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Sample records for a2 test parcel

  1. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulicmore » hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles

  2. Integrated Testing, Simulation and Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.

    2012-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory verified diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reduction and cost implications of plug-in hybrid gasoline and diesel variants. These variants are run on a field-data-derived design matrix to analyze the effects of drive cycle, distance, battery replacements, battery capacity, and motor power on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. Two cost scenarios using fuel prices corresponding to forecasted highs for 2011 and 2030 and battery costs per kilowatt-hour representing current and long-term targets compare plug-in hybrid lifetime costs with diesel conventional lifetime costs. Under a future cost scenario of $100/kWh battery energymore » and $5/gal fuel, plug-in hybrids are cost effective. Assuming a current cost of $700/kWh and $3/gal fuel, they rarely recoup the additional motor and battery cost. The results highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle, daily driving distance, and kinetic intensity. For instances in the current-cost scenario where the additional plug-in hybrid cost is regained in fuel savings, the combination of kinetic intensity and daily distance travelled does not coincide with the usage patterns observed in the field data. If the usage patterns were adjusted, the hybrids could become cost effective.« less

  3. A-2 Test Stand modification work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-27

    John C. Stennis Space Center employees install a new master interface tool on the A-2 Test Stand on Oct. 27, 2010. Until July 2009, the stand had been used for testing space shuttle main engines. With that test series complete, employees are preparing the stand for testing the next-generation J-2X rocket engine being developed. Testing of the new engine is scheduled to begin in 2011.

  4. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects.

    PubMed

    Schiffler, Patrick; Tenberge, Jan-Gerd; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  5. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schiffler, Patrick; Tenberge, Jan-Gerd; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G.

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner. PMID:28729829

  6. Assessment and Mapping of Forest Parcel Sizes

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Susan L. King

    2005-01-01

    A method for analyzing and mapping forest parcel sizes in the Northeastern United States is presented. A decision tree model was created that predicts forest parcel size from spatially explicit predictor variables: population density, State, percentage forest land cover, and road density. The model correctly predicted parcel size for 60 percent of the observations in a...

  7. To Parcel or Not To Parcel: Exploring the Question, Weighing the Merits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Todd D.; Cunningham, William A.; Shahar, Golan; Widaman, Keith F.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the evidence for the practice of using parcels of item as manifest variables in structural equation modeling procedures. Findings suggest that the unconsidered use of parcels is never warranted, but the considered use of parcels cannot be dismissed out of hand. Describes a number of parceling techniques and their strengths and weaknesses.…

  8. 78 FR 63521 - Product Change-Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request... Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Contract 5 to...

  9. 77 FR 28409 - Product Change-Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request... States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Contract 3 to Competitive Product List...

  10. 77 FR 37078 - Product Change-Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a... Postal Service to Add Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Contract 4 to Competitive Product List...

  11. Earthquake Hazard Class Mapping by Parcel in Las Vegas Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancha, A.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Louie, J. N.; Hellmer, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    Clark County, Nevada completed the very first effort in the United States to map earthquake hazard class systematically through an entire urban area. The map is used in development and disaster response planning, in addition to its direct use for building code implementation and enforcement. The County contracted with the Nevada System of Higher Education to classify about 500 square miles including urban Las Vegas Valley, and exurban areas considered for future development. The Parcel Map includes over 10,000 surface-wave array measurements accomplished over three years using Optim's SeisOpt° ReMi measurement and processing techniques adapted for large scale data. These array measurements classify individual parcels on the NEHRP hazard scale. Parallel "blind" tests were conducted at 93 randomly selected sites. The rms difference between the Vs30 values yielded by the blind data and analyses and the Parcel Map analyses is 4.92%. Only six of the blind-test sites showed a difference with a magnitude greater than 10%. We describe a "C+" Class for sites with Class B average velocities but soft surface soil. The measured Parcel Map shows a clearly definable C+ to C boundary on the west side of the Valley. The C to D boundary is much more complex. Using the parcel map in computing shaking in the Valley for scenario earthquakes is crucial for obtaining realistic predictions of ground motions.

  12. Stakeholders' Perceptions of Parcelization in Wisconsin's Northwoods

    Treesearch

    Mark G. Rickenbach; Paul H. Gobster

    2003-01-01

    Parcelization, the process by which relatively large forest ownerships become subdivided into smaller ones, is often related to changes in ownership and can bring changes to the use of the land. Landowners, resource professionals, and others interested in Wisconsin's Northwoods were asked their views on parcelization in a series of stakeholder forums. We analyzed...

  13. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These fourmore » cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.« less

  14. Exploring the relationship between parcelization metrics and natural resource managers' perceptions of forest land parcelization intensity

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Kilgore; Stephanie A. Snyder

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge associated with forest land parcelization, defined as the subdivision of forest land holdings into smaller ownership parcels, is that little information exists on how to measure its severity and judge its impacts across forest landscapes. To address this information gap, an on-line survey presented field-based public natural resource managers in the...

  15. Return to flight SSME test at A2 test stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-07-16

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) reached a historic milestone July 16, 2004, when a successful flight acceptance test was conducted at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC). The engine tested today is the first complete engine to be tested and shipped in its entirety to Kennedy Space Center for installation on Space Shuttle Discovery for STS-114, NASA's Return to Flight mission. The engine test, which began about 3:59 p.m. CDT, ran for 520 seconds (8 minutes), the length of time it takes for the Space Shuttle to reach orbit.

  16. Parcellation of left parietal tool representations by functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Garcea, Frank E.; Z. Mahon, Bradford

    2014-01-01

    Manipulating a tool according to its function requires the integration of visual, conceptual, and motor information, a process subserved in part by left parietal cortex. How these different types of information are integrated and how their integration is reflected in neural responses in the parietal lobule remains an open question. Here, participants viewed images of tools and animals during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). K-means clustering over time series data was used to parcellate left parietal cortex into subregions based on functional connectivity to a whole brain network of regions involved in tool processing. One cluster, in the inferior parietal cortex, expressed privileged functional connectivity to the left ventral premotor cortex. A second cluster, in the vicinity of the anterior intraparietal sulcus, expressed privileged functional connectivity with the left medial fusiform gyrus. A third cluster in the superior parietal lobe expressed privileged functional connectivity with dorsal occipital cortex. Control analyses using Monte Carlo style permutation tests demonstrated that the clustering solutions were outside the range of what would be observed based on chance ‘lumpiness’ in random data, or mere anatomical proximity. Finally, hierarchical clustering analyses were used to formally relate the resulting parcellation scheme of left parietal tool representations to previous work that has parcellated the left parietal lobule on purely anatomical grounds. These findings demonstrate significant heterogeneity in the functional organization of manipulable object representations in left parietal cortex, and outline a framework that generates novel predictions about the causes of some forms of upper limb apraxia. PMID:24892224

  17. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O'C.; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Jensen, Eric; Sassen, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison (CPMC) is a project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (GCSS WG2). The primary goal of this project is to identify cirrus model sensitivities to the state of our knowledge of nucleation and microphysics. Furthermore, the common ground of the findings may provide guidelines for models with simpler cirrus microphysics modules. We focus on the nucleation regimes of the warm (parcel starting at -40 C and 340 hPa) and cold (-60 C and 170 hPa) cases studied in the GCSS WG2 Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project. Nucleation and ice crystal growth were forced through an externally imposed rate of lift and consequent adiabatic cooling. The background haze particles are assumed to be lognormally-distributed H2SO4 particles. Only the homogeneous nucleation mode is allowed to form ice crystals in the HN-ONLY runs; all nucleation modes are switched on in the ALL-MODE runs. Participants were asked to run the HN-lambda-fixed runs by setting lambda = 2 (lambda is further discussed in section 2) or tailoring the nucleation rate calculation in agreement with lambda = 2 (exp 1). The depth of parcel lift (800 m) was set to assure that parcels underwent complete transition through the nucleation regime to a stage of approximate equilibrium between ice mass growth and vapor supplied by the specified updrafts.

  18. 43 CFR 3110.5-1 - Parcel number description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parcel number description. 3110.5-1... § 3110.5-1 Parcel number description. From the first day following the end of a competitive process until... lands covered by that competitive process shall be the parcel number on the List of Lands Available for...

  19. 76 FR 16460 - Parcel Select Price and Classification Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2011-64; Order No. 698] Parcel Select Price and... a recently-filed Postal Service notice of rate and classification changes affecting Parcel Select. The Postal Service seeks to implement new prices for Parcel Select for forwarding and return to sender...

  20. Why item parcels are (almost) never appropriate: two wrongs do not make a right--camouflaging misspecification with item parcels in CFA models.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Herbert W; Lüdtke, Oliver; Nagengast, Benjamin; Morin, Alexandre J S; Von Davier, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    The present investigation has a dual focus: to evaluate problematic practice in the use of item parcels and to suggest exploratory structural equation models (ESEMs) as a viable alternative to the traditional independent clusters confirmatory factor analysis (ICM-CFA) model (with no cross-loadings, subsidiary factors, or correlated uniquenesses). Typically, it is ill-advised to (a) use item parcels when ICM-CFA models do not fit the data, and (b) retain ICM-CFA models when items cross-load on multiple factors. However, the combined use of (a) and (b) is widespread and often provides such misleadingly good fit indexes that applied researchers might believe that misspecification problems are resolved--that 2 wrongs really do make a right. Taking a pragmatist perspective, in 4 studies we demonstrate with responses to the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965), Big Five personality factors, and simulated data that even small cross-loadings seriously distort relations among ICM-CFA constructs or even decisions on the number of factors; although obvious in item-level analyses, this is camouflaged by the use of parcels. ESEMs provide a viable alternative to ICM-CFAs and a test for the appropriateness of parcels. The use of parcels with an ICM-CFA model is most justifiable when the fit of both ICM-CFA and ESEM models is acceptable and equally good, and when substantively important interpretations are similar. However, if the ESEM model fits the data better than the ICM-CFA model, then the use of parcels with an ICM-CFA model typically is ill-advised--particularly in studies that are also interested in scale development, latent means, and measurement invariance.

  1. Effects of parceling on model selection: Parcel-allocation variability in model ranking.

    PubMed

    Sterba, Sonya K; Rights, Jason D

    2017-03-01

    Research interest often lies in comparing structural model specifications implying different relationships among latent factors. In this context parceling is commonly accepted, assuming the item-level measurement structure is well known and, conservatively, assuming items are unidimensional in the population. Under these assumptions, researchers compare competing structural models, each specified using the same parcel-level measurement model. However, little is known about consequences of parceling for model selection in this context-including whether and when model ranking could vary across alternative item-to-parcel allocations within-sample. This article first provides a theoretical framework that predicts the occurrence of parcel-allocation variability (PAV) in model selection index values and its consequences for PAV in ranking of competing structural models. These predictions are then investigated via simulation. We show that conditions known to manifest PAV in absolute fit of a single model may or may not manifest PAV in model ranking. Thus, one cannot assume that low PAV in absolute fit implies a lack of PAV in ranking, and vice versa. PAV in ranking is shown to occur under a variety of conditions, including large samples. To provide an empirically supported strategy for selecting a model when PAV in ranking exists, we draw on relationships between structural model rankings in parcel- versus item-solutions. This strategy employs the across-allocation modal ranking. We developed software tools for implementing this strategy in practice, and illustrate them with an example. Even if a researcher has substantive reason to prefer one particular allocation, investigating PAV in ranking within-sample still provides an informative sensitivity analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. ATPP: A Pipeline for Automatic Tractography-Based Brain Parcellation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai; Fan, Lingzhong; Zhuo, Junjie; Wang, Jiaojian; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Zhengyi; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-01-01

    There is a longstanding effort to parcellate brain into areas based on micro-structural, macro-structural, or connectional features, forming various brain atlases. Among them, connectivity-based parcellation gains much emphasis, especially with the considerable progress of multimodal magnetic resonance imaging in the past two decades. The Brainnetome Atlas published recently is such an atlas that follows the framework of connectivity-based parcellation. However, in the construction of the atlas, the deluge of high resolution multimodal MRI data and time-consuming computation poses challenges and there is still short of publically available tools dedicated to parcellation. In this paper, we present an integrated open source pipeline (https://www.nitrc.org/projects/atpp), named Automatic Tractography-based Parcellation Pipeline (ATPP) to realize the framework of parcellation with automatic processing and massive parallel computing. ATPP is developed to have a powerful and flexible command line version, taking multiple regions of interest as input, as well as a user-friendly graphical user interface version for parcellating single region of interest. We demonstrate the two versions by parcellating two brain regions, left precentral gyrus and middle frontal gyrus, on two independent datasets. In addition, ATPP has been successfully utilized and fully validated in a variety of brain regions and the human Brainnetome Atlas, showing the capacity to greatly facilitate brain parcellation. PMID:28611620

  3. 7 CFR 1955.140 - Sale in parcels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Programs property, may be offered for sale as a whole or subdivided into parcels as determined by the State... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sale in parcels. 1955.140 Section 1955.140...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.140 Sale...

  4. 7 CFR 1955.140 - Sale in parcels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Programs property, may be offered for sale as a whole or subdivided into parcels as determined by the State... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sale in parcels. 1955.140 Section 1955.140...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.140 Sale...

  5. 7 CFR 1955.140 - Sale in parcels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Programs property, may be offered for sale as a whole or subdivided into parcels as determined by the State... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sale in parcels. 1955.140 Section 1955.140...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.140 Sale...

  6. 7 CFR 1955.140 - Sale in parcels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Programs property, may be offered for sale as a whole or subdivided into parcels as determined by the State... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sale in parcels. 1955.140 Section 1955.140...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.140 Sale...

  7. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Marin E; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2014-05-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here, we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. [2009]: Psychiatry Res 172:147-154 in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field, and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC] and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Ranta, Marin E.; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L.; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. (2009) in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. PMID:23897577

  9. Functional parcellation using time courses of instantaneous connectivity.

    PubMed

    van Oort, Erik S B; Mennes, Maarten; Navarro Schröder, Tobias; Kumar, Vinod J; Zaragoza Jimenez, Nestor I; Grodd, Wolfgang; Doeller, Christian F; Beckmann, Christian F

    2018-04-15

    Functional neuroimaging studies have led to understanding the brain as a collection of spatially segregated functional networks. It is thought that each of these networks is in turn composed of a set of distinct sub-regions that together support each network's function. Considering the sub-regions to be an essential part of the brain's functional architecture, several strategies have been put forward that aim at identifying the functional sub-units of the brain by means of functional parcellations. Current parcellation strategies typically employ a bottom-up strategy, creating a parcellation by clustering smaller units. We propose a novel top-down parcellation strategy, using time courses of instantaneous connectivity to subdivide an initial region of interest into sub-regions. We use split-half reproducibility to choose the optimal number of sub-regions. We apply our Instantaneous Connectivity Parcellation (ICP) strategy on high-quality resting-state FMRI data, and demonstrate the ability to generate parcellations for thalamus, entorhinal cortex, motor cortex, and subcortex including brainstem and striatum. We evaluate the subdivisions against available cytoarchitecture maps to show that our parcellation strategy recovers biologically valid subdivisions that adhere to known cytoarchitectural features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A framework for farmland parcels extraction based on image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoying; Ge, Wenying; Song, Xu; Zhao, Hongdan

    2018-03-01

    It is very important for the government to build an accurate national basic cultivated land database. In this work, farmland parcels extraction is one of the basic steps. However, during the past years, people had to spend much time on determining an area is a farmland parcel or not, since they were bounded to understand remote sensing images only from the mere visual interpretation. In order to overcome this problem, in this study, a method was proposed to extract farmland parcels by means of image classification. In the proposed method, farmland areas and ridge areas of the classification map are semantically processed independently and the results are fused together to form the final results of farmland parcels. Experiments on high spatial remote sensing images have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Emerson Parcel of Dutch Slough Tidal Marsh Restoration Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Emerson Parcel of Dutch Slough Tidal Marsh Restoration Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  12. GCSS Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David OC.; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Jensen, Eric; Sassen, Kenneth; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project, a project of GCSS Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (WG2), involves the systematic comparison of current models of ice crystal nucleation and growth for specified, typical, cirrus cloud environments. The goal of this project is to document and understand the factors resulting in significant inter-model differences. The intent is to foment research leading to model improvement and validation. In Phase 1 of the project reported here, simulated cirrus cloud microphysical properties are compared for situations of "warm" (-40 C) and "cold" (-60 C) cirrus subject to updrafts of 4, 20 and 100 cm/s, respectively. Five models participated. These models employ explicit microphysical schemes wherein the size distribution of each class of particles (aerosols and ice crystals) is resolved into bins. Simulations are made including both homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. A single initial aerosol population of sulfuric acid particles is prescribed for all simulations. To isolate the treatment of the homogeneous freezing (of haze drops) nucleation process, the heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is disabled for a second parallel set of simulations. Qualitative agreement is found for the homogeneous-nucleation-only simulations, e.g., the number density of nucleated ice crystals increases with the strength of the prescribed updraft. However, non-negligible quantitative differences are found. Detailed analysis reveals that the homogeneous nucleation formulation, aerosol size, ice crystal growth rate (particularly the deposition coefficient), and water vapor uptake rate are critical components that lead to differences in predicted microphysics. Systematic bias exists between results based on a modified classical theory approach and models using an effective freezing temperature approach to the treatment of nucleation. Each approach is constrained by critical freezing data from laboratory studies, but each includes

  13. Parcels versus pixels: modeling agricultural land use across broad geographic regions using parcel-based field boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Dornbierer, Jordan; Wika, Steve; Sayler, Kristi L.; Quenzer, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Land use and land cover (LULC) change occurs at a local level within contiguous ownership and management units (parcels), yet LULC models primarily use pixel-based spatial frameworks. The few parcel-based models being used overwhelmingly focus on small geographic areas, limiting the ability to assess LULC change impacts at regional to national scales. We developed a modified version of the Forecasting Scenarios of land use change model to project parcel-based agricultural change across a large region in the United States Great Plains. A scenario representing an agricultural biofuel scenario was modeled from 2012 to 2030, using real parcel boundaries based on contiguous ownership and land management units. The resulting LULC projection provides a vastly improved representation of landscape pattern over existing pixel-based models, while simultaneously providing an unprecedented combination of thematic detail and broad geographic extent. The conceptual approach is practical and scalable, with potential use for national-scale projections.

  14. Variability in Parameter Estimates and Model Fit across Repeated Allocations of Items to Parcels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya K.; MacCallum, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Different random or purposive allocations of items to parcels within a single sample are thought not to alter structural parameter estimates as long as items are unidimensional and congeneric. If, additionally, numbers of items per parcel and parcels per factor are held fixed across allocations, different allocations of items to parcels within a…

  15. 76 FR 17784 - Forwarding and Return Service for Parcel Select Mailpieces

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Forwarding and Return Service for Parcel Select Mailpieces AGENCY....2.3.6 to eliminate the free local forwarding of Parcel Select[supreg] mailpieces and to eliminate... Parcel Select forwards and returns; those pieces will now pay the applicable Parcel Select barcoded...

  16. Bidirectional iterative parcellation of diffusion weighted imaging data: Separating cortical regions connected by the arcuate fasciculus and extreme capsule

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Dianne K.; Van Petten, Cyma; Beeson, Pélagie M.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Plante, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a Bidirectional Iterative Parcellation (BIP) procedure designed to identify the location and size of connected cortical regions (parcellations) at both ends of a white matter tract in diffusion weighted images. The procedure applies the FSL option “probabilistic tracking with classification targets” in a bidirectional and iterative manner. To assess the utility of BIP, we applied the procedure to the problem of parcellating a limited set of well-established gray matter seed regions associated with the dorsal (arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus) and ventral (extreme capsule fiber system) white matter tracts in the language networks of 97 participants. These left hemisphere seed regions and the two white matter tracts, along with their right hemisphere homologues, provided an excellent test case for BIP because the resulting parcellations overlap and their connectivity via the arcuate fasciculi and extreme capsule fiber systems are well studied. The procedure yielded both confirmatory and novel findings. Specifically, BIP confirmed that each tract connects within the seed regions in unique, but expected ways. Novel findings included increasingly left-lateralized parcellations associated with the arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus as a function of age and education. These results demonstrate that BIP is an easily implemented technique that successfully confirmed cortical connectivity patterns predicted in the literature, and has the potential to provide new insights regarding the architecture of the brain. PMID:25173414

  17. Using geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels for classification of detailed urban land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.-S.; Qiu, X.; Usery, E.L.; Wang, L.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed urban land use data are important to government officials, researchers, and businesspeople for a variety of purposes. This article presents an approach to classifying detailed urban land use based on geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels. An area of 6 by 14 km in Austin, Texas, with land parcel boundaries delineated by the Travis Central Appraisal District of Travis County, Texas, is tested for the approach. We derive fifty parcel attributes from relevant geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing data and use them to discriminate among nine urban land uses: single family, multifamily, commercial, office, industrial, civic, open space, transportation, and undeveloped. Half of the 33,025 parcels in the study area are used as training data for land use classification and the other half are used as testing data for accuracy assessment. The best result with a decision tree classification algorithm has an overall accuracy of 96 percent and a kappa coefficient of 0.78, and two naive, baseline models based on the majority rule and the spatial autocorrelation rule have overall accuracy of 89 percent and 79 percent, respectively. The algorithm is relatively good at classifying single-family, multifamily, commercial, open space, and undeveloped land uses and relatively poor at classifying office, industrial, civic, and transportation land uses. The most important attributes for land use classification are the geometrical attributes, particularly those related to building areas. Next are the contextual attributes, particularly those relevant to the spatial relationship between buildings, then the textural attributes, particularly the semivariance texture statistic from 0.61-m resolution images.

