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Sample records for a2 regulates phagocytosis

  1. Schwann cell lamellipodia regulate cell-cell interactions and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Johana Tello; St John, James A; Nazareth, Lynn; Ekberg, Jenny A K

    2018-04-01

    Lamellipodia in Schwann cells (SCs) are crucial for myelination, but their other biological functions remain largely uncharacterised. Two types of lamellipodia exist in SCs: axial lamellipodia at the outermost edge of the cell processes, and radial lamellipodia appearing peripherally along the entire cell. We have previously shown that radial lamellipodia on olfactory glia (olfactory ensheathing cells; OECs) promote cell-cell adhesion, contact-mediated migration and phagocytosis. Here we have investigated whether lamellipodia in SCs have similar roles. Using live-cell imaging, we show that the radial lamellipodia in SCs are highly motile, appear at multiple cellular sites and rapidly move in a wave-like manner. We found that axial and radial lamellipodia had strikingly different roles and are regulated by different intracellular pathways. Axial lamellipodia initiated interactions with other SCs and with neurons by contacting radial lamellipodia on SCs, and budding neurites/axons. Most SC-SC interactions resulted in repulsion, and, lamellipodial activity (unlike in OECs) did not promote contact-mediated migration. We show that lamellipodia are crucial for SC-mediated phagocytosis of both axonal debris and bacteria, and demonstrated that inhibition of lamellipodial activity by blocking the Rho/Rac pathways also inhibits phagocytosis. We also show that heregulin, which induces SC differentiation and maturation, alters lamellipodial behaviour but does not affect phagocytic activity. Overall, the results show that SC lamellipodia are important for cell interactions and phagocytosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation of phagocytosis by TAM receptors and their ligands

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qingxian; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingjun

    2010-01-01

    The TAM family of receptors is preferentially expressed by professional and non-professional phagocytes, including macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer cells in the immune system, osteoclasts in bone, Sertoli cells in testis, and retinal pigmental epithelium cells in the retina. Mutations in the Mertk single gene or in different combinations of the double or triple gene mutations in the same cell cause complete or partial impairment in phagocytosis of their preys; and as a result, either the normal apoptotic cells cannot be efficiently removed or the tissue neighbor cells die by apoptosis. This scenario of TAM regulation represents a widely adapted model system used by phagocytes in all different tissues. The present review will summarize current known functional roles of TAM receptors and their ligands, Gas 6 and protein S, in the regulation of phagocytosis. PMID:21057587

  3. Actin-Dependent Regulation of Borrelia burgdorferi Phagocytosis by Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Naj, Xenia; Linder, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, a multisystemic disorder affecting primarily skin, nervous system, and joints. If an infection with Borrelia proceeds unchecked, the disease can also enter a chronic stage, leading to the development of neuroborreliosis or cardiac arrhythmia. Successful elimination of B. burgdorferi by the host immune system is thus decisive for the positive outcome of a respective infection. Accordingly, host immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells have to be able to efficiently internalize and degrade infecting spirochetes. These processes are based on closely controlled rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, which enables the spatiotemporally fine-tuned formation of cellular protrusions and compartments that assist in the capturing, immobilization, and uptake of borreliae, as well as their further intracellular processing. Here, we discuss actin-based structures, in particular filopodia and coiling pseudopods that are involved in phagocytosis of B. burgdorferi by macrophages, their regulation by actin-associated proteins such as formins and Arp2/3 complex, as well as the subsequent intracellular processing of borreliae.

  4. Involvement of Ran in the regulation of phagocytosis against virus infection in S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2013-12-01

    Phagocytosis plays important roles in innate and adaptive immunity in animals. Some small G proteins are found to be related to phagocytosis. However, the Ran GTPase has not been intensively characterized in immunity. In this paper, the sequence analysis showed that the Ran was highly conserved in animals, suggesting that its function was preserved during animal evolution. The results showed that Ran was upregulated in S2 cells in response to DCV infection. It was further revealed that the antiviral phagocytosis could be mediated by Ran in S2 cells. By comparison with the early marker and late marker of phagosomes, the results showed that the Ran protein played an essential role at the early stage of phagocytosis or throughout the entire phagocytic process. Therefore our findings enlarged our limited knowledge about the phagocytosis regulation by small G proteins concerning to the nucleus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis is regulated by mechanical properties of the target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beningo, Karen A.; Wang, Yu-li

    2002-01-01

    Phagocytosis is an actin-based process used by macrophages to clear particles greater than 0.5 microm in diameter. In addition to its role in immunological responses, phagocytosis is also necessary for tissue remodeling and repair. To prevent catastrophic autoimmune reactions, phagocytosis must be tightly regulated. It is commonly assumed that the recognition/selection of phagocytic targets is based solely upon receptor-ligand binding. Here we report an important new criterion, that mechanical parameters of the target can dramatically affect the efficiency of phagocytosis. When presented with particles of identical chemical properties but different rigidity, macrophages showed a strong preference to engulf rigid objects. Furthermore, phagocytosis of soft particles can be stimulated with the microinjection of constitutively active Rac1 but not RhoA, and with lysophosphatidic acid, an agent known to activate the small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family. These data suggest a Rac1-dependent mechanosensory mechanism for phagocytosis, which probably plays an important role in a number of physiological and pathological processes from embryonic development to autoimmune diseases.

  6. A NPxY-independent {beta}5 integrin activation signal regulates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sukhwinder; D'mello, Veera; Henegouwen, Paul van Bergen en

    2007-12-21

    Integrin receptors are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors with critical functions in cell adhesion and migration, cell cycle progression, differentiation, apoptosis, and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Integrins are activated by intracellular signaling that alter the binding affinity for extracellular ligands, so-called inside to outside signaling. A common element for integrin activation involves binding of the cytoskeletal protein talin, via its FERM domain, to a highly conserved NPxY motif in the {beta} chain cytoplasmic tails, which is involved in long-range conformation changes to the extracellular domain that impinges on ligand affinity. When the human beta-5 ({beta}5) integrin cDNA was expressed in {alpha}v positive,more » {beta}5 and {beta}3 negative hamster CS-1 cells, it promoted NPxY-dependent adhesion to VTN-coated surfaces, phosphorylation of FAK, and concomitantly, {beta}5 integrin-EGFP protein was recruited into talin and paxillin-containing focal adhesions. Expression of a NPxY destabilizing {beta}5 mutant (Y750A) abrogated adhesion and {beta}5-Y750A-EGFP was excluded from focal adhesions at the tips of stress fibers. Surprisingly, expression of {beta}5 Y750A integrin had a potent gain-of-function effect on apoptotic cell phagocytosis, and further, a {beta}5-Y750A-EGFP fusion integrin readily bound MFG-E8-coated 10 {mu}m diameter microspheres developed as apoptotic cell mimetics. The critical sequences in {beta}5 integrin were mapped to a YEMAS motif just proximal to the NPxY motif. Our studies suggest that the phagocytic function of {beta}5 integrin is regulated by an unconventional NPxY-talin-independent activation signal and argue for the existence of molecular switches in the {beta}5 cytoplasmic tail for adhesion and phagocytosis.« less

  7. Grb14 Is a Negative Regulator of CEACAM3-mediated Phagocytosis of Pathogenic Bacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Kathrin; Buntru, Alexander; Pils, Stefan; Zimmermann, Timo; Frank, Ronald; Zumbusch, Andreas; Hauck, Christof R.

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3 (CEACAM3) is a phagocytic receptor on human granulocytes, which mediates the opsonin-independent recognition and internalization of a restricted set of Gram-negative bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In an unbiased screen using a SH2 domain microarray we identified the SH2 domain of growth factor receptor-bound protein 14 (Grb14) as a novel binding partner of CEACAM3. Biochemical assays and microscopic studies demonstrated that the Grb14 SH2 domain promoted the rapid recruitment of this adaptor protein to the immunoreceptor-based activation motif (ITAM)-like sequence within the cytoplasmic domain of CEACAM3. Furthermore, FRET-FLIM analyses confirmed the direct association of Grb14 and CEACAM3 in intact cells at the sites of bacteria-host cell contact. Knockdown of endogenous Grb14 by RNA interference as well as Grb14 overexpression indicate an inhibitory role for this adapter protein in CEACAM3-mediated phagocytosis. Therefore, Grb14 is the first negative regulator of CEACAM3-initiated bacterial phagocytosis and might help to focus granulocyte responses to the subcellular sites of pathogen-host cell contact. PMID:22948154

  8. Expression and signaling of the tyrosine kinase FGFR2b/KGFR regulates phagocytosis and melanosome uptake in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Belleudi, Francesca; Purpura, Valeria; Scrofani, Cristina; Persechino, Flavia; Leone, Laura; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria

    2011-01-01

    Membrane and actin cytoskeleton dynamics during phagocytosis can be triggered and amplified by the signal transduction of receptor tyrosine kinases. The epidermal keratinocytes appear to use the phagocytic mechanism of uptake to ingest melanosomes released by the melanocytes and play a pivotal role in the transfer process. We have previously demonstrated that the keratinocyte growth factor KGF/FGF7 promotes the melanosome uptake through activation of its receptor tyrosine kinase FGFR2b/KGFR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of KGFR expression, activation, and signaling in regulating the phagocytic process and the melanosome transfer. Phagocytosis was analyzed in vitro using fluorescent latex beads on human keratinocytes induced to differentiate. Melanosome transfer was investigated in keratinocyte-melanocyte cocultures. KGFR depletion by small interfering RNA microinjection and overexpression by transfection of wild type or defective mutant KGFR were performed to demonstrate the direct effect of the receptor on phagocytosis and melanosome transfer. Colocalization of the phagocytosed beads with the internalized receptors in phagolysosomes was analyzed by optical sectioning and 3-dimensional reconstruction. KGFR ligands triggered phagocytosis and melanosome transfer in differentiated keratinocytes, and receptor kinase activity and signaling were required for these effects, suggesting that FGFR2b/KGFR expression/activity and PLCγ signaling pathway play crucial roles in phagocytosis.

  9. Cleavage of Mer Tyrosine Kinase (MerTK) from the Cell Surface Contributes to the Regulation of Retinal Phagocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ah-Lai; Parinot, Célia; Chatagnon, Jonathan; Gravez, Basile; Sahel, José-Alain; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.; Nandrot, Emeline F.

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages and spent photoreceptor outer segments (POS) by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells requires several proteins, including MerTK receptors and associated Gas6 and protein S ligands. In the retina, POS phagocytosis is rhythmic, and MerTK is activated promptly after light onset via the αvβ5 integrin receptor and its ligand MFG-E8, thus generating a phagocytic peak. The phagocytic burst is limited in time, suggesting a down-regulation mechanism that limits its duration. Our previous data showed that MerTK helps control POS binding of integrin receptors at the RPE cell surface as a negative feedback loop. Our present results show that a soluble form of MerTK (sMerTK) is released in the conditioned media of RPE-J cells during phagocytosis and in the interphotoreceptor matrix of the mouse retina during the morning phagocytic peak. In contrast to macrophages, the two cognate MerTK ligands have an opposite effect on phagocytosis and sMerTK release, whereas the integrin ligand MFG-E8 markedly increases both phagocytosis and sMerTK levels. sMerTK acts as a decoy receptor blocking the effect of both MerTK ligands. Interestingly, stimulation of sMerTK release decreases POS binding. Conversely, blocking MerTK cleavage increased mostly POS binding by RPE cells. Therefore, our data suggest that MerTK cleavage contributes to the acute regulation of RPE phagocytosis by limiting POS binding to the cell surface. PMID:25538233

  10. Hemotin, a Regulator of Phagocytosis Encoded by a Small ORF and Conserved across Metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Pueyo, José I.; Amin, Unum; Evans, Iwan R.; Bishop, Sarah A.; Couso, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Translation of hundreds of small ORFs (smORFs) of less than 100 amino acids has recently been revealed in vertebrates and Drosophila. Some of these peptides have essential and conserved cellular functions. In Drosophila, we have predicted a particular smORF class encoding ~80 aa hydrophobic peptides, which may function in membranes and cell organelles. Here, we characterise hemotin, a gene encoding an 88aa transmembrane smORF peptide localised to early endosomes in Drosophila macrophages. hemotin regulates endosomal maturation during phagocytosis by repressing the cooperation of 14-3-3ζ with specific phosphatidylinositol (PI) enzymes. hemotin mutants accumulate undigested phagocytic material inside enlarged endo-lysosomes and as a result, hemotin mutants have reduced ability to fight bacteria, and hence, have severely reduced life span and resistance to infections. We identify Stannin, a peptide involved in organometallic toxicity, as the Hemotin functional homologue in vertebrates, showing that this novel regulator of phagocytic processing is widely conserved, emphasizing the significance of smORF peptides in cell biology and disease. PMID:27015288

  11. Quantitative Phagocytosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallister, Zane Gary; McCallister, Gary Loren

    1996-01-01

    Presents a model experiment for quantifying phagocytosis using earthworm coelomocytes and determining the optimum length of time necessary to obtain maximum phagocytosis. Involves incubating coelomocytes from invertebrates with an antigen, staining the cells, counting the number of antigen particles ingested, and measuring the effect of different…

  12. The inositol phosphatase SHIP-2 down-regulates FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in murine macrophages independently of SHIP-1

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Jing; Maturu, Amita; Johnson, Wesley; Wang, Yijie; Marsh, Clay B.; Tridandapani, Susheela

    2006-01-01

    FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles is a complex process involving the activation of multiple signaling enzymes and is regulated by the inositol phosphatases PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and SHIP-1 (Src homology [SH2] domain-containing inositol phosphatase). In a recent study we have demonstrated that SHIP-2, an inositol phosphatase with high-level homology to SHIP-1, is involved in FcγR signaling. However, it is not known whether SHIP-2 plays a role in modulating phagocytosis. In this study we have analyzed the role of SHIP-2 in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis using independent cell models that allow for manipulation of SHIP-2 function without influencing the highly homologous SHIP-1. We present evidence that SHIP-2 translocates to the site of phagocytosis and down-regulates FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. Our data indicate that SHIP-2 must contain both the N-terminal SH2 domain and the C-terminal proline-rich domain to mediate its inhibitory effect. The effect of SHIP-2 is independent of SHIP-1, as overexpression of dominant-negative SHIP-2 in SHIP-1-deficient primary macrophages resulted in enhanced phagocytic efficiency. Likewise, specific knockdown of SHIP-2 expression using siRNA resulted in enhanced phagocytosis. Finally, analysis of the molecular mechanism of SHIP-2 down-regulation of phagocytosis revealed that SHIP-2 down-regulates upstream activation of Rac. Thus, we conclude that SHIP-2 is a novel negative regulator of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis independent of SHIP-1. (Blood. 2006;107:813-820) PMID:16179375

  13. H2O2 release from human granulocytes during phagocytosis. I. Documentation, quantitation, and some regulating factors.

    PubMed Central

    Root, R K; Metcalf, J; Oshino, N; Chance, B

    1975-01-01

    The extinction of fluorescence of scopoletin during its oxidation by horseradish peroxidase (HPO) provides a highly sensitive and specific assay for small quantities of peroxide in solution. With this assay, the release of free H2O2 into the extracellular medium by phagocytizing human granulocytes has been documented and quantitated, and some of the regulating factors have been determined. Under basal conditions granulocytes released less than 0.01 nmol/ml of H2O2 (2.5 X 10-6 polymorphonuclear leukocytes/ml). Upon the addition of phagocyte particles (latex, opsonized yeast, or staphylococci), an abrupt increase in extracellular peroxide concentration was observed (greater than 50-fold above basal levels) after latencies as short as 10 s. Release reflected increased intracellular H2O2 production during phagocytosis in that it paralleled the respiratory burst and was absent when phagocytosis was prevented or when cells from patients with chronic granulomatous disease were utilized. Evidence that scpoletin oxidation occurred predominantly in the extracellular medium was obtained by demonstrating a marked inhibition when HPO was omitted from the reaction mixture or when exogenous catalase was added. Similarly, it was found that exogenous serum also inhibited scopoletin oxidation, apparently because of the presence of competing hydrogen donors. H2O2 formation and release were observed at rates which closely paralleled those of phagocytosis. With O2 consumption as an approximate index of H2O2 formation, the fractions released during maximal rates of particle uptake were calculated as follows: for latex, 15.7%; for staphylococci, 10.3%; and for yeast, 4.9%. It is postulated that release is due to diffusion of free H2O2 from an expanded intracellular pool of this substance that develops during phagocytosis. This poos represents tha net of increased synthesis versus catabolism by various enxymatic pathways for H2O2 disposal within the cells. The close relationship between

  14. Receptor-mediated phagocytosis of rat macrophages is regulated differentially for opsonized particles and non-opsonized particles containing β-glucan

    PubMed Central

    Reichner, Jonathan S; Fitzpatrick, Paul A; Wakshull, Eric; Albina, Jorge E

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that opsonic and non-opsonic phagocytic capacities are differentially regulated by resting and wound-derived macrophages. Furthermore, the phagocytosis of non-opsonized zymosan and β-glucan particles was quantified to determine whether cells differentially regulate non-opsonic lectinophagocytosis in accordance with the carbohydrate composition of the ligand. In that regard, wound macrophages exhibited profound differential regulation in lectinophagocytosis with a seven-fold increase in phagocytosis of β-glucan particles following overnight culture but with a relatively modest increase in internalization of mannan-containing zymosan. Cultured peritoneal macrophages increased uptake of both particles similarly. Upon activation with interferon-γ/lipopolysaccharide (IFN-γ/LPS), wound macrophages selectively suppressed β-glucan ingestion, while phagocytosis of zymosan particles was unaffected. Lectinophagocytosis was decreased in activated peritoneal macrophages regardless of particle composition and was due in part to a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism which was without a role in regulation of wound macrophage lectinophagocytosis. Overnight culture of wound macrophages suppressed their capacity for opsonic-dependent phagocytosis independently of activation, whereas suppression of phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages was activation-dependent. Regulation of all three phagocytic pathways was achieved distinctly by peritoneal and wound-derived macrophages, with changes found in the percentage of resident peritoneal macrophages capable of phagocytosis, whereas the phagocytic capacity of wound macrophages was primarily affected by the number of particles ingested by individual cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the differential regulation of phagocytic pathways encompasses the nature of the phagocytic particle, the site from which macrophages are obtained, their response to activating agents and the

  15. Emerging roles for the BAI1 protein family in the regulation of phagocytosis, synaptogenesis, neurovasculature, and tumor development

    PubMed Central

    Cork, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    While G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have received considerable attention for their biological activity in a diversity of physiological functions and have become targets for therapeutic intervention in many diseases, the function of the cell adhesion subfamily of GPCRs remains poorly understood. Within this group, the family of brain angiogenesis inhibitor molecules (BAI1-3) has become increasingly appreciated for their diverse roles in biology and disease. In particular, recent findings suggest emerging roles for BAI1 in the regulation of phenomena including phagocytosis, synaptogenesis, and the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis via the processing of its extracellular domain into secreted vasculostatins. Here we summarize the known biological features of the BAI proteins, including their structure, proteolysis events, and interacting partners, and their recently identified ability to regulate certain signaling pathways. Finally, we discuss the potential of the BAIs as therapeutics or targets for diseases as varied as cancer, stroke, and schizophrenia. PMID:21509575

  16. TLR4-NOX2 axis regulates the phagocytosis and killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jingzhu; He, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Zhaohua; Kelly, Gabriel T; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Yin; Wang, Ting; Qian, Zhongqing

    2017-12-12

    Macrophages stand at the forefront of both innate and adapted immunity through their capacities to recognize, engulf, and eliminate foreign particles, and to stimulate adapted immune cells. They are also involved in controlling pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Macrophage activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) has been shown to involve Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation and ROS production. Previous studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), through TLR4, could activate macrophages, improve their bactericidal ROS production, and facilitate anti-infective immune responses. We sought to better understand the role of the TLR4-NOX2 axis in macrophage activation during M. tuberculosis infection. THP-1 macrophages and PMA primed THP-1 macrophages [THP-1(A)] were treated with LPS and infected by M. tuberculosis. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for TLR4 expression, ROS production, phagocytosis, and killing of M. tuberculosis. Western blotting was used to analyze NOX2 expression. Inhibitors of the TLR4-NOX2 pathway were used to assess this pathway's role in these processes, and their role in LPS activation of macrophages. We found that THP1-derived macrophages or PMA primed THP-1 macrophages exhibit higher surface TLR4 levels and increased NOX2 expression levels following LPS treatment. M. tuberculosis infection reduced these levels, but LPS was able to limit the negative effects of M.tb. Additionally, LPS increases THP-1(A) cells' bactericidal activities including phagocytosis, ROS production, and destruction of M. tuberculosis. Significantly, all of these activities are impaired when TLR4 or NOX2 are inhibited. These studies demonstrate the importance of the TLR4-NOX2 axis in M. tuberculosis elimination by macrophages and may lead to novel therapies for tuberculosis and other bacterial infections.

  17. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    SciTech Connect

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hsuganu1@jhmi.edu; Fahey, Jed W., E-mail: jfahey@jhmi.edu; Bryan, Kelley E., E-mail: kbryanm1@jhmi.edu

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. {yields} This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. {yields} Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatorymore » and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-{mu}m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2{sup -/-} mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.« less

  18. Microglial phagocytosis and activation underlying photoreceptor degeneration is regulated by CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signaling in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Zabel, Matthew K.; Zhao, Lian; Zhang, Yikui; Gonzalez, Shaimar R.; Ma, Wenxin; Wang, Xu; Fariss, Robert N.; Wong, Wai T.

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of mutation-bearing photoreceptors, is a significant cause of incurable blindness in the young worldwide. Recent studies have found that activated retinal microglia contribute to photoreceptor demise via phagocytosis and pro-inflammatory factor production, however mechanisms regulating these contributions are not well-defined. In this study, we investigate the role of CX3CR1, a microglia-specific receptor, in regulating microglia-mediated degeneration using the well-established rd10 mouse model of RP. We found that in CX3CR1-deficient (CX3CR1GFP/GFP) rd10 mice microglial infiltration into the photoreceptor layer was significantly augmented and associated with accelerated photoreceptor apoptosis and atrophy compared with CX3CR1-sufficient (CX3CR1GFP/+) rd10 littermates. CX3CR1-deficient microglia demonstrated increased phagocytosis as evidenced by (1) having increased numbers of phagosomes in vivo, (2) an increased rate of phagocytosis of fluorescent beads and photoreceptor cellular debris in vitro, and (3) increased photoreceptor phagocytosis dynamics on live cell imaging in retinal explants, indicating that CX3CR1 signaling in microglia regulates the phagocytic clearance of at-risk photoreceptors. We also found that CX3CR1 deficiency in retinal microglia was associated with increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and microglial activation markers. Significantly, increasing CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signaling in the rd10 retina via exogenous intravitreal delivery of recombinant CX3CL1 was effective in (1) decreasing microglial infiltration, phagocytosis and activation, and (2) improving structural and functional features of photoreceptor degeneration. These results indicate that CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signaling is a molecular mechanism capable of modulating microglial-mediated degeneration and represents a potential molecular target in therapeutic approaches to RP. PMID:27314452

  19. Reticulocalbin-1 facilitates microglial phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ying; Caberoy, Nora B; Guo, Feiye; LeBlanc, Michelle E; Zhang, Chenming; Wang, Weiwen; Wang, Feng; Chen, Rui; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis is critical to the clearance of apoptotic cells, cellular debris and deleterious metabolic products for tissue homeostasis. Phagocytosis ligands directly recognizing deleterious cargos are the key to defining the functional roles of phagocytes, but are traditionally identified on a case-by-case basis with technical challenges. As a result, extrinsic regulation of phagocytosis is poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that microglial phagocytosis ligands can be systematically identified by a new approach of functional screening. One of the identified ligands is reticulocalbin-1 (Rcn1), which was originally reported as a Ca2+-binding protein with a strict expression in the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results showed that Rcn1 can be secreted from healthy cells and that secreted Rcn1 selectively bound to the surface of apoptotic neurons, but not healthy neurons. Independent characterization revealed that Rcn1 stimulated microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic but not healthy neurons. Ingested apoptotic cells were targeted to phagosomes and co-localized with phagosome marker Rab7. These data suggest that Rcn1 is a genuine phagocytosis ligand. The new approach described in this study will enable systematic identification of microglial phagocytosis ligands with broad applicability to many other phagocytes.

  20. EhRho1 regulates phagocytosis by modulating actin dynamics through EhFormin1 and EhProfilin1 in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Ravi; Sharma, Shalini; Janhawi; Arya, Ranjana; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2018-04-17

    The protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, a major public health problem in developing countries and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Invasive infection in amoebiasis mostly affects intestinal epithelial cell lining, but can also involve other organs, such as liver, lungs or brain. Phagocytosis is an essential mode of nutrition in amoeba and has often been associated with virulence behaviour of E. histolytica. E. histolytica possesses a highly dynamic and actin-rich cytoskeleton that is thought to be involved in many processes, such as motility, pseudopod formation and pathogenesis. Rho GTPases are known to be key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and consequently influence the shape and movement of cells. Our study is mainly focused to understand the role of EhRho1 in the phagocytosis process of E. histolytica. EhRho1 got enriched in the phagocytic cups along with EhActin and remain attached with phagosomal membrane. However, there was no direct binding of EhRho1 with G- or F-actin, though binding was observed with the actin nucleating proteins EhFormin1 and EhProfilin1. Overexpression of dominant negative mutant or lowering the expression by anti-sense RNA of EhRho1 in trophozoites caused delocalization of EhFormin1 and EhProfilin1 from phagocytic cups which results in impairment of phagocytic process and decrease in F-actin content. The overall results show that EhRho1 regulates phagocytosis by modulating actin dynamics through recruitment of EhFormin1 and EhProfilin1 at the phagocytosis nucleation site in E. histolytica. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Signaling pathways involved in zymosan phagocytosis induced by two secreted phospholipases A2isolated from Bothrops asper snake venom in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zuliani, Juliana Pavan; Gutiérrez, José María; Teixeira, Catarina

    2018-03-03

    Phagocytosis, a process involved in host defense, requires coordination of a variety of signaling reactions. MT-II, a catalytically-inactive Lys49-PLA 2 ¸ and MT-III, an active Asp49-PLA 2 isolated from Bothrops asper snake venom, activate phagocytosis in macrophages. In this study the signal pathways mediating zymosan phagocytosis, focusing in lipidic second messengers, were investigated. Macrophages collected from male Swiss mouse peritoneum were obtained 96h after i.p. injection of thioglycollate. Phagocytosis was evaluated with non-opsonized zymosan in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors. Data showed that both venom PLA 2 s increased phagocytosis. Zileuton, Etoricoxib, PACOCF 3 (5-LO, COX-2 and iPLA 2 inhibitors, respectively), as well as WEB2170 (PAF receptor antagonist) significantly reduced phagocytosis induced by both venom PLA 2 s. However, Indomethacin (COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor) and Montelukast (CysL receptor antagonist) did not affect the toxins-induced phagocytosis. Moreover, while PACOCF3 (iPLA 2 inhibitor), reduced the phagocytosis induced by MT-II and MT-III, AACOCF 3 (cPLA 2 inhibitor) significantly reduced the MT-II, but not MT-III-induced phagocytosis. These data suggest the effect of both sPLA 2 s depends on iPLA 2 and that the effect of MT-II depends on activation of cPLA 2 . COX-2 and 5-LO-derived metabolites as well as PAF are involved in the signaling events required for phagocytosis induced by both venom sPLA 2 s. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PI 3-kinase independent role for AKT in F-actin regulation during outer segment phagocytosis by RPE cells

    PubMed Central

    Bulloj, Ayelen; Duan, Wei; Finnemann, Silvia C.

    2013-01-01

    Daily phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segment fragments (POS) by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is essential for vision. RPE cells use an uptake machinery that is highly similar to the one macrophages use to phagocytose apoptotic cells. In both forms of phagocytosis, particle binding induces phagocyte signaling that is required for F-actin assembly and rearrangement beneath bound particles. Macrophage binding of apoptotic cells stimulates PI3 kinases (PI3K) and AKT kinases (AKT), which may be downstream of PI3K, and PI3K inhibition decreases engulfment. Here, we used specific inhibitory agents to investigate whether and how PI3K and AKT contribute to RPE phagocytosis. Either PI3K or AKT inhibition eliminated AKT activation by RPE cells in response to POS and increased the numbers of POS bound by RPE cells. Analyzing the quality of bound POS, we found a higher fraction of POS associated with F-actin phagocytic cups and myosin II in RPE receiving AKT inhibitor. In these cells, individual POS also recruited more F-actin and myosin II than POS in control cells. In contrast, PI3K inhibition did not alter frequency of phagocytic cups but individual cups contained less F-actin (but similar levels of myosin II) compared to control cups. Annexin AII, another phagocytic cup protein of RPE cells, associated with bound POS regardless of inhibitor treatment. POS engulfment proceeded normally if cells already carried surface-bound POS when receiving inhibitors. However, PI3K inhibition during POS binding blocked subsequent POS engulfment. In striking contrast, AKT inhibition had no effect on POS engulfment. Taken together, these results suggest distinct regulatory roles of PI3K and AKT during POS phagocytosis by RPE cells. PMID:23669303

  3. In vivo delivery of heat shock protein 70 accelerates wound healing by up-regulating macrophage-mediated phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kovalchin, Joseph T; Wang, Ruibo; Wagh, Mihir S; Azoulay, Jason; Sanders, Melinda; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2006-01-01

    Injury causes tissue breakdown, which releases large quantities of intracellular contents into the extracellular space. Some of these materials are well-established activators of the immune system and include heat shock proteins (HSPs), uric acid, nucleotides, High Mobility Group Box-1 protein (HMGB-1), and DNA. Here, we show that in vivo delivery of HSPs into BALB/cJ mice with full-thickness wounds accelerates the rate of wound closure by 60% as compared with control-treated mice. The onset is rapid and the effect is sustained, dose dependent, and protein specific. Adoptive transfer of RAW264 macrophages pretreated with HSP70 into naïve recipients with a wound transfers the HSP-mediated effect on the rate of wound closure. Further, we demonstrate that part of the mechanism by which HSP70 accelerates wound closure is through the stimulation of macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of wound debris. Disabling the HSP70-mediated enhancement of phagocytosis abrogates the HSP-mediated acceleration of the healing process. These findings create two opportunities: one, therapeutic, wherein HSP70 could be used in the clinical management of wounds; and two, pathophysiologic, to decode signals by which the host defenses recognize and respond to injury.

  4. Effect of a 2.45-GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis in differentiated human HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shin; Narita, Eijiro; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Taki, Masao; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2015-01-01

    The potential public health risks of radiofrequency (RF) fields have been discussed at length, especially with the use of mobile phones spreading extensively throughout the world. In order to investigate the properties of RF fields, we examined the effect of 2.45-GHz RF fields at the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2 and 10 W/kg for 4 and 24 h on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis in differentiated human HL-60 cells. Neutrophil chemotaxis was not affected by RF-field exposure, and subsequent phagocytosis was not affected either compared with that under sham exposure conditions. These studies demonstrated an initial immune response in the human body exposed to 2.45-GHz RF fields at the SAR of 2 W/kg, which is the maximum value recommended by the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The results of our experiments for RF-field exposure at an SAR under 10 W/kg showed very little or no effects on either chemotaxis or phagocytosis in neutrophil-like human HL-60 cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  5. Effect of a 2.45-GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis in differentiated human HL-60 cells

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Shin; Narita, Eijiro; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Taki, Masao; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2015-01-01

    The potential public health risks of radiofrequency (RF) fields have been discussed at length, especially with the use of mobile phones spreading extensively throughout the world. In order to investigate the properties of RF fields, we examined the effect of 2.45-GHz RF fields at the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2 and 10 W/kg for 4 and 24 h on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis in differentiated human HL-60 cells. Neutrophil chemotaxis was not affected by RF-field exposure, and subsequent phagocytosis was not affected either compared with that under sham exposure conditions. These studies demonstrated an initial immune response in the human body exposed to 2.45-GHz RF fields at the SAR of 2 W/kg, which is the maximum value recommended by the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The results of our experiments for RF-field exposure at an SAR under 10 W/kg showed very little or no effects on either chemotaxis or phagocytosis in neutrophil-like human HL-60 cells. PMID:25194051

  6. Phagocytosis: Hungry, Hungry Cells.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew; Botelho, Roberto J

    2017-01-01

    Phagocytosis is the cellular internalization and sequestration of particulate matter into a `phagosome, which then matures into a phagolysosome. The phagolysosome then offers a specialized acidic and hydrolytic milieu that ultimately degrades the engulfed particle. In multicellular organisms, phagocytosis and phagosome maturation play two key physiological roles. First, phagocytic cells have an important function in tissue remodeling and homeostasis by eliminating apoptotic bodies, senescent cells and cell fragments. Second, phagocytosis is a critical weapon of the immune system, whereby cells like macrophages and neutrophils hunt and engulf a variety of pathogens and foreign particles. Not surprisingly, pathogens have evolved mechanisms to either block or alter phagocytosis and phagosome maturation, ultimately usurping the cellular machinery for their own survival. Here, we review past and recent discoveries that highlight how phagocytes recognize target particles, key signals that emanate after phagocyte-particle engagement, and how these signals help modulate actin-dependent remodeling of the plasma membrane that culminates in the release of the phagosome. We then explore processes related to early and late stages of phagosome maturation, which requires fusion with endosomes and lysosomes. We end this review by acknowledging that little is known about phagosome fission and even less is known about how phagosomes are resolved after particle digestion.

  7. PLATELET PHAGOCYTOSIS AND AGGREGATION

    PubMed Central

    Movat, Henry Z.; Weiser, William J.; Glynn, Michael F.; Mustard, James F.

    1965-01-01

    The addition of latex particles to native (no anticoagulant) or citrated human platelet-rich plasma (PRP), or to a once-washed platelet suspension causes platelet aggregation. This aggregation is associated with phagocytosis of the latex particles by the platelets and appears to be due to release of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) from the platelets. Adenosine and adenosine monophosphate, which are known to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP, also block that induced by latex. These compounds do not prevent the phagocytosis of latex particles by the platelet. The addition of iodoacetate and 2,4-dinitrophenol in appropriate concentrations to the PRP, prior to the addition of the latex, blocks platelet aggregation and phagocytosis. This is also true for the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA). Platelets left in contact with latex for a sufficient period of time show loss of their granules. Leucocytes phagocytose both latex and platelets that had themselves phagocytosed latex. It is concluded that phagocytosis of latex particles by platelets resembles that by white cells, and that in both processes metabolic changes appear to be involved. PMID:4957257

  8. Expression of the phagocytosis-essential protein TREM2 is down-regulated by an aluminum-induced miRNA-34a in a murine microglial cell line.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Peter N; Zhao, Yuhai; Jones, Brandon M; Bhattacharjee, Surjyadipta; Lukiw, Walter J

    2013-11-01

    One of the key classical pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the progressive accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ42) peptides and their coalescence into highly insoluble senile plaque cores. A major factor driving Aβ42 peptide accumulation is the inability of brain cells to effectively clear excessive amounts of Aβ42 via phagocytosis. The trans-membrane spanning, sensor-receptor known as the "triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2" (TREM2; chr6p21) is essential in the sensing, recognition, phagocytosis and clearance of noxious cellular debris from brain cells, including neurotoxic Aβ42 peptides. Recently, mutations in the TREM2 gene have been associated with amyloidogenesis in neurodegenerative diseases including AD. In this report, we provide evidence that aluminum-sulfate, when incubated with microglial cells, induces the up-regulation of an NF-кB-sensitive micro RNA-34a (miRNA-34a; chr1p36) that is known to target the TREM2 mRNA 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), significantly down-regulating TREM2 expression. The aluminum-induced up-regulation of miRNA-34a and down-regulation of TREM2 expression were effectively quenched using the natural phenolic compound and NF-kB inhibitor CAPE [2-phenylethyl-(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylate; caffeic-acid phenethyl ester]. These results suggest, for the first time, that an epigenetic mechanism involving an aluminum-triggered, NF-kB-sensitive, miRNA-34a-mediated down-regulation of TREM2 expression may impair phagocytic responses that ultimately contribute to Aβ42 peptide accumulation, aggregation, amyloidogenesis and inflammatory degeneration in the brain. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Actin-binding protein regulation by microRNAs as a novel microbial strategy to modulate phagocytosis by host cells: the case of N-Wasp and miR-142-3p

    PubMed Central

    Bettencourt, Paulo; Marion, Sabrina; Pires, David; Santos, Leonor F.; Lastrucci, Claire; Carmo, Nuno; Blake, Jonathon; Benes, Vladimir; Griffiths, Gareth; Neyrolles, Olivier; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Anes, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a successful intracellular pathogen that thrives in macrophages (Mφs). There is a need to better understand how Mtb alters cellular processes like phagolysosome biogenesis, a classical determinant of its pathogenesis. A central feature of this bacteria's strategy is the manipulation of Mφ actin. Here, we examined the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as a potential mechanism in the regulation of actin-mediated events leading to phagocytosis in the context of mycobacteria infection. Given that non-virulent Mycobacterium smegmatis also controls actin filament assembly to prolong its intracellular survival inside host cells, we performed a global transcriptomic analysis to assess the modulation of miRNAs upon M. smegmatis infection of the murine Mφ cell line, J774A.1. This approach identified miR-142-3p as a key candidate to be involved in the regulation of actin dynamics required in phagocytosis. We unequivocally demonstrate that miR-142-3p targets N-Wasp, an actin-binding protein required during microbial challenge. A gain-of-function approach for miR-142-3p revealed a down-regulation of N-Wasp expression accompanied by a decrease of mycobacteria intake, while a loss-of-function approach yielded the reciprocal increase of the phagocytosis process. Equally important, we show Mtb induces the early expression of miR-142-3p and partially down-regulates N-Wasp protein levels in both the murine J774A.1 cell line and primary human Mφs. As proof of principle, the partial siRNA-mediated knock down of N-Wasp resulted in a decrease of Mtb intake by human Mφs, reflected in lower levels of colony-forming units (CFU) counts over time. We therefore propose the modulation of miRNAs as a novel strategy in mycobacterial infection to control factors involved in actin filament assembly and other early events of phagolysosome biogenesis. PMID:23760605

  10. Actin-binding protein regulation by microRNAs as a novel microbial strategy to modulate phagocytosis by host cells: the case of N-Wasp and miR-142-3p.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Paulo; Marion, Sabrina; Pires, David; Santos, Leonor F; Lastrucci, Claire; Carmo, Nuno; Blake, Jonathon; Benes, Vladimir; Griffiths, Gareth; Neyrolles, Olivier; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Anes, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a successful intracellular pathogen that thrives in macrophages (Mφs). There is a need to better understand how Mtb alters cellular processes like phagolysosome biogenesis, a classical determinant of its pathogenesis. A central feature of this bacteria's strategy is the manipulation of Mφ actin. Here, we examined the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as a potential mechanism in the regulation of actin-mediated events leading to phagocytosis in the context of mycobacteria infection. Given that non-virulent Mycobacterium smegmatis also controls actin filament assembly to prolong its intracellular survival inside host cells, we performed a global transcriptomic analysis to assess the modulation of miRNAs upon M. smegmatis infection of the murine Mφ cell line, J774A.1. This approach identified miR-142-3p as a key candidate to be involved in the regulation of actin dynamics required in phagocytosis. We unequivocally demonstrate that miR-142-3p targets N-Wasp, an actin-binding protein required during microbial challenge. A gain-of-function approach for miR-142-3p revealed a down-regulation of N-Wasp expression accompanied by a decrease of mycobacteria intake, while a loss-of-function approach yielded the reciprocal increase of the phagocytosis process. Equally important, we show Mtb induces the early expression of miR-142-3p and partially down-regulates N-Wasp protein levels in both the murine J774A.1 cell line and primary human Mφs. As proof of principle, the partial siRNA-mediated knock down of N-Wasp resulted in a decrease of Mtb intake by human Mφs, reflected in lower levels of colony-forming units (CFU) counts over time. We therefore propose the modulation of miRNAs as a novel strategy in mycobacterial infection to control factors involved in actin filament assembly and other early events of phagolysosome biogenesis.

  11. The origins of phagocytosis and eukaryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yutin, Natalya; Wolf, Maxim Y; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2009-01-01

    Background Phagocytosis, that is, engulfment of large particles by eukaryotic cells, is found in diverse organisms and is often thought to be central to the very origin of the eukaryotic cell, in particular, for the acquisition of bacterial endosymbionts including the ancestor of the mitochondrion. Results Comparisons of the sets of proteins implicated in phagocytosis in different eukaryotes reveal extreme diversity, with very few highly conserved components that typically do not possess readily identifiable prokaryotic homologs. Nevertheless, phylogenetic analysis of those proteins for which such homologs do exist yields clues to the possible origin of phagocytosis. The central finding is that a subset of archaea encode actins that are not only monophyletic with eukaryotic actins but also share unique structural features with actin-related proteins (Arp) 2 and 3. All phagocytic processes are strictly dependent on remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and the formation of branched filaments for which Arp2/3 are responsible. The presence of common structural features in Arp2/3 and the archaeal actins suggests that the common ancestors of the archaeal and eukaryotic actins were capable of forming branched filaments, like modern Arp2/3. The Rho family GTPases that are ubiquitous regulators of phagocytosis in eukaryotes appear to be of bacterial origin, so assuming that the host of the mitochondrial endosymbiont was an archaeon, the genes for these GTPases come via horizontal gene transfer from the endosymbiont or in an earlier event. Conclusion The present findings suggest a hypothetical scenario of eukaryogenesis under which the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes had no cell wall (like modern Thermoplasma) but had an actin-based cytoskeleton including branched actin filaments that allowed this organism to produce actin-supported membrane protrusions. These protrusions would facilitate accidental, occasional engulfment of bacteria, one of which eventually became the

  12. Role of target geometry in phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Julie A.; Mitragotri, Samir

    2006-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a principal component of the body’s innate immunity in which macrophages internalize targets in an actin-dependent manner. Targets vary widely in shape and size and include particles such as pathogens and senescent cells. Despite considerable progress in understanding this complicated process, the role of target geometry in phagocytosis has remained elusive. Previous studies on phagocytosis have been performed using spherical targets, thereby overlooking the role of particle shape. Using polystyrene particles of various sizes and shapes, we studied phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. We report a surprising finding that particle shape, not size, plays a dominant role in phagocytosis. All shapes were capable of initiating phagocytosis in at least one orientation. However, the local particle shape, measured by tangent angles, at the point of initial contact dictates whether macrophages initiate phagocytosis or simply spread on particles. The local shape determines the complexity of the actin structure that must be created to initiate phagocytosis and allow the membrane to move over the particle. Failure to create the required actin structure results in simple spreading and not internalization. Particle size primarily impacts the completion of phagocytosis in cases where particle volume exceeds the cell volume. PMID:16549762

  13. Methamphetamine Inhibits Antigen Processing, Presentation, and Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Joset, Danielle; Ray, Yonaton; Gácser, Attila; Toussi, Sima; Mizushima, Noboru; Nosanchuk, Josh; Goldstein, Harris; Loike, John; Sulzer, David; Santambrogio, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is abused by over 35 million people worldwide. Chronic Meth abuse may be particularly devastating in individuals who engage in unprotected sex with multiple partners because it is associated with a 2-fold higher risk for obtaining HIV and associated secondary infections. We report the first specific evidence that Meth at pharmacological concentrations exerts a direct immunosuppressive effect on dendritic cells and macrophages. As a weak base, Meth collapses the pH gradient across acidic organelles, including lysosomes and associated autophagic organelles. This in turn inhibits receptor-mediated phagocytosis of antibody-coated particles, MHC class II antigen processing by the endosomal–lysosomal pathway, and antigen presentation to splenic T cells by dendritic cells. More importantly Meth facilitates intracellular replication and inhibits intracellular killing of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, two major AIDS-related pathogens. Meth exerts previously unreported direct immunosuppressive effects that contribute to increased risk of infection and exacerbate AIDS pathology. PMID:18282092

  14. Response Gene to Complement 32 Protein Promotes Macrophage Phagocytosis via Activation of Protein Kinase C Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Gui; Chen, Shi-You

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage phagocytosis plays an important role in host defense. The molecular mechanism, especially factors regulating the phagocytosis, however, is not completely understood. In the present study, we found that response gene to complement 32 (RGC-32) is an important regulator of phagocytosis. Although RGC-32 is induced and abundantly expressed in macrophage during monocyte-macrophage differentiation, RGC-32 appears not to be important for this process because RGC-32-deficient bone marrow progenitor can normally differentiate to macrophage. However, both peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages with RGC-32 deficiency exhibit significant defects in phagocytosis, whereas RGC-32-overexpressed macrophages show increased phagocytosis. Mechanistically, RGC-32 is recruited to macrophage membrane where it promotes F-actin assembly and the formation of phagocytic cups. RGC-32 knock-out impairs F-actin assembly. RGC-32 appears to interact with PKC to regulate PKC-induced phosphorylation of F-actin cross-linking protein myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that RGC-32 is a novel membrane regulator for macrophage phagocytosis. PMID:24973210

  15. Attempted caveolae-mediated phagocytosis of surface-fixed micro-pillars by human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Moerke, Caroline; Mueller, Petra; Nebe, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Cells are sensitive to their underlying micro- and nano-topography, but the complex interplay is not completely understood especially if sharp edges and ridges of stochastically modified surfaces interfere with an attached cell body. Micro-topography offers cues that evoke a large range of cell responses e.g. altered adhesion behavior and integrin expression resulting in disturbed cell functions. In this study, we analyzed why osteoblastic cells mimic the underlying geometrical micro-pillar structure (5 × 5 × 5 μm, spacing of 5 μm) with their actin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, we discovered an attempted caveolae-mediated phagocytosis of each micro-pillar beneath the cells, which was accompanied by increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reduced intracellular ATP levels. This energy consuming process hampered the cells in their function as osteoblasts at the interface. The raft-dependent/caveolae-mediated phagocytic pathway is regulated by diverse cellular components including caveolin-1 (Cav-1), cholesterol, actin cytoskeleton as well as actin-binding proteins like annexin A2 (AnxA2). Our results show a new aspect of osteoblast-material interaction and give insight into how cells behave on extraordinary micro-structures. We conclude that stochastically structured implants used in orthopedic surgery should avoid any topographical heights which induce phagocytosis to prevent their successful ingrowth. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. SOCS3 is a modulator of human macrophage phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Peter; Okai, Blessing; Hoare, Joseph I; Erwig, Lars P; Wilson, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are recognized as key feedback inhibitors modulating the inflammatory activities of macrophages, but comparatively little is known about whether and how they affect phagocytosis. Here, we evaluated the role of SOCS3 in driving the inflammatory phenotype and phagocytic uptake of apoptotic cells by human macrophages and the signaling pathways that are necessary for efficient phagocytosis. In M1-activated human monocyte-derived macrophages, SOCS3 silencing, using short interfering RNA technology, resulted in a decreased expression of proinflammatory markers and an increased expression of M2 macrophage markers. Strikingly, we demonstrated for the first time that SOCS3 knockdown significantly enhances the phagocytic capacity of M1 macrophages for carboxylate-modified beads and apoptotic neutrophils. With the use of live-cell video microscopy, we showed that SOCS3 knockdown radically affects the temporal dynamics of particle engulfment, enabling more rapid uptake of a second target and delaying postengulfment processing, as evidenced by deferred acquisition of phagosome maturation markers. SOCS3 knockdown impacts on phagocytosis through increased PI3K and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) activity, pathways essential for engulfment and clearance of apoptotic cells. Enhanced phagocytosis in SOCS3-silenced cells was reversed by pharmacological PI3K inhibition. Furthermore, we revealed that actin polymerization, downstream of PI3K/Rac1 activation, was significantly altered in SOCS3-silenced cells, providing a mechanism for their greater phagocytic activity. The findings support a new model, whereby SOCS3 not only plays an important role in driving macrophage inflammatory responses but modulates key signaling pathways organizing the actin cytoskeleton to regulate the efficiency of phagocytic processes. © The Author(s).

  17. TMEM55a localizes to macrophage phagosomes to downregulate phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Shin; Nigorikawa, Kiyomi; Okada, Eri; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Kasuu, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Miho; Kofuji, Satoshi; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Sasaki, Takehiko; Hazeki, Kaoru

    2018-03-06

    TMEM55a (also known as PIP4P2) is an enzyme that dephosphorylates the phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) PtdIns(4,5)P 2 to form PtdIns(5)P in vitro However, the in vivo conversion of the polyphosphoinositide into PtdIns(5)P by the phosphatase has not yet been demonstrated, and the role of TMEM55a remains poorly understood. Here, we found that mouse macrophages (Raw264.7) deficient in TMEM55a showed an increased engulfment of large particles without affecting the phagocytosis of Escherichia coli Transfection of a bacterial phosphatase with similar substrate specificity to TMEM55a, namely IpgD, into Raw264.7 cells inhibited the engulfment of IgG-erythrocytes in a manner dependent on its phosphatase activity. In contrast, cells transfected with PIP4K2a, which catalyzes PtdIns(4,5)P 2 production from PtdIns(5)P, increased phagocytosis. Fluorescent TMEM55a transfected into Raw264.7 cells was found to mostly localize to the phagosome. The accumulation of PtdIns(4,5)P 2 , PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 and F-actin on the phagocytic cup was increased in TMEM55a-deficient cells, as monitored by live-cell imaging. Phagosomal PtdIns(5)P was decreased in the knockdown cells, but the augmentation of phagocytosis in these cells was unaffected by the exogenous addition of PtdIns(5)P. Taken together, these results suggest that TMEM55a negatively regulates the phagocytosis of large particles by reducing phagosomal PtdIns(4,5)P 2 accumulation during cup formation. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. P2Y(6)-Evoked Microglial Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazuhide; Koizumi, Schuichi; Kataoka, Ayako; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Tsuda, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    While it was reported that microglia is engaged in the clearance of dead cells or dangerous debris, the mechanism of phagocytosis is still unclear. Recently, we found that purinergic system has a very important role for the chemotaxis and phagocytosis of microglia. When neighboring cells are injured, the cells release or leak ATP into extracellular space and microglia rapidly move toward or extend a process to the nucleotides as chemotaxis through P2Y(12) receptors of microglia. In the meanwhile, microglia expressing metabotropic P2Y(6) receptors show phagocytosis by the stimulation of uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP), an agonist of P2Y(6). UDP/UTP is leaked when hippocampal neurons are damaged by kainic acid (KA) in vivo and in vitro. Systemic administration of KA in rats results in neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, where mRNA for P2Y(6) receptors increases activated microglia. Thus, the P2Y(6) receptor is upregulated when neurons are damaged, and would function as a sensor for phagocytosis by sensing diffusible UDP signals.

  19. TRIF mediates microglial phagocytosis of degenerating axons

    PubMed Central

    Hosmane, Suneil; Tegenge, Million Adane; Rajbhandari, Labchan; Uapinyoying, Prech; Kumar, Nishant Ganesh; Thakor, Nitish; Venkatesan, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Following central nervous system (CNS) injury, microglial phagocytosis of damaged endogenous tissue is thought to play an important role in recovery and regeneration. Previous work has focused on delineating mechanisms of clearance of neurons and myelin. Little, however, is known of the mechanisms underlying phagocytosis of axon debris. We have developed a novel microfluidic platform that enables co-culture of microglia with bundles of CNS axons in order to investigate mechanisms of microglial phagocytosis of axons. Utilizing this platform, we find that axon degeneration results in the induction of type-1 interferon genes within microglia. Pharmacologic and genetic disruption of TRIF, a toll-like receptor adaptor protein, blocks induction of the interferon response and inhibits microglial phagocytosis of axon debris in vitro. In vivo, microglial phagocytosis of axons following dorsal root axotomy is impaired in mice in which TRIF has been genetically deleted. Furthermore, we identify the p38mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade as a signaling pathway downstream of TRIF following axon degeneration and find that inhibition of p38MAPK by SB203580 also blocked clearance of axon debris. Finally, we find that TRIF-dependent microglial clearance of unmyelinated axon debris facilitates axon outgrowth. Overall, we provide evidence that TRIF-mediated signaling plays an unexpected role in axonal debris clearance by microglia, thereby facilitating a more permissive environment for axonal outgrowth. Our study has significant implications for the development of novel regenerative and restorative strategies for the many traumatic, neuroinflammatory, and neurodegenerative conditions characterized by CNS axon degeneration. PMID:22649252

  20. Outer membrane protein OmpW of Escherichia coli is required for resistance to phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Bin; Tian, Li-Hua; Zou, Hai-Jie; Wang, Chang-Yi; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Tang, Chen-Hong; Zhao, Fu-Kun; Pan, Jian-Yi

    2013-10-01

    Eight-stranded β-barrel outer membrane proteins can confer bacterial virulence via resistance to host innate defenses. This resistance function of OmpW, which was recently identified as an eight-stranded β-barrel protein, was investigated in this study. Our results demonstrated that upregulation of OmpW correlated with increased bacterial survival during phagocytosis. Bacterial mutants harboring a deletion of ompW exhibited a significantly increased phagocytosis rate. Both observations suggest that the OmpW protein protects bacteria against host phagocytosis. In addition, expression of ompW is regulated by iron, which implies that the resistance provided by OmpW may be an important factor in iron-related infectious diseases. Furthermore, OmpW has been identified as a protective antigen that protects mice against bacterial infection and is therefore a promising target for vaccine development against infectious diseases. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. All rights reserved.

  1. Allograft tolerance induced by donor apoptotic lymphocytes requires phagocytosis in the recipient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, E.; Gao, Y.; Chen, J.; Roberts, A. I.; Wang, X.; Chen, Z.; Shi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cell death through apoptosis plays a critical role in regulating cellular homeostasis. Whether the disposal of apoptotic cells through phagocytosis can actively induce immune tolerance in vivo, however, remains controversial. Here, we report in a rat model that without using immunosuppressants, transfusion of apoptotic splenocytes from the donor strain prior to transplant dramatically prolonged survival of heart allografts. Histological analysis verified that rejection signs were significantly ameliorated. Splenocytes from rats transfused with donor apoptotic cells showed a dramatically decreased response to donor lymphocyte stimulation. Most importantly, blockade of phagocytosis in vivo, either with gadolinium chloride to disrupt phagocyte function or with annexin V to block binding of exposed phosphotidylserine to its receptor on phagocytes, abolished the beneficial effect of transfused apoptotic cells on heart allograft survival. Our results demonstrate that donor apoptotic cells promote specific allograft acceptance and that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in vivo plays a crucial role in maintaining immune tolerance.

  2. Involvement of Tiam1, RhoG and ELMO2/ILK in Rac1-mediated phagocytosis in human trabecular meshwork cells.

    PubMed

    Peotter, Jennifer L; Phillips, Jenny; Tong, Tiegang; Dimeo, Kaylee; Gonzalez, Jose M; Peters, Donna M

    2016-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that an αvβ5 integrin/FAK- mediated pathway regulated the phagocytic properties of human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells. Here we demonstrate that this process is mediated by Rac-1 and a previously unreported signaling pathway that utilizes the Tiam1 as well as a novel ILK/RhoG/ELMO2 signaling pathway. Phagocytosis in both a TM-1 cell line and normal HTM cells was mediated by Rac1 and could be significantly decreased by >75% using the Rac1 inhibitor EHop-016. Knockdown of Rac1 in TM-1 cells also inhibited phagocytosis by 40% whereas overexpression of a constitutively active Rac1 or stimulation with PDGF increased phagocytosis by 83% and 32% respectively. Tiam1 was involved in regulating phagocytosis. Knockdown of Tiam1 inhibited phagocytosis by 72% while overexpression of Tiam1 C1199 increased phagocytosis by 75%. Other upstream effectors of Rac1 found to be involved included ELMO2, RhoG, and ILK. Knockdowns of ELMO2, ILK, and RhoG caused a reduction in phagocytosis by 51%, 55% and 46% respectively. In contrast, knockdown of Vav2 and Dock1 or overexpression of Vav2 Y159/172F did not cause a significant change in phagocytosis. These data suggest a novel link between Tiam1 and RhoG/ILK /ELMO2 pathway as upstream effectors of the Rac1-mediated phagocytic process in TM cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Subversion of phagocytosis for pathogen survival.

    PubMed

    Sarantis, Helen; Grinstein, Sergio

    2012-10-18

    Professional phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, effectively engulf and eliminate invading microorganisms. To survive this onslaught, pathogens have developed an astounding array of countermeasures aimed at avoiding detection, impairing signaling, or paralyzing the machinery that underlies phagocytosis. On the other hand, certain pathogens benefit from attaching to, entering, or traversing host cells to establish and spread infection. This is accomplished by yet other types of effectors that either co-opt or mimic host cell phagocytic components. Here, we briefly summarize the basic features of the phagocytic process and proceed to describe the types of strategies deployed by pathogens to either impair phagocytosis or to gain entry into cells where they can establish a safe survival niche. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular regulation of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2)by taurocholic acid in Bewo Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, X H; Liu, S Y; Xing, A Y

    2014-06-27

    To characterize the mechanisms of action of taurocholic acid(TCA) and farnesoid X receptor(FXR) on organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2(OATP1A2) expression in placental Bewo cell line. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blots were used to detect OATP1A2 in Bewo cells cultured with TCA and pcDNA3.1(+)-hFXR transfected Bewo cells after incubation with 2 mM TCA for 48 hours. TCA(0.02 mM) induced the mRNA and protein expression of OATP1A2 by 3 and 1.6 fold (p<0.05), respectively, while 0.2 and 2 mM TCA induced mRNA and protein expression by 1.5 and 1.3 fold, respectively. The concentration of TCA was negatively correlated with OATP1A2 gene expression (P<0.05). In pcDNA3.1(+)-hFXR transfected Bewo cells with 2 mM TCA demonstrated a 2-3 fold increase in OATP1A2 over controls (P<0.05). TCA is one of the regulation factors for OATP1A2 in the Bewo cell line. A low dose of TCA can induce fetal membrane expression of OATP1A2. This may present a physiological or compensatory mechanism of the placenta, while the high dose of TCA may produce a pathological or pathogenic mechanism. Farnesoid X receptor may act in synergy with TCA to increase the expression of OATP1A2. This may be a treatment strategy for fetal cholestasis.

  5. [Update views on the theory of phagocytosis].

    PubMed

    Freĭdlin, I S

    2008-01-01

    Developer of the phagocytosis theory I.I Mechnikov forecasted the most fruitful directions of its development. Macrophages express on the plasma membranes broad spectrum of receptors, which mediate their interaction with altered organism's own components as well as with exogenous agents, including various microorganisms. Recognition leads to changes of expression of surface molecules, enhancement of phagocytic activity as well as production and secretion of cytokines, presentation functions, signaling and genes expression. This reflected on maintenance of homeostasis, as well as on host defense effectiveness, including mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity.

  6. Phagocytosis Affects Biguanide Sensitivity of Acanthamoeba spp.

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Judith A.; Ahearn, Donald G.; Avery, Simon V.; Crow Jr., Sidney A.

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of Acanthamoeba keratitis, a disease associated with contact lens wear, has been in apparent decline with the advent of multipurpose contact lens solutions. The concentrations of the biguanides chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and particularly polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) included in multipurpose solutions (MPSs) are sublethal for amoebae. We evaluated by flow cytometry the effects of these two biguanides on phagocytosis of particles and the survival of trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii and A. polyphaga. Trophozoites of A. castellanii and A. polyphaga (106/ml) were exposed to solutions of 5 and 50 μg of PHMB and CHX per ml in the presence and absence of particles (i.e., heat-killed yeasts and bacteria and latex beads). In addition, trophozoites were exposed to particles treated with these concentrations of the two biguanides. In the absence of particles, trophozoites of A. polyphaga appeared to be more resistant to the biguanides than those of A. castellanii. In the presence of particles, the rates of survival of both species were decreased. In most instances, particles treated with sublethal concentrations of both biguanides that were adsorbed onto the particles reduced the incidence of phagocytosis. Particles present in MPSs in contact lens cases may be involved in the decreased incidence of Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:12069957

  7. Chapter 9: Using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Biosensors to Probe Rho GTPase Activation During Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Miskolci, Veronika; Hodgson, Louis; Cox, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    The p21-family members of Rho GTPases are important for the control of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, and are critical regulators of phagocytosis. The three-dimensional structure of phagosomes and the highly compartmentalized nature of the signaling mechanisms during phagocytosis require high-resolution imaging using ratiometric biosensors to decipher Rho GTPase activities regulating phagosome formation and function. Here we describe methods for the expression and ratiometric imaging of FRET-based Rho GTPase biosensors in macrophages during phagocytosis. As an example, we show Cdc42 activity at the phagosome over Z-serial planes. In addition, we demonstrate the usage of a new, fast, and user-friendly deconvolution package that delivers significant improvements in the attainable details of Rho GTPase activity in phagosome structures. PMID:27815877

  8. Ephrin-A2 reverse signaling negatively regulates neural progenitor proliferation and neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Johan; Armulik, Annika; Senti, Kirsten-André; Edoff, Karin; Spalding, Kirsty; Momma, Stefan; Cassidy, Rob; Flanagan, John G.; Frisén, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    The number of cells in an organ is regulated by mitogens and trophic factors that impinge on intrinsic determinants of proliferation and apoptosis. We here report the identification of an additional mechanism to control cell number in the brain: EphA7 induces ephrin-A2 reverse signaling, which negatively regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation. Cells in the neural stem cell niche in the adult brain proliferate more and have a shorter cell cycle in mice lacking ephrin-A2. The increased progenitor proliferation is accompanied by a higher number of cells in the olfactory bulb. Disrupting the interaction between ephrin-A2 and EphA7 in the adult brain of wild-type mice disinhibits proliferation and results in increased neurogenesis. The identification of ephrin-A2 and EphA7 as negative regulators of progenitor cell proliferation reveals a novel mechanism to control cell numbers in the brain. PMID:15713841

  9. Ephrin-A2 reverse signaling negatively regulates neural progenitor proliferation and neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Johan; Armulik, Annika; Senti, Kirsten-André; Edoff, Karin; Spalding, Kirsty; Momma, Stefan; Cassidy, Rob; Flanagan, John G; Frisén, Jonas

    2005-02-15

    The number of cells in an organ is regulated by mitogens and trophic factors that impinge on intrinsic determinants of proliferation and apoptosis. We here report the identification of an additional mechanism to control cell number in the brain: EphA7 induces ephrin-A2 reverse signaling, which negatively regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation. Cells in the neural stem cell niche in the adult brain proliferate more and have a shorter cell cycle in mice lacking ephrin-A2. The increased progenitor proliferation is accompanied by a higher number of cells in the olfactory bulb. Disrupting the interaction between ephrin-A2 and EphA7 in the adult brain of wild-type mice disinhibits proliferation and results in increased neurogenesis. The identification of ephrin-A2 and EphA7 as negative regulators of progenitor cell proliferation reveals a novel mechanism to control cell numbers in the brain.

  10. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production

    SciTech Connect

    Kakita, Hiroki; Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601; Aoyama, Mineyoshi, E-mail: ao.mine@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp

    2013-04-15

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed thatmore » cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF. - Highlights: ► Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is associated with a high mortality rate. ► Hyperimmunization in the brain is believed to be

  11. Dual functions of Bruton's tyrosine kinase and Tec kinase during Fcgamma receptor-induced signaling and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Jongstra-Bilen, Jenny; Puig Cano, Adrianet; Hasija, Manvi; Xiao, Haiyan; Smith, C I Edvard; Cybulsky, Myron I

    2008-07-01

    Tec family nonreceptor tyrosine kinases are expressed by hematopoietic cells, activate phospholipase C (PLC)gamma, and regulate cytoskeletal rearrangement, yet their role in FcgammaR-induced signaling and phagocytosis remains unknown. We demonstrate in this study that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and Tec, the only Tec kinases expressed by RAW 264.7 cells, are activated throughout phagocytosis. Activated Btk and Tec kinase accumulate at an early stage at the base of phagocytic cups and inhibition of their activity by the specific inhibitor LFM-A13 or expression by small interfering RNA significantly inhibited FcgammaR-induced phagocytosis. Similarly, a significant role for these kinases in phagocytosis was found in primary macrophages. FcgammaR-induced activation of Mac-1, which is required for optimal phagocytosis, was markedly inhibited and our findings suggest that the roles of kinases Btk and Tec in Mac-1 activation account for their functions in the early stages of phagocytosis. Initial activation of PLCgamma2, the predominant PLC isoform in RAW 264.7 cells, is dependent on Syk. In contrast, a late and prolonged activation of PLCgamma2 was dependent on Btk and Tec. We found accumulation of diacylglycerol (DAG), a PLCgamma product, in phagosome membranes, and activated Btk, but not Tec, colocalized with phagosomal DAG. Inhibition of Tec family kinase activity increased the level of DAG in phagosomes, suggesting a negative regulatory role for Btk. Tec, in contrast, clustered at sites near phagosome formation. In summary, we elucidated that Tec family kinases participate in at least two stages of FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis: activation of Mac-1 during ingestion, and after phagosome formation, during which Btk and Tec potentially have distinct roles.

  12. UGT87A2, an Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase, regulates flowering time via FLOWERING LOCUS C.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Jin, Shang-Hui; Hu, Hong-Qun; Sun, Yan-Guo; Wang, Yan-Wen; Han, Ping; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2012-05-01

    • Family 1 glycosyltransferases comprise the greatest number of glycosyltransferases found in plants. The widespread occurrence and diversity of glycosides throughout the plant kingdom underscore the importance of these glycosyltransferases. • Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a late-flowering Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant, in which a putative family 1 glycosyltransferase gene, UGT87A2, was disrupted. The role and possible mechanism of UGT87A2 in the regulation of flowering were analyzed by molecular, genetic and cellular approaches. • The ugt87a2 mutant exhibited late flowering in both long and short days, and its flowering was promoted by vernalization and gibberellin. Furthermore, the mutant flowering phenotype was rescued by the wild-type UGT87A2 gene in complementation lines. Interestingly, the expression of the flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C was increased substantially in the mutant, but decreased to the wild-type level in complementation lines, with corresponding changes in the expression levels of the floral integrators and floral meristem identity genes. The expression of UGT87A2 was developmentally regulated and its protein products were distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus. • Our findings imply that UGT87A2 regulates flowering time via the flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C. These data highlight an important role for the family 1 glycosyltransferases in the regulation of plant flower development. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Regulation of LH/FSH expression by secretoglobin 3A2 in the mouse pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Yuki; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Sakata, Ichiro; Sakai, Takafumi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Shioko; Kurotani, Reiko

    2014-04-01

    Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2 was originally identified as a downstream target for the homeodomain transcription factor NKX2-1 in the lung. NKX2-1 plays a role in the genesis and expression of genes in the thyroid, lung and ventral forebrain; Nkx2-1-null mice have no thyroid and pituitary and severely hypoplastic lungs and hypothalamus. To demonstrate whether SCGB3A2 plays any role in pituitary hormone production, NKX2-1 and SCGB3A2 expression in the mouse pituitary gland was examined by immunohistochemical analysis and RT-PCR. NKX2-1 was localized in the posterior pituitary lobe, whereas SCGB3A2 was observed in both anterior and posterior lobes as shown by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Expression of CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs), which regulate mouse Scgb3a2 transcription, was also examined by RT-PCR. C/EBPβ, γ, δ and ζ were expressed in the adult mouse pituitary gland. SCGB3A2 was expressed in the anterior and posterior lobes from postnatal days 1 and 5, respectively and the areas where SCGB3A2 expression was found coincided with the area where FSH-secreting cells were found. Double-staining for SCGB3A2 and pituitary hormones revealed that SCGB3A2 was mainly localized in gonadotrophs in 49 % of FSH-secreting cells and 47 % of LH-secreting cells. In addition, SCGB3A2 dramatically inhibited LH and FSH mRNA expression in rat pituitary primary cell cultures. These results suggest that SCGB3A2 regulates FSH/LH production in the anterior pituitary lobe and that transcription factors other than NKX2-1 may regulate SCGB3A2 expression.

  14. Titan Cells Confer Protection from Phagocytosis in Cryptococcus neoformans Infections

    PubMed Central

    Okagaki, Laura H.

    2012-01-01

    The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans produces an enlarged “titan” cell morphology when exposed to the host pulmonary environment. Titan cells exhibit traits that promote survival in the host. Previous studies showed that titan cells are not phagocytosed and that increased titan cell production in the lungs results in reduced phagocytosis of cryptococcal cells by host immune cells. Here, the effect of titan cell production on host-pathogen interactions during early stages of pulmonary cryptococcosis was explored. The relationship between titan cell production and phagocytosis was found to be nonlinear; moderate increases in titan cell production resulted in profound decreases in phagocytosis, with significant differences occurring within the first 24 h of the infection. Not only were titan cells themselves protected from phagocytosis, but titan cell formation also conferred protection from phagocytosis to normal-size cryptococcal cells. Large particles introduced into the lungs were not phagocytosed, suggesting the large size of titan cells protects against phagocytosis. The presence of large particles was unable to protect smaller particles from phagocytosis, revealing that titan cell size alone is not sufficient to provide the observed cross-protection of normal-size cryptococcal cells. These data suggest that titan cells play a critical role in establishment of the pulmonary infection by promoting the survival of the entire population of cryptococcal cells. PMID:22544904

  15. Titan cells confer protection from phagocytosis in Cryptococcus neoformans infections.

    PubMed

    Okagaki, Laura H; Nielsen, Kirsten

    2012-06-01

    The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans produces an enlarged "titan" cell morphology when exposed to the host pulmonary environment. Titan cells exhibit traits that promote survival in the host. Previous studies showed that titan cells are not phagocytosed and that increased titan cell production in the lungs results in reduced phagocytosis of cryptococcal cells by host immune cells. Here, the effect of titan cell production on host-pathogen interactions during early stages of pulmonary cryptococcosis was explored. The relationship between titan cell production and phagocytosis was found to be nonlinear; moderate increases in titan cell production resulted in profound decreases in phagocytosis, with significant differences occurring within the first 24 h of the infection. Not only were titan cells themselves protected from phagocytosis, but titan cell formation also conferred protection from phagocytosis to normal-size cryptococcal cells. Large particles introduced into the lungs were not phagocytosed, suggesting the large size of titan cells protects against phagocytosis. The presence of large particles was unable to protect smaller particles from phagocytosis, revealing that titan cell size alone is not sufficient to provide the observed cross-protection of normal-size cryptococcal cells. These data suggest that titan cells play a critical role in establishment of the pulmonary infection by promoting the survival of the entire population of cryptococcal cells.

  16. Genetic dissection of TAM receptor-ligand interaction in retinal pigment epithelial cell phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Burstyn-Cohen, Tal; Lew, Erin D.; Través, Paqui G.; Burrola, Patrick G.; Hash, Joseph C.; Lemke, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Although TAM receptor tyrosine kinases play key roles in immune regulation, cancer metastasis, and viral infection, the relative importance of the two TAM ligands – Gas6 and Protein S – has yet to be resolved in any setting in vivo. We have now performed a genetic dissection of ligand function in the retina, where the TAM receptor Mer is required for the circadian phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments by retinal pigment epithelial cells. This process is severely attenuated in Mer mutant mice, which leads to photoreceptor death. We find that retinal deletion of either Gas6 or Protein S alone yields retinae with a normal number of photoreceptors. However, concerted deletion of both ligands fully reproduces the photoreceptor death seen in Mer mutants. These results demonstrate that Protein S and Gas6 function as independent, bona fide Mer ligands, and are, to a first approximation, interchangeable with respect to Mer-driven phagocytosis in the retina. PMID:23259948

  17. Receptor-mediated phagocytosis of Leishmania: implications for intracellular survival

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Norikiyo; Wilson, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular promastigote stage of Leishmania spp. is transmitted to mammals by a sand fly vector. Leishmania promastigotes ligate host macrophage receptors, triggering phagocytosis and subsequent internalization, a critical step for survival. Parasites transform intracellularly to the amastigote stage. Many studies document different receptors detecting promastigotes and amastigotes, but the relative importance of each interaction is ill-defined. Recent studies suggest the macrophage receptors utilized during phagocytosis impact the intracellular fate of the parasite. This review summarizes the receptors implicated in Leishmania phagocytosis over the past 30 years. It then proceeds to weigh the evidence for or against their potential roles in intracellular parasite trafficking. PMID:22726697

  18. Effect of Trace Metals on Phagocytosis by Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Judith A.; Gardner, Donald E.; Waters, Michael D.; Coffin, David L.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were performed to measure the effect of trace metals on a vital function of the alveolar macrophage (AM), phagocytosis. Since certain trace metals were found to reduce the viability of AMs, a technique was developed to permit examination of live cells only for phagocytosis. Evidence is presented that Ni2+ selectively altered the phagocytic activity of AMs at concentrations lower than those which caused cell death. It is further shown that a level of VO3− that caused extensive lysis and death did not reduce phagocytosis in surviving cells. The effects of Cd2+, Cr3+, and Mn2+ on AMs were also examined. PMID:49299

  19. Cell adhesion and EGFR activation regulate EphA2 expression in cancer.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Alice Bjerregaard; Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2010-04-01

    EphA2 is frequently overexpressed in cancer, and increasing amounts of evidence show that EphA2 contributes to multiple aspects of the malignant character including angiogenesis and metastasis. Several aspects of the regulation and functional significance of EphA2 expression in cancer are still largely unknown. Here we show that the expression of EphA2 in in vitro cultured cells, is restricted to cells growing adherently and that adhesion-induced EphA2 expression is dependent upon activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and Src family kinases (SRC). Moreover, the results show that adhesion-induced EGFR activation and EphA2 expression is affected by interactions with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins working as integrin ligands. Stimulation with the EphA2 ligand, ephrinA1 inhibited ERK phosphorylation and cancer cell viability. These effects were however abolished by activation of the EGF-receptor ligand system favoring Ras/MAPK signaling and cell proliferation. Based on our results, we propose a regulatory mechanism where cell adhesion induces EGFR kinase activation and EphA2 expression; and where the effect of ephrinA1 mediated reduction in cell viability by inhibiting EphA2 expression is overruled by activated EGFR in human cancer cells. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolites of Aliphatic Alcohols Detected in Alcoholic Beverages Inhibit Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Árnyas, Ervin M; Pál, László; Baranyi, Gergő; Bujdosó, Orsolya; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2016-07-01

    The aim of our study was to measure granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis following treatment of cells with some metabolites of aliphatic alcohols alone and in combination with acetaldehyde. The cells were separated from human peripheral blood prior to determination of phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by granulocytes and monocytes treated individually with metabolites of aliphatic alcohols including formaldehyde, 1-propanal, acetone, 1-butanal, and 2-butanone and in combination with acetaldehyde. The findings revealed that metabolites of aliphatic alcohols inhibited phagocytosis by granulocytes and monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner and when combined with acetaldehyde, they caused a further decrease in phagocytic activity. Due to their additive effects, it is possible that, in combination with acetaldehyde, metabolites of aliphatic alcohols may inhibit phagocytosis at physiologically realistic concentrations in episodic heavy drinkers, thereby contributing to their increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. Phagocytosis: receptors, signal integration, and the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Spencer A; Grinstein, Sergio

    2014-11-01

    Phagocytosis is a remarkably complex and versatile process: it contributes to innate immunity through the ingestion and elimination of pathogens, while also being central to tissue homeostasis and remodeling by clearing effete cells. The ability of phagocytes to perform such diverse functions rests, in large part, on their vast repertoire of receptors. In this review, we address the various receptor types, their mobility in the plane of the membrane, and two modes of receptor crosstalk: priming and synergy. A major section is devoted to the actin cytoskeleton, which not only governs receptor mobility and clustering but also is instrumental in particle engulfment. Four stages of the actin remodeling process are identified and discussed: (i) the 'resting' stage that precedes receptor engagement, (ii) the disruption of the cortical actin prior to formation of the phagocytic cup, (iii) the actin polymerization that propels pseudopod extension, and (iv) the termination of polymerization and removal of preassembled actin that are required for focal delivery of endomembranes and phagosomal sealing. These topics are viewed in the larger context of the differentiation and polarization of the phagocytic cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Phagocytosis occurs in Acanthamoeba castellanii after electroporation.

