytosis of S. aureus by macrophages. - Highlights: • NF-κB cascade genes such as Nfκb1 and Traf1 were up-regulated by heat-inactivated S. aureus. • Inhibition of NF-κB significantly blocked phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled S. aureus. • NF-κB activation is required for phagocytosis of S. aureus by macrophages.« less

  19. Prostaglandins may play a signal-coupling role during phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Prusch, R D; Goette, S M; Haberman, P

    1989-03-01

    Phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus can be induced with prostaglandins (PG). In addition, arachidonic acid (the fatty acid precursor to the PG-2 series) also induces phagocytosis. The induction of phagocytosis with arachidonic acid can be partially inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Phagocytosis in the amoeba can also be induced with the chemotactic peptide N-formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine (NFMLP). The peptide presumably induces phagocytosis by interacting with receptors on the amoeba surface, which may initiate the release of arachidonic acid from membrane lipids. NFMLP-induced phagocytosis can also be partially inhibited by indomethacin. It is suggested that PG's or biochemically related substances may play a signal-coupling role during phagocytosis in the amoeba.

  20. EphA2 and Src regulate equatorial cell morphogenesis during lens development

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Catherine; Ansari, Moham M.; Cooper, Jonathan A.; Gong, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    High refractive index and transparency of the eye lens require uniformly shaped and precisely aligned lens fiber cells. During lens development, equatorial epithelial cells undergo cell-to-cell alignment to form meridional rows of hexagonal cells. The mechanism that controls this morphogenesis from randomly packed cuboidal epithelial cells to highly organized hexagonal fiber cells remains unknown. In Epha2-/- mouse lenses, equatorial epithelial cells fail to form precisely aligned meridional rows; moreover, the lens fulcrum, where the apical tips of elongating epithelial cells constrict to form an anchor point before fiber cell differentiation and elongation at the equator, is disrupted. Phosphorylated Src-Y424 and cortactin-Y466, actin and EphA2 cluster at the vertices of wild-type hexagonal epithelial cells in organized meridional rows. However, phosphorylated Src and phosphorylated cortactin are not detected in disorganized Epha2-/- cells with altered F-actin distribution. E-cadherin junctions, which are normally located at the basal-lateral ends of equatorial epithelial cells and are diminished in newly differentiating fiber cells, become widely distributed in the apical, lateral and basal sides of epithelial cells and persist in differentiating fiber cells in Epha2-/- lenses. Src-/- equatorial epithelial cells also fail to form precisely aligned meridional rows and lens fulcrum. These results indicate that EphA2/Src signaling is essential for the formation of the lens fulcrum. EphA2 also regulates Src/cortactin/F-actin complexes at the vertices of hexagonal equatorial cells for cell-to-cell alignment. This mechanistic information explains how EphA2 mutations lead to disorganized lens cells that subsequently contribute to altered refractive index and cataracts in humans and mice. PMID:24026120

  1. Complement activation by carbon nanotubes and its influence on the phagocytosis and cytokine response by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pondman, Kirsten M; Sobik, Martin; Nayak, Annapurna; Tsolaki, Anthony G; Jäkel, Anne; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Hampel, Silke; Ten Haken, Bennie; Sim, Robert B; Kishore, Uday

    2014-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have promised a range of applications in biomedicine. Although influenced by the dispersants used, CNTs are recognized by the innate immune system, predominantly by the classical pathway of the complement system. Here, we confirm that complement activation by the CNT used continues up to C3 and C5, indicating that the entire complement system is activated including the formation of membrane-attack complexes. Using recombinant forms of the globular regions of human C1q (gC1q) as inhibitors of CNT-mediated classical pathway activation, we show that C1q, the first recognition subcomponent of the classical pathway, binds CNTs via the gC1q domain. Complement opsonisation of CNTs significantly enhances their uptake by U937 cells, with concomitant downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines in both U937 cells and human monocytes. We propose that CNT-mediated complement activation may cause recruitment of cellular infiltration, followed by phagocytosis without inducing a pro-inflammatory immune response. This study highlights the importance of the complement system in response to carbon nanontube administration, suggesting that the ensuing complement activation may cause recruitment of cellular infiltration, followed by phagocytosis without inducing a pro-inflammatory immune response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Casein Kinase 2 Is a Novel Regulator of the Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ting; Cheung, Florence Shin Gee; Zheng, Jian; Lu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Ling; Grewal, Thomas; Murray, Michael; Zhou, Fanfan

    2016-01-04

    Human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) mediate the influx of many important drugs into cells. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a critical protein kinase that phosphorylates >300 protein substrates and is dysregulated in a number of disease states. Among the CK2 substrates are several transporters, although whether this includes human OATPs has not been evaluated. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the regulation of human OATP1A2 by CK2. HEK-239T cells in which OATP1A2 was overexpressed were treated with CK2 specific inhibitors or transfected with CK2 specific siRNA, and the activity, expression, and subcellular trafficking of OATP1A2 was evaluated. CK2 inhibition decreased the uptake of the prototypic OATP1A2 substrate estrone-3-sulfate (E3S). Kinetic studies revealed that this was due to a decrease in the maximum velocity (Vmax) of E3S uptake, while the Michaelis constant was unchanged. The cell surface expression, but not the total cellular expression of OATP1A2, was impaired by CK2 inhibition and knockdown of the catalytic α-subunits of CK2. CK2 inhibition decreased the internalization of OATP1A2 via a clathrin-dependent pathway, decreased OATP1A2 recycling, and likely impaired OATP1A2 targeting to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, CK2 inhibition also disrupted the colocalization of OATP1A2 and Rab GTPase (Rab)4-, Rab8-, and Rab9-positive endosomal and secretory vesicles. Taken together, CK2 has emerged as a novel regulator of the subcellular trafficking and stability of OATP1A2. Because OATP1A2 transports many molecules of physiological and pharmacological importance, the present data may inform drug selection in patients with diseases in which CK2 and OATP1A2 are dysregulated.

  3. Silibinin down-regulates expression of secreted phospholipase A2 enzymes in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hagelgans, Albert; Nacke, Brit; Zamaraeva, Maria; Siegert, Gabriele; Menschikowski, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Silibinin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid produced by milk thistle, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cancer-preventive activities. In the current study, we examined the effects of silibinin on the expression of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzymes, especially those of group IIA (hGIIA), which play a crucial role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. The effects of silibinin on sPLA2 expressions in human HepG2 hepatoma and PC-3 prostate cancer cells were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. Silibinin inhibited the expression of hGIIA in unstimulated and cytokine-primed HepG2 and PC-3 cells. The mRNA levels of sPLA2 of groups IB, III and V were also significantly decreased by silibinin. Analyses of transcription factor activation suggest that nuclear factor-κB, but not specificity protein 1 (SP1) is implicated in the silibinin-mediated down-regulation of hGIIA. Silibinin exhibits inhibitory effects on basal and cytokine-induced expression of sPLA2s in cancer cells and therefore, may have the potential to protect against up-regulation of hGIIA and other sPLA2 isoforms during inflammation and cancer.

  4. Integrins and small GTPases as modulators of phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sayedyahossein, Samar; Dagnino, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis is the mechanism whereby cells engulf large particles. This process has long been recognized as a critical component of the innate immune response, which constitutes the organism's defense against microorganisms. In addition, phagocytic internalization of apoptotic cells or cell fragments plays important roles in tissue homeostasis and remodeling. Phagocytosis requires target interactions with receptors on the plasma membrane of the phagocytic cell. Integrins have been identified as important mediators of particle clearance, in addition to their well-established roles in cell adhesion, migration and mechanotransduction. Indeed, these ubiquitously expressed proteins impart phagocytic capacity to epithelial, endothelial and mesenchymal cell types. The importance of integrins in particle internalization is emphasized by the ability of microbial and viral pathogens to exploit their signaling pathways to invade host cells, and by the wide variety of disorders that arise from abnormalities in integrin-dependent phagocytic uptake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Physiology of Phagocytosis in the Context of Mitochondrial Origin

    PubMed Central

    Tielens, Aloysius G. M.; Mentel, Marek

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY How mitochondria came to reside within the cytosol of their host has been debated for 50 years. Though current data indicate that the last eukaryote common ancestor possessed mitochondria and was a complex cell, whether mitochondria or complexity came first in eukaryotic evolution is still discussed. In autogenous models (complexity first), the origin of phagocytosis poses the limiting step at eukaryote origin, with mitochondria coming late as an undigested growth substrate. In symbiosis-based models (mitochondria first), the host was an archaeon, and the origin of mitochondria was the limiting step at eukaryote origin, with mitochondria providing bacterial genes, ATP synthesis on internalized bioenergetic membranes, and mitochondrion-derived vesicles as the seed of the eukaryote endomembrane system. Metagenomic studies are uncovering new host-related archaeal lineages that are reported as complex or phagocytosing, although images of such cells are lacking. Here we review the physiology and components of phagocytosis in eukaryotes, critically inspecting the concept of a phagotrophic host. From ATP supply and demand, a mitochondrion-lacking phagotrophic archaeal fermenter would have to ingest about 34 times its body weight in prokaryotic prey to obtain enough ATP to support one cell division. It would lack chemiosmotic ATP synthesis at the plasma membrane, because phagocytosis and chemiosmosis in the same membrane are incompatible. It would have lived from amino acid fermentations, because prokaryotes are mainly protein. Its ATP yield would have been impaired relative to typical archaeal amino acid fermentations, which involve chemiosmosis. In contrast, phagocytosis would have had great physiological benefit for a mitochondrion-bearing cell. PMID:28615286

  6. Modulation of hepatic reticuloendothelial system phagocytosis by pancreatic hormones.

    PubMed

    Cornell, R P; McClellan, C C

    1982-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of the pancreatic hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin on reticuloendothelial system (RES) phagocytosis both in vivo and in the isolated perfused livers of rats. Chronic pancreatic hormonal treatment consisted of twice daily injections SC of NPH insulin with doses ranging from 0.75 U on day 1 to 9.0 U on day 13 and unchanged doses of glucagon (200 micrograms) and somatostatin (50 micrograms). Chronic treatment with insulin significantly depressed by 48% intravascular phagocytosis of colloidal carbon administered IV at a dose of 8 mg/100 g, while glucagon and somatostatin stimulated macrophage endocytic function by 32% and 26%, respectively, compared to the control value. Acute treatment with the three pancreatic hormones at 30 min prior to carbon administration similarly produced insulin depression as well as glucagon and somatostatin stimulation of RES phagocytosis. Addition of the three hormones at near physiologic concentrations (20 ng/ml for insulin, 10 ng/ml for glucagon, and 5 ng/ml for somatostatin) to the recirculating perfusate of isolated perfused rat livers simultaneous with 24 mg of colloidal carbon likewise resulted in phagocytic reduction after insulin and enhancement after glucagon and somatostatin. Experiments involving insulin in vitro with isolated perfused livers as well as glucose replacement therapy concomitant with insulin in vivo demonstrated that hypoglycemia is not necessary for phagocytic depression by insulin while severe hypoglycemia in the perfusion medium is sufficient to depress carbon uptake by isolated perfused livers independent of insulin. Both pancreatic hormones and the level of glycemia seem to be important in modulating hepatic reticuloendothelial system phagocytosis.

  7. How cells engulf: a review of theoretical approaches to phagocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, David M.; Endres, Robert G.

    2017-12-01

    Phagocytosis is a fascinating process whereby a cell surrounds and engulfs particles such as bacteria and dead cells. This is crucial both for single-cell organisms (as a way of acquiring nutrients) and as part of the immune system (to destroy foreign invaders). This whole process is hugely complex and involves multiple coordinated events such as membrane remodelling, receptor motion, cytoskeleton reorganisation and intracellular signalling. Because of this, phagocytosis is an excellent system for theoretical study, benefiting from biophysical approaches combined with mathematical modelling. Here, we review these theoretical approaches and discuss the recent mathematical and computational models, including models based on receptors, models focusing on the forces involved, and models employing energetic considerations. Along the way, we highlight a beautiful connection to the physics of phase transitions, consider the role of stochasticity, and examine links between phagocytosis and other types of endocytosis. We cover the recently discovered multistage nature of phagocytosis, showing that the size of the phagocytic cup grows in distinct stages, with an initial slow stage followed by a much quicker second stage starting around half engulfment. We also address the issue of target shape dependence, which is relevant to both pathogen infection and drug delivery, covering both one-dimensional and two-dimensional results. Throughout, we pay particular attention to recent experimental techniques that continue to inform the theoretical studies and provide a means to test model predictions. Finally, we discuss population models, connections to other biological processes, and how physics and modelling will continue to play a key role in future work in this area.

  8. Phagocytosis in pup and adult harbour, grey and harp seals.

    PubMed

    Frouin, Héloïse; Lebeuf, Michel; Hammill, Mike; Fournier, Michel

    2010-04-15

    Knowledge on pinniped immunology is still in its infancy. For instance, age-related and developmental aspects of the immune system in pinnipeds need to be better described. The present study examined the phagocytic activity and efficiency of harbour, grey and harp seal leukocytes. In the first part of the study, peripheral blood was collected from captive female harbour seals of various ages. Data showed an age-related decrease in phagocytosis in female harbour seals from sub-adult to adulthood. In the second part of the study, changes in phagocytosis were quantified during lactation in wild newborn harbour, grey and harp seals and in their mothers (harp and grey seals). In newborns of the same age, leukocytes of harbour and harp seals phagocytosed less than those of grey seal pups. The phagocytic activity and efficiency increased significantly from early to mid-lactation in newborn harbour seals, and from early to late lactation in newborn grey seals, which could suggest that the transfer of phagocytosis-promoting factor(s) in colostrum is an important feature of temporary protection for pups. In contrast, no changes in phagocytic activity and efficiency were observed in lactating females of the two seal species, harp and grey, examined. At late lactation, phagocytic activity in both grey and harp seal pups and phagocytic efficiency in grey seal pups were significantly higher than in their mothers. These results could reflect either the capacity of phagocytes of the newborn harp and grey seals to respond to pathogens. Results from this study suggest that the phagocytosis of the seal species examined is not fully developed at birth as it generally increases in pups during lactation. Thereafter, the phagocytic activity of seals appears to decrease throughout adulthood. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapamycin-based inducible translocation systems for studying phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bohdanowicz, Michal; Fairn, Gregory D

    2011-01-01

    Phagocytosis is an immune receptor-mediated process whereby cells engulf large particles. The process is dynamic and requires several localized factors acting in concert with and sequentially after the engagement of immune receptors to envelope the particle. Once the particle is internalized, the nascent -phagosome undergoes a series of events leading to its maturation to the microbicidal phagolysosome. Investigating these dynamic and temporally controlled series of events in live cells requires noninvasive methods. The ability to rapidly recruit the proteins of interest to the sites of phagocytosis or to nascent phagosomes would help dissect the regulatory mechanisms involved during phagocytosis. Here, we describe a general approach to express in RAW264.7 murine macrophages, a genetically encoded rapamycin--induced heterodimerization system. In the presence of rapamycin, tight association between FK506-binding protein (FKBP) and FKBP rapamycin-binding protein (FRB) is observed. Based on this principle, a synthetic system consisting of a targeting domain attached to FKBP can recruit a protein of interest fused to FRB upon the addition of rapamycin. Previously, this technique has been used to target lipid-modifying enzymes and small GTPases to the phagosome or plasma membrane. The recruitment of the FRB module can be monitored by fluorescent microscopy if a fluorescent protein is fused to the FRB sequence. While the focus of this chapter is on phagocytic events, this method can be employed to study any organelle of interest when the appropriate targeting sequence is used.

  10. Serotonin modulates insect hemocyte phagocytosis via two different serotonin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yi-xiang; Huang, Jia; Li, Meng-qi; Wu, Ya-su; Xia, Ren-ying; Ye, Gong-yin

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates both neural and immune responses in vertebrates, but its role in insect immunity remains uncertain. We report that hemocytes in the caterpillar, Pieris rapae are able to synthesize 5-HT following activation by lipopolysaccharide. The inhibition of a serotonin-generating enzyme with either pharmacological blockade or RNAi knock-down impaired hemocyte phagocytosis. Biochemical and functional experiments showed that naive hemocytes primarily express 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors. The blockade of 5-HT1B significantly reduced phagocytic ability; however, the blockade of 5-HT2B increased hemocyte phagocytosis. The 5-HT1B-null Drosophila melanogaster mutants showed higher mortality than controls when infected with bacteria, due to their decreased phagocytotic ability. Flies expressing 5-HT1B or 5-HT2B RNAi in hemocytes also showed similar sensitivity to infection. Combined, these data demonstrate that 5-HT mediates hemocyte phagocytosis through 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors and serotonergic signaling performs critical modulatory functions in immune systems of animals separated by 500 million years of evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12241.001 PMID:26974346

  11. AMPKα1 controls hepatocyte proliferation independently of energy balance by regulating Cyclin A2 expression.

    PubMed

    Merlen, Grégory; Gentric, Géraldine; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Foretz, Marc; Guidotti, Jacques-Emmanuel; Fauveau, Véronique; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Viollet, Benoit; Desdouets, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved sensor of cellular energy status that contributes to restoration of energy homeostasis by slowing down ATP-consuming pathways and activating ATP-producing pathways. Unexpectedly, in different systems, AMPK is also required for proper cell division. In the current study, we evaluated the potential effect of the AMPK catalytic subunit, AMPKα1, on hepatocyte proliferation. Hepatocyte proliferation was determined in AMPKα1 knockout and wild-type mice in vivo after two thirds partial hepatectomy, and in vitro in primary hepatocyte cultures. The activities of metabolic and cell cycle-related signaling pathways were measured. After partial hepatectomy, hepatocytes proliferated rapidly, correlating with increased AMPK phosphorylation. Deletion of AMPKα1 delayed liver regeneration by impacting on G1/S transition phase. The proliferative defect of AMPKα1-deficient hepatocytes was cell autonomous, and independent of energy balance. The priming phase, lipid droplet accumulation, protein anabolic responses and growth factor activation after partial hepatectomy occurred normally in the absence of AMPKα1 activity. By contrast, mRNA and protein expression of cyclin A2, a key driver of S phase progression, were compromised in the absence of AMPK activity. Importantly, AMPKα1 controlled cyclin A2 transcription mainly through the ATF/CREB element. Our study highlights a novel role for AMPKα1 as a positive regulator of hepatocyte division occurring independently of energy balance. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. HlSRB, a Class B Scavenger Receptor, Is Key to the Granulocyte-Mediated Microbial Phagocytosis in Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Kyaw Min; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Liao, Min; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Xuenan, Xuan; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kume, Aiko; Galay, Remil Linggatong; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2012-01-01

    Ixodid ticks transmit various pathogens of deadly diseases to humans and animals. However, the specific molecule that functions in the recognition and control of pathogens inside ticks is not yet to be identified. Class B scavenger receptor CD36 (SRB) participates in internalization of apoptotic cells, certain bacterial and fungal pathogens, and modified low-density lipoproteins. Recently, we have reported on recombinant HlSRB, a 50-kDa protein with one hydrophobic SRB domain from the hard tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis. Here, we show that HlSRB plays vital roles in granulocyte-mediated phagocytosis to invading Escherichia coli and contributes to the first-line host defense against various pathogens. Data clearly revealed that granulocytes that up-regulated the expression of cell surface HlSRB are almost exclusively involved in hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis for E. coli in ticks, and post-transcriptional silencing of the HlSRB-specific gene ablated the granulocytes' ability to phagocytose E. coli and resulted in the mortality of ticks due to high bacteremia. This is the first report demonstrating that a scavenger receptor molecule contributes to hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis against exogenous pathogens, isolated and characterized from hematophagous arthropods. PMID:22479406

  13. Role of phospholipase A2 pathway in regulating activation of Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ajmat, M T; Bonilla, F; Hermosilla, P C; Zelarayán, L; Bühler, M I

    2013-08-01

    Transient increases in the concentration of cytosolic Ca(2+) are essential for triggering egg activation events. Increased Ca(2+) results from its rapid release from intracellular stores, mainly mediated by one or both intracellular calcium channels: the inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR). Several regulatory pathways that tailor the response of these channels to the specific cell type have been proposed. Among its many modulatory actions, calcium can serve as an activator of a cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA2), which releases arachidonic acid from phospholipids of the endoplasmic reticulum as well as from the nuclear envelope. Previous studies have suggested that arachidonic acid and/or its metabolites were able to modulate the activity of several ion channels. Based on these findings, we have studied the participation of the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) pathway in the process of Bufo arenarum oocyte activation and the interrelation between any of its metabolites and the ion channels involved in the calcium release from the intracellular reservoirs at fertilization. We found that addition of both melittin, a potent PLA(2) activator, and arachidonic acid, the main PLA(2) reaction metabolite, was able to induce activation events in a bell-shaped manner. Differential regulation of IP3Rs and RyRs by arachidonic acid and its products could explain melittin and arachidonic acid behaviour in Bufo arenarum egg activation. The concerted action of arachidonic acid and/or its metabolites could provide controlled mobilization of calcium from intracellular reservoirs and useful tools for understanding calcium homeostasis in eggs that express both types of receptors.

  14. Endogenous secreted phospholipase A2 group X regulates cysteinyl leukotrienes synthesis by human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Hallstrand, Teal S; Lai, Ying; Hooper, Kathryn A; Oslund, Rob C; Altemeier, William A; Matute-Bello, Gustavo; Gelb, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2s mediate the rate-limiting step in the formation of eicosanoids such as cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). Group IVA cytosolic PLA2α (cPLA2α) is thought to be the dominant PLA2 in eosinophils; however, eosinophils also have secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) activity that has not been fully defined. To examine the expression of sPLA2 group X (sPLA2-X) in eosinophils, the participation of sPLA2-X in the formation of CysLTs, and the mechanism by which sPLA2-X initiates the synthesis of CysLTs in eosinophils. Peripheral blood eosinophils were obtained from volunteers with asthma and/or allergy. A rabbit polyclonal anti-sPLA2-X antibody identified sPLA2-X by Western blot. We used confocal microscopy to colocalize the sPLA2-X to intracellular structures. An inhibitor of sPLA2-X (ROC-0929) that does not inhibit other mammalian sPLA2s, as well as inhibitors of the mitogen-activated kinase cascade (MAPK) and cPLA2α, was used to examine the mechanism of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-mediated formation of CysLT. Eosinophils express the mammalian sPLA2-X gene (PLA2G10). The sPLA2-X protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi, and granules of eosinophils and moves to the granules and lipid bodies during fMLP-mediated activation. Selective sPLA2-X inhibition attenuated the fMLP-mediated release of arachidonic acid and CysLT formation by eosinophils. Inhibitors of p38, extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (p44/42 MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and cPLA2α also attenuated the fMLP-mediated formation of CysLT. The sPLA2-X inhibitor reduced the phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (p44/42 MAPK) as well as cPLA2α during cellular activation, indicating that sPLA2-X is involved in activating the MAPK cascade leading to the formation of CysLT via cPLA2α. We further demonstrate that sPLA2-X is activated before secretion from the cell during activation. Short-term priming with IL-13 and TNF/IL-1β increased the

  15. Melanin targets LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP): A novel pathogenetic mechanism in fungal disease.

    PubMed

    Chamilos, Georgios; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Brakhage, Axel; Beauvais, Anne; Latge, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-03

    Intracellular swelling of conidia of the major human airborne fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus results in surface exposure of immunostimulatory pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and triggers activation of a specialized autophagy pathway called LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) to promote fungal killing. We have recently discovered that, apart from PAMPs exposure, cell wall melanin removal during germination of A. fumigatus is a prerequisite for activation of LAP. Importantly, melanin promotes fungal pathogenicity via targeting LAP, as a melanin-deficient A. fumigatus mutant restores its virulence upon conditional inactivation of Atg5 in hematopoietic cells of mice. Mechanistically, fungal cell wall melanin selectively excludes the CYBA/p22phox subunit of NADPH oxidase from the phagosome to inhibit LAP, without interfering with signaling regulating cytokine responses. Notably, inhibition of LAP is a general property of melanin pigments, a finding with broad physiological implications.

  16. CD40 ligation and phagocytosis differently affect the differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Jourquin, Frédéric; Tailleux, Ludovic; Gluckman, Jean Claude

    2002-12-01

    That monocytes can differentiate into macrophages or dendritic cells (DCs) makes them an essential link between innate and adaptive immunity. However, little is known about how interactions with pathogens or T cells influence monocyte engagement toward DCs. We approached this point in cultures where granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 induced monocytes to differentiate into immature DCs. Activating monocytes with soluble CD40 ligand (CD40L) led to accelerated differentiation toward mature CD83(+) DCs with up-regulated human leukocyte antigen-DR, costimulatory molecules and CD116 (GM-CSF receptor), and down-regulation of molecules involved in antigen capture. Monocytes primed by phagocytosis of antibody-opsonized, killed Escherichia coli differentiated into DCs with an immature phenotype, whereas Zymosan priming yielded active DCs with an intermediate phenotype. Accordingly, DCs obtained from cultures with CD40L or after Zymosan priming had a decreased capacity to endocytose dextran, but only DCs cultured with CD40L had increased capacity to stimulate allogeneic T cells. DCs obtained after E. coli or Zymosan priming of monocytes produced high levels of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-6 as well as of regulatory IL-10, but they produced IL-12p70 only after secondary CD40 ligation. Thus, CD40 ligation on monocytes accelerates the maturation of DCs in the presence of GM-CSF/IL-4, whereas phagocytosis of different microorganisms does not alter and even facilitates their potential to differentiate into immature or active DCs, the maturation of which can be completed upon CD40 ligation. In vivo, such differences may correspond to DCs with different trafficking and T helper cell-stimulating capacities that could differently affect induction of adaptive immune responses to infections.

  17. Phospholipase A2 activation regulates cytotoxicity of methylmercury in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mazerik, Jessica N; Hagele, Thomas; Sherwani, Shariq; Ciapala, Valorie; Butler, Susan; Kuppusamy, M Lakshmi; Hunter, Melissa; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Marsh, Clay B; Parinandi, Narasimham L

    2007-01-01

    Mercury has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease among humans. Through diet, mainly fish consumption, humans are exposed to methylmercury, the biomethylated organic form of environmental mercury. As the endothelium is an important player in homeostasis of the cardiovascular system, here, the authors tested their hypothesis that methylmercury activates the lipid signaling enzyme phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) in vascular endothelial cells (ECs), causing upstream regulation of cytotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, the authors used bovine pulmonary artery ECs (BPAECs) cultured in monolayers, following labeling of their membrane phospholipids with [(3)H]arachidonic acid (AA). The cells were exposed to methylmercury chloride (MMC) and then the release of free AA (index of PLA(2) activity) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; index of cytotoxicity) were determined by liquid scintillation counting and spectrophotometry, respectively. MMC significantly activated PLA(2) in a dose-dependent (5 to 15 microM) and time-dependent (0 to 60 min) fashion. Sulfhydryl (thiol-protective) agents, calcium chelators, antioxidants, and PLA(2)-specific inhibitors attenuated the MMC-induced PLA(2) activation, suggesting the role of thiols, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and calcium in the activation of PLA(2) in BPAECs. MMC also induced the loss of thiols and increase of lipid peroxidation in BPAECs. MMC induced cytotoxicity in BPAECs as observed by the altered cell morphology and LDH leak, which was significantly attenuated by PLA(2) inhibitors. This study established that PLA(2) activation through thiols, calcium, and oxidative stress was associated with the cytotoxicity of MMC in BPAECs, drawing attention to the involvement of PLA(2) signaling in the methylmercury-induced vascular endothelial dysfunctions.

  18. Diffusion Barriers, Mechanical Forces, and the Biophysics of Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Philip P; Grinstein, Sergio; Freeman, Spencer A

    2016-07-25

    Phagocytes recognize and eliminate pathogens, alert other tissues of impending threats, and provide a link between innate and adaptive immunity. They also maintain tissue homeostasis, consuming dead cells without causing alarm. The receptor engagement, signal transduction, and cytoskeletal rearrangements underlying phagocytosis are paradigmatic of other immune responses and bear similarities to macropinocytosis and cell migration. We discuss how the glycocalyx restricts access to phagocytic receptors, the processes that enable receptor engagement and clustering, and the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton that controls the mobility of membrane proteins and lipids and provides the mechanical force propelling the phagocyte membrane toward and around the phagocytic prey. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inducible CYP2J2 and Its Product 11,12-EET Promotes Bacterial Phagocytosis: A Role for CYP2J2 Deficiency in the Pathogenesis of Crohn’s Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Bystrom, Jonas; Thomson, Scott J.; Johansson, Jörgen; Edin, Matthew L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Gilroy, Derek W.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2013-01-01

    The epoxygenase CYP2J2 has an emerging role in inflammation and vascular biology. The role of CYP2J2 in phagocytosis is not known and its regulation in human inflammatory diseases is poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of CYP2J2 in bacterial phagocytosis and its expression in monocytes from healthy controls and Crohns disease patients. CYP2J2 is anti-inflammatory in human peripheral blood monocytes. Bacterial LPS induced CYP2J2 mRNA and protein. The CYP2J2 arachidonic acid products 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET inhibited LPS induced TNFα release. THP-1 monocytes were transformed into macrophages by 48h incubation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Epoxygenase inhibition using a non-selective inhibitor SKF525A or a selective CYP2J2 inhibitor Compound 4, inhibited E. coli particle phagocytosis, which could be specifically reversed by 11,12-EET. Moreover, epoxygenase inhibition reduced the expression of phagocytosis receptors CD11b and CD68. CD11b also mediates L. monocytogenes phagocytosis. Similar, to E. coli bioparticle phagocytosis, epoxygenase inhibition also reduced intracellular levels of L. monocytogenes, which could be reversed by co-incubation with 11,12-EET. Disrupted bacterial clearance is a hallmark of Crohn’s disease. Unlike macrophages from control donors, macrophages from Crohn’s disease patients showed no induction of CYP2J2 in response to E. coli. These results demonstrate that CYP2J2 mediates bacterial phagocytosis in macrophages, and implicates a defect in the CYP2J2 pathway may regulate bacterial clearance in Crohn’s disease. PMID:24058654

  20. Inducible CYP2J2 and its product 11,12-EET promotes bacterial phagocytosis: a role for CYP2J2 deficiency in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease?

    PubMed

    Bystrom, Jonas; Thomson, Scott J; Johansson, Jörgen; Edin, Matthew L; Zeldin, Darryl C; Gilroy, Derek W; Smith, Andrew M; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2013-01-01

    The epoxygenase CYP2J2 has an emerging role in inflammation and vascular biology. The role of CYP2J2 in phagocytosis is not known and its regulation in human inflammatory diseases is poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of CYP2J2 in bacterial phagocytosis and its expression in monocytes from healthy controls and Crohns disease patients. CYP2J2 is anti-inflammatory in human peripheral blood monocytes. Bacterial LPS induced CYP2J2 mRNA and protein. The CYP2J2 arachidonic acid products 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET inhibited LPS induced TNFα release. THP-1 monocytes were transformed into macrophages by 48h incubation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Epoxygenase inhibition using a non-selective inhibitor SKF525A or a selective CYP2J2 inhibitor Compound 4, inhibited E. coli particle phagocytosis, which could be specifically reversed by 11,12-EET. Moreover, epoxygenase inhibition reduced the expression of phagocytosis receptors CD11b and CD68. CD11b also mediates L. monocytogenes phagocytosis. Similar, to E. coli bioparticle phagocytosis, epoxygenase inhibition also reduced intracellular levels of L. monocytogenes, which could be reversed by co-incubation with 11,12-EET. Disrupted bacterial clearance is a hallmark of Crohn's disease. Unlike macrophages from control donors, macrophages from Crohn's disease patients showed no induction of CYP2J2 in response to E. coli. These results demonstrate that CYP2J2 mediates bacterial phagocytosis in macrophages, and implicates a defect in the CYP2J2 pathway may regulate bacterial clearance in Crohn's disease.

  1. Differential Kinetics of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Gresnigt, Mark S; Becker, Katharina L; Leenders, Floris; Alonso, M Fernanda; Wang, Xiaowen; Meis, Jacques F; Bain, Judith M; Erwig, Lars P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2018-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients and is commonly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, while A.nidulans is rarely the causative agent. However, in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients, A. nidulans is a frequent cause of invasive aspergillosis and is associated with higher mortality. Immune recognition of A. nidulans was compared to A. fumigatus to offer an insight into why A. nidulans infections are prevalent in CGD. Live cell imaging with J774A.1 macrophage-like cells and LC3-GFP-mCherry bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) revealed that phagocytosis of A. nidulans was slower compared to A. fumigatus. This difference could be attributed to slower migration of J774A.1 cells and a lower percentage of migrating BMDMs. In addition, delayed phagosome acidification and LC3-associated phagocytosis was observed with A. nidulans. Cytokine and oxidative burst measurements in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed a lower oxidative burst upon challenge with A. nidulans. In contrast, A. nidulans induced significantly higher concentrations of cytokines. Collectively, our data demonstrate that A. nidulans is phagocytosed and processed at a slower rate compared to A. fumigatus, resulting in reduced fungal killing and increased germination of conidia. This slower rate of A. nidulans clearance may be permissive for overgrowth within certain immune settings. The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Iterative use of nuclear receptor Nr5a2 regulates multiple stages of liver and pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Nissim, Sahar; Weeks, Olivia; Talbot, Jared C; Hedgepeth, John W; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Swinburne, Ian; Cortes, Mauricio; Alexa, Kristen; Megason, Sean; North, Trista E; Amacher, Sharon L; Goessling, Wolfram

    2016-10-01

    The stepwise progression of common endoderm progenitors into differentiated liver and pancreas organs is regulated by a dynamic array of signals that are not well understood. The nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 gene nr5a2, also known as Liver receptor homolog-1 (Lrh-1) is expressed in several tissues including the developing liver and pancreas. Here, we interrogate the role of Nr5a2 at multiple developmental stages using genetic and chemical approaches and uncover novel pleiotropic requirements during zebrafish liver and pancreas development. Zygotic loss of nr5a2 in a targeted genetic null mutant disrupted the development of the exocrine pancreas and liver, while leaving the endocrine pancreas intact. Loss of nr5a2 abrogated exocrine pancreas markers such as trypsin, while pancreas progenitors marked by ptf1a or pdx1 remained unaffected, suggesting a role for Nr5a2 in regulating pancreatic acinar cell differentiation. In the developing liver, Nr5a2 regulates hepatic progenitor outgrowth and differentiation, as nr5a2 mutants exhibited reduced hepatoblast markers hnf4α and prox1 as well as differentiated hepatocyte marker fabp10a. Through the first in vivo use of Nr5a2 chemical antagonist Cpd3, the iterative requirement for Nr5a2 for exocrine pancreas and liver differentiation was temporally elucidated: chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 function during hepatopancreas progenitor specification was sufficient to disrupt exocrine pancreas formation and enhance the size of the embryonic liver, suggesting that Nr5a2 regulates hepatic vs. pancreatic progenitor fate choice. Chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 at a later time during pancreas and liver differentiation was sufficient to block the formation of mature acinar cells and hepatocytes. These findings define critical iterative and pleiotropic roles for Nr5a2 at distinct stages of pancreas and liver organogenesis, and provide novel perspectives for interpreting the role of Nr5a2 in disease. Copyright © 2016

  3. Iterative use of nuclear receptor Nr5a2 regulates multiple stages of liver and pancreas development

    PubMed Central

    Nissim, Sahar; Weeks, Olivia; Talbot, Jared C.; Hedgepeth, John W.; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Swinburne, Ian; Cortes, Mauricio; Alexa, Kristen; Megason, Sean; North, Trista E.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Goessling, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    The stepwise progression of common endoderm progenitors into differentiated liver and pancreas organs is regulated by a dynamic array of signals that are not well understood. The nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 gene nr5a2, also known as Liver receptor homolog-1 (Lrh-1) is expressed in several tissues including the developing liver and pancreas. Here, we interrogate the role of Nr5a2 at multiple developmental stages using genetic and chemical approaches and uncover novel pleiotropic requirements during zebrafish liver and pancreas development. Zygotic loss of nr5a2 in a targeted genetic null mutant disrupted the development of the exocrine pancreas and liver, while leaving the endocrine pancreas intact. Loss of nr5a2 abrogated exocrine pancreas markers such as trypsin, while pancreas progenitors marked by ptf1a or pdx1 remained unaffected, suggesting a role for Nr5a2 in regulating pancreatic acinar cell differentiation. In the developing liver, Nr5a2 regulates hepatic progenitor outgrowth and differentiation, as nr5a2 mutants exhibited reduced hepatoblast markers hnf4α and prox1 as well as differentiated hepatocyte marker fabp10a. Through the first in vivo use of Nr5a2 chemical antagonist Cpd3, the iterative requirement for Nr5a2 for exocrine pancreas and liver differentiation was temporally elucidated: chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 function during hepatopancreas progenitor specification was sufficient to disrupt exocrine pancreas formation and enhance the size of the embryonic liver, suggesting that Nr5a2 regulates hepatic versus pancreatic progenitor fate choice. Chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 at a later time during pancreas and liver differentiation was sufficient to block the formation of mature acinar cells and hepatocytes. These findings define critical iterative and pleiotropic roles for Nr5a2 at distinct stages of pancreas and liver organogenesis, and provide novel perspectives for interpreting the role of Nr5a2 in disease. PMID:27474396

  4. Na+/H+ exchange activity during phagocytosis in human neutrophils: role of Fcgamma receptors and tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In neutrophils, binding and phagocytosis facilitate subsequent intracellular killing of microorganisms. Activity of Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) participates in these events, especially in regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) by compensating for the H+ load generated by the respiratory burst. Despite the importance of these functions, comparatively little is known regarding the nature and regulation of NHE(s) in neutrophils. The purpose of this study was to identify which NHE(s) are expressed in neutrophils and to elucidate the mechanisms regulating their activity during phagocytosis. Exposure of cells to the phagocytic stimulus opsonized zymosan (OpZ) induced a transient cytosolic acidification followed by a prolonged alkalinization. The latter was inhibited in Na+-free medium and by amiloride analogues and therefore was due to activation of Na+/H+ exchange. Reverse transcriptase PCR and cDNA sequencing demonstrated that mRNA for the NHE-1 but not for NHE-2, 3, or 4 isoforms of the exchanger was expressed. Immunoblotting of purified plasma membranes with isoform- specific antibodies confirmed the presence of NHE-1 protein in neutrophils. Since phagocytosis involves Fcgamma (FcgammaR) and complement receptors such as CR3 (a beta2 integrin) which are linked to pathways involving alterations in intracellular [Ca2+]i and tyrosine phosphorylation, we studied these pathways in relation to activation of NHE-1. Cross-linking of surface bound antibodies (mAb) directed against FcgammaRs (FcgammaRII > FcgammaRIII) but not beta2 integrins induced an amiloride-sensitive cytosolic alkalinization. However, anti-beta2 integrin mAb diminished OpZ-induced alkalinization suggesting that NHE- 1 activation involved cooperation between integrins and FcgammaRs. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and herbimycin blocked cytosolic alkalinization after OpZ or FcgammaR cross-linking suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation was involved in NHE-I activation. An increase in [Ca2+]i was not

  5. In vitro phagocytosis of several Candida berkhout species by murine leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; Bibas Bonet de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A

    1985-03-01

    In vitro phagocytosis of thirteen Candida berkhout species by rat leukocytes was studied to assess a possible correlation between pathogenicity and phagocytosis Yeast-leukocyte suspensions were mixed up for 3 h and phagocytic index, germ-tube formation and leukocyte candidacidal activity were evaluated. Highest values for phagocytosis were reached in all cases at the end of the first hour. Leukocyte candidacidal activity was absent. Only C. albicans produced germ-tubes. The various phagocytosis indices were determined depending on the Candida species assayed. Under these conditions, the more pathogenic species presented the lower indices of phagocytosis. It is determined that the in vitro phagocytic index may bear a close relationship with the pathogenicity of the Candida berkhout.

  6. Calcium sequestration by fungal melanin inhibits calcium-calmodulin signalling to prevent LC3-associated phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kyrmizi, Irene; Ferreira, Helena; Carvalho, Agostinho; Figueroa, Julio Alberto Landero; Zarmpas, Pavlos; Cunha, Cristina; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Stylianou, Kostas; Deepe, George S; Samonis, George; Lacerda, João F; Campos, António; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J; El-Benna, Jamel; Valsecchi, Isabel; Beauvais, Anne; Brakhage, Axel A; Neves, Nuno M; Latge, Jean-Paul; Chamilos, Georgios

    2018-05-30

    LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) is a non-canonical autophagy pathway regulated by Rubicon, with an emerging role in immune homeostasis and antifungal host defence. Aspergillus cell wall melanin protects conidia (spores) from killing by phagocytes and promotes pathogenicity through blocking nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-dependent activation of LAP. However, the signalling regulating LAP upstream of Rubicon and the mechanism of melanin-induced inhibition of this pathway remain incompletely understood. Herein, we identify a Ca 2+ signalling pathway that depends on intracellular Ca 2+ sources from endoplasmic reticulum, endoplasmic reticulum-phagosome communication, Ca 2+ release from phagosome lumen and calmodulin (CaM) recruitment, as a master regulator of Rubicon, the phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2 and other molecular components of LAP. Furthermore, we provide genetic evidence for the physiological importance of Ca 2+ -CaM signalling in aspergillosis. Finally, we demonstrate that Ca 2+ sequestration by Aspergillus melanin inside the phagosome abrogates activation of Ca 2+ -CaM signalling to inhibit LAP. These findings reveal the important role of Ca 2+ -CaM signalling in antifungal immunity and identify an immunological function of Ca 2+ binding by melanin pigments with broad physiological implications beyond fungal disease pathogenesis.

  7. Physics of phagocytosis of foreign versus self-tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Richard; Rodriguez, Pia; Discher, Dennis

    2009-03-01

    The first cells to `attack' an implanted or injected foreign material or microbe are phagocytic cells of the innate immune system. These cells actively and rapidly phagocytose foreign cells, surfaces, or particles, but the process that is inefficient when faced with ``self'' cells. We have examined the biochemistry and some of the physics of this decision to eat or not eat. One particular protein on all animal cell membranes, called CD47, seems to engage phagocytic cell couter-receptors, and deactivate the force-generating myosin machinery that otherwise makes phagocytosis efficient. We will map the phagocytic synapse between phagocytes and particles or cells and describe the physicochemical dynamics that mediate this key decision in compatability.

  8. Oxidatively modified phosphatidylserines on the surface of apoptotic cells are essential phagocytic ‘eat-me' signals: cleavage and inhibition of phagocytosis by Lp-PLA2

    PubMed Central

    Tyurin, V A; Balasubramanian, K; Winnica, D; Tyurina, Y Y; Vikulina, A S; He, R R; Kapralov, A A; Macphee, C H; Kagan, V E

    2014-01-01

    Diversified anionic phospholipids, phosphatidylserines (PS), externalized to the surface of apoptotic cells are universal phagocytic signals. However, the role of major PS metabolites, such as peroxidized species of PS (PSox) and lyso-PS, in the clearance of apoptotic cells has not been rigorously evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that H2O2 was equally effective in inducing apoptosis and externalization of PS in naive HL60 cells and in cells enriched with oxidizable polyunsaturated species of PS (supplemented with linoleic acid (LA)). Despite this, the uptake of LA-supplemented cells by RAW264.7 and THP-1 macrophages was more than an order of magnitude more effective than that of naive cells. A similar stimulation of phagocytosis was observed with LA-enriched HL60 cells and Jurkat cells triggered to apoptosis with staurosporine. This was due to the presence of PSox on the surface of apoptotic LA-supplemented cells (but not of naive cells). This enhanced phagocytosis was dependent on activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, as no stimulation of phagocytosis occurred in LA-enriched cells challenged with Fas antibody. Incubation of apoptotic cells with lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a secreted enzyme with high specificity towards PSox, hydrolyzed peroxidized PS species in LA-supplemented cells resulting in the suppression of phagocytosis to the levels observed for naive cells. This suppression of phagocytosis by Lp-PLA2 was blocked by a selective inhibitor of Lp-PLA2, SB-435495. Screening of possible receptor candidates revealed the ability of several PS receptors and bridging proteins to recognize both PS and PSox, albeit with diverse selectivity. We conclude that PSox is an effective phagocytic ‘eat-me' signal that participates in the engulfment of cells undergoing intrinsic apoptosis. PMID:24464221

  9. Up-regulation of eEF1A2 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Du, Chengli; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yanling; Liu, Xiaoyan; Ren, Guoping

    2014-07-18

    eEF1A2 is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis, which possesses important function roles in cancer development. This study aims at investigating the expression pattern of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer and its potential role in prostate cancer development. We examined the expression level of eEF1A2 in 30 pairs of prostate cancer tissues by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). Then we applied siRNA specifically targeting eEF1A2 to down-regulate its expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Flow cytometer was used to explore apoptosis and Western-blot was used to detect the pathway proteins of apoptosis. Our results showed that the expression level of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher compared to their corresponding normal tissues. Reduction of eEF1A2 expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells led to a dramatic inhibition of proliferation accompanied with enhanced apoptosis rate. Western blot revealed that apoptosis pathway proteins (caspase3, BAD, BAX, PUMA) were significantly up-regulated after suppression of eEF1A2. More importantly, the levels of eEF1A2 and caspase3 were inversely correlated in prostate cancer tissues. Our data suggests that eEF1A2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development, especially in inhibiting apoptosis. So eEF1A2 might serve as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The splicing regulator Rbfox1 (A2BP1) controls neuronal excitation in the mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Gehman, Lauren T.; Stoilov, Peter; Maguire, Jamie; Damianov, Andrey; Lin, Chia-Ho; Shiue, Lily; Ares, Manuel; Mody, Istvan; Black, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    The Rbfox family of RNA binding proteins regulates alternative splicing of many important neuronal transcripts but their role in neuronal physiology is not clear1. We show here that central nervous system (CNS)-specific deletion of the Rbfox1 gene results in heightened susceptibility to spontaneous and kainic acid-induced seizures. Electrophysiological recording reveals a corresponding increase in neuronal excitability in the dentate gyrus of the knockout mice. Whole transcriptome analyses identify multiple splicing changes in the Rbfox1−/− brain with few changes in overall transcript abundance. These splicing changes alter proteins that mediate synaptic transmission and membrane excitation, some of which are implicated in human epilepsy. Thus, Rbfox1 directs a genetic program required in the prevention of neuronal hyperexcitation and seizures. The Rbfox1 knockout mice provide a new model to study the post-transcriptional regulation of synaptic function. PMID:21623373

  11. The Role of Adenosine A2A Receptor, CYP450s, and PPARs in the Regulation of Vascular Tone

    PubMed Central

    Khayat, Maan T.

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous mediator involved in a myriad of physiologic functions, including vascular tone regulation. It is also implicated in some pathologic conditions. Four distinct receptor subtypes mediate the effects of adenosine, such as its role in the regulation of the vascular tone. Vascular tone regulation is a complex and continuous process which involves many mechanisms and mediators that are not fully disclosed. The vascular endothelium plays a pivotal role in regulating blood flow to and from all body organs. Also, the vascular endothelium is not merely a physical barrier; it is a complex tissue with numerous functions. Among adenosine receptors, A2A receptor subtype (A2AAR) stands out as the primary receptor responsible for the vasodilatory effects of adenosine. This review focuses on important effectors of the vascular endothelium, including adenosine, adenosine receptors, EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids), HETEs (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids), PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors), and KATP channels. Given the impact of vascular tone regulation in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology, better understanding of the mechanisms affecting it could have a significant potential for developing therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28884118

  12. Shrimp miR-12 Suppresses White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection by Synchronously Triggering Antiviral Phagocytosis and Apoptosis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Le; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has indicated that the innate immune system can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated simultaneous activation of multiple immune pathways remains unknown. To address this issue, the role of host miR-12 in shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) antiviral immune responses was characterized in the present study. The results indicated that miR-12 participated in virus infection, host phagocytosis, and apoptosis in defense against white spot syndrome virus invasion. miR-12 could simultaneously trigger phagocytosis, apoptosis, and antiviral immunity through the synchronous downregulation of the expression of shrimp genes [PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) and BI-1(transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 6)] and the viral gene (wsv024). Further analysis showed that miR-12 could synchronously mediate the 5′–3′ exonucleolytic degradation of its target mRNAs, and this degradation terminated in the vicinity of the 3′ untranslated region sequence complementary to the seed sequence of miR-12. Therefore, the present study showed novel aspects of the miRNA-mediated simultaneous regulation of multiple immune pathways. PMID:28824612

  13. PKC-ε pseudosubstrate and catalytic activity are necessary for membrane delivery during IgG-mediated phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Tiffany R.; Chow, Rachel Y.; Hanes, Cheryl M.; Zhang, Xuexin; Kashiwagi, Kaori; Shirai, Yasuhito; Trebak, Mohamed; Loegering, Daniel J.; Saito, Naoaki; Lennartz, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    In RAW 264.7 cells [1], PKC-ε regulates FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. BMDM behave similarly; PKC-ε concentrates at phagosomes and internalization are reduced in PKC-ε−/− cells. Two questions were asked: what is the role of PKC-ε? and what domains are necessary for PKC-ε concentration? Function was studied using BMDM and frustrated phagocytosis. On IgG surfaces, PKC-ε−/− macrophages spread less than WT. Patch-clamping revealed that the spreading defect is a result of the failure of PKC-ε−/− macrophages to add membrane. The defect is specific for FcγR ligation and can be reversed by expression of full-length (but not the isolated RD) PKC-ε in PKC-ε−/− BMDM. Thus, PKC-ε function in phagocytosis requires translocation to phagosomes and the catalytic domain. The expression of chimeric PKC molecules in RAW cells identified the εPS as necessary for PKC-ε targeting. When placed into (nonlocalizing) PKC-δ, εPS was sufficient for concentration, albeit to a lesser degree than intact PKC-ε. In contrast, translocation of δ(εPSC1B) resembled that of WT PKC-ε. Thus, εPS and εC1B cooperate for optimal phagosome targeting. Finally, cells expressing εK437W were significantly less phagocytic than their PKC-ε-expressing counterparts, blocked at the pseudopod-extension phase. In summary, we have shown that εPS and εC1B are necessary and sufficient for targeting PKC-ε to phagosomes, where its catalytic activity is required for membrane delivery and pseudopod extension. PMID:23670290

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Evasion of Phagocytosis Is Mediated by Loss of Swimming Motility and Is Independent of Flagellum Expression▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Amiel, Eyal; Lovewell, Rustin R.; O'Toole, George A.; Hogan, Deborah A.; Berwin, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals; in particular, severity of infection with P. aeruginosa positively correlates with poor prognosis in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Establishment of chronic infection by this pathogen is associated with downregulation of flagellar expression and of other genes that regulate P. aeruginosa motility. The current paradigm is that loss of flagellar expression enables immune evasion by the bacteria due to loss of engagement by phagocytic receptors that recognize flagellar components and loss of immune activation through flagellin-mediated Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. In this work, we employ bacterial and mammalian genetic approaches to demonstrate that loss of motility, not the loss of the flagellum per se, is the critical factor in the development of resistance to phagocytosis by P. aeruginosa. We demonstrate that isogenic P. aeruginosa mutants deficient in flagellar function, but retaining an intact flagellum, are highly resistant to phagocytosis by both murine and human phagocytic cells at levels comparable to those of flagellum-deficient mutants. Furthermore, we show that loss of MyD88 signaling in murine phagocytes does not recapitulate the phagocytic deficit observed for either flagellum-deficient or motility-deficient P. aeruginosa mutants. Our data demonstrate that loss of bacterial motility confers a dramatic resistance to phagocytosis that is independent of both flagellar expression and TLR signaling. These findings provide an explanation for the well-documented observation of nonmotility in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates and for how this phenotype confers upon the bacteria an advantage in the context of immune evasion. PMID:20457788

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa evasion of phagocytosis is mediated by loss of swimming motility and is independent of flagellum expression.

    PubMed

    Amiel, Eyal; Lovewell, Rustin R; O'Toole, George A; Hogan, Deborah A; Berwin, Brent

    2010-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals; in particular, severity of infection with P. aeruginosa positively correlates with poor prognosis in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Establishment of chronic infection by this pathogen is associated with downregulation of flagellar expression and of other genes that regulate P. aeruginosa motility. The current paradigm is that loss of flagellar expression enables immune evasion by the bacteria due to loss of engagement by phagocytic receptors that recognize flagellar components and loss of immune activation through flagellin-mediated Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. In this work, we employ bacterial and mammalian genetic approaches to demonstrate that loss of motility, not the loss of the flagellum per se, is the critical factor in the development of resistance to phagocytosis by P. aeruginosa. We demonstrate that isogenic P. aeruginosa mutants deficient in flagellar function, but retaining an intact flagellum, are highly resistant to phagocytosis by both murine and human phagocytic cells at levels comparable to those of flagellum-deficient mutants. Furthermore, we show that loss of MyD88 signaling in murine phagocytes does not recapitulate the phagocytic deficit observed for either flagellum-deficient or motility-deficient P. aeruginosa mutants. Our data demonstrate that loss of bacterial motility confers a dramatic resistance to phagocytosis that is independent of both flagellar expression and TLR signaling. These findings provide an explanation for the well-documented observation of nonmotility in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates and for how this phenotype confers upon the bacteria an advantage in the context of immune evasion.

  16. Phagocytosis of gram-negative bacteria by a unique CD14-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Schiff, D E; Kline, L; Soldau, K; Lee, J D; Pugin, J; Tobias, P S; Ulevitch, R J

    1997-12-01

    THP-1-derived cell lines were stably transfected with constructs encoding glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored or transmembrane forms of human CD14. CD14 expression was associated with enhanced phagocytosis of serum (heat-inactivated)-opsonized Escherichia coli (opEc). Both the GPI-anchored and transmembrane forms of CD14 supported phagocytosis of opEc equally well. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) played a role in CD14-dependent phagocytosis as evidenced by inhibition of CD14-dependent phagocytosis of opEc with anti-LBP monoclonal antibody (mAb) and by enhanced phagocytosis of E. coli opsonized with purified LBP. CD14-dependent phagocytosis was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitor (wortmannin) and a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor (tyrphostin 23) but not a protein kinase C inhibitor (bisindolyl-maleimide) or a divalent cation chelator (ethylenediaminetetraacetate). Anti-LBP mAb 18G4 and anti-CD14 mAb 18E12 were used to differentiate between the pathways involved in CD14-dependent phagocytosis and CD14-dependent cell activation. F(ab')2 fragments of 18G4, a mAb to LBP that does not block cell activation, inhibited ingestion of opEc by THP1-wtCD14 cells. 18E12 (an anti-CD14 mAb that does not block LPS binding to CD14 but does inhibit CD14-dependent cell activation) did not inhibit phagocytosis of LBP-opEc by THP1-wtCD14 cells. Furthermore, CD14-dependent phagocytosis was not inhibited by anti-CD18 (CR3 and CR4 beta-chain) or anti-Fcgamma receptor mAb.

  17. Phosphatidylserine externalization, “necroptotic bodies” release, and phagocytosis during necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Ziv; Hourizadeh, Aria; Ofir-Birin, Yifat; Croker, Ben A.; Regev-Rudzki, Neta; Edry-Botzer, Liat

    2017-01-01

    Necroptosis is a regulated, nonapoptotic form of cell death initiated by receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) proteins. It is considered to be a form of regulated necrosis, and, by lacking the “find me” and “eat me” signals that are a feature of apoptosis, necroptosis is considered to be inflammatory. One such “eat me” signal observed during apoptosis is the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that necroptotic cells also expose PS after phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase-like (pMLKL) translocation to the membrane. Necroptotic cells that expose PS release extracellular vesicles containing proteins and pMLKL to their surroundings. Furthermore, inhibition of pMLKL after PS exposure can reverse the process of necroptosis and restore cell viability. Finally, externalization of PS by necroptotic cells drives recognition and phagocytosis, and this may limit the inflammatory response to this nonapoptotic form of cell death. The exposure of PS to the outer membrane and to extracellular vesicles is therefore a feature of necroptotic cell death and may serve to provide an immunologically-silent window by generating specific “find me” and “eat me” signals. PMID:28650960

  18. Thromboxane A2-induced bi-directional regulation of cerebral arterial tone.

    PubMed

    Neppl, Ronald L; Lubomirov, Lubomir T; Momotani, Ko; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Eto, Masumi; Somlyo, Avril V

    2009-03-06

    Myosin light chain phosphatase plays a critical role in modulating smooth muscle contraction in response to a variety of physiologic stimuli. A downstream target of the RhoA/Rho-kinase and nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP/cyclic GMP-dependent kinase (cGKI) pathways, myosin light chain phosphatase activity reflects the sum of both calcium sensitization and desensitization pathways through phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1). As cerebral blood flow is highly spatio-temporally modulated under normal physiologic conditions, severe perturbations in normal cerebral blood flow, such as in cerebral vasospasm, can induce neurological deficits. In nonpermeabilized cerebral vessels stimulated with U-46619, a stable mimetic of endogenous thromboxane A2 implicated in the etiology of cerebral vasospasm, we observed significant increases in contractile force, RhoA activation, regulatory light chain phosphorylation, as well as phosphorylation of MYPT1 at Thr-696, Thr-853, and surprisingly Ser-695. Inhibition of nitric oxide signaling completely abrogated basal MYPT1 Ser-695 phosphorylation and significantly increased and potentiated U-46619-induced MYPT1 Thr-853 phosphorylation and contractile force, indicating that NO/cGMP/cGKI signaling maintains basal vascular tone through active inhibition of calcium sensitization. Surprisingly, a fall in Ser-695 phosphorylation did not result in an increase in phosphorylation of the Thr-696 site. Although activation of cGKI with exogenous cyclic nucleotides inhibited thromboxane A2-induced MYPT1 membrane association, RhoA activation, contractile force, and regulatory light chain phosphorylation, the anticipated decreases in MYPT1 phosphorylation at Thr-696/Thr-853 were not observed, indicating that the vasorelaxant effects of cGKI are not through dephosphorylation of MYPT1. Thus, thromboxane A2 signaling within the intact cerebral vasculature induces "buffered" vasoconstrictions, in which both the

  19. Syk-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2 is required for optimal FcRγ-mediated phagocytosis and chemokine expression in U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Kazuyasu; Kato, Yuji; Yoshiki, Hatsumi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Sada, Kiyonao

    2017-09-13

    The adaptor protein c-Abl SH3 domain binding protein-2 (3BP2) is tyrosine phosphorylated by Syk in response to cross-linking of antigen receptors, which in turn activates various immune responses. Recently, a study using the mouse model of cherubism, a dominant inherited disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding 3BP2, showed that 3BP2 is involved in the regulation of phagocytosis mediated by Fc receptor for IgG (FcγR) in macrophages. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying 3BP2-mediated regulation of phagocytosis and the physiological relevance of 3BP2 tyrosine phosphorylation remains elusive. In this study, we established various gene knockout U937 cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and found that 3BP2 is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated by Syk in response to cross-linking of FcγRI. Depletion of 3BP2 caused significant reduction in the Fc receptor γ chain (FcRγ)-mediated phagocytosis in addition to the FcγRI-mediated induction of chemokine mRNA for IL-8, CCL3L3 and CCL4L2. Syk-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2 was required for overcoming these defects. Finally, we found that the PH and SH2 domains play important roles on FcγRI-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2 in HL-60 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Syk-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2 is required for optimal FcRγ-mediated phagocytosis and chemokine expression.

  20. EphA2 is a key effector of the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway regulating glioblastoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hamaoka, Yuho; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2016-08-01

    EphA2, a member of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in a variety of malignancies, including glioblastoma, and its expression is correlated with poor prognosis. EphA2 acts as a tumor promoter through a ligand ephrin-independent mechanism, which requires phosphorylation of EphA2 on serine 897 (S897), leading to increased cell migration and invasion. In this study, we show that ligand-independent EphA2 signaling occurs downstream of the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway and mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell proliferation in glioblastoma cells. Suppression of EphA2 expression by long-term exposure to ligand ephrinA1 or EphA2-targeted shRNA inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation. Stimulation of the cells with EGF induced EphA2 S897 phosphorylation, which was suppressed by MEK and RSK inhibitors, but not by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt inhibitors. The RSK inhibitor or RSK2-targeted shRNA also suppressed EGF-induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, overexpression of wild-type EphA2 promoted cell proliferation without EGF stimulation, whereas overexpression of EphA2-S897A mutant suppressed EGF- or RSK2-induced proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that EphA2 is a key downstream target of the MEK/ERK/RSK signaling pathway in the regulation of glioblastoma cell proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Live-cell Video Microscopy of Fungal Pathogen Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Leanne E.; Bain, Judith M.; Okai, Blessing; Gow, Neil A.R.; Erwig, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytic clearance of fungal pathogens, and microorganisms more generally, may be considered to consist of four distinct stages: (i) migration of phagocytes to the site where pathogens are located; (ii) recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs); (iii) engulfment of microorganisms bound to the phagocyte cell membrane, and (iv) processing of engulfed cells within maturing phagosomes and digestion of the ingested particle. Studies that assess phagocytosis in its entirety are informative1, 2, 3, 4, 5 but are limited in that they do not normally break the process down into migration, engulfment and phagosome maturation, which may be affected differentially. Furthermore, such studies assess uptake as a single event, rather than as a continuous dynamic process. We have recently developed advanced live-cell imaging technologies, and have combined these with genetic functional analysis of both pathogen and host cells to create a cross-disciplinary platform for the analysis of innate immune cell function and fungal pathogenesis. These studies have revealed novel aspects of phagocytosis that could only be observed using systematic temporal analysis of the molecular and cellular interactions between human phagocytes and fungal pathogens and infectious microorganisms more generally. For example, we have begun to define the following: (a) the components of the cell surface required for each stage of the process of recognition, engulfment and killing of fungal cells1, 6, 7, 8; (b) how surface geometry influences the efficiency of macrophage uptake and killing of yeast and hyphal cells7; and (c) how engulfment leads to alteration of the cell cycle and behavior of macrophages 9, 10. In contrast to single time point snapshots, live-cell video microscopy enables a wide variety of host cells and pathogens to be studied as continuous sequences over lengthy time periods, providing spatial and temporal information on a

  2. Group III secreted phospholipase A2 regulates epididymal sperm maturation and fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kei; Masuda, Seiko; Hosono, Tomohiko; Arata, Satoru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Hara, Shuntaro; Kudo, Ichiro; Murakami, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Although lipid metabolism is thought to be important for the proper maturation and function of spermatozoa, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this dynamic process in the gonads remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that group III phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-III), a member of the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family, is expressed in the mouse proximal epididymal epithelium and that targeted disruption of the gene encoding this protein (Pla2g3) leads to defects in sperm maturation and fertility. Although testicular spermatogenesis in Pla2g3–/– mice was grossly normal, spermatozoa isolated from the cauda epididymidis displayed hypomotility, and their ability to fertilize intact eggs was markedly impaired. Transmission EM further revealed that epididymal spermatozoa in Pla2g3–/– mice had both flagella with abnormal axonemes and aberrant acrosomal structures. During epididymal transit, phosphatidylcholine in the membrane of Pla2g3+/+ sperm underwent a dramatic shift in its acyl groups from oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic acids to docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, whereas this membrane lipid remodeling event was compromised in sperm from Pla2g3–/– mice. Moreover, the gonads of Pla2g3–/– mice contained less 12/15-lipoxygenase metabolites than did those of Pla2g3+/+ mice. Together, our results reveal a role for the atypical sPLA2 family member sPLA2-III in epididymal lipid homeostasis and indicate that its perturbation may lead to sperm dysfunction. PMID:20424323

  3. Src is required for migration, phagocytosis, and interferon beta production in Toll-like receptor-engaged macrophages.