  18. Constructing fMRI connectivity networks: a whole brain functional parcellation method for node definition.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Eleonora; Tana, Maria Gabriella; Arrigoni, Filippo; Zucca, Claudio; Bianchi, Anna Maria

    2014-05-15

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is used for exploring brain functionality, and recently it was applied for mapping the brain connection patterns. To give a meaningful neurobiological interpretation to the connectivity network, it is fundamental to properly define the network framework. In particular, the choice of the network nodes may affect the final connectivity results and the consequent interpretation. We introduce a novel method for the intra subject topological characterization of the nodes of fMRI brain networks, based on a whole brain parcellation scheme. The proposed whole brain parcellation algorithm divides the brain into clusters that are homogeneous from the anatomical and functional point of view, each of which constitutes a node. The functional parcellation described is based on the Tononi's cluster index, which measures instantaneous correlation in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic statistical dependencies. The method performance and reliability were first tested on simulated data, then on a real fMRI dataset acquired on healthy subjects during visual stimulation. Finally, the proposed algorithm was applied to epileptic patients' fMRI data recorded during seizures, to verify its usefulness as preparatory step for effective connectivity analysis. For each patient, the nodes of the network involved in ictal activity were defined according to the proposed parcellation scheme and Granger Causality Analysis (GCA) was applied to infer effective connectivity. We showed that the algorithm 1) performed well on simulated data, 2) was able to produce reliable inter subjects results and 3) led to a detailed definition of the effective connectivity pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-Contrast Multi-Atlas Parcellation of Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoying; Yoshida, Shoko; Hsu, John; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Faria, Andreia V.; Oishi, Kenichi; Kutten, Kwame; Poretti, Andrea; Li, Yue; Miller, Michael I.; Mori, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for parcellating the human brain into 193 anatomical structures based on diffusion tensor images (DTIs). This was accomplished in the setting of multi-contrast diffeomorphic likelihood fusion using multiple DTI atlases. DTI images are modeled as high dimensional fields, with each voxel exhibiting a vector valued feature comprising of mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), and fiber angle. For each structure, the probability distribution of each element in the feature vector is modeled as a mixture of Gaussians, the parameters of which are estimated from the labeled atlases. The structure-specific feature vector is then used to parcellate the test image. For each atlas, a likelihood is iteratively computed based on the structure-specific vector feature. The likelihoods from multiple atlases are then fused. The updating and fusing of the likelihoods is achieved based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation problems. We first demonstrate the performance of the algorithm by examining the parcellation accuracy of 18 structures from 25 subjects with a varying degree of structural abnormality. Dice values ranging 0.8–0.9 were obtained. In addition, strong correlation was found between the volume size of the automated and the manual parcellation. Then, we present scan-rescan reproducibility based on another dataset of 16 DTI images – an average of 3.73%, 1.91%, and 1.79% for volume, mean FA, and mean MD respectively. Finally, the range of anatomical variability in the normal population was quantified for each structure. PMID:24809486

  20. Computational neuroanatomy using brain deformations: From brain parcellation to multivariate pattern analysis and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-10-01

    The past 20 years have seen a mushrooming growth of the field of computational neuroanatomy. Much of this work has been enabled by the development and refinement of powerful, high-dimensional image warping methods, which have enabled detailed brain parcellation, voxel-based morphometric analyses, and multivariate pattern analyses using machine learning approaches. The evolution of these 3 types of analyses over the years has overcome many challenges. We present the evolution of our work in these 3 directions, which largely follows the evolution of this field. We discuss the progression from single-atlas, single-registration brain parcellation work to current ensemble-based parcellation; from relatively basic mass-univariate t-tests to optimized regional pattern analyses combining deformations and residuals; and from basic application of support vector machines to generative-discriminative formulations of multivariate pattern analyses, and to methods dealing with heterogeneity of neuroanatomical patterns. We conclude with discussion of some of the future directions and challenges. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Evaluation of Cross-Protocol Stability of a Fully Automated Brain Multi-Atlas Parcellation Tool.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zifei; He, Xiaohai; Ceritoglu, Can; Tang, Xiaoying; Li, Yue; Kutten, Kwame S; Oishi, Kenichi; Miller, Michael I; Mori, Susumu; Faria, Andreia V

    2015-01-01

    Brain parcellation tools based on multiple-atlas algorithms have recently emerged as a promising method with which to accurately define brain structures. When dealing with data from various sources, it is crucial that these tools are robust for many different imaging protocols. In this study, we tested the robustness of a multiple-atlas, likelihood fusion algorithm using Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) data with six different protocols, comprising three manufacturers and two magnetic field strengths. The entire brain was parceled into five different levels of granularity. In each level, which defines a set of brain structures, ranging from eight to 286 regions, we evaluated the variability of brain volumes related to the protocol, age, and diagnosis (healthy or Alzheimer's disease). Our results indicated that, with proper pre-processing steps, the impact of different protocols is minor compared to biological effects, such as age and pathology. A precise knowledge of the sources of data variation enables sufficient statistical power and ensures the reliability of an anatomical analysis when using this automated brain parcellation tool on datasets from various imaging protocols, such as clinical databases.

  2. Computational neuroanatomy using brain deformations: From brain parcellation to multivariate pattern analysis and machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Davatzikos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen a mushrooming growth of the field of computational neuroanatomy. Much of this work has been enabled by the development and refinement of powerful, high-dimensional image warping methods, which have enabled detailed brain parcellation, voxel-based morphometric analyses, and multivariate pattern analyses using machine learning approaches. The evolution of these 3 types of analyses over the years has overcome many challenges. We present the evolution of our work in these 3 directions, which largely follows the evolution of this field. We discuss the progression from single-atlas, single-registration brain parcellation work to current ensemble-based parcellation; from relatively basic mass-univariate t-tests to optimized regional pattern analyses combining deformations and residuals; and from basic application of support vector machines to generative-discriminative formulations of multivariate pattern analyses, and to methods dealing with heterogeneity of neuroanatomical patterns. We conclude with discussion of some of the future directions and challenges. PMID:27514582

  3. Lot A2 test, THC modelling of the bentonite buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itälä, Aku; Olin, Markus; Lehikoinen, Jarmo

    Finnish spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed of deep in the crystalline bedrock of the Olkiluoto island. In such a repository, the role of the bentonite buffer is considered to be central. The initially unsaturated bentonite emplaced around a spent-fuel canister will become fully saturated by the groundwater from the host rock. In order to assess the long-term safety of a deep repository, it is essential to determine how temperature influences the chemical stability of bentonite. The aim of this study was to achieve an improved understanding of the factors governing the thermo-hydro-chemical evolution of the bentonite buffer subject to heat generation from the disposed fuel and in contact with a highly permeable rock fracture intersecting a canister deposition hole. TOUGHREACT was used to model a test known as the long-term test of buffer material adverse-2, which was conducted at the Äspö hard rock laboratory in Sweden. The results on the evolution of cation-exchange equilibria, bentonite porewater chemistry, mineralogy, and saturation of the buffer are presented and discussed. The calculated model results show similarity to the experimental results. In particular, the spatial differences in the saturation and porewater chemistry of the bentonite buffer were clearly visible in the model.

  4. X-15A-2 with test pilot Pete Knight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Air Force pilot William J. 'Pete' Knight is seen here in front of the X-15A-2 aircraft (56-6671). Pete Knight made 16 flights in the X-15, and set the world unofficial speed record for fixed wing aircraft, 4,520 mph (mach 6.7), in the X-15A-2. He also made one flight above 50 miles, qualifying him for astronaut wings. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52 aircraft at 45,000 ft and a speed of about 500 mph. Depending on the mission, the rocket engine provided thrust for the first 80 to 120

  5. Defining Tropospheric Chemistry As A Heterogeneous Ensemble Of Reactive Air Parcels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, M. J.; Zhu, X.; Flynn, C.; Mao, J.; Strode, S. A.; Steenrod, S. D.; Strahan, S. E.; Lamarque, J. F.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Shindell, D. T.; Murray, L. T.

    2016-12-01

    Two major challenges in model-measurement comparisons have been: Which measurements are the most important to match? At what level do models need to simulate the variegated fine structures observed in trace gases and aerosols? This talk presents a novel approach for evaluating high-resolution global chemistry models (1/2 to 1 deg) that is integral to NASA's Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission. The approach seeks to develop a chemical climatology for tropospheric regions rather than just event-based testing of specific observations. It enables chemistry-climate models to be readily compared and more severely tested with observations. It uses the reactivity of air parcels (e.g., loss of methane, production and loss of ozone) to weight each parcel in terms of its importance in controlling the two most important chemically reactive greenhouse gases. It looks at the entire statistical distribution of air parcels in terms of a chemical phase space for those species that control the reactivity (e.g., O3, H2O, CH4, CO, NOx, HNO3, HNO4, PAN, CH3NO3, HCHO, HOOH, CH3OOH, C2H6, C3H6O, and other VOCs when present in sufficiently large abundances). It builds statistics of chemically extreme air parcels such as pollution layers to determine if a model failure to match such cases affects the overall reactivity of the region. This approach was designed for the ATom in situ measurements using the DC-8 to slice through the middle of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins each season. The ATom payload will measure the above key trace gases and many other gases and aerosols in every designated air parcel (i.e., 10-sec averages). The first ATom measurements will not be available until mid-2017 and this presentation shows how this climatology looks when sampled with different models. Six global chemistry models have simulated one day in August (no particular year), and we sample all six showing how the 2D probability density plots highlight different regions when weighted by chemical

  6. Cortical parcellation based on structural connectivity: A case for generative models.

    PubMed

    Tittgemeyer, Marc; Rigoux, Lionel; Knösche, Thomas R

    2018-06-01

    data based on (model) parameter inference. As such, a parcellation algorithm can be formally tested for robustness -the precision of its predictions can be quantified and statistics about potential generalization of the results can be derived. Such a framework also allows the question of model constraints to be reformulated in terms of hypothesis testing through model selection and offers a formative way to integrate anatomical knowledge in terms of prior distributions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. NEAR-SURFACE AIR PARCEL TRAJECTORIES - ST. LOUIS, 1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of air parcel trajectories is described for the diagnosis of mesometeorological and urban air pollution problems. A technique is described that uses the St. Louis Regional Air Monitoring System (RAMS) to provide wind measurements for the local urban scale. A computeri...

  8. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-15 Parcel post inspection. Inspectors are authorized to... Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the U.S. Virgin Islands...

  9. 76 FR 11297 - New Regional Ground Service for Parcels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2011-60; Order No. 679] New Regional Ground Service for... changes involve a new offering identified as Regional Ground service. This notice informs the public of... 3015.2.\\1\\ The proposed changes establish a new ``Regional Ground'' price category within the Parcel...

  10. 7 CFR 1955.140 - Sale in parcels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., inventory for small business enterprises, buildings, facilities, and similar items may be permitted if a... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.140 Sale in parcels...

  11. Center of parcel with picture tube wall along walkway. Leaning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center of parcel with picture tube wall along walkway. Leaning Tower of Bottle Village at frame right; oblique view of Rumpus Room, remnants of Little Hut destroyed by Northridge earthquake at frame left. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  12. 48 CFR 242.1404-1 - Parcel post eligible shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parcel post eligible shipments. 242.1404-1 Section 242.1404-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES...

  13. Center of parcel with mosaics. Mosaics consist of everyday throwaway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center of parcel with mosaics. Mosaics consist of everyday throwaway objects of all kinds set in concrete mortar on ground. Leaning Tower of Bottle Village in front of Rumpus Room primary façade with 12' scale (in tenths). Camera facing north. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  14. View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale (in tenths). From right: edge of Round House, Pencil house, Shell House, edge of School House. Heart Shrine made from mortared car headlights at frame left. Camera facing east. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  15. Air-Parcel Residence Times Within Forest Canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, Tobias; Chamecki, Marcelo; Fuentes, Jose D.

    2017-10-01

    We present a theoretical model, based on a simple model of turbulent diffusion and first-order chemical kinetics, to determine air-parcel residence times and the out-of-canopy export of reactive gases emitted within forest canopies under neutral conditions. Theoretical predictions of the air-parcel residence time are compared to values derived from large-eddy simulation for a range of canopy architectures and turbulence levels under neutral stratification. Median air-parcel residence times range from a few sec in the upper canopy to approximately 30 min near the ground and the distribution of residence times is skewed towards longer times in the lower canopy. While the predicted probability density functions from the theoretical model and large-eddy simulation are in good agreement with each other, the theoretical model requires only information on canopy height and eddy diffusivities inside the canopy. The eddy-diffusivity model developed additionally requires the friction velocity at canopy top and a parametrized profile of the standard deviation of vertical velocity. The theoretical model of air-parcel residence times is extended to include first-order chemical reactions over a range of of Damköhler numbers ( Da) characteristic of plant-emitted hydrocarbons. The resulting out-of-canopy export fractions range from near 1 for Da =10^{-3} to less than 0.3 at Da = 10. These results highlight the necessity for dense and tall forests to include the impacts of air-parcel residence times when calculating the out-of-canopy export fraction for reactive trace gases.

  16. 76 FR 23749 - Intelligent Mail Package Barcode (IMpb) Implementation for Commercial Parcels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ...The Postal Service is proposing to revise Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) to require the use of a unique tracking barcode on all commercial parcels, except Standard Mail[supreg] parcels, claiming presort and destination entry pricing by January 2012; and to encourage use of unique tracking barcodes by providing free Delivery Confirmation[supreg] service on all commercial parcels except Standard Mail parcels.

  17. Use of Item Parceling in Structural Equation Modeling with Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcan, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Parceling is referred to as a procedure for computing sums or average scores across multiple items. Parcels instead of individual items are then used as indicators of latent factors in the structural equation modeling analysis (Bandalos 2002, 2008; Little et al., 2002; Yang, Nay, & Hoyle, 2010). Item parceling may be applied to alleviate some…

  18. 76 FR 14284 - Domestic Shipping Services Product Launch of Parcel Select Regional Ground

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Domestic Shipping Services Product Launch of Parcel Select Regional... competitive shipping option, Parcel Select Regional Ground \\TM\\ service. DATES: Effective Date: April 17, 2011... classification changes outlined by USPS[supreg] on the introduction of Parcel Select Regional Ground service...

  19. Distinct hippocampal functional networks revealed by tractography-based parcellation.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Areeba; Barnett, Alexander; Moayedi, Massieh; McCormick, Cornelia; Cohn, Melanie; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2016-07-01

    Recent research suggests the anterior and posterior hippocampus form part of two distinct functional neural networks. Here we investigate the structural underpinnings of this functional connectivity difference using diffusion-weighted imaging-based parcellation. Using this technique, we substantiated that the hippocampus can be parcellated into distinct anterior and posterior segments. These structurally defined segments did indeed show different patterns of resting state functional connectivity, in that the anterior segment showed greater connectivity with temporal and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas the posterior segment was more highly connected to medial and lateral parietal cortex. Furthermore, we showed that the posterior hippocampal connectivity to memory processing regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, parahippocampal, inferior temporal and fusiform gyri and the precuneus, predicted interindividual relational memory performance. These findings provide important support for the integration of structural and functional connectivity in understanding the brain networks underlying episodic memory.

  20. Evolution of chemically processed air parcels in the lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Schoeberl, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft, ground-based, and satellite measurements indicate large concentrations of ClO in the lower stratosphere in and near the polar vortex. The amount of local ozone depletion caused by these large ClO concentrations will depend on the relative rates of ozone loss and ClO recovery. ClO recovery occurs when NO(x), from HNO3 photolysis, reacts with ClO to form ClONO2. We show that air parcels with large amounts of ClO will experience a subsequent ozone depletion that depends on the solar zenith angle. When the solar zenith angle is large in the middle of winter, the recovery of the ClO concentration in the parcel is slow relative to ozone depletion. In the spring, when the solar zenith angle is smaller, the ClO recovery is much faster. After ClO recovery, the chlorine chemistry has not returned to normal. The ClO has been converted to ClONO2. ClO production from further encounters with PSCs will be limited by the heterogeneous reaction of ClONO2 with water. Large ozone depletions, of the type seen in the Antarctic, occur only if there is significant irreversible denitrification in the air parcel.

  1. Parcels v0.9: prototyping a Lagrangian ocean analysis framework for the petascale age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Michael; van Sebille, Erik

    2017-11-01

    As ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) move into the petascale age, where the output of single simulations exceeds petabytes of storage space, tools to analyse the output of these models will need to scale up too. Lagrangian ocean analysis, where virtual particles are tracked through hydrodynamic fields, is an increasingly popular way to analyse OGCM output, by mapping pathways and connectivity of biotic and abiotic particulates. However, the current software stack of Lagrangian ocean analysis codes is not dynamic enough to cope with the increasing complexity, scale and need for customization of use-cases. Furthermore, most community codes are developed for stand-alone use, making it a nontrivial task to integrate virtual particles at runtime of the OGCM. Here, we introduce the new Parcels code, which was designed from the ground up to be sufficiently scalable to cope with petascale computing. We highlight its API design that combines flexibility and customization with the ability to optimize for HPC workflows, following the paradigm of domain-specific languages. Parcels is primarily written in Python, utilizing the wide range of tools available in the scientific Python ecosystem, while generating low-level C code and using just-in-time compilation for performance-critical computation. We show a worked-out example of its API, and validate the accuracy of the code against seven idealized test cases. This version 0.9 of Parcels is focused on laying out the API, with future work concentrating on support for curvilinear grids, optimization, efficiency and at-runtime coupling with OGCMs.

  2. Design and test of a 2m x 4m DART system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolomeo, J.; Loane, J.; Cross, G.; Tenerelli, D.; Sable, B.; Decker, T.; Nelson, T.; Joseph, B.; Windes, C.; Kokawa, D.; hide

    2003-01-01

    A 2 meter by 4 meter DART (dual anamorphic reflector telescope) system has been designed and fabricated using thin stretched mesh reflectors. This report documents the structural configuration, test preparation, test results, and analysis correlation.

  3. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey, The Landings at Nellis Housing Area, Parcel H, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Pulido, Environmental Restoration Program Manger, Nellis AFB, Henry Rodriguez , Toxics Program Manger, Nellis AFB, John Roe, Water Quality Program...TESTING February 14, 2011 Hunt Building Company Inc. Mr. John Leidolf 4401 N Mesa El Paso, TX 79902 Re: Clearance Letter for Parcel H, 1 & 2...Prepared for: Mr. John Leidolf Hunt Building Company, LTD. 4401 N. Mesa St. El Paso, TX 79912 Project: Nellis Air Force Base Salmon Street

  4. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Paveglio, Travis B; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability-human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others.

  5. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paveglio, Travis B.; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability—human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others.

  6. Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemistry along air parcel trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.; Mckenna, D. L.; Poole, L. R.; Solomon, S.

    1990-01-01

    The study of coupled heterogeneous and homogeneous chemistry due to polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) using Lagrangian parcel trajectories for interpretation of the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Experiment (AASE) is discussed. This approach represents an attempt to quantitatively model the physical and chemical perturbation to stratospheric composition due to formation of PSC's using the fullest possible representation of the relevant processes. Further, the meteorological fields from the United Kingdom Meteorological office global model were used to deduce potential vorticity and inferred regions of PSC's as an input to flight planning during AASE.

  7. Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original skinny mosaic path along edge of structures was altered (delineation can be seen in concrete) path was widened with a newer mosaic to make access to the site safer. Structures (from right) edge of Round House (with "Spring Garden"), Pencil house, Shell House, School House, wood lattice is attached to chain-link fence along north (rear) property line. These structures were all damaged by the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  8. Using natural beta emission for detecting concealed tobacco in parcels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Jeremy; Hussein, Esam M. A.

    2007-10-01

    It is suspected that postal systems are used for the illegal shipment of tobacco products to circumvent taxation and excise payments. This paper demonstrates that beta-particle emission from the potassium-40 contained in tobacco can be used to passively detect its presence in paperboard postal parcels. The same concept can be utilized for the detection of marijuana, whose leaves are also rich in 40K. The combination of high beta activity and a low weight is a good indicator of the presence of these two contraband materials.

  9. Cerebellar Functional Parcellation Using Sparse Dictionary Learning Clustering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changqing; Kipping, Judy; Bao, Chenglong; Ji, Hui; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    The human cerebellum has recently been discovered to contribute to cognition and emotion beyond the planning and execution of movement, suggesting its functional heterogeneity. We aimed to identify the functional parcellation of the cerebellum using information from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). For this, we introduced a new data-driven decomposition-based functional parcellation algorithm, called Sparse Dictionary Learning Clustering (SDLC). SDLC integrates dictionary learning, sparse representation of rs-fMRI, and k-means clustering into one optimization problem. The dictionary is comprised of an over-complete set of time course signals, with which a sparse representation of rs-fMRI signals can be constructed. Cerebellar functional regions were then identified using k-means clustering based on the sparse representation of rs-fMRI signals. We solved SDLC using a multi-block hybrid proximal alternating method that guarantees strong convergence. We evaluated the reliability of SDLC and benchmarked its classification accuracy against other clustering techniques using simulated data. We then demonstrated that SDLC can identify biologically reasonable functional regions of the cerebellum as estimated by their cerebello-cortical functional connectivity. We further provided new insights into the cerebello-cortical functional organization in children.