    PubMed

    Dybowska, U; Krawczynska, W; Sobota, A

    1996-09-01

    Acanthamoeba cells treated with an electric discharge were porated and their cytoplasm became accessible to exogenous molecules. Over a broad range of electric field densities low molecular weight markers (trypan blue, ruthenium red), normally unable to penetrate a plasma membrane, gained access to cytoplasm of 80-90% of the cells. Macromolecules (albumin-FITC and IgG-FITC) penetrated into 63-86% of the cells when electroporation was carried out over the range of 1500V/25 microF-400V/250 microF. Pulse labeling with fluorescent markers evidenced that even 3 hrs. after an electric pulse the plasma membrane was still permeable to exogenous fluorescent probes. Following this stage, the pores were gradually closed. The cells electroporated at 400 V/250 microF were able to ingest yeast particles. The uptake of the particles seems to be an active process since it was inhibited by azide and phalloidin. Therefore, the electroporation of Acanthamoeba makes possible the introduction of macromolecules into the cells and subsequent analysis of their effect on active motile processes such as phagocytosis. This should greatly facilitate characterization of the mechanisms by which such processes do occur.

  3. Analysis of Human and Mouse Neutrophil Phagocytosis by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Fine, Noah; Barzilay, Oriyah; Glogauer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are primary phagocytes that recognize their targets through surface chemistry, either through Pattern Recognition Receptor (PPR) interaction with Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) or through immunoglobulin (Ig) or complement mediated recognition. Opsonization can be important for target recognition, and phagocytosis by neutrophils in whole blood can be greatly enhanced due to the presence of blood serum components and platelets. Powerful and sensitive flow cytometry based methods are presented to measure phagocytosis by human blood neutrophils and mouse peritoneal neutrophils.

  4. Active phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra) by T lymphocytes (Jurkat cells).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Zhu, Qi; Shi, Ming; Liu, Yang; Ma, Lei; Yang, Yining; Feng, Dongyun; Dai, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Kang, Tao; Chen, Ping; He, Ying; Liu, Tingting; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Wenjing; Zhi, Jin; Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Gang

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to co-culture Jurkat T lymphocytes with inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb H37Ra), explore whether T lymphocytes could phagocytose H37Ra cells, and determine the underlying mechanism. Jurkat T lymphocytes were co-cultured with H37Ra cells, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry techniques were used to identify phagocytosis and elucidate its mechanism. After Jurkat T lymphocytes phagocytosed H37Ra cells, the cell body became larger, with abundant cytoplasm, the portion of the nucleus closest to the bacterium deformed, long and short pseudopodia were extended, and the folds of the cell membrane formed depressions that created phagocytic vesicles surrounding the bacterium. The macropinocytosis inhibitor amiloride and the cytoskeletal inhibitor cytochalasin D were found to inhibit phagocytic efficacy; serum complements might enhance phagocytosis through opsonization. Jurkat T lymphocytes could actively phagocytose inactivated Mtb via the macropinocytotic mechanism. Actin remodeling played an important role in the macropinocytotic process. Serum complements may regulate phagocytosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SIRPα polymorphisms, but not the prion protein, control phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Nuvolone, Mario; Kana, Veronika; Hutter, Gregor; Sakata, Daiji; Mortin-Toth, Steven M.; Russo, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Prnp−/− mice lack the prion protein PrPC and are resistant to prion infections, but variable phenotypes have been reported in Prnp−/− mice and the physiological function of PrPC remains poorly understood. Here we examined a cell-autonomous phenotype, inhibition of macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, previously reported in Prnp−/− mice. Using formal genetic, genomic, and immunological analyses, we found that the regulation of phagocytosis previously ascribed to PrPC is instead controlled by a linked locus encoding the signal regulatory protein α (Sirpa). These findings indicate that control of phagocytosis was previously misattributed to the prion protein and illustrate the requirement for stringent approaches to eliminate confounding effects of flanking genes in studies modeling human disease in gene-targeted mice. The plethora of seemingly unrelated functions attributed to PrPC suggests that additional phenotypes reported in Prnp−/− mice may actually relate to Sirpa or other genetic confounders. PMID:24145514

  6. Ras-related GTPases Rap1 and RhoA Collectively Induce the Phagocytosis of Serum-opsonized Zymosan Particles in Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Gyu; Moon, Mi-Young; Kim, Hee-Jun; Li, Yi; Song, Dong-Keun; Kim, Jun-Sub; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jaebong; Kim, Sung-Chan; Park, Jae-Bong

    2012-01-01

    Phagocytosis occurs primarily through two main processes in macrophages: the Fcγ receptor- and the integrin αMβ2-mediated processes. Complement C3bi-opsonized particles are known to be engulfed through integrin αMβ2-mediated process, which is regulated by RhoA GTPase. C3 toxin fused with Tat-peptide (Tat-C3 toxin), an inhibitor of the Rho GTPases, was shown to markedly inhibit the phagocytosis of serum (C3bi)-opsonized zymosans (SOZs). However, 8CPT-2Me-cAMP, an activator of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac, Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor), restored the phagocytosis of the SOZs that was previously inhibited by the Tat-C3 toxin. In addition, a constitutively active form of Rap1 GTPase (CA-Rap1) also restored the phagocytosis that was previously reduced by a dominant negative form of RhoA GTPase (DN-RhoA). This suggests that Rap1 can replace the function of RhoA in the phagocytosis. Inversely, CA-RhoA rescued the phagocytosis that was suppressed by DN-Rap1. These findings suggest that both RhoA and Rap1 GTPases collectively regulate the phagocytosis of SOZs. In addition, filamentous actin was reduced by the Tat-C3 toxin, which was again restored by 8CPT-2Me-cAMP. Small interfering profilin suppressed the phagocytosis, suggesting that profilin is essential for the phagocytosis of SOZs. Furthermore, 8CPT-2Me-cAMP increased the co-immunoprecipitation of profilin with Rap1, whereas Tat-C3 toxin decreased that of profilin with RhoA. Co-immunoprecipitations of profilin with actin, Rap1, and RhoA GTPases were augmented in the presence of GTPγS rather than GDP. Therefore, we propose that both Rap1 and RhoA GTPases regulate the formation of filamentous actin through the interaction between actin and profilin, thereby collectively inducing the phagocytosis of SOZs in macrophages. PMID:22194606

  7. The Phagocytosis and Toxicity of Amorphous Silica

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Lindsey M.; Gilberti, Renée M.; Knecht, David A.

    2011-01-01

    cases. However, the result suggests a mechanistic difference between FcγRIIA receptor-mediated and non-opsonized silica particle phagocytosis. PMID:21311600

  8. Forkhead box A2 regulated biliary heterogeneity and senescence during cholestatic liver injury

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Kelly; Meng, Fanyin; Wu, Nan; Sato, Keisaku; Venter, Julie; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Invernizzi, Pietro; Zhou, Tianhao; Kyritsi, Konstantina; Wan, Ying; Huang, Qiaobing; Onori, Paolo; Francis, Heather; Gaudio, Eugenio; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Biliary-committed progenitor cells (small cholangiocytes, SMCCs) from small bile ducts are more resistant to hepatobiliary injury than large mouse cholangiocytes (LGCCs) from large bile ducts. The definitive endoderm marker, FoxA2 is the key transcriptional factor that regulates cell differentiation and tissue regeneration. Our aim was to characterize the translational role of FoxA2 during cholestatic liver injury. Methods mRNA expression in SMCCs and LGCCs was assessed by PCR array analysis. Liver tissues and hepatic stellate cells from PSC and PBC patients were tested by real-time PCR for methylation, senescence and fibrosis markers. Bile duct ligation (BDL) and MDR2 knockout mice (MDR2−/−) were used as animal models of cholestatic liver injury with or without healthy transplanted large or small cholangiocytes. Results We demonstrated that FoxA2 was notably enhanced in murine liver progenitor cells and SMCCs, and was silenced in human PSC and PBC liver tissues relative to respective controls that are correlated with the epigenetic methylation enzymes DNMT1 and DNMT3B. Serum ALT and AST levels in NOD/SCID mice engrafted with SMCCs after BDL showed significant changes compared with vehicle-treated mice, along with improved liver fibrosis. Enhanced expression of FoxA2 was observed in BDL mouse liver after SMCC cell therapy. Furthermore, activation of fibrosis signaling pathways were observed in BDL/MDR2−/− mouse liver as well as in isolated hepatic stellate cells by laser capture microdissection, and these signals were recovered along with reduced hepatic senescence and enhanced hepatic stellate cellular senescence after SMCC engraft. Conclusions The definitive endoderm marker and the positive regulator of biliary development, FoxA2, mediates the therapeutic effect of biliary-committed progenitor cells during cholestatic liver injury. PMID:27639079

  9. Mechanics of neutrophil phagocytosis: behavior of the cortical tension.

    PubMed

    Herant, Marc; Heinrich, Volkmar; Dembo, Micah

    2005-05-01

    The mechanical implementation of phagocytosis requires a well-coordinated deployment of cytoplasm and membrane during the creation of a phagosome. We follow the time course of this process in initially round passive neutrophils presented with antibody-coated beads of radii 1.1 to 5.5 microm. In particular, we monitor the cortical tension as the apparent cellular surface area increases due to cell-driven deformations induced by phagocytosis. The behavior of the tension is then compared with conditions of similar area expansion caused by externally imposed deformations during cell aspiration into a micropipette. Whereas the resting tension remains low for an area expansion of up to only 30% during aspiration, it remains low even after an area expansion of up to 80% in phagocytosis. This is probably the result of membrane insertion from inner stores by exocytosis. We further find that the onset of viscous tension, proportional to the rate of area expansion and caused by the unfurling of plasma membrane wrinkles, is significantly delayed in phagocytosis compared with aspiration. We propose that this is the result of phagocytosis-triggered enzymatic activity that releases spare plasma membrane normally sequestered by velcro-like bonds in a reservoir of surface folds and villi.

  10. Aliphatic alcohols in spirits inhibit phagocytosis by human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Pál, László; Árnyas, Ervin M; Bujdosó, Orsolya; Baranyi, Gergő; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2015-04-01

    A large volume of alcoholic beverages containing aliphatic alcohols is consumed worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of ethanol-induced immunosuppression in heavy drinkers, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the aliphatic alcohols contained in alcoholic beverages might also impair immune cell function, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity. Previous research has shown that aliphatic alcohols inhibit phagocytosis by granulocytes but their effect on human monocytes has not been studied. This is important as they play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms and a decrease in their phagocytic activity could lead to impaired antimicrobial defence in heavy drinkers. The aim of this study was to measure monocyte phagocytosis following their treatment with those aliphatic alcohols detected in alcoholic beverages. Monocytes were separated from human peripheral blood and phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by monocytes treated with ethanol and aliphatic alcohols individually and in combination was determined. It was shown that these alcohols could suppress the phagocytic activity of monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner and when combined with ethanol, they caused a further decrease in phagocytosis. Due to their additive effects, it is possible that they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in alcoholics and episodic heavy drinkers thereby contribute to their increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, further research is needed to address this question.

  11. Disruption of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Blocks Phagocytosis of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Florian I.; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Dougan, Stephanie; Dougan, Michael; Esteban, Alexandre; Maruyama, Takeshi; Strijbis, Karin; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of phagocytes to clear pathogens is an essential attribute of the innate immune response. The role of signaling lipid molecules such as phosphoinositides is well established, but the role of membrane sphingolipids in phagocytosis is largely unknown. Using a genetic approach and small molecule inhibitors, we show that phagocytosis of Candida albicans requires an intact sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Blockade of serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and ceramide synthase-enzymes involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis- by myriocin and fumonisin B1, respectively, impaired phagocytosis by phagocytes. We used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate Sptlc2-deficient DC2.4 dendritic cells, which lack serine palmitoyl transferase activity. Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells exhibited a stark defect in phagocytosis, were unable to bind fungal particles and failed to form a normal phagocytic cup to engulf C. albicans. Supplementing the growth media with GM1, the major ganglioside present at the cell surface, restored phagocytic activity of Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells. While overall membrane trafficking and endocytic pathways remained functional, Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells express reduced levels of the pattern recognition receptors Dectin-1 and TLR2 at the cell surface. Consistent with the in vitro data, compromised sphingolipid biosynthesis in mice sensitizes the animal to C. albicans infection. Sphingolipid biosynthesis is therefore critical for phagocytosis and in vivo clearance of C. albicans. PMID:26431038

  12. Target-specific mechanics of phagocytosis: protrusive neutrophil response to zymosan differs from the uptake of antibody-tagged pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Yuk; Herant, Marc; Heinrich, Volkmar

    2011-01-01

    The physical mechanisms that control target-specific responses of human neutrophils to distinct immune threats are poorly understood. Using dual-micropipette manipulation, we have quantified and compared the time courses of neutrophil phagocytosis of two different targets: zymosan (a prominent model of fungal infection), and antibody-coated (Fc) particles. Our single-live-cell/single-target approach exposes surprising differences between these two forms of phagocytosis. Unlike the efficient uptake of 3-μm Fc targets (within ~66 seconds), the engulfment of similarly sized zymosan is slow (~167 seconds), mainly due to the formation of a characteristic pedestal that initially pushes the particle outwards by ~1 μm. Despite a roughly twofold difference in maximum cortical tensions, the top ‘pull-in’ speeds of zymosan and Fc targets are indistinguishable at ~33 nm/second. Drug inhibition shows that both actin as well as myosin II partake in the regulation of neutrophil cortical tension and cytoplasmic viscosity; other than that, myosin II appears to play a minor role in both forms of phagocytosis. Remarkably, an intact actin cytoskeleton is required to suppress, in antibody-mediated phagocytosis, the initially protrusive deformation that distinguishes the neutrophil response to zymosan. PMID:21385838

  13. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum attenuate microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and modulate microglial phagocytosis and behavioural response.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Li, Yuanyuan; Pei, Gang

    2017-03-24

    Ganoderma lucidum (GL) has been widely used in Asian countries for hundreds of years to promote health and longevity. The pharmacological functions of which had been classified, including the activation of innate immune responses, suppression of tumour and modulation of cell proliferations. Effective fractions of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) had already been reported to regulate the immune system. Nevertheless, the role of GLP in the microglia-mediated neuroinflammation has not been sufficiently elucidated. Further, GLP effect on microglial behavioural modulations in correlation with the inflammatory responses remains to be unravelled. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the contributions of GLP on microglia. The BV2 microglia and primary mouse microglia were stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and amyloid beta 42 (Aβ 42 ) oligomer, respectively. Investigation on the effect of GLP was carried by quantitative determination of the microglial pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expressions and behavioural modulations including migration, morphology and phagocytosis. Analysis of microglial morphology and phagocytosis modulations was confirmed in the zebrafish brain. Quantitative results revealed that GLP down-regulates LPS- or Aβ-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes anti-inflammatory cytokine expressions in BV-2 and primary microglia. In addition, GLP attenuates inflammation-related microglial migration, morphological alterations and phagocytosis probabilities. We also showed that modulations of microglial behavioural responses were associated with MCP-1 and C1q expressions. Overall, our study provides an insight into the GLP regulation of LPS- and Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and serves an implication that the neuroprotective function of GLP might be achieved through modulation of microglial inflammatory and behavioural responses.

  14. EphrinA1 repulsive response is regulated by an EphA2 tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Parri, Matteo; Buricchi, Francesca; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Giannoni, Elisa; Raugei, Giovanni; Ramponi, Giampietro; Chiarugi, Paola

    2005-10-07

    Ephrin kinases and their ephrin ligands transduce repulsion of cells in axon guidance, migration, invasiveness, and tumor growth, exerting a negative signaling on cell proliferation and adhesion. A key role of their kinase activity has been confirmed by mutant kinase inactive receptors that shift the cellular response from repulsion to adhesion. Our present study aimed to investigate the role of low molecular weight protein-tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP) in ephrinA1/EphA2 signaling. LMW-PTP, by means of dephosphorylation of EphA2 kinase, negatively regulates the ephrinA1-mediated repulsive response, cell proliferation, cell adhesion and spreading, and the formation of retraction fibers, thereby confirming the relevance of the net level of tyrosine phosphorylation of Eph receptors. LMW-PTP interferes with ephrin-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling likely through inhibition of p120RasGAP binding to the activated EphA2 kinase, thereby confirming the key role of mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition by ephrinA1 repulsive signaling. We conclude that LMW-PTP acts as a terminator of EphA2 signaling causing an efficient negative feedback loop on the biological response mediated by ephrinA1 and pointing on tyrosine phosphorylation as the main event orchestrating the repulsive response.

  15. Solute Carrier Family 26 Member a2 (slc26a2) Regulates Otic Development and Hair Cell Survival in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingzhi; Yang, Fan; Sun, Shaoyang; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Huijun; Tian, Weidong; Wang, Xu; Ma, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent human birth defects. Genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of deafness. It is estimated that one-third of deafness genes have already been identified. The current work is an attempt to find novel genes relevant to hearing loss using guilt-by-profiling and guilt-by-association bioinformatics analyses of approximately 80 known non-syndromic hereditary hearing loss (NSHL) genes. Among the 300 newly identified candidate deafness genes, slc26a2 were selected for functional studies in zebrafish. The slc26a2 gene was knocked down using an antisense morpholino (MO), and significant defects were observed in otolith patterns, semicircular canal morphology, and lateral neuromast distributions in morphants. Loss-of-function defects are caused primarily by apoptosis, and morphants are insensitive to sound stimulation and imbalanced swimming behaviours. Morphant defects were found to be partially rescued by co-injection of human SLC26A2 mRNA. All the results suggest that bioinformatics is capable of predicting new deafness genes and this showed slc26a2 is to be a critical otic gene whose dysfunction may induce hearing impairment. PMID:26375458

  16. Solute Carrier Family 26 Member a2 (slc26a2) Regulates Otic Development and Hair Cell Survival in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Xia, Wenjun; Hu, Jiongjiong; Wang, Yingzhi; Yang, Fan; Sun, Shaoyang; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Huijun; Tian, Weidong; Wang, Xu; Ma, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent human birth defects. Genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of deafness. It is estimated that one-third of deafness genes have already been identified. The current work is an attempt to find novel genes relevant to hearing loss using guilt-by-profiling and guilt-by-association bioinformatics analyses of approximately 80 known non-syndromic hereditary hearing loss (NSHL) genes. Among the 300 newly identified candidate deafness genes, slc26a2 were selected for functional studies in zebrafish. The slc26a2 gene was knocked down using an antisense morpholino (MO), and significant defects were observed in otolith patterns, semicircular canal morphology, and lateral neuromast distributions in morphants. Loss-of-function defects are caused primarily by apoptosis, and morphants are insensitive to sound stimulation and imbalanced swimming behaviours. Morphant defects were found to be partially rescued by co-injection of human SLC26A2 mRNA. All the results suggest that bioinformatics is capable of predicting new deafness genes and this showed slc26a2 is to be a critical otic gene whose dysfunction may induce hearing impairment.

  17. Failure of Immune Sera to Enhance Significantly Phagocytosis of Staphylococus aureus: Nonspecific Adsorption of Phagocytosis-Promoting Factors

    PubMed Central

    Shayegani, Mehdi

    1970-01-01

    Serum from rabbits immunized with either heat-killed or live nonencapsulated Staphylococcus aureus failed further to enhance phagocytosis and intracellular killing of the homologous organism by either normal rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes or monocytes, when compared with normal rabbit serum. These immune sera did, however, show an increase in agglutinating and precipitating antibody level. Adsorption of normal human serum with some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeast, and some inert particles significantly reduced the phagocytosis-promoting factors of the serum. It would seem, then, that nonencapsulated S. aureus differs from other pathogenic bacteria in that the humoral antibacterial factors promoting its phagocytosis and intracellular killing are not significantly enhanced by infection or immunization. PMID:16557910

  18. A nutrient-regulated, dual localization phospholipase A2 in the symbiotic fungus Tuber borchii

    PubMed Central

    Soragni, Elisabetta; Bolchi, Angelo; Balestrini, Raffaella; Gambaretto, Claudio; Percudani, Riccardo; Bonfante, Paola; Ottonello, Simone

    2001-01-01

    Important morphogenetic transitions in fungi are triggered by starvation-induced changes in the expression of structural surface proteins. Here, we report that nutrient deprivation causes a strong and reversible up-regulation of TbSP1, a surface-associated, Ca2+-dependent phospholipase from the mycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii. TbSP1 is the first phospholipase A2 to be described in fungi and identifies a novel class of phospholipid-hydrolyzing enzymes. The TbSP1 phospholipase, which is synthesized initially as a pre-protein, is processed efficiently and secreted during the mycelial phase. The mature protein, however, also localizes to the inner cell wall layer, close to the plasma membrane, in both free-living and symbiosis-engaged hyphae. It thus appears that a dual localization phospholipase A2 is involved in the adaptation of a symbiotic fungus to conditions of persistent nutritional limitation. Moreover, the fact that TbSP1-related sequences are present in Streptomyces and Neurospora, and not in wholly sequenced non-filamentous microorganisms, points to a general role for TbSP1 phospholipases A2 in the organization of multicellular filamentous structures in bacteria and fungi. PMID:11566873

  19. Arx together with FoxA2, regulates Shh floor plate expression.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ginam; Lim, Youngshin; Cho, Il-Taeg; Simonet, Jacqueline C; Golden, Jeffrey A

    2014-09-01

    Mutations in the Aristaless related homeodomain transcription factor (ARX) are associated with a diverse set of X-linked mental retardation and epilepsy syndromes in humans. Although most studies have been focused on its function in the forebrain, ARX is also expressed in other regions of the developing nervous system including the floor plate (FP) of the spinal cord where its function is incompletely understood. To investigate the role of Arx in the FP, we performed gain-of-function studies in the chick using in ovo electroporation, and loss-of-function studies in Arx-deficient mice. We have found that Arx, in conjunction with FoxA2, directly induces Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression through binding to a Shh floor plate enhancer (SFPE2). We also observed that FoxA2 induces Arx through its transcriptional activation domain whereas Nkx2.2, induced by Shh, abolishes this induction. Our data support a feedback loop model for Arx function; through interactions with FoxA2, Arx positively regulates Shh expression in the FP, and Shh signaling in turn activates Nkx2.2, which suppresses Arx expression. Furthermore, our data are evidence that Arx plays a role as a context dependent transcriptional activator, rather than a primary inducer of Shh expression, potentially explaining how mutations in ARX are associated with diverse, and often subtle, defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Arx together with FoxA2, regulates Shh floor plate expression

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ginam; Lim, Youngshin; Cho, Il-Taeg; Simonet, Jacqueline C.; Golden, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Aristaless related homeodomain transcription factor (ARX) are associated with a diverse set of X-linked mental retardation and epilepsy syndromes in humans. Although most studies have been focused on its function in the forebrain, ARX is also expressed in other regions of the developing nervous system including the floor plate (FP) of the spinal cord where its function is incompletely understood. To investigate the role of Arx in the FP, we performed gain-of-function studies in the chick using in ovo electroporation, and loss-of-function studies in Arx-deficient mice. We have found that Arx, in conjunction with FoxA2, directly induces Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression through binding to a Shh floor plate enhancer (SFPE2). We also observed that FoxA2 induces Arx through its transcriptional activation domain whereas Nkx2.2, induced by Shh, abolishes this induction. Our data support a feedback loop model for Arx function; through interactions with FoxA2, Arx positively regulates Shh expression in the FP, and Shh signaling in turn activates Nkx2.2, which suppresses Arx expression. Furthermore, our data are evidence that Arx plays a role as a context dependent transcriptional activator, rather than a primary inducer of Shh expression, potentially explaining how mutations in ARX are associated with diverse, and often subtle, defects. PMID:24968361

  1. Circadian-clock driven cone-like photoreceptor phagocytosis in the neural retina leucine zipper gene knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Krigel, Arthur; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule; Hicks, David

    2010-12-28

    Whereas much information is available on rod outer segment phagocytosis by the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), corresponding data for cones are quite limited, especially in laboratory models of normal rats and mice with very low cone numbers. To characterize the light and circadian control of cone photoreceptor phagocytosis in mice, we capitalized on the blue cone-like phenotype of neural retina leucine zipper gene (Nrl) null mice (Nrl(-/-)). Nrl(-/-) mice were maintained under standard cyclic light (12h:12h light-dark [LD] cycle; light=300 lux) for one month, then divided into two groups: 1) continued maintenance in LD (36 mice); or 2) transferred to constant darkness (DD; 21 mice) for 36 h. Animals were sacrificed every 3 h over 24 h, and their eyes were rapidly enucleated and fixed. Cryosections were stained using specific cone short-wavelength opsin antibodies. Phagosome numbers in the RPE were quantified with a morphometric system. We monitored the expression of c-mer proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase (MerTK) in wild-type and knockout mice using a specific MerTK antibody. In LD, cone phagocytosis showed a statistically significant peak of activity 1 h after light onset, 2-3 fold higher than at other times. In constant darkness, the temporal phagocytic profile resembled that of LD (significant peak at 1 h of subjective day), but the number of phagosomes was decreased at all time points. Immunostaining of MerTK in wild-type and Nrl(-/-) mice showed expression at the apical surface of the RPE. Cone-like outer segment phagocytosis in Nrl(-/-) mice shows a similar profile to that of rods in normal mice and other species. These data are the first to quantify blue cone-like photoreceptor phagocytosis under different lighting conditions in mice, and suggest this model may constitute a valuable system for investigating circadian regulation of cone function.

  2. Quantitative Studies of Phagocytosis by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes: Use of Emulsions to Measure the Initial Rate of Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Stossel, Thomas P.; Mason, Robert J.; Hartwig, John; Vaughan, Martha

    1972-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes suspended in Krebs-Ringer phosphate medium ingest paraffin oil containing Oil Red O emulsified with a variety of substances. Spectrophotometric determination of Oil Red O in the cells after uningested particles have been removed by differential centrifugation provides a quantitative measure of phagocytosis. This system has been used to investigate the effects of several drugs and hormones on the initial rate of phagocytosis and to approach the question of how the surface of a particle influences its acceptability as a substrate for phagocytosis. The rate of uptake of paraffin oil emulsified with bovine albumin was constant for 6 min and was proportional to cell concentration when saturating concentrations of paraffin oil emulsion were used. At lower concentrations of substrate, the initial rate of phagocytosis was directly proportional to paraffin oil concentration. The increment in glucose oxidation associated with phagocytosis varied directly with the initial rate of particle uptake. The rate of ingestion of the albumin emulsion was not altered by serum (2-20%, v/v), glucose (5-20 mM), or omission of potassium from the medium. The rate of phagocytosis was decreased 65% if magnesium was omitted, and was essentially zero in the absence of divalent cations. The initial rate of uptake was inhibited by inhibitors of glycolysis, by N-ethylmaleimide (0.05-1 mM), colchicine (0.001-0.1 mM), theophylline (1 and 2 mM), dibutyryl cyclic AMP (1 mM), hydrocortisone (2.1 mM), and ethanol (85 mM). Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation and dexamethasone (0.01 mM) were without effect, while insulin (2 mU/ml) slightly stimulated the phagocytic rate. Paraffin oil emulsified with different agents was used to approach the question of how the surface of a particle influences its acceptability as a substrate for phagocytosis. Emulsions prepared with nonionic detergents, methylated proteins, and proteins with a weak net charge at pH 7.4 were poorly ingested

  3. Casein Kinase 2 Is a Novel Regulator of the Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ting; Cheung, Florence Shin Gee; Zheng, Jian; Lu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Ling; Grewal, Thomas; Murray, Michael; Zhou, Fanfan

    2016-01-04

    Human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) mediate the influx of many important drugs into cells. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a critical protein kinase that phosphorylates >300 protein substrates and is dysregulated in a number of disease states. Among the CK2 substrates are several transporters, although whether this includes human OATPs has not been evaluated. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the regulation of human OATP1A2 by CK2. HEK-239T cells in which OATP1A2 was overexpressed were treated with CK2 specific inhibitors or transfected with CK2 specific siRNA, and the activity, expression, and subcellular trafficking of OATP1A2 was evaluated. CK2 inhibition decreased the uptake of the prototypic OATP1A2 substrate estrone-3-sulfate (E3S). Kinetic studies revealed that this was due to a decrease in the maximum velocity (Vmax) of E3S uptake, while the Michaelis constant was unchanged. The cell surface expression, but not the total cellular expression of OATP1A2, was impaired by CK2 inhibition and knockdown of the catalytic α-subunits of CK2. CK2 inhibition decreased the internalization of OATP1A2 via a clathrin-dependent pathway, decreased OATP1A2 recycling, and likely impaired OATP1A2 targeting to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, CK2 inhibition also disrupted the colocalization of OATP1A2 and Rab GTPase (Rab)4-, Rab8-, and Rab9-positive endosomal and secretory vesicles. Taken together, CK2 has emerged as a novel regulator of the subcellular trafficking and stability of OATP1A2. Because OATP1A2 transports many molecules of physiological and pharmacological importance, the present data may inform drug selection in patients with diseases in which CK2 and OATP1A2 are dysregulated.

  4. Forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) protein stability and activity are regulated by sumoylation.

    PubMed

    Belaguli, Narasimhaswamy S; Zhang, Mao; Brunicardi, F Charles; Berger, David H

    2012-01-01

    The forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) is an important regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism and organismal energy balance. Little is known about how FOXA2 protein expression and activity are regulated by post-translational modifications. We have identified that FOXA2 is post-translationally modified by covalent attachment of a small ubiquitin related modifier-1 (SUMO-1) and mapped the sumoylation site to the amino acid lysine 6 (K6). Preventing sumoylation by mutating the SUMO acceptor K6 to arginine resulted in downregulation of FOXA2 protein but not RNA expression in INS-1E insulinoma cells. K6R mutation also downregulated FOXA2 protein levels in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HCT116 colon cancer cells and LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells. Further, interfering with FOXA2 sumoylation through siRNA mediated knockdown of UBC9, an essential SUMO E2 conjugase, resulted in downregulation of FOXA2 protein levels. Stability of sumoylation deficient FOXA2K6R mutant protein was restored when SUMO-1 was fused in-frame. FOXA2 sumoylation and FOXA2 protein levels were increased by PIAS1 SUMO ligase but not a SUMO ligase activity deficient PIAS1 mutant. Although expressed at lower levels, sumoylation deficient FOXA2K6R mutant protein was detectable in the nucleus indicating that FOXA2 nuclear localization is independent of sumoylation. Sumoylation increased the transcriptional activity of FOXA2 on Pdx-1 area I enhancer. Together, our results show that sumoylation regulates FOXA2 protein expression and activity.

  5. Forkhead Box Protein A2 (FOXA2) Protein Stability and Activity Are Regulated by Sumoylation

    PubMed Central

    Belaguli, Narasimhaswamy S.; Zhang, Mao; Brunicardi, F. Charles; Berger, David H.

    2012-01-01

    The forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) is an important regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism and organismal energy balance. Little is known about how FOXA2 protein expression and activity are regulated by post-translational modifications. We have identified that FOXA2 is post-translationally modified by covalent attachment of a small ubiquitin related modifier-1 (SUMO-1) and mapped the sumoylation site to the amino acid lysine 6 (K6). Preventing sumoylation by mutating the SUMO acceptor K6 to arginine resulted in downregulation of FOXA2 protein but not RNA expression in INS-1E insulinoma cells. K6R mutation also downregulated FOXA2 protein levels in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HCT116 colon cancer cells and LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells. Further, interfering with FOXA2 sumoylation through siRNA mediated knockdown of UBC9, an essential SUMO E2 conjugase, resulted in downregulation of FOXA2 protein levels. Stability of sumoylation deficient FOXA2K6R mutant protein was restored when SUMO-1 was fused in-frame. FOXA2 sumoylation and FOXA2 protein levels were increased by PIAS1 SUMO ligase but not a SUMO ligase activity deficient PIAS1 mutant. Although expressed at lower levels, sumoylation deficient FOXA2K6R mutant protein was detectable in the nucleus indicating that FOXA2 nuclear localization is independent of sumoylation. Sumoylation increased the transcriptional activity of FOXA2 on Pdx-1 area I enhancer. Together, our results show that sumoylation regulates FOXA2 protein expression and activity. PMID:23118920

  6. Regulation of cytoplasmic calcium: interactions between prostaglandins, prostacyclin, thromboxane A2, zinc, copper and taurine.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, D F; Manku, M S; Cunnane, S; Karmazyn, M; Morgan, R O; Ally, A I; Karmall, R A

    1978-02-01

    The regulation of cytoplasmic calcium is a key process in nerve tissue. Using a smooth muscle model we have shown that prostaglandin (PG) E2 probably regulates entry from extracellular fluid, whereas the release from intracellular stores depends on the interplay between thromboxane (TX) A2, PGEI and prostacyclin. Hormones and other agents interact with this system in the following ways: vasopressin, angiotensin and inositol mobilize arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids and increase synthesis of PGE2 and TXA2, cortisol blocks this action. Prolactin and zinc mobilize dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and increase synthesis of PGEI. These effects can be blocked by cortisol, lithium and taurine, three agents which on their own have no effect on basal PG production. Epileptogenic agents like penicillin and picrotoxin also stimulate PG synthesis, while diphenylhydantoin is a PG antagonist and diazepam is a TXA2 antagonist. The effects of all these agents occur at concentrations which are physiological in the case of the natural ones, and readily attained in human plasma in the case of the drgus. In view of recent evidence that calcium may be important in demyelination and considering the established role it plays in nerve conduction and synaptic transmission, we suggest that these observations may be of significance in understanding Friedreich's ataxia.

  7. Bovine-associated CNS species resist phagocytosis differently

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) cause usually subclinical or mild clinical bovine mastitis, which often remains persistent. Symptoms are usually mild, mostly only comprising slight changes in the appearance of milk and possibly slight swelling. However, clinical mastitis with severe signs has also been reported. The reasons for the differences in clinical expression are largely unknown. Macrophages play an important role in the innate immunity of the udder. This study examined phagocytosis and killing by mouse macrophage cells of three CNS species: Staphylococcus chromogenes (15 isolates), Staphylococcus agnetis (6 isolates) and Staphylococcus simulans (15 isolates). Staphylococcus aureus (7 isolates) was also included as a control. Results All the studied CNS species were phagocytosed by macrophages, but S. simulans resisted phagocytosis more effectively than the other CNS species. Only S. chromogenes was substantially killed by macrophages. Significant variations between isolates were seen in both phagocytosis and killing by macrophages and were more common in the killing assays. Significant differences between single CNS species and S. aureus were observed in both assays. Conclusion This study demonstrated that differences in the phagocytosis and killing of mastitis-causing staphylococci by macrophages exist at both the species and isolate level. PMID:24207012

  8. ACTIVATED NEUTROPHILS INHIBIT PHAGOCYTOSIS BY HUMAN MONOCYTE CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously reported the correlation of decreased phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan by sputum monocytic cells with the increase in sputum neutrophils in volunteers 6h after inhalation of endotoxin (20,000 EU) (Alexis, et al. JACI, 2003;112:353). To define whether an intrin...

  9. Pharmacologic immunosuppression of mononuclear phagocyte phagocytosis by caffeine.

    PubMed

    Steck, Ryan P; Hill, Spencer L; Weagel, Evita G; Weber, K Scott; Robison, Richard A; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-12-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used neurostimulant in the world. There is considerable debate on its effect on immune cells as it has been shown to antagonize adenosine receptors (ARs), which mediate an anti-inflammatory switch in activated immune cells. A second target is phosphodiesterase, where it acts as an inhibitor. If the primary effect of caffeine on mononuclear phagocytes were to antagonize ARs we would expect cells exposed to caffeine to have a prolonged proinflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of action of caffeine in mononuclear phagocytes. Human mononuclear phagocytes were separated from whole blood and pretreated with protein kinase A inhibitor (PKA) and then exposed to micromolar physiological concentrations of caffeine. Phagocytosis and phagocytosis exhaustion were quantified using flow cytometry. Treatments were analyzed and compared to controls, using a beta regression controlling for factors of age, gender, caffeine intake, and exercise. We found that caffeine suppresses phagocytosis at micromolar physiological concentrations. This suppression was prevented when mononuclear phagocytes were pretreated with PKA inhibitor, suggesting that caffeine's phagocytic suppression may be due to its function as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, pushing cells towards an anti-inflammatory response. Additionally, these effects are altered by regular caffeine intake and fitness level, emphasizing that tolerance and immune robustness are important factors in mononuclear phagocyte activation. These results demonstrate that caffeine may be acting as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and suppressing phagocytosis in mononuclear phagocytes by promoting an anti-inflammatory response.

  10. Adenosine A2A Receptor Up-Regulates Retinal Wave Frequency via Starburst Amacrine Cells in the Developing Rat Retina

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pin-Chien; Hsiao, Yu-Tien; Kao, Shao-Yen; Chen, Ching-Feng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Wei; Lee, Chien-fei; Lu, Juu-Chin; Chern, Yijuang; Wang, Chih-Tien

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing retinas display retinal waves, the patterned spontaneous activity essential for circuit refinement. During the first postnatal week in rodents, retinal waves are mediated by synaptic transmission between starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The neuromodulator adenosine is essential for the generation of retinal waves. However, the cellular basis underlying adenosine's regulation of retinal waves remains elusive. Here, we investigated whether and how the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) regulates retinal waves and whether A2AR regulation of retinal waves acts via presynaptic SACs. Methodology/Principal Findings We showed that A2AR was expressed in the inner plexiform layer and ganglion cell layer of the developing rat retina. Knockdown of A2AR decreased the frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ transients, suggesting that endogenous A2AR may up-regulate wave frequency. To investigate whether A2AR acts via presynaptic SACs, we targeted gene expression to SACs by the metabotropic glutamate receptor type II promoter. Ca2+ transient frequency was increased by expressing wild-type A2AR (A2AR-WT) in SACs, suggesting that A2AR may up-regulate retinal waves via presynaptic SACs. Subsequent patch-clamp recordings on RGCs revealed that presynaptic A2AR-WT increased the frequency of wave-associated postsynaptic currents (PSCs) or depolarizations compared to the control, without changing the RGC's excitability, membrane potentials, or PSC charge. These findings suggest that presynaptic A2AR may not affect the membrane properties of postsynaptic RGCs. In contrast, by expressing the C-terminal truncated A2AR mutant (A2AR-ΔC) in SACs, the wave frequency was reduced compared to the A2AR-WT, but was similar to the control, suggesting that the full-length A2AR in SACs is required for A2AR up-regulation of retinal waves. Conclusions/Significance A2AR up-regulates the frequency of retinal waves via presynaptic SACs, requiring its full

  11. Adenosine A(2A) receptor up-regulates retinal wave frequency via starburst amacrine cells in the developing rat retina.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pin-Chien; Hsiao, Yu-Tien; Kao, Shao-Yen; Chen, Ching-Feng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Wei; Lee, Chien-Fei; Lu, Juu-Chin; Chern, Yijuang; Wang, Chih-Tien

    2014-01-01

    Developing retinas display retinal waves, the patterned spontaneous activity essential for circuit refinement. During the first postnatal week in rodents, retinal waves are mediated by synaptic transmission between starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The neuromodulator adenosine is essential for the generation of retinal waves. However, the cellular basis underlying adenosine's regulation of retinal waves remains elusive. Here, we investigated whether and how the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) regulates retinal waves and whether A(2A)R regulation of retinal waves acts via presynaptic SACs. We showed that A(2A)R was expressed in the inner plexiform layer and ganglion cell layer of the developing rat retina. Knockdown of A(2A)R decreased the frequency of spontaneous Ca²⁺ transients, suggesting that endogenous A(2A)R may up-regulate wave frequency. To investigate whether A(2A)R acts via presynaptic SACs, we targeted gene expression to SACs by the metabotropic glutamate receptor type II promoter. Ca²⁺ transient frequency was increased by expressing wild-type A(2A)R (A2AR-WT) in SACs, suggesting that A(2A)R may up-regulate retinal waves via presynaptic SACs. Subsequent patch-clamp recordings on RGCs revealed that presynaptic A(2A)R-WT increased the frequency of wave-associated postsynaptic currents (PSCs) or depolarizations compared to the control, without changing the RGC's excitability, membrane potentials, or PSC charge. These findings suggest that presynaptic A(2A)R may not affect the membrane properties of postsynaptic RGCs. In contrast, by expressing the C-terminal truncated A(2A)R mutant (A(2A)R-ΔC) in SACs, the wave frequency was reduced compared to the A(2A)R-WT, but was similar to the control, suggesting that the full-length A(2A)R in SACs is required for A(2A)R up-regulation of retinal waves. A(2A)R up-regulates the frequency of retinal waves via presynaptic SACs, requiring its full-length protein structure. Thus, by

  12. Calmodulin and Ca2+/calmodulin-binding proteins are involved in Tetrahymena thermophila phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Gonda, K; Komatsu, M; Numata, O

    2000-08-01

    The ciliated protist, Tetrahymena thermophila, possesses one oral apparatus for phagocytosis, one of the most important cell functions, in the anterior cell cortex. The apparatus comprises four membrane structures which consist of ciliated and unciliated basal bodies, a cytostome where food is collected by oral ciliary motility, and a cytopharynx where food vacuoles are formed. The food vacuole is thought to be transported into the cytoplasm by a deep fiber which connects with the oral apparatus. Although a large number of studies have been done on the structure of the oral apparatus, the molecular mechanisms of phagocytosis in Tetrahymena thermophila are not well understood. In this study, using indirect immunofluorescence, we demonstrated that the deep fiber consisted of actin, CaM, and Ca2+/CaM-binding proteins, p85 and EF-1alpha, which are closely involved in cytokinesis. Moreover, we showed that CaM, p85, and EF-1alpha are colocalized in the cytostome and the cytopharynx of the oral apparatus. Next, we examined whether Ca2+/CaM signal regulates Tetrahymena thermophila phagocytosis, using Ca2+/CaM inhibitors chlorpromazine, trifluoperazine, N-(6-aminohexyl)-1-naphthalenesulfonamide, and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide HCI. In Tetrahymena, it is known that Ca2+/CaM signal is closely involved in ciliary motility and cytokinesis. The results showed that one of the inhibitors, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide HCl, inhibited the food vacuole formation rather than the ciliary motility, while the other three inhibitors effectively prevented the ciliary motility. Considering the colocalization of CaM, p85, and EF-1alpha to the cytopharynx, these results suggest that the Ca2+/CaM signal plays a pivotal role in Tetrahymena thermophila food vacuole formation.

  13. Learning to learn self-regulation in practice: a 2 cohort evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sharples, Kath; Moseley, Laurence G

    2011-11-01

    The transfer of nurse training into higher education following 'Project 2000' dramatically changed the status of student nurses. While the majority received a grant or bursary, students were no longer regarded as belonging to the hospital staffing complement. Elcock et al. (2007), argue that the intended advantage of supernumerary status following the move of nurse education into higher education has not been reflected in the student learning experience. Students have reported difficulties in being accepted into the community of practice, as they are no longer viewed as belonging in the professional sense to the practice environment (Cope et al., 2000). Students must therefore be prepared for their supernumerary role through the development of appropriate skills for learning in practice (Elcock et al., 2007). The Thames Valley University pre-registration nursing curriculum promotes the effective socialisation of students into the professional role (Fitzpatrick et al., 1996) through a 35-day practice orientation programme in the Common Foundation Programme. The results of a 2 cohort evaluation of a 35-day programme facilitated in the Brent and Harrow learning community indicate that novice pre-registration students will not always possess the self-directed ability to spontaneously engage with nursing care in practice. Students must be provided the opportunity to develop the skills that define the self-regulated learner (Langendyk, 2006). Students must be empowered to self-assess what they know and what they do not know. It is argued that in order to learn during practice experiences, the student nurse of today must first learn how to be self-regulated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation is required for phagocytosis of staphylococcus aureus by RAW 264.7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Fei, E-mail: zhufei@zju.edu.cn; Yue, Wanfu; Wang, Yongxia

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor which controls the expression of various genes involved in immune responses. However, it is not clear whether NF-κB activation is critical for phagocytosis when Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we investigated whether NF-κB cascade genes are altered in a mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) when the cells were stimulated to activate a host innate immune response against live S. aureus or heat-inactivated S. aureus (HISA). NF-κB cascade genes such as Nfκb1, Nfκbiz, Nfκbie, Rel, Traf1 and Tnfaip3 were up-regulated by all treatments at onemore » hour after incubation. NF-κB play an important role in activating phagocytosis in RAW 264.7 cells infected with S. aureus. Inhibition of NF-κB significantly blocked phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled S. aureus and decreased the expression of NFκB1, IL1α, IL1β and TLR2 in this cell line. Our results demonstrate that S. aureus may activate the NF-κB pathway and that NF-κB activation is required for phagocytosis of S. aureus by macrophages. - Highlights: • NF-κB cascade genes such as Nfκb1 and Traf1 were up-regulated by heat-inactivated S. aureus. • Inhibition of NF-κB significantly blocked phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled S. aureus. • NF-κB activation is required for phagocytosis of S. aureus by macrophages.« less

  15. Kinase-Dependent and -Independent Roles of EphA2 in the Regulation of Prostate Cancer Invasion and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Maria Letizia; Parri, Matteo; Angelucci, Adriano; Onnis, Barbara; Bianchini, Francesca; Giannoni, Elisa; Raugei, Giovanni; Calorini, Lido; Rucci, Nadia; Teti, Anna; Bologna, Mauro; Chiarugi, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Ligand-activated Eph tyrosine kinases regulate cellular repulsion, morphology, adhesion, and motility. EphA2 kinase is frequently up-regulated in several different types of cancers, including prostate, breast, colon, and lung carcinomas, as well as in melanoma. The existing data do not clarify whether EphA2 receptor phosphorylation or its simple overexpression, which likely leads to Eph kinase-independent responses, plays a role in the progression of malignant prostate cancer. In this study, we address the role of EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation in prostate carcinoma cell adhesion, motility, invasion, and formation of metastases. Tumor cells expressing kinase-deficient EphA2 mutants, as well as an EphA2 variant lacking the cytoplasmic domain, are defective in ephrinA1-mediated cell rounding, retraction fiber formation, de-adhesion from the extracellular matrix, RhoA and Rac1 GTPase regulation, three-dimensional matrix invasion, and in vivo metastasis, suggesting a key role for EphA2 kinase activity. Nevertheless, EphA2 regulation of cell motility and invasion, as well as the formation of bone and visceral tumor colonies, reveals a component of both EphA2 kinase-dependent and -independent features. These results uncover a differential requirement for EphA2 kinase activity in the regulation of prostate carcinoma metastasis outcome, suggesting that although the kinase activity of EphA2 is required for the regulation of cell adhesion and cytoskeletal rearrangement, some distinct kinase-dependent and -independent pathways likely cooperate to drive cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis outcome. PMID:19264906

  16. Kinase-dependent and -independent roles of EphA2 in the regulation of prostate cancer invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Maria Letizia; Parri, Matteo; Angelucci, Adriano; Onnis, Barbara; Bianchini, Francesca; Giannoni, Elisa; Raugei, Giovanni; Calorini, Lido; Rucci, Nadia; Teti, Anna; Bologna, Mauro; Chiarugi, Paola

    2009-04-01

    Ligand-activated Eph tyrosine kinases regulate cellular repulsion, morphology, adhesion, and motility. EphA2 kinase is frequently up-regulated in several different types of cancers, including prostate, breast, colon, and lung carcinomas, as well as in melanoma. The existing data do not clarify whether EphA2 receptor phosphorylation or its simple overexpression, which likely leads to Eph kinase-independent responses, plays a role in the progression of malignant prostate cancer. In this study, we address the role of EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation in prostate carcinoma cell adhesion, motility, invasion, and formation of metastases. Tumor cells expressing kinase-deficient EphA2 mutants, as well as an EphA2 variant lacking the cytoplasmic domain, are defective in ephrinA1-mediated cell rounding, retraction fiber formation, de-adhesion from the extracellular matrix, RhoA and Rac1 GTPase regulation, three-dimensional matrix invasion, and in vivo metastasis, suggesting a key role for EphA2 kinase activity. Nevertheless, EphA2 regulation of cell motility and invasion, as well as the formation of bone and visceral tumor colonies, reveals a component of both EphA2 kinase-dependent and -independent features. These results uncover a differential requirement for EphA2 kinase activity in the regulation of prostate carcinoma metastasis outcome, suggesting that although the kinase activity of EphA2 is required for the regulation of cell adhesion and cytoskeletal rearrangement, some distinct kinase-dependent and -independent pathways likely cooperate to drive cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis outcome.

  17. Genetic dissection of TAM receptor-ligand interaction in retinal pigment epithelial cell phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Burstyn-Cohen, Tal; Lew, Erin D; Través, Paqui G; Burrola, Patrick G; Hash, Joseph C; Lemke, Greg

    2012-12-20

    Although TAM receptor tyrosine kinases play key roles in immune regulation, cancer metastasis, and viral infection, the relative importance of the two TAM ligands-Gas6 and Protein S-has yet to be resolved in any setting in vivo. We have now performed a genetic dissection of ligand function in the retina, where the TAM receptor Mer is required for the circadian phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments by retinal pigment epithelial cells. This process is severely attenuated in Mer mutant mice, which leads to photoreceptor death. We find that retinal deletion of either Gas6 or Protein S alone yields retinae with a normal number of photoreceptors. However, concerted deletion of both ligands fully reproduces the photoreceptor death seen in Mer mutants. These results demonstrate that Protein S and Gas6 function as independent, bona fide Mer ligands, and are, to a first approximation, interchangeable with respect to Mer-driven phagocytosis in the retina. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Retinoid X receptor activation reverses age-related deficiencies in myelin debris phagocytosis and remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Natrajan, Muktha S.; de la Fuente, Alerie G.; Crawford, Abbe H.; Linehan, Eimear; Nuñez, Vanessa; Johnson, Kory R.; Wu, Tianxia; Fitzgerald, Denise C.; Ricote, Mercedes; Bielekova, Bibiana

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of central nervous system remyelination declines with age. This is in part due to an age-associated decline in the phagocytic removal of myelin debris, which contains inhibitors of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation. In this study, we show that expression of genes involved in the retinoid X receptor pathway are decreased with ageing in both myelin-phagocytosing human monocytes and mouse macrophages using a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches. Disruption of retinoid X receptor function in young macrophages, using the antagonist HX531, mimics ageing by reducing myelin debris uptake. Macrophage-specific RXRα (Rxra) knockout mice revealed that loss of function in young mice caused delayed myelin debris uptake and slowed remyelination after experimentally-induced demyelination. Alternatively, retinoid X receptor agonists partially restored myelin debris phagocytosis in aged macrophages. The agonist bexarotene, when used in concentrations achievable in human subjects, caused a reversion of the gene expression profile in multiple sclerosis patient monocytes to a more youthful profile and enhanced myelin debris phagocytosis by patient cells. These results reveal the retinoid X receptor pathway as a positive regulator of myelin debris clearance and a key player in the age-related decline in remyelination that may be targeted by available or newly-developed therapeutics. PMID:26463675

  19. UDP facilitates microglial phagocytosis through P2Y6 receptors.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazuhide

    2007-01-01

    Microglia engage in the clearance of dead cells or dangerous debris. When neighboring cells are injured, the cells release or leak ATP into extracellular space and microglia rapidly move toward or extend a process to the nucleotides as chemotaxis through P2Y12 receptors. In the meanwhile, microglia express the metabotropic P2Y6 receptors, the activation of which by uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP) triggers microglial phagocytosis in a concentration-dependent fashion. UDP/UTP was leaked when hippocampal neurons were damaged by kainic acid in vivo and in vitro. Systemic administration of kainic acid in rats resulted in neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, where increases in mRNA for P2Y6 receptors in activated microglia. Thus, the P2Y6 receptor is upregulated when neurons are damaged, and would function as a sensor for phagocytosis by sensing diffusible UDP signals.

  20. A pathogenic parasite interferes with phagocytosis of insect immunocompetent cells.

    PubMed

    Brivio, Maurizio F; Mastore, Maristella; Nappi, Anthony J

    2010-09-01

    Phagocytosis activity of hemocytes of the host Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera) was modulated by the infection of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae (Rahbditida) and was found to be correlated with the opsonization of bacteria by hemolymph factors. The presence of nematodes resulted in a significative decrease in phagocytosis of bacteria by host hemocytes, both in in vivo and in in vitro assays. Host interacting proteins (HIPs), which appear to function as opsonic factors and are essential to perform immune responses, were removed by S. feltiae from host hemolymph, by means of its epicuticle binding properties. Host humoral factors sequestered by the parasite have been identified by monodimensional and 2D electrophoretic analysis. The data suggest that S. feltiae, living in association with symbiontic bacteria (Xenorhabdus nematophilus), develop an immune suppressive strategy to support its bacteria, which diminished the effectiveness of immunological surveillance by the host. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. TROPLE-LUX-B: Phagocytosis in mussel hemocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, P. D.; Unruh, E.

    2005-08-01

    The TRIPLELUX-B Experiment contributes to risk assessment concerning immunotoxicity under space flight conditions. The assay system of the TRIPLELUX-B Experiment will be performed with a well defined quantification and evaluation of the immune function phagocytosis. The indicator cells are the hemocytes of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas). The signals of the immuno cellular responses are translated into luminescence as a rapid optical reporter system. The results expected will allow to conclude wether the observed responses are caused by microgravity and/or radiation. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space.The choice of the phagocytes from invertebrates is justified by the claim to study the universal validity of innate immune responses. The components of the phagocytosis test system for the BIOLAB are now established under terrestrial conditions. The next step for adaptation to the BIOLAB conditions and hardware is in progress.

  2. Phagocytosis in pup and adult harbour, grey and harp seals.

    PubMed

    Frouin, Héloïse; Lebeuf, Michel; Hammill, Mike; Fournier, Michel

    2010-04-15

    Knowledge on pinniped immunology is still in its infancy. For instance, age-related and developmental aspects of the immune system in pinnipeds need to be better described. The present study examined the phagocytic activity and efficiency of harbour, grey and harp seal leukocytes. In the first part of the study, peripheral blood was collected from captive female harbour seals of various ages. Data showed an age-related decrease in phagocytosis in female harbour seals from sub-adult to adulthood. In the second part of the study, changes in phagocytosis were quantified during lactation in wild newborn harbour, grey and harp seals and in their mothers (harp and grey seals). In newborns of the same age, leukocytes of harbour and harp seals phagocytosed less than those of grey seal pups. The phagocytic activity and efficiency increased significantly from early to mid-lactation in newborn harbour seals, and from early to late lactation in newborn grey seals, which could suggest that the transfer of phagocytosis-promoting factor(s) in colostrum is an important feature of temporary protection for pups. In contrast, no changes in phagocytic activity and efficiency were observed in lactating females of the two seal species, harp and grey, examined. At late lactation, phagocytic activity in both grey and harp seal pups and phagocytic efficiency in grey seal pups were significantly higher than in their mothers. These results could reflect either the capacity of phagocytes of the newborn harp and grey seals to respond to pathogens. Results from this study suggest that the phagocytosis of the seal species examined is not fully developed at birth as it generally increases in pups during lactation. Thereafter, the phagocytic activity of seals appears to decrease throughout adulthood. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. How cells engulf: a review of theoretical approaches to phagocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, David M.; Endres, Robert G.

    2017-12-01

    Phagocytosis is a fascinating process whereby a cell surrounds and engulfs particles such as bacteria and dead cells. This is crucial both for single-cell organisms (as a way of acquiring nutrients) and as part of the immune system (to destroy foreign invaders). This whole process is hugely complex and involves multiple coordinated events such as membrane remodelling, receptor motion, cytoskeleton reorganisation and intracellular signalling. Because of this, phagocytosis is an excellent system for theoretical study, benefiting from biophysical approaches combined with mathematical modelling. Here, we review these theoretical approaches and discuss the recent mathematical and computational models, including models based on receptors, models focusing on the forces involved, and models employing energetic considerations. Along the way, we highlight a beautiful connection to the physics of phase transitions, consider the role of stochasticity, and examine links between phagocytosis and other types of endocytosis. We cover the recently discovered multistage nature of phagocytosis, showing that the size of the phagocytic cup grows in distinct stages, with an initial slow stage followed by a much quicker second stage starting around half engulfment. We also address the issue of target shape dependence, which is relevant to both pathogen infection and drug delivery, covering both one-dimensional and two-dimensional results. Throughout, we pay particular attention to recent experimental techniques that continue to inform the theoretical studies and provide a means to test model predictions. Finally, we discuss population models, connections to other biological processes, and how physics and modelling will continue to play a key role in future work in this area.

  4. Microglial phagocytosis of living photoreceptors contributes to inherited retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lian; Zabel, Matthew K; Wang, Xu; Ma, Wenxin; Shah, Parth; Fariss, Robert N; Qian, Haohua; Parkhurst, Christopher N; Gan, Wen-Biao; Wong, Wai T

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa, caused predominantly by mutations in photoreceptor genes, currently lacks comprehensive treatment. We discover that retinal microglia contribute non-cell autonomously to rod photoreceptor degeneration by primary phagocytosis of living rods. Using rd10 mice, we found that the initiation of rod degeneration is accompanied by early infiltration of microglia, upregulation of phagocytic molecules in microglia, and presentation of “eat-me” signals on mutated rods. On live-cell imaging, infiltrating microglia interact dynamically with photoreceptors via motile processes and engage in rapid phagocytic engulfment of non-apoptotic rods. Microglial contribution to rod demise is evidenced by morphological and functional amelioration of photoreceptor degeneration following genetic ablation of retinal microglia. Molecular inhibition of microglial phagocytosis using the vitronectin receptor antagonist cRGD also improved morphological and functional parameters of degeneration. Our findings highlight primary microglial phagocytosis as a contributing mechanism underlying cell death in retinitis pigmentosa and implicate microglia as a potential cellular target for therapy. PMID:26139610

  5. Mechanics of neutrophil phagocytosis: experiments and quantitative models.

    PubMed

    Herant, Marc; Heinrich, Volkmar; Dembo, Micah

    2006-05-01

    To quantitatively characterize the mechanical processes that drive phagocytosis, we observed the FcgammaR-driven engulfment of antibody-coated beads of diameters 3 mum to 11 mum by initially spherical neutrophils. In particular, the time course of cell morphology, of bead motion and of cortical tension were determined. Here, we introduce a number of mechanistic models for phagocytosis and test their validity by comparing the experimental data with finite element computations for multiple bead sizes. We find that the optimal models involve two key mechanical interactions: a repulsion or pressure between cytoskeleton and free membrane that drives protrusion, and an attraction between cytoskeleton and membrane newly adherent to the bead that flattens the cell into a thin lamella. Other models such as cytoskeletal expansion or swelling appear to be ruled out as main drivers of phagocytosis because of the characteristics of bead motion during engulfment. We finally show that the protrusive force necessary for the engulfment of large beads points towards storage of strain energy in the cytoskeleton over a large distance from the leading edge ( approximately 0.5 microm), and that the flattening force can plausibly be generated by the known concentrations of unconventional myosins at the leading edge.

  6. Serotonin modulates insect hemocyte phagocytosis via two different serotonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yi-Xiang; Huang, Jia; Li, Meng-Qi; Wu, Ya-Su; Xia, Ren-Ying; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2016-03-14

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates both neural and immune responses in vertebrates, but its role in insect immunity remains uncertain. We report that hemocytes in the caterpillar, Pieris rapae are able to synthesize 5-HT following activation by lipopolysaccharide. The inhibition of a serotonin-generating enzyme with either pharmacological blockade or RNAi knock-down impaired hemocyte phagocytosis. Biochemical and functional experiments showed that naive hemocytes primarily express 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors. The blockade of 5-HT1B significantly reduced phagocytic ability; however, the blockade of 5-HT2B increased hemocyte phagocytosis. The 5-HT1B-null Drosophila melanogaster mutants showed higher mortality than controls when infected with bacteria, due to their decreased phagocytotic ability. Flies expressing 5-HT1B or 5-HT2B RNAi in hemocytes also showed similar sensitivity to infection. Combined, these data demonstrate that 5-HT mediates hemocyte phagocytosis through 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors and serotonergic signaling performs critical modulatory functions in immune systems of animals separated by 500 million years of evolution.

  7. Role of MicroRNA-26b in Glioma Development and Its Mediated Regulation on EphA2

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ning; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Liu, Ming; Liu, Haizhou; Yao, Weicheng; Zhang, Yuyan; Cao, Shousong; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of multiple target genes. Deregulation of miRNAs is common in human tumorigenesis. Low level expression of miR-26b has been found in glioma cells. However, its underlying mechanism of action has not been determined. Methodology/Principal Findings Real-time PCR was employed to measure the expression level of miR-26b in glioma patients and cells. The level of miR-26b was inversely correlated with the grade of glioma. Ectopic expression of miR-26b inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioma cells. A binding site for miR-26b was identified in the 3′UTR of EphA2. Over-expression of miR-26b in glioma cells repressed the endogenous level of EphA2 protein. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) experiments were performed to further confirm the effects of miR-26b on the regulation of EphA2, and the results showed that miR-26b inhibited the VM processes which regulated by EphA2. Significance This study demonstrated that miR-26b may act as a tumor suppressor in glioma and it directly regulates EphA2 expression. EphA2 is a direct target of miR-26b, and the down-regulation of EphA2 mediated by miR-26b is dependent on the binding of miR-26b to a specific response element of microRNA in the 3′UTR region of EphA2 mRNA. PMID:21264258

  8. Entamoeba histolytica Cell Surface Calreticulin Binds Human C1q and Functions in Amebic Phagocytosis of Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaithilingam, Archana; Teixeira, Jose E.; Miller, Peter J.; Heron, Bradley T.

    2012-01-01

    Phagocytosis of host cells is characteristic of tissue invasion by the intestinal ameba Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amebic dysentery and liver abscesses. Entamoeba histolytica induces host cell apoptosis and uses ligands, including C1q, on apoptotic cells to engulf them. Two mass spectrometry analyses identified calreticulin in amebic phagosome preparations, and, in addition to its function as an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, calreticulin is believed to be the macrophage receptor for C1q. The purpose of this study was to determine if calreticulin functions as an E. histolytica C1q receptor during phagocytosis of host cells. Calreticulin was localized to the surface of E. histolytica during interaction with both Jurkat lymphocytes and erythrocytes and was present in over 75% of phagocytic cups during amebic erythrophagocytosis. Presence of calreticulin on the cell surface was further demonstrated using a method that selectively biotinylated cell surface proteins and by flow cytometry using trophozoites overexpressing epitope-tagged calreticulin. Regulated overexpression of calreticulin increased E. histolytica's ability to phagocytose apoptotic lymphocytes and calcium ionophore-treated erythrocytes but had no effect on amebic adherence to or destruction of cell monolayers or surface expression of the GalNAc lectin and serine-rich E. histolytica protein (SREHP) receptors. Finally, E. histolytica calreticulin bound specifically to apoptotic lymphocytes and to human C1q. Collectively, these data implicate cell surface calreticulin as a receptor for C1q during E. histolytica phagocytosis of host cells. PMID:22473608

  9. Essential and unique roles of PIP5K-γ and -α in Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yuntao S.; Yamaga, Masaki; Zhu, Xiaohui; Wei, Yongjie; Sun, Hui-Qiao; Wang, Jing; Yun, Mia; Wang, Yanfeng; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Bennett, Michael; Mellman, Ira; Abrams, Charles S.; De Camilli, Pietro; Lu, Christopher Y.

    2009-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is dynamically remodeled during Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytosis in a phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2)-dependent manner. We investigated the role of type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) γ and α isoforms, which synthesize PIP2, during phagocytosis. PIP5K-γ−/− bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMM) have a highly polymerized actin cytoskeleton and are defective in attachment to IgG-opsonized particles and FcγR clustering. Delivery of exogenous PIP2 rescued these defects. PIP5K-γ knockout BMM also have more RhoA and less Rac1 activation, and pharmacological manipulations establish that they contribute to the abnormal phenotype. Likewise, depletion of PIP5K-γ by RNA interference inhibits particle attachment. In contrast, PIP5K-α knockout or silencing has no effect on attachment but inhibits ingestion by decreasing Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein activation, and hence actin polymerization, in the nascent phagocytic cup. In addition, PIP5K-γ but not PIP5K-α is transiently activated by spleen tyrosine kinase–mediated phosphorylation. We propose that PIP5K-γ acts upstream of Rac/Rho and that the differential regulation of PIP5K-γ and -α allows them to work in tandem to modulate the actin cytoskeleton during the attachment and ingestion phases of phagocytosis. PMID:19153220

  10. Boosting phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory phenotype in microglia mediates neuroprotection by PPARγ agonist MDG548 in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lecca, Daniela; Janda, Elzbieta; Mulas, Giovanna; Diana, Andrea; Martino, Concetta; Angius, Fabrizio; Spolitu, Stefano; Antonietta Casu, M; Simbula, Gabriella; Boi, Laura; Batetta, Barbara; Spiga, Saturnino; Carta, Anna R

    2018-03-23

    Microglia phenotype and phagocytic activity are deregulated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists are neuroprotective in experimental PD, but their role in regulating microglial phenotype and phagocytosis has been poorly investigated. We addressed it by using the PPARγ agonist MDG548. Murine microglial cell line MMGT12 was stimulated with LPS and/or MDG548 and their effect on phagocytosis of fluorescent microspheres or necrotic neurons was investigated by flow cytometry. Cytokines and markers of microglia phenotype such as Mannose Receptor C-Type 1 (MRC1), Ym1 and CD68 were measured by ELISA and fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Levels of Beclin-1, recently shown to play a role in microglial phagocytosis, were measured by western blotting. In the In vivo MPTP-probenecid (MPTPp) model of PD in mice, MDG548 was tested on motor impairment, nigral neurodegeneration, microglial activation and phenotype. MDG548, applied to LPS-stimulated microglia, increased the phagocytosis of both latex beads and necrotic cells, upregulated the expression of MRC1, CD68 and to a lesser extent IL-10, while counteracted the LPS-induced increase of TNF-α and iNOS. MDG548 also caused the induction of Beclin-1. The chronic MPTPp treatment in mice downregulated MRC1 and TGF-β and upregulated TNF-α and IL-1β immunoreactivity in activated CD11b-positive microglia, causing the death of nigral dopaminergic neurons. MDG548 arrested the MPTPp-induced cell death, enhanced MRC1 and restored cytokines levels. This study adds a novel mechanism for PPARγ-mediated neuroprotection in PD, and suggests that boosting the phagocytic activity and anti-inflammatory markers may represent an effective disease-modifying approach. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of Galectin-3/MAC-2 in the activation of the innate-immune function of phagocytosis in microglia in injury and disease.

    PubMed

    Rotshenker, Shlomo

    2009-09-01

    Microglia are a self-sustained population of immune/myeloid cells present throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are in a "resting" state in the normal adult CNS. They turn "active" in injury and disease (e.g., trauma, neurodegeneration, and infection). Activated microglia can be beneficial as well as detrimental/neurotoxic. The innate-immune function of phagocytosis of tissue debris, neurotoxic factor, and pathogens is a beneficial function of microglia. The current manuscript reviews the role of Galectin-3 (known also as MAC-2; Galectin-3/MAC-2) in the activation of the phagocytosis of degenerated myelin that is mediated by complement receptor-3 (known also as MAC-1; CD11b/CD18; alphaMbeta2 integrin) and SRA (scavenger receptor-AI/II). Observations suggest that Galectin-3/MAC-2 may act as a molecular switch that activates phagocytosis by up-regulating and prolonging KRas-GTP-dependent PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) activity. A similar mechanism may regulate the phagocytosis of other tissue debris, neurotoxic factors and pathogens in neurodegenerative and infectious diseases.