    PubMed

    Maa, Ming-Chei; Leu, Tzeng-Horng

    2016-06-01

    As an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, innate immunity controls self-nonself discrimination to protect a host from invasive pathogens. Macrophages are major participants of the innate immune system. Through the activation of diverse Toll-like receptors (TLRs), macrophages are triggered to initiate a variety of functions including locomotion, phagocytosis, and secretion of cytokines that requires the participation of tyrosine kinases. Fgr, Hck, and Lyn are myeloid-specific Src family kinases. Despite their constitutively high expression in macrophages, their absence does not impair LPS responsiveness. In contrast, Src, a barely detectable tyrosine kinase in resting macrophages, becomes greatly inducible in response to TLR engagement, implicating its role in macrophage activation. Indeed, silencing Src suppresses the activated TLR-mediated migration, phagocytosis, and interferon-beta (IFN-β) secretion in macrophages. And these physiological defects can be restored by the introduction of siRNA-resistant Src. Notably, the elevated expression and activity of Src is inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-dependent. Due to (1) iNOS being a NF-κB target, which can be induced by various TLR ligands, (2) Src can mediate NF-κB activation, therefore, there ought to exist a loop of signal amplification that regulates macrophage physiology in response to the engagement of TLRs.

  4. Virulent and Vaccine Strains of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus Have Different Influences on Phagocytosis and Cytokine Secretion of Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jie, Peng; Zhe, Ma; Chengwei, Hua; Huixing, Lin; Hui, Zhang; Chengping, Lu; Hongjie, Fan

    2017-01-06

    Swine streptococcosis is a significant threat to the Chinese pig industry, and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is one of the major pathogens. SEZ ATCC35246 is a classical virulent strain, while SEZ ST171 is a Chinese attenuated vaccine strain. In this study, we employed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine the differential response of macrophages to infection by these two strains. Eighty-seven upregulated proteins and 135 downregulated proteins were identified. The proteomic results were verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction for 10 chosen genes and Western blotting for three proteins. All differentially abundant proteins were analyzed for their Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations. Certain downregulated proteins were associated with immunity functions, and the upregulated proteins were related to cytomembrane and cytoskeleton regulation. The phagocytosis rate and cytokine genes transcription in Raw264.7 cells during SEZ ATCC35246 and ST171 infection were detected to confirm the bioinformatics results. These results showed that different effects on macrophage phagocytosis and cytokine expression might explain the different phenotypes of SEZ ATCC35246 and ST171 infection. This research provided clues to the mechanisms of host immunity responses to SEZ ST171and SEZ ATCC35246, which could identify potential therapy and vaccine development targets.

  5. Effects of β-glucans from Coriolus versicolor on macrophage phagocytosis are related to the Akt and CK2/Ikaros.

    PubMed

    Kang, Se Chan; Koo, Hyun Jung; Park, Sulkyung; Lim, Jung Dae; Kim, Ye-Jin; Kim, Taeseong; Namkoong, Seung; Jang, Ki-Hyo; Pyo, Suhkneung; Jang, Seon-A; Sohn, Eun-Hwa

    2013-06-01

    Coriolus versicolor has been known to be an immune stimulator effects. For further understanding of the phagocytic activity and the intracellular mechanisms of β-glucan from C. versicolor (CVG), we examined the phagocytic activity, phosphorylation of Akt and CK2, nucleus translocation of p65 and Ikaros activity in β-glucan-treated macrophages using RT-PCR, western blotting, and IP assay. The role of Ikaros in regulating phagocytic effects of CVG was also determined using Ikaros dominant negative isoform cells. This study suggests that CK2/Ikaros are positive regulators and novel signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis and contributes to elucidating the mechanism underlying phagocytic activity induced by β-glucan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nucleus Accumbens Adenosine A2A Receptors Regulate Exertion of Effort by Acting on the Ventral Striatopallidal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mingote, Susana; Font, Laura; Farrar, Andrew M.; Vontell, Regina; Worden, Lila T.; Stopper, Colin M.; Port, Russell G.; Sink, Kelly S.; Bunce, Jamie G.; Chrobak, James J.; Salamone, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Goal-directed actions are sensitive to work-related response costs, and dopamine in nucleus accumbens is thought to modulate the exertion of effort in motivated behavior. Dopamine-rich striatal areas such as nucleus accumbens also contain high numbers of adenosine A2A receptors, and, for that reason, the behavioral and neurochemical effects of the adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 [2-p-(2-carboxyethyl) phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine] were investigated. Stimulation of accumbens adenosine A2A receptors disrupted performance of an instrumental task with high work demands (i.e., an interval lever-pressing schedule with a ratio requirement attached) but had little effect on a task with a lower work requirement. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that accumbens neurons that project to the ventral pallidum showed adenosine A2A receptors immunoreactivity. Moreover, activation of accumbens A2A receptors by local injections of CGS 21680 increased extracellular GABA levels in the ventral pallidum. Combined contralateral injections of CGS 21680 into the accumbens and the GABAA agonist muscimol into ventral pallidum (i.e., “disconnection” methods) also impaired response output, indicating that these structures are part of a common neural circuitry regulating the exertion of effort. Thus, accumbens adenosine A2A receptors appear to regulate behavioral activation and effort-related processes by modulating the activity of the ventral striatopallidal pathway. Research on the effort-related functions of these forebrain systems may lead to a greater understanding of pathological features of motivation, such as psychomotor slowing, anergia, and fatigue in depression. PMID:18768698

  7. NcoA2-Dependent Inhibition of HIF-1α Activation Is Regulated via AhR.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Hao; Li, Ching-Hao; Liao, Po-Lin; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2015-12-01

    High endogenous levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contribute to hypoxia signaling pathway inhibition following exposure to the potent AhR ligand benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and could alter cellular homeostasis and disease condition. Increasing evidence indicates that AhR might compete with AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) for complex formation with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) for transactivation, which could alter several physiological variables. Nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NcoA2) is a transcription coactivator that regulates transcription factor activation and inhibition of basic helix-loop-helix Per (Period)-ARNT-SIM (single-minded) (bHLH-PAS) family proteins, such as HIF-1α, ARNT, and AhR, through protein-protein interactions. In this study, we demonstrated that both hypoxia and hypoxia-mimic conditions decreased NcoA2 protein expression in HEK293T cells. Hypoxia response element (HRE) and xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE) transactivation also were downregulated with NcoA2 knockdown under hypoxic conditions. In addition, B[a]P significantly decreased NcoA2 protein expression be accompanied with AhR degradation. We next evaluated whether the absence of AhR could affect NcoA2 protein function under hypoxia-mimetic conditions. NcoA2 and HIF-1α nuclear localization decreased in both B[a]P-pretreated and AhR-knockdown HepG2 cells under hypoxia-mimic conditions. Interestingly, NcoA2 overexpression downregulated HRE transactivation by competing with HIF-1α and AhR to form protein complexes with ARNT. Both NcoA2 knockdown and overexpression inhibited endothelial cell tube formation in vitro. We also demonstrated using the in vivo plug assay that NcoA2-regulated vascularization decreased in mice. Taken together, these results revealed a biphasic role of NcoA2 between AhR and hypoxic conditions, thus providing a novel mechanism underlying the cross talk between AhR and hypoxia that affects disease development and progression. © The Author 2015

  8. EphA2 transmembrane domain is uniquely required for keratinocyte migration by regulating ephrin-A1 levels.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, Rosa; Kaplan, Nihal; Hoover, Paul; Perez White, Bethany E; Lavker, Robert M; Getsios, Spiro

    2018-04-26

    EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is activated by ephrin-A1 ligand, which harbors a GPI-anchor that enhances lipid raft localization. While EphA2 and ephrin-A1 modulate keratinocyte migration and differentiation, the ability of this cell-cell communication complex to localize to different membrane regions in keratinocytes remains unknown. Using a combination of biochemical and imaging approaches, we provide evidence that ephrin-A1 and a ligand-activated form of EphA2 partition outside of lipid raft domains in response to calcium-mediated cell-cell contact stabilization in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). EphA2 transmembrane domain (TMD) swapping with a shorter and molecularly distinct TMD of EphA1 resulted in decreased localization of this RTK at cell-cell junctions and increased expression of ephrin-A1, which is a negative regulator of keratinocyte migration. Accordingly, altered EphA2 membrane distribution at cell-cell contacts limited the ability of keratinocytes to seal linear scratch wounds in vitro in an ephrin-A1-dependent manner. Collectively, these studies highlight a key role for the EphA2 TMD in receptor-ligand membrane distribution at cell-cell contacts that modulates ephrin-A1 levels to allow for efficient keratinocyte migration with relevance for cutaneous wound healing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. TRPV2 has a pivotal role in macrophage particle binding and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Link, Tiffany M; Park, Una; Vonakis, Becky M; Raben, Daniel M; Soloski, Mark J; Caterina, Michael J

    2010-03-01

    Macrophage phagocytosis is critical for defense against pathogens. Whereas many steps of phagocytosis involve ionic flux, the underlying ion channels remain ill defined. Here we show that zymosan-, immunoglobulin G (IgG)- and complement-mediated particle binding and phagocytosis were impaired in macrophages lacking the cation channel TRPV2. TRPV2 was recruited to the nascent phagosome and depolarized the plasma membrane. Depolarization increased the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)), which triggered the partial actin depolymerization necessary for occupancy-elicited phagocytic receptor clustering. TRPV2-deficient macrophages were also defective in chemoattractant-elicited motility. Consequently, TRPV2-deficient mice showed accelerated mortality and greater organ bacterial load when challenged with Listeria monocytogenes. Our data demonstrate the participation of TRPV2 in early phagocytosis and its fundamental importance in innate immunity.

  10. Treponema denticola Outer Membrane Enhances the Phagocytosis of Collagen-Coated Beads by Gingival Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Battikhi, Tulin; Lee, Wilson; McCulloch, Christopher A. G.; Ellen, Richard P.

    1999-01-01

    Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) degrade collagen fibrils in physiological processes by phagocytosis. Since Treponema denticola outer membrane (OM) extract perturbs actin filaments, important structures in phagocytosis, we determined whether the OM affects collagen phagocytosis in vitro by HGFs. Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometric assessment of internalized collagen-coated fluorescent latex beads. Confluent HGFs pretreated with T. denticola ATCC 35405 OM exhibited an increase in the percentage of collagen phagocytic cells (phagocytosis index [PI]) and in the number of beads per phagocytosing cell (phagocytic capacity [PC]) compared with untreated controls. The enhancement was swift (within 15 min) and was still evident after 1 day. PI and PC of HGFs for bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated beads were also increased, indicating a global increase in phagocytic processes. These results contrasted those for control OM from Veillonella atypica ATCC 17744, which decreased phagocytosis. The T. denticola OM-induced increase in bead uptake was eliminated by heating the OM and by depolymerization of actin filaments by cytochalasin D treatment of HGFs. Fluid-phase accumulation of lucifer yellow was enhanced in a saturable, concentration-dependent, transient manner by the T. denticola OM. Our findings were not due to HGF detachment or cytotoxicity in response to the T. denticola OM treatment since the HGFs exhibited minimal detachment from the substratum; they did not take up propidium iodide; and there was no change in their size, granularity, or content of sub-G1 DNA. We conclude that a heat-sensitive component(s) in T. denticola OM extract stimulates collagen phagocytosis and other endocytic processes such as nonspecific phagocytosis and pinocytosis by HGFs. PMID:10024564

  11. Alveolar macrophage phagocytosis is enhanced after blunt chest trauma and alters the posttraumatic mediator release.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Daniel H; Palmer, Annette; Niesler, Ulrike; Fröba, Janine S; Heidemann, Vera; Rittlinger, Anne; Braumüller, Sonja T; Zhou, Shaoxia; Gebhard, Florian; Knöferl, Markus W

    2011-12-01

    Blunt chest trauma is known to induce a pulmonary invasion of short-lived polymorphonuclear neutrophils and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial type 2 (AT2) cells. Apoptotic cells are removed by alveolar macrophages (AMΦ). We hypothesized that chest trauma alters the phagocytic response of AMΦ as well as the mediator release of AMΦ during phagocytosis. To study this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to blunt chest trauma. Phagocytosis assays were performed in AMΦ isolated 2 or 24 h after trauma with apoptotic cells or opsonized beads. Phagocytosis of apoptotic AT2 cells by unstimulated AMΦ was significantly increased 2 h after trauma. At 24 h, AMΦ from traumatized animals, stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, ingested significantly more apoptotic polymorphonuclear neutrophils than AMΦ from sham animals. Alveolar macrophages after trauma released significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor α, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 when they incorporated latex beads, but significantly lower levels of interleukin 1β and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α when they ingested apoptotic cells. In vivo, phagocytosis of intratracheally instilled latex beads was decreased in traumatized rats. The bronchoalveolar lavage concentrations of the phagocytosis-supporting surfactant proteins A and D after blunt chest trauma were slightly decreased, whereas surfactant protein D mRNA expression in AT2 cells was significantly increased after 2 h. These findings indicate that chest trauma augments the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by AMΦ. Phagocytosis of opsonized beads enhances and ingestion of apoptotic cells downregulates the immunologic response following lung contusion. Our data emphasize the important role of phagocytosis during posttraumatic inflammation after lung contusion.

  12. Antibiotic-Enhanced Phagocytosis of ’Borrelia recurrentis’ by Blood Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-30

    hours after Butler 7 institution of antibiotic treatment. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are known to release endogenous pyrogen after phagocytosis of...other bacteria (6), and endogenous pyrogen may be one of the mediators of the rigor and temperature rise in the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (2). Release...the pathogenesis of fever. XII. The effect of phagocytosis on the release of endogenous pyrogen by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J. Exp. Med. 119:715

  13. Heparin inhibits melanosome uptake and inflammatory response coupled with phagocytosis through blocking PI3k/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Makino-Okamura, Chieko; Niki, Yoko; Takeuchi, Seiji; Nishigori, Chikako; Declercq, Lieve; Yaroch, Daniel B; Saito, Naoaki

    2014-11-01

    To gain insight for the role of mast cell-produced heparin in the regulation of epidermal homeostasis and skin pigmentation, we have investigated the effect of heparin on melanosome uptake and proinflammatory responses in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). We quantified phagocytic activity of NHEKs with uptake of melanosomes or fluorescent microspheres. Heparin exhibited the inhibitory effect on keratinocyte phagocytosis through blocking PI3k/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. In fact, the heparin-treated NHEKs showed impaired activation of Akt and ERK during phagocytosis, whereas PI3k and MEK inhibitors significantly suppressed melanosome uptake by NHEKs. In addition, the inflammation marker cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) production were induced during phagocytosis, while these effects were downregulated in the presence of heparin. Our observations suggest that heparin may play an antiphagocytic and anti-inflammation role in epidermis of human skin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Collagen remodeling by phagocytosis is determined by collagen substrate topology and calcium-dependent interactions of gelsolin with nonmuscle myosin IIA in cell adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Arora, P. D.; Wang, Y.; Bresnick, A.; Dawson, J.; Janmey, P. A.; McCulloch, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    We examine how collagen substrate topography, free intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i, and the association of gelsolin with nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMMIIA) at collagen adhesions are regulated to enable collagen phagocytosis. Fibroblasts plated on planar, collagen-coated substrates show minimal increase of [Ca2+]i, minimal colocalization of gelsolin and NMMIIA in focal adhesions, and minimal intracellular collagen degradation. In fibroblasts plated on collagen-coated latex beads there are large increases of [Ca2+]i, time- and Ca2+-dependent enrichment of NMMIIA and gelsolin at collagen adhesions, and abundant intracellular collagen degradation. NMMIIA knockdown retards gelsolin recruitment to adhesions and blocks collagen phagocytosis. Gelsolin exhibits tight, Ca2+-dependent binding to full-length NMMIIA. Gelsolin domains G4–G6 selectively require Ca2+ to interact with NMMIIA, which is restricted to residues 1339–1899 of NMMIIA. We conclude that cell adhesion to collagen presented on beads activates Ca2+ entry and promotes the formation of phagosomes enriched with NMMIIA and gelsolin. The Ca2+ -dependent interaction of gelsolin and NMMIIA in turn enables actin remodeling and enhances collagen degradation by phagocytosis. PMID:23325791

  15. MiR-146a activates WAVE2 expression and enhances phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhongwei; Yao, Qunyan; Zhang, Shuncai

    2015-01-01

    MiR-146a has been shown to play a critical role in cell immunity and phagocytosis, processes that require rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. However, the detailed mechanism by which miR-146a regulates these events remains elusive. Here, we used luciferase reporter and protein assays to show that the cytoskeleton-regulatingprotein verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2), is a direct target of miR-146a. MiR-146a overexpression resulted in a decrease in WAVE2 protein expression under endotoxin-free culture conditions. Unexpectedly, however, miR-146a activated rather than repressed the expression of WAVE2 in macrophage RAW264.7 cells when cultured continuously in the presence of endotoxin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-146a induced WAVE2 expression and enhanced phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Our study suggests that lipopolysaccharide- induced miR146a indirectly activates WAVE2 expression; thus, facilitating cytoskeletal reorganization and phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. PMID:26396677

  16. MiR-146a activates WAVE2 expression and enhances phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhongwei; Yao, Qunyan; Zhang, Shuncai

    2015-01-01

    MiR-146a has been shown to play a critical role in cell immunity and phagocytosis, processes that require rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. However, the detailed mechanism by which miR-146a regulates these events remains elusive. Here, we used luciferase reporter and protein assays to show that the cytoskeleton-regulatingprotein verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2), is a direct target of miR-146a. MiR-146a overexpression resulted in a decrease in WAVE2 protein expression under endotoxin-free culture conditions. Unexpectedly, however, miR-146a activated rather than repressed the expression of WAVE2 in macrophage RAW264.7 cells when cultured continuously in the presence of endotoxin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-146a induced WAVE2 expression and enhanced phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Our study suggests that lipopolysaccharide- induced miR146a indirectly activates WAVE2 expression; thus, facilitating cytoskeletal reorganization and phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages.

  17. EphA2/Ephrin-A1 Mediate Corneal Epithelial Cell Compartmentalization via ADAM10 Regulation of EGFR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Nihal; Ventrella, Rosa; Peng, Han; Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Arvanitis, Constadina; Rappoport, Joshua Z; Mitchell, Brian J; Stepp, Mary Ann; Lavker, Robert M; Getsios, Spiro

    2018-01-01

    Progenitor cells of the limbal epithelium reside in a discrete area peripheral to the more differentiated corneal epithelium and maintain tissue homeostasis. What regulates the limbal-corneal epithelial boundary is a major unanswered question. Ephrin-A1 ligand is enriched in the limbal epithelium, whereas EphA2 receptor is concentrated in the corneal epithelium. This reciprocal pattern led us to assess the role of ephrin-A1 and EphA2 in limbal-corneal epithelial boundary organization. EphA2-expressing corneal epithelial cells engineered to express ephrin-A1 were used to study boundary formation in vitro in a manner that mimicked the relative abundance of these juxtamembrane signaling proteins in the limbal and corneal epithelium in vivo. Interaction of these two distinct cell populations following initial seeding into discrete culture compartments was assessed by live cell imaging. Immunofluoresence and immunoblotting was used to evaluate the contribution of downstream growth factor signaling and cell-cell adhesion systems to boundary formation at sites of heterotypic contact between ephrin-A1 and EphA2 expressing cells. Ephrin-A1-expressing cells impeded and reversed the migration of EphA2-expressing corneal epithelial cells upon heterotypic contact formation leading to coordinated migration of the two cell populations in the direction of an ephrin-A1-expressing leading front. Genetic silencing and pharmacologic inhibitor studies demonstrated that the ability of ephrin-A1 to direct migration of EphA2-expressing cells depended on an a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway that limited E-cadherin-mediated adhesion at heterotypic boundaries. Ephrin-A1/EphA2 signaling complexes play a key role in limbal-corneal epithelial compartmentalization and the response of these tissues to injury.

  18. EphA2/Ephrin-A1 Mediate Corneal Epithelial Cell Compartmentalization via ADAM10 Regulation of EGFR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Nihal; Ventrella, Rosa; Peng, Han; Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Arvanitis, Constadina; Rappoport, Joshua Z.; Mitchell, Brian J.; Stepp, Mary Ann; Lavker, Robert M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Progenitor cells of the limbal epithelium reside in a discrete area peripheral to the more differentiated corneal epithelium and maintain tissue homeostasis. What regulates the limbal–corneal epithelial boundary is a major unanswered question. Ephrin-A1 ligand is enriched in the limbal epithelium, whereas EphA2 receptor is concentrated in the corneal epithelium. This reciprocal pattern led us to assess the role of ephrin-A1 and EphA2 in limbal–corneal epithelial boundary organization. Methods EphA2-expressing corneal epithelial cells engineered to express ephrin-A1 were used to study boundary formation in vitro in a manner that mimicked the relative abundance of these juxtamembrane signaling proteins in the limbal and corneal epithelium in vivo. Interaction of these two distinct cell populations following initial seeding into discrete culture compartments was assessed by live cell imaging. Immunofluoresence and immunoblotting was used to evaluate the contribution of downstream growth factor signaling and cell–cell adhesion systems to boundary formation at sites of heterotypic contact between ephrin-A1 and EphA2 expressing cells. Results Ephrin-A1–expressing cells impeded and reversed the migration of EphA2-expressing corneal epithelial cells upon heterotypic contact formation leading to coordinated migration of the two cell populations in the direction of an ephrin-A1–expressing leading front. Genetic silencing and pharmacologic inhibitor studies demonstrated that the ability of ephrin-A1 to direct migration of EphA2-expressing cells depended on an a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway that limited E-cadherin–mediated adhesion at heterotypic boundaries. Conclusions Ephrin-A1/EphA2 signaling complexes play a key role in limbal–corneal epithelial compartmentalization and the response of these tissues to injury. PMID:29351356

  19. Exposure of articular chondrocytes to wear particles induces phagocytosis, differential inflammatory gene expression, and reduced proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kurdziel, Michael D; Salisbury, Meagan; Kaplan, Lige; Maerz, Tristan; Baker, Kevin C

    2017-07-01

    The production of wear debris particulate remains a concern due to its association with implant failure through complex biologic interactions. In the setting of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), damage and wear of the components may introduce debris particulate into the adjacent, otherwise, healthy compartment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of polymeric and metallic wear debris particles on cell proliferation, extracellular matrix regulation, and phagocytosis index of normal human articular chondrocytes (nHACs). In culture, nHACs were exposed to both cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) and polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) wear debris particulate for 3 and 10 days. At 3 days, no significant difference in cell proliferation was found between control cells and cells exposed to both CoCrMo or PMMA particles. However, cell proliferation was significantly decreased for CoCrMo exposed nHACs at both 6 (P < 0.001) and 10 days (P < 0.001) and PMMA at 10 days (P < 0.001). Target gene expression displayed both a time- and material-dependent response to CoCrMo and PMMA particles. Significant differences in COL10A1, ACAN, VCAN, IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP3, ADAMTS1, CASP3, and CASP9 regulation were found between CoCrMo and PMMA exposed nHACs at day 3 with gene regulation returning to near baseline at 10 days. Results from our study indicate a role of wear debris induced cartilage degeneration after exposure to polymeric and metallic wear debris particulate, suggesting an additional pathway of cartilage breakdown, potentially manifesting in traditional clinical symptoms.

  20. Dietary antioxidants and behavioral enrichment enhance neutrophil phagocytosis in geriatric Beagles.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; Picton, Rebecca A; Finneran, Phyllis S; Bird, Karyn E; Skinner, Monica M; Jewell, Dennis E; Zicker, Steven

    2006-09-15

    The study objective was to determine the effects of feeding food enriched in antioxidants and a program of environmental/cognitive enrichment on selected ex vivo assays of inflammatory and immune cells in healthy geriatric Beagle dogs (n=21). Four groups of dogs were tested using a 2 x 2 factorial design. The 2-year longitudinal study included both nutritional (control food or antioxidant-fortified food) and behavioral (normal level or cognitive enrichment) interventions. Behavior enrichment included increased exercise, environmental enrichment, and a series of learning tasks. Phagocytosis of opsonized latex-coated beads by peripheral blood neutrophils was measured by flow cytometry and found to be significantly increased in dogs receiving both dietary antioxidants and cognitive enrichment. Simultaneous stimulation of cells with Con A and suppression with Dex resulted in decreased lymphocyte proliferation in dogs receiving both dietary antioxidants and cognitive enrichment, compared to dogs receiving dietary antioxidants or cognitive enrichment alone. There were no significant differences between the groups of dogs for percentages of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte subpopulations before or after lymphocyte stimulation with Con A. These results support our hypothesis that both dietary antioxidants and behavioral enrichment enhance host defense mechanisms.

  1. The influence of uraemia and haemodialysis on neutrophil phagocytosis and antimicrobial killing.

    PubMed

    Anding, Kirsten; Gross, Peter; Rost, Jan M; Allgaier, Dirk; Jacobs, Enno

    2003-10-01

    Neutrophil functions in haemodialysis (HD) patients are altered by uraemia and by HD procedure. We investigated details of the neutrophil dysfunction as its nature and origin is not well understood. This is reflected by conflicting results about neutrophil phagocytosis activity and by scarce data on the neutrophil killing capability in HD patients. Using a flow-cytometric test system we have measured simultaneously phagocytosis and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of neutrophils and in parallel antimicrobial killing of yeast by neutrophils. 117 whole-blood samples of healthy controls and 50 pre- and 50 post-dialysis samples of HD patients, half of them with diabetes mellitus (DM), have been evaluated. We have constructed a model to account for the dependence on the stimulus-to-cell ratio and obtain means for phagocytosis and killing at different incubation times. (i) HD patients have significantly lower neutrophil killing (20%) than healthy controls. (ii) Dialysis improves the killing capability by 10-15%, after dialysis the killing activity remains significantly (10%) below that of the controls. (iii) The percentage of neutrophils, which exhibit phagocytosis and produce ROS, does not differ significantly between HD patients and healthy controls. (iv) Age has no significant influence on phagocytosis and killing. The neutrophil killing capability is reduced in HD patients while the amount of neutrophils that phagocyte and produce ROS remains unchanged. Functional impairment of uraemic neutrophils is therefore mainly a result of their reduced capability to kill microorganisms intracellularly.

  2. Mechanistic insights into allosteric regulation of the A 2A adenosine G protein-coupled receptor by physiological cations

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Libin; Neale, Chris Andrew; Sljoka, Adnan; ...

    2018-04-10

    Cations play key roles in regulating G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), although their mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, 19F NMR is used to delineate the effects of cations on functional states of the adenosine A 2A GPCR. While Na + reinforces an inactive ensemble and a partial-agonist stabilized state, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ shift the equilibrium toward active states. Positive allosteric effects of divalent cations are more pronounced with agonist and a G-protein-derived peptide. In cell membranes, divalent cations enhance both the affinity and fraction of the high affinity agonist-bound state. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest high concentrations of divalent cations bridgemore » specific extracellular acidic residues, bringing TM5 and TM6 together at the extracellular surface and allosterically driving open the G-protein-binding cleft as shown by rigidity-transmission allostery theory. Lastly, an understanding of cation allostery should enable the design of allosteric agents and enhance our understanding of GPCR regulation in the cellular milieu.« less

  3. Mechanistic insights into allosteric regulation of the A 2A adenosine G protein-coupled receptor by physiological cations

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Libin; Neale, Chris Andrew; Sljoka, Adnan

    Cations play key roles in regulating G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), although their mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, 19F NMR is used to delineate the effects of cations on functional states of the adenosine A 2A GPCR. While Na + reinforces an inactive ensemble and a partial-agonist stabilized state, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ shift the equilibrium toward active states. Positive allosteric effects of divalent cations are more pronounced with agonist and a G-protein-derived peptide. In cell membranes, divalent cations enhance both the affinity and fraction of the high affinity agonist-bound state. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest high concentrations of divalent cations bridgemore » specific extracellular acidic residues, bringing TM5 and TM6 together at the extracellular surface and allosterically driving open the G-protein-binding cleft as shown by rigidity-transmission allostery theory. Lastly, an understanding of cation allostery should enable the design of allosteric agents and enhance our understanding of GPCR regulation in the cellular milieu.« less

  4. Downstream components of RhoA required for signal pathway of superoxide formation during phagocytosis of serum opsonized zymosans in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Sub; Kim, Jae Gyu; Jeon, Chan Young; Won, Ha Young; Moon, Mi Young; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jong Il; Kim, Jaebong; Lee, Jae Yong; Choi, Soo Young; Park, Jinseu; Yoon Park, Jung Han; Ha, Kwon Soo; Kim, Pyeung Hyeun; Park, Jae Bong

    2005-12-31

    Rac1 and Rac2 are essential for the control of oxidative burst catalyzed by NADPH oxidase. It was also documented that Rho is associated with the superoxide burst reaction during phagocytosis of serum- (SOZ) and IgG-opsonized zymosan particles (IOZ). In this study, we attempted to reveal the signal pathway components in the superoxide formation regulated by Rho GTPase. Tat-C3 blocked superoxide production, suggesting that RhoA is essentially involved in superoxide formation during phagocytosis of SOZ. Conversely SOZ activated both RhoA and Rac1/2. Inhibition of RhoA-activated kinase (ROCK), an important downstream effector of RhoA, by Y27632 and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) by ML-7 abrogated superoxide production by SOZ. Extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were activated during phagocytosis of SOZ, and Tat-C3 and SB203580 reduced ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation, suggesting that RhoA and p38 MAPK may be upstream regulators of ERK1/2. Inhibition of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase did not block translocation of RhoA to membranes, suggesting that RhoA is upstream to these kinases. Inhibition of RhoA by Tat-C3 blocked phosphorylation of p47(PHOX). Taken together, RhoA, ROCK, p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and p47(PHOX) may be subsequently activated, leading to activation of NADPH oxidase to produce superoxide.

  5. Suppressive effect of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in vitro on phagocytosis by murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Cepero, M L; Klein, T; Friedman, H

    1986-06-01

    Incubation of normal mouse peritoneal cells consisting of over 90% phagocytizing macrophages with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) resulted in a inhibition of phagocytic function. The THC in a dose-related manner suppressed the percentage of macrophages per culture which ingested yeast and the average number of yeast particles ingested by the phagocytizing macrophages. The vehicle used to suspend the THC in vitro, i.e., DMSO, had no detectable effect on macrophage function. Suppression of phagocytosis with no effects on viability or cell number occurred with doses of 10 micrograms or less THC per milliliter culture medium. Measurable suppression also occurred after 24- to 48-hr treatment of the macrophages with the THC. This compound had little if any detectable effect on phagocytosis when added directly to the cultures shortly before testing for phagocytosis. Further studies concerning the effects of THC on macrophage function appear warranted.

  6. Involvement of myosin VI immunoanalog in pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Magdalena; Wasik, Anna; Kłopocka, Wanda; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2008-12-01

    Recently, we found a 130-kDa myosin VI immunoanalog in amoeba, which bound to actin in an ATP-sensitive manner and in migrating amoebae colocalized to filamentous actin and dynamin II-containing vesicular structures. To further characterize this protein, we assessed its involvement in amoeba pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy of immunogold-stained cells revealed that, in pinocytotic and phagocytotic amoebae, the myosin VI immunoanalog was visible throughout the cells, including pinocytotic channels and pinocytotic vesicles as well as phagosomes and emerging phagocytic cups. Blocking endogenous protein with anti-porcine myosin VI antibody (introduced into cells by means of microinjection) caused severe defects in pinocytosis and phagocytosis. In comparison with control cells, the treated amoebae formed ~75% less pinocytotic channels and phagocytosed ~65% less Tetrahymena cells. These data indicate that the myosin VI immunoanalog has an important role in pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus (Pal.).

  7. The proteases HtrA2/Omi and UCH-L1 regulate TNF-induced necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In apoptosis, proteolysis by caspases is the primary mechanism for both initiation and execution of programmed cell death (PCD). In contrast, the impact of proteolysis on the regulation and execution of caspase-independent forms of PCD (programmed necrosis, necroptosis) is only marginally understood. Likewise, the identity of the involved proteases has remained largely obscure. Here, we have investigated the impact of proteases in TNF-induced necroptosis. Results The serine protease inhibitor TPKC protected from TNF-induced necroptosis in multiple murine and human cells systems whereas inhibitors of metalloproteinases or calpain/cysteine and cathepsin proteases had no effect. A screen for proteins labeled by a fluorescent TPCK derivative in necroptotic cells identified HtrA2/Omi (a serine protease previously implicated in PCD) as a promising candidate. Demonstrating its functional impact, pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of HtrA2/Omi protected from TNF-induced necroptosis. Unlike in apoptosis, HtrA2/Omi did not cleave another protease, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH-L1) during TNF-induced necroptosis, but rather induced monoubiquitination indicative for UCH-L1 activation. Correspondingly, pharmacologic or RNA interference-mediated inhibition of UCH-L1 protected from TNF-induced necroptosis. We found that UCH-L1 is a mediator of caspase-independent, non-apoptotic cell death also in diseased kidney podocytes by measuring cleavage of the protein PARP-1, caspase activity, cell death and cell morphology. Indicating a role of TNF in this process, podocytes with stably downregulated UCH-L1 proved resistant to TNF-induced necroptosis. Conclusions The proteases HtrA2/Omi and UCH-L1 represent two key components of TNF-induced necroptosis, validating the relevance of proteolysis not only for apoptosis, but also for caspase-independent PCD. Since UCH-L1 clearly contributes to the non-apoptotic death of podocytes, interference with the necroptotic

  8. Phagocytosis of microparticles by alveolar macrophages during acute lung injury requires MerTK.

    PubMed

    Mohning, Michael P; Thomas, Stacey M; Barthel, Lea; Mould, Kara J; McCubbrey, Alexandria L; Frasch, S Courtney; Bratton, Donna L; Henson, Peter M; Janssen, William J

    2018-01-01

    Microparticles are a newly recognized class of mediators in the pathophysiology of lung inflammation and injury, but little is known about the factors that regulate their accumulation and clearance. The primary objective of our study was to determine whether alveolar macrophages engulf microparticles and to elucidate the mechanisms by which this occurs. Alveolar microparticles were quantified in bronchoalveolar fluid of mice with lung injury induced by LPS and hydrochloric acid. Microparticle numbers were greatest at the peak of inflammation and declined as inflammation resolved. Isolated, fluorescently labeled particles were placed in culture with macrophages to evaluate ingestion in the presence of endocytosis inhibitors. Ingestion was blocked with cytochalasin D and wortmannin, consistent with a phagocytic process. In separate experiments, mice were treated intratracheally with labeled microparticles, and their uptake was assessed though microscopy and flow cytometry. Resident alveolar macrophages, not recruited macrophages, were the primary cell-ingesting microparticles in the alveolus during lung injury. In vitro, microparticles promoted inflammatory signaling in LPS primed epithelial cells, signifying the importance of microparticle clearance in resolving lung injury. Microparticles were found to have phosphatidylserine exposed on their surfaces. Accordingly, we measured expression of phosphatidylserine receptors on macrophages and found high expression of MerTK and Axl in the resident macrophage population. Endocytosis of microparticles was markedly reduced in MerTK-deficient macrophages in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, microparticles are released during acute lung injury and peak in number at the height of inflammation. Resident alveolar macrophages efficiently clear these microparticles through MerTK-mediated phagocytosis.

  9. Development of novel fluorescent particles applicable for phagocytosis assays with human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sóñora, Cecilia; Arbildi, Paula; Miraballes-Martínez, Iris; Hernández, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a fundamental process for removal of pathogens and for clearance of apoptotic cells. The objective of this work was the preparation of fluorescent microspheres by a simple method and the evaluation of its applicability in phagocytosis assays by using different human derived cells, differentiated THP-1 cell line and blood monocytes, with flow cytometry measurements for functionality assays. Our results show that microparticles are efficiently internalised in a non-opsonised form and in dose-dependent manner by both cellular types. Concerning mechanism we determined that tTG-β3 integrin signaling could be involved in the uptake of these particles.

  10. Simultaneous flow cytometric measurement of antigen attachment to phagocytes and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Laopajon, Witida; Takheaw, Nuchjira; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Pata, Supansa

    2016-01-01

    The current available assays cannot differentiate the stages of phagocytosis. We, therefore, established methods for concurrent detection of antigen attachment and engulfment by phagocyte using latex beads coated with lipopolysaccharide, rabbit IgG, and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. The generated beads were incubated with whole blood at 37°C for 1 hr and stained with PE-Cy5.5 anti-rabbit IgG antibody. By flow cytometry, attachment and phagocytic processes could be detected, simultaneously. The established method is a valuable tool for diagnosis of phagocytic disorder and study of molecules involved in phagocytosis.

  11. Response of a phagocyte cell system to products of macrophage breakdown as a probable mechanism of alveolar phagocytosis adaptation to deposition of particles of different cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Privalova, L I; Katsnelson, B A; Osipenko, A B; Yushkov, B N; Babushkina, L G

    1980-04-01

    The adaptation of the alveolar phagocytosis response to the quantitative and qualitative features of dust deposited during inhalation consists not only in enhanced recruitment of alveolar macrophages (AM), but also in adding a more or less pronounced neutrophil leukocyte (NL) recruitment as an auxiliary participant of particle clearance. The NL contribution to clearance is especially typical for response to cytotoxic particles (quartz, in particular). An important feature of the adaptation considered is the limitation of the number of AM and NL recruited when an efficient clearance can be achieved by a lesser number of cells due to increased AM reistance to the damaging actin of phagocytized particles. The main mechanism providing the adequacy of the alveolar phagocytosis response is its self-regulation thrugh the products of macrophage breakdown (PMB). In a series of experiments with intraperitoneal and intratracheal injections of syngenetic PMB into rats and mice, it was shown that these products stimulate respiration and migration of phagocytic cells, their dose-dependent attraction to the site of PMB formation with the predominant NL contribution, increasing with the increase of amount of PMB, the AM and NL precursor cells recruitment from reserve pools, and the replenishment of these reserves in the process of hemopoiesis. At least some of the above effects are connected with the action of the lipid components of PMB. The action of specialized regulative systems of the organism can modify the response to PMB, judging by the results obtained by hydrocortisone injection. Autocontrol of alveolar phagocytosis requires great care in attempts at artificial stimulation of this process, as an excessive cell recruitment may promote the retention of particles in lungs.

  12. Response of a phagocyte cell system to products of macrophage breakdown as a probable mechanism of alveolar phagocytosis adaptation to deposition of particles of different cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Privalova, L I; Katsnelson, B A; Osipenko, A B; Yushkov, B N; Babushkina, L G

    1980-01-01

    The adaptation of the alveolar phagocytosis response to the quantitative and qualitative features of dust deposited during inhalation consists not only in enhanced recruitment of alveolar macrophages (AM), but also in adding a more or less pronounced neutrophil leukocyte (NL) recruitment as an auxiliary participant of particle clearance. The NL contribution to clearance is especially typical for response to cytotoxic particles (quartz, in particular). An important feature of the adaptation considered is the limitation of the number of AM and NL recruited when an efficient clearance can be achieved by a lesser number of cells due to increased AM reistance to the damaging actin of phagocytized particles. The main mechanism providing the adequacy of the alveolar phagocytosis response is its self-regulation thrugh the products of macrophage breakdown (PMB). In a series of experiments with intraperitoneal and intratracheal injections of syngenetic PMB into rats and mice, it was shown that these products stimulate respiration and migration of phagocytic cells, their dose-dependent attraction to the site of PMB formation with the predominant NL contribution, increasing with the increase of amount of PMB, the AM and NL precursor cells recruitment from reserve pools, and the replenishment of these reserves in the process of hemopoiesis. At least some of the above effects are connected with the action of the lipid components of PMB. The action of specialized regulative systems of the organism can modify the response to PMB, judging by the results obtained by hydrocortisone injection. Autocontrol of alveolar phagocytosis requires great care in attempts at artificial stimulation of this process, as an excessive cell recruitment may promote the retention of particles in lungs. PMID:6997028

  13. A Simple Microscopy Assay to Teach the Processes of Phagocytosis and Exocytosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ross; Gray, Andrew; Fite, Jessica L.; Jordan, Renee; Stark, Sarah; Naylor, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Phagocytosis and exocytosis are two cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. While it is easy to understand the purpose of these processes, it can be extremely difficult for students to comprehend the actual mechanisms. As membrane dynamics play a significant role in many cellular processes ranging from cell signaling to cell division to…

  14. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO A THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICAL STIMULATES PHAGOCYTOSIS IN JUVENILE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental Exposure to a Thyroid Disrupting Chemical Stimulates Phagocytosis in Juvenile Sprague-Dawley Rats.
    AA Rooney1, R Matulka2, and R Luebke3. 1NCSU/US EPA CVM, Department of Anatomy, Physiological Sciences and Radiology, Raleigh, NC;2UNC Department of Toxicology, Cha...

  15. Hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis differs between honey bee (Apis mellifera) worker castes

    PubMed Central

    Salmela, Heli; Amdam, Gro Vang; Münch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees as other insects rely on the innate immune system for protection against diseases. The innate immune system includes the circulating hemocytes (immune cells) that clear pathogens from hemolymph (blood) by phagocytosis, nodulation or encapsulation. Honey bee hemocyte numbers have been linked to hemolymph levels of vitellogenin. Vitellogenin is a multifunctional protein with immune-supportive functions identified in a range of species, including the honey bee. Hemocyte numbers can increase via mitosis, and this recruitment process can be important for immune system function and maintenance. Here, we tested if hemocyte mediated phagocytosis differs among the physiologically different honey bee worker castes (nurses, foragers and winter bees), and study possible interactions with vitellogenin and hemocyte recruitment. To this end, we adapted phagocytosis assays, which—together with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry—allow qualitative and quantitative assessment of hemocyte performance. We found that nurses are more efficient in phagocytic uptake than both foragers and winter bees. We detected vitellogenin within the hemocytes, and found that winter bees have the highest numbers of vitellogenin-positive hemocytes. Connections between phagocytosis, hemocyte-vitellogenin and mitosis were worker caste dependent. Our results demonstrate that the phagocytic performance of immune cells differs significantly between honey bee worker castes, and support increased immune competence in nurses as compared to forager bees. Our data, moreover, provides support for roles of vitellogenin in hemocyte activity. PMID:28877227

  16. Nimrod, a putative phagocytosis receptor with EGF repeats in Drosophila plasmatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurucz, Eva; Márkus, Róbert; Zsámboki, János; Folkl-Medzihradszky, Katalin; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Vilmos, Péter; Udvardy, Andor; Krausz, Ildikó; Lukacsovich, Tamás; Gateff, Elisabeth; Zettervall, Carl-Johan; Hultmark, Dan; Andó, István

    2007-04-03

    The hemocytes, the blood cells of Drosophila, participate in the humoral and cellular immune defense reactions against microbes and parasites [1-8]. The plasmatocytes, one class of hemocytes, are phagocytically active and play an important role in immunity and development by removing microorganisms as well as apoptotic cells. On the surface of circulating and sessile plasmatocytes, we have now identified a protein, Nimrod C1 (NimC1), which is involved in the phagocytosis of bacteria. Suppression of NimC1 expression in plasmatocytes inhibited the phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. Conversely, overexpression of NimC1 in S2 cells stimulated the phagocytosis of both S. aureus and Escherichia coli. NimC1 is a 90-100 kDa single-pass transmembrane protein with ten characteristic EGF-like repeats (NIM repeats). The nimC1 gene is part of a cluster of ten related nimrod genes at 34E on chromosome 2, and similar clusters of nimrod-like genes are conserved in other insects such as Anopheles and Apis. The Nimrod proteins are related to other putative phagocytosis receptors such as Eater and Draper from D. melanogaster and CED-1 from C. elegans. Together, they form a superfamily that also includes proteins that are encoded in the human genome.

  17. Phagocytosis and Inflammation: Exploring the effects of the components of E-cigarette vapor on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ween, Miranda P; Whittall, Jonathan J; Hamon, Rhys; Reynolds, Paul N; Hodge, Sandra J

    2017-08-01

    E-cigarettes are perceived as harmless; however, evidence of their safety is lacking. New data suggests E-cigarettes discharge a range of compounds capable of physiological damage to users. We previously established that cigarette smoke caused defective alveolar macrophage phagocytosis. The present study compared the effect E-cigarette of components; E-liquid flavors, nicotine, vegetable glycerine, and propylene glycol on phagocytosis, proinflammatory cytokine secretion, and phagocytic recognition molecule expression using differentiated THP-1 macrophages. Similar to CSE, phagocytosis of NTHi bacteria was significantly decreased by E-liquid flavoring (11.65-15.75%) versus control (27.01%). Nicotine also decreased phagocytosis (15.26%). E-liquid, nicotine, and E-liquid+ nicotine reduced phagocytic recognition molecules; SR-A1 and TLR-2. IL-8 secretion increased with flavor and nicotine, while TNF α , IL-1 β , IL-6, MIP-1 α , MIP-1 β , and MCP-1 decreased after exposure to most flavors and nicotine. PG, VG, or PG:VG mix also induced a decrease in MIP-1 α and MIP-1 β We conclude that E-cigarettes can cause macrophage phagocytic dysfunction, expression of phagocytic recognition receptors and cytokine secretion pathways. As such, E-cigarettes should be treated with caution by users, especially those who are nonsmokers. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. Cryptococcus neoformans is internalized by receptor-mediated or 'triggered' phagocytosis, dependent on actin recruitment.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Caroline Rezende; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcosis by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans affects mostly immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent neurological complication in AIDS patients. Recent studies support the idea that intracellular survival of Cryptococcus yeast cells is important for the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. However, the initial steps of Cryptococcus internalization by host cells remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Cryptococcus neoformans phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages using confocal and electron microscopy techniques, as well as flow cytometry quantification, evaluating the importance of fungal capsule production and of host cell cytoskeletal elements for fungal phagocytosis. Electron microscopy analyses revealed that capsular and acapsular strains of C. neoformans are internalized by macrophages via both 'zipper' (receptor-mediated) and 'trigger' (membrane ruffle-dependent) phagocytosis mechanisms. Actin filaments surrounded phagosomes of capsular and acapsular yeasts, and the actin depolymerizing drugs cytochalasin D and latrunculin B inhibited yeast internalization and actin recruitment to the phagosome area. In contrast, nocodazole and paclitaxel, inhibitors of microtubule dynamics decreased internalization but did not prevent actin recruitment to the site of phagocytosis. Our results show that different uptake mechanisms, dependent on both actin and tubulin dynamics occur during yeast internalization by macrophages, and that capsule production does not affect the mode of Cryptococcus uptake by host cells.

  19. Hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis differs between honey bee (Apis mellifera) worker castes.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Eva Marit; Salmela, Heli; Amdam, Gro Vang; Münch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees as other insects rely on the innate immune system for protection against diseases. The innate immune system includes the circulating hemocytes (immune cells) that clear pathogens from hemolymph (blood) by phagocytosis, nodulation or encapsulation. Honey bee hemocyte numbers have been linked to hemolymph levels of vitellogenin. Vitellogenin is a multifunctional protein with immune-supportive functions identified in a range of species, including the honey bee. Hemocyte numbers can increase via mitosis, and this recruitment process can be important for immune system function and maintenance. Here, we tested if hemocyte mediated phagocytosis differs among the physiologically different honey bee worker castes (nurses, foragers and winter bees), and study possible interactions with vitellogenin and hemocyte recruitment. To this end, we adapted phagocytosis assays, which-together with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry-allow qualitative and quantitative assessment of hemocyte performance. We found that nurses are more efficient in phagocytic uptake than both foragers and winter bees. We detected vitellogenin within the hemocytes, and found that winter bees have the highest numbers of vitellogenin-positive hemocytes. Connections between phagocytosis, hemocyte-vitellogenin and mitosis were worker caste dependent. Our results demonstrate that the phagocytic performance of immune cells differs significantly between honey bee worker castes, and support increased immune competence in nurses as compared to forager bees. Our data, moreover, provides support for roles of vitellogenin in hemocyte activity.

  20. Overload training inhibits phagocytosis and ROS generation of peritoneal macrophages: role of IGF-1 and MGF.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Ru; Dong, Jingmei

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that overload training inhibits the phagocytosis and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of peritoneal macrophages (Mϕs), and that insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) and mechano-growth factor (MGF) produced by macrophages may contribute to this process. Rats were randomized to two groups, sedentary control group (n = 10) and overload training group (n = 10). The rats of overload training group were subjected to 11 weeks of experimental training protocol. Blood sample was used to determine the content of hemoglobin, testosterone, and corticosterone. The phagocytosis and the ROS generation of Mϕs were measured by the uptake of neutral red and the flow cytometry, respectively. IGF-1 and MGF mRNA levels in Mϕs were determined by real-time PCR. In addition, we evaluated the effects of IGF-1 and MGF peptide on phagocytosis and ROS generation of Mϕs in vitro. The data showed that overload training significantly decreased the body weight (19.3 %, P < 0.01), the hemoglobin (13.5 %, P < 0.01), the testosterone (55.3 %, P < 0.01) and the corticosterone (40.6 %, P < 0.01) in blood. Moreover, overload training significantly decreased the phagocytosis (27 %, P < 0.05) and the ROS generation (35 %, P < 0.01) of Mϕs. IGF-1 and MGF mRNA levels in Mϕs from overload training group increased significantly compared with the control group (21-fold and 92-fold, respectively; P < 0.01). In vitro experiments showed that IGF-1 had no significant effect on the phagocytosis and the ROS generation of Mϕs. Unlike IGF-1, MGF peptide impaired the phagocytosis of Mϕs in dose-independent manner. In addition, MGF peptide of some concentrations (i.e., 1, 10, 50, 100 ng/ml) significantly inhibited the ROS generation of Mϕs. These results suggest that overload training inhibits the phagocytosis and the ROS generation of peritoneal macrophages, and that MGF produced by macrophages may play a key role in this process. This may represent a novel mechanism of

  1. Spreading and contraction in phagocytosis: The role of actin organization and curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Jennifer E.

    Phagocytosis is the process used by immune cells to engulf and remove foreign objects from the body. The engulfment is realized by the formation of an actin-driven `phagocytic cup' of the cell membrane, which quickly crawls up and then surrounds the object via constriction. In this study, we resolve the paradox of how actin-driven protrusion of the plasma membrane can co-exist with a contractile actin belt proposed to mechanically-drive the closure of the phagocytic cup. To do this we quantitatively assessed macrophage phagocytic behavior in a planar geometry, a process known as frustrated phagocytosis. Our results reveal that phagocytosis occurs in a binary manner, such that once it is initiated, frustrated phagocytosis proceeds at a prescribed rate, resulting in peak contact areas that correspond to a roughly 225% increase in apparent cell surface area. Upon reaching their maximum area, the majority of macrophages enter a period of late-stage contraction. During the contraction phase, cells exert significant stress on the underlying substrate. Contraction also corresponds with dramatic reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton, in particular the formation of a bundled contractile belt around the cell perimeter. In contrast to other studies of phagocytosis, our work definitively illustrates that whatever signals trigger late-stage phagocytic contraction must be independent of particle size and curvature. Mounting evidence suggests that membrane tension is involved in late-stage signaling. The idea that tension is linked to late-stage contraction is reinforced by our finding that the peak-contact area roughly corresponds to the area threshold that results in increased cortical tension, as measured by Lam et al., and that reducing tension through hypertonic buffer shock enables the cells to spread further before the onset of contraction. Supported by NSF Grants #PHYS-0848797 and SRN-POLS 1205878.

  2. Cannabidiol enhances microglial phagocytosis via transient receptor potential (TRP) channel activation

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Samia; Eldeeb, Khalil; Millns, Paul J; Bennett, Andrew J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Microglial cells are important mediators of the immune response in the CNS. The phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), has been shown to have central anti-inflammatory properties, and the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CBD and other phytocannabinoids on microglial phagocytosis. Experimental Approach Phagocytosis was assessed by measuring ingestion of fluorescently labelled latex beads by cultured microglial cells. Drug effects were probed using single-cell Ca2+ imaging and expression of mediator proteins by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Key Results CBD (10 μM) enhanced bead phagocytosis to 175 ± 7% control. Other phytocannabinoids, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids were without effect. The enhancement was dependent upon Ca2+ influx and was abolished in the presence of EGTA, the Ca2+ channel inhibitor SKF96365, the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red, and the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and AMG9810. CBD produced a sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in BV-2 microglia and this was abolished by ruthenium red. CBD rapidly increased the expression of TRPV2 and TRPV1 proteins and caused a translocation of TRPV2 to the cell membrane. Wortmannin blocked CBD enhancement of BV-2 cell phagocytosis, suggesting that it is mediated by PI3K signalling downstream of the Ca2+ influx. Conclusions and Implications The TRPV-dependent phagocytosis-enhancing effect of CBD suggests that pharmacological modification of TRPV channel activity could be a rational approach to treating neuroinflammatory disorders involving changes in microglial function and that CBD is a potential starting point for future development of novel therapeutics acting on the TRPV receptor family. PMID:24641282

  3. HsfA2 Controls the Activity of Developmentally and Stress-Regulated Heat Stress Protection Mechanisms in Tomato Male Reproductive Tissues1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Stefan; Paupière, Marine Josephine; Theres, Klaus; Bovy, Arnaud; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Male reproductive tissues are more sensitive to heat stress (HS) compared to vegetative tissues, but the basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate the transcriptional changes required for protection from HS. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), HsfA2 acts as coactivator of HsfA1a and is one of the major Hsfs accumulating in response to elevated temperatures. The contribution of HsfA2 in heat stress response (HSR) and thermotolerance was investigated in different tissues of transgenic tomato plants with suppressed HsfA2 levels (A2AS). Global transcriptome analysis and immunodetection of two major Hsps in vegetative and reproductive tissues showed that HsfA2 regulates subsets of HS-induced genes in a tissue-specific manner. Accumulation of HsfA2 by a moderate HS treatment enhances the capacity of seedlings to cope with a subsequent severe HS, suggesting an important role for HsfA2 in regulating acquired thermotolerance. In pollen, HsfA2 is an important coactivator of HsfA1a during HSR. HsfA2 suppression reduces the viability and germination rate of pollen that received the stress during the stages of meiosis and microspore formation but had no effect on more advanced stages. In general, pollen meiocytes and microspores are characterized by increased susceptibility to HS due to their lower capacity to induce a strong HSR. This sensitivity is partially mitigated by the developmentally regulated expression of HsfA2 and several HS-responsive genes mediated by HsfA1a under nonstress conditions. Thereby, HsfA2 is an important factor for the priming process that sustains pollen thermotolerance during microsporogenesis. PMID:26917685

  4. Transcriptional regulation of heat shock proteins and ascorbate peroxidase by CtHsfA2b from African bermudagrass conferring heat tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuyun; Huang, Wanlu; Yang, Zhimin; Liu, Jun; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress transcription factor A2s (HsfA2s) are key regulators in plant response to high temperature. Our objectives were to isolate an HsfA2 gene (CtHsfA2b) from a warm-season grass species, African bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy), and to determine the physiological functions and transcriptional regulation of HsfA2 for improving heat tolerance. Gene expression analysis revealed that CtHsfA2b was heat-inducible and exhibited rapid response to increasing temperature. Ectopic expression of CtHsfA2b improved heat tolerance in Arabidopsis and restored heat-sensitive defects of Arabidopsis hsfa2 mutant, which was demonstrated by higher survival rate and photosynthetic parameters, and lower electrolyte leakage in transgenic plants compared to the WT or hsfa2 mutant. CtHsfA2b transgenic plants showed elevated transcriptional regulation of several downstream genes, including those encoding ascorbate peroxidase (AtApx2) and heat shock proteins [AtHsp18.1-CI, AtHsp22.0-ER, AtHsp25.3-P and AtHsp26.5-P(r), AtHsp70b and AtHsp101-3]. CtHsfA2b was found to bind to the heat shock element (HSE) on the promoter of AtApx2 and enhanced transcriptional activity of AtApx2. These results suggested that CtHsfA2b could play positive roles in heat protection by up-regulating antioxidant defense and chaperoning mechanisms. CtHsfA2b has the potential to be used as a candidate gene to genetically modify cool-season species for improving heat tolerance. PMID:27320381

  5. The Role of Behavioral Self-Regulation in Learning to Read: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Icelandic Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birgisdóttir, Freyja; Gestsdóttir, Steinunn; Thorsdóttir, Fanney

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, including success in literacy, but few studies have explored the relations that behavioral self-regulation may have with different components of early literacy development. The present study investigated the longitudinal contribution…

  6. [The Enhanceing effect of IL-12 on phagocytosis and killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by neutrophils in tuberculosis patients].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-na; Yao, Chun-yan; Jin, Qi-li; He, Wen-xin; Li, Bai-qing

    2011-11-01

    To explore the effects of IL-12 on phagocytosis and killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by neutrophils or polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in tuberculosis patients. The fresh peripheral blood samples from TB patients and healthy adults were incubated with M.tb labeled with FITC, and the percentages of phagocytosis of M.tb by PMNs was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The fresh peripheral blood samples were incubated with DCFH-DA, and with or without M.tb for different times, the percentage of activation and the ROS production of PMNs were measured by FCM. Whole blood samples were pretreated with IL-12, the changes of phagocytosis, activation and ROS production of PMNs were measured by FCM. The percentages of phagocytosis by PMNs, activation and ROS production of PMNs in both TB patients and healthy adults increased dependent on the time of incubation with M.tb. Only the phagocytosis of M.tb by PMNs at 5 min in TB patients of tuberculosis patients (51.82±6.93)% was obviously higher than that in healthy adults (47.20±4.26)%, (P<0.05). Pretreatment of whole blood with IL-12 before incubation with M.tb, the percentages of phagocytosis, activation and ROS production of PMNs in both TB patients and healthy adults increased in dose dependent manner, but no significant difference was found between both groups. The results indicated that the phagocytosis of M.tb and ROS production by PMNs in TB patients were almost the same as that in healthy controls, except for phagocytosis is higher at early stage. Furthermore, IL-12 can enhance the responsiveness to the phagocytosis and ROS production of PMNs.

  7. Mechanism of phagocytosis in dictyostelium discoideum: phagocytosis is mediated by different recognition sites as disclosed by mutants with altered phagocytotic properties

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, G; Thilo, L; Schwarz, H; Steinhart, R

    1980-01-01

    The recognition step in the phagocytotic process of the unicellular amoeba dictyostelium discoideum was examined by analysis of mutants defective in phagocytosis, Reliable and simple assays were developed to measure endocytotic uptake. For pinocytosis, FITC-dextran was found to be a suitable fluid-phase marker; FITC-bacteria, latex beads, and erythrocytes were used as phagocytotic substrates. Ingested material was isolated in one step by centrifuging through highly viscous poly(ethyleneglycol) solutions and was analyzed optically. A selection procedure for isolating mutants defective in phagocytosis was devised using tungsten beads as particulate prey. Nonphagocytosing cells were isolated on the basis of their lower density. Three mutant strains were found exhibiting a clear-cut phenotype directly related to the phagocytotic event. In contrast to the situation in wild-type cells, uptake of E. coli B/r by mutant cells is specifically and competitively inhibited by glucose. Mutant amoeba phagocytose latex beads normally but not protein-coated latex, nonglucosylated bacteria, or erythrocytes. Cohesive properties of mutant cells are altered: they do not form EDTA-sensitive aggregates, and adhesiveness to glass or plastic surfaces is greatly reduced. Based upon these findings, a model for recognition in phagocytosis is proposed: (a) A lectin-type receptor specifically mediates binding of particles containing terminal glucose (E. coli B/r). (b) A second class of "nonspecific" receptors mediate binding of a variety of particles by hydrophobic interaction. Nonspecific binding is affected by mutation in such a way that only strongly hydrophobic (latex) but not more hydrophilic particles (e.g., protein-coated latex, bacteria, erythrocytes) can be phagocytosed by mutant amoebae. PMID:6995464

  8. CCS52A2/FZR1, a cell cycle regulator, is an essential factor for shoot apical meristem maintenance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajie; Ye, Wei; Li, Beibei; Zhou, Xiaojing; Cui, Yuhai; Running, Mark P; Liu, Kede

    2012-08-08

    Cell division and cell fate decisions regulate organ formation and function in plant growth and development. It is still unclear how specific meristematic regulatory networks operate with the cell cycle machinery to translate stem cell identity and maintenance into cellular behavior. In this study, we address these questions by analysis of a shoot apex defective mutant, namely xcm9. Phenotypic analysis of the xcm9 mutant reveals concomitant premature termination of floral shoots with frequent bifurcation of the shoot apices, stems, and flowers. Microscopic observations show irregular cell organization in shoot apical meristems of xcm9. Positional cloning revealed that xcm9 is a loss of function allele of the CCS52A2/FZR1 gene, which has previously been implicated in root development. Expression analysis demonstrated that CCS52A2 maintains a higher transcriptional expression level in actively dividing tissue. Genetic studies indicated that the CCS52A2 gene functions together with WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) in regulating the development of the shoot meristem, and also contributes to this regulation together with the chromatin remodeling pathway. In addition, fewer xcm9 cells express CYCLIN B1:1, showing that cell cycle progression is disrupted in the mutant. We propose that the CCS52A2 gene is a mediator that functions together with meristematic genes to regulate meristem organization, and cross-functions with chromatin regulators in cell cycle progression during shoot apical meristem development.