  10. Groupwise connectivity-based parcellation of the whole human cortical surface using watershed-driven dimension reduction.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Sandrine; Roca, Pauline; Perrot, Matthieu; Poupon, Cyril; Le Bihan, Denis; Mangin, Jean-François; Rivière, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Segregating the human cortex into distinct areas based on structural connectivity criteria is of widespread interest in neuroscience. This paper presents a groupwise connectivity-based parcellation framework for the whole cortical surface using a new high quality diffusion dataset of 79 healthy subjects. Our approach performs gyrus by gyrus to parcellate the whole human cortex. The main originality of the method is to compress for each gyrus the connectivity profiles used for the clustering without any anatomical prior information. This step takes into account the interindividual cortical and connectivity variability. To this end, we consider intersubject high density connectivity areas extracted using a surface-based watershed algorithm. A wide validation study has led to a fully automatic pipeline which is robust to variations in data preprocessing (tracking type, cortical mesh characteristics and boundaries of initial gyri), data characteristics (including number of subjects), and the main algorithmic parameters. A remarkable reproducibility is achieved in parcellation results for the whole cortex, leading to clear and stable cortical patterns. This reproducibility has been tested across non-overlapping subgroups and the validation is presented mainly on the pre- and postcentral gyri. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A human brain atlas derived via n-cut parcellation of resting-state and task-based fMRI data.

    PubMed

    James, George Andrew; Hazaroglu, Onder; Bush, Keith A

    2016-02-01

    The growth of functional MRI has led to development of human brain atlases derived by parcellating resting-state connectivity patterns into functionally independent regions of interest (ROIs). All functional atlases to date have been derived from resting-state fMRI data. But given that functional connectivity between regions varies with task, we hypothesized that an atlas incorporating both resting-state and task-based fMRI data would produce an atlas with finer characterization of task-relevant regions than an atlas derived from resting-state alone. To test this hypothesis, we derived parcellation atlases from twenty-nine healthy adult participants enrolled in the Cognitive Connectome project, an initiative to improve functional MRI's translation into clinical decision-making by mapping normative variance in brain-behavior relationships. Participants underwent resting-state and task-based fMRI spanning nine cognitive domains: motor, visuospatial, attention, language, memory, affective processing, decision-making, working memory, and executive function. Spatially constrained n-cut parcellation derived brain atlases using (1) all participants' functional data (Task) or (2) a single resting-state scan (Rest). An atlas was also derived from random parcellation for comparison purposes (Random). Two methods were compared: (1) a parcellation applied to the group's mean edge weights (mean), and (2) a two-stage approach with parcellation of individual edge weights followed by parcellation of mean binarized edges (two-stage). The resulting Task and Rest atlases had significantly greater similarity with each other (mean Jaccard indices JI=0.72-0.85) than with the Random atlases (JI=0.59-0.63; all p<0.001 after Bonferroni correction). Task and Rest atlas similarity was greatest for the two-stage method (JI=0.85), which has been shown as more robust than the mean method; these atlases also better reproduced voxelwise seed maps of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during

  12. An Improved Representation of Regional Boundaries on Parcellated Morphological Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xuejun; Xu, Dongrong; Bansal, Ravi; Liu, Jun; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing the correspondences of brain anatomy with function is important for understanding neuroimaging data. Regional delineations on morphological surfaces define anatomical landmarks and help to visualize and interpret both functional data and morphological measures mapped onto the cortical surface. We present an efficient algorithm that accurately delineates the morphological surface of the cerebral cortex in real time during generation of the surface using information from parcellated 3D data. With this accurate region delineation, we then develop methods for boundary-preserved simplification and smoothing, as well as procedures for the automated correction of small, misclassified regions to improve the quality of the delineated surface. We demonstrate that our delineation algorithm, together with a new method for double-snapshot visualization of cortical regions, can be used to establish a clear correspondence between brain anatomy and mapped quantities, such as morphological measures, across groups of subjects. PMID:21144708

  13. Semi-supervised clustering for parcellating brain regions based on resting state fMRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hewei; Fan, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Many unsupervised clustering techniques have been adopted for parcellating brain regions of interest into functionally homogeneous subregions based on resting state fMRI data. However, the unsupervised clustering techniques are not able to take advantage of exiting knowledge of the functional neuroanatomy readily available from studies of cytoarchitectonic parcellation or meta-analysis of the literature. In this study, we propose a semi-supervised clustering method for parcellating amygdala into functionally homogeneous subregions based on resting state fMRI data. Particularly, the semi-supervised clustering is implemented under the framework of graph partitioning, and adopts prior information and spatial consistent constraints to obtain a spatially contiguous parcellation result. The graph partitioning problem is solved using an efficient algorithm similar to the well-known weighted kernel k-means algorithm. Our method has been validated for parcellating amygdala into 3 subregions based on resting state fMRI data of 28 subjects. The experiment results have demonstrated that the proposed method is more robust than unsupervised clustering and able to parcellate amygdala into centromedial, laterobasal, and superficial parts with improved functionally homogeneity compared with the cytoarchitectonic parcellation result. The validity of the parcellation results is also supported by distinctive functional and structural connectivity patterns of the subregions and high consistency between coactivation patterns derived from a meta-analysis and functional connectivity patterns of corresponding subregions.

  14. 39 CFR 320.7 - Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals. 320.7 Section 320.7 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE RESTRICTIONS ON PRIVATE CARRIAGE OF LETTERS SUSPENSION OF THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 320.7 Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals. (a) Th...

  15. 76 FR 77856 - International Mail Price Change for Inbound Air Parcel Post

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2012-3; Order No. 1033] International Mail Price Change..., Notice of Establishment of Prices and Classifications Not of General Applicability for Inbound Air Parcel... Governors' Decision No. 09-15 which establishes prices and classifications for Inbound Air Parcel Post at...

  16. Parcelization and land use: A case study in the New York City Watershed

    Treesearch

    Jennifer A. Caron; Rene H. Germain; Nathaniel M. Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Over 75% of the New York City Watershed is forested, and the majority of the land is owned by family forest owners. Ownership fragmentation and development may impact both the working forested landscape and water quality. We surveyed the owners of intact and subdivided family forest parcels across various parcel sizes to gauge their awareness of forest management...

  17. 76 FR 2930 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Postal Service notice of filing of a request with the Postal Regulatory... Add Parcel Select Contract 1 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at http://www.prc...

  18. 77 FR 66193 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal... Postal Service To Add Parcel Select Contract 6 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  19. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal... Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 3 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  20. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal... Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 4 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  1. 78 FR 56248 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal... States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 7 to Competitive Product List. Documents are...

  2. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal... Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 5 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  3. Challenges in characterizing a parcelized forest landscape: why metric, scale and threshold matter

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Kilgore; Stephanie A. Snyder; Kayla Block-Torgerson; Steven J. Taff

    2013-01-01

    Several metrics have been cited in the literature as being useful characterizations of forest land parcelization. Yet no agreed-upon standard measure exists which creates difficulties in identifying where parcelization is occurring as well as comparing the magnitude of its occurrence across different studies and geographic regions. We evaluated three existing (average...

  4. Predicting Success Using HESI A2 Entrance Tests in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodman, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A challenge presented to nurse educators is retention of nursing students. This has led nursing faculty to review admission requirements and question how well entrance tests predict success in Associate Degree Nursing Programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the HESI Admission Assessment Exam (HESI A2) and…

  5. An exemplar-based approach to individualized parcellation reveals the need for sex specific functional networks

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mehraveh; Karbasi, Amin; Shen, Xilin; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R. Todd

    2018-01-01

    Recent work with functional connectivity data has led to significant progress in understanding the functional organization of the brain. While the majority of the literature has focused on group-level parcellation approaches, there is ample evidence that the brain varies in both structure and function across individuals. In this work, we introduce a parcellation technique that incorporates delineation of functional networks both at the individual- and group-level. The proposed technique deploys the notion of “submodularity” to jointly parcellate the cerebral cortex while establishing an inclusive correspondence between the individualized functional networks. Using this parcellation technique, we successfully established a cross-validated predictive model that predicts individuals’ sex, solely based on the parcellation schemes (i.e. the node-to-network assignment vectors). The sex prediction finding illustrates that individualized parcellation of functional networks can reveal subgroups in a population and suggests that the use of a global network parcellation may overlook fundamental differences in network organization. This is a particularly important point to consider in studies comparing patients versus controls or even patient subgroups. Network organization may differ between individuals and global configurations should not be assumed. This approach to the individualized study of functional organization in the brain has many implications for both neuroscience and clinical applications. PMID:28882628

  6. An exemplar-based approach to individualized parcellation reveals the need for sex specific functional networks.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Mehraveh; Karbasi, Amin; Shen, Xilin; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd

    2018-04-15

    Recent work with functional connectivity data has led to significant progress in understanding the functional organization of the brain. While the majority of the literature has focused on group-level parcellation approaches, there is ample evidence that the brain varies in both structure and function across individuals. In this work, we introduce a parcellation technique that incorporates delineation of functional networks both at the individual- and group-level. The proposed technique deploys the notion of "submodularity" to jointly parcellate the cerebral cortex while establishing an inclusive correspondence between the individualized functional networks. Using this parcellation technique, we successfully established a cross-validated predictive model that predicts individuals' sex, solely based on the parcellation schemes (i.e. the node-to-network assignment vectors). The sex prediction finding illustrates that individualized parcellation of functional networks can reveal subgroups in a population and suggests that the use of a global network parcellation may overlook fundamental differences in network organization. This is a particularly important point to consider in studies comparing patients versus controls or even patient subgroups. Network organization may differ between individuals and global configurations should not be assumed. This approach to the individualized study of functional organization in the brain has many implications for both neuroscience and clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, D.; DeMott, P.; Cotten, R.; Jensen, E.; Sassen, K.

    2000-01-01

    The cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project involves the systematic comparison of current models of ice crystal nucleation and growth for specified, typical, cirrus cloud environments. In Phase 1 of the project reported here, simulated cirrus cloud microphysical properties are compared for situations of "warm" (-40 C) and "cold" (-60 C) cirrus subject to updrafts of 4, 20 and 100 centimeters per second, respectively. Five models are participating in the project. These models employ explicit microphysical schemes wherein the size distribution of each class of particles (aerosols and ice crystals) is resolved into bins. Simulations are made including both homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. A single initial aerosol population of sulfuric acid particles is prescribed for all simulations. To isolate the treatment of the homogeneous freezing (of haze drops) nucleation process, the heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is disabled for a second parallel set of simulations. Qualitative agreement is found amongst the models for the homogeneous-nucleation-only simulations, e.g., the number density of nucleated ice crystals increases with the strength of the prescribed updraft. However, non-negligible quantitative differences are found. Systematic bias exists between results of a model based on a modified classical theory approach and models using an effective freezing temperature approach to the treatment of nucleation. Each approach is constrained by critical freezing data from laboratory studies. This information is necessary, but not sufficient, to construct consistent formulae for the two approaches. Large haze particles may deviate considerably from equilibrium size in moderate to strong updrafts (20-100 centimeters per second) at -60 C when the commonly invoked equilibrium assumption is lifted. The resulting difference in particle-size-dependent solution concentration of haze particles may significantly affect the ice nucleation rate during the initial

  8. Dutch food bank parcels do not meet nutritional guidelines for a healthy diet.

    PubMed

    Neter, Judith E; Dijkstra, S Coosje; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional intakes of food bank recipients and consequently their health status largely rely on the availability and quality of donated food in provided food parcels. In this cross-sectional study, the nutritional quality of ninety-six individual food parcels was assessed and compared with the Dutch nutritional guidelines for a healthy diet. Furthermore, we assessed how food bank recipients use the contents of the food parcel. Therefore, 251 Dutch food bank recipients from eleven food banks throughout the Netherlands filled out a general questionnaire. The provided amounts of energy (19 849 (sd 162 615) kJ (4744 (sd 38 866) kcal)), protein (14·6 energy percentages (en%)) and SFA (12·9 en%) in a single-person food parcel for one single day were higher than the nutritional guidelines, whereas the provided amounts of fruits (97 (sd 1441) g) and fish (23 (sd 640) g) were lower. The number of days for which macronutrients, fruits, vegetables and fish were provided for a single-person food parcel ranged from 1·2 (fruits) to 11·3 (protein) d. Of the participants, only 9·5 % bought fruits and 4·6 % bought fish to supplement the food parcel, 39·4 % used all foods provided and 75·7 % were (very) satisfied with the contents of the food parcel. Our study shows that the nutritional content of food parcels provided by Dutch food banks is not in line with the nutritional guidelines. Improving the quality of the parcels is likely to positively impact the dietary intake of this vulnerable population subgroup.

  9. Automatic Residential/Commercial Classification of Parcels with Solar Panel Detections

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, April M; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Kotikot, Susan

    A computational method to automatically detect solar panels on rooftops to aid policy and financial assessment of solar distributed generation. The code automatically classifies parcels containing solar panels in the U.S. as residential or commercial. The code allows the user to specify an input dataset containing parcels and detected solar panels, and then uses information about the parcels and solar panels to automatically classify the rooftops as residential or commercial using machine learning techniques. The zip file containing the code includes sample input and output datasets for the Boston and DC areas.

  10. Diagnosis of Misalignment in Overhung Rotor using the K-S Statistic and A2 Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garikapati, Diwakar; Pacharu, RaviKumar; Munukurthi, Rama Satya Satyanarayana

    2018-02-01

    Vibration measurement at the bearings of rotating machinery has become a useful technique for diagnosing incipient fault conditions. In particular, vibration measurement can be used to detect unbalance in rotor, bearing failure, gear problems or misalignment between a motor shaft and coupled shaft. This is a particular problem encountered in turbines, ID fans and FD fans used for power generation. For successful fault diagnosis, it is important to adopt motor current signature analysis (MCSA) techniques capable of identifying the faults. It is also useful to develop techniques for inferring information such as the severity of fault. It is proposed that modeling the cumulative distribution function of motor current signals with respect to appropriate theoretical distributions, and quantifying the goodness of fit with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and A2 test offers a suitable signal feature for diagnosis. This paper demonstrates the successful comparison of the K-S feature and A2 test for discriminating the misalignment fault from normal function.

  11. Hydropedological Assessments of Parcel-Level Infiltration in an Arid Urban Ecosystem

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil morphology and correspondent hydrologic data can contribute to qualifying and quantifying urban soil suitability and capacity to cycle stormwater runoff. We put particular emphasis on the possibility that residential parcels may manage their own stormwater on pervious yard ...

  12. The Stochastic Parcel Model: A deterministic parameterization of stochastically entraining convection

    DOE PAGES

    Romps, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Convective entrainment is a process that is poorly represented in existing convective parameterizations. By many estimates, convective entrainment is the leading source of error in global climate models. As a potential remedy, an Eulerian implementation of the Stochastic Parcel Model (SPM) is presented here as a convective parameterization that treats entrainment in a physically realistic and computationally efficient way. Drawing on evidence that convecting clouds comprise air parcels subject to Poisson-process entrainment events, the SPM calculates the deterministic limit of an infinite number of such parcels. For computational efficiency, the SPM groups parcels at each height by their purity, whichmore » is a measure of their total entrainment up to that height. This reduces the calculation of convective fluxes to a sequence of matrix multiplications. The SPM is implemented in a single-column model and compared with a large-eddy simulation of deep convection.« less

  13. 133. PARCEL HANDLING SPACE OF POST OFFICE BUILDING, LEVEL 72.5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. PARCEL HANDLING SPACE OF POST OFFICE BUILDING, LEVEL 72.5, NORTH OF TRUCKING PASSAGE MAIL TRANSPORT AREA, VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. Guidance on EPA Concurrence in the Identification of Uncontaminated Parcels under CERCLA Section 120 (h)(4)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum addresses the approach EPA should use in determining whether to concur that a parcel has been properly identified by a military service as 'uncontaminated' and therefore transferrable pursuant to CERCLA Section 120 (h)(4).

  15. 77 FR 70895 - New Marking Standards for Parcels Containing Hazardous Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... exception of certain infectious substances, certain patient specimens and certain radioactive materials as... the Postal Service intends to provide appropriate labeling, marking, and packaging material. Response... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 New Marking Standards for Parcels Containing Hazardous Materials...

  16. Selective reinforcement of a 2m-class lightweight mirror for horizontal beam optical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besuner, R. W.; Chow, K. P.; Kendrick, S. E.; Streetman, S.

    2008-07-01

    Optical testing of large mirrors for space telescopes can be challenging and complex. Demanding optical requirements necessitate both precise mirror figure and accurate prediction of zero gravity shape. Mass and packaging constraints require mirrors to be lightweighted and optically fast. Reliability and low mass imply simple mounting schemes, with basic kinematic mounts preferable to active figure control or whiffle trees. Ground testing should introduce as little uncertainty as possible, ideally employing flight mounts without offloaders. Testing mirrors with their optical axes horizontal can result in less distortion than in the vertical orientation, though distortion will increase with mirror speed. Finite element modeling and optimization tools help specify selective reinforcement of the mirror structure to minimize wavefront errors in a one gravity test, while staying within mass budgets and meeting other requirements. While low distortions are necessary, an important additional criterion is that designs are tolerant to imperfect positioning of the mounts relative to the neutral surface of the mirror substrate. In this paper, we explore selective reinforcement of a 2-meter class, f/1.25 primary mirror for the proposed SNAP space telescope. We specify designs optimized for various mount radial locations both with and without backup mount locations. Reinforced designs are predicted to have surface distortions in the horizontal beam test low enough to perform optical testing on the ground, on flight mounts, and without offloaders. Importantly, the required accuracy of mount locations is on the order of millimeters rather than tenths of millimeters.

  17. Statistical Decoupling of a Lagrangian Fluid Parcel in Newtonian Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex

    2016-03-01

    The Lagrangian dynamics of a single fluid element within a self-gravitational matter field is intrinsically non-local due to the presence of the tidal force. This complicates the theoretical investigation of the nonlinear evolution of various cosmic objects, e.g., dark matter halos, in the context of Lagrangian fluid dynamics, since fluid parcels with given initial density and shape may evolve differently depending on their environments. In this paper, we provide a statistical solution that could decouple this environmental dependence. After deriving the evolution equation for the probability distribution of the matter field, our method produces a set of closed ordinary differential equations whose solution is uniquely determined by the initial condition of the fluid element. Mathematically, it corresponds to the projected characteristic curve of the transport equation of the density-weighted probability density function (ρPDF). Consequently it is guaranteed that the one-point ρPDF would be preserved by evolving these local, yet nonlinear, curves with the same set of initial data as the real system. Physically, these trajectories describe the mean evolution averaged over all environments by substituting the tidal tensor with its conditional average. For Gaussian distributed dynamical variables, this mean tidal tensor is simply proportional to the velocity shear tensor, and the dynamical system would recover the prediction of the Zel’dovich approximation (ZA) with the further assumption of the linearized continuity equation. For a weakly non-Gaussian field, the averaged tidal tensor could be expanded perturbatively as a function of all relevant dynamical variables whose coefficients are determined by the statistics of the field.

  18. STATISTICAL DECOUPLING OF A LAGRANGIAN FLUID PARCEL IN NEWTONIAN COSMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex, E-mail: xwang@cita.utoronto.ca

    The Lagrangian dynamics of a single fluid element within a self-gravitational matter field is intrinsically non-local due to the presence of the tidal force. This complicates the theoretical investigation of the nonlinear evolution of various cosmic objects, e.g., dark matter halos, in the context of Lagrangian fluid dynamics, since fluid parcels with given initial density and shape may evolve differently depending on their environments. In this paper, we provide a statistical solution that could decouple this environmental dependence. After deriving the evolution equation for the probability distribution of the matter field, our method produces a set of closed ordinary differentialmore » equations whose solution is uniquely determined by the initial condition of the fluid element. Mathematically, it corresponds to the projected characteristic curve of the transport equation of the density-weighted probability density function (ρPDF). Consequently it is guaranteed that the one-point ρPDF would be preserved by evolving these local, yet nonlinear, curves with the same set of initial data as the real system. Physically, these trajectories describe the mean evolution averaged over all environments by substituting the tidal tensor with its conditional average. For Gaussian distributed dynamical variables, this mean tidal tensor is simply proportional to the velocity shear tensor, and the dynamical system would recover the prediction of the Zel’dovich approximation (ZA) with the further assumption of the linearized continuity equation. For a weakly non-Gaussian field, the averaged tidal tensor could be expanded perturbatively as a function of all relevant dynamical variables whose coefficients are determined by the statistics of the field.« less

  19. Brain parcellation choice affects disease-related topology differences increasingly from global to local network levels.