  12. Iterative use of nuclear receptor Nr5a2 regulates multiple stages of liver and pancreas development

    PubMed Central

    Nissim, Sahar; Weeks, Olivia; Talbot, Jared C.; Hedgepeth, John W.; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Swinburne, Ian; Cortes, Mauricio; Alexa, Kristen; Megason, Sean; North, Trista E.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Goessling, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    The stepwise progression of common endoderm progenitors into differentiated liver and pancreas organs is regulated by a dynamic array of signals that are not well understood. The nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 gene nr5a2, also known as Liver receptor homolog-1 (Lrh-1) is expressed in several tissues including the developing liver and pancreas. Here, we interrogate the role of Nr5a2 at multiple developmental stages using genetic and chemical approaches and uncover novel pleiotropic requirements during zebrafish liver and pancreas development. Zygotic loss of nr5a2 in a targeted genetic null mutant disrupted the development of the exocrine pancreas and liver, while leaving the endocrine pancreas intact. Loss of nr5a2 abrogated exocrine pancreas markers such as trypsin, while pancreas progenitors marked by ptf1a or pdx1 remained unaffected, suggesting a role for Nr5a2 in regulating pancreatic acinar cell differentiation. In the developing liver, Nr5a2 regulates hepatic progenitor outgrowth and differentiation, as nr5a2 mutants exhibited reduced hepatoblast markers hnf4α and prox1 as well as differentiated hepatocyte marker fabp10a. Through the first in vivo use of Nr5a2 chemical antagonist Cpd3, the iterative requirement for Nr5a2 for exocrine pancreas and liver differentiation was temporally elucidated: chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 function during hepatopancreas progenitor specification was sufficient to disrupt exocrine pancreas formation and enhance the size of the embryonic liver, suggesting that Nr5a2 regulates hepatic versus pancreatic progenitor fate choice. Chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 at a later time during pancreas and liver differentiation was sufficient to block the formation of mature acinar cells and hepatocytes. These findings define critical iterative and pleiotropic roles for Nr5a2 at distinct stages of pancreas and liver organogenesis, and provide novel perspectives for interpreting the role of Nr5a2 in disease. PMID:27474396

  13. Iterative use of nuclear receptor Nr5a2 regulates multiple stages of liver and pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Nissim, Sahar; Weeks, Olivia; Talbot, Jared C; Hedgepeth, John W; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Swinburne, Ian; Cortes, Mauricio; Alexa, Kristen; Megason, Sean; North, Trista E; Amacher, Sharon L; Goessling, Wolfram

    2016-10-01

    The stepwise progression of common endoderm progenitors into differentiated liver and pancreas organs is regulated by a dynamic array of signals that are not well understood. The nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 gene nr5a2, also known as Liver receptor homolog-1 (Lrh-1) is expressed in several tissues including the developing liver and pancreas. Here, we interrogate the role of Nr5a2 at multiple developmental stages using genetic and chemical approaches and uncover novel pleiotropic requirements during zebrafish liver and pancreas development. Zygotic loss of nr5a2 in a targeted genetic null mutant disrupted the development of the exocrine pancreas and liver, while leaving the endocrine pancreas intact. Loss of nr5a2 abrogated exocrine pancreas markers such as trypsin, while pancreas progenitors marked by ptf1a or pdx1 remained unaffected, suggesting a role for Nr5a2 in regulating pancreatic acinar cell differentiation. In the developing liver, Nr5a2 regulates hepatic progenitor outgrowth and differentiation, as nr5a2 mutants exhibited reduced hepatoblast markers hnf4α and prox1 as well as differentiated hepatocyte marker fabp10a. Through the first in vivo use of Nr5a2 chemical antagonist Cpd3, the iterative requirement for Nr5a2 for exocrine pancreas and liver differentiation was temporally elucidated: chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 function during hepatopancreas progenitor specification was sufficient to disrupt exocrine pancreas formation and enhance the size of the embryonic liver, suggesting that Nr5a2 regulates hepatic vs. pancreatic progenitor fate choice. Chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 at a later time during pancreas and liver differentiation was sufficient to block the formation of mature acinar cells and hepatocytes. These findings define critical iterative and pleiotropic roles for Nr5a2 at distinct stages of pancreas and liver organogenesis, and provide novel perspectives for interpreting the role of Nr5a2 in disease. Copyright © 2016

  14. Microglial phagocytosis induced by fibrillar β-amyloid is attenuated by oligomeric β-amyloid: implications for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reactive microglia are associated with β-amyloid (Aβ) deposit and clearance in Alzhiemer's Disease (AD). Paradoxically, entocranial resident microglia fail to trigger an effective phagocytic response to clear Aβ deposits although they mainly exist in an "activated" state. Oligomeric Aβ (oAβ), a recent target in the pathogenesis of AD, can induce more potent neurotoxicity when compared with fibrillar Aβ (fAβ). However, the role of the different Aβ forms in microglial phagocytosis, induction of inflammation and oxidation, and subsequent regulation of phagocytic receptor system, remain unclear. Results We demonstrated that Aβ(1-42) fibrils, not Aβ(1-42) oligomers, increased the microglial phagocytosis. Intriguingly, the pretreatment of microglia with oAβ(1-42) not only attenuated fAβ(1-42)-triggered classical phagocytic response to fluorescent microspheres but also significantly inhibited phagocytosis of fluorescent labeled fAβ(1-42). Compared with the fAβ(1-42) treatment, the oAβ(1-42) treatment resulted in a rapid and transient increase in interleukin 1β (IL-1β) level and produced higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and intracellular superoxide anion (SOA). The further results demonstrated that microglial phagocytosis was negatively correlated with inflammatory mediators in this process and that the capacity of phagocytosis in fAβ(1-42)-induced microglia was decreased by IL-1β, lippolysaccharide (LPS) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). The decreased phagocytosis could be relieved by pyrrolidone dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a free radical scavenger. These results suggest that the oAβ-impaired phagocytosis is mediated through inflammation and oxidative stress-mediated mechanism in microglial cells. Furthermore, oAβ(1-42) stimulation reduced the mRNA expression of CD36, integrin β1 (Itgb1), and Ig receptor Fc

  15. Microglial phagocytosis induced by fibrillar β-amyloid is attenuated by oligomeric β-amyloid: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Dong; Zhu, Yuan-Gui; Lin, Nan; Zhang, Jing; Ye, Qin-Yong; Huang, Hua-Pin; Chen, Xiao-Chun

    2011-06-30

    Reactive microglia are associated with β-amyloid (Aβ) deposit and clearance in Alzhiemer's Disease (AD). Paradoxically, entocranial resident microglia fail to trigger an effective phagocytic response to clear Aβ deposits although they mainly exist in an "activated" state. Oligomeric Aβ (oAβ), a recent target in the pathogenesis of AD, can induce more potent neurotoxicity when compared with fibrillar Aβ (fAβ). However, the role of the different Aβ forms in microglial phagocytosis, induction of inflammation and oxidation, and subsequent regulation of phagocytic receptor system, remain unclear. We demonstrated that Aβ(1-42) fibrils, not Aβ(1-42) oligomers, increased the microglial phagocytosis. Intriguingly, the pretreatment of microglia with oAβ(1-42) not only attenuated fAβ(1-42)-triggered classical phagocytic response to fluorescent microspheres but also significantly inhibited phagocytosis of fluorescent labeled fAβ(1-42). Compared with the fAβ(1-42) treatment, the oAβ(1-42) treatment resulted in a rapid and transient increase in interleukin 1β (IL-1β) level and produced higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and intracellular superoxide anion (SOA). The further results demonstrated that microglial phagocytosis was negatively correlated with inflammatory mediators in this process and that the capacity of phagocytosis in fAβ(1-42)-induced microglia was decreased by IL-1β, lippolysaccharide (LPS) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). The decreased phagocytosis could be relieved by pyrrolidone dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a free radical scavenger. These results suggest that the oAβ-impaired phagocytosis is mediated through inflammation and oxidative stress-mediated mechanism in microglial cells. Furthermore, oAβ(1-42) stimulation reduced the mRNA expression of CD36, integrin β1 (Itgb1), and Ig receptor FcγRIII, and

  16. Allosteric Regulation of Serine Protease HtrA2 through Novel Non-Canonical Substrate Binding Pocket

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nitu; Gadewal, Nikhil; Chaganti, Lalith K.; Sastry, G. Madhavi; Bose, Kakoli

    2013-01-01

    HtrA2, a trimeric proapoptotic serine protease is involved in several diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Its unique ability to mediate apoptosis via multiple pathways makes it an important therapeutic target. In HtrA2, C-terminal PDZ domain upon substrate binding regulates its functions through coordinated conformational changes the mechanism of which is yet to be elucidated. Although allostery has been found in some of its homologs, it has not been characterized in HtrA2 so far. Here, with an in silico and biochemical approach we have shown that allostery does regulate HtrA2 activity. Our studies identified a novel non-canonical selective binding pocket in HtrA2 which initiates signal propagation to the distal active site through a complex allosteric mechanism. This non-classical binding pocket is unique among HtrA family proteins and thus unfolds a novel mechanism of regulation of HtrA2 activity and hence apoptosis. PMID:23457469

  17. Melanin targets LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP): A novel pathogenetic mechanism in fungal disease

    PubMed Central

    Chamilos, Georgios; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Brakhage, Axel; Beauvais, Anne; Latge, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intracellular swelling of conidia of the major human airborne fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus results in surface exposure of immunostimulatory pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and triggers activation of a specialized autophagy pathway called LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) to promote fungal killing. We have recently discovered that, apart from PAMPs exposure, cell wall melanin removal during germination of A. fumigatus is a prerequisite for activation of LAP. Importantly, melanin promotes fungal pathogenicity via targeting LAP, as a melanin-deficient A. fumigatus mutant restores its virulence upon conditional inactivation of Atg5 in hematopoietic cells of mice. Mechanistically, fungal cell wall melanin selectively excludes the CYBA/p22phox subunit of NADPH oxidase from the phagosome to inhibit LAP, without interfering with signaling regulating cytokine responses. Notably, inhibition of LAP is a general property of melanin pigments, a finding with broad physiological implications. PMID:27028978

  18. Phospholipid turnover during phagocytosis in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    García Gil, Merche; Alonso, Fernando; Alvarez Chiva, Vicente; Sánchez Crespo, Mariano; Mato, José M.

    1982-01-01

    We have previously observed that the phagocytosis of zymosan particles coated with complement by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes is accompanied by a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by transmethylation [García Gil, Alonso, Sánchez Crespo & Mato (1981) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 101, 740–748]. The present studies show that phosphatidylcholine synthesis by a cholinephosphotransferase reaction is enhanced, up to 3-fold, during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells. This effect was tested by both measuring the incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine in cells labelled with [Me-14C]choline, and by assaying the activity of CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. The time course of CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase activation by zymosan mirrors the inhibition of phospholipid methyltransferase activity previously reported. The extent of incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine induced by various doses of zymosan correlates with the physiological response of the cells to this stimulus. This effect was specific for phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine turnover was not affected by zymosan. The purpose of this enhanced phosphatidylcholine synthesis is not to provide phospholipid molecules rich in arachidonic acid. The present studies show that about 80% of the arachidonic acid generated in response to zymosan derives from phosphatidylinositol. A transient accumulation of arachidonoyldiacylglycerol has also been observed, which indicates that a phospholipase C is responsible, at least in part, for the generation of arachidonic acid. Finally, isobutylmethylxanthine and quinacrine, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol turnover, inhibit both arachidonic acid generation and phagocytosis, indicating a function for this pathway during this process. PMID:6181780

  19. Up-regulation of eEF1A2 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yue; Du, Chengli; Wang, Bo

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • The expression of eEF1A2 is up-regulated in prostate cancer tissues. • Suppression of eEF1A2 inhibits the proliferation and promotes apoptosis. • Inhibition of eEF1A2 enhances the expression of apoptotic relevant proteins. • The expressions of eEF1A2 and cleavage-caspase3 are inversely correlated. - Abstract: Background: eEF1A2 is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis, which possesses important function roles in cancer development. This study aims at investigating the expression pattern of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer and its potential role in prostate cancer development. Methods: We examined the expression level of eEF1A2 in 30 pairs of prostate cancer tissuesmore » by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). Then we applied siRNA specifically targeting eEF1A2 to down-regulate its expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Flow cytometer was used to explore apoptosis and Western-blot was used to detect the pathway proteins of apoptosis. Results: Our results showed that the expression level of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher compared to their corresponding normal tissues. Reduction of eEF1A2 expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells led to a dramatic inhibition of proliferation accompanied with enhanced apoptosis rate. Western blot revealed that apoptosis pathway proteins (caspase3, BAD, BAX, PUMA) were significantly up-regulated after suppression of eEF1A2. More importantly, the levels of eEF1A2 and caspase3 were inversely correlated in prostate cancer tissues. Conclusion: Our data suggests that eEF1A2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development, especially in inhibiting apoptosis. So eEF1A2 might serve as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer.« less

  20. ADAR2-dependent GluA2 editing regulates cocaine seeking.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H D; McFarland, K N; Darnell, S B; Huizenga, M N; Sangrey, G R; Cha, J-H J; Pierce, R C; Sadri-Vakili, G

    2015-11-01

    Activation of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens is necessary for the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior, an animal model of drug craving and relapse. AMPARs are tetrameric protein complexes that consist of GluA1-4 subunits, of which GluA2 imparts calcium permeability. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) is a nuclear enzyme that is essential for editing GluA2 pre-mRNA at Q/R site 607. Unedited GluA2(Q) subunits form calcium-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs), whereas edited GluA2(R) subunits form calcium-impermeable channels (CI-AMPARs). Emerging evidence suggests that the reinstatement of cocaine seeking is associated with increased synaptic expression of CP-AMPARs in the nucleus accumbens. However, the role of GluA2 Q/R site editing and ADAR2 in cocaine seeking is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of forced cocaine abstinence on GluA2 Q/R site editing and ADAR2 expression in the nucleus accumbens. Our results demonstrate that 7 days of cocaine abstinence is associated with decreased GluA2 Q/R site editing and reduced ADAR2 expression in the accumbens shell, but not core, of cocaine-experienced rats compared with yoked saline controls. To examine the functional significance of ADAR2 and GluA2 Q/R site editing in cocaine seeking, we used viral-mediated gene delivery to overexpress ADAR2b in the accumbens shell. Increased ADAR2b expression in the shell attenuated cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking and was associated with increased GluA2 Q/R site editing and surface expression of GluA2-containing AMPARs. Taken together, these findings support the novel hypothesis that an increased contribution of accumbens shell CP-AMPARs containing unedited GluA2(Q) promotes cocaine seeking. Therefore, CP-AMPARs containing unedited GluA2(Q) represent a novel target for cocaine addiction pharmacotherapies.

  1. Diffusion Barriers, Mechanical Forces, and the Biophysics of Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Philip P; Grinstein, Sergio; Freeman, Spencer A

    2016-07-25

    Phagocytes recognize and eliminate pathogens, alert other tissues of impending threats, and provide a link between innate and adaptive immunity. They also maintain tissue homeostasis, consuming dead cells without causing alarm. The receptor engagement, signal transduction, and cytoskeletal rearrangements underlying phagocytosis are paradigmatic of other immune responses and bear similarities to macropinocytosis and cell migration. We discuss how the glycocalyx restricts access to phagocytic receptors, the processes that enable receptor engagement and clustering, and the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton that controls the mobility of membrane proteins and lipids and provides the mechanical force propelling the phagocyte membrane toward and around the phagocytic prey. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inducible CYP2J2 and its product 11,12-EET promotes bacterial phagocytosis: a role for CYP2J2 deficiency in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease?

    PubMed

    Bystrom, Jonas; Thomson, Scott J; Johansson, Jörgen; Edin, Matthew L; Zeldin, Darryl C; Gilroy, Derek W; Smith, Andrew M; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2013-01-01

    The epoxygenase CYP2J2 has an emerging role in inflammation and vascular biology. The role of CYP2J2 in phagocytosis is not known and its regulation in human inflammatory diseases is poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of CYP2J2 in bacterial phagocytosis and its expression in monocytes from healthy controls and Crohns disease patients. CYP2J2 is anti-inflammatory in human peripheral blood monocytes. Bacterial LPS induced CYP2J2 mRNA and protein. The CYP2J2 arachidonic acid products 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET inhibited LPS induced TNFα release. THP-1 monocytes were transformed into macrophages by 48h incubation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Epoxygenase inhibition using a non-selective inhibitor SKF525A or a selective CYP2J2 inhibitor Compound 4, inhibited E. coli particle phagocytosis, which could be specifically reversed by 11,12-EET. Moreover, epoxygenase inhibition reduced the expression of phagocytosis receptors CD11b and CD68. CD11b also mediates L. monocytogenes phagocytosis. Similar, to E. coli bioparticle phagocytosis, epoxygenase inhibition also reduced intracellular levels of L. monocytogenes, which could be reversed by co-incubation with 11,12-EET. Disrupted bacterial clearance is a hallmark of Crohn's disease. Unlike macrophages from control donors, macrophages from Crohn's disease patients showed no induction of CYP2J2 in response to E. coli. These results demonstrate that CYP2J2 mediates bacterial phagocytosis in macrophages, and implicates a defect in the CYP2J2 pathway may regulate bacterial clearance in Crohn's disease.

  3. Inducible CYP2J2 and Its Product 11,12-EET Promotes Bacterial Phagocytosis: A Role for CYP2J2 Deficiency in the Pathogenesis of Crohn’s Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Bystrom, Jonas; Thomson, Scott J.; Johansson, Jörgen; Edin, Matthew L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Gilroy, Derek W.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2013-01-01

    The epoxygenase CYP2J2 has an emerging role in inflammation and vascular biology. The role of CYP2J2 in phagocytosis is not known and its regulation in human inflammatory diseases is poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of CYP2J2 in bacterial phagocytosis and its expression in monocytes from healthy controls and Crohns disease patients. CYP2J2 is anti-inflammatory in human peripheral blood monocytes. Bacterial LPS induced CYP2J2 mRNA and protein. The CYP2J2 arachidonic acid products 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET inhibited LPS induced TNFα release. THP-1 monocytes were transformed into macrophages by 48h incubation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Epoxygenase inhibition using a non-selective inhibitor SKF525A or a selective CYP2J2 inhibitor Compound 4, inhibited E. coli particle phagocytosis, which could be specifically reversed by 11,12-EET. Moreover, epoxygenase inhibition reduced the expression of phagocytosis receptors CD11b and CD68. CD11b also mediates L. monocytogenes phagocytosis. Similar, to E. coli bioparticle phagocytosis, epoxygenase inhibition also reduced intracellular levels of L. monocytogenes, which could be reversed by co-incubation with 11,12-EET. Disrupted bacterial clearance is a hallmark of Crohn’s disease. Unlike macrophages from control donors, macrophages from Crohn’s disease patients showed no induction of CYP2J2 in response to E. coli. These results demonstrate that CYP2J2 mediates bacterial phagocytosis in macrophages, and implicates a defect in the CYP2J2 pathway may regulate bacterial clearance in Crohn’s disease. PMID:24058654

  4. Meconium inhibits phagocytosis and stimulates respiratory burst in alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Craig, Sylvia; Lopez, Alfonso; Hoskin, David; Markham, Fred

    2005-06-01

    The meconium aspiration syndrome is an important cause of respiratory distress in newborn infants. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a first line of defense in the lower respiratory tract against inhaled pathogens and particles such as meconium. In this study, we examined the effect of meconium on two primary macrophage functions: phagocytosis and respiratory burst. Short-term exposure of rat NR8383 AMs to sterile meconium from human or equine neonates (1.2-24 mg/mL) produced a dose-dependent decrease in phagocytosis of fluorescent latex beads. This effect was not due to decreased cell viability or to an elevation of intracellular cAMP. The effect of short-term exposure to meconium on the respiratory burst response in AMs was quantified using flow cytometry to measure oxidation of dichlorofluorescin diacetate. A robust respiratory burst was triggered when AMs were exposed to 12 or 24 mg/mL meconium. This effect was attenuated but not eliminated by filtration of the meconium. However, subsequent to meconium exposure, AMs had a reduced respiratory burst in response to stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate. In addition, AMs that were exposed to meconium for an extended period (24 h) showed DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptosis. Meconium therefore may interfere with AM function by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis. Tissue injury from release of reactive oxygen species by AMs may be important in the pathophysiology of the meconium aspiration syndrome.

  5. A 2A adenosine receptor regulates glia proliferation and pain after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Bura, S Andreea; Nadal, Xavier; Ledent, Catherine; Maldonado, Rafael; Valverde, Olga

    2008-11-15

    Peripheral nerve injury produces a persistent neuropathic pain state characterized by spontaneous pain, allodynia and hyperalgesia. In this study, we evaluated the possible involvement of A 2ARs in the development of neuropathic pain and the expression of microglia and astrocytes in the spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury. For this purpose, partial ligation of the sciatic nerve was performed in A 2A knockout mice and wild-type littermates. The development of mechanical and thermal allodynia, as well as thermal hyperalgesia was evaluated by using the von Frey filament model, the cold-plate test and the plantar test, respectively. In wild-type animals, sciatic nerve injury led to a neuropathic pain syndrome that was revealed in these three nociceptive behavioural tests. However, a significant decrease of the mechanical allodynia and a suppression of thermal hyperalgesia and allodynia were observed in A 2AR deficient mice. The expression of microglia and astrocytes was enhanced in wild-type mice exposed to sciatic nerve injury and this response was attenuated in knockout animals. Taken together, our results demonstrate the involvement of A 2ARs in the control of neuropathic pain and propose this receptor as an interesting target for the development of new drugs for the management of this clinical syndrome.

  6. Osteoblastic Lrp4 promotes osteoclastogenesis by regulating ATP release and adenosine-A2AR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Lei; Jung, Ji-Ung; Guo, Hao-Han; Pan, Jin-Xiu; Sun, Xiang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Bone homeostasis depends on the functional balance of osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs). Lrp4 is a transmembrane protein that is mutated in patients with high bone mass. Loss of Lrp4 in OB-lineage cells increases bone mass by elevating bone formation by OBs and reducing bone resorption by OCs. However, it is unclear how Lrp4 deficiency in OBs impairs osteoclastogenesis. Here, we provide evidence that loss of Lrp4 in the OB lineage stabilizes the prorenin receptor (PRR) and increases PRR/V-ATPase–driven ATP release, thereby enhancing the production of the ATP derivative adenosine. Both pharmacological and genetic inhibition of adenosine-2A receptor (A2AR) in culture and Lrp4 mutant mice diminishes the osteoclastogenic deficit and reduces trabecular bone mass. Furthermore, elevated adenosine-A2AR signaling reduces receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK)–mediated osteoclastogenesis. Collectively, these results identify a mechanism by which osteoblastic Lrp4 controls osteoclastogenesis, reveal a cross talk between A2AR and RANK signaling in osteoclastogenesis, and uncover an unrecognized pathophysiological mechanism of high-bone-mass disorders. PMID:28193701

  7. Osteoblastic Lrp4 promotes osteoclastogenesis by regulating ATP release and adenosine-A2AR signaling.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lei; Jung, Ji-Ung; Guo, Hao-Han; Pan, Jin-Xiu; Sun, Xiang-Dong; Mei, Lin; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2017-03-06

    Bone homeostasis depends on the functional balance of osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs). Lrp4 is a transmembrane protein that is mutated in patients with high bone mass. Loss of Lrp4 in OB-lineage cells increases bone mass by elevating bone formation by OBs and reducing bone resorption by OCs. However, it is unclear how Lrp4 deficiency in OBs impairs osteoclastogenesis. Here, we provide evidence that loss of Lrp4 in the OB lineage stabilizes the prorenin receptor (PRR) and increases PRR/V-ATPase-driven ATP release, thereby enhancing the production of the ATP derivative adenosine. Both pharmacological and genetic inhibition of adenosine- 2A receptor (A 2A R) in culture and Lrp4 mutant mice diminishes the osteoclastogenic deficit and reduces trabecular bone mass. Furthermore, elevated adenosine-A 2A R signaling reduces receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK)-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Collectively, these results identify a mechanism by which osteoblastic Lrp4 controls osteoclastogenesis, reveal a cross talk between A 2A R and RANK signaling in osteoclastogenesis, and uncover an unrecognized pathophysiological mechanism of high-bone-mass disorders. © 2017 Xiong et al.

  8. PDE2A2 regulates mitochondria morphology and apoptotic cell death via local modulation of cAMP/PKA signalling.

    PubMed

    Monterisi, Stefania; Lobo, Miguel J; Livie, Craig; Castle, John C; Weinberger, Michael; Baillie, George; Surdo, Nicoletta C; Musheshe, Nshunge; Stangherlin, Alessandra; Gottlieb, Eyal; Maizels, Rory; Bortolozzi, Mario; Micaroni, Massimo; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2017-05-02

    cAMP/PKA signalling is compartmentalised with tight spatial and temporal control of signal propagation underpinning specificity of response. The cAMP-degrading enzymes, phosphodiesterases (PDEs), localise to specific subcellular domains within which they control local cAMP levels and are key regulators of signal compartmentalisation. Several components of the cAMP/PKA cascade are located to different mitochondrial sub-compartments, suggesting the presence of multiple cAMP/PKA signalling domains within the organelle. The function and regulation of these domains remain largely unknown. Here, we describe a novel cAMP/PKA signalling domain localised at mitochondrial membranes and regulated by PDE2A2. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches combined with real-time FRET imaging and high resolution microscopy, we demonstrate that in rat cardiac myocytes and other cell types mitochondrial PDE2A2 regulates local cAMP levels and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of Drp1. We further demonstrate that inhibition of PDE2A, by enhancing the hormone-dependent cAMP response locally, affects mitochondria dynamics and protects from apoptotic cell death.

  9. Na+/H+ exchange activity during phagocytosis in human neutrophils: role of Fcgamma receptors and tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In neutrophils, binding and phagocytosis facilitate subsequent intracellular killing of microorganisms. Activity of Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) participates in these events, especially in regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) by compensating for the H+ load generated by the respiratory burst. Despite the importance of these functions, comparatively little is known regarding the nature and regulation of NHE(s) in neutrophils. The purpose of this study was to identify which NHE(s) are expressed in neutrophils and to elucidate the mechanisms regulating their activity during phagocytosis. Exposure of cells to the phagocytic stimulus opsonized zymosan (OpZ) induced a transient cytosolic acidification followed by a prolonged alkalinization. The latter was inhibited in Na+-free medium and by amiloride analogues and therefore was due to activation of Na+/H+ exchange. Reverse transcriptase PCR and cDNA sequencing demonstrated that mRNA for the NHE-1 but not for NHE-2, 3, or 4 isoforms of the exchanger was expressed. Immunoblotting of purified plasma membranes with isoform- specific antibodies confirmed the presence of NHE-1 protein in neutrophils. Since phagocytosis involves Fcgamma (FcgammaR) and complement receptors such as CR3 (a beta2 integrin) which are linked to pathways involving alterations in intracellular [Ca2+]i and tyrosine phosphorylation, we studied these pathways in relation to activation of NHE-1. Cross-linking of surface bound antibodies (mAb) directed against FcgammaRs (FcgammaRII > FcgammaRIII) but not beta2 integrins induced an amiloride-sensitive cytosolic alkalinization. However, anti-beta2 integrin mAb diminished OpZ-induced alkalinization suggesting that NHE- 1 activation involved cooperation between integrins and FcgammaRs. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and herbimycin blocked cytosolic alkalinization after OpZ or FcgammaR cross-linking suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation was involved in NHE-I activation. An increase in [Ca2+]i was not

  10. Regulation of steroid 5-{alpha} reductase type 2 (Srd5a2) by sterol regulatory element binding proteins and statin

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Young-Kyo; Zhu, Bing; Jeon, Tae-Il

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we show that sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) regulate expression of Srd5a2, an enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible conversion of testosterone to dihydroxytestosterone in the male reproductive tract and is highly expressed in androgen-sensitive tissues such as the prostate and skin. We show that Srd5a2 is induced in livers and prostate from mice fed a chow diet supplemented with lovastatin plus ezitimibe (L/E), which increases the activity of nuclear SREBP-2. The three fold increase in Srd5a2 mRNA mediated by L/E treatment was accompanied by the induction of SREBP-2 binding to the Srd5a2 promoter detected by amore » ChIP-chip assay in liver. We identified a SREBP-2 responsive region within the first 300 upstream bases of the mouse Srd5a2 promoter by co-transfection assays which contain a site that bound SREBP-2 in vitro by an EMSA. Srd5a2 protein was also induced in cells over-expressing SREBP-2 in culture. The induction of Srd5a2 through SREBP-2 provides a mechanistic explanation for why even though statin therapy is effective in reducing cholesterol levels in treating hypercholesterolemia it does not compromise androgen production in clinical studies.« less

  11. A proteomics analysis reveals that A2M might be regulated by STAT3 in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Xie, Z H; Lv, Y X; Tang, Q P; Zhang, H; Zhang, J Y; Wu, B; Jiang, W H

    2016-06-01

    Proteomics tools can be used to identify the differentially expressed proteins related to allergic rhinitis (AR). However, the large numbers of proteins related to AR have not yet been explored using an advanced quantitative proteomics approach, known as isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). To identify differentially expressed proteins in persistent AR patients and to explore the regulatory signalling pathways involving the identified proteins. Forty-five persistent AR patients and 20 healthy controls were recruited for this study. iTRAQ was used to identify the proteins that were differentially expressed between these two groups, and a bioinformatics analysis was then conducted to identify the signalling pathways associated with the identified proteins. Immunofluorescence labelling was performed to detect alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M), STAT3, p-STAT3 and IL17 in the nasal mucosa. A total of 133 differentially expressed proteins were identified. We then determined the top 10 regulatory pathways associated with these proteins and found that the blood coagulation pathway had the most significant association. A2M, a protein involved in the blood coagulation pathway, was found to be differentially expressed in the serum of AR patients. The bioinformatics analysis indicated that STAT3 is an upstream transcription factor that might regulate A2M expression. An immunofluorescence study further confirmed that STAT3 and A2M are co-localized in nasal mucosa cells. Additionally, A2M, STAT3, p-STAT3, and IL17 are elevated in AR patients. The expressional level of A2M is positively related to IL17 and the symptom of the congestion in AR subjects. The blood coagulation pathway may be a key regulatory network pathway contributing to the allergic inflammatory response in AR patients. A2M, which is regulated by STAT3, may be an important protein in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis in AR patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. EphA2 is a key effector of the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway regulating glioblastoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hamaoka, Yuho; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2016-08-01

    EphA2, a member of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in a variety of malignancies, including glioblastoma, and its expression is correlated with poor prognosis. EphA2 acts as a tumor promoter through a ligand ephrin-independent mechanism, which requires phosphorylation of EphA2 on serine 897 (S897), leading to increased cell migration and invasion. In this study, we show that ligand-independent EphA2 signaling occurs downstream of the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway and mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell proliferation in glioblastoma cells. Suppression of EphA2 expression by long-term exposure to ligand ephrinA1 or EphA2-targeted shRNA inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation. Stimulation of the cells with EGF induced EphA2 S897 phosphorylation, which was suppressed by MEK and RSK inhibitors, but not by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt inhibitors. The RSK inhibitor or RSK2-targeted shRNA also suppressed EGF-induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, overexpression of wild-type EphA2 promoted cell proliferation without EGF stimulation, whereas overexpression of EphA2-S897A mutant suppressed EGF- or RSK2-induced proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that EphA2 is a key downstream target of the MEK/ERK/RSK signaling pathway in the regulation of glioblastoma cell proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatitis C virus non-structural 5B protein interacts with cyclin A2 and regulates viral propagation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Long V; Ngo, Huong T T; Lim, Yun-Sook; Hwang, Soon B

    2012-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) requires host cellular proteins for its own propagation. To identify the cellular factors necessary for HCV propagation, we have recently screened the small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting cell cycle genes using cell culture grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. In the current study, we have selected and characterized the gene encoding Cyclin A2 (CycA2). Deregulation of CycA2 has been implicated in many types of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The effects of CycA2 on HCV propagation were investigated by siRNA-mediated knockdown assay, in vitro and in vivo protein binding assays, luciferase reporter gene assay, and immunoblot assay. We showed that siRNA-mediated depletion of CycA2 significantly inhibited HCV replication in both HCV subgenomic replicon cells and HCVcc-infected cells. Furthermore, HCV non-structural 5B (NS5B) specifically interacted with CycA2 in vitro and in vivo. Protein interaction was mediated through the cyclin box of CycA2 and the palm domain of NS5B. We further showed that R/HxL motif in the palm domain of HCV NS5B mediated protein interaction with CycA2 and this interaction was necessary for HCV replication. Moreover, we demonstrated that tylophorine, the natural plant product exerting a CycA2 inhibitory function, abrogated HCV replication. HCV regulates CycA2 via NS5B protein for its own propagation. In addition, tylophorine may be a potential therapeutic agent for HCV. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Myosin light chain phosphorylation does not increase during yeast phagocytosis by macrophages.

    PubMed

    de Lanerolle, P; Gorgas, G; Li, X; Schluns, K

    1993-08-15

    We have studied the role of myosin II light chain phosphorylation in yeast phagocytosis by J774 cells. J774 cells, which are mouse cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage, ingest opsonized yeast particles, and the rate of internalization is linear for 60 min at 37 degrees C. Immunoprecipitation of myosin II from cells labeled with 32P, using an affinity-purified antibody to myosin II purified from J774 cells, demonstrated phosphorylation of both the myosin heavy chain and the 20-kDa light chain (PMLC) prior to the addition of the opsonized yeast. However, the levels of heavy chain and PMLC phosphorylation did not change during the linear phase of yeast uptake by J774 cells. Other experiments demonstrated that the amount of myosin II associated with the cytoskeleton did not change during phagocytosis, further supporting the observation that PMLC phosphorylation does not increase during phagocytosis. In contrast, F-actin increased by 1.6-fold during the linear phase of phagocytosis. Two additional approaches were used to analyze in greater detail the role of myosin II phosphorylation in phagocytosis. First, antibodies to myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), the enzyme that phosphorylates PMLC, were electroinjected into J774 cells. These antibodies, which inhibit MLCK activity, inhibited chemotaxis as previously described but had no effect on phagocytosis. Second, quantitation of phagocytosis and chemotaxis following treatment with the phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid demonstrated that chemotaxis was much more sensitive than phagocytosis to okadaic acid treatment; at 0.3 microM okadaic acid, there is a substantial increase in myosin phosphorylation and chemotaxis is inhibited by 60%, whereas phagocytosis is unaffected. These data indicate that PMLC phosphorylation and, by implication, myosin II are not involved in yeast phagocytosis. They also suggest that PMLC phosphorylation displays a high degree of specificity with respect to mediating energy

  15. Group III secreted phospholipase A2 regulates epididymal sperm maturation and fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kei; Masuda, Seiko; Hosono, Tomohiko; Arata, Satoru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Hara, Shuntaro; Kudo, Ichiro; Murakami, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Although lipid metabolism is thought to be important for the proper maturation and function of spermatozoa, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this dynamic process in the gonads remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that group III phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-III), a member of the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family, is expressed in the mouse proximal epididymal epithelium and that targeted disruption of the gene encoding this protein (Pla2g3) leads to defects in sperm maturation and fertility. Although testicular spermatogenesis in Pla2g3–/– mice was grossly normal, spermatozoa isolated from the cauda epididymidis displayed hypomotility, and their ability to fertilize intact eggs was markedly impaired. Transmission EM further revealed that epididymal spermatozoa in Pla2g3–/– mice had both flagella with abnormal axonemes and aberrant acrosomal structures. During epididymal transit, phosphatidylcholine in the membrane of Pla2g3+/+ sperm underwent a dramatic shift in its acyl groups from oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic acids to docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, whereas this membrane lipid remodeling event was compromised in sperm from Pla2g3–/– mice. Moreover, the gonads of Pla2g3–/– mice contained less 12/15-lipoxygenase metabolites than did those of Pla2g3+/+ mice. Together, our results reveal a role for the atypical sPLA2 family member sPLA2-III in epididymal lipid homeostasis and indicate that its perturbation may lead to sperm dysfunction. PMID:20424323

  16. Nucleus Accumbens Adenosine A2A Receptors Regulate Exertion of Effort by Acting on the Ventral Striatopallidal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mingote, Susana; Font, Laura; Farrar, Andrew M.; Vontell, Regina; Worden, Lila T.; Stopper, Colin M.; Port, Russell G.; Sink, Kelly S.; Bunce, Jamie G.; Chrobak, James J.; Salamone, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Goal-directed actions are sensitive to work-related response costs, and dopamine in nucleus accumbens is thought to modulate the exertion of effort in motivated behavior. Dopamine-rich striatal areas such as nucleus accumbens also contain high numbers of adenosine A2A receptors, and, for that reason, the behavioral and neurochemical effects of the adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 [2-p-(2-carboxyethyl) phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine] were investigated. Stimulation of accumbens adenosine A2A receptors disrupted performance of an instrumental task with high work demands (i.e., an interval lever-pressing schedule with a ratio requirement attached) but had little effect on a task with a lower work requirement. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that accumbens neurons that project to the ventral pallidum showed adenosine A2A receptors immunoreactivity. Moreover, activation of accumbens A2A receptors by local injections of CGS 21680 increased extracellular GABA levels in the ventral pallidum. Combined contralateral injections of CGS 21680 into the accumbens and the GABAA agonist muscimol into ventral pallidum (i.e., “disconnection” methods) also impaired response output, indicating that these structures are part of a common neural circuitry regulating the exertion of effort. Thus, accumbens adenosine A2A receptors appear to regulate behavioral activation and effort-related processes by modulating the activity of the ventral striatopallidal pathway. Research on the effort-related functions of these forebrain systems may lead to a greater understanding of pathological features of motivation, such as psychomotor slowing, anergia, and fatigue in depression. PMID:18768698

  17. Expression and Regulation of Transcription Factor FoxA2 in Chronic Rhinosinusitis With and Without Nasal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qing; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Hongtian; Chen, Fenghong; Luo, Xi; Miao, Beiping; Wu, Xingmei; Ma, Renqiang; Luo, Xiangqian; Xu, Geng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is characterized by the excessive production of mucus. However, the molecular mechanism underlying mucin overproduction in CRS with or without nasal polyps (CRSwNP and CRSsNP, respectively) is poorly understood. This study was conducted to assess the importance of the transcription factor FoxA2 in mucin production and to investigate the targeting of FoxA2 as a potential therapeutic strategy for mucus hypersecretion in CRS patients. Methods We enrolled 15 CRSwNP patients, 15 CRSsNP patients, and 10 normal controls in this study. The expression levels of FoxA2, MUC5AC, and MUC5B in inflamed and healthy nasal tissues were examined via immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and the levels of several proinflammatory cytokines in nasal secretions were measured via FlowCytomix analysis. In addition, the expression of MUC5AC and FoxA2 was determined in polyp-derived epithelial cells and NCI-H292 cells after in vitro stimulation. Results FoxA2 was significantly down-regulated, and MUC5AC and MUC5B were significantly up-regulated in both the CRSwNP and CRSsNP patients compared to the controls (P<0.05), and the protein level of FoxA2 was negatively associated with the IL-6 level in the CRS patients (P<0.05). IL-6 significantly increased MUC5AC expression but inhibited FoxA2 expression in vitro (P<0.05). Transfection with a FoxA2 expression plasmid significantly decreased MUC5AC promoter activity (P<0.05) and inhibited IL-6-induced MUC5AC production (P<0.05). In addition, clarithromycin significantly alleviated IL-6-induced FoxA2 suppression and decreased MUC5AC expression in vitro (P<0.05). Conclusions Our findings suggest that FoxA2 may be considered a therapeutic target for the modulation of mucus hypersecretion in CRS patients. PMID:25749777

  18. Expression and Regulation of Transcription Factor FoxA2 in Chronic Rhinosinusitis With and Without Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qing; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Hongtian; Chen, Fenghong; Luo, Xi; Miao, Beiping; Wu, Xingmei; Ma, Renqiang; Luo, Xiangqian; Xu, Geng; Shi, Jianbo; Li, Huabin

    2015-09-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is characterized by the excessive production of mucus. However, the molecular mechanism underlying mucin overproduction in CRS with or without nasal polyps (CRSwNP and CRSsNP, respectively) is poorly understood. This study was conducted to assess the importance of the transcription factor FoxA2 in mucin production and to investigate the targeting of FoxA2 as a potential therapeutic strategy for mucus hypersecretion in CRS patients. We enrolled 15 CRSwNP patients, 15 CRSsNP patients, and 10 normal controls in this study. The expression levels of FoxA2, MUC5AC, and MUC5B in inflamed and healthy nasal tissues were examined via immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and the levels of several proinflammatory cytokines in nasal secretions were measured via FlowCytomix analysis. In addition, the expression of MUC5AC and FoxA2 was determined in polyp-derived epithelial cells and NCI-H292 cells after in vitro stimulation. FoxA2 was significantly down-regulated, and MUC5AC and MUC5B were significantly up-regulated in both the CRSwNP and CRSsNP patients compared to the controls (P<0.05), and the protein level of FoxA2 was negatively associated with the IL-6 level in the CRS patients (P<0.05). IL-6 significantly increased MUC5AC expression but inhibited FoxA2 expression in vitro (P<0.05). Transfection with a FoxA2 expression plasmid significantly decreased MUC5AC promoter activity (P<0.05) and inhibited IL-6-induced MUC5AC production (P<0.05). In addition, clarithromycin significantly alleviated IL-6-induced FoxA2 suppression and decreased MUC5AC expression in vitro (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that FoxA2 may be considered a therapeutic target for the modulation of mucus hypersecretion in CRS patients.

  19. The nuclear orphan receptor Nr4a2 induces Foxp3 and regulates differentiation of CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Sekiya, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Ikkou; Inoue, Naoko; Morita, Rimpei; Hori, Shohei; Waldmann, Herman; Rudensky, Alexander Y.; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a central role in maintaining immune homoeostasis through various mechanisms. Although the Forkhead transcription factor Foxp3 defines the Treg cell lineage and functions, the molecular mechanisms of Foxp3 induction and maintenance remain elusive. Here we show that Foxp3 is one of the direct targets of Nr4a2. Nr4a2 binds to regulatory regions of Foxp3, where it mediates permissive histone modifications. Ectopic expression of Nr4a2 imparts Treg-like suppressive activity to naïve CD4+ T cells by inducing Foxp3 and by repressing cytokine production, including interferon-γ and interleukin-2. Deletion of Nr4a2 in T cells attenuates induction of Tregs and causes aberrant induction of Th1, leading to the exacerbation of colitis. Nr4a2-deficeint Tregs are prone to lose Foxp3 expression and have attenuated suppressive ability both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, Nr4a2 has the ability to maintain T-cell homoeostasis by regulating induction, maintenance and suppressor functions of Tregs, and by repression of aberrant Th1 induction. PMID:21468021

  20. Induction of Yersinia enterocolitica stress proteins by phagocytosis with macrophage.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Hanawa, T; Ogata, S

    1994-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a facultative intracellular pathogen which invades to epithelial cells and survives in phagocytes. Since the internal environment of phagocytes should be stressful conditions for the phagocytosed Yersinia, the bacteria should respond to protect themselves from otherwise lethal results. We analyzed the stress-induced proteins which possibly contribute to survival of Yersinia within the phagocytes. Y. enterocolitica was radiolabeled during the growth in macrophage-like J774-1 cells, and the bacterial proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. At least 16 proteins were selectively induced in response to phagocytosis, and several out of 16 proteins were also induced by heat shock at 42 C or oxidative stresses in vitro. Of those, two major stress proteins were identified to be homologues of DnaK and CRPA by immunoblotting analysis. These results have indicated that Y. enterocolitica exhibits a global stress response to the hostile environment in the phagocytosed macrophage.

  1. Physics of phagocytosis of foreign versus self-tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Richard; Rodriguez, Pia; Discher, Dennis

    2009-03-01

    The first cells to `attack' an implanted or injected foreign material or microbe are phagocytic cells of the innate immune system. These cells actively and rapidly phagocytose foreign cells, surfaces, or particles, but the process that is inefficient when faced with ``self'' cells. We have examined the biochemistry and some of the physics of this decision to eat or not eat. One particular protein on all animal cell membranes, called CD47, seems to engage phagocytic cell couter-receptors, and deactivate the force-generating myosin machinery that otherwise makes phagocytosis efficient. We will map the phagocytic synapse between phagocytes and particles or cells and describe the physicochemical dynamics that mediate this key decision in compatability.

  2. Analysis of LC3-Associated Phagocytosis and Antigen Presentation.

    PubMed

    Ligeon, Laure-Anne; Romao, Susana; Münz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The noncanonical macroautophagy pathway, LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) has recently emerged as an important catabolic process involved during exogenous antigen processing. It has been described that in human macrophages and dendritic cells the direct recruitment of LC3 to the phagosomal membrane is associated with its maturation impairment, allowing the stabilization of the cargo to prolong antigen presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules.In this chapter, we describe methods to monitor, manipulate, and understand the role of LAP during MHC class II presentation. We show how to enhance LAP formation resulting in antigen presentation by using zymosan or beads coated with Candida albicans extract. Then, we describe how to determine the localization of Rab7 or Lamp2 on LC3-phagosomes by confocal microscopy, a useful technique to follow phagosome maturation. Finally, we propose an assay to understand how MHC class II antigen presentation can be modulated by the LAP pathway.

  3. Mechanisms associated with phagocytosis of Arcobacter butzleri by Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Medina, Gustavo; Flores-Martin, Sandra; Fonseca, Belchiolina; Otth, Carola; Fernandez, Heriberto

    2014-05-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living amoeba widely found in environmental matrices such as soil and water. Arcobacter butzleri is an emerging potential zoonotic pathogen that can be isolated from environmental water sources, where they can establish endosymbiotic relationships with amoebas. The aim of this study was to describe the implication of mannose-binding proteins and membrane-associated receptors of glucose and galactose present in the amoebic membrane, during the attachment of Arcobacter butzleri by blocking with different saccharides. Another objective was to describe the signaling pathways involved in phagocytosis of these bacteria using specific inhibitors and analyze the implication of phagolysosome formation on the survival of Arcobacter butzleri inside the amoeba. We infer that the attachment of Arcobacter butzleri to the amoeba is a process which involves the participation of mannose-binding proteins and membrane-associated receptors of glucose and galactose present in the amoeba. We also demonstrated an active role of protozoan actin polymerization in the phagocytosis of Arcobacter butzleri and a critical involvement of PI3K and RhoA pathways. Further, we demonstrated that the tyrosine kinase-induced actin polymerization signal is essential in Acanthamoeba-mediated bacterial uptake. Through phagolysosomal formation analysis, we conclude that the survival of Arcobacter butzleri inside the amoeba could be related with the ability to remain inside vacuoles not fused with lysosomes, or with the ability to retard the fusion between these structures. All these results help the understanding of the bacterial uptake mechanisms used by Acanthamoeba castellanii and contribute to evidence of the survival mechanisms of Arcobacter butzleri.

  4. Phagocytosis-dependent ketogenesis in retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Reveles, Juan; Dhingra, Anuradha; Alexander, Desiree; Bragin, Alvina; Philp, Nancy J; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

    2017-05-12

    Daily, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) ingests a bolus of lipid and protein in the form of phagocytized photoreceptor outer segments (OS). The RPE, like the liver, expresses enzymes required for fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. This suggests that these pathways play a role in the disposal of lipids from ingested OS, as well as providing a mechanism for recycling metabolic intermediates back to the outer retina. In this study, we examined whether OS phagocytosis was linked to ketogenesis. We found increased levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) in the apical medium following ingestion of OS by human fetal RPE and ARPE19 cells cultured on Transwell inserts. No increase in ketogenesis was observed following ingestion of oxidized OS or latex beads. Our studies further defined the connection between OS phagocytosis and ketogenesis in wild-type mice and mice with defects in phagosome maturation using a mouse RPE explant model. In explant studies, the levels of β-HB released were temporally correlated with OS phagocytic burst after light onset. In the Mreg -/- mouse where phagosome maturation is delayed, there was a temporal shift in the release of β-HB. An even more pronounced shift in maximal β-HB production was observed in the Abca4 -/- RPE, in which loss of the ATP-binding cassette A4 transporter results in defective phagosome processing and accumulation of lipid debris. These studies suggest that FAO and ketogenesis are key to supporting the metabolism of the RPE and preventing the accumulation of lipids that lead to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Myelin phagocytosis by astrocytes after myelin damage promotes lesion pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ponath, Gerald; Ramanan, Sriram; Mubarak, Mayyan; Housley, William; Lee, Seunghoon; Sahinkaya, F. Rezan; Vortmeyer, Alexander; Raine, Cedric S.; Pitt, David

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Astrocytes are key players in the pathology of multiple sclerosis and can assume beneficial and detrimental roles during lesion development. The triggers and timing of the different astroglial responses in acute lesions remain unclear. Astrocytes in acute multiple sclerosis lesions have been shown previously to contain myelin debris, although its significance has not been examined. We hypothesized that myelin phagocytosis by astrocytes is an early event during lesion formation and leads to astroglial immune responses. We examined multiple sclerosis lesions and other central nervous system pathologies with prominent myelin injury, namely, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, metachromatic leukodystrophy and subacute infarct. In all conditions, we found that myelin debris was present in most astrocytes at sites of acute myelin breakdown, indicating that astroglial myelin phagocytosis is an early and prominent feature. Functionally, myelin debris was taken up by astrocytes through receptor-mediated endocytosis and resulted in astroglial NF-κB activation and secretion of chemokines. These in vitro results in rats were validated in human disease where myelin-positive hypertrophic astrocytes showed increased nuclear localization of NF-κB and elevated chemokine expression compared to myelin-negative, reactive astrocytes. Thus, our data suggest that myelin uptake is an early response of astrocytes in diseases with prominent myelin injury that results in recruitment of immune cells. This first line response of astrocytes to myelin injury may exert beneficial or detrimental effects on the lesion pathology, depending on the inflammatory context. Modulating this response might be of therapeutic relevance in multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating conditions. PMID:28007993

  6. Shrimp miR-12 Suppresses White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection by Synchronously Triggering Antiviral Phagocytosis and Apoptosis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Le; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has indicated that the innate immune system can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated simultaneous activation of multiple immune pathways remains unknown. To address this issue, the role of host miR-12 in shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) antiviral immune responses was characterized in the present study. The results indicated that miR-12 participated in virus infection, host phagocytosis, and apoptosis in defense against white spot syndrome virus invasion. miR-12 could simultaneously trigger phagocytosis, apoptosis, and antiviral immunity through the synchronous downregulation of the expression of shrimp genes [PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) and BI-1(transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 6)] and the viral gene (wsv024). Further analysis showed that miR-12 could synchronously mediate the 5′–3′ exonucleolytic degradation of its target mRNAs, and this degradation terminated in the vicinity of the 3′ untranslated region sequence complementary to the seed sequence of miR-12. Therefore, the present study showed novel aspects of the miRNA-mediated simultaneous regulation of multiple immune pathways. PMID:28824612

  7. Activated microglia cause reversible apoptosis of pheochromocytoma cells, inducing their cell death by phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hornik, Tamara C.; Vilalta, Anna; Brown, Guy C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some apoptotic processes, such as phosphatidylserine exposure, are potentially reversible and do not necessarily lead to cell death. However, phosphatidylserine exposure can induce phagocytosis of a cell, resulting in cell death by phagocytosis: phagoptosis. Phagoptosis of neurons by microglia might contribute to neuropathology, whereas phagoptosis of tumour cells by macrophages might limit cancer. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which BV-2 microglia killed co-cultured pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells that were either undifferentiated or differentiated into neuronal cells. We found that microglia activated by lipopolysaccharide rapidly phagocytosed PC12 cells. Activated microglia caused reversible phosphatidylserine exposure on and reversible caspase activation in PC12 cells, and caspase inhibition prevented phosphatidylserine exposur and decreased subsequent phagocytosis. Nitric oxide was necessary and sufficient to induce the reversible phosphatidylserine exposure and phagocytosis. The PC12 cells were not dead at the time they were phagocytised, and inhibition of their phagocytosis left viable cells. Cell loss was inhibited by blocking phagocytosis mediated by phosphatidylserine, MFG-E8, vitronectin receptors or P2Y6 receptors. Thus, activated microglia can induce reversible apoptosis of target cells, which is insufficient to cause apoptotic cell death, but sufficient to induce their phagocytosis and therefore cell death by phagoptosis. PMID:26567213

  8. Specificity protein 4 (Sp4) regulates the transcription of AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 (Gria2).

    PubMed

    Priya, Anusha; Johar, Kaid; Nair, Bindu; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2014-06-01

    The alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are important glutamatergic receptors mediating fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. The regulation of the four subunits of AMPA receptors, GluA1-4, is poorly understood. Excitatory synaptic transmission is highly energy-demanding, and this energy is derived mainly from the oxidative pathway. Recently, we found that specificity factor regulates all subunits of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), a critical energy-generating enzyme. COX is also regulated by nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), which transcriptionally controls the Gria2 (GluA2) gene of AMPA receptors. The goal of the present study was to test our hypothesis that Sp-factors (Sp1, Sp3, and/or Sp4) also regulate AMPA subunit genes. If so, we wish to determine if Sp-factors and NRF-1 function via a complementary, concurrent and parallel, or a combination of complementary and concurrent/parallel mechanism. By means of multiple approaches, including electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutations, real-time quantitative PCR, and western blot analysis, we found that Sp4, but not Sp1 or Sp3, regulates the Gria2, but not Gria1, 3, or 4, subunit gene of the AMPA receptor in a concurrent and parallel manner with NRF-1. Thus, Sp4 and NRF-1 both mediate the tight coupling between neuronal activity and energy metabolism at the transcriptional level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cocaine promotes primary human astrocyte proliferation via JNK-dependent up-regulation of cyclin A2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Ting; Boeshore, Kristen L; Wu, Chun; Becker, Kevin G; Errico, Stacie L; Mash, Deborah C; Freed, William J

    2016-11-22

    Astrocytes perform a plethora of important functions in the central nervous system (CNS) and are involved in cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity. Previously, we showed that while cocaine decreased cyclin A2 expression in primary human neural progenitor cells, it increased cyclin A2 expression in human astrocytes. Since cyclin A2 is an essential regulator of the cell cycle, the aim of the present study is to clarify the effect of cocaine on proliferation of human astrocytes and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Primary human astrocytes were treated with either 1, 10, or 100 μM cocaine for 48 hr, and cell proliferation was measured using the CyQUANT cell proliferation assay. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which cocaine affects the proliferation of astrocytes, we analyzed gene expression profiles in cocaine-treated primary human astrocytes using a human focused cDNA array. Gene ontology/pathway enrichment analysis, STRING protein-protein interaction analysis, RT-qPCR, and western blotting were used to identify signal transduction pathways that are involved in cocaine-induced astrocyte dysfunction. Cocaine at 10 and 100 μM significantly increased human astrocyte proliferation. Gene expression profiling revealed the JNK MAP kinase pathway as a driver of cell proliferation affected by cocaine in human astrocytes. Further experiments showed that cocaine-induced JNK activation induced up-regulation of cyclin A2, leading to enhanced proliferation of human astrocytes. Cocaine-induced abnormal increases in the number of astrocytes may cause disruption in neuron-glia signaling and contribute to synaptic impairment in the CNS. Understanding the mechanisms of cocaine's effects on human astrocytes may help to reveal the involvement of glial cells in addictive behaviors.

  10. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary regulations; questions and answers... (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.267(a)-2T Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the... question and answer regulations under section 267(a) and related provisions as amended by section 174 of...

  11. A versatile, high through-put, bead-based phagocytosis assay for Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Yukie M; Ngati, Elise P; Salanti, Ali; Leke, Rose G F; Taylor, Diane W

    2017-10-31

    Antibody-mediated phagocytosis is an important immune effector mechanism against Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE); however, current phagocytosis assays use IE collected from infected individuals or from in vitro cultures of P. falciparum, making them prone to high variation. A simple, high-throughput flow cytometric assay was developed that uses THP-1 cells and fluorescent beads covalently-coupled with the malarial antigen VAR2CSA. The assay is highly repeatable, provides both the overall percent phagocytosis and semi-quantitates the number of antigen-coupled beads internalized.

  12. Live-cell Video Microscopy of Fungal Pathogen Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Leanne E.; Bain, Judith M.; Okai, Blessing; Gow, Neil A.R.; Erwig, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytic clearance of fungal pathogens, and microorganisms more generally, may be considered to consist of four distinct stages: (i) migration of phagocytes to the site where pathogens are located; (ii) recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs); (iii) engulfment of microorganisms bound to the phagocyte cell membrane, and (iv) processing of engulfed cells within maturing phagosomes and digestion of the ingested particle. Studies that assess phagocytosis in its entirety are informative1, 2, 3, 4, 5 but are limited in that they do not normally break the process down into migration, engulfment and phagosome maturation, which may be affected differentially. Furthermore, such studies assess uptake as a single event, rather than as a continuous dynamic process. We have recently developed advanced live-cell imaging technologies, and have combined these with genetic functional analysis of both pathogen and host cells to create a cross-disciplinary platform for the analysis of innate immune cell function and fungal pathogenesis. These studies have revealed novel aspects of phagocytosis that could only be observed using systematic temporal analysis of the molecular and cellular interactions between human phagocytes and fungal pathogens and infectious microorganisms more generally. For example, we have begun to define the following: (a) the components of the cell surface required for each stage of the process of recognition, engulfment and killing of fungal cells1, 6, 7, 8; (b) how surface geometry influences the efficiency of macrophage uptake and killing of yeast and hyphal cells7; and (c) how engulfment leads to alteration of the cell cycle and behavior of macrophages 9, 10. In contrast to single time point snapshots, live-cell video microscopy enables a wide variety of host cells and pathogens to be studied as continuous sequences over lengthy time periods, providing spatial and temporal information on a

  13. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (CEBPD) elevating PTX3 expression inhibits macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of dying neuron cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chiung-Yuan; Chang, Ling-Hua; Lee, Yi-Chao; Sterneck, Esta; Cheng, Chun-Pei; Chen, Shun-Hua; Huang, A-Mei; Tseng, Joseph T; Wang, Ju-Ming

    2012-02-01

    The CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (CEBPD, C/EBPδ, NF-IL6β) is induced in many inflammation-related diseases, suggesting that CEBPD and its downstream targets may play central roles in these conditions. Neuropathological studies show that a neuroinflammatory response parallels the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the precise mechanistic correlation between inflammation and AD pathogenesis remains unclear. CEBPD is upregulated in the astrocytes of AD patients. Therefore, we asked if activation of astrocytic CEBPD could contribute to AD pathogenesis. In this report, a novel role of CEBPD in attenuating macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of damaged neuron cells was found. By global gene expression profiling, we identified the inflammatory marker pentraxin-3 (PTX3, TNFAIP5, TSG-14) as a CEBPD target in astrocytes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PTX3 participates in the attenuation of macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of damaged neuron cells. This study provides the first demonstration of a role for astrocytic CEBPD and the CEBPD-regulated molecule PTX3 in the accumulation of damaged neurons, which is a hallmark of AD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ in macrophages contributes to immunosuppression and inhibits phagocytosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yu-Wei; Li, Chien-Feng; Chi, Jhih-Ying; Tseng, Joseph T; Chang, Yao; Hsu, Li-Jin; Lee, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Tsung-Hao; Wang, Shao-Ming; Wang, Dennis Ding Hwa; Cheng, Hung-Chi; Wang, Ju-Ming

    2013-07-16

    Although tumors tend to be associated with immune cells and inflammation, this immune response often fails to eliminate the cancer and instead promotes cancer progression. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) fail to phagocytose tumor cells, and they also produce signals that suppress the adaptive immune response. We showed that immunosuppressive prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) led to the production and activity of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ (C/EBPδ) by stimulating the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the RNA binding protein Hu antigen R (HuR), which bound to and stabilized CEBPD mRNA in macrophages. An increase in C/EBPδ abundance in macrophages in response to PGE₂ resulted in enhanced production of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), which suppresses the ability of macrophages to phagocytose tumor cells. Furthermore, conditioned medium from C/EBPδ-replete, but not C/EBPδ-deficient, macrophages inhibited the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages, suggesting an autocrine mode of regulation. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the amount of cytosolic HuR protein correlated with increased C/EBPδ abundance in TAMs in malignant nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Together, these data suggest that the inflammatory PGE₂-HuR-C/EBPδ axis in macrophages promotes tumor progression by preventing the phagocytosis of tumor cells and inducing immunosuppressive cytokine production.

  15. Virulent and Vaccine Strains of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus Have Different Influences on Phagocytosis and Cytokine Secretion of Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jie, Peng; Zhe, Ma; Chengwei, Hua; Huixing, Lin; Hui, Zhang; Chengping, Lu; Hongjie, Fan

    2017-01-06

    Swine streptococcosis is a significant threat to the Chinese pig industry, and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is one of the major pathogens. SEZ ATCC35246 is a classical virulent strain, while SEZ ST171 is a Chinese attenuated vaccine strain. In this study, we employed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine the differential response of macrophages to infection by these two strains. Eighty-seven upregulated proteins and 135 downregulated proteins were identified. The proteomic results were verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction for 10 chosen genes and Western blotting for three proteins. All differentially abundant proteins were analyzed for their Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations. Certain downregulated proteins were associated with immunity functions, and the upregulated proteins were related to cytomembrane and cytoskeleton regulation. The phagocytosis rate and cytokine genes transcription in Raw264.7 cells during SEZ ATCC35246 and ST171 infection were detected to confirm the bioinformatics results. These results showed that different effects on macrophage phagocytosis and cytokine expression might explain the different phenotypes of SEZ ATCC35246 and ST171 infection. This research provided clues to the mechanisms of host immunity responses to SEZ ST171and SEZ ATCC35246, which could identify potential therapy and vaccine development targets.

  16. A recombinant protein based on Trypanosoma cruzi P21 enhances phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Adele A; Clemente, Tatiana M; Dos Santos, Marlus A; Machado, Fabrício C; Gomes, Rafael G B; Moreira, Heline Hellen T; Cruz, Mário C; Brígido, Paula C; Dos Santos, Paulo C F; Martins, Flávia A; Bahia, Diana; Maricato, Juliana T; Janini, Luiz M R; Reboredo, Eduardo H; Mortara, Renato A; da Silva, Claudio V

    2012-01-01

    P21 is a secreted protein expressed in all developmental stages of Trypanosoma cruzi. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the recombinant protein based on P21 (P21-His(6)) on inflammatory macrophages during phagocytosis. Our results showed that P21-His(6) acts as a phagocytosis inducer by binding to CXCR4 chemokine receptor and activating actin polymerization in a way dependent onthe PI3-kinase signaling pathway. Thus, our results shed light on the notion that native P21 is a component related to T. cruzi evasion from the immune response and that CXCR4 may be involved in phagocytosis. P21-His(6) represents an important experimental control tool to study phagocytosis signaling pathways of different intracellular parasites and particles.

  17. A Recombinant Protein Based on Trypanosoma cruzi P21 Enhances Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Heline Hellen T.; Cruz, Mário C.; Brígido, Paula C.; dos Santos, Paulo C. F.; Martins, Flávia A.; Bahia, Diana; Maricato, Juliana T.; Janini, Luiz M. R.; Reboredo, Eduardo H.; Mortara, Renato A.; da Silva, Claudio V.

    2012-01-01

    Background P21 is a secreted protein expressed in all developmental stages of Trypanosoma cruzi. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the recombinant protein based on P21 (P21-His6) on inflammatory macrophages during phagocytosis. Findings Our results showed that P21-His6 acts as a phagocytosis inducer by binding to CXCR4 chemokine receptor and activating actin polymerization in a way dependent onthe PI3-kinase signaling pathway. Conclusions Thus, our results shed light on the notion that native P21 is a component related to T. cruzi evasion from the immune response and that CXCR4 may be involved in phagocytosis. P21-His6 represents an important experimental control tool to study phagocytosis signaling pathways of different intracellular parasites and particles. PMID:23251513

  18. Phospholipase A(2) activation by poultry particulate matter is mediated through extracellular signal-regulated kinase in lung epithelial cells: regulation of interleukin-8 release.

    PubMed

    Kotha, Sainath R; Piper, Melissa G; Patel, Rishi B; Sliman, Sean; Malireddy, Smitha; Zhao, Lingying; Baran, Christopher P; Nana-Sinkam, Patrick S; Wewers, Mark D; Romberger, Debra; Marsh, Clay B; Parinandi, Narasimham L

    2013-11-01

    The mechanisms of poultry particulate matter (PM)-induced agricultural respiratory disorders are not thoroughly understood. Hence, it is hypothesized in this article that poultry PM induces the release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by lung epithelial cells that is regulated upstream by the concerted action of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). To test this hypothesis, the widely used cultured human lung epithelial cells (A549) were chosen as the model system. Poultry PM caused a significant activation of PLA2 in A549 cells, which was attenuated by AACOCF3 (cPLA2 inhibitor) and PD98059 (ERK-1/2 upstream inhibitor). Poultry PM induced upstream ERK-1/2 phosphorylation and downstream cPLA2 serine phosphorylation, in a concerted fashion, in cells with enhanced association of ERK-1/2 and cPLA2. The poultry PM-induced cPLA2 serine phosphorylation and IL-8 release were attenuated by AACOCF3, PD98059, and by transfection with dominant-negative ERK-1/2 DNA in cells. The poultry PM-induced IL-8 release by the bone marrow-derived macrophages of cPLA2 knockout mice was significantly lower. For the first time, this study demonstrated that the poultry PM-induced IL-8 secretion by human lung epithelial cells was regulated by cPLA2 activation through ERK-mediated serine phosphorylation, suggesting a mechanism of airway inflammation among poultry farm workers.

  19. MOTION PICTURE STUDIES ON DEGRANULATION OF HORSE EOSINOPHILS DURING PHAGOCYTOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Gordon T.; Hirsch, James G.

    1963-01-01

    Horse eosinophil function has been studied in vitro by means of phase contrast cinemicrophotography. Locomotion of horse eosinophils was inhibited by serum factors reacting with glass surfaces. Under appropriate conditions which eliminated this inhibitory effect, eosinophils moved about and ingested some particles as rapidly as did neutrophils. Eosinophils were attracted to and readily engulfed such diverse materials as yeast cell walls, foreign erythrocytes, and antigen-antibody precipitates. Specific antibody was required for phagocytosis of red cells, and greatly accelerated the uptake of yeast cell walls. Horse eosinophil granules situated adjacent to material being engulfed disrupted with discharge of granule contents into or alongside the phagocytic vacuole. Granule disruption resulted in a clear zone and deposition of amorphous, phase-dense material. A heat-labile serum factor was required for degranulation of eosinophils ingesting foreign red cells, but not for degranulation during engulfment of yeast cell walls or antigen-antibody precipitates. Horse eosinophils were incapable under these conditions of engulfing an entire human red cell. The eosinophil commonly put out a large pseudopod to surround about half the red cell, and then appeared to constrict this pseudopod distally to cut the erythrocyte in half. It is concluded that eosinophils are phagocytic cells, resembling neutrophils in many of their properties. Any specific functions of eosinophils, distinguishing them from other phagocytes, remain to be discovered. PMID:14074392

  20. Comparison of phagocytosis in three Caribbean Sea urchins.

    PubMed

    DeFilippo, John; Ebersole, John; Beck, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    In 1983 large numbers of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum unexplainably began showing signs of illness and dying in the Caribbean, and over the next year they came close to extinction, making it one of the worst mass mortality events on record. Present evidence suggests a water-borne pathogen as the etiological agent. Decades later Diadema densities remain low, and its near extinction has been a major factor in transforming living coral reefs in the Caribbean to barren algae-covered rock. In the ensuing decades, no solid explanation has been found to the questions: what killed Diadema; why did Diadema succumb while other species of urchins on the same reefs did not; and why has Diadema still not recovered? A recent hypothesis posited by our lab as to Diadema's vulnerability was directed at possible compromised immunity in Diadema, and experimental results found a significantly impaired humoral response to a key component of gram-negative bacteria. Here we use flow cytometry to examine the cellular arm of invertebrate immunity. We performed cytotoxicity and phagocytosis assays as a measure of the cellular immune responses of cells from Diadema and two other species of sea urchins not affected by the die-off. Despite our previous findings of in impaired humoral response, our study found no apparent difference in the cellular phagocytic response of Diadema compared to the other urchin species studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PHAGOCYTOSIS OF LATEX BEADS BY ACANTHAMOEBA CASTELLANII (NEFF)

    PubMed Central

    Wetzel, Mary G.; Korn, Edward D.

    1969-01-01

    A method is described for the rapid and efficient isolation of phagocytic vesicles from large scale cultures of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Neff) that have been incubated with polystyrene latex beads. Cells were allowed to phagocytose latex beads for 30 min and then were homogenized, and the phagocytic vesicles were isolated by one centrifugation through several layers of sucrose. Identity and purity of the phagocytic vesicles were determined by electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and assays of acid phosphatase, α- and β-glucosidase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase. When phagocytosis was allowed to occur for longer periods the phagocytic vesicles appeared to fuse with each other and perhaps with digestive vacuoles. The resultant vesicles which contained many beads were heavier than those which consisted of only one bead or a few beads with a closely applied membrane. Ultrasonication ruptured the isolated vesicles, and the membranes could then be isolated in 30–50% yield based on phospholipid analysis. These membranes were essentially free of acid hydrolases and, presumably, other soluble proteins, as was also indicated by their low ratio of protein to phospholipid. The membranes have been prepared both as closed vesicles and as open sheets. PMID:4309954

  2. Overexpression of Enterococcus faecalis elr operon protects from phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Perez, Naima G; Dumoulin, Romain; Gaubert, Stéphane; Lacoux, Caroline; Bugli, Francesca; Martin, Rebeca; Chat, Sophie; Piquand, Kevin; Meylheuc, Thierry; Langella, Philippe; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Serror, Pascale

    2015-05-25

    Mechanisms underlying the transition from commensalism to virulence in Enterococcus faecalis are not fully understood. We previously identified the enterococcal leucine-rich protein A (ElrA) as a virulence factor of E. faecalis. The elrA gene is part of an operon that comprises four other ORFs encoding putative surface proteins of unknown function. In this work, we compared the susceptibility to phagocytosis of three E. faecalis strains, including a wild-type (WT), a ΔelrA strain, and a strain overexpressing the whole elr operon in order to understand the role of this operon in E. faecalis virulence. While both WT and ΔelrA strains were efficiently phagocytized by RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages, the elr operon-overexpressing strain showed a decreased capability to be internalized by the phagocytic cells. Consistently, the strain overexpressing elr operon was less adherent to macrophages than the WT strain, suggesting that overexpression of the elr operon could confer E. faecalis with additional anti-adhesion properties. In addition, increased virulence of the elr operon-overexpressing strain was shown in a mouse peritonitis model. Altogether, our results indicate that overexpression of the elr operon facilitates the E. faecalis escape from host immune defenses.

  3. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and urocortin promote phagocytosis of rat macrophages through convergent but distinct pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wu-Chao; Zhang, Xiu-Zhu; Liu, Da-Wei; Qiu, Jun; Wang, Xu-Hui; Zhou, Ji-Hong

    2015-02-01

    Phagocytosis plays essential roles during inflammation and immune response. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanism of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortin (UCN)-promoted phagocytosis of rat macrophages. To induce phagocytosis, rat macrophages were incubated with carboxylated fluorescent microspheres. The phagocytosis activity was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. Actin reorganization was determined by immunostaining with TRITC-labeled phalloidin and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Protein expressions of p-RhoA, p-Rac1, p-extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2 and GAPDH were examined by Western blotting. Protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) activities were examined using PreTag non-radio activity assay. Administration of CRH or UCN alone significantly enhanced phagocytosis of microspheres by rat macrophages, as well as actin reorganization. Ligation of CRH and UCN with CRH receptor increased the phosphorylation of both RhoA and Rac1. Inhibition of RhoA/Rac1 signal pathway suppressed CRH- or UCN-enhanced phagocytosis and actin reorganization. Blockage of PKA signal by MDL-12330A decreased CRH or UCN-promoted p-RhoA and p-Rac1 expressions. Blockage of PKC signal by cholerythine choride decreased CRH or UCN-promoted p-Rac1 expression and UCN-promoted p-RhoA expression, but increased the CRH-induced p-RhoA expression. ERK1/2 was also activated and served as upstream factor of RhoA/Rac1 signal pathway. The results reveal that CRH and UCN promote phagocytosis of rat macrophages through convergent but dissociable pathways. PKA/PKC-ERK1/2-RhoA/Rac1 signal pathway plays an essential role in CRH- and UCN-enhanced phagocytosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phagocytic Receptors Activate Syk and Src Signaling during Borrelia burgdorferi Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Killpack, Tess L; Ballesteros, Maria; Bunnell, Stephen C; Bedugnis, Alice; Kobzik, Lester; Hu, Linden T; Petnicki-Ocwieja, Tanja

    2017-10-01

    Phagocytosis of the Lyme disease-causing pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi has been shown to be important for generating an inflammatory response to the pathogen. As a result, understanding the mechanisms of phagocytosis has been an area of great interest in the field of Lyme disease. Several cell surface receptors that participate in B. burgdorferi phagocytosis have been reported, including the scavenger receptor MARCO and integrin α3β1. We sought to define the mechanisms by which these receptors mediate phagocytosis and to identify signaling pathways activated downstream of these receptors upon contact with B. burgdorferi We identified both Syk and Src signaling pathways as ones that participate in B. burgdorferi phagocytosis and the resulting cytokine activation. In our studies, we found that both MARCO and integrin β1 play a role in the activation of the Src kinase pathway. However, only integrin β1 participates in the activation of Syk. Interestingly, the integrin activates Syk without the help of the signaling adaptor Dap12 or FcRγ. Thus, we report that multiple pathways participate in B. burgdorferi internalization and that different cell surface receptors act simultaneously in cooperation and independently to mediate phagocytosis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Dexamethasone inhibition of trabecular meshwork cell phagocytosis and its modulation by glucocorticoid receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Ognibene, Cherie M; Clark, Abbot F; Yorio, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    Glucocorticoid treatment can lead to the development of glaucomatous ocular hypertension and a secondary open-angle glaucoma due to increased aqueous humor outflow resistance that is associated with morphological and biochemical changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM). The cellular responses of glucocorticoids are achieved by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GRalpha), a ligand-activated transcription factor. An alternatively spliced variant, glucocorticoid receptor beta (GRbeta), has dominant negative activity on GRalpha and has been implicated in a variety of steroid-resistant diseases. We previously showed that GRbeta can block dexamethasone (DEX) responsiveness in TM cells. TM cells are actively phagocytic and function in the removal of debris, pigment and other materials from the aqueous outflow drainage pathway. A decrease in phagocytic activity has been proposed in the pathogenesis of glaucoma and glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma. In this study, we investigated the effect of DEX and GRbeta on phagocytosis in normal and glaucomatous TM cells. Human transformed normal NTM-5 and primary normal NTM174-00 cells, which express relatively high amounts of GRbeta, and transformed glaucomatous GTM-3 and primary glaucomatous GTM520-05 cells, which have lower GRbeta expression, were treated with 100 nM DEX or vehicle control for 24h. NTM cells also were transfected with a control or GRbeta expression plasmid to examine the effect of GRbeta on phagocytic activity. The cells were incubated with Alexa 488 conjugated Staphylococcus aureus bioparticles opsonized with rabbit IgG for 1h, followed by fixation and incubation with Alexa 633 conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG to distinguish ingested from extracellular bioparticles. DAPI nuclear staining was used to quantify cell numbers. Cells and bioparticles were visualized by confocal microscopy. We found that NTM-5 cells ingested more bioparticles than GTM-3 cells. DEX treatment significantly decreased the phagocytosis

  6. Dexamethasone Inhibition of Trabecular Meshwork Cell Phagocytosis and Its Modulation by Glucocorticoid Receptorβ

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyu; Ognibene, Cherie M.; Clark, Abbot F.; Yorio, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Glucocorticoid treatment can lead to the development of glaucomatous ocular hypertension and a secondary open-angle glaucoma due to increased aqueous humor outflow resistance that is associated with morphological and biochemical changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM). The cellular responses of glucocorticoids are achieved by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα), a ligand-activated transcription factor. An alternatively spliced variant, glucocorticoid receptor β (GRβ), has dominant negative activity on GRα and has been implicated in a variety of steroid-resistant diseases. We previously showed that GRβ can block dexamethasone (DEX) responsiveness in TM cells. TM cells are actively phagocytic and function in the removal of debris, pigment and other materials from the aqueous outflow drainage pathway. A decrease in phagocytic activity has been proposed in the pathogenesis of glaucoma and glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma. In this study, we investigated the effect of DEX and GRβ on phagocytosis in normal and glaucomatous TM cells. Human transformed normal NTM-5 and primary normal NTM174-00 cells, which express relatively high amounts of GRβ, and transformed glaucomatous GTM-3 and primary glaucomatous GTM520-05 cells, which have lower GRβ expression, were treated with 100 nM DEX or vehicle control for 24 hours. NTM cells also were transfected with a control or GRβ expression plasmid to examine the effect of GRβ on phagocytic activity. The cells were incubated with Alexa 488 conjugated Straphylococcus aureus bioparticles opsonized with rabbit IgG for one hour, followed by fixation and incubation with Alexa 633 conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG to distinguish ingested from extracellular bioparticles. DAPI nuclear staining was used to quantify cell numbers. Cells and bioparticles were visualized by confocal microscopy. We found that NTM-5 cells ingested more bioparticles than GTM-3 cells. DEX treatment significantly decreased the phagocytosis of

  7. Mechanistic insights into allosteric regulation of the A 2A adenosine G protein-coupled receptor by physiological cations

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Libin; Neale, Chris Andrew; Sljoka, Adnan; ...