  9. Molecular regulation and physiological functions of a novel FaHsfA2c cloned from tall fescue conferring plant tolerance to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuyun; Huang, Wanlu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhimin; Huang, Bingru

    2017-02-01

    Heat stress transcription factors (HSFs) compose a large gene family, and different members play differential roles in regulating plant responses to abiotic stress. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize an A2-type HSF, FaHsfA2c, in a cool-season perennial grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) for its association with heat tolerance and to determine the underlying physiological functions and regulatory mechanisms of FaHsfA2c imparting plant tolerance to heat stress. FaHsfA2c was localized in nucleus and exhibited a rapid transcriptional increase in leaves and roots during early phase of heat stress. Ectopic expression of FaHsfA2c improved basal and acquired thermotolerance in wild-type Arabidopsis and also restored heat-sensitive deficiency of hsfa2 mutant. Overexpression of FaHsfA2c in tall fescue enhanced plant tolerance to heat by triggering transcriptional regulation of heat-protective gene expression, improving photosynthetic capacity and maintaining plant growth under heat stress. Our results indicated that FaHsfA2c acted as a positive regulator conferring thermotolerance improvement in Arabidopsis and tall fescue, and it could be potentially used as a candidate gene for genetic modification and molecular breeding to develop heat-tolerant cool-season grass species. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms at miR-146a/196a2 and their primary ovarian insufficiency-related target gene regulation in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung Hwan; An, Hui Jeong; Kim, Kyung Ah; Ko, Jung Jae; Kim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Young Ran; Ahn, Eun Hee; Rah, HyungChul; Lee, Woo Sik; Kim, Nam Keun

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in animals and plants. The aim of this study was to identify new target genes for microRNA polymorphisms (miR-146aC>G and miR-196a2T>C) in primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). We cloned and transfected miR-146aC>G and miR-196a2T>C into human granulosa cells and used microarrays and qPCR-arrays to examine the changes in the messenger RNA expression profile. We show miR-146aC>G and miR-196a2T>C change the mRNA expression patterns in granulosa cell. In each case, mRNAs were up or down-regulated after treatments with miR-146a C or G and miR-196a2 T or C. We found that miR-146a led to a significantly altered regulation of the mRNA levels of FOXO3, FOXL2 and CCND2 compared to controls. We also found that the polymorphisms of miR-146a led to a significantly altered regulation of CCND2 and FOXO3. Our results suggest that miR-146aC>G and miR-196a2T>C can regulate the levels of many of their target transcripts. In addition, specific target genes of miR-146aC>G polymorphisms may be involved in granulosa cell regulation.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms at miR-146a/196a2 and their primary ovarian insufficiency-related target gene regulation in granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Hwan; An, Hui Jeong; Kim, Kyung Ah; Ko, Jung Jae; Kim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Young Ran; Ahn, Eun Hee; Rah, HyungChul; Lee, Woo Sik

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in animals and plants. The aim of this study was to identify new target genes for microRNA polymorphisms (miR-146aC>G and miR-196a2T>C) in primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). We cloned and transfected miR-146aC>G and miR-196a2T>C into human granulosa cells and used microarrays and qPCR-arrays to examine the changes in the messenger RNA expression profile. We show miR-146aC>G and miR-196a2T>C change the mRNA expression patterns in granulosa cell. In each case, mRNAs were up or down-regulated after treatments with miR-146a C or G and miR-196a2 T or C. We found that miR-146a led to a significantly altered regulation of the mRNA levels of FOXO3, FOXL2 and CCND2 compared to controls. We also found that the polymorphisms of miR-146a led to a significantly altered regulation of CCND2 and FOXO3. Our results suggest that miR-146aC>G and miR-196a2T>C can regulate the levels of many of their target transcripts. In addition, specific target genes of miR-146aC>G polymorphisms may be involved in granulosa cell regulation. PMID:28841705

  12. MicroRNA-9 regulates non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion and migration by targeting eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guodong; Shao, Guofeng; Pan, Qiaoling; Sun, Lebo; Zheng, Dawei; Li, Minghui; Li, Ni; Shi, Huoshun; Ni, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in cancer development and progression. Bioinformatics analyses has identified eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF5A2) as a target of miR-9. In this study, we attempted to determine whether miR-9 regulates non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell invasion and migration by targeting eIF5A2 We examined eIF5A2 expression using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and subsequently transfected A549 and NCI-H1299 NSCLC cells with a miR-9 mimic or miR-9 inhibitor to determine the migration and invasive capability of the cells via wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay, respectively. E-cadherin and vimentin expression was detected with western blotting. The miR-9 mimic significantly reduced NSCLC cell invasive and metastatic ability, and the miR-9 inhibitor enhanced NSCLC cell migration activity, increasing the number of migrated cells. There was no significant difference between the negative control siRNA and miR-9 mimic groups after knockdown of eIF5A2; western blotting showed that miR-9 regulated E-cadherin and vimentin expression. These data show that miR-9 regulates NSCLC cell invasion and migration through regulating eIF5A2 expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that the mechanism of miR-9-regulated NSCLC cell invasion and migration may be related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  13. Scanning electron microscopy study of neutrophil membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) and their role in anchoring, aggregation and phagocytosis. The effect of nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Galkina, Svetlana I.; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Ullrich, Volker

    2005-04-01

    We have shown that human neutrophils develop dynamic thin and very long tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) upon adhesion to fibronectin, if cell spreading was blocked by Na{sup +}-free medium or by 4-bromophenacyl bromide, N-ethylmaleimide, 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole and cytochalasin D (S. I. Galkina, G. F. Sud'ina and V. Ullrich (2001). Exp. Cell Res. 266, 222-228). In the present work we found that similar in size and behavior tubulovesicular extensions were formed on the neutrophil cell bodies upon adhesion to fibronectin-coated substrata in the presence of the nitric oxide donor diethylamine NONOate. In the presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-{omega}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester,more » neutrophils were well spread and had no microextensions. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrated that tubulovesicular extensions of neutrophils executed long-range adhesion and binding objects for phagocytosis, such as serum-opsonized zymosan particles and erythrocytes. Tubulovesicular extensions anchored neutrophils to substrata in a {beta}1 and {beta}2 integrin-independent, but L-selectin-dependent manner. BODIPY-sphingomyelin impaired development of tubulovesicular extension, and heparitinase 1 played a role in their destruction. Membrane tubulovesicular extensions are supposed to represent protrusions of an intracellular exocytotic traffic and serve as cellular sensory and adhesive organelles. Nitric oxide seems to play a role in regulation of tubulovesicular extensions formation, thus affecting neutrophil adhesive interactions and phagocytosis.« less

  14. Schwann cells use TAM receptor-mediated phagocytosis in addition to autophagy to clear myelin in a mouse model of nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Chung, Won-Suk; Sloan, Steven A; Carson, Glenn A; Zhou, Lu; Lovelett, Emilie; Posada, Sean; Zuchero, J Bradley; Barres, Ben A

    2017-09-19

    Ineffective myelin debris clearance is a major factor contributing to the poor regenerative ability of the central nervous system. In stark contrast, rapid clearance of myelin debris from the injured peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the keys to this system's remarkable regenerative capacity, but the molecular mechanisms driving PNS myelin clearance are incompletely understood. We set out to discover new pathways of PNS myelin clearance to identify novel strategies for activating myelin clearance in the injured central nervous system, where myelin debris is not cleared efficiently. Here we show that Schwann cells, the myelinating glia of the PNS, collaborate with hematogenous macrophages to clear myelin debris using TAM (Tyro3, Axl, Mer) receptor-mediated phagocytosis as well as autophagy. In a mouse model of PNS nerve crush injury, Schwann cells up-regulate TAM phagocytic receptors Axl and Mertk following PNS injury, and Schwann cells lacking both of these phagocytic receptors exhibit significantly impaired myelin phagocytosis both in vitro and in vivo. Autophagy-deficient Schwann cells also display reductions in myelin clearance after mouse nerve crush injury, as has been recently shown following nerve transection. These findings add a mechanism, Axl/Mertk-mediated myelin clearance, to the repertoire of cellular machinery used to clear myelin in the injured PNS. Given recent evidence that astrocytes express Axl and Mertk and have previously unrecognized phagocytic potential, this pathway may be a promising avenue for activating myelin clearance after CNS injury.

  15. Regulation of HtrA2 on WT1 gene expression under imatinib stimulation and its effects on the cell biology of K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixia; Li, Yan; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qing; Qiu, Shaowei; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Min; Xing, Haiyan; Rao, Qing; Tian, Zheng; Tang, Kejing; Wang, Jianxiang; Mi, Yingchang

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) by serine protease high-temperature requirement protein A2 (HtrA2), a member of the Htr family, in K562 cells. In addition, the study aimed to observe the effect of this regulation on cell biological functions and its associated mechanisms. Expression of WT1 and HtrA2 mRNA, and proteins following imatinib and the HtrA2 inhibitor 5-[5-(2-nitrophenyl) furfuryl iodine]-1, 3-diphenyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (UCF-101) treatment was detected with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Subsequent to treatment with drugs and UCF-101, the proliferative function of K562 cells was detected using MTT assays, and the rate of apoptosis was detected using Annexin V with propidium iodide flow cytometry in K562 cells. The protein levels in the signaling pathway were analyzed using western blotting following treatment with imatinib and UCF-101. In K562 cells, imatinib treatment activated HtrA2 gene at a transcription level, while the WT1 gene was simultaneously downregulated. Following HtrA2 inhibitor (UCF-101) treatment, the downregulation of WT1 increased gradually. At the protein level, imatinib induced the increase in HtrA2 protein level and concomitantly downregulated WT1 protein level. Subsequent to HtrA2 inhibition by UCF-101, the WT1 protein level decreased temporarily, but eventually increased. Imatinib induced apoptosis in K562 cells, but this effect was attenuated by the HtrA2 inhibitor UCF-101, resulting in the upregulation of the WT1 protein level. However; UCF-101 did not markedly change the proliferation inhibition caused by imatinib. Imatinib activated the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway in K562 cells, and UCF-101 affected the activation of imatinib in the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Imatinib inhibited the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2) pathway markedly and persistently, but UCF-101

  16. Influence of particle geometry and PEGylation on phagocytosis of particulate carriers.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Winter, Gerhard; Besheer, Ahmed; Engert, Julia

    2014-04-25

    Particle geometry of micro- and nanoparticles has been identified as an important design parameter to influence the interaction with cells such as macrophages. A head to head comparison of elongated, non-spherical and spherical micro- and nanoparticles with and without PEGylation was carried out to benchmark two phagocytosis inhibiting techniques. J774.A1 macrophages were incubated with fluorescently labeled PLGA micro- and nanoparticles and analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FACS). Particle uptake into macrophages was significantly reduced upon PEGylation or elongated particle geometry. A combination of both, an elongated shape and PEGylation, had the strongest phagocytosis inhibiting effect for nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effect of glucidic and fat total parenteral nutrition on macrophage phagocytosis in rats].

    PubMed

    Cukier, C; Waitzberg, D L; Soares, S R; Logullo, A F; Bacchi, C E; Travassos, V H; Saldiva, P H; Torrinhas, R S; de Oliveira, T S

    1997-01-01

    Fat lipid emulsions in Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) have been associated to Mononuclear Phagocytary System (MPS) changes. Intravenous lipid emulsions may alter macrophage membrane composition but there are controversies about their effects on MPS function. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the influence of fat free TPN and fat emulsions TPN on the macrophage phagocytosis. Wistar rats (70) with external jugular vein canulation were divided in seven groups. The rats received, intravenously (i.v.) different isocaloric (1.16 kcal/mL), isonitrogenous (1.5 g/mL), and isolipidic (30 to 32% of non-proteic caloric value) TPN regimens or oral diet: 1) Group OS: oral diet with i.v. infusion of saline; 2) Group GLU: fat-free TPN; 3) Group LCT: TPN with 10% long chain triglecide emulsion (TCL); 6) Group MCT: TPN with 10% lipid emulsion with medium chain triglycerides (TCM-50%) and TCL (50%). After 96 hours of TPN or saline infusion, colloidal carbon was i.v. injected at 1.0 mL/kg body weight. The rats were sacrificed after three hours. Liver, spleen and lung were weighted and studied by immunohistochemistry by the avidine-biotine method. Under light microscopy the total macrophage number (MT) and colloidal carbon phagocytic macrophages number (MF) were established. Phagocytic index was MT/MF x 100. The results were statistically analysed (p < 0.05). The group under oral diet (OS) was the only one to gain weight. There were no differences in organ weight in any group. There were changes in MT, MF and phagocytic index in all TPN groups. Fat free TPN inhibited liver, spleen and lung macrophage phagocytosis. Fat TPN with TCL inhibited liver and lung macrophage phagocytosis. At conclusion fat free TPN or with long chain tryglicerides may inhibit MPS phagocytosis. Further studies are necessary to estabilish the effect of TPN on other MPS function.

  18. Flow cytometric quantitation of phagocytosis in heparinized complete blood with latex particles and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Egido, J M; Viñuelas, J

    1997-01-01

    We report a rapid method for the flow cytometric quantitation of phagocytosis in heparinized complete peripheral blood (HCPB), using commercially available phycoerythrin-conjugated latex particles of 1 micron diameter. The method is faster and shows greater reproducibility than Bjerknes' (1984) standard technique using propidium iodide-stained Candida albicans, conventionally applied to the leukocytic layer of peripheral blood but here modified for HCPB. We also report a modification of Bjerknes' Intracellular Killing Test to allow its application to HCPB.

  19. Geometry of carbon nanotubes and mechanisms of phagocytosis and toxic effects.

    PubMed

    Harik, Vasyl Michael

    2017-05-05

    A review of in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies of the potential toxic effects of carbon nanotubes is presented along with the analysis of experimental data and a hypothesis about the nanotube-asbestos similarity. Developments of the structure-activity paradigm have been reviewed along with the size effects and the classification of carbon nanotubes into eleven distinct classes (e.g., the high aspect ratio nanotubes, thick multi-wall nanotubes and short nanotubes). Scaling analysis of similarities between different classes of carbon nanotubes and asbestos fibers in the context of their potential toxicity and the efficiency of phagocytosis has been reviewed. The potential toxic effects of carbon nanotubes have been characterized by their normalized length, their aspect ratio and other parameters related to their inhalability, engulfment by macrophages and the effectiveness of phagocytosis. Geometric scaling parameters and the classification of carbon nanotubes are used to develop an updated parametric map for the extrapolation of the potential toxic effects resulting from the inhalation of long and short carbon nanotubes. An updated parametric map has been applied to the evaluation of the efficiency of phagocytosis involving distinct classes of carbon nanotubes. A critical value of an important nondimensional parameter characterizing the efficiency of phagocytosis for different nanotubes is presented along with its macrophage-based normalization. The present evaluation of the potential toxicological effects of the high aspect ratio carbon nanotubes is found to be in the agreement with other available studies and earlier scaling analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The zipper mechanism in phagocytosis: energetic requirements and variability in phagocytic cup shape

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Phagocytosis is the fundamental cellular process by which eukaryotic cells bind and engulf particles by their cell membrane. Particle engulfment involves particle recognition by cell-surface receptors, signaling and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton to guide the membrane around the particle in a zipper-like fashion. Despite the signaling complexity, phagocytosis also depends strongly on biophysical parameters, such as particle shape, and the need for actin-driven force generation remains poorly understood. Results Here, we propose a novel, three-dimensional and stochastic biophysical model of phagocytosis, and study the engulfment of particles of various sizes and shapes, including spiral and rod-shaped particles reminiscent of bacteria. Highly curved shapes are not taken up, in line with recent experimental results. Furthermore, we surprisingly find that even without actin-driven force generation, engulfment proceeds in a large regime of parameter values, albeit more slowly and with highly variable phagocytic cups. We experimentally confirm these predictions using fibroblasts, transfected with immunoreceptor FcγRIIa for engulfment of immunoglobulin G-opsonized particles. Specifically, we compare the wild-type receptor with a mutant receptor, unable to signal to the actin cytoskeleton. Based on the reconstruction of phagocytic cups from imaging data, we indeed show that cells are able to engulf small particles even without support from biological actin-driven processes. Conclusions This suggests that biochemical pathways render the evolutionary ancient process of phagocytic highly robust, allowing cells to engulf even very large particles. The particle-shape dependence of phagocytosis makes a systematic investigation of host-pathogen interactions and an efficient design of a vehicle for drug delivery possible. PMID:21059234

  1. A Sequential Model of Host Cell Killing and Phagocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Sateriale, Adam; Huston, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is responsible for invasive intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. The virulence of Entamoeba histolytica is strongly correlated with the parasite's capacity to effectively kill and phagocytose host cells. The process by which host cells are killed and phagocytosed follows a sequential model of adherence, cell killing, initiation of phagocytosis, and engulfment. This paper presents recent advances in the cytolytic and phagocytic processes of Entamoeba histolytica in context of the sequential model. PMID:21331284

  2. EphA2 promotes infiltrative invasion of glioma stem cells in vivo through cross-talk with Akt and regulates stem cell properties.

    PubMed

    Miao, H; Gale, N W; Guo, H; Qian, J; Petty, A; Kaspar, J; Murphy, A J; Valenzuela, D M; Yancopoulos, G; Hambardzumyan, D; Lathia, J D; Rich, J N; Lee, J; Wang, B

    2015-01-29

    Diffuse infiltrative invasion is a major cause for the dismal prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Using human glioma stem cells (GSCs) that recapitulate the invasive propensity of primary GBM, we find that EphA2 critically regulates GBM invasion in vivo. EphA2 was expressed in all seven GSC lines examined, and overexpression of EphA2 enhanced intracranial invasion. The effects required Akt-mediated phosphorylation of EphA2 on serine 897. In vitro the Akt-EphA2 signaling axis is maintained in the absence of ephrin-A ligands and is disrupted upon ligand stimulation. To test whether ephrin-As in tumor microenvironment can regulate GSC invasion, the newly established Efna1;Efna3;Efna4 triple knockout mice (TKO) were used in an ex vivo brain slice invasion assay. We observed significantly increased GSC invasion through the brain slices of TKO mice relative to wild-type (WT) littermates. Mechanistically EphA2 knockdown suppressed stem cell properties of GSCs, causing diminished self-renewal, reduced stem marker expression and decreased tumorigenicity. In a subset of GSCs, the reduced stem cell properties were associated with lower Sox2 expression. Overexpression of EphA2 promoted stem cell properties in a kinase-independent manner and increased Sox2 expression. Disruption of Akt-EphA2 cross-talk attenuated stem cell marker expression and neurosphere formation while having minimal effects on tumorigenesis. Taken together, the results show that EphA2 endows invasiveness of GSCs in vivo in cooperation with Akt and regulates glioma stem cell properties.

  3. Hsp90 is an essential regulator of EphA2 receptor stability and signaling: Implications for cancer cell migration and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Liu, Xueguang; Gopal, Udhayakumar; Isaacs, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    A subset of Eph receptors and their corresponding ligands are commonly expressed in tumor cells, where they mediate biological processes such as cell migration and adhesion, while their expression in endothelial cells promotes angiogenesis. In particular, the tumor-specific upregulation of EphA2 confers properties of increased cellular motility, invasiveness, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor progression, and its overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in several cancer types. The cellular chaperone Hsp90 also plays a significant role in regulating cell migration and angiogenesis, although the full repertoire of motility driving proteins dependent upon Hsp90 function remain poorly defined. We explored the hypothesis that Hsp90 may regulate the activity of EphA2 and examined the potential relationship between EphA2 receptor signaling and chaperone function. We demonstrate that geldanamycin (GA), an Hsp90 antagonist, dramatically destabilizes newly synthesized EphA2 protein and diminishes receptor levels in a proteasome-dependent pathway. In addition, GA treatment impairs EphA2 signaling, as evidenced by a decrease in ligand-dependent receptor phosphorylation and subsequent cell rounding. Therefore, Hsp90 exerts a dual role in regulating the stability of nascent EphA2 protein, and maintaining the signaling capacity of the mature receptor. Our findings also suggest that the GA-dependent mitigation of EphA2 signaling in receptor-overexpressing cancer cells may be sufficient to recapitulate the anti-motility effects of this drug. Finally, the identification of a pharmacologic approach to suppress EphA2 expression and signaling highlights the attractive possibility that Hsp90 inhibitors may have clinical utility in antagonizing EphA2-dependent tumorigenic progression. PMID:19567782

  4. PacCYP707A2 negatively regulates cherry fruit ripening while PacCYP707A1 mediates drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Kai, Wenbin; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Yushu; Leng, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Sweet cherry is a non-climacteric fruit and its ripening is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) during fruit development. In this study, four cDNAs (PacCYP707A1-4) encoding 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA, were identified in sweet cherry fruits using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and particle bombardment approaches. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of target gene transcripts in VIGS-treated cherry fruits. In PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening and fruit colouring were promoted relative to control fruits, and both ABA accumulation and PacNCED1 transcript levels were up-regulated by 140%. Silencing of PacCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including the ABA metabolism-associated genes NCED and CYP707A, the anthocyanin synthesis genes PacCHS, PacCHI, PacF3H, PacDFR, PacANS, and PacUFGT, the ethylene biosynthesis gene PacACO1, and the transcription factor PacMYBA. The promoter of PacMYBA responded more strongly to PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits than to PacCYP707A1-RNAi-treated fruits. By contrast, silencing of PacCYP707A1 stimulated a slight increase in fruit colouring and enhanced resistance to dehydration stress compared with control fruits. These results suggest that PacCYP707A2 is a key regulator of ABA catabolism that functions as a negative regulator of fruit ripening, while PacCYP707A1 regulates ABA content in response to dehydration during fruit development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. PacCYP707A2 negatively regulates cherry fruit ripening while PacCYP707A1 mediates drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Kai, Wenbin; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Yushu; Leng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry is a non-climacteric fruit and its ripening is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) during fruit development. In this study, four cDNAs (PacCYP707A1–4) encoding 8′-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA, were identified in sweet cherry fruits using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and particle bombardment approaches. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of target gene transcripts in VIGS-treated cherry fruits. In PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening and fruit colouring were promoted relative to control fruits, and both ABA accumulation and PacNCED1 transcript levels were up-regulated by 140%. Silencing of PacCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including the ABA metabolism-associated genes NCED and CYP707A, the anthocyanin synthesis genes PacCHS, PacCHI, PacF3H, PacDFR, PacANS, and PacUFGT, the ethylene biosynthesis gene PacACO1, and the transcription factor PacMYBA. The promoter of PacMYBA responded more strongly to PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits than to PacCYP707A1-RNAi-treated fruits. By contrast, silencing of PacCYP707A1 stimulated a slight increase in fruit colouring and enhanced resistance to dehydration stress compared with control fruits. These results suggest that PacCYP707A2 is a key regulator of ABA catabolism that functions as a negative regulator of fruit ripening, while PacCYP707A1 regulates ABA content in response to dehydration during fruit development. PMID:25956880

  6. EphrinA2 Regulates Clathrin Mediated KSHV Endocytosis in Fibroblast Cells by Coordinating Integrin-Associated Signaling and c-Cbl Directed Polyubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Dipanjan; Chakraborty, Sayan; Bandyopadhyay, Chirosree; Valiya Veettil, Mohanan; Ansari, Mairaj Ahmed; Singh, Vivek Vikram; Chandran, Bala

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) interacts with human dermal endothelial cell surface tyrosine kinase EphrinA2 (EphA2) and integrins (α3β1 and αVβ3) in the lipid raft (LR) region, and EphA2 regulates macropinocytic virus entry by coordinating integrin-c-Cbl associated signaling. In contrast, KSHV enters human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells by LR-independent clathrin mediated endocytosis. The present studies conducted to identify the key molecules regulating KSHV entry in HFF cells showed that KSHV induces association with integrins (αVβ5, αVβ3 and α3β1) and EphA2 in non-LR regions early during infection and activates EphA2, which in turn associates with phosphorylated c-Cbl, myosin IIA, FAK, Src, and PI3-K, as well as clathrin and its adaptor AP2 and effector Epsin-15 proteins. EphA2 knockdown significantly reduced these signal inductions, virus internalization and gene expression. c-Cbl knockdown ablated the c-Cbl mediated K63 type polyubiquitination of EphA2 and clathrin association with EphA2 and KSHV. Mutations in EphA2's tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) or sterile alpha motif (SAM) abolished its interaction with c-Cbl. Mutations in tyrosine kinase binding (TKB) or RING finger (RF) domains of c-Cbl resulted in very poor association of c-Cbl with EphA2 and decreased EphA2 polyubiquitination. These studies demonstrated the contributions of these domains in EphA2 and c-Cbl association, EphA2 polyubiquitination and virus-EphA2 internalization. Collectively, these results revealed for the first time that EphA2 influences the tyrosine phosphorylation of clathrin, the role of EphA2 in clathrin mediated endocytosis of a virus, and c-Cbl mediated EphA2 polyubiquitination directing KSHV entry in HFF cells via coordinated signal induction and progression of endocytic events, all of which suggest that targeting EphA2 and c-Cbl could block KSHV entry and infection. PMID:23874206

  7. Phagocytosis and Respiratory Burst Activity in Lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) Leucocytes Analysed by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Haugland, Gyri T.; Jakobsen, Ragnhild Aakre; Vestvik, Nils; Ulven, Kristian; Stokka, Lene; Wergeland, Heidrun I.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we have isolated leucocytes from peripheral blood, head kidney and spleen from lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus L.), and performed functional studies like phagocytosis and respiratory burst, as well as morphological and cytochemical analyses. Different leucocytes were identified, such as lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells with bean shaped or bilobed nuclei. In addition, cells with similar morphology as described for dendritic cells in trout were abundant among the isolated leucocytes. Flow cytometry was successfully used for measuring phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity. The phagocytic capacity and ability were very high, and cells with different morphology in all three leucocyte preparations phagocytised beads rapidly. Due to lack of available cell markers, the identity of the phagocytic cells could not be determined. The potent non-specific phagocytosis was in accordance with a high number of cells positive for myeloperoxidase, an enzyme involved in oxygen-dependent killing mechanism present in phagocytic cells. Further, high respiratory burst activity was present in the leucocytes samples, verifying a potent oxygen- dependent degradation. At present, the specific antibody immune response could not be measured, as immunoglobulin or B-cells have not yet been isolated. Therefore, analyses of the specific immune response in this fish species await further clarification. The present study presents the first analyses of lumpsucker immunity and also the first within the order Scopaeniformes. PMID:23112870

  8. Granulocyte phagocytosis and killing virulent and avirulent serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Braconier, J H; Odeberg, H

    1982-08-01

    Five commonly isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes (3, 6, 14, 19, and 23) and five rarely found serotypes (31, 35, 36, 42, and 43) were compared to elucidate whether increased resistance against granulocyte phagocytosis and killing could explain the restricted number of pneumococcal serotypes found in infections. There was a great variation in sensitivity among the serotypes to granulocyte killing. No consistent pattern was found when pathogenicity and resistance to granulocytes were compared. The results do not indicate that the increased tendency of pathogenic pneumococcal serotypes to cause infections is due to increased resistance to granulocytes. Monocyte killing of some pneumococal serotypes (6, 19, 23, 35, and 43) was also studied and found very similar to granulocyte killing. Defective granulocyte kiling of encapsulated pneumococci was due to impaired phagocytosis. Moreover, no correlation was found between the sensitivity of the serotypes to isolated intragranulocytic microbial systems (i.e., MPO, hydrogen peroxide, or CCP) and the sensitivity to killing by intact granulocytes or pathogenicity. The significance of both the classical and alternative complement pathways for pneumococcal opsonization was indicated by reduced, the residual phagocytosis in C2-deficient and MgEGTA-chelated serum.

  9. Fc-receptor induced cell spreading during frustrated phagocytosis in J774A.1 macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovari, Daniel; Curtis, Jennifer; Wei, Wenbin

    2014-03-01

    Phagocytosis is the process where by cells engulf foreign particles. It is the primary mechanism through which macrophages and neutrophils (white blood cells) eliminate pathogens and debris from the body. The behavior is the result of a cascade of chemical and mechanical cues, which result in the actin-driven expansion of the cell's membrane around its target. For macrophages undergoing Fc-mediated phagocytosis, we show that above a minimum threshold the spreading rate and maximum cell-target contact area are independent of the target's opsonin density. Qualitatively, macrophage phagocytic spreading is similar to the spreading of other cell types (e.g. fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and Dict.d.). Early spreading is most likely the result of ``passive'' alignment of the cell to the target surface. This is followed by an active expansion period driven by actin. Finally upon reaching a maximum contact area, typically 2-3 times the size of ``non-activated'' cells, macrophages often undergo a period of rapid contraction not reported in other cell types. We hypothesize that this, as yet unexplained, transition may be specific to the chemical and mechanical machinery associated with phagocytosis. This work was funded by NSF grant PHYS 0848797 and NSF grant DMR 0820382.

  10. Primary porcine Kupffer cell phagocytosis of human platelets involves the CD18 receptor.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Ray K; Paris, Leela L; Reyes, Luz M; Sidner, Richard A; Estrada, Jose L; Downey, Susan M; Wang, Zheng-Yu; Tector, A Joseph; Burlak, Christopher

    2011-10-15

    Hepatic failure has been treated successfully with clinical extracorporeal perfusions of porcine livers. However, dog-to-pig and pig-to-baboon liver xenotransplant models have resulted in severe bleeding secondary to liver xenograft-induced thrombocytopenia. Kupffer cells (KC) are abundant phagocytic cells in the liver. KC express the CD11b/CD18 receptor, which has been implicated in chilled platelet binding and phagocytosis through interaction with platelet surface proteins and carbohydrates. We sought to identify the role of KC CD18 in liver xenograft-induced thrombocytopenia. Primary pig KC were characterized by flow cytometry, immunoblots, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Pig KC were used in inhibition assays with fluorescently labeled human platelets. The CD18 receptor was targeted for siRNA knockdown. Domestic and α1,3-galactosyltransferase double knockout porcine KC cultures were approximately 92% positive for CD18 as detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Use of CD18 blocking antibodies resulted in reduction of human platelet binding and phagocytosis. Additionally, asialofetuin, not fetuin, inhibited platelet phagocytosis suggesting the involvement of an oligosaccharide-binding site. Furthermore, reduced CD18 expression by siRNA resulted in decreased human platelet binding. Our data suggest that primary pig KC bind and phagocytose human platelets with involvement of CD18. Further understanding and modification of CD18 expression in pigs may result in a liver xenograft with reduced thrombocytopenic effects, which could be used as a bridge to allogeneic liver transplantation.

  11. Quantitative analysis of the role of fiber length on phagocytosis and inflammatory response by alveolar macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Padmore, Trudy; Stark, Carahline; Turkevich, Leonid A.; Champion, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Background In the lung, macrophages attempt to engulf inhaled high aspect ratio pathogenic materials, secreting inflammatory molecules in the process. The inability of macrophages to remove these materials leads to chronic inflammation and disease. How the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms of these effects are influenced by fiber length remains undetermined. This study evaluates the role of fiber length on phagocytosis and molecular inflammatory responses to non-cytotoxic fibers, enabling development of quantitative length-based models. Methods Murine alveolar macrophages were exposed to long and short populations of JM-100 glass fibers, produced by successive sedimentation and repeated crushing, respectively. Interactions between fibers and macrophages were observed using time-lapse video microscopy, and quantified by flow cytometry. Inflammatory biomolecules (TNF-α, IL-1 α, COX-2, PGE2) were measured. Results Uptake of short fibers occurred more readily than for long, but long fibers were more potent stimulators of inflammatory molecules. Stimulation resulted in dose-dependent secretion of inflammatory biomolecules but no cytotoxicity or strong ROS production. Linear cytokine dose-response curves evaluated with length-dependent potency models, using measured fiber length distributions, resulted in identification of critical fiber lengths that cause frustrated phagocytosis and increased inflammatory biomolecule production. Conclusion Short fibers played a minor role in the inflammatory response compared to long fibers. The critical lengths at which frustrated phagocytosis occurs can be quantified by fitting dose-response curves to fiber distribution data. PMID:27784615

  12. Niche induced cell death and epithelial phagocytosis regulate hair follicle stem cell pool

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Kailin R.; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Zito, Giovanni; Myung, Peggy; Sun, Thomas Yang; Brown, Samara; Gonzalez, David; Blagoev, Krastan B.; Haberman, Ann M.; Greco, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tissue homeostasis is achieved through a balance of cell production (growth) and elimination (regression)1,2. Contrary to tissue growth, the cells and molecular signals required for tissue regression remain unknown. To investigate physiological tissue regression, we use the mouse hair follicle, which cycles stereotypically between phases of growth and regression while maintaining a pool of stem cells to perpetuate tissue regeneration3. Here we show by intravital microscopy in live mice4–6 that the regression phase eliminates the majority of the epithelial cells by two distinct mechanisms: terminal differentiation of suprabasal cells and a spatial gradient of apoptosis of basal cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal epithelial cells collectively act as phagocytes to clear dying epithelial neighbors. Through cellular and genetic ablation we show that epithelial cell death is extrinsically induced through TGFβ activation and mesenchymal crosstalk. Strikingly, our data show that regression acts to reduce the stem cell pool as inhibition of regression results in excess basal epithelial cells with regenerative abilities. This study identifies the cellular behaviors and molecular mechanisms of regression that counterbalance growth to maintain tissue homeostasis. PMID:25849774

  13. Niche-induced cell death and epithelial phagocytosis regulate hair follicle stem cell pool.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Kailin R; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Zito, Giovanni; Myung, Peggy; Sun, Thomas Y; Brown, Samara; Gonzalez, David G; Blagoev, Krastan B; Haberman, Ann M; Greco, Valentina

    2015-06-04

    Tissue homeostasis is achieved through a balance of cell production (growth) and elimination (regression). In contrast to tissue growth, the cells and molecular signals required for tissue regression remain unknown. To investigate physiological tissue regression, we use the mouse hair follicle, which cycles stereotypically between phases of growth and regression while maintaining a pool of stem cells to perpetuate tissue regeneration. Here we show by intravital microscopy in live mice that the regression phase eliminates the majority of the epithelial cells by two distinct mechanisms: terminal differentiation of suprabasal cells and a spatial gradient of apoptosis of basal cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal epithelial cells collectively act as phagocytes to clear dying epithelial neighbours. Through cellular and genetic ablation we show that epithelial cell death is extrinsically induced through transforming growth factor (TGF)-β activation and mesenchymal crosstalk. Strikingly, our data show that regression acts to reduce the stem cell pool, as inhibition of regression results in excess basal epithelial cells with regenerative abilities. This study identifies the cellular behaviours and molecular mechanisms of regression that counterbalance growth to maintain tissue homeostasis.

  14. Regulation of the Low Dose Radiation Paracrine-Specific Anchorage-Independent Growth Response by Annexin A2

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Thomas J.; Opresko, Lee K.; Waisman, David M.

    2009-07-13

    ABSTRACT-Here we identify release of annexin A2 into the culture medium in response to low dose X-ray radiation exposure and establish functional linkages to an established paracrine factor-mediated anchorage-independent growth response. Using a standard bicameral coculture model, we observe that annexin A2 levels associated with non-irradiated neighboring cells seeded in the lower chamber (annexin A2 silenced [shRNA] JB6 cells) are increased upon coculture with irradiated (10-50 cGy) JB6 cells seeded in the upper chamber, relative to coculture with sham exposed JB6 cells seeded in the upper chamber, suggesting that annexin A2 released into the medium is capable of communicating inmore » a paracrine fashion. Using a previously established coculture model, we observed that the paracrine factor-mediated anchorage-independent growth response to low dose X-ray radiation is markedly reduced when irradiated annexin A2 silenced (shRNA) JB6 cells are used, relative to coculture with irradiated annexin A2 competent vector control counterparts. These observations suggest that annexin A2 is functionally linked to the radiation paracrine factor-specific anchorage-independent growth response in JB6 cells.« less

  15. The in vitro biocompatibility and macrophage phagocytosis of Mg17Al12 phase in Mg-Al-Zn alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; He, Peng; Wan, Peng; Li, Mei; Wang, Kehong; Tan, Lili; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Ke

    2015-07-01

    Mg alloys are gaining interest for applications as biodegradable medical implant, including Mg-Al-Zn series alloys with good combination of mechanical properties and reasonable corrosion resistance. However, whether the existence of second phase particles in the alloys exerts influence on the biocompatibility is still not clear. A deeper understanding of how the particles regulate specific biological responses is becoming a crucial requirement for their subsequent biomedical application. In this work, the in vitro biocompatibility of Mg17Al12 as a common second phase in biodegradable Mg-Al-Zn alloys was investigated via hemolysis, cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, and cell adhesion tests. Moreover, osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by the extracellular matrix mineralization assay. The Mg17Al12 particles were also prepared to simulate the real situation of second phase in the in vivo environment in order to estimate the cellular response in macrophages to the Mg17Al12 particles. The experimental results indicated that no hemolysis was found and an excellent cytocompatibility was also proved for the Mg17Al12 second phase when co-cultured with L929 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells and BMSCs. Macrophage phagocytosis co-culture test revealed that Mg17Al12 particles exerted no harmful effect on RAW264.7 macrophages and could be phagocytized by the RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, the possible inflammatory reaction and metabolic way for Mg17Al12 phase were also discussed in detail. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. SpTransformer proteins from the purple sea urchin opsonize bacteria, augment phagocytosis, and retard bacterial growth

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hung-Yen; Lun, Cheng Man

    2018-01-01

    The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, has a complex and robust immune system that is mediated by a number of multi-gene families including the SpTransformer (SpTrf) gene family (formerly Sp185/333). In response to immune challenge from bacteria and various pathogen-associated molecular patterns, the SpTrf genes are up-regulated in sea urchin phagocytes and express a diverse array of SpTrf proteins. We show here that SpTrf proteins from coelomocytes and isolated by nickel affinity (cNi-SpTrf) bind to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and to Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with saturable kinetics and specificity. cNi-SpTrf opsonization of the marine bacteria, Vibrio diazotrophicus, augments phagocytosis, however, opsonization by the recombinant protein, rSpTrf-E1, does not. Binding by cNi-SpTrf proteins retards growth rates significantly for several species of bacteria. SpTrf proteins, previously thought to be strictly membrane-associated, are secreted from phagocytes in short term cultures and bind V. diazotrophicus that are located both outside of and within phagocytes. Our results demonstrate anti-microbial activities of native SpTrf proteins and suggest variable functions among different SpTrf isoforms. Multiple isoforms may act synergistically to detect a wide array of pathogens and provide flexible and efficient host immunity. PMID:29738524

  17. EphA2 Promotes Infiltrative Invasion of Glioma Stem Cells in vivo through Crosstalk with Akt and Regulates Stem Properties

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Hui; Gale, Nickolas W.; Guo, Hong; Qian, Juan; Petty, Aaron; Kaspar, James; Murphy, Andrew J.; Valenzuela, David M.; Yancopoulos, George; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Lathia, Justin D.; Rich, Jeremy N.; Lee, Jeongwu; Wang, Bingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse infiltrative invasion is a major cause for the dismal prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM), but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Using human glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) that recapitulate the invasive propensity of primary GBM, we find that EphA2 critically regulates GBM invasion in vivo. EphA2 was expressed in all seven GSC lines examined, and overexpression of EphA2 enhanced intracranial invasion. The effects required Akt-mediated phosphorylation of EphA2 on serine 897. In vitro the Akt-EphA2 signaling axis is maintained in the absence of ephrin-A ligands and is disrupted upon ligand stimulation. To test whether ephrin-As in tumor microenvironment can regulate GSC invasion, the newly established Efna1;Efna3;Efna4 triple knockout mice (TKO) were used in an ex vivo brain slice invasion assay. We observed significantly increased GSC invasion through the brain slices of TKO mice relative to wild type littermates. Mechanistically EphA2 knockdown suppressed stem properties of GSCs, causing diminished self-renewal, reduced stem marker expression and decreased tumorigenicity. In a subset of GSCs, the reduced stem properties were associated with lower Sox2 expression. Overexpression of EphA2 promoted stem properties in a kinase-independent manner and increased Sox2 expression. In addition to suppressing invasion, disrupting Akt-EphA2 crosstalk attenuated stem marker expression and neurosphere formation while having minimal effects on tumorigenesis, suggesting that the Akt-EphA2 signaling axis contributes to the stem properties. Taken together, the results show that EphA2 endows invasiveness of GSCs in vivo in cooperation with Akt and contributes to the maintenance of stem properties. PMID:24488013

  18. The Role of Siglec-1 and SR-BI Interaction in the Phagocytosis of Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang; Zhu, Lin; Wu, Li-juan; Zhong, Ren-qian

    2013-01-01

    Background Macrophages play a proatherosclerotic role in atherosclerosis via oxLDL uptake. As an adhesion molecular of I-type lectins, Siglec-1 is highly expressed on circulating monocytes and plaque macrophages of atherosclerotic patients, but the exact role of Siglec-1 has not been elucidated. Methods In this study, oxLDL was used to stimulate Siglec-1 and some oxLDL receptors (SR-BI, CD64, CD32B, LOX-1 and TLR-4) expression on bone marrow-derived macrophages, whereas small interfering RNA was used to down-regulate Siglec-1. Meanwhile, an ELISA-based assay for Siglec-1-oxLDL interaction was performed, and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were used to determine the role of Siglec-1 in oxLDL uptake by macrophages. Results We found that oxLDL could up-regulate the expression of various potential oxLDL receptors, including Siglec-1, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, down-regulation of Siglec-1 could attenuate oxLDL uptake by Oil red O staining. LSCM revealed that Siglec-1 and CD64/SR-BI may colocalize on oxLDL-stimulated macrophage surface, whereas co-IP showed that Siglec-1 and SR-BI can be immunoprecipitated by each other. However, no direct interaction between Siglec-1 and oxLDL was found in the in vitro protein interaction system. Conclusions Thus, Siglec-1 can interact with SR-BI in the phagocytosis of oxLDL by macrophages, rather than act as an independent receptor for oxLDL. PMID:23520536

  19. CD147 regulates cancer migration via direct interaction with Annexin A2 and DOCK3-β-catenin-WAVE2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong-Yong; Wang, Shi-Jie; Miao, Ji-Yu; Fu, Zhi-Guang; Feng, Fei; Wu, Jiao; Yang, Xiang-Min; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2016-02-02

    The acquisition of inappropriate migratory feature is crucial for tumor metastasis. It has been suggested that CD147 and Annexin A2 are involved in regulating tumor cell movement, while the regulatory mechanisms are far from clear. In this study, we demonstrated that CD147 physically interacted with the N-terminal domain of Annexin A2 and decreased Annexin A2 phosphorylation on tyrosine 23. In vitro kinase assay showed that the I domain of CD147 was indispensable for CD147-mediated downregulation of Annexin A2 phosphorylation by Src. Furthermore, we determined that p-Annexin A2 promoted the expression of dedicator of cytokinesis 3 (DOCK3) and DOCK3 blocked β-catenin nuclear translocation, resulting in inhibition of β-catenin signaling. In addition, DOCK3 inhibited lamellipodium dynamics and tumor cell movement. Also, we found that β-catenin signaling increased WAVE2 expression. Therefore, DOCK3 was characterized as a negative regulator of WAVE2 expression via inhibiting β-catenin signaling. Our study provides the first evidence that CD147 promotes tumor cell movement and metastasis via direct interaction with Annexin A2 and DOCK3-β-catenin-WAVE2 signaling axis.

  20. CD147 regulates cancer migration via direct interaction with Annexin A2 and DOCK3-β-catenin-WAVE2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Fei; Wu, Jiao; Yang, Xiang-Min; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of inappropriate migratory feature is crucial for tumor metastasis. It has been suggested that CD147 and Annexin A2 are involved in regulating tumor cell movement, while the regulatory mechanisms are far from clear. In this study, we demonstrated that CD147 physically interacted with the N-terminal domain of Annexin A2 and decreased Annexin A2 phosphorylation on tyrosine 23. In vitro kinase assay showed that the I domain of CD147 was indispensable for CD147-mediated downregulation of Annexin A2 phosphorylation by Src. Furthermore, we determined that p-Annexin A2 promoted the expression of dedicator of cytokinesis 3 (DOCK3) and DOCK3 blocked β-catenin nuclear translocation, resulting in inhibition of β-catenin signaling. In addition, DOCK3 inhibited lamellipodium dynamics and tumor cell movement. Also, we found that β-catenin signaling increased WAVE2 expression. Therefore, DOCK3 was characterized as a negative regulator of WAVE2 expression via inhibiting β-catenin signaling. Our study provides the first evidence that CD147 promotes tumor cell movement and metastasis via direct interaction with Annexin A2 and DOCK3-β-catenin-WAVE2 signaling axis. PMID:26716413

  1. Dlg-1 Interacts With and Regulates the Activities of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors and EphA2 in the Mouse Lens.

    PubMed

    Lee, SungKyoung; Shatadal, Shalini; Griep, Anne E

    2016-02-01

    We previously showed that Discs large-1 (Dlg-1) regulates lens fiber cell structure and the fibroblast growth factor receptor (Fgfr) signaling pathway, a pathway required for fiber cell differentiation. Herein, we investigated the mechanism through which Dlg-1 regulates Fgfr signaling. Immunofluorescence was used to measure levels of Fgfr1, Fgfr2, and activated Fgfr signaling intermediates, pErk and pAkt, in control and Dlg-1-deficient lenses that were haplodeficient for Fgfr1 or Fgfr2. Immunoblotting was used to measure levels of N-cadherin, EphA2, β-catenin, and tyrosine-phosphorylated EphA2, Fgfr1, Fgfr2, and Fgfr3 in cytoskeletal-associated and cytosolic fractions of control and Dlg-1-deficient lenses. Complex formation between Dlg-1, N-cadherin, β-catenin, Fgfr1, Fgfr2, Fgfr3, and EphA2 was assessed by coimmunoprecipitation. Lenses deficient for Dlg-1 and haplodeficient for Fgfr1 or Fgfr2 showed increased levels of Fgfr2 or Fgfr1, respectively. Levels of pErk and pAkt correlated with the level of Fgfr2. N-cadherin was reduced in the cytoskeletal-associated fraction and increased in the cytosolic fraction of Dlg-1-deficient lenses. Dlg-1 complexed with β-catenin, EphA2, Fgfr1, Fgfr2, and Fgfr3. EphA2 complexed with N-cadherin, β-catenin, Fgfr1, Fgfr2, and Fgfr3. Levels of these interactions were altered in Dlg-1-deficient lenses. Loss of Dlg-1 led to changes in Fgfr1, Fgfr2, Fgfr3, and EphA2 levels and to greater changes in the levels of their activation. Dlg-1 complexes with and regulates the activities of EphA2, Fgfr1, Fgfr2, and Fgfr3. As EphA2 contains a Psd95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ) binding motif, whereas Fgfrs do not, we propose that the PDZ protein, Dlg-1, modulates Fgfr signaling through regulation of EphA2.

  2. Up-regulation of ribosome biogenesis by MIR196A2 genetic variation promotes endometriosis development and progression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cherry Yin-Yi; Lai, Ming-Tsung; Chen, Yi; Yang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Hui-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Chan; Chen, Chih-Mei; Chan, Carmen; Chung, Ching; Tseng, Chun-Cheng; Hwang, Tritium; Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2016-11-22

    Aberrant miRNA expression has been reported in endometriosis and miRNA gene polymorphisms have been linked to cancer. Because certain ovarian cancers arise from endometriosis, we genotyped seven cancer-related miRNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (MiRSNPs) to investigate their possible roles in endometriosis. Genetic variants in MIR196A2 (rs11614913) and MIR100 (rs1834306) were found to be associated with endometriosis development and related clinical phenotypes, such as infertility and pain. Downstream analysis of the MIR196A2 risk allele revealed upregulation of rRNA editing and protein synthesis genes, suggesting hyper-activation of ribosome biogenesis as a driving force for endometriosis progression. Clinical studies confirmed higher levels of small nucleolar RNAs and ribosomal proteins in atypical endometriosis lesions, and this was more pronounced in the associated ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Treating ovarian clear cells with CX5461, an RNA polymerase I inhibitor, suppressed cell growth and mobility followed by cell cycle arrest at G2/M stage and apoptosis. Our study thus uncovered a novel tumorigenesis pathway triggered by the cancer-related MIR196A2 risk allele during endometriosis development and progression. We suggest that anti-RNA polymerase I therapy may be efficacious for treating endometriosis and associated malignancies.

  3. Circadian regulation of intestinal lipid absorption by apolipoprotein AIV involves forkhead transcription factors A2 and O1 and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyue; Munshi, Mohamed Khalid; Iqbal, Jahangir; Queiroz, Joyce; Sirwi, Alaa Ahmed; Shah, Shrenik; Younus, Abdullah; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2013-07-12

    We have shown previously that Clock, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), and nocturnin are involved in the circadian regulation of intestinal lipid absorption. Here, we clarified the role of apolipoprotein AIV (apoAIV) in the diurnal regulation of plasma lipids and intestinal lipid absorption in mice. Plasma triglyceride in apoAIV(-/-) mice showed diurnal variations similar to apoAIV(+/+) mice; however, the increases in plasma triglyceride at night were significantly lower in these mice. ApoAIV(-/-) mice absorbed fewer lipids at night and showed blunted response to daytime feeding. To explain reasons for these lower responses, we measured MTP expression; intestinal MTP was low at night, and its induction after food entrainment was less in apoAIV(-/-) mice. Conversely, apoAIV overexpression increased MTP mRNA in hepatoma cells, indicating transcriptional regulation. Mechanistic studies revealed that sequences between -204/-775 bp in the MTP promoter respond to apoAIV and that apoAIV enhances expression of FoxA2 and FoxO1 transcription factors and their binding to the identified cis elements in the MTP promoter at night. Knockdown of FoxA2 and FoxO1 abolished apoAIV-mediated MTP induction. Similarly, knockdown of apoAIV in differentiated Caco-2 cells reduced MTP, FoxA2, and FoxO1 mRNA levels, cellular MTP activity, and media apoB. Moreover, FoxA2 and FoxO1 expression showed diurnal variations, and their expression was significantly lower in apoAIV(-/-) mice. These data indicate that apoAIV modulates diurnal changes in lipid absorption by regulating forkhead transcription factors and MTP and that inhibition of apoAIV expression might reduce plasma lipids.

  4. MLL5, a trithorax homolog, indirectly regulates H3K4 methylation, represses cyclin A2 expression, and promotes myogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Soji; Sreenivas, Prethish; Sambasivan, Ramkumar; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Kandalla, Prashanth; Pavlath, Grace K.; Dhawan, Jyotsna

    2009-01-01

    Most cells in adult tissues are nondividing. In skeletal muscle, differentiated myofibers have exited the cell cycle permanently, whereas satellite stem cells withdraw transiently, returning to active proliferation to repair damaged myofibers. We have examined the epigenetic mechanisms operating in conditional quiescence by analyzing the function of a predicted chromatin regulator mixed lineage leukemia 5 (MLL5) in a culture model of reversible arrest. MLL5 is induced in quiescent myoblasts and regulates both the cell cycle and differentiation via a hierarchy of chromatin and transcriptional regulators. Knocking down MLL5 delays entry of quiescent myoblasts into S phase, but hastens S-phase completion. Cyclin A2 (CycA) mRNA is no longer restricted to S phase, but is induced throughout G0/G1, with activation of the cell cycle regulated element (CCRE) in the CycA promoter. Overexpressed MLL5 physically associates with the CCRE and impairs its activity. MLL5 also regulates CycA indirectly: Cux, an activator of CycA promoter and S phase is induced in RNAi cells, and Brm/Brg1, CCRE-binding repressors that promote differentiation are repressed. In knockdown cells, H3K4 methylation at the CCRE is reduced, reflecting quantitative global changes in methylation. MLL5 appears to lack intrinsic histone methyl transferase activity, but regulates expression of histone-modifying enzymes LSD1 and SET7/9, suggesting an indirect mechanism. Finally, expression of muscle regulators Pax7, Myf5, and myogenin is impaired in MLL5 knockdown cells, which are profoundly differentiation defective. Collectively, our results suggest that MLL5 plays an integral role in novel chromatin regulatory mechanisms that suppress inappropriate expression of S-phase-promoting genes and maintain expression of determination genes in quiescent cells. PMID:19264965

  5. Effect of chondroitin sulfate on turpentine-induced down-regulation of CYP1A2 and CYP3A6.

    PubMed

    Iovu, Mirela-Onita; Héroux, Lucie; Vergés, Josep; Montell, Eulália; Paiement, Jacques; du Souich, Patrick

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to assess whether chronic administration of chondroitin sulfate (CS) affects baseline expression of cytochrome P450 isoforms and impedes the decrease in expression and activity of CYP1A2 and CYP3A6 in rabbits with a turpentine-induced inflammatory reaction (TIIR). Seven groups of 5 rabbits, 3 control groups and 4 receiving 20 mg/kg/day of CS for 20 and 30 days, were used. The rabbits of 1 control group and 2 groups receiving CS had a TIIR; finally, the rabbits of one of the control groups remained in the animal facilities for 30 days to assess the effect of time and environment on cytochrome P450. In control rabbits, intake of CS for 20 and 30 days did not affect CYP3A6, CYP1A2 and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) mRNA, protein expression and activity. Compared with control rabbits, the TIIR not only reduced mRNA, protein expression and activity of CYP3A6 and CYP1A2 but also that of CPR. In rabbits with TIIR, CS prevented the decrease of CYP3A6 expression but not the reduction in activity. CS did not impede TIIR-induced down-regulation of CYP1A2. Hepatic NO() concentrations and NF-κB nuclear translocation were increased by the TIIR, effect reversed by CS. In vitro, in hepatocytes, CS did not alter the expression and activity of CYP3A6, CYP1A2, and CPR. In conclusion, oral CS elicits a systemic effect but does not affect CYP1A2, CYP3A6, and CPR in control rabbits, although in rabbits with TIIR, CS prevents CYP3A6 protein down-regulation but not that of CYP1A2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antiplatelet activity of L-sulforaphane by regulation of platelet activation factors, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and thromboxane A2.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chung-Hun; Shin, Jang-In; Mo, Sang Joon; Yun, Sung-Jo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Rhee, Yun-Hee

    2013-07-01

    L-sulforaphane was identified as an anticarcinogen that could produce quinine reductase and a phase II detoxification enzyme. In recent decades, multi-effects of L-sulforaphane may have been investigated, but, to the authors' knowledge, the antiplatelet activation of L-sulforaphane has not been studied yet.In this study, 2 μg/ml of collagen, 50 μg/ml of ADP and 5 μg/ml of thrombin were used for platelet aggregations with or without L-sulforaphane. L-sulforaphane inhibited the platelet aggregation dose-dependently. Among these platelet activators, collagen was most inhibited by L-sulforaphane, which markedly decreased collagen-induced glycoprotein IIb/IIIa activation and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) formation in vitro. L-sulforaphane also reduced the collagen and epinephrine-induced pulmonary embolism, but did not affect prothrombin time (PT) in vivo. This finding demonstrated that L-sulforaphane inhibited the platelet activation through an intrinsic pathway.L-sulforaphane had a beneficial effect on various pathophysiological pathways of the collagen-induced platelet aggregation and thrombus formation as a selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist. Thus, we recommend L-sulforaphane as a potential antithrombotic drug.

  7. Scavenger Receptor C Mediates Phagocytosis of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Restricts Virus Proliferation in Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Chong; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Yang, Hui-Ting; Sun, Jie-Jie; Xu, Ling; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger receptors are an important class of pattern recognition receptors that play several important roles in host defense against pathogens. The class C scavenger receptors (SRCs) have only been identified in a few invertebrates, and their role in the immune response against viruses is seldom studied. In this study, we firstly identified an SRC from kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, designated MjSRC, which was significantly upregulated after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge at the mRNA and protein levels in hemocytes. The quantity of WSSV increased in shrimp after knockdown of MjSRC, compared with the controls. Furthermore, overexpression of MjSRC led to enhanced WSSV elimination via phagocytosis by hemocytes. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the interaction between MjSRC and the WSSV envelope protein. Electron microscopy observation indicated that the colloidal gold-labeled extracellular domain of MjSRC was located on the outer surface of WSSV. MjSRC formed a trimer and was internalized into the cytoplasm after WSSV challenge, and the internalization was strongly inhibited after knockdown of Mjβ-arrestin2. Further studies found that Mjβ-arrestin2 interacted with the intracellular domain of MjSRC and induced the internalization of WSSV in a clathrin-dependent manner. WSSV were co-localized with lysosomes in hemocytes and the WSSV quantity in shrimp increased after injection of lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MjSRC recognized WSSV via its extracellular domain and invoked hemocyte phagocytosis to restrict WSSV systemic infection. This is the first study to report an SRC as a pattern recognition receptor promoting phagocytosis of a virus. PMID:28027319

  8. Interferon-γ promotes phagocytosis of Cryptococcus neoformans but not Cryptococcus gattii by murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ikeda-Dantsuji, Yurika; Ohno, Hideaki; Tanabe, Koichi; Umeyama, Takashi; Ueno, Keigo; Nagi, Minoru; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Kinjo, Yuki; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2015-12-01

    Among invasive fungal infections, cryptococcosis caused by inhalation of Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii is particularly dangerous because it can disseminate to the central nervous system and cause life-threatening meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Previous reports described significant differences in the histopathological features of C. neoformans and C. gattii infection, such as greater pathogen proliferation and a limited macrophage response in mouse lung infected by C. gattii. To elucidate the difference in pathogenicity of these two Cryptococcus species, we investigated the interaction of C. neoformans and C. gattii with murine macrophages, the first line of host defense, by confocal laser microscopy. Only thin-capsulated, and not thick-capsulated C. neoformans and C. gattii were phagocytosed by macrophages. Preactivation with interferon-γ increased the phagocytic rate of thin-capsulated C. neoformans up to two-fold, but did not promote phagocytosis of thin-capsulated C. gattii. Lipopolysaccharide preactivation or Aspergillus fumigatus conidia co-incubation had no effect on internalization of thin-capsulated C. neoformans or C. gattii by macrophages. Phagocytosis of live thin-capsulated C. neoformans, but not that of live thin-capsulated C. gattii, induced interleukin-12 release from macrophages. However, phagocytosis of heat-killed or paraformaldehyde-fixed thin-capsulated C. neoformans did not increase IL-12 release, showing that the internalization of live yeast is important for initiating the immune response during C. neoformans-macrophage interactions. Our data suggest that macrophage response to C. gattii is limited compared with that to C. neoformans and that these results may partially explain the limited immune response and the greater pathogenicity of C. gattii. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrin alpha 3 beta 1 participates in the phagocytosis of extracellular matrix molecules by human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Coopman, P J; Thomas, D M; Gehlsen, K R; Mueller, S C

    1996-11-01

    The mechanisms and receptors involved in phagocytosis by nonhematopoietic cells are not well understood. The involvement of the alpha 3 beta 1 integrin in phagocytosis of the extracellular matrix by human breast cancer cells was studied. The possible role of this integrin was suggested since alpha 3 and beta 1 but not alpha 2 subunits are concentrated at membrane sites where local degradation of fluorescently labeled gelatin occurs. Strikingly, anti-alpha 3 integrin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) stimulate the phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled gelatin films, gelatin beads, and Matrigel films in a quantitative phagocytosis assay. Stimulation of the gelatin uptake by the anti-alpha 3 mAb is dose responsive, saturable, and time dependent. Antibodies against other integrin subunits have a lower stimulatory effect (anti-beta 1) or no significant effect (anti-alpha 2, -alpha 5, -alpha 6, and -alpha v) on gelatin phagocytosis. The synthetic HGD-6 human laminin peptide that binds specifically the alpha 3 beta 1 integrin, but not the scrambled HSGD-6 control peptide, also markedly stimulates gelatin uptake in a dose-responsive way. Furthermore, the stimulatory effects of the HGD-6 peptide and the anti-alpha 3 mAb are additive, suggesting that they might promote phagocytosis in different ways. Other laminin (YIGSR, IKVAV) and fibronectin (GRGDS) peptides have no effect on gelatin phagocytosis. Immunofluorescence shows that the alpha 3 and the beta 1, but not the alpha 2 integrin subunit, concentrate into patches on the cell surface after treatment with their respective mAbs. And, both gelatin and the alpha 3 beta 1 but not the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin are cointernalized and routed to acidic vesicles such as lysosomes. In conclusion, we demonstrate that human breast cancer cells locally degrade and phagocytose the extracellular matrix and show for the first time that the alpha 3 beta 1 integrin participates in this phagocytosis. We hypothesize that the anti-alpha 3

  10. Altered dynamics of Candida albicans phagocytosis by macrophages and PMNs when both phagocyte subsets are present.

    PubMed

    Rudkin, Fiona M; Bain, Judith M; Walls, Catriona; Lewis, Leanne E; Gow, Neil A R; Erwig, Lars P

    2013-10-29

    An important first line of defense against Candida albicans infections is the killing of fungal cells by professional phagocytes of the innate immune system, such as polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and macrophages. In this study, we employed live-cell video microscopy coupled with dynamic image analysis tools to provide insights into the complexity of C. albicans phagocytosis when macrophages and PMNs were incubated with C. albicans alone and when both phagocyte subsets were present. When C. albicans cells were incubated with only one phagocyte subtype, PMNs had a lower overall phagocytic capacity than macrophages, despite engulfing fungal cells at a higher rate once fungal cells were bound to the phagocyte surface. PMNs were more susceptible to C. albicans-mediated killing than macrophages, irrespective of the number of C. albicans cells ingested. In contrast, when both phagocyte subsets were studied in coculture, the two cell types phagocytosed and cleared C. albicans at equal rates and were equally susceptible to killing by the fungus. The increase in macrophage susceptibility to C. albicans-mediated killing was a consequence of macrophages taking up a higher proportion of hyphal cells under these conditions. In the presence of both PMNs and macrophages, C. albicans yeast cells were predominantly cleared by PMNs, which migrated at a greater speed toward fungal cells and engulfed bound cells more rapidly. These observations demonstrate that the phagocytosis of fungal pathogens depends on, and is modified by, the specific phagocyte subsets present at the site of infection. Extensive work investigating fungal cell phagocytosis by macrophages and PMNs of the innate immune system has been carried out. These studies have been informative but have examined this phenomenon only when one phagocyte subset is present. The current study employed live-cell video microscopy to break down C. albicans phagocytosis into its component parts and examine the effect of a single

  11. MiR-980 is a memory suppressor microRNA that regulates the autism-susceptibility gene, A2bp1

    PubMed Central

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Busto, Germain U.; Schutte, Soleil S.; Cervantes-Sandoval, Isaac; O’Dowd, Diane K.; Davis, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY MicroRNAs have been associated with many different biological functions but little is known about their roles in conditioned behavior. We demonstrate that Drosophila miR-980 is a memory suppressor gene functioning in multiple regions of the adult brain. Memory acquisition and stability were both increased by miR-980 inhibition. Whole cell recordings and functional imaging experiments indicated that miR-980 regulates neuronal excitability. We identified the autism susceptibility gene, A2bp1, as an mRNA target for miR-980. A2bp1 levels varied inversely with miR-980 expression; memory performance was directly related to A2bp1 levels. In addition, A2bp1 knockdown reversed the memory gains produced by miR-980 inhibition, consistent with A2bp1 being a downstream target of miR-980 responsible for the memory phenotypes. Our results indicate that miR-980 represses A2bp1 expression to tune the excitable state of neurons, and the overall state of excitability translates to memory impairment or improvement. PMID:26876166

  12. MiR-980 Is a Memory Suppressor MicroRNA that Regulates the Autism-Susceptibility Gene A2bp1.

    PubMed

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Busto, Germain U; Schutte, Soleil S; Cervantes-Sandoval, Isaac; O'Dowd, Diane K; Davis, Ronald L

    2016-02-23

    MicroRNAs have been associated with many different biological functions, but little is known about their roles in conditioned behavior. We demonstrate that Drosophila miR-980 is a memory suppressor gene functioning in multiple regions of the adult brain. Memory acquisition and stability were both increased by miR-980 inhibition. Whole cell recordings and functional imaging experiments indicated that miR-980 regulates neuronal excitability. We identified the autism susceptibility gene, A2bp1, as an mRNA target for miR-980. A2bp1 levels varied inversely with miR-980 expression; memory performance was directly related to A2bp1 levels. In addition, A2bp1 knockdown reversed the memory gains produced by miR-980 inhibition, consistent with A2bp1 being a downstream target of miR-980 responsible for the memory phenotypes. Our results indicate that miR-980 represses A2bp1 expression to tune the excitable state of neurons, and the overall state of excitability translates to memory impairment or improvement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) iron-sulphur cluster assembly protein 2 (EsIscA2) is differentially regulated after immune and oxidative stress challenges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Yu; Wang, Min; Dong, Miren; Liu, Zhaoqun; Jia, Zhihao; Wang, Weilin; Zhang, Anguo; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2018-07-01

    Iron-sulphur clusters (ISCs), one of the oldest and most versatile cofactors of proteins, are involved in catalysis reactions, electron transport reactions, regulation processes as well as sensing of ambient conditions. Iron-sulphur cluster assembly protein (IscA) is a scaffold protein member of ISC formation system, which plays a significant role in the assembly and maturation process of ISC proteins. In the present study, the cDNA sequence of iron-sulphur cluster assembly protein 2 (designated as EsIscA2) was cloned from Eriocheir sinensis. The open reading frame (ORF) of EsIscA2 was of 507 bp, encoding a peptide of 168 amino acids with a typically conserved Fe-S domain. A tetrameric form was predicated by the SWISS-MODEL prediction algorithm, and three conserved cysteine residues (Cys-93, Cys-158, Cys-160) from each IscA monomer were predicted to form a 'cysteine pocket'. The deduced amino acid sequence of EsIscA2 shared over 50% similarity with that of other IscAs. EsIscA2 was clustered with IscA2 proteins from invertebrates and vertebrates, indicating that the protein was highly conservative in the evolution. rEsIscA2 exhibited a high iron binding affinity in the concentration ranging from 2 to 200 μM. EsIscA2 transcripts were detected in all the tested tissues including gonad, hemocytes, gill, muscle, heart, hepatopancreas and eyestalk, and EsIscA2 protein was detected in the mitochondria of hemocytes. The highest mRNA expression level of EsIscA2 was detected in muscle and hepatopancreas, which was about 34.66-fold (p < 0.05) and 27.07-fold (p < 0.05) of that in hemocytes, respectively. After Aeromonas hydrophila and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulations, the mRNA expression of EsIscA2 in hemocytes was down-regulated and reached the lowest level at 24 h (0.31-fold, p < 0.05) and 48 h (0.29-fold, p < 0.05) compared to control group, respectively. And the expression of EsIscA2 mRNA in hepatopancreas was repressed from 6 h to 48 h post

  14. Signal transfer in the plant plasma membrane: phospholipase A(2) is regulated via an inhibitory Gα protein and a cyclophilin.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Michael; Herre, Madeleine; Massalski, Carolin; Hermann, Isabella; Conrad, Udo; Roos, Werner

    2013-03-15

    The plasma membrane of the California poppy is known to harbour a PLA2 (phospholipase A2) that is associated with the Gα protein which facilitates its activation by a yeast glycoprotein, thereby eliciting the biosynthesis of phytoalexins. To understand the functional architecture of the protein complex, we titrated purified plasma membranes with the Gα protein (native or recombinant) and found that critical amounts of this subunit keep PLA2 in a low-activity state from which it is released either by elicitor plus GTP or by raising the Gα concentration, which probably causes oligomerization of Gα, as supported by FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer)-orientated fluorescence imaging and a semiquantitative split-ubiquitin assay. All effects of Gα were blocked by specific antibodies. A low-Gα mutant showed elevated PLA2 activity and lacked the GTP-dependent stimulation by elicitor, but regained this capability after pre-incubation with Gα. The inhibition by Gα and the GTP-dependent stimulation of PLA2 were diminished by inhibitors of peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerases. A cyclophilin was identified by sequence in the plasma membrane and in immunoprecipitates with anti-Gα antibodies. We conclude that soluble and target-associated Gα interact at the plasma membrane to build complexes of varying architecture and signal amplification. Protein-folding activity is probably required to convey conformational transitions from Gα to its target PLA2.