    PubMed

    Lord, Anton; Ehrlich, Stefan; Borchardt, Viola; Geisler, Daniel; Seidel, Maria; Huber, Stefanie; Murr, Julia; Walter, Martin

    2016-03-30

    Network-based analyses of deviant brain function have become extremely popular in psychiatric neuroimaging. Underpinning brain network analyses is the selection of appropriate regions of interest (ROIs). Although ROI selection is fundamental in network analysis, its impact on detecting disease effects remains unclear. We investigated the impact of parcellation choice when comparing results from different studies. We investigated the effects of anatomical (AAL) and literature-based (Dosenbach) parcellation schemes on comparability of group differences in 35 female patients with anorexia nervosa and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Global and local network properties, including network-based statistics (NBS), were assessed on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at 3T. Parcellation schemes were comparably consistent on global network properties, while NBS and local metrics differed in location, but not metric type. Location of local metric alterations varied for AAL (parietal and cingulate cortices) versus Dosenbach (insula, thalamus) parcellation approaches. However, consistency was observed for the occipital cortex. Patient-specific global network properties can be robustly observed using different parcellation schemes, while graph metrics characterizing impairments of individual nodes vary considerably. Therefore, the impact of parcellation choice on specific group differences varies depending on the level of network organization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolutionary stability of egg trading and parceling in simultaneous hermaphrodites: the chalk bass revisited.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Philip H; Hart, Mary K

    2007-06-07

    Several species of simultaneously hermaphroditic seabasses living on coral reefs mate by alternating male and female roles with a partner. This is known as egg trading, one of the classic and most widely cited examples of social reciprocity among animals. Some of the egg-trading seabass species, including the chalk bass, Serranus tortugarum, switch mating roles repeatedly, having subdivided their clutch of eggs into parcels offered to the partner for fertilization. Here we attempt to understand these dynamics as a pair of evolutionary games, modifying some previous approaches to better reflect the biological system. We find that the trading of egg clutches is evolutionarily stable via byproduct mutualism and resistant to invasion by rare individuals that take the male role exclusively. We note why and how parceling may reflect sexual conflict between individuals in the mating pair. We estimate evolutionarily stable parcel numbers and show how they depend on parameter values. Typically, two or more sequential parcel numbers are evolutionarily stable, though the lowest of these yields the highest fitness. Assuming that parcel numbers are adjusted to local conditions, we predict that parcel numbers in nature are inversely related both to mating group density (except at low density) and predation risk.

  1. There goes the sea ice: following Arctic sea ice parcels and their properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschudi, M. A.; Tooth, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, S.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice distribution has changed considerably over the last couple of decades. Sea ice extent record minimums have been observed in recent years, the distribution of ice age now heavily favors younger ice, and sea ice is likely thinning. This new state of the Arctic sea ice cover has several impacts, including effects on marine life, feedback on the warming of the ocean and atmosphere, and on the future evolution of the ice pack. The shift in the state of the ice cover, from a pack dominated by older ice, to the current state of a pack with mostly young ice, impacts specific properties of the ice pack, and consequently the pack's response to the changing Arctic climate. For example, younger ice typically contains more numerous melt ponds during the melt season, resulting in a lower albedo. First-year ice is typically thinner and more fragile than multi-year ice, making it more susceptible to dynamic and thermodynamic forcing. To investigate the response of the ice pack to climate forcing during summertime melt, we have developed a database that tracks individual Arctic sea ice parcels along with associated properties as these parcels advect during the summer. Our database tracks parcels in the Beaufort Sea, from 1985 - present, along with variables such as ice surface temperature, albedo, ice concentration, and convergence. We are using this database to deduce how these thousands of tracked parcels fare during summer melt, i.e. what fraction of the parcels advect through the Beaufort, and what fraction melts out? The tracked variables describe the thermodynamic and dynamic forcing on these parcels during their journey. This database will also be made available to all interested investigators, after it is published in the near future. The attached image shows the ice surface temperature of all parcels (right) that advected through the Beaufort Sea region (left) in 2014.

  2. Accounting for Parcel-Allocation Variability in Practice: Combining Sources of Uncertainty and Choosing the Number of Allocations.

    PubMed

    Sterba, Sonya K; Rights, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Item parceling remains widely used under conditions that can lead to parcel-allocation variability in results. Hence, researchers may be interested in quantifying and accounting for parcel-allocation variability within sample. To do so in practice, three key issues need to be addressed. First, how can we combine sources of uncertainty arising from sampling variability and parcel-allocation variability when drawing inferences about parameters in structural equation models? Second, on what basis can we choose the number of repeated item-to-parcel allocations within sample? Third, how can we diagnose and report proportions of total variability per estimate arising due to parcel-allocation variability versus sampling variability? This article addresses these three methodological issues. Developments are illustrated using simulated and empirical examples, and software for implementing them is provided.

  3. Hydrologic evaluation and water-supply considerations for five Paiute Indian land parcels, Millard, Sevier, and Iron counties, southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don; Stephens, D.W.; Conroy, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrologic resources in and adjacent to five parcels of land held in trust for the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah were evaluated. The land, located in southwestern Utah, is generally arid and has had only limited use for grazing. The parcels are located near the towns of Cove Fort, Joseph, Koosharem, and Kanarraville. On the basis of available geohydrologic and hydrologic data, water of suitable quality is locally available in the areas of all parcels for domestic, stock, recreation, and limited irrigation use. Developing this water for use on the parcels would potentially involve obtaining water rights, drilling wells, and constructing diversion structures. Surface water apparently is the most favorable source of supply available for the Joseph parcel, and groundwater apparently is the most favorable source of supply available for the other parcels. (USGS)

  4. Parcel Delivery in AN Urban Environment Using Unmanned Aerial Systems: a Vision Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbaroğlu, B.

    2017-11-01

    This vision paper addresses the challenges and explores the avenue of solutions regarding the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for transporting parcels in urban areas. We have already witnessed companies' delivering parcels using UAS in rural areas, but the challenge of utilizing them for an urban environment is eminent. Nevertheless, the increasing research on the various aspects of UAS, including their battery life, resistance to harsh weather conditions and sensing its environment foresee their common usage in the logistics industry, especially in an urban environment. In addition, the increasing trend on 3D city modelling offer new directions regarding realistic as well as light 3D city models that are easy to modify and distribute. Utilizing UAS for transporting parcels in an urban environment would be a disruptive technological achievement as our roads will be less congested which would lead to less air pollution as well as wasted money and time. In addition, parcels could potentially be delivered much faster. This paper argues, with the support of the state-of-the-art research, that UASs will be used for transporting parcels in an urban environment in the coming decades.

  5. Influence of grid resolution, parcel size and drag models on bubbling fluidized bed simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Liqiang; Konan, Arthur; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2017-06-02

    Here in this paper, a bubbling fluidized bed is simulated with different numerical parameters, such as grid resolution and parcel size. We examined also the effect of using two homogeneous drag correlations and a heterogeneous drag based on the energy minimization method. A fast and reliable bubble detection algorithm was developed based on the connected component labeling. The radial and axial solids volume fraction profiles are compared with experiment data and previous simulation results. These results show a significant influence of drag models on bubble size and voidage distributions and a much less dependence on numerical parameters. With a heterogeneousmore » drag model that accounts for sub-scale structures, the void fraction in the bubbling fluidized bed can be well captured with coarse grid and large computation parcels. Refining the CFD grid and reducing the parcel size can improve the simulation results but with a large increase in computation cost.« less

  6. Parcellation of the human orbitofrontal cortex based on gray matter volume covariance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaigui; Qin, Wen; Qi, Haotian; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-02-01

    The human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is an enigmatic brain region that cannot be parcellated reliably using diffusional and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) because there is signal dropout that results from an inherent defect in imaging techniques. We hypothesise that the OFC can be reliably parcellated into subregions based on gray matter volume (GMV) covariance patterns that are derived from artefact-free structural images. A total of 321 healthy young subjects were examined by high-resolution structural MRI. The OFC was parcellated into subregions-based GMV covariance patterns; and then sex and laterality differences in GMV covariance pattern of each OFC subregion were compared. The human OFC was parcellated into the anterior (OFCa), medial (OFCm), posterior (OFCp), intermediate (OFCi), and lateral (OFCl) subregions. This parcellation scheme was validated by the same analyses of the left OFC and the bilateral OFCs in male and female subjects. Both visual observation and quantitative comparisons indicated a unique GMV covariance pattern for each OFC subregion. These OFC subregions mainly covaried with the prefrontal and temporal cortices, cingulate cortex and amygdala. In addition, GMV correlations of most OFC subregions were similar across sex and laterality except for significant laterality difference in the OFCl. The right OFCl had stronger GMV correlation with the right inferior frontal cortex. Using high-resolution structural images, we established a reliable parcellation scheme for the human OFC, which may provide an in vivo guide for subregion-level studies of this region and improve our understanding of the human OFC at subregional levels. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Finer parcellation reveals detailed correlational structure of resting-state fMRI signals.

    PubMed

    Dornas, João V; Braun, Jochen

    2018-01-15

    Even in resting state, the human brain generates functional signals (fMRI) with complex correlational structure. To simplify this structure, it is common to parcellate a standard brain into coarse chunks. Finer parcellations are considered less reproducible and informative, due to anatomical and functional variability of individual brains. Grouping signals with similar local correlation profiles, restricted to each anatomical region (Tzourio-Mazoyer et al., 2002), we divide a standard brain into 758 'functional clusters' averaging 1.7cm 3 gray matter volume ('MD758' parcellation). We compare 758 'spatial clusters' of similar size ('S758'). 'Functional clusters' are spatially contiguous and cluster quality (integration and segregation of temporal variance) is far superior to 'spatial clusters', comparable to multi-modal parcellations of half the resolution (Craddock et al., 2012; Glasser et al., 2016). Moreover, 'functional clusters' capture many long-range functional correlations, with O(10 5 ) reproducibly correlated cluster pairs in different anatomical regions. The pattern of functional correlations closely mirrors long-range anatomical connectivity established by fibre tracking. MD758 is comparable to coarser parcellations (Craddock et al., 2012; Glasser et al., 2016) in terms of cluster quality, correlational structure (54% relative mutual entropy vs 60% and 61%), and sparseness (35% significant pairwise correlations vs 36% and 44%). We describe and evaluate a simple path to finer functional parcellations of the human brain. Detailed correlational structure is surprisingly consistent between individuals, opening new possibilities for comparing functional correlations between cognitive conditions, states of health, or pharmacological interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Trajectories of thermospheric air parcels flowing over Alaska, reconstructed from ground-based wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadly, Manbharat; Conde, Mark

    2017-06-01

    It is widely presumed that the convective stability and enormous kinematic viscosity of Earth's upper thermosphere hinders development of both horizontal and vertical wind shears and other gradients. Any strong local structure (over scale sizes of several hundreds of kilometers) that might somehow form would be expected to dissipate rapidly. Air flow in such an atmosphere should be relatively simple, and transport effects only slowly disperse and mix air masses. However, our observations show that wind fields in Earth's thermosphere have much more local-scale structure than usually predicated by current modeling techniques, at least at auroral latitudes; they complicate air parcel trajectories enormously, relative to typical expectations. For tracing air parcels, we used wind measurements of an all-sky Scanning Doppler Fabry-Perot interferometer and reconstructed time-resolved two-dimensional maps of the horizontal vector wind field to infer forward and backward air parcel trajectories over time. This is the first comprehensive study to visualize the complex motions of thermospheric air parcels carried through the actual observed local-scale structures in the high-latitude winds. Results show that thermospheric air parcel transport is a very difficult observational problem, because the trajectories followed are very sensitive to the detailed features of the driving wind field. To reconstruct the actual motion of a given air parcel requires wind measurements everywhere along the trajectory followed, with spatial resolutions of 100 km or less, and temporal resolutions of a few minutes or better. Understanding such transport is important, for example, in predicting the global-scale impacts of aurorally generated composition perturbations.

  9. Human brain mapping: A systematic comparison of parcellation methods for the human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Salim; Ktena, Sofia Ira; Makropoulos, Antonios; Robinson, Emma C; Rueckert, Daniel; Parisot, Sarah

    2018-04-15

    The macro-connectome elucidates the pathways through which brain regions are structurally connected or functionally coupled to perform a specific cognitive task. It embodies the notion of representing and understanding all connections within the brain as a network, while the subdivision of the brain into interacting functional units is inherent in its architecture. As a result, the definition of network nodes is one of the most critical steps in connectivity network analysis. Although brain atlases obtained from cytoarchitecture or anatomy have long been used for this task, connectivity-driven methods have arisen only recently, aiming to delineate more homogeneous and functionally coherent regions. This study provides a systematic comparison between anatomical, connectivity-driven and random parcellation methods proposed in the thriving field of brain parcellation. Using resting-state functional MRI data from the Human Connectome Project and a plethora of quantitative evaluation techniques investigated in the literature, we evaluate 10 subject-level and 24 groupwise parcellation methods at different resolutions. We assess the accuracy of parcellations from four different aspects: (1) reproducibility across different acquisitions and groups, (2) fidelity to the underlying connectivity data, (3) agreement with fMRI task activation, myelin maps, and cytoarchitectural areas, and (4) network analysis. This extensive evaluation of different parcellations generated at the subject and group level highlights the strengths and shortcomings of the various methods and aims to provide a guideline for the choice of parcellation technique and resolution according to the task at hand. The results obtained in this study suggest that there is no optimal method able to address all the challenges faced in this endeavour simultaneously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Winter wheat area estimation with MODIS-NDVI time series based on parcel].

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Zhang, Jin-shui; Zhu, Wen-quan; Hu, Tan-gao; Hou, Dong

    2011-05-01

    Several attributes of MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data, especially the short temporal intervals and the global coverage, provide an extremely efficient way to map cropland and monitor its seasonal change. However, the reliability of their measurement results is challenged because of the limited spatial resolution. The parcel data has clear geo-location and obvious boundary information of cropland. Also, the spectral differences and the complexity of mixed pixels are weak in parcels. All of these make that area estimation based on parcels presents more advantage than on pixels. In the present study, winter wheat area estimation based on MODIS-NDVI time series has been performed with the support of cultivated land parcel in Tongzhou, Beijing. In order to extract the regional winter wheat acreage, multiple regression methods were used to simulate the stable regression relationship between MODIS-NDVI time series data and TM samples in parcels. Through this way, the consistency of the extraction results from MODIS and TM can stably reach up to 96% when the amount of samples accounts for 15% of the whole area. The results shows that the use of parcel data can effectively improve the error in recognition results in MODIS-NDVI based multi-series data caused by the low spatial resolution. Therefore, with combination of moderate and low resolution data, the winter wheat area estimation became available in large-scale region which lacks completed medium resolution images or has images covered with clouds. Meanwhile, it carried out the preliminary experiments for other crop area estimation.

  11. Using Social Media Derived Information to Reduce Ambiguity in Parcel Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, K.; Thakur, G.

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution spatiotemporal analyses often rely on the integration and harmonization of many unique data sources. Harmonized data can be especially useful in mobility/transportation planning, site selection/development planning, urban resiliency, sustainability, utility planning, and population modeling. However, even the most complete harmonized data sources can still possess gaps in their content, hindering their utility. For example, CoreLogic's ParcelPoint dataset is a nationwide collection of parcel points and polygons from nearly every U.S. county's local authority. While certain local land use parcel descriptions transfer easily to a national dataset, some do not, in part because of data ambiguity or regionality. This research will explore incorporating Points of Interest (POI) data derived from social media in order to reduce land use ambiguity in parcel data. Facebook, specifically, allows owners of businesses and institutions to create personalized pages with attributes like Name, Address, Location Type, Hours of Operation, Check-In counts, and designated latitude and longitude coordinates. These metadata can offer alternative land use descriptions and insights when it is otherwise not available, or when the land use associated with a parcel is not definitive. More importantly, this additional POI layer can allow for better representations of the places around us by providing a popularity and temporal aspect to the usual stagnant land use dataset. Furthermore, those responsible for emergency preparedness and response would benefit immensely from a more dynamic land use mapping opportunity. With that said, there are known limitations of social media data due to its volunteered nature. In order to recognize if the potential exists to overcome these limitations and use social-media-derived data to supplement national land use data, diverse study areas will be selected across the U.S. to yield a varied collection of POIs. Their Location Type will then be

  12. A human brain atlas derived via n-cut parcellation of resting-state and task-based fMRI data

    PubMed Central

    James, G. Andrew; Hazaroglu, Onder; Bush, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    The growth of functional MRI has led to development of human brain atlases derived by parcellating resting-state connectivity patterns into functionally independent regions of interest (ROIs). All functional atlases to date have been derived from resting-state fMRI data. But given that functional connectivity between regions varies with task, we hypothesized that an atlas incorporating both resting-state and task-based fMRI data would produce an atlas with finer characterization of task-relevant regions than an atlas derived from resting-state alone. To test this hypothesis, we derived parcellation atlases from twenty-nine healthy adult participants enrolled in the Cognitive Connectome project, an initiative to improve functional MRI’s translation into clinical decision-making by mapping normative variance in brain-behavior relationships. Participants underwent resting-state and task-based fMRI spanning nine cognitive domains: motor, visuospatial, attention, language, memory, affective processing, decision-making, working memory, and executive function. Spatially constrained n-cut parcellation derived brain atlases using (1) all participants’ functional data (Task) or (2) a single resting-state scan (Rest). An atlas was also derived from random parcellation for comparison purposes (Random). Two methods were compared: (1) a parcellation applied to the group’s mean edge weights (mean), and (2) a two-stage approach with parcellation of individual edge weights followed by parcellation of mean binarized edges (two-stage). The resulting Task and Rest atlases had significantly greater similarity with each other (mean Jaccard indices JI= 0.72–0.85) than with the Random atlases (JI=0.59–0.63; all p<0.001 after Bonferroni correction). Task and Rest atlas similarity was greatest for the two-stage method (JI=0.85), which has been shown as more robust than the mean method; these atlases also better reproduced voxelwise seed maps of the left dorsolateral prefrontal

  13. The Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom): Comparing the Chemical Climatology of Reactive Species and Air Parcels from Measurements and Global Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, M. J.; Flynn, C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Kim, M. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Hanisco, T. F.; Diskin, G. S.; Daube, B. C.; Commane, R.; McKain, K.; Apel, E. C.; Blake, N. J.; Blake, D. R.; Elkins, J. W.; Hall, S.; Steenrod, S.; Strahan, S. E.; Lamarque, J. F.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Murray, L. T.; Mao, J.; Shindell, D. T.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom) is building a photochemical climatology of the remote troposphere based on objective sampling and profiling transects over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. These statistics provide direct tests of chemistry-climate models. The choice of species focuses on those controlling primary reactivity (a.k.a. oxidative state) of the troposphere, specifically chemical tendencies of O3 and CH4. These key species include, inter alia, O3, CH4, CO, C2H6, other alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, NOx, HNO3, HO2NO2, PAN, other organic nitrates, H2O, HCHO, H2O2, CH3OOH. Three of the four ATom deployments are now complete, and data from the first two (ATom-1 & -2) have been released as of this talk (see espoarchive.nasa.gov/archive/browse/atom). The statistical distributions of key species are presented as 1D and 2D probability densities (PDs) and we focus here on the tropical and mid-latitude regions of the Pacific during ATom-1 (Aug) and -2 (Feb). PDs are computed from ATom observations and 6 global chemistry models over the tropospheric depth (0-12 km) and longitudinal extent of the observations. All data are weighted to achieve equal mass-weighting by latitude regimes to account for spatial sampling biases. The models are used to calculate the reactivity in each ATom air parcel. Reweighting parcels with loss of CH4 or production of O3, for example, allows us to identify which air parcels are most influential, including assessment of the importance of fine pollution layers in the most remote troposphere. Another photochemical climatology developed from ATom, and used to test models, includes the effect of clouds on photolysis rates. The PDs and reactivity-weighted PDs reveal important seasonal differences and similarities between the two campaigns and also show which species may be most important in controlling reactivities. They clearly identify some very specific failings in the modeled climatologies and help us evaluate the chemical

  14. 25 CFR 166.303 - Can more than one parcel of Indian land be combined into one permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can more than one parcel of Indian land be combined into one permit? 166.303 Section 166.303 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.303 Can more than one parcel of Indian...

  15. Lake States natural resource managers' perspectives on forest land parcelization and its implications for public land management

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Kilgore; Stephanie A. Snyder

    2016-01-01

    Field-based public natural resource managers in the Lake States (MI, MN, WI) were surveyed for theirperspectives on various aspects of private forest land parcelization. This includes their perceptions ofrecent changes in parcelization activity, drivers and impacts, mitigation strategies, and ability to influenceparcelization. Their perspectives on the implications...

  16. 77 FR 43561 - Proposed Eligibility Criteria for Bound Printed Matter Parcels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... physical density threshold for individual mailpieces. DATES: Comments on this advance notice are due.... Code, require that each class of mail or type of mail service bear the direct and indirect costs... a 98.8% cost coverage. Greater efficiency in the packaging of BPM parcels will provide for more...

  17. 9 CFR 325.2 - Parcel post and ferries deemed carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parcel post and ferries deemed carriers. 325.2 Section 325.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... to transportation by ferry of any products loaded on a truck or other vehicle, or otherwise moved by...