    2018-04-10

    Cations play key roles in regulating G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), although their mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, 19F NMR is used to delineate the effects of cations on functional states of the adenosine A 2A GPCR. While Na + reinforces an inactive ensemble and a partial-agonist stabilized state, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ shift the equilibrium toward active states. Positive allosteric effects of divalent cations are more pronounced with agonist and a G-protein-derived peptide. In cell membranes, divalent cations enhance both the affinity and fraction of the high affinity agonist-bound state. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest high concentrations of divalent cations bridgemore » specific extracellular acidic residues, bringing TM5 and TM6 together at the extracellular surface and allosterically driving open the G-protein-binding cleft as shown by rigidity-transmission allostery theory. Lastly, an understanding of cation allostery should enable the design of allosteric agents and enhance our understanding of GPCR regulation in the cellular milieu.« less

  8. Collagen remodeling by phagocytosis is determined by collagen substrate topology and calcium-dependent interactions of gelsolin with nonmuscle myosin IIA in cell adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Arora, P. D.; Wang, Y.; Bresnick, A.; Dawson, J.; Janmey, P. A.; McCulloch, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    We examine how collagen substrate topography, free intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i, and the association of gelsolin with nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMMIIA) at collagen adhesions are regulated to enable collagen phagocytosis. Fibroblasts plated on planar, collagen-coated substrates show minimal increase of [Ca2+]i, minimal colocalization of gelsolin and NMMIIA in focal adhesions, and minimal intracellular collagen degradation. In fibroblasts plated on collagen-coated latex beads there are large increases of [Ca2+]i, time- and Ca2+-dependent enrichment of NMMIIA and gelsolin at collagen adhesions, and abundant intracellular collagen degradation. NMMIIA knockdown retards gelsolin recruitment to adhesions and blocks collagen phagocytosis. Gelsolin exhibits tight, Ca2+-dependent binding to full-length NMMIIA. Gelsolin domains G4–G6 selectively require Ca2+ to interact with NMMIIA, which is restricted to residues 1339–1899 of NMMIIA. We conclude that cell adhesion to collagen presented on beads activates Ca2+ entry and promotes the formation of phagosomes enriched with NMMIIA and gelsolin. The Ca2+ -dependent interaction of gelsolin and NMMIIA in turn enables actin remodeling and enhances collagen degradation by phagocytosis. PMID:23325791

  9. Heparin inhibits melanosome uptake and inflammatory response coupled with phagocytosis through blocking PI3k/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Makino-Okamura, Chieko; Niki, Yoko; Takeuchi, Seiji; Nishigori, Chikako; Declercq, Lieve; Yaroch, Daniel B; Saito, Naoaki

    2014-11-01

    To gain insight for the role of mast cell-produced heparin in the regulation of epidermal homeostasis and skin pigmentation, we have investigated the effect of heparin on melanosome uptake and proinflammatory responses in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). We quantified phagocytic activity of NHEKs with uptake of melanosomes or fluorescent microspheres. Heparin exhibited the inhibitory effect on keratinocyte phagocytosis through blocking PI3k/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. In fact, the heparin-treated NHEKs showed impaired activation of Akt and ERK during phagocytosis, whereas PI3k and MEK inhibitors significantly suppressed melanosome uptake by NHEKs. In addition, the inflammation marker cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) production were induced during phagocytosis, while these effects were downregulated in the presence of heparin. Our observations suggest that heparin may play an antiphagocytic and anti-inflammation role in epidermis of human skin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The role of phagocytosis, oxidative burst and neutrophil extracellular traps in the interaction between neutrophils and the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, K; Demirel, I; Khalaf, H; Bengtsson, T

    2015-10-01

    Neutrophils are regarded as the sentinel cells of innate immunity and are found in abundance within the gingival crevice. Discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) within the gingival pockets prompted us to probe the nature of the interactions of neutrophils with the prominent periopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. Some of the noted virulence factors of this Gram-negative anaerobe are gingipains: arginine gingipains (RgpA/B) and lysine gingipain (Kgp). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of gingipains in phagocytosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, NETs and CXCL8 modulation by using wild-type strains and isogenic gingipain mutants. Confocal imaging showed that gingipain mutants K1A (Kgp) and E8 (RgpA/B) induced extracellular traps in neutrophils, whereas ATCC33277 and W50 were phagocytosed. The viability of both ATCC33277 and W50 dwindled as the result of phagocytosis and could be salvaged by cytochalasin D, and the bacteria released high levels of lipopolysaccharide in the culture supernatant. Porphyromonas gingivalis induced reactive oxygen species and CXCL8 with the most prominent effect being that of the wild-type strain ATCC33277, whereas the other wild-type strain W50 was less effective. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant CXCL8 expression by E8. All the tested P. gingivalis strains increased cytosolic free calcium. In conclusion, phagocytosis is the primary neutrophil response to P. gingivalis, although NETs could play an accessory role in infection control. Although gingipains do not seem to directly regulate phagocytosis, NETs or oxidative burst in neutrophils, their proteolytic properties could modulate the subsequent outcomes such as nutrition acquisition and survival by the bacteria. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The proteases HtrA2/Omi and UCH-L1 regulate TNF-induced necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In apoptosis, proteolysis by caspases is the primary mechanism for both initiation and execution of programmed cell death (PCD). In contrast, the impact of proteolysis on the regulation and execution of caspase-independent forms of PCD (programmed necrosis, necroptosis) is only marginally understood. Likewise, the identity of the involved proteases has remained largely obscure. Here, we have investigated the impact of proteases in TNF-induced necroptosis. Results The serine protease inhibitor TPKC protected from TNF-induced necroptosis in multiple murine and human cells systems whereas inhibitors of metalloproteinases or calpain/cysteine and cathepsin proteases had no effect. A screen for proteins labeled by a fluorescent TPCK derivative in necroptotic cells identified HtrA2/Omi (a serine protease previously implicated in PCD) as a promising candidate. Demonstrating its functional impact, pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of HtrA2/Omi protected from TNF-induced necroptosis. Unlike in apoptosis, HtrA2/Omi did not cleave another protease, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH-L1) during TNF-induced necroptosis, but rather induced monoubiquitination indicative for UCH-L1 activation. Correspondingly, pharmacologic or RNA interference-mediated inhibition of UCH-L1 protected from TNF-induced necroptosis. We found that UCH-L1 is a mediator of caspase-independent, non-apoptotic cell death also in diseased kidney podocytes by measuring cleavage of the protein PARP-1, caspase activity, cell death and cell morphology. Indicating a role of TNF in this process, podocytes with stably downregulated UCH-L1 proved resistant to TNF-induced necroptosis. Conclusions The proteases HtrA2/Omi and UCH-L1 represent two key components of TNF-induced necroptosis, validating the relevance of proteolysis not only for apoptosis, but also for caspase-independent PCD. Since UCH-L1 clearly contributes to the non-apoptotic death of podocytes, interference with the necroptotic

  12. [Phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of neutrophils in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Lewandowicz-Uszyńska, Aleksandra; Jankowska, Renata; Moś-Antkowiak, Renata; Jankowski, Adam

    2003-01-01

    The study included 22 patients (15 males and 7 females) with tuberculosis (infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis), aged from 14 to 70 years. Taking into account clinical status and inflammatory state indices (ESR, leucocytosis, neutrophil count) the following groups were identified: group I--all patients with tuberculosis (n = 22), with subgroup 1--patients with tuberculosis in serious condition (n = 13), subgroup 2--patients with tuberculosis in moderately serious condition (n = 9). The control group (group II) consisted of 16 healthy volunteers aged from 22 to 52 years (12 women and 4 men). In all patients the following parameters were measured: chemiluminescence (CLmax and CLarea) and phagocytosis of neutrophils (total phagocytic capacity (TPC), phagocytic index (PI), percent of phagocyting neutrophils %phag.), ESR, leukocyte count, neutrophil differential count in blood smear. No difference in CL was shown between patients with tuberculosis and healthy people. Significantly higher TPC values were observed in patients with tuberculosis (group I, subgroups 1 and 2) than in the control group. TPC was highest in subgroup 1. PI was slightly higher in patients with tuberculosis than in the control group. On the contrary, decreased %phag was observed in group I (both subgroups). ESR, total leukocyte count and differential neutrophil count were statistically significantly higher in group I than in group II. In patients from group I, together with a slight increase of CLmax, an elevation of TPC was observed. This dependence was not observed between CLarea and TPC. There was no dependence between CLmax and PI. Together with ESR increase, an increase of phagocytic properties of neutrophils was observed.

  13. Genetic variation in Surfactant Protein-A2 (SP-A2) leads to differential binding to Mycoplasma pneumoniae membranes and regulation of host responses

    PubMed Central

    Ledford, Julie G.; Voelker, Dennis R.; Addison, Kenneth J.; Wang, Ying; Nikam, Vinayak; Degan, Simone; Kandasamy, Pitachaimani; Tanyaratsrisakul, Sasipa; Fischer, Bernard M.; Kraft, Monica; Hollingsworth, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is an extracellular pathogen that colonizes mucosal surfaces of the respiratory tract and is associated with asthma exacerbations. Previous reports demonstrate that surfactant protein-A (SP-A) binds live Mp and mycoplasma membranes (MMF) with high affinity. Humans express a repertoire of single amino acid genetic variants of SP-A that may be associated with lung disease, and our findings demonstrate that allelic differences in SP-A2 (Gln223Lys) affect the binding to MMF. We show that SP-A−/− mice are more susceptible to MMF exposure and have significant increases in mucin production and neutrophil recruitment. Novel humanized-SP-A2 transgenic mice harboring the hSP-A2 223K allele exhibit reduced neutrophil influx and mucin production in the lungs, when challenged with MMF, compared to SP-A−/− mice. Conversely, mice expressing hSP-A2 223Q have increased neutrophil influx and mucin production that is similar to SP-A−/− mice. Using tracheal epithelial cell cultures, we show that enhanced mucin production to MMF occurs in the absence of SP-A, and is not dependent upon neutrophil recruitment. Increased phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was evident in the lungs of MMF-challenged mice when SP-A was absent. Pharmacologic inhibition of EGFR prior to MMF challenge dramatically reduced mucin production in SP-A−/− mice. These findings suggest a protective role for SP-A in limiting MMF-stimulated mucin production that occurs through interference with EGFR mediated signaling. The SP-A interaction with the EGFR signaling pathway appears to occur in an allele specific manner that may have important implications for SP-A polymorphisms in human diseases. PMID:25957169

  14. MAP-Kinase Regulated Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Activity Is Essential for Production of Infectious Hepatitis C Virus Particles

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Nicolas; Fischl, Wolfgang; Hueging, Kathrin; Bankwitz, Dorothea; Frentzen, Anne; Haid, Sibylle; Gentzsch, Juliane; Kaderali, Lars; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has infected around 160 million individuals. Current therapies have limited efficacy and are fraught with side effects. To identify cellular HCV dependency factors, possible therapeutic targets, we manipulated signaling cascades with pathway-specific inhibitors. Using this approach we identified the MAPK/ERK regulated, cytosolic, calcium-dependent, group IVA phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4A) as a novel HCV dependency factor. Inhibition of PLA2G4A activity reduced core protein abundance at lipid droplets, core envelopment and secretion of particles. Moreover, released particles displayed aberrant protein composition and were 100-fold less infectious. Exogenous addition of arachidonic acid, the cleavage product of PLA2G4A-catalyzed lipolysis, but not other related poly-unsaturated fatty acids restored infectivity. Strikingly, production of infectious Dengue virus, a relative of HCV, was also dependent on PLA2G4A. These results highlight previously unrecognized parallels in the assembly pathways of these human pathogens, and define PLA2G4A-dependent lipolysis as crucial prerequisite for production of highly infectious viral progeny. PMID:22911431

  15. Aliphatic alcohol contaminants of illegally produced spirits inhibit phagocytosis by human granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Pál, László; Árnyas, Ervin M; Tóth, Béla; Ádám, Balázs; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2013-04-01

    Unregulated production of spirits in many countries leads to products containing appreciable levels of aliphatic alcohols (AAs) and is the main source of human exposure to these substances worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed that alcohol abuse can lead to ethanol-induced immunosuppression and thereby increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Granulocytes, as professional phagocytic cells, play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, a decrease in their phagocytic activity has been invoked as a factor in the impaired antimicrobial defense observed in alcoholics. However, AAs consumed as contaminants of illicit spirits may also influence phagocytosis, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity but, so far, this has not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure granulocyte phagocytosis following treatment of granulocytes with those higher alcohols found in illegal spirits. Granulocytes were isolated from human peripheral blood. Then phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by granulocytes treated with AAs individually and in combination was determined. These alcohols inhibited phagocytosis in a concentration-dependent manner and at lower concentrations when combined than when tested individually. Due to their synergistic effects, it is possible that, in combination with ethanol, they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in episodic heavy drinkers.

  16. Involvement of myosin VI immunoanalog in pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Magdalena; Wasik, Anna; Kłopocka, Wanda; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2008-12-01

    Recently, we found a 130-kDa myosin VI immunoanalog in amoeba, which bound to actin in an ATP-sensitive manner and in migrating amoebae colocalized to filamentous actin and dynamin II-containing vesicular structures. To further characterize this protein, we assessed its involvement in amoeba pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy of immunogold-stained cells revealed that, in pinocytotic and phagocytotic amoebae, the myosin VI immunoanalog was visible throughout the cells, including pinocytotic channels and pinocytotic vesicles as well as phagosomes and emerging phagocytic cups. Blocking endogenous protein with anti-porcine myosin VI antibody (introduced into cells by means of microinjection) caused severe defects in pinocytosis and phagocytosis. In comparison with control cells, the treated amoebae formed ~75% less pinocytotic channels and phagocytosed ~65% less Tetrahymena cells. These data indicate that the myosin VI immunoanalog has an important role in pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus (Pal.).

  17. Earthworm coelomocyte phagocytosis: An in vitro assay for terrestrial toxicity identification evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, S.W.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.

    1995-12-31

    An in vitro assay has been developed for rapid (48 h) evaluation of cytotoxic effects of exposure (24 h) of earthworm coelomocytes. The assay, inhibition of phagocytosis (24 h) of stained yeast cells and cell viability, links a traditional soil bioassay organism (Lumbricus terrestris) with a laboratory protocol for use in evaluating physical/chemical fractions resulting from terrestrial TIE manipulations. The assay was developed using copper sulfate as a reference toxicant. Copper exposures as low as 2--4 pg/ml. resulted in 20--60% inhibition of phagocytosis without significant decrease in cell viability. Exposures above 10 pg/ml resulted in reduced cell viability and inhibitionmore » of phagocytosis. The assay was successfully applied to terrestrial TIE fractions derived from extractions of soil from a PCP contaminated wood treatment site.« less

  18. The effect of Pseudomonas alginate on rat alveolar macrophage phagocytosis and bacterial opsonization.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, A M; Weir, D M

    1985-01-01

    Alginate obtained from a mucoid strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to inhibit the phagocytosis of an isogenic non-mucoid revertant by rat alveolar macrophages. Phagocytosis of Staphylococcus albus, binding of sensitized sheep erythrocytes to Fc receptors and uptake of latex particles were also inhibited. These results suggest that the alginate acts as a barrier, surrounding the macrophage preventing the attachment of bacteria or other particles to the plasma membrane. This conclusion was supported by showing that alginic acid, a polysaccharide from seaweed structurally similar to alginate also inhibited the phagocytosis of non-mucoid Ps. aeruginosa. The alginate also inhibited opsonisation of the non-mucoid revertant by a non-agglutinating hyperimmune serum. It is proposed that alginate confers a selective advantage on mucoid producing forms of Ps. aeruginosa by impairing the host immune response by its action on alveolar macrophages and opsonization of bacteria. PMID:3918817

  19. HsfA2 Controls the Activity of Developmentally and Stress-Regulated Heat Stress Protection Mechanisms in Tomato Male Reproductive Tissues.

    PubMed

    Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Mesihovic, Anida; Simm, Stefan; Paupière, Marine Josephine; Hu, Yangjie; Paul, Puneet; Mishra, Shravan Kumar; Tschiersch, Bettina; Theres, Klaus; Bovy, Arnaud; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Male reproductive tissues are more sensitive to heat stress (HS) compared to vegetative tissues, but the basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate the transcriptional changes required for protection from HS In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), HsfA2 acts as coactivator of HsfA1a and is one of the major Hsfs accumulating in response to elevated temperatures. The contribution of HsfA2 in heat stress response (HSR) and thermotolerance was investigated in different tissues of transgenic tomato plants with suppressed HsfA2 levels (A2AS). Global transcriptome analysis and immunodetection of two major Hsps in vegetative and reproductive tissues showed that HsfA2 regulates subsets of HS-induced genes in a tissue-specific manner. Accumulation of HsfA2 by a moderate HS treatment enhances the capacity of seedlings to cope with a subsequent severe HS, suggesting an important role for HsfA2 in regulating acquired thermotolerance. In pollen, HsfA2 is an important coactivator of HsfA1a during HSR HsfA2 suppression reduces the viability and germination rate of pollen that received the stress during the stages of meiosis and microspore formation but had no effect on more advanced stages. In general, pollen meiocytes and microspores are characterized by increased susceptibility to HS due to their lower capacity to induce a strong HSR This sensitivity is partially mitigated by the developmentally regulated expression of HsfA2 and several HS-responsive genes mediated by HsfA1a under nonstress conditions. Thereby, HsfA2 is an important factor for the priming process that sustains pollen thermotolerance during microsporogenesis. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. HsfA2 Controls the Activity of Developmentally and Stress-Regulated Heat Stress Protection Mechanisms in Tomato Male Reproductive Tissues1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Stefan; Paupière, Marine Josephine; Theres, Klaus; Bovy, Arnaud; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Male reproductive tissues are more sensitive to heat stress (HS) compared to vegetative tissues, but the basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate the transcriptional changes required for protection from HS. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), HsfA2 acts as coactivator of HsfA1a and is one of the major Hsfs accumulating in response to elevated temperatures. The contribution of HsfA2 in heat stress response (HSR) and thermotolerance was investigated in different tissues of transgenic tomato plants with suppressed HsfA2 levels (A2AS). Global transcriptome analysis and immunodetection of two major Hsps in vegetative and reproductive tissues showed that HsfA2 regulates subsets of HS-induced genes in a tissue-specific manner. Accumulation of HsfA2 by a moderate HS treatment enhances the capacity of seedlings to cope with a subsequent severe HS, suggesting an important role for HsfA2 in regulating acquired thermotolerance. In pollen, HsfA2 is an important coactivator of HsfA1a during HSR. HsfA2 suppression reduces the viability and germination rate of pollen that received the stress during the stages of meiosis and microspore formation but had no effect on more advanced stages. In general, pollen meiocytes and microspores are characterized by increased susceptibility to HS due to their lower capacity to induce a strong HSR. This sensitivity is partially mitigated by the developmentally regulated expression of HsfA2 and several HS-responsive genes mediated by HsfA1a under nonstress conditions. Thereby, HsfA2 is an important factor for the priming process that sustains pollen thermotolerance during microsporogenesis. PMID:26917685

  1. The Conserved ESCRT-III Machinery Participates in the Phagocytosis ofEntamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Avalos-Padilla, Yunuen; Knorr, Roland L; Javier-Reyna, Rosario; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Dimova, Rumiana; Orozco, Esther

    2018-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) orchestrates cell membrane-remodeling mechanisms in eukaryotes, including endocytosis. However, ESCRT functions in phagocytosis (ingestion of ≥250 nm particles), has been poorly studied. In macrophages and amoebae, phagocytosis is required for cell nutrition and attack to other microorganisms and cells. In Entamoeba histolytica , the voracious protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, phagocytosis is a land mark of virulence. Here, we have investigated the role of ESCRT-III in the phagocytosis of E. histolytica , using mutant trophozoites, recombinant proteins (rEhVps20, rEhVps32, rEhVps24, and rEhVps2) and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Confocal images displayed the four proteins located around the ingested erythrocytes, in erythrocytes-containing phagosomes and in multivesicular bodies. EhVps32 and EhVps2 proteins co-localized at the phagocytic cups. Protein association increased during phagocytosis. Immunoprecipitation and flow cytometry assays substantiated these associations. GUVs revealed that the protein assembly sequence is essential to form intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). First, the active rEhVps20 bound to membranes and recruited rEhVps32, promoting membrane invaginations. rEhVps24 allowed the detachment of nascent vesicles, forming ILVs; and rEhVps2 modulated their size. The knock down of Ehvps20 and Ehvps24 genes diminished the rate of erythrophagocytosis demonstrating the importance of ESCRT-III in this event. In conclusion, we present here evidence of the ESCRT-III participation in phagocytosis and delimitate the putative function of proteins, according to the in vitro reconstruction of their assembling.

  2. Nanoparticles enhance the ability of human neutrophils to exert phagocytosis by a Syk-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Babin, K; Goncalves, D M; Girard, D

    2015-11-01

    Some reports indicate that NPs are ingested by cells via different mechanisms, including phagocytosis. In contrast, the direct role of NPs on the phagocytic process is not well documented. The aim of this study was to determine if titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), zinc oxide (ZnO) and cerium dioxide (CeO(2)) NPs, could alter the ability of neutrophils to exert phagocytosis. Freshly isolated human neutrophils were incubated with NPs and their ability to phagocytose opsonized sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) or fluorescent latex beads (LBs) was assessed by optical and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Syk activation was assessed by western blot experiments and a pharmacological approach with piceatannol, a Syk inhibitor, was used to determine its role in NPs-induced neutrophils. The cytokine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was used as a positive control. All tested NPs enhanced the ability of neutrophil to phagocytose SRBCs and LBs. Syk was activated in NPs-induced neutrophils as evidenced by its increased tyrosine phosphorylation level vs controls and the ability of NPs-induced phagocytosis was reversed by piceatannol. We found that the tested NPs enhanced phagocytosis, although at different degree, and this occurred by a Syk-dependent mechanism. This is the first study demonstrating that NPs, by themselves, can directly enhance FcR-mediated (opsonized SRBCs) and complement-mediated (LBs) phagocytosis. Moreover, as part of their mode of action, we determined that NPs can act similarly to GM-CSF leading to Syk activation involved in phagocytosis. This has to be taken under consideration for future nanobiology and nanomedicine studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of novel fluorescent particles applicable for phagocytosis assays with human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sóñora, Cecilia; Arbildi, Paula; Miraballes-Martínez, Iris; Hernández, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a fundamental process for removal of pathogens and for clearance of apoptotic cells. The objective of this work was the preparation of fluorescent microspheres by a simple method and the evaluation of its applicability in phagocytosis assays by using different human derived cells, differentiated THP-1 cell line and blood monocytes, with flow cytometry measurements for functionality assays. Our results show that microparticles are efficiently internalised in a non-opsonised form and in dose-dependent manner by both cellular types. Concerning mechanism we determined that tTG-β3 integrin signaling could be involved in the uptake of these particles.

  4. Critical role of astroglial apolipoprotein E and liver X receptor-α expression for microglial Aβ phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Terwel, Dick; Steffensen, Knut R; Verghese, Philip B; Kummer, Markus P; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Holtzman, David M; Heneka, Michael T

    2011-05-11

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) regulate immune cell function and cholesterol metabolism, both factors that are critically involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the therapeutic potential of long-term LXR activation in amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide deposition in an AD model, 13-month-old, amyloid plaque-bearing APP23 mice were treated with the LXR agonist TO901317. Postmortem analysis demonstrated that TO901317 efficiently crossed the blood-brain barrier. Insoluble and soluble Aβ levels in the treated APP23 mice were reduced by 80% and 40%, respectively, compared with untreated animals. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, however, was hardly changed by the compound, suggesting that the observed effects were instead mediated by Aβ disposal. Despite the profound effect on Aβ levels, spatial learning in the Morris water maze was only slightly improved by the treatment. ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter 1) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) protein levels were increased and found to be primarily localized in astrocytes. Experiments using primary microglia demonstrated that medium derived from primary astrocytes exposed to TO901317 stimulated phagocytosis of fibrillar Aβ. Conditioned medium from TO901317-treated ApoE(-/-) or LXRα(-/-) astrocytes did not increase phagocytosis of Aβ. In APP23 mice, long-term treatment with TO901317 strongly increased the association of microglia and Aβ plaques. Short-term treatment of APP/PS1 mice with TO901317 also increased this association, which was dependent on the presence of LXRα and was accompanied by increased ApoE lipidation. Together, these data suggest that astrocytic LXRα activation and subsequent release of ApoE by astrocytes is critical for the ability of microglia to remove fibrillar Aβ in response to treatment with TO901317.

  5. Social exclusion predicts impaired self-regulation: a 2-year longitudinal panel study including the transition from preschool to school.

    PubMed

    Stenseng, Frode; Belsky, Jay; Skalicka, Vera; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The need-to-belong theory stipulates that social exclusion (i.e., being rejected by peers) impairs the ability to self-regulate, and experimental studies with adults support this contention, at least on a short-term basis. Few studies have investigated whether social exclusion affects the development of self-regulation of children in a more enduring manner. By using data from a community sample of 762 children, we investigated reciprocal relations between social exclusion and self-regulation from age 4 to age 6. Social exclusion was reported by teachers, whereas self-regulation was reported by parents. Autoregressive latent cross-lagged analyses showed that social exclusion predicted impaired development of dispositional self-regulation and, reciprocally, that poor self-regulation predicted enhanced social exclusion. In other words, social exclusion undermines children's development of self-regulation, whereas poor self-regulation increases the likelihood of exclusion. Results illuminate the applied relevance of the need-to-belong theory. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Role of Behavioral Self-Regulation in Learning to Read: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Icelandic Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birgisdóttir, Freyja; Gestsdóttir, Steinunn; Thorsdóttir, Fanney

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, including success in literacy, but few studies have explored the relations that behavioral self-regulation may have with different components of early literacy development. The present study investigated the longitudinal contribution…

  7. Dynamic regulation of PDX-1 and FoxO1 expression by FoxA2 in dexamethasone-induced pancreatic β-cells dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Zhu, Yunxia; Tang, Xinyi; Sun, Yidan; Jia, Weiping; Sun, Yujie; Han, Xiao

    2011-05-01

    Transcription factors forkhead box (Fox)O1 and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) are involved in dexamethasone (DEX)-induced dysfunction in pancreatic β-cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of FoxO1 and PDX-1 expression in β-cells treated with DEX is not fully understood. In this study, we found that DEX markedly increased FoxO1 mRNA and protein expression, whereas it decreased PDX-1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Further study showed that FoxA2 was involved in regulation of FoxO1 and PDX-1 expression in DEX-induced pancreatic β-cells dysfunction. Interestingly, we demonstrated for the first time that FoxA2 could bind to the FoxO1 gene promoter and positively regulate FoxO1 expression. Moreover, we found that DEX increased the activity of FoxA2 binding to the FoxO1 promoter but decreased the activity of FoxA2 binding to the PDX-1 promoter of RINm5F cells. Knockdown of FoxA2 by RNA interference inhibited FoxO1 expression and restored PDX-1 expression in pancreatic β-cells treated with DEX. However, DEX had no effect on the expression of FoxA2. Together, the results of the present study demonstrated that FoxA2 could dynamically regulate FoxO1 and PDX-1 expression in pancreatic β-cells treated with DEX, which provides new important information on the transcriptional regulation of FoxO1 and PDX-1 in DEX-induced pancreatic β-cells. Inhibition of FoxA2 can effectively protect β-cells against DEX-induced dysfunction.

  8. Annexin A2 positively regulates milk synthesis and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells through the mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minghui; Chen, Dongying; Zhen, Zhen; Ao, Jinxia; Yuan, Xiaohan; Gao, Xuejun

    2018-03-01

    Annexin A2 (AnxA2) has been shown to play multiple roles in growth, development, and metabolism, but the functions of AnxA2 and the signaling pathways associated with AnxA2 are still not fully understood. In this study, we aim to reveal whether and how AnxA2 could be involved in milk synthesis and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Using gene function study approaches, we found that AnxA2 positively regulates PIP3 level, phosphorylation of mTOR, and protein levels of SREBP-1c and Cyclin D1 leading to milk synthesis and cell proliferation. We further observed that both AnxA2-36 kD phosphorylated form and AnxA2-33 kD protein could be induced from AnxA2-36 kD protein in BMECs under methionine, leucine, estrogen or prolactin stimulation. These above results strongly demonstrate that AnxA2 functions as a critical regulator for amino acid or hormone-induced milk synthesis and cell proliferation via the PI3K-mTOR-SREBP-1c/Cyclin D1 signaling pathway. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Response of a phagocyte cell system to products of macrophage breakdown as a probable mechanism of alveolar phagocytosis adaptation to deposition of particles of different cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Privalova, L I; Katsnelson, B A; Osipenko, A B; Yushkov, B N; Babushkina, L G

    1980-04-01

    The adaptation of the alveolar phagocytosis response to the quantitative and qualitative features of dust deposited during inhalation consists not only in enhanced recruitment of alveolar macrophages (AM), but also in adding a more or less pronounced neutrophil leukocyte (NL) recruitment as an auxiliary participant of particle clearance. The NL contribution to clearance is especially typical for response to cytotoxic particles (quartz, in particular). An important feature of the adaptation considered is the limitation of the number of AM and NL recruited when an efficient clearance can be achieved by a lesser number of cells due to increased AM reistance to the damaging actin of phagocytized particles. The main mechanism providing the adequacy of the alveolar phagocytosis response is its self-regulation thrugh the products of macrophage breakdown (PMB). In a series of experiments with intraperitoneal and intratracheal injections of syngenetic PMB into rats and mice, it was shown that these products stimulate respiration and migration of phagocytic cells, their dose-dependent attraction to the site of PMB formation with the predominant NL contribution, increasing with the increase of amount of PMB, the AM and NL precursor cells recruitment from reserve pools, and the replenishment of these reserves in the process of hemopoiesis. At least some of the above effects are connected with the action of the lipid components of PMB. The action of specialized regulative systems of the organism can modify the response to PMB, judging by the results obtained by hydrocortisone injection. Autocontrol of alveolar phagocytosis requires great care in attempts at artificial stimulation of this process, as an excessive cell recruitment may promote the retention of particles in lungs.

  10. Response of a phagocyte cell system to products of macrophage breakdown as a probable mechanism of alveolar phagocytosis adaptation to deposition of particles of different cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Privalova, L I; Katsnelson, B A; Osipenko, A B; Yushkov, B N; Babushkina, L G

    1980-01-01

    The adaptation of the alveolar phagocytosis response to the quantitative and qualitative features of dust deposited during inhalation consists not only in enhanced recruitment of alveolar macrophages (AM), but also in adding a more or less pronounced neutrophil leukocyte (NL) recruitment as an auxiliary participant of particle clearance. The NL contribution to clearance is especially typical for response to cytotoxic particles (quartz, in particular). An important feature of the adaptation considered is the limitation of the number of AM and NL recruited when an efficient clearance can be achieved by a lesser number of cells due to increased AM reistance to the damaging actin of phagocytized particles. The main mechanism providing the adequacy of the alveolar phagocytosis response is its self-regulation thrugh the products of macrophage breakdown (PMB). In a series of experiments with intraperitoneal and intratracheal injections of syngenetic PMB into rats and mice, it was shown that these products stimulate respiration and migration of phagocytic cells, their dose-dependent attraction to the site of PMB formation with the predominant NL contribution, increasing with the increase of amount of PMB, the AM and NL precursor cells recruitment from reserve pools, and the replenishment of these reserves in the process of hemopoiesis. At least some of the above effects are connected with the action of the lipid components of PMB. The action of specialized regulative systems of the organism can modify the response to PMB, judging by the results obtained by hydrocortisone injection. Autocontrol of alveolar phagocytosis requires great care in attempts at artificial stimulation of this process, as an excessive cell recruitment may promote the retention of particles in lungs. PMID:6997028

  11. Curcumin Ameliorates the Reduction Effect of PGE2 on Fibrillar β-Amyloid Peptide (1-42)-Induced Microglial Phagocytosis through the Inhibition of EP2-PKA Signaling in N9 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju; Shen, Ting-ting; Chen, Yi; Yang, Xue-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory activation of microglia and β amyloid (Aβ) deposition are considered to work both independently and synergistically to contribute to the increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent studies indicate that long-term use of phenolic compounds provides protection against AD, primarily due to their anti-inflammatory actions. We previously suggested that phenolic compound curcumin ameliorated phagocytosis possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects rather than direct regulation of phagocytic function in electromagnetic field-exposed N9 microglial cells (N9 cells). Here, we explored the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)-related signaling pathway that involved in curcumin-mediated phagocytosis in fibrillar β-amyloid peptide (1–42) (fAβ42)-stimulated N9 cells. Treatment with fAβ42 increased phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled latex beads in N9 cells. This increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by endogenous and exogenous PGE2, as well as a selective EP2 or protein kinase A (PKA) agonist, but not by an EP4 agonist. We also found that an antagonist of EP2, but not EP4, abolished the reduction effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis. Additionally, the increased expression of endogenous PGE2, EP2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and activation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein, and PKA were depressed by curcumin administration. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic abilities of PGE2-stimulated N9 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that curcumin restored the attenuating effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis via a signaling mechanism involving EP2 and PKA. Moreover, due to its immune modulatory effects, curcumin may be a promising pharmacological candidate for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26824354

  12. CCS52A2/FZR1, a cell cycle regulator, is an essential factor for shoot apical meristem maintenance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajie; Ye, Wei; Li, Beibei; Zhou, Xiaojing; Cui, Yuhai; Running, Mark P; Liu, Kede

    2012-08-08

    Cell division and cell fate decisions regulate organ formation and function in plant growth and development. It is still unclear how specific meristematic regulatory networks operate with the cell cycle machinery to translate stem cell identity and maintenance into cellular behavior. In this study, we address these questions by analysis of a shoot apex defective mutant, namely xcm9. Phenotypic analysis of the xcm9 mutant reveals concomitant premature termination of floral shoots with frequent bifurcation of the shoot apices, stems, and flowers. Microscopic observations show irregular cell organization in shoot apical meristems of xcm9. Positional cloning revealed that xcm9 is a loss of function allele of the CCS52A2/FZR1 gene, which has previously been implicated in root development. Expression analysis demonstrated that CCS52A2 maintains a higher transcriptional expression level in actively dividing tissue. Genetic studies indicated that the CCS52A2 gene functions together with WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) in regulating the development of the shoot meristem, and also contributes to this regulation together with the chromatin remodeling pathway. In addition, fewer xcm9 cells express CYCLIN B1:1, showing that cell cycle progression is disrupted in the mutant. We propose that the CCS52A2 gene is a mediator that functions together with meristematic genes to regulate meristem organization, and cross-functions with chromatin regulators in cell cycle progression during shoot apical meristem development.

  13. Molecular regulation and physiological functions of a novel FaHsfA2c cloned from tall fescue conferring plant tolerance to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuyun; Huang, Wanlu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhimin; Huang, Bingru

    2017-02-01

    Heat stress transcription factors (HSFs) compose a large gene family, and different members play differential roles in regulating plant responses to abiotic stress. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize an A2-type HSF, FaHsfA2c, in a cool-season perennial grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) for its association with heat tolerance and to determine the underlying physiological functions and regulatory mechanisms of FaHsfA2c imparting plant tolerance to heat stress. FaHsfA2c was localized in nucleus and exhibited a rapid transcriptional increase in leaves and roots during early phase of heat stress. Ectopic expression of FaHsfA2c improved basal and acquired thermotolerance in wild-type Arabidopsis and also restored heat-sensitive deficiency of hsfa2 mutant. Overexpression of FaHsfA2c in tall fescue enhanced plant tolerance to heat by triggering transcriptional regulation of heat-protective gene expression, improving photosynthetic capacity and maintaining plant growth under heat stress. Our results indicated that FaHsfA2c acted as a positive regulator conferring thermotolerance improvement in Arabidopsis and tall fescue, and it could be potentially used as a candidate gene for genetic modification and molecular breeding to develop heat-tolerant cool-season grass species. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. MicroRNA-9 regulates non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion and migration by targeting eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guodong; Shao, Guofeng; Pan, Qiaoling; Sun, Lebo; Zheng, Dawei; Li, Minghui; Li, Ni; Shi, Huoshun; Ni, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in cancer development and progression. Bioinformatics analyses has identified eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF5A2) as a target of miR-9. In this study, we attempted to determine whether miR-9 regulates non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell invasion and migration by targeting eIF5A2 We examined eIF5A2 expression using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and subsequently transfected A549 and NCI-H1299 NSCLC cells with a miR-9 mimic or miR-9 inhibitor to determine the migration and invasive capability of the cells via wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay, respectively. E-cadherin and vimentin expression was detected with western blotting. The miR-9 mimic significantly reduced NSCLC cell invasive and metastatic ability, and the miR-9 inhibitor enhanced NSCLC cell migration activity, increasing the number of migrated cells. There was no significant difference between the negative control siRNA and miR-9 mimic groups after knockdown of eIF5A2; western blotting showed that miR-9 regulated E-cadherin and vimentin expression. These data show that miR-9 regulates NSCLC cell invasion and migration through regulating eIF5A2 expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that the mechanism of miR-9-regulated NSCLC cell invasion and migration may be related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  15. Rap1 Activation Is Required for Fcγ Receptor-Dependent Phagocytosis1

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jooho; Serezani, Carlos H.; Huang, Steven K.; Stern, Joel N. H.; Keskin, Derin B.; Jagirdar, Rajesh; Brock, Thomas G.; Aronoff, David M.; Peters-Golden, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized microbes via the Fcγ receptor (FcγR) requires the precise coordination of a number of signaling molecules, including the low-molecular mass GTPases. Little is known about the Ras-family GTPase Rap1 in this process. We therefore investigated its importance in mediating FcγR-dependent phagocytosis in NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages. Pulldown of active Rap1 and fluorescence microscopic analysis of GFP-RalGDS (Ral guanine dissociation stimulator)-transfected macrophages revealed that Rap1 is indeed activated by FcγR crosslinking. Inhibition of Rap1 activity, both by Rap1GAP (GTPase-activating protein) expression and liposome-delivered blocking Ab, severely impaired the ability of cells to ingest IgG-opsonized targets. FcγR-induced Rap1 activation was found to be independent of both cAMP and Ca2+, suggesting a role for the second messenger-independent guanosine exchange factor, C3G. This was supported by the facts that 1) liposome-delivered blocking Ab against C3G inhibited both FcγR-dependent phagocytosis and Rap1 activation, and 2) both active Rap1GTP and C3G were found to translocate to the phagosome. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel role for Rap1 and its exchange factor C3G in mediating FcγR-dependent phagocytosis. PMID:18832707

  16. Dynamin 2 is required for actin assembly in phagocytosis in Sertoli cells

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, Atsushi; Abe, Tadashi; Watanabe, Masami

    2009-01-16

    Dynamin 2 has been reported to be implicated in phagocytosis. However, the mode of action of dynamin is poorly understood. In this study, we examined whether dynamin 2 participates in actin assembly during phagocytosis in Sertoli cells. In the presence of dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, phagocytosis was reduced by 60-70% in Sertoli cells and macrophages. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Sertoli cells treated with dynasore were unable to form phagocytic cups. In addition, dysfunction of dynamin 2 reduced both actin polymerization and recruitment of actin and dynamin 2 to phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P{sub 2}]-containing liposomes. The formation of dynamin 2-positivemore » ruffles of Sertoli cells was decreased by 60-70% by sequestering PI(4,5)P{sub 2} either by expression of PH domain of PLC{delta} or treatment with neomycin. These results strongly suggest that dynamin 2 is involved in actin dynamics and the formation of dynamin 2-positive ruffles during phagocytosis.« less

  17. Chemotactic network responses to live bacteria show independence of phagocytosis from chemoreceptor sensing

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Netra Pal; Kimmel, Alan R

    2017-01-01

    Aspects of innate immunity derive from characteristics inherent to phagocytes, including chemotaxis toward and engulfment of unicellular organisms or cell debris. Ligand chemotaxis has been biochemically investigated using mammalian and model systems, but precision of chemotaxis towards ligands being actively secreted by live bacteria is not well studied, nor has there been systematic analyses of interrelationships between chemotaxis and phagocytosis. The genetic/molecular model Dictyostelium and mammalian phagocytes share mechanistic pathways for chemotaxis and phagocytosis; Dictyostelium chemotax toward bacteria and phagocytose them as food sources. We quantified Dictyostelium chemotaxis towards live gram positive and gram negative bacteria and demonstrate high sensitivity to multiple bacterially-secreted chemoattractants. Additive/competitive assays indicate that intracellular signaling-networks for multiple ligands utilize independent upstream adaptive mechanisms, but common downstream targets, thus amplifying detection at low signal propagation, but strengthening discrimination of multiple inputs. Finally, analyses of signaling-networks for chemotaxis and phagocytosis indicate that chemoattractant receptor-signaling is not essential for bacterial phagocytosis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24627.001 PMID:28541182

  18. A Simple Microscopy Assay to Teach the Processes of Phagocytosis and Exocytosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ross; Gray, Andrew; Fite, Jessica L.; Jordan, Renee; Stark, Sarah; Naylor, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Phagocytosis and exocytosis are two cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. While it is easy to understand the purpose of these processes, it can be extremely difficult for students to comprehend the actual mechanisms. As membrane dynamics play a significant role in many cellular processes ranging from cell signaling to cell division to…

  19. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO A THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICAL STIMULATES PHAGOCYTOSIS IN JUVENILE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental Exposure to a Thyroid Disrupting Chemical Stimulates Phagocytosis in Juvenile Sprague-Dawley Rats.
    AA Rooney1, R Matulka2, and R Luebke3. 1NCSU/US EPA CVM, Department of Anatomy, Physiological Sciences and Radiology, Raleigh, NC;2UNC Department of Toxicology, Cha...

  20. Electron microscopic evidence of antibody entry into neutrophils after phagocytosis of highly virulent group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Cleat, P H; Wells, C; Coid, C R

    1984-11-01

    An electron microscopic study was undertaken of the entry of specific antibody into neutrophils containing surviving intracellular highly virulent group B streptococci after phagocytosis of the organisms had occurred. Electron micrographs are presented to demonstrate that specific antibody gains access to the ingested bacteria. This antibody binds to the surface of the streptococci, which subsequently permits the neutrophils to kill these organisms.

  1. Cryptococcus neoformans is internalized by receptor-mediated or 'triggered' phagocytosis, dependent on actin recruitment.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Caroline Rezende; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcosis by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans affects mostly immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent neurological complication in AIDS patients. Recent studies support the idea that intracellular survival of Cryptococcus yeast cells is important for the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. However, the initial steps of Cryptococcus internalization by host cells remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Cryptococcus neoformans phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages using confocal and electron microscopy techniques, as well as flow cytometry quantification, evaluating the importance of fungal capsule production and of host cell cytoskeletal elements for fungal phagocytosis. Electron microscopy analyses revealed that capsular and acapsular strains of C. neoformans are internalized by macrophages via both 'zipper' (receptor-mediated) and 'trigger' (membrane ruffle-dependent) phagocytosis mechanisms. Actin filaments surrounded phagosomes of capsular and acapsular yeasts, and the actin depolymerizing drugs cytochalasin D and latrunculin B inhibited yeast internalization and actin recruitment to the phagosome area. In contrast, nocodazole and paclitaxel, inhibitors of microtubule dynamics decreased internalization but did not prevent actin recruitment to the site of phagocytosis. Our results show that different uptake mechanisms, dependent on both actin and tubulin dynamics occur during yeast internalization by macrophages, and that capsule production does not affect the mode of Cryptococcus uptake by host cells.

  2. Hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis differs between honey bee (Apis mellifera) worker castes.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Eva Marit; Salmela, Heli; Amdam, Gro Vang; Münch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees as other insects rely on the innate immune system for protection against diseases. The innate immune system includes the circulating hemocytes (immune cells) that clear pathogens from hemolymph (blood) by phagocytosis, nodulation or encapsulation. Honey bee hemocyte numbers have been linked to hemolymph levels of vitellogenin. Vitellogenin is a multifunctional protein with immune-supportive functions identified in a range of species, including the honey bee. Hemocyte numbers can increase via mitosis, and this recruitment process can be important for immune system function and maintenance. Here, we tested if hemocyte mediated phagocytosis differs among the physiologically different honey bee worker castes (nurses, foragers and winter bees), and study possible interactions with vitellogenin and hemocyte recruitment. To this end, we adapted phagocytosis assays, which-together with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry-allow qualitative and quantitative assessment of hemocyte performance. We found that nurses are more efficient in phagocytic uptake than both foragers and winter bees. We detected vitellogenin within the hemocytes, and found that winter bees have the highest numbers of vitellogenin-positive hemocytes. Connections between phagocytosis, hemocyte-vitellogenin and mitosis were worker caste dependent. Our results demonstrate that the phagocytic performance of immune cells differs significantly between honey bee worker castes, and support increased immune competence in nurses as compared to forager bees. Our data, moreover, provides support for roles of vitellogenin in hemocyte activity.

  3. Identification of phagocytosis-associated surface proteins of macrophages by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Howard, F D; Petty, H R; McConnell, H M

    1982-02-01

    Two-dimensional PAGE (P. Z. O'Farrell, H. M. Goodman, and P. H. O'Farrell. 1977. Cell. 12:1133-1142) has been employed to assess the effects of antibody-dependent phagocytosis on the cell surface protein composition of RAW264 macrophages. Unilamellar phospholipid vesicles containing 1% dinitrophenyl-aminocaproyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DNP-cap-PE) were used as the target particle. Macrophages were exposed to anti-DNP antibody alone, vesicles alone, or vesicles in the presence of antibody for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Cell surface proteins were then labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination at 4 degrees C. After detergent solubilization, membrane proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The resulting pattern of spots was compared to that of standard proteins. We have identified several surface proteins, not apparently associated with the phagocytic process, which are present either in a multichain structure or in several discretely charged forms. After phagocytosis, we have observed the appearance of two proteins of 45 and 50 kdaltons in nonreducing gels. In addition, we have noted the disappearance of a 140-kdalton protein in gels run under reducing conditions. These alterations would not be detected in the conventional one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. This evidence shows that phagocytosis leads to a modification of cell surface protein composition. Our results support the concept of specific enrichment and depletion of membrane components during antibody-dependent phagocytosis.

  4. Spreading and contraction in phagocytosis: The role of actin organization and curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Jennifer E.

    Phagocytosis is the process used by immune cells to engulf and remove foreign objects from the body. The engulfment is realized by the formation of an actin-driven `phagocytic cup' of the cell membrane, which quickly crawls up and then surrounds the object via constriction. In this study, we resolve the paradox of how actin-driven protrusion of the plasma membrane can co-exist with a contractile actin belt proposed to mechanically-drive the closure of the phagocytic cup. To do this we quantitatively assessed macrophage phagocytic behavior in a planar geometry, a process known as frustrated phagocytosis. Our results reveal that phagocytosis occurs in a binary manner, such that once it is initiated, frustrated phagocytosis proceeds at a prescribed rate, resulting in peak contact areas that correspond to a roughly 225% increase in apparent cell surface area. Upon reaching their maximum area, the majority of macrophages enter a period of late-stage contraction. During the contraction phase, cells exert significant stress on the underlying substrate. Contraction also corresponds with dramatic reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton, in particular the formation of a bundled contractile belt around the cell perimeter. In contrast to other studies of phagocytosis, our work definitively illustrates that whatever signals trigger late-stage phagocytic contraction must be independent of particle size and curvature. Mounting evidence suggests that membrane tension is involved in late-stage signaling. The idea that tension is linked to late-stage contraction is reinforced by our finding that the peak-contact area roughly corresponds to the area threshold that results in increased cortical tension, as measured by Lam et al., and that reducing tension through hypertonic buffer shock enables the cells to spread further before the onset of contraction. Supported by NSF Grants #PHYS-0848797 and SRN-POLS 1205878.

  5. Cannabidiol enhances microglial phagocytosis via transient receptor potential (TRP) channel activation

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Samia; Eldeeb, Khalil; Millns, Paul J; Bennett, Andrew J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Microglial cells are important mediators of the immune response in the CNS. The phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), has been shown to have central anti-inflammatory properties, and the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CBD and other phytocannabinoids on microglial phagocytosis. Experimental Approach Phagocytosis was assessed by measuring ingestion of fluorescently labelled latex beads by cultured microglial cells. Drug effects were probed using single-cell Ca2+ imaging and expression of mediator proteins by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Key Results CBD (10 μM) enhanced bead phagocytosis to 175 ± 7% control. Other phytocannabinoids, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids were without effect. The enhancement was dependent upon Ca2+ influx and was abolished in the presence of EGTA, the Ca2+ channel inhibitor SKF96365, the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red, and the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and AMG9810. CBD produced a sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in BV-2 microglia and this was abolished by ruthenium red. CBD rapidly increased the expression of TRPV2 and TRPV1 proteins and caused a translocation of TRPV2 to the cell membrane. Wortmannin blocked CBD enhancement of BV-2 cell phagocytosis, suggesting that it is mediated by PI3K signalling downstream of the Ca2+ influx. Conclusions and Implications The TRPV-dependent phagocytosis-enhancing effect of CBD suggests that pharmacological modification of TRPV channel activity could be a rational approach to treating neuroinflammatory disorders involving changes in microglial function and that CBD is a potential starting point for future development of novel therapeutics acting on the TRPV receptor family. PMID:24641282

  6. Competitive adsorption of serum proteins at microparticles affects phagocytosis by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Lars; Diederichs, Julia E; Reszka, Regina; Merkle, Hans P; Walter, Elke

    2003-04-01

    Serum protein adsorption to the surface of particulate synthetic drug carrier systems has a major influence on their uptake by phagocytes. The influence of alpha2-human serum glycoprotein (alpha2GP) on the phagocytosis of various surface modified microparticles was studied in dendritic cells (DC) and was compared with a potent opsonin, IgG, and a dysopsonin, human serum albumin (HSA). The microparticles were administered to DC before and after the incubation with alpha2GP, IgG and HSA in single, binary or ternary protein systems and in whole blood serum. Phagocytosis of microparticles was vastly affected by the surface character of the microparticles themselves and by the adsorption of the proteins. Poly-L-lysine (PLL)-modified microparticles were under all conditions internalized with highest efficiency which is suggested to be mediated by their positive surface charge. The adsorption of commonly phagocytosis promoting proteins reduced the uptake of PLL-modified particles and is explained by compensation of the positive surface charge by the adsorbed negatively charged proteins. In all other particle types tested, freshly adsorbed alpha2GP was found to exhibit a strong phagocytosis promoting activity which was comparable to that of adsorbed IgG. Interestingly, this opsonic activity was lost already 2 h after adsorption to the particle surface. Protein adsorption from binary and ternary protein systems and from whole blood serum occurred in a competitive manner. Significant inhibition of phagocytosis was observed, even when HSA was combined with strong opsonins such as alpha2GP or IgG or in mixtures of all three proteins, indicating the importance of studying the influence of protein adsorption in protein mixtures. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. PacCYP707A2 negatively regulates cherry fruit ripening while PacCYP707A1 mediates drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Kai, Wenbin; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Yushu; Leng, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Sweet cherry is a non-climacteric fruit and its ripening is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) during fruit development. In this study, four cDNAs (PacCYP707A1-4) encoding 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA, were identified in sweet cherry fruits using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and particle bombardment approaches. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of target gene transcripts in VIGS-treated cherry fruits. In PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening and fruit colouring were promoted relative to control fruits, and both ABA accumulation and PacNCED1 transcript levels were up-regulated by 140%. Silencing of PacCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including the ABA metabolism-associated genes NCED and CYP707A, the anthocyanin synthesis genes PacCHS, PacCHI, PacF3H, PacDFR, PacANS, and PacUFGT, the ethylene biosynthesis gene PacACO1, and the transcription factor PacMYBA. The promoter of PacMYBA responded more strongly to PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits than to PacCYP707A1-RNAi-treated fruits. By contrast, silencing of PacCYP707A1 stimulated a slight increase in fruit colouring and enhanced resistance to dehydration stress compared with control fruits. These results suggest that PacCYP707A2 is a key regulator of ABA catabolism that functions as a negative regulator of fruit ripening, while PacCYP707A1 regulates ABA content in response to dehydration during fruit development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Regulation of the Low Dose Radiation Paracrine-Specific Anchorage-Independent Growth Response by Annexin A2

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Thomas J.; Opresko, Lee K.; Waisman, David M.

    2009-07-13

    ABSTRACT-Here we identify release of annexin A2 into the culture medium in response to low dose X-ray radiation exposure and establish functional linkages to an established paracrine factor-mediated anchorage-independent growth response. Using a standard bicameral coculture model, we observe that annexin A2 levels associated with non-irradiated neighboring cells seeded in the lower chamber (annexin A2 silenced [shRNA] JB6 cells) are increased upon coculture with irradiated (10-50 cGy) JB6 cells seeded in the upper chamber, relative to coculture with sham exposed JB6 cells seeded in the upper chamber, suggesting that annexin A2 released into the medium is capable of communicating inmore » a paracrine fashion. Using a previously established coculture model, we observed that the paracrine factor-mediated anchorage-independent growth response to low dose X-ray radiation is markedly reduced when irradiated annexin A2 silenced (shRNA) JB6 cells are used, relative to coculture with irradiated annexin A2 competent vector control counterparts. These observations suggest that annexin A2 is functionally linked to the radiation paracrine factor-specific anchorage-independent growth response in JB6 cells.« less

  9. The phosphotransferase system gene ptsI in Bacillus cereus regulates expression of sodA2 and contributes to colonization of wheat roots.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tantan; Li, Yan; Ding, Mingzheng; Chai, Yunrong; Wang, Qi

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria effectively enhance plant growth and root colonization by the bacteria is a prerequisite during the process. Bacillus cereus 905, a rhizosphere bacterium originally isolated from wheat roots, colonizes the wheat rhizosphere with a large population size. We previously showed that a manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD2), encoded by the sodA2 gene, plays an important role in colonization of the wheat rhizosphere by B. cereus 905. In this study, we identified a gene, ptsI, which positively regulates transcription of sodA2. ptsI encodes Enzyme I of the phosphotransferase system (PTS), a major regulator of carbohydrate uptake in bacteria. Assays of β-galactosidase activity and real-time quantitative PCR showed that loss of ptsI caused a 70% reduction in sodA2 expression. The ΔptsI mutant also showed a 1000-fold reduction in colonization of wheat roots, as well as a reduced growth rate in minimal media with either glucose or succinate as the sole carbon source. Artificial induction of sodA2 in the ΔptsI mutant partially restored root colonizing ability and utilization of succinate, but not glucose. These results suggest that the PTS plays an important role in rhizosphere colonization by both promoting nutrient utilization and regulating sodA2 expression in B. cereus 905. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanism of phagocytosis in dictyostelium discoideum: phagocytosis is mediated by different recognition sites as disclosed by mutants with altered phagocytotic properties

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, G; Thilo, L; Schwarz, H; Steinhart, R

    1980-01-01

    The recognition step in the phagocytotic process of the unicellular amoeba dictyostelium discoideum was examined by analysis of mutants defective in phagocytosis, Reliable and simple assays were developed to measure endocytotic uptake. For pinocytosis, FITC-dextran was found to be a suitable fluid-phase marker; FITC-bacteria, latex beads, and erythrocytes were used as phagocytotic substrates. Ingested material was isolated in one step by centrifuging through highly viscous poly(ethyleneglycol) solutions and was analyzed optically. A selection procedure for isolating mutants defective in phagocytosis was devised using tungsten beads as particulate prey. Nonphagocytosing cells were isolated on the basis of their lower density. Three mutant strains were found exhibiting a clear-cut phenotype directly related to the phagocytotic event. In contrast to the situation in wild-type cells, uptake of E. coli B/r by mutant cells is specifically and competitively inhibited by glucose. Mutant amoeba phagocytose latex beads normally but not protein-coated latex, nonglucosylated bacteria, or erythrocytes. Cohesive properties of mutant cells are altered: they do not form EDTA-sensitive aggregates, and adhesiveness to glass or plastic surfaces is greatly reduced. Based upon these findings, a model for recognition in phagocytosis is proposed: (a) A lectin-type receptor specifically mediates binding of particles containing terminal glucose (E. coli B/r). (b) A second class of "nonspecific" receptors mediate binding of a variety of particles by hydrophobic interaction. Nonspecific binding is affected by mutation in such a way that only strongly hydrophobic (latex) but not more hydrophilic particles (e.g., protein-coated latex, bacteria, erythrocytes) can be phagocytosed by mutant amoebae. PMID:6995464

  11. CD147 regulates cancer migration via direct interaction with Annexin A2 and DOCK3-β-catenin-WAVE2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong-Yong; Wang, Shi-Jie; Miao, Ji-Yu; Fu, Zhi-Guang; Feng, Fei; Wu, Jiao; Yang, Xiang-Min; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2016-02-02

    The acquisition of inappropriate migratory feature is crucial for tumor metastasis. It has been suggested that CD147 and Annexin A2 are involved in regulating tumor cell movement, while the regulatory mechanisms are far from clear. In this study, we demonstrated that CD147 physically interacted with the N-terminal domain of Annexin A2 and decreased Annexin A2 phosphorylation on tyrosine 23. In vitro kinase assay showed that the I domain of CD147 was indispensable for CD147-mediated downregulation of Annexin A2 phosphorylation by Src. Furthermore, we determined that p-Annexin A2 promoted the expression of dedicator of cytokinesis 3 (DOCK3) and DOCK3 blocked β-catenin nuclear translocation, resulting in inhibition of β-catenin signaling. In addition, DOCK3 inhibited lamellipodium dynamics and tumor cell movement. Also, we found that β-catenin signaling increased WAVE2 expression. Therefore, DOCK3 was characterized as a negative regulator of WAVE2 expression via inhibiting β-catenin signaling. Our study provides the first evidence that CD147 promotes tumor cell movement and metastasis via direct interaction with Annexin A2 and DOCK3-β-catenin-WAVE2 signaling axis.

  12. Regulation of apoptosis in HL-1 cardiomyocytes by phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 and protection by lithocholic acid

    PubMed Central

    Jehle, J; Staudacher, I; Wiedmann, F; Schweizer, PA; Becker, R; Katus, HA; Thomas, D

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Heart failure and atrial fibrillation are associated with apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, suggesting common abnormalities in pro-apoptotic cardiac molecules. Activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 causes apoptosis in vitro, and dysregulation of EphA2-dependent signalling is implicated in LEOPARD and Noonan syndromes associated with cardiomyopathy. Molecular pathways and regulation of EphA2 signalling in the heart are poorly understood. Here we elucidated the pathways of EphA2-dependent apoptosis and evaluated a therapeutic strategy to prevent EphA2 activation and cardiac cell death. Experimental Approach EphA2 signalling was studied in an established model of doxazosin-induced apoptosis in HL-1 cells. Apoptosis was measured with TUNEL assays and as cell viability using a formazan method. Western blotting and siRNA for EphA2 were also used. Key Results Apoptosis induced by doxazosin (EC50 = 17.3 μM) was associated with EphA2 activation through enhanced phosphorylation (2.2-fold). Activation of pro-apoptotic downstream factors, phospho-SHP-2 (3.9-fold), phospho-p38 MAPK (2.3-fold) and GADD153 (1.6-fold) resulted in cleavage of caspase 3. Furthermore, two anti-apoptotic enzymes were suppressed (focal adhesion kinase, by 41%; phospho-Akt, by 78%). Inactivation of EphA2 with appropriate siRNA mimicked pro-apoptotic effects of doxazosin. Finally, administration of lithocholic acid (LCA) protected against apoptosis by increasing EphA2 protein levels and decreasing EphA2 phosphorylation. Conclusions and Implications EphA2 phosphorylation and activation of SHP-2 are critical steps in apoptosis. Reduction of EphA2 phosphorylation by LCA may represent a novel approach for future anti-apoptotic treatment of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. PMID:22845314

  13. The specific association of a phosphofructokinase isoform with myocardial calcium-independent phospholipase A2. Implications for the coordinated regulation of phospholipolysis and glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Hazen, S L; Gross, R W

    1993-05-05

    We have demonstrated previously that myocardial cytosolic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 is a 40-kDa polypeptide regulated by ligand-modulated protein-protein interactions (Hazen, S.L., and Gross, R.W. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 14526-14534). We now demonstrate that an 85-kDa polypeptide which possesses sequence homology to and chemical, physical, immunological, and chromatographic similarities with phosphofructokinase (PFK) specifically interacts with the 40-kDa phospholipase A2 catalytic subunit and represents the putative protein regulatory element identified in previous work. Multiple independent lines of evidence document the association between the 85-kDa phosphofructokinase isoform and the 40-kDa myocardial cytosolic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 catalytic polypeptide, including 1) the coelution of the 85- and 40-kDa polypeptides which migrate as a 400-kDa complex during gel filtration chromatography, 2) the stoichiometry between the 85- and 40-kDa polypeptides which corresponds to a complex comprised of a tetrameric PFK isoform and a 40-kDa phospholipase A2 catalytic polypeptide, 3) the demonstration that the 85-kDa phosphofructokinase isoform acts as a specific and reversible affinity adsorbent for myocardial cytosolic phospholipase A2 catalytic activity, 4) the immunoprecipitation of myocardial cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity utilizing chicken anti-rabbit skeletal muscle PFK IgG, 5) the specific release of phospholipase A2 from ATP-agarose after formation of a ternary complex comprised of allosteric modifiers of phosphofructokinase, and 6) the selective attenuation of the denaturation of purified homogeneous calcium-independent cytosolic phospholipase A2 with PFK. Collectively, these results demonstrate the highly specific association of a phosphofructokinase isoform with myocardial cytosolic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 and suggest a novel biochemical mechanism underlying the coordinated regulation of phospholipolysis and

  14. Mammary epithelial cell phagocytosis downstream of TGF-β3 is characterized by adherens junction reorganization.

    PubMed

    Fornetti, J; Flanders, K C; Henson, P M; Tan, A-C; Borges, V F; Schedin, P

    2016-02-01

    After weaning, during mammary gland involution, milk-producing mammary epithelial cells undergo apoptosis. Effective clearance of these dying cells is essential, as persistent apoptotic cells have a negative impact on gland homeostasis, future lactation and cancer susceptibility. In mice, apoptotic cells are cleared by the neighboring epithelium, yet little is known about how mammary epithelial cells become phagocytic or whether this function is conserved between species. Here we use a rat model of weaning-induced involution and involuting breast tissue from women, to demonstrate apoptotic cells within luminal epithelial cells and epithelial expression of the scavenger mannose receptor, suggesting conservation of phagocytosis by epithelial cells. In the rat, epithelial transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is increased during involution, a pathway known to promote phagocytic capability. To test whether TGF-β enhances the phagocytic ability of mammary epithelial cells, non-transformed murine mammary epithelial EpH4 cells were cultured to achieve tight junction impermeability, such as occurs during lactation. TGF-β3 treatment promoted loss of tight junction impermeability, reorganization and cleavage of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin (E-cad), and phagocytosis. Phagocytosis correlated with junction disruption, suggesting junction reorganization is necessary for phagocytosis by epithelial cells. Supporting this hypothesis, epithelial cell E-cad reorganization and cleavage were observed in rat and human involuting mammary glands. Further, in the rat, E-cad cleavage correlated with increased γ-secretase activity and β-catenin nuclear localization. In vitro, pharmacologic inhibitors of γ-secretase or β-catenin reduced the effect of TGF-β3 on phagocytosis to near baseline levels. However, β-catenin signaling through LiCl treatment did not enhance phagocytic capacity, suggesting a model in which both reorganization of cell junctions and

  15. Mammary epithelial cell phagocytosis downstream of TGF-β3 is characterized by adherens junction reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Fornetti, J; Flanders, K C; Henson, P M; Tan, A-C; Borges, V F; Schedin, P

    2016-01-01

    After weaning, during mammary gland involution, milk-producing mammary epithelial cells undergo apoptosis. Effective clearance of these dying cells is essential, as persistent apoptotic cells have a negative impact on gland homeostasis, future lactation and cancer susceptibility. In mice, apoptotic cells are cleared by the neighboring epithelium, yet little is known about how mammary epithelial cells become phagocytic or whether this function is conserved between species. Here we use a rat model of weaning-induced involution and involuting breast tissue from women, to demonstrate apoptotic cells within luminal epithelial cells and epithelial expression of the scavenger mannose receptor, suggesting conservation of phagocytosis by epithelial cells. In the rat, epithelial transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is increased during involution, a pathway known to promote phagocytic capability. To test whether TGF-β enhances the phagocytic ability of mammary epithelial cells, non-transformed murine mammary epithelial EpH4 cells were cultured to achieve tight junction impermeability, such as occurs during lactation. TGF-β3 treatment promoted loss of tight junction impermeability, reorganization and cleavage of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin (E-cad), and phagocytosis. Phagocytosis correlated with junction disruption, suggesting junction reorganization is necessary for phagocytosis by epithelial cells. Supporting this hypothesis, epithelial cell E-cad reorganization and cleavage were observed in rat and human involuting mammary glands. Further, in the rat, E-cad cleavage correlated with increased γ-secretase activity and β-catenin nuclear localization. In vitro, pharmacologic inhibitors of γ-secretase or β-catenin reduced the effect of TGF-β3 on phagocytosis to near baseline levels. However, β-catenin signaling through LiCl treatment did not enhance phagocytic capacity, suggesting a model in which both reorganization of cell junctions and

  16. Interleukin-10 Expression in Macrophages during Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells Is Mediated by the TALE homeoproteins Pbx-1 and Prep-1

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Elaine Y.; Liu, Jianguo; Homma, Yoichiro; Zhang, Yunhua; Brendolan, Andrea; Saggese, Matilde; Han, Jihong; Silverstein, Roy; Selleri, Licia; Ma, Xiaojing

    2007-01-01

    Production of IL-10, a major immunoregulatory cytokine, by phagocytes during clearance of apoptotic cells is critical to ensuring cellular homeostasis and suppression of autoimmunity. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms in this fundamental process. We report that IL-10 production stimulated by apoptotic cells is regulated at the level of transcription in a manner dependent on the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, partially on the scavenger receptor CD36, and requires cell-cell contact but not phagocytosis. Using a reporter assay, we mapped the Apoptotic Cell Response Element (ACRE) in the human IL-10 promoter, and provide biochemical and physiological evidence that ACRE mediates the transcriptional activation of IL-10 by pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor-1b and another Hox cofactor Pbx-regulating protein 1 in response to apoptotic cells. PMID:18093541

  17. Up-regulation of EphA2 and down-regulation of EphrinA1 are associated with the aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis of malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Wang, Li; Gu, Jian-Wen; Li, Bing; Liu, Wei-Ping; Wang, Yan-Gang; Zhang, Xiang; Zhen, Hai-Ning; Fei, Zhou

    2010-10-01

    Malignant gliomas display over-expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2. However, expression levels of the EphA2 ligand, EphrinA1, have not been fully elucidated. Seventy-eight patients with primary gliomas were included in this study who underwent surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy. The expression of EphA2 and EphrinA1 in tumors was assessed by immunohistochemistry and was statistically analyzed in combination with the follow-up data of patients. EphA2 was highly expressed in most malignant gliomas, but EphrinA1 was expressed at low levels in these tumors. The increased EphA2 expression is associated with higher-grade histology and poor patient prognosis. Contrary to this, the increased EphrinA1 expression is associated with lower-grade histology, but not associated with poor patient prognosis. Moreover, patients with tumors positive for EphA2 and negative for EphrinA1 had significantly shorter overall and progression-free survival than patients with tumors positive for both EphA2 and EphrinA1, negative for both EphA2 and EphrinA1, or negative for EphA2 and positive for EphrinA1. RNAi-mediated suppression of endogenous EphA2 in human glioblastoma multiforme cells resulted in increased EphrinA1 levels, as well as decreased cell viability, anchorage independence and in vitro invasion, and increased apoptosis. Furthermore, suppression of EphA2 resulted in delayed tumor growth in mice xenografts. Together, these data indicate that up-regulation of EphA2 and down-regulation of Ephrina1 may correlate with poor prognosis for patients with high-grade glioma. EphA2 suppression partially reversed the aggressive phenotypes of malignant gliomas, possibly through up-regulating EphrinA1 expression, which may help explain how EphA2 modulates the malignant progression of gliomas.

  18. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Regulates High Mobility Group A2 Expression in Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kalomoiris, Stefanos; Cicchetto, Andrew C; Lakatos, Kinga; Nolta, Jan A; Fierro, Fernando A

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an excellent source for numerous cellular therapies due to their simple isolation, low immunogenicity, multipotent differentiation potential and regenerative secretion profile. However, over-expanded MSCs show decreased therapeutic efficacy. This shortcoming may be circumvented by identifying methods that promote self-renewal of MSCs in culture. HMGA2 is a DNA-binding protein that regulates self-renewal in multiple types of stem cells through chromatin remodeling, but its impact on human bone marrow-derived MSCs is not known. Using an isolation method to obtain pure MSCs within 9 days in culture, we show that expression of HMGA2 quickly decreases during early expansion of MSCs, while let-7 microRNAs (which repress HMGA2) are simultaneously increased. Remarkably, we demonstrate that FGF-2, a growth factor commonly used to promote self-renewal in MSCs, rapidly induces HMGA2 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The signaling pathway involves FGF-2 receptor 1 (FGFR1) and ERK1/2, but acts independent from let-7. By silencing HMGA2 using shRNAs, we demonstrate that HMGA2 is necessary for MSC proliferation. However, we also show that over-expression of HMGA2 does not increase cell proliferation, but rather abrogates the mitogenic effect of FGF-2, possibly through inhibition of FGFR1. In addition, using different methods to assess in vitro differentiation, we show that modulation of HMGA2 inhibits adipogenesis, but does not affect osteogenesis of MSCs. Altogether, our results show that HMGA2 expression is associated with highly proliferating MSCs, is tightly regulated by FGF-2, and is involved in both proliferation and adipogenesis of MSCs. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2128-2137, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Staphylococcal lipase affects phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by human granulocytes and monocytes.

    PubMed

    Izdebska-Szymona, K; Tyski, S; Drela, N; Sobiczewska, E; Laskowska, M; Kalkhof, D; Hryniewicz, W

    1992-01-01

    The rate of immunological and non-immunological phagocytosis of staphylococci by lipase pre-treated human granulocytes and monocytes was compared. It was found that the effect of this enzyme on two types of cells is opposite. Lipase decreases phagocytosis by granulocytes and increases by monocytes. The revealed differences between phagocytosing cells studied prompted us to investigate the influence of lipase on Fc receptors on these cells (rosette EA test). The different susceptibility of Fc receptors on non-activated phagocytes to lipase was found. This could be at least partially responsible for the difference observed between phagocytic activity of granulocytes (decreased) and monocytes (increased) pretreated with staphylococcal lipase. Inactivated enzyme showed a similar effect as active enzyme in the case of granulocytes. However, inactivated enzyme had no effect on rosette formation by lipase pretreated monocytes, indicating an enzymatic effect.

  20. Diversity and Versatility of Phagocytosis: Roles in Innate Immunity, Tissue Remodeling, and Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Justin J; Grinstein, Sergio; Roth, Ziv

    2017-01-01

    Phagocytosis, a critical early event in the microbicidal response of neutrophils, is now appreciated to serve multiple functions in a variety of cell types. Professional phagocytes play a central role in innate immunity by eliminating pathogenic bacteria, fungi and malignant cells, and contribute to adaptive immunity by presenting antigens to lymphocytes. In addition, phagocytes play a part in tissue remodeling and maintain overall homeostasis by disposing of apoptotic cells, a task shared by non-professional phagocytes, often of epithelial origin. This functional versatility is supported by a vast array of receptors capable of recognizing a striking variety of foreign and endogenous ligands. Here we present an abbreviated overview of the different types of phagocytes, their varied modes of signaling and particle engulfment, and the multiple physiological roles of phagocytosis.