  15. Regulation of lung endothelial permeability and inflammatory responses by prostaglandin A2: role of EP4 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ohmura, Tomomi; Tian, Yufeng; Sarich, Nicolene; Ke, Yunbo; Meliton, Angelo; Shah, Alok S.; Andreasson, Katrin; Birukov, Konstantin G.; Birukova, Anna A.

    2017-01-01

    The role of prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) in modulation of vascular endothelial function is unknown. We investigated effects of PGA2 on pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) permeability and inflammatory activation and identified a receptor mediating these effects. PGA2 enhanced the EC barrier and protected against barrier dysfunction caused by vasoactive peptide thrombin and proinflammatory bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Receptor screening using pharmacological and molecular inhibitory approaches identified EP4 as a novel PGA2 receptor. EP4 mediated barrier-protective effects of PGA2 by activating Rap1/Rac1 GTPase and protein kinase A targets at cell adhesions and cytoskeleton: VE-cadherin, p120-catenin, ZO-1, cortactin, and VASP. PGA2 also suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory signaling by inhibiting the NFκB pathway and expression of EC adhesion molecules ICAM1 and VCAM1. These effects were abolished by pharmacological or molecular inhibition of EP4. In vivo, PGA2 was protective in two distinct models of acute lung injury (ALI): LPS-induced inflammatory injury and two-hit ALI caused by suboptimal mechanical ventilation and injection of thrombin receptor–activating peptide. These protective effects were abolished in mice with endothelial-specific EP4 knockout. The results suggest a novel role for the PGA2–EP4 axis in vascular EC protection that is critical for improvement of pathological states associated with increased vascular leakage and inflammation. PMID:28428256

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat binds to Candida albicans, inducing hyphae but augmenting phagocytosis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Andreas; Lell, Claudia P; Speth, Cornelia; Stoiber, Heribert; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Sonneborn, Anja; Ernst, Joachim F; Dierich, Manfred P; Würzner, Reinhard

    2001-01-01

    Tat, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transactivating protein, binds through its RGD-motif to human integrin receptors. Candida albicans, the commonest cause of mucosal candidiasis in subjects infected with HIV-1, also possesses RGD-binding capacity. The present study reveals that Tat binds to C. albicans but not to C. tropicalis. Tat binding was markedly reduced by laminin and to a lesser extent by a complement C3 peptide containing the RGD motif, but not by a control peptide. The outgrowth of C. albicans was accelerated following binding of Tat, but phagocytosis of opsonized C. albicans was also increased after Tat binding. Thus, Tat binding promotes fungal virulence by inducing hyphae but may also reduce it by augmenting phagocytosis. The net effect of Tat in vivo is difficult to judge but in view of the many disease-promoting effects of Tat we propose that accelerating the formation of hyphae dominates over the augmentation of phagocytosis. PMID:11899432

  17. Chitosan but Not Chitin Activates the Inflammasome by a Mechanism Dependent upon Phagocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Bueter, Chelsea L.; Lee, Chrono K.; Rathinam, Vijay A. K.; Healy, Gloria J.; Taron, Christopher H.; Specht, Charles A.; Levitz, Stuart M.

    2011-01-01

    Chitin is an abundant polysaccharide found in fungal cell walls, crustacean shells, and insect exoskeletons. The immunological properties of both chitin and its deacetylated derivative chitosan are of relevance because of frequent natural exposure and their use in medical applications. Depending on the preparation studied and the end point measured, these compounds have been reported to induce allergic responses, inflammatory responses, or no response at all. We prepared highly purified chitosan and chitin and examined the capacity of these glycans to stimulate murine macrophages to release the inflammasome-associated cytokine IL-1β. We found that although chitosan was a potent NLRP3 inflammasome activator, acetylation of the chitosan to chitin resulted in a near total loss of activity. The size of the chitosan particles played an important role, with small particles eliciting the greatest activity. An inverse relationship between size and stimulatory activity was demonstrated using chitosan passed through size exclusion filters as well as with chitosan-coated beads of defined size. Partial digestion of chitosan with pepsin resulted in a larger fraction of small phagocytosable particles and more potent inflammasome activity. Inhibition of phagocytosis with cytochalasin D abolished the IL-1β stimulatory activity of chitosan, offering an explanation for why the largest particles were nearly devoid of activity. Thus, the deacetylated polysaccharide chitosan potently activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in a phagocytosis-dependent manner. In contrast, chitin is relatively inert. PMID:21862582

  18. Chitosan but not chitin activates the inflammasome by a mechanism dependent upon phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bueter, Chelsea L; Lee, Chrono K; Rathinam, Vijay A K; Healy, Gloria J; Taron, Christopher H; Specht, Charles A; Levitz, Stuart M

    2011-10-14

    Chitin is an abundant polysaccharide found in fungal cell walls, crustacean shells, and insect exoskeletons. The immunological properties of both chitin and its deacetylated derivative chitosan are of relevance because of frequent natural exposure and their use in medical applications. Depending on the preparation studied and the end point measured, these compounds have been reported to induce allergic responses, inflammatory responses, or no response at all. We prepared highly purified chitosan and chitin and examined the capacity of these glycans to stimulate murine macrophages to release the inflammasome-associated cytokine IL-1β. We found that although chitosan was a potent NLRP3 inflammasome activator, acetylation of the chitosan to chitin resulted in a near total loss of activity. The size of the chitosan particles played an important role, with small particles eliciting the greatest activity. An inverse relationship between size and stimulatory activity was demonstrated using chitosan passed through size exclusion filters as well as with chitosan-coated beads of defined size. Partial digestion of chitosan with pepsin resulted in a larger fraction of small phagocytosable particles and more potent inflammasome activity. Inhibition of phagocytosis with cytochalasin D abolished the IL-1β stimulatory activity of chitosan, offering an explanation for why the largest particles were nearly devoid of activity. Thus, the deacetylated polysaccharide chitosan potently activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in a phagocytosis-dependent manner. In contrast, chitin is relatively inert.

  19. Enhancement of phagocytosis and cytotoxicity in macrophages by tumor-derived IL-18 stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Henan, Xu; Toyota, Naoka; Yanjiang, Xing; Fujita, Yuuki; Zhijun, Huang; Touma, Maki; Qiong, Wu; Sugimoto, Kenkichi

    2014-01-01

    Inoculation of mice with the murine NFSA cell line caused the formation of large tumors with necrotic tumor cores. FACS analysis revealed accumulations of CD11b+ cells in the tumors. Microarray analysis indicated that the NFSA cells expressed a high level of the pro-inflammatory factor interleukin-18 (il-18), which is known to play a critical role in macrophages. However, little is known about the physiological function of IL-18-stimulated macrophages. Here, we provide direct evidence that IL-18 enhances the phagocytosis of RAW264 cells and peritoneal macrophages, accompanied by the increased expression of tumor necrosis factor (tnf-α), interleukin-6 (il-6) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2). IL-18-stimulated RAW264 cells showed an enhanced cytotoxicity to endothelial F-2 cells via direct cell-to-cell interaction and the secretion of soluble mediators. Taken together, our results demonstrate that tumor-derived IL-18 plays an important role in the phagocytosis of macrophages and that IL-18-stimulated macrophages may damage tumor endothelial cells. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(5): 286-291] PMID:24286318

  20. Nanocage-Therapeutics Prevailing Phagocytosis and Immunogenic Cell Death Awakens Immunity against Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jung; Nam, Gi-Hoon; Lee, Na Kyeong; Kih, Minwoo; Koh, Eunee; Kim, Yoon Kyoung; Hong, Yeonsun; Kim, Soyoun; Park, Seung-Yoon; Jeong, Cherlhyun; Yang, Yoosoo; Kim, In-San

    2018-03-01

    A growing appreciation of the relationship between the immune system and the tumorigenesis has led to the development of strategies aimed at "re-editing" the immune system to kill tumors. Here, a novel tactic is reported for overcoming the activation-energy threshold of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and mediating the delivery and presentation of tumor neoantigens to the host's immune system. This nature-derived nanocage not only efficiently presents ligands that enhance cancer cell phagocytosis, but also delivers drugs that induce immunogenic cancer cell death. The designed nanocage-therapeutics induce the release of neoantigens and danger signals in dying tumor cells, and leads to enhancement of tumor cell phagocytosis and cross-priming of tumor specific T cells by neoantigen peptide-loaded antigen-presenting cells. Potent inhibition of tumor growth and complete eradication of tumors is observed through systemic tumor-specific T cell responses in tumor draining lymph nodes and the spleen and further, infiltration of CD8+ T cells into the tumor site. Remarkably, after removal of the primary tumor, all mice treated with this nanocage-therapeutics are protected against subsequent challenge with the same tumor cells, suggesting development of lasting, tumor-specific responses. This designed nanocage-therapeutics "awakens" the host's immune system and provokes a durable systemic immune response against cancer. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Outer segment phagocytosis by cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells requires Gas6.

    PubMed

    Hall, M O; Prieto, A L; Obin, M S; Abrams, T A; Burgess, B L; Heeb, M J; Agnew, B J

    2001-10-01

    The function and viability of vertebrate photoreceptors requires the daily phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments (OS) by the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We demonstrate here a critical role in this process for Gas6 and by implication one of its receptor protein tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Mertk (Mer). Gas6 specifically and selectively stimulates the phagocytosis of OS by normal cultured rat RPE cells. The magnitude of the response is dose-dependent and shows an absolute requirement for calcium. By contrast the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat RPE cells, in which a mutation in the gene Mertk results in the expression of a truncated, non-functional receptor, does not respond to Gas6. These data strongly suggest that activation of Mertk by its ligand, Gas6, is the specific signaling pathway responsible for initiating the ingestion of shed OS. Moreover, photoreceptor degeneration in the RCS rat retina, which lacks Mertk, and in humans with a mutation in Mertk, strongly suggests that the Gas6/Mertk signaling pathway is essential for photoreceptor viability. We believe that this is the first demonstration of a specific function for Gas6 in the eye. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Macrophage phagocytosis alters the MRI signal of ferumoxytol-labeled mesenchymal stromal cells in cartilage defects.

    PubMed

    Nejadnik, Hossein; Lenkov, Olga; Gassert, Florian; Fretwell, Deborah; Lam, Isaac; Daldrup-Link, Heike E

    2016-05-13

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a promising tool for cartilage regeneration in arthritic joints. hMSC labeling with iron oxide nanoparticles enables non-invasive in vivo monitoring of transplanted cells in cartilage defects with MR imaging. Since graft failure leads to macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo whether nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs show distinct MR signal characteristics before and after phagocytosis by macrophages. We found that apoptotic nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs were phagocytosed by macrophages while viable nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs were not. Serial MRI scans of hMSC transplants in arthritic joints of recipient rats showed that the iron signal of apoptotic, nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs engulfed by macrophages disappeared faster compared to viable hMSCs. This corresponded to poor cartilage repair outcomes of the apoptotic hMSC transplants. Therefore, rapid decline of iron MRI signal at the transplant site can indicate cell death and predict incomplete defect repair weeks later. Currently, hMSC graft failure can be only diagnosed by lack of cartilage defect repair several months after cell transplantation. The described imaging signs can diagnose hMSC transplant failure more readily, which could enable timely re-interventions and avoid unnecessary follow up studies of lost transplants.

  3. Macrophage phagocytosis alters the MRI signal of ferumoxytol-labeled mesenchymal stromal cells in cartilage defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejadnik, Hossein; Lenkov, Olga; Gassert, Florian; Fretwell, Deborah; Lam, Isaac; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2016-05-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a promising tool for cartilage regeneration in arthritic joints. hMSC labeling with iron oxide nanoparticles enables non-invasive in vivo monitoring of transplanted cells in cartilage defects with MR imaging. Since graft failure leads to macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo whether nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs show distinct MR signal characteristics before and after phagocytosis by macrophages. We found that apoptotic nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs were phagocytosed by macrophages while viable nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs were not. Serial MRI scans of hMSC transplants in arthritic joints of recipient rats showed that the iron signal of apoptotic, nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs engulfed by macrophages disappeared faster compared to viable hMSCs. This corresponded to poor cartilage repair outcomes of the apoptotic hMSC transplants. Therefore, rapid decline of iron MRI signal at the transplant site can indicate cell death and predict incomplete defect repair weeks later. Currently, hMSC graft failure can be only diagnosed by lack of cartilage defect repair several months after cell transplantation. The described imaging signs can diagnose hMSC transplant failure more readily, which could enable timely re-interventions and avoid unnecessary follow up studies of lost transplants.

  4. Phagocytosis of sperm by follicle cells of the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma occidentalis (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Riesgo, Ana

    2010-06-01

    During spermatogenesis of the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma occidentalis, follicle cells that lined the spermatocysts phagocytosed unreleased mature sperm. Such follicle cells are part of the complex envelope that limits spermatocysts of A. occidentalis, which is also comprised of a collagen layer, a thick layer of intertwined cells, and spicules. Follicle cells showed vesicles containing single phagocytosed spermatozoa within their cytoplasm. Additionally, lipids and other inclusions were observed within the cytoplasm of follicle cells. It is likely that follicle cells recapture nutrients by phagocytosing spermatozoa and use them to form lipids and other inclusions. Such sperm phagocytosis is usually performed in higher invertebrates and vertebrates by Sertoli cells that are located in the testis wall. While Sertoli cells develop a wide range of functions such as creating a blood-testis barrier, providing crucial factors to ensure correct progression of spermatogenesis, and phagocytosis of aberrant, degenerating, and unreleased sperm cells, sponge follicle cells may only display phagocytotic activity on spermatogenic cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi: sequence of phagocytosis and cytotoxicity by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rimoldi, M T; Cardoni, R L; Olabuenaga, S E; de Bracco, M M

    1981-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between phagocytosis and cytotoxicity of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) to sensitized Trypanosoma cruzi. Assays were done simultaneously using [3H]-uridine labelled epimastigotes as target cells. Phagocytosis was evaluated by the uptake and cytotoxicity by the release of parasite associated [3H]-uridine. Both reactions reached maximum levels at the same effector- to target-cell ratio and antibody concentration. Uptake of epimastigotes by PMN was highest at 30 min and intracellular disruption and release of parasite debris took place later. In conditions that precluded repeated uptake of sensitized radiolabelled T. cruzi, the release profile of [3H]-uridine from PMN that contained intracellular parasites was similar to that of the standard cytotoxic assay. However, as the ingestion phase was separated from the release step, no lag in the onset of the reaction was observed. Although we cannot rule out extracellular killing, the results of this study demonstrate that the bulk of damaged T. cruzi epimastigotes had been previously internalized by the PMN. PMID:7016743

  6. Characterization of the Hemocytes in Larvae of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis: Involvement of Granulocyte-Mediated Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Saeyoull

    2014-01-01

    Hemocytes are key players in the immune response against pathogens in insects. However, the hemocyte types and their functions in the white-spotted flower chafers, Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis (Kolbe), are not known. In this study, we used various microscopes, molecular probes, and flow cytometric analyses to characterize the hemocytes in P. brevitarsis seulensis. The circulating hemocytes were classified based on their size, morphology, and dye-staining properties into six types, including granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, spherulocytes, prohemocytes, and adipohemocytes. The percentages of circulating hemocyte types were as follows: 13% granulocytes, 20% plasmatocytes, 1% oenocytoids, 5% spherulocytes, 17% prohemocytes, and 44% adipohemocytes. Next, we identified the professional phagocytes, granulocytes, which mediate encapsulation and phagocytosis of pathogens. The granulocytes were immunologically or morphologically activated and phagocytosed potentially hazardous substances in vivo. In addition, we showed that the phagocytosis by granulocytes is associated with autophagy, and that the activation of autophagy could be an efficient way to eliminate pathogens in this system. We also observed a high accumulation of autophagic vacuoles in activated granulocytes, which altered their shape and led to autophagic cell death. Finally, the granulocytes underwent mitotic division thus maintaining their number in vivo. PMID:25083702

  7. Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Trophoblast Cells by Human Endometrial Endothelial Cells Induces Proinflammatory Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Bing; Koga, Kaori; Cardenas, Ingrid; Aldo, Paulomi; Mor, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Problem Apoptosis is a normal constituent of trophoblast turnover in the placenta; however in some cases, this process is related to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. Recognition and engulfment of these apoptotic trophoblast cells is important for clearance of dying cells. The aim of this study was to show the cross talk between human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs) and apoptotic trophoblast cells in an in vitro coculture model and its effect on cytokine production by HEECs. Method of study Fluorescent-labeled HEECs were cocultured with fluorescent-labeled apoptotic human trophoblast cells. Confocal microscopy and flowcytometry were used to show the interaction between these two types of cells. Cytokine profiles were determined using multiplex analysis. Results HEECs are capable to phagocytose apoptotic trophoblasts. This activity is inhibited by the phagocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin B. Phagocytosis of apoptotic trophoblast cells induced the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by HEECs. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that HEECs have an ability to phagocytose apoptotic trophoblasts. Furthermore, we demonstrated an inflammatory response of HEECs after phagocytosing the apoptotic trophoblast cells. This event may contribute to the inflammatory response in both normal pregnancy and pathologic pregnancy such as preeclampsia. PMID:20219062

  8. Exogenous l-Valine Promotes Phagocytosis to Kill Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin-hai; Liu, Shi-rao; Peng, Bo; Li, Dan; Cheng, Zhi-xue; Zhu, Jia-xin; Zhang, Song; Peng, Yu-ming; Li, Hui; Zhang, Tian-tuo; Peng, Xuan-xian

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria presents a severe threat to public health and causes extensive losses in livestock husbandry and aquaculture. Effective strategies to control such infections are in high demand. Enhancing host immunity is an ideal strategy with fewer side effects than antibiotics. To explore metabolite candidates, we applied a metabolomics approach to investigate the metabolic profiles of mice after Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Compared with the mice that died from K. pneumoniae infection, mice that survived the infection displayed elevated levels of l-valine. Our analysis showed that l-valine increased macrophage phagocytosis, thereby reducing the load of pathogens; this effect was not only limited to K. pneumoniae but also included Escherichia coli clinical isolates in infected tissues. Two mechanisms are involved in this process: l-valine activating the PI3K/Akt1 pathway and promoting NO production through the inhibition of arginase activity. The NO precursor l-arginine is necessary for l-valine-stimulated macrophage phagocytosis. The valine-arginine combination therapy effectively killed K. pneumoniae and exerted similar effects in other Gram-negative (E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Our study extends the role of metabolism in innate immunity and develops the possibility of employing the metabolic modulator-mediated innate immunity as a therapy for bacterial infections. PMID:28321214

  9. Macrophages redirect phagocytosis by non-professional phagocytes and influence inflammation.

    PubMed

    Han, Claudia Z; Juncadella, Ignacio J; Kinchen, Jason M; Buckley, Monica W; Klibanov, Alexander L; Dryden, Kelly; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Erdbrügger, Uta; Turner, Stephen D; Shim, Yun M; Tung, Kenneth S; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2016-11-24

    Professional phagocytes (such as macrophages) and non-professional phagocytes (such as epithelial cells) clear billions of apoptotic cells and particles on a daily basis. Although professional and non-professional macrophages reside in proximity in most tissues, whether they communicate with each other during cell clearance, and how this might affect inflammation, is not known. Here we show that macrophages, through the release of a soluble growth factor and microvesicles, alter the type of particles engulfed by non-professional phagocytes and influence their inflammatory response. During phagocytosis of apoptotic cells or in response to inflammation-associated cytokines, macrophages released insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The binding of IGF-1 to its receptor on non-professional phagocytes redirected their phagocytosis, such that uptake of larger apoptotic cells was reduced whereas engulfment of microvesicles was increased. IGF-1 did not alter engulfment by macrophages. Macrophages also released microvesicles, whose uptake by epithelial cells was enhanced by IGF-1 and led to decreased inflammatory responses by epithelial cells. Consistent with these observations, deletion of IGF-1 receptor in airway epithelial cells led to exacerbated lung inflammation after allergen exposure. These genetic and functional studies reveal that IGF-1- and microvesicle-dependent communication between macrophages and epithelial cells can critically influence the magnitude of tissue inflammation in vivo.

  10. Altered Dynamics of Candida albicans Phagocytosis by Macrophages and PMNs When Both Phagocyte Subsets Are Present

    PubMed Central

    Rudkin, Fiona M.; Bain, Judith M.; Walls, Catriona; Lewis, Leanne E.; Gow, Neil A. R.; Erwig, Lars P.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An important first line of defense against Candida albicans infections is the killing of fungal cells by professional phagocytes of the innate immune system, such as polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and macrophages. In this study, we employed live-cell video microscopy coupled with dynamic image analysis tools to provide insights into the complexity of C. albicans phagocytosis when macrophages and PMNs were incubated with C. albicans alone and when both phagocyte subsets were present. When C. albicans cells were incubated with only one phagocyte subtype, PMNs had a lower overall phagocytic capacity than macrophages, despite engulfing fungal cells at a higher rate once fungal cells were bound to the phagocyte surface. PMNs were more susceptible to C. albicans-mediated killing than macrophages, irrespective of the number of C. albicans cells ingested. In contrast, when both phagocyte subsets were studied in coculture, the two cell types phagocytosed and cleared C. albicans at equal rates and were equally susceptible to killing by the fungus. The increase in macrophage susceptibility to C. albicans-mediated killing was a consequence of macrophages taking up a higher proportion of hyphal cells under these conditions. In the presence of both PMNs and macrophages, C. albicans yeast cells were predominantly cleared by PMNs, which migrated at a greater speed toward fungal cells and engulfed bound cells more rapidly. These observations demonstrate that the phagocytosis of fungal pathogens depends on, and is modified by, the specific phagocyte subsets present at the site of infection. PMID:24169578

  11. The role of Rho-kinases in IL-1β release through phagocytosis of fibrous particles in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Sanae; Hirano, Seishiro; Chiba, Shoetsu; Takeshita, Hiroshi; Nagai, Tomonori; Takada, Meri; Sakamoto, Kana; Mukai, Toshiji

    2015-01-01

    Long fibers, such as asbestos and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are more potent activators of inflammatory and genotoxicity than short or tangled fibers. Fibrous particles trigger interleukin (IL)-1β secretion and cause inflammatory diseases through NLRP3 inflammasomes in phagocytotic cells. However, the mechanism involved in fibrous particle-induced inflammation has not been well documented. In this study, we focused on GTPase effector Rho-kinases (ROCK1, and 2), which are known to be involved in a wide range of cellular functions such as adhesion, regulation of cytoskeleton, and phagocytosis. We examined whether ROCKs are associated with multi-walled CNT (MWCNT)- or asbestos-induced IL-1β secretion in human monocytic THP-1 cells using a selective inhibitor and small interfering RNA. THP-1 cells were differentiated to macrophages by PMA and were exposed to MWCNTs, crocidolite asbestos or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of Y27632 (ROCK inhibitor) or Z-YVAD (caspase-1 inhibitor). Exposure of the cells to MWCNTs or asbestos provoked IL-1β secretion, but this secretion was suppressed by both Y27632 and Z-YVAD, whereas LPS-induced IL-1β secretion was inhibited only by Z-YVAD and not by Y27632. siRNA designed for knockdown of both ROCK1 and ROCK2 suppressed MWCNT- and asbestos-induced IL-1β secretion, but did not change LPS-induced IL-1β secretion. Moreover, Y27632 suppressed pro-IL-1β protein levels and the release of activated-cathepsin B and activated-caspase-1 induced by MWCNTs or asbestos. In contrast, LPS-induced pro-IL-1β protein was not suppressed by Y27632. These results suggest that ROCKs are involved in fibrous particle-induced inflammasome responses in THP-1 cells.

  12. Factor H binds to the hypervariable region of many Streptococcus pyogenes M proteins but does not promote phagocytosis resistance or acute virulence.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Mattias C U; Lannergård, Jonas; Nilsson, O Rickard; Kristensen, Bodil M; Olsen, John E; Harris, Claire L; Ufret-Vincenty, Rafael L; Stålhammar-Carlemalm, Margaretha; Lindahl, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Many pathogens express a surface protein that binds the human complement regulator factor H (FH), as first described for Streptococcus pyogenes and the antiphagocytic M6 protein. It is commonly assumed that FH recruited to an M protein enhances virulence by protecting the bacteria against complement deposition and phagocytosis, but the role of FH-binding in S. pyogenes pathogenesis has remained unclear and controversial. Here, we studied seven purified M proteins for ability to bind FH and found that FH binds to the M5, M6 and M18 proteins but not the M1, M3, M4 and M22 proteins. Extensive immunochemical analysis indicated that FH binds solely to the hypervariable region (HVR) of an M protein, suggesting that selection has favored the ability of certain HVRs to bind FH. These FH-binding HVRs could be studied as isolated polypeptides that retain ability to bind FH, implying that an FH-binding HVR represents a distinct ligand-binding domain. The isolated HVRs specifically interacted with FH among all human serum proteins, interacted with the same region in FH and showed species specificity, but exhibited little or no antigenic cross-reactivity. Although these findings suggested that FH recruited to an M protein promotes virulence, studies in transgenic mice did not demonstrate a role for bound FH during acute infection. Moreover, phagocytosis tests indicated that ability to bind FH is neither sufficient nor necessary for S. pyogenes to resist killing in whole human blood. While these data shed new light on the HVR of M proteins, they suggest that FH-binding may affect S. pyogenes virulence by mechanisms not assessed in currently used model systems.

  13. Factor H Binds to the Hypervariable Region of Many Streptococcus pyogenes M Proteins but Does Not Promote Phagocytosis Resistance or Acute Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Bodil M.; Olsen, John E.; Harris, Claire L.; Ufret-Vincenty, Rafael L.; Stålhammar-Carlemalm, Margaretha; Lindahl, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Many pathogens express a surface protein that binds the human complement regulator factor H (FH), as first described for Streptococcus pyogenes and the antiphagocytic M6 protein. It is commonly assumed that FH recruited to an M protein enhances virulence by protecting the bacteria against complement deposition and phagocytosis, but the role of FH-binding in S. pyogenes pathogenesis has remained unclear and controversial. Here, we studied seven purified M proteins for ability to bind FH and found that FH binds to the M5, M6 and M18 proteins but not the M1, M3, M4 and M22 proteins. Extensive immunochemical analysis indicated that FH binds solely to the hypervariable region (HVR) of an M protein, suggesting that selection has favored the ability of certain HVRs to bind FH. These FH-binding HVRs could be studied as isolated polypeptides that retain ability to bind FH, implying that an FH-binding HVR represents a distinct ligand-binding domain. The isolated HVRs specifically interacted with FH among all human serum proteins, interacted with the same region in FH and showed species specificity, but exhibited little or no antigenic cross-reactivity. Although these findings suggested that FH recruited to an M protein promotes virulence, studies in transgenic mice did not demonstrate a role for bound FH during acute infection. Moreover, phagocytosis tests indicated that ability to bind FH is neither sufficient nor necessary for S. pyogenes to resist killing in whole human blood. While these data shed new light on the HVR of M proteins, they suggest that FH-binding may affect S. pyogenes virulence by mechanisms not assessed in currently used model systems. PMID:23637608

  14. miRNA-133 augments coelomocyte phagocytosis in bacteria-challenged Apostichopus japonicus via targeting the TLR component of IRAK-1 in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Meng; Zhang, Peng-Juan; Li, Cheng-Hua; Lv, Zhi-Meng; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Jin, Chun-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explored the potential roles of miRNA-133 in regulating TLR pathways in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Target screening of RNA-Seq data successfully identified interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (AjIRAK−1) as a putative target of miR-133. This result was further validated by negative expression profiles in Vibrio splendidus-challenged coelomocytes and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed cell cultures. HEK-293T cells transfected with a dual-luciferase reporter fused to the 3′UTR of wild-type or mutant AjIRAK-1 exhibited a 52.9% reduction in luciferase activity (p < 0.01) compared to controls. Co-infection with a miR-133 mimics or a specific siRNA targeting AjIRAK-1 significantly repressed the mRNA and protein expression levels of AjIRAK-1 and its downstream molecules, such as AjTRAF6 and Ajp105, in primary coelomocytes. In contrast, a miR-133 inhibitor significantly increased the expression of these TLR pathway members. The injection of miR-133 agomir or AjIRAK-1 siRNA into sea cucumbers not only decreased the expression of AjIRAK-1 and its downstream molecules but also significantly increased V. splendidus coelomocyte phagocytosis. All of the present data provide direct evidence that miR-133 is involved in TLR cascade modulation through AjIRAK-1 targeting to promote V. splendidus coelomocyte phagocytosis in these non-model invertebrates. PMID:26223836

  15. miRNA-133 augments coelomocyte phagocytosis in bacteria-challenged Apostichopus japonicus via targeting the TLR component of IRAK-1 in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng; Zhang, Peng-Juan; Li, Cheng-Hua; Lv, Zhi-Meng; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Jin, Chun-Hua

    2015-07-30

    In this study, we explored the potential roles of miRNA-133 in regulating TLR pathways in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Target screening of RNA-Seq data successfully identified interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (AjIRAK-1) as a putative target of miR-133. This result was further validated by negative expression profiles in Vibrio splendidus-challenged coelomocytes and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed cell cultures. HEK-293T cells transfected with a dual-luciferase reporter fused to the 3'UTR of wild-type or mutant AjIRAK-1 exhibited a 52.9% reduction in luciferase activity (p < 0.01) compared to controls. Co-infection with a miR-133 mimics or a specific siRNA targeting AjIRAK-1 significantly repressed the mRNA and protein expression levels of AjIRAK-1 and its downstream molecules, such as AjTRAF6 and Ajp105, in primary coelomocytes. In contrast, a miR-133 inhibitor significantly increased the expression of these TLR pathway members. The injection of miR-133 agomir or AjIRAK-1 siRNA into sea cucumbers not only decreased the expression of AjIRAK-1 and its downstream molecules but also significantly increased V. splendidus coelomocyte phagocytosis. All of the present data provide direct evidence that miR-133 is involved in TLR cascade modulation through AjIRAK-1 targeting to promote V. splendidus coelomocyte phagocytosis in these non-model invertebrates.

  16. Functional role of striatal A2A, D2, and mGlu5 receptor interactions in regulating striatopallidal GABA neuronal transmission.

    PubMed

    Beggiato, Sarah; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Borelli, Andrea Celeste; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel Oscar; Fuxe, Kjell; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tanganelli, Sergio; Ferraro, Luca

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the functional role of individual striatal receptors for adenosine (A2AR), dopamine (D2R), and the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGlu5R in regulating rat basal ganglia activity was characterized in vivo using dual-probe microdialysis in freely moving rats. In particular, intrastriatal perfusion with the D2R agonist quinpirole (10 μM, 60 min) decreased ipsilateral pallidal GABA and glutamate levels, whereas intrastriatal CGS21680 (A2AR agonist; 1 μM, 60 min) was ineffective on either pallidal GABA and glutamate levels or the quinpirole-induced effects. Intrastriatal perfusion with the mGlu5R agonist (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (600 μM, 60 min), by itself ineffective on pallidal GABA and glutamate levels, partially counteracted the effects of quinpirole. When combined with CGS21680 (1 μM, 60 min), (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG; 600 μM, 60 min) fully counteracted the quinpirole (10 μM, 60 min)-induced reduction in ipsilateral pallidal GABA and glutamate levels. These effects were fully counteracted by local perfusion with the mGlu5R antagonist MPEP (300 μM) or the A2AR antagonist ZM 241385 (100 nM). These results suggest that A2ARs and mGlu5Rs interact synergistically in modulating the D2R-mediated control of striatopallidal GABA neurons. Using dual-probe microdialysis, we characterized the functional role of striatal adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) interactions in regulating rat basal ganglia activity. The results suggest the possible usefulness of using an A2AR antagonist and mGluR5 antagonist combination in the treatment of Parkinson's disease to increase the inhibitory D2 signaling on striatopallidal GABA neurons. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Immunocompetence of bivalve hemocytes as evaluated by a miniaturized phagocytosis assay.

    PubMed

    Blaise, C; Trottier, S; Gagné, F; Lallement, C; Hansen, P-D

    2002-01-01

    Immune function in bivalves can be adversely affected by long-term exposure to environmental contaminants. Investigating alterations in immunity can therefore yield relevant information about the relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and susceptibility to infectious diseases. We have developed a rapid, cost-effective, and miniaturized immunocompetence assay to evaluate the phagocytic activity, viability, and concentration of hemocytes in freshwater and marine bivalves. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize various aspects of the assay including 1) the time required for adherence of hemocytes to polystyrene microplate wells, 2) the time required for internalization of fluorescent bacteria, 3) the ratio of hemocytes to fluorescent bacteria in relation to phagocytosis, 4) hemolymph plasma requirements, and 5) the elimination of fluorescence from (noninternalized) bacteria adhering to the external surface of hemocytes. The results of these experiments showed the optimal adherence time for hemocytes in microplate wells to be 1 h, that phagocytosis required at least 2 h of contact with fluorescently labeled E. coli cells, that the number of fluorescent E. coli cells had a positive effect on phagocytic activity, that at least 2.5 million cells/mL were required to measure a significant intake, and that a linear increase in uptake of bacteria (R = 0.91; p < 0.01) could be obtained with concentrations of up to 1.3 x 10(6) hemocytes/mL. Afterward, the assay was used in two field studies to identify sites having the potential to affect the immunocompetence of bivalves. The first study was conducted on Mya arenaria clams collected at selected contaminated sites in the Saguenay River (Quebec, Canada), and the second examined Elliptio complanata freshwater bivalves that had been exposed to a municipal effluent plume in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). In the Saguenay River field study a significant increase in phagocytosis was observed

  18. The proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediates phagocytosis in a Rho-dependent manner in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Scott, Glynis; Leopardi, Sonya; Parker, Lorelle; Babiarz, Laura; Seiberg, Miri; Han, Rujiing

    2003-09-01

    Recent work shows that the G-protein-coupled receptor proteinase activated receptor-2 activates signals that stimulate melanosome uptake in keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro. The Rho family of GTP-binding proteins is involved in cytoskeletal remodeling during phagocytosis. We show that proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated phagocytosis in human keratinocytes is Rho dependent and that proteinase-activated receptor-2 signals to activate Rho. In contrast, Rho activity did not affect either proteinase-activated receptor-2 activity or mRNA and protein levels. We explored the signaling mechanisms of proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated Rho activation in human keratinocytes and show that activation of proteinase-activated receptor-2, either through specific proteinase-activated receptor-2 activating peptides or through trypsinization, elevates cAMP in keratinocytes. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated Rho activation was pertussis toxin insensitive and independent of the protein kinase A signaling pathway. These data are the first to show that proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated phagocytosis is Rho dependent and that proteinase-activated receptor-2 signals to Rho and cAMP in keratinocytes. Because phagocytosis of melanosomes is recognized as an important mechanism for melanosome transfer to keratinocytes, these results suggest that Rho is a critical signaling intermediate in melanosome uptake in keratinocytes.

  19. Cryptococcus neoformans Is Internalized by Receptor-Mediated or ‘Triggered’ Phagocytosis, Dependent on Actin Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Caroline Rezende; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcosis by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans affects mostly immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent neurological complication in AIDS patients. Recent studies support the idea that intracellular survival of Cryptococcus yeast cells is important for the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. However, the initial steps of Cryptococcus internalization by host cells remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Cryptococcus neoformans phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages using confocal and electron microscopy techniques, as well as flow cytometry quantification, evaluating the importance of fungal capsule production and of host cell cytoskeletal elements for fungal phagocytosis. Electron microscopy analyses revealed that capsular and acapsular strains of C. neoformans are internalized by macrophages via both ‘zipper’ (receptor-mediated) and ‘trigger’ (membrane ruffle-dependent) phagocytosis mechanisms. Actin filaments surrounded phagosomes of capsular and acapsular yeasts, and the actin depolymerizing drugs cytochalasin D and latrunculin B inhibited yeast internalization and actin recruitment to the phagosome area. In contrast, nocodazole and paclitaxel, inhibitors of microtubule dynamics decreased internalization but did not prevent actin recruitment to the site of phagocytosis. Our results show that different uptake mechanisms, dependent on both actin and tubulin dynamics occur during yeast internalization by macrophages, and that capsule production does not affect the mode of Cryptococcus uptake by host cells. PMID:24586631

  20. EFFECT OF INHALED ENDOTOXIN ON AIRWAY AND CIRCULATING INFLAMMATORY CELL PHAGOCYTOSIS AND CD11B EXPRESSION IN ATOPIC ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of inhaled endotoxin on airway and circulating inflammatory cell phagocytosis and CD11b expression in atopic asthmatic subjects

    Neil E. Alexis, PhD, Marlowe W. Eldridge, MD, David B. Peden, MD, MS

    Chapel Hill and Research Triangle Park, NC

    Backgrou...

  1. Phagocytosis Escape by a Staphylococcus aureus Protein That Connects Complement and Coagulation Proteins at the Bacterial Surface

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Eva; van Rooijen, Willemien J.; Spaan, András N.; van Kessel, Kok P. M.; Höök, Magnus; Rooijakkers, Suzan H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Upon contact with human plasma, bacteria are rapidly recognized by the complement system that labels their surface for uptake and clearance by phagocytic cells. Staphylococcus aureus secretes the 16 kD Extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb) that binds two different plasma proteins using separate domains: the Efb N-terminus binds to fibrinogen, while the C-terminus binds complement C3. In this study, we show that Efb blocks phagocytosis of S. aureus by human neutrophils. In vitro, we demonstrate that Efb blocks phagocytosis in plasma and in human whole blood. Using a mouse peritonitis model we show that Efb effectively blocks phagocytosis in vivo, either as a purified protein or when produced endogenously by S. aureus. Mutational analysis revealed that Efb requires both its fibrinogen and complement binding residues for phagocytic escape. Using confocal and transmission electron microscopy we show that Efb attracts fibrinogen to the surface of complement-labeled S. aureus generating a ‘capsule’-like shield. This thick layer of fibrinogen shields both surface-bound C3b and antibodies from recognition by phagocytic receptors. This information is critical for future vaccination attempts, since opsonizing antibodies may not function in the presence of Efb. Altogether we discover that Efb from S. aureus uniquely escapes phagocytosis by forming a bridge between a complement and coagulation protein. PMID:24348255

  2. Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

    1984-04-01

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /supmore » 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.« less

  3. Phagocytosis-inspired behaviour in synthetic protocell communities of compartmentalized colloidal objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Arco, Laura; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    The spontaneous assembly of micro-compartmentalized colloidal objects capable of controlled interactions offers a step towards rudimentary forms of collective behaviour in communities of artificial cell-like entities (synthetic protocells). Here we report a primitive form of artificial phagocytosis in a binary community of synthetic protocells in which multiple silica colloidosomes are selectively ingested by self-propelled magnetic Pickering emulsion (MPE) droplets comprising particle-free fatty acid-stabilized apertures. Engulfment of the colloidosomes enables selective delivery and release of water-soluble payloads, and can be coupled to enzyme activity within the MPE droplets. Our results highlight opportunities for the development of new materials based on consortia of colloidal objects, and provide a novel microscale engineering approach to inducing higher-order behaviour in mixed populations of synthetic protocells.

  4. Role of Yersinia pestis Toxin Complex Family Proteins in Resistance to Phagocytosis by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, Aaron B.; Jarrett, Clayton O.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis carries homologues of the toxin complex (Tc) family proteins, which were first identified in other Gram-negative bacteria as having potent insecticidal activity. The Y. pestis Tc proteins are neither toxic to fleas nor essential for survival of the bacterium in the flea, even though tc gene expression is highly upregulated and much more of the Tc proteins YitA and YipA are produced in the flea than when Y. pestis is grown in vitro. We show that Tc+ and Tc− Y. pestis strains are transmitted equivalently from coinfected fleas, further demonstrating that the Tc proteins have no discernible role, either positive or negative, in transmission by the flea vector. Tc proteins did, however, confer Y. pestis with increased resistance to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Resistance to killing was not the result of decreased PMN viability or increased intracellular survival but instead correlated with a Tc protein-dependent resistance to phagocytosis that was independent of the type III secretion system (T3SS). Correspondingly, we did not detect T3SS-dependent secretion of the native Tc proteins YitA and YipA or the translocation of YitA– or YipA–β-lactamase fusion proteins into CHO-K1 (CHO) cells or human PMNs. Thus, although highly produced by Y. pestis within the flea and related to insecticidal toxins, the Tc proteins do not affect interaction with the flea or transmission. Rather, the Y. pestis Tc proteins inhibit phagocytosis by mouse PMNs, independent of the T3SS, and may be important for subverting the mammalian innate immune response immediately following transmission from the flea. PMID:23959716

  5. MicroRNA-9 enhances sensitivity to cetuximab in epithelial phenotype hepatocellular carcinoma cells through regulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-2.

    PubMed

    Xue, Fei; Liang, Yuntian; Li, Zhenrong; Liu, Yanhui; Zhang, Hongwei; Wen, Yu; Yan, Lei; Tang, Qiang; Xiao, Erhui; Zhang, Dongyi

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most widespread malignant human tumors worldwide. Treatment options include radiotherapy, surgical intervention and chemotherapy; however, drug resistance is an ongoing treatment concern. In the present study, the effects of a microRNA (miR/miRNA), miR-9, on the sensitivity of HCC cell lines to the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, cetuximab, were examined. miR-9 has been proposed to serve a role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In the present study, bioinformatics analyses identified the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF-5A-2) as a target of miR-9. The expression levels of miR-9 and eIF-5A-2 were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and HCC cell lines were transfected with miR-9 mimics and inhibitors to determine the effects of the miRNA on cell proliferation and viability. The miR-9 mimic was revealed to significantly increase the sensitivity of epithelial phenotype HCC cells (Hep3B and Huh7) to cetuximab, while the miR-9 inhibitor triggered the opposite effect. There were no significant differences in sensitivity to cetuximab observed in mesenchymal phenotype HCC cells (SNU387 and SNU449). Cells lines displaying high expression levels of eIF-5A-2 were more resistant to cetuximab. Transfection of cells with a miR-9 mimic resulted in downregulation of the expression of eIF-5A-2 mRNA, while an miR-9 inhibitor increased expression. When expression of eIF-5A-2 was knocked down with siRNA, the effects of miR-9 on cetuximab sensitivity were no longer observed. Taken together, these data support a role for miR-9 in enhancing the sensitivity of epithelial phenotype HCC cells to cetuximab through regulation of eIF-5A-2.

  6. The Role of CD38 in Fcγ Receptor (FcγR)-mediated Phagocytosis in Murine Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Kang, John; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Han, Myung-Kwan; Kim, Uh-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a crucial event in the immune system that allows cells to engulf and eliminate pathogens. This is mediated through the action of immunoglobulin (IgG)-opsonized microbes acting on Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on macrophages, which results in sustained levels of intracellular Ca2+ through the mobilization of Ca2+ second messengers. It is known that the ADP-ribosyl cyclase is responsible for the rise in Ca2+ levels after FcγR activation. However, it is unclear whether and how CD38 is involved in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. Here we show that CD38 is recruited to the forming phagosomes during phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized particles and produces cyclic-ADP-ribose, which acts on ER Ca2+ stores, thus allowing an increase in FcγR activation-mediated phagocytosis. Ca2+ data show that pretreatment of J774A.1 macrophages with 8-bromo-cADPR, ryanodine, blebbistatin, and various store-operated Ca2+ inhibitors prevented the long-lasting Ca2+ signal, which significantly reduced the number of ingested opsonized particles. Ex vivo data with macrophages extracted from CD38−/− mice also shows a reduced Ca2+ signaling and phagocytic index. Furthermore, a significantly reduced phagocytic index of Mycobacterium bovis BCG was shown in macrophages from CD38−/− mice in vivo. This study suggests a crucial role of CD38 in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis through its recruitment to the phagosome and mobilization of cADPR-induced intracellular Ca2+ and store-operated extracellular Ca2+ influx. PMID:22396532

  7. Rho is Required for the Initiation of Calcium Signaling and Phagocytosis by Fcγ Receptors in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hackam, David J.; Rotstein, Ori D.; Schreiber, Alan; Zhang, Wei-jian; Grinstein, Sergio

    1997-01-01

    Phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages and neutrophils is an essential component of host defense against infection. The mechanism whereby the interaction of opsonized particles with Fcγ receptors triggers the engulfment of opsonized particles remains incompletely understood, although activation of tyrosine kinases has been recognized as an early step. Recent studies in other systems have demonstrated that tyrosine kinases can in turn signal the activation of small GTPases of the ras superfamily. We therefore investigated the possible role of Rho in Fc receptor–mediated phagocytosis. To this end we microinjected J774 macrophages with C3 exotoxin from Clostridium botulinum, which ADP-ribosylates and inactivates Rho. C3 exotoxin induced the retraction of filopodia, the disappearance of focal complexes, and a global decrease in the F-actin content of J774 cells. In addition, these cells exhibited increased spreading and the formation of vacuolar structures. Importantly, inactivation of Rho resulted in the complete abrogation of phagocytosis. Inhibition of Fcγ receptor–mediated phagocytosis by C3 exotoxin was confirmed in COS cells, which become phagocytic upon transfection of the FcγRIIA receptor. Rho was found to be essential for the accumulation of phosphotyrosine and of F-actin around phagocytic cups and for Fcγ receptor–mediated Ca2+ signaling. The clustering of receptors in response to opsonin, an essential step in Fcγ-induced signaling, was the earliest event shown to be inhibited by C3 exotoxin. The effect of the toxin was specific, since clustering and internalization of transferrin receptors were unaffected by microinjection of C3. These data identify a role for small GTPases in Fcγ receptor–mediated phagocytosis by leukocytes. PMID:9294149

  8. STAT5-glucocorticoid receptor interaction and MTF-1 regulate the expression of ZnT2 (Slc30a2) in pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liang; Lichten, Louis A.; Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Liuzzi, Juan P.; Wang, Fudi; Cousins, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The exocrine pancreas plays an important role in endogenous zinc loss by regulating excretion into the intestinal tract and hence influences the dietary zinc requirement. The present experiments show that the zinc transporter ZnT2 (Slc30a2) is localized to the zymogen granules and that dietary zinc restriction in mice decreased the zinc concentration of zymogen granules and ZnT2 expression. Excess zinc given orally increased ZnT2 expression and was associated with increased pancreatic zinc accumulation. Rat AR42J acinar cells when induced into a secretory phenotype, using the glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone (DEX), exhibited increased ZnT2 expression and labile zinc as measured with a fluorophore. DEX administrated to mice also induced ZnT2 expression that accompanied a reduction of the pancreatic zinc content. ZnT2 promoter analyses identified elements required for responsiveness to zinc and DEX. Zinc regulation was traced to a MRE located downstream from the ZnT2 transcription start site. Responsiveness to DEX is produced by two upstream STAT5 binding sites that require the glucocorticoid receptor for activation. ZnT2 knockdown in the AR42J cells using siRNA resulted in increased cytoplasmic zinc and decreased zymogen granule zinc that further demonstrated that ZnT2 may mediate the sequestration of zinc into zymogen granules. We conclude, based upon experiments with intact mice and pancreatic acinar cells in culture, that ZnT2 participates in zinc transport into pancreatic zymogen granules through a glucocorticoid pathway requiring glucocorticoid receptor and STAT5, and zinc-regulated signaling pathways requiring MTF-1. The ZnT2 transporter appears to function in a physiologically responsive manner involving entero-pancreatic zinc trafficking. PMID:20133611

  9. Phagocytosis depends on TRPV2-mediated calcium influx and requires TRPV2 in lipids rafts: alteration in macrophages from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Manuella; Penna, Aubin; Le Trionnaire, Sophie; Belleguic, Chantal; Desrues, Benoît; Brinchault, Graziella; Jouneau, Stéphane; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Martin-Chouly, Corinne

    2018-03-09

    Whereas many phagocytosis steps involve ionic fluxes, the underlying ion channels remain poorly defined. As reported in mice, the calcium conducting TRPV2 channel impacts the phagocytic process. Macrophage phagocytosis is critical for defense against pathogens. In cystic fibrosis (CF), macrophages have lost their capacity to act as suppressor cells and thus play a significant role in the initiating stages leading to chronic inflammation/infection. In a previous study, we demonstrated that impaired function of CF macrophages is due to a deficient phagocytosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate TRPV2 role in the phagocytosis capacity of healthy primary human macrophage by studying its activity, its membrane localization and its recruitment in lipid rafts. In primary human macrophages, we showed that P. aeruginosa recruits TRPV2 channels at the cell surface and induced a calcium influx required for bacterial phagocytosis. We presently demonstrate that to be functional and play a role in phagocytosis, TRPV2 might require a preferential localization in lipid rafts. Furthermore, CF macrophage displays a perturbed calcium homeostasis due to a defect in TRPV2. In this context, deregulated TRPV2-signaling in CF macrophages could explain their defective phagocytosis capacity that contribute to the maintenance of chronic infection.

  10. Phagocytosis (cannibalism) of apoptotic neutrophils by tumor cells in gastric micropapillary carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Barresi, Valeria; Branca, Giovanni; Ieni, Antonio; Rigoli, Luciana; Tuccari, Giovanni; Caruso, Rosario Alberto

    2015-05-14

    cytoplasmic vacuoles of tumor cells. These data suggest phagocytosis (cannibalism) of apoptotic neutrophils by micropapillary tumor cells. Tumor cell cannibalism is usually found in aggressive tumors with anaplastic morphology. Our data extend these observations to gastric micropapillary carcinoma: a tumor histotype analogously characterized by aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. The results are of interest because they raise the intriguing possibility that neutrophil cannibalism by tumor cells may be one of the mechanisms favoring tumor growth in gastric micropapillary carcinomas. This is the first study showing phagocytosis (cannibalism) of apoptotic neutrophils by tumor cells in gastric micropapillary carcinomas.

  11. Data supporting attempted caveolae-mediated phagocytosis of surface-fixed micro-pillars by human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Moerke, Caroline; Mueller, Petra; Nebe, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    The provided data contains the phagocytic interaction of human MG-63 osteoblasts with micro-particles 6 µm in size as well as geometric micro-pillared topography with micro-pillar sizes 5 µm of length, width, height and spacing respectively related to the research article entitled "Attempted caveolae-mediated phagocytosis of surface-fixed micro-pillars by human osteoblasts" in the Biomaterials journal. [1] Micro-particle treatment was used as positive control triggering phagocytosis by the osteoblasts. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) as major structural component of caveolae [2] plays an important role in the phagocytic process of micro-particles and -pillars. Data related to the experiments in [1] with siRNA-mediated knockdown are presented here as well as micro-particle control experiments, tubulin analysis on the micro-pillared topography and initial cell interaction with the micro-pillars.

  12. Phagocytosis of antibody‐opsonized tumor cells leads to the formation of a discrete vacuolar compartment in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, Ramraj; Ramakrishnan, Sreevidhya; Kim, Mingin

    2018-01-01

    Despite the rapidly expanding use of antibody‐based therapeutics to treat cancer, knowledge of the cellular processes following phagocytosis of antibody‐opsonized tumor cells is limited. Here we report the formation of a phagosome‐associated vacuole that is observed in macrophages as these degradative compartments mature following phagocytosis of HER2‐positive cancer cells in the presence of the HER2‐specific antibody, trastuzumab. We demonstrate that this vacuole is a distinct organelle that is closely apposed to the phagosome. Furthermore, the size of the phagosome‐associated vacuole is increased by inhibition of the mTOR pathway. Collectively, the identification of this vacuolar compartment has implications for understanding the subcellular trafficking processes leading to the destruction of phagocytosed, antibody‐opsonized cancer cells by macrophages. PMID:29437282

  13. Defective photoreceptor phagocytosis in a mouse model of enhanced S-cone syndrome causes progressive retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mustafi, Debarshi; Kevany, Brian M.; Genoud, Christel; Okano, Kiichiro; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Roman, Alejandro J.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Engel, Andreas; Adams, Mark D.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS), featuring an excess number of S cones, manifests as a progressive retinal degeneration that leads to blindness. Here, through optical imaging, we identified an abnormal interface between photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in 9 patients with ESCS. The neural retina leucine zipper transcription factor-knockout (Nrl−/−) mouse model demonstrates many phenotypic features of human ESCS, including unstable S-cone-positive photoreceptors. Using massively parallel RNA sequencing, we identified 6203 differentially expressed transcripts between wild-type (Wt) and Nrl−/− mouse retinas, with 6 highly significant differentially expressed genes of the Pax, Notch, and Wnt canonical pathways. Changes were also obvious in expression of 30 genes involved in the visual cycle and 3 key genes in photoreceptor phagocytosis. Novel high-resolution (100 nm) imaging and reconstruction of Nrl−/− retinas revealed an abnormal packing of photoreceptors that contributed to buildup of photoreceptor deposits. Furthermore, lack of phagosomes in the RPE layer of Nrl−/− retina revealed impairment in phagocytosis. Cultured RPE cells from Wt and Nrl−/− mice illustrated that the phagocytotic defect was attributable to the aberrant interface between ESCS photoreceptors and the RPE. Overcoming the retinal phagocytosis defect could arrest the progressive degenerative component of this disease.—Mustafi, D., Kevany, B. M., Genoud, C., Okano, K., Cideciyan, A. V., Sumaroka, A., Roman, A. J., Jacobson, S. G. Engel, A., Adams, M. D., Palczewski, K. Defective photoreceptor phagocytosis in a mouse model of enhanced S-cone syndrome causes progressive retinal degeneration. PMID:21659555

  14. Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: rapid killing accompanying phagocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, W.A.

    1983-08-01

    The kinetics of bactericidal activity of activated macrophages can be precisely described by a mathematical model in which phagocytosis, killing, digestion, and release of degraded bacterial material are considered to occur continuously. To gain a better understanding of these events, I have determined the period of time between first contact of bacteria with macrophages and the onset of killing. Activated rat peritoneal macrophages were incubated for various times up to 15 min with Listeria monocytogenes previously labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine and the unassociated bacteria removed by two centrifugations through a density interface. Both cell-associated radioactivity and cell-associated viable bacteria, determinedmore » as colony forming units after sonication of the cell pellet, increased with time of incubation. However, the specific viability of these bacteria, expressed as the ratio of number of viable bacteria per unit radioactivity declined with time, as an approximate inverse exponential, after a lag period of 2.9 +/- 0.8 min. Evidence is given that other possible causes for this decline in specific viability, other than death of the bacteria, such as preferential ingestion of dead Listeria, clumping of bacteria, variations in autolytic activity, or release of Listericidins are unlikely. I conclude therefore that activated macrophages kill Listeria approximately 3 min after the cell and the bacterium first make contact.« less

  15. Comparative Characterization of Phosphatidic Acid Sensors and Their Localization during Frustrated Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kassas, Nawal; Tanguy, Emeline; Thahouly, Tamou; Fouillen, Laetitia; Heintz, Dimitri; Chasserot-Golaz, Sylvette; Bader, Marie-France; Grant, Nancy J; Vitale, Nicolas

    2017-03-10

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is the simplest phospholipid naturally existing in living organisms, but it constitutes only a minor fraction of total cell lipids. PA has attracted considerable attention because it is a phospholipid precursor, a lipid second messenger, and a modulator of membrane shape, and it has thus been proposed to play key cellular functions. The dynamics of PA in cells and in subcellular compartments, however, remains an open question. The recent generation of fluorescent probes for PA, by fusing GFP to PA-binding domains, has provided direct evidence for PA dynamics in different intracellular compartments. Here, three PA sensors were characterized in vitro, and their preferences for different PA species in particular lipidic environments were compared. In addition, the localization of PA in macrophages during frustrated phagocytosis was examined using these PA sensors and was combined with a lipidomic analysis of PA in intracellular compartments. The results indicate that the PA sensors display some preferences for specific PA species, depending on the lipid environment, and the localization study in macrophages revealed the complexity of intracellular PA dynamics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Lysosomal Degradation Is Required for Sustained Phagocytosis of Bacteria by Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ching-On; Gregory, Steven; Hu, Hongxiang; Chao, Yufang; Sepúlveda, Victoria E; He, Yuchun; Li-Kroeger, David; Goldman, William E; Bellen, Hugo J; Venkatachalam, Kartik

    2017-06-14

    Clearance of bacteria by macrophages involves internalization of the microorganisms into phagosomes, which are then delivered to endolysosomes for enzymatic degradation. These spatiotemporally segregated processes are not known to be functionally coupled. Here, we show that lysosomal degradation of bacteria sustains phagocytic uptake. In Drosophila and mammalian macrophages, lysosomal dysfunction due to loss of the endolysosomal Cl - transporter ClC-b/CLCN7 delayed degradation of internalized bacteria. Unexpectedly, defective lysosomal degradation of bacteria also attenuated further phagocytosis, resulting in elevated bacterial load. Exogenous application of bacterial peptidoglycans restored phagocytic uptake in the lysosomal degradation-defective mutants via a pathway requiring cytosolic pattern recognition receptors and NF-κB. Mammalian macrophages that are unable to degrade internalized bacteria also exhibit compromised NF-κB activation. Our findings reveal a role for phagolysosomal degradation in activating an evolutionarily conserved signaling cascade, which ensures that continuous uptake of bacteria is preceded by lysosomal degradation of microbes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Grewia asiatica fruit on glycemic index and phagocytosis tested in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Mesaik, Muhammad Ahmed; Ahmed, Asif; Khalid, Ahmed Shukralla; Jan, Saleem; Siddiqui, Afaq Ahmed; Perveen, Shahida; Azim, Muhammad Kamran

    2013-01-01

    The Grewia asiatica (commonly known as Phalsa or Fasla) is a shrub or small tree found in southern Asia. It produces purple to black color fruit when ripe. In folk medicine the edible Grewia asiatica fruit is used in a number of pathological conditions. The current study described the effects of Grewia asiatica fruit on glycemic index (GI) and phagocytosis in healthy non-diabetic human subjects. The results showed that Grewia asiatica fruit has low GI value of 5.34 with modest hypoglycemic activity. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay was carried out to determine the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the oxidative burst activity of whole blood. ROS production was found to be significantly affected, having the 78.3, 58.6 and 30.8% when the subjects were fed with D-glucose, mixture of D-glucose and Grewia asiatica fruit and Grewia asiatica fruit alone respectively as compared to the control. The aqueous, methanolic and butanolic extracts of Grewia asiatica fruits were found to produce a stimulatory effect on ROS production however; the chloroform, hexane and ethanol-acetate extracted exerted significant inhibitory effect. These results demonstrated that Grewia asiatica fruit has desirable effects on blood glucose metabolism manifested as low glycemic response and modulation of ROS production.

  18. Impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic cell material in serologically active clinically quiescent patients with systemic lupus erythematosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Nan; Tso, Tim K; Wu, Hsiao-Chih; Yang, Hsiu-Fen; Tsay, Gregory J

    2016-12-01

    Serologically active clinically quiescent (SACQ) patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) account for 8-12% of all patients with SLE, but there is disagreement about whether such patients are indeed clinically stable. Patients with clinically active SLE have decreased macrophage function, although the status of SACQ patients with SLE is unclear. This study compared 18 patients who met the diagnostic criteria for SACQ SLE with 18 healthy volunteers with regard to the capability of macrophages to clear apoptotic bodies by use of a modified serum-free phagocytosis test. Macrophages that naturally differentiated from monocytes were used to engulf apoptotic cells developed from polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results showed that macrophages from SACQ patients with SLE had less phagocytotic capability than those from healthy controls. The significant reduction of macrophage phagocytotic capability in these patients suggests the potential for disease recurrence. The use of a serum-free method confirmed the presence of intrinsic factors that modulate the decrease of macrophage function in SLE. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Igg Subclasses Targeting the Flagella of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Can Mediate Phagocytosis and Bacterial Killing

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Yun Shan; Armour, Kathryn L; Clark, Michael R; Grant, Andrew J; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella are a common cause of invasive disease in immuno-compromised individuals and in children. Multi-drug resistance poses challenges to disease control, with a critical need for effective vaccines. Flagellin is an attractive vaccine candidate due to surface exposure and high epitope copy number, but its potential as a target for opsonophacytic antibodies is unclear. We examined the effect of targeting flagella with different classes of IgG on the interaction between Salmonella Typhimurium and a human phagocyte-like cell line, THP-1. We tagged the FliC flagellar protein with a foreign CD52 mimotope (TSSPSAD) and bacteria were opsonized with a panel of humanised CD52 antibodies with the same antigen-binding V-region, but different constant regions. We found that IgG binding to flagella increases bacterial phagocytosis and reduces viable intracellular bacterial numbers. Opsonisation with IgG3, followed by IgG1, IgG4, and IgG2, resulted in the highest level of bacterial uptake and in the highest reduction in the intracellular load of viable bacteria. Taken together, our data provide proof-of-principle evidence that targeting flagella with antibodies can increase the antibacterial function of host cells, with IgG3 being the most potent subclass. These data will assist the rational design of urgently needed, optimised vaccines against iNTS disease. PMID:27366588

  20. Aspergillus Cell Wall Melanin Blocks LC3-Associated Phagocytosis to Promote Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Valsecchi, Isabel; Gresnigt, Mark S; Samonis, George; Drakos, Elias; Boumpas, Dimitrios; Muszkieta, Laetitia; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Netea, Mihai G; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Brakhage, Axel A; El-Benna, Jamel; Beauvais, Anne; Latge, Jean-Paul; Chamilos, Georgios

    2016-01-13

    Concealing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is a principal strategy used by fungi to avoid immune recognition. Surface exposure of PAMPs during germination can leave the pathogen vulnerable. Accordingly, β-glucan surface exposure during Aspergillus fumigatus germination activates an Atg5-dependent autophagy pathway termed LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), which promotes fungal killing. We found that LAP activation also requires the genetic, biochemical or biological (germination) removal of A. fumigatus cell wall melanin. The attenuated virulence of melanin-deficient A. fumigatus is restored in Atg5-deficient macrophages and in mice upon conditional inactivation of Atg5 in hematopoietic cells. Mechanistically, Aspergillus melanin inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent activation of LAP by excluding the p22phox subunit from the phagosome. Thus, two events that occur concomitantly during germination of airborne fungi, surface exposure of PAMPs and melanin removal, are necessary for LAP activation and fungal killing. LAP blockade is a general property of melanin pigments, a finding with broad physiological implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. PD-1 expression by tumor-associated macrophages inhibits phagocytosis and tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Sydney R.; Maute, Roy L.; Dulken, Ben W.; Hutter, Gregor; George, Benson M.; McCracken, Melissa N.; Gupta, Rohit; Tsai, Jonathan M.; Sinha, Rahul; Corey, Daniel; Ring, Aaron M.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Weissman, Irving L.