  18. Effects of parcelization and land divestiture on forest sustainability in simulated forest landscapes

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Gustafson; Craig Loehle

    2006-01-01

    Ownership parcelization of forest land and divestiture of industrial forest land is increasing throughout the U.S. This may affect (positively or negatively) the ability of forested landscapes to produce benefits that society values, such as fiber, biodiversity and recreation. We used a timber harvest simulator and neutral model landscapes to systematically study how...

  19. Private forestland parcelization and development in Wisconsin's Northwoods: perceptions of resource-oriented stakeholders

    Treesearch

    Paul H. Gobster; Mark G. Rickenbach

    2004-01-01

    Increases in the parcelization and development of private forestlands in the US and other countries have become a major concern of natural resource agencies and groups. This concern is particularly heightened in heavily forested areas such as Wisconsin's "Northwoods," where private lands make up a majority of the forest area and play a critical role in...

  20. 48 CFR 242.1404 - Shipments by parcel post or other classes of mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipments by parcel post or other classes of mail. 242.1404 Section 242.1404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT...

  1. 77 FR 28410 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal... Select Contract 1 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at www.prc.gov , Docket Nos...

  2. Land use planning and surface heat island formation: A parcel-based radiation flux approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Brian; Norman, John M.

    This article presents a study of residential parcel design and surface heat island formation in a major metropolitan region of the southeastern United States. Through the integration of high-resolution multispectral data (10 m) with property tax records for over 100,000 single-family residential parcels in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan region, the influence of the size and material composition of residential land use on an indicator of surface heat island formation is reported. In contrast to previous work on the urban heat island, this study derives a parcel-based indicator of surface warming to permit the impact of land use planning regulations governing the density and design of development on the excess surface flux of heat energy to be measured. The results of this study suggest that the contribution of individual land parcels to regional surface heat island formation could be reduced by approximately 40% through the adoption of specific land use planning policies, such as zoning and subdivision regulations, and with no modifications to the size or albedo of the residential structure.

  3. Catchment-scale hydrologic implications of parcel-level stormwater management (Ohio USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, William; Rhea, Lee

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThe effectiveness of stormwater management strategies is a key issue affecting decision making on urban water resources management, and so proper monitoring and analysis of pilot studies must be addressed before drawing conclusions. We performed a pilot study in the suburban Shepherd Creek watershed located in Cincinnati, Ohio to evaluate the practicality of voluntary incentives for stormwater quantity reduction on privately owned suburban properties. Stream discharge and precipitation were monitored 3 years before and after implementation of the stormwater management treatments. To implement stormwater control measures, we elicited the participation of citizen landowners with two successive reverse-auctions. Auctions were held in spring 2007, and 2008, resulting in the installation of 85 rain gardens and 174 rain barrels. We demonstrated an analytic process of increasing model flexibility to determine hydrologic effectiveness of stormwater management at the sub-catchment level. A significant albeit small proportion of total variance was explained by both the effects of study period (˜69%) and treatment-vs.-control (˜7%). Precipitation-discharge relationships were synthesized in estimated unit hydrographs, which were decomposed and components tested for influence of treatments. Analysis of unit hydrograph parameters showed a weakened correlation between precipitation and discharge, and support the output from the initial model that parcel-level green infrastructure added detention capacity to treatment basins. We conclude that retrofit management of stormwater runoff quantity with green infrastructure in a small suburban catchment can be successfully initiated with novel economic incentive programs, and that these measures can impart a small, but statistically significant decrease in otherwise uncontrolled runoff volume. Given consistent monitoring data and analysis, water resource managers can use our approach as a way to estimate actual effectiveness of

  4. A whole brain atlas with sub-parcellation of cortical gyri using resting fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Anand A.; Choi, Soyoung; Sonkar, Gaurav; Chong, Minqi; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Nair, Dileep; Shattuck, David W.; Damasio, Hanna; Leahy, Richard M.

    2017-02-01

    The new hybrid-BCI-DNI atlas is a high-resolution MPRAGE, single-subject atlas, constructed using both anatomical and functional information to guide the parcellation of the cerebral cortex. Anatomical labeling was performed manually on coronal single-slice images guided by sulcal and gyral landmarks to generate the original (non-hybrid) BCI-DNI atlas. Functional sub-parcellations of the gyral ROIs were then generated from 40 minimally preprocessed resting fMRI datasets from the HCP database. Gyral ROIs were transferred from the BCI-DNI atlas to the 40 subjects using the HCP grayordinate space as a reference. For each subject, each gyral ROI was subdivided using the fMRI data by applying spectral clustering to a similarity matrix computed from the fMRI time-series correlations between each vertex pair. The sub-parcellations were then transferred back to the original cortical mesh to create the subparcellated hBCI-DNI atlas with a total of 67 cortical regions per hemisphere. To assess the stability of the gyral subdivisons, a separate set of 60 HCP datasets were processed as follows: 1) coregistration of the structural scans to the hBCI-DNI atlas; 2) coregistration of the anatomical BCI-DNI atlas without functional subdivisions, followed by sub-parcellation of each subject's resting fMRI data as described above. We then computed consistency between the anatomically-driven delineation of each gyral subdivision and that obtained per subject using individual fMRI data. The gyral sub-parcellations generated by atlas-based registration show variable but generally good overlap of the confidence intervals with the resting fMRI-based subdivisions. These consistency measures will provide a quantitative measure of reliability of each subdivision to users of the atlas.

  5. Extraction of model performance from wall data in a 2-dimensional transonic flexible walled test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Data obtained from the boundary of a test section provides information on the model contained within it. A method for extracting some of this data in two dimensional testing is described. Examples of model data are included on lift, pitching moment and wake displacement thickness. A FORTRAN listing is also described, having a form suitable for incorporation into the software package used in the running of such a test section.

  6. Parcellating an individual subject's cortical and subcortical brain structures using snowball sampling of resting-state correlations.

    PubMed

    Wig, Gagan S; Laumann, Timothy O; Cohen, Alexander L; Power, Jonathan D; Nelson, Steven M; Glasser, Matthew F; Miezin, Francis M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2014-08-01

    We describe methods for parcellating an individual subject's cortical and subcortical brain structures using resting-state functional correlations (RSFCs). Inspired by approaches from social network analysis, we first describe the application of snowball sampling on RSFC data (RSFC-Snowballing) to identify the centers of cortical areas, subdivisions of subcortical nuclei, and the cerebellum. RSFC-Snowballing parcellation is then compared with parcellation derived from identifying locations where RSFC maps exhibit abrupt transitions (RSFC-Boundary Mapping). RSFC-Snowballing and RSFC-Boundary Mapping largely complement one another, but also provide unique parcellation information; together, the methods identify independent entities with distinct functional correlations across many cortical and subcortical locations in the brain. RSFC parcellation is relatively reliable within a subject scanned across multiple days, and while the locations of many area centers and boundaries appear to exhibit considerable overlap across subjects, there is also cross-subject variability-reinforcing the motivation to parcellate brains at the level of individuals. Finally, examination of a large meta-analysis of task-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging data reveals that area centers defined by task-evoked activity exhibit correspondence with area centers defined by RSFC-Snowballing. This observation provides important evidence for the ability of RSFC to parcellate broad expanses of an individual's brain into functionally meaningful units. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Parcellating an Individual Subject's Cortical and Subcortical Brain Structures Using Snowball Sampling of Resting-State Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Wig, Gagan S.; Laumann, Timothy O.; Cohen, Alexander L.; Power, Jonathan D.; Nelson, Steven M.; Glasser, Matthew F.; Miezin, Francis M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    We describe methods for parcellating an individual subject's cortical and subcortical brain structures using resting-state functional correlations (RSFCs). Inspired by approaches from social network analysis, we first describe the application of snowball sampling on RSFC data (RSFC-Snowballing) to identify the centers of cortical areas, subdivisions of subcortical nuclei, and the cerebellum. RSFC-Snowballing parcellation is then compared with parcellation derived from identifying locations where RSFC maps exhibit abrupt transitions (RSFC-Boundary Mapping). RSFC-Snowballing and RSFC-Boundary Mapping largely complement one another, but also provide unique parcellation information; together, the methods identify independent entities with distinct functional correlations across many cortical and subcortical locations in the brain. RSFC parcellation is relatively reliable within a subject scanned across multiple days, and while the locations of many area centers and boundaries appear to exhibit considerable overlap across subjects, there is also cross-subject variability—reinforcing the motivation to parcellate brains at the level of individuals. Finally, examination of a large meta-analysis of task-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging data reveals that area centers defined by task-evoked activity exhibit correspondence with area centers defined by RSFC-Snowballing. This observation provides important evidence for the ability of RSFC to parcellate broad expanses of an individual's brain into functionally meaningful units. PMID:23476025

  8. Response of a 2-story test-bed structure for the seismic evaluation of nonstructural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soroushian, Siavash; Maragakis, E. "Manos"; Zaghi, Arash E.; Rahmanishamsi, Esmaeel; Itani, Ahmad M.; Pekcan, Gokhan

    2016-03-01

    A full-scale, two-story, two-by-one bay, steel braced-frame was subjected to a number of unidirectional ground motions using three shake tables at the UNR-NEES site. The test-bed frame was designed to study the seismic performance of nonstructural systems including steel-framed gypsum partition walls, suspended ceilings and fire sprinkler systems. The frame can be configured to perform as an elastic or inelastic system to generate large floor accelerations or large inter story drift, respectively. In this study, the dynamic performance of the linear and nonlinear test-beds was comprehensively studied. The seismic performance of nonstructural systems installed in the linear and nonlinear test-beds were assessed during extreme excitations. In addition, the dynamic interactions of the test-bed and installed nonstructural systems are investigated.

  9. Comparison between firing tests and numerical simulation of vortex shedding in a 2-D test solid motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupoglazoff, N.; Vuillot, F.

    Some comparisons between firing tests and numerical simulations of vortex shedding via a simple test case called 'C1experimental' are presented. These experiments are performed to validate further numerical simulations, as well as to serve as a tool for facilitating interpretation. At ignition time, spectra of pressure are more complex: it is the effect of vortex pairings. For 6.5-mm burnt, the second longitudinal mode dominates. For 8-mm burnt, the first longitudinal mode dominates. For 11.5-mm burnt, there is only the first longitudinal mode, with a slight shift of the frequency value. Tables are presented which give the pressure oscillation amplitudes of 'C1experimental' with operating pressures, and these amplitudes relative to the corresponding operating pressure.

  10. Fluctuating Pressure Analysis of a 2-D SSME Nozzle Air Flow Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Darren; Hidalgo, Homero

    1996-01-01

    To better understand the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) startup/shutdown tansients, an airflow test of a two dimensional nozzle was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center's trisonic wind tunnel. Photographic and other instrumentation show during an SSME start large nozzle shell distortions occur as the Mach disk is passing through the nozzle. During earlier develop of the SSME, this startup transient resulted in low cycle fatigue failure of one of the LH2 feedlines. The two dimensional SSME nozzle test was designed to measure the static and fluctuating pressure environment and color Schlieren video during the startup and shutdown phases of the run profile.

  11. Design and test of a 2.25-MW transformer rectifier assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.; Daeges, J.

    1989-01-01

    A new 2.25-MW transformer rectifier assembly was fabricated for DSS-13 at Goldstone, California. The transformer rectifier will provide constant output power of 2.25 MW at any voltage from 31 kV to 125 kV. This will give a new capability of 1 MW of RF power at X-band, provided appropriate microwave tubes are in the power amplifier. A description of the design and test results is presented.

  12. Robustness of Representative Signals Relative to Data Loss Using Atlas-Based Parcellations.

    PubMed

    Gajdoš, Martin; Výtvarová, Eva; Fousek, Jan; Lamoš, Martin; Mikl, Michal

    2018-04-24

    Parcellation-based approaches are an important part of functional magnetic resonance imaging data analysis. They are a necessary processing step for sorting data in structurally or functionally homogenous regions. Real functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets usually do not cover the atlas template completely; they are often spatially constrained due to the physical limitations of MR sequence settings, the inter-individual variability in brain shape, etc. When using a parcellation template, many regions are not completely covered by actual data. This paper addresses the issue of the area coverage required in real data in order to reliably estimate the representative signal and the influence of this kind of data loss on network analysis metrics. We demonstrate this issue on four datasets using four different widely used parcellation templates. We used two erosion approaches to simulate data loss on the whole-brain level and the ROI-specific level. Our results show that changes in ROI coverage have a systematic influence on network measures. Based on the results of our analysis, we recommend controlling the ROI coverage and retaining at least 60% of the area in order to ensure at least 80% of explained variance of the original signal.

  13. Parcellation in Left Lateral Parietal Cortex Is Similar in Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Steven M.; Cohen, Alexander L.; Power, Jonathan D.; Coalson, Rebecca S.; Miezin, Francis M.; Vogel, Alecia C.; Dubis, Joseph W.; Church, Jessica A.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2012-01-01

    A key question in developmental neuroscience involves understanding how and when the cerebral cortex is partitioned into distinct functional areas. The present study used functional connectivity MRI mapping and graph theory to identify putative cortical areas and generate a parcellation scheme of left lateral parietal cortex (LLPC) in 7 to 10-year-old children and adults. Results indicated that a majority of putative LLPC areas could be matched across groups (mean distance between matched areas across age: 3.15 mm). Furthermore, the boundaries of children's putative LLPC areas respected the boundaries generated from the adults' parcellation scheme for a majority of children's areas (13/15). Consistent with prior research, matched LLPC areas showed age-related differences in functional connectivity strength with other brain regions. These results suggest that LLPC cortical parcellation and functional connectivity mature along different developmental trajectories, with adult-like boundaries between LLPC areas established in school-age children prior to adult-like functional connectivity. PMID:21810781

  14. Point of care testing of phospholipase A2 group IIA for serological diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nathan J.; Chapman, Robert; Lin, Yiyang; Mmesi, Jonas; Bentham, Andrew; Tyreman, Matthew; Abraham, Sonya; Stevens, Molly M.

    2016-02-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. Serum concentration and activity of sPLA2-IIA were measured using in-house antibodies and a novel point of care lateral flow device assay in patients diagnosed with varying severities of RA (n = 30) and PsA (n = 25) and found to correlate strongly with C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of all markers were elevated in patients with active RA over those with inactive RA as well as both active and inactive PsA, indicating that sPLA2-IIA can be used as an analogue to CRP for RA diagnosis at point of care.Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. Serum concentration and activity of sPLA2-IIA were measured using in-house antibodies and a novel point of care lateral flow device assay in patients diagnosed with varying severities of RA (n = 30) and PsA (n = 25) and found to correlate strongly with C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of all markers were elevated in patients with active RA over those with inactive RA as well as both active and inactive PsA, indicating that sPLA2-IIA can be used as an analogue to CRP for RA diagnosis at point of care. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08423g

  15. Mental Fatigue and Physical and Cognitive Performance During a 2-Bout Exercise Test.

    PubMed

    Vrijkotte, Susan; Meeusen, Romain; Vandervaeren, Cloe; Buyse, Luk; Cutsem, Jeroen van; Pattyn, Nathalie; Roelands, Bart

    2018-04-01

    The 2-bout exercise protocol has been developed to diagnose nonfunctional overreaching and the "overtraining syndrome." It consists of 2 maximal exercise bouts separated by 4 hours. Mental fatigue negatively influences performance, but the effects of its occurrence during the 2-bout exercise protocol have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine whether mental fatigue (induced during the rest period) influences physical and cognitive performance during/after the second exercise bout of the 2-bout exercise protocol. Nine healthy, well-trained male cyclists participated in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. The intervention consisted of either 1.5-hour rest (control) or performing a computer-based Stroop task to induce mental fatigue. Cognitive (Eriksen Flanker task), physiological (lactate, maximum heart rate, and maximum wattage), and subjective data (mental fatigue-visual analog scale, Profile of Mood States, and rating of perceived exertion) were gathered. Ratings of fatigue, tension, and mental fatigue were affected in the mental fatigue condition (P < .05). Neither physiological nor cognitive differences were found between conditions. Ratings of mental fatigue were already affected after the first maximum exercise test (P < .05). Neither physical nor cognitive performance was affected by mental fatigue, but subjective ratings did reveal significant differences. It is recommended to exclude mentally challenging tasks during the 2-bout exercise protocol rest period to ascertain unaffected subjective test results. This study should be repeated in athletes diagnosed with nonfunctional overreaching/overtraining syndrome.

  16. Testing holography using lattice super-Yang-Mills theory on a 2-torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catterall, Simon; Jha, Raghav G.; Schaich, David; Wiseman, Toby

    2018-04-01

    We consider maximally supersymmetric SU (N ) Yang-Mills theory in Euclidean signature compactified on a flat two-dimensional torus with antiperiodic ("thermal") fermion boundary conditions imposed on one cycle. At large N , holography predicts that this theory describes certain black hole solutions in type IIA and IIB supergravity, and we use lattice gauge theory to test this. Unlike the one-dimensional quantum mechanics case where there is only the dimensionless temperature to vary, here we emphasize there are two more parameters which determine the shape of the flat torus. While a rectangular Euclidean torus yields a thermal interpretation, allowing for skewed tori modifies the holographic dual black hole predictions and results in another direction to test holography. Our lattice calculations are based on a supersymmetric formulation naturally adapted to a particular skewing. Using this we perform simulations up to N =16 with several lattice spacings for both skewed and rectangular tori. We observe the two expected black hole phases with their predicted behavior, with a transition between them that is consistent with the gravity prediction based on the Gregory-Laflamme transition.

  17. Methacholine challenge testing: improved patient comfort with a 2-tiered protocol.

    PubMed

    Segel, Michael J; Rabinovich, Einat; Schwarz, Yehuda; Ben-Dov, Issahar

    2013-06-01

    The methacholine challenge test (MCT) is a test of bronchial hyperreactivity used as an aid in the diagnosis of asthma. MCT results are reported as the provocation concentration at which the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) decreases 20% (PC20). The requirement for a 20% or greater decrease in FEV1 results in precipitous decreases in FEV1 in some patients. To improve MCT safety without compromising accuracy. We performed a retrospective analysis of 879 consecutive MCTs (derivation cohort). A novel protocol for MCT was developed and validated in a cohort of 564 MCTs performed in a second institution. In comparison with a PC20 cutoff of less than 8 mg/mL, a provocation concentration at which the FEV1 decreases 10% (PC10) cutoff of 1 mg/mL or less has a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 98%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 97%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 91%. We propose a novel 2-tiered protocol for MCT. If the PC10 is 1 mg/mL or less, bronchial hyperreactivity is present; if the PC10 is greater than 1 mg/mL, the test is continued until the provocative concentration is 8 mg/mL or a 20% decrease in FEV1 is achieved. Compared with the standard protocol, the proposed protocol has a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and overall accuracy of 100%, 98%, 97.6%, 100%, and 99%, respectively. The modified protocol would have enabled us to avoid 26 of 42 cases (62%) in which a 40% or greater decrease in FEV1 occurred and would save 0.65 dose for every MCT performed. The 2-tiered protocol performed well in the validation cohort; sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and overall accuracy were 100%, 98%, 87%, 100%, and 98%, respectively. The proposed 2-tiered protocol is accurate, saves time, and avoids precipitous decreases in FEV1. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A dataset of multiresolution functional brain parcellations in an elderly population with no or mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Tam, Angela; Dansereau, Christian; Badhwar, AmanPreet; Orban, Pierre; Belleville, Sylvie; Chertkow, Howard; Dagher, Alain; Hanganu, Alexandru; Monchi, Oury; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Shmuel, Amir; Breitner, John; Bellec, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    We present group eight resolutions of brain parcellations for clusters generated from resting-state functional magnetic resonance images for 99 cognitively normal elderly persons and 129 patients with mild cognitive impairment, pooled from four independent datasets. This dataset was generated as part of the following study: Common Effects of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment on Resting-State Connectivity Across Four Independent Studies (Tam et al., 2015) [1]. The brain parcellations have been registered to both symmetric and asymmetric MNI brain templates and generated using a method called bootstrap analysis of stable clusters (BASC) (Bellec et al., 2010) [2]. We present two variants of these parcellations. One variant contains bihemisphereic parcels (4, 6, 12, 22, 33, 65, 111, and 208 total parcels across eight resolutions). The second variant contains spatially connected regions of interest (ROIs) that span only one hemisphere (10, 17, 30, 51, 77, 199, and 322 total ROIs across eight resolutions). We also present maps illustrating functional connectivity differences between patients and controls for four regions of interest (striatum, dorsal prefrontal cortex, middle temporal lobe, and medial frontal cortex). The brain parcels and associated statistical maps have been publicly released as 3D volumes, available in .mnc and .nii file formats on figshare and on Neurovault. Finally, the code used to generate this dataset is available on Github.