  1. Genome-wide association study follow-up identifies cyclin A2 as a regulator of the transition through cytokinesis during terminal erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Leif S; Cho, Hyunjii; Wakabayashi, Aoi; Eng, Jennifer C; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Fleming, Mark D; Lodish, Harvey F; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2015-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) hold tremendous promise to improve our understanding of human biology. Recent GWAS have revealed over 75 loci associated with erythroid traits, including the 4q27 locus that is associated with red blood cell size (mean corpuscular volume). The close linkage disequilibrium block at this locus harbors the CCNA2 gene that encodes cyclin A2. CCNA2 mRNA is highly expressed in human and murine erythroid progenitor cells and regulated by the essential erythroid transcription factor GATA1. To understand the role of cyclin A2 in erythropoiesis, we have reduced expression of this gene using short hairpin RNAs in a primary murine erythroid culture system. We demonstrate that cyclin A2 levels affect erythroid cell size by regulating the passage through cytokinesis during the final cell division of terminal erythropoiesis. Our study provides new insight into cell cycle regulation during terminal erythropoiesis and more generally illustrates the value of functional GWAS follow-up to gain mechanistic insight into hematopoiesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Human alveolar macrophage cytophilic immunoglobulin G-mediated phagocytosis of protein A-positive staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Verbrugh, H A; Hoidal, J R; Nguyen, B Y; Verhoef, J; Quie, P G; Peterson, P K

    1982-01-01

    Human alveolar macrophages (AM) have recently been reported to ingest and kill a strain of Staphylococcus (502A) in the absence of opsonins. To further investigate the mechanism of non-opsonic recognition, we studied phagocytosis of 23 clinical and laboratory strains of S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis by AM, and by blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes (MN). In the absence of opsonins, AM phagocytized 18 protein A-positive but not 5 protein A-negative strains of staphylococci, and the efficiency of phagocytosis directly correlated with the amount of protein A present in the bacterial cell wall (r = 0.86, P less than 0.001). Furthermore, AM rosetted around protein A-coated Sepharose beads, but not around beads without protein A. In contrast, PMN did not phagocytize nonopsonized staphylococci, and did not rosette around either type of Sepharose. MN phagocytized protein A-positive staphylococci, but much less efficiently than AM, and showed some rosetting around protein A-coated Sepharose. The nature of the AM receptor for protein A-positive staphylococci was studied. The surface of AM was positively stained with fluorescein-conjugated antibody to human IgG, but not with IgA- or IgM-specific conjugates. No such surface-immunoglobulins were detected on PMN, and MN were only weakly positive for surface IgG. Pretreatment of AM with F(ab')2 fragments specific for human IgG (anti-Fc) inhibited subsequent phagocytosis of protein A-positive staphylococci. There was no evidence that the AM surface IgG was aggregated or immunecomplexed. From these studies we conclude that human AM possess cytophilic IgG antibodies, which can function as receptors for phagocytosis of protein A-positive staphylococci. Images PMID:7054243

  3. Bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis and an immunoglobulin G2 protease produced by Porphyromonas levii.

    PubMed

    Lobb, D A; Loeman, H J; Sparrow, D G; Morck, D W

    1999-04-01

    Acute interdigital phlegmon (AIP) is a commonly occurring anaerobic bacterial infection in cattle. This study examined in vitro the interaction of bovine polymorphonuclear granulocytic neutrophils (PMN) from blood with bacterial species involved in AIP. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils were purified from whole bovine blood, exposed to one of the three putative etiologic agents of AIP and comparatively assessed for phagocytosis using light microscopy. Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella intermedia were effectively phagocytosed by PMN, but Porphyromonas levii was phagocytosed significantly less effectively by PMN. The effect of high titre anti-P. levii bovine serum on antibody-mediated phagocytosis by PMN was also evaluated. High titre serum increased the efficiency of phagocytosis of P. levii by bovine PMN. This was independent of heat labile complement factors. Antibodies specific for P. levii were assessed for protease activity capable of cleaving bovine immunoglobulins (IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgM). Partially purified supernatant from broth cultures of P. levii were incubated with biotinylated immunoglobulins (Igs). Samples were taken from times 0 to 72 h and examined using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot analysis. Streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase and NBT-BCIP were used to visualize the Igs for heavy and light chains as well as lower molecular weight fragments of these glycoproteins. Porphyromonas levii produced an immunoglobulin protease which readily cleaved bovine IgG into fragments, but did not act against IgM. Specifically, the enzyme may be a significant virulence factor as it may act to neutralize the antibodies demonstrated necessary for effective PMN-mediated phagocytosis.

  4. Flow cytometric quantitation of phagocytosis in heparinized complete blood with latex particles and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Egido, J M; Viñuelas, J

    1997-01-01

    We report a rapid method for the flow cytometric quantitation of phagocytosis in heparinized complete peripheral blood (HCPB), using commercially available phycoerythrin-conjugated latex particles of 1 micron diameter. The method is faster and shows greater reproducibility than Bjerknes' (1984) standard technique using propidium iodide-stained Candida albicans, conventionally applied to the leukocytic layer of peripheral blood but here modified for HCPB. We also report a modification of Bjerknes' Intracellular Killing Test to allow its application to HCPB.

  5. Efficient phagocytosis of periodontopathogens by neutrophils requires plasma factors, platelets and TLR2.

    PubMed

    Assinger, A; Laky, M; Schabbauer, G; Hirschl, A M; Buchberger, E; Binder, B R; Volf, I

    2011-04-01

    Periodontitis represents a chronic infection of supportive dental tissues by distinct gram-negative bacteria. It is characterized by chronic and local inflammation as well as transient bacteremia with frequently occurring infections at distant sites. The present work aimed to clarify the role of platelets and plasma factors in neutrophil interactions with the periodontopathogens A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis. Phagocytosis, cell-cell interactions and activation of platelets and neutrophils in response to periodontopathogens were analyzed by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and bacteria survival assay. Plasma factors, platelet signaling pathways and receptors involved in platelet-neutrophil-bacteria interactions were determined. The role of platelet and neutrophil TLR2 in phagocytosis was further evaluated in a murine TLR2 knockout model. In the presence of plasma neutrophil-mediated clearance of periodontopathogens is doubled due to opsonisation of bacteria. Platelets, which become activated by periodontopathogens, further enhance clearance of bacteria by 20%, via direct interaction with neutrophils. Plasma factors (e.g. CD14) are required for platelet activation, which is mainly TLR2 dependent and results in PI3K/Akt activation. In a murine TLR2 knockout model we prove that platelet TLR2 is important for formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates and enhanced phagocytosis of periodontopathogens. In contrast, neutrophil TLR2 is not involved in platelet-neutrophil aggregate formation but is required for efficient phagocytosis. These data indicate that efficient elimination of periodontopathogens by neutrophils involves a complex interplay of plasma factors as well as platelets and requires functional TLR2. By enhancing neutrophil activation platelets contribute to immune defense but may also foster inflammation. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  6. Geometry of carbon nanotubes and mechanisms of phagocytosis and toxic effects.

    PubMed

    Harik, Vasyl Michael

    2017-05-05

    A review of in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies of the potential toxic effects of carbon nanotubes is presented along with the analysis of experimental data and a hypothesis about the nanotube-asbestos similarity. Developments of the structure-activity paradigm have been reviewed along with the size effects and the classification of carbon nanotubes into eleven distinct classes (e.g., the high aspect ratio nanotubes, thick multi-wall nanotubes and short nanotubes). Scaling analysis of similarities between different classes of carbon nanotubes and asbestos fibers in the context of their potential toxicity and the efficiency of phagocytosis has been reviewed. The potential toxic effects of carbon nanotubes have been characterized by their normalized length, their aspect ratio and other parameters related to their inhalability, engulfment by macrophages and the effectiveness of phagocytosis. Geometric scaling parameters and the classification of carbon nanotubes are used to develop an updated parametric map for the extrapolation of the potential toxic effects resulting from the inhalation of long and short carbon nanotubes. An updated parametric map has been applied to the evaluation of the efficiency of phagocytosis involving distinct classes of carbon nanotubes. A critical value of an important nondimensional parameter characterizing the efficiency of phagocytosis for different nanotubes is presented along with its macrophage-based normalization. The present evaluation of the potential toxicological effects of the high aspect ratio carbon nanotubes is found to be in the agreement with other available studies and earlier scaling analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis requires CDC42 and Rac1.

    PubMed Central

    Massol, P; Montcourrier, P; Guillemot, J C; Chavrier, P

    1998-01-01

    At the surface of phagocytes, antibody-opsonized particles are recognized by surface receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulins (FcRs) that mediate their capture by an actin-driven process called phagocytosis which is poorly defined. We have analyzed the function of the Rho proteins Rac1 and CDC42 in the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI)-mediated phagocytosis using transfected rat basophil leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells expressing dominant inhibitory forms of CDC42 and Rac1. Binding of opsonized particles to untransfected RBL-2H3 cells led to the accumulation of F-actin at the site of contact with the particles and further, to particle internalization. This process was inhibited by Clostridium difficile toxin B, a general inhibitor of Rho GTP-binding proteins. Dominant inhibition of Rac1 or CDC42 function severely inhibited particle internalization but not F-actin accumulation. Inhibition of CDC42 function resulted in the appearance of pedestal-like structures with particles at their tips, while particles bound at the surface of the Rac1 mutant cell line were enclosed within thin membrane protrusions that did not fuse. These phenotypic differences indicate that Rac1 and CDC42 have distinct functions and may act cooperatively in the assembly of the phagocytic cup. Inhibition of phagocytosis in the mutant cell lines was accompanied by the persistence of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins around bound particles. Phagocytic cup closure and particle internalization were also blocked when phosphotyrosine dephosphorylation was inhibited by treatment of RBL-2H3 cells with phenylarsine oxide, an inhibitor of protein phosphotyrosine phosphatases. Altogether, our data show that Rac1 and CDC42 are required to coordinate actin filament organization and membrane extension to form phagocytic cups and to allow particle internalization during FcR-mediated phagocytosis. Our data also suggest that Rac1 and CDC42 are involved in phosphotyrosine dephosphorylation required

  8. Mertk gene expression and photoreceptor outer segment phagocytosis by cultured rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Rong-mei; Jin, Ying; Sun, Yu-zhao; Sun, Yi-qian; Zhang, Pei

    2017-01-01

    Background Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are multipotential stem cells that have been used for a broad spectrum of indications. Several investigations have used BM-MSCs to promote photoreceptor survival and suggested that BM-MSCs are a potential source of cell replacement therapy for some forms of retinal degeneration. Purpose To investigate the expression of the MER proto-oncogene, tyrosine kinase (Mertk), involved in the disruption of RPE phagocytosis and the onset of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in rat BM-MSCs and to compare phagocytosis of the photoreceptor outer segment (POS) by BM-MSCs and RPE cells in vitro. Methods MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of Brown Norway rats. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT–PCR) and western blot analyses were used to examine the expression of Mertk. The phagocytized POS was detected with double fluorescent labeling, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Results Mertk expression did not differ among the first three passages of BM-MSCs. Mertk gene expression was greater in the BM-MSCs than the RPE cells. Mertk protein expression in the BM-MSCs was similar to that in the RPE cells in the primary passage and was greater than that in the RPE cells in the other two passages. BM-MSCs at the first three passages phagocytized the POS more strongly than the RPE cells. The process of BM-MSC phagocytosis was similar to that of the RPE cells. Conclusions BM-MSCs may be an effective cell source for treating retinal degeneration in terms of phagocytosis of the POS. PMID:28210098

  9. Induction of Apoptosis and Subsequent Phagocytosis of Virus-Infected Cells As an Antiviral Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Nainu, Firzan; Shiratsuchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are infectious entities that hijack host replication machineries to produce their progeny, resulting, in most cases, in disease and, sometimes, in death in infected host organisms. Hosts are equipped with an array of defense mechanisms that span from innate to adaptive as well as from humoral to cellular immune responses. We previously demonstrated that mouse cells underwent apoptosis in response to influenza virus infection. These apoptotic, virus-infected cells were then targeted for engulfment by macrophages and neutrophils. We more recently reported similar findings in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which lacks adaptive immunity, after an infection with Drosophila C virus. In these experiments, the inhibition of phagocytosis led to severe influenza pathologies in mice and early death in Drosophila. Therefore, the induction of apoptosis and subsequent phagocytosis of virus-infected cells appear to be an antiviral innate immune mechanism that is conserved among multicellular organisms. We herein discuss the underlying mechanisms and significance of the apoptosis-dependent phagocytosis of virus-infected cells. Investigations on the molecular and cellular features responsible for this underrepresented virus–host interaction may provide a promising avenue for the discovery of novel substances that are targeted in medical treatments against virus-induced intractable diseases. PMID:29033939

  10. Müller glia and phagocytosis of cell debris in retinal tissue.

    PubMed

    Bejarano-Escobar, Ruth; Sánchez-Calderón, Hortensia; Otero-Arenas, Josué; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Francisco-Morcillo, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Müller cells are the predominant glial cell type in the retina of vertebrates. They play a wide variety of roles in both the developing and the mature retina that have been widely reported in the literature. However, less attention has been paid to their role in phagocytosis of cell debris under physiological, pathological or experimental conditions. Müller glia have been shown to phagocytose apoptotic cell bodies originated during development of the visual system. They also engulf foreign molecules that are injected into the eye, cone outer segments and injured photoreceptors. Phagocytosis of photoreceptor cell debris in the light-damaged teleost retina is primarily carried out by Müller cells. Once the microglial cells become activated and migrate to the photoreceptor cell layer, the phagocytic activity of Müller cells progressively decreases, suggesting a possible mechanism of communication between Müller cells and neighbouring microglia and photoreceptors. Additionally, it has been shown that phagocytic Müller cells acquire proliferating activity in the damaged teleost retina, suggesting that engulfment of apoptotic photoreceptor debris might stimulate the Müller glia to proliferate during the regenerative response. These findings highlight Müller glia phagocytosis as an underlying mechanism contributing to degeneration and regeneration under pathological conditions. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  11. Rapid phagocytosis and melanization of bacteria and Plasmodium sporozoites by hemocytes of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Jullán F; Schmidt, Shelley L; Christensen, Bruce M

    2003-02-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of many deadly and debilitating pathogens. In the current study, we used light and electron microscopies to study the immune response of Aedes aegypti hemocytes to bacterial inoculations, Plasmodium gallinaceum natural infections, and latex bead injections. After challenge, mosquitoes mounted strong phagocytic and melanization responses. Granulocytes phagocytosed bacteria singly or pooled them inside large membrane-delimited vesicles. Phagocytosis of bacteria, Plasmodium sporozoites, and latex beads was extensive; we estimated that individual granulocytes have the capacity to phagocytose hundreds of bacteria and thousands of latex particles. Oenocytoids were also seen to internalize bacteria and latex particles, although infrequently and with low capacity. Besides phagocytosis, mosquitoes cleared bacteria and sporozoites by melanization. Interestingly, the immune response toward 2 species of bacteria was different; most Escherichia coli were phagocytosed, but most Micrococcus luteus were melanized. Similar to E. coli, most Plasmodium sporozoites were phagocytosed. The immune response was rapid; phagocytosis and melanization of bacteria began as early as 5 min after inoculation. The magnitude and speed of the cellular response suggest that hemocytes, acting in concert with the humoral immune response, are the main force driving the battle against foreign invaders.

  12. Effects of aluminum exposure on the adherence, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis capacity of peritoneal macrophages in rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chongwei; Li, Jing; Zhu, Yanzhu; Sun, Hao; Zhao, Hansong; Shao, Bing; Li, Yanfei

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effects of aluminum (Al) exposure on peritoneal macrophages of Wistar rats, four groups of ten rats each were orally exposed to 0, 13, 26, and 52 mg kg(-1) Al(3+) in form of aluminum trichloride (AlCl(3)) in drinking water for 120 days. At the end of the experimental period, the Al concentration in serum, the adherence, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis capacity of peritoneal macrophages were determined. The results showed that the Al concentration in serum significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner; the adherence, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis capacity of peritoneal macrophages decreased with the increase of Al dose, and present a dose-effective relationship. Further, they were significantly lower in the high-dose groups (P < 0.01) compared with the control group. It indicates that Al was toxic to peritoneal macrophages of rats, and the adherence, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis capacity of peritoneal macrophages in rats were significantly suppressed by exposure to 52 mg kg(-1) day Al(3+).

  13. Insight on signal transduction pathways involved in phagocytosis in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Nicola; Schiavon, Filippo; Betti, Michele; Canesi, Laura; Ballarin, Loriano

    2013-03-01

    Tunicates are chordate invertebrates, closely related to vertebrates, which represent valuable organisms for the study of a variety of biological processes from an evolutionary point of view. As invertebrates, they rely on innate immunity to cope with foreign, potentially pathogenic material. Among tunicates, the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri is emerging as a reliable model organism for the study of innate immune responses. However, there is a general lack of knowledge on the signalling pathways activated during immune responses and, in particular, in phagocytosis. In the present work, we carried out a preliminary investigation of the signalling pathways involved in phagocytosis, with particular reference to MAPK activation. We studied in vitro zymosan phagocytosis in the presence of manumycin A, which inhibit the activation of Ras, PD98059, SP600125 and SB202190, inhibitors of Erk, JNK and p38, respectively, parthenolide, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), inhibiting NF-kB activation. In addition we carried out immunoblot and immunocytochemistry analysis with the use of anti-pErk1/2, anti-pp38, anti-pJNK, anti-NF-kB (p50) and anti-pan Ras antibodies. Results demonstrate that the recognition of foreign cells triggers a phosphorylation cascade leading to the activation of Ras-like small GTPases, MAPKs and NF-kB and argue in favour of a conservation, also in ascidians, of the main signalling pathways. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CD47 limits antibody dependent phagocytosis against non-malignant B cells.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Sandra; Turman, Sean; Lekstrom, Kristen; Wilson, Susan; Herbst, Ronald; Wang, Yue

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of CD47 in protecting malignant B cells from antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Combined treatment of anti-CD47 and -CD20 antibodies synergistically augment elimination of tumor B cells in xenograft mouse models. This has led to the development of novel reagents that can potentially enhance killing of malignant B cells in patients. B cell depleting therapy is also a promising treatment for autoimmune patients. In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether or not CD47 protects non-malignant B cells from ADCP. We show that CD47 is expressed on all B cells in mice, with the highest level on plasma cells in bone marrow and spleen. Although its expression is dispensable for B cell development in mice, CD47 on B cells limits antibody mediated phagocytosis. B cell depletion following in vivo anti-CD19 treatment is more efficient in CD47-/- mice than in wild type mice. In vitro, both naïve and activated B cells from CD47-/- mice are more sensitive to ADCP than wild type B cells. Lastly, we show in an ADCP assay that blocking CD47 can enhance anti-CD19 antibody mediated phagocytosis of wild type B cells. These results suggest that in addition to its already demonstrated benefit in cancer, targeting CD47 may be used as an adjunct in combination with B cell depletion antibodies for treatment of autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative analysis of the role of fiber length on phagocytosis and inflammatory response by alveolar macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Padmore, Trudy; Stark, Carahline; Turkevich, Leonid A.; Champion, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Background In the lung, macrophages attempt to engulf inhaled high aspect ratio pathogenic materials, secreting inflammatory molecules in the process. The inability of macrophages to remove these materials leads to chronic inflammation and disease. How the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms of these effects are influenced by fiber length remains undetermined. This study evaluates the role of fiber length on phagocytosis and molecular inflammatory responses to non-cytotoxic fibers, enabling development of quantitative length-based models. Methods Murine alveolar macrophages were exposed to long and short populations of JM-100 glass fibers, produced by successive sedimentation and repeated crushing, respectively. Interactions between fibers and macrophages were observed using time-lapse video microscopy, and quantified by flow cytometry. Inflammatory biomolecules (TNF-α, IL-1 α, COX-2, PGE2) were measured. Results Uptake of short fibers occurred more readily than for long, but long fibers were more potent stimulators of inflammatory molecules. Stimulation resulted in dose-dependent secretion of inflammatory biomolecules but no cytotoxicity or strong ROS production. Linear cytokine dose-response curves evaluated with length-dependent potency models, using measured fiber length distributions, resulted in identification of critical fiber lengths that cause frustrated phagocytosis and increased inflammatory biomolecule production. Conclusion Short fibers played a minor role in the inflammatory response compared to long fibers. The critical lengths at which frustrated phagocytosis occurs can be quantified by fitting dose-response curves to fiber distribution data. PMID:27784615

  16. Creatine Kinase–Mediated ATP Supply Fuels Actin-Based Events in Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Oerlemans, Frank; van Leeuwen, Frank N; de Lange, Frank; Fransen, Jack; Wieringa, Bé

    2008-01-01

    Phagocytosis requires locally coordinated cytoskeletal rearrangements driven by actin polymerization and myosin motor activity. How this actomyosin dynamics is dependent upon systems that provide access to ATP at phagosome microdomains has not been determined. We analyzed the role of brain-type creatine kinase (CK-B), an enzyme involved in high-energy phosphoryl transfer. We demonstrate that endogenous CK-B in macrophages is mobilized from the cytosolic pool and coaccumulates with F-actin at nascent phagosomes. Live cell imaging with XFP-tagged CK-B and β-actin revealed the transient and specific nature of this partitioning process. Overexpression of a catalytic dead CK-B or CK-specific cyclocreatine inhibition caused a significant reduction of actin accumulation in the phagocytic cup area, and reduced complement receptor–mediated, but not Fc-γR–mediated, ingestion capacity of macrophages. Finally, we found that inhibition of CK-B affected phagocytosis already at the stage of particle adhesion, most likely via effects on actin polymerization behavior. We propose that CK-B activity in macrophages contributes to complement-induced F-actin assembly events in early phagocytosis by providing local ATP supply. PMID:18336068

  17. αEnv-decorated phosphatidylserine liposomes trigger phagocytosis of HIV-virus-like particles in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Andrea; Petazzi, Roberto A; Lehmann, Maik J; Ziomkowska, Joanna; Herrmann, Andreas; Chiantia, Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    Macrophages represent an important cellular target of HIV-1. Interestingly, they are also believed to play a potential role counteracting its infection. However, HIV-1 is known to impair macrophage immune functions such as antibody-mediated phagocytosis. Here, we present immunoliposomes that can bind HIV-1 virus-like particles (HIV-VLPs) while being specifically phagocytosed by macrophages, thus allowing the co-internalization of HIV-VLPs. These liposomes are decorated with anti-Env antibodies and contain phosphatidylserine (PS). PS mediates liposome internalization by macrophages via a mechanism not affected by HIV-1. Hence, PS-liposomes mimic apoptotic cells and are internalized into the macrophages due to specific recognition, carrying the previously bound HIV-VLPs. With a combination of flow cytometry, confocal live-cell imaging and electron microscopy we demonstrate that the PS-immunoliposomes presented here are able to elicit efficient HIV-VLPs phagocytosis by macrophages and might represent a new nanotechnological approach to enhance HIV-1 antigen presentation and reduce the ongoing inflammation processes. This team of authors demonstrate that specific phosphatidylserin immunoliposomes are able to elicit efficient phagocytosis of HIV-virus-like particle by macrophages and might represent a new nanomedicine approach to enhance HIV-1 antigen presentation and reduce ongoing inflammation processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of pentachlorophenol on survival of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) and phagocytosis by their immunoactive coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J.

    1998-12-01

    Earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, exposed for 96 h to filter paper saturated with five nominal concentrations of pentachlorophenol, exhibited a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 25.0 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} and corresponding whole worm body burden-based 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 877.7 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass. Linear regression modeling showed that worms increased body concentrations (BC = {micro}g PCP/g dry tissue mass) with increasing exposure concentrations (EC) according to BC = 113.5 + 29.5EC. Phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes was suppressed only at body concentrations (863.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass) that approximated the calculated LD50 and overlapped those demonstrating lethality,more » indicating a sharp transition between sublethal and lethal toxicity. An exposure concentration of 15 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} produced significant suppression of phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes. However, the average measured body burden from this group approximated the estimated LD50, indicating a sharp toxic response slope. Exposure to 10 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} with a corresponding body concentration of 501.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass did not affect phagocytosis. The importance of body burden data is emphasized.« less

  19. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis directs actin remodeling during phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Cameron C.; Dobson, Wendy; Botelho, Roberto J.; Coady-Osberg, Natasha; Chavrier, Philippe; Knecht, David A.; Heath, Colin; Stahl, Philip; Grinstein, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    The Rho GTPases play a critical role in initiating actin polymerization during phagocytosis. In contrast, the factors directing the disassembly of F-actin required for fission of the phagocytic vacuole are ill defined. We used fluorescent chimeric proteins to monitor the dynamics of association of actin and active Cdc42 and Rac1 with the forming phagosome. Although actin was found to disappear from the base of the forming phagosome before sealing was complete, Rac1/Cdc42 activity persisted, suggesting that termination of GTPase activity is not the main determinant of actin disassembly. Furthermore, fully internalized phagosomes engineered to associate constitutively with active Rac1 showed little associated F-actin. The disappearance of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) from the phagosomal membrane closely paralleled the course of actin disassembly. Furthermore, inhibition of PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis or increased PI(4,5)P2 generation by overexpression of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase I prevented the actin disassembly necessary for the completion of phagocytosis. These observations suggest that hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 dictates the remodeling of actin necessary for completion of phagocytosis. PMID:15809313

  20. The expression, induction and pharmacological activity of CYP1A2 are post-transcriptionally regulated by microRNA hsa-miR-132-5p

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yinting; Zeng, Linjuan; Wang, Yong; Tolleson, William H.; Knox, Bridgett; Chen, Si; Ren, Zhen; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan; Qian, Feng; Huang, Kaihong; Liu, David; Tong, Weida; Yu, Dianke; Ning, Baitang

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is one of the most abundant and important drug metabolizing enzymes in human liver. However, little is known about the post-transcriptional regulation of CYP1A2, especially the mechanisms involving microRNAs (miRNAs). This study applied a systematic approach to investigate the post-transcriptional regulation of CYP1A2 by miRNAs. Candidate miRNAs targeting the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of CYP1A2 were screened in silico, resulting in the selection of sixty-two potential miRNAs for further analysis. The levels of two miRNAs, hsa-miR-132-5p and hsa-miR-221-5p, were inversely correlated with the expression of CYP1A2 mRNA transcripts in normal human liver tissue samples represented in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. The interactions between these miRNAs and cognate CYP1A2 mRNA sequences were evaluated using luciferase reporter gene studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, by which a direct interaction was confirmed involving hsa-miR-132-5p and a cognate binding site present in the CYP1A2 3′-UTR. Experiments by which hsa-miR-132-5p or random miRNA controls were introduced into HepG2, Huh-7 and HepaRG hepatic cell lines showed that only hsa-miR-132-5p suppressed the endogenous and lansoprazole-induced expression of CYP1A2, at biological activity, protein production, and mRNA transcript levels. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-di methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays showed that hsa-miR-132-5p attenuates CYP1A2-mediated, lansoprazole-enhanced, flutamide-induced hepatic cell toxicity. Results from multilayer experiments demonstrate that hsa-miR-132-5p suppresses the expression of CYP1A2 and that this suppression is able to decrease the extent of an adverse drug-drug interaction involving lansoprazole and flutamide. PMID:28822783

  1. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K.; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb–drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation. PMID:25377539

  2. Influence of guinea pig plasma factors on phagocytosis of Pasteurella pestis. II. Plasma from plague-infected guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    STANZIALE, W G; WHITE, J D

    1962-01-01

    Stanziale, W. G. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and J. D. White. Influence of guinea pig plasma factors on phagocytosis of Pasteurella pestis. II. Plasma from plague-infected guinea pigs. J. Bacteriol. 83:182-186. 1962.-The phagocytosis enhancing property of normal guinea pig plasma was altered during experimental plague infection. The most notable changes occurred in the plasma from afebrile, moribund animals and from those convalescing from acute infection. The plasma of the moribund guinea pigs, which was obtained 7 to 8 days after exposure to Pasteurella pestis, inhibited phagocytosis to a considerable degree. Plasma from convalescent guinea pigs enhanced phagocytosis to a higher degree than the plasma of normal animals. In contrast, plasma from recovered guinea pigs in which cultural or serological evidence of infection was not demonstrated enhanced phagocytosis to a degree equivalent to that of normal plasma. Plasma taken from guinea pigs during the febrile phase of plague infection enhanced phagocytosis to a lower degree than did normal plasma.

  3. Up-regulation of striatal adenosine A2A receptors with iron deficiency in rats. Effects on locomotion and cortico-striatal neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, César; Pearson, Virginia; Gulyani, Seema; Allen, Richard; Earley, Christopher; Ferré, Sergi

    2010-01-01

    Brain iron deficiency leads to altered dopaminergic function in experimental animals, which can provide a mechanistic explanation for iron deficiency-related human sensory-motor disorders, such as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). However, mechanisms linking both conditions have not been determined. Considering the strong modulation exerted by adenosine on dopamine signaling, one connection could involve changes in adenosine receptor expression or function. In the striatum, presynaptic A2A receptors are localized in glutamatergic terminals contacting GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to block the motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Postsynaptic A2A receptors are localized in the dendritic field of GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by studying the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to produce locomotor activity and to counteract striatal ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Increased density of striatal A2A receptors was found in rats fed during three weeks with an iron-deficient diet during the post-weaning period. In iron-deficient rats, the selective A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3, at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, was more effective at blocking motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation (presynaptic A2A receptor-mediated effect) and at enhancing locomotor activation and blocking striatal ERK phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation (postsynaptic A2A receptor-mediated effects). These results indicate that brain iron deficiency induces a functional up-regulation of both striatal pre- and postsynaptic A2A receptor, which could be involved in sensory-motor disorders associated with iron deficiency such as RLS. PMID:20385128

  4. Up-regulation of striatal adenosine A(2A) receptors with iron deficiency in rats: effects on locomotion and cortico-striatal neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, César; Pearson, Virginia; Gulyani, Seema; Allen, Richard; Earley, Christopher; Ferré, Sergi

    2010-07-01

    Brain iron deficiency leads to altered dopaminergic function in experimental animals, which can provide a mechanistic explanation for iron deficiency-related human sensory-motor disorders, such as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). However, mechanisms linking both conditions have not been determined. Considering the strong modulation exerted by adenosine on dopamine signaling, one connection could involve changes in adenosine receptor expression or function. In the striatum, presynaptic A(2A) receptors are localized in glutamatergic terminals contacting GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by the ability of A(2A) receptor antagonists to block the motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Postsynaptic A(2A) receptors are localized in the dendritic field of GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by studying the ability of A(2A) receptor antagonists to produce locomotor activity and to counteract striatal ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Increased density of striatal A(2A) receptors was found in rats fed during 3 weeks with an iron-deficient diet during the post-weaning period. In iron-deficient rats, the selective A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3, at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, was more effective at blocking motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation (presynaptic A(2A) receptor-mediated effect) and at enhancing locomotor activation and blocking striatal ERK phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation (postsynaptic A(2A) receptor-mediated effects). These results indicate that brain iron deficiency induces a functional up-regulation of both striatal pre- and postsynaptic A(2A) receptor, which could be involved in sensory-motor disorders associated with iron deficiency such as RLS. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. EphA2: expression in the renal medulla and regulation by hypertonicity and urea stress in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongshi; Tian, Wei; Lindsley, Jessie N; Oyama, Terry T; Capasso, Juan M; Rivard, Christopher J; Cohen, Herbert T; Bagnasco, Serena M; Anderson, Sharon; Cohen, David M

    2005-04-01

    EphA2, a member of the large family of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases, is highly expressed in epithelial tissue and has been implicated in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, as well as cell growth and survival. Expression of EphA2 mRNA and protein was markedly upregulated by both hypertonic stress and by elevated urea concentrations in cells derived from the murine inner medullary collecting duct. This upregulation likely required transactivation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase and metalloproteinase-dependent ectodomain cleavage of an EGF receptor ligand, based on pharmacological inhibitor studies. A human EphA2 promoter fragment spanning nucleotides -4030 to +21 relative to the putative EphA2 transcriptional start site was responsive to tonicity but insensitive to urea. A promoter fragment spanning -1890 to +128 recapitulated both tonicity- and urea-dependent upregulation of expression, consistent with transcriptional activation. Neither the bona fide p53 response element at approximately -1.5 kb nor a pair of putative TonE elements at approximately -3 kb conferred the tonicity responsiveness. EphA2 mRNA and protein were expressed at low levels in rat renal cortex but at high levels in the collecting ducts of the renal medulla and papilla. Water deprivation in rats increased EphA2 expression in renal papilla, whereas dietary supplementation with 20% urea increased EphA2 expression in outer medulla. These data indicate that transcription and expression of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase are regulated by tonicity and urea in vitro and suggest that this phenomenon is also operative in vivo. Renal medullary EphA2 expression may represent an adaptive response to medullary hypertonicity or urea exposure.

  6. C-terminus of the P4-ATPase ATP8A2 functions in protein folding and regulation of phospholipid flippase activity.

    PubMed

    Chalat, Madhavan; Moleschi, Kody; Molday, Robert S

    2017-02-01

    ATP8A2 is a P4-ATPase that flips phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine across cell membranes. This generates membrane phospholipid asymmetry, a property important in many cellular processes, including vesicle trafficking. ATP8A2 deficiency causes severe neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated the role of the C-terminus of ATP8A2 in its expression, subcellular localization, interaction with its subunit CDC50A, and function as a phosphatidylserine flippase. C-terminal deletion mutants exhibited a reduced tendency to solubilize in mild detergent and exit the endoplasmic reticulum. The solubilized protein, however, assembled with CDC50A and displayed phosphatidylserine flippase activity. Deletion of the C-terminal 33 residues resulted in reduced phosphatidylserine-dependent ATPase activity, phosphatidylserine flippase activity, and neurite extension in PC12 cells. These reduced activities were reversed with 60- and 80-residue C-terminal deletions. Unlike the yeast P4-ATPase Drs2, ATP8A2 is not regulated by phosphoinositides but undergoes phosphorylation on the serine residue within a CaMKII target motif. We propose a model in which the C-terminus of ATP8A2 consists of an autoinhibitor domain upstream of the C-terminal 33 residues and an anti-autoinhibitor domain at the extreme C-terminus. The latter blocks the inhibitory activity of the autoinhibitor domain. We conclude that the C-terminus plays an important role in the efficient folding and regulation of ATP8A2. © 2017 Chalat et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. MiR-980 is a memory suppressor microRNA that regulates the autism-susceptibility gene, A2bp1

    PubMed Central

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Busto, Germain U.; Schutte, Soleil S.; Cervantes-Sandoval, Isaac; O’Dowd, Diane K.; Davis, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY MicroRNAs have been associated with many different biological functions but little is known about their roles in conditioned behavior. We demonstrate that Drosophila miR-980 is a memory suppressor gene functioning in multiple regions of the adult brain. Memory acquisition and stability were both increased by miR-980 inhibition. Whole cell recordings and functional imaging experiments indicated that miR-980 regulates neuronal excitability. We identified the autism susceptibility gene, A2bp1, as an mRNA target for miR-980. A2bp1 levels varied inversely with miR-980 expression; memory performance was directly related to A2bp1 levels. In addition, A2bp1 knockdown reversed the memory gains produced by miR-980 inhibition, consistent with A2bp1 being a downstream target of miR-980 responsible for the memory phenotypes. Our results indicate that miR-980 represses A2bp1 expression to tune the excitable state of neurons, and the overall state of excitability translates to memory impairment or improvement. PMID:26876166

  8. Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) iron-sulphur cluster assembly protein 2 (EsIscA2) is differentially regulated after immune and oxidative stress challenges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Yu; Wang, Min; Dong, Miren; Liu, Zhaoqun; Jia, Zhihao; Wang, Weilin; Zhang, Anguo; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2018-07-01

    Iron-sulphur clusters (ISCs), one of the oldest and most versatile cofactors of proteins, are involved in catalysis reactions, electron transport reactions, regulation processes as well as sensing of ambient conditions. Iron-sulphur cluster assembly protein (IscA) is a scaffold protein member of ISC formation system, which plays a significant role in the assembly and maturation process of ISC proteins. In the present study, the cDNA sequence of iron-sulphur cluster assembly protein 2 (designated as EsIscA2) was cloned from Eriocheir sinensis. The open reading frame (ORF) of EsIscA2 was of 507 bp, encoding a peptide of 168 amino acids with a typically conserved Fe-S domain. A tetrameric form was predicated by the SWISS-MODEL prediction algorithm, and three conserved cysteine residues (Cys-93, Cys-158, Cys-160) from each IscA monomer were predicted to form a 'cysteine pocket'. The deduced amino acid sequence of EsIscA2 shared over 50% similarity with that of other IscAs. EsIscA2 was clustered with IscA2 proteins from invertebrates and vertebrates, indicating that the protein was highly conservative in the evolution. rEsIscA2 exhibited a high iron binding affinity in the concentration ranging from 2 to 200 μM. EsIscA2 transcripts were detected in all the tested tissues including gonad, hemocytes, gill, muscle, heart, hepatopancreas and eyestalk, and EsIscA2 protein was detected in the mitochondria of hemocytes. The highest mRNA expression level of EsIscA2 was detected in muscle and hepatopancreas, which was about 34.66-fold (p < 0.05) and 27.07-fold (p < 0.05) of that in hemocytes, respectively. After Aeromonas hydrophila and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulations, the mRNA expression of EsIscA2 in hemocytes was down-regulated and reached the lowest level at 24 h (0.31-fold, p < 0.05) and 48 h (0.29-fold, p < 0.05) compared to control group, respectively. And the expression of EsIscA2 mRNA in hepatopancreas was repressed from 6 h to 48 h post

  9. Sleep Loss Promotes Astrocytic Phagocytosis and Microglial Activation in Mouse Cerebral Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bellesi, Michele; de Vivo, Luisa; Chini, Mattia; Gilli, Francesca; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2017-05-24

    We previously found that Mertk and its ligand Gas6 , astrocytic genes involved in phagocytosis, are upregulated after acute sleep deprivation. These results suggested that astrocytes may engage in phagocytic activity during extended wake, but direct evidence was lacking. Studies in humans and rodents also found that sleep loss increases peripheral markers of inflammation, but whether these changes are associated with neuroinflammation and/or activation of microglia, the brain's resident innate immune cells, was unknown. Here we used serial block-face scanning electron microscopy to obtain 3D volume measurements of synapses and surrounding astrocytic processes in mouse frontal cortex after 6-8 h of sleep, spontaneous wake, or sleep deprivation (SD) and after chronic (∼5 d) sleep restriction (CSR). Astrocytic phagocytosis, mainly of presynaptic components of large synapses, increased after both acute and chronic sleep loss relative to sleep and wake. MERTK expression and lipid peroxidation in synaptoneurosomes also increased to a similar extent after short and long sleep loss, suggesting that astrocytic phagocytosis may represent the brain's response to the increase in synaptic activity associated with prolonged wake, clearing worn components of heavily used synapses. Using confocal microscopy, we then found that CSR but not SD mice show morphological signs of microglial activation and enhanced microglial phagocytosis of synaptic elements, without obvious signs of neuroinflammation in the CSF. Because low-level sustained microglia activation can lead to abnormal responses to a secondary insult, these results suggest that chronic sleep loss, through microglia priming, may predispose the brain to further damage. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We find that astrocytic phagocytosis of synaptic elements, mostly of presynaptic origin and in large synapses, is upregulated already after a few hours of sleep deprivation and shows a further significant increase after prolonged and

  10. Annexin A2 Promotes the Migration and Invasion of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells In Vitro by Regulating the Shedding of CD147-Harboring Microvesicles from Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lei; Song, Zhen-Shun; Cao, Da-Yong; Tao, Kai-Shan; Zhou, Wen-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Dou, Ke-Feng

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the roles of ANXA2 in the migration and invasion of HCC cells have not been determined. In this study, we found that ANXA2-specific siRNA (si-ANXA2) significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of HCC cells co-cultured with fibroblasts in vitro. In addition, the production of MMP-2 by fibroblasts cultured in supernatant collected from si-ANXA2-transfected HCC cells was notably down-regulated. ANXA2 was also found to be co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with CD147. Further investigation revealed that the expression of ANXA2 in HCC cells affected the shedding of CD147-harboring membrane microvesicles, acting as a vehicle for CD147 in tumor-stromal interactions and thereby regulating the production of MMP-2 by fibroblasts. Together, these results suggest that ANXA2 enhances the migration and invasion potential of HCC cells in vitro by regulating the trafficking of CD147-harboring membrane microvesicles. PMID:23950866

  11. Arabidopsis ROF1 (FKBP62) modulates thermotolerance by interacting with HSP90.1 and affecting the accumulation of HsfA2-regulated sHSPs.

    PubMed

    Meiri, David; Breiman, Adina

    2009-08-01

    Arabidopsis ROF1 (AtFKBP62) is a peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase and a member of the FKBP (FK506 binding protein) family. ROF1 expression is induced by heat stress and developmentally regulated. In this study, we show that ROF1 binds heat shock proteins HSP90.1 via its tetratricopeptide repeat domain, and localizes in the cytoplasm under normal conditions. Exposure to heat stress induces nuclear localization of the ROF1-HSP90.1 complex, which is dependent upon the presence of the transcription factor HsfA2, which interacts with HSP90.1 but not with ROF1. Nuclear localization of ROF1 was not detected in Arabidopsis HSP90.1 and HsfA2 knockout mutants. The rof1 knockout plants exhibited collapse when 24-48 h passed between acclimation at 37 degrees C and exposure to 45 degrees C. Transgenic ROF1 over-expressors showed better survival in response to exposure to 45 degrees C than wild-type plants did. In rof1 knockout mutants, the level of expression of small HSPs regulated by HsfA2 was dramatically reduced after exposure to 37 degrees C and recovery for 24-48 h, and correlates well with the mutant phenotype. We suggest a role for ROF1 in prolongation of thermotolerance by sustaining the levels of small HSPs that are essential for survival at high temperatures.

  12. MicroRNA-302b negatively regulates IL-1β production in response to MSU crystals by targeting IRAK4 and EphA2.

    PubMed

    Ma, Teng; Liu, Xiao; Cen, Zhifu; Xin, Chuan; Guo, Mingfeng; Zou, Chaoyu; Song, Wenpeng; Xie, Rou; Wang, Kailun; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Bian, Ce; Cui, Kaijun; Li, Jiong; Wei, Yu-Quan; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xikun

    2018-02-26

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pivotal proinflammatory cytokine that is strongly associated with the inflammation of gout. However, the underlying mechanism through which the production of IL-1β is regulated has not been fully elucidated. Our previous work identified that miR-302b had an important immune regulatory role in bacterial lung infections. This study was conducted to evaluate the function of miR-302b on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation and its mechanism. The expression pattern and the immune-regulatory role of miR-302b were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The functional targets of miR-302b were predicted by bioinformatics, and then validated by genetic approaches. In addition, the clinical feature of miR-302b was analyzed using serum samples of patients with gouty arthritis. The extremely high expression of miR-302b was observed in both macrophages and mouse air membranes treated with MSU. Intriguingly, overexpression of miR-302b regulated NF-κB and caspase-1 signaling, leading to significantly attenuate MSU-induced IL-1β. By genetic analysis, miR-302b exhibited inhibitory function on IRAK4 and EphA2 by binding to their 3'-UTR regions. Corporately silencing IRAK4 and EphA2 largely impaired MSU-induced IL-1β protein production. Moreover, it was also found that miR-302b and EphA2 suppressed the migration of macrophages. Finally, it was observed that high expression of miR-302b was a general feature in patients with gouty arthritis. These results suggest that miR-302b can regulate IL-1β production in MSU-induced inflammation by targeting NF-κB and caspase-1 signaling, and may be a potential therapeutic target for gouty arthritis.

  13. Glucocorticoid receptor activation leads to up-regulation of adenosine A1 receptors and down-regulation of adenosine A2 responses in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gerwins, P; Fredholm, B B

    1991-08-01

    The effect of glucocorticoid treatment of DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells on the signaling via two adenosine receptors with opposing actions on cAMP generation was examined. Treatment with dexamethasone caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in the number of adenosine A1 receptors but did not affect the KD or the proportions of receptors in high and low affinity states. The EC50 was 1 nM dexamethasone, and maximal response was achieved after 24 hr. The number of receptors was increased by approximately 50%. Other steroid hormones, including aldosterone, progesterone, testosterone, and estrogen, were much less effective, and addition of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU 486 or the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide prevented the up-regulation, showing that the effect was mediated via a glucocorticoid receptor-specific mechanism that involves protein synthesis. In dexamethasone-treated cells the A1 receptor agonist (-)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine [(R)-PIA] was 3 times more potent as an inhibitor of cAMP formation induced by isoprenaline than in untreated cells. ADP ribosylation of inhibitory GTP-binding proteins by pertussis toxin completely prevented (R)-PIA from inhibiting cAMP accumulation. A further analysis of the different GTP-binding proteins, including the three Gi subtypes (Gi1, Gi2, and Gi3), revealed no quantitative or qualitative change after dexamethasone treatment. In addition, the adenosine A2 receptors were down-regulated, as indicated by the fact that the ability of the A2 receptor agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine to increase cAMP formation was decreased by 20-30% in dexamethasone-treated cells. In summary, we have shown that A1 and A2 receptors on the same cell are differentially regulated by glucocorticoids and that this has functional importance in the regulation of cAMP accumulation.

  14. VHL genetic alteration in CCRCC does not determine de-regulation of HIF, CAIX, hnRNP A2/B1 and osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, Michelle J; El Mashad, Shereen M; O'Donovan, Tracey R; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Collins, Chris; Sweeney, Paul; Rogers, Eamonn; O'Sullivan, Gerald C; McKenna, Sharon L

    2011-06-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene inactivation is associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) development. The VHL protein (pVHL) has been proposed to regulate the expression of several proteins including Hypoxia Inducible Factor-α (HIF-α), carbonic anhydrase (CA)IX, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)A2/B1 and osteopontin. pVHL has been characterized in vitro, however, clinical studies are limited. We evaluated the impact of VHL genetic alterations on the expression of several pVHL protein targets in paired normal and tumor tissue. The VHL gene was sequenced in 23 CCRCC patients and VHL transcript levels were evaluated by Real-Time RT-PCR. Expression of pVHL's protein targets were determined by Western blotting in 17 paired patient samples. VHL genetic alterations were identified in 43.5% (10/23) of CCRCCs. HIF-1α, HIF-2α and CAIX were up-regulated in 88.2% (15/17), 100% (17/17) and 88.2% (15/17) of tumors respectively and their expression is independent of VHL status. hnRNP A2/B1 and osteopontin expression was variable in CCRCCs and had no association with VHL genetic status. As expression of these proposed pVHL targets can be achieved independently of VHL mutation (and possibly by hypoxia alone), this data suggests that other pVHL targets may be more crucial in renal carcinogenesis.

  15. Insights into a novel nuclear function for Fascin in the regulation of the amino-acid transporter SLC3A2

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Amine; Bijian, Krikor; Qiu, Dinghong; da Silva, Sabrina Daniela; Marques, Maud; Chang, Chia-Hao; Nassour, Hassan; Ramotar, Dindial; Damaraju, Sambasivarao; Mackey, John; Bismar, Tarek; Witcher, Michael; Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A.

    2016-01-01

    Fascin 1 (FSCN1) is a cytoskeleton-associated protein recognized to function primarily in the regulation of cytoskeleton structure and formation of plasma membrane protrusions. Here we report a novel nuclear function for Fascin 1. Biochemical studies and genome wide localization using ChIP-seq identified phosphorylated Fascin 1 (pFascin) in complexes associated with transcription and that it co-localizes with histone H3 Lys4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) on chromatin. Gene expression profiling identified genes affected by Fascin 1 including SLC3A2, a gene encoding for a plasma membrane transporter that regulates intracellular amino acid levels. RbBP5, a subunit of the H3K4 histone methyltransferase (HMT) complex was found to interact with Fascin 1 supporting its role in H3K4me3 establishment at target genes. Moreover, we show that changes to SLC3A2 levels affect amino acid-mediated mTORC1 activation. These results reveal that Fascin 1 has a yet undiscovered nuclear function as an epigenetic modulator of genes essential for amino acid metabolism. PMID:27819326

  16. Insights into a novel nuclear function for Fascin in the regulation of the amino-acid transporter SLC3A2.

    PubMed

    Saad, Amine; Bijian, Krikor; Qiu, Dinghong; da Silva, Sabrina Daniela; Marques, Maud; Chang, Chia-Hao; Nassour, Hassan; Ramotar, Dindial; Damaraju, Sambasivarao; Mackey, John; Bismar, Tarek; Witcher, Michael; Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A

    2016-11-07

    Fascin 1 (FSCN1) is a cytoskeleton-associated protein recognized to function primarily in the regulation of cytoskeleton structure and formation of plasma membrane protrusions. Here we report a novel nuclear function for Fascin 1. Biochemical studies and genome wide localization using ChIP-seq identified phosphorylated Fascin 1 (pFascin) in complexes associated with transcription and that it co-localizes with histone H3 Lys4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) on chromatin. Gene expression profiling identified genes affected by Fascin 1 including SLC3A2, a gene encoding for a plasma membrane transporter that regulates intracellular amino acid levels. RbBP5, a subunit of the H3K4 histone methyltransferase (HMT) complex was found to interact with Fascin 1 supporting its role in H3K4me3 establishment at target genes. Moreover, we show that changes to SLC3A2 levels affect amino acid-mediated mTORC1 activation. These results reveal that Fascin 1 has a yet undiscovered nuclear function as an epigenetic modulator of genes essential for amino acid metabolism.

  17. Extracellular vesicles modulate host-microbe responses by altering TLR2 activity and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    van Bergenhenegouwen, Jeroen; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Rutten, Lieke; Kettelarij, Nienke; Garssen, Johan; Vos, Arjan P

    2014-01-01

    Oral delivery of Gram positive bacteria, often derived from the genera Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium, can modulate immune function. Although the exact mechanisms remain unclear, immunomodulatory effects may be elicited through the direct interaction of these bacteria with the intestinal epithelium or resident dendritic cell (DC) populations. We analyzed the immune activation properties of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium species and made the surprising observation that cellular responses in vitro were differentially influenced by the presence of serum, specifically the extracellular vesicle (EV) fraction. In contrast to the tested Lactobacilli species, tested Bifidobacterium species induce TLR2/6 activity which is inhibited by the presence of EVs. Using specific TLR ligands, EVs were found to enhance cellular TLR2/1 and TLR4 responses while TLR2/6 responses were suppressed. No effect could be observed on cellular TLR5 responses. We determined that EVs play a role in bacterial aggregation, suggesting that EVs interact with bacterial surfaces. EVs were found to slightly enhance DC phagocytosis of Bifidobacterium breve whereas phagocytosis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus was virtually absent upon serum EV depletion. DC uptake of a non-microbial substance (dextran) was not affected by the different serum fractions suggesting that EVs do not interfere with DC phagocytic capacity but rather modify the DC-microbe interaction. Depending on the microbe, combined effects of EVs on TLR activity and phagocytosis result in a differential proinflammatory DC cytokine release. Overall, these data suggest that EVs play a yet unrecognized role in host-microbe responses, not by interfering in recipient cellular responses but via attachment to, or scavenging of, microbe-associated molecular patterns. EVs can be found in any tissue or bodily fluid, therefore insights into EV-microbe interactions are important in understanding the mechanism of action of potential probiotics and gut immune

  18. Scavenger Receptor C Mediates Phagocytosis of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Restricts Virus Proliferation in Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Chong; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Yang, Hui-Ting; Sun, Jie-Jie; Xu, Ling; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger receptors are an important class of pattern recognition receptors that play several important roles in host defense against pathogens. The class C scavenger receptors (SRCs) have only been identified in a few invertebrates, and their role in the immune response against viruses is seldom studied. In this study, we firstly identified an SRC from kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, designated MjSRC, which was significantly upregulated after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge at the mRNA and protein levels in hemocytes. The quantity of WSSV increased in shrimp after knockdown of MjSRC, compared with the controls. Furthermore, overexpression of MjSRC led to enhanced WSSV elimination via phagocytosis by hemocytes. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the interaction between MjSRC and the WSSV envelope protein. Electron microscopy observation indicated that the colloidal gold-labeled extracellular domain of MjSRC was located on the outer surface of WSSV. MjSRC formed a trimer and was internalized into the cytoplasm after WSSV challenge, and the internalization was strongly inhibited after knockdown of Mjβ-arrestin2. Further studies found that Mjβ-arrestin2 interacted with the intracellular domain of MjSRC and induced the internalization of WSSV in a clathrin-dependent manner. WSSV were co-localized with lysosomes in hemocytes and the WSSV quantity in shrimp increased after injection of lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MjSRC recognized WSSV via its extracellular domain and invoked hemocyte phagocytosis to restrict WSSV systemic infection. This is the first study to report an SRC as a pattern recognition receptor promoting phagocytosis of a virus. PMID:28027319

  19. Granulocyte function in chronic granulocytic leukaemia. I. Bactericidal and metabolic capabilities during phagocytosis in isolated granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Odeberg, H; Olofsson, T; Olsson, I

    1975-03-01

    The ingestion, bactericidal activity and metabolism of isolated mature neutrophil leucocytes during phagocytosis was studied in 17 patients with chronic granulocytic leukaemia (CGL) with the simultaneous use of normal controls. Seven patients had received no treatment and the others had been treated previously with Busulphan. The phagocytic indices for killed yeast cells did not differ from those of the controls. A diminished bactericidal activity against E. coli was found in nine CGL cases. The bactericidal capacity closely correlated with the degree of leucocytosis since patients with a WBC count of 90 000/mul or higher with one exception showed decreased bactericidal activities while patients with WBC counts below 90 000/mul with two exceptions showed normal bactericidal activities. The [I-14C]-glucose oxidation during phagocytosis was increased in four patients and decreased in three patients. Some correlation was found between abnormally high or low [I-14C]glucose oxidation and diminished bactericidal activity. The intracellular iodination reaction during phagocytosis was decreased in 10 cases while the extracellular iodination was increased in six cases and decreased in one case. The data for granulocyte iodination did not correlate with WBC count, bactericidal capacity or [I-14C]glucose oxidation. The time course for the bactericidal activity and granulocyte iodination seemed to deviate from the controls indicating a slow initial ingestion and/or degranulation phase. The CGL granulocyte content of myeloperoxidase was normal or increased, the lysozyme content was decreased in half of the cases while the amount of antibacterial cationic proteins was increased, normal or low. The present findings indicate a variety of abnormalities in the mature CGL granulocyte, which are not closely interrelated.

  20. Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthwormsmore » exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.« less

  1. Blockade of MerTK Activation by AMPK Inhibits RPE Cell Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Suofu

    2016-01-01

    Timely removal of shed photoreceptor outer segments by retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) plays a key role in biological renewal of these highly peroxidizable structures and in maintenance of retina health. How environmental stress cause RPE cell dysfunction is undefined however. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimer of a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits, maintains energy homeostasis by limiting energy utilization and/or promoting energy production when energy supply is compromised. Intriguingly, AMPK has been shown to be important in functions of RPE cells. In this mini-review, the role and mechanisms of AMPK in controlling RPE cell phagocytosis are discussed.

  2. Inhibition of Amino Acid Incorporation into Protein of Human Neutrophils by Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    DeChatelet, Lawrence R.; McCall, Charles E.; McPhail, Linda C.

    1973-01-01

    The incorporation of uniformly labeled 14C-amino acids into total protein of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes is inhibited when the cells are challenged with heat-killed Escherichia coli or latex particles. Parallel studies of amino acid incorporation and glucose oxidation indicate that the inhibition is dependent upon ingestion of the particles. It is suggested that the process of phagocytosis might inhibit the transport of amino acids into the cell either by competing for available energy or by internalizing specific transport sites. PMID:4748946

  3. Ethanol Suppresses Phagosomal Adhesion Maturation, Rac Activation, and Subsequent Actin Polymerization During FcγR-Mediated Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Karavitis, John; Murdoch, Eva L.; Deburghgraeve, Cory; Ramirez, Luis; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory investigations have provided evidence that ethanol suppresses normal lung immunity. Our initial studies revealed that acute ethanol exposure results in transient suppression of phagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by macrophages as early as 3 hours after initial exposure. Focusing on mechanisms by which ethanol decreases macrophage Fcγ-receptor (FcγR) phagocytosis we targeted the study on the focal adhesion and cytoskeletal elements that are necessary for phagosome progression. Ethanol inhibited macrophage phagocytosis of IgG-coated bead recruitment of actin to the site of the phagosome, dampened the phosphorylation of vinculin, but had no effect on paxillin phosphorylation suggesting a loss in “phagosomal adhesion” maturation. Moreover, our observations revealed that FcγR-phagocytosis induced Rac activation, which was increased by only 50% in ethanol exposed cells, compared to 175% in the absence of ethanol. This work is the first to show evidence of the cellular mechanisms involved in the ethanol-induced suppression of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. PMID:22381996

  4. Astrocytic Lrp4 (Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 4) Contributes to Ischemia-Induced Brain Injury by Regulating ATP Release and Adenosine-A2AR (Adenosine A2A Receptor) Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin-Chun; Hu, Jin-Xia; Li, Lei; Li, Qiang; Tang, Fu-Lei; Lin, Sen; Sun, Dong; Sun, Xiang-Dong; Cui, Gui-Yun; Mei, Lin; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Lrp4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4) is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, where it regulates glutamatergic neurotransmission by suppressing ATP release. Here, we investigated Lrp4's function in ischemia/stroke-induced brain injury response, which includes glutamate-induced neuronal death and reactive astrogliosis. The brain-specific Lrp4 conditional knockout mice (Lrp4 GFAP-Cre ), astrocytic-specific Lrp4 conditional knockout mice (Lrp4 GFAP-creER ), and their control mice (Lrp4 f/f ) were subjected to photothrombotic ischemia and the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. After ischemia/stroke, mice or their brain samples were subjected to behavior tests, brain histology, immunofluorescence staining, Western blot, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, primary astrocytes and neurons were cocultured with or without oxygen and glucose deprivation and in the presence or absence of the antagonist for adenosine-A 2A R (adenosine A2A receptor) or ATP-P2X7R (P2X purinoceptor 7) signaling. Gliotransmitters, such as glutamate, d-serine, ATP, and adenosine, in the condition medium of cultured astrocytes were also measured. Lrp4, largely expressed in astrocytes, was increased in response to ischemia/stroke. Both Lrp4 GFAP-Cre and Lrp4 GFAP-creER mice showed less brain injury, including reduced neuronal death, and impaired reactive astrogliosis. Mechanistically, Lrp4 conditional knockout in astrocytes increased ATP release and the production of ATP derivative, adenosine, which were further elevated by oxygen and glucose deprivation. Pharmacological inhibition of ATP-P 2 X 7 R or adenosine-A 2A R signaling diminished Lrp4 GFAP-creER 's protective effect. The astrocytic Lrp4 plays an important role in ischemic brain injury response. Lrp4 deficiency in astrocytes seems to be protective in response to ischemic brain injury, likely because of the increased ATP release and adenosine-A 2A R signaling. © 2017 American Heart

  5. Circulating hemocytes from larvae of Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): cell types and their role in phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Moreira Neto, João Felipe; Pereira, Gustavo Borges; Franco, Mariani Borges; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Infection in insects stimulates a complex defensive response. Recognition of pathogens may be accomplished by plasma or hemocyte proteins that bind specifically to bacterial or fungal polysaccharides. Several morphologically distinct hemocyte cell types cooperate in the immune response. Hemocytes attach to invading organisms and then isolate them by phagocytosis, by trapping them in hemocyte aggregates called nodules, or by forming an organized multicellular capsule around large parasites. In the current investigation the cellular in the hemolymph third instar larvae of M. scutellaris has been characterized by means of light microscopy analysis and phagocytosis assays were performed in vivo by injection of 0.5 microm fluorescence beads in order to identify the hemocyte types involved in phagocytosis. Four morphotypes of circulating hemocytes were found in 3rd instar larvae: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids. The results presented plasmatocytes and granulocytes involved in phagocytic response of foreign particles in 3rd instar larvae of M. scutellaris.

  6. In vivo pathogenicity and resistance to phagocytosis of Streptococcus equi strains with different levels of capsule expression.

    PubMed

    Anzai, T; Timoney, J F; Kuwamoto, Y; Fujita, Y; Wada, R; Inoue, T

    1999-07-01

    The glossy non-encapsulated strain of Steptococcus equi, NCTC 9682, was compared with the matt strain Hidaka/95/2 which expresses a medium sized capsule and with the mucoid CF32 which expresses a large sized capsule in phagocytosis assays and for virulence in inoculated horses. The three strains, NCTC 9682, Hidaka /95/2 and CF32 produced 2.0, 3.1, and 5.3 mg/g wet cells respectively after 3 h incubation, but similar amounts of M-like proteins, cytotoxin and mitogen. NCTC 9682 showed no resistance to phagocytosis by equine neutrophils regardless of the presence of opsonin while strains Hidaka /95/2 and CF32 showed almost complete resistance to phagocytosis. Furthermore, NCTC 9682 produced no clinical disease although it infected the guttural pouch and caused seroconversion. Typical strangles with guttural pouch invasion was observed in all horses infected with encapsulated strains.

  7. Rap1 Activation in Collagen Phagocytosis Is Dependent on Nonmuscle Myosin II-A

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pamela D.; Conti, Mary Anne; Ravid, Shoshana; Sacks, David B.; Kapus, Andras; Adelstein, Robert S.; Bresnick, Anne R.

    2008-01-01

    Rap1 enhances integrin-mediated adhesion but the link between Rap1 activation and integrin function in collagen phagocytosis is not defined. Mass spectrometry of Rap1 immunoprecipitates showed that the association of Rap1 with nonmuscle myosin heavy-chain II-A (NMHC II-A) was enhanced by cell attachment to collagen beads. Rap1 colocalized with NM II-A at collagen bead-binding sites. There was a transient increase in myosin light-chain phosphorylation after collagen-bead binding that was dependent on myosin light-chain kinase but not Rho kinase. Inhibition of myosin light-chain phosphorylation, but not myosin II-A motor activity inhibited collagen-bead binding and Rap activation. In vitro binding assays demonstrated binding of Rap1A to filamentous myosin rods, and in situ staining of permeabilized cells showed that NM II-A filaments colocalized with F-actin at collagen bead sites. Knockdown of NM II-A did not affect talin, actin, or β1-integrin targeting to collagen beads but targeting of Rap1 and vinculin to collagen was inhibited. Conversely, knockdown of Rap1 did not affect localization of NM II-A to beads. We conclude that MLC phosphorylation in response to initial collagen-bead binding promotes NM II-A filament assembly; binding of Rap1 to myosin filaments enables Rap1-dependent integrin activation and enhanced collagen phagocytosis. PMID:18799623

  8. Brucella abortus-activated microglia induce neuronal death through primary phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana M; Delpino, M Victoria; Miraglia, M Cruz; Costa Franco, Miriam M; Barrionuevo, Paula; Dennis, Vida A; Oliveira, Sergio C; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2017-07-01

    Inflammation has long been implicated as a contributor to pathogenesis in neurobrucellosis. Many of the associated neurocognitive symptoms of neurobrucellosis may be the result of neuronal dysfunction resulting from the inflammatory response induced by Brucella abortus infection in the central nervous system. In this manuscript, we describe an immune mechanism for inflammatory activation of microglia that leads to neuronal death upon B. abortus infection. B. abortus was unable to infect or harm primary cultures of mouse neurons. However, when neurons were co-cultured with microglia and infected with B. abortus significant neuronal loss occurred. This phenomenon was dependent on TLR2 activation by Brucella lipoproteins. Neuronal death was not due to apoptosis, but it was dependent on the microglial release of nitric oxide (NO). B. abortus infection stimulated microglial proliferation, phagocytic activity and engulfment of neurons. NO secreted by B. abortus-activated microglia induced neuronal exposure of the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine (PS). Blocking of PS-binding to protein milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-8 (MFG-E8) or microglial vitronectin receptor-MFG-E8 interaction was sufficient to prevent neuronal loss by inhibiting microglial phagocytosis without affecting their activation. Taken together, our results indicate that B. abortus is not directly toxic to neurons; rather, these cells become distressed and are killed by phagocytosis in the inflammatory surroundings generated by infected microglia. Neuronal loss induced by B. abortus-activated microglia may explain, in part, the neurological deficits observed during neurobrucellosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A comparison of the metabolic response to phagocytosis in human granulocytes and monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sagone, A L; King, G W; Metz, E N

    1976-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that oxygen radicals such as superoxide or singlet oxygen may be important in the functional activity of human granulocytes. We have examined the possible importance of these radicals in the functional capacity of human blood monocytes. Monocytes, like granulocytes, generate chemiluminescence during phagocytosis. Chemiluminescence is impaired 50-90% by superoxide dismutase, an enzyme which enhances the dismutation of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate that superoxide is related to the chemiluminescence generated by monocytes. Superoxide dismutase in a concentration which impaired chemiluminescence also impaired the staphylococcal killing by monocytes. Hexose monophosphate shunt activity and hydrogen peroxide production by granulocytes and monocytes were also evaluated. The oxidation of [1-14C]glucose was used as a measure of hexose monophosphate shunt activity and the oxidation of [14C]formate as an estimation of hydrogen peroxide production. The oxidation of both substrates by monocytes was increased during phagocytosis but, in contrast to results in granulocytes, was not further increased by the addition of superoxide dismutase. These data indicate that superoxide may be important in bactericidal activity of human monocytes. Our results also suggest that the metabolism of oxygen radicals in monocytes and granulocytes may be different. PMID:1262475

  10. Characterization of the hemocytes in Larvae of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis: involvement of granulocyte-mediated phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyojung; Bang, Kyeongrin; Cho, Saeyoull

    2014-01-01

    Hemocytes are key players in the immune response against pathogens in insects. However, the hemocyte types and their functions in the white-spotted flower chafers, Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis (Kolbe), are not known. In this study, we used various microscopes, molecular probes, and flow cytometric analyses to characterize the hemocytes in P. brevitarsis seulensis. The circulating hemocytes were classified based on their size, morphology, and dye-staining properties into six types, including granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, spherulocytes, prohemocytes, and adipohemocytes. The percentages of circulating hemocyte types were as follows: 13% granulocytes, 20% plasmatocytes, 1% oenocytoids, 5% spherulocytes, 17% prohemocytes, and 44% adipohemocytes. Next, we identified the professional phagocytes, granulocytes, which mediate encapsulation and phagocytosis of pathogens. The granulocytes were immunologically or morphologically activated and phagocytosed potentially hazardous substances in vivo. In addition, we showed that the phagocytosis by granulocytes is associated with autophagy, and that the activation of autophagy could be an efficient way to eliminate pathogens in this system. We also observed a high accumulation of autophagic vacuoles in activated granulocytes, which altered their shape and led to autophagic cell death. Finally, the granulocytes underwent mitotic division thus maintaining their number in vivo.

  11. Characterization of the Hemocytes in Larvae of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis: Involvement of Granulocyte-Mediated Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Saeyoull

    2014-01-01

    Hemocytes are key players in the immune response against pathogens in insects. However, the hemocyte types and their functions in the white-spotted flower chafers, Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis (Kolbe), are not known. In this study, we used various microscopes, molecular probes, and flow cytometric analyses to characterize the hemocytes in P. brevitarsis seulensis. The circulating hemocytes were classified based on their size, morphology, and dye-staining properties into six types, including granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, spherulocytes, prohemocytes, and adipohemocytes. The percentages of circulating hemocyte types were as follows: 13% granulocytes, 20% plasmatocytes, 1% oenocytoids, 5% spherulocytes, 17% prohemocytes, and 44% adipohemocytes. Next, we identified the professional phagocytes, granulocytes, which mediate encapsulation and phagocytosis of pathogens. The granulocytes were immunologically or morphologically activated and phagocytosed potentially hazardous substances in vivo. In addition, we showed that the phagocytosis by granulocytes is associated with autophagy, and that the activation of autophagy could be an efficient way to eliminate pathogens in this system. We also observed a high accumulation of autophagic vacuoles in activated granulocytes, which altered their shape and led to autophagic cell death. Finally, the granulocytes underwent mitotic division thus maintaining their number in vivo. PMID:25083702

  12. Macrophage phagocytosis: effects of environmental pollutants, alcohol, cigarette smoke, and other external factors

    PubMed Central

    Karavitis, John; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of a pathogen to evade host immunity successfully, in contrast to the host's capacity to defend itself against a foreign invader, is a complex struggle, in which eradication of infection is dictated by a robust immunologic response. Often, there are external factors that can alter the outcome by tipping the scale to benefit pathogen establishment rather than resolution by the host's defense system. These external sources, such a cigarettes, alcohol, or environmental pollutants, can negatively influence the effectiveness of the immune system's response to a pathogen. The observed suppression of immune function can be attributed to dysregulated cytokine and chemokine production, the loss of migratory potential, or the inability to phagocytose pathogens by immune cells. This review will focus on the mechanisms involved during the toxin-induced suppression of phagocytosis. The accumulated data support the importance of studying the mechanisms of phagocytosis following exposure to these factors, in that this effect alone cannot only leave the host susceptible to infection but also promote alterations in many other macrophage functions necessary for pathogen clearance and restoration of homeostasis. PMID:21878544

  13. Macrophage phagocytosis alters the MRI signal of ferumoxytol-labeled mesenchymal stromal cells in cartilage defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejadnik, Hossein; Lenkov, Olga; Gassert, Florian; Fretwell, Deborah; Lam, Isaac; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2016-05-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a promising tool for cartilage regeneration in arthritic joints. hMSC labeling with iron oxide nanoparticles enables non-invasive in vivo monitoring of transplanted cells in cartilage defects with MR imaging. Since graft failure leads to macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo whether nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs show distinct MR signal characteristics before and after phagocytosis by macrophages. We found that apoptotic nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs were phagocytosed by macrophages while viable nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs were not. Serial MRI scans of hMSC transplants in arthritic joints of recipient rats showed that the iron signal of apoptotic, nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs engulfed by macrophages disappeared faster compared to viable hMSCs. This corresponded to poor cartilage repair outcomes of the apoptotic hMSC transplants. Therefore, rapid decline of iron MRI signal at the transplant site can indicate cell death and predict incomplete defect repair weeks later. Currently, hMSC graft failure can be only diagnosed by lack of cartilage defect repair several months after cell transplantation. The described imaging signs can diagnose hMSC transplant failure more readily, which could enable timely re-interventions and avoid unnecessary follow up studies of lost transplants.

  14. ATP Release from Dying Autophagic Cells and Their Phagocytosis Are Crucial for Inflammasome Activation in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ayna, Gizem; Krysko, Dmitri V.; Kaczmarek, Agnieszka; Petrovski, Goran; Vandenabeele, Peter; Fésüs, László

    2012-01-01

    Pathogen-activated and damage-associated molecular patterns activate the inflammasome in macrophages. We report that mouse macrophages release IL-1β while co-incubated with pro-B (Ba/F3) cells dying, as a result of IL-3 withdrawal, by apoptosis with autophagy, but not when they are co-incubated with living, apoptotic, necrotic or necrostatin-1 treated cells. NALP3-deficient macrophages display reduced IL-1β secretion, which is also inhibited in macrophages deficient in caspase-1 or pre-treated with its inhibitor. This finding demonstrates that the inflammasome is activated during phagocytosis of dying autophagic cells. We show that activation of NALP3 depends on phagocytosis of dying cells, ATP release through pannexin-1 channels of dying autophagic cells, P2X7 purinergic receptor activation, and on consequent potassium efflux. Dying autophagic Ba/F3 cells injected intraperitoneally in mice recruit neutrophils and thereby induce acute inflammation. These findings demonstrate that NALP3 performs key upstream functions in inflammasome activation in mouse macrophages engulfing dying autophagic cells, and that these functions lead to pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:22768222

  15. Polyclonal anti-Candida antibody improves phagocytosis and overall outcome in zebrafish model of disseminated candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Audrey C; Barker, Sarah E; Brothers, Kimberly M; Prasad, Brinda C; Wheeler, Robert T

    2017-03-01

    Fungal infections are a major cause of animal and plant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Effective biological therapeutics could complement current antifungal drugs, but understanding of their in vivo mechanisms has been hampered by technical barriers to intravital imaging of host-pathogen interactions. Here we characterize the fungal infection of zebrafish as a model to understand the mechanism-of-action for biological antifungal therapeutics through intravital imaging of these transparent animals. We find that non-specific human IgG enhances phagocytosis by zebrafish phagocytes in vivo. Polyclonal anti-Candida antibodies enhance containment of fungi in vivo and promote survival. Analysis suggests that early phagocytic containment is a strong prognostic indicator for overall survival. Although polyclonal anti-Candida antibodies protect against disease, this is not necessarily the case for individual monoclonal anti-Candida antibodies. Thus, the zebrafish appears to provide a useful model host for testing if a biological therapeutic promotes phagocytosis in vivo and enhances protection against candidemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ability of Staphylococcus aureus coagulase genotypes to resist neutrophil bactericidal activity and phagocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Aarestrup, F M; Scott, N L; Sordillo, L M

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the functional capabilities of neutrophils against different Staphylococcus aureus genotypes isolated from cows with mastitis. Six strains of S. aureus were chosen for use in the study, two with a common genotype, two with an intermediate genotype, and two with a rare genotype. The interaction between bacteria and neutrophils was measured by phagocytosis and bactericidal effect. The average percent killing of bacteria was lowest (40.0%) with strains belonging to the most common genotype, medium (50%) with strains belonging to the intermediate type, and highest (64.2%) with strains belonging to the rare type (P < or = 0.001). Statistically significant differences (P < or = 0.001) in the numbers of phagocytized bacteria were also found between the most prevalent type (6.27 bacteria per cell) and the other two types (intermediate type, 9.26/cell; rare type, 10.5/cell). These findings suggest that one of the reasons for the variation in prevalence of different genotypes of S. aureus in the mammary gland is due to the superior ability of some types to resist phagocytosis and/or killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:7960153

  17. Human cytomegalovirus and Epstein–Barr virus inhibit oral bacteria-induced macrophage activation and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Y.-L.; Li, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is an inflammatory condition caused by periodontal microorganisms. Viruses such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) are associated with certain types of periodontal disease, but their roles in promoting the disease are unclear. Because both viruses infect human macrophages, cells which play key roles in the clearance of pathogenic bacteria, it is likely that the viruses alter the functional capacity of macrophages by inhibiting their defense mechanisms against invading pathogens. Methods Macrophages preinfected with HCMV or EBV were evaluated following stimulation by selected oral bacteria. Bacteria-induced macrophage activation was assayed by measuring the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) produced in the media, and phagocytic activity was analysed by a phagocytosis assay with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bacteria. The virus-infected macrophages were also subjected to semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction to measure the expression of toll-like receptor 9, which is involved in the activation of phagocytosis-related pathways. Results Both HCMV and EBV significantly diminished the TNF-α production typically induced by oral bacteria, inhibited the phagocytic activity of macrophages, and downregulated the expression of toll-like receptor 9. Conclusion Infection by HCMV or EBV inhibits the functional ability of macrophages to respond to bacterial challenge, thereby suggesting their pathogenic role in the development of periodontal disease. PMID:19416455

  18. Chitosan but not chitin activates the inflammasome by a mechanism dependent upon phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bueter, Chelsea L; Lee, Chrono K; Rathinam, Vijay A K; Healy, Gloria J; Taron, Christopher H; Specht, Charles A; Levitz, Stuart M

    2011-10-14

    Chitin is an abundant polysaccharide found in fungal cell walls, crustacean shells, and insect exoskeletons. The immunological properties of both chitin and its deacetylated derivative chitosan are of relevance because of frequent natural exposure and their use in medical applications. Depending on the preparation studied and the end point measured, these compounds have been reported to induce allergic responses, inflammatory responses, or no response at all. We prepared highly purified chitosan and chitin and examined the capacity of these glycans to stimulate murine macrophages to release the inflammasome-associated cytokine IL-1β. We found that although chitosan was a potent NLRP3 inflammasome activator, acetylation of the chitosan to chitin resulted in a near total loss of activity. The size of the chitosan particles played an important role, with small particles eliciting the greatest activity. An inverse relationship between size and stimulatory activity was demonstrated using chitosan passed through size exclusion filters as well as with chitosan-coated beads of defined size. Partial digestion of chitosan with pepsin resulted in a larger fraction of small phagocytosable particles and more potent inflammasome activity. Inhibition of phagocytosis with cytochalasin D abolished the IL-1β stimulatory activity of chitosan, offering an explanation for why the largest particles were nearly devoid of activity. Thus, the deacetylated polysaccharide chitosan potently activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in a phagocytosis-dependent manner. In contrast, chitin is relatively inert.