    2017-01-01

    Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint receptor that is upregulated on activated T cells to induce immune tolerance.1,2 Tumor cells frequently overexpress the ligand for PD-1, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), facilitating escape from the immune system.3,4 Monoclonal antibodies blocking PD-1/PD-L1 have shown remarkable clinical efficacy in patients with a variety of cancers, including melanoma, colorectal cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma.5–9 Although it is well-established that PD-1/PD-L1 blockade activates T cells, little is known about the role that this pathway may have on tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Here we show that both mouse and human TAMs express PD-1. TAM PD-1 expression increases over time in mouse models, and with increasing disease stage in primary human cancers. TAM PD-1 expression negatively correlates with phagocytic potency against tumor cells, and blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 in vivo increases macrophage phagocytosis, reduces tumor growth, and lengthens survival in mouse models of cancer in a macrophage-dependent fashion. Our results suggest that PD-1/PD-L1 therapies may also function through a direct effect on macrophages, with significant implications for treatment with these agents. PMID:28514441

  2. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and cytokine activation of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses.

    PubMed

    Vanderstock, Johanne M; Lecours, Marie-Pier; Lavoie-Lamoureux, Annouck; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Segura, Mariela; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Jean, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate in vitro phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses and to determine whether circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma have an increase in expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 and a decrease in expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in response to bacteria. ANIMALS 6 horses with severe equine asthma and 6 control horses. PROCEDURES Circulating blood neutrophils were isolated from horses with severe equine asthma and control horses. Phagocytosis was evaluated by use of flow cytometry. Bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils was assessed by use of Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus as targets, whereas the cytokine mRNA response was assessed by use of a quantitative PCR assay. RESULTS Circulating blood neutrophils from horses with severe equine asthma had significantly lower bactericidal activity toward S zooepidemicus but not toward S equi, compared with results for control horses. Phagocytosis and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 were not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINCAL RELEVANCE Impairment of bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma could contribute to an increased susceptibility to infections.

  4. Phagocytosis and phagosome acidification are required for pathogen processing and MyD88-dependent responses to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Ip, WK Eddie; Sokolovska, Anna; Charriere, Guillaume M; Boyer, Laurent; Dejardin, Stephanie; Cappillino, Michael P; Yantosca, L Michael; Takahashi, Kazue; Moore, Kathryn J; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Stuart, Lynda M

    2010-01-01

    Innate immunity is vital for protection from microbes and is mediated by both humoral effectors, such as cytokines, and cellular immune defenses, including phagocytic cells such as macrophages. After internalization by phagocytes, microbes are delivered into a phagosome, a complex intracellular organelle with a well-established and important role in microbial killing. However, the role of this organelle in cytokine responses and microbial sensing is less well defined. Here we assess the role of the phagosome in innate immune sensing and demonstrate the critical interdependence of phagocytosis and pattern recognition receptor signaling during response to the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. We show that phagocytosis is essential to initiate optimal MyD88-dependent response to Staphylococcus aureus. Prior to TLR-dependent cytokine production bacteria must not only be engulfed but also delivered into acidic phagosomes. Here acid-activated host enzymes digest the internalized bacteria to liberate otherwise cryptic bacterial-derived ligands that initiate responses from the vacuole. Importantly, in macrophages in which phagosome acidification is perturbed, the impaired response to Staphylococcus aureus can be rescued by addition of lysostaphin, a bacterial endopeptidase active at neutral pH that can substitute for the acid-activated host enzymes. Together these observations delineate the inter-dependence of phagocytosis with pattern recognition receptor signaling and suggest that therapeutics to augment functions and signaling from the vacuole may be useful strategies to increase host responses to Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:20483752

  5. Insight into phagocytosis of mature sexual (gametocyte) stages of Plasmodium falciparum using a human monocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Geetha P; Weinstein, Corey S; Kumar, Nirbhay

    2016-05-01

    During natural infection malaria parasites are injected into the bloodstream of a human host by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Both asexual and mature sexual stages of Plasmodium circulate in the blood. Asexual forms are responsible for clinical malaria while sexual stages are responsible for continued transmission via the mosquitoes. Immune responses generated against various life cycle stages of the parasite have important roles in resistance to malaria and in reducing malaria transmission. Phagocytosis of free merozoites and erythrocytic asexual stages has been well studied, but very little is known about similar phagocytic clearance of mature sexual stages, which are critical for transmission. We evaluated phagocytic uptake of mature sexual (gametocyte) stage parasites by a human monocyte cell line in the absence of immune sera. We found that intact mature stages do not undergo phagocytosis, unless they are either killed or freed from erythrocytes. In view of this observation, we propose that the inability of mature gametocytes to be phagocytized may actually result in malaria transmission advantage. On the other hand, mature gametocytes that are not transmitted to mosquitoes during infection will eventually die and undergo phagocytosis, initiating immune responses that may have transmission blocking potential. A better understanding of early phagocytic clearance and immune responses to gametocytes may identify additional targets for transmission blocking strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen Prevents Phagocytosis of Vibrio anguillarum by Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Skin Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lindell, Kristoffer; Fahlgren, Anna; Hjerde, Erik; Willassen, Nils-Peder; Fällman, Maria; Milton, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Colonization of host tissues is a first step taken by many pathogens during the initial stages of infection. Despite the impact of bacterial disease on wild and farmed fish, only a few direct studies have characterized bacterial factors required for colonization of fish tissues. In this study, using live-cell and confocal microscopy, rainbow trout skin epithelial cells, the main structural component of the skin epidermis, were demonstrated to phagocytize bacteria. Mutant analyses showed that the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum required the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen to evade phagocytosis and that O-antigen transport required the putative wzm-wzt-wbhA operon, which encodes two ABC polysaccharide transporter proteins and a methyltransferase. Pretreatment of the epithelial cells with mannose prevented phagocytosis of V. anguillarum suggesting that a mannose receptor is involved in the uptake process. In addition, the O-antigen transport mutants could not colonize the skin but they did colonize the intestines of rainbow trout. The O-antigen polysaccharides were also shown to aid resistance to the antimicrobial factors, lysozyme and polymyxin B. In summary, rainbow trout skin epithelial cells play a role in the fish innate immunity by clearing bacteria from the skin epidermis. In defense, V. anguillarum utilizes O-antigen polysaccharides to evade phagocytosis by the epithelial cells allowing it to colonize rapidly fish skin tissues. PMID:22662189

  7. In vitro assessment of the effects of temperature on phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis in bovine polymorphonuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Lecchi, Cristina; Rota, Nicola; Vitali, Andrea; Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Lacetera, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    Heat stress exerts a direct negative effect on farm animal health, triggering physiological responses. Environmental high temperature induces immunosuppression in dairy cows, increasing the risk of mastitis and milk somatic cell counts. The influence of heat stress on leukocytes activities has not been fully elucidated. The present in vitro study was aimed at assessing whether the exposure to temperature simulating conditions of severe whole body hyperthermia affects defensive functions of bovine blood polymorphonuclear cells. Blood was collected from seven clinically healthy, multiparous, late lactating Holstein cows. After isolation, PMN were incubated at either 39 or 41°C. Phagocytosis, respiratory burst and apoptosis were then investigated. The selected temperatures of 39°C or 41°C mimicked conditions of normothermia or severe heat stress, respectively. Phagocytosis assay was carried out by measuring the fluorescence of phagocyted fluorescein-labelled E. coli bioparticles. The modulation of oxidative burst activity was studied by the cytochrome C reduction method. Apoptosis was determined by measuring the activities of two enzymes that play an effector role in the process, namely Caspase-3 and Caspase-7. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 22.0. A Student t-test for paired samples and a Generalised Estimating Equation were used based on data distribution. The phagocytosis rate was reduced (-37%, P<0.01) when PMN were incubated for 2h at 41°C, when compared to phagocytosis rate measured at 39°C. The oxidative burst, as determined by extracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), was also reduced by the exposure of cells to 41°C compared to 39°C. Such reduction ranged between -2 and -21% (P<0.05). Apoptosis rate was not affected by different temperatures. The results reported in this study suggest that phagocytosis and ROS production in PMN exposed to severe high temperature are impaired, partially explaining the higher occurrence of

  8. Development of a macrophage-targeting and phagocytosis-inducing bio-nanocapsule-based nanocarrier for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Tatematsu, Kenji; Somiya, Masaharu; Iijima, Masumi; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2018-06-01

    Macrophage hyperfunction or dysfunction is tightly associated with various diseases, such as osteoporosis, inflammatory disorder, and cancers. However, nearly all conventional drug delivery system (DDS) nanocarriers utilize endocytosis for entering target cells; thus, the development of macrophage-targeting and phagocytosis-inducing DDS nanocarriers for treating these diseases is required. In this study, we developed a hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope L particle (i.e., bio-nanocapsule (BNC)) outwardly displaying a tandem form of protein G-derived IgG Fc-binding domain and protein L-derived IgG Fab-binding domain (GL-BNC). When conjugated with the macrophage-targeting ligand, mouse IgG2a (mIgG2a), the GL-BNC itself, and the liposome-fused GL-BNC (i.e., GL-virosome) spontaneously initiated aggregation by bridging between the Fc-binding domain and Fab-binding domain with mIgG2a. The aggregates were efficiently taken up by macrophages, whereas this was inhibited by latrunculin B, a phagocytosis-specific inhibitor. The mIgG2a-GL-virosome containing doxorubicin exhibited higher cytotoxicity toward macrophages than conventional liposomes and other BNC-based virosomes. Thus, GL-BNCs and GL-virosomes may constitute promising macrophage-targeting and phagocytosis-inducing DDS nanocarriers. We have developed a novel macrophage-targeting and phagocytosis-inducing bio-nanocapsule (BNC)-based nanocarrier named GL-BNC, which comprises a hepatitis B virus envelope L particle outwardly displaying protein G-derived IgG Fc- and protein L-derived IgG Fab-binding domains in tandem. The GL-BNC alone or liposome-fused form (GL-virosomes) could spontaneously aggregate when conjugated with macrophage-targeting IgGs, inducing phagocytosis by the interaction between IgG Fc of aggregates and FcγR on phagocytes. Thereby these aggregates were efficiently taken up by macrophages. GL-virosomes containing doxorubicin exhibited higher cytotoxicity towards macrophages than ZZ-virosomes and

  9. Metabolic similarities between fertilization and phagocytosis. Conservation of a peroxidatic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    At the time of fertilization, sea urchin eggs release a peroxidase which, together with H2O2 generated by a respiratory burst, is responsible for hardening of the fertilization membrane. We demonstrate here that the ovoperoxidase of unfertilized eggs is located in cortical granules and, after fertilization, is concentrated in the fertilization membrane. Fertilization of sea urchin eggs or their parthenogenetic activation with the ionophor A23187 also results in (a) the conversion of iodide to a trichloroacetic acid-precipitable form (iodination), (b) the deiodination of eggs exogenously labeled with myeloperoxidase and H2O2, (c) the degradation of thyroxine as measured by the recovery of the released radioiodine at the origin and in the inorganic iodide spot on paper chromatography, and (d) the conversion of estradiol to an alcohol-precipitable form (estrogen binding). The iodination reaction and the binding of estradio occurs predominantly in the fertilization membrane where the ovoperoxidase is concentrated. From the estimation of the kinetics of incorporation of iodine, we determine that the peroxidative system is active for 30 min after fertilization, long after hardening of the fertilization membrane is complete. Most of the bound iodine is lost during the hatching process. Iodination of albumin is catalyzed by the material released from the egg during fertilization, when combined with H2O2 and iodide. Iodination, thyroxine degradation, and estradiol binding are inhibited by azide, cyanide, aminotriazole, methimazole, ascorbic acid and ergothioneine, all of which can inhibit peroxidase-catalyzed reactions. These responses of the sea urchin egg to fertilization are strikingly similar to the changes induced in polymorphonuclear leukocytes by phagocytosis and, in both instances, a peroxidative mechanism may be involved. PMID:372484

  10. Hypoglycemic depression of hepatic phagocytosis in vivo and in the in situ perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kober, P M; Filkins, J P

    1981-01-01

    Depression of the phagocytic function of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) during endotoxic hypoglycemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock. The present study evaluated the in vivo effects of hypoglycemia on RES function and assessed the effects of an vivo bout of hypoglycemia on phagocytosis in the in situ perfused rat liver. Hypoglycemia was produced in male Holtzman rats using either 1 U of regular insulin (RI) (ILETIN, Lilly) or 0.75 U of long-acting insulin (LAI) (85% LENTE/15% ULTRALENTE, Lilly). RES function was quantitated by intravascular clearance of 8 mg/100 gm body weight colloidal carbon (CC). Two hr after RI and 2.5 hr after LAI, the intravascular halftimes of CC clearance were 19 +/- 2 min (N = 22) and 18 +/- 1 min (N = 19), respectively, as compared to control, 11.3 +/- 0.4 min (N = 53, P less than 0.001). The corresponding plasma glucose (PG) levels were 95 +/- 2 mg/dl in control, 14.4 +/- 0.9 for the RI group, and 17 +/- 1 for LAI. Two hr after RI, livers were perfused for 10 min in situ with 50 mg/liter CC in saline 5% rat serum. PG for control liver donors were 90 +/- 3 mg/dl, while those for hypoglycemic liver donors were 15 +/- 2. CC uptake was decreased from 22 micrograms/min/gm liver in the control (+ serum, n = 19) to 11 +/- 2 in hypoglycemia livers (N = 6); no effect of serum on hypoglycemic depression of the RES was seen. There were no differences in flow rates in the 2 groups. These results indicate that hypoglycemia directly impairs RES function and that the in vivo depression of intravascular clearance is not related to either the presence or absence of serum factors or total hepatic blood flow. Thus, the characteristic hypoglycemia of endotoxin shock may contribute to RES depression and the lethal shock syndrome.

  11. Hyperforin is a modulator of inducible nitric oxide synthase and phagocytosis in microglia and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Birgit; Wolff, Horst; Elstner, Erich F; Heilmann, Jörg

    2010-06-01

    Upon activation, microglia, the immunocompetent cells in the brain, get highly phagocytic and release pro-inflammatory mediators like nitric oxide (NO). Excessive NO production is pivotal in neurodegenerative disorders, and there is evidence that abnormalities in NO production and inflammatory responses may at least support a range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. Although extracts of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) have been used for centuries in traditional medicine, notably for the treatment of depression, there is still considerable lack in scientific knowledge about the impact on microglia. We used N11 and BV2 mouse microglia, as well as RAW 264.7 macrophages to investigate the effects of St. John's wort extract and constituents thereof on NO production Moreover, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy were employed to analyze the influence on phagocytosis, transcription factor activation states, and cell motility. We found that extracts of St. John's wort efficiently suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release and identified hyperforin as the responsible compound, being effective at concentrations between 0.25 and 0.75 microM. The reduced NO production was mediated by diminished inducible nitric oxide synthase expression on the mRNA and protein level. In addition, at similar concentrations, hyperforin reduced zymosan phygocytosis to 20-40% and putatively acted by downregulating the CD206 macrophage mannose receptor and modulation of cell motility. We found that the observed effects correlate with a suppression of the activated state of Nf-kappaB and phospho-CREB, while c-JUN, STAT1, and HIF-1alpha activity and cyclooxygenase-2 expression remained unaffected by hyperforin. These results reveal that hyperforin influences pro-inflammatory and immunological responses of microglia that are involved in the progression of neuropathologic disorders.

  12. Association of ABCA1 with syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1 and enhanced phagocytosis in tangier cells.

    PubMed

    Bared, Salim Maa; Buechler, Christa; Boettcher, Alfred; Dayoub, Rania; Sigruener, Alexander; Grandl, Margot; Rudolph, Christian; Dada, Ashraf; Schmitz, Gerd

    2004-12-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) facilitates the cellular release of cholesterol and choline-phospholipids to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and several studies indicate that vesicular transport is associated with ABCA1 function. Syntaxins play a major role in vesicular fusion and have also been demonstrated to interact with members of the ABC-transporter family. Therefore, we focused on the identification of syntaxins that directly interact with ABCA1. The expression of syntaxins and ABCA1 in cultured human monocytes during M-CSF differentiation and cholesterol loading was investigated and syntaxins 3, 6, and 13 were found induced in foam cells together with ABCA1. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a direct association of syntaxin 13 and full-length ABCA1, whereas syntaxin 3 and 6 failed to interact with ABCA1. The colocalization of ABCA1 and syntaxin 13 was also shown by immunofluorescence microscopy. Silencing of syntaxin 13 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) led to reduced ABCA1 protein levels and hence to a significant decrease in apoA-I-dependent choline-phospholipid efflux. ABCA1 is localized in Lubrol WX-insoluble raft microdomains in macrophages and syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1 were also detected in these detergent resistant microdomains along with ABCA1. Syntaxin 13, flotillin-1, and ABCA1 were identified as phagosomal proteins, indicating the involvement of the phagosomal compartment in ABCA1-mediated lipid efflux. In addition, the uptake of latex phagobeads by fibroblasts with mutated ABCA1 was enhanced when compared with control cells and the recombinant expression of functional ABCA1 normalized the phagocytosis rate in Tangier fibroblasts. It is concluded that ABCA1 forms a complex with syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1, residing at the plasma membrane and in phagosomes that are partially located in raft microdomains.

  13. Association of ABCA1 with Syntaxin 13 and Flotillin-1 and Enhanced Phagocytosis in Tangier Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bared, Salim Maa; Buechler, Christa; Boettcher, Alfred; Dayoub, Rania; Sigruener, Alexander; Grandl, Margot; Rudolph, Christian; Dada, Ashraf; Schmitz, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) facilitates the cellular release of cholesterol and choline-phospholipids to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and several studies indicate that vesicular transport is associated with ABCA1 function. Syntaxins play a major role in vesicular fusion and have also been demonstrated to interact with members of the ABC-transporter family. Therefore, we focused on the identification of syntaxins that directly interact with ABCA1. The expression of syntaxins and ABCA1 in cultured human monocytes during M-CSF differentiation and cholesterol loading was investigated and syntaxins 3, 6, and 13 were found induced in foam cells together with ABCA1. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a direct association of syntaxin 13 and full-length ABCA1, whereas syntaxin 3 and 6 failed to interact with ABCA1. The colocalization of ABCA1 and syntaxin 13 was also shown by immunofluorescence microscopy. Silencing of syntaxin 13 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) led to reduced ABCA1 protein levels and hence to a significant decrease in apoA-I–dependent choline-phospholipid efflux. ABCA1 is localized in Lubrol WX–insoluble raft microdomains in macrophages and syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1 were also detected in these detergent resistant microdomains along with ABCA1. Syntaxin 13, flotillin-1, and ABCA1 were identified as phagosomal proteins, indicating the involvement of the phagosomal compartment in ABCA1-mediated lipid efflux. In addition, the uptake of latex phagobeads by fibroblasts with mutated ABCA1 was enhanced when compared with control cells and the recombinant expression of functional ABCA1 normalized the phagocytosis rate in Tangier fibroblasts. It is concluded that ABCA1 forms a complex with syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1, residing at the plasma membrane and in phagosomes that are partially located in raft microdomains. PMID:15469992

  14. EhVps32 Is a Vacuole-Associated Protein Involved in Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis of Entamoeaba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Avalos-Padilla, Yunuen; Betanzos, Abigail; Javier-Reyna, Rosario; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Lagunes-Guillén, Anel; Ortega, Jaime; Orozco, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the role of EhVps32 protein (a member of the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport) in endocytosis of Entamoeba histolytica, a professional phagocyte. Confocal microscopy, TEM and cell fractionation revealed EhVps32 in cytoplasmic vesicles and also located adjacent to the plasma membrane. Between 5 to 30 min of phagocytosis, EhVps32 was detected on some erythrocytes-containing phagosomes of acidic nature, and at 60 min it returned to cytoplasmic vesicles and also appeared adjacent to the plasma membrane. TEM images revealed it in membranous structures in the vicinity of ingested erythrocytes. EhVps32, EhADH (an ALIX family member), Gal/GalNac lectin and actin co-localized in the phagocytic cup and in some erythrocytes-containing phagosomes, but EhVps32 was scarcely detected in late phagosomes. During dextran uptake, EhVps32, EhADH and Gal/GalNac lectin, but not actin, co-localized in pinosomes. EhVps32 recombinant protein formed oligomers composed by rings and filaments. Antibodies against EhVps32 monomers stained cytoplasmic vesicles but not erythrocytes-containing phagosomes, suggesting that in vivo oligomers are formed on phagosome membranes. The involvement of EhVps32 in phagocytosis was further study in pNeoEhvps32-HA-transfected trophozoites, which augmented almost twice their rate of erythrophagocytosis as well as the membranous concentric arrays built by filaments, spirals and tunnel-like structures. Some of these structures apparently connected phagosomes with the phagocytic cup. In concordance, the EhVps32-silenced G3 trophozoites ingested 80% less erythrocytes than the G3 strain. Our results suggest that EhVps32 participates in E. histolytica phagocytosis and pinocytosis. It forms oligomers on erythrocytes-containing phagosomes, probably as a part of the scission machinery involved in membrane invagination and intraluminal vesicles formation. PMID:26230715

  15. Development of a fluorescence-based in vivo phagocytosis assay to measure mononuclear phagocyte system function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tartaro, Karrie; VanVolkenburg, Maria; Wilkie, Dean; Coskran, Timothy M; Kreeger, John M; Kawabata, Thomas T; Casinghino, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) which provides protection against infection is made up of phagocytic cells that engulf and digest bacteria or other foreign substances. Suppression of the MPS may lead to decreased clearance of pathogenic microbes. Drug delivery systems and immunomodulatory therapeutics that target phagocytes have a potential to inhibit MPS function. Available methods to measure inhibition of MPS function use uptake of radioactively-labeled cells or labor-intensive semi-quantitative histologic techniques. The objective of this work was to develop a non-radioactive quantitative method to measure MPS function in vivo by administering heat-killed E. coli conjugated to a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (Bioparticles(®)). Fluorescence of the Bioparticles(®) is increased at low pH when they are in phagocytic lysosomes. The amount of Bioparticles(®) phagocytosed by MPS organs in rats was determined by measuring fluorescence intensity in livers and spleens ex vivo using an IVIS(®) Spectrum Pre-clinical In Vivo Imaging System. Phagocytosis of the particles by peripheral blood neutrophils was measured by flow cytometry. To assess method sensitivity, compounds likely to suppress the MPS [clodronate-containing liposomes, carboxylate-modified latex particles, maleic vinyl ether (MVE) polymer] were administered to rats prior to injection of the Bioparticles(®). The E. coli particles consistently co-localized with macrophage markers in the liver but not in the spleen. All of the compounds tested decreased phagocytosis in the liver, but had no consistent effects on phagocytic activity in the spleen. In addition, administration of clodronate liposomes and MVE polymer increased the percentage of peripheral blood neutrophils that phagocytosed the Bioparticles(®). In conclusion, an in vivo rat model was developed that measures phagocytosis of E. coli particles in the liver and may be used to assess the impact of test compounds on MPS function. Still, the

  16. Using an improved phagocytosis assay to evaluate the effect of HIV on specific antibodies to pregnancy-associated malaria.

    PubMed

    Ataíde, Ricardo; Hasang, Wina; Wilson, Danny W; Beeson, James G; Mwapasa, Victor; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Meshnick, Steven R; Rogerson, Stephen J

    2010-05-25

    Pregnant women residing in malaria endemic areas are highly susceptible to Plasmodium falciparum malaria, particularly during their first pregnancy, resulting in low birth weight babies and maternal anaemia. This susceptibility is associated with placental sequestration of parasitised red blood cells expressing pregnancy-specific variant surface antigens. Acquisition of antibodies against these variant surface antigens may protect women and their offspring. Functions of such antibodies may include prevention of placental sequestration or opsonisation of parasitised cells for phagocytic clearance. Here we report the development and optimisation of a new high-throughput flow cytometry-based phagocytosis assay using undifferentiated Thp-1 cells to quantitate the amount of opsonizing antibody in patient sera, and apply this assay to measure the impact of HIV on the levels of antibodies to a pregnancy malaria-associated parasite line in a cohort of Malawian primigravid women. The assay showed high reproducibility, with inter-experimental correlation of r(2) = 0.99. In primigravid women, concurrent malaria infection was associated with significantly increased antibodies, whereas HIV decreased the ability to acquire opsonising antibodies (Mann-Whitney ranksum: p = 0.013). This decrease was correlated with HIV-induced immunosuppression, with women with less than 350 x 10(6) CD4+ T- cells/L having less opsonising antibodies (coef: -11.95,P = 0.002). Levels of antibodies were not associated with protection from low birth weight or anaemia. This flow cytometry-based phagocytosis assay proved to be efficient and accurate for the measurement of Fc-receptor mediated phagocytosis-inducing antibodies in large cohorts. HIV was found to affect mainly the acquisition of antibodies to pregnancy-specific malaria in primigravidae. Further studies of the relationship between opsonising antibodies to malaria in pregnancy and HIV are indicated.

  17. Role of serotype-specific polysaccharide in the resistance of Streptococcus mutans to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, H; Yamashita, Y; Toyoshima, K; Yamaguchi, N; Oho, T; Nakano, Y; Nagata, K; Koga, T

    2000-02-01

    To clarify the role of cell surface components of Streptococcus mutans in resistance to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), several isogenic mutants of S. mutans defective in cell surface components were studied with a luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) assay, a killing assay, and a transmission electron microscope. The CL responses of human PMNs to mutant Xc11 defective in a major cell surface antigen, PAc, and mutant Xc16 defective in two surface glucosyltransferases (GTF-I and GTF-SI) were the same as the response to the wild-type strain, Xc. In contrast, mutant Xc24R, which was defective in serotype c-specific polysaccharide, induced a markedly higher CL response than the other strains. The killing assay showed that human PMNs killed more Xc24R than the parent strain and the other mutants. The transmission electron microscopic observation indicated that Xc24R cells were more internalized by human PMNs than the parental strain Xc. These results may be reflected by the fact that strain Xc24R was more phagocytosed than strain Xc. The CL response of human PMNs to a mutant defective in polysaccharide serotype e or f was similar to the response to Xc24R. Furthermore, mutants defective in serotype-specific polysaccharide were markedly more hydrophobic than the wild-type strains and the other mutants, suggesting that the hydrophilic nature of polysaccharides may protect the bacterium from phagocytosis. We conclude that the serotype-specific polysaccharide, but not the cell surface proteins on the cell surface of S. mutans, may play an important role in the resistance to phagocytosis.

  18. Role of Serotype-Specific Polysaccharide in the Resistance of Streptococcus mutans to Phagocytosis by Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Hiromasa; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Toyoshima, Kuniaki; Yamaguchi, Noboru; Oho, Takahiko; Nakano, Yoshio; Nagata, Kengo; Koga, Toshihiko

    2000-01-01

    To clarify the role of cell surface components of Streptococcus mutans in resistance to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), several isogenic mutants of S. mutans defective in cell surface components were studied with a luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) assay, a killing assay, and a transmission electron microscope. The CL responses of human PMNs to mutant Xc11 defective in a major cell surface antigen, PAc, and mutant Xc16 defective in two surface glucosyltransferases (GTF-I and GTF-SI) were the same as the response to the wild-type strain, Xc. In contrast, mutant Xc24R, which was defective in serotype c-specific polysaccharide, induced a markedly higher CL response than the other strains. The killing assay showed that human PMNs killed more Xc24R than the parent strain and the other mutants. The transmission electron microscopic observation indicated that Xc24R cells were more internalized by human PMNs than the parental strain Xc. These results may be reflected by the fact that strain Xc24R was more phagocytosed than strain Xc. The CL response of human PMNs to a mutant defective in polysaccharide serotype e or f was similar to the response to Xc24R. Furthermore, mutants defective in serotype-specific polysaccharide were markedly more hydrophobic than the wild-type strains and the other mutants, suggesting that the hydrophilic nature of polysaccharides may protect the bacterium from phagocytosis. We conclude that the serotype-specific polysaccharide, but not the cell surface proteins on the cell surface of S. mutans, may play an important role in the resistance to phagocytosis. PMID:10639428

  19. The relationship of detergent-solubilization plasma-membrane components of rabbit alveolar macrophages to an isolated inhibitor of phagocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, R S; Cook, G M

    1979-01-01

    1. A plasma-membrane fraction prepared from rabbit alveolar macrophages by hyposmotic borate lysis is described. 2. Rabbit lung lavages, containing a glycoprotein inhibitor of phagocytosis, may be fractionated by preparative isoelectric focusing in the presence of Triton X-100. 3. Chemical analysis indicates that the glycoproteins of the lung lavage contain sialic acid, fucose, mannose, galactose, hexosamine and appreciable quantities of glucose. 4. The relationship of macrophage membrane glycoproteins, solubilized with Triton X-100 in the presence of borate, to the lung lavage glycoproteins is demonstrated immunoelectrophoretically. Images PLATE 1 Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:486083

  20. Physiological roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in regulating heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion as revealed using knockout mice and caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2009-01-01

    Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O2C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A1 or A2A receptors (A1R or A2AR, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A1R knockout (A1RKO) mice but lower in A2ARKO mice and intermediate in A1-A2AR double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective β-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A1Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A2ARs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A1-A2ARKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A1RKO mice and lower in A2ARKO and A1-A2ARKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A2AR. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A2AR-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O2C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A1R or A2AR blockade. Selective A2B antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A1R and A2AR influence HR, Temp, LA, and O2C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A2AR plays an important role in the modulation of O2C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A1R and A2AR. PMID:19218506

  1. Physiological roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in regulating heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion as revealed using knockout mice and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B

    2009-04-01

    Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O(2)C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A(1) or A(2A) receptors (A(1)R or A(2A)R, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A(1)R knockout (A(1)RKO) mice but lower in A(2A)RKO mice and intermediate in A(1)-A(2A)R double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective beta-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A(1)Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A(2A)Rs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A(1)-A(2A)RKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A(1)RKO mice and lower in A(2A)RKO and A(1)-A(2A)RKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A(2A)R. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A(2A)R-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O(2)C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A(1)R or A(2A)R blockade. Selective A(2B) antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A(1)R and A(2A)R influence HR, Temp, LA, and O(2)C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A(2A)R plays an important role in the modulation of O(2)C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A(1)R and A(2A)R.

  2. O-Glycosylation in Cell Wall Proteins in Scedosporium prolificans Is Critical for Phagocytosis and Inflammatory Cytokines Production by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Xisto, Mariana I. D. S.; Bittencourt, Vera C. B.; Liporagi-Lopes, Livia Cristina; Haido, Rosa M. T.; Mendonça, Morena S. A.; Sassaki, Guilherme; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.; Romanos, Maria Teresa V.; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the importance of O-linked oligosaccharides present in peptidorhamnomannan (PRM) from the cell wall of the fungus Scedosporium prolificans for recognition and phagocytosis of conidia by macrophages. Adding PRM led to a dose-dependent inhibition of conidia phagocytosis, whereas de-O-glycosylated PRM did not show any effect. PRM induced the release of macrophage-derived antimicrobial compounds. However, O-linked oligosaccharides do not appear to be required for such induction. The effect of PRM on conidia-induced macrophage killing was examined using latex beads coated with PRM or de-O-glycosylated PRM. A decrease in macrophage viability similar to that caused by conidia was detected. However, macrophage killing was unaffected when beads coated with de-O-glycosylated PRM were used, indicating the toxic effect of O-linked oligosaccharides on macrophages. In addition, PRM triggered TNF-α release by macrophages. Chemical removal of O-linked oligosaccharides from PRM abolished cytokine induction, suggesting that the O-linked oligosaccharidic chains are important moieties involved in inflammatory responses through the induction of TNF-α secretion. In summary, we show that O-glycosylation plays a role in the recognition and uptake of S. prolificans by macrophages, killing of macrophages and production of pro- inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25875427

  3. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and Vav1 Contribute to Dectin1-Dependent Phagocytosis of Candida albicans in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Strijbis, Karin; Tafesse, Fikadu G.; Fairn, Gregory D.; Witte, Martin D.; Dougan, Stephanie K.; Watson, Nicki; Spooner, Eric; Esteban, Alexandre; Vyas, Valmik K.; Fink, Gerald R.; Grinstein, Sergio; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans by cells of the innate immune system is vital to prevent infection. Dectin-1 is the major phagocytic receptor involved in anti-fungal immunity. We identify two new interacting proteins of Dectin-1 in macrophages, Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and Vav1. BTK and Vav1 are recruited to phagocytic cups containing C. albicans yeasts or hyphae but are absent from mature phagosomes. BTK and Vav1 localize to cuff regions surrounding the hyphae, while Dectin-1 lines the full length of the phagosome. BTK and Vav1 colocalize with the lipid PI(3,4,5)P3 and F-actin at the phagocytic cup, but not with diacylglycerol (DAG) which marks more mature phagosomal membranes. Using a selective BTK inhibitor, we show that BTK contributes to DAG synthesis at the phagocytic cup and the subsequent recruitment of PKCε. BTK- or Vav1-deficient peritoneal macrophages display a defect in both zymosan and C. albicans phagocytosis. Bone marrow-derived macrophages that lack BTK or Vav1 show reduced uptake of C. albicans, comparable to Dectin1-deficient cells. BTK- or Vav1-deficient mice are more susceptible to systemic C. albicans infection than wild type mice. This work identifies an important role for BTK and Vav1 in immune responses against C. albicans. PMID:23825946

  4. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and Vav1 contribute to Dectin1-dependent phagocytosis of Candida albicans in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Strijbis, Karin; Tafesse, Fikadu G; Fairn, Gregory D; Witte, Martin D; Dougan, Stephanie K; Watson, Nicki; Spooner, Eric; Esteban, Alexandre; Vyas, Valmik K; Fink, Gerald R; Grinstein, Sergio; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans by cells of the innate immune system is vital to prevent infection. Dectin-1 is the major phagocytic receptor involved in anti-fungal immunity. We identify two new interacting proteins of Dectin-1 in macrophages, Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and Vav1. BTK and Vav1 are recruited to phagocytic cups containing C. albicans yeasts or hyphae but are absent from mature phagosomes. BTK and Vav1 localize to cuff regions surrounding the hyphae, while Dectin-1 lines the full length of the phagosome. BTK and Vav1 colocalize with the lipid PI(3,4,5)P3 and F-actin at the phagocytic cup, but not with diacylglycerol (DAG) which marks more mature phagosomal membranes. Using a selective BTK inhibitor, we show that BTK contributes to DAG synthesis at the phagocytic cup and the subsequent recruitment of PKCε. BTK- or Vav1-deficient peritoneal macrophages display a defect in both zymosan and C. albicans phagocytosis. Bone marrow-derived macrophages that lack BTK or Vav1 show reduced uptake of C. albicans, comparable to Dectin1-deficient cells. BTK- or Vav1-deficient mice are more susceptible to systemic C. albicans infection than wild type mice. This work identifies an important role for BTK and Vav1 in immune responses against C. albicans.

  5. Cytokine production of the neutrophils and macrophages in time of phagocytosis under influence of infrared low-level laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudik, Dmitry V.; Tikhomirova, Elena I.; Tuchina, Elena S.

    2006-08-01

    Influence of infrared low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on induction of synthesis of some cytokines such as interleykin-1 (Il-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (INF-γ), interleykin-8 (Il-8) and interleykin-4 (Il-4) by the neutrophils and macrophages in time of bacterial cells phagocytosis that was searched. As the object of analysis we used peritoneal macrophages from white mice and neutrophils from peripheral blood of healthy donors. We used the laser diod with spectrum maximum of 850 nm with doses 300, 900 and 1500 mJ (exposition -60, 180 and 300 s respectively; capacity - 5 mW). We carried out the Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay (ELISA) to determine cytokine content during phagocytosis after 3 h and 6 h. We found dynamics in production of the cytokines, which was different for the neutrophils and macrophages. We showed that the infrared LLLI has significant stimulating activity on the proinflammatory cytokines production by neutrophils and macrophages. Moreover we revealed dynamics changing in the Il-8 and Il-4 production.

  6. Cromolyn Reduces Levels of the Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Amyloid β-Protein by Promoting Microglial Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Griciuc, Ana; Hudry, Eloise; Wan, Yu; Quinti, Luisa; Ward, Joseph; Forte, Angela M; Shen, Xunuo; Ran, ChongZhao; Elmaleh, David R; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2018-01-18

    Amyloid-beta protein (Aβ) deposition is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ deposition triggers both pro-neuroinflammatory microglial activation and neurofibrillary tangle formation. Cromolyn sodium is an asthma therapeutic agent previously shown to reduce Aβ levels in transgenic AD mouse brains after one-week of treatment. Here, we further explored these effects as well as the mechanism of action of cromolyn, alone, and in combination with ibuprofen in APP Swedish -expressing Tg2576 mice. Mice were treated for 3 months starting at 5 months of age, when the earliest stages of β-amyloid deposition begin. Cromolyn, alone, or in combination with ibuprofen, almost completely abolished longer insoluble Aβ species, i.e. Aβ40 and Aβ42, but increased insoluble Aβ38 levels. In addition to its anti-aggregation effects on Aβ, cromolyn, alone, or plus ibuprofen, but not ibuprofen alone, increased microglial recruitment to, and phagocytosis of β-amyloid deposits in AD mice. Cromolyn also promoted Aβ42 uptake in microglial cell-based assays. Collectively, our data reveal robust effects of cromolyn, alone, or in combination with ibuprofen, in reducing aggregation-prone Aβ levels and inducing a neuroprotective microglial activation state favoring Aβ phagocytosis versus a pro-neuroinflammatory state. These findings support the use of cromolyn, alone, or with ibuprofen, as a potential AD therapeutic.

  7. Inhaled corticosteroid treatment for 6 months was not sufficient to normalize phagocytosis in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Martins, Carmen Lívia Faria; Couto, Shirley Claudino; Muniz-Junqueira, Maria Imaculada

    2013-08-30

    Corticosteroids are the first-line therapy for asthma; however, the effect of corticosteroids on the innate immune system remains unclear. This study's objective was to evaluate the effect of inhaled corticosteroid therapy (ICT) on phagocytic functions. To evaluate the impact of ICT, the phagocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by blood monocytes and neutrophils and the production of superoxide anions were assessed before and after three and six months of ICT treatment in 58 children with persistent asthma and 21 healthy controls. We showed that the phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils that occurred via pattern recognition receptors or was mediated by complement and immunoglobulin receptors in asthmatic children before treatment was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney test) and was not influenced by the severity of the clinical form of the disease. Although there was clinical improvement with treatment, ICT for 6 months was not sufficient to normalize phagocytosis by the phagocytes. Superoxide anion production was also decreased in the asthmatic children before treatment, and ICT normalized the O- production only for children with mild persistent asthma when assessed at baseline but caused this function to decrease after stimulation (p<0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test). Our data suggest that an immunodeficiency in phagocytes remained even after treatment. However, this immunodeficiency does not appear to correspond with the clinical evolution of asthma because an improvement in clinical parameters occurred.

  8. Origin of the phagocytic respiratory burst and its role in gut epithelial phagocytosis in a basal chordate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Huang, Shengfeng; Yan, Xinyu; Huang, Guangrui; Dong, Xiangru; Zheng, Tingting; Yuan, Dongjuan; Wang, Ruihua; Li, Rui; Tan, Ying; Xu, Anlong

    2014-05-01

    The vertebrate phagocytic respiratory burst (PRB) is a highly specific and efficient mechanism for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This mechanism is mediated by NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and used by vertebrate phagocytic leukocytes to destroy internalized microbes. Here we demonstrate the presence of the PRB in a basal chordate, the amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense (bbt). We show that using the antioxidant NAC to scavenge the production of ROS significantly decreased the survival rates of infected amphioxus, indicating that ROS are indispensable for efficient antibacterial responses. Amphioxus NOX enzymes and cytosolic factors were found to colocalize in the epithelial cells of the gill, intestine, and hepatic cecum and could be upregulated after exposure to microbial pathogens. The ROS production in epithelial cell lysates could be reconstructed by supplementing recombinant cytosolic factors, including bbt-p47phox, bbt-p67phox, bbt-p47phox, and bbt-Rac; the restored ROS production could be inhibited by anti-bbt-NOX2 and anti-bbt-p67phox antibodies. We also reveal that the gut epithelial lining cells of the amphioxus are competent at bacterial phagocytosis, and there is evidence that the PRB machinery could participate in the initiation of this phagocytic process. In conclusion, we report the presence of the classical PRB machinery in nonvertebrates and provide the first evidence for the possible role of PRB in epithelial cell immunity and phagocytosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Streptococcus suis Capsular Polysaccharide Inhibits Phagocytosis through Destabilization of Lipid Microdomains and Prevents Lactosylceramide-Dependent Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Houde, Mathieu; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Gagnon, Fleur; Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus suis type 2 is a major swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent, causing meningitis in both swine and humans. S. suis infects the host through the respiratory route, reaches the bloodstream, and persists until breaching into the central nervous system. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of S. suis type 2 is considered a key virulence factor of the bacteria. Though CPS allows S. suis to adhere to the membrane of cells of the immune system, it provides protection against phagocytosis. In fact, nonencapsulated mutants are easily internalized and killed by macrophages and dendritic cells. The objective of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms by which the CPS of S. suis prevents phagocytosis. By using latex beads covalently linked with purified CPS, it was shown that CPS itself was sufficient to inhibit entry of both latex beads and bystander fluorescent beads into macrophages. Upon contact with macrophages, encapsulated S. suis was shown to destabilize lipid microdomains at the cell surface, to block nitric oxide (NO) production during infection, and to prevent lactosylceramide accumulation at the phagocytic cup during infection. In contrast, the nonencapsulated mutant was easily internalized via lipid rafts, in a filipin-sensitive manner, leading to lactosylceramide recruitment and strong NO production. This is the first report to identify a role for CPS in lipid microdomain stability and to recognize an interaction between S. suis and lactosylceramide in phagocytes. PMID:22124659

  10. Streptococcus suis capsular polysaccharide inhibits phagocytosis through destabilization of lipid microdomains and prevents lactosylceramide-dependent recognition.

    PubMed

    Houde, Mathieu; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Gagnon, Fleur; Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose; Segura, Mariela

    2012-02-01

    Streptococcus suis type 2 is a major swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent, causing meningitis in both swine and humans. S. suis infects the host through the respiratory route, reaches the bloodstream, and persists until breaching into the central nervous system. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of S. suis type 2 is considered a key virulence factor of the bacteria. Though CPS allows S. suis to adhere to the membrane of cells of the immune system, it provides protection against phagocytosis. In fact, nonencapsulated mutants are easily internalized and killed by macrophages and dendritic cells. The objective of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms by which the CPS of S. suis prevents phagocytosis. By using latex beads covalently linked with purified CPS, it was shown that CPS itself was sufficient to inhibit entry of both latex beads and bystander fluorescent beads into macrophages. Upon contact with macrophages, encapsulated S. suis was shown to destabilize lipid microdomains at the cell surface, to block nitric oxide (NO) production during infection, and to prevent lactosylceramide accumulation at the phagocytic cup during infection. In contrast, the nonencapsulated mutant was easily internalized via lipid rafts, in a filipin-sensitive manner, leading to lactosylceramide recruitment and strong NO production. This is the first report to identify a role for CPS in lipid microdomain stability and to recognize an interaction between S. suis and lactosylceramide in phagocytes.

  11. Characterization of a cDNA of peroxiredoxin II responding to hydrogen peroxide and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Park, Miey; Shin, Hae J; Lee, Soo Y; Ahn, Tae I

    2005-01-01

    Phagocytic cells have defense systems against reactive oxygen species generated as the first non-specific defense mechanism against invading pathogens or microorganisms. We cloned a cDNA encoding a 21.69-kDa protein in Amoeba proteus homologous to 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx-Ap). In the disk inhibition assay using H2O2 as an oxidizing agent, Escherichia coli overproducing Prx-Ap showed better viability than did E. coli transformed with pBluescript II SK for control. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) produced against Prx-Ap reacted with a 22.5-kDa protein and several minor proteins. In Western blot analysis, levels of the 22.5-kDa protein in amoebae treated with 2-mM H2O2 for 1 h increased about 2-fold over those in control cells. Immunofluorescence scattered throughout the cytoplasm also increased after H2O2 treatment. In Northern blot analysis using the cDNA as a probe, the level of transcripts also changed with H2O2 treatment. When amoebae were fed with Tetrahymena, the intensity of immunofluorescence increased from 15 min and persisted until 2 h after phagocytosis. These results suggest that the 22.5-kDa protein of A. proteus is a Prx protein and that it has an antioxidant property responding to phagocytosis.

  12. The Staphylococcus aureus polysaccharide capsule and Efb-dependent fibrinogen shield act in concert to protect against phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers, Annemarie; Stapels, Daphne A. C.; Weerwind, Lleroy T.; Ko, Ya-Ping; Ruyken, Maartje; Lee, Jean C.; van Kessel, Kok P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has developed many mechanisms to escape from human immune responses. To resist phagocytic clearance, S. aureus expresses a polysaccharide capsule, which effectively masks the bacterial surface and surface-associated proteins, such as opsonins, from recognition by phagocytic cells. Additionally, secretion of the extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb) potently blocks phagocytic uptake of the pathogen. Efb creates a fibrinogen shield surrounding the bacteria by simultaneously binding complement C3b and fibrinogen at the bacterial surface. By means of neutrophil phagocytosis assays with fluorescently labelled encapsulated serotype 5 (CP5) and serotype 8 (CP8) strains we compare the immune-modulating function of these shielding mechanisms. The data indicate that, in highly encapsulated S. aureus strains, the polysaccharide capsule is able to prevent phagocytic uptake at plasma concentrations <10 %, but loses its protective ability at higher concentrations of plasma. Interestingly, Efb shows a strong inhibitory effect on both capsule-negative and encapsulated strains at all tested plasma concentrations. Furthermore, the results suggest that both shielding mechanisms can exist simultaneously and collaborate to provide optimal protection against phagocytosis at a broad range of plasma concentrations. As opsonizing antibodies will be shielded from recognition by either mechanism, incorporating both capsular polysaccharides and Efb in future vaccines could be of great importance. PMID:27112346

  13. The Staphylococcus aureus polysaccharide capsule and Efb-dependent fibrinogen shield act in concert to protect against phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Annemarie; Stapels, Daphne A C; Weerwind, Lleroy T; Ko, Ya-Ping; Ruyken, Maartje; Lee, Jean C; van Kessel, Kok P M; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has developed many mechanisms to escape from human immune responses. To resist phagocytic clearance, S. aureus expresses a polysaccharide capsule, which effectively masks the bacterial surface and surface-associated proteins, such as opsonins, from recognition by phagocytic cells. Additionally, secretion of the extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb) potently blocks phagocytic uptake of the pathogen. Efb creates a fibrinogen shield surrounding the bacteria by simultaneously binding complement C3b and fibrinogen at the bacterial surface. By means of neutrophil phagocytosis assays with fluorescently labelled encapsulated serotype 5 (CP5) and serotype 8 (CP8) strains we compare the immune-modulating function of these shielding mechanisms. The data indicate that, in highly encapsulated S. aureus strains, the polysaccharide capsule is able to prevent phagocytic uptake at plasma concentrations <10 %, but loses its protective ability at higher concentrations of plasma. Interestingly, Efb shows a strong inhibitory effect on both capsule-negative and encapsulated strains at all tested plasma concentrations. Furthermore, the results suggest that both shielding mechanisms can exist simultaneously and collaborate to provide optimal protection against phagocytosis at a broad range of plasma concentrations. As opsonizing antibodies will be shielded from recognition by either mechanism, incorporating both capsular polysaccharides and Efb in future vaccines could be of great importance.

  14. A bloody mess: dendritic cells use hemophagocytosis to regulate viral inflammation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2013-09-19

    Previous studies have highlighted the immune-dampening effects of apoptotic cell uptake by phagocytes. Ohyagi et al. (2013) expose a unique mechanism of immune regulation during viral infection, which is mediated through phagocytosis of apoptotic red cells by dendritic cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. HGF-induced serine 897 phosphorylation of EphA2 regulates epithelial morphogenesis of MDCK cells in 3D culture.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kohei; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2015-05-15

    Expression of EphA2 is upregulated in various cancers that are derived from epithelial cells and correlates with the ability of a cancer cell to undergo migration and invasion. Here we have investigated the role of EphA2 in the epithelial morphogenesis of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in three-dimensional culture. We show that EphA2 is phosphorylated on serine residue 897 through hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation using a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-dependent mechanism and that this phosphorylation is required for the formation of extensions, the first step of tubulogenesis, in MDCK cysts. By contrast, stimulation using the ligand ephrinA1 dephosphorylates EphA2 on serine residue 897 and suppresses the HGF-induced morphological change. Furthermore, activation of the small GTPase RhoG is involved in the HGF-induced formation of extensions downstream of EphA2. These observations suggest that a ligand-independent activity of EphA2 contributes to epithelial morphogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. A novel siglec (CgSiglec-1) from the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) with broad recognition spectrum and inhibitory activity to apoptosis, phagocytosis and cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Liu, Conghui; Jiang, Shuai; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Chen, Hao; Xu, Jiachao; Lv, Zhao; Song, Linsheng

    2016-08-01

    Sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-type lectin (siglec) belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), which acts as regulator involved in glycan recognition and signal transduction in the immune and nervous systems. In the present study, a siglec gene (designated CgSiglec-1) was characterized from the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The cDNA of CgSiglec-1 was of 1251 bp encoding a predicted polypeptide of 416 amino acids. CgSiglec-1 was composed of two I-set immunoglobulin (Ig) domains, one transmembrane (TM) domain and two ITIM motifs, sharing a sequence similarity with vertebrate CD22 homologs. The mRNA expression of CgSiglec-1 could be detected in all the selected tissues, with the highest level in hemocytes and labial palps. The confocal analysis revealed that CgSiglec-1 mainly distributed on the cytoplasmic membrane of the oyster hemocytes. In addition, the mRNA transcripts of CgSiglec-1 in hemocytes increased significantly (4.29-fold to that of control group, p < 0.05) after Vibrio splendidus stimulation. The recombinant CgSiglec-1 protein (rCgSiglec-1) could bind to poly sialic acid (pSIAS), lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN) in a dose-dependent manner. The blockade of CgSiglec-1 by specific polyclonal antibodies could enhance the LPS-induced cell apoptosis, phagocytosis towards V. splendidus and the release of cytokines, such as CgTNF-1, CgIFNLP and CgIL-17. The results collectively indicated that CgSiglec-1 could act as a bridge molecule between invader recognition and signal transduction cascade, and modulate the immune response by inhibiting various important processes of immunity in oyster. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Phagocytosis and intracellular proliferation of Nocardia asteroides (strain Weipheld) in cell structures in vitro. 2. Peritoneal macrophages of guinea-pigs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Splino, M; Mĕrka, V; Kyntera, F

    1976-08-01

    The study deals with the phagocytosis of Nocardia asteroides (strain Weipheld) and the subsequent intracellular proliferation in peritoneal macrophage cells. Normal, two-stage-immunized and long-term cortison-treated guinea-pig (28 mg cortison / kg weight / day during 30 days) macrophages were used. Further, the cytotoxic effect of Nocardia upon the cells in the peritoneal washing liquid in vitro and the influence of the normal, immune and antimacrophage serum upon the phagocytosis and the intracellular proliferation were studied. Among the cells obtained from the peritoneal washing liquid macrophages were most frequently subject to phagocytosis, leukocytes to a lesser degree. The normal macrophages phagocytized in 14.56% (Fig. 1), macrophages of two-stage-immunized guinea-pigs in 18.21% (Fig. 2) and macrophages from cortison treated guinea-pigs in 12.48% of cases. Intracellular observation showed phagocytized germs after 3 min. of exposure. The course of the intracellular proliferation of Nocardia can be seen in Fig. 3. The phagocytosis index increases slowly in all three groups of macrophages; least so in the immunized macrophages (1.30-after 8 hours). The highest values were obtained in the macrophages of cortison treated guinea-pigs (2.02-after 8 hours). Within 8 hours of exposure the filaments of Nocardia grew through the cell membrane of phagocytizing cells (Figs. 4 A, 4 B). Fig. 5 shows the course of the cytopathogenic effect of Nocardia upon the cells. After 1 hr. the number of dead cells increased from 0.30% to 1.9-3.8%; after 4 hrs. it reached 8.15-9.80%; after 8 hrs. 10.1-14.80%. The highest values were observed in cells from cortison treated guinea-pigs (14.80%). After addition of normal serum (time of phagocytosis 60 min.) normal peritoneal macrophages phagocytized in 13.30% of cases; immune serum stimulated phagocytosis (16.21%); antimacrophage serum significantly reduced phagocytosis (4.10%). The phagocytosis index in peritoneal macrophages with

  18. Caffeine Reverts Memory But Not Mood Impairment in a Depression-Prone Mouse Strain with Up-Regulated Adenosine A2A Receptor in Hippocampal Glutamate Synapses.

    PubMed

    Machado, Nuno J; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Silva, Henrique B; Ardais, Ana Paula; Kaster, Manuella P; Garção, Pedro; Rodrigues, Diana I; Pochmann, Daniela; Santos, Ana Isabel; Araújo, Inês M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Tomé, Ângelo R; Köfalvi, Attila; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Agostinho, Paula; El Yacoubi, Malika; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Gomes, Catarina A

    2017-03-01

    Caffeine prophylactically prevents mood and memory impairments through adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) antagonism. A 2A R antagonists also therapeutically revert mood and memory impairments, but it is not known if caffeine is also therapeutically or only prophylactically effective. Since depression is accompanied by mood and memory alterations, we now explored if chronic (4 weeks) caffeine consumption (0.3 g/L) reverts mood and memory impairment in helpless mice (HM, 12 weeks old), a bred-based model of depression. HM displayed higher immobility in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, greater anxiety in the elevated plus maze, and poorer memory performance (modified Y-maze and object recognition). HM also had reduced density of synaptic (synaptophysin, SNAP-25), namely, glutamatergic (vGluT1; -22 ± 7 %) and GABAergic (vGAT; -23 ± 8 %) markers in the hippocampus. HM displayed higher A 2A R density (72 ± 6 %) in hippocampal synapses, an enhanced facilitation of hippocampal glutamate release by the A 2A R agonist, CGS21680 (30 nM), and a larger LTP amplitude (54 ± 8 % vs. 21 ± 5 % in controls) that was restored to control levels (30 ± 10 %) by the A 2A R antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM). Notably, caffeine intake reverted memory deficits and reverted the loss of hippocampal synaptic markers but did not affect helpless or anxiety behavior. These results reinforce the validity of HM as an animal model of depression by showing that they also display reference memory deficits. Furthermore, caffeine intake selectively reverted memory but not mood deficits displayed by HM, which are associated with an increased density and functional impact of hippocampal A 2A R controlling synaptic glutamatergic function.

  19. mGluR long-term depression regulates GluA2 association with COPII vesicles and exit from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Pick, Joseph E; Khatri, Latika; Sathler, Matheus F; Ziff, Edward B

    2017-01-17

    mGluR long-term depression (mGluR-LTD) is a form of synaptic plasticity induced at excitatory synapses by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). mGluR-LTD reduces synaptic strength and is relevant to learning and memory, autism, and sensitization to cocaine; however, the mechanism is not known. Here we show that activation of Group I mGluRs in medium spiny neurons induces trafficking of GluA2 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the synapse by enhancing GluA2 binding to essential COPII vesicle proteins, Sec23 and Sec13. GluA2 exit from the ER further depends on IP3 and Ryanodine receptor-controlled Ca 2+ release as well as active translation. Synaptic insertion of GluA2 is coupled to removal of high-conducting Ca 2+ -permeable AMPA receptors from synapses, resulting in synaptic depression. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism in which mGluR signals release AMPA receptors rapidly from the ER and couple ER release to GluA2 synaptic insertion and GluA1 removal. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Slc45a2 and V-ATPase are regulators of melanosomal pH homeostasis in zebrafish, providing a mechanism for human pigment evolution and disease.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Christopher M; Schwarz, Heinz; Mueller, Kaspar P; Mongera, Alessandro; Konantz, Martina; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane; Geisler, Robert

    2013-03-01

    We present here the positional cloning of the Danio rerio albino mutant and show that the affected gene encodes Slc45a2. The human orthologous gene has previously been shown to be involved in human skin color variation, and mutations therein have been implicated in the disease OCA4. Through ultrastructural analysis of the melanosomes in albino alleles as well as the tyrosinase-deficient mutant sandy, we add new insights into the role of Slc45a2 in the production of melanin. To gain further understanding of the role of Slc45a2 and its possible interactions with other proteins involved in melanization, we further analyzed the role of the V-ATPase as a melanosomal acidifier. We show that it is possible to rescue the melanization potential of the albino melanosomes through genetic and chemical inhibition of V-ATPase, thereby increasing internal melanosome pH. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. The Haemophilus ducreyi LspA1 protein inhibits phagocytosis by using a new mechanism involving activation of C-terminal Src kinase.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Dana A; Worth, Randall G; Rosen, Michael K; Grinstein, Sergio; van Oers, Nicolai S C; Hansen, Eric J

    2014-05-20

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a sexually transmitted infection. A primary means by which this pathogen causes disease involves eluding phagocytosis; however, the molecular basis for this escape mechanism has been poorly understood. Here, we report that the LspA virulence factors of H. ducreyi inhibit phagocytosis by stimulating the catalytic activity of C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), which itself inhibits Src family protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs) that promote phagocytosis. Inhibitory activity could be localized to a 37-kDa domain (designated YL2) of the 456-kDa LspA1 protein. The YL2 domain impaired ingestion of IgG-opsonized targets and decreased levels of active SFKs when expressed in mammalian cells. YL2 contains tyrosine residues in two EPIYG motifs that are phosphorylated in mammalian cells. These tyrosine residues were essential for YL2-based inhibition of phagocytosis. Csk was identified as the predominant mammalian protein interacting with YL2, and a dominant-negative Csk rescued phagocytosis in the presence of YL2. Purified Csk phosphorylated the tyrosines in the YL2 EPIYG motifs. Phosphorylated YL2 increased Csk catalytic activity, resulting in positive feedback, such that YL2 can be phosphorylated by the same kinase that it activates. Finally, we found that the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein also inhibited phagocytosis in a Csk-dependent manner, raising the possibility that this may be a general mechanism among diverse bacteria. Harnessing Csk to subvert the Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytic pathway represents a new bacterial mechanism for circumventing a crucial component of the innate immune response and may potentially affect other SFK-involved cellular pathways. Phagocytosis is a critical component of the immune system that enables pathogens to be contained and cleared. A number of bacterial pathogens have developed specific strategies to either physically evade phagocytosis or block the intracellular signaling required for

  2. Effects of ascorbate on leucocytes: Part II. Effects of ascorbic acid and calcium and sodium ascorbate on neutrophil phagocytosis and post-phagocytic metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R

    1979-09-01

    The effects of ascorbic acid and calcium and sodium ascorbate at a concentration range of 10(-6)M - 10(-1)M on polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) phagocytosis of Candida albicans and post-phagocytic nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction, hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) activity and myeloperoxidase-mediated iodination of ingested protein were investigated. Phagocytosis of C. albicans was unaffected by ascorbate concentrations of 10(-6)M - 10(-2)M; however, progressive inhibition was observed at concentrations of 10(-2)M upwards. Enhancement of resting and stimulated HMS activity and NBT reduction was evident at ascorbate concentrations of 10(-5) M - 10(-2)M. The stimulations of HMS activity and NBT reduction was independent of myeloperoxidase iodination of ingested protein and this latter function was strongly inhibited by ascorbate. Concentrations of ascorbic acid and calcium and sodium ascorbate which caused inhibition of phagocytosis and HMS activity were the same as those which mediated stimulation of cell motility, indicating that independent cellular mechanisms may govern motility and phagocytosis.

  3. Determination of Active Phagocytosis of Unopsonized Porphyromonas gingivalis by Macrophages and Neutrophils Using the pH-Sensitive Fluorescent Dye pHrodo

    PubMed Central

    Lenzo, Jason C.; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M.; Cecil, Jessica; Holden, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytosis of pathogens is an important component of the innate immune system that is responsible for the removal and degradation of bacteria as well as their presentation via the major histocompatibility complexes to the adaptive immune system. The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis exhibits strain heterogeneity, which may affect a phagocyte's ability to recognize and phagocytose the bacterium. In addition, P. gingivalis is reported to avoid phagocytosis by antibody and complement degradation and by invading phagocytic cells. Previous studies examining phagocytosis have been confounded by both the techniques employed and the potential of the bacteria to invade the cells. In this study, we used a novel, pH-sensitive dye, pHrodo, to label live P. gingivalis strains and examine unopsonized phagocytosis by murine macrophages and neutrophils and human monocytic cells. All host cells examined were able to recognize and phagocytose unopsonized P. gingivalis strains. Macrophages had a preference to phagocytose P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277 over other strains and clinical isolates in the study, whereas neutrophils favored P. gingivalis W50, ATCC 33277, and one clinical isolate over the other strains. This study revealed that all P. gingivalis strains were capable of being phagocytosed without prior opsonization with antibody or complement. PMID:27021243

  4. Emergence of anti-red blood cell antibodies triggers red cell phagocytosis by activated macrophages in a rabbit model of Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Yao; Hsu, Mei-Chi; Lan, Bau-Shin; Hsiao, Guan-Chung; Chuang, Huai-Chia; Su, Ih-Jen

    2007-05-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a fatal complication frequently associated with viral infections. In childhood HPS, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the major causative agent, and red blood cells (RBCs) are predominantly phagocytosed by macrophages. To investigate the mechanism of RBC phagocytosis triggered by EBV infection, we adopted a rabbit model of EBV-associated HPS previously established by using Herpesvirus papio (HVP). The kinetics of virus-host interaction was studied. Using flow cytometry, we detected the emergence of antibody-coated RBCs, as well as anti-platelet antibodies, at peak virus load period at weeks 3 to 4 after HVP injection, and the titers increased thereafter. The presence of anti-RBCs preceded RBC phagocytosis in tissues and predicted the full-blown development of HPS. The anti-RBC antibodies showed cross-reactivity with Paul-Bunnell heterophile antibodies. Preabsorption of the HVP-infected serum with control RBCs removed the majority of anti-RBC activities and remarkably reduced RBC phagocytosis. The RBC phagocytosis was specifically mediated via an Fc fragment of antibodies in the presence of macrophage activation. Therefore, the emergence of anti-RBC antibodies and the presence of macrophage activation are both essential in the development of HPS. Our observations in this animal model provide a potential mechanism for hemophagocytosis in EBV infection.

  5. Emergence of Anti-Red Blood Cell Antibodies Triggers Red Cell Phagocytosis by Activated Macrophages in a Rabbit Model of Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Yao; Hsu, Mei-Chi; Lan, Bau-Shin; Hsiao, Guan-Chung; Chuang, Huai-Chia; Su, Ih-Jen

    2007-01-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a fatal complication frequently associated with viral infections. In childhood HPS, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the major causative agent, and red blood cells (RBCs) are predominantly phagocytosed by macrophages. To investigate the mechanism of RBC phagocytosis triggered by EBV infection, we adopted a rabbit model of EBV-associated HPS previously established by using Herpesvirus papio (HVP). The kinetics of virus-host interaction was studied. Using flow cytometry, we detected the emergence of antibody-coated RBCs, as well as anti-platelet antibodies, at peak virus load period at weeks 3 to 4 after HVP injection, and the titers increased thereafter. The presence of anti-RBCs preceded RBC phagocytosis in tissues and predicted the full-blown development of HPS. The anti-RBC antibodies showed cross-reactivity with Paul-Bunnell heterophile antibodies. Preabsorption of the HVP-infected serum with control RBCs removed the majority of anti-RBC activities and remarkably reduced RBC phagocytosis. The RBC phagocytosis was specifically mediated via an Fc fragment of antibodies in the presence of macrophage activation. Therefore, the emergence of anti-RBC antibodies and the presence of macrophage activation are both essential in the development of HPS. Our observations in this animal model provide a potential mechanism for hemophagocytosis in EBV infection. PMID:17456768

  6. Polyreactive Antibodies Plus Complement Enhance the Phagocytosis of Cells Made Apoptotic by UV-Light or HIV

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhao-hua; Wild, Teresa; Xiong, Ying; Sylvers, Peter; Zhang, Yahong; Zhang, Luxia; Wahl, Larry; Wahl, Sharon M.; Kozlowski, Steven; Notkins, Abner L.