  19. Tests of a 2-Stage, Axial-Flow, 2-Phase Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase flow turbine with two stages of axial flow impulse rotors was tested with three different working fluid mixtures at a shaft power of 30 kW. The turbine efficiency was 0.55 with nitrogen and water of 0.02 quality and 94 m/s velocity, 0.57 with Refrigerant 22 of 0.27 quality and 123 m/s velocity, and 0.30 with steam and water of 0.27 quality and 457 m/s velocity. The efficiencies with nitrogen and water and Refrigerant 22 were 86 percent of theoretical. At that fraction of theoretical, the efficiencies of optimized two phase turbines would be in the low 60 percent range with organic working fluids and in the mid 50 percent range with steam and water. The recommended turbine design is a two stage axial flow impulse turbine followed by a rotary separator for discharge of separate liquid and gas streams and recovery of liquid pressure.

  20. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  1. Green infrastructure retrofits on residential parcels: Ecohydrologic modeling for stormwater design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    To meet water quality goals stormwater utilities and not-for-profit watershed organizations in the U.S. are working with citizens to design and implement green infrastructure on residential land. Green infrastructure, as an alternative and complement to traditional (grey) stormwater infrastructure, has the potential to contribute to multiple ecosystem benefits including stormwater volume reduction, carbon sequestration, urban heat island mitigation, and to provide amenities to residents. However, in small (1-10-km2) medium-density urban watersheds with heterogeneous land cover it is unclear whether stormwater retrofits on residential parcels significantly contributes to reduce stormwater volume at the watershed scale. In this paper, we seek to improve understanding of how small-scale redistribution of water at the parcel scale as part of green infrastructure implementation affects urban water budgets and stormwater volume across spatial scales. As study sites we use two medium-density headwater watersheds in Baltimore, MD and Durham, NC. We develop ecohydrology modeling experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of redirecting residential rooftop runoff to un-altered pervious surfaces and to engineered rain gardens to reduce stormwater runoff. As baselines for these experiments, we performed field surveys of residential rooftop hydrologic connectivity to adjacent impervious surfaces, and found low rates of connectivity. Through simulations of pervasive adoption of downspout disconnection to un-altered pervious areas or to rain garden stormwater control measures (SCM) in these catchments, we find that most parcel-scale changes in stormwater fate are attenuated at larger spatial scales and that neither SCM alone is likely to provide significant changes in streamflow at the watershed scale.

  2. A regularized clustering approach to brain parcellation from functional MRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Keith; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2017-08-01

    We consider a data-driven approach for the subdivision of an individual subject's functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan into regions of interest, i.e., brain parcellation. The approach is based on a computational technique for calculating resolution from inverse problem theory, which we apply to neighborhood selection for brain connectivity networks. This can be efficiently calculated even for very large images, and explicitly incorporates regularization in the form of spatial smoothing and a noise cutoff. We demonstrate the reproducibility of the method on multiple scans of the same subjects, as well as the variations between subjects.

  3. Air Parcel Residence Times within Tropical Forest Canopies and Implications for Reactive Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, T.; Chamecki, M.; Fuentes, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon rainforest is the world's largest natural emitter of reactive trace gases. Due to its dense vegetation (leaf area index > 4), turbulence fluctuations are highly attenuated deep inside the canopy. However, strong coherent eddies that penetrate the upper portion of the canopy can be very effective in transporting gases. Sweeps and ejections act in the order of seconds and transport air parcels into or out of the canopy. The effects of coherent structures on the air parcel residence times and associated chemical processing of reactive gases remain largely unquantified in tropical forests. We combine canopy resolving Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and field observations in the Brazilian Amazon to study residence times of air parcels in the rainforest as a function of canopy structure and height (h). Good agreement is obtained between simulated and observed turbulence statistics within and above the forest. Coherent structure properties obtained from quadrant analysis are also well reproduced. A Lagrangian particle tracking algorithm is used to quantify the distribution of residence times of air parcels "released" at different heights. Canopy residence times were determined from the particle trajectories. The resulting probability density function (PDF) strongly depended on the particle release height (z). For particles released in the upper canopy (at z/h=0.75) the most frequent residence times were in the order of 30s, with 50% of all particles ejected from the canopy after ~2 minutes. The mean residence time was close to 5 minutes, indicating a very skewed PDF. At z/h=0.25 the PDF was more evenly distributed with its median and mean in the order of ~10 minutes. Due to sweeps, both simulations had a non- negligible fraction of particles transported deep into the canopy, thus increasing greatly their residence times. As the reaction timescales of many biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are in the order of seconds to minutes, significant chemical

  4. Parcellations and Hemispheric Asymmetries of Human Cerebral Cortex Analyzed on Surface-Based Atlases

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Matthew F.; Dierker, Donna L.; Harwell, John; Coalson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    We report on surface-based analyses that enhance our understanding of human cortical organization, including its convolutions and its parcellation into many distinct areas. The surface area of human neocortex averages 973 cm2 per hemisphere, based on cortical midthickness surfaces of 2 cohorts of subjects. We implemented a method to register individual subjects to a hybrid version of the FreeSurfer “fsaverage” atlas whose left and right hemispheres are in precise geographic correspondence. Cortical folding patterns in the resultant population-average “fs_LR” midthickness surfaces are remarkably similar in the left and right hemispheres, even in regions showing significant asymmetry in 3D position. Both hemispheres are equal in average surface area, but hotspots of surface area asymmetry are present in the Sylvian Fissure and elsewhere, together with a broad pattern of asymmetries that are significant though small in magnitude. Multiple cortical parcellation schemes registered to the human atlas provide valuable reference data sets for comparisons with other studies. Identified cortical areas vary in size by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The total number of human neocortical areas is estimated to be ∼150 to 200 areas per hemisphere, which is modestly larger than a recent estimate for the macaque. PMID:22047963

  5. Automatic Structural Parcellation of Mouse Brain MRI Using Multi-Atlas Label Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Da; Cardoso, Manuel J.; Modat, Marc; Powell, Nick; Wells, Jack; Holmes, Holly; Wiseman, Frances; Tybulewicz, Victor; Fisher, Elizabeth; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Multi-atlas segmentation propagation has evolved quickly in recent years, becoming a state-of-the-art methodology for automatic parcellation of structural images. However, few studies have applied these methods to preclinical research. In this study, we present a fully automatic framework for mouse brain MRI structural parcellation using multi-atlas segmentation propagation. The framework adopts the similarity and truth estimation for propagated segmentations (STEPS) algorithm, which utilises a locally normalised cross correlation similarity metric for atlas selection and an extended simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) framework for multi-label fusion. The segmentation accuracy of the multi-atlas framework was evaluated using publicly available mouse brain atlas databases with pre-segmented manually labelled anatomical structures as the gold standard, and optimised parameters were obtained for the STEPS algorithm in the label fusion to achieve the best segmentation accuracy. We showed that our multi-atlas framework resulted in significantly higher segmentation accuracy compared to single-atlas based segmentation, as well as to the original STAPLE framework. PMID:24475148

  6. Uncertainty and dispersion in air parcel trajectories near the tropical tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, John; Jensen, Eric; Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, Thoapaul

    2016-04-01

    The Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) is important as the gateway to the stratosphere for chemical constituents produced at the Earth's surface. As such, understanding the processes that transport air through the upper tropical troposphere is important for a number of current scientific issues such as the impact of stratospheric water vapor on the global radiative budget and the depletion of ozone by both anthropogenically- and naturally-produced halocarbons. Compared to the lower troposphere, transport in the TTL is relatively unaffected by turbulent motion. Consequently, Lagrangian particle models are thought to provide reasonable estimates of parcel pathways through the TTL. However, there are complications that make trajectory analyses difficult to interpret; uncertainty in the wind data used to drive these calculations and trajectory dispersion being among the most important. These issues are examined using ensembles of backward air parcel trajectories that are initially tightly grouped near the tropical tropopause using three approaches: A Monte Carlo ensemble, in which different members use identical resolved wind fluctuations but different realizations of stochastic, multi-fractal simulations of unresolved winds, perturbed initial location ensembles, in which members use identical resolved wind fields but initial locations are displaced 2° in latitude and longitude, and a multi-model ensemble that uses identical initial conditions but different resolved wind fields and/or trajectory formulations. Comparisons among the approaches distinguish, to some degree, physical dispersion from that due to data uncertainty and the impact of unresolved wind fluctuations from that of resolved variability.

  7. Assessing the usefulness of the photogrammetric method in the process of capturing data on parcel boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benduch, Piotr; Pęska-Siwik, Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    A parcel is the most important object of real estate cadastre. Its primary spatial attribute are boundaries, determining the extent of property rights. Capturing the data on boundaries should be performed in the way ensuring sufficiently high accuracy and reliability. In recent years, as part of the project "ZSIN - Construction of Integrated Real Estate Information System - Stage I", in the territories of the participating districts, actions were taken aimed at the modernization of the register of land and buildings. In many cases, this process was carried out basing on photogrammetric materials. Applicable regulations allow such a possibility. This paper, basing on the documentation from the National Geodetic and Cartographic Documentation Center and on the authors' own surveys attempts to assess the applicability of the photogrammetric method to capture data on the boundaries of cadastral parcels. The scope of the research, most importantly, included the problem of accuracy with which it was possible to determine the position of a boundary point using photogrammetric surveys carried out on the terrain model created from processed aerial photographs. The article demonstrates the manner of recording this information in the cadastral database, as well as the resulting legal consequences. Moreover, the level of reliability of the entered values of the selected attributes of boundary points was assessed.

  8. Defining functional SMA and pre-SMA subregions in human MFC using resting state fMRI: functional connectivity-based parcellation method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Jong-Min; Jo, Hang Joon; Kim, Sook Hui; Lee, Jung Hee; Kim, Sung Tae; Seo, Sang Won; Cox, Robert W; Na, Duk L; Kim, Sun I; Saad, Ziad S

    2010-02-01

    Noninvasive parcellation of the human cerebral cortex is an important goal for understanding and examining brain functions. Recently, the patterns of anatomical connections using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been used to parcellate brain regions. Here, we present a noninvasive parcellation approach that uses "functional fingerprints" obtained by correlation measures on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to parcellate brain regions. In other terms, brain regions are parcellated based on the similarity of their connection--as reflected by correlation during resting state--to the whole brain. The proposed method was used to parcellate the medial frontal cortex (MFC) into supplementary motor areas (SMA) and pre-SMA subregions. In agreement with anatomical landmark-based parcellation, we find that functional fingerprint clustering of the MFC results in anterior and posterior clusters. The probabilistic maps from 12 subjects showed that the anterior cluster is mainly located rostral to the vertical commissure anterior (VCA) line, whereas the posterior cluster is mainly located caudal to VCA line, suggesting the homologues of pre-SMA and SMA. The functional connections from the putative pre-SMA cluster were connected to brain regions which are responsible for complex/cognitive motor control, whereas those from the putative SMA cluster were connected to brain regions which are related to the simple motor control. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of the functional connectivity-based parcellation of the human cerebral cortex using resting state fMRI. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Connectivity-based parcellation reveals distinct cortico-striatal connectivity fingerprints in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Balsters, Joshua H; Mantini, Dante; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2018-04-15

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been associated with abnormal synaptic development causing a breakdown in functional connectivity. However, when measured at the macro scale using resting state fMRI, these alterations are subtle and often difficult to detect due to the large heterogeneity of the pathology. Recently, we outlined a novel approach for generating robust biomarkers of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) using connectivity based parcellation of gross morphological structures to improve single-subject reproducibility and generate more robust connectivity fingerprints. Here we apply this novel approach to investigating the organization and connectivity strength of the cortico-striatal system in a large sample of ASD individuals and typically developed (TD) controls (N=130 per group). Our results showed differences in the parcellation of the striatum in ASD. Specifically, the putamen was found to be one single structure in ASD, whereas this was split into anterior and posterior segments in an age, IQ, and head movement matched TD group. An analysis of the connectivity fingerprints revealed that the group differences in clustering were driven by differential connectivity between striatum and the supplementary motor area, posterior cingulate cortex, and posterior insula. Our approach for analysing RS-fMRI in clinical populations has provided clear evidence that cortico-striatal circuits are organized differently in ASD. Based on previous task-based segmentations of the striatum, we believe that the anterior putamen cluster present in TD, but not in ASD, likely contributes to social and language processes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sub-parcel terroir mapping supported by UAV-based hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Katalin; Árvai, Mátyás; Koós, Sándor; Deák, Márton; Bakacsi, Zsófia; László, Péter; Pásztor, László

    2017-04-01

    There is a greater need to better understand the regional-to-parcel variations in viticultural potential. The differentiation and mapping of the variability of grape and wine quality require comprehensive spatial modelling of climatic, topographic and soil properties and a "terroir-based approach". Using remote and proximal sensing sensors and instruments are the most effective way for surveying vineyard status, such as geomorphologic and soil conditions, plant water and nutrient availability, plant health. UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vechicle) platforms are ideal for the remote monitoring of small and medium size vineyards, because flight planning is flexible and very high spatial ground resolution (even centimeters) can be achieved. Using hyperspectral remote sensing techniques the spectral response of the vegetation and the bare soil surface can be analyzed in very high spectral resolution, which can support terroir mapping on a sub-parcel level. Our study area is located in Hungary, in the Tokaj Wine Region, which is a historical region for botrityzed dessert wine making. The area of Tokaj Wine Region was formed mostly by Miocene volcanic activity, where andesite, rhyolite lavas and tuffs are characteristic and loess cover also occurs in some regions. The various geology and morphology of this area result diversity in soil types and soil properties as well. The study site was surveyed by a Cubert UHD-185 hyperspectral camera set on a Cortex Octocopter platform. The hyperspectral images were acquired in VIS-NIR (visible and near-infrared; 450-950 nm), with 4 nm sampling interval. The image acquisition was carried out at bare soil conditions, therefore the most important soil properties, which has dominant role by the delineation of terroir, can be predicted. In our paper we will present the first results of the hyperspectral survey.

  11. Functional Connectivity Parcellation of the Human Thalamus by Independent Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2017-11-01

    As a key structure to relay and integrate information, the thalamus supports multiple cognitive and affective functions through the connectivity between its subnuclei and cortical and subcortical regions. Although extant studies have largely described thalamic regional functions in anatomical terms, evidence accumulates to suggest a more complex picture of subareal activities and connectivities of the thalamus. In this study, we aimed to parcellate the thalamus and examine whole-brain connectivity of its functional clusters. With resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 96 adults, we used independent component analysis (ICA) to parcellate the thalamus into 10 components. On the basis of the independence assumption, ICA helps to identify how subclusters overlap spatially. Whole brain functional connectivity of each subdivision was computed for independent component's time course (ICtc), which is a unique time series to represent an IC. For comparison, we computed seed-region-based functional connectivity using the averaged time course across all voxels within a thalamic subdivision. The results showed that, at p < 10 -6 , corrected, 49% of voxels on average overlapped among subdivisions. Compared with seed-region analysis, ICtc analysis revealed patterns of connectivity that were more distinguished between thalamic clusters. ICtc analysis demonstrated thalamic connectivity to the primary motor cortex, which has eluded the analysis as well as previous studies based on averaged time series, and clarified thalamic connectivity to the hippocampus, caudate nucleus, and precuneus. The new findings elucidate functional organization of the thalamus and suggest that ICA clustering in combination with ICtc rather than seed-region analysis better distinguishes whole-brain connectivities among functional clusters of a brain region.

  12. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for...

  13. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for...

  14. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for...

  15. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for...

  16. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for...

  17. 77 FR 54607 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Sugar Parcel Lands, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Proclaiming Certain Lands, Sugar Parcel Lands, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation for the Bay Mills Indian Community of Michigan AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Reservation Proclamation. SUMMARY: This...

  18. Logging firms, nonindustrial private forests, and forest parcelization: evidence of firm specialization and its impact on sustainable timber supply

    Treesearch

    Mark Rickenbach; Thomas W. Steele

    2006-01-01

    Increasing forest parcelization has raised concerns about tract-size economies and sustainable timber supply. We explored this issue by examining the logging sector and forest ownership in northern Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Using 2004 survey data, we found that 48% of logging firms demonstrated a near exclusive reliance on nonindustrial private...

  19. Three Approaches to Using Lengthy Ordinal Scales in Structural Equation Models: Parceling, Latent Scoring, and Shortening Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chongming; Nay, Sandra; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2010-01-01

    Lengthy scales or testlets pose certain challenges for structural equation modeling (SEM) if all the items are included as indicators of a latent construct. Three general approaches to modeling lengthy scales in SEM (parceling, latent scoring, and shortening) have been reviewed and evaluated. A hypothetical population model is simulated containing…

  20. Investigating Historic Parcel Changes to Understand Land Use Trends: A Methodology and Application for the San Pedro River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term land use and land cover change, and the associated impacts, pose critical challenges to sustaining healthy communities and ecosystems. In this study, a methodology was developed to use parcel data to evaluate land use trends in southeast Arizona’s San Pedro River Water...

  1. Using structured decision making with landowners to address private forest management and parcelization: balancing multiple objectives and incorporating uncertainty

    Treesearch

    Paige F. B. Ferguson; Michael J. Conroy; John F. Chamblee; Jeffrey Hepinstall-Cymerman

    2015-01-01

    Parcelization and forest fragmentation are of concern for ecological, economic, and social reasons. Efforts to keep large, private forests intact may be supported by a decision-making process that incorporates landowners’ objectives and uncertainty. We used structured decision making (SDM) with owners of large, private forests in Macon County, North Carolina....

  2. The Use of Amenity Indicators in Anticipating Private Forestland Parcelization: A Look at the Lake States' Northwoods

    Treesearch

    Paul H. Gobster; Thomas L. Schmidt

    2000-01-01

    The subdivision of privately owned parcels of forestland is increasing across the country, but little is known about the rate and magnitude of this change. In trying to better understand how such change is distributed spatially and temporally across the landscape, we examined private forestlands in the nonmetropolitan counties of the Northwoods of Minnesota, Wisconsin...

  3. Studies and Application of Remote Sensing Retrieval Method of Soil Moisture Content in Land Parcel Units in Irrigation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Zhao, H. L.; Jiang, Y. Z.; Zang, W. B.

    2018-05-01

    Soil moisture is one of the important hydrological elements. Obtaining soil moisture accurately and effectively is of great significance for water resource management in irrigation area. During the process of soil moisture content retrieval with multiremote sensing data, multi- remote sensing data always brings multi-spatial scale problems which results in inconformity of soil moisture content retrieved by remote sensing in different spatial scale. In addition, agricultural water use management has suitable spatial scale of soil moisture information so as to satisfy the demands of dynamic management of water use and water demand in certain unit. We have proposed to use land parcel unit as the minimum unit to do soil moisture content research in agricultural water using area, according to soil characteristics, vegetation coverage characteristics in underlying layer, and hydrological characteristic into the basis of study unit division. We have proposed division method of land parcel units. Based on multi thermal infrared and near infrared remote sensing data, we calculate the ndvi and tvdi index and make a statistical model between the tvdi index and soil moisture of ground monitoring station. Then we move forward to study soil moisture remote sensing retrieval method on land parcel unit scale. And the method has been applied in Hetao irrigation area. Results show that compared with pixel scale the soil moisture content in land parcel unit scale has displayed stronger correlation with true value. Hence, remote sensing retrieval method of soil moisture content in land parcel unit scale has shown good applicability in Hetao irrigation area. We converted the research unit into the scale of land parcel unit. Using the land parcel units with unified crops and soil attributes as the research units more complies with the characteristics of agricultural water areas, avoids the problems such as decomposition of mixed pixels and excessive dependence on high-resolution data

  4. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1: The Critical Components to Simulate Cirrus Initiation Explicitly.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; O'C. Starr, David; Demott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Sassen, Kenneth; Jensen, Eric; Kärcher, Bernd; Liu, Xiaohong

    2002-08-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project, a project of the GCSS [Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Studies] Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems, involves the systematic comparison of current models of ice crystal nucleation and growth for specified, typical, cirrus cloud environments. In Phase 1 of the project reported here, simulated cirrus cloud microphysical properties from seven models are compared for `warm' (40°C) and `cold' (60°C) cirrus, each subject to updrafts of 0.04, 0.2, and 1 m s1. The models employ explicit microphysical schemes wherein the size distribution of each class of particles (aerosols and ice crystals) is resolved into bins or the evolution of each individual particle is traced. Simulations are made including both homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms (all-mode simulations). A single initial aerosol population of sulfuric acid particles is prescribed for all simulations. Heterogeneous nucleation is disabled for a second parallel set of simulations in order to isolate the treatment of the homogeneous freezing (of haze droplets) nucleation process. Analysis of these latter simulations is the primary focus of this paper.Qualitative agreement is found for the homogeneous-nucleation-only simulations; for example, the number density of nucleated ice crystals increases with the strength of the prescribed updraft. However, significant quantitative differences are found. Detailed analysis reveals that the homogeneous nucleation rate, haze particle solution concentration, and water vapor uptake rate by ice crystal growth (particularly as controlled by the deposition coefficient) are critical components that lead to differences in the predicted microphysics.Systematic differences exist between results based on a modified classical theory approach and models using an effective freezing temperature approach to the treatment of nucleation. Each method is constrained by critical freezing data from

  5. Diagnostic test accuracy of a 2-transcript host RNA signature for discriminating bacterial vs viral infection in febrile children