  19. Effects of aflibercept on primary RPE cells: toxicity, wound healing, uptake and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Klettner, Alexa; Tahmaz, Nihat; Dithmer, Michaela; Richert, Elisabeth; Roider, Johann

    2014-10-01

    Anti-VEGF treatment is the therapy of choice in age-related macular degeneration, and is also applied in diabetic macular oedema or retinal vein occlusion. Recently, the fusion protein, aflibercept, has been approved for therapeutic use. In this study, we investigate the effects of aflibercept on primary RPE cells. Primary RPE cells were prepared from freshly slaughtered pigs' eyes. The impact of aflibercept on cell viability was investigated with MTT and trypan blue exclusion assay. The influence of aflibercept on wound healing was assessed with a scratch assay. Intracellular uptake of aflibercept was investigated in immunohistochemistry and its influence on phagocytosis with a phagocytosis assay using opsonised latex beads. Aflibercept displays no cytotoxicity on RPE cells but impairs its wound healing ability. It is taken up into RPE cells and can be intracellularly detected for at least 7 days. Intracellular aflibercept impairs the phagocytic capacity of RPE cells. Aflibercept interferes with the physiology of RPE cells, as it is taken up into RPE cells, which is accompanied by a reduction of the phagocytic ability. Additionally, it impairs the wound healing capacity of RPE cells. These effects on the physiology of RPE cells may indicate possible side effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Collectin-11 Is an Important Modulator of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Phagocytosis and Cytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xia; Wu, Weiju; Ma, Liang; Liu, Chengfei; Bhuckory, Mohajeet B; Wang, Liping; Nandrot, Emeline F; Xu, Heping; Li, Ke; Liu, Yizhi; Zhou, Wuding

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report previously unknown roles for collectin-11 (CL-11, a soluble C-type lectin) in modulating the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell functions of phagocytosis and cytokine production. We found that CL-11 and its carbohydrate ligand are expressed in both the murine and human neural retina; these resemble each other in terms of RPE and photoreceptor cells. Functional analysis of murine RPE cells showed that CL-11 facilitates the opsonophagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments and apoptotic cells, and also upregulates IL-10 production. Mechanistic analysis revealed that calreticulin on the RPE cells is required for CL-11-mediated opsonophagocytosis whereas signal-regulatory protein α and mannosyl residues on the cells are involved in the CL-11-mediated upregulation of IL-10 production. This study is the first to demonstrate the role of CL-11 and the molecular mechanisms involved in modulating RPE cell phagocytosis and cytokine production. It provides a new insight into retinal health and disease and has implications for other phagocytic cells. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Butylated hydroxyanisole affects immunomodulation and promotes macrophage phagocytosis in normal BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Hung, Fang-Ming; Chuang, Ying-Ying; Lee, Ching-Sung; Chen, Yung-Liang; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Lu, Kung-Wen; Huang, Hui-Ying; Yu, Chien-Chih; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-03-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a synthetic antioxidant, has been used in fat and fatty foods to prevent oxidative deterioration. However, the functions of BHA on immune responses in normal mice remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of oral treatment of BHA on immune responses in normal mice in vivo. BALB/c mice received various treatments. Blood samples were collected and analyzed. Flow cytometry was used to determine the levels of the cell markers. Results showed that BHA did not significantly affect the weight of the animal body and spleen in normal mice. BHA promoted macrophage phagocytosis from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but did not alter this process in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, BHA did not influence natural-killer cell cytotoxicity in normal mice. Notably, BHA promoted the levels of CD3 (T cells) and decreased the level of CD19 (B cells), but did not significantly affect the levels of CD11b (monocytes) and macrophages (Mac-3) in normal mice. Based on these observations it can be concluded that BHA promotes immune responses by increasing T cells and activating phagocytosis by macrophages in normal mice. However, the molecular mechanisms require further investigation.

  2. SIRPα-antibody fusion proteins stimulate phagocytosis and promote elimination of acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Laia Pascual; Fenn, Nadja C.; Moritz, Nadine; Krupka, Christina; Kozik, Jan-Hendrik; Lauber, Kirsten; Subklewe, Marion; Hopfner, Karl-Peter

    2017-01-01

    CD47, expressed on a variety of tumor cells, confers immune resistance by delivering an inhibitory “don't eat me” signal to phagocytic cells via its myeloid-specific receptor SIRPα. Recent studies have shown that blocking the CD47-SIRPα axis with CD47-directed antibodies or antibody-derivatives enhances phagocytosis and increases antitumor immune effects. However, CD47 expression on healthy cells creates an antigen sink and potential sites of toxicity, limiting the efficacy of CD47-directed therapies. In this study, we first characterized CD47 expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) patients (n = 213) and found that CD47 is highly expressed on both AML bulk and stem cells irrespective of the disease state. Furthermore, to inhibit the CD47-SIRPα signaling pathway at the tumor site, we developed a so-called local inhibitory checkpoint monoclonal antibody (licMAB) by grafting the endogenous SIRPα domain to the N-terminus of the light chain of an antibody targeting CD33, a surface antigen expressed in AML. LicMABs selectively bind CD33-expressing cells even in the presence of a large CD33-negative CD47-positive antigen sink, stimulate phagocytosis of AML cells and eliminate AML cell lines and primary, patient-derived AML cells. Our findings qualify licMABs as a promising therapeutic approach to confine the benefit of disrupting the CD47-SIRPα axis to tumor antigen-expressing cells. PMID:28061465

  3. Phagocytosis of sperm by follicle cells of the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma occidentalis (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Riesgo, Ana

    2010-06-01

    During spermatogenesis of the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma occidentalis, follicle cells that lined the spermatocysts phagocytosed unreleased mature sperm. Such follicle cells are part of the complex envelope that limits spermatocysts of A. occidentalis, which is also comprised of a collagen layer, a thick layer of intertwined cells, and spicules. Follicle cells showed vesicles containing single phagocytosed spermatozoa within their cytoplasm. Additionally, lipids and other inclusions were observed within the cytoplasm of follicle cells. It is likely that follicle cells recapture nutrients by phagocytosing spermatozoa and use them to form lipids and other inclusions. Such sperm phagocytosis is usually performed in higher invertebrates and vertebrates by Sertoli cells that are located in the testis wall. While Sertoli cells develop a wide range of functions such as creating a blood-testis barrier, providing crucial factors to ensure correct progression of spermatogenesis, and phagocytosis of aberrant, degenerating, and unreleased sperm cells, sponge follicle cells may only display phagocytotic activity on spermatogenic cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol reduce the inhibitory effects of photodynamic stress on phagocytosis by ARPE-19 cells

    PubMed Central

    Olchawa, Magdalena M.; Herrnreiter, Anja M.; Pilat, Anna K.; Skumatz, Christine M. B.; Niziolek-Kierecka, Magdalena; Burke, Janice M.; Sarna, Tadeusz J.

    2016-01-01

    Zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol have been previously shown to efficiently protect liposomal membrane lipids against photosensitized peroxidation, and to protect cultured RPE cells against photodynamic killing. Here the protective action of combined zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol was analyzed in ARPE-19 cells subjected to photodynamic (PD) stress mediated by rose Bengal (RB) or merocyanine-540 (MC-540) at sub-lethal levels. Stress-induced cytotoxicity was analyzed by the MTT assay. The peroxidation of membrane lipids was determined by HPLC-EC(Hg) measurements of cholesterol hydroperoxides using cholesterol as a mechanistic reporter molecule. The specific phagocytosis of FITC-labeled photoreceptor outer segments (POS) isolated from bovine retinas was measured by flow cytometry, and the levels of phagocytosis receptor proteins αv integrin subunit, β5 integrin subunit and MerTK were quantified by Western blot analysis. Cytotoxicity measures confirmed that PD stress levels used for phagocytosis analysis were sub-lethal and that antioxidant supplementation protected against higher, lethal PD doses. Sub-lethal PD stress mediated by both photosensitizers induced the accumulation of 5α-OOH and 7α/β-OOH cholesterol hydroperoxides and the addition of the antioxidants substantially inhibited their accumulation. Antioxidant delivery prior to PD stress also reduced the inhibitory effect of stress on POS phagocytosis and partially reduced the stress-induced diminution of phagocytosis receptor proteins. The use of a novel model system where oxidative stress was induced at sub-lethal levels enable observations that would not be detectable using lethal stress models. Moreover, novel observations about the protective effects of zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol on photodynamic damage to ARPE-19 cell membranes and against reductions in the abundance of receptor proteins involved in POS phagocytosis, a process essential for photoreceptor survival, supports the importance of the antioxidants

  5. Zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol reduce the inhibitory effects of photodynamic stress on phagocytosis by ARPE-19 cells.

    PubMed

    Olchawa, Magdalena M; Herrnreiter, Anja M; Pilat, Anna K; Skumatz, Christine M B; Niziolek-Kierecka, Magdalena; Burke, Janice M; Sarna, Tadeusz J

    2015-12-01

    Zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol have been previously shown to efficiently protect liposomal membrane lipids against photosensitized peroxidation, and to protect cultured RPE cells against photodynamic killing. Here the protective action of combined zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol was analyzed in ARPE-19 cells subjected to photodynamic (PD) stress mediated by rose Bengal (RB) or merocyanine-540 (MC-540) at sub-lethal levels. Stress-induced cytotoxicity was analyzed by the MTT assay. The peroxidation of membrane lipids was determined by HPLC-EC (Hg) measurements of cholesterol hydroperoxides using cholesterol as a mechanistic reporter molecule. The specific phagocytosis of FITC-labeled photoreceptor outer segments (POS) isolated from bovine retinas was measured by flow cytometry, and the levels of phagocytosis receptor proteins αv integrin subunit, β5 integrin subunit and MerTK were quantified by Western blot analysis. Cytotoxicity measures confirmed that PD stress levels used for phagocytosis analysis were sub-lethal and that antioxidant supplementation protected against higher, lethal PD doses. Sub-lethal PD stress mediated by both photosensitizers induced the accumulation of 5α-OOH and 7α/β-OOH cholesterol hydroperoxides and the addition of the antioxidants substantially inhibited their accumulation. Antioxidant delivery prior to PD stress also reduced the inhibitory effect of stress on POS phagocytosis and partially reduced the stress-induced diminution of phagocytosis receptor proteins. The use of a novel model system where oxidative stress was induced at sub-lethal levels enable observations that would not be detectable using lethal stress models. Moreover, novel observations about the protective effects of zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol on photodynamic damage to ARPE-19 cell membranes and against reductions in the abundance of receptor proteins involved in POS phagocytosis, a process essential for photoreceptor survival, supports the importance of the

  6. Role of phosphorylation and basic residues in the catalytic domain of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha in regulating interfacial kinetics and binding and cellular function.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Dawn E; Ghosh, Moumita; Ghomashchi, Farideh; Loper, Robyn; Suram, Saritha; John, Bonnie St; Girotti, Milena; Bollinger, James G; Gelb, Michael H; Leslie, Christina C

    2009-04-03

    Group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)alpha) is regulated by phosphorylation and calcium-induced translocation to membranes. Immortalized mouse lung fibroblasts lacking endogenous cPLA(2)alpha (IMLF(-/-)) were reconstituted with wild type and cPLA(2)alpha mutants to investigate how calcium, phosphorylation, and the putative phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) binding site regulate translocation and arachidonic acid (AA) release. Agonists that elicit distinct modes of calcium mobilization were used. Serum induced cPLA(2)alpha translocation to Golgi within seconds that temporally paralleled the initial calcium transient. However, the subsequent influx of extracellular calcium was essential for stable binding of cPLA(2)alpha to Golgi and AA release. In contrast, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced low amplitude calcium oscillations, slower translocation of cPLA(2)alpha to Golgi, and much less AA release, which were blocked by chelating extracellular calcium. AA release from IMLF(-/-) expressing phosphorylation site (S505A) and PIP(2) binding site (K488N/K543N/K544N) mutants was partially reduced compared with cells expressing wild type cPLA(2)alpha, but calcium-induced translocation was not impaired. Consistent with these results, Ser-505 phosphorylation did not change the calcium requirement for interfacial binding and catalysis in vitro but increased activity by 2-fold. Mutations in basic residues in the catalytic domain of cPLA(2)alpha reduced activation by PIP(2) but did not affect the concentration of calcium required for interfacial binding or phospholipid hydrolysis. The results demonstrate that Ser-505 phosphorylation and basic residues in the catalytic domain principally act to regulate cPLA(2)alpha hydrolytic activity.

  7. Liver receptor homolog-1 (NR5a2) regulates CD95/Fas ligand transcription and associated T-cell effector functions

    PubMed Central

    Schwaderer, Juliane; Gaiser, Ann-Kathrin; Phan, Truong San; Delgado, MEugenia; Brunner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    CD95/Fas ligand (FasL) is a cell death-promoting member of the tumor necrosis factor family with important functions in the regulation of T-cell homeostasis and cytotoxicity. In T cells, FasL expression is tightly regulated on a transcriptional level involving a complex set of different transcription factors. The orphan nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1/NR5a2) is involved in the regulation of development, lipid metabolism and proliferation and is predominantly expressed in epithelial tissues. However, its expression in T lymphocytes has never been reported so far. Based on in silico analysis, we identified potential LRH-1 binding sites within the FASLG promoter. Here, we report that LRH-1 is expressed in primary and secondary lymphatic tissues, as well as in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. LRH-1 directly binds to its binding sites in the FASLG promoter, and thereby drives FASLG promoter activity. Mutations in the LRH-1 binding sites reduce FASLG promoter activity. Pharmacological inhibition of LRH-1 decreases activation-induced FasL mRNA expression, as well as FasL-mediated activation-induced T-cell apoptosis and T-cell cytotoxicity. In a mouse model of Concanavalin A-induced and FasL-mediated hepatitis pharmacological inhibition of LRH-1 resulted in decreased hepatic FasL expression and a significant reduction of liver damage. In summary, these data show for the first time LRH-1 expression in T cells, its role in FASLG transcription and the potential of pharmacological inhibition of LRH-1 in the treatment of FasL-mediated immunopathologies. PMID:28406481

  8. CATP-6, a C. elegans Ortholog of ATP13A2 PARK9, Positively Regulates GEM-1, an SLC16A Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Lambie, Eric J.; Tieu, Pamela J.; Lebedeva, Nadja; Church, Diane L.; Conradt, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In previous work, we found that gain-of-function mutations that hyperactivate GEM-1 (an SLC16A transporter protein) can bypass the requirement for GON-2 (a TRPM channel protein) during the initiation of gonadogenesis in C. elegans. Consequently, we proposed that GEM-1 might function as part of a Mg2+ uptake pathway that functions in parallel to GON-2. In this study, we report that CATP-6, a C. elegans ortholog of the P5B ATPase, ATP13A2 (PARK9), is necessary for gem-1 gain-of-function mutations to suppress the effects of gon-2 inactivation. One possible explanation for this observation is that GEM-1 serves to activate CATP-6, which then functions as a Mg2+ transporter. However, we found that overexpression of GEM-1 can alleviate the requirement for CATP-6 activity, suggesting that CATP-6 probably acts as a non-essential upstream positive regulator of GEM-1. Our results are consistent with the notion that P5B ATPases govern intracellular levels of Mg2+ and/or Mn2+ by regulating the trafficking of transporters and other proteins associated with the plasma membrane. PMID:24130856

  9. Factor H Binds to the Hypervariable Region of Many Streptococcus pyogenes M Proteins but Does Not Promote Phagocytosis Resistance or Acute Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Bodil M.; Olsen, John E.; Harris, Claire L.; Ufret-Vincenty, Rafael L.; Stålhammar-Carlemalm, Margaretha; Lindahl, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Many pathogens express a surface protein that binds the human complement regulator factor H (FH), as first described for Streptococcus pyogenes and the antiphagocytic M6 protein. It is commonly assumed that FH recruited to an M protein enhances virulence by protecting the bacteria against complement deposition and phagocytosis, but the role of FH-binding in S. pyogenes pathogenesis has remained unclear and controversial. Here, we studied seven purified M proteins for ability to bind FH and found that FH binds to the M5, M6 and M18 proteins but not the M1, M3, M4 and M22 proteins. Extensive immunochemical analysis indicated that FH binds solely to the hypervariable region (HVR) of an M protein, suggesting that selection has favored the ability of certain HVRs to bind FH. These FH-binding HVRs could be studied as isolated polypeptides that retain ability to bind FH, implying that an FH-binding HVR represents a distinct ligand-binding domain. The isolated HVRs specifically interacted with FH among all human serum proteins, interacted with the same region in FH and showed species specificity, but exhibited little or no antigenic cross-reactivity. Although these findings suggested that FH recruited to an M protein promotes virulence, studies in transgenic mice did not demonstrate a role for bound FH during acute infection. Moreover, phagocytosis tests indicated that ability to bind FH is neither sufficient nor necessary for S. pyogenes to resist killing in whole human blood. While these data shed new light on the HVR of M proteins, they suggest that FH-binding may affect S. pyogenes virulence by mechanisms not assessed in currently used model systems. PMID:23637608

  10. Regulation of Integrin α6 Recycling by Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) to Promote Microglia Chemotaxis on Laminin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Sud, Neetu; Lee, Narae; Subramaniyam, Selvaraj; Chung, Chang Y

    2016-11-04

    Microglia are the immune effector cells that are activated in response to pathological changes in the central nervous system. Microglial activation is accompanied by the alteration of integrin expression on the microglia surface. However, changes of integrin expression upon chemoattractant (ADP) stimulation still remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether ADP induces the alteration of integrin species on the cell surface, leading to changes in chemotactic ability on different extracellular matrix proteins. Flow cytometry scans and on-cell Western assays showed that ADP stimulation induced a significant increase of α6 integrin-GFP, but not α5, on the surface of microglia cells. Microglia also showed a greater motility increase on laminin than fibronectin after ADP stimulation. Time lapse microscopy and integrin endocytosis assay revealed the essential role of calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 activity for the recycling of α6 integrin-GFP from the endosomal recycling complex to the plasma membrane. Lack of calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 activity caused a reduced rate of focal adhesion formation on laminin at the leading edge. Our results suggest that the alteration of integrin-mediated adhesion may regulate the extent of microglial infiltration into the site of damage by controlling their chemotactic ability. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. The proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediates phagocytosis in a Rho-dependent manner in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Scott, Glynis; Leopardi, Sonya; Parker, Lorelle; Babiarz, Laura; Seiberg, Miri; Han, Rujiing

    2003-09-01

    Recent work shows that the G-protein-coupled receptor proteinase activated receptor-2 activates signals that stimulate melanosome uptake in keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro. The Rho family of GTP-binding proteins is involved in cytoskeletal remodeling during phagocytosis. We show that proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated phagocytosis in human keratinocytes is Rho dependent and that proteinase-activated receptor-2 signals to activate Rho. In contrast, Rho activity did not affect either proteinase-activated receptor-2 activity or mRNA and protein levels. We explored the signaling mechanisms of proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated Rho activation in human keratinocytes and show that activation of proteinase-activated receptor-2, either through specific proteinase-activated receptor-2 activating peptides or through trypsinization, elevates cAMP in keratinocytes. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated Rho activation was pertussis toxin insensitive and independent of the protein kinase A signaling pathway. These data are the first to show that proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated phagocytosis is Rho dependent and that proteinase-activated receptor-2 signals to Rho and cAMP in keratinocytes. Because phagocytosis of melanosomes is recognized as an important mechanism for melanosome transfer to keratinocytes, these results suggest that Rho is a critical signaling intermediate in melanosome uptake in keratinocytes.

  12. EFFECT OF INHALED ENDOTOXIN ON AIRWAY AND CIRCULATING INFLAMMATORY CELL PHAGOCYTOSIS AND CD11B EXPRESSION IN ATOPIC ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of inhaled endotoxin on airway and circulating inflammatory cell phagocytosis and CD11b expression in atopic asthmatic subjects

    Neil E. Alexis, PhD, Marlowe W. Eldridge, MD, David B. Peden, MD, MS

    Chapel Hill and Research Triangle Park, NC

    Backgrou...

  13. Cryptococcus neoformans Is Internalized by Receptor-Mediated or ‘Triggered’ Phagocytosis, Dependent on Actin Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Caroline Rezende; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcosis by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans affects mostly immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent neurological complication in AIDS patients. Recent studies support the idea that intracellular survival of Cryptococcus yeast cells is important for the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. However, the initial steps of Cryptococcus internalization by host cells remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Cryptococcus neoformans phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages using confocal and electron microscopy techniques, as well as flow cytometry quantification, evaluating the importance of fungal capsule production and of host cell cytoskeletal elements for fungal phagocytosis. Electron microscopy analyses revealed that capsular and acapsular strains of C. neoformans are internalized by macrophages via both ‘zipper’ (receptor-mediated) and ‘trigger’ (membrane ruffle-dependent) phagocytosis mechanisms. Actin filaments surrounded phagosomes of capsular and acapsular yeasts, and the actin depolymerizing drugs cytochalasin D and latrunculin B inhibited yeast internalization and actin recruitment to the phagosome area. In contrast, nocodazole and paclitaxel, inhibitors of microtubule dynamics decreased internalization but did not prevent actin recruitment to the site of phagocytosis. Our results show that different uptake mechanisms, dependent on both actin and tubulin dynamics occur during yeast internalization by macrophages, and that capsule production does not affect the mode of Cryptococcus uptake by host cells. PMID:24586631

  14. Controlled One-on-One Encounters between Immune Cells and Microbes Reveal Mechanisms of Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Volkmar

    2015-08-04

    Among many challenges facing the battle against infectious disease, one quandary stands out. On the one hand, it is often unclear how well animal models and cell lines mimic human immune behavior. On the other hand, many core methods of cell and molecular biology cannot be applied to human subjects. For example, the profound susceptibility of neutropenic patients to infection marks neutrophils (the most abundant white blood cells in humans) as vital immune defenders. Yet because these cells cannot be cultured or genetically manipulated, there are gaps in our understanding of the behavior of human neutrophils. Here, we discuss an alternative, interdisciplinary strategy to dissect fundamental mechanisms of immune-cell interactions with bacteria and fungi. We show how biophysical analyses of single-live-cell/single-target encounters are revealing universal principles of immune-cell phagocytosis, while also dispelling misconceptions about the minimum required mechanistic determinants of this process. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phagocytosis stimulates the release of a slow reacting substance in cultured macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Bretz, U.; Dewald, B.; Payne, T.; Schnyder, J.

    1980-01-01

    1 A slow-reacting substance (SRS) was released from non-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages during phagocytosis of zymosan particles, whereas no detectable SRS was produced by resting cells. 2 The macrophage SRS induced a delayed and slow contraction of the guinea-pig ileum but not of the chick rectum. 3 The myotonic activity was antagonized by low concentrations of FPL 55712 (sodium 7-[3-(4-acetyl-3-hydroxy-2-propylphenoxy)-2-hydroxypropoxy]-4-oxo-8-propyl-4H-1 -benzopyran-2 carboxylate) but was not affected by mepyramine or hyoscine, and was not associated with tachyphylaxis. 4 SRS release was increased by indomethacin and was abolished by the lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibitor, BW755C (3-amino-1-[m-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl]-2-pyrazoline). 5 Addition of exogenous arachidonic acid or cysteine enhanced SRS production. PMID:6110461

  16. Phagocytosis-inspired behaviour in synthetic protocell communities of compartmentalized colloidal objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Arco, Laura; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    The spontaneous assembly of micro-compartmentalized colloidal objects capable of controlled interactions offers a step towards rudimentary forms of collective behaviour in communities of artificial cell-like entities (synthetic protocells). Here we report a primitive form of artificial phagocytosis in a binary community of synthetic protocells in which multiple silica colloidosomes are selectively ingested by self-propelled magnetic Pickering emulsion (MPE) droplets comprising particle-free fatty acid-stabilized apertures. Engulfment of the colloidosomes enables selective delivery and release of water-soluble payloads, and can be coupled to enzyme activity within the MPE droplets. Our results highlight opportunities for the development of new materials based on consortia of colloidal objects, and provide a novel microscale engineering approach to inducing higher-order behaviour in mixed populations of synthetic protocells.

  17. Fibronectin-mediated binding and phagocytosis of polystyrene latex beads by baby hamster kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The binding and phagocytosis of fibronectin (pFN)-coated latex beads by baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells was studied as a function of fibronectin concentration and bead diameter. Cells were incubated with radioactive pFN-coated beads, and total bead binding (cell surface or ingested) was measured as total radioactivity associated with the cells. Of the bound beads, those that also were phagocytosed were distinguished by their insensitivity to release from the cells by trypsin treatment. In continuous incubations, binding of pFN-coated beads to cells occurred at 4 degrees C or 37 degrees C, but phagocytosis was observed only at 37 degrees C. In addition, degradation of 3H-pFN from ingested beads occurred at 37 degrees C, as shown by the release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity into the incubation medium. When the fibronectin density on the beads was varied, binding at 4 degrees C and ingestion at 37 degrees C were found to have the same dose-response dependencies, which indicated that pFN densities that permitted bead binding were sufficient for phagocytosis to occur. The fibronectin density for maximal binding of ingestion was approximately 250 ng pFN/cm2. When various sized beads (0.085-1.091 micron), coated with similar densities of pFN, were incubated with cells at 4 degrees C, no variation in binding as a function of bead size was observed. Under these conditions, the absolute amount of pFN ranged from less than 100 molecules on the 0.085-micron beads to greater than 15,000 molecules on the 1.091-micron beads. Based upon these results it can be concluded that the critical parameter controlling fibronectin-mediated binding of latex beads by BHK cells is the spacing of the pFN molecules on the beads. Correspondingly, it can be suggested that the spacing between pFN receptors on the cell surface that is optimal for multivalent interactions to occur is approximately 18 nM. When phagocytosis of various sized beads was compared, it was found that the

  18. Immunomodulation By Therapeutic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) Is Triggered Through Phagocytosis of MSC By Monocytic Cells.

    PubMed

    de Witte, Samantha F H; Luk, Franka; Sierra Parraga, Jesus M; Gargesha, Madhu; Merino, Ana; Korevaar, Sander S; Shankar, Anusha S; O'Flynn, Lisa; Elliman, Steve J; Roy, Debashish; Betjes, Michiel G H; Newsome, Philip N; Baan, Carla C; Hoogduijn, Martin J

    2018-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) are under investigation as a potential immunotherapy. MSC are usually administered via intravenous infusion, after which they are trapped in the lungs and die and disappear within a day. The fate of MSC after their disappearance from the lungs is unknown and it is unclear how MSC realize their immunomodulatory effects in their short lifespan. We examined immunological mechanisms determining the fate of infused MSC and the immunomodulatory response associated with it. Tracking viable and dead human umbilical cord MSC (ucMSC) in mice using Qtracker beads (contained in viable cells) and Hoechst33342 (staining all cells) revealed that viable ucMSC were present in the lungs immediately after infusion. Twenty-four hours later, the majority of ucMSC were dead and found in the lungs and liver where they were contained in monocytic cells of predominantly non-classical Ly6C low phenotype. Monocytes containing ucMSC were also detected systemically. In vitro experiments confirmed that human CD14 ++ /CD16 - classical monocytes polarized toward a non-classical CD14 ++ CD16 + CD206 + phenotype after phagocytosis of ucMSC and expressed programmed death ligand-1 and IL-10, while TNF-α was reduced. ucMSC-primed monocytes induced Foxp3 + regulatory T cell formation in mixed lymphocyte reactions. These results demonstrate that infused MSC are rapidly phagocytosed by monocytes, which subsequently migrate from the lungs to other body sites. Phagocytosis of ucMSC induces phenotypical and functional changes in monocytes, which subsequently modulate cells of the adaptive immune system. It can be concluded that monocytes play a crucial role in mediating, distributing, and transferring the immunomodulatory effect of MSC. Stem Cells 2018;36:602-615. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

  19. Multivalent Artificial Opsonin for the Recognition and Phagocytosis of Gram-Positive Bacteria by Human Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Katzenmeyer, Kristy N.; Bryers, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) remain a leading cause of death in the United States. Unfortunately, treatment of HAIs is complicated by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. In an effort to enhance the body’s natural immune response to infection, we have developed an artificial opsonin to promote the recognition, phagocytosis, and destruction of pathogenic bacteria by human phagocytes. The artificial opsonin is constructed from multivalent conjugates of poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) with vancomycin and human IgG-Fc. Our approach utilizes vancomycin’s inherent ability to bind to D-Ala-D-Ala terminated peptides present in the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we show that conjugation of vancomycin to PLL-g-PEG prevents its action as an antibiotic and allows vancomycin to function solely as a recognition molecule. Human IgG-Fc antibody fragment serves as a phagocyte recognition molecule and is recognized by the Fcγ cell surface receptors expressed on professional human phagocytes. Using flow cytometry, we found that a polysaccharide-encapsulated, methicillin-resistant strain of S. epidermidis is efficiently recognized by the artificial opsonin (nearly 100% of cells were opsonized) and that opsonin binding is specific since it can be inhibited by the soluble cell wall peptide analog acetyl-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala. Opsonization of S. epidermidis resulted in an approximate 2-fold increase in phagocytosis by a human neutrophil cell line. Notably, E. faecalis VanB, a bacterial strain with inducible vancomycin resistance, was used to show that the artificial opsonin does not unintentionally induce antibiotic resistance mechanisms. PMID:21388677

  20. Halogenation and proteolysis of complement component C3 on Salmonella typhimurium during phagocytosis by human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Joiner, K.A.; Schweinle, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    We examined the fate of C component C3 on the surface of Salmonella typhimurium during ingestion by human neutrophils. Initial experiments showed that C3 fragments and C3-acceptor complexes were the major serum ligands which were surface iodinated by canine myeloperoxidase on serum-incubated rough and smooth isolates of S. typhimurium. In contrast, labeled C3 was not identified when the same organisms were ingested by neutrophils in the presence of 125I-Na, a situation previously shown to iodinate particulate targets via the neutrophil myeloperoxidase-halide-H2O2 system. Pretreatment of neutrophils before phagocytosis with the lipid-soluble protease inhibitor diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), but not with other protease inhibitorsmore » (p-nitrophenylguanidinobenzoate, leupeptin, pepstatin), substantially blocked proteolysis of 125I-C3 on S. typhimurium strain RG108 during ingestion by neutrophils. Purification of neutrophil phagosomes containing S. typhimurium-bearing 125I-C3 showed that DFP but no other protease inhibitors blocked proteolysis of 125I-C3 within phagosomes. Iodinated C3-acceptor complexes were identified by immunoprecipitation from the detergent-insoluble fraction of phagosomes prepared from DFP-treated cells ingesting S. typhimurium in the presence of 125I-Na. These results show that C3 fragments on the surface of S. typhimurium are the major serum ligands which are halogenated and degraded by proteolysis during phagocytosis by human neutrophils, and suggest that the majority of proteolysis on the ingested target occurs within the neutrophil phagosome.« less

  1. Intravenous immunglobulin binds beta amyloid and modifies its aggregation, neurotoxicity and microglial phagocytosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cattepoel, Susann; Schaub, Alexander; Ender, Miriam; Gaida, Annette; Kropf, Alain; Guggisberg, Ursula; Nolte, Marc W; Fabri, Louis; Adlard, Paul A; Finkelstein, David I; Bolli, Reinhard; Miescher, Sylvia M

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its efficacy is currently being tested in mild-to-moderate AD. Earlier studies reported the presence of anti-amyloid beta (Aβ) antibodies in IVIG. These observations led to clinical studies investigating the potential role of IVIG as a therapeutic agent in AD. Also, IVIG is known to mediate beneficial effects in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions by interfering with various pathological processes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of IVIG and purified polyclonal Aβ-specific antibodies (pAbs-Aβ) on aggregation, toxicity and phagocytosis of Aβ in vitro, thus elucidating some of the potential mechanisms of action of IVIG in AD patients. We report that both IVIG and pAbs-Aβ specifically bound to Aβ and inhibited its aggregation in a dose-dependent manner as measured by Thioflavin T assay. Additionally, IVIG and the purified pAbs-Aβ inhibited Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line and prevented Aβ binding to rat primary cortical neurons. Interestingly, IVIG and pAbs-Aβ also increased the number of phagocytosing cells as well as the amount of phagocytosed fibrillar Aβ by BV-2 microglia. Phagocytosis of Aβ depended on receptor-mediated endocytosis and was accompanied by upregulation of CD11b expression. Importantly, we could also show that Privigen dose-dependently reversed Aβ-mediated LTP inhibition in mouse hippocampal slices. Therefore, our in vitro results suggest that IVIG may have an impact on different processes involved in AD pathogenesis, thereby promoting further understanding of the effects of IVIG observed in clinical studies.

  2. Phagocytosis depends on TRPV2-mediated calcium influx and requires TRPV2 in lipids rafts: alteration in macrophages from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Manuella; Penna, Aubin; Le Trionnaire, Sophie; Belleguic, Chantal; Desrues, Benoît; Brinchault, Graziella; Jouneau, Stéphane; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Martin-Chouly, Corinne

    2018-03-09

    Whereas many phagocytosis steps involve ionic fluxes, the underlying ion channels remain poorly defined. As reported in mice, the calcium conducting TRPV2 channel impacts the phagocytic process. Macrophage phagocytosis is critical for defense against pathogens. In cystic fibrosis (CF), macrophages have lost their capacity to act as suppressor cells and thus play a significant role in the initiating stages leading to chronic inflammation/infection. In a previous study, we demonstrated that impaired function of CF macrophages is due to a deficient phagocytosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate TRPV2 role in the phagocytosis capacity of healthy primary human macrophage by studying its activity, its membrane localization and its recruitment in lipid rafts. In primary human macrophages, we showed that P. aeruginosa recruits TRPV2 channels at the cell surface and induced a calcium influx required for bacterial phagocytosis. We presently demonstrate that to be functional and play a role in phagocytosis, TRPV2 might require a preferential localization in lipid rafts. Furthermore, CF macrophage displays a perturbed calcium homeostasis due to a defect in TRPV2. In this context, deregulated TRPV2-signaling in CF macrophages could explain their defective phagocytosis capacity that contribute to the maintenance of chronic infection.

  3. RUBCN/rubicon and EGFR regulate lysosomal degradative processes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the eye.

    PubMed

    Muniz-Feliciano, Luis; Doggett, Teresa A; Zhou, Zhenqing; Ferguson, Thomas A

    2017-01-01

    Macroautophagy/autophagy is an intracellular stress survival and recycling system whereas phagocytosis internalizes material from the extracellular milieu; yet, both pathways utilize lysosomes for cargo degradation. Whereas autophagy occurs in all cells, phagocytosis is performed by cell types such as macrophages and the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of the eye where it is supported by the noncanonical autophagy process termed LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Autophagy and LAP are distinct pathways that use many of the same mediators and must compete for cellular resources, suggesting that cells may regulate both processes under homeostatic and stress conditions. Our data reveal that RPE cells promote LAP through the expression of RUBCN/Rubicon (RUN domain and cysteine-rich domain containing Beclin 1-interacting protein) and suppress autophagy through the activation of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor). In the morning when photoreceptor outer segments (POS) phagocytosis and LAP are highest, RUBCN expression is increased. At the same time, outer segment phagocytosis activates the EGFR resulting in MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin [serine/threonine kinase]) stimulation, the accumulation of SQSTM1/p62, and the phosphorylation of BECN1 (Beclin 1, autophagy related) on an inhibitory residue thereby suppressing autophagy. Silencing Rubcn, preventing EGFR activity or directly inducing autophagy in RPE cells by starvation inhibits phagocytic degradation of POS. Thus, RPE cells regulate lysosomal pathways during the critical period of POS phagocytosis to support retinal homeostasis.

  4. Arachidonic acid release from rat Leydig cells: the involvement of G protein, phospholipase A2 and regulation of cAMP production.

    PubMed

    Ronco, A M; Moraga, P F; Llanos, M N

    2002-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated Leydig cells occurs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the amount of AA released was dependent on the hormone-receptor interaction and the concentration of LH-hCG binding sites on the cell surface. The present study was conducted to evaluate the involvement of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and G proteins in AA release from hormonally stimulated rat Leydig cells, and the possible role of this fatty acid in cAMP production. Cells were first prelabelled with [(14)C]AA to incorporate the fatty acid into cell phospholipids, and then treated in different ways to evaluate AA release. hCG (25 mIU) increased the release of AA to 180+/-12% when compared with AA released from control cells, arbitrarily set as 100%. Mepacrine and parabromophenacyl bromide (pBpB), two PLA(2) inhibitors, decreased the hormone-stimulated AA release to 85+/-9 and 70+/-24% respectively. Conversely, melittin, a PLA(2) stimulator, increased the release of AA up to 200% over control. The inhibitory effect of mepacrine on the release of AA was evident in hCG-treated Leydig cells, but not in the melittin-treated cells. To determine if the release of AA was also mediated through a G protein, cells were first permeabilized and subsequently treated with pertussis toxin or GTPgammaS, a non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP. Results demonstrate that GTPgammaS was able to induce a similar level of the release of AA as hCG. In addition, pertussis toxin completely abolished the stimulatory effect of hCG on the release of AA, indicating that a member of the G(i) family was involved in the hCG-dependent release of AA. Cells treated with PLA(2) inhibitors did not modify cAMP production, but exogenously added AA significantly reduced cAMP production from hCG-treated Leydig cells, in a manner dependent on the concentration of AA and hCG. Results presented here suggest an involvement of

  5. Phagocytosis of Extracellular Vesicles Extruded From the Placenta by Ovarian Cancer Cells Inhibits Growth of the Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Rutten, Victoria; Cheng, Wei-Tzu; Tong, Mancy; Wei, Jia; Stone, Peter; Ching, Lai-Ming; Chamley, Lawrence W

    2018-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is a common gynecological cancer, and parity is negatively associated with the incidence of this disease. This negative association is hypothesized to be due in part to shifting the balance of estrogen and progesterone toward more progesterone and reduced ovulation during pregnancy. However, studies suggested that parity is also associated with estrogen-independent gynecological cancers suggesting balance of hormones may not be the only protective factor. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in cell-to-cell communication in physiological and pathological conditions. During pregnancy, large amounts of EVs are extruded from the placenta, and they seem to be involved in the remarkable adaptation of a woman's body to normal pregnancy. We hypothesized that EVs extruded from the placenta play a role in this protective effect. Placental EVs were collected from first-trimester placentae, and cancer cell EVs were isolated from ovarian cancer cells. The EVs were exposed to ovarian cancer cells for 48 hours. The proliferation of cancer cells and the cell cycle were measured. In addition, phagocytosis of deported placental EVs by cancer cells was also measured. The proliferation of cancer cells was significantly reduced by treatment with placental EVs (P = 0.001, analysis of variance), but not EVs from monocytes (P = 0.195), compared with untreated cancer cells. Furthermore, placental EVs also prevented the proliferation of cancer cells induced by cancer cell-derived EVs (P = 0.001). This inhibition of proliferation of ovarian cancer cells was partially due to phagocytosis of placental EVs by cancer cells. Phagocytosis of placental EVs delayed progression through the cell cycle. Calreticulin, a phagocytic "eat me" signal carried by placental EVs significantly inhibited ovarian cancer growth (P = 0.001). Our data demonstrated that EVs extruded from the placenta prevented ovarian cancer cell growth by a mechanism that involved delaying progression

  6. Defective photoreceptor phagocytosis in a mouse model of enhanced S-cone syndrome causes progressive retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mustafi, Debarshi; Kevany, Brian M.; Genoud, Christel; Okano, Kiichiro; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Roman, Alejandro J.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Engel, Andreas; Adams, Mark D.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS), featuring an excess number of S cones, manifests as a progressive retinal degeneration that leads to blindness. Here, through optical imaging, we identified an abnormal interface between photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in 9 patients with ESCS. The neural retina leucine zipper transcription factor-knockout (Nrl−/−) mouse model demonstrates many phenotypic features of human ESCS, including unstable S-cone-positive photoreceptors. Using massively parallel RNA sequencing, we identified 6203 differentially expressed transcripts between wild-type (Wt) and Nrl−/− mouse retinas, with 6 highly significant differentially expressed genes of the Pax, Notch, and Wnt canonical pathways. Changes were also obvious in expression of 30 genes involved in the visual cycle and 3 key genes in photoreceptor phagocytosis. Novel high-resolution (100 nm) imaging and reconstruction of Nrl−/− retinas revealed an abnormal packing of photoreceptors that contributed to buildup of photoreceptor deposits. Furthermore, lack of phagosomes in the RPE layer of Nrl−/− retina revealed impairment in phagocytosis. Cultured RPE cells from Wt and Nrl−/− mice illustrated that the phagocytotic defect was attributable to the aberrant interface between ESCS photoreceptors and the RPE. Overcoming the retinal phagocytosis defect could arrest the progressive degenerative component of this disease.—Mustafi, D., Kevany, B. M., Genoud, C., Okano, K., Cideciyan, A. V., Sumaroka, A., Roman, A. J., Jacobson, S. G. Engel, A., Adams, M. D., Palczewski, K. Defective photoreceptor phagocytosis in a mouse model of enhanced S-cone syndrome causes progressive retinal degeneration. PMID:21659555

  7. Glycoengineering of Therapeutic Antibodies Enhances Monocyte/Macrophage-Mediated Phagocytosis and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Herter, Sylvia; Birk, Martina C.; Klein, Christian; Gerdes, Christian; Umana, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic Abs possess several clinically relevant mechanisms of action including perturbation of tumor cell signaling, activation of complement-dependent cytotoxicity, Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and induction of adaptive immunity. In view of the important role of phagocytic lineage cells in the mechanism of action of therapeutic Abs, we analyzed FcγR receptor-dependent effector functions of monocytes and macrophages triggered by glycoengineered (GE) Abs (having enhanced FcγRIIIa [CD16a] binding affinity) versus their wild-type (WT) counterparts under different experimental conditions. We first defined the precise FcγR repertoire on classical and nonclassical intermediate monocytes—M1 and M2c macrophage populations. We further show that WT and GE Abs display comparable binding and induce similar effector functions (ADCC and ADCP) in the absence of nonspecific, endogenous IgGs. However, in the presence of these IgGs (i.e., in a situation that more closely mimics physiologic conditions), GE Abs display significantly superior binding and promote stronger monocyte and macrophage activity. These data show that in addition to enhancing CD16a-dependent NK cell cytotoxicity, glycoengineering also enhances monocyte and macrophage phagocytic and cytotoxic activities through enhanced binding to CD16a under conditions that more closely resemble the physiologic setting. PMID:24489098

  8. Apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cells of cattle: morphological features and clearance by homologous phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Carou, María Clara; Cruzans, Paula Romina; Maruri, Alejandro; Stockert, Juan Carlos; Lombardo, Daniel Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is involved in many physiological processes of the ovary, such as recruitment of prenatal germ cells, follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteolysis. Based on the need for the involvement of phagocytic cells to achieve apoptosis clearance and that follicular atresia is triggered by weak apoptotic stimuli, we postulate that granulosa cells engullng apoptotic corpses (ACs) must carry out this macrophagic process. Since apoptosis was early defined in terms of morphological aspects, here we describe apoptosis induced by a GnRH analog (leuprolide acetate, LA) at histological level on bovine granulosa cells (primary culture, CPGB, and an established cell line, BGC-1). We observed two main types of apoptosis. In type A, the whole cell or most of it is compacted into a single large AC that is then engulfed by neighboring cells or simply detached. In type B, small portions of cells, either with or without nuclear material, become ACs that are also phagocytosed. Apoptosis and homologous phagocytosis were confirmed by TUNEL and immunocytochemistry for Bax and active caspase 3. Induction of apoptosis was significant in BGC-1 cells treated for 24 h with 100 nM LA. CPGB cells showed two types of response with different doses of LA. Fetal calf serum was necessary to find apoptosis induced by LA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional roles of mannose-binding protein in the adhesion, cytotoxicity and phagocytosis of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Matin, Abdul; Shin, Ho-Joon; Park, Hyun; Yoo, Kyung-Tae; Yuan, Xi-Zhe; Kim, Kwang Sik; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2012-10-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a single-celled protozoan that is widely distributed in the environment and is a well-known of causing human keratitis, a vision-threatening infection. In this study, an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and a selection of saccharide were applied to A. castellanii by chemical mutagenesis. To understand the functional roles of a mannose-binding protein (MBP). A. castellanii were treated with methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside abbreviated Man, with and without the EMS pre-treatment, and their adhesion and cytotoxicity were analyzed, using a human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) as the target cell. Both EMS and Man mutants exhibited significantly decreased levels of MBP expression and cytotoxicity to HBMEC, but showed similar levels of binding to HBMEC, as compared with the wild type. Of interest was that the exogenous mannose inhibited amoebae (i.e., Man mutant) binding to the HBMEC by <20%. Only the mutant Man exhibited a significant decrease in bacterial uptake, as compared to the wild type, 0.020 vs 0.032 (p<0.05) and proteolytic activity. The results showed that MBP should be clearly provided as the pathogenic target candidate, to further target-based therapy, but EMS mutation should not be associated with initial adhesion and phagocytosis of A. castellanii. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The granulocyte orphan receptor CEACAM4 is able to trigger phagocytosis of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Delgado Tascón, Julia; Adrian, Jonas; Kopp, Kathrin; Scholz, Philipp; Tschan, Mario P.; Kuespert, Katharina; Hauck, Christof R.

    2015-01-01

    Human granulocytes express several glycoproteins of the CEACAM family. One family member, CEACAM3, operates as a single-chain phagocytic receptor, initiating the detection, internalization, and destruction of a limited set of gram-negative bacteria. In contrast, the function of CEACAM4, a closely related protein, is completely unknown. This is mainly a result of a lack of a specific ligand for CEACAM4. By generating chimeric proteins containing the extracellular bacteria-binding domain of CEACAM3 and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic part of CEACAM4 (CEACAM3/4) we demonstrate that this chimeric receptor can trigger efficient phagocytosis of attached particles. Uptake of CEACAM3/4-bound bacteria requires the intact ITAM of CEACAM4, and this motif is phosphorylated by Src family PTKs upon receptor clustering. Furthermore, SH2 domains derived from Src PTKs, PI3K, and the adapter molecule Nck are recruited and associate directly with the phosphorylated CEACAM4 ITAM. Deletion of this sequence motif or inhibition of Src PTKs blocks CEACAM4-mediated uptake. Together, our results suggest that this orphan receptor of the CEACAM family has phagocytic function and prompt efforts to identify CEACAM4 ligands. PMID:25567962

  11. Biomarkers of inflammation and amyloid-β phagocytosis in patients at risk of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Fiala, Milan; Veerhuis, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate goal of diagnostic research is a blood test detecting the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) before neuronal damage develops. Current amyloid-β (Aβ) tests do not detect the process leading to neurodegeneration. Novel immunologic and proteomics tests are based on aberrant appearance of inflammatory cytokines in the CSF and other protein biomarkers in the CSF or blood, and immune biomarkers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's). Cytokines, chemokines, complement factors, serum amyloid P component, and signaling proteins in the CSF or blood may be a rich source of diagnostic biomarkers, but the power of these tests will need to be examined in prospective studies. Recently-described flow cytometric test of defective Aβ phagocytosis detects patients with AD with a high sensitivity and specificity in distinct populations (confirmed AD patients vs. active University professors), but further experience is necessary for its use in general population at risk of AD. The analysis of the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells “stressed” by Aβ is beginning to unravel the relations between specific pathways and AD. Thus novel diagnostic tests may provide biomarkers for pre-clinical detection, clarification of progression from MCI to AD, and follow-up of patients in clinical trials of immunostimulating therapies. PMID:19699791

  12. Elasticity of nanoparticles influences their blood circulation, phagocytosis, endocytosis, and targeting.

    PubMed

    Anselmo, Aaron C; Zhang, Mengwen; Kumar, Sunny; Vogus, Douglas R; Menegatti, Stefano; Helgeson, Matthew E; Mitragotri, Samir

    2015-03-24

    The impact of physical and chemical modifications of nanoparticles on their biological function has been systemically investigated and exploited to improve their circulation and targeting. However, the impact of nanoparticles' flexibility (i.e., elastic modulus) on their function has been explored to a far lesser extent, and the potential benefits of tuning nanoparticle elasticity are not clear. Here, we describe a method to synthesize polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogel nanoparticles of uniform size (200 nm) with elastic moduli ranging from 0.255 to 3000 kPa. These particles are used to investigate the role of particle elasticity on key functions including blood circulation time, biodistribution, antibody-mediated targeting, endocytosis, and phagocytosis. Our results demonstrate that softer nanoparticles (10 kPa) offer enhanced circulation and subsequently enhanced targeting compared to harder nanoparticles (3000 kPa) in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro experiments show that softer nanoparticles exhibit significantly reduced cellular uptake in immune cells (J774 macrophages), endothelial cells (bEnd.3), and cancer cells (4T1). Tuning nanoparticle elasticity potentially offers a method to improve the biological fate of nanoparticles by offering enhanced circulation, reduced immune system uptake, and improved targeting.

  13. Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: rapid killing accompanying phagocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, W.A.

    1983-08-01

    The kinetics of bactericidal activity of activated macrophages can be precisely described by a mathematical model in which phagocytosis, killing, digestion, and release of degraded bacterial material are considered to occur continuously. To gain a better understanding of these events, I have determined the period of time between first contact of bacteria with macrophages and the onset of killing. Activated rat peritoneal macrophages were incubated for various times up to 15 min with Listeria monocytogenes previously labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine and the unassociated bacteria removed by two centrifugations through a density interface. Both cell-associated radioactivity and cell-associated viable bacteria, determinedmore » as colony forming units after sonication of the cell pellet, increased with time of incubation. However, the specific viability of these bacteria, expressed as the ratio of number of viable bacteria per unit radioactivity declined with time, as an approximate inverse exponential, after a lag period of 2.9 +/- 0.8 min. Evidence is given that other possible causes for this decline in specific viability, other than death of the bacteria, such as preferential ingestion of dead Listeria, clumping of bacteria, variations in autolytic activity, or release of Listericidins are unlikely. I conclude therefore that activated macrophages kill Listeria approximately 3 min after the cell and the bacterium first make contact.« less

  14. Igg Subclasses Targeting the Flagella of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Can Mediate Phagocytosis and Bacterial Killing

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Yun Shan; Armour, Kathryn L; Clark, Michael R; Grant, Andrew J; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella are a common cause of invasive disease in immuno-compromised individuals and in children. Multi-drug resistance poses challenges to disease control, with a critical need for effective vaccines. Flagellin is an attractive vaccine candidate due to surface exposure and high epitope copy number, but its potential as a target for opsonophacytic antibodies is unclear. We examined the effect of targeting flagella with different classes of IgG on the interaction between Salmonella Typhimurium and a human phagocyte-like cell line, THP-1. We tagged the FliC flagellar protein with a foreign CD52 mimotope (TSSPSAD) and bacteria were opsonized with a panel of humanised CD52 antibodies with the same antigen-binding V-region, but different constant regions. We found that IgG binding to flagella increases bacterial phagocytosis and reduces viable intracellular bacterial numbers. Opsonisation with IgG3, followed by IgG1, IgG4, and IgG2, resulted in the highest level of bacterial uptake and in the highest reduction in the intracellular load of viable bacteria. Taken together, our data provide proof-of-principle evidence that targeting flagella with antibodies can increase the antibacterial function of host cells, with IgG3 being the most potent subclass. These data will assist the rational design of urgently needed, optimised vaccines against iNTS disease. PMID:27366588

  15. Lysosomal Degradation Is Required for Sustained Phagocytosis of Bacteria by Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ching-On; Gregory, Steven; Hu, Hongxiang; Chao, Yufang; Sepúlveda, Victoria E; He, Yuchun; Li-Kroeger, David; Goldman, William E; Bellen, Hugo J; Venkatachalam, Kartik

    2017-06-14

    Clearance of bacteria by macrophages involves internalization of the microorganisms into phagosomes, which are then delivered to endolysosomes for enzymatic degradation. These spatiotemporally segregated processes are not known to be functionally coupled. Here, we show that lysosomal degradation of bacteria sustains phagocytic uptake. In Drosophila and mammalian macrophages, lysosomal dysfunction due to loss of the endolysosomal Cl - transporter ClC-b/CLCN7 delayed degradation of internalized bacteria. Unexpectedly, defective lysosomal degradation of bacteria also attenuated further phagocytosis, resulting in elevated bacterial load. Exogenous application of bacterial peptidoglycans restored phagocytic uptake in the lysosomal degradation-defective mutants via a pathway requiring cytosolic pattern recognition receptors and NF-κB. Mammalian macrophages that are unable to degrade internalized bacteria also exhibit compromised NF-κB activation. Our findings reveal a role for phagolysosomal degradation in activating an evolutionarily conserved signaling cascade, which ensures that continuous uptake of bacteria is preceded by lysosomal degradation of microbes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis by macrophages is a novel mechanism of action of elotuzumab.

    PubMed

    Kurdi, Ahmed T; Glavey, Siobhan V; Bezman, Natalie A; Jhatakia, Amy; Guerriero, Jennifer L; Manier, Salomon; Moschetta, Michele; Mishima, Yuji; Roccaro, Aldo; Detappe, Alexandre; Liu, Chia-Jen; Sacco, Antonio; Huynh, Daisy; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Robbins, Michael D; Azzi, Jamil; Ghobrial, Irene M

    2018-04-13

    Elotuzumab, a recently approved antibody for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), has been shown to stimulate Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by natural killer (NK) cells towards myeloma cells. The modulatory effects of elotuzumab on other effector cells in the tumor microenvironment, however, has not been fully explored. Antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) is a mechanism by which macrophages contribute to anti-tumor potency of monoclonal antibodies. Herein, we studied the NK cell independent effect of elotuzumab on tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) using a xenograft tumor model deficient in NK and adaptive immune cells. We demonstrate significant anti-tumor efficacy of single agent elotuzumab in immunocompromised xenograft models of multiple myeloma, which is in part mediated by Fc-FcγR interaction of elotuzumab with macrophages. Elotuzumab is shown in this study to induce phenotypic activation of macrophages in-vivo and mediates ADCP of myeloma cells though a FcγR dependent manner in-vitro. Together, these findings propose a novel immune mediated mechanism by which elotuzumab exerts anti-myeloma activity and helps to provide rationale for combination therapies that can enhance macrophage activity. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Glycoengineering of therapeutic antibodies enhances monocyte/macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Herter, Sylvia; Birk, Martina C; Klein, Christian; Gerdes, Christian; Umana, Pablo; Bacac, Marina

    2014-03-01

    Therapeutic Abs possess several clinically relevant mechanisms of action including perturbation of tumor cell signaling, activation of complement-dependent cytotoxicity, Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and induction of adaptive immunity. In view of the important role of phagocytic lineage cells in the mechanism of action of therapeutic Abs, we analyzed FcγR receptor-dependent effector functions of monocytes and macrophages triggered by glycoengineered (GE) Abs (having enhanced FcγRIIIa [CD16a] binding affinity) versus their wild-type (WT) counterparts under different experimental conditions. We first defined the precise FcγR repertoire on classical and nonclassical intermediate monocytes--M1 and M2c macrophage populations. We further show that WT and GE Abs display comparable binding and induce similar effector functions (ADCC and ADCP) in the absence of nonspecific, endogenous IgGs. However, in the presence of these IgGs (i.e., in a situation that more closely mimics physiologic conditions), GE Abs display significantly superior binding and promote stronger monocyte and macrophage activity. These data show that in addition to enhancing CD16a-dependent NK cell cytotoxicity, glycoengineering also enhances monocyte and macrophage phagocytic and cytotoxic activities through enhanced binding to CD16a under conditions that more closely resemble the physiologic setting.

  18. Enhanced antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis by chimeric monoclonal antibodies with tandemly repeated Fc domains.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hiroaki; Ootsubo, Michiko; Fukazawa, Mizuki; Motoi, Sotaro; Konakahara, Shu; Masuho, Yasuhiko

    2011-04-01

    We previously reported that chimeric monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with tandemly repeated Fc domains, which were developed by introducing tandem repeats of Fc domains downstream of 2 Fab domains, augmented binding avidities for all Fcγ receptors, resulting in enhanced antibody (Ab)-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Here we investigated regarding Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) mediated by these chimeric mAbs, which is considered one of the most important mechanisms that kills tumor cells, using two-color flow cytometric methods. ADCP mediated by T3-Ab, a chimeric mAb with 3 tandemly repeated Fc domains, was 5 times more potent than that by native anti-CD20 M-Ab (M-Ab hereafter). Furthermore, T3-Ab-mediated ADCP was resistant to competitive inhibition by intravenous Ig (IVIG), although M-Ab-mediated ADCP decreased in the presence of IVIG. An Fcγ receptor-blocking study demonstrated that T3-Ab mediated ADCP via both FcγRIA and FcγRIIA, whereas M-Ab mediated ADCP exclusively via FcγRIA. These results suggest that chimeric mAbs with tandemly repeated Fc domains enhance ADCP as well as ADCC, and that Fc multimerization may significantly enhance the efficacy of therapeutic Abs. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. KIM-1–mediated phagocytosis reduces acute injury to the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Brooks, Craig R.; Xiao, Sheng; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Yeung, Melissa Y.; Hsiao, Li-Li; Ichimura, Takaharu; Kuchroo, Vijay; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1, also known as TIM-1) is markedly upregulated in the proximal tubule after injury and is maladaptive when chronically expressed. Here, we determined that early in the injury process, however, KIM-1 expression is antiinflammatory due to its mediation of phagocytic processes in tubule cells. Using various models of acute kidney injury (AKI) and mice expressing mutant forms of KIM-1, we demonstrated a mucin domain–dependent protective effect of epithelial KIM-1 expression that involves downregulation of innate immunity. Deletion of the mucin domain markedly impaired KIM-1–mediated phagocytic function, resulting in increased proinflammatory cytokine production, decreased antiinflammatory growth factor secretion by proximal epithelial cells, and a subsequent increase in tissue macrophages. Mice expressing KIM-1Δmucin had greater functional impairment, inflammatory responses, and mortality in response to ischemia- and cisplatin-induced AKI. Compared with primary renal proximal tubule cells isolated from KIM-1Δmucin mice, those from WT mice had reduced proinflammatory cytokine secretion and impaired macrophage activation. The antiinflammatory effect of KIM-1 expression was due to the interaction of KIM-1 with p85 and subsequent PI3K-dependent downmodulation of NF-κB. Hence, KIM-1–mediated epithelial cell phagocytosis of apoptotic cells protects the kidney after acute injury by downregulating innate immunity and inflammation. PMID:25751064

  20. A chemotactic role for prostaglandins released from polymorphonuclear leucocytes during phagocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, G A; McCall, E; Youlten, L J

    1975-01-01

    1. Prostaglandin E1 is chemotactic at concentrations down to 10 ng/ml for rabbit polymorphonuclear (PMN) leucocytes. Prostaglandins E2 and F2alpha have little or no chemotactic effect at concentrations up to 10 mug/ml. 2. Washed PMN leucocytes produced a chemotactic agent during phagocytosis, but not in the presence of indomethacin (28 muM). 3. Phagocytosing PMN leucocytes produce up to ten times as much prostaglandin as do resting cells. Some of this is prostaglandin E1 as judged by thin layer chromatography and differential bioassay. This prostaglandin production by PMN leucocytes is abolished by indomethacin (28 muM). 4. Ultrasonicated suspensions of PMN leucocytes produced prostaglandin from arachidonic aicd. This synthesis is inhibited by indomethacin. 5. Homogenates of PMN leucocytes which have been pre-incubated withe bacteria for 30 min show more prostaglandin synthetase activity than homogenates from PMN leucocytes which have not been exposed to bacteria. 6. It is concluded that in some forms of inflammation, prostaglandin E1 may play a controlling role in cellular migration. 7. PMN leucocytes may contribute to the generation of prostaglandins found in some inflammatory lesions. PMID:1148497

  1. Sialylation of Campylobacter jejuni Lipo-Oligosaccharides: Impact on Phagocytosis and Cytokine Production in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Donachie, Anne M.; Guthrie, Jim; van Rijs, Wouter; Heikema, Astrid; Boon, Louis; Samsom, Janneke N.; Jacobs, Bart C.; Willison, Hugh J.; Goodyear, Carl S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a post-infectious polyradiculoneuropathy, frequently associated with antecedent Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) infection. The presence of sialic acid on C. jejuni lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) is considered a risk factor for development of GBS as it crucially determines the structural homology between LOS and gangliosides, explaining the induction of cross-reactive neurotoxic antibodies. Sialylated C. jejuni are recognised by TLR4 and sialoadhesin; however, the functional implications of these interactions in vivo are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we investigated the effects of bacterial sialylation on phagocytosis and cytokine secretion by mouse myeloid cells in vitro and in vivo. Using fluorescently labelled GM1a/GD1a ganglioside-mimicking C. jejuni strains and corresponding (Cst-II-mutant) control strains lacking sialic acid, we show that sialylated C. jejuni was more efficiently phagocytosed in vitro by BM-MΦ, but not by BM-DC. In addition, LOS sialylation increased the production of IL-10, IL-6 and IFN-β by both BM-MΦ and BM-DC. Subsequent in vivo experiments revealed that sialylation augmented the deposition of fluorescent bacteria in splenic DC, but not macrophages. In addition, sialylation significantly amplified the production of type I interferons, which was independent of pDC. Conclusions/Significance These results identify novel immune stimulatory effects of C. jejuni sialylation, which may be important in inducing cross-reactive humoral responses that cause GBS. PMID:22470569

  2. Mer receptor tyrosine kinase mediates both tethering and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Dransfield, I; Zagórska, A; Lew, E D; Michail, K; Lemke, G

    2015-02-19

    Billions of inflammatory leukocytes die and are phagocytically cleared each day. This regular renewal facilitates the normal termination of inflammatory responses, suppressing pro-inflammatory mediators and inducing their anti-inflammatory counterparts. Here we investigate the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Mer and its ligands Protein S and Gas6 in the initial recognition and capture of apoptotic cells (ACs) by macrophages. We demonstrate extremely rapid binding kinetics of both ligands to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-displaying ACs, and show that ACs can be co-opsonized with multiple PtdSer opsonins. We further show that macrophage phagocytosis of ACs opsonized with Mer ligands can occur independently of a requirement for αV integrins. Finally, we demonstrate a novel role for Mer in the tethering of ACs to the macrophage surface, and show that Mer-mediated tethering and subsequent AC engulfment can be distinguished by their requirement for Mer kinase activity. Our results identify Mer as a receptor uniquely capable of both tethering ACs to the macrophage surface and driving their subsequent internalization.

  3. Co-receptors are dispensable for tethering receptor-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Park, B; Lee, J; Moon, H; Lee, G; Lee, D-H; Cho, J Hoon; Park, D

    2015-05-28

    During efferocytosis, phagocytic cells recognize dying cells by receptors binding to ligands specifically exposed on apoptotic cells. Multiple phagocytic receptors and some of their signaling pathways have been identified. However, the downstream pathways of tethering receptors that secure apoptotic cells remain elusive. It is generally assumed that tethering receptors induce signaling to mediate engulfment via interacting with co-receptors or other engulfment receptors located nearby. However, it is poorly understood whether co-receptors for tethering receptors exist during efferocytosis, and, if they do, whether they are indispensable for this process. Here, we address this issue using glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored annexin A5 (Anxa5-GPI), an artificial tethering receptor without a putative co-receptor. Phagocytes expressing Anxa5-GPI exhibited enhanced binding of apoptotic cells, resulting in promoted ingestion of apoptotic cells in a phosphatidylserine-dependent manner. Anxa5-GPI-induced phagocytosis of apoptotic cells relied on the known cytoskeletal engulfment machinery but partially depended on the Elmo-Dock-Rac module or the integrin pathway. In addition, Anxa5-GPI-mediated efferocytosis provoked anti-inflammatory responses. Taken together, our work suggests that co-receptors are dispensable for tethering receptor-induced efferocytosis and that tethering receptors mediate the engulfment of apoptotic cells through multiple engulfment signaling pathways.

  4. Mer receptor tyrosine kinase mediates both tethering and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Dransfield, I; Zagórska, A; Lew, E D; Michail, K; Lemke, G

    2015-01-01

    Billions of inflammatory leukocytes die and are phagocytically cleared each day. This regular renewal facilitates the normal termination of inflammatory responses, suppressing pro-inflammatory mediators and inducing their anti-inflammatory counterparts. Here we investigate the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Mer and its ligands Protein S and Gas6 in the initial recognition and capture of apoptotic cells (ACs) by macrophages. We demonstrate extremely rapid binding kinetics of both ligands to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-displaying ACs, and show that ACs can be co-opsonized with multiple PtdSer opsonins. We further show that macrophage phagocytosis of ACs opsonized with Mer ligands can occur independently of a requirement for αV integrins. Finally, we demonstrate a novel role for Mer in the tethering of ACs to the macrophage surface, and show that Mer-mediated tethering and subsequent AC engulfment can be distinguished by their requirement for Mer kinase activity. Our results identify Mer as a receptor uniquely capable of both tethering ACs to the macrophage surface and driving their subsequent internalization. PMID:25695599

  5. The role of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in phagocytosis-associated oxidative metabolic reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Baehner, R L; Murrmann, S K; Davis, J; Johnston, R B

    1975-01-01

    The contribution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and one of its unstable intermediates, superoxide anion (O2), to the oxidative reactions that occur in phagocytizing leukocytes was explored by depleting these cells of O2. This was accomplished by allowing them to phagocytize latex particles coated with superoxide dismutase (SOD), which catalyzes the generation of H2O2 from O2. Although the rate and extent of phagocytosis of latex coated with bovine serum albumin was similar to latex coated with SOD, the rate of oxygen consumption, [14C]formate oxidation, [1-14C]glucose oxidation, and iodination of zymosan particles was significantly enhanced by SOD. In contrast, the rate and extent of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) was diminished by 60%. These studies indicate that the majority of NBT reduction by leukocytes is due to O2, whereas stimulation of the hexose monophosphate shunt and iodination of ingested particles requires H2O2 generated from the increased reduction of oxygen by phagocytizing leukocytes. PMID:169293

  6. The β2 Integrin Mac-1 Induces Protective LC3-Associated Phagocytosis of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Gluschko, Alexander; Herb, Marc; Wiegmann, Katja; Krut, Oleg; Neiss, Wolfram F; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Krönke, Martin; Schramm, Michael

    2018-03-14

    The intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.) is targeted by the autophagic machinery, but the molecular mechanisms involved and consequences for anti-listerial immunity remain enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that L.m. infection of macrophages in vivo exclusively evokes LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), but not canonical autophagy, and that targeting of L.m. by LAP is required for anti-listerial immunity. The pathway leading to LAP induction in response to L.m. infection emanates from the β 2 integrin Mac-1 (CR3, integrin α M β 2 ), a receptor recognizing diverse microbial ligands. Interaction of L.m. with Mac-1 induces acid sphingomyelinase-mediated changes in membrane lipid composition that facilitate assembly and activation of the phagocyte NAPDH oxidase Nox2. Nox2-derived reactive oxygen species then trigger LC3 recruitment to L.m.-containing phagosomes by LAP. By promoting fusion of L.m.-containing phagosomes with lysosomes, LAP increases exposure of L.m. to bactericidal acid hydrolases, thereby enhancing anti-listerial activity of macrophages and immunity of mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening in planarians identifies MORN2 as a key component in LC3-associated phagocytosis and resistance to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Abnave, Prasad; Mottola, Giovanna; Gimenez, Gregory; Boucherit, Nicolas; Trouplin, Virginie; Torre, Cedric; Conti, Filippo; Ben Amara, Amira; Lepolard, Catherine; Djian, Benjamin; Hamaoui, Daniel; Mettouchi, Amel; Kumar, Atul; Pagnotta, Sophie; Bonatti, Stefano; Lepidi, Hubert; Salvetti, Alessandra; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Mege, Jean-Louis; Ghigo, Eric

    2014-09-10

    Dugesia japonica planarian flatworms are naturally exposed to various microbes but typically survive this challenge. We show that planarians eliminate bacteria pathogenic to Homo sapiens, Caenorhabditis elegans, and/or Drosophila melanogaster and thus represent a model to identify innate resistance mechanisms. Whole-transcriptome analysis coupled with RNAi screening of worms infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Legionella pneumophila identified 18 resistance genes with nine human orthologs, of which we examined the function of MORN2. Human MORN2 facilitates phagocytosis-mediated restriction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, L. pneumophila, and S. aureus in macrophages. MORN2 promotes the recruitment of LC3, an autophagy protein also involved in phagocytosis, to M. tuberculosis-containing phagosomes and subsequent maturation to degradative phagolysosomes. MORN2-driven trafficking of M. tuberculosis to single-membrane, LC3-positive compartments requires autophagy-related proteins Atg5 and Beclin-1, but not Ulk-1 and Atg13, highlighting the importance of MORN2 in LC3-associated phagocytosis. These findings underscore the value of studying planarian defenses to identify immune factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phagocytosis via Complement or Fc-Gamma Receptors Is Compromised in Monocytes from Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Chronic Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Blanca I.; Twahirwa, Marcel; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Schlesinger, Larry S.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes patients (DM2) have a higher risk of tuberculosis (TB) that may be attributed to functional defects in their mononuclear phagocytes given the critical role of these cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis containment. Our previous findings suggest that monocytes from DM2 have reduced association with serum-opsonized M. tuberculosis. To determine if this alteration is due to defects in phagocytosis via complement or Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs), in this study we evaluated the uptake of sheep red blood cells coated with IgG or complement, respectively, by monocytes from individuals with and without DM2. We found that chronic hyperglycemia was significantly associated with reduced phagocytosis via either receptor by univariable and multivariable analyses. This defect was independent of host serum opsonins and flow cytometry data indicated this was not attributed to reduced expression of these phagocytic receptors on DM2 monocytes. The positive correlation between both pathways (R = 0.64; p = 0.003) indicate that monocytes from individuals with chronic hyperglycemia have a defect in the two predominant phagocytic pathways of these cells. Given that phagocytosis is linked to activation of effector mechanisms for bacterial killing, it is likely that this defect is one factor contributing to the higher susceptibility of DM2 patients to pathogens like M. tuberculosis. PMID:24671137

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) modulate both phagocytosis and NK cell activity in vitro in juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Rousselet, Estelle; Levin, Milton; Gebhard, Erika; Higgins, Benjamin M; DeGuise, Sylvain; Godard-Codding, Céline A J

    2017-01-01

    Threatened loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) face numerous environmental challenges, including exposure to anthropogenic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Despite being banned by the USA in the 1970s, PCBs persist in the environment and produce immunotoxic effects in a wide range of marine vertebrate species. This is of particular concern, as the modulation of the immune system may enhance the susceptibility to a variety of pathogens. Blood samples were collected from 19 immature, captive-reared loggerhead sea turtles. Functional immune assays phagocytosis and natural killer (NK) cell activity were used to quantify the direct effects of PCB congeners 105, 138, and 169 on innate immune functions upon in vitro exposure of sea turtle cells to increasing concentrations (control (0), 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, or 20 ppm) of each PCB. PCB 105 significantly elevated eosinophil phagocytosis at 10 and 15 ppm and PCB 138 at 15 ppm compared to unexposed (0 ppm). The effects of PCB 169 on phagocytosis were not evaluated. PCB 138 and 105 significantly decreased NK cell activity at 15 and 20 ppm, compared to unexposed (0 ppm) controls. PCB 169 did not markedly modulate NK activity. This constitutes the first study to investigate the in vitro effects of these three PCBs on sea turtle innate immune functions. These results add to our understanding of PCB-induced immunotoxicity in sea turtles and may provide a framework for establishing the relationships between chemical levels and turtle immunity.