    2013-01-01

    Polyreactive antibodies are a major component of the natural antibody repertoire and are capable of binding a variety of structurally unrelated antigens. Many of the properties attributed to natural antibodies, in fact, are turning out to be due to polyreactive antibodies. In humans, each day, billions of cells undergo apoptosis. In the present experiments, we show by ImageStream technology that although polyreactive antibodies do not bind to live T cells they bind to both the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of late apoptotic cells, fix complement, generate the anaphylatoxin C5a and increase by as much as 5 fold complement-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages. Of particular importance, T cells undergoing apoptosis following infection with HIV also bind polyreactive antibodies and are phagocytosed. We conclude that the polyreactive antibodies in the natural antibody repertoire contribute in a major way to the clearance of cells made apoptotic by a variety of natural and infectious processes. PMID:23881356

  7. The core structure of ginsenan PA, a phagocytosis-activating polysaccharide from the root of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, M; Hirabayashi, K; Shimizu, N; Gonda, R; Ohara, N

    1994-09-01

    Controlled Smith degradation and limited hydrolysis of ginsenan PA, the main phagocytosis-activating polysaccharide isolated from the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, were performed. The reticuloendothelial system-potentiating and anti-complementary activities of the degradation products were investigated. Methylation analysis of the primary and secondary Smith degradation products indicated that the core structural features of ginsenan PA include a backbone chain mainly composed of beta-1,3-linked D-galactose. Almost half of the galactose units in the backbone carry side-chains composed of beta-1,6-linked D-galactosyl residues at position 6. Further 3,6-branching of D-galactose units was observed in a part of the side-chains. alpha-L-Arabinose units are connected mainly to the core galactose moieties via position 6. Removal of most of the arabinose units had a considerable effect on immunological activity.

  8. M-CSF increases proliferation and phagocytosis while modulating receptor and transcription factor expression in adult human microglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microglia are the primary immune cells of the brain whose phenotype largely depends on their surrounding micro-environment. Microglia respond to a multitude of soluble molecules produced by a variety of brain cells. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a cytokine found in the brain whose receptor is expressed by microglia. Previous studies suggest a critical role for M-CSF in brain development and normal functioning as well as in several disease processes involving neuroinflammation. Methods Using biopsy tissue from patients with intractable temporal epilepsy and autopsy tissue, we cultured primary adult human microglia to investigate their response to M-CSF. Mixed glial cultures were treated with 25 ng/ml M-CSF for 96 hours. Proliferation and phagocytosis assays, and high through-put immunocytochemistry, microscopy and image analysis were performed to investigate microglial phenotype and function. Results We found that the phenotype of primary adult human microglia was markedly changed following exposure to M-CSF. A greater number of microglia were present in the M-CSF- treated cultures as the percentage of proliferating (BrdU and Ki67-positive) microglia was greatly increased. A number of changes in protein expression occurred following M-CSF treatment, including increased transcription factors PU.1 and C/EBPβ, increased DAP12 adaptor protein, increased M-CSF receptor (CSF-1R) and IGF-1 receptor, and reduced HLA-DP, DQ, DR antigen presentation protein. Furthermore, a distinct morphological change was observed with elongation of microglial processes. These changes in phenotype were accompanied by a functional increase in phagocytosis of Aβ1-42 peptide. Conclusions We show here that the cytokine M-CSF dramatically influences the phenotype of adult human microglia. These results pave the way for future investigation of M-CSF-related targets for human therapeutic benefit. PMID:23866312

  9. Effect of calcium carbonate particle shape on phagocytosis and pro-inflammatory response in differentiated THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Yosuke; Sugino, Sakiko; Eguchi, Kenichiro; Tajika, Masahiko; Abe, Hiroko; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Horie, Masanori

    2017-08-19

    Phagocytosis is a physiological process used by immune cells such as macrophages to actively ingest and destroy foreign pathogens and particles. It is the cellular process that leads to the failure of drug delivery carriers because the drug carriers are cleared by immune cells before reaching their target. Therefore, clarifying the mechanism of particle phagocytosis would have a significant implication for both fundamental understanding and biomedical engineering. As far as we know, the effect of particle shape on biological response has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we investigated the particle shape-dependent cellular uptake and biological response of differentiated THP-1 macrophages by using calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 )-based particles as a model. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that the high uptake of needle-shaped CaCO 3 particles by THP-1 macrophages because of their high phagocytic activity. In addition, the THP-1 macrophages exposed to needle-shaped CaCO 3 accumulated a large amount of calcium in the intracellular matrix. The enhanced release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) by the THP-1 macrophages suggested that the needle-shaped CaCO 3 particles trigger a pro-inflammatory response. In contrast, no pro-inflammatory response was induced in undifferentiated THP-1 monocytes exposed to either needle- or cuboidal-shaped CaCO 3 particles, probably because of their low phagocytic activity. We also found that phosphate-coated particles efficiently repressed cellular uptake and the resulting pro-inflammatory response in both THP-1 macrophages and primary peritoneal macrophages. Our results indicate that the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages upon exposure to CaCO 3 particles is shape- and surface property-dependent, and is mediated by the intracellular accumulation of calcium ions released from phagocytosed CaCO 3 particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. STUDIES ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF FEVER. 13. THE EFFECT OF PHAGOCYTOSIS ON THE RELEASE OF ENDOGENOUS PYROGEN BY POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES.

    PubMed

    BERLIN, R D; WOOD, W B

    1964-05-01

    1. Phagocytosis promotes the release of endogenous pyrogen from polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 2. The release of pyrogen, though initiated by the phagocytic event, is not synchronous with it. 3. The postphagocytic release mechanism is not inhibited by sodium fluoride and, therefore, appears not to require continued production of energy by the cell. 4. The release process, on the other hand, is inhibited by arsenite, suggesting the participation of one or more sulfhydryl-dependent enzymes in the over-all reaction. 5. Particle for particle, the ingestion of heat-killed rough pneumococci causes the release of approximately 100 times as much pyrogen as the ingestion of polystyrene beads of the same size. 6. The pyrogen release mechanism of polymorphonuclear leucocytes separated directly from blood, unlike that of granulocytes in acute inflammatory exudates, is not readily activated by incubation of the cells in K-free saline. Despite this difference, both blood and exudate leucocytes following phagocytosis release large amounts of pyrogen, even in the presence of K(+). The fact that the postphagocytic reaction is uninhibited by the concentrations of K(+) which are present in plasma and extracellular fluids, suggests that this mechanism of pyrogen release may well operate in vivo. 7. As might be expected from the foregoing observations, the intravenous injection of a sufficiently large number of heat-killed pneumococci causes fever in the intact host. Intravenously injected polystyrene beads, on the other hand, are significantly less pyrogenic. Evidence is presented to support the conclusion that the fever in both instances is caused by pyrogen released from the circulating leucocytes which have phagocyted the injected particles. 8. The possible relationships of these findings to the pathogenesis of fevers caused by acute bacterial infections are discussed.

  11. The Adaptor Molecule Nck Localizes the WAVE Complex to Promote Actin Polymerization during CEACAM3-Mediated Phagocytosis of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Delgado Tascón, Julia; Nyffenegger-Jann, Naja J.; Hauck, Christof R.

    2012-01-01

    Background CEACAM3 is a granulocyte receptor mediating the opsonin-independent recognition and phagocytosis of human-restricted CEACAM-binding bacteria. CEACAM3 function depends on an intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-like sequence that is tyrosine phosphorylated by Src family kinases upon receptor engagement. The phosphorylated ITAM-like sequence triggers GTP-loading of Rac by directly associating with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav. Rac stimulation in turn is critical for actin cytoskeleton rearrangements that generate lamellipodial protrusions and lead to bacterial uptake. Principal Findings In our present study we provide biochemical and microscopic evidence that the adaptor proteins Nck1 and Nck2, but not CrkL, Grb2 or SLP-76, bind to tyrosine phosphorylated CEACAM3. The association is phosphorylation-dependent and requires the Nck SH2 domain. Overexpression of the isolated Nck1 SH2 domain, RNAi-mediated knock-down of Nck1, or genetic deletion of Nck1 and Nck2 interfere with CEACAM3-mediated bacterial internalization and with the formation of lamellipodial protrusions. Nck is constitutively associated with WAVE2 and directs the actin nucleation promoting WAVE complex to tyrosine phosphorylated CEACAM3. In turn, dominant-negative WAVE2 as well as shRNA-mediated knock-down of WAVE2 or the WAVE-complex component Nap1 reduce internalization of bacteria. Conclusions Our results provide novel mechanistic insight into CEACAM3-initiated phagocytosis. We suggest that the CEACAM3 ITAM-like sequence is optimized to co-ordinate a minimal set of cellular factors needed to efficiently trigger actin-based lamellipodial protrusions and rapid pathogen engulfment. PMID:22448228

  12. The adaptor molecule Nck localizes the WAVE complex to promote actin polymerization during CEACAM3-mediated phagocytosis of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pils, Stefan; Kopp, Kathrin; Peterson, Lisa; Delgado Tascón, Julia; Nyffenegger-Jann, Naja J; Hauck, Christof R

    2012-01-01

    CEACAM3 is a granulocyte receptor mediating the opsonin-independent recognition and phagocytosis of human-restricted CEACAM-binding bacteria. CEACAM3 function depends on an intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-like sequence that is tyrosine phosphorylated by Src family kinases upon receptor engagement. The phosphorylated ITAM-like sequence triggers GTP-loading of Rac by directly associating with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav. Rac stimulation in turn is critical for actin cytoskeleton rearrangements that generate lamellipodial protrusions and lead to bacterial uptake. In our present study we provide biochemical and microscopic evidence that the adaptor proteins Nck1 and Nck2, but not CrkL, Grb2 or SLP-76, bind to tyrosine phosphorylated CEACAM3. The association is phosphorylation-dependent and requires the Nck SH2 domain. Overexpression of the isolated Nck1 SH2 domain, RNAi-mediated knock-down of Nck1, or genetic deletion of Nck1 and Nck2 interfere with CEACAM3-mediated bacterial internalization and with the formation of lamellipodial protrusions. Nck is constitutively associated with WAVE2 and directs the actin nucleation promoting WAVE complex to tyrosine phosphorylated CEACAM3. In turn, dominant-negative WAVE2 as well as shRNA-mediated knock-down of WAVE2 or the WAVE-complex component Nap1 reduce internalization of bacteria. Our results provide novel mechanistic insight into CEACAM3-initiated phagocytosis. We suggest that the CEACAM3 ITAM-like sequence is optimized to co-ordinate a minimal set of cellular factors needed to efficiently trigger actin-based lamellipodial protrusions and rapid pathogen engulfment.

  13. Inositol-C2-PAF down-regulates components of the antigen presentation machinery in a 2D-model of epidermal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Semini, Geo; Hildmann, Annette; Klein, Andreas; Lucka, Lothar; Schön, Margarete; Schön, Michael P; Shmanai, Vadim; Danker, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    In cutaneous inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis, skin-infiltrating T lymphocytes and dendritic cells modulate keratinocyte function via the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Keratinocytes then produce mediators that recruit and activate immune cells and amplify the inflammatory response. These pathophysiological tissue changes are caused by altered gene expression and the proliferation and maturation of dermal and epidermal cells. We recently demonstrated that the glycosidated phospholipid Ino-C2-PAF down-regulates a plethora of gene products associated with innate and acquired immune responses and inflammation in the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line. To further evaluate the influence of Ino-C2-PAF we established an in vitro 2D-model of epidermal inflammation. The induction of inflammation and the impact of Ino-C2-PAF were assessed in this system using a genome-wide microarray analysis. In addition, the expression of selected genes was validated using qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. Treatment of the keratinocytes with a mix of proinflammatory cytokines resulted in transcriptional effects on a variety of genes involved in cutaneous inflammation and immunity, while additional treatment with Ino-C2-PAF counteracted the induction of many of these genes. Remarkably, Ino-C2-PAF suppressed the expression of a group of targets that are implicated in antigen processing and presentation, including MHC molecules. Thus, it is conceivable that Ino-C2-PAF possess therapeutic potential for inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis and allergic contact dermatitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The anti-inflammatory effects of Yunnan Baiyao are involved in regulation of the phospholipase A2/arachidonic acid metabolites pathways in acute inflammation rat model.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaobin; Zhang, Mingzhu; Chen, Lingxiang; Zhang, Wanli; Huang, Yu; Luo, Huazhen; Li, Ling; He, Hongbing

    2017-10-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine Yunnan Baiyao (YNB) has been reported to possess anti‑inflammatory properties, however its mechanism of action remains unclear. It was previously reported that YNB ameliorated depression of arachidonic acid (AA) levels in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis. In the current study, the capacity of YNB to ameliorate inflammation was compared in carrageenan‑induced and AA‑induced acute inflammation of the rat paw with celecoxib and mizolastine, respectively (n=24 per group). The capacity of YNB to affect the phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/AA pathway (using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and release of inflammatory lipid mediators (by ELISA) were investigated. Celecoxib ameliorated carrageenan‑induced paw edema, and mizolastine ameliorated AA‑induced rat paw edema. YNB alleviated paw edema and inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration in the two models. YNB inhibited production of 5‑LOX AA metabolite leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and suppressed expression of 5‑LOX, cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), 5‑LOX‑activating protein, and LTB4 receptor mRNA in the AA‑induced inflammation model (P<0.05). YNB Inhibited the production of the COX‑2 AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and suppressed expression of COX‑2, cPLA2, PGE2 mRNA in the carrageenan‑induced inflammation mode (P<0.05). Taken together, the data suggest that modulation of COX and LOX pathways in AA metabolism represent a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of YNB.

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid-enriched butter improved memory and up-regulated phospholipase A2 encoding-genes in rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Gama, Marco A S; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mury, Fábio B; Lopes, Fernando C F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2015-10-01

    Reduced phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity has been reported in blood cells and in postmortem brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and there is evidence that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates the activity of PLA2 groups in non-brain tissues. As CLA isomers were shown to be actively incorporated and metabolized in the brains of rats, we hypothesized that feeding a diet naturally enriched in CLA would affect the activity and expression of Pla 2 -encoding genes in rat brain tissue, with possible implications for memory. To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task and fed a commercial diet (control) or experimental diets containing either low CLA- or CLA-enriched butter for 4 weeks. After this period, the rats were tested for memory retrieval and killed for tissue collection. Hippocampal expression of 19 Pla 2 genes was evaluated by qPCR, and activities of PLA2 groups (cPLA2, iPLA2, and sPLA2) were determined by radioenzymatic assay. Rats fed the high CLA diet had increased hippocampal mRNA levels for specific PLA2 isoforms (iPla 2 g6γ; cPla 2 g4a, sPla 2 g3, sPla 2 g1b, and sPla 2 g12a) and higher enzymatic activity of all PLA2 groups as compared to those fed the control and the low CLA diet. The increment in PLA2 activities correlated significantly with memory enhancement, as assessed by increased latency in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task after 4 weeks of treatment (rs = 0.69 for iPLA2, P < 0.001; rs = 0.81 for cPLA2, P < 0.001; and rs = 0.69 for sPLA2, P < 0.001). In face of the previous reports showing reduced PLA2 activity in AD brains, the present findings suggest that dairy products enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA may be useful in the treatment of this disease.

  16. Surveillance, Phagocytosis, and Inflammation: How Never-Resting Microglia Influence Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Amanda; Beccari, Sol; Diaz-Aparicio, Irune; Encinas, Juan M.; Comeau, Samuel; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2014-01-01

    Microglia cells are the major orchestrator of the brain inflammatory response. As such, they are traditionally studied in various contexts of trauma, injury, and disease, where they are well-known for regulating a wide range of physiological processes by their release of proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and trophic factors, among other crucial mediators. In the last few years, however, this classical view of microglia was challenged by a series of discoveries showing their active and positive contribution to normal brain functions. In light of these discoveries, surveillant microglia are now emerging as an important effector of cellular plasticity in the healthy brain, alongside astrocytes and other types of inflammatory cells. Here, we will review the roles of microglia in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and their regulation by inflammation during chronic stress, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases, with a particular emphasis on their underlying molecular mechanisms and their functional consequences for learning and memory. PMID:24772353

  17. Hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neuron adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation, upstream kinase/phosphorylase protein expression, and receptivity to hormone and fuel reporters of short-term food deprivation are regulated by estradiol.

    PubMed

    Briski, Karen P; Alenazi, Fahaad S H; Shakya, Manita; Sylvester, Paul W

    2017-07-01

    Estradiol (E) mitigates acute and postacute adverse effects of 12 hr-food deprivation (FD) on energy balance. Hindbrain 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates hyperphagic and hypothalamic metabolic neuropeptide and norepinephrine responses to FD in an E-dependent manner. Energy-state information from AMPK-expressing hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons shapes neural responses to metabolic imbalance. Here we investigate the hypothesis that FD causes divergent changes in A2 AMPK activity in E- vs. oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized female rats, alongside dissimilar adjustments in circulating metabolic fuel (glucose, free fatty acids [FFA]) and energy deficit-sensitive hormone (corticosterone, glucagon, leptin) levels. FD decreased blood glucose in oil (O)- but not E-implanted ovariectomized female rats and elevated and reduced glucagon levels in O and E, respectively. FD decreased circulating leptin in O and E, but increased corticosterone and FFA concentrations in E only. Western blot analysis of laser-microdissected A2 neurons showed that glucocorticoid receptor type II and very-long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 protein profiles were amplified in FD/E vs. FD/O. A2 total AMPK protein was elevated without change in activity in FD/O, whereas FD/E exhibited increased AMPK activation along with decreased upstream phosphatase expression. The catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) was increased in FD/O but not FD/E A2 cells. The data show discordance between A2 AMPK activation and glycemic responses to FD; sensor activity was refractory to glucose decrements in FD/O but augmented in FD/E despite stabilized glucose and elevated FFA levels. E-dependent amplification of AMPK activity may reflect adaptive conversion to fatty acid oxidation and/or glucocorticoid stimulation. FD augmentation of A2 DβH protein profiles in FD/O but not FD/E animals suggests that FD may correspondingly regulate NE synthesis vs. metabolism/release in the

  18. HIV-1-Specific IgA Monoclonal Antibodies from an HIV-1 Vaccinee Mediate Galactosylceramide Blocking and Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccine-elicited humoral immune responses comprise an array of antibody forms and specificities, with only a fraction contributing to protective host immunity. Elucidation of antibody effector functions responsible for protective immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition is a major goal for the HIV-1 vaccine field. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an important part of the host defense against pathogens; however, little is known about the role of vaccine-elicited IgA and its capacity to mediate antiviral functions. To identify the antiviral functions of HIV-1-specific IgA elicited by vaccination, we cloned HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by memory B cell cultures from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from an RV144 vaccinee and produced two IgA clonal cell lines (HG129 and HG130) producing native, nonrecombinant IgA MAbs. The HG129 and HG130 MAbs mediated phagocytosis by monocytes, and HG129 blocked HIV-1 Env glycoprotein binding to galactosylceramide, an alternative HIV-1 receptor. These findings elucidate potential antiviral functions of vaccine-elicited HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA that may act to block HIV-1 acquisition at the portal of entry by preventing HIV-1 binding to galactosylceramide and mediating antibody Fc receptor-mediated virion phagocytosis. Furthermore, these findings highlight the complex and diverse interactions of vaccine-elicited IgA with pathogens that depend on IgA fine specificity and form (e.g., multimeric or monomeric) in the systemic circulation and mucosal compartments. IMPORTANCE Host-pathogen interactions in vivo involve numerous immune mechanisms that can lead to pathogen clearance. Understanding the nature of antiviral immune mechanisms can inform the design of efficacious HIV-1 vaccine strategies. Evidence suggests that both neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies can mediate some protection against HIV in animal models. Although numerous studies have characterized the

  19. Extract of Pelargonium sidoides (EPs 7630) improves phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and intracellular killing of human peripheral blood phagocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Andreas; Hansmann, Cathrin; Engels, Inge; Daschner, Franz D; Frank, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Clinical data show that EPs 7630, an aqueous ethanolic extract from the roots of Pelargonium sidoides, can be used for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). The biological effects of the preparation have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of EPs 7630 on the activity of human peripheral blood phagocytes (PBP). A whole blood-based, flow cytometric assay was used to simultaneously assess phagocytosis and oxidative burst. Calcein-AM stained Candida albicans (DSM 1386) were used as target organisms. Oxidative burst was measured by addition of dihydroethidium (DHE). Target organisms and whole blood were co-incubated and analyzed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 30 min. Intracellular killing of the target organisms was evaluated by determining the number of surviving yeast cells after co-incubation of C. albicans and human whole blood. EPs 7630 was applied in therapeutically relevant concentrations between 0 and 30 microg/ml. Compared with controls EPs 7630 increased the number of phagocytosing PBP during the observed time points between 2 and 10 min in a concentration-dependent manner, with a maximum enhancement of 56% at 2 min (p=0.002). The application of EPs 7630 also led to a significant increase in the number of burst-active PBP for all time points observed beyond 2 min (p<0.001). The maximum augmentation was 120% after application of 30 microg/ml EPs 7630 at 4 min. Using a microbiological assay, intracellular killing was also enhanced by EPs 7630. This was expressed by a significant reduction in the number of surviving target organisms (p<0.001). The maximum reduction in viable yeast cells (-31%) was observed after co-incubation for 120 min with the highest concentration of EPs 7630 (30 microg/ml). In conclusion, the positive effects of EPs 7630 on phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and intracellular killing of yeast cells as test organisms are important components of the compound's biological activity. Our

  20. Opsonization of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites with nonspecific immunoglobulins promotes their phagocytosis by macrophages and inhibits their proliferation in nonphagocytic cells in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Vercammen, M; Scorza, T; El Bouhdidi, A; Van Beeck, K; Carlier, Y; Dubremetz, J F; Verschueren, H

    1999-11-01

    We have recently shown that Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites grown in in vitro culture can bind unspecific immunoglobulin (Ig) through their Fc moiety. We show now that Fc receptors are also present on T. gondii within the host animal, and that intraperitoneal parasites in immunocompetent mice are saturated with unspecific Ig. We have also investigated the effect of the parasite's Fc receptor on the interaction of tachyzoites with mammalian cells, using the Vero cell line as a model for nonphagocytic host cells and murine peritoneal macrophages in primary culture as a model for phagocytic cells. Coating of tachyzoites with parasite-unrelated Ig did not enhance their invasive capacity in either target cell type, but slightly decreased the parasite proliferation. Moreover, phagocytosis by macrophages was increased by approximately 50% when parasites were coated with unspecific Ig. These results indicate that the Fc receptor on T. gondii affects the balance between invasion and phagocytosis in a way that is detrimental to the parasites.

  1. Evaluation of Oxidative Metabolism in Leukocytes during Phagocytosis of Escherichia coli Carrying Genetic Constructs soxS::lux or katG::lux.

    PubMed

    Karimov, I F; Deryabin, D G; Karimova, D N; Subbotina, T Yu; Manukhov, I V

    2016-06-01

    We studied ROS generation by human peripheral blood monocytes and granulocytes during phagocytosis of Escherichia coli soxS::lux or katG::lux responding by luminescence (bioluminescence) to the development of oxidative stress. Initially high sensitivity of the bioluminescent reaction of E. coli katG::lux strain to the effects of model ROS (KO2 and H2O2) and pronounced induction of luminescence upon contact with granulocytes, whereas E. coli soxS::lux demonstrated less pronounced reaction to chemical oxidants and bioluminescence was observed primarily upon contact with monocytes. A correlation was found between quantitative characteristics of E. coli katG::lux bioluminescence and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of leukocytes in some patients, but no dependence of this kind was noted for E. coli soxS::lux. The results can provide experimental substantiation of a new approach for evaluation of ROS production by leukocytes during phagocytosis and choosing the optimal object for these studies.

  2. Effects of high temperature and exposure to air on mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Lmk 1819) hemocyte phagocytosis: modulation of spreading and oxidative response.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Francesco; Narcisi, Valeria; Calzetta, Angela; Gioia, Luisa; Finoia, Maria G; Latini, Mario; Tiscar, Pietro G

    2013-06-01

    Hemocytes are a critical component of the mussel defense system and the present study aims at investigating their spreading and oxidative properties during phagocytosis under in vivo experimental stress conditions. The spreading ability was measured by an automated cell analyzer on the basis of the circularity, a parameter corresponding to the hemocyte roundness. The oxidative activity was investigated by micromethod assay, measuring the respiratory burst as expression of the fluorescence generated by the oxidation of specific probe. Following the application of high temperature and exposure to air, there was evidence of negative modulation of spreading and oxidative response, as revealed by a cell roundness increase and fluorescence generation decrease. Therefore, the fall of respiratory burst appeared as matched with the inhibition of hemocyte morphological activation, suggesting a potential depression of the phagocytosis process and confirming the application of the circularity parameter as potential stress marker, both in experimental and field studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toll-like receptor prestimulation increases phagocytosis of Escherichia coli DH5alpha and Escherichia coli K1 strains by murine microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Sandra; Ebert, Sandra; Czesnik, Dirk; Regen, Tommy; Zeug, Andre; Bukowski, Stephanie; Mildner, Alexander; Eiffert, Helmut; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Nau, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality. When an infection occurs, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed by microglial cells can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and activate multiple steps in the inflammatory response that coordinate the brain's local defense, such as phagocytosis of invading pathogens. An upregulation of the phagocytic ability of reactive microglia could improve the host defense in immunocompromised patients against pathogens such as E. coli. Here, murine microglial cultures were stimulated with the TLR agonists Pam(3)CSK(4) (TLR1/TLR2), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9) for 24 h. Upon stimulation, levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL1 were increased, indicating microglial activation. Phagocytic activity was studied after adding either E. coli DH5alpha or E. coli K1 strains. After 60 and 90 min of bacterial exposure, the number of ingested bacteria was significantly higher in cells prestimulated with TLR agonists than in unstimulated controls (P < 0.01). Addition of cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, blocked >90% of phagocytosis. We also analyzed the ability of microglia to kill the ingested E. coli strains. Intracellularly surviving bacteria were quantified at different time points (90, 150, 240, and 360 min) after 90 min of phagocytosis. The number of bacteria killed intracellularly after 6 h was higher in cells primed with the different TLR agonists than in unstimulated microglia. Our data suggest that microglial stimulation by the TLR system can increase bacterial phagocytosis and killing. This approach could improve central nervous system resistance to infections in immunocompromised patients.

  4. TTI-621 (SIRPαFc), a CD47-blocking cancer immunotherapeutic, triggers phagocytosis of lymphoma cells by multiple polarized macrophage subsets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gloria H Y; Chai, Vien; Lee, Vivian; Dodge, Karen; Truong, Tran; Wong, Mark; Johnson, Lisa D; Linderoth, Emma; Pang, Xinli; Winston, Jeff; Petrova, Penka S; Uger, Robert A; Viller, Natasja N

    2017-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are heterogeneous and can adopt a spectrum of activation states between pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic in response to the microenvironment. We have previously shown that TTI-621, a soluble SIRPαFc fusion protein that blocks the CD47 "do-not-eat" signal, promotes tumor cell phagocytosis by IFN-γ-primed macrophages. To assess the impact of CD47 blockade on diverse types of macrophages that are found within the tumor microenvironment, six different polarized human macrophage subsets (M(-), M(IFN-γ), M(IFN-γ+LPS), M(IL-4), M(HAGG+IL-1β), M(IL-10 + TGFβ)) with distinct cell surface markers and cytokine profiles were generated. Blockade of CD47 using TTI-621 significantly increased phagocytosis of lymphoma cells by all macrophage subsets, with M(IFN-γ), M(IFN-γ+LPS) and M(IL-10 + TGFβ) macrophages having the highest phagocytic response. TTI-621-mediated phagocytosis involves macrophage expression of both the low- and high-affinity Fcγ receptors II (CD32) and I (CD64), respectively. Moreover, macrophages with lower phagocytic capabilities (M(-), M(IL-4), M(HAGG+IL-1β)) could readily be re-polarized into highly phagocytic macrophages using various cytokines or TLR agonists. In line with the in vitro study, we further demonstrate that TTI-621 can trigger phagocytosis of tumor cells by diverse subsets of isolated mouse TAMs ex vivo. These data suggest that TTI-621 may be efficacious in triggering the destruction of cancer cells by a diverse population of TAMs found in vivo and support possible combination approaches to augment the activity of CD47 blockade.

  5. TTI-621 (SIRPαFc), a CD47-blocking cancer immunotherapeutic, triggers phagocytosis of lymphoma cells by multiple polarized macrophage subsets

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Vien; Lee, Vivian; Dodge, Karen; Truong, Tran; Wong, Mark; Johnson, Lisa D.; Linderoth, Emma; Pang, Xinli; Winston, Jeff; Petrova, Penka S.; Viller, Natasja N.

    2017-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are heterogeneous and can adopt a spectrum of activation states between pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic in response to the microenvironment. We have previously shown that TTI-621, a soluble SIRPαFc fusion protein that blocks the CD47 “do-not-eat” signal, promotes tumor cell phagocytosis by IFN-γ-primed macrophages. To assess the impact of CD47 blockade on diverse types of macrophages that are found within the tumor microenvironment, six different polarized human macrophage subsets (M(-), M(IFN-γ), M(IFN-γ+LPS), M(IL-4), M(HAGG+IL-1β), M(IL-10 + TGFβ)) with distinct cell surface markers and cytokine profiles were generated. Blockade of CD47 using TTI-621 significantly increased phagocytosis of lymphoma cells by all macrophage subsets, with M(IFN-γ), M(IFN-γ+LPS) and M(IL-10 + TGFβ) macrophages having the highest phagocytic response. TTI-621-mediated phagocytosis involves macrophage expression of both the low- and high-affinity Fcγ receptors II (CD32) and I (CD64), respectively. Moreover, macrophages with lower phagocytic capabilities (M(-), M(IL-4), M(HAGG+IL-1β)) could readily be re-polarized into highly phagocytic macrophages using various cytokines or TLR agonists. In line with the in vitro study, we further demonstrate that TTI-621 can trigger phagocytosis of tumor cells by diverse subsets of isolated mouse TAMs ex vivo. These data suggest that TTI-621 may be efficacious in triggering the destruction of cancer cells by a diverse population of TAMs found in vivo and support possible combination approaches to augment the activity of CD47 blockade. PMID:29084248

  6. Sialoglycoproteins in morphological distinct stages of Mucor polymorphosporus and their influence on phagocytosis by human blood phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Travassos, Luiz R; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

    2013-10-01

    The possible role of sialic acids in host cells-fungi interaction and their association with glycoproteins were evaluated using a clinical isolate of the dimorphic fungus Mucor polymorphosporus. Lectin-binding assays with spores and yeast cells denoted the presence of surface sialoglycoconjugates containing 2,3- and 2,6-linked sialylglycosyl groups. Western blotting with peroxidase-labeled Limulus polyphemus agglutinin revealed the occurrence of different sialoglycoprotein types in both cell lysates and cell wall protein extracts of mycelia, spores, and yeasts of M. polymorphosporus. Sialic acids contributed to the surface negative charge of spores and yeast forms as evaluated by adherence to a cationic substrate. Sialidase-treated spores were less resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils and monocytes from healthy individuals than control (untreated) fungal suspensions. The results suggest that sialic acids are terminal units of various glycoproteins of M. polymorphosporus, contributing to negative charge of yeasts and spore cells and protecting infectious propagules from destruction by host cells.

  7. Shifts in the fluorescence lifetime of EGFP during bacterial phagocytosis measured by phase-sensitive flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenyan; Houston, Kevin D.; Houston, Jessica P.

    2017-01-01

    Phase-sensitive flow cytometry (PSFC) is a technique in which fluorescence excited state decay times are measured as fluorescently labeled cells rapidly transit a finely focused, frequency-modulated laser beam. With PSFC the fluorescence lifetime is taken as a cytometric parameter to differentiate intracellular events that are challenging to distinguish with standard flow cytometry. For example PSFC can report changes in protein conformation, expression, interactions, and movement, as well as differences in intracellular microenvironments. This contribution focuses on the latter case by taking PSFC measurements of macrophage cells when inoculated with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing E. coli. During progressive internalization of EGFP-E. coli, fluorescence lifetimes were acquired and compared to control groups. It was hypothesized that fluorescence lifetimes would correlate well with phagocytosis because phagosomes become acidified and the average fluorescence lifetime of EGFP is known to be affected by pH. We confirmed that average EGFP lifetimes consistently decreased (3 to 2 ns) with inoculation time. The broad significance of this work is the demonstration of how high-throughput fluorescence lifetime measurements correlate well to changes that are not easily tracked by intensity-only cytometry, which is affected by heterogeneous protein expression, cell-to-cell differences in phagosome formation, and number of bacterium engulfed.

  8. LC3-associated phagocytosis initiated by integrin ITGAM-ITGB2/Mac-1 enhances immunity to Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Herb, Marc; Gluschko, Alexander; Schramm, Michael

    2018-06-20

    The macroautophagic/autophagic machinery cannot only target cell-endogenous components but also intracellular pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. Listeria are targeted both by canonical autophagy and by a noncanonical form of autophagy referred to as LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). The molecular mechanisms involved and whether these processes contribute to anti-listerial immunity or rather provide Listeria with a replicative niche for persistent infection, however, remained unknown. Recently, using an in vivo mouse infection model, we have been able to demonstrate that Listeria in tissue macrophages are targeted exclusively by LAP. Furthermore, our data show that LAP is required for killing of Listeria by macrophages and thereby contributes to anti-listerial immunity of mice, whereas canonical autophagy is completely dispensable. Moreover, we have elucidated the molecular mechanisms that trigger LAP of Listeria and identified the integrin ITGAM-ITGB2/Mac-1/CR3/integrin α M ß 2 as the receptor that initiates LAP in response to Listeria infection.

  9. In vivo and in vitro phagocytosis of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes by B-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Geraldo, M M; Costa, C R; Barbosa, F M C; Vivanco, B C; Gonzaga, W F K M; Novaes E Brito, R R; Popi, A F; Lopes, J D; Xander, P

    2016-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania parasites that infect several cell types. The promastigote stage of Leishmania is internalized by phagocytic cells and transformed into the obligate intracellular amastigote form. B-1 cells are a subpopulation of B cells that are able to differentiate in vitro and in vivo into mononuclear phagocyte-like cells with phagocytic properties. B-1 cells use several receptors for phagocytosis, such as the mannose receptor and third complement receptor. Leishmania binds to the same receptors on macrophages. In this study, we demonstrated that phagocytes derived from B-1 cells (B-1 CDP) were able to internalize promastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis in vitro. The internalized promastigotes differentiated into amastigotes. Our results showed that the phagocytic index was higher in B-1 CDP compared to peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages. The in vivo phagocytic ability of B-1 cells was also demonstrated. Parasites were detected inside purified B-1 cells after intraperitoneal infection with L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes. Intraperitoneal stimulation with the parasites led to an increase in both IL-10 and TNF-α. These results highlight the importance of studying B-1 CDP cells as phagocytic cells that can participate and contribute to immunity to parasites. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Palmitoylethanolamide stimulates phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 by macrophages and increases the resistance of mice against infections.

    PubMed

    Redlich, Sandra; Ribes, Sandra; Schütze, Sandra; Nau, Roland

    2014-06-14

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous lipid and a congener of anandamide, possesses a wide range of effects related to metabolic and cellular homeostasis including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. In vitro, we studied the ability of macrophages to phagocytose Escherichia coli K1 after stimulation with increasing doses of PEA. In vivo, wild-type mice were treated with PEA intraperitoneally 12 hours and 30 minutes before infection. Meningoencephalitis or sepsis was induced by intracerebral or intraperitoneal infection with E. coli K1. Stimulation of macrophages with PEA for 30 minutes increased the phagocytosis of E. coli K1 without inducing the release of TNFα or CXCL1. Intracellular killing of E. coli K1 was higher in PEA-stimulated than in unstimulated peritoneal macrophages and microglial cells. Pre-treatment with PEA significantly increased survival of mice challenged intracerebrally or intraperitoneally with E. coli K1. This effect was associated with a decreased production of CXCL1, IL-1β and IL-6 in homogenates of spleen and cerebellum in mice treated with PEA. Our observations suggest that these protective effects of PEA in mice can increase the resistance to bacterial infections without the hazard of collateral damage by excessive stimulation of phagocytes.

  11. Asbestos-induced endothelial cell activation and injury. Demonstration of fiber phagocytosis and oxidant-dependent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J G; Gray, L D; Dodson, R F; Callahan, K S

    1988-10-01

    Vascular endothelial cell injury is important in the development of a variety of chronic interstitial lung disorders. However, the involvement of such injury in the inflammatory response associated with the inhalation of asbestos fibers is unclear and the mechanism of asbestos fiber cytotoxicity remains unknown. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were challenged with amosite asbestos and several parameters of cellular function were examined. Electron microscopic examination revealed that endothelial cell exposure to asbestos resulted in active phagocytosis of these particulates. Biochemical evidence of dose-dependent asbestos-mediated endothelial cell activation was indicated by increased metabolism of arachidonic acid. For example, amosite asbestos (500 micrograms/ml) produced a ninefold increase in prostacyclin (PGI2) levels over those levels in non-exposed cells. Incubation of human endothelial cells with asbestos fibers induced specific 51Cr release in both a dose- and time-dependent fashion indicative of cellular injury. Injury induced by amosite asbestos was not significantly attenuated by treatment of the endothelial cell monolayer with either the iron chelator deferoxamine, which prevents hydroxyl radical (.OH) formation, or by the superoxide anion (O2-) scavenger, superoxide dismutase. However, significant dose-dependent protection was observed with the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase. Chelation of elemental iron present within amosite asbestos fibers by deferoxamine produced a 33% reduction in asbestos cytotoxicity, suggesting a potential role for hydroxyl radical-mediated injury via the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Inhibitory effect of heparin on neutrophil phagocytosis and burst production using a new whole-blood cytofluorometric method for determination.

    PubMed

    Salih, H; Husfeld, L; Adam, D

    1997-12-31

    The influence of heparin on Polymorphonuclear (PMN s) leukocytes was investigated using a new whole-blood cytofluorometric method (patent granted for the test with the number P 4334935.8-41) with Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as test microorganisms. After comparing the effect of equal volumes of two widely used heparins we examined the influence of 5 different heparin-concentrations. Using both yeasts and bacteria, we found a significant, dose-depending decrease of the percentage of phagocyting PMN's and of phagocytized microorganisms as well as of the resulting percentage of PMN s producing respiratory burst along the kinetics. Furthermore we could demonstrate that heparin independently of phagocytosis produces a dose-dependent decrease of burst production of PMN's. Our results indicate that the use of heparins as anticoagulant for immunological investigations as well as clinically with patients under immunosuppressive therapy should be critically reconsidered. This applies even more because due to the evaluated dose-dependent decrease of phagocyte function no boundary for the inhibiting effect can be declared.

  13. Correlation of Increased Metabolic Activity, Resistance to Infection, Enhanced Phagocytosis, and Inhibition of Bacterial Growth by Macrophages from Listeria- and BCG-Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ratzan, Kenneth R.; Musher, Daniel M.; Keusch, Gerald T.; Weinstein, Louis

    1972-01-01

    Macrophages from mice infected with facultative intracellular organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes and BCG have been shown to resist infection by antigenically unrelated intracellular bacterial parasites. This study compares phagocytosis, bacterial growth inhibition, and oxidation of glucose by macrophages from normal mice, mice infected with listeria or BCG, or mice immunized with killed listeria in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Macrophages from listeria- and BCG-infected mice ingested more listeria; 67 and 57%, respectively, had three or more cell-associated bacteria versus 22% of controls (P < 0.001). Peritoneal macrophages from listeria- and BCG-infected animals significantly (P < 0.001 covariance analysis) inhibited growth of listeria in suspension, whereas control macrophages had no such inhibitory effect. The rate of oxidation of glucose-1-14C was higher in macrophages from listeria- and BCG-infected mice than from either uninfected animals or those immunized with killed listeria. During phagocytosis of killed or live bacteria, or latex particles, the rate of glucose oxidation was increased (P < 0.01). These data suggest that the cellular immunity after infection by an intracellular organism is associated with an increase in metabolic activity of macrophages, namely, an increase in the rate of glucose oxidation resulting in enhancement of phagocytosis and killing. PMID:4629124

  14. [Agglutination and phagocytosis of foreign abiotic particles by bluebottle Calliphora vicina haemocytes in vivo. II. Influence of the previous septic immune induction on haemocytic activity].

    PubMed

    Kind, T V

    2010-01-01

    The rate of Calliphora vicina haemocytic defense reaction to foreign particles injection depends on the larval age and on the previous bacterial immunization. Immunization of crop-empting larvae induces an evident increase in particles phagocytosis by juvenile plasmatocytes in 24 h after injection. Both the hemogram and the pattern of cellular defense reaction change significantly after crop-empting. Immunized larvae start intensive adhesion of foreign particles to plasmatocytes surface and formation of great aggregations of plasmatocytes (morules) no longer than in 34 min after injection. The period of particle-haemocyte adhesion is short-termed and no more than after 30 min cell aggregates dissociate and adhered charcoal particles pass to thrombocydoidal agglutinates. Unimmunized control larvae of the same age have shown no adhesion and morules formation. In immunized wadering and diapausing larvae, formation of capsules consisting of central thrombocydoidal agglutinate filled with alien particles and adherent plasmatocytes I is intensified. In contrast to moru-les, this capsule formation is not accompanied by charcoal particles adhesion to plasmatocytes. Immunization of mature larvae of C. vicina shown no prominent influence on both the rate of phagocytosis and the hyaline cells differentiation. It might be supposed that the receptors system is complex and the immunization both the mechanisms of foreigners recognition (adhesion, morulation and incapsulation) and the far more lately occurring phagocytosis.

  15. [Agglutination and phagocytosis of foreign abiotic particles by hemocytes of the blowely, Calliphora vicina in vivo. I. Dynamics of hemocyte activity during larval development].

    PubMed

    Kind, T V

    2005-01-01

    Three types of Calliphora larval hemocytes have been revealed to be involved in phagocytosis of abiotic foreign particles: thrombocytoids, larval plasmatocytes and plasmatocytes I. Thrombocytoids are the quickest to respond to the appearance of invaders. The onset of test particle entrapment by thrombocytoid cytoplasmic fragments was observed, depending on the larval age within 0.5-5.0 min after injection. Separated fragments were fused, forming strands or roundish agglutinates. Phagocytosis of carbon, carmine or Indian ink particles by larval plasmatocytes occurs far more lately, and no earlier than 20-30 min after injection. Plasmatocytes I are capable of foreign particles adhesion on their surface, with a subsequent morule formation, and of engulfing these particles. These two events start in different time periods: adhesion occurs in 5-10 min, while phagocytosis is observed in 1--3 h. The rate of test particle entrapment and stability of agglutinales clearly depends on the larval age. The most pronounced reaction of hemocytes to foreign particles may be observed by the end of feeding and crop emptying. The second, somewhat less expressed rise of activity occurs in mature larvae not long before the onset of pupariation. Diapause induction is accompanied by reducing activities of both plasmatocytes and thrompocytoids. The importance of different hemocyte types in cellular immune reaction of Calliphora vicina larvae, and co-ordination between plasmatocytes and thrombocytoids are discussed.

  16. Antibody-mediated platelet phagocytosis by human macrophages is inhibited by siRNA specific for sequences in the SH2 tyrosine kinase, Syk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Wang, Weiming; Mao, Huiming; Hu, Hai; Wu, Yanling; Chen, Bing-Guan; Liu, Zhongmin

    2011-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia depends upon Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis that involves signaling through the SH2 tyrosine kinase, Syk. We designed small interfering (siRNA) sequences complementary to Syk coding regions to decrease the expression of Syk in the human macrophage cell line, THP-1. To evaluate the functional effect of siRNA on phagocytosis, we developed a new in vitro assay for antibody-mediated platelet ingestion by THP-1 cells. Incubation of THP-1 cells at 37°C with fluorescence-labeled platelets and anti-platelet antibody promoted ingestion of platelets that could be quantitated by flow cytometry. Transfection of THP-1 cells with Syk-specific siRNA resulted in a reduction in the amount of FcγRII-associated Syk protein. Coincident with decreased Syk expression, we observed inhibition of antibody-mediated platelet ingestion. These results confirm a key role for Syk in antibody-mediated phagocytosis and suggest Syk-specific siRNA as a possible therapeutic candidate for immune thrombocytopenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulation of protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) signalling by the TPα and TPβ isoforms of the human thromboxane A2 receptor: Implications for thromboxane- and androgen- dependent neoplastic and epigenetic responses in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Aine G; Mulvaney, Eamon P; Kinsella, B Therese

    2017-04-01

    The prostanoid thromboxane (TX) A 2 and its T Prostanoid receptor (the TP) are increasingly implicated in prostate cancer (PCa). Mechanistically, we recently discovered that both TPα and TPβ form functional signalling complexes with members of the protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) family, AGC- kinases essential for the epigenetic regulation of androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transcription and promising therapeutic targets for treatment of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Critically, similar to androgens, activation of the PRKs through the TXA 2 /TP signalling axis induces phosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr11 (H3Thr11), a marker of androgen-induced chromatin remodelling and transcriptional activation, raising the possibility that TXA 2 -TP signalling can mimic and/or enhance AR-induced cellular changes even in the absence of circulating androgens such as in CRPC. Hence the aim of the current study was to investigate whether TXA 2 /TP-induced PRK activation can mimic and/or enhance AR-mediated cellular responses in the model androgen-responsive prostate adenocarcinoma LNCaP cell line. We reveal that TXA 2 /TP signalling can act as a neoplastic- and epigenetic-regulator, promoting and enhancing both AR-associated chromatin remodelling (H3Thr11 phosphorylation, WDR5 recruitment and acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16) and AR-mediated transcriptional activation (e.g of the KLK3/prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2 genes) through mechanisms involving TPα/TPβ mediated-PRK1 and PRK2, but not PRK3, signalling complexes. Overall, these data demonstrate that TPα/TPβ can act as neoplastic and epigenetic regulators by mimicking and/or enhancing the actions of androgens within the prostate and provides further mechanistic insights into the role of the TXA 2 /TP signalling axis in PCa, including potentially in CRPC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ABO Blood Groups Influence Macrophage-mediated Phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Donald R.; Hult, Annika K.; Olsson, Martin L.; Liles, W. Conrad; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M.; Kain, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte polymorphisms associated with a survival advantage to Plasmodium falciparum infection have undergone positive selection. There is a predominance of blood group O in malaria-endemic regions, and several lines of evidence suggest that ABO blood groups may influence the outcome of P. falciparum infection. Based on the hypothesis that enhanced innate clearance of infected polymorphic erythrocytes is associated with protection from severe malaria, we investigated whether P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes are more efficiently cleared by macrophages than infected A and B erythrocytes. We show that human macrophages in vitro and mouse monocytes in vivo phagocytose P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes more avidly than infected A and B erythrocytes and that uptake is associated with increased hemichrome deposition and high molecular weight band 3 aggregates in infected O erythrocytes. Using infected A1, A2, and O erythrocytes, we demonstrate an inverse association of phagocytic capacity with the amount of A antigen on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Finally, we report that enzymatic conversion of B erythrocytes to type as O before infection significantly enhances their uptake by macrophages to observed level comparable to that with infected O wild-type erythrocytes. These data provide the first evidence that ABO blood group antigens influence macrophage clearance of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes and suggest an additional mechanism by which blood group O may confer resistance to severe malaria. PMID:23071435

  19. Use of back-scatter electron signals to visualise cell/nanowires interactions in vitro and in vivo; frustrated phagocytosis of long fibres in macrophages and compartmentalisation in mesothelial cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Frustrated phagocytosis has been stated as an important factor in the initiation of an inflammatory response after fibre exposure. The length of fibrous structures has been linked to the potential of fibres to induce adverse health effects for at least 40 years. However, we only recently reported for the first time the threshold length for fibre-induced inflammation in the pleural space and we implicated frustrated phagocytosis in the pro-inflammatory effects of long fibres. This study extends the examination of the threshold value for frustrated phagocytosis using well-defined length classes of silver nanowires (AgNW) ranging from 3–28 μm and describes in detail the morphology of frustrated phagocytosis using a novel technique and also describes compartmentalisation of fibres in the pleural space. Methods A novel technique, backscatter scanning electron microscopy (BSE) was used to study frustrated phagocytosis since it provides high-contrast detection of nanowires, allowing clear discrimination between the nanofibres and other cellular features. A human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line THP-1 was used to investigate cell-nanowire interaction in vitro and the parietal pleura, the site of fibre retention after inhalation exposure was chosen to visualise the cell- fibre interaction in vivo after direct pleural installation of AgNWs. Results The length cut-off value for frustrated phagocytosis differs in vitro and in vivo. While in vitro frustrated phagocytosis could be observed with fibres ≥14 μm, in vivo studies showed incomplete uptake at a fibre length of ≥10 μm. Recently we showed that inflammation in the pleural space after intrapleural injection of the same nanofibre panel occurs at a length of ≥5 μm. This onset of inflammation does not correlate with the onset of frustrated phagocytosis as shown in this study, leading to the conclusion that intermediate length fibres fully enclosed within macrophages as well as frustrated

  20. Phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments by transplanted human neural stem cells as a neuroprotective mechanism in retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Nicolás; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; McGill, Trevor J; Lu, Bin; Wang, Shaomei; Lund, Raymond; Huhn, Stephen; Capela, Alexandra

    2013-10-15

    Transplantation of human central nervous system stem cells (HuCNS-SC) into the subretinal space of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats preserves photoreceptors and visual function. To explore possible mechanism(s) of action underlying this neuroprotective effect, we performed a detailed morphologic and ultrastructure analysis of HuCNS-SC transplanted retinas. The HuCNS-SC were transplanted into the subretinal space of RCS rats. Histologic examination of the transplanted retinas was performed by light and electron microscopy. Areas of the retina adjacent to HuCNS-SC graft (treated regions) were analyzed and compared to control sections obtained from the same retina, but distant from the transplant site (untreated regions). The HuCNS-SC were detected as a layer of STEM 121 immunopositive cells in the subretinal space. In treated regions, preserved photoreceptor nuclei, as well as inner and outer segments were identified readily. In contrast, classic signs of degeneration were observed in the untreated regions. Interestingly, detailed ultrastructure analysis revealed a striking preservation of the photoreceptor-bipolar-horizontal cell synaptic contacts in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) of treated areas, in stark contrast with untreated areas. Finally, the presence of phagosomes and vesicles exhibiting the lamellar structure of outer segments also was detected within the cytosol of HuCNS-SC, indicating that these cells have phagocytic capacity in vivo. This study reveals the novel finding that preservation of specialized synaptic contacts between photoreceptors and second order neurons, as well as phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments, are potential mechanism(s) of HuCNS-SC transplantation, mediating functional rescue in retinal degeneration.

  1. Interaction between Salmonella typhimurium and phagocytic cells in pigs. Phagocytosis, oxidative burst and killing in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes.

    PubMed

    Riber, U; Lind, P

    1999-02-22

    Interactions between Salmonella typhimurium and peripheral blood leucocytes from healthy, Salmonella-free pigs were investigated in vitro. Both granulocytes and monocytes phagocytized FITC-labelled heat-killed Salmonella bacteria as shown by flow cytometry. Phagocytosis in whole blood and isolated leucocytes was measured as acquired fluorescence in the leukocytes and was both time and dose related. Living, serum-opsonized Salmonella bacteria induced a dose-dependent oxidative burst in PMNs and monocytes as measured by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LC). When opsonized in normal serum the Salmonella bacteria, in the range of 2-5 x 10(7) cfu, induced a LC response in monocytes comparable to the level of responses induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonized zymosan, and the Salmonella-induced response was only marginally reduced by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Intracellular killing of Salmonella by monocytes was assessed from plate colony counts of lysed monocytes and showed that Salmonella typhimurium was able to survive and proliferate in adherent monocytes in vitro despite a reduction in intracellular cfu during the first hour's incubation in cells from some pigs. Experiments with the exhaustion of oxidative burst in non-adherent monocytes were performed by prestimulation with PMA, heat-killed Salmonella or buffer. Prestimulation with PMA led to a strong reduction in oxidative burst induced by living opsonized Salmonella bacteria, whereas prestimulation with heat-killed bacteria gave rise to an enhanced response. In these experiments intracellular killing of the added living Salmonella gave variable results, in that monocytes from two out of three pigs showed no essential change in intracellular bactericidal activity, but with cells from one pig a less pronounced bactericidal activity was found after prestimulation with PMA.

  2. Multiple roles of filopodial dynamics in particle capture and phagocytosis and phenotypes of Cdc42 and Myo10 deletion

    PubMed Central

    Horsthemke, Markus; Bachg, Anne C.; Groll, Katharina; Moyzio, Sven; Müther, Barbara; Hemkemeyer, Sandra A.; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Sixt, Michael; Tacke, Sebastian; Bähler, Martin; Hanley, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage filopodia, finger-like membrane protrusions, were first implicated in phagocytosis more than 100 years ago, but little is still known about the involvement of these actin-dependent structures in particle clearance. Using spinning disk confocal microscopy to image filopodial dynamics in mouse resident Lifeact-EGFP macrophages, we show that filopodia, or filopodia-like structures, support pathogen clearance by multiple means. Filopodia supported the phagocytic uptake of bacterial (Escherichia coli) particles by (i) capturing along the filopodial shaft and surfing toward the cell body, the most common mode of capture; (ii) capturing via the tip followed by retraction; (iii) combinations of surfing and retraction; or (iv) sweeping actions. In addition, filopodia supported the uptake of zymosan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) particles by (i) providing fixation, (ii) capturing at the tip and filopodia-guided actin anterograde flow with phagocytic cup formation, and (iii) the rapid growth of new protrusions. To explore the role of filopodia-inducing Cdc42, we generated myeloid-restricted Cdc42 knock-out mice. Cdc42-deficient macrophages exhibited rapid phagocytic cup kinetics, but reduced particle clearance, which could be explained by the marked rounded-up morphology of these cells. Macrophages lacking Myo10, thought to act downstream of Cdc42, had normal morphology, motility, and phagocytic cup formation, but displayed markedly reduced filopodia formation. In conclusion, live-cell imaging revealed multiple mechanisms involving macrophage filopodia in particle capture and engulfment. Cdc42 is not critical for filopodia or phagocytic cup formation, but plays a key role in driving macrophage lamellipodial spreading. PMID:28289096

  3. Stochastic cellular automata model of neurosphere growth: Roles of proliferative potential, contact inhibition, cell death, and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Rifat; Zupanc, Günther K H

    2018-05-14

    Neural stem and progenitor cells isolated from the central nervous system form, under specific culture conditions, clonal cell clusters known as neurospheres. The neurosphere assay has proven to be a powerful in vitro system to study the behavior of such cells and the development of their progeny. However, the theory of neurosphere growth has remained poorly understood. To overcome this limitation, we have, in the present paper, developed a cellular automata model, with which we examined the effects of proliferative potential, contact inhibition, cell death, and clearance of dead cells on growth rate, final size, and composition of neurospheres. Simulations based on this model indicated that the proliferative potential of the founder cell and its progenitors has a major influence on neurosphere size. On the other hand, contact inhibition of proliferation limits the final size, and reduces the growth rate, of neurospheres. The effect of this inhibition is particularly dramatic when a stem cell becomes encapsulated by differentiated or other non-proliferating cells, thereby suppressing any further mitotic division - despite the existing proliferative potential of the stem cell. Conversely, clearance of dead cells through phagocytosis is predicted to accelerate growth by reducing contact inhibition. A surprising prediction derived from our model is that cell death, while resulting in a decrease in growth rate and final size of neurospheres, increases the degree of differentiation of neurosphere cells. It is likely that the cellular automata model developed as part of the present investigation is applicable to the study of tissue growth in a wide range of systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biaryl amide compounds reduce the inflammatory response in macrophages by regulating Dectin-1.

    PubMed

    Hyung, Kyeong Eun; Lee, Mi Ji; Lee, Yun-Jung; Lee, Do Ik; Min, Hye Young; Park, So-Young; Min, Kyung Hoon; Hwang, Kwang Woo

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages are archetypal innate immune cells that play crucial roles in the recognition and phagocytosis of invading pathogens, which they identify using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Dectin-1 is essential for antifungal immune responses, recognizing the fungal cellular component β-glucan, and its role as a PRR has been of increasing interest. Previously, we discovered and characterized a novel biaryl amide compound, MPS 03, capable of inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis of zymosan. Therefore, in this study we aimed to identify other biaryl amide compounds with greater effectiveness than MPS 03, and elucidate their cellular mechanisms. Several MPS 03 derivatives were screened, four of which reduced zymosan phagocytosis in a similar manner to MPS 03. To establish whether such phagocytosis inhibition influenced the production of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokine and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured. The production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and NO was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the inflammation-associated MAPK signaling pathway was also affected by biaryl amide compounds. To investigate the underlying cellular mechanism, PRR expression was measured. MPS 03 and its derivatives were found to inhibit zymosan phagocytosis by decreasing Dectin-1 expression. Furthermore, when macrophages were stimulated by zymosan after pretreatment with biaryl amide compounds, downstream transcription factors such as NFAT, AP-1, and NF-κB were downregulated. In conclusion, biaryl amide compounds reduce zymosan-induced inflammatory responses by downregulating Dectin-1 expression. Therefore, such compounds could be used to inhibit Dectin-1 in immunological experiments and possibly regulate excessive inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effects of banding or burdizzo castration of bulls on neutrophil phagocytosis and respiratory burst, CD62-L expression, and serum interleukin-8 concentration.

    PubMed

    Pang, W Y; Earley, B; Sweeney, T; Pirani, S; Gath, V; Crowe, M A

    2009-10-01

    The objective was to investigate measures of neutrophil function in response to banding or burdizzo castration of bulls. Thirty-two Holstein-Friesian bulls (14 mo old, 505 +/- 7.8 kg of BW) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 1) sham-handled control (CON); 2) banding castration alone (BAND); 3) burdizzo castration alone (BURD); or 4) cortisol infusion (CORT) as a further control group. For each group on d -14, 8 animals (2 animals/treatment) were tied up in tie stalls (day of treatment = d 0). At -2, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 144 h relative to treatment time, blood samples were collected for analyses of neutrophil phagocytosis and respiratory burst, neutrophil CD62-L expression, and serum IL-8 concentration. Leukocyte counts, phagocytosis activity, and CD62-L expression were similar (P > 0.05) among the 4 treatment groups. The BURD castrates had greater burst activity compared with BAND castrates (P = 0.048) and CON (P = 0.01) at 72 h posttreatment. The BURD castrates had a greater percentage of granulocyte positive leukocytes (Gr%; P < 0.01) at 2 h posttreatment compared with CON and CORT bulls. The BURD castrates had greater (P < 0.05) Gr% compared with BAND, CON, and CORT animals at 24, 48, and 72 h posttreatment. The BURD and BAND castrates had greater Gr% (P < 0.05) compared with CORT bulls at 144 h posttreatment. In general, BAND, BURD, and CORT did not affect serum IL-8 concentration. Banding castration, BURD, and CORT did not induce leukocytosis, whereas BURD induced a modest neutrophilia. Neutrophil functioning in terms of phagocytosis and respiratory burst and serum IL-8 concentration were not compromised by BAND, BURD, and CORT. These findings indicate nonsurgical castration is unlikely to induce a severe acute systemic inflammatory response in terms of neutrophil function.

  6. Histologic and cytologic bone marrow findings in dogs with suspected precursor-targeted immune-mediated anemia and associated phagocytosis of erythroid precursors.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Cynthia de A; de Rezende, Christian L E; Jutkowitz, L Ari; Scott, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    Precursor-targeted immune-mediated anemia (PIMA) has been suspected in dogs with nonregenerative anemia and bone marrow findings varying from erythroid hyperplasia to pure red cell aplasia. Phagocytosis of erythroid precursors/rubriphagocytosis (RP) reported in some affected dogs suggests a destructive component to the pathogenesis of PIMA. The purpose of the study was to characterize laboratory and clinical findings in dogs with suspected PIMA and RP, with emphasis on cytologic and histologic bone marrow findings. Dogs with PIMA and RP were identified by review of paired bone marrow aspirate and core biopsy slides collected over a 4-year period. Samples were systematically assessed and characterized along with other pertinent laboratory data and clinical findings. Twenty-five dogs met criteria for PIMA and had RP that was relatively stage-selective. Erythropoiesis was expanded to the stage of erythroid precursors undergoing most prominent phagocytosis, yielding patterns characterized by a hypo-, normo-, or hypercellular erythroid lineage. A 4 th pattern involved severe collagen myelofibrosis, and there was a spectrum of mild to severe collagen myelofibrosis overall. Evidence of immune-mediated hemolysis was rare. Immunosuppressive therapy was associated with remission in 77% of dogs treated for at least the median response time of 2 months. Bone marrow patterns in dogs fulfilling criteria for PIMA were aligned with stage-selective phagocytosis of erythroid precursors and the development of collagen myelofibrosis, common in dogs with PIMA. Recognition of these patterns and detection of RP facilitates diagnosis of PIMA, and slow response to immunosuppressive therapy warrants further investigation into its pathogenesis. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Studying longterm effects of micro gravity on basic immune functions - The development of an application based on the measuring of phagocytosis activity of Blue Mussel hemocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, Eckehardt

    The immunsystem of astronauts exposed to microgravity is declining. Whether this effect is caused by microgravity or in combination with cosmic radiation is so far not clear. The immune system of vertebrates has several defence strategies but the basic immune response (Phagocytosis) is present as well in invertebrates. Phagocytotic cells are drawn by chemotaxis to the origin of an infection. By adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation foreign particles, bacteria etc are transported inside of a cell were they are destroyed by native powerful biocides. Related to this biocide production is the formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). ROS can be measured by luminescence. The effects of microgravity will be simultaneously tested by exposure of phagocytotic hemocytes on orbit under microgravity, artificial gravity and, on ground under natural gravity. To address this purpose defined pools of Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes will be launched frozen to the ISS. References for all batches will stay on ground. Shortly after arrival and then in three-month intervals batches of the same pool will be thawed and reconstituted. The phagocytosis related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonized Zymosan. Luminescence will be measured and the data will be sent to ground. The experiment is scheduled for the Columbus Biolab early 2009. In preparation of this flight experiments the following procedures were investigated and the results will be presented: - a protocol for the cryoconservation and reconstituton of blue mussel hemocytes. - preliminary results of phagocytosis activity by reconstituted hemocytes after cryo-conservation and hemocytes without cryo-conservation treatment. The TRIPLELUX-B Experiment contributes to risk assessment concerning longterm immunotoxicity under space flight conditions. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The choice of the phagocytes from invertebrates is justified by the claim to study the

  8. Effect of Penicillium mycotoxins on the cytokine gene expression, reactive oxygen species production, and phagocytosis of bovine macrophage (BoMacs) function.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se-Young; Mead, Philip J; Sharma, Bhawani S; Quinton, V Margaret; Boermans, Herman J; Smith, Trevor K; Swamy, H V L N; Karrow, Niel A

    2015-12-25

    Bovine macrophages (BoMacs) were exposed to the following Penicillium mycotoxins (PM): citrinin (CIT), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), mycophenolic acid (MPA) and penicillic acid (PA). PM exposure at the concentration that inhibits proliferation by 25% (IC25) differentially for 24h altered the gene expression of various cytokines. OTA significantly induced IL-1α expression (p<0.05), while the expression of IL-6 was suppressed (p<0.01). MPA significantly induced the expression of IL-1α (p<0.05) and reduced the expression of IL-12α (p<0.01) and IL-10 (p<0.01). PAT significantly suppressed the expression of IL-23 (p<0.01), IL-10 (p<0.05) and TGF-β (p<0.05). Some PMs also affected reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium ssp. Paratuberculosis (MAP) at higher concentrations. PAT and PA for example, significantly decreased the percent phagocytosis of MAP at 5.0 (p<0.01) and 15.6 μM (p<0.01), respectively, but only PA significantly suppressed PAM-3-stimulated ROS production at 62.5 (p<0.05) and 250.0 μM (p<0.01). OTA significantly increased the percent phagocytosis of MAP at 6.3 (p<0.05) and 12.5 μM (p<0.01). These findings suggest that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of PMs can affect macrophage function, which could affect immunoregulation and innate disease resistance to pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Participation of 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ proteins in the phagocytosis, component of cellular immune response, in Aedes mosquito cell lines.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Ocampo, Abel; Cázares-Raga, Febe Elena; Del Angel, Rosa María; Medina-Ramírez, Fernando; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Rodríguez, Mario H; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Better knowledge of the innate immune system of insects will improve our understanding of mosquitoes as potential vectors of diverse pathogens. The ubiquitously expressed 14-3-3 protein family is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals, and at least two isoforms of 14-3-3, the ε and ζ, have been identified in insects. These proteins have been shown to participate in both humoral and cellular immune responses in Drosophila. As mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are the primary vectors for arboviruses, causing several diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika and chikungunya fevers, cell lines derived from these mosquitoes, Aag-2 from Aedes aegypti and C6/36 HT from Aedes albopictus, are currently used to study the insect immune system. Here, we investigated the role of 14-3-3 proteins (ε and ζ isoform) in phagocytosis, the main cellular immune responses executed by the insects, using Aedes spp. cell lines. We evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ in C6/36 HT and Aag-2 cells, and demonstrated that both proteins were localised in the cytoplasm. Further, in C6/36 HT cells treated with a 14-3-3 specific inhibitor we observed a notable modification of cell morphology with filopodia-like structure caused through cytoskeleton reorganisation (co-localization of 14-3-3 proteins with F-actin), more importantly the decrease in Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli phagocytosis and reduction in phagolysosome formation. Additionally, silencing of 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ expression by mean of specific DsiRNA confirmed the decreased phagocytosis and phagolysosome formation of pHrodo labelled E. coli and S. aureus bacteria by Aag-2 cells. The 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ proteins modulate cytoskeletal remodelling, and are essential for phagocytosis of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in Aedes spp. cell lines.