    PubMed Central

    Shailes, Hannah; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; Hoggart, Clive J; Cebey-Lopez, Miriam; Carter, Michael J; Janes, Victoria A; Gormley, Stuart; Shimizu, Chisato; Tremoulet, Adriana H; Barendregt, Anouk M; Salas, Antonio; Kanegaye, John; Pollard, Andrew J; Faust, Saul N; Patel, Sanjay; Kuijpers, Taco; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Burns, Jane C; Coin, Lachlan JM; Levin, Michael

    2018-01-01

    implemented as a Disease Risk Score in the validation group (130 children, including 23 bacterial, 28 viral, 79 indeterminate; median age 17 months, 57% males), bacterial infection was identified in all 23 microbiologically-confirmed definite bacterial patients, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 100 - 100), and in 1 of 28 definite viral patients, with specificity of 96.4% (95% CI, 89.3 – 100). When applied to additional validation datasets from patients with meningococcal and inflammatory diseases, bacterial infection was identified with a sensitivity of 91.7% (79.2-100) and 90.0% (70.0-100) respectively, and with specificity of 96.0% (88.0-100) and 95.8% (89.6-100). A minority of children in the indeterminate group were classified as having bacterial infection (63 of 136, 46.3%), although most received antibiotic treatment (129 of 136, 94.9%). Conclusions and Relevance This study provides preliminary data regarding test accuracy of a 2-transcript host RNA signature discriminating bacterial from viral infection in febrile children. Further studies are needed in diverse groups of patients to assess accuracy and clinical utility of this test in different clinical settings. PMID:27552617

  6. Externally mixed aerosol : simulation of ice nucleation in a parcel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anquetil-Deck, Candy; Hoose, Corinna; Conolly, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The effect of different aerosol (mineral dust, bacteria and soot) acting as immersion ice nuclei is investigated using ACPIM (AerosolCloud Precipitation Interaction Model) [1]. ACPIM is a powerful tool which can be used in two different ways. This box model can be, either, driven by experimental data (experiments carried out at the AIDA cloud chamber facility) or used as an air parcel in order to examine different ice nucleation parameterizations under specific conditions. This adiabatic air parcel model was employed for the simulation of a convective cloud. The study consists here in the investigation of how two externally mixed aerosols interact with one another. The initial study concentrates on mineral dust aerosol and biological aerosol without any background in order to fully understand the interaction between the different types of aerosol. Immersion freezing is described for the mineral dust aerosol by Niemand et al. 's parameterization [2], which was derived from laboratory studies in AIDA and is an extension of surface site density approach suggested by Connolly et al. [1]. Regarding bioaerosol, we introduce Hummel et al. 's parameterization [3] : f(in) = f(max)(1 - exp(- Ap *n(s)(T))) With an empirically fitted ice nucleation active site density n s based on AIDA measurements of Pseudomonas syringae bacteria [4]. This initial study is conducted for different proportion of each aerosol (the total number of aerosol being constant throughout all the simulation runs) at different vertical velocities. We then extented this study with different backgrounds (urban, marine, rural) in order to get a full picture. We found that there is not only a CCN competition but an IN competition as well. References : [1] Connolly, P. J., Möhler O., Field P. R., Saathoff H., Burgess, R., Choularton, T. and Gallagher, M., Atmos. Chem. Phys 9, 2805-2824 (2009). [2] Niemand, M., Möhler, O., Vogel B., Vogel, H., Hoose, C., Connolly, P., Klein, H., Bingemer, H., De

  7. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, 08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  8. Spatial Statistics of the Clark County Parcel Map, Trial Geotechnical Models, and Effects on Ground Motions in Las Vegas Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savran, W. H.; Louie, J. N.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Pancha, A.

    2011-12-01

    When deterministically modeling the propagation of seismic waves, shallow shear-wave velocity plays a crucial role in predicting shaking effects such as peak ground velocity (PGV). The Clark County Parcel Map provides us with a data set of geotechnical velocities in Las Vegas Valley, at an unprecedented level of detail. Las Vegas Valley is a basin with similar geologic properties to some areas of Southern California. We analyze elementary spatial statistical properties of the Parcel Map, along with calculating its spatial variability. We then investigate these spatial statistics from the PGV results computed from two geotechnical models that incorporate the Parcel Map as parameters. Plotting a histogram of the Parcel Map 30-meter depth-averaged shear velocity (Vs30) values shows the data to approximately fit a bimodal normal distribution with μ1 = 400 m/s, σ1 = 76 m/s, μ2 = 790 m/s, σ2 = 149 m/s, and p = 0.49., where μ is the mean, σ is standard deviation, and p is the probability mixing factor for the bimodal distribution. Based on plots of spatial power spectra, the Parcel Map appears to be fractal over the second and third decades, in kilometers. The spatial spectra possess the same fractal dimension in the N-S and the E-W directions, indicating isotropic scale invariance. We configured finite-difference wave propagation models at 0.5 Hz with LLNL's E3D code, utilizing the Parcel Map as input parameters to compute a PGV data set from a scenario earthquake (Black Hills M6.5). The resulting PGV is fractal over the same spatial frequencies as the Vs30 data sets associated with their respective models. The fractal dimension is systematically lower in all of the PGV maps as opposed to the Vs30 maps, showing that the PGV maps are richer in higher spatial frequencies. This is potentially caused by a lens focusing effects on seismic waves due to spatial heterogeneity in site conditions.

  9. Effects of drop freezing on microphysics of an ascending cloud parcel under biomass burning conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, K.; Simmel, M.; Wurzler, S.

    There is some evidence that the initiation of warm rain is suppressed in clouds over regions with vegetation fires. Thus, the ice phase becomes important as another possibility to initiate precipitation. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate heterogeneous drop freezing for a biomass-burning situation. An air parcel model with a sectional two-dimensional description of the cloud microphysics was employed with parameterizations for immersion and contact freezing which consider the different ice nucleating efficiencies of various ice nuclei. Three scenarios were simulated resulting to mixed-phase or completely glaciated clouds. According to the high insoluble fraction of the biomass-burning particles drop freezing via immersion and contact modes was very efficient. The preferential freezing of large drops followed by riming (i.e. the deposition of liquid drops on ice particles) and the evaporation of the liquid drops (Bergeron-Findeisen process) caused a further decrease of the liquid drops' effective radius in higher altitudes. In turn ice particle sizes increased so that they could serve as germs for graupel or hailstone formation. The effects of ice initiation on the vertical cloud dynamics were fairly significant leading to a development of the cloud to much higher altitudes than in a warm cloud without ice formation.

  10. Parcellation of the human substantia nigra based on anatomical connectivity to the striatum☆

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rumana; Lambert, Christian; Dolan, Raymond J.; Düzel, Emrah

    2013-01-01

    Substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) subregions, defined by dopaminergic projections to the striatum, are differentially affected by health (e.g. normal aging) and disease (e.g. Parkinson's disease). This may have an impact on reward processing which relies on dopaminergic regions and circuits. We acquired diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with probabilistic tractography in 30 healthy older adults to determine whether subregions of the SN/VTA could be delineated based on anatomical connectivity to the striatum. We found that a dorsomedial region of the SN/VTA preferentially connected to the ventral striatum whereas a more ventrolateral region connected to the dorsal striatum. These SN/VTA subregions could be characterised by differences in quantitative structural imaging parameters, suggesting different underlying tissue properties. We also observed that these connectivity patterns differentially mapped onto reward dependence personality trait. We show that tractography can be used to parcellate the SN/VTA into anatomically plausible and behaviourally meaningful compartments, an approach that may help future studies to provide a more fine-grained synopsis of pathological changes in the dopaminergic midbrain and their functional impact. PMID:23684858

  11. Visualization of simulated urban spaces: inferring parameterized generation of streets, parcels, and aerial imagery.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, Carlos A; Aliaga, Daniel G; Benes, Bedrich; Waddell, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Urban simulation models and their visualization are used to help regional planning agencies evaluate alternative transportation investments, land use regulations, and environmental protection policies. Typical urban simulations provide spatially distributed data about number of inhabitants, land prices, traffic, and other variables. In this article, we build on a synergy of urban simulation, urban visualization, and computer graphics to automatically infer an urban layout for any time step of the simulation sequence. In addition to standard visualization tools, our method gathers data of the original street network, parcels, and aerial imagery and uses the available simulation results to infer changes to the original urban layout and produce a new and plausible layout for the simulation results. In contrast with previous work, our approach automatically updates the layout based on changes in the simulation data and thus can scale to a large simulation over many years. The method in this article offers a substantial step forward in building integrated visualization and behavioral simulation systems for use in community visioning, planning, and policy analysis. We demonstrate our method on several real cases using a 200 GB database for a 16,300 km2 area surrounding Seattle.

  12. Data model for the collaboration between land administration systems and agricultural land parcel identification systems.

    PubMed

    Inan, Halil Ibrahim; Sagris, Valentina; Devos, Wim; Milenov, Pavel; van Oosterom, Peter; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2010-12-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has dramatically changed after 1992, and from then on the CAP focused on the management of direct income subsidies instead of production-based subsidies. For this focus, Member States (MS) are expected to establish Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), including a Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) as the spatial part of IACS. Different MS have chosen different solutions for their LPIS. Currently, some MS based their IACS/LPIS on data from their Land Administration Systems (LAS), and many others use purpose built special systems for their IACS/LPIS. The issue with these different IACS/LPIS is that they do not have standardized structures; rather, each represents a unique design in each MS, both in the case of LAS based or special systems. In this study, we aim at designing a core data model for those IACS/LPIS based on LAS. For this purpose, we make use of the ongoing standardization initiatives for LAS (Land Administration Domain Model: LADM) and IACS/LPIS (LPIS Core Model: LCM). The data model we propose in this study implies the collaboration between LADM and LCM and includes some extensions. Some basic issues with the collaboration model are discussed within this study: registration of farmers, land use rights and farming limitations, geometry/topology, temporal data management etc. For further explanation of the model structure, sample instance level diagrams illustrating some typical situations are also included. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental Baseline Survey Parcel E2, F, and I, Military Housing Areas Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    SEP 2011 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Phase I Environmental Baseline Survey Parcel E2, F, and I...lead-based paint LUST leaking underground storage tank M.D.M. Mount Diablo Meridian MFH military family housing MHPI Military Housing...northwest OWS oil/water separator PADS PCB Activity Database PCB polychorinated biphenyl PCR Physical Condition Report PDF portable

  14. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey Parcels E2, F, and I, Military Housing Areas, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    21 SEP 2011 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Phase I Environmental Baseline Survey Parcels E2, F, and I...leaking underground storage tank M.D.M. Mount Diablo Meridian MFH military family housing MHPI Military Housing Privatization Initiative MSL...water separator PADS PCB Activity Database PCB polychorinated biphenyl PCR Physical Condition Report PDF portable document format PPV

  15. Overshooting thunderstorm cloud top dynamics as approximated by a linear Lagrangian parcel model with analytic exact solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from a linear Lagrangian entraining parcel model of an overshooting thunderstorm cloud top. The model, which is similar to that of Adler and Mack (1986), gives analytic exact solutions for vertical velocity and temperature by representing mixing with Rayleigh damping instead of nonlinearly. Model results are presented for various combinations of stratospheric lapse rate, drag intensity, and mixing strength. The results are compared to those of Adler and Mack.

  16. Fine-Grained Parcellation of Brain Connectivity Improves Differentiation of States of Consciousness During Graded Propofol Sedation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolin; Lauer, Kathryn K; Ward, B Douglas; Roberts, Christopher J; Liu, Suyan; Gollapudy, Suneeta; Rohloff, Robert; Gross, William; Xu, Zhan; Chen, Guangyu; Binder, Jeffrey R; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hudetz, Anthony G

    2017-08-01

    Conscious perception relies on interactions between spatially and functionally distinct modules of the brain at various spatiotemporal scales. These interactions are altered by anesthesia, an intervention that leads to fading consciousness. Relatively little is known about brain functional connectivity and its anesthetic modulation at a fine spatial scale. Here, we used functional imaging to examine propofol-induced changes in functional connectivity in brain networks defined at a fine-grained parcellation based on a combination of anatomical and functional features. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent resting-state functional imaging in wakeful baseline, mild sedation, deep sedation, and recovery of consciousness. Compared with wakeful baseline, propofol produced widespread, dose-dependent functional connectivity changes that scaled with the extent to which consciousness was altered. The dominant changes in connectivity were associated with the frontal lobes. By examining node pairs that demonstrated a trend of functional connectivity change between wakefulness and deep sedation, quadratic discriminant analysis differentiated the states of consciousness in individual participants more accurately at a fine-grained parcellation (e.g., 2000 nodes) than at a coarse-grained parcellation (e.g., 116 anatomical nodes). Our study suggests that defining brain networks at a high granularity may provide a superior imaging-based distinction of the graded effect of anesthesia on consciousness.

  17. Techniques utilized in the simulated altitude testing of a 2D-CD vectoring and reversing nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, H. Bruce; Bryant, Lively; Dicus, John H.; Moore, Allan S.; Burns, Maureen E.; Solomon, Robert F.; Sheer, Irving

    1988-01-01

    Simulated altitude testing of a two-dimensional, convergent-divergent, thrust vectoring and reversing exhaust nozzle was accomplished. An important objective of this test was to develop test hardware and techniques to properly operate a vectoring and reversing nozzle within the confines of an altitude test facility. This report presents detailed information on the major test support systems utilized, the operational performance of the systems and the problems encountered, and test equipment improvements recommended for future tests. The most challenging support systems included the multi-axis thrust measurement system, vectored and reverse exhaust gas collection systems, and infrared temperature measurement systems used to evaluate and monitor the nozzle. The feasibility of testing a vectoring and reversing nozzle of this type in an altitude chamber was successfully demonstrated. Supporting systems performed as required. During reverser operation, engine exhaust gases were successfully captured and turned downstream. However, a small amount of exhaust gas spilled out the collector ducts' inlet openings when the reverser was opened more than 60 percent. The spillage did not affect engine or nozzle performance. The three infrared systems which viewed the nozzle through the exhaust collection system worked remarkably well considering the harsh environment.

  18. In vitro testing of biological control agents on A1 and A2 isolates of Phytophthora ramorum

    Treesearch

    Marianne Elliott; Simon Shamoun

    2008-01-01

    Biological control products were tested in vitro with six isolates of Phytophthora ramorum. These isolates were geographically diverse and were selected based on their pathogenicity to detached Rhododendron leaves. In addition to five commercially available biocontrol products, nine species of Trichoderma were tested. The in vitro...

  19. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1; The Critical Components to Simulate Cirrus Initiation Explicitly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David OC; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Sassen, Kenneth; Jensen, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project, a project of the GCSS (GEWEX Cloud System Studies) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems, involves the systematic comparison of current models of ice crystal nucleation and growth for specified, typical, cirrus cloud environments. In Phase I of the project reported here, simulated cirrus cloud microphysical properties are compared for situations of "warm" (40 C) and "cold" (-60 C) cirrus, both subject to updrafts of 4, 20 and 100 centimeters per second. Five models participated. The various models employ explicit microphysical schemes wherein the size distribution of each class of particles (aerosols and ice crystals) is resolved into bins or treated separately. Simulations are made including both the homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. A single initial aerosol population of sulfuric acid particles is prescribed for all simulations. To isolate the treatment of the homogeneous freezing (of haze droplets) nucleation process, the heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is disabled for a second parallel set of simulations. Qualitative agreement is found for the homogeneous-nucleation- only simulations, e.g., the number density of nucleated ice crystals increases with the strength of the prescribed updraft. However, significant quantitative differences are found. Detailed analysis reveals that the homogeneous nucleation rate, haze particle solution concentration, and water vapor uptake rate by ice crystal growth (particularly as controlled by the deposition coefficient) are critical components that lead to differences in predicted microphysics. Systematic bias exists between results based on a modified classical theory approach and models using an effective freezing temperature approach to the treatment of nucleation. Each approach is constrained by critical freezing data from laboratory studies, but each includes assumptions that can only be justified by further laboratory research. Consequently, it is not yet

  20. Numerical modeling of a 2K J-T heat exchanger used in Fermilab Vertical Test Stand VTS-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2014-07-01

    Fermilab Vertical Test Stand-1 (VTS-1) is in operation since 2007 for testing the superconducting RF cavities at 2 K. This test stand has single layer coiled finned tubes heat exchanger before J-T valve. A finite difference based thermal model has been developed in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to study its thermal performance during filling and refilling to maintain the constant liquid level of test stand. The model is also useful to predict its performance under other various operating conditions and will be useful to design the similar kind of heat exchanger for future needs. Present paper discusses the different operationalmore » modes of this heat exchanger and its thermal characteristics under these operational modes. Results of this model have also been compared with the experimental data gathered from the VTS-1 heat exchanger and they are in good agreement with the present model.« less

  1. Construction of a 2- by 2-foot transonic adaptive-wall test section at the NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Daniel G.; Lee, George

    1986-01-01

    The development of a new production-size, two-dimensional, adaptive-wall test section with ventilated walls at the NASA Ames Research Center is described. The new facility incorporates rapid closed-loop operation, computer/sensor integration, and on-line interference assessment and wall corrections. Air flow through the test section is controlled by a series of plenum compartments and three-way slide vales. A fast-scan laser velocimeter was built to measure velocity boundary conditions for the interference assessment scheme. A 15.2-cm- (6.0-in.-) chord NACA 0012 airfoil model will be used in the first experiments during calibration of the facility.

  2. Testing and model-aided analysis of a 2 kW el PEMFC CHP-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, P.; Weber, A.; Lewald, N.; Aicher, T.; Jörissen, L.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.; Szolak, R.; Brendel, M.; Kaczerowski, J.

    A prototype PEMFC CHP-system (combined heat and power) for decentralised energy supply in domestic applications has been installed in the Fuel Cell Testing Laboratory at the Institut für Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik (IWE), Universität Karlsruhe (TH). The system, which was developed at the Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung ZSW, Ulm (FC-stack) and the Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (reformer) is operated and tested in close cooperation with the Stadtwerke Karlsruhe. The tests are carried out as part of the strategic project EDISon, which is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWA). The performance of the system is evaluated for different operating conditions. The tests include steady state measurements under different electrical and thermal loads as well as an analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the system during load changes. First results of these steady state and dynamic operation characteristics will be presented in this paper.

  3. A 2.2 sq m /24 sq ft/ self-controlled deployable heat pipe radiator - Design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1975-01-01

    An all heat pipe, deployable radiator has been developed which can effectively control pumped fluid loop temperatures under varying loads using variable conductance panel heat pipes. The 2.2 sq m (24 sq ft) aluminum panel can be coupled to either a fluid header or a flexible heat pipe header capable of transporting 850 watts in a 90-deg bent configuration. Test results support the feasibility of using this system to passively control Freon-21 loop temperatures.

  4. An 810 ft/sec soil impact test of a 2-foot diameter model nuclear reactor containment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puthoff, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A soil impact test was conducted on a 880-pound 2-foot diameter sphere model. The impact area consisted of back filled desert earth and rock. The impact generated a crater 5 feet in diameter by 5 feet deep. It buried itself a total of 15 feet - as measured to the bottom of the model. After impact the containment vessel was pressure checked. No leaks were detected nor cracks observed.

  5. Test Data Report, Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Drag Test of a 2/5 Scale Lockheed AH-56 Cheyenne Door-Hinge Hub

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    the U.S. Army 7– by 10–foot Wind Tunnel located at NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA. The purpose of the test was to quantify the drag...drag test of a non-rotating 2/5 scale Lockheed AH-56 Cheyenne main rotor hub in the U.S. Army 7– by 10–foot Wind Tunnel located at NASA Ames Research...the U.S. Army 7– by 10–foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center 5 2.3 Perspective view of the hub mounted with major dimensions and model

  6. Influence of air parcel trajectories on CO2 and CH4 concentrations in the northern plateau of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Isidro A.; Sánchez, M. Luisa; García, M. Ángeles; Pardo, Nuria

    2018-01-01

    This study presents a simpler procedure for grouping air parcel back trajectories than others previously applied. Two-day air parcel back trajectories reaching an unpolluted site in the centre of the northern plateau of the Iberian Peninsula were calculated over a three-year period using the METEX model. A procedure based on the kernel density calculation was applied to the direction of each trajectory centroid to determine groups of trajectories. This method is much faster than the cluster procedure when it comes to retaining the directional details of groups. Seasonal analysis of six groups of trajectories revealed that the Atlantic origin prevailed against displacement from northern Europe. Moreover, Mediterranean and particularly African trajectories were infrequent, probably due to the rough peninsular orography in these directions. The location of air trajectories reaching the study site was described using a surface classification below the air parcels with improved spatial resolution compared to previous analyses. Local contribution was very marked, particularly in summer. Mean trajectories were calculated for each group together with meteorological features and CO2 and CH4 concentrations. Groups may be identified by their mean temperature, wind speed, elevation and distance values. However, only two groups should be considered when analysing the two trace gases, one for trajectories from the Atlantic Ocean and the second for trajectories from the continent. Contrasts of about 4 ppm for CO2 in summer and 0.023 ppm for CH4 in winter were observed, revealing that air trajectories from the Atlantic Ocean were cleaner than those arriving from the continent. These differences were attributed to higher air stagnation over land.