  10. Ablation of EIF5A2 induces tumor vasculature remodeling and improves tumor response to chemotherapy via regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Wei; Cai, Mu-Yan; Mai, Shi-Juan; Chen, Jie-Wei; Bai, Hai-Yan; Li, Yan; Liao, Yi-Ji; Li, Chang-Peng; Tian, Xiao-Peng; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Xie, Dan

    2014-08-30

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly vascularized tumor with poor clinical outcome. Our previous work has shown that eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 (EIF5A2) over-expression enhances HCC cell metastasis. In this study, EIF5A2 was identified to be an independent risk factor for poor disease-specific survival among HCC patients. Both in vitro and in vivo assays indicated that ablation of endogenous EIF5A2 inhibited tumor angiogenesis by reducing matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) expression. Given that MMP-2 degrades collagen IV, a main component of the vascular basement membrane (BM), we subsequently investigated the effect of EIF5A2 on tumor vasculature remodeling using complementary approaches, including fluorescent immunostaining, transmission electron microscopy, tumor perfusion assays and tumor hypoxia assays. Taken together, our results indicate that EIF5A2 silencing increases tumor vessel wall continuity, increases blood perfusion and improves tumor oxygenation. Additionally, we found that ablation of EIF5A2 enhanced the chemosensitivity of HCC cells to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Finally, we demonstrated that EIF5A2 might exert these functions by enhancing MMP-2 activity via activation of p38 MAPK and JNK/c-Jun pathways. This study highlights an important role of EIF5A2 in HCC tumor vessel remodeling and indicates that EIF5A2 represents a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of HCC.

  11. Transient recruitment of M-Ras GTPase to phagocytic cups in RAW264 macrophages during FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Egami, Youhei; Araki, Nobukazu

    2018-04-01

    M-Ras, a member of the Ras superfamily, is known to be involved in diverse cellular processes. However, its involvement in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis remains unknown. We examined the spatiotemporal localization of M-Ras during the engulfment of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (IgG-Es) in RAW264 macrophages. By the live-cell imaging of fluorescent protein-fused M-Ras, we found that M-Ras was localized to the membrane of phagocytic cups during the early stage of phagosome formation. Notably, ratiometric image analysis revealed that M-Ras was concentrated in the membrane of forming phagosomes. Moreover, our analysis of M-Ras mutant expression showed that phagosome formation was significantly inhibited in cells expressing GDP-locked mutant M-Ras-S27N. In contrast, the expression of wild-type M-Ras or GTP-locked mutant M-Ras-G22V facilitated the uptake of IgG-Es. These data suggest that M-Ras is a novel component of the FcγR-mediated phagocytic pathway and may regulate phagosome formation in macrophages.

  12. Epigallocatechin gallate induces an up-regulation of LDL receptor accompanied by a reduction of PCSK9 via the annexin A2-independent pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kohei; Okada, Yudai; Okada, Kenji; Kawaguchi, Yuya; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2017-08-01

    In animal studies, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the dominant catechin in green tea, has been shown to improve cholesterol metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms of EGCG underlying these functions have not been fully understood. In this study, we aimed to clarify the molecular mechanisms of the effect of EGCG on cholesterol metabolism mainly in HepG2 cells. We found that EGCG induced a reduction of the extracellular proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) level accompanied by an up-regulation of the LDL receptor (LDLR) in HepG2 cells. The EGCG-induced up-regulation of LDLR occurred via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Moreover, we showed that EGCG induced a significant early reduction of the extracellular PCSK9 protein level. However, there were no significant changes in the PCSK9 mRNA and the intracellular PCSK9 protein levels induced by EGCG. Annexin A2 knockdown affected the basal LDLR expression and did not affect the EGCG-induced reduction of the extracellular PCSK9 protein level or the up-regulation of LDLR. Annexin A2 possesses an essential function for the basal LDLR expression in HepG2 cells. But, EGCG induces the suppression of PCSK9 accompanied by an up-regulation of LDLR in an annexin A2-independent manner. EGCG attenuates the statin-induced an increase in PCSK9 level. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Action of two phospholipases A2 purified from Bothrops alternatus snake venom on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Setúbal, S S; Pontes, A S; Furtado, J L; Xavier, C V; Silva, F L; Kayano, A M; Izidoro, L F M; Soares, A M; Calderon, L A; Stábeli, R G; Zuliani, J P

    2013-02-01

    The in vitro effects of BaltTX-I, a catalytically inactive Lys49 variant of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and BaltTX-II, an Asp49 catalytically active PLA2 isolated from Bothrops alternatus snake venom, on thioglycollate-elicited macrophages (TG-macrophages) were investigated. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, the secretory PLA2 BaltTX-I but not BaltTX-II stimulated complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Pharmacological treatment of TG-macrophages with staurosporine, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, showed that this kinase is involved in the increase of serum-opsonized zymosan phagocytosis induced by BaltTX-I but not BaltTX-II secretory PLA2, suggesting that PKC may be involved in the stimulatory effect of this toxin in serum-opsonized zymosan phagocytosis. Moreover, BaltTX-I and -II induced superoxide production by TG-macrophages. This superoxide production stimulated by both PLA2s was abolished after treatment of cells with staurosporine, indicating that PKC is an important signaling pathway for the production of this radical. Our experiments showed that, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, BaltTX-I may upregulate phagocytosis via complement receptors, and that both toxins upregulated the respiratory burst in TG-macrophages.

  14. Macrophage Polarization Modulates FcγR- and CD13-Mediated Phagocytosis and Reactive Oxygen Species Production, Independently of Receptor Membrane Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Coronel, Elizabeth; Ortega, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    In response to microenvironmental cues, macrophages undergo a profound phenotypic transformation acquiring distinct activation phenotypes ranging from pro-inflammatory (M1) to anti-inflammatory (M2). To study how activation phenotype influences phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by receptors for IgG antibodies (Fcγ receptors) and by CD13, human monocyte-derived macrophages were polarized to distinct phenotypes using IFN-γ (Mϕ-IFN-γ), IL-4 (Mϕ-IL-4), or IL-10 (Mϕ-IL-10). Phenotypically, Mϕ-IFN-γ were characterized as CD14+CD80+CD86+ cells, Mϕ-IL-4 as CD209highCD206+CD11b+CD14low, and Mϕ-IL-10 as CD16+CD163+ cells. Compared to non-polarized macrophages, FcγRI expression increased in Mϕ-IFN-γ and Mϕ-IL-10 and FcγRIII expression increased in Mϕ-IL-10. None of the polarizing cytokines modified FcγRII or CD13 expression. Functionally, we found that cytokine-mediated activation significantly and distinctively affected FcγR- and CD13-mediated phagocytosis and ROS generation. Compared to non-polarized macrophages, FcγRI-, FcγRII-, and CD13-mediated phagocytosis was significantly increased in Mϕ-IL-10 and decreased in Mϕ-IFN-γ, although both cytokines significantly upregulated FcγRI expression. IL-10 also increased phagocytosis of Escherichia coli, showing that the effect of IL-10 on macrophage phagocytosis is not specific for a particular receptor. Interestingly, Mϕ-IL-4, which showed poor FcγR- and CD13-mediated phagocytosis, showed very high phagocytosis of E. coli and zymosan. Coupled with phagocytosis, macrophages produce ROS that contribute to microbial killing. As expected, Mϕ-IFN-γ showed significant production of ROS after FcγRI-, FcγRII-, or CD13-mediated phagocytosis. Unexpectedly, we found that Mϕ-IL-10 can also produce ROS after simultaneous stimulation through several phagocytic receptors, as coaggregation of FcγRI/FcγRII/CD13 induced a belated but significant ROS production. Together, these

  15. Adenosine transporter ENT1 regulates the acquisition of goal-directed behavior and ethanol drinking through A2A receptor in the dorsomedial striatum.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyung Wook; Hinton, David J; Kang, Na Young; Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Moonnoh R; Oliveros, Alfredo; Adams, Chelsea; Ruby, Christina L; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-03-06

    Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders including alcoholism. Striatal adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) play an essential role in both ethanol drinking and the shift from goal-directed action to habitual behavior. However, direct evidence for a role of striatal A2AR signaling in ethanol drinking and habit development has not been established. In the present study, we found that decreased A2AR-mediated CREB activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) enhanced initial behavioral acquisition of goal-directed behaviors and the vulnerability to progress to excessive ethanol drinking during operant conditioning in mice lacking ethanol-sensitive adenosine transporter ENT1 (ENT1(-/-)). Using mice expressing β-galactosidase (lacZ) under the control of seven repeated CRE sites in both genotypes (CRE-lacZ/ENT1(+/+) mice and CRE-lacZ/ENT1(-/-) mice) and the dominant-negative form of CREB, we found that reduced CREB activity in the DMS was causally associated with decreased A2AR signaling and increased goal-directed ethanol drinking. Finally, we have demonstrated that the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 dampened protein kinase A activity-mediated signaling in the DMS and promoted excessive ethanol drinking in ENT1(+/+) mice, but not in ENT1(-/-) mice. Our results indicate that A2AR-mediated CREB signaling in the DMS is a key determinant in enhancing the development of goal-directed ethanol drinking in mice.

  16. Association of ABCA1 with Syntaxin 13 and Flotillin-1 and Enhanced Phagocytosis in Tangier Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bared, Salim Maa; Buechler, Christa; Boettcher, Alfred; Dayoub, Rania; Sigruener, Alexander; Grandl, Margot; Rudolph, Christian; Dada, Ashraf; Schmitz, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) facilitates the cellular release of cholesterol and choline-phospholipids to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and several studies indicate that vesicular transport is associated with ABCA1 function. Syntaxins play a major role in vesicular fusion and have also been demonstrated to interact with members of the ABC-transporter family. Therefore, we focused on the identification of syntaxins that directly interact with ABCA1. The expression of syntaxins and ABCA1 in cultured human monocytes during M-CSF differentiation and cholesterol loading was investigated and syntaxins 3, 6, and 13 were found induced in foam cells together with ABCA1. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a direct association of syntaxin 13 and full-length ABCA1, whereas syntaxin 3 and 6 failed to interact with ABCA1. The colocalization of ABCA1 and syntaxin 13 was also shown by immunofluorescence microscopy. Silencing of syntaxin 13 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) led to reduced ABCA1 protein levels and hence to a significant decrease in apoA-I–dependent choline-phospholipid efflux. ABCA1 is localized in Lubrol WX–insoluble raft microdomains in macrophages and syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1 were also detected in these detergent resistant microdomains along with ABCA1. Syntaxin 13, flotillin-1, and ABCA1 were identified as phagosomal proteins, indicating the involvement of the phagosomal compartment in ABCA1-mediated lipid efflux. In addition, the uptake of latex phagobeads by fibroblasts with mutated ABCA1 was enhanced when compared with control cells and the recombinant expression of functional ABCA1 normalized the phagocytosis rate in Tangier fibroblasts. It is concluded that ABCA1 forms a complex with syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1, residing at the plasma membrane and in phagosomes that are partially located in raft microdomains. PMID:15469992

  17. Association of ABCA1 with syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1 and enhanced phagocytosis in tangier cells.

    PubMed

    Bared, Salim Maa; Buechler, Christa; Boettcher, Alfred; Dayoub, Rania; Sigruener, Alexander; Grandl, Margot; Rudolph, Christian; Dada, Ashraf; Schmitz, Gerd

    2004-12-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) facilitates the cellular release of cholesterol and choline-phospholipids to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and several studies indicate that vesicular transport is associated with ABCA1 function. Syntaxins play a major role in vesicular fusion and have also been demonstrated to interact with members of the ABC-transporter family. Therefore, we focused on the identification of syntaxins that directly interact with ABCA1. The expression of syntaxins and ABCA1 in cultured human monocytes during M-CSF differentiation and cholesterol loading was investigated and syntaxins 3, 6, and 13 were found induced in foam cells together with ABCA1. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a direct association of syntaxin 13 and full-length ABCA1, whereas syntaxin 3 and 6 failed to interact with ABCA1. The colocalization of ABCA1 and syntaxin 13 was also shown by immunofluorescence microscopy. Silencing of syntaxin 13 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) led to reduced ABCA1 protein levels and hence to a significant decrease in apoA-I-dependent choline-phospholipid efflux. ABCA1 is localized in Lubrol WX-insoluble raft microdomains in macrophages and syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1 were also detected in these detergent resistant microdomains along with ABCA1. Syntaxin 13, flotillin-1, and ABCA1 were identified as phagosomal proteins, indicating the involvement of the phagosomal compartment in ABCA1-mediated lipid efflux. In addition, the uptake of latex phagobeads by fibroblasts with mutated ABCA1 was enhanced when compared with control cells and the recombinant expression of functional ABCA1 normalized the phagocytosis rate in Tangier fibroblasts. It is concluded that ABCA1 forms a complex with syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1, residing at the plasma membrane and in phagosomes that are partially located in raft microdomains.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide induces multinuclear cell from RAW264.7 line with increased phagocytosis activity

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi, E-mail: nakanim@iwate-med.ac.jp; Yano, Shio; Matsumoto, Naomi

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS induces multinuclear cells from murine macrophage-derived RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The multinuclear cells are formed through cell-cell fusion in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The multinuclear cells do not express osteoclast-specific enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They internalized more and larger beads than mononuclear cells and osteoclasts. -- Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, induces strong proinflammatory responses, including the release of cytokines and nitric oxide from macrophage. In this study, we found that a murine macrophage-derived line, RAW264.7, became multinuclear through cell-cell fusion after incubation with highly purified LPS or synthetic lipid A in themore » presence of Ca{sup 2+}. The same cell line is known to differentiate into multinuclear osteoclast, which expresses a specific proton pumping ATPase together with osteoclast markers on stimulation by the extracellular domain of receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (Toyomura, T., Murata, Y., Yamamoto, A., Oka, T., Sun-Wada, G.-H., Wada, Y. and Futai, M., 2003). The LPS-induced multinuclear cells did not express osteoclast-specific enzymes including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K. During multinuclear cell formation, the cells internalized more and larger polystyrene beads (diameter 6-15 {mu}m) than mononuclear cells and osteoclasts. The internalized beads were located in lysosome-marker positive organelles, which were probably phagolysosomes. The LPS-induced multinuclear cell could be a good model system to study phagocytosis of large foreign bodies.« less

  19. Increased phagocytosis of Mycobacterium marinum mutants defective in lipooligosaccharide production: a structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Alibaud, Laeticia; Pawelczyk, Jakub; Gannoun-Zaki, Laila; Singh, Vipul K; Rombouts, Yoann; Drancourt, Michel; Dziadek, Jaroslaw; Guérardel, Yann; Kremer, Laurent

    2014-01-03

    Mycobacterium marinum is a waterborne pathogen responsible for tuberculosis-like infections in ectotherms and is an occasional opportunistic human pathogen. In the environment, M. marinum also interacts with amoebae, which may serve as a natural reservoir for this microorganism. However, the description of mycobacterial determinants in the early interaction with macrophages or amoebae remains elusive. Lipooligosaccharides (LOSs) are cell surface-exposed glycolipids capable of modulating the host immune system, suggesting that they may be involved in the early interactions of M. marinum with macrophages. Herein, we addressed whether LOS composition affects the uptake of M. marinum by professional phagocytes. Mutants with various truncated LOS variants were generated, leading to the identification of several previously uncharacterized biosynthetic genes (wbbL2, MMAR_2321, and MMAR_2331). Biochemical and structural approaches allowed resolving the structures of LOS precursors accumulating in this set of mutants. These strains with structurally defined LOS profiles were then used to infect both macrophages and Acanthamoebae. An inverse correlation between LOS completeness and uptake of mycobacteria by phagocytes was found, allowing the proposal of three mutant classes: class I (papA4), devoid of LOS and highly efficiently phagocytosed; class II, accumulating only early LOS intermediates (wbbL2 and MMAR_2331) and efficiently phagocytosed but less than class I mutants; class III, lacking LOS-IV (losA, MMAR_2319, and MMAR_2321) and phagocytosed similarly to the control strain. These results indicate that phagocytosis is conditioned by the LOS pattern and that the LOS pathway used by M. marinum in macrophages is conserved during infection of amoebae.

  20. HGF-induced serine 897 phosphorylation of EphA2 regulates epithelial morphogenesis of MDCK cells in 3D culture.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kohei; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2015-05-15

    Expression of EphA2 is upregulated in various cancers that are derived from epithelial cells and correlates with the ability of a cancer cell to undergo migration and invasion. Here we have investigated the role of EphA2 in the epithelial morphogenesis of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in three-dimensional culture. We show that EphA2 is phosphorylated on serine residue 897 through hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation using a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-dependent mechanism and that this phosphorylation is required for the formation of extensions, the first step of tubulogenesis, in MDCK cysts. By contrast, stimulation using the ligand ephrinA1 dephosphorylates EphA2 on serine residue 897 and suppresses the HGF-induced morphological change. Furthermore, activation of the small GTPase RhoG is involved in the HGF-induced formation of extensions downstream of EphA2. These observations suggest that a ligand-independent activity of EphA2 contributes to epithelial morphogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. FPR2/ALX receptor expression and internalization are critical for lipoxin A4 and annexin-derived peptide-stimulated phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Maderna, Paola; Cottell, David C.; Toivonen, Tiina; Dufton, Neil; Dalli, Jesmond; Perretti, Mauro; Godson, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxins (LXs) are endogenously produced eicosanoids with well-described anti-inflammatory and proresolution activities, stimulating nonphlogistic phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages. LXA4 and the glucocorticoid-derived annexin A1 peptide (Ac2–26) bind to a common G-protein-coupled receptor, termed FPR2/ALX. However, direct evidence of the involvement of FPR2/ALX in the anti-inflammatory and proresolution activity of LXA4 is still to be investigated. Here we describe FPR2/ ALX trafficking in response to LXA4 and Ac2–26 stimulation. We have transfected cells with HA-tagged FPR2/ALX and studied receptor trafficking in unstimulated, LXA4 (1–10 nM)- and Ac2–26 (30 μM)-treated cells using multiple approaches that include immunofluorescent confocal microscopy, immunogold labeling of cryosections, and ELISA and investigated receptor trafficking in agonist-stimulated phagocytosis. We conclude that PKC-dependent internalization of FPR2/ALX is required for phagocytosis. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from mice in which the FPR2/ALX ortholog Fpr2 had been deleted, we observed the nonredundant function for this receptor in LXA4 and Ac2–26 stimulated phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. LXA4 stimulated phagocytosis 1.7-fold above basal (P<0.001) by BMDMs from wild-type mice, whereas no effect was found on BMDMs from Fpr2−/− mice. Similarly, Ac2–26 stimulates phagocytosis by BMDMs from wild-type mice 1.5-fold above basal (P<0.05). However, Ac2–26 failed to stimulate phagocytosis by BMDMs isolated from Fpr2−/− mice relative to vehicle. These data reveal novel and complex mechanisms of the FPR2/ALX receptor trafficking and functionality in the resolution of inflammation. PMID:20570963

  2. Caffeine Reverts Memory But Not Mood Impairment in a Depression-Prone Mouse Strain with Up-Regulated Adenosine A2A Receptor in Hippocampal Glutamate Synapses.

    PubMed

    Machado, Nuno J; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Silva, Henrique B; Ardais, Ana Paula; Kaster, Manuella P; Garção, Pedro; Rodrigues, Diana I; Pochmann, Daniela; Santos, Ana Isabel; Araújo, Inês M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Tomé, Ângelo R; Köfalvi, Attila; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Agostinho, Paula; El Yacoubi, Malika; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Gomes, Catarina A

    2017-03-01

    Caffeine prophylactically prevents mood and memory impairments through adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) antagonism. A 2A R antagonists also therapeutically revert mood and memory impairments, but it is not known if caffeine is also therapeutically or only prophylactically effective. Since depression is accompanied by mood and memory alterations, we now explored if chronic (4 weeks) caffeine consumption (0.3 g/L) reverts mood and memory impairment in helpless mice (HM, 12 weeks old), a bred-based model of depression. HM displayed higher immobility in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, greater anxiety in the elevated plus maze, and poorer memory performance (modified Y-maze and object recognition). HM also had reduced density of synaptic (synaptophysin, SNAP-25), namely, glutamatergic (vGluT1; -22 ± 7 %) and GABAergic (vGAT; -23 ± 8 %) markers in the hippocampus. HM displayed higher A 2A R density (72 ± 6 %) in hippocampal synapses, an enhanced facilitation of hippocampal glutamate release by the A 2A R agonist, CGS21680 (30 nM), and a larger LTP amplitude (54 ± 8 % vs. 21 ± 5 % in controls) that was restored to control levels (30 ± 10 %) by the A 2A R antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM). Notably, caffeine intake reverted memory deficits and reverted the loss of hippocampal synaptic markers but did not affect helpless or anxiety behavior. These results reinforce the validity of HM as an animal model of depression by showing that they also display reference memory deficits. Furthermore, caffeine intake selectively reverted memory but not mood deficits displayed by HM, which are associated with an increased density and functional impact of hippocampal A 2A R controlling synaptic glutamatergic function.

  3. Adenosine Transporter ENT1 Regulates the Acquisition of Goal-Directed Behavior and Ethanol Drinking Through A2A Receptor in the Dorsomedial Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyung Wook; Hinton, David J.; Kang, Na Young; Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Moonnoh R.; Oliveros, Alfredo; Adams, Chelsea; Ruby, Christina L.; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders including alcoholism. Striatal adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) play an essential role in both ethanol drinking and the shift from goal-directed action to habitual behavior. However, direct evidence for a role of striatal A2AR signaling in ethanol drinking and habit development has not been established. Here, we identified that decreased A2AR-mediated CREB activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) enhanced initial behavioral acquisition of goal-directed behaviors and the vulnerability to progress to excessive ethanol drinking during operant conditioning in mice lacking ethanol-sensitive adenosine transporter ENT1 (ENT1−/−). Utilizing mice expressing β-galactosidase (lacZ) under the control of seven-repeated CRE sites in both genotypes (CRE-lacZ/ENT1+/+ mice and CRE-lacZ/ENT1−/− mice) as well as dnCREB (dominant negative form of CREB), we found that reduced CREB activity in the DMS is causally associated with decreased A2AR signaling and increased goal-directed ethanol drinking. Finally, we demonstrated that A2AR antagonist (ZM241385) dampened PKA-activity mediated signaling in the DMS and promoted excessive ethanol drinking in ENT1+/+ mice, but not in ENT1−/− mice. Taken together, our studies indicate that A2AR-mediated CREB signaling in the DMS is a key determinant to enhance the development of goal-directed ethanol drinking in mice. PMID:23467349

  4. CIB1 Synergizes with EphrinA2 to Regulate Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Macropinocytic Entry in Human Microvascular Dermal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Chirosree; Valiya-Veettil, Mohanan; Dutta, Dipanjan; Chakraborty, Sayan; Chandran, Bala

    2014-01-01

    KSHV envelope glycoproteins interact with cell surface heparan sulfate and integrins, and activate FAK, Src, PI3-K, c-Cbl, and Rho-GTPase signal molecules in human microvascular dermal endothelial (HMVEC-d) cells. c-Cbl mediates the translocation of virus bound α3β1 and αVβ3 integrins into lipid rafts (LRs), where KSHV interacts and activates EphrinA2 (EphA2). EphA2 associates with c-Cbl-myosin IIA and augmented KSHV-induced Src and PI3-K signals in LRs, leading to bleb formation and macropinocytosis of KSHV. To identify the factor(s) coordinating the EphA2-signal complex, the role of CIB1 (calcium and integrin binding protein-1) associated with integrin signaling was analyzed. CIB1 knockdown did not affect KSHV binding to HMVEC-d cells but significantly reduced its entry and gene expression. In contrast, CIB1 overexpression increased KSHV entry in 293 cells. Single virus particle infection and trafficking during HMVEC-d cell entry was examined by utilizing DiI (envelope) and BrdU (viral DNA) labeled virus. CIB1 was associated with KSHV in membrane blebs and in Rab5 positive macropinocytic vesicles. CIB1 knockdown abrogated virus induced blebs, macropinocytosis and virus association with the Rab5 macropinosome. Infection increased the association of CIB1 with LRs, and CIB1 was associated with EphA2 and KSHV entry associated signal molecules such as Src, PI3-K, and c-Cbl. CIB1 knockdown significantly reduced the infection induced EphA2, Src and Erk1/2 activation. Mass spectrometry revealed the simultaneous association of CIB1 and EphA2 with the actin cytoskeleton modulating myosin IIA and alpha-actinin 4 molecules, and CIB1 knockdown reduced EphA2's association with myosin IIA and alpha-actinin 4. Collectively, these studies revealed for the first time that CIB1 plays a role in virus entry and macropinocytosis, and suggested that KSHV utilizes CIB1 as one of the key molecule(s) to coordinate and sustain the EphA2 mediated signaling involved in its entry, and CIB

  5. Slc45a2 and V-ATPase are regulators of melanosomal pH homeostasis in zebrafish, providing a mechanism for human pigment evolution and disease.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Christopher M; Schwarz, Heinz; Mueller, Kaspar P; Mongera, Alessandro; Konantz, Martina; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane; Geisler, Robert

    2013-03-01

    We present here the positional cloning of the Danio rerio albino mutant and show that the affected gene encodes Slc45a2. The human orthologous gene has previously been shown to be involved in human skin color variation, and mutations therein have been implicated in the disease OCA4. Through ultrastructural analysis of the melanosomes in albino alleles as well as the tyrosinase-deficient mutant sandy, we add new insights into the role of Slc45a2 in the production of melanin. To gain further understanding of the role of Slc45a2 and its possible interactions with other proteins involved in melanization, we further analyzed the role of the V-ATPase as a melanosomal acidifier. We show that it is possible to rescue the melanization potential of the albino melanosomes through genetic and chemical inhibition of V-ATPase, thereby increasing internal melanosome pH. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. EphrinA1-EphA2 signal induces compaction and polarization of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by inactivating Ezrin through negative regulation of RhoA.

    PubMed

    Wakayama, Yuki; Miura, Koichi; Sabe, Hisataka; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-12-23

    The epithelial cells exhibit either a columnar or a flat shape dependent on extracellular stimuli or the cell-cell adhesion. Membrane-anchored ephrinA stimulates EphA receptor tyrosine kinases as a ligand in a cell-cell contact-dependent manner. The mechanism through which ephrinA1/EphA2 signal regulates the cell morphology remains elusive. We demonstrate here that ephrinA1/EphA2 signal induces compaction and enhanced polarization (columnar change) of Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells by regulating Ezrin, a linker that connects plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Activation of EphA2 resulted in RhoA inactivation through p190RhoGAP-A and subsequent dephosphorylation of Ezrin on Thr-567 phosphorylated by Rho kinase. Consistently, the cells expressing an active mutant of Ezrin in which Thr-567 was replaced with Asp did not change their shape in response to ephrinA1. Furthermore, depletion of Ezrin led to compaction and enhanced polarization without ephrinA1 stimulation, suggesting the role for active Ezrin in keeping the flat cell shape. Ezrin localized to apical domain irrespective of ephrinA1 stimulation, whereas phosphorylated Ezrin on the apical domain was reduced by ephrinA1 stimulation. Collectively, ephrinA1/EphA2 signal negatively regulates Ezrin and promotes the alteration of cell shape, from flat to columnar shape.

  7. EphrinA1-EphA2 Signal Induces Compaction and Polarization of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells by Inactivating Ezrin through Negative Regulation of RhoA*

    PubMed Central

    Wakayama, Yuki; Miura, Koichi; Sabe, Hisataka; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    The epithelial cells exhibit either a columnar or a flat shape dependent on extracellular stimuli or the cell-cell adhesion. Membrane-anchored ephrinA stimulates EphA receptor tyrosine kinases as a ligand in a cell-cell contact-dependent manner. The mechanism through which ephrinA1/EphA2 signal regulates the cell morphology remains elusive. We demonstrate here that ephrinA1/EphA2 signal induces compaction and enhanced polarization (columnar change) of Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells by regulating Ezrin, a linker that connects plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Activation of EphA2 resulted in RhoA inactivation through p190RhoGAP-A and subsequent dephosphorylation of Ezrin on Thr-567 phosphorylated by Rho kinase. Consistently, the cells expressing an active mutant of Ezrin in which Thr-567 was replaced with Asp did not change their shape in response to ephrinA1. Furthermore, depletion of Ezrin led to compaction and enhanced polarization without ephrinA1 stimulation, suggesting the role for active Ezrin in keeping the flat cell shape. Ezrin localized to apical domain irrespective of ephrinA1 stimulation, whereas phosphorylated Ezrin on the apical domain was reduced by ephrinA1 stimulation. Collectively, ephrinA1/EphA2 signal negatively regulates Ezrin and promotes the alteration of cell shape, from flat to columnar shape. PMID:21979959

  8. TNT‐Induced Phagocytosis: Tunneling Nanotubes Mediate the Transfer of Pro‐Phagocytic Signals From Apoptotic to Viable Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bittins, Margarethe

    2017-01-01

    The exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the surface membrane of apoptotic cells triggers the recruitment of phagocytic receptors and subsequently results in uptake by phagocytes. Here we describe how apoptotic cells can use intercellular membrane nanotubes to transfer exposed PS to neighboring viable cells, and thus deposit an “eat‐me” tag on the viable cells. Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) connected UV‐treated apoptotic rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells with neighboring untreated cells. These TNTs were composed of PS‐exposed plasma membrane and facilitated the transfer of the membrane from apoptotic to viable cells. Other pro‐phagocytic signals, such as oxidized phospholipids and calreticulin, were also transferred to viable cells. In addition, anti‐phagocytic signal CD47 presenting on the plasma membrane of viable cells was masked by the transferred PS‐membrane. Confocal imaging revealed an increase of phagocytosis of viable PC12 cells by murine RAW264.7 macrophages when the viable PC12 cells were cocultured with UV‐treated PC12 cells. Treatment with 50 nM cytochalasin D would abolish TNTs and correspondingly inhibit this phagocytosis of the viable cells. Our study indicates that exposed‐PS membrane is delivered from apoptotic to viable cells through TNTs. This transferred membrane may act as a pro‐phagocytic signal for macrophages to induce phagocytosis of viable cells in a situation where they are in the vicinity of apoptotic cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2271–2279, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. PMID:27591547

  9. Simultaneous determination of phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized and non-parasitized red blood cells by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Valentina; Skorokhod, Oleksii A; Schwarzer, Evelin; Arese, Paolo

    2012-12-21

    Severe falciparum malaria anaemia (SMA) is a frequent cause of mortality in children and pregnant women. The most important determinant of SMA appears to be the loss of non-parasitized red blood cells (np-RBCs) in excess of loss of parasitized (p-) RBCs at schizogony. Based on data from acute SMA where excretion of haemoglobin in urine and increased plasma haemoglobin represented respectively less than 1% and 0.5% of total Hb loss, phagocytosis appears to be the predominant mechanism of removal of np- and p-RBC.Estimates indicate that np-RBCs are cleared in approximately 10-fold excess compared to p-RBCs. An even larger removal of np-RBCs has been described in vivax malaria anaemia. Estimates were based on two single studies both performed on neurosyphilitic patients who underwent malaria therapy. As the share of np-RBC removal is likely to vary between wide limits, it is important to assess the contribution of both np- and p-RBC populations to overall RBC loss, and disclose the mechanism of such variability. As available methods do not discriminate between the removal of np- vs p-RBCs, the purpose of this study was to set up a system allowing the simultaneous determination of phagocytosis of p- and np-RBC in the same sample. Phagocytosis of p- and np-RBCs was quantified in the same sample using double-labelled target cells and the human phagocytic cell-line THP-1, pre-activated by TNF and IFNγ to enhance their phagocytic activity. Target RBCs were double-labelled with fluorescent carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl ester (CF-SE) and the DNA label ethidium bromide (EB). EB, a DNA label, allowed to discriminate p-RBCs that contain parasitic DNA from the np-RBCs devoid of DNA. FACS analysis of THP-1 cells fed with double-labelled RBCs showed that p- and np-RBCs were phagocytosed in different proportions in relation to parasitaemia. The assay allowed the analysis of phagocytosis rapidly and with low subjective error, and the differentiation between phagocytosed p- and np

  10. Phagocytosis of breast cancer cells mediated by anti-MUC-1 monoclonal antibody, DF3, and its bispecific antibody.

    PubMed

    Akewanlop, C; Watanabe, M; Singh, B; Walker, M; Kufe, D W; Hayes, D F

    2001-05-15

    Human epithelial mucin, MUC-1, is commonly expressed in adenocarcinoma including 80% of breast cancers. erbB-2 is overexpressed in approximately 30% of breast cancers. Expression of MUC-1 and erbB-2 may be partially overlapping but discoordinate. Therefore, combined use of antibodies directed against these two antigens might increase the number of patients who benefit from immunotherapy. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) DF3 recognizes the MUC-1 tandem repeat. We investigated phagocytosis and cytolysis of cultured human breast cancer cells by monocyte-derived macrophages mediated by MAb DF3 and its bispecific antibody (BsAb) DF3xH22 with the second epitope directed against the Fc component of phagocytic cells. Purified monocytes from healthy donors were cultured with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor with or without IFN-gamma. antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays were performed with these macrophages and MUC-1-expressing target cells (ZR75-1) in the presence of MAb DF3 and BsAb DF3xH22. ADCP was measured by two-color fluorescence flow cytometry using PKH2 (green fluorescent dye) and R-phytoerythrin (RPE) (red)-conjugated MAb against human CD14 and CD11b and was confirmed by confocal microscopy. ADCC was measured by (51)Cr release assay. Immunohistochemical staining studies of MUC-1 and erbB-2 were performed on 67 primary breast cancer tissues. Expression of MUC-1 and erbB-2 was partially overlapping but discoordinate in 67 consecutive breast cancers. Both MAb DF3 and BsAb DF3xH22 mediated ADCP. However, ADCP mediated by MAb DF3 was greater than that mediated by BsAb DF3xH22. ADCC as detected by (51)Cr release was not seen with either antibody. The addition of IFN-gamma to monocyte-derived macrophage cultures inhibited ADCP compared to granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor alone. Given the partially overlapping but discoordinate expression of MUC-1 and erbB-2 in breast cancer

  11. The ratio of FoxA1 to FoxA2 in lung adenocarcinoma is regulated by LncRNA HOTAIR and chromatin remodeling factor LSH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranran; Shi, Ying; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Yiqun; Mao, Chao; Yan, Bin; Liu, Shuang; Shan, Bin; Tao, Yongguang; Wang, Xiang

    2015-12-11

    The lncRNA HOTAIR is a critical regulator of cancer progression. Chromatin remodeling factor LSH is critical for normal development of plants and mammals. However, the underlying mechanisms causing this in cancer are not entirely clear. The functional diversification of the FOXA1 and FOXA2 contributes to the target genes during evolution and carcinogenesis. Little is known about the ratio of FOXA1 to FOXA2 in cancer. We here found that both HOTAIR and LSH overexpression was significantly correlated with poor survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma cancer (ADC). Also, the ratio of FOXA1 and FOXA2 is linked with poor survival in patients with lung ADC. HOTAIR regulates the ratio of FOXA1 to FOXA2 and migration and invasion. HOTAIR and the ratio of FOXA1 to FOXA2 are negatively correlated. HOTAIR knockdown inhibits migration and invasion. HOTAIR is associated with LSH, and this association linked with the binding of LSH in the promoter of FOXA1, not FOXA2. Targeted inhibition of HOTAIR suppresses the migratory and invasive properties. These data suggest that HOTAIR is an important mediator of the ratio of FOXA1 and FOXA2 and LSH involves in, and suggest that HOTAIR inhibition may represent a promising therapeutic option for suppressing lung ADC progression.

  12. Up-regulation of Slc39A2(Zip2) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yan-ting; Huang, Qing; Jiang, Ya-li; Wang, Xiao-lei; Sun, Ping; Tian, Yuanyuan; Wu, Hai-liang; Zhang, Min; Meng, Si-bo; Wang, Yu-shu; Sun, Qing; Zhang, Lian-ying

    2013-08-01

    Zinc is the most common trace mineral after iron in the human body. In organisms, zinc transporters help zinc influx and efflux from cells. A previous study has reported that Zip2 was up-regulated over 27-fold in human monocytic THP-1 cells, when intracellular zinc was depleted by TPEN. Our study found Zip2 was over-expressed in leukocytes of asthmatic infants, especially those in which the serum zinc level was lower than those in healthy infants. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients have significantly low serum zinc levels. Here we investigated whether Zip2 level was changed in the patients with PTB. Zip2 mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from PTB (n1=23) and healthy controls (n2=42) were detected by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. mRNA expression levels of another four zinc transporters, Zip1, Zip6, Zip8 and ZnT1, were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Zip2 mRNA level was significantly up-regulated in PTB patients (P=0.001), and Zip8 mRNA level was significantly down-regulated compared with control individuals (P<0.001). In contrast, there were no significant changes in mRNA levels of Zip1, Zip6 and ZnT1 in either group (P>0.05). Zip2 protein expression levels increased in PTB patients compared with control individuals. Our study found that knockdown of ZIP2 with siRNA caused a decrease in Zip2 levels in PBMC of PTB patients, while reducing the expression of INF-γ (P<0.01) and increasing the expression of IL-6(P<0.01). These data provide evidence that increased expression of Zip2 gene is closely associated with immunity of PTB patients, suggesting that the Zip2 gene may play a key role in the initial infection control of the human body, by promoting and maintaining the immune response of adaptive T cells.

  13. Influence of subinhibitory concentrations of loracarbef (LY 163892) and daptomycin (LY 146032) on bacterial phagocytosis, killing and serum sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, M F; Adinolfi, L E; Utili, R; Marrone, A; Ruggiero, G

    1990-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pre-exposure of bacteria to a subinhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) of loracarbef (LY 163892) or daptomycin (LY 146032) could modify bacterial susceptibility to serum bactericidal activity and to phagocytosis and killing by murine peritoneal macrophages and by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Staphylococcus aureus grown in the presence of one quarter the MIC of loracarbef, and S. aureus exposed to one quarter the MIC of daptomycin were phagocytosed and killed in numbers significantly higher than non-exposed bacteria. Pre-exposure to loracarbef resulted in increased susceptibility of E. coli and H. influenzae type b to the bactericidal activity of antiserum, but exposure to loracarbef or daptomycin did not modify serum sensitivity of S. aureus. Loracarbef treatment and antiserum enhanced phagocytosis and killing of E. coli and H. influenzae type b to a greater extent than either antibiotic treatment or antiserum alone. These data indicate that loracarbef and daptomycin at sub-MIC enhance the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to cellular and host defence mechanisms.

  14. Florfenicol in non-lactating dairy cows: pharmacokinetics, binding to plasma proteins, and effects on phagocytosis by blood neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Bretzlaff, K N; Neff-Davis, C A; Ott, R S; Koritz, G D; Gustafsson, B K; Davis, L E

    1987-09-01

    Serial blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations of florfenicol (FLO) were measured following the administration of an intravenous bolus of 50 mg/kg FLO to five healthy non-lactating dairy cows. A triexponential equation provided the best fit of the data for four of the five cows. The mean value for beta corresponded to a half-life of 3.2 h. The mean apparent volume of distribution was 0.67 l/kg, and the mean body clearance was 0.15 l/kg/h. The extent of binding of FLO to bovine plasma proteins was determined in vitro at concentrations of 5 micrograms/ml and 50 micrograms/ml by equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. The drug was 18% and 19% bound by equilibrium dialysis, and 23% and 19% bound by ultrafiltration, at 5 micrograms/ml and 50 micrograms/ml, respectively. Phagocytosis of 32phosphorus-labelled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine blood neutrophils was compared in vitro between neutrophils incubated in phosphate-buffered saline alone or in combination with 5, 125, or 1000 micrograms/ml chloramphenicol or FLO. There was no significant effect of chloramphenicol at any concentration. Florfenicol significantly inhibited phagocytosis at all concentrations, but the percentage inhibition was small. The clinical significance, if any, of this effect of FLO remains to be demonstrated.

  15. O-Glycosylation in Cell Wall Proteins in Scedosporium prolificans Is Critical for Phagocytosis and Inflammatory Cytokines Production by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Xisto, Mariana I. D. S.; Bittencourt, Vera C. B.; Liporagi-Lopes, Livia Cristina; Haido, Rosa M. T.; Mendonça, Morena S. A.; Sassaki, Guilherme; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.; Romanos, Maria Teresa V.; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the importance of O-linked oligosaccharides present in peptidorhamnomannan (PRM) from the cell wall of the fungus Scedosporium prolificans for recognition and phagocytosis of conidia by macrophages. Adding PRM led to a dose-dependent inhibition of conidia phagocytosis, whereas de-O-glycosylated PRM did not show any effect. PRM induced the release of macrophage-derived antimicrobial compounds. However, O-linked oligosaccharides do not appear to be required for such induction. The effect of PRM on conidia-induced macrophage killing was examined using latex beads coated with PRM or de-O-glycosylated PRM. A decrease in macrophage viability similar to that caused by conidia was detected. However, macrophage killing was unaffected when beads coated with de-O-glycosylated PRM were used, indicating the toxic effect of O-linked oligosaccharides on macrophages. In addition, PRM triggered TNF-α release by macrophages. Chemical removal of O-linked oligosaccharides from PRM abolished cytokine induction, suggesting that the O-linked oligosaccharidic chains are important moieties involved in inflammatory responses through the induction of TNF-α secretion. In summary, we show that O-glycosylation plays a role in the recognition and uptake of S. prolificans by macrophages, killing of macrophages and production of pro- inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25875427

  16. CD36 Provides Host Protection Against Klebsiella pneumoniae Intrapulmonary Infection by Enhancing Lipopolysaccharide Responsiveness and Macrophage Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Olonisakin, Tolani F; Li, Huihua; Xiong, Zeyu; Kochman, Elizabeth J K; Yu, Minting; Qu, Yanyan; Hulver, Mei; Kolls, Jay K; St Croix, Claudette; Doi, Yohei; Nguyen, Minh-Hong; Shanks, Robert M Q; Mallampalli, Rama K; Kagan, Valerian E; Ray, Anuradha; Silverstein, Roy L; Ray, Prabir; Lee, Janet S

    2016-12-15

    Klebsiella pneumoniae remains an important cause of intrapulmonary infection and invasive disease worldwide. K. pneumoniae can evade serum killing and phagocytosis primarily through the expression of a polysaccharide capsule, but its pathogenicity is also influenced by host factors. We examined whether CD36, a scavenger receptor that recognizes pathogen and modified self ligands, is a host determinant of K. pneumoniae pathogenicity. Despite differences in serum sensitivity and virulence of 3 distinct K. pneumoniae (hypermucoviscous K1, research K2, and carbapenemase-producing ST258) strains, the absence of CD36 significantly increased host susceptibility to acute intrapulmonary infection by K. pneumoniae, regardless of strain. We demonstrate that CD36 enhances LPS responsiveness to K. pneumoniae to increase downstream cytokine production and macrophage phagocytosis that is independent of polysaccharide capsular antigen. Our study provides new insights into host determinants of K. pneumoniae pathogenicity and raises the possibility that functional mutations in CD36 may predispose individuals to K. pneumoniae syndromes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Staphylococcus aureus polysaccharide capsule and Efb-dependent fibrinogen shield act in concert to protect against phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers, Annemarie; Stapels, Daphne A. C.; Weerwind, Lleroy T.; Ko, Ya-Ping; Ruyken, Maartje; Lee, Jean C.; van Kessel, Kok P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has developed many mechanisms to escape from human immune responses. To resist phagocytic clearance, S. aureus expresses a polysaccharide capsule, which effectively masks the bacterial surface and surface-associated proteins, such as opsonins, from recognition by phagocytic cells. Additionally, secretion of the extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb) potently blocks phagocytic uptake of the pathogen. Efb creates a fibrinogen shield surrounding the bacteria by simultaneously binding complement C3b and fibrinogen at the bacterial surface. By means of neutrophil phagocytosis assays with fluorescently labelled encapsulated serotype 5 (CP5) and serotype 8 (CP8) strains we compare the immune-modulating function of these shielding mechanisms. The data indicate that, in highly encapsulated S. aureus strains, the polysaccharide capsule is able to prevent phagocytic uptake at plasma concentrations <10 %, but loses its protective ability at higher concentrations of plasma. Interestingly, Efb shows a strong inhibitory effect on both capsule-negative and encapsulated strains at all tested plasma concentrations. Furthermore, the results suggest that both shielding mechanisms can exist simultaneously and collaborate to provide optimal protection against phagocytosis at a broad range of plasma concentrations. As opsonizing antibodies will be shielded from recognition by either mechanism, incorporating both capsular polysaccharides and Efb in future vaccines could be of great importance. PMID:27112346

  18. A DELLA gene, RhGAI1, is a direct target of EIN3 and mediates ethylene-regulated rose petal cell expansion via repressing the expression of RhCesA2

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junping

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene plays an important role in organ growth. In Arabidopsis, ethylene can inhibit root elongation by stabilizing DELLA proteins. In previous work, it was found that ethylene suppressed cell expansion in rose petals, and five unisequences of DELLA genes are induced by ethylene. However, the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of DELLA genes by ethylene is still not clear. The results showed that the expression of RhGAI1 was induced in both ethylene-treated and ETR gene-silenced rose petals, and the promoter activity of RhGAI1 was strongly induced by RhEIN3-3 in Arabidopsis protoplasts. What is more, RhEIN3-3 could bind to the promoter of RhGAI1 directly in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Cell expansion was suppressed in RhGAI1-Δ17-overexpressed Arabidopsis petals and promoted in RhGAI1-silenced rose petals. Moreover, in RhGAI1-silenced petals, the expression of nine cell expansion-related genes was clearly changed, and RhGAI1 can bind to the promoter of RhCesA2 in an EMSA. These results suggested that RhGAI1 was regulated by ethylene at the transcriptional level, and RhGAI1 was a direct target of RhEIN3-3. Also, RhGAI1 was shown to be involved in cell expansion partially through regulating the expression of cell expansion-related genes. Furthermore, RhCesA2 was a direct target of RhGAI1. This work uncovers the transcriptional regulation of RhGAI1 by ethylene and provides a better understanding of how ethylene regulates petal expansion in roses. PMID:24014864

  19. Forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) and A2 (FOXA2) oppositely regulate human type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase gene in liver.

    PubMed

    Kanamoto, Naotetsu; Tagami, Tetsuya; Ueda-Sakane, Yoriko; Sone, Masakatsu; Miura, Masako; Yasoda, Akihiro; Tamura, Naohisa; Arai, Hiroshi; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1), a selenoenzyme that catalyzes the bioactivation of thyroid hormone, is expressed mainly in the liver. Its expression and activity are modulated by several factors, but the precise mechanism of its transcriptional regulation remains unclear. In the present study, we have analyzed the promoter of human D1 gene (hDIO1) to identify factors that prevalently increase D1 activity in the human liver. Deletion and mutation analyses demonstrated that a forkhead box (FOX)A binding site and an E-box site within the region between nucleotides -187 and -132 are important for hDIO1 promoter activity in the liver. EMSA demonstrated that FOXA1 and FOXA2 specifically bind to the FOXA binding site and that upstream stimulatory factor (USF) specifically binds to the E-box element. Overexpression of FOXA2 decreased hDIO1 promoter activity, and short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FOXA2 increased the expression of hDIO1 mRNA. In contrast, overexpression of USF1/2 increased hDIO1 promoter activity. Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FOXA1 decreased the expression of hDIO1 mRNA, but knockdown of both FOXA1 and FOXA2 restored it. The response of the hDIO1 promoter to USF was greatly attenuated in the absence of FOXA1. Taken together, these results indicate that a balance of FOXA1 and FOXA2 expression modulates hDIO1 expression in the liver.

  20. Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1)-p38 Pathway-dependent Cytoplasmic Translocation of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor NR4A2 Is Required for Oxidative Stress-induced Necrosis*

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takeshi; Sekine, Shiori; Naguro, Isao; Sekine, Yusuke; Ichijo, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play important roles in various cellular stress responses, including cell death, which is roughly categorized into apoptosis and necrosis. Although p38 signaling has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms of p38-mediated cell death are unclear. ASK1 is a stress-responsive MAP3K that acts as an upstream kinase of p38 and is activated by various stresses, such as oxidative stress. Here, we show that NR4A2, a member of the NR4A nuclear receptor family, acts as a necrosis promoter downstream of ASK1-p38 pathway during oxidative stress. Although NR4A2 is well known as a nucleus-localized transcription factor, we found that it is translocated into the cytosol after phosphorylation by p38. Because the phosphorylation site mutants of NR4A2 cannot rescue the cell death-promoting activity, ASK1-p38 pathway-dependent phosphorylation and subsequent cytoplasmic translocation of NR4A2 may be required for oxidative stress-induced cell death. In addition, NR4A2-mediated cell death does not depend on caspases and receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1)-RIP3 complex, suggesting that NR4A2 promotes an RIP kinase-independent necrotic type of cell death. Our findings may enable a more precise understanding of molecular mechanisms that regulate oxidative stress-induced and p38-mediated necrosis. PMID:25752609

  1. mTOR regulates phagosome and entotic vacuole fission.

    PubMed

    Krajcovic, Matej; Krishna, Shefali; Akkari, Leila; Joyce, Johanna A; Overholtzer, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Macroendocytic vacuoles formed by phagocytosis, or the live-cell engulfment program entosis, undergo sequential steps of maturation, leading to the fusion of lysosomes that digest internalized cargo. After cargo digestion, nutrients must be exported to the cytosol, and vacuole membranes must be processed by mechanisms that remain poorly defined. Here we find that phagosomes and entotic vacuoles undergo a late maturation step characterized by fission, which redistributes vacuolar contents into lysosomal networks. Vacuole fission is regulated by the serine/threonine protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which localizes to vacuole membranes surrounding engulfed cells. Degrading engulfed cells supply engulfing cells with amino acids that are used in translation, and rescue cell survival and mTORC1 activity in starved macrophages and tumor cells. These data identify a late stage of phagocytosis and entosis that involves processing of large vacuoles by mTOR-regulated membrane fission.

  2. mTOR regulates phagosome and entotic vacuole fission

    PubMed Central

    Krajcovic, Matej; Krishna, Shefali; Akkari, Leila; Joyce, Johanna A.; Overholtzer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Macroendocytic vacuoles formed by phagocytosis, or the live-cell engulfment program entosis, undergo sequential steps of maturation, leading to the fusion of lysosomes that digest internalized cargo. After cargo digestion, nutrients must be exported to the cytosol, and vacuole membranes must be processed by mechanisms that remain poorly defined. Here we find that phagosomes and entotic vacuoles undergo a late maturation step characterized by fission, which redistributes vacuolar contents into lysosomal networks. Vacuole fission is regulated by the serine/threonine protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which localizes to vacuole membranes surrounding engulfed cells. Degrading engulfed cells supply engulfing cells with amino acids that are used in translation, and rescue cell survival and mTORC1 activity in starved macrophages and tumor cells. These data identify a late stage of phagocytosis and entosis that involves processing of large vacuoles by mTOR-regulated membrane fission. PMID:24088573

  3. Tick Thioester-Containing Proteins and Phagocytosis Do Not Affect Transmission of Borrelia afzelii from the Competent Vector Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Urbanová, Veronika; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Hönig Mondeková, Helena; Šíma, Radek; Kopáček, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The present concept of the transmission of Lyme disease from Borrelia-infected Ixodes sp. ticks to the naïve host assumes that a low number of spirochetes that manage to penetrate the midgut epithelium migrate through the hemocoel to the salivary glands and subsequently infect the host with the aid of immunomodulatory compounds present in tick saliva. Therefore, humoral and/or cellular immune reactions within the tick hemocoel may play an important role in tick competence to act as a vector for borreliosis. To test this hypothesis we have examined complement-like reactions in the hemolymph of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus against Borrelia afzelii (the most common vector and causative agent of Lyme disease in Europe). We demonstrate that I. ricinus hemolymph does not exhibit borreliacidal effects comparable to complement-mediated lysis of bovine sera. However, after injection of B. afzelii into the tick hemocoel, the spirochetes were efficiently phagocytosed by tick hemocytes and this cellular defense was completely eliminated by pre-injection of latex beads. As tick thioester-containing proteins (T-TEPs) are components of the tick complement system, we performed RNAi-mediated silencing of all nine genes encoding individual T-TEPs followed by in vitro phagocytosis assays. Silencing of two molecules related to the C3 complement component (IrC3-2 and IrC3-3) significantly suppressed phagocytosis of B. afzelii, while knockdown of IrTep (insect type TEP) led to its stimulation. However, RNAi-mediated silencing of T-TEPs or elimination of phagocytosis by injection of latex beads in B. afzelii-infected I. ricinus nymphs had no obvious impact on the transmission of spirochetes to naïve mice, as determined by B. afzelii infection of murine tissues following tick infestation. This result supports the concept that Borrelia spirochetes are capable of avoiding complement-related reactions within the hemocoel of ticks competent to transmit Lyme disease. PMID:28361038

  4. Quantitative 3D In Silico Modeling (q3DISM) of Cerebral Amyloid-beta Phagocytosis in Rodent Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Guillot-Sestier, Marie-Victoire; Weitz, Tara M; Town, Terrence

    2016-12-26

    Neuroinflammation is now recognized as a major etiological factor in neurodegenerative disease. Mononuclear phagocytes are innate immune cells responsible for phagocytosis and clearance of debris and detritus. These cells include CNS-resident macrophages known as microglia, and mononuclear phagocytes infiltrating from the periphery. Light microscopy has generally been used to visualize phagocytosis in rodent or human brain specimens. However, qualitative methods have not provided definitive evidence of in vivo phagocytosis. Here, we describe quantitative 3D in silico modeling (q3DISM), a robust method allowing for true 3D quantitation of amyloid-β (Aβ) phagocytosis by mononuclear phagocytes in rodent Alzheimer's Disease (AD) models. The method involves fluorescently visualizing Aβ encapsulated within phagolysosomes in rodent brain sections. Large z-dimensional confocal datasets are then 3D reconstructed for quantitation of Aβ spatially colocalized within the phagolysosome. We demonstrate the successful application of q3DISM to mouse and rat brains, but this methodology can be extended to virtually any phagocytic event in any tissue.

  5. Polyreactive Antibodies Plus Complement Enhance the Phagocytosis of Cells Made Apoptotic by UV-Light or HIV

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhao-hua; Wild, Teresa; Xiong, Ying; Sylvers, Peter; Zhang, Yahong; Zhang, Luxia; Wahl, Larry; Wahl, Sharon M.; Kozlowski, Steven; Notkins, Abner L.

    2013-01-01

    Polyreactive antibodies are a major component of the natural antibody repertoire and are capable of binding a variety of structurally unrelated antigens. Many of the properties attributed to natural antibodies, in fact, are turning out to be due to polyreactive antibodies. In humans, each day, billions of cells undergo apoptosis. In the present experiments, we show by ImageStream technology that although polyreactive antibodies do not bind to live T cells they bind to both the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of late apoptotic cells, fix complement, generate the anaphylatoxin C5a and increase by as much as 5 fold complement-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages. Of particular importance, T cells undergoing apoptosis following infection with HIV also bind polyreactive antibodies and are phagocytosed. We conclude that the polyreactive antibodies in the natural antibody repertoire contribute in a major way to the clearance of cells made apoptotic by a variety of natural and infectious processes. PMID:23881356

  6. Effects of chitinolytic and proteolytic enzymes on in vitro phagocytosis of microsporidians by spleen macrophages of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L.

    PubMed

    Leiro, J; Ortega, M; Siso, M I; Sanmartín, M L; Ubeira, F M

    1997-10-06

    The serum of many teleosts, including turbot, contains chitinolytic and proteolytic enzymes. In the present study, the possible role of these enzymes in nonspecific immune responses to microsporidian infection was investigated. The rate of phagocytosis of Glugea caulleryi spores by turbot splenic macrophages was significantly reduced after pretreatment of spores with proteolytic or chitinolytic enzymes, suggesting that alteration of surface glycoproteins affects spore recognition. However, intracellular superoxide production by macrophages was significantly higher after stimulation with protease-treated spores, or with untreated spores plus normal turbot serum (NTS), than after stimulation with untreated spores in the absence of NTS. These results support the view that the chitinolytic and proteolytic activities in teleost serum may play a role in defence against microsporidian infection.

  7. Non-opsonic phagocytosis of homologous non-toxigenic and toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains by human U-937 macrophages.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Cíntia Silva; dos Santos, Louisy Sanches; de Souza, Monica Cristina; dos Santos Dourado, Fernanda; de Souza de Oliveira Dias, Alexandre Alves; Sabbadini, Priscila Soares; Pereira, Gabriela Andrade; Cabral, Maulori Curié; Hirata Junior, Raphael; de Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza

    2010-01-01

    As interactions between bacteria and macrophages dictate the outcome of most infectious diseases, analyses of molecular mechanisms of non-opsonic phagocytosis should lead to new approaches for the prevention of diphtheria and systemic Corynebacterium diphtheriae infections. The present study aimed to evaluate human macrophage-bacteria interactions in the absence of opsonin antibodies and the influence of the tox gene on this process. Homologous C. diphtheriae tox+ and tox- strains were evaluated for adhesion, entering and survival within U-937 human macrophages at different incubation periods. Higher numbers of viable bacteria associated with and internalized by macrophages were demonstrated for the tox+ strain. However, viable intracellular bacteria were detected at T-24 hr only for the tox- strain. Cytoskeletal inhibitors, cytochalasin E, genistein and colchicine, inhibited intracellular viability of both strains at different levels. Bacterial replication was evidenced at T-24 hr in supernatants of monolayers infected with the tox- strain. Host cell death and nuclear alterations were evidenced by the Trypan blue exclusion assay and DAPI fluorescence microscopy. ELISA of histone-associated DNA fragments allowed detection of apoptosis and necrosis induced by tox+ and tox- strains at T-1 hr and T-3 hr. In conclusion, human macrophages in the absence of opsonins may not be promptly effective at killing diphtheria bacilli. The presence of the tox gene influences the susceptibility of C. diphtheriae to human macrophages and the outcome of non-opsonic phagocytosis. C. diphtheriae strains exhibit strategies to survive within macrophages and to exert apoptosis and necrosis in human phagocytic cells, independent of the tox gene.

  8. The Adaptor Molecule Nck Localizes the WAVE Complex to Promote Actin Polymerization during CEACAM3-Mediated Phagocytosis of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Delgado Tascón, Julia; Nyffenegger-Jann, Naja J.; Hauck, Christof R.

    2012-01-01

    Background CEACAM3 is a granulocyte receptor mediating the opsonin-independent recognition and phagocytosis of human-restricted CEACAM-binding bacteria. CEACAM3 function depends on an intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-like sequence that is tyrosine phosphorylated by Src family kinases upon receptor engagement. The phosphorylated ITAM-like sequence triggers GTP-loading of Rac by directly associating with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav. Rac stimulation in turn is critical for actin cytoskeleton rearrangements that generate lamellipodial protrusions and lead to bacterial uptake. Principal Findings In our present study we provide biochemical and microscopic evidence that the adaptor proteins Nck1 and Nck2, but not CrkL, Grb2 or SLP-76, bind to tyrosine phosphorylated CEACAM3. The association is phosphorylation-dependent and requires the Nck SH2 domain. Overexpression of the isolated Nck1 SH2 domain, RNAi-mediated knock-down of Nck1, or genetic deletion of Nck1 and Nck2 interfere with CEACAM3-mediated bacterial internalization and with the formation of lamellipodial protrusions. Nck is constitutively associated with WAVE2 and directs the actin nucleation promoting WAVE complex to tyrosine phosphorylated CEACAM3. In turn, dominant-negative WAVE2 as well as shRNA-mediated knock-down of WAVE2 or the WAVE-complex component Nap1 reduce internalization of bacteria. Conclusions Our results provide novel mechanistic insight into CEACAM3-initiated phagocytosis. We suggest that the CEACAM3 ITAM-like sequence is optimized to co-ordinate a minimal set of cellular factors needed to efficiently trigger actin-based lamellipodial protrusions and rapid pathogen engulfment. PMID:22448228

  9. Phagocytosis of Enterovirus-Infected Pancreatic β-Cells Triggers Innate Immune Responses in Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Barbara M.; Kramer, Matthijs; Ansems, Marleen; Lanke, Kjerstin H.W.; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Piganelli, Jon D.; Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo; Galama, Jochem M.D.; Adema, Gosse J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder in which enteroviruses, such as coxsackie B viruses and echoviruses, are possible environmental factors that can trigger or accelerate disease. The development or acceleration of type 1 diabetes depends on the balance between autoreactive effector T-cells and regulatory T-cells. This balance is particularly influenced by dendritic cells (DCs). The goal of this study was to investigate the interaction between enterovirus-infected human pancreatic islets and human DCs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In vitro phagocytosis of human or porcine primary islets or Min6 mouse insuloma cells by DCs was investigated by flow cytometry and confocal analysis. Subsequent innate DC responses were monitored by quantitative PCR and Western blotting of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). RESULTS In this study, we show that both mock- and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-infected human and porcine pancreatic islets were efficiently phagocytosed by human monocyte–derived DCs. Phagocytosis of CVB3-infected, but not mock-infected, human and porcine islets resulted in induction of ISGs in DCs, including the retinoic acid–inducible gene (RIG)-I–like helicases (RLHs), RIG-I, and melanoma differentiation–associated gene 5 (Mda5). Studies with murine Min6 insuloma cells, which were also efficiently phagocytosed, revealed that increased ISG expression in DCs upon encountering CVB-infected cells resulted in an antiviral state that protected DCs from subsequent enterovirus infection. The observed innate antiviral responses depended on RNA within the phagocytosed cells, required endosomal acidification, and were type I interferon dependent. CONCLUSIONS Human DCs can phagocytose enterovirus-infected pancreatic cells and subsequently induce innate antiviral responses, such as induction of RLHs. These responses may have important consequences for immune homeostasis in vivo and may play a role in the etiology of type 1 diabetes. PMID:20071599

  10. Effect of calcium carbonate particle shape on phagocytosis and pro-inflammatory response in differentiated THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Yosuke; Sugino, Sakiko; Eguchi, Kenichiro; Tajika, Masahiko; Abe, Hiroko; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Horie, Masanori

    2017-08-19

    Phagocytosis is a physiological process used by immune cells such as macrophages to actively ingest and destroy foreign pathogens and particles. It is the cellular process that leads to the failure of drug delivery carriers because the drug carriers are cleared by immune cells before reaching their target. Therefore, clarifying the mechanism of particle phagocytosis would have a significant implication for both fundamental understanding and biomedical engineering. As far as we know, the effect of particle shape on biological response has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we investigated the particle shape-dependent cellular uptake and biological response of differentiated THP-1 macrophages by using calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 )-based particles as a model. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that the high uptake of needle-shaped CaCO 3 particles by THP-1 macrophages because of their high phagocytic activity. In addition, the THP-1 macrophages exposed to needle-shaped CaCO 3 accumulated a large amount of calcium in the intracellular matrix. The enhanced release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) by the THP-1 macrophages suggested that the needle-shaped CaCO 3 particles trigger a pro-inflammatory response. In contrast, no pro-inflammatory response was induced in undifferentiated THP-1 monocytes exposed to either needle- or cuboidal-shaped CaCO 3 particles, probably because of their low phagocytic activity. We also found that phosphate-coated particles efficiently repressed cellular uptake and the resulting pro-inflammatory response in both THP-1 macrophages and primary peritoneal macrophages. Our results indicate that the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages upon exposure to CaCO 3 particles is shape- and surface property-dependent, and is mediated by the intracellular accumulation of calcium ions released from phagocytosed CaCO 3 particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The ADP-Ribosyltransferase Domain of the Effector Protein ExoS Inhibits Phagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Stephanie M.; Logan, Latania K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen commonly associated with nosocomial infections such as hospital-acquired pneumonia. It uses a type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins directly into the cytosol of host cells. Type III secretion in P. aeruginosa has been linked to severe disease and worse clinical outcomes in animal and human studies. The majority of P. aeruginosa strains secrete ExoS, a bifunctional toxin with GTPase-activating protein and ADP-ribosyltransferase activities. Numerous in vitro studies have investigated the targets and cellular effects of ExoS, linking both its enzymatic activities with inhibition of bacterial internalization. However, little is known about how this toxin facilitates the progression of infection in vivo. In this study, we used a mouse model to investigate the role of ExoS in inhibiting phagocytosis during pneumonia. We first confirmed previous findings that the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of ExoS, but not the GTPase-activating protein activity, was responsible for bacterial persistence and decreased host survival in this model. We then used two distinct assays to demonstrate that ExoS inhibited phagocytosis during pneumonia. In contrast to the findings of several in vitro studies, this in vivo inhibition was also dependent on the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, but not the GTPase-activating protein activity, of ExoS. These results demonstrate for the first time the antiphagocytic function of ExoS in the context of an actual infection and indicate that blocking the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of ExoS may have potential therapeutic benefit. PMID:24917597

  12. Effect of trastuzumab interchain disulfide bond cleavage on Fcγ receptor binding and antibody-dependent tumour cell phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mami; Yamanoi, Ayaka; Machino, Yusuke; Ootsubo, Michiko; Izawa, Ken-ichi; Kohroki, Junya; Masuho, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The Fc domain of human IgG1 binds to Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) to induce effector functions such as phagocytosis. There are four interchain disulfide bonds between the H and L chains. In this study, the disulfide bonds within the IgG1 trastuzumab (TRA), which is specific for HER2, were cleaved by mild S-sulfonation or by mild reduction followed by S-alkylation with three different reagents. The cleavage did not change the binding activities of TRA to HER2-bearing SK-BR-3 cells. The binding activities of TRA to FcγRIIA and FcγRIIB were greatly enhanced by modification with mild reduction and S-alkylation with ICH2CONH2 or N-(4-aminophenyl) maleimide, while the binding activities of TRA to FcγRI and FcγRIIIA were decreased by any of the four modifications. However, the interchain disulfide bond cleavage by the different modifications did not change the antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) of SK-BR-3 cells by activated THP-1 cells. The order of FcγR expression levels on the THP-1 cells was FcγRII > FcγRI > FcγRIII and ADCP was inhibited by blocking antibodies against FcγRI and FcγRII. These results imply that the effect of the interchain disulfide bond cleavage on FcγRs binding and ADCP is dependent on modifications of the cysteine residues and the FcγR isotypes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of trastuzumab interchain disulfide bond cleavage on Fcγ receptor binding and antibody-dependent tumour cell phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Mami; Yamanoi, Ayaka; Machino, Yusuke; Ootsubo, Michiko; Izawa, Ken-ichi; Kohroki, Junya; Masuho, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The Fc domain of human IgG1 binds to Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) to induce effector functions such as phagocytosis. There are four interchain disulfide bonds between the H and L chains. In this study, the disulfide bonds within the IgG1 trastuzumab (TRA), which is specific for HER2, were cleaved by mild S-sulfonation or by mild reduction followed by S-alkylation with three different reagents. The cleavage did not change the binding activities of TRA to HER2-bearing SK-BR-3 cells. The binding activities of TRA to FcγRIIA and FcγRIIB were greatly enhanced by modification with mild reduction and S-alkylation with ICH2CONH2 or N-(4-aminophenyl) maleimide, while the binding activities of TRA to FcγRI and FcγRIIIA were decreased by any of the four modifications. However, the interchain disulfide bond cleavage by the different modifications did not change the antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) of SK-BR-3 cells by activated THP-1 cells. The order of FcγR expression levels on the THP-1 cells was FcγRII > FcγRI > FcγRIII and ADCP was inhibited by blocking antibodies against FcγRI and FcγRII. These results imply that the effect of the interchain disulfide bond cleavage on FcγRs binding and ADCP is dependent on modifications of the cysteine residues and the FcγR isotypes. PMID:26254483

  14. Parasitization of Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera) by the ectoparasitic wasp, Eulophus pennicornis, suppresses haemocyte-mediated recognition of non-self and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Richards, E H.; Edwards, J P.

    2000-01-01

    Although many endoparasitic wasps suppress the haemocyte-mediated immune defences of their insect hosts, the effects of ectoparasitoids are virtually unknown. In view of this, a study has been made of the ectoparasitic wasp, Eulophus pennicornis, and its host, the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea. For unparasitized insects, in vitro assays indicated that less than 3.0% of L. oleracea haemocytes on a monolayer formed rosettes with yeast cells or fresh rabbit erythrocytes (rbc), and virtually no phagocytosis of these particles occurred. In addition, although fixed rbc formed rosettes with 51.21% of haemocytes, only about 3.0% of the haemocytes ingested one or more of these particles. In contrast to this, B. cereus and E. coli were readily phagocytosed by 14.75% and 53.70% of haemocytes, respectively. These results indicate that L. oleracea haemocytes can recognise different types of non-self particles and demonstrate that ingestion does not necessarily follow attachment. When rosetting and phagocytosis assays were performed with fixed rbc and FITC-labelled E. coli, and haemocytes from starved L. oleracea, PBS injected L. oleracea, and experimentally envenomated insects on day five of treatment, there was no significant difference in the percentage of rosetting or phagocytosis occurring. When haemocytes from parasitized insects on day five of treatment were utilised, however, rosetting and phagocytosis were reduced by 31.41% and 34.94%, respectively. Thus, the effects of parasitization and experimental envenomation are not the same. In addition, suppression of host haemocyte-mediated recognition and phagocytosis was not a secondary effect of nutritional deprivation and was not due to ectoparasitoid venom components, rather it was a direct result of parasitization of L. oleracea by E. pennicornis. The putative nature and source of the immunosuppressive factor(s) involved is discussed with reference to those produced by endoparasitic wasps.

  15. Essential diurnal Rac1 activation during retinal phagocytosis requires αvβ5 integrin but not tyrosine kinases focal adhesion kinase or Mer tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yingyu; Finnemann, Silvia C.