  10. Trivalent pneumococcal protein recombinant vaccine protects against lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia and correlates with phagocytosis by neutrophils during early pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingfu; Surendran, Naveen; Verhoeven, David; Klapa, Jessica; Ochs, Martina; Pichichero, Michael E

    2015-02-18

    Due to the fact that current polysaccharide-based pneumococcal vaccines have limited serotype coverage, protein-based vaccine candidates have been sought for over a decade to replace or complement current vaccines. We previously reported that a trivalent Pneumococcal Protein recombinant Vaccine (PPrV), showed protection against pneumonia and sepsis in an infant murine model. Here we investigated immunological correlates of protection of PPrV in the same model. C57BL/6J infant mice were intramuscularly vaccinated at age 1-3 weeks with 3 doses of PPrV, containing pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD), pneumococcal choline binding protein A (PcpA), and detoxified pneumolysin mutant PlyD1. 3-4 weeks after last vaccination, serum and lung antibody levels to PPrV components were measured, and mice were intranasally challenged with a lethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) serotype 6A. Lung Spn bacterial burden, number of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages, phagocytosed Spn by granulocytes, and levels of cytokines and chemokines were determined at 6, 12, 24, and 48h after challenge. PPrV vaccination conferred 83% protection against Spn challenge. Vaccinated mice had significantly elevated serum and lung antibody levels to three PPrV components. In the first stage of pathogenesis of Spn induced pneumonia (6-24h after challenge), vaccinated mice had lower Spn bacterial lung burdens and more phagocytosed Spn in the granulocytes. PPrV vaccination led to lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TFN-α, and other cytokines and chemokines (IL-12, IL-17, IFN-γ, MIP-1b, MIP-2 and KC, and G-CSF), presumably due to a lower lung bacterial burden. Trivalent PPrV vaccination results in increased serum and lung antibody levels to the vaccine components, a reduction in Spn induced lethality, enhanced early clearance of Spn in lungs due to more rapid and thorough phagocytosis of Spn by neutrophils, and correspondingly a reduction in lung inflammation

  11. Anthocyanins from black rice (Oryza sativa) promote immune responses in leukemia through enhancing phagocytosis of macrophages in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ming-Jen; Yeh, Ping-Hsuan; Lin, Jing-Pin; Huang, An-Cheng; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-07-01

    Rice is a staple food in numerous countries around the world. Anthocyanins found in black rice have been reported to reduce the risk of certain diseases, but the effects of crude extract of anthocyanins from Asia University-selected purple glutinous indica rice (AUPGA) on immune responses have not yet been demonstrated. The current study aimed to investigate whether AUPGA treatment could affect immune responses in murine leukemia cells in vivo . Murine acute myelomonocytic leukemia WEHI-3 cells were intraperitoneally injected into normal BALB/c mice to generate leukemia mice. A total of 50 mice were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 in each group) and were fed a diet supplemented with AUPGA at 0, 20, 50 or 100 mg/kg for three weeks. All mice were weighed and the blood, liver and spleen were collected for further experiments. The results indicated that AUPGA did not significantly affect animal body weight, but significantly increased spleen weight (P<0.05) and decreased liver weight (P<0.05) when compared with the control group. AUPGA significantly increased the T cell (CD3) population at treatments of 20 and 100 mg/kg (P<0.05). However, it only significantly increased the B cell (CD19) population at a treatment of 20 mg/kg (P<0.05). Furthermore, AUPGA at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly increased the monocyte (CD11b) population and the level of macrophages (Mac-3; P<0.05 for both). AUPGA at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly promoted macrophage phagocytosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P<0.05), and all doses of AUPGA treatment significantly promoted macrophage phagocytotic activity in the peritoneum (P<0.05). AUPGA treatment significantly decreased natural killer cell activity from splenocytes (P<0.05). Finally, AUPGA treatment at 20 mg/kg treatment significantly promoted T cell proliferation (P<0.05), and treatment at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly decreased B cell proliferation compared with the control group (P<0.05).

  12. Anthocyanins from black rice (Oryza sativa) promote immune responses in leukemia through enhancing phagocytosis of macrophages in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ming-Jen; Yeh, Ping-Hsuan; Lin, Jing-Pin; Huang, An-Cheng; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a staple food in numerous countries around the world. Anthocyanins found in black rice have been reported to reduce the risk of certain diseases, but the effects of crude extract of anthocyanins from Asia University-selected purple glutinous indica rice (AUPGA) on immune responses have not yet been demonstrated. The current study aimed to investigate whether AUPGA treatment could affect immune responses in murine leukemia cells in vivo. Murine acute myelomonocytic leukemia WEHI-3 cells were intraperitoneally injected into normal BALB/c mice to generate leukemia mice. A total of 50 mice were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 in each group) and were fed a diet supplemented with AUPGA at 0, 20, 50 or 100 mg/kg for three weeks. All mice were weighed and the blood, liver and spleen were collected for further experiments. The results indicated that AUPGA did not significantly affect animal body weight, but significantly increased spleen weight (P<0.05) and decreased liver weight (P<0.05) when compared with the control group. AUPGA significantly increased the T cell (CD3) population at treatments of 20 and 100 mg/kg (P<0.05). However, it only significantly increased the B cell (CD19) population at a treatment of 20 mg/kg (P<0.05). Furthermore, AUPGA at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly increased the monocyte (CD11b) population and the level of macrophages (Mac-3; P<0.05 for both). AUPGA at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly promoted macrophage phagocytosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P<0.05), and all doses of AUPGA treatment significantly promoted macrophage phagocytotic activity in the peritoneum (P<0.05). AUPGA treatment significantly decreased natural killer cell activity from splenocytes (P<0.05). Finally, AUPGA treatment at 20 mg/kg treatment significantly promoted T cell proliferation (P<0.05), and treatment at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly decreased B cell proliferation compared with the control group (P<0.05). PMID:28672893

  13. Phagocytosis: history's lessons.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manish; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-01-01

    The assimilation of lessons from the past is an essential component of education for scientists of tomorrow. These lessons are not easy to find. History books on science are few and usually highly dramatized and biographies of scientists tend to exaggerate the pomp of scientific discovery. Both underplay the hard and laborious work that is integral to any scientific pursuit. Here we illustrate one such example. A century ago, the Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to two scientists: Ilya Metchnikoff, a Russian zoologist, for the discovery ofphagocytosis-a cell-mediated ingestion ofmicrobes; and Paul Ehrlich, a distinguished physician-scientist, for discovering a highly antigen-specific serum-derived antibody-based immune defense. These two diametrically opposing views of the host-pathogen interaction set the stage for a strife that led to seminal advancements in immunology. Mirrored in this journey are important lessons for scientists today--ubiquitously as applicable to modern scientific life as they were a century ago. This commentaryhighlights these lessons--a fitting centenary to a well-deserved recognition.

  14. Live Imaging of LysoTracker-Labelled Phagolysosomes Tracks Diurnal Phagocytosis of Photoreceptor Outer Segment Fragments in Rat RPE Tissue Ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yingyu; Finnemann, Silvia C

    2016-01-01

    Renewal of rod photoreceptor outer segments in the mammalian eye involves synchronized diurnal shedding after light onset of spent distal outer segment fragments (POS) linked to swift clearance of shed POS from the subretinal space by the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Engulfed POS phagosomes in RPE cells mature to acidified phagolysosomes, which accomplish enzymatic degradation of POS macromolecules. Here, we used an acidophilic fluorophore LysoTracker to label acidic organelles in freshly dissected, live rat RPE tissue flat mounts. We observed that all RPE cells imaged contained numerous acidified POS phagolysosomes whose abundance per cell was dramatically increased 2 h after light onset as compared to either 1 h before or 4 h after light onset. Lack of organelles of similar diameter (of 1-2 μm) in phagocytosis-defective mutant RCS rat RPE confirmed that LysoTracker live imaging detected POS phagolysosomes. Lack of increase in lysosomal membrane protein LAMP-1 in RPE/choroid during the diurnal phagocytic burst suggests that formation of POS phagolysosomes in RPE in situ may not involve extra lysosome membrane biogenesis. Taken together, we report a new imaging approach that directly detects POS phagosome acidification and allows rapid tracking and quantification of POS phagocytosis by live RPE -tissue ex situ.

  15. HIV-1 Promotes Intake of Leishmania Parasites by Enhancing Phosphatidylserine-Mediated, CD91/LRP-1-Dependent Phagocytosis in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, Robert; Ouellet, Michel; Barat, Corinne; Andreani, Guadalupe; Kumar, Pranav; Tremblay, Michel J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of reported human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)/Leishmania co-infections has risen dramatically, particularly in regions where both diseases are endemic. Although it is known that HIV-1 infection leads to an increase in susceptibility to Leishmania infection and leishmaniasis relapse, little remains known on how HIV-1 contributes to Leishmania parasitaemia. Both pathogens infect human macrophages, and the intracellular growth of Leishmania is increased by HIV-1 in co-infected cultures. We now report that uninfected bystander cells, not macrophages productively infected with HIV-1, account for enhanced phagocytosis and higher multiplication of Leishmania parasites. This effect can be driven by HIV-1 Tat protein and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). Furthermore, we show for the first time that HIV-1 infection increases surface expression of phosphatidylserine receptor CD91/LRP-1 on human macrophages, thereby leading to a Leishmania uptake by uninfected bystander cells in HIV-1-infected macrophage populations. The more important internalization of parasites is due to interactions between the scavenger receptor CD91/LRP-1 and phosphatidylserine residues exposed at the surface of Leishmania. We determined also that enhanced CD91/LRP-1 surface expression occurs rapidly following HIV-1 infection, and is triggered by the activation of extracellular TGF-β. Thus, these results establish an intricate link between HIV-1 infection, Tat, surface CD91/LRP-1, TGF-β, and enhanced Leishmania phosphatidylserine-mediated phagocytosis. PMID:22412921

  16. The Klebsiella pneumoniae YfgL (BamB) lipoprotein contributes to outer membrane protein biogenesis, type-1 fimbriae expression, anti-phagocytosis, and in vivo virulence

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Pei-Fang; Hsu, Chun-Ru; Chen, Chun-Tang; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Wang, Jin-Town

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that causes several kinds of infections, including pneumonia, bacteremia, urinary tract infection and community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Adhesion is the critical first step in the infection process. Our previous work demonstrated that the transcellular translocation is exploited by K. pneumoniae strains to migrate from the gut flora into other tissues, resulting in systemic infections. However, the initial stages of K. pneumoniae infection remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that a K. pneumoniae strain deleted for yfgL (bamB) exhibited reduced adherence to and invasion of host cells; changed biogenesis of major β-barrel outer membrane proteins; decreased transcriptional expression of type-1 fimbriae; and increased susceptibility to vancomycin and erythromycin. The yfgL deletion mutant also had reduced ability to against neutrophil phagocytosis; exhibited decreased induction of host IL-6 production; and was profoundly attenuated for virulence in a K. pneumoniae model of bacteremia. Thus, the K. pneumoniae YfgL lipoprotein mediates in outer membrane proteins biogenesis and is crucial for anti-phagocytosis and survival in vivo. These data provide a new insight for K. pneumoniae attachment and such knowledge could facilitate preventive therapies or alternative therapies against K. pneumoniae. PMID:27029012

  17. Over-Expression of the Mycobacterial Trehalose-Phosphate Phosphatase OtsB2 Results in a Defect in Macrophage Phagocytosis Associated with Increased Mycobacterial-Macrophage Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Wu, Mei; Shi, Yan; Javid, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (OtsB2) is involved in the OtsAB trehalose synthesis pathway to produce free trehalose and is strictly essential for mycobacterial growth. We wished to determine the effects of OtsB2 expression on mycobacterial phenotypes such as growth, phagocytosis and survival in macrophages. Mycobacterium bovis-bacillus calmette-guerin (BCG) over-expressing OtsB2 were able to better survive in stationary phase. Over-expression of OtsB2 led to a decrease in phagocytosis but not survival in THP-1 macrophage-like cells, and this was not due to a decrease in general macrophage phagocytic activity. Surprisingly, when we investigated macrophage–mycobacterial interactions by flow cytometry and atomic force microscopy, we discovered that BCG over-expressing OtsB2 have stronger binding to THP-1 cells than wild-type BCG. These results suggest that altering OtsB2 expression has implications for mycobacterial host–pathogen interactions. Macrophage–mycobacteria phagocytic interactions are complex and merit further study. PMID:27867377

  18. Dynamics of Increasing IFN-γ Exposure on Murine MH-S Cell-Line Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lou Ann S.; Klugman, Keith P.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that activation with the type II interferon, IFN-γ, downregulates alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae. While these studies have shown clear effects at discrete time points, the kinetics of the macrophage response to IFN-γ over time, with respect to pneumococcal phagocytosis, have not been shown. Here, we describe these kinetics in the murine MH-S AM cell-line, a well-established model useful for investigations of AM phenotype and function. We measure binding and internalizing rates of S. pneumoniae following exposure to increasing durations of physiologic levels of IFN-γ. When MH-S murine alveolar macrophage (mAM) were exposed to IFN-γ for increasing durations of time, from 0 to 6 days before inoculation with the type II S. pneumoniae, D39, exposure for 6 h transiently reduced bacterial binding by 50%, which was temporarily restored at 2 and 3 days of exposure. Bacterial internalization was also reduced shortly following initial exposure, however, internalization continued to fall to less than 5% that of IFN-γ naïve controls after 6 days of exposure. These data may help explain otherwise contradictory reports from the literature regarding timing between infections and reductions in macrophage function. PMID:25713979

  19. Dynamics of Increasing IFN-γ Exposure on Murine MH-S Cell-Line Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Mina, Michael J; Brown, Lou Ann S; Klugman, Keith P

    2015-06-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that activation with the type II interferon, IFN-γ, downregulates alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae. While these studies have shown clear effects at discrete time points, the kinetics of the macrophage response to IFN-γ over time, with respect to pneumococcal phagocytosis, have not been shown. Here, we describe these kinetics in the murine MH-S AM cell-line, a well-established model useful for investigations of AM phenotype and function. We measure binding and internalizing rates of S. pneumoniae following exposure to increasing durations of physiologic levels of IFN-γ. When MH-S murine alveolar macrophage (mAM) were exposed to IFN-γ for increasing durations of time, from 0 to 6 days before inoculation with the type II S. pneumoniae, D39, exposure for 6 h transiently reduced bacterial binding by 50%, which was temporarily restored at 2 and 3 days of exposure. Bacterial internalization was also reduced shortly following initial exposure, however, internalization continued to fall to less than 5% that of IFN-γ naïve controls after 6 days of exposure. These data may help explain otherwise contradictory reports from the literature regarding timing between infections and reductions in macrophage function.

  20. Activin A increases phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 by primary murine microglial cells activated by toll-like receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Diesselberg, Catharina; Ribes, Sandra; Seele, Jana; Kaufmann, Annika; Redlich, Sandra; Bunkowski, Stephanie; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Michel, Uwe; Nau, Roland; Schütze, Sandra

    2018-06-07

    Bacterial meningitis is associated with high mortality and long-term neurological sequelae. Increasing the phagocytic activity of microglia could improve the resistance of the CNS against infections. We studied the influence of activin A, a member of the TGF-β family with known immunoregulatory and neuroprotective effects, on the functions of microglial cells in vitro. Primary murine microglial cells were treated with activin A (0.13 ng/ml-13 μg/ml) alone or in combination with agonists of TLR2, 4, and 9. Phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 as well as release of TNF-α, IL-6, CXCL1, and NO was assessed. Activin A dose-dependently enhanced the phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 by microglial cells activated by agonists of TLR2, 4, and 9 without further increasing NO and proinflammatory cytokine release. Cell viability of microglial cells was not affected by activin A. Priming of microglial cells with activin A could increase the elimination of bacteria in bacterial CNS infections. This preventive strategy could improve the resistance of the brain to infections, particularly in elderly and immunocompromised patients.

  1. Influence of dichloromethylene bisphosphonate on the in vitro phagocytosis of hydroxyapatite particles by rat peritoneal exudate cells: an electron microscopic and chemiluminescence study.

    PubMed Central

    Hyvönen, P M; Kowolik, M J

    1992-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and standard chemiluminescence assays were used to investigate the in vivo effect of dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (clodronate) on the phagocytosis of pure hydroxyapatite particles by rat peritoneal macrophages and the production of chemiluminescence by the peritoneal exudate cells. Hydroxyapatite (control) and a hydroxyapatite/clodronate suspension (28 mumol clodronate per gram of hydroxyapatite, experimental) were injected into the peritoneum of rats, the clodronate dose being 10 micrograms/kg. Macrophages were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after injection and the particle phagocytosis was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Hydroxyapatite alone was completely phagocytosed by 24 hours and hydroxyapatite reacted with clodronate was completely phagocytosed by 48 hours. From 48 hours onwards hydroxyapatite particle dissolution was observed in the phagosomes of cells in the two groups. At 48 hours the chemiluminescence produced by the peritoneal exudate cells was also measured. Clodronate and clodronate/hydroxyapatite enhanced cell activity on subsequent challenge with phorbol myristate acetate or zymosan. Clodronate seemed to exhibit an inhibitory effect on the phagocytic activity and an enhancement of the chemiluminescence production by the cells in this model, indicating that it was modifying the inflammatory cell response. Images PMID:1532298

  2. Resveratrol increases phagocytosis and lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β production, but decreases surface expression of Toll-like receptor 2 in THP-1 monocytes.

    PubMed

    Zunino, Susan J; Hwang, Daniel H; Huang, Shurong; Storms, David H

    2018-02-01

    THP-1 monocytes were used to evaluate the effects of physiological levels of resveratrol aglycone, resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide, resveratrol-4'-O-glucuronide, and resveratrol-3-O-sulfate on phagocytosis, IL-1β, IL-1α, and IL-18 production, viability, and TLR2 and TLR4 expression. THP-1 cells were treated with 1, 5, 10, and 15μM resveratrol or metabolites. Resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide, resveratrol-4'-O-glucuronide, and resveratrol-3-O-sulfate had no effect on the functional parameters tested. Resveratrol aglycone increased phagocytosis at concentrations of 5, 10, and 15μM and LPS-induced IL-1β production at concentrations of 10 and 15μM. Expression of TLR4 increased slightly after resveratrol treatment, but surface expression of TLR2 was reduced as resveratrol concentrations increased. Our data suggest that resveratrol may be effective in modulating monocyte function in an environment where there is direct exposure to the aglycone, such as at the gut epithelium. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. [Immune regulation activity and mechanism of Tibetan Kefir exopolysaccharide fractions].

    PubMed

    Meng, Li; Zhang, Lanwei

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the effects and mechanism on immune regulation activity in mice of two Tibetan Kefir exoploysaccharides (EPS) with different molecular weight of 0.1 x 10(5) - 3 x 10(5) (fraction 1) and 1.8 x 10(3) (fraction 2). The immune regulation activity experiment was carried out in vitro based on the Functional Assessment Procedure and Test Methods of Health Food, which was issued by Ministry of Health of China. First, we treated mice subjects with EPS at doses of 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg, 120 mg/kg through ig. Then we detected the index of immune organs, the ability of antibody production (tested by HC50), activity of NK cell, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and phagocytosis of macrophage in mice. Finally, we examined the expression of Erk protein in Macrophages by Western Blot assay. Fraction 1 could promote HC50, activity of NK cell and DTH in mice which low dose showed better. Fraction 2 could promote DTH, phagocytosis of macrophage which high dose showed better. The expression of Erk and COX-2 had the same trend with Phagocytic index. We verified the two fractions of Tibetan Kefir EPS could enhance immune functions in mice. Fraction 1 regulated immune function through NK cell and B cell while fraction 2 through macrophage cell and T cell. The effects to macrophage of Tibetan Kefir EPS in mice may realize through extra cellular signal-regulated kinase Erk pathway.

  4. Decoupling Internalization, Acidification and Phagosmal-Endosomal/Iysosomal Phagocytosis of Internalin A coated Beads in epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchette, C D; Woo, Y; Thomas, C

    2008-12-22

    Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established, and in several cases, it was treated as a one-step process. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells, such as epithelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple and novel method to decouple and accurately measure particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) andmore » Caco-2 epithelial cells. Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA), a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated internalization. We achieved independent measurements of the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads) with antibody quenching, pH sensitive dyes and endosomal/lysosomal dyes, as follows: the rate of InlA bead internalization was measured via antibody quenching of a pH independent dye (Alexa488) conjugated to InlA-beads, the rate at which phagosomes containing internalized InlA beads became acidified was measured using a pH dependent dye (FITC) conjugated to the beads and the rate of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was measured using a combination of unlabeled InlA-beads and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we also exploited the phagosomal acidification process to

  5. Leishmania donovani Utilize Sialic Acids for Binding and Phagocytosis in the Macrophages through Selective Utilization of Siglecs and Impair the Innate Immune Arm.

    PubMed

    Roy, Saptarshi; Mandal, Chitra

    2016-08-01

    Leishmania donovani, belonging to a unicellular protozoan parasite, display the differential level of linkage-specific sialic acids on their surface. Sialic acids binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (siglecs) are a class of membrane-bound receptors present in the haematopoetic cell lineages interact with the linkage-specific sialic acids. Here we aimed to explore the utilization of sialic acids by Leishmania donovani for siglec-mediated binding, phagocytosis, modulation of innate immune response and signaling pathways for establishment of successful infection in the host. We have found enhanced binding of high sialic acids containing virulent strains (AG83+Sias) with siglec-1 and siglec-5 present on macrophages compared to sialidase treated AG83+Sias (AG83-Sias) and low sialic acids-containing avirulent strain (UR6) by flow cytometry. This specific receptor-ligand interaction between sialic acids and siglecs were further confirmed by confocal microscopy. Sialic acids-siglec-1-mediated interaction of AG83+Sias with macrophages induced enhanced phagocytosis. Additionally, sialic acids-siglec-5 interaction demonstrated reduced ROS, NO generation and Th2 dominant cytokine response upon infection with AG83+Sias in contrast to AG83-Sias and UR6. Sialic acids-siglecs binding also facilitated multiplication of intracellular amastigotes. Moreover, AG83+Sias induced sialic acids-siglec-5-mediated upregulation of host phosphatase SHP-1. Such sialic acids-siglec interaction was responsible for further downregulation of MAPKs (p38, ERK and JNK) and PI3K/Akt pathways followed by the reduced translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κβ to the nucleus from cytosol in the downstream signaling pathways. This sequence of events was reversed in AG83-Sias and UR6-infected macrophages. Besides, siglec-knockdown macrophages also showed the reversal of AG83+Sias infection-induced effector functions and downstream signaling events. Taken together, this study demonstrated that virulent parasite

  6. The multiple roles of the innate immune system in the regulation of apoptosis and inflammation in the brain.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Mark R; Gasque, Philippe; Neal, James W

    2009-03-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tissues contain cells (i.e. glia and neurons) that have innate immune functions. These cells express a range of receptors that are capable of detecting and clearing apoptotic cells and regulating inflammatory responses. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is a nonphlogistic (i.e. noninflammatory) process that provides immune regulation through anti-inflammatory cytokines andregulatory T cells. Neurons and glia express cellular death signals, including CD95Fas/CD95L, FasL, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR), through which they can trigger apoptosis in T cells and other infiltrating cells. Microglia, astrocytes, ependymal cells, and neurons express defense collagens and scavenger and phagocytic receptors that recognize apoptotic cells displaying apoptotic cell-associated molecular patterns, which serve as markers of "altered self." Glia also express pentraxins and complement proteins (C1q, C3b, and iC3b) that opsonize apoptotic cells, making them targets for the phagocytic receptors CR3 and CR4. Immunoregulatory molecules such as the complement regulator CD46 are lost from apoptotic cells and stimulate phagocytosis, whereas the expression of CD47 and CD200 is upregulated during apoptosis; this inhibits proinflammatory microglial cytokine expression, thereby reducing the severity of inflammation. This review outlines the cellular pathways used for the detection and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in vitro and in experimental models of CNS inflammation.

  7. Platelet factor 4/CXCL4 induces phagocytosis and the generation of reactive oxygen metabolites in mononuclear phagocytes independently of Gi protein activation or intracellular calcium transients.

    PubMed

    Pervushina, Olga; Scheuerer, Barbara; Reiling, Norbert; Behnke, Lars; Schröder, Jens-M; Kasper, Brigitte; Brandt, Ernst; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia; Petersen, Frank

    2004-08-01

    Platelet factor 4 (PF-4), a platelet-derived CXC chemokine, is known to prevent human monocytes from apoptosis and to promote differentiation of these cells into HLA-DR(-) macrophages. In this study, we investigated the role of PF-4 in the control of acute monocyte proinflammatory responses involved in the direct combat of microbial invaders. We show that PF-4 increases monocyte phagocytosis and provokes a strong formation of oxygen radicals but lacks a chemotactic activity in these cells. Compared with FMLP, PF-4-induced oxidative burst was later in its onset but was remarkably longer in its duration (lasting for up to 60 min). Furthermore, in PF-4-prestimulated cells, FMLP- as well as RANTES-induced burst responses became synergistically enhanced. As we could show, PF-4-mediated oxidative burst in monocytes does not involve Gi proteins, elevation of intracellular free calcium concentrations, or binding to CXCR3B, a novel PF-4 receptor recently discovered on endothelial cells. Moreover, we found that PF-4 acts on macrophages in a dual manner. On the one hand, very similar to GM-CSF or M-CSF, PF-4 treatment of monocytes generates macrophages with a high capacity for unspecific phagocytosis. On the other hand, short term priming of GM-CSF-induced human macrophages with PF-4 substantially increases their capability for particle ingestion and oxidative burst. A comparable effect was also observed in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, indicating cross-reactivity of human PF-4 between both species. Taken together, PF-4 may play a crucial role in the induction and maintenance of an unspecific immune response.

  8. Preventive effects of a fermented dairy product against Alzheimer's disease and identification of a novel oleamide with enhanced microglial phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Ozawa, Makiko; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Sugiyama, Shinya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (5xFAD), intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production), and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF). A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia.

  9. Preventive Effects of a Fermented Dairy Product against Alzheimer’s Disease and Identification of a Novel Oleamide with Enhanced Microglial Phagocytosis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Ozawa, Makiko; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Sugiyama, Shinya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer’s disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (5xFAD), intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production), and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF). A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer’s disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia. PMID:25760987

  10. The assessment of serum-mediated phagocytosis of necrotic material by polymorphonuclear leukocytes to diagnose and predict the clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus: an observational longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Compagno, Michele; Gullstrand, Birgitta; Jacobsen, Søren; Eilertsen, Gro Ø; Nilsson, Jan Åke; Lood, Christian; Jönsen, Andreas; Truedsson, Lennart; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Bengtsson, Anders A

    2016-02-10

    Serum-mediated phagocytosis of antibody- and complement-opsonized necrotic cell material (NCM) by polymorphonuclear leukocytes can be quantified by using a flow cytometry-based assay. The phagocytosis of necrotic cell material (PNC) assay parallels the well-known lupus erythematosus cell test. In this study, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the assay and the relationship with clinical manifestations and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The diagnostic accuracy for SLE diagnosis of the PNC assay was studied by cross-sectional assessment of blood samples from 148 healthy control subjects and a multicenter rheumatic group (MRG) of 529 patients with different rheumatic symptoms. A cohort of 69 patients with an established SLE diagnosis (SLE cohort) underwent longitudinal clinical and laboratory follow-up for analysis of the temporal relationships between PNC positivity and specific clinical manifestations. In 35 of 529 MRG patients, 13 of whom had SLE, the PNC assay result was positive. Combined positivity of the PNC assay and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies increased specificity and positive predictive value for SLE diagnosis to 0.99 and 0.67, respectively. In the longitudinal study, 42 of 69 SLE cohort patients had positive results in the PNC assay at least once. PNC assay positivity was associated with current hematological manifestations and could predict mucocutaneous manifestations. When combined with hypocomplementemia, PNC positivity preceded increased Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 score, glomerulonephritis, and alopecia. Serum-mediated PNC by polymorphonuclear leukocytes is commonly but not exclusively seen in patients with SLE. The PNC assay may be used in follow-up of patients with SLE and, especially in combination with other routinely assessed laboratory tests, may help to predict flares and different clinical manifestations, including glomerulonephritis. Our results encourage further

  11. Development of monoclonal antibodies against IgM of sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and analysis of phagocytosis by mIgM+ lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shun; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2018-07-01

    B cells in some fish were recently found to have potent phagocytic activities. Sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) as an important economical marine fish species, it could be used as an appropriate model to study the functions of B cells in phagocytosis. In the paper, three positive hybridomas designated as 1E11, 2H4 and 3F3 secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against sea bass immunoglobulin M (IgM) were produced and used as research tools. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that all the three MAbs had a high binding capacity with sea bass serum IgM. Western blotting analysis showed that all the three MAbs were specific for the heavy chain of sea bass IgM. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) analysis suggested that both MAbs 1E11 and 2H4 could recognize membrane-bound IgM (mIgM) molecule of sea bass. Specificity analysis showed that three MAbs had no cross-reactions with other six teleosts IgMs. Flow cytometric analysis exhibited that the percentages of sea bass mIgM + lymphocytes in peripheral blood, spleen and pronephros were 25.6%, 21.1%, and 17.5%, respectively. Moreover, we found that the mIgM + lymphocytes of sea bass could phagocytose fluorescence microspheres and Lactococcus lactis, but lower phagocytosis rates of L. lactis was observed. These results demonstrated that the MAbs produced in this paper could be used as tools to study secretory IgM and mIgM + lymphocytes of sea bass, and mIgM + lymphocytes might also play an important role in innate immunity of sea bass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of peripheral neutrophil functions in aggressive periodontitis patients and their family members in Indian population: An assessment of neutrophil chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and microbicidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Bhansali, Rahul Suresh; Yeltiwar, Ramreddy Krishnarao; Bhat, Kishore

    2017-01-01

    Background: Association of neutrophil function abnormalities with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) has been reported in Indian population. There are no published studies on the familial aggregation of aggressive periodontitis (AP) and neutrophil function abnormalities associated with it in Indian population. The present study aimed to assess neutrophil chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and microbicidal activity in AP patients and their family members of Indian origin, who may or may not be suffering from AP. Materials and Methods: Eighteen families with a total of 51 individuals (18 probands, 33 family members) were included. Neutrophil chemotaxis was evaluated against an alkali-soluble casein solution using Wilkinson's method. Phagocytosis and microbicidal activity assay were performed using Candida albicans as an indicator organism. Statistical Analysis Used: The magnitude of association between the presence of defective neutrophil function and LAP or GAP was calculated using odds ratio and relative risk. Total incidence of AP, and in particular, LAP in the families attributable to the presence of defective neutrophil function was calculated by attributable risk. Results: The association between depressed neutrophil chemotaxis and presence of AP and LAP or GAP in all the family members (n = 51) was found to be significant (P < 0.05) while that for phagocytic and microbicidal activity were observed to be nonsignificant. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest high incidence of AP (LAP and GAP) within families was associated with depressed neutrophil chemotaxis. High prevalence of depressed neutrophil chemotaxis in the family members (61%) of LAP probands exhibiting depressed chemotaxis suggests that the observed abnormalities in neutrophil functions may also be inherited by the family members. PMID:29551862

  13. Steroid Hormone Signaling Is Essential to Regulate Innate Immune Cells and Fight Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jennifer C.; Brandão, Ana S.; Leitão, Alexandre B.; Mantas Dias, Ângela Raquel; Sucena, Élio; Jacinto, António; Zaidman-Rémy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Coupling immunity and development is essential to ensure survival despite changing internal conditions in the organism. Drosophila metamorphosis represents a striking example of drastic and systemic physiological changes that need to be integrated with the innate immune system. However, nothing is known about the mechanisms that coordinate development and immune cell activity in the transition from larva to adult. Here, we reveal that regulation of macrophage-like cells (hemocytes) by the steroid hormone ecdysone is essential for an effective innate immune response over metamorphosis. Although it is generally accepted that steroid hormones impact immunity in mammals, their action on monocytes (e.g. macrophages and neutrophils) is still not well understood. Here in a simpler model system, we used an approach that allows in vivo, cell autonomous analysis of hormonal regulation of innate immune cells, by combining genetic manipulation with flow cytometry, high-resolution time-lapse imaging and tissue-specific transcriptomic analysis. We show that in response to ecdysone, hemocytes rapidly upregulate actin dynamics, motility and phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses, and acquire the ability to chemotax to damaged epithelia. Most importantly, individuals lacking ecdysone-activated hemocytes are defective in bacterial phagocytosis and are fatally susceptible to infection by bacteria ingested at larval stages, despite the normal systemic and local production of antimicrobial peptides. This decrease in survival is comparable to the one observed in pupae lacking immune cells altogether, indicating that ecdysone-regulation is essential for hemocyte immune functions and survival after infection. Microarray analysis of hemocytes revealed a large set of genes regulated at metamorphosis by EcR signaling, among which many are known to function in cell motility, cell shape or phagocytosis. This study demonstrates an important role for steroid hormone regulation of immunity in vivo in

  14. SHIP-1 Increases Early Oxidative Burst and Regulates Phagosome Maturation in Macrophages1

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Lynn A.; Levinsohn, Jonathan; Cadwallader, Amy; Tridandapani, Susheela; Swanson, Joel A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the inositol phosphatase SHIP-1 is generally thought to inhibit signaling for Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis, the product of its activity, phosphatidylinositol 3,4 bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) has been implicated in activation of the NADPH oxidase. This suggests that SHIP-1 positively regulates generation of reactive oxygen species after phagocytosis. To examine how SHIP-1 activity contributes to Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis, we measured and compared phospholipid dynamics, membrane trafficking and the oxidative burst in macrophages from SHIP-1-deficient and wild-type mice. SHIP-1-deficient macrophages showed significantly elevated ratios of PI(3,4,5) P3 to PI(3,4)P2 on phagosomal membranes. Imaging reactive oxygen intermediate activities in phagosomes revealed decreased early NADPH oxidase activity in SHIP-1-deficient macrophages. SHIP-1-deficiency also altered later stages of phagosome maturation, as indicated by the persistent elevation of PI(3)P and the early localization of Rab5a to phagosomes. These direct measurements of individual organelles indicate that phagosomal SHIP-1 enhances the early oxidative burst through localized alteration of the membrane 3′ phosphoinositide composition. PMID:18490750

  15. Haemophilus ducreyi Hfq contributes to virulence gene regulation as cells enter stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Zhang, Xinjun; Fortney, Kate R; Ellinger, Sheila; Zwickl, Beth; Baker, Beth; Liu, Yunlong; Janowicz, Diane M; Katz, Barry P; Brautigam, Chad A; Munson, Robert S; Hansen, Eric J; Spinola, Stanley M

    2014-02-11

    To adapt to stresses encountered in stationary phase, Gram-negative bacteria utilize the alternative sigma factor RpoS. However, some species lack RpoS; thus, it is unclear how stationary-phase adaptation is regulated in these organisms. Here we defined the growth-phase-dependent transcriptomes of Haemophilus ducreyi, which lacks an RpoS homolog. Compared to mid-log-phase organisms, cells harvested from the stationary phase upregulated genes encoding several virulence determinants and a homolog of hfq. Insertional inactivation of hfq altered the expression of ~16% of the H. ducreyi genes. Importantly, there were a significant overlap and an inverse correlation in the transcript levels of genes differentially expressed in the hfq inactivation mutant relative to its parent and the genes differentially expressed in stationary phase relative to mid-log phase in the parent. Inactivation of hfq downregulated genes in the flp-tad and lspB-lspA2 operons, which encode several virulence determinants. To comply with FDA guidelines for human inoculation experiments, an unmarked hfq deletion mutant was constructed and was fully attenuated for virulence in humans. Inactivation or deletion of hfq downregulated Flp1 and impaired the ability of H. ducreyi to form microcolonies, downregulated DsrA and rendered H. ducreyi serum susceptible, and downregulated LspB and LspA2, which allow H. ducreyi to resist phagocytosis. We propose that, in the absence of an RpoS homolog, Hfq serves as a major contributor of H. ducreyi stationary-phase and virulence gene regulation. The contribution of Hfq to stationary-phase gene regulation may have broad implications for other organisms that lack an RpoS homolog. Pathogenic bacteria encounter a wide range of stresses in their hosts, including nutrient limitation; the ability to sense and respond to such stresses is crucial for bacterial pathogens to successfully establish an infection. Gram-negative bacteria frequently utilize the alternative sigma

  16. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent up-regulation of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter LAT1 (SLC7A5)/CD98hc (SLC3A2) by diesel exhaust particle extract in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Lecureur, Valérie

    The heterodimeric L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1/CD98hc is overexpressed in lung cancers with a poor prognosis factor. Factors that contribute to LAT1/CD98hc overexpression in lung cells remain however to be determined, but the implication of atmospheric pollution can be suspected. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the effects of diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (DEPe) on LAT1/CD98hc expression in bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Exposure to DEPe up-regulated LAT1 and CD98hc mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner, with DEPe EC{sub 50} values (around 0.2 μg/mL) relevant to environmental situations. DEPe concomitantly induced LAT1/CD98hc protein expression and LAT1-mediated leucinemore » accumulation in BEAS-2B cells. Inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway through the use of a chemical AhR antagonist or the siRNA-mediated silencing of AhR expression was next found to prevent DEPe-mediated induction of LAT1/CD98hc, indicating that this regulation depends on AhR, known to be activated by major chemical DEP components like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. DEPe exposure was finally shown to induce mRNA expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in BEAS-2B cells, in a CD98hc/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) manner, thus suggesting that DEPe-mediated induction of CD98hc triggers activation of the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway known to be involved in MMP-2 regulation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that exposure to DEPe induces functional overexpression of the amino acid transporter LAT1/CD98hc in lung cells. Such a regulation may participate to pulmonary carcinogenic effects of DEPs, owing to the well-documented contribution of LAT1 and CD98hc to cancer development. - Highlights: • The amino acid transporter LAT1/CD98hc is up-regulated in DEPe-treated lung cells. • The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is involved in DEPe-triggered induction of LAT1/CD

  17. Phosphate (Pi)-regulated heterodimerization of the high-affinity sodium-dependent Pi transporters PiT1/Slc20a1 and PiT2/Slc20a2 underlies extracellular Pi sensing independently of Pi uptake.

    PubMed

    Bon, Nina; Couasnay, Greig; Bourgine, Annabelle; Sourice, Sophie; Beck-Cormier, Sarah; Guicheux, Jérôme; Beck, Laurent

    2018-02-09

    Extracellular phosphate (P i ) can act as a signaling molecule that directly alters gene expression and cellular physiology. The ability of cells or organisms to detect changes in extracellular P i levels implies the existence of a P i -sensing mechanism that signals to the body or individual cell. However, unlike in prokaryotes, yeasts, and plants, the molecular players involved in P i sensing in mammals remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the high-affinity, sodium-dependent P i transporters PiT1 and PiT2 in mediating P i signaling in skeletal cells. We found that deletion of PiT1 or PiT2 blunted the P i -dependent ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation and subsequent gene up-regulation of the mineralization inhibitors matrix Gla protein and osteopontin. This result suggested that both PiTs are necessary for P i signaling. Moreover, the ERK1/2 phosphorylation could be rescued by overexpressing P i transport-deficient PiT mutants. Using cross-linking and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer approaches, we found that PiT1 and PiT2 form high-abundance homodimers and P i -regulated low-abundance heterodimers. Interestingly, in the absence of sodium-dependent P i transport activity, the PiT1-PiT2 heterodimerization was still regulated by extracellular P i levels. Of note, when two putative P i -binding residues, Ser-128 (in PiT1) and Ser-113 (in PiT2), were substituted with alanine, the PiT1-PiT2 heterodimerization was no longer regulated by extracellular P i These observations suggested that P i binding rather than P i uptake may be the key factor in mediating P i signaling through the PiT proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrate that P i -regulated PiT1-PiT2 heterodimerization mediates P i sensing independently of P i uptake. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Evolutionary and Functional Relationships of B Cells from Fish and Mammals: Insights into their Novel Roles in Phagocytosis and Presentation of Particulate Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of Ig-producing B cells appear to be linked to the emergence of fish in this planet. There are three major classes of living fish species, which from most primitive to modern they are referred to as agnathan (e.g., lampreys), Chondrichthyes (e.g., sharks), and teleost fish (e.g., rainbow trout). Agnathans do not have immunoglobulin-producing B cells, however these fish contain a subset of lymphocytes-like cells producing type B variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRBs) that appear to act as functional analogs of immunoglobulins. Chondrichthyes fish represent the most primitive living species containing bona-fide immunoglobulin-producing B cells. Their B cells are known to secrete three types of antibodies, IgM, IgW and IgNAR. Teleost fish are also called bony fish since they represent the most ancient living species containing true bones. Teleost B cells produce three different immunoglobulin isotypes, IgM, IgD and the recently described IgT. While teleost IgM is the principal player in systemic immunity, IgT appears to be a teleost immunoglobulin class specialized in mucosal immune responses. Thus far, three major B cell lineages have been described in teleost, those expressing either IgT or IgD, and the most common lineage which co-expresses IgD and IgM. A few years ago, the study of teleost fish B cells revealed for the first time in vertebrates the existence of B cell subsets with phagocytic and intracellular bactericidal capacities. This finding represented a paradigm shift as professional phagocytosis was believed to be exclusively performed by some cells of the myeloid lineage (i.e., macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils). This phagocytic capacity was also found in amphibians and reptiles, suggesting that this innate capacity was evolutionarily conserved in certain B cell subsets of vertebrates. Recently, the existence of subsets of B cells with phagocytic and bactericidal abilities have also been confirmed in mammals. Moreover, it has

  19. Human Macrophages and Dendritic Cells Can Equally Present MART-1 Antigen to CD8+ T Cells after Phagocytosis of Gamma-Irradiated Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, María Marcela; Abes, Riad; Colombo, Marina; Pizzurro, Gabriela; Boix, Charlotte; Roberti, María Paula; Gélizé, Emmanuelle; Rodriguez-Zubieta, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) can achieve cross-presentation of naturally-occurring tumor-associated antigens after phagocytosis and processing of dying tumor cells. They have been used in different clinical settings to vaccinate cancer patients. We have previously used gamma-irradiated MART-1 expressing melanoma cells as a source of antigens to vaccinate melanoma patients by injecting irradiated cells with BCG and GM-CSF or to load immature DC and use them as a vaccine. Other clinical trials have used IFN-gamma activated macrophage killer cells (MAK) to treat cancer patients. However, the clinical use of MAK has been based on their direct tumoricidal activity rather than on their ability to act as antigen-presenting cells to stimulate an adaptive antitumor response. Thus, in the present work, we compared the fate of MART-1 after phagocytosis of gamma-irradiated cells by clinical grade DC or MAK as well as the ability of these cells to cross present MART-1 to CD8+ T cells. Using a high affinity antibody against MART-1, 2A9, which specifically stains melanoma tumors, melanoma cell lines and normal melanocytes, the expression level of MART-1 in melanoma cell lines could be related to their ability to stimulate IFN-gamma production by a MART-1 specific HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8+ T cell clone. Confocal microscopy with Alexa Fluor®647-labelled 2A9 also showed that MART-1 could be detected in tumor cells attached and/or fused to phagocytes and even inside these cells as early as 1 h and up to 24 h or 48 h after initiation of co-cultures between gamma-irradiated melanoma cells and MAK or DC, respectively. Interestingly, MART-1 was cross-presented to MART-1 specific T cells by both MAK and DC co-cultured with melanoma gamma-irradiated cells for different time-points. Thus, naturally occurring MART-1 melanoma antigen can be taken-up from dying melanoma cells into DC or MAK and both cell types can induce specific CD8+ T cell cross-presentation thereafter. PMID:22768350

  20. Identification of Human Cathelicidin Peptide LL-37 as a Ligand for Macrophage Integrin αMβ2 (Mac-1, CD11b/CD18) that Promotes Phagocytosis by Opsonizing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lishko, Valeryi K.; Moreno, Benjamin; Podolnikova, Nataly P.; Ugarova, Tatiana P.

    2016-01-01

    LL-37, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, has numerous immune-modulating effects. However, the identity of a receptor(s) mediating the responses in immune cells remains uncertain. We have recently demonstrated that LL-37 interacts with the αMI-domain of integrin αMβ2 (Mac-1), a major receptor on the surface of myeloid cells, and induces a migratory response in Mac-1-expressing monocyte/macrophages as well as activation of Mac-1 on neutrophils. Here, we show that LL-37 and its C-terminal derivative supported strong adhesion of various Mac-1-expressing cells, including HEK293 cells stably transfected with Mac-1, human U937 monocytic cells and murine IC-21 macrophages. The cell adhesion to LL-37 was partially inhibited by specific Mac-1 antagonists, including mAb against the αM integrin subunit and neutrophil inhibitory factor, and completely blocked when anti-Mac-1 antibodies were combined with heparin, suggesting that cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans act cooperatively with integrin Mac-1. Coating both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with LL-37 significantly potentiated their phagocytosis by macrophages, and this process was blocked by a combination of anti-Mac-1 mAb and heparin. Furthermore, phagocytosis by wild-type murine peritoneal macrophages of LL-37-coated latex beads, a model of foreign surfaces, was several fold higher than that of untreated beads. By contrast, LL-37 failed to augment phagocytosis of beads by Mac-1-deficient macrophages. These results identify LL-37 as a novel ligand for integrin Mac-1 and demonstrate that the interaction between Mac-1 on macrophages and bacteria-bound LL-37 promotes phagocytosis. PMID:27990411

  1. Phagocytosis-dependent activation of a TLR9–BTK–calcineurin–NFAT pathway co-ordinates innate immunity to Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Susanne; Shah, Anand; Mazon Moya, Maria; Marzola, Vanessa; Jensen, Barbara; Reed, Anna; Birrell, Mark A; Saijo, Shinobu; Mostowy, Serge; Shaunak, Sunil; Armstrong-James, Darius

    2015-01-01

    Transplant recipients on calcineurin inhibitors are at high risk of invasive fungal infection. Understanding how calcineurin inhibitors impair fungal immunity is a key priority for defining risk of infection. Here, we show that the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus impairs clearance of the major mould pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus from the airway, by inhibiting macrophage inflammatory responses. This leads to defective early neutrophil recruitment and fungal clearance. We confirm these findings in zebrafish, showing an evolutionarily conserved role for calcineurin signalling in neutrophil recruitment during inflammation. We find that calcineurin–NFAT activation is phagocytosis dependent and collaborates with NF-κB for TNF-α production. For yeast zymosan particles, activation of macrophage calcineurin–NFAT occurs via the phagocytic Dectin-1–spleen tyrosine kinase pathway, but for A. fumigatus, activation occurs via a phagosomal TLR9-dependent and Bruton's tyrosine kinase-dependent signalling pathway that is independent of MyD88. We confirm the collaboration between NFAT and NF-κB for TNF-α production in primary alveolar macrophages. These observations identify inhibition of a newly discovered macrophage TLR9–BTK–calcineurin–NFAT signalling pathway as a key immune defect that leads to organ transplant-related invasive aspergillosis. PMID:25637383

  2. Simultaneous cytofluorometric measurement of phagocytosis, burst production and killing of human phagocytes using Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as target organisms.

    PubMed

    Salih, H R; Husfeld, L; Adam, D

    2000-05-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) play a central role in the elimination of most extracellular pathogens, and an impairment of their functions predisposes an individual towards local and systemic bacterial and fungal infections. Here we describe a rapid and easy-to-perform cytofluorometric assay for investigation of PMN activity using Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as target organisms. Phagocytes were stained with anti-CD13-RPE antibody, and microorganisms were stained with calcein-AM. Oxidative burst production was measured by oxidation of dihydroethidium. The percentage of killed target organisms after ingestion was determined by staining with ethidium-homodimer-1 after lysis of human cells. The dyes and procedures used in this method were chosen after comparison of different stains and cell preparation techniques described in previous assays. Concerning phagocytosis, the percentages of active phagocytes and of ingested microorganisms were determined. Furthermore, the method allowed measurement of the resulting percentage of PMNs producing respiratory burst, and of the percentage of killed microorganisms. We minimized artifactual changes, which might have been the reason for the difficulties and conflicting results of other cytofluorometric methods. The described method provides a new whole blood cytofluorometric assay, which combines rapid and simple handling with high reproducibility of results obtained by investigation of PMN activity using Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as target organisms.

  3. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), influences a murine WEHI-3 leukemia model in vivo through enhancing phagocytosis of macrophages and populations of T- and B-cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, An-Cheng; Cheng, Hsiu-Yueh; Lin, Tsu-Shun; Chen, Wen-Hsein; Lin, Ju-Hwa; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Wu, Ping-Ping; Huang, Yi-Ping; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2013-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol in green tea, and has been reported to have anticancer effects on many types of cancer cells. However, there is no report to show its effects on the immune response in a murine leukemia mouse model. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of EGCG on the immune responses of murine WEHI-3 leukemia cells in vivo. WEHI-3 cells were intraperitoneally injected into normal BALB/c mice to establish leukemic BALB/c mice, which were then oral-treated with or without EGCG at 5, 20 and 40 mg/kg for two weeks. The results indicated that EGCG did not change the weight of the animals, nor the liver or spleen when compared to vehicle (olive oil) -treated groups. Furthermore, EGCG increased the percentage of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) (T-cell), cluster of differentiation 19 (CD19) (B-cell) and Macrophage-3 antigen (Mac-3) (macrophage) but reduced the percentage of CD11b (monocyte) cell surface markers in EGCG-treated groups as compared with the untreated leukemia group. EGCG promoted the phagocytosis of macrophages from 5 mg/kg treatment and promoted natural killer cell activity at 40 mg/kg, increased T-cell proliferation at 40 mg/kg but promoted B-cell proliferation at all three doses. Based on these observations, it appears that EGCG might exhibit an immune response in the murine WEHI-3 cell line-induced leukemia in vivo.

  4. ELMO1 Regulates Autophagy Induction and Bacterial Clearance During Enteric Infection.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Arup; Tindle, Courtney; Pranadinata, Rama F; Reed, Sharon; Eckmann, Lars; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Ernst, Peter B; Das, Soumita

    2017-12-19

    Macrophages are specialized phagocytic cells involved in clearing invading pathogens. Previously we reported that engulfment and cell motility protein 1 (ELMO1) in macrophages mediates bacterial internalization and intestinal inflammation. Here we studied the role of ELMO1 in the fate of internalized targets. ELMO1 is present in the intracellular vesicles and enhances accumulation of the protein LC3B following engulfment of Salmonella or treatment with autophagy-inducing rapamycin. The protein ATG5 and the kinase ULK1 are involved in classical autophagy, while LC3-associated phagocytosis is ULK1 independent. ATG5 but not ULK1 cooperated with ELMO1 in LC3 accumulation after infection, suggesting the ELMO1 preferentially regulated LC3-associated phagocytosis. Because LC3-associated phagocytosis delivers cargo for degradation, the contribution of ELMO1 to the lysosome degradation pathways was evaluated by studying pH and cathepsin B activity. ELMO1-depleted macrophages showed a time-dependent increase in pH and a decrease in cathepsin B activity associated with bacterial survival. Together, ELMO1 regulates LC3B accumulation and antimicrobial responses involved in the clearance of enteric pathogens. This paper investigated how innate immune pathways involving ELMO1 work in a coordinated fashion to eliminate bacterial threats. ELMO1 is present in the phagosome and enhances bacterial clearance by differential regulation of lysosomal acidification and enzymatic activity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. M. tuberculosis-Initiated Human Mannose Receptor Signaling Regulates Macrophage Recognition and Vesicle Trafficking by FcRγ-Chain, Grb2, and SHP-1.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Murugesan V S; Arnett, Eusondia; Azad, Abul K; Guirado, Evelyn; Ni, Bin; Gerberick, Abigail D; He, Li-Zhen; Keler, Tibor; Thomas, Lawrence J; Lafuse, William P; Schlesinger, Larry S

    2017-10-03

    Despite its prominent role as a C-type lectin (CTL) pattern recognition receptor, mannose receptor (MR, CD206)-specific signaling molecules and pathways are unknown. The MR is highly expressed on human macrophages, regulating endocytosis, phagocytosis, and immune responses and mediating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) phagocytosis by human macrophages, thereby limiting phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion. We identified human MR-associated proteins using phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated MR cytoplasmic tail peptides. We found that MR binds FcRγ-chain, which is required for MR plasma membrane localization and M.tb cell association. Additionally, we discovered that MR-mediated M.tb association triggers immediate MR tyrosine residue phosphorylation and Grb2 recruitment, activating the Rac/Pak/Cdc-42 signaling cascade important for M.tb uptake. MR activation subsequently recruits SHP-1 to the M.tb-containing phagosome, where its activity limits PI(3)P generation at the phagosome and M.tb P-L fusion and promotes M.tb growth. In sum, we identify human MR signaling pathways that temporally regulate phagocytosis and P-L fusion during M.tb infection. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The stargazin-related protein γ7 interacts with the mRNA binding protein hnRNP A2 and regulates the stability of specific mRNAs including CaV2.2

    PubMed Central

    Ferron, Laurent; Davies, Anthony; Page, Karen M.; Cox, David J.; Leroy, Jerôme; Waithe, Dominic; Butcher, Adrian J.; Sellaturay, Priya; Bolsover, Steven; Pratt, Wendy S.; Moss, Fraser J.; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2009-01-01

    The role(s) of the novel stargazin-like γ-subunit proteins remain controversial. We have shown previously that the neuron-specific γ7 suppresses the expression of certain calcium channels, particularly CaV2.2, and is therefore unlikely to operate as a calcium channel subunit. We now show that the effect of γ7 on CaV2.2 expression is via an increase in the degradation rate of CaV2.2 mRNA, and hence a reduction of CaV2.2 protein level. Furthermore, exogenous expression of γ7 in PC12 cells also decreased the endogenous CaV2.2 mRNA level. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous γ7 with short-hairpin RNAs produced a reciprocal enhancement of CaV2.2 mRNA stability and an increase in endogenous calcium currents in PC12 cells. Moreover, both endogenous and expressed γ7 are present on intracellular membranes, rather than the plasma membrane. The cytoplasmic C-terminus of γ7 is essential for all its effects, and we show that γ7 binds directly via its C-terminus to a ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP A2), which also binds to a motif in CaV2.2 mRNA, and is associated with native CaV2.2 mRNA in PC12 cells. The expression of hnRNP A2 enhances CaV2.2 IBa and this enhancement is prevented by a concentration of γ7 that alone has no effect on IBa. The effect of γ7 is selective for certain mRNAs as it had no effect on α2δ-2 mRNA stability, but it decreased the mRNA stability for the potassium-chloride co-transporter, KCC1, which contains a similar hnRNP A2 binding motif to that in CaV2.2 mRNA. Our results indicate that γ7 plays a role in stabilizing CaV2.2 mRNA. PMID:18923037

  7. 22 CFR 9a.2 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... important element of our national security. The effectiveness of the Agreement depends significantly upon... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General policy. 9a.2 Section 9a.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL...

  8. 42 CFR 54a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... financial assistance under an applicable program. (e) SAMHSA means the Substance Abuse and Mental Health... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 54a.2 Section 54a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS...

  9. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin on leukocyte mRNA expression for genes related to cell energy metabolism, cytokine production, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Silva, P R B; Nelson, C D; Driver, J P; Thatcher, W W; Chebel, R C

    2017-10-01

    Objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the effects of treatment of periparturient dairy cows with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on mRNA expression in peripheral leukocytes for genes related to the somatotropic axis, cell energy metabolism, and innate and adaptive immune responses. Cows were enrolled in the experiment at 253 ± 3 d of gestation and assigned to an untreated control group (n = 98) or to receive 125 mg of rbST weekly from -21 to 21 d relative to calving (rbST125; n = 98). Data from a subsample of cows (control = 16, rbST125 = 16) are reported herein. Hemogram and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and expression of adhesion molecules were determined weekly, from -28 ± 3 to 24 ± 3 d relative to calving. Cows were vaccinated with ovalbumin at -21 ± 3, -7 ± 3, and 7 ± 3 d relative to calving. Serum IgG anti-ovalbumin and haptoglobin optical densities were determined weekly, from -28 ± 3 to 24 ± 3 d relative to calving. Leukocytes were isolated from whole blood on d -21 ± 3, -7 ± 3, and 7 ± 3 relative to calving to determine leukocyte mRNA expression for 66 genes. Cows in the rbST125 treatment had greater concentration of granulocytes 1 wk prepartum (control = 3.7 ± 0.4 vs. rbST125 = 4.6 ± 0.4 × 10 9 cells/L). Expression of CD18 by PMNL during the prepartum (control = 3,262 ± 280 vs. rbST125 = 3,926 ± 260 geometric mean fluorescence intensity) and percentage of PMNL positive for phagocytosis and oxidative burst 1 wk postpartum (control = 59.2 ± 2.8 vs. rbST125 = 67.6 ± 3.1%) were increased in rbST125 cows. Postpartum IgG anti-ovalbumin optical density was higher in rbST125 cows than control cows (control = 1.5 ± 0.1 vs. rbST125 = 1.9 ± 0.1 optical density). On d -7 relative to calving, leukocyte mRNA expression of IGF1R and JAK1 tended to be downregulated and expression of DEFB3 tended to be upregulated by rbST treatment. Expression of mRNA for STAT1, RELA, and NOD2 tended to be

  10. “Velcro” Engineering of High Affinity CD47 Ectodomain as Signal Regulatory Protein α (SIRPα) Antagonists That Enhance Antibody-dependent Cellular Phagocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chia Chi M.; Guo, Nan; Sockolosky, Jonathan T.; Ring, Aaron M.; Weiskopf, Kipp; Özkan, Engin; Mori, Yasuo; Weissman, Irving L.; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    CD47 is a cell surface protein that transmits an anti-phagocytic signal, known as the “don't-eat-me” signal, to macrophages upon engaging its receptor signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα). Molecules that antagonize the CD47-SIRPα interaction by binding to CD47, such as anti-CD47 antibodies and the engineered SIRPα variant CV1, have been shown to facilitate macrophage-mediated anti-tumor responses. However, these strategies targeting CD47 are handicapped by large antigen sinks in vivo and indiscriminate cell binding due to ubiquitous expression of CD47. These factors reduce bioavailability and increase the risk of toxicity. Here, we present an alternative strategy to antagonize the CD47-SIRPα pathway by engineering high affinity CD47 variants that target SIRPα, which has restricted tissue expression. CD47 proved to be refractive to conventional affinity maturation techniques targeting its binding interface with SIRPα. Therefore, we developed a novel engineering approach, whereby we augmented the existing contact interface via N-terminal peptide extension, coined “Velcro” engineering. The high affinity variant (Velcro-CD47) bound to the two most prominent human SIRPα alleles with greatly increased affinity relative to wild-type CD47 and potently antagonized CD47 binding to SIRPα on human macrophages. Velcro-CD47 synergizes with tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies to enhance macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells in vitro, with similar potency as CV1. Finally, Velcro-CD47 interacts specifically with a subset of myeloid-derived cells in human blood, whereas CV1 binds all myeloid, lymphoid, and erythroid populations interrogated. This is consistent with the restricted expression of SIRPα compared with CD47. Herein, we have demonstrated that “Velcro” engineering is a powerful protein-engineering tool with potential applications to other systems and that Velcro-CD47 could be an alternative adjuvant to CD47-targeting agents for cancer immunotherapy

  11. Tilmicosin Induces Apoptosis in Bovine Peripheral Neutrophils in the Presence or in the Absence of Pasteurella haemolytica and Promotes Neutrophil Phagocytosis by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Alex C.; Lee, Wilson D.; Murrin, Katherine A.; Morck, Douglas W.; Merrill, John K.; Dick, Paul; Buret, Andre G.

    2000-01-01

    Pathogen virulence factors and inflammation are responsible for tissue injury associated with respiratory failure in bacterial pneumonia, as seen in the bovine lung infected with Pasteurella haemolytica. Tilmicosin is a macrolide antibiotic used for the treatment of bovine bacterial pneumonia. Recent evidence suggests that tilmicosin-induced neutrophil apoptosis may have anti-inflammatory effects. Using bovine leukocytes, we sought to define whether live P. haemolytica affected tilmicosin-induced neutrophil apoptosis, assessed the proapoptotic effects of tilmicosin in comparison with other drugs, and characterized its impact on phagocytic uptake of neutrophils by macrophages. Induction of apoptosis in the presence or absence of P. haemolytica was assessed by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for apoptotic nucleosomes. In addition, fluorescent annexin-V staining identified externalized phosphatidylserine in neutrophils treated with tilmicosin, penicillin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, or dexamethasone. Neutrophil membrane integrity was assessed by using propidium iodide and trypan blue exclusion. As phagocytic clearance of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages contributes to the resolution of inflammation, phagocytosis of tilmicosin-treated neutrophils by esterase-positive cultured bovine macrophages was assessed with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Unlike bovine neutrophils treated with penicillin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, or dexamethasone, neutrophils exposed to tilmicosin became apoptotic, regardless of the presence or absence of P. haemolytica. Tilmicosin-treated apoptotic neutrophils were phagocytosed at a significantly greater rate by bovine macrophages than were control neutrophils. In conclusion, tilmicosin-induced neutrophil apoptosis occurs regardless of the presence or absence of live P. haemolytica, exhibits at least some degree of drug specificity, and promotes phagocytic clearance of the dying inflammatory cells. PMID

  12. Tilmicosin induces apoptosis in bovine peripheral neutrophils in the presence or in the absence of Pasteurella haemolytica and promotes neutrophil phagocytosis by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chin, A C; Lee, W D; Murrin, K A; Morck, D W; Merrill, J K; Dick, P; Buret, A G

    2000-09-01

    Pathogen virulence factors and inflammation are responsible for tissue injury associated with respiratory failure in bacterial pneumonia, as seen in the bovine lung infected with Pasteurella haemolytica. Tilmicosin is a macrolide antibiotic used for the treatment of bovine bacterial pneumonia. Recent evidence suggests that tilmicosin-induced neutrophil apoptosis may have anti-inflammatory effects. Using bovine leukocytes, we sought to define whether live P. haemolytica affected tilmicosin-induced neutrophil apoptosis, assessed the proapoptotic effects of tilmicosin in comparison with other drugs, and characterized its impact on phagocytic uptake of neutrophils by macrophages. Induction of apoptosis in the presence or absence of P. haemolytica was assessed by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for apoptotic nucleosomes. In addition, fluorescent annexin-V staining identified externalized phosphatidylserine in neutrophils treated with tilmicosin, penicillin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, or dexamethasone. Neutrophil membrane integrity was assessed by using propidium iodide and trypan blue exclusion. As phagocytic clearance of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages contributes to the resolution of inflammation, phagocytosis of tilmicosin-treated neutrophils by esterase-positive cultured bovine macrophages was assessed with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Unlike bovine neutrophils treated with penicillin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, or dexamethasone, neutrophils exposed to tilmicosin became apoptotic, regardless of the presence or absence of P. haemolytica. Tilmicosin-treated apoptotic neutrophils were phagocytosed at a significantly greater rate by bovine macrophages than were control neutrophils. In conclusion, tilmicosin-induced neutrophil apoptosis occurs regardless of the presence or absence of live P. haemolytica, exhibits at least some degree of drug specificity, and promotes phagocytic clearance of the dying inflammatory cells.