  7. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Tests of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, R.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Test of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  8. Exact Bayesian p-values for a test of independence in a 2 × 2 contingency table with missing data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Sinha, Debajyoti; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Lipshultz, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Altham (Altham PME. Exact Bayesian analysis of a 2 × 2 contingency table, and Fisher's "exact" significance test. J R Stat Soc B 1969; 31: 261-269) showed that a one-sided p-value from Fisher's exact test of independence in a 2 × 2 contingency table is equal to the posterior probability of negative association in the 2 × 2 contingency table under a Bayesian analysis using an improper prior. We derive an extension of Fisher's exact test p-value in the presence of missing data, assuming the missing data mechanism is ignorable (i.e., missing at random or completely at random). Further, we propose Bayesian p-values for a test of independence in a 2 × 2 contingency table with missing data using alternative priors; we also present results from a simulation study exploring the Type I error rate and power of the proposed exact test p-values. An example, using data on the association between blood pressure and a cardiac enzyme, is presented to illustrate the methods.

  9. Heuristics for connectivity-based brain parcellation of SMA/pre-SMA through force-directed graph layout.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Alessandro; Cerliani, Leonardo; Nanetti, Luca; Roerdink, Jos B T M

    2011-02-01

    We propose the use of force-directed graph layout as an explorative tool for connectivity-based brain parcellation studies. The method can be used as a heuristic to find the number of clusters intrinsically present in the data (if any) and to investigate their organisation. It provides an intuitive representation of the structure of the data and facilitates interactive exploration of properties of single seed voxels as well as relations among (groups of) voxels. We validate the method on synthetic data sets and we investigate the changes in connectivity in the supplementary motor cortex, a brain region whose parcellation has been previously investigated via connectivity studies. This region is supposed to present two easily distinguishable connectivity patterns, putatively denoted by SMA (supplementary motor area) and pre-SMA. Our method provides insights with respect to the connectivity patterns of the premotor cortex. These present a substantial variation among subjects, and their subdivision into two well-separated clusters is not always straightforward. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lowering bronchoaspiration rate in an acute stroke unit by means of a 2 volume/3 texture dysphagia screening test with pulsioximetry.

    PubMed

    Cocho, D; Sagales, M; Cobo, M; Homs, I; Serra, J; Pou, M; Perez, G; Pujol, G; Tantinya, S; Bao, P; Aloy, A; Sabater, R; Gendre, J; Otermin, P

    During acute stroke, 30% of all patients present dysphagia and 50% of that subgroup will experience bronchoaspiration. Our aim was to compare mortality and bronchoaspiration rates associated with the water test compared to those associated with a 2 volume/3 texture test controlled with pulse oximetry (2v/3t-P test) in our stroke unit. Over a 5-year period, we performed a prospective analysis of all consecutive acute ischaemic stroke patients hospitalised in the Stroke Unit. Dysphagia was evaluated using the water test between 2008 and 2010 (group 0 or G0), and the 2v/3t-P test (group 1 or G1) between 2011 and 2012. We analysed demographic data, vascular risk factors, neurological deficit on the NIHSS, aetiological subtype according to TOAST criteria, clinical subtype according to the Oxfordshire classification, prevalence of dysphagia, percentage of patients with bronchoaspiration, and mortality. We examined 418 patients with acute stroke (G0=275, G1=143). There were significant differences between the 2 groups regarding the percentage of patients with TACI (17% in G0 vs. 29% in G1, P=.005) and median NIHSS score (4 points in G0 vs. 7 points in G1, P=.003). Since adopting the new swallowing test, we detected a non-significant increase in the percentage of dysphagia (22% in G0 vs. 25% in G1, P=.4), lower mortality (1.7% in G0 vs. 0.7% in G1, P=.3) and a significant decrease in the bronchoaspiration rate (6.2% in G0 vs. 2.1% in G1, P=.05). Compared to the water test used for dysphagia screening, the new 2v/3t-P test lowered bronchoaspiration rates in acute stroke patients. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a super-pressure balloon with a diamond-shaped net --- result of a ground inflation test of a 2,000 cubic-meter balloon ---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Nakashino, Kyoichi; Akita, Daisuke; Matsushima, Kiyoho; Shimadu, Shigeyuki; Goto, Ken; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Takuma

    2016-07-01

    A light super-pressure balloon has been developed using a method to cover a balloon with a diamond-shaped net of high-tensile fibers. The goal is to fly a payload of 900 kg to the altitude of 37 km with a 300,000 m^{3} balloon. Beginning from a demonstration test of the net-balloon with a 10 m^{3} balloon in 2010, we have been polished the net-balloon through ground inflation tests and flight tests, including a flight test of a 3,000 m ^{3} balloon in the tandem balloon configuration with a 15,000 m^{3} zero-pressure balloon in 2012, and a flight test of a 10 m^{3} balloon in the tandem balloon configuration with a 2 kg rubber balloon in 2013, as reported in the last COSPAR. In 2014, we developed a 5,000 m^{3} balloon and performed a ground inflation test to find that the balloon burst from a lip panel for termination with a differential pressure of 425 Pa. It was due to a stress concentration at the edge of a thick tape attached along the termination mechanism. In 2015, we modified the balloon by adding tapes on the lip panel to avoid the stress concentration, and also shorten the net length to leave some margin of the film and performed a ground inflation test again to find the balloon showed asymmetrical deployment and burst from the edge of the net with a differential pressure of 348 Pa. We consider it is due to the margin of the film along the circumferential direction, and proposed a gore shape which circumference length is kept as determined by the pumpkin shape of the balloon but setting meridian length longer than that. We developed a 10 m^{3} balloon with the gore design to find that the balloon deployed symmetrically and showed the burst pressure of 10,000 Pa. In 2016, we are going to develop a 2,000 m^{3} balloon with the gore design and perform its ground inflation test. In this paper, we are going to report its result with the sequence of the development.

  12. Connectivity-based parcellation of the thalamus in multiple sclerosis and its implications for cognitive impairment: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Bisecco, Alvino; Rocca, Maria A; Pagani, Elisabetta; Mancini, Laura; Enzinger, Christian; Gallo, Antonio; Vrenken, Hugo; Stromillo, Maria Laura; Copetti, Massimiliano; Thomas, David L; Fazekas, Franz; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Barkhof, Frederik; Stefano, Nicola De; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    In this multicenter study, we performed a tractography-based parcellation of the thalamus and its white matter connections to investigate the relationship between thalamic connectivity abnormalities and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). Dual-echo, morphological and diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were collected from 52 relapsing-remitting MS patients and 57 healthy controls from six European centers. Patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment. Thalamic connectivity defined regions (CDRs) were segmented based on their cortical connectivity using diffusion tractography-based parcellation. Between-group differences of CDRs and cortico-thalamic tracts DT MRI indices were assessed. A vertex analysis of thalamic shape was also performed. A random forest analysis was run to identify the best imaging predictor of global cognitive impairment and deficits of specific cognitive domains. Twenty-two (43%) MS patients were cognitively impaired (CI). Compared to cognitively preserved, CI MS patients had increased fractional anisotropy of frontal, motor, postcentral and occipital connected CDRs (0.002

  13. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.225 Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or...

  14. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.225 Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or...

  15. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.225 Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or...

  16. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.225 Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or...

  17. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.225 Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or...

  18. Individualized Functional Parcellation of the Human Amygdala Using a Semi-supervised Clustering Method: A 7T Resting State fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianchang; Cheng, Hewei; Zuo, Zhentao; Zhou, Ke; Cong, Fei; Wang, Bo; Zhuo, Yan; Chen, Lin; Xue, Rong; Fan, Yong

    2018-01-01

    The amygdala plays an important role in emotional functions and its dysfunction is considered to be associated with multiple psychiatric disorders in humans. Cytoarchitectonic mapping has demonstrated that the human amygdala complex comprises several subregions. However, it's difficult to delineate boundaries of these subregions in vivo even if using state of the art high resolution structural MRI. Previous attempts to parcellate this small structure using unsupervised clustering methods based on resting state fMRI data suffered from the low spatial resolution of typical fMRI data, and it remains challenging for the unsupervised methods to define subregions of the amygdala in vivo . In this study, we developed a novel brain parcellation method to segment the human amygdala into spatially contiguous subregions based on 7T high resolution fMRI data. The parcellation was implemented using a semi-supervised spectral clustering (SSC) algorithm at an individual subject level. Under guidance of prior information derived from the Julich cytoarchitectonic atlas, our method clustered voxels of the amygdala into subregions according to similarity measures of their functional signals. As a result, three distinct amygdala subregions can be obtained in each hemisphere for every individual subject. Compared with the cytoarchitectonic atlas, our method achieved better performance in terms of subregional functional homogeneity. Validation experiments have also demonstrated that the amygdala subregions obtained by our method have distinctive, lateralized functional connectivity (FC) patterns. Our study has demonstrated that the semi-supervised brain parcellation method is a powerful tool for exploring amygdala subregional functions.

  19. Detecting Gene Rearrangements in Patient Populations Through a 2-Step Diagnostic Test Comprised of Rapid IHC Enrichment Followed by Sensitive Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Danielle A.; Ely, Heather A.; Shoemaker, Robert; Boomer, Aaron; Culver, Brady P.; Hoskins, Ian; Haimes, Josh D.; Walters, Ryan D.; Fernandez, Diane; Stahl, Joshua A.; Lee, Jeeyun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Lamoureux, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Targeted therapy combined with companion diagnostics has led to the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for detection of molecular alterations. However, using a diagnostic test to identify patient populations with low prevalence molecular alterations, such as gene rearrangements, poses efficiency, and cost challenges. To address this, we have developed a 2-step diagnostic test to identify NTRK1, NTRK2, NTRK3, ROS1, and ALK rearrangements in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical specimens. This test is comprised of immunohistochemistry screening using a pan-receptor tyrosine kinase cocktail of antibodies to identify samples expressing TrkA (encoded by NTRK1), TrkB (encoded by NTRK2), TrkC (encoded by NTRK3), ROS1, and ALK followed by an RNA-based anchored multiplex polymerase chain reaction NGS assay. We demonstrate that the NGS assay is accurate and reproducible in identification of gene rearrangements. Furthermore, implementation of an RNA quality control metric to assess the presence of amplifiable nucleic acid input material enables a measure of confidence when an NGS result is negative for gene rearrangements. Finally, we demonstrate that performing a pan-receptor tyrosine kinase immunohistochemistry staining enriches detection of the patient population for gene rearrangements from 4% to 9% and has a 100% negative predictive value. Together, this 2-step assay is an efficient method for detection of gene rearrangements in both clinical testing and studies of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. PMID:27028240

  20. Environmental Baseline Survey Report for the Title Transfer of Land Parcel ED-4 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    SAIC

    2008-05-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of a land parcel referred to as 'ED-4' (ED-4) at the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). DOE is proposing to transfer the title of this land to the Heritage Center, LLC. Parcel ED-4 is a land parcel that consists of two noncontiguous areas comprising a total of approximately 18 acres located east of the ETTP. The western tract of ED-4 encompasses approximately 8.5 acres in the northeastern quadrant of the intersection of Boulevard Road and Highway 58. The eastern tract encompasses an areamore » of approximately 9.5 acres in the northwestern quadrant of the intersection of Blair Road and Highway 58 (the Oak Ridge Turnpike). Aerial photographs and site maps from throughout the history of the ETTP, going back to its initial development in the 1940s as the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), indicate that this area has been undeveloped woodland with the exception of three support facilities for workers constructing the ORGDP since federal acquisition in 1943. These three support facilities, which were located in the western tract of ED-4, included a recreation hall, the Town Hall Camp Operations Building, and the Property Warehouse. A railroad spur also formerly occupied a portion of Parcel ED-4. These former facilities only occupied approximately 5 percent of the total area of Parcel ED-4. This report provides supporting information for the transfer of this government-owned property at ETTP to a non-federal entity. This EBS is based upon the requirements of Sect. 120(h) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). In order to support a Clean Parcel Determination (CPD) in accordance with CERCLA Sect. 120(h)(4)(d), groundwater and sediment samples were collected within, and adjacent to, the Parcel ED-4 study area. The potential for DOE to make a CPD for ED-4 is further supported

  1. Generation of Individual Whole-Brain Atlases With Resting-State fMRI Data Using Simultaneous Graph Computation and Parcellation.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Hao, Z; Wang, H

    2018-01-01

    The human brain can be characterized as functional networks. Therefore, it is important to subdivide the brain appropriately in order to construct reliable networks. Resting-state functional connectivity-based parcellation is a commonly used technique to fulfill this goal. Here we propose a novel individual subject-level parcellation approach based on whole-brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. We first used a supervoxel method known as simple linear iterative clustering directly on resting-state fMRI time series to generate supervoxels, and then combined similar supervoxels to generate clusters using a clustering method known as graph-without-cut (GWC). The GWC approach incorporates spatial information and multiple features of the supervoxels by energy minimization, simultaneously yielding an optimal graph and brain parcellation. Meanwhile, it theoretically guarantees that the actual cluster number is exactly equal to the initialized cluster number. By comparing the results of the GWC approach and those of the random GWC approach, we demonstrated that GWC does not rely heavily on spatial structures, thus avoiding the challenges encountered in some previous whole-brain parcellation approaches. In addition, by comparing the GWC approach to two competing approaches, we showed that GWC achieved better parcellation performances in terms of different evaluation metrics. The proposed approach can be used to generate individualized brain atlases for applications related to cognition, development, aging, disease, personalized medicine, etc. The major source codes of this study have been made publicly available at https://github.com/yuzhounh/GWC.

  2. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: Initial Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N 1331200-2-IT, S/N 105/A2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, Initial Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N 1331200-2-IT, S/N 105/A2, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The specification establishes the requirements for the Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT) and Limited Performance Test (LPT) of the Advanced Microwave Sounding, Unit-A2 (AMSU-A2), referred to herein as the unit. The unit is defined on Drawing 1331200. 1.2 Test procedure sequence. The sequence in which the several phases of this test procedure shall take place is shown in Figure 1, but the sequence can be in any order.

  3. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Engineering Test Report: METSAT A2 Signal Processor (P/N 1331120-2, S/N F03) S/N 107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a description of the tests performed, and the test data, for the A2 METSAT Signal Processor Assembly PN: 1331120-2, S/N F03. The assembly was tested in accordance with AE-26754, "METSAT Signal Processor Scan Drive Test and Integration Procedure."

  4. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Engineering Test Report, METSAT A2 Signal Processor (P/N 1331120-2, S/N F04) S/N 108

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a description of the tests performed, and the test data, for the A2 METSAT Signal Processor Assembly PN: 1331120-2, S/N F04. The assembly was tested in accordance with AE-26754, "METSAT Signal Processor Scan Drive Test and Integration Procedure."

  5. Use of a modified hair strand test to assess the antifungal activity kinetics of dog hair after a 2% climbazole shampoo application.

    PubMed

    Petit, Jean Yanique; Cavana, Paola; Thoumire, Sandra; Guillot, Jacques; Perrot, Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    The "hair strand test" was first developed as a model to evaluate the antifungal activity of antidandruff shampoos. To assess the residual activity of an antifungal shampoo on the hair shafts of dogs after a single application, followed by bathing with a physiological shampoo one month later. Six beagles (two males and four females) from a research colony. Dogs were bathed with a 2% climbazole shampoo. Hairs were collected before application of the shampoo and at scheduled intervals for 30 days after treatment. A physiological shampoo was then applied to all dogs and hairs were collected following the same schedule. The inhibition zone around the hair shafts was measured after incubation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates streaked with three Malassezia pachydermatis strains. Inhibition zones around hairs collected from dogs bathed with 2% climbazole shampoo were significantly larger than those around hairs collected before shampooing at all time points (P = 0.003). An increase in the width of the inhibition zones around climbazole treated hairs was observed following physiological shampoo on Day 30 (P = 0.005). No significant differences were observed between Malassezia pachydermatis isolates (P = 0.571). No inhibition zones were seen around the hairs of dogs bathed with physiological shampoo only. The modified hair strand test is useful for the assessment of residual antifungal activity on animal hairs. Use of a physiological shampoo following antifungal shampoo therapy may increase the efficacy of the antifungal product for the control of Malassezia overgrowth. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Influence of purchaser perceptions and intentions on price for forest land parcels: a hedonic pricing approach

    Treesearch

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Michael A. Kilgore; Rachel Hudson; Jacob Donnay

    2008-01-01

    A hedonic model was developed to analyze the market for undeveloped forest land in Minnesota. Variables describing in situ conditions, locational characteristics, buyer perceptions and intentions, and transactional terms were tested for their influence on sale price. The independent variables explained 67% of the per hectare sale price variation. Water frontage, road...

  7. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Reports: Final Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N: 1356006-1, S.N: 202/A2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, R.

    1998-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report. the process specification establishes the requirements for the comprehensive performance test (CPT) and limited performance test (LPT) of the earth observing system advanced microwave sounding unit-A2 (EOS/AMSU-A2), referred to as the unit. The unit is defined on drawing 1356006.

  8. NeuroVault.org: A repository for sharing unthresholded statistical maps, parcellations, and atlases of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwartz, Yannick; Sochat, Vanessa V; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, Thomas E; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    NeuroVault.org is dedicated to storing outputs of analyses in the form of statistical maps, parcellations and atlases, a unique strategy that contrasts with most neuroimaging repositories that store raw acquisition data or stereotaxic coordinates. Such maps are indispensable for performing meta-analyses, validating novel methodology, and deciding on precise outlines for regions of interest (ROIs). NeuroVault is open to maps derived from both healthy and clinical populations, as well as from various imaging modalities (sMRI, fMRI, EEG, MEG, PET, etc.). The repository uses modern web technologies such as interactive web-based visualization, cognitive decoding, and comparison with other maps to provide researchers with efficient, intuitive tools to improve the understanding of their results. Each dataset and map is assigned a permanent Universal Resource Locator (URL), and all of the data is accessible through a REST Application Programming Interface (API). Additionally, the repository supports the NIDM-Results standard and has the ability to parse outputs from popular FSL and SPM software packages to automatically extract relevant metadata. This ease of use, modern web-integration, and pioneering functionality holds promise to improve the workflow for making inferences about and sharing whole-brain statistical maps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I; Bastin, Mark E; Boardman, James P

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39(+5) weeks, range 37(+2)-41(+6)). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development.

  10. Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective

    SciTech Connect

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-inmore » hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.« less

  11. Unravelling the Intrinsic Functional Organization of the Human Striatum: A Parcellation and Connectivity Study Based on Resting-State fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Wi Hoon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Euitae; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Im, Oh-Soo; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2014-01-01

    As the main input hub of the basal ganglia, the striatum receives projections from the cerebral cortex. Many studies have provided evidence for multiple parallel corticostriatal loops based on the structural and functional connectivity profiles of the human striatum. A recent resting-state fMRI study revealed the topography of striatum by assigning each voxel in the striatum to its most strongly correlated cortical network among the cognitive, affective, and motor networks. However, it remains unclear what patterns of striatal parcellation would result from performing the clustering without subsequent assignment to cortical networks. Thus, we applied unsupervised clustering algorithms to parcellate the human striatum based on its functional connectivity patterns to other brain regions without any anatomically or functionally defined cortical targets. Functional connectivity maps of striatal subdivisions, identified through clustering analyses, were also computed. Our findings were consistent with recent accounts of the functional distinctions of the striatum as well as with recent studies about its functional and anatomical connectivity. For example, we found functional connections between dorsal and ventral striatal clusters and the areas involved in cognitive and affective processes, respectively, and between rostral and caudal putamen clusters and the areas involved in cognitive and motor processes, respectively. This study confirms prior findings, showing similar striatal parcellation patterns between the present and prior studies. Given such striking similarity, it is suggested that striatal subregions are functionally linked to cortical networks involving specific functions rather than discrete portions of cortical regions. Our findings also demonstrate that the clustering of functional connectivity patterns is a reliable feature in parcellating the striatum into anatomically and functionally meaningful subdivisions. The striatal subdivisions identified here

  12. Application of Multipurpose Cadastre to Evaluate Energy Security of Land Parcel (Case Study: Gedung A and Gedung B, Institut Teknologi Sumatra)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alif, S. M.; Nugroho, A. P.; Leksono, B. E.

    2018-03-01

    Energy security has one of its dimensions: Short-term energy security which focuses on the ability of the energy system to react promptly to sudden changes within the supply-demand balance. Non-energy components (such as land parcel) that comprise an energy system are analysed comprehensively with other component to measure energy security related to energy supply. Multipurpose cadastre which is an integrated land information system containing legal, physical, and cultural is used to evaluate energy (electrical energy) security of land parcel. The fundamental component of multipurpose cadastre used to evaluate energy security is attribute data which is the value of land parcel facilities. Other fundamental components (geographic control data, base map data, cadastral data) are used as position information and provide weight in room (part of land parcel) valuation. High value-room means the room is comfortable and/or used productively by its occupant. The method of valuation is by comparing one facility to other facilities. Facilities included in room valuation are relatively static items (such as chair, desk, and cabinet) except lamps and other electronic devices. The room value and number of electronic devices which consume electrical energy are correlated with each other. Consumption of electrical energy of electronic devices in the room with average value remains constant while consumption in other room needs to be evaluated to save the energy. The result of this research shows that room value correlate weakly with number of electronic device in corresponding room