    2012-01-01

    Diurnal phagocytosis of shed photoreceptor outer-segment particles by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells belongs to a group of conserved clearance mechanisms employing αv integrins upstream of tyrosine kinases and Rho GTPases. In this study, we tested the interdependence of the tyrosine kinases focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK) and Rho GTPases during engulfment. RPE cells activated and redistributed Rac1, but not RhoA or Cdc42, during phagocytosis. Toxin B, overexpression of dominant-negative Rac1, or decreasing Rac1 expression prevented particle engulfment. Fluorescence microscopy showed that Rac1 inhibition had no obvious effect on F-actin arrangement in resting RPE but prevented recruitment of F-actin to surface-bound phagocytic particles. Quantification of active GTP-Rac1 in wild-type and mutant RPE in culture and in vivo revealed that Rac1 activation during phagocytosis requires αvβ5 integrin and its ligand milk fat globule EGF factor-8 (MFG-E8) but not the receptor tyrosine kinase MerTK. Abolishing tyrosine kinase signaling downstream of αvβ5 toward MerTK by inhibiting FAK specifically or tyrosine kinases generally neither prevented Rac1 activation nor F-actin recruitment during phagocytosis. Likewise, inhibiting Rac1 had no effect on FAK or MerTK activation. We conclude that MerTK activation via FAK and F-actin recruitment via Rac1 both require MFG-E8–ligated αvβ5 integrin. Both pathways are independently activated and required for clearance phagocytosis. PMID:22262456

  16. Surveillance, Phagocytosis, and Inflammation: How Never-Resting Microglia Influence Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Amanda; Beccari, Sol; Diaz-Aparicio, Irune; Encinas, Juan M.; Comeau, Samuel; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2014-01-01

    Microglia cells are the major orchestrator of the brain inflammatory response. As such, they are traditionally studied in various contexts of trauma, injury, and disease, where they are well-known for regulating a wide range of physiological processes by their release of proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and trophic factors, among other crucial mediators. In the last few years, however, this classical view of microglia was challenged by a series of discoveries showing their active and positive contribution to normal brain functions. In light of these discoveries, surveillant microglia are now emerging as an important effector of cellular plasticity in the healthy brain, alongside astrocytes and other types of inflammatory cells. Here, we will review the roles of microglia in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and their regulation by inflammation during chronic stress, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases, with a particular emphasis on their underlying molecular mechanisms and their functional consequences for learning and memory. PMID:24772353

  17. Trastuzumab mediates antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and phagocytosis to the same extent in both adjuvant and metastatic HER2/neu breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Petricevic, Branka; Laengle, Johannes; Singer, Josef; Sachet, Monika; Fazekas, Judit; Steger, Guenther; Bartsch, Rupert; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Bergmann, Michael

    2013-12-12

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb), such as trastuzumab are a valuable addition to breast cancer therapy. Data obtained from neoadjuvant settings revealed that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a major mechanism of action for the mAb trastuzumab. Conflicting results still call into question whether disease progression, prolonged treatment or concomitant chemotherapy influences ADCC and related immunological phenomena. We analyzed the activity of ADCC and antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) positive breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab therapy either in an adjuvant (n = 13) or metastatic (n = 15) setting as well as from trastuzumab treatment-naive (t-naive) HER2/neu negative patients (n = 15). PBMCs from healthy volunteers (n = 24) were used as controls. ADCC and ADCP activity was correlated with the expression of antibody binding Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR)I (CD64), FcγRII (CD32) and FcγRIII (CD16) on CD14+ (monocytes) and CD56+ (NK) cells, as well as the expression of CD107a+ (LAMP-1) on CD56+ cells and the total amount of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ (Treg) cells. In metastatic patients, markers were correlated with progression-free survival (PFS). ADCC activity was significantly down regulated in metastatic, adjuvant and t-naive patient cohorts as compared to healthy controls. Reduced ADCC activity was inversely correlated with the expression of CD107a on CD56+ cells in adjuvant patients. ADCC and ADCP activity of the patient cohorts were similar, regardless of treatment duration or additional chemotherapy. PFS in metastatic patients inversely correlated with the number of peripheral Treg cells. The reduction of ADCC in patients as compared to healthy controls calls for adjuvant strategies, such as immune-enhancing agents, to improve the activity of trastuzumab. However, efficacy of trastuzumab-specific ADCC and ADCP appears not to

  18. Trastuzumab mediates antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and phagocytosis to the same extent in both adjuvant and metastatic HER2/neu breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Monoclonal antibodies (mAb), such as trastuzumab are a valuable addition to breast cancer therapy. Data obtained from neoadjuvant settings revealed that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a major mechanism of action for the mAb trastuzumab. Conflicting results still call into question whether disease progression, prolonged treatment or concomitant chemotherapy influences ADCC and related immunological phenomena. Methods We analyzed the activity of ADCC and antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) positive breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab therapy either in an adjuvant (n = 13) or metastatic (n = 15) setting as well as from trastuzumab treatment-naive (t-naive) HER2/neu negative patients (n = 15). PBMCs from healthy volunteers (n = 24) were used as controls. ADCC and ADCP activity was correlated with the expression of antibody binding Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR)I (CD64), FcγRII (CD32) and FcγRIII (CD16) on CD14+ (monocytes) and CD56+ (NK) cells, as well as the expression of CD107a+ (LAMP-1) on CD56+ cells and the total amount of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ (Treg) cells. In metastatic patients, markers were correlated with progression-free survival (PFS). Results ADCC activity was significantly down regulated in metastatic, adjuvant and t-naive patient cohorts as compared to healthy controls. Reduced ADCC activity was inversely correlated with the expression of CD107a on CD56+ cells in adjuvant patients. ADCC and ADCP activity of the patient cohorts were similar, regardless of treatment duration or additional chemotherapy. PFS in metastatic patients inversely correlated with the number of peripheral Treg cells. Conclusion The reduction of ADCC in patients as compared to healthy controls calls for adjuvant strategies, such as immune-enhancing agents, to improve the activity of trastuzumab. However, efficacy of trastuzumab

  19. Opsonization of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites with nonspecific immunoglobulins promotes their phagocytosis by macrophages and inhibits their proliferation in nonphagocytic cells in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Vercammen, M; Scorza, T; El Bouhdidi, A; Van Beeck, K; Carlier, Y; Dubremetz, J F; Verschueren, H

    1999-11-01

    We have recently shown that Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites grown in in vitro culture can bind unspecific immunoglobulin (Ig) through their Fc moiety. We show now that Fc receptors are also present on T. gondii within the host animal, and that intraperitoneal parasites in immunocompetent mice are saturated with unspecific Ig. We have also investigated the effect of the parasite's Fc receptor on the interaction of tachyzoites with mammalian cells, using the Vero cell line as a model for nonphagocytic host cells and murine peritoneal macrophages in primary culture as a model for phagocytic cells. Coating of tachyzoites with parasite-unrelated Ig did not enhance their invasive capacity in either target cell type, but slightly decreased the parasite proliferation. Moreover, phagocytosis by macrophages was increased by approximately 50% when parasites were coated with unspecific Ig. These results indicate that the Fc receptor on T. gondii affects the balance between invasion and phagocytosis in a way that is detrimental to the parasites.

  20. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Induces Pancreatic Cancer Cell Proliferation by a Non-Catalytic Mechanism That Requires Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 Activation through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Annexin A2

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Zapater, Elena; Peiró, Sandra; Roda, Oriol; Corominas, Josep M.; Aguilar, Susana; Ampurdanés, Coral; Real, Francisco X.; Navarro, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal carcinoma and is involved in tumor progression. This effect is probably mediated through the activation of angiogenesis, cell invasion, and cell proliferation. Previous studies support the notion that the effects of tPA on cell invasion require its proteolytic activity. Here, we report the molecular mechanism responsible for the proliferative effects of tPA on pancreatic tumor cells. tPA activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway in a manner that is independent of its catalytic activity. We also show that at least two membrane receptors, epidermal growth factor receptor and annexin A2, which are overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, are involved in the transduction of tPA signaling in pancreatic tumors. This observation suggests the establishment of an amplification loop in tumor cell proliferation. Double immunofluorescence experiments showed co-localization of tPA/epidermal growth factor receptor and tPA/annexin A2 in pancreas cancer cells. These results add novel insights into the non-catalytic functions of tPA in cancer and the molecular mechanisms behind the effects of this protease on cell proliferation, including a role for epidermal growth factor receptor. PMID:17456763

  1. Evaluation of particle uptake in human blood monocyte-derived cells in vitro. Does phagocytosis activity of dendritic cells measure up with macrophages?

    PubMed

    Thiele, L; Rothen-Rutishauser, B; Jilek, S; Wunderli-Allenspach, H; Merkle, H P; Walter, E

    2001-09-11

    This work focuses on microparticles as potential antigen delivery systems to target professional antigen-presenting cells. Surface modified polystyrene microparticles were administered to human-derived macrophages (MPhis) and dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro to evaluate the phagocytosis activity of each cell type. To discriminate between internalised particles and those closely attached to the outside of the cells, particle internalisation was verified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Especially positively charged particles tend to stick to the outer cell membrane and may lead to false positive results when measured by conventional microscopy. In contrast, fluorescence microscopy in combination with an extracellular fluorescence quenching agent (trypan blue) allows the unequivocal assessment of particle uptake for screening purposes. For this assay, the fluorescent label needs to be in direct contact to the quenching agent and cannot be localised inside the particle core. Different types of microparticles varying in size, surface-material and zeta potential resulted in vast differences regarding their uptake by MPhis and DCs as well as the maturation of DCs. Negatively-charged carboxylated and bovine serum albumin-coated particles were phagocytosed by MPhis to a relatively small extent. Interestingly, phagocytosis of these particles was still significantly lower in DCs while positively charged poly-L-lysine (PLL) coated particles induced high phagocytosis activity in both cell types. By comparing our results with literature data, we conclude that phagocytosis activity of DCs and MPhis largely depends on particle size and surface charge and is also influenced by the character of bulk and coating material. PLL can be directed to DCs and MPhis with comparable efficiency and, in addition, induce maturation of DCs.

  2. Activation of the classical complement pathway by Bacillus anthracis is the primary mechanism for spore phagocytosis and involves the spore surface protein BclA.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chunfang; Jenkins, Sarah A; Xue, Qiong; Xu, Yi

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between spores of Bacillus anthracis and macrophages are critical for the development of anthrax infections, as spores are thought to use macrophages as vehicles to disseminate in the host. In this study, we report a novel mechanism for phagocytosis of B. anthracis spores. Murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7, bone marrow-derived macrophages, and primary peritoneal macrophages from mice were used. The results indicated that activation of the classical complement pathway (CCP) was a primary mechanism for spore phagocytosis. Phagocytosis was significantly reduced in the absence of C1q or C3. C3 fragments were found deposited on the spore surface, and the deposition was dependent on C1q and Ca(2+). C1q recruitment to the spore surface was mediated by the spore surface protein BclA, as recombinant BclA bound directly and specifically to C1q and inhibited C1q binding to spores in a dose-dependent manner. C1q binding to spores lacking BclA (ΔbclA) was also significantly reduced compared with wild-type spores. In addition, deposition of both C3 and C4 as well as phagocytosis of spores were significantly reduced when BclA was absent, but were not reduced in the absence of IgG, suggesting that BclA, but not IgG, is important in these processes. Taken together, these results support a model in which spores actively engage CCP primarily through BclA interaction with C1q, leading to CCP activation and opsonophagocytosis of spores in an IgG-independent manner. These findings are likely to have significant implications on B. anthracis pathogenesis and microbial manipulation of complement.

  3. Shifts in the fluorescence lifetime of EGFP during bacterial phagocytosis measured by phase-sensitive flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenyan; Houston, Kevin D.; Houston, Jessica P.

    2017-01-01

    Phase-sensitive flow cytometry (PSFC) is a technique in which fluorescence excited state decay times are measured as fluorescently labeled cells rapidly transit a finely focused, frequency-modulated laser beam. With PSFC the fluorescence lifetime is taken as a cytometric parameter to differentiate intracellular events that are challenging to distinguish with standard flow cytometry. For example PSFC can report changes in protein conformation, expression, interactions, and movement, as well as differences in intracellular microenvironments. This contribution focuses on the latter case by taking PSFC measurements of macrophage cells when inoculated with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing E. coli. During progressive internalization of EGFP-E. coli, fluorescence lifetimes were acquired and compared to control groups. It was hypothesized that fluorescence lifetimes would correlate well with phagocytosis because phagosomes become acidified and the average fluorescence lifetime of EGFP is known to be affected by pH. We confirmed that average EGFP lifetimes consistently decreased (3 to 2 ns) with inoculation time. The broad significance of this work is the demonstration of how high-throughput fluorescence lifetime measurements correlate well to changes that are not easily tracked by intensity-only cytometry, which is affected by heterogeneous protein expression, cell-to-cell differences in phagosome formation, and number of bacterium engulfed.

  4. Both the apoptotic suicide pathway and phagocytosis are required for a programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Holly L; Horvitz, H Robert

    2016-05-16

    Programmed cell deaths in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are generally considered suicides. Dying cells are engulfed by neighboring cells in a process of phagocytosis. To better understand the interaction between the engulfment and death processes, we analyzed B.al/rapaav cell death, which has been previously described as engulfment-dependent and hence as a possible murder. We found that B.al/rapaav is resistant to caspase-pathway activation: the caspase-mediated suicide pathway initiates the cell-death process but is insufficient to cause B.al/rapaav death without the subsequent assistance of engulfment. When the engulfing cell P12.pa is absent, other typically non-phagocytic cells can display cryptic engulfment potential and facilitate this death. We term this death an "assisted suicide" and propose that assisted suicides likely occur in other organisms. The study of assisted suicides might provide insight into non-cell autonomous influences on cell death. Understanding the mechanism that causes B.al/rapaav to be resistant to activation of the caspase pathway might reveal the basis of differences in the sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli of tumor and normal cells, a key issue in the field of cancer therapeutics.

  5. CD8+ T Cells Restrict Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infection: Bypass of Anti-Phagocytosis by Targeting Antigen-Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Molly A.; Loomis, Wendy P.; Mecsas, Joan; Starnbach, Michael N.; Isberg, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    All Yersinia species target and bind to phagocytic cells, but uptake and destruction of bacteria are prevented by injection of anti-phagocytic Yop proteins into the host cell. Here we provide evidence that CD8+ T cells, which canonically eliminate intracellular pathogens, are important for restricting Yersinia, even though bacteria are primarily found in an extracellular locale during the course of disease. In a model of infection with attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis, mice deficient for CD8+ T cells were more susceptible to infection than immunocompetent mice. Although exposure to attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis generated TH1-type antibody responses and conferred protection against challenge with fully virulent bacteria, depletion of CD8+ T cells during challenge severely compromised protective immunity. Strikingly, mice lacking the T cell effector molecule perforin also succumbed to Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Given that the function of perforin is to kill antigen-presenting cells, we reasoned that cell death marks bacteria-associated host cells for internalization by neighboring phagocytes, thus allowing ingestion and clearance of the attached bacteria. Supportive of this model, cytolytic T cell killing of Y. pseudotuberculosis–associated host cells results in engulfment by neighboring phagocytes of both bacteria and target cells, bypassing anti-phagocytosis. Our findings are consistent with a novel function for cell-mediated immune responses protecting against extracellular pathogens like Yersinia: perforin and CD8+ T cells are critical for hosts to overcome the anti-phagocytic action of Yops. PMID:19730693

  6. Negative correlation between mycological surfaces pollution in hospital emergency departments and blood monocytes phagocytosis of healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Lewicki, Sławomir; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Winnicka, Izabela; Leszczyński, Paweł; Cieślik, Piotr; Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa; Bohacz, Justyna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Kocik, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find a possible relationship between the presence of yeast and filamentous fungi in hospital emergency departments and the activity levels of blood granulocytes and monocytes in emergency personnel. The study of mycological pollution was conducted in winter; the samples were collected from 10 Warsaw hospitals emergency departments (HE D) and in 10 control locations (office spaces) and included air samples and swabbing of floor and walls. The blood for immunological investigation was taken in spring, from 40 men, 26 to 53 years old, healthcare workers of these departments, who have been working for at least 5 years in their current positions, and from 36 corresponding controls, working in control offices. Evaluation of blood leukocyte subpopulations was done by hematological analyzer and cytometry analysis and monocyte and granulocyte phagocytosis by Phagotest. There were no significant differences in the level of mycological contamination between the test and control places. The qualitative analysis of the surfaces and air samples revealed a prevalence of strains belonging to Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. genus. Statistical analysis revealed the existence of negative correlation between the number of phagocytizing blood monocytes and fungi spores content on floor and wall surfaces in hospital emergency departments (r = –0.3282, p < 0.05 and positive correlation between the number of phagocytizing monocytes in the blood of office workers and fungi pollution of control offices (r = 0.4421, p < 0.01). PMID:26648782

  7. Palmitoylethanolamide stimulates phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 by macrophages and increases the resistance of mice against infections.

    PubMed

    Redlich, Sandra; Ribes, Sandra; Schütze, Sandra; Nau, Roland

    2014-06-14

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous lipid and a congener of anandamide, possesses a wide range of effects related to metabolic and cellular homeostasis including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. In vitro, we studied the ability of macrophages to phagocytose Escherichia coli K1 after stimulation with increasing doses of PEA. In vivo, wild-type mice were treated with PEA intraperitoneally 12 hours and 30 minutes before infection. Meningoencephalitis or sepsis was induced by intracerebral or intraperitoneal infection with E. coli K1. Stimulation of macrophages with PEA for 30 minutes increased the phagocytosis of E. coli K1 without inducing the release of TNFα or CXCL1. Intracellular killing of E. coli K1 was higher in PEA-stimulated than in unstimulated peritoneal macrophages and microglial cells. Pre-treatment with PEA significantly increased survival of mice challenged intracerebrally or intraperitoneally with E. coli K1. This effect was associated with a decreased production of CXCL1, IL-1β and IL-6 in homogenates of spleen and cerebellum in mice treated with PEA. Our observations suggest that these protective effects of PEA in mice can increase the resistance to bacterial infections without the hazard of collateral damage by excessive stimulation of phagocytes.

  8. In vivo and in vitro phagocytosis of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes by B-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Geraldo, M M; Costa, C R; Barbosa, F M C; Vivanco, B C; Gonzaga, W F K M; Novaes E Brito, R R; Popi, A F; Lopes, J D; Xander, P

    2016-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania parasites that infect several cell types. The promastigote stage of Leishmania is internalized by phagocytic cells and transformed into the obligate intracellular amastigote form. B-1 cells are a subpopulation of B cells that are able to differentiate in vitro and in vivo into mononuclear phagocyte-like cells with phagocytic properties. B-1 cells use several receptors for phagocytosis, such as the mannose receptor and third complement receptor. Leishmania binds to the same receptors on macrophages. In this study, we demonstrated that phagocytes derived from B-1 cells (B-1 CDP) were able to internalize promastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis in vitro. The internalized promastigotes differentiated into amastigotes. Our results showed that the phagocytic index was higher in B-1 CDP compared to peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages. The in vivo phagocytic ability of B-1 cells was also demonstrated. Parasites were detected inside purified B-1 cells after intraperitoneal infection with L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes. Intraperitoneal stimulation with the parasites led to an increase in both IL-10 and TNF-α. These results highlight the importance of studying B-1 CDP cells as phagocytic cells that can participate and contribute to immunity to parasites. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Src kinases Hck, Fgr and Lyn activate Arg to facilitate IgG-mediated phagocytosis and Leishmania infection

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Emma L.; Li, Shaoguang; McMahon-Pratt, Diane; Koleske, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis is a devastating disease that disfigures or kills nearly two million people each year. Establishment and persistence of infection by the obligate intracellular parasite Leishmania requires repeated uptake by macrophages and other phagocytes. Therefore, preventing uptake could be a novel therapeutic strategy for leishmaniasis. Amastigotes, the life cycle stage found in the human host, bind Fc receptors and enter macrophages primarily through immunoglobulin-mediated phagocytosis. However, the host machinery that mediates amastigote uptake is poorly understood. We have previously shown that the Arg (also known as Abl2) non-receptor tyrosine kinase facilitates L. amazonensis amastigote uptake by macrophages. Using small-molecule inhibitors and primary macrophages lacking specific Src family kinases, we now demonstrate that the Hck, Fgr and Lyn kinases are also necessary for amastigote uptake by macrophages. Src-mediated Arg activation is required for efficient uptake. Interestingly, the dual Arg and Src kinase inhibitor bosutinib, which is approved to treat cancer, not only decreases amastigote uptake, but also significantly reduces disease severity and parasite burden in Leishmania-infected mice. Our results suggest that leishmaniasis could potentially be treated with host-cell-active agents such as kinase inhibitors. PMID:27358479

  10. Protein coated microcrystals formulated with model antigens and modified with calcium phosphate exhibit enhanced phagocytosis and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sarah; Asokanathan, Catpagavalli; Kmiec, Dorota; Irvine, June; Fleck, Roland; Xing, Dorothy; Moore, Barry; Parton, Roger; Coote, John

    2014-07-16

    Protein-coated microcrystals (PCMCs) were investigated as potential vaccine formulations for a range of model antigens. Presentation of antigens as PCMCs increased the antigen-specific IgG responses for all antigens tested, compared to soluble antigens. When compared to conventional aluminium-adjuvanted formulations, PCMCs modified with calcium phosphate (CaP) showed enhanced antigen-specific IgG responses and a decreased antigen-specific IgG1:IgG2a ratio, indicating the induction of a more balanced Th1/Th2 response. The rate of antigen release from CaP PCMCs, in vitro, decreased strongly with increasing CaP loading but their immunogenicity in vivo was not significantly different, suggesting the adjuvanticity was not due to a depot effect. Notably, it was found that CaP modification enhanced the phagocytosis of fluorescent antigen-PCMC particles by J774.2 murine monocyte/macrophage cells compared to soluble antigen or soluble PCMCs. Thus, CaP PCMCs may provide an alternative to conventional aluminium-based acellular vaccines to provide a more balanced Th1/Th2 immune response. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Interaction of Legionella pneumophila with Acanthamoeba castellanii: uptake by coiling phagocytosis and inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Bozue, J A; Johnson, W

    1996-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular parasite able to survive within both human monocytes and amoebae. We have demonstrated that processing of L. pneumophila by the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii shows many similarities to the processing of L. pneumophila by monocytes. These similarities include uptake of L. pneumophila by coiling phagocytosis and the subsequent confinement of L. pneumophila in a ribosome-studded phagosome. In addition, as in monocytes, inhibition of lysosomal fusion with phagosomes containing L. pneumophila was detected in amoebae. With all clinical isolates, inhibition of phagosomes-lysosome fusion correlated with virulence. However, with one of the environmental isolates tested, no significant difference in phagosome-lysosome fusion was observed between the virulent and avirulent forms. These results indicate that the avirulent form of this isolate differed from the virulent form in some other respect critical to intracellular survival. Therefore, intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila within A. castellanii may not be solely dependent upon the inhibition of lysosomal fusion. PMID:8550225

  12. Time-controlled phagocytosis of asymmetric liposomes: Application to phosphatidylserine immunoliposomes binding HIV-1 virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Petazzi, Roberto Arturo; Gramatica, Andrea; Herrmann, Andreas; Chiantia, Salvatore

    2015-11-01

    Macrophage immune functions such as antibody-mediated phagocytosis are strongly impaired in individuals affected by HIV-1. Nevertheless, infected macrophages are still able to phagocytose apoptotic cells. For this reason, we recently developed antibody-decorated phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing liposomes that bind HIV-1 virus-like particles and, by mimicking apoptotic cells, are efficiently internalized by macrophages. In the context of an in vivo application, it would be extremely important to initially protect immunoliposomes from macrophages, in order to provide enough time to redistribute through the body and achieve maximum virus binding. To this end, we have designed asymmetric immunoliposomes in which the PS is initially confined to the inner leaflet and thus cannot be recognized by macrophages. Spontaneous PS flip-flop to the outer surface leads to a time-delay in internalization by macrophages in vitro. Such a delay can be fine-tuned by altering the molecular composition of the immunoliposomes. In the fight against HIV-1, macrophage plays an important role. Ironically, the phagocytic functions of these cells are often impaired by HIV-1. In this interesting article, the authors described the development of asymmetric liposomes, which would bind HIV-1 with prolonged systemic circulation, such that the clearance of virus by macrophages is enhanced. This system represents a promising effective approach to utilize the phagocytic capability of macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Palmitoylethanolamide stimulates phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 by macrophages and increases the resistance of mice against infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous lipid and a congener of anandamide, possesses a wide range of effects related to metabolic and cellular homeostasis including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Methods In vitro, we studied the ability of macrophages to phagocytose Escherichia coli K1 after stimulation with increasing doses of PEA. In vivo, wild-type mice were treated with PEA intraperitoneally 12 hours and 30 minutes before infection. Meningoencephalitis or sepsis was induced by intracerebral or intraperitoneal infection with E. coli K1. Results Stimulation of macrophages with PEA for 30 minutes increased the phagocytosis of E. coli K1 without inducing the release of TNFα or CXCL1. Intracellular killing of E. coli K1 was higher in PEA-stimulated than in unstimulated peritoneal macrophages and microglial cells. Pre-treatment with PEA significantly increased survival of mice challenged intracerebrally or intraperitoneally with E. coli K1. This effect was associated with a decreased production of CXCL1, IL-1β and IL-6 in homogenates of spleen and cerebellum in mice treated with PEA. Conclusions Our observations suggest that these protective effects of PEA in mice can increase the resistance to bacterial infections without the hazard of collateral damage by excessive stimulation of phagocytes. PMID:24927796

  14. Intravital imaging reveals improved Kupffer cell-mediated phagocytosis as a mode of action of glycoengineered anti-CD20 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Capucine L; Montalvao, Fabricio; Celli, Susanna; Michonneau, David; Breart, Beatrice; Garcia, Zacarias; Perro, Mario; Freytag, Olivier; Gerdes, Christian A; Bousso, Philippe

    2016-10-04

    Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represent an effective treatment for a number of B cell malignancies and autoimmune disorders. Glycoengineering of anti-CD20mAb may contribute to increased anti-tumor efficacy through enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis (ADP) as reported by in vitro studies. However, where and how glycoengineered Ab may potentiate therapeutic responses in vivo is yet to be elucidated. Here, we have performed mouse liver transplants to demonstrate that the liver is sufficient to mediate systemic B cells depletion after anti-CD20 treatment. Relying on intravital two-photon imaging of human CD20-expressing mice, we provide evidence that ADP by Kupffer cells (KC) is a major mechanism for rituximab-mediated B cell depletion. Notably, a glycoengineered anti-mouse CD20 Ab but not its wild-type counterpart triggered potent KC-mediated B cell depletion at low doses. Finally, distinct thresholds for KC phagocytosis were also observed for GA101 (obinutuzumab), a humanized glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 Ab and rituximab. Thus, we propose that enhanced phagocytosis of circulating B cells by KC represents an important in vivo mechanism underlying the improved activity of glycoengineered anti-CD20 mAbs.

  15. Intravital imaging reveals improved Kupffer cell-mediated phagocytosis as a mode of action of glycoengineered anti-CD20 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Capucine L.; Montalvao, Fabricio; Celli, Susanna; Michonneau, David; Breart, Beatrice; Garcia, Zacarias; Perro, Mario; Freytag, Olivier; Gerdes, Christian A.; Bousso, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represent an effective treatment for a number of B cell malignancies and autoimmune disorders. Glycoengineering of anti-CD20mAb may contribute to increased anti-tumor efficacy through enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis (ADP) as reported by in vitro studies. However, where and how glycoengineered Ab may potentiate therapeutic responses in vivo is yet to be elucidated. Here, we have performed mouse liver transplants to demonstrate that the liver is sufficient to mediate systemic B cells depletion after anti-CD20 treatment. Relying on intravital two-photon imaging of human CD20-expressing mice, we provide evidence that ADP by Kupffer cells (KC) is a major mechanism for rituximab-mediated B cell depletion. Notably, a glycoengineered anti-mouse CD20 Ab but not its wild-type counterpart triggered potent KC-mediated B cell depletion at low doses. Finally, distinct thresholds for KC phagocytosis were also observed for GA101 (obinutuzumab), a humanized glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 Ab and rituximab. Thus, we propose that enhanced phagocytosis of circulating B cells by KC represents an important in vivo mechanism underlying the improved activity of glycoengineered anti-CD20 mAbs. PMID:27698437

  16. Pinellia pedatisecta Agglutinin Targets Drug Resistant K562/ADR Leukemia Cells through Binding with Sarcolemmal Membrane Associated Protein and Enhancing Macrophage Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kan; Yang, Xinyan; Wu, Liqin; Yu, Meilan; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Na; Wang, Shuanghui; Li, Gongchu

    2013-01-01

    Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA) has previously been used in labeling fractions of myeloid leukemia cells in our laboratory. We report here that a bacterial expressed recombinant PPA domain b tagged with soluble coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (sCAR-PPAb) preferentially recognized drug resistant cancer cells K562/ADR and H460/5Fu, as compared to their parental cell lines. Pretreatment of K562/ADR cells with sCAR-PPAb significantly enhanced phagocytosis of K562/ADR by macrophages in vivo. Meanwhile, in a K562/ADR xenograft model, intratumoral injection of sCAR-PPAb induced macrophage infiltration and phagocytosis. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and Western blot identified the membrane target of PPA on K562/ADR as sarcolemmal membrane associated protein (SLMAP). An antibody against SLMAP significantly promoted the phagocytosis of K562/ADR by macrophages in vitro. These findings suggest that PPA not only could be developed into a novel agent that can detect drug resistant cancer cells and predict chemotherapy outcome, but also it has potential value in immunotherapy against drug resistant cancer cells through inducing the tumoricidal activity of macrophages. PMID:24019967

  17. Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin targets drug resistant K562/ADR leukemia cells through binding with sarcolemmal membrane associated protein and enhancing macrophage phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kan; Yang, Xinyan; Wu, Liqin; Yu, Meilan; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Na; Wang, Shuanghui; Li, Gongchu

    2013-01-01

    Pinelliapedatisecta agglutinin (PPA) has previously been used in labeling fractions of myeloid leukemia cells in our laboratory. We report here that a bacterial expressed recombinant PPA domain b tagged with soluble coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (sCAR-PPAb) preferentially recognized drug resistant cancer cells K562/ADR and H460/5Fu, as compared to their parental cell lines. Pretreatment of K562/ADR cells with sCAR-PPAb significantly enhanced phagocytosis of K562/ADR by macrophages in vivo. Meanwhile, in a K562/ADR xenograft model, intratumoral injection of sCAR-PPAb induced macrophage infiltration and phagocytosis. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and Western blot identified the membrane target of PPA on K562/ADR as sarcolemmal membrane associated protein (SLMAP). An antibody against SLMAP significantly promoted the phagocytosis of K562/ADR by macrophages in vitro. These findings suggest that PPA not only could be developed into a novel agent that can detect drug resistant cancer cells and predict chemotherapy outcome, but also it has potential value in immunotherapy against drug resistant cancer cells through inducing the tumoricidal activity of macrophages.

  18. The role of hyaluronic acid capsular material of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in mediating adherence to HeLa cells and in resisting phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wibawan, I W; Pasaribu, F H; Utama, I H; Abdulmawjood, A; Lämmler, C

    1999-10-01

    Hyaluronic acid is thought to be one of the critical virulence factors of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. The present study was designed to study the role of hyaluronic acid capsular material in mediating adherence and to resist the phagocytosis of the host's immune defence. The studies were performed with two encapsulated S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and two unencapsulated phase variants. The bacteria had been previously isolated from diseased pigs and monkeys in Indonesia. The presence of capsular material was determined using the hyaluronic acid decapsulation test and by electron microscopic studies. Both encapsulated bacteria showed mucoid colonies after cultivation on blood agar, grew with diffuse colonies in soft agar media and reacted negatively in the salt aggregation test. The unencapsulated bacteria grew with small colonies on blood agar, formed compact colonies in soft agar media and reacted positively in the salt aggregation test. Adherence and phagocytosis studies revealed that the encapsulated bacteria adhered significantly more to HeLa cells and were less phagocytosed by murine macrophages compared to unencapsulated bacteria. Pretreatment of the HeLa cells using hyaluronic acid or pretreatment of the bacteria by hyaluronidase decreased the adherence value of encapsulated bacteria. Pretreatment of bacteria with pronase had no effect. The presented results strongly indicate that the hyaluronic acid capsular material contributes to adherence properties of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and might help the bacteria to resist phagocytosis by macrophages. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  19. Effect of beta-naphthoflavone on AhR-regulated genes (CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2S1, Nrf2, and GST) and antioxidant enzymes in various brain regions of pig.

    PubMed

    Nannelli, Annalisa; Rossignolo, Francesco; Tolando, Roberto; Rossato, Paolo; Longo, Vincenzo; Gervasi, P Giovanni

    2009-11-30

    The constitutive and inducible expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and of the AhR-regulated genes coding for CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2S1, and Nrf2 was investigated by real-time or traditional PCR in cerebral areas (cortex, cerebellum, midbrain, and hippocampus), blood-brain interfaces (meninges and brain microvessels) and liver obtained from control pigs and from pigs treated with beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF), a potent AhR agonist. The enzymatic activities of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), and methoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (MEROD), marker for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, the GST and various antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, GSSG-reductase, and GSH-peroxidase) were also determined in the same CNS regions. The AhR, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, Nrf2 mRNAs were detected, although at different extent, in all the CNS regions, while CYP2S1 mRNA was detected only in midbrain. In the blood-brain interfaces, the constitutive basal expression of AhR and CYP1A1 was comparable to the hepatic one and even higher for CYP1B1 and Nrf2. The treatment with betaNF determined the induction of CYP1A1 and 1B1 (but not of AhR, CYP1A2, and Nrf2) mRNA levels in various CNS areas; notably, CYP1A1 mRNA was increased to about 300-fold in the microvessels. The analysis of enzymatic activities revealed that EROD, but not MEROD, was induced in microsomes but not in mitochondria of all the CNS areas. However, the mitochondrial EROD activities were comparable (in midbrain, meninges) or higher (in cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus) than the microsomal ones, suggesting an important metabolic function of CYP1A1 in this subcellular localization. The activities of GST and antioxidant enzymes were detected in all CNS tissues, with levels lower than the hepatic ones, but found quite evenly distributed and marginally affected by betaNF treatment. The high expression of metabolic enzymes found in blood-brain interfaces could represent a very important defence toward toxins of CNS.

  20. Immune Selection of Hot-Spot β2-Microglobulin Gene Mutations, HLA-A2 Allospecificity Loss, and Antigen-Processing Machinery Component Down-Regulation in Melanoma Cells Derived from Recurrent Metastases following Immunotherapy1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chien-Chung; Campoli, Michael; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Wang, Xinhui; Ferrone, Soldano

    2008-01-01

    Scanty information is available about the mechanisms underlying HLA class I Ag abnormalities in malignant cells exposed to strong T cell-mediated selective pressure. In this study, we have characterized the molecular defects underlying HLA class I Ag loss in five melanoma cell lines derived from recurrent metastases following initial clinical responses to T cell-based immuno-therapy. Point mutations in the translation initiation codon (ATG→ATA) and in codon 31 (TCA→TGA) of the β2-microglobulin (β2m) gene were identified in the melanoma cell lines 1074MEL and 1174MEL, respectively. A hot-spot CT dinucleotide deletion within codon 13–15 was found in the melanoma cell lines 1106MEL, 1180MEL, and 1259MEL. Reconstitution of β2m expression restored HLA class I Ag expression in the five melanoma cell lines; however, the HLA-A and HLA-B,-C gene products were differentially expressed by 1074MEL, 1106MEL, and 1259MEL cells. In addition, in 1259MEL cells, the Ag-processing machinery components calnexin, calreticulin, and low m.w. polypeptide 10 are down-regulated, and HLA-A2 Ags are selectively lost because of a single cytosine deletion in the HLA-A2 gene exon 4. Our results in conjunction with those in the literature suggest the emergence of a preferential β2m gene mutation in melanoma cells following strong T cell-mediated immune selection. Furthermore, the presence of multiple HLA class I Ag defects within a tumor cell population may reflect the accumulation of multiple escape mechanisms developed by melanoma cells to avoid distinct sequential T cell-mediated selective events. PMID:15661905

  1. ABO Blood Groups Influence Macrophage-mediated Phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Donald R.; Hult, Annika K.; Olsson, Martin L.; Liles, W. Conrad; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M.; Kain, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte polymorphisms associated with a survival advantage to Plasmodium falciparum infection have undergone positive selection. There is a predominance of blood group O in malaria-endemic regions, and several lines of evidence suggest that ABO blood groups may influence the outcome of P. falciparum infection. Based on the hypothesis that enhanced innate clearance of infected polymorphic erythrocytes is associated with protection from severe malaria, we investigated whether P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes are more efficiently cleared by macrophages than infected A and B erythrocytes. We show that human macrophages in vitro and mouse monocytes in vivo phagocytose P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes more avidly than infected A and B erythrocytes and that uptake is associated with increased hemichrome deposition and high molecular weight band 3 aggregates in infected O erythrocytes. Using infected A1, A2, and O erythrocytes, we demonstrate an inverse association of phagocytic capacity with the amount of A antigen on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Finally, we report that enzymatic conversion of B erythrocytes to type as O before infection significantly enhances their uptake by macrophages to observed level comparable to that with infected O wild-type erythrocytes. These data provide the first evidence that ABO blood group antigens influence macrophage clearance of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes and suggest an additional mechanism by which blood group O may confer resistance to severe malaria. PMID:23071435

  2. Phagocytosis of lipase-aggregated low density lipoprotein promotes macrophage foam cell formation. Sequential morphological and biochemical events.

    PubMed

    Heinecke, J W; Suits, A G; Aviram, M; Chait, A

    1991-01-01

    Macrophages internalize aggregated low density lipoprotein (LDL) by LDL receptor-dependent phagocytosis. To investigate this model of foam cell formation, we have used human and mouse macrophages to characterize biochemically and morphologically the fate of ingested phospholipase C-modified low density lipoprotein (PLC-LDL). When LDL was digested with phospholipase C, it lost phospholipid and aggregated. Human monocyte-derived macrophages rapidly ingested and degraded 125I-PLC-LDL. The degraded PLC-LDL released free cholesterol, measured either as free sterol mass or by the stimulation of [14C]oleate incorporation into cellular cholesteryl ester. Esterification was blocked by chloroquine, a weak base that inhibits lysosomal degradation. Macrophages exposed to PLC-LDL exhibited a 30-fold to a 50-fold increase in esterified sterol: by light microscopy, cytoplasmic inclusions were abundant. The inclusions were stained with oil red O, indicating that they were neutral lipid droplets. By electron microscopy, mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with PLC-LDL contained numerous membrane-bounded vacuoles and cytoplasmic inclusions that were not surrounded by a limiting membrane. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that vacuoles filled with particulate material appeared first. Subsequently, the macrophages exhibited vacuoles containing multivesicular bodies. Last, inclusions that were homogeneously electron-dense and that lacked a tripartite membrane accumulated in the cytoplasm of the cells. These results are consonant with the following model of foam cell formation. Cultured macrophages rapidly ingest PLC-LDL that is initially localized in phagosomes. The aggregated lipoprotein subsequently is digested in secondary lysosomes, thus releasing free cholesterol that is reesterified, forming cytoplasmic cholesteryl ester droplets lacking a tripartite membrane.

  3. Cbf genes of the Fr-A2 allele are differentially regulated between long-term cold acclimated crown tissue of freeze-resistant and – susceptible, winter wheat mutant lines

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Fedora; Chen, Ding-Geng; Ge, Xijin; Kenefick, Don

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to identify genes that might confer and maintain freeze resistance of winter wheat, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed between control and 4 wk cold-acclimated crown tissue of two winter wheat lines that differ in field freeze survival. The lines, generated by azide mutagenesis of the winter wheat cultivar 'Winoka' were designated FR (75% survival) and FS (30% survival). Using two winter lines for this comparative analysis removed the influence of differential expression of the vernalization genes and allowed our study to focus on Cbf genes located within the Fr-A2 allele independent of the effect of the closely mapped Vrn allele. Results Vernalization genes, (Vrn-A1, B1 and D1), and the transcription factor gene, TaVrt-2, were up-regulated to the same extent in FR and FS lines with cold acclimation thus confirming that azide mutagenesis had not modified the winter habitat of the lines. One category of Cbf genes, (Cbf-2, -A22 and B-22) reflected an increase in level of expression with cold acclimation in both FR and FS lines. Another category of Cbf genes (Cbf-3, -5, -6, -12, -14 and -19) were differentially expressed between cold-acclimated FR and FS lines relative to the non-acclimated controls. Comparison of expression patterns of the two categories of Cbf genes with the expression patterns of a set of ABA-dependent and -independent Cor/Lea genes revealed similar patterns of expression for this sample of Cor/Lea genes with that for Cbf-2 and -22. This pattern of expression was also exhibited by the Vrn genes. Conclusion Some Cor/Lea genes may be co-regulated by the Vrn genes during cold acclimation and the Vrn genes may also control the expression of Cbf-2, -A22 and -B22. The increased freeze survival by the FR line and the increase in expression levels of wheat Cbf genes, Cbf-3, -5, -6, -12, -14 and -19 with cold acclimation in the FR line suggests a possible gain of function mutation resulting in higher levels of expression

  4. Borrelia burgdorferi Elicited-IL-10 Suppresses the Production of Inflammatory Mediators, Phagocytosis, and Expression of Co-Stimulatory Receptors by Murine Macrophages and/or Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, R. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is a tick-borne spirochete that is the causative agent for Lyme disease. Our previous studies indicate that virulent Bb can potently enhance IL-10 production by macrophages (MØs) and that blocking IL-10 production significantly enhances bacterial clearance. We hypothesize that skin-associated APC types, such as MØs and dendritic cells (DCs) are potent producers of IL-10 in response to Bb, which may act in autocrine fashion to suppress APC responses critical for efficient Bb clearance. Our goal is to delineate which APC immune functions are dysregulated by Bb-elicited IL-10 using a murine model of Lyme disease. Our in vitro studies indicated that both APCs rapidly produce IL-10 upon exposure to Bb, that these levels inversely correlate with the production of many Lyme-relevant proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and that APCs derived from IL-10-/- mice produced greater amounts of these proinflammatory mediators than wild-type APCs. Phagocytosis assays determined that Bb-elicited IL-10 levels can diminish Bb uptake and trafficking by MØs, suppresses ROS production, but does not affect NO production; Bb-elicited IL-10 had little effect on phagocytosis, ROS, and NO production by DCs. In general, Bb exposure caused little-to-no upregulation of several critical surface co-stimulatory markers by MØs and DCs, however eliminating Bb-elicited IL-10 allowed a significant upregulation in many of these co-stimulatory receptors. These data indicate that IL-10 elicited from Bb-stimulated MØs and DCs results in decreased production of proinflammatory mediators and co-stimulatory molecules, and suppress phagocytosis-associated events that are important for mediating both innate and adaptive immune responses by APCs. PMID:24367705

  5. Phagocytosis and nitric oxide production by peritoneal adherent cells in response to Candida albicans in aging: a collaboration to elucidate the pathogenesis of denture stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    GARDIZANI, Taiane Priscila; PINKE, Karen Henriette; de LIMA, Heliton Gustavo; LARA, Vanessa Soares

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Elderly denture wearers are commonly affected by Candida-associated denture stomatitis (DS), an inflammatory process of the oral mucosa strongly associated with Candida spp and other microorganisms, as well as local and systemic factors. The impaired immune response against pathogens is among the inherent host factors that have been also associated with the pathogenesis of DS. Mononuclear phagocytes respond to the pathogens through phagocytosis followed by the production of several substances inside the phagosomes, among them are the reactive nitrogen species (RNS). A failure in these mechanisms may contribute to the DS development. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on the internalization and the production of nitric oxide (NO) by peritoneal adherent cells (PAC), in response to Candida albicans (C. albicans). Material and methods PAC obtained from young and aged mice were challenged with dead or viable C. albicans by using predetermined proportions (cells:yeast) for 30 and 120 minutes. Phagocytosis was analyzed by acridine orange dye, and NO production by the Griess reaction. Results C. albicans phagocytosis by PAC from aged mice was similar to that of young mice, although the cells from older mice cells present more internalized fungi compared with matched control. In addition, a tendency towards impaired NO production by peritoneal mononuclear phagocytes from aged mice was observed. Conclusions PAC from aged mice may capture and store many fungi, which in turn may mean that these cells are effectively unable to eliminate fungi, probably due to impaired NO production. Therefore, considering the important role of C. albicans overgrowth in the pathogenesis of DS and the aspects observed in this study, aging may favor the onset and severity of local candidosis such as DS and its systemic forms. PMID:28678945

  6. Effect of Penicillium mycotoxins on the cytokine gene expression, reactive oxygen species production, and phagocytosis of bovine macrophage (BoMacs) function.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se-Young; Mead, Philip J; Sharma, Bhawani S; Quinton, V Margaret; Boermans, Herman J; Smith, Trevor K; Swamy, H V L N; Karrow, Niel A

    2015-12-25

    Bovine macrophages (BoMacs) were exposed to the following Penicillium mycotoxins (PM): citrinin (CIT), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), mycophenolic acid (MPA) and penicillic acid (PA). PM exposure at the concentration that inhibits proliferation by 25% (IC25) differentially for 24h altered the gene expression of various cytokines. OTA significantly induced IL-1α expression (p<0.05), while the expression of IL-6 was suppressed (p<0.01). MPA significantly induced the expression of IL-1α (p<0.05) and reduced the expression of IL-12α (p<0.01) and IL-10 (p<0.01). PAT significantly suppressed the expression of IL-23 (p<0.01), IL-10 (p<0.05) and TGF-β (p<0.05). Some PMs also affected reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium ssp. Paratuberculosis (MAP) at higher concentrations. PAT and PA for example, significantly decreased the percent phagocytosis of MAP at 5.0 (p<0.01) and 15.6 μM (p<0.01), respectively, but only PA significantly suppressed PAM-3-stimulated ROS production at 62.5 (p<0.05) and 250.0 μM (p<0.01). OTA significantly increased the percent phagocytosis of MAP at 6.3 (p<0.05) and 12.5 μM (p<0.01). These findings suggest that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of PMs can affect macrophage function, which could affect immunoregulation and innate disease resistance to pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Studying longterm effects of micro gravity on basic immune functions - The development of an application based on the measuring of phagocytosis activity of Blue Mussel hemocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, Eckehardt

    The immunsystem of astronauts exposed to microgravity is declining. Whether this effect is caused by microgravity or in combination with cosmic radiation is so far not clear. The immune system of vertebrates has several defence strategies but the basic immune response (Phagocytosis) is present as well in invertebrates. Phagocytotic cells are drawn by chemotaxis to the origin of an infection. By adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation foreign particles, bacteria etc are transported inside of a cell were they are destroyed by native powerful biocides. Related to this biocide production is the formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). ROS can be measured by luminescence. The effects of microgravity will be simultaneously tested by exposure of phagocytotic hemocytes on orbit under microgravity, artificial gravity and, on ground under natural gravity. To address this purpose defined pools of Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes will be launched frozen to the ISS. References for all batches will stay on ground. Shortly after arrival and then in three-month intervals batches of the same pool will be thawed and reconstituted. The phagocytosis related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonized Zymosan. Luminescence will be measured and the data will be sent to ground. The experiment is scheduled for the Columbus Biolab early 2009. In preparation of this flight experiments the following procedures were investigated and the results will be presented: - a protocol for the cryoconservation and reconstituton of blue mussel hemocytes. - preliminary results of phagocytosis activity by reconstituted hemocytes after cryo-conservation and hemocytes without cryo-conservation treatment. The TRIPLELUX-B Experiment contributes to risk assessment concerning longterm immunotoxicity under space flight conditions. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The choice of the phagocytes from invertebrates is justified by the claim to study the

  8. Participation of 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ proteins in the phagocytosis, component of cellular immune response, in Aedes mosquito cell lines.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Ocampo, Abel; Cázares-Raga, Febe Elena; Del Angel, Rosa María; Medina-Ramírez, Fernando; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Rodríguez, Mario H; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Better knowledge of the innate immune system of insects will improve our understanding of mosquitoes as potential vectors of diverse pathogens. The ubiquitously expressed 14-3-3 protein family is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals, and at least two isoforms of 14-3-3, the ε and ζ, have been identified in insects. These proteins have been shown to participate in both humoral and cellular immune responses in Drosophila. As mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are the primary vectors for arboviruses, causing several diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika and chikungunya fevers, cell lines derived from these mosquitoes, Aag-2 from Aedes aegypti and C6/36 HT from Aedes albopictus, are currently used to study the insect immune system. Here, we investigated the role of 14-3-3 proteins (ε and ζ isoform) in phagocytosis, the main cellular immune responses executed by the insects, using Aedes spp. cell lines. We evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ in C6/36 HT and Aag-2 cells, and demonstrated that both proteins were localised in the cytoplasm. Further, in C6/36 HT cells treated with a 14-3-3 specific inhibitor we observed a notable modification of cell morphology with filopodia-like structure caused through cytoskeleton reorganisation (co-localization of 14-3-3 proteins with F-actin), more importantly the decrease in Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli phagocytosis and reduction in phagolysosome formation. Additionally, silencing of 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ expression by mean of specific DsiRNA confirmed the decreased phagocytosis and phagolysosome formation of pHrodo labelled E. coli and S. aureus bacteria by Aag-2 cells. The 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ proteins modulate cytoskeletal remodelling, and are essential for phagocytosis of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in Aedes spp. cell lines.

  9. Antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of breast cancer cells mediated by bispecific antibody, MDX-210.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Wallace, P K; Keler, T; Deo, Y M; Akewanlop, C; Hayes, D F

    1999-02-01

    MDX-210 is a bispecific antibody (BsAb) with specificity for both the proto-oncogene product of HER-2/neu (c-erbB-2) and FcgammaRI (CD64). HER-2/neu is overexpressed in malignant tissue of approximately 30% of patients with breast cancer, and FcgammaRI is expressed on human monocytes, macrophages, and IFN-gamma activated granulocytes. We investigated phagocytosis and cytolysis of cultured human breast cancer cells by human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) mediated by BsAb MDX-210, its partially humanized derivative (MDX-H210), and its parent MoAb 520C9 (anti-HER-2/neu) under various conditions. Purified monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF, M-CSF, or no cytokine for five or six days. Antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and cytolysis (ADCC) assays were performed with the MDM and HER-2/neu positive target cells (SK-BR-3). ADCP was measured by two-color fluorescence flow cytometry using PKH2 (green fluorescent dye) and phycoerythrin-conjugated (red) monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against human CD14 and CD11b. ADCC was measured with a non-radioactive LDH detection kit. Both BsAb MDX-210 (via FcgammaRI) and MoAb 520C9 (mouse IgG1, via FcgammaRII) mediated similar levels of ADCP and ADCC. ADCP mediated by BsAb MDX-H210 was identical to that mediated by BsAb MDX-210. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that dual-labeled cells represented true phagocytosis. Both ADCP and ADCC were higher when MDM were pre-incubated with GM-CSF than when incubated with M-CSF. BsAb MDX-210 is as active in vitro as the parent MoAb 520C9 in inducing both phagocytosis and cytolysis of MDM. MDX-210 and its partially humanized derivative, MDX-H210, mediated similar levels of ADCP. GM-CSF appears to superior to M-CSF in inducing MDM-mediated ADCC and ADCP. These studies support the ongoing clinical investigations of BsAb MDX-210 and its partially humanized derivative.

  10. Trivalent pneumococcal protein recombinant vaccine protects against lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia and correlates with phagocytosis by neutrophils during early pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingfu; Surendran, Naveen; Verhoeven, David; Klapa, Jessica; Ochs, Martina; Pichichero, Michael E

    2015-02-18

    Due to the fact that current polysaccharide-based pneumococcal vaccines have limited serotype coverage, protein-based vaccine candidates have been sought for over a decade to replace or complement current vaccines. We previously reported that a trivalent Pneumococcal Protein recombinant Vaccine (PPrV), showed protection against pneumonia and sepsis in an infant murine model. Here we investigated immunological correlates of protection of PPrV in the same model. C57BL/6J infant mice were intramuscularly vaccinated at age 1-3 weeks with 3 doses of PPrV, containing pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD), pneumococcal choline binding protein A (PcpA), and detoxified pneumolysin mutant PlyD1. 3-4 weeks after last vaccination, serum and lung antibody levels to PPrV components were measured, and mice were intranasally challenged with a lethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) serotype 6A. Lung Spn bacterial burden, number of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages, phagocytosed Spn by granulocytes, and levels of cytokines and chemokines were determined at 6, 12, 24, and 48h after challenge. PPrV vaccination conferred 83% protection against Spn challenge. Vaccinated mice had significantly elevated serum and lung antibody levels to three PPrV components. In the first stage of pathogenesis of Spn induced pneumonia (6-24h after challenge), vaccinated mice had lower Spn bacterial lung burdens and more phagocytosed Spn in the granulocytes. PPrV vaccination led to lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TFN-α, and other cytokines and chemokines (IL-12, IL-17, IFN-γ, MIP-1b, MIP-2 and KC, and G-CSF), presumably due to a lower lung bacterial burden. Trivalent PPrV vaccination results in increased serum and lung antibody levels to the vaccine components, a reduction in Spn induced lethality, enhanced early clearance of Spn in lungs due to more rapid and thorough phagocytosis of Spn by neutrophils, and correspondingly a reduction in lung inflammation

  11. Interaction of polymorphonuclear neutrophils with Escherichia coli. Effect of enterotoxin on phagocytosis, killing, chemotaxis, and cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M J; Guerrant, R L; Murad, F; Richardson, S H; Weaver, D; Mandell, G L

    1978-02-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are associated with noninflammatory diarrhea and stimulate adenylate cyclase activity of mammalian cells, thereby increasing intracellular cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Increased concentrations of cyclic AMP in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) inhibit phagocytosis, candidacidal activity, granule discharge, and chemotactic responsiveness. We examined the effect of enterotoxin on the interaction of human PMN with E. coli. Enterotoxigenic and nonenterotoxigenic strains, including serotypes of E. coli identical except for the presence or absence of the plasmid coding for enterotoxin production, were utilized. Enterotoxigenic and nonenterotoxigenic E. coli, tumbled with PMN, were phagocytized and killed (>97%) equally well, and these strains stimulated PMN hexose monophosphate shunt activity equivalently.However, a chemotaxis assay under agarose demonstrated that filtrates of 10 enterotoxigenic strains were less chemotactic for PMN by 15+/-2% total migration or 46+/-1% directed migration, when compared with 6 non-enterotoxigenic strains (P < 0.001). Inactivation of the enterotoxin by heat (65 degrees C for 30 min) or antibodies formed to E. coli enterotoxin eliminated the inhibitory effect of the enterotoxic filtrates for PMN chemotaxis. Addition of purified E. coli enterotoxin directly to the PMN decreased chemotaxis to E. coli filtrates by 32+/-2% (P < 0.001). These data suggest that the effect was due to the heat-labile enterotoxin. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (0.1 mM), which potentiates effects due to an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP, further decreased total PMN migration (random plus directed) toward enterotoxic filtrates to 46% of that to nonenterotoxic filtrates (P < 0.001). Addition of cholera toxin (1 mug/ml), which is similar to E. coli enterotoxin, to the PMN inhibited total migration toward nonenterotoxic filtrates by 16+/-2% (P < 0.001). Exogenous dibutyryl

  12. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF PHAGOCYTOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Stossel, Thomas P.

    1973-01-01

    Kinetic analysis of the initial ingestion rate of albumin-coated paraffin oil particles by human granulocytes and rabbit alveolar macrophages was undertaken to study the mechanism of action of cations and of heat-labile opsonin on engulfment. The rate of uptake of the particles was stimulated by Ca++, Mg++, Mn++, or Co++. At high concentrations (> 20 mM) Ca++ and Mg++ inhibited the rate of ingestion. Treatment of the particles with fresh serum (heat-labile opsonin) also stimulated the rate of ingestion. 125I-labeled C3 was bound to the particles during opsonization. C3-deficient human serum lacked opsonic activity, which was restored by addition of purified C3. Normal, C2-deficient, and hereditary angioneurotic edema sera had equivalent opsonic activity. The serum opsonic activity thus involved C3 fixation to the particles by means of the properdin system. Although Mg++ and heat-labile opsonin both accelerated the maximal rates of ingestion of the particles, neither altered the particle concentrations associated with one-half maximal ingestion rates. Opsonization of the particles markedly diminished the concentrations of divalent cations causing both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on ingestion rates and altered the shapes of the cation activation curves. 45Ca was not bound to the particles during opsonization. The results are consistent with a mechanism whereby divalent cations and heat-labile opsonin activate ingestion by stimulating the work of engulfment rather than by merely enhancing cell-particle affinity, and whereby heat-labile opsonin acts by potentiating the effects of divalent cations. PMID:4738105

  13. Histology of intestinal allografts: lymphocyte apoptosis and phagocytosis of lymphocytic apoptotic bodies are diagnostic findings of acute rejection in addition to crypt apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Okamoto, Shinya; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Yoshitoshi, Elena; Egawa, Hiroto; Nakase, Hiroshi; Aini, Wulamujiang; Miyao, Masashi; Tamaki, Keiji; Yamabe, Hirohiko; Haga, Hironori; Uemoto, Shinji

    2013-02-01

    Acute rejection of a small-bowel transplant is often difficult to diagnose due to complicated immune responses. The present study aimed to elucidate the specific immune responses involved in intestinal transplant rejection. We correlated immunohistologic findings with an increase in crypt apoptosis, which has been commonly accepted as a criterion for the diagnosis of acute cellular rejection (ACR). Of 8 patients who received an intestinal allograft at Kyoto University Hospital, biopsy specimens from 7 patients were assessed immunohistologically with antibodies against 20 types of lymphocytic antigens including CD3, CD4, CD8, CD79a, CD20, IgG, and T-cell receptor, along with assessment of the patients' clinical courses. It was revealed that, in addition to apoptotic crypts, T-lymphocyte apoptosis and phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies in the lamina propria of villi were findings of ACR; both were observed in all cases. Immunostaining of the Fas ligand, one of the apoptosis-inducing molecules, was useful for the identification of the apoptotic bodies in the lamina propria of villi. Apoptotic body phagocytosis may be a surrogate diagnostic finding of grafts undergoing ACR.

  14. The effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on cytotoxic immune responses of T cells, antibodies, and natural killer cells, and phagocytosis by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ha, C; Miller, L T; Kerkvliet, N I

    1984-05-01

    The effect of vitamin B6 on cytotoxic immune responses of T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, cytotoxic antibody production, and macrophage phagocytosis was assessed in 5-week-old female C57B1/6 mice. Mice were fed 20% casein diets with pyridoxine (PN) added at 7, 1, 0.1, or 0 mg/kg diet, which represents 700, 100, 10, and 0% of requirement, respectively. Compared to mice fed 7 or 1 mg PN diet, animals fed 0 or 0.1 mg PN diet showed significantly reduced primary splenic and peritoneal T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC). Animals fed 0 mg PN diet also showed significantly depressed secondary T CMC of splenic and peritoneal lymphocytes against P815 tumor cells. Complement-dependent antibody-mediated cytotoxicity against P815 cells, phagocytosis of SRBC by macrophages, and native and interferon-induced NK cell activities against YAC cells were not affected by the level of vitamin B6 intake. The percentage of macrophages present in the peritoneal exudate cells was increased in animals fed the 0 mg PN diet. The immune responses were not enhanced or altered by the excess intake of vitamin B6 (7 mg PN). It appears that vitamin B6 is an essential nutrient for maintenance of normal T-cell function in vivo.

  15. Immunomodulatory effect of exo-polysaccharides from submerged cultured Cordyceps sinensis: enhancement of cytokine synthesis, CD11b expression, and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Mei-Chun; Chang, Chien-Yu; Cheng, Tso-Lin; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2007-06-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is widely used as a traditional medicine for treatment of a wide variety of diseases or to maintain health. The immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides prepared from submerged cultured C. sinensis BCRC36421 was investigated in human peripheral blood. Results demonstrated that Fr. A (exo-polysaccharides, 0.025 approximately 0.1 mg/ml) induced the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 dose-dependently. Fr. A, as low as 0.025 mg/ml, could significantly augment surface expression of CD11b in monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Functional assay revealed that Fr. A (0.05 mg/ml) also elevated phagocytosis in monocytes and PMN. On the other hand, Fr. B (intracellular polysaccharides) only moderately induced TNF-alpha release, CD11b expression, and phagocytosis at the same concentrations. Our results indicate that the immunomodulatory components of submerged cultured C. sinensis mainly reside in the culture filtrate.

  16. Immunization with LytB protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae activates complement-mediated phagocytosis and induces protection against pneumonia and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Corsini, Bruno; Aguinagalde, Leire; Ruiz, Susana; Domenech, Mirian; Antequera, María Luisa; Fenoll, Asunción; García, Pedro; García, Ernesto; Yuste, Jose

    2016-12-07

    The cell wall glucosaminidase LytB of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a surface exposed protein involved in daughter cell separation, biofilm formation and contributes to different aspects of the pathogenesis process. In this study we have characterized the antibody responses after immunization of mice with LytB in the presence of alhydrogel as an adjuvant. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays measuring different subclasses of immunoglobulin G, demonstrated that the antibody responses to LytB were predominantly IgG1 and IgG2b, followed by IgG3 and IgG2a subclasses. Complement-mediated immunity against two different pneumococcal serotypes was investigated using sera from immunized mice. Immunization with LytB increased the recognition of S. pneumoniae by complement components C1q and C3b demonstrating that anti-LytB antibodies trigger activation of the classical pathway. Phagocytosis assays showed that serum containing antibodies to LytB stimulates neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis against S. pneumoniae. Animal models of infection including invasive pneumonia and sepsis were performed with two different clinical isolates. Vaccination with LytB increased bacterial clearance and induced protection demonstrating that LytB might be a good candidate to be considered in a future protein-based vaccine against S. pneumoniae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phagocytosis and nitric oxide production by peritoneal adherent cells in response to Candida albicans in aging: a collaboration to elucidate the pathogenesis of denture stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Gardizani, Taiane Priscila; Pinke, Karen Henriette; Lima, Heliton Gustavo de; Lara, Vanessa Soares

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on the internalization and the production of nitric oxide (NO) by peritoneal adherent cells (PAC), in response to Candida albicans (C. albicans). PAC obtained from young and aged mice were challenged with dead or viable C. albicans by using predetermined proportions (cells:yeast) for 30 and 120 minutes. Phagocytosis was analyzed by acridine orange dye, and NO production by the Griess reaction. C. albicans phagocytosis by PAC from aged mice was similar to that of young mice, although the cells from older mice cells present more internalized fungi compared with matched control. In addition, a tendency towards impaired NO production by peritoneal mononuclear phagocytes from aged mice was observed. PAC from aged mice may capture and store many fungi, which in turn may mean that these cells are effectively unable to eliminate fungi, probably due to impaired NO production. Therefore, considering the important role of C. albicans overgrowth in the pathogenesis of DS and the aspects observed in this study, aging may favor the onset and severity of local candidosis such as DS and its systemic forms.

  18. [Inhibitory effect of NaV1.9 gene silencing on proliferation, phagocytosis and migration in RAW264.7 cells].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuechen; Zhou, Xin; Ji, Wenjie; Sun, Haiying; Lu, Ruiyi; Jiang, Tiemin; Li, Yuming

    2013-03-01

    To establish the cell line with stable voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs/NaVs) α subunit NaV1.9 gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) in murine RAW264.7 macrophages, and to investigate proliferation, phagocytosis and migration in this cell line. The stable NaV1.9-deficient cell line was generated by selection in G418 after the transfection of short hairpin (shRNA) plasmid with Lipofectamine TM2000. RNAi efficiency was qualified by RT-PCR; proliferation ability was measured by CCK-8 assay; cell cycle and phagocytic ability were analyzed by flow cytometry; and migrating ability was detected by Transwell migration assay. Stable NaV1.9-deficient cell line was established and the expression of NaV1.9 was reduced by 80%. CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry showed that the proliferation of the NaV1.9-deficient cell line was inhibited (P<0.05). Flow cytometry revealed that phagocytic ability was reduced in the cell line (P<0.05). Transwell migration assay demonstrated that migrating ability was depressed in the cell line (P<0.05). In the stable NaV1.9-deficient cells we successfully constructed, proliferation, phagocytosis and migration were obviously inhibited.

  19. The cationic peptide LL-37 binds Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) with a low dissociation rate and promotes phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianwei; Bajic, Goran; Andersen, Gregers R; Christiansen, Stig Hill; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    As a broad-spectrum anti-microbial peptide, LL-37 plays an important role in the innate immune system. A series of previous reports implicates LL-37 as an activator of various cell surface receptor-mediated functions, including chemotaxis in integrin CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1)-expressing cells. However, evidence is scarce concerning the direct binding of LL-37 to these receptors and investigations on the associated binding kinetics is lacking. Mac-1, a member of the β2 integrin family, is mainly expressed in myeloid leukocytes. Its critical functions include phagocytosis of complement-opsonized pathogens. Here, we report on interactions of LL-37 and its fragment FK-13 with the ligand-binding domain of Mac-1, the α-chain I domain. LL-37 bound the I-domain with an affinity comparable to the complement fragment C3d, one of the strongest known ligands for Mac-1. In cell adhesion assays both LL-37 and FK-13 supported binding by Mac-1 expressing cells, however, with LL-37-coupled surfaces supporting stronger cell adhesion than FK-13. Likewise, in phagocytosis assays with primary human monocytes both LL-37 and FK-13 enhanced uptake of particles coupled with these ligands but with a tendency towards a stronger uptake by LL-37. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adiponectin inhibits neutrophil phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by inhibition of PKB and ERK 1/2 MAPK signalling and Mac-1 activation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alessandra; Lord, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Full length adiponectin is a potent immune modulatory adipokine, impacting upon the actions of several immune cells. Neutrophil oxidative burst has been shown to decrease in response to adiponectin, and we speculated that it could have other effects on neutrophil function. Here we report that adiponectin reduces the phagocytic ability of human neutrophils, decreasing significantly the ingestion of opsonised E. coli by these cells in whole blood (p<0.05) and as isolated neutrophils (p<0.05). We then determined the mechanisms involved. We observed that the activation of Mac-1, the receptor engaged in complement-mediated phagocytosis, was decreased by adiponectin in response to E. coli stimulation. Moreover, treatment of neutrophils with adiponectin prior to incubation with E. coli significantly inhibited signalling through the PI3K/PKB and ERK 1/2 pathways, with a parallel reduction of F-actin content. Studies with pharmacological inhibitors showed that inhibition of PI3K/PKB, but not ERK 1/2 signalling was able to prevent the activation of Mac-1. In conclusion, we propose that adiponectin negatively affects neutrophil phagocytosis, reducing the uptake of E. coli and inhibiting Mac-1 activation, the latter by blockade of the PI3K/PKB signal pathway.

  1. The Klebsiella pneumoniae YfgL (BamB) lipoprotein contributes to outer membrane protein biogenesis, type-1 fimbriae expression, anti-phagocytosis, and in vivo virulence.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Fang; Hsu, Chun-Ru; Chen, Chun-Tang; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Wang, Jin-Town

    2016-07-03

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that causes several kinds of infections, including pneumonia, bacteremia, urinary tract infection and community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Adhesion is the critical first step in the infection process. Our previous work demonstrated that the transcellular translocation is exploited by K. pneumoniae strains to migrate from the gut flora into other tissues, resulting in systemic infections. However, the initial stages of K. pneumoniae infection remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that a K. pneumoniae strain deleted for yfgL (bamB) exhibited reduced adherence to and invasion of host cells; changed biogenesis of major β-barrel outer membrane proteins; decreased transcriptional expression of type-1 fimbriae; and increased susceptibility to vancomycin and erythromycin. The yfgL deletion mutant also had reduced ability to against neutrophil phagocytosis; exhibited decreased induction of host IL-6 production; and was profoundly attenuated for virulence in a K. pneumoniae model of bacteremia. Thus, the K. pneumoniae YfgL lipoprotein mediates in outer membrane proteins biogenesis and is crucial for anti-phagocytosis and survival in vivo. These data provide a new insight for K. pneumoniae attachment and such knowledge could facilitate preventive therapies or alternative therapies against K. pneumoniae.

  2. Interactions of actin, myosin, and a new actin-binding protein of rabbit pulmonary macrophages. II. Role in cytoplasmic movement and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Stossel, T P; Hartwig, J H

    1976-03-01

    Actin and myosin of rabbit pulmonary macrophages are influenced by two other proteins. A protein cofactor is required for the actin activation of macrophage myosin Mg2 ATPase activity, and a high molecular weight actin-binding protein aggregates actin filaments (Stossel T.P., and J.H. Hartwig. 1975. J. Biol. Chem. 250:5706-5711)9 When warmed in 0.34 M sucrose solution containing Mg2-ATP and dithiothreitol, these four proteins interact cooperatively. Acin-binding protein in the presence of actin causes the actin to form a gel, which liquifies when cooled. The myosin contracts the gel into an aggregate, and the rate of aggregation is accelerated by the cofactor. Therefore, we believe that these four proteins also effec the temperature-dependent gelation and aggregation of crude sucrose extracts pulmonary macrophages containing Mg2-ATP and dithiothreitol. The gelled extracts are composed of tangled filaments. Relative to homogenates of resting macrophages, the distribution of actin-binding protein in homogenates of phagocytizing macrophages is altered such that 2-6 times more actin-binding protein is soluble. Sucrose extracts of phagocytizing macrophages gel more rapidly than extracts of resting macrophages. Phagocytosis by pulmonary macrophages involves the formation of peripheral pseudopods containing filaments. The findings suggest that the actin-binding protein initiates a cooperative interaction of contractile proteins to generate cytoplasmic gelation, and that phagocytosis influences the behavior of the actin-binding protein.

  3. Decoupling Internalization, Acidification and Phagosmal-Endosomal/Iysosomal Phagocytosis of Internalin A coated Beads in epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchette, C D; Woo, Y; Thomas, C

    2008-12-22

    Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established, and in several cases, it was treated as a one-step process. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells, such as epithelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple and novel method to decouple and accurately measure particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) andmore » Caco-2 epithelial cells. Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA), a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated internalization. We achieved independent measurements of the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads) with antibody quenching, pH sensitive dyes and endosomal/lysosomal dyes, as follows: the rate of InlA bead internalization was measured via antibody quenching of a pH independent dye (Alexa488) conjugated to InlA-beads, the rate at which phagosomes containing internalized InlA beads became acidified was measured using a pH dependent dye (FITC) conjugated to the beads and the rate of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was measured using a combination of unlabeled InlA-beads and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we also exploited the phagosomal acidification process to

  4. Phagocytosis of wear debris by osteoblasts affects differentiation and local factor production in a manner dependent on particle composition.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, C H; Schwartz, Z; Köster, G; Jahn, U; Buchhorn, G H; MacDougall, M J; Casasola, D; Liu, Y; Sylvia, V L; Dean, D D; Boyan, B D

    2000-03-01

    . Alkaline phosphatase specific activity was also affected and cpTi was more inhibitory than Ti-A or CoCr. PGE2 production was increased by all particles, but the magnitude of the effect was particle-dependent: CoCr > cpTi > Ti-A. This study demonstrates clearly that human osteoblast-like cells and MG63 cells can phagocytose small UHMWPE, CoCr, Ti-A, and cpTi particles. Phagocytosis of the particles is correlated with changes in morphology, and analysis of MG63 response shows that cell proliferation, differentiation, and prostanoid production are affected. This may have negative effects on bone formation adjacent to an orthopaedic implant and may initiate or contribute to the cellular events that cause aseptic loosening by inhibiting bone formation. The effects on alkaline phosphatase and PGE2 release are dependent on the chemical composition of the particles, suggesting that both the type and concentration of wear debris at an implant site may be important in determining clinical outcome.

  5. miR-184 regulates ezrin, LAMP-1 expression, affects phagocytosis in human retinal pigment epithelium and is downregulated in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Murad, Najiba; Kokkinaki, Maria; Gunawardena, Nishantha; Gunawan, Mia S; Hathout, Yetrib; Janczura, Karolina J; Theos, Alexander C; Golestaneh, Nady

    2014-12-01

    MicroRNA 184 (miR-184) is known to play a key role in neurological development and apoptosis and is highly expressed in mouse brain, mouse corneal epithelium, zebrafish lens and human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). However, the role of miR-184 in RPE is largely unknown. We investigated the role of miR-184 in RPE and its possible implication in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Proteomic analysis identified the ezrin (EZR) gene as a target of miR-184 in human RPE. EZR is a membrane cytoskeleton crosslinker that is also known to bind to lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) during the formation of phagocytic vacuoles. In adult retinal pigment epithelium 19 (ARPE19) cells, inhibition of miR-184 resulted in upregulation of EZR mRNA and EZR protein, and induced downregulation of LAMP-1. The inhibition of miR-184 decreased EZR-bound LAMP-1 protein levels and affected phagocytic activity in ARPE19 cells. In primary culture of human RPE isolated from eyes of AMD donors (AMD RPE), miR-184 was significantly downregulated compared with control (normal) RPE. Downregulation of miR-184 was consistent with significantly lower levels of LAMP-1 protein in AMD RPE, and overexpression of MIR-184 in AMD RPE was able to rescue LAMP-1 protein expression to normal levels. Altogether, these observations suggest a novel role for miR-184 in RPE health and support a model proposing that downregulation of miR-184 expression during aging may result in dysregulation of RPE function, contributing to retinal degeneration. © 2014 FEBS.

  6. Leishmania donovani Utilize Sialic Acids for Binding and Phagocytosis in the Macrophages through Selective Utilization of Siglecs and Impair the Innate Immune Arm.

    PubMed

    Roy, Saptarshi; Mandal, Chitra

    2016-08-01

    Leishmania donovani, belonging to a unicellular protozoan parasite, display the differential level of linkage-specific sialic acids on their surface. Sialic acids binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (siglecs) are a class of membrane-bound receptors present in the haematopoetic cell lineages interact with the linkage-specific sialic acids. Here we aimed to explore the utilization of sialic acids by Leishmania donovani for siglec-mediated binding, phagocytosis, modulation of innate immune response and signaling pathways for establishment of successful infection in the host. We have found enhanced binding of high sialic acids containing virulent strains (AG83+Sias) with siglec-1 and siglec-5 present on macrophages compared to sialidase treated AG83+Sias (AG83-Sias) and low sialic acids-containing avirulent strain (UR6) by flow cytometry. This specific receptor-ligand interaction between sialic acids and siglecs were further confirmed by confocal microscopy. Sialic acids-siglec-1-mediated interaction of AG83+Sias with macrophages induced enhanced phagocytosis. Additionally, sialic acids-siglec-5 interaction demonstrated reduced ROS, NO generation and Th2 dominant cytokine response upon infection with AG83+Sias in contrast to AG83-Sias and UR6. Sialic acids-siglecs binding also facilitated multiplication of intracellular amastigotes. Moreover, AG83+Sias induced sialic acids-siglec-5-mediated upregulation of host phosphatase SHP-1. Such sialic acids-siglec interaction was responsible for further downregulation of MAPKs (p38, ERK and JNK) and PI3K/Akt pathways followed by the reduced translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κβ to the nucleus from cytosol in the downstream signaling pathways. This sequence of events was reversed in AG83-Sias and UR6-infected macrophages. Besides, siglec-knockdown macrophages also showed the reversal of AG83+Sias infection-induced effector functions and downstream signaling events. Taken together, this study demonstrated that virulent parasite

  7. EhNPC1 and EhNPC2 Proteins Participate in Trafficking of Exogenous Cholesterol in Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites: Relevance for Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Jeni; Betanzos, Ab