  13. FcγRII-binding Centyrins mediate agonism and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis when fused to an anti-OX40 antibody

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Di; Whitaker, Brian; Derebe, Mehabaw G.; Chiu, Mark L.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immunostimulatory antibodies against the tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFR) are emerging as promising cancer immunotherapies. The agonism activity of such antibodies depends on crosslinking to Fc gamma RIIB receptor (FcγRIIB) to enable the antibody multimerization that drives TNFR activation. Previously, Fc engineering was used to enhance the binding of such antibodies to Fcγ receptors. Here, we report the identification of Centyrins as alternative scaffold proteins with binding affinities to homologous FcγRIIB and FcγRIIA, but not to other types of Fcγ receptors. One Centyrin, S29, was engineered at distinct positions of an anti-OX40 SF2 antibody to generate bispecific and tetravalent molecules named as mAbtyrins. Regardless of the position of S29 on the SF2 antibody, SF2-S29 mAbtyrins could bind FcγRIIB and FcγRIIA specifically while maintaining binding to OX40 receptors. In a NFκB reporter assay, attachment of S29 Centyrin molecules at the C-termini, but not the N-termini, resulted in SF2 antibodies with increased agonism owing to FcγRIIB crosslinking. The mAbtyrins also showed agonism in T-cell activation assays with immobilized FcγRIIB and FcγRIIA, but this activity was confined to mAbtyrins with S29 specifically at the C-termini of antibody heavy chains. Furthermore, regardless of the position of the molecule, S29 Centyrin could equip an otherwise Fc-silent antibody with antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis activity without affecting the antibody's intrinsic antibody-dependent cell-meditated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. In summary, the appropriate adoption FcγRII-binding Centyrins as functional modules represents a novel strategy to engineer therapeutic antibodies with improved functionalities. PMID:29359992

  14. Identification of N-acetylneuraminic acid and its 9-O-acetylated derivative on the cell surface of Cryptococcus neoformans: influence on fungal phagocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, M L; Rozental, S; Couceiro, J N; Angluster, J; Alviano, C S; Travassos, L R

    1997-01-01

    Sialic acids from sialoglycoconjugates present at the cell surface of Cryptococcus neoformans yeast forms were analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography, binding of influenza A and C virus strains, enzymatic treatment, and flow cytofluorimetry with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lectins. C. neoformans yeast forms grown in a chemically defined medium contain N-acetylneuraminic acid and its 9-O-acetylated derivative. A density of 3 x 10(6) residues of sialic acid per cell was found in C. neoformans. Sialic acids in cryptococcal cells are glycosidically linked to galactopyranosyl units as inferred from the increased reactivity of neuraminidase-treated yeasts with peanut agglutinin. N-Acetylneuraminic acids are alpha-2,6 and alpha-2,3 linked, as indicated by using virus strains M1/5 and M1/5 HS8, respectively, as agglutination probes. The alpha-2,6 linkage markedly predominated. These findings were essentially confirmed by the interaction of cryptococcal cells with the lectins Sambucus nigra agglutinin and Maackia amurensis agglutinin. We also investigated whether the sialyl residues present in C. neoformans are involved in the fungal interaction with a cationic solid-phase substrate and with mouse resident macrophages. Adhesion of yeast cells to poly-L-lysine was mediated, in part, by sialic acid residues, since the number of adherent cells was markedly reduced after treatment with bacterial neuraminidase. The enzymatic removal of sialic acids also made C. neoformans yeast cells more susceptible to endocytosis by macrophages. The results show that sialic acids are components of the cryptococcal cell surface that contribute to its negative charge and protect yeast forms against phagocytosis. PMID:9393779

  15. Regulation of vesicular trafficking and leukocyte function by Rab27 GTPases and their effectors

    PubMed Central

    Catz, Sergio Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The Rab27 family of GTPases regulates the efficiency and specificity of exocytosis in hematopoietic cells, including neutrophils, CTLs, NK cells, and mast cells. However, the mechanisms regulated by Rab27 GTPases are cell-specific, as they depend on the differential expression and function of particular effector molecules that are recruited by the GTPases. In addition, Rab27 GTPases participate in multiple steps of the regulation of the secretory process, including priming, tethering, docking, and fusion through sequential interaction with multiple effector molecules. Finally, recent reports suggest that Rab27 GTPases and their effectors regulate vesicular trafficking mechanisms other than exocytosis, including endocytosis and phagocytosis. This review focuses on the latest discoveries on the function of Rab27 GTPases and their effectors Munc13-4 and Slp1 in neutrophil function comparatively to their functions in other leukocytes. PMID:23378593

  16. Signal regulatory protein α associated with the progression of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma regulates phenotype switch of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaojing; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Rui; Zhou, Gang

    2016-12-06

    Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is a cell-surface protein expressed on macrophages that are regarded as an important component of the tumor microenvironment. The expression of SIRPα in oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and further explored the role of SIRPα on the phenotype, phagocytosis ability, migration, and invasion of macrophages in OSCC were investigated. The expression of SIRPα in OLK was higher than in OSCC, correlating with the expression of CD68 and CD163 on macrophages. After cultured with the conditioned media of oral cancer cells, the expression of SIRPα on THP-1 cells was decreased gradually. In co-culture system, macrophages were induced into M2 phenotype by oral cancer cells. Blockade of SIRPα inhibited phagocytosis ability and IL-6, TNF-α productions of macrophages. In addition, the proliferation, migration, and IL-10, TGF-β productions of macrophages were upregulated after blockade of SIRPα. Macrophages upregulated the expression of SIRPα and phagocytosis ability, and inhibited the migration and invasion when the activation of NF-κB was inhibited by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate ammonium (PDTC). Hence, SIRPα might play an important role in the progression of OLK and oral cancer, and could be a pivotal therapeutic target in OSCC by regulating the phenotype of macrophages via targeting NF-κB.

  17. Activation of Intrinsic Immune Responses and Microglial Phagocytosis in an Ex Vivo Spinal Cord Slice Culture Model of West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Eamon D.; Leser, J. Smith; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that causes significant neuroinvasive disease involving the brain and/or spinal cord. Experimental mouse models of WNV infection have established the importance of innate and adaptive immune responses in controlling the extent and severity of central nervous system (CNS) disease. However, differentiating between immune responses that are intrinsic to the CNS and those that are dependent on infiltrating inflammatory cells has proven difficult. We used a murine ex vivo spinal cord slice culture (SCSC) model to determine the innate immune processes specific to the CNS during WNV infections. By 7 days after ex vivo infection of SCSCs, the majority of neurons and a substantial percentage of astrocytes were infected with WNV, resulting in apoptotic cell death and astrogliosis. Microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, were activated by WNV infection, as exemplified by their amoeboid morphology, the development of filopodia and lamellipodia, and phagocytosis of WNV-infected cells and debris. Microglial cell activation was concomitant with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including CXCL10, CXCL1, CCL5, CCL3, CCL2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The application of minocycline, an inhibitor of neuroinflammation, altered the WNV-induced proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression profile, with inhibited production of CCL5, CCL2, and IL-6. Our findings establish that CNS-resident cells have the capacity to initiate a robust innate immune response against WNV infection in the absence of infiltrating inflammatory cells and systemic immune responses. IMPORTANCE There are no specific treatments of proven efficacy available for WNV neuroinvasive disease. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of WNV CNS infection is crucial for the rational development of novel therapies. Development of a spinal cord

  18. Non-Immune Binding of Human IgG to M-Related Proteins Confers Resistance to Phagocytosis of Group A Streptococci in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Harry S.; Li, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The non-immune binding of immunoglobulins by bacteria is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of infections. M-related proteins (Mrp) are group A streptococcal (GAS) receptors for immunoglobulins, but it is not known if this binding has any impact on virulence. To further investigate the binding of immunoglobulins to Mrp, we engineered mutants of an M type 4 strain of GAS by inactivating the genes for mrp, emm, enn, sof, and sfbX and tested these mutants in IgG-binding assays. Inactivation of mrp dramatically decreased the binding of human IgG, whereas inactivation of emm, enn, sof, and sfbx had only minor effects, indicating that Mrp is a major IgG-binding protein. Binding of human immunoglobulins to a purified, recombinant form of Mrp indicated that it selectively binds to the Fc domain of human IgG, but not IgA or IgM and that it preferentially bound subclasses IgG1>IgG4>IgG2>IgG3. Recombinant proteins encompassing different regions of Mrp were engineered and used to map its IgG-binding domain to its A-repeat region and a recombinant protein with 3 A-repeats was a better inhibitor of IgG binding than one with a single A-repeat. A GAS mutant expressing Mrp with an in-frame deletion of DNA encoding the A-repeats had a dramatically reduced ability to bind human IgG and to grow in human blood. Mrp exhibited host specificity in binding IgG; human IgG was the best inhibitor of the binding of IgG followed by pig, horse, monkey, and rabbit IgG. IgG from goat, mouse, rat, cow, donkey, chicken, and guinea pig were poor inhibitors of binding. These findings indicate that Mrp preferentially binds human IgG and that this binding contributes to the ability of GAS to resist phagocytosis and may be a factor in the restriction of GAS infections to the human host. PMID:24205299

  19. Serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 regulates neutrophil clearance during inflammation resolution.

    PubMed

    Burgon, Joseph; Robertson, Anne L; Sadiku, Pranvera; Wang, Xingang; Hooper-Greenhill, Edward; Prince, Lynne R; Walker, Paul; Hoggett, Emily E; Ward, Jonathan R; Farrow, Stuart N; Zuercher, William J; Jeffrey, Philip; Savage, Caroline O; Ingham, Philip W; Hurlstone, Adam F; Whyte, Moira K B; Renshaw, Stephen A

    2014-02-15

    The inflammatory response is integral to maintaining health by functioning to resist microbial infection and repair tissue damage. Large numbers of neutrophils are recruited to inflammatory sites to neutralize invading bacteria through phagocytosis and the release of proteases and reactive oxygen species into the extracellular environment. Removal of the original inflammatory stimulus must be accompanied by resolution of the inflammatory response, including neutrophil clearance, to prevent inadvertent tissue damage. Neutrophil apoptosis and its temporary inhibition by survival signals provides a target for anti-inflammatory therapeutics, making it essential to better understand this process. GM-CSF, a neutrophil survival factor, causes a significant increase in mRNA levels for the known anti-apoptotic protein serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1). We have characterized the expression patterns and regulation of SGK family members in human neutrophils and shown that inhibition of SGK activity completely abrogates the antiapoptotic effect of GM-CSF. Using a transgenic zebrafish model, we have disrupted sgk1 gene function and shown this specifically delays inflammation resolution, without altering neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory sites in vivo. These data suggest SGK1 plays a key role in regulating neutrophil survival signaling and thus may prove a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  20. Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 (SGK1) Regulates Neutrophil Clearance During Inflammation Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Burgon, Joseph; Robertson, Anne L.; Sadiku, Pranvera; Wang, Xingang; Hooper-Greenhill, Edward; Prince, Lynne R.; Walker, Paul; Hoggett, Emily E.; Ward, Jonathan R.; Farrow, Stuart N.; Zuercher, William J.; Jeffrey, Philip; Savage, Caroline O.; Ingham, Philip W.; Hurlstone, Adam F.; Whyte, Moira K. B.; Renshaw, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The inflammatory response is integral to maintaining health, by functioning to resist microbial infection and repair tissue damage. Large numbers of neutrophils are recruited to inflammatory sites to neutralise invading bacteria through phagocytosis and the release of proteases and reactive oxygen species into the extracellular environment. Removal of the original inflammatory stimulus must be accompanied by resolution of the inflammatory response, including neutrophil clearance, to prevent inadvertent tissue damage. Neutrophil apoptosis and its temporary inhibition by survival signals provides a target for anti-inflammatory therapeutics, making it essential to better understand this process. GM-CSF, a neutrophil survival factor, causes a significant increase in mRNA levels for the known anti-apoptotic protein Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 (SGK1). We have characterised the expression patterns and regulation of SGK family members in human neutrophils, and shown that inhibition of SGK activity completely abrogates the anti-apoptotic effect of GM-CSF. Using a transgenic zebrafish model, we have disrupted sgk1 gene function and shown this specifically delays inflammation resolution, without altering neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory sites in vivo. These data suggest SGK1 plays a key role in regulating neutrophil survival signalling, and thus may prove a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory disease. PMID:24431232

  1. 17 CFR 240.6a-2 - Amendments to application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amendments to application. 240.6a-2 Section 240.6a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  2. 17 CFR 240.6a-2 - Amendments to application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amendments to application. 240.6a-2 Section 240.6a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  3. 17 CFR 240.6a-2 - Amendments to application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendments to application. 240.6a-2 Section 240.6a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  4. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Von Eschen, R.L.; Scheele, P.F.

    1962-04-24

    A transistorized voltage regulator which provides very close voitage regulation up to about 180 deg F is described. A diode in the positive line provides a constant voltage drop from the input to a regulating transistor emitter. An amplifier is coupled to the positive line through a resistor and is connected between a difference circuit and the regulating transistor base which is negative due to the difference in voltage drop across thc diode and the resistor so that a change in the regulator output causes the amplifier to increase or decrease the base voltage and current and incrcase or decrease the transistor impedance to return the regulator output to normal. (AEC)

  5. Specificity of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Towards Oxidized Phosphatidylserines: LC-ESI-MS Characterization of Products and Computer Modeling of Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tyurin, Vladimir A.; Yanamala, Naveena; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Macphee, Colin H.; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ independent lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a member of the phospholipase A2 superfamily with a distinguishing characteristic of high specificity for oxidatively modified sn-2 fatty acid residues in phospholipids which has been especially well characterized for peroxidized species of phosphatidylcholines (PC). The ability of Lp-PLA2 to hydrolyze peroxidized species of phosphatidylserine (PS) – acting as a recognition signal for clearance of apoptotic cells by professional phagocytes - as well as the products of the reaction have not been investigated. We performed LC-MS-ESI-based structural characterization of oxygenated/hydrolyzed molecular species of PS - containing linoleic acid in either sn-2 position (C18:0/C18:2) or in both sn-1 and sn-2 positions (C18:2/C18:2) - formed in cytochrome c/ H2O2 driven enzymatic oxidation reaction. Cytochrome c has been chosen as a catalyst of peroxidation reactions due to its likely involvement in PS oxidation in apoptotic cells. We found that Lp-PLA2 catalyzed the hydrolysis of both non-truncated and truncated (oxidatively fragmented) species of oxidized PS species albeit with different efficiencies and performed detailed characterization of the major reaction products – oxygenated derivatives of linoleic acid as well as non-oxygenated and oxygenated species of lyso-PS. Among linoleic acid products, derivatives oxygenated at the C9 position, including 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) – a potent ligand of G protein-coupled receptor G2A - were the most abundant. Computer modeling of interactions of Lp-PLA2 with different PS oxidized species indicated that they are able to bind in proximity (<5Å) to Ser273 and His351 of the catalytic triad. For 9-hydroxy- and 9-hydroperoxy- derivatives of oxidized PS, the sn-2 ester bond was positioned within the very close proximity (<3Å) from the Ser273 residue - a nucleophile directly attacking the sn-2 bond – thus favoring the hydrolysis reaction. We

  6. Huaier extract suppresses breast cancer via regulating tumor-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaming; Qi, Wenwen; Song, Xiaojin; Lv, Shangge; Zhang, Hanwen; Yang, Qifeng

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages in tumor microenvironment are mostly M2-polarized - and have been reported to promote tumorigenesis, which are also defined as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Here, we examined the regulatory effects of Huaier extract on TAMs using RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Our data demonstrated that Huaier extract could inhibit the infiltration of macrophages into tumor microenvironment in a dose-dependent manner. By performing RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and phagocytosis assay, we were able to find that Huaier extract could regulate the polarization of macrophages, with decreased M2-polarization and increased phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, we identified that Huaier extract could suppress macrophages-induced angiogenesis by using HUVEC migration assay, tube formation and chorioallantoic membrane assay. Additionally, western blotting showed decreased expression of MMP2, MMP9 and VEGF with the use of Huaier extract. Finally, we found that Huaier extract could inhibit M2-macrophages infiltration and angiogenesis through treating 4T1 tumor bearing mice with Huaier extract. Our study revealed a novel mechanism of the anti-tumor effect of Huaier extract which inhibited angiogenesis by targeting TAMs. These findings provided that Huaier was a promising drug for clinical treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26831282

  7. Regulation of cytokine receptors by Golgi N-glycan processing and endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Emily A; Le Roy, Christine; Di Guglielmo, Gianni M; Pawling, Judy; Cheung, Pam; Granovsky, Maria; Nabi, Ivan R; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Dennis, James W

    2004-10-01

    The Golgi enzyme beta1,6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (Mgat5) is up-regulated in carcinomas and promotes the substitution of N-glycan with poly N-acetyllactosamine, the preferred ligand for galectin-3 (Gal-3). Here, we report that expression of Mgat5 sensitized mouse cells to multiple cytokines. Gal-3 cross-linked Mgat5-modified N-glycans on epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta receptors at the cell surface and delayed their removal by constitutive endocytosis. Mgat5 expression in mammary carcinoma was rate limiting for cytokine signaling and consequently for epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. Mgat5 also promoted cytokine-mediated leukocyte signaling, phagocytosis, and extravasation in vivo. Thus, conditional regulation of N-glycan processing drives synchronous modification of cytokine receptors, which balances their surface retention against loss via endocytosis.

  8. Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) regulates proinflammatory activation of monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Das, Hiranmoy; Kumar, Ajay; Lin, Zhiyong; Patino, Willmar D.; Hwang, Paul M.; Feinberg, Mark W.; Majumder, Pradip K.; Jain, Mukesh K.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating activation of monocytes remain incompletely understood. Herein we provide evidence that Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) inhibits proinflammatory activation of monocytes. In vitro, KLF2 expression in monocytes is reduced by cytokine activation or differentiation. Consistent with this observation, KLF2 expression in circulating monocytes is reduced in patients with chronic inflammatory conditions such as coronary artery disease. Adenoviral overexpression of KLF2 inhibits the LPS-mediated induction of proinflammatory factors, cytokines, and chemokines and reduces phagocytosis. Conversely, short interfering RNA-mediated reduction in KLF2 increased inflammatory gene expression. Reconstitution of immunodeficient mice with KLF2-overexpressing monocytes significantly reduced carrageenan-induced acute paw edema formation. Mechanistically, KLF2 inhibits the transcriptional activity of both NF-κB and activator protein 1, in part by means of recruitment of transcriptional coactivator p300/CBP-associated factor. These observations identify KLF2 as a novel negative regulator of monocytic activation. PMID:16617118

  9. FcγR-induced production of superoxide and inflammatory cytokines is differentially regulated by SHIP through its influence on PI3K and/or Ras/Erk pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Latha P.; Joshi, Trupti; Fang, Huiqing; Kutala, Vijay Kumar; Roda, Julie; Trotta, Rossana; Lehman, Amy; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Byrd, John C.; Carson, William E.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Tridandapani, Susheela

    2006-01-01

    Phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles via FcγR is accompanied by the generation of superoxide and inflammatory cytokines, which can cause collateral tissue damage in the absence of regulation. Molecular mechanisms regulating these phagocytosis-associated events are not known. SHIP is an inositol phosphatase that downregulates PI3K-mediated activation events. Here, we have examined the role of SHIP in FcγR-induced production of superoxide and inflammatory cytokines. We report that primary SHIP-deficient bone marrow macrophages produce elevated levels of superoxide upon FcγR clustering. Analysis of the molecular mechanism revealed that SHIP regulates upstream Rac-GTP binding, an obligatory event for superoxide production. Likewise, SHIP-deficient macrophages displayed enhanced IL-1β and IL-6 production in response to FcγR clustering. Interestingly, whereas IL-6 production required activation of both PI3K and Ras/Erk pathways, IL-1β production was dependent only on Ras/Erk activation, suggesting that SHIP may also regulate the Ras/Erk pathway in macrophages. Consistently, SHIP-deficient macrophages displayed enhanced activation of Erk upon FcγR clustering. Inhibition of Ras/Erk or PI3K suppressed the enhanced production of IL-6 in SHIP-deficient macrophages. In contrast, inhibition of Ras/Erk, but not PI3K, suppressed IL-1β production in these cells. Together, these data demonstrate that SHIP regulates phagocytosis-associated events through the inhibition of PI3K and Ras/Erk pathways. PMID:16543474

  10. Fusion of the Fc part of human IgG1 to CD14 enhances its binding to gram-negative bacteria and mediates phagocytosis by Fc receptors of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Vida, András; Bardoel, Bart; Milder, Fin; Majoros, László; Sümegi, Andrea; Bácsi, Attila; Vereb, György; van Kessel, Kok P M; van Strijp, Jos A G; Antal-Szalmás, Péter

    2012-08-30

    Microbial resistance to antimicrobial drugs is promoting a search for new antimicrobial agents that target highly conservative structures of pathogens. Human CD14 - a known pattern recognition receptor (PRR) which recognizes multiple ligands from different microbes might be a worthy candidate. The aim of our work was to create a CD14/Fc dimer protein and evaluate its whole bacteria binding and opsonizing capabilities. Fusion of CD14 with the fragment crystallisable (Fc) part of human IgG1 could not only lead to an artificial opsonin but the dimerization through the Fc part might also increase its affinity to different ligands. Human CD14 and the Fc part of human IgG1 was fused and expressed in HEK293 cells. A histidine tagged CD14 (CD14/His) was also expressed as control. Using flow cytometry we could prove that CD14/Fc bound to whole Gram-negative bacteria, especially to short lipopolysaccharide (Ra and Re) mutants, and weak interaction was observed between the fusion protein and Listeria monocytogenes. Other Gram-positive bacteria and fungi did not show any association with CD14/Fc. CD14/His showed about 50-times less potent binding to Gram-negative bacteria. CD14/Fc acted as an opsonin and enhanced phagocytosis of these bacteria by neutrophil granulocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. Internalization of bacteria was confirmed by trypan blue quenching and confocal microscopy. On neutrophils the Fc part of the fusion protein was recognized by Fc receptors (CD16, CD32), as determined by blocking experiments. CD14/Fc enhanced the killing of bacteria in an ex vivo whole blood assay. Our experiments confirm that PRR/Fc fusion proteins can give a boost to FcR dependent phagocytosis and killing provided the antimicrobial part binds efficiently to microbes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preschool Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Health and Human Services, Lincoln.

    Published by the Department of Health and Human Services, as required by Nebraska law, this guide details regulations for the physical well-being, safety, and protection of children and defines the minimum levels of acceptable services to be provided in Nebraska preschools. The first section of the guide lists specific preschool regulations,…

  12. Activation of caspase-1 by the NLRP3 inflammasome regulates the NADPH oxidase NOX2 to control phagosome function

    PubMed Central

    Sokolovska, Anna; Becker, Christine E.; Eddie Ip, WK; Rathinam, Vijay A.K.; Brudner, Matthew; Paquette, Nicholas; Tanne, Antoine; Vanaja, Sivapriya K.; Moore, Kathryn J.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Stuart, Lynda M.

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a fundamental cellular process that is pivotal for immunity as it coordinates microbial killing, innate immune activation and antigen presentation. An essential step in this process is phagosome acidification, which regulates a number of functions of these organelles that allow them to participate in processes essential to both innate and adaptive immunity. Here we report that acidification of phagosomes containing Gram-positive bacteria is regulated by the NLRP3-inflammasome and caspase-1. Active caspase-1 accumulates on phagosomes and acts locally to control the pH by modulating buffering by the NADPH oxidase NOX2. These data provide insight into a mechanism by which innate immune signals can modify cellular defenses and establish a new function for the NLRP3-inflammasome and caspase-1 in host defense. PMID:23644505

  13. NORM regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on themore » issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.« less

  14. TAM receptors regulate multiple features of microglial physiology.

    PubMed

    Fourgeaud, Lawrence; Través, Paqui G; Tufail, Yusuf; Leal-Bailey, Humberto; Lew, Erin D; Burrola, Patrick G; Callaway, Perri; Zagórska, Anna; Rothlin, Carla V; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Lemke, Greg

    2016-04-14

    Microglia are damage sensors for the central nervous system (CNS), and the phagocytes responsible for routine non-inflammatory clearance of dead brain cells. Here we show that the TAM receptor tyrosine kinases Mer and Axl regulate these microglial functions. We find that adult mice deficient in microglial Mer and Axl exhibit a marked accumulation of apoptotic cells specifically in neurogenic regions of the CNS, and that microglial phagocytosis of the apoptotic cells generated during adult neurogenesis is normally driven by both TAM receptor ligands Gas6 and protein S. Using live two-photon imaging, we demonstrate that the microglial response to brain damage is also TAM-regulated, as TAM-deficient microglia display reduced process motility and delayed convergence to sites of injury. Finally, we show that microglial expression of Axl is prominently upregulated in the inflammatory environment that develops in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Together, these results establish TAM receptors as both controllers of microglial physiology and potential targets for therapeutic intervention in CNS disease.

  15. 12 CFR 708a.2 - Authority to convert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to convert. 708a.2 Section 708a.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CONVERSION OF... form without the prior approval of the NCUA, subject to applicable law governing mutual savings banks...

  16. Roles of EphA2 in Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Eun; Son, Alexander I.; Zhou, Renping

    2013-01-01

    The Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has been implicated in the regulation of many aspects of mammalian development. Recent analyses have revealed that the EphA2 receptor is a key modulator for a wide variety of cellular functions. This review focuses on the roles of EphA2 in both development and disease. PMID:24705208

  17. HCA regulation.

    PubMed

    Dory Rogers, Clare

    2016-10-26

    I'm proud to be a healthcare assistant (HCA) and aim to do my best by patients and provide evidence-based care. I think it's time for regulation of HCAs. We need the protection, as do the nurses who delegate to us.

  18. 29 CFR 2520.104a-2 - Electronic filing of annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electronic filing of annual reports. 2520.104a-2 Section 2520.104a-2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... AND REGULATIONS FOR REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE Reporting Requirements § 2520.104a-2 Electronic filing of...

  19. 29 CFR 2520.104a-2 - Electronic filing of annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electronic filing of annual reports. 2520.104a-2 Section 2520.104a-2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... AND REGULATIONS FOR REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE Reporting Requirements § 2520.104a-2 Electronic filing of...

  20. 29 CFR 2520.104a-2 - Electronic filing of annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electronic filing of annual reports. 2520.104a-2 Section 2520.104a-2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... AND REGULATIONS FOR REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE Reporting Requirements § 2520.104a-2 Electronic filing of...

  1. Immune responses of mussel hemocyte subpopulations are differentially regulated by enzymes of the PI 3-K, PKC, and ERK kinase families.

    PubMed

    García-García, Erick; Prado-Alvarez, Maria; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Rosales, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Various hemocyte cell types have been described in invertebrates, but for most species a functional characterization of different hemocyte cell types is still lacking. In order to characterize some immunological properties of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) hemocytes, cells were separated by flow cytometry and their capacity for phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and production of nitric oxide (NO), was examined. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K), protein kinase C (PKC), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitors were also used to biochemically characterize these cell responses. Four morphologically distinct subpopulations, designated R1-R4, were detected. R1, R2, and R3 cells presented different levels of phagocytosis towards zymosan, latex beads, and two bacteria species. Similarly, R1 to R3, but not R4, cells produced ROS, while all subpopulations produced NO, in response to zymosan. Internalization of all phagocytic targets was blocked by PI 3-K inhibition. In addition, internalization of latex particles, but not of bacteria, was partially blocked by PKC or ERK inhibition. Interestingly, phagocytosis of zymosan was impaired by PKC, or ERK inhibitors, only in R2 cells. Zymosan-induced ROS production was blocked by PI 3-K inhibition, but not by PKC, or ERK inhibition. In addition, zymosan-stimulated NO production was affected by PI 3-K inhibition in R1 and R2, but not in R3 or R4 cells. NO production in all cell types was unaffected by PKC inhibition, but ERK inhibition blocked it in R2 cells. These data reveal the existence of profound functional and biochemical differences in mussel hemocytes and indicate that M. galloprovincialis hemocytes are specialized cells fulfilling specific tasks in the context of host defense.

  2. Norcantharidin Facilitates LPS-Mediated Immune Responses by Up-Regulation of AKT/NF-κB Signaling in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruimei; Tan, Binghe; Han, Honghui; Liu, Mingyao; Qian, Min; Du, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Norcantharidin (NCTD), a demethylated analog of cantharidin, is a common used clinical drug to inhibit proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. But the role of NCTD in modulating immune responses remains unknown. Here, we investigated the function and mechanism of NCTD in regulation of TLR4 associated immune response in macrophages. We evaluated the influence of NCTD on host defense against invaded pathogens by acute peritonitis mouse model, ELISA, Q-PCR, nitrite quantification, phagocytosis assay and gelatin zymography assay. Our data showed that the survival and the serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were all enhanced by NCTD significantly in peritonitis mouse model. Accordingly, LPS-induced cytokine, nitric oxide and MMP-9 production as well as the phagocytosis of bacteria were all up-regulated by NCTD in a dose dependent manner in both RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Then we further analyzed TLR4 associated signaling pathway by Western blot, Immunofluorescence and EMSA in the presence or absence of LPS. The phosphorylation of AKT and p65 at serine 536 but not serine 468 was enhanced obviously by NCTD in a dose dependent manner, whereas the degradation of IκBα was little effected. Consequently, the nuclear translocation and DNA binding ability of NF-κB was also increased by NCTD obviously in RAW264.7 cells. Our results demonstrated that NCTD could facilitate LPS-mediated immune response through promoting the phosphorylation of AKT/p65 and transcriptional activity of NF-κB, thus reprofiling the traditional anti-tumor drug NCTD as a novel immune regulator in promoting host defense against bacterial infection. PMID:22984593

  3. PSD Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. Regulated Pollutant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Regulated Pollutant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. Regulation of lysosomal ion homeostasis by channels and transporters.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jian; Zhu, Michael X

    2016-08-01

    Lysosomes are the major organelles that carry out degradation functions. They integrate and digest materials compartmentalized by endocytosis, phagocytosis or autophagy. In addition to more than 60 hydrolases residing in the lysosomes, there are also ion channels and transporters that mediate the flux or transport of H(+), Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) across the lysosomal membranes. Defects in ionic exchange can lead to abnormal lysosome morphology, defective vesicle trafficking, impaired autophagy, and diseases such as neurodegeneration and lysosomal storage disorders. The latter are characterized by incomplete lysosomal digestion and accumulation of toxic materials inside enlarged intracellular vacuoles. In addition to degradation, recent studies have revealed the roles of lysosomes in metabolic pathways through kinases such as mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and transcriptional regulation through calcium signaling molecules such as transcription factor EB (TFEB) and calcineurin. Owing to the development of new approaches including genetically encoded fluorescence probes and whole endolysosomal patch clamp recording techniques, studies on lysosomal ion channels have made remarkable progress in recent years. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge of lysosome-resident ion channels and transporters, discuss their roles in maintaining lysosomal function, and evaluate how their dysfunction can result in disease.

  7. Cellular Basis of Pineal Gland Development: Emerging Role of Microglia as Phenotype Regulator.

    PubMed

    Ibañez Rodriguez, María P; Noctor, Stephen C; Muñoz, Estela M

    2016-01-01

    The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been fully elucidated, nor have pineal cell lineages been well characterized. We applied systematic double, triple and quadruple labeling of cell-specific markers on prenatal, postnatal and mature rat pineal gland tissue combined with confocal microscopy to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular dynamics and cell lineages that contribute to pineal gland development. The pineal gland begins as an evagination of neuroepithelium in the roof of the third ventricle. The pineal primordium initially consists of radially aligned Pax6+ precursor cells that express vimentin and divide at the ventricular lumen. After the tubular neuroepithelium fuses, the distribution of Pax6+ cells transitions to include rosette-like structures and later, dispersed cells. In the developing gland all dividing cells express Pax6, indicating that Pax6+ precursor cells generate pinealocytes and some interstitial cells. The density of Pax6+ cells decreases across pineal development as a result of cellular differentiation and microglial phagocytosis, but Pax6+ cells remain in the adult gland as a distinct population. Microglial colonization begins after pineal recess formation. Microglial phagocytosis of Pax6+ cells is not common at early stages but increases as microglia colonize the gland. In the postnatal gland microglia affiliate with Tuj1+ nerve fibers, IB4+ blood vessels, and Pax6+ cells. We demonstrate that microglia engulf Pax6+ cells, nerve fibers, and blood vessel-related elements, but not pinealocytes. We conclude that microglia play a role in pineal gland formation and homeostasis by regulating the precursor cell population, remodeling blood vessels and pruning sympathetic nerve fibers.

  8. Cellular Basis of Pineal Gland Development: Emerging Role of Microglia as Phenotype Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Ibañez Rodriguez, María P.

    2016-01-01

    The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been fully elucidated, nor have pineal cell lineages been well characterized. We applied systematic double, triple and quadruple labeling of cell-specific markers on prenatal, postnatal and mature rat pineal gland tissue combined with confocal microscopy to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular dynamics and cell lineages that contribute to pineal gland development. The pineal gland begins as an evagination of neuroepithelium in the roof of the third ventricle. The pineal primordium initially consists of radially aligned Pax6+ precursor cells that express vimentin and divide at the ventricular lumen. After the tubular neuroepithelium fuses, the distribution of Pax6+ cells transitions to include rosette-like structures and later, dispersed cells. In the developing gland all dividing cells express Pax6, indicating that Pax6+ precursor cells generate pinealocytes and some interstitial cells. The density of Pax6+ cells decreases across pineal development as a result of cellular differentiation and microglial phagocytosis, but Pax6+ cells remain in the adult gland as a distinct population. Microglial colonization begins after pineal recess formation. Microglial phagocytosis of Pax6+ cells is not common at early stages but increases as microglia colonize the gland. In the postnatal gland microglia affiliate with Tuj1+ nerve fibers, IB4+ blood vessels, and Pax6+ cells. We demonstrate that microglia engulf Pax6+ cells, nerve fibers, and blood vessel-related elements, but not pinealocytes. We conclude that microglia play a role in pineal gland formation and homeostasis by regulating the precursor cell population, remodeling blood vessels and pruning sympathetic nerve fibers. PMID:27861587

  9. Some inferences from in vivo experiments with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles: the pulmonary phagocytosis response, subchronic systemic toxicity and genotoxicity, regulatory proposals, searching for bioprotectors (a self-overview)

    PubMed Central

    Katsnelson, Boris A; Privalova, Larisa I; Sutunkova, Marina P; Gurvich, Vladimir B; Loginova, Nadezhda V; Minigalieva, Ilzira A; Kireyeva, Ekaterina P; Shur, Vladimir Y; Shishkina, Ekaterina V; Beikin, Ya B; Makeyev, Oleg H; Valamina, Irene E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to overview and summarize previously published results of our experiments on white rats exposed to either a single intratracheal instillation or repeated intraperitoneal injections of silver, gold, iron oxide, copper oxide, nickel oxide, and manganese oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in stable water suspensions without any chemical additives. Based on these results and some corroborating data of other researchers we maintain that these NPs are much more noxious on both cellular and systemic levels as compared with their 1 μm or even submicron counterparts. However, within the nanometer range the dependence of systemic toxicity on particle size is intricate and non-unique due to complex and often contra-directional relationships between the intrinsic biological aggressiveness of the specific NPs, on the one hand, and complex mechanisms that control their biokinetics, on the other. Our data testify to the high activity of the pulmonary phagocytosis of NPs deposited in airways. This fact suggests that safe levels of exposure to airborne NPs are possible in principle. However, there are no reliable foundations for establishing different permissible exposure levels for particles of different size within the nanometric range. For workroom air, such permissible exposure levels of metallic NP can be proposed at this stage, even if tentatively, based on a sufficiently conservative approach of decreasing approximately tenfold the exposure limits officially established for respective micro-scale industrial aerosols. It was shown that against the background of adequately composed combinations of some bioactive agents (comprising pectin, multivitamin-multimineral preparations, some amino acids, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) the systemic toxicity and even genotoxicity of metallic NPs could be markedly attenuated. Therefore we believe that, along with decreasing NP-exposures, enhancing organisms’ resistance to their adverse action with the help

  10. Some inferences from in vivo experiments with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles: the pulmonary phagocytosis response, subchronic systemic toxicity and genotoxicity, regulatory proposals, searching for bioprotectors (a self-overview).

    PubMed

    Katsnelson, Boris A; Privalova, Larisa I; Sutunkova, Marina P; Gurvich, Vladimir B; Loginova, Nadezhda V; Minigalieva, Ilzira A; Kireyeva, Ekaterina P; Shur, Vladimir Y; Shishkina, Ekaterina V; Beikin, Ya B; Makeyev, Oleg H; Valamina, Irene E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to overview and summarize previously published results of our experiments on white rats exposed to either a single intratracheal instillation or repeated intraperitoneal injections of silver, gold, iron oxide, copper oxide, nickel oxide, and manganese oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in stable water suspensions without any chemical additives. Based on these results and some corroborating data of other researchers we maintain that these NPs are much more noxious on both cellular and systemic levels as compared with their 1 μm or even submicron counterparts. However, within the nanometer range the dependence of systemic toxicity on particle size is intricate and non-unique due to complex and often contra-directional relationships between the intrinsic biological aggressiveness of the specific NPs, on the one hand, and complex mechanisms that control their biokinetics, on the other. Our data testify to the high activity of the pulmonary phagocytosis of NPs deposited in airways. This fact suggests that safe levels of exposure to airborne NPs are possible in principle. However, there are no reliable foundations for establishing different permissible exposure levels for particles of different size within the nanometric range. For workroom air, such permissible exposure levels of metallic NP can be proposed at this stage, even if tentatively, based on a sufficiently conservative approach of decreasing approximately tenfold the exposure limits officially established for respective micro-scale industrial aerosols. It was shown that against the background of adequately composed combinations of some bioactive agents (comprising pectin, multivitamin-multimineral preparations, some amino acids, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) the systemic toxicity and even genotoxicity of metallic NPs could be markedly attenuated. Therefore we believe that, along with decreasing NP-exposures, enhancing organisms' resistance to their adverse action with the help of

  11. Low-level laser therapy regulates microglial function through Src-mediated signaling pathways: implications for neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Activated microglial cells are an important pathological component in brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of He-Ne (632.8 nm, 64.6 mW/cm2) low-level laser therapy (LLLT), a non-damaging physical therapy, on activated microglia, and the subsequent signaling events of LLLT-induced neuroprotective effects and phagocytic responses. Methods To model microglial activation, we treated the microglial BV2 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For the LLLT-induced neuroprotective study, neuronal cells with activated microglial cells in a Transwell™ cell-culture system were used. For the phagocytosis study, fluorescence-labeled microspheres were added into the treated microglial cells to confirm the role of LLLT. Results Our results showed that LLLT (20 J/cm2) could attenuate toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated proinflammatory responses in microglia, characterized by down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression and nitric oxide (NO) production. LLLT-triggered TLR signaling inhibition was achieved by activating tyrosine kinases Src and Syk, which led to MyD88 tyrosine phosphorylation, thus impairing MyD88-dependent proinflammatory signaling cascade. In addition, we found that Src activation could enhance Rac1 activity and F-actin accumulation that typify microglial phagocytic activity. We also found that Src/PI3K/Akt inhibitors prevented LLLT-stimulated Akt (Ser473 and Thr308) phosphorylation and blocked Rac1 activity and actin-based microglial phagocytosis, indicating the activation of Src/PI3K/Akt/Rac1 signaling pathway. Conclusions The present study underlines the importance of Src in suppressing inflammation and enhancing microglial phagocytic function in activated microglia during LLLT stimulation. We have identified a new and important neuroprotective signaling pathway that consists of regulation of microglial phagocytosis and inflammation under LLLT treatment. Our research

  12. Phosphorylation of SNAP-23 at Ser95 causes a structural alteration and negatively regulates Fc receptor-mediated phagosome formation and maturation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Chiye; Itakura, Makoto; Kinoshita, Daiki; Arai, Seisuke; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Wada, Ikuo; Hatsuzawa, Kiyotaka

    2018-05-17

    SNAP-23 is a plasma membrane-localized SNARE protein involved in Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated phagocytosis. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying its function remains elusive. Using phosphorylation specific-antibodies, SNAP-23 was found to be phosphorylated at Ser95 in macrophages. To understand the role of this phosphorylation, we established macrophage lines overexpressing the non-phosphorylatable S95A or the phospho-mimicking S95D mutation. The efficiency of phagosome formation and maturation was severely reduced in SNAP-23-S95D-overexpressing cells. To examine whether phosphorylation at Ser95 affected SNAP-23 structure, we constructed intramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes of SNAP-23 designed to evaluate the approximation of the N-termini of the two SNARE motifs. Interestingly, a high FRET efficiency was detected on the membrane when the S95D probe was used, indicating that phosphorylation at Ser95 caused a dynamic structural shift to the closed form. Co-expression of IκB kinase (IKK) 2 enhanced the FRET efficiency of the wild-type probe on the phagosome membrane. Furthermore, the enhanced phagosomal FRET signal in interferon-γ-activated macrophages was largely dependent on IKK2, and this kinase mediated a delay in phagosome-lysosome fusion. These results suggested that SNAP-23 phosphorylation at Ser95 played an important role in the regulation of SNARE-dependent membrane fusion during FcR-mediated phagocytosis.

  13. The small GTPase Rab5 homologue Ypt5 regulates cell morphology, sexual development, ion-stress response and vacuolar formation in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Yuta; Katayama, Chisako; Shinohara, Miki

    Highlights: •Multiple functions of Rab5 GTPase in fission yeast were found. •Roles of Rab5 in fission yeast were discussed. •Relation between Rab5 and actin cytoskeleton were discussed. -- Abstract: Inner-membrane transport is critical to cell function. Rab family GTPases play an important role in vesicle transport. In mammalian cells, Rab5 is reported to be involved in the regulation of endosome formation, phagocytosis and chromosome alignment. Here, we examined the role of the fission yeast Rab5 homologue Ypt5 using a point mutant allele. Mutant cells displayed abnormal cell morphology, mating, sporulation, endocytosis, vacuole fusion and responses to ion stress. Our datamore » strongly suggest that fission yeast Rab5 is involved in the regulation of various types of cellular functions.« less

  14. Microbial Invasion vs. Tick Immune Regulation.

    PubMed

    Sonenshine, Daniel E; Macaluso, Kevin R

    2017-01-01

    Ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents that cause disease in humans and animals than any other haematophagous arthropod, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean Congo haemorhagic fever, and many others (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016). Although diverse explanations have been proposed to explain their remarkable vectorial capacity, among the most important are their blood feeding habit, their long term off-host survival, the diverse array of bioactive molecules that disrupt the host's natural hemostatic mechanisms, facilitate blood flow, pain inhibitors, and minimize inflammation to prevent immune rejection (Hajdušek et al., 2013). Moreover, the tick's unique intracellular digestive processes allow the midgut to provide a relatively permissive microenvironment for survival of invading microbes. Although tick-host-pathogen interactions have evolved over more than 300 million years (Barker and Murrell, 2008), few microbes have been able to overcome the tick's innate immune system, comprising both humoral and cellular processes that reject them. Similar to most eukaryotes, the signaling pathways that regulate the innate immune response, i.e., the Toll, IMD (Immunodeficiency) and JAK-STAT (Janus Kinase/ Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) also occur in ticks (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016). Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on the microbial surface triggers one or the other of these pathways. Consequently, ticks are able to mount an impressive array of humoral and cellular responses to microbial challenge, including anti-microbial peptides (AMPs), e.g., defensins, lysozymes, microplusins, etc., that directly kill, entrap or inhibit the invaders. Equally important are cellular processes, primarily phagocytosis, that capture, ingest, or encapsulate invading microbes, regulated by a primordial system of thioester-containing proteins

  15. Charge regulation circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  16. 17 CFR 270.3a-2 - Transient investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transient investment companies... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-2 Transient investment companies... which an issuer owns or proposes to acquire investment securities (as defined in section 3(a) of the Act...

  17. 17 CFR 270.3a-2 - Transient investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transient investment companies... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-2 Transient investment companies... which an issuer owns or proposes to acquire investment securities (as defined in section 3(a) of the Act...

  18. CED-10/Rac1 Regulates Endocytic Recycling through the RAB-5 GAP TBC-2

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lin; Liu, Ou; Desai, Jigar; Karbassi, Farhad; Sylvain, Marc-André; Shi, Anbing; Zhou, Zheng; Rocheleau, Christian E.; Grant, Barth D.

    2012-01-01

    Rac1 is a founding member of the Rho-GTPase family and a key regulator of membrane remodeling. In the context of apoptotic cell corpse engulfment, CED-10/Rac1 acts with its bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor, CED-5/Dock180-CED-12/ELMO, in an evolutionarily conserved pathway to promote phagocytosis. Here we show that in the context of the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium CED-10/Rac1, CED-5/Dock180, and CED-12/ELMO promote basolateral recycling. Furthermore, we show that CED-10 binds to the RAB-5 GTPase activating protein TBC-2, that CED-10 contributes to recruitment of TBC-2 to endosomes, and that recycling cargo is trapped in recycling endosomes in ced-12, ced-10, and tbc-2 mutants. Expression of GTPase defective RAB-5(Q78L) also traps recycling cargo. Our results indicate that down-regulation of early endosome regulator RAB-5/Rab5 by a CED-5, CED-12, CED-10, TBC-2 cascade is an important step in the transport of cargo through the basolateral recycling endosome for delivery to the plasma membrane. PMID:22807685

  19. Mechanism of hyperinsulinemia after reticuloendothelial system phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Filkins, J P; Yelich, M R

    1982-02-01

    Endocytic loading of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) results in acute hyperinsulinemia and functional hyperinsulinism. Colloidal carbon blockade of the RES in rats resulted in elevations of both portal vein and systemic serum immunoreactive insulin and increases in the hepatic portal vein insulin glucose ratios. Two mechanisms for the hyperinsulinemia were evaluated: 1) decreased removal of insulin by the postendocytic liver and 2) increased secretion of insulin by the isolated perfused pancreas. Colloidal carbon blockade did not alter removal of 125I-insulin as evaluated in the isolated perfused rat liver. Pancreases from postendocytic donor rats when perfused according to the technique of Grodsky manifested enhanced insulin secretion. Macrophage culture-conditioned media enhanced glucose-mediated insulin secretion both as assayed in vivo and in the isolated perfused rat pancreas. The data suggest that postendocytic activated macrophages secrete a monokine that alters insulin release and thus produces the hyperinsulinemia of RES blockade. The acronym MIRA for macrophage insulin-releasing activity is proposed for the monokine.

  20. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Alison E; Jennewein, Madeleine F; Suscovich, Todd; Dionne, Kendall; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Chung, Amy W; Streeck, Hendrik; Pau, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Francis, Don; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna; Walker, Bruce D; Baden, Lindsey; Barouch, Dan H; Alter, Galit

    2016-03-01

    Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.  .

  1. [Research on the mechanism and regulation of overtraining-related the function of neutrophils by the inhibitor of NADPH oxidase and glutamine supplementation].

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing-Mei; Chen, Pei-Jie

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the method and mechanism for exercise-related immunosuppression via the inhibitor of NADPH oxidase diphenyleneiodonium(DPI) and glutamine supplementation and on the function of neutrophils after overtraining. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: a negative control group (C), an overtraining group (E), an overtraining + DPI intervention group (D), an overtraining+ glutamine supplementation group(G) and combined glutamine + DPI intervention group(DG). After 36 - 40 h from the last training, eight rats were randomly selected from each group, and blood was sampled from the orbital vein. ELISAs were used to measure serum cytokine levels and lipid peroxidation in blood plasma. Flow cytometry was used to measure neutrophil respiratory burst and phagocytosis. The activity of NADPH oxidase was assessed by chemiluminescence and the gene expression of gp91(phox) and p47(phox) of the NADPH-oxidase subunit was checked by Western blot. Compared with group C, the plasma concentrations of NO increased in group G, and the NO, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) concentrations in group DG increased significantly. The respiratory burst and phagocytosis function of neutrophils were decreased in group E, but in group DG were increased when compared with those of group E. After overtraining the expression of gp91(phox) and p47(phox) was up regulated in group E. There were no significant changes in other groups except group DG, in which the expression of gp91(phox) was down regulated. Compared with group E, the expression of gp91(phox) and p47(phox) was up regulated in group D, group G and group DG. The activation of NADPH oxidase is responsible for the production of superoxide anions, which may be related to the decrease in neutrophil function after over training and is the mechanism of exercise-related immunosuppression. The DPI treatment combined glutamine supplementation can reverse the decrease neutrophils function after

  2. Protein kinase cα regulates the expression of complement receptor Ig in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuefang; Usuwanthim, Kanchana; Munawara, Usma; Quach, Alex; Gorgani, Nick N; Abbott, Catherine A; Hii, Charles S; Ferrante, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    The complement receptor Ig (CRIg) is selectively expressed by macrophages. This receptor not only promotes the rapid phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages but also has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive functions. Previous findings have suggested that protein kinase C (PKC) may be involved in the regulation of CRIg expression in human macrophages. We have now examined the role of PKCα in CRIg expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Macrophages nucleofected with plasmid containing short hairpin RNA against PKCα showed markedly reduced expression of PKCα, but normal PKCζ expression, by Western blotting analysis, and vice versa. PKCα-deficient MDM showed increased expression of CRIg mRNA and protein (both the long and short form), an increase in phagocytosis of complement-opsonized Candida albicans, and decreased production of TNF-α and IL-6. TNF-α caused a marked decrease in CRIg expression, and addition of anti-TNF mAb to the TNF-α-producing MDMs increased CRIg expression. PKCα-deficient macrophages also showed significantly less bacterial LPS-induced downregulation of CRIg. In contrast, cells deficient in PKCα showed decreased expression of CR type 3 (CR3) and decreased production of TNF-α and IL-6 in response to LPS. MDM developed under conditions that increased expression of CRIg over CR3 showed significantly reduced production of TNF-α in response to opsonized C. albicans. The findings indicate that PKCα promotes the downregulation of CRIg and upregulation of CR3 expression and TNF-α and IL-6 production, a mechanism that may promote inflammation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. A novel pleiotropic effect of aspirin: Beneficial regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Kata, Diana; Földesi, Imre; Feher, Liliana Z; Hackler, Laszlo; Puskas, Laszlo G; Gulya, Karoly

    2017-06-01

    Aspirin, one of the most widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, has extensively studied effects on the cardiovascular system. To reveal further pleiotropic, beneficial effects of aspirin on a number of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial mechanisms, we performed morphometric and functional studies relating to phagocytosis, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-10, respectively) and analyzed the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes, including those related to the above functions, in pure microglial cells. We examined the effects of aspirin (0.1mM and 1mM) in unchallenged (control) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged secondary microglial cultures. Aspirin affected microglial morphology and functions in a dose-dependent manner as it inhibited LPS-elicited microglial activation by promoting ramification and the inhibition of phagocytosis in both concentrations. Remarkably, aspirin strongly reduced the pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α production, while it increased the anti-inflammatory IL-10 level in LPS-challenged cells. Moreover, aspirin differentially regulated the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes as it downregulated such pro-inflammatory genes as Nos2, Kng1, IL1β, Ptgs2 or Ccr1, while it upregulated some anti-inflammatory genes such as IL10, Csf2, Cxcl1, Ccl5 or Tgfb1. Thus, the use of aspirin could be beneficial for the prophylaxis of certain neurodegenerative disorders as it effectively ameliorates inflammation in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Degradation of the HilC and HilD regulator proteins by ATP-dependent Lon protease leads to downregulation of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Akiko; Kubota, Yohsuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2005-02-01

    Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) enables infecting Salmonella to cross the small intestinal barrier and to escape phagocytosis by inducing apoptosis. Several environmental signals and transcriptional regulators modulate the expression of hilA, which encodes a protein playing a central role in the regulatory hierarchy of SPI1 gene expression. We have previously shown that Lon, a stress-induced ATP-dependent protease, is a negative regulator of hilA, suggesting that it targets factors required for activating hilA expression. To elucidate the mechanisms by which Lon protease negatively regulates SPI1 transcription, we looked for its substrate proteins. We found that HilC and HilD, which are positive regulators of hilA expression, accumulate in Lon-depleted cells, and that the enhancement of SPI1 expression that occurs in a lon-disrupted mutant is not observed in the lon hilC hilD triple null mutant. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the half-lives of HilC and HilD are, respectively, about 12 times and three times longer in the Lon-depleted mutant, than in the Lon+ cells, suggesting that Lon targets both of HilC and HilD. In view of these findings, we suggest that the regulation of SPI1 expression is negatively controlled through degradation of the HilC and HilD transcriptional regulators by Lon.

  5. Eicosanoids up-regulate production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH-dependent oxidase in Spodoptera exigua phagocytic hemocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eicosanoids mediate cellular immune responses in insects, including phagocytosis of invading microbes. Phagocytosis entails two major steps, the internalization of microbes and the subsequent killing of them via formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we posed the hypothesis that eicosanoi...

  6. Uptake of donor lymphocytes treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet A light by recipient dendritic cells induces CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells and down-regulates cardiac allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, De-Hua; Dou, Li-Ping; Wei, Yu-Xiang

    Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an effective immunomodulatory therapy and has been demonstrated to be beneficial for graft-vs-host disease and solid-organ allograft rejection. ECP involves reinfusion of a patient's autologous peripheral blood leukocytes treated ex vivo with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA light radiation (PUVA). Previous studies focused only on ECP treatment of recipient immune cells. Our study is the first to extend the target of ECP treatment to donor immune cells. The results of in vitro co-culture experiments demonstrate uptake of donor PUVA-treated splenic lymphocytes (PUVA-SPs) by recipient immature dendritic cells (DCs). Phagocytosis of donor PUVA-SPs does not stimulate phenotype maturation ofmore » recipient DCs. In the same co-culture system, donor PUVA-SPs enhanced production of interleukin-10 and interferon-{gamma} by recipient DCs and impaired the subsequent capability of recipient DCs to stimulate recipient naive T cells. Phagocytosis of donor PUVA-SP (PUVA-SP DCs) by recipient DCs shifted T-cell responses in favor of T helper 2 cells. Infusion of PUVA-SP DCs inhibited cardiac allograft rejection in an antigen-specific manner and induced CD4{sup +}CD25{sup high}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells. In conclusion, PUVA-SP DCs simultaneously deliver the donor antigen and the regulatory signal to the transplant recipient, and thus can be used to develop a novel DC vaccine for negative immune regulation and immune tolerance induction.« less

  7. A Coding Variant of ANO10, Affecting Volume Regulation of Macrophages, Is Associated with Borrelia Seropositivity

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Christian; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Sirianant, Lalida; Papiol, Sergi; Monnheimer, Mathieu; Faria, Diana; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Schramek, Natalie; Schmitt, Corinna; Margos, Gabriele; Michel, Angelika; Kraiczy, Peter; Pawlita, Michael; Schreiber, Rainer; Schulz, Thomas F; Fingerle, Volker; Tumani, Hayrettin; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In a first genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach to anti-Borrelia seropositivity, we identified two significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs17850869, P = 4.17E-09; rs41289586, P = 7.18E-08). Both markers, located on chromosomes 16 and 3, respectively, are within or close to genes previously connected to spinocerebellar ataxia. The risk SNP rs41289586 represents a missense variant (R263H) of anoctamin 10 (ANO10), a member of a protein family encoding Cl− channels and phospholipid scram-blases. ANO10 augments volume-regulated Cl− currents (IHypo) in Xenopus oocytes, HEK293 cells, lymphocytes and macrophages and controls volume regulation by enhancing regulatory volume decrease (RVD). ANO10 supports migration of macrophages and phagocytosis of spirochetes. The R263H variant is inhibitory on IHypo, RVD and intracellular Ca2+ signals, which may delay spirochete clearance, thereby sensitizing adaptive immunity. Our data demonstrate for the first time that ANO10 has a central role in innate immune defense against Borrelia infection. PMID:25730773

  8. Factor H: A Complement Regulator in Health and Disease, and a Mediator of Cellular Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Anne; Hebecker, Mario; Svobodová, Eliška; Józsi, Mihály

    2012-01-01

    Complement is an essential part of innate immunity as it participates in host defense against infections, disposal of cellular debris and apoptotic cells, inflammatory processes and modulation of adaptive immune responses. Several soluble and membrane-bound regulators protect the host from the potentially deleterious effects of uncontrolled and misdirected complement activation. Factor H is a major soluble regulator of the alternative complement pathway, but it can also bind to host cells and tissues, protecting them from complement attack. Interactions of factor H with various endogenous ligands, such as pentraxins, extracellular matrix proteins and DNA are important in limiting local complement-mediated inflammation. Impaired regulatory as well as ligand and cell recognition functions of factor H, caused by mutations or autoantibodies, are associated with the kidney diseases: atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and dense deposit disease and the eye disorder: age-related macular degeneration. In addition, factor H binds to receptors on host cells and is involved in adhesion, phagocytosis and modulation of cell activation. In this review we discuss current concepts on the physiological and pathophysiological roles of factor H in light of new data and recent developments in our understanding of the versatile roles of factor H as an inhibitor of complement activation and inflammation, as well as a mediator of cellular interactions. A detailed knowledge of the functions of factor H in health and disease is expected to unravel novel therapeutic intervention possibilities and to facilitate the development or improvement of therapies. PMID:24970127

  9. Glutaraldehyde pretreatment blocks phospholipase A2 modulation of adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Cohen, R M; McLellan, C; Dauphin, M; Hirata, F

    1985-01-07

    Treatment of rat cerebral cortical membranes with phospholipase A2 affects, in a parallel fashion, beta-, alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptor binding, but not the affinity of these receptors for their respective ligands. Pretreatment of membranes with 0.1 percent glutaraldehyde blocks the effects of phospholipase A2 on adrenergic receptor binding. The results support the hypothesis that desensitization or "masking" of adrenergic receptors may involve changes in membrane lipid composition. Furthermore, glutaraldehyde may prove a useful tool in the investigation of the dynamic roles of lipids in receptor function and more specifically, their regulation and coupling to physiological events.

  10. A2A adenosine receptor ligand binding and signalling is allosterically modulated by adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Eduard; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Moreno, Estefanía; Barkešová, Jana; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I

    2011-05-01

    A2ARs (adenosine A2A receptors) are highly enriched in the striatum, which is the main motor control CNS (central nervous system) area. BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) assays showed that A2AR homomers may act as cell-surface ADA (adenosine deaminase; EC 3.5.4.4)-binding proteins. ADA binding affected the quaternary structure of A2ARs present on the cell surface. ADA binding to adenosine A2ARs increased both agonist and antagonist affinity on ligand binding to striatal membranes where these proteins are co-expressed. ADA also increased receptor-mediated ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Collectively, the results of the present study show that ADA, apart from regulating the concentration of extracellular adenosine, may behave as an allosteric modulator that markedly enhances ligand affinity and receptor function. This powerful regulation may have implications for the physiology and pharmacology of neuronal A2ARs.

  11. Emodin Bidirectionally Modulates Macrophage Polarization and Epigenetically Regulates Macrophage Memory.

    PubMed

    Iwanowycz, Stephen; Wang, Junfeng; Altomare, Diego; Hui, Yvonne; Fan, Daping

    2016-05-27

    Macrophages are pleiotropic cells capable of performing a broad spectrum of functions. Macrophage phenotypes are classified along a continuum between the extremes of proinflammatory M1 macrophages and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. The seemingly opposing functions of M1 and M2 macrophages must be tightly regulated for an effective and proper response to foreign molecules or damaged tissue. Excessive activation of either M1 or M2 macrophages contributes to the pathology of many diseases. Emodin is a Chinese herb-derived compound and has shown potential to inhibit inflammation in various settings. In this study, we tested the ability of emodin to modulate the macrophage response to both M1 and M2 stimuli. Primary mouse macrophages were stimulated with LPS/IFNγ or IL4 with or without emodin, and the effects of emodin on gene transcription, cell signaling pathways, and histone modifications were examined by a variety of approaches, including microarray, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and functional assays. We found that emodin bidirectionally tunes the induction of LPS/IFNγ- and IL4-responsive genes through inhibiting NFκB/IRF5/STAT1 signaling and IRF4/STAT6 signaling, respectively. Thereby, emodin modulates macrophage phagocytosis, migration, and NO production. Furthermore, emodin inhibited the removal of H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27m3) marks and the addition of H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) marks on genes required for M1 or M2 polarization of macrophages. In conclusion, our data suggest that emodin is uniquely able to suppress the excessive response of macrophages to both M1 and M2 stimuli and therefore has the potential to restore macrophage homeostasis in various pathologies. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Emodin Bidirectionally Modulates Macrophage Polarization and Epigenetically Regulates Macrophage Memory*

    PubMed Central

    Iwanowycz, Stephen; Wang, Junfeng; Altomare, Diego; Hui, Yvonne; Fan, Daping

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are pleiotropic cells capable of performing a broad spectrum of functions. Macrophage phenotypes are classified along a continuum between the extremes of proinflammatory M1 macrophages and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. The seemingly opposing functions of M1 and M2 macrophages must be tightly regulated for an effective and proper response to foreign molecules or damaged tissue. Excessive activation of either M1 or M2 macrophages contributes to the pathology of many diseases. Emodin is a Chinese herb-derived compound and has shown potential to inhibit inflammation in various settings. In this study, we tested the ability of emodin to modulate the macrophage response to both M1 and M2 stimuli. Primary mouse macrophages were stimulated with LPS/IFNγ or IL4 with or without emodin, and the effects of emodin on gene transcription, cell signaling pathways, and histone modifications were examined by a variety of approaches, including microarray, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and functional assays. We found that emodin bidirectionally tunes the induction of LPS/IFNγ- and IL4-responsive genes through inhibiting NFκB/IRF5/STAT1 signaling and IRF4/STAT6 signaling, respectively. Thereby, emodin modulates macrophage phagocytosis, migration, and NO production. Furthermore, emodin inhibited the removal of H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27m3) marks and the addition of H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) marks on genes required for M1 or M2 polarization of macrophages. In conclusion, our data suggest that emodin is uniquely able to suppress the excessive response of macrophages to both M1 and M2 stimuli and therefore has the potential to restore macrophage homeostasis in various pathologies. PMID:27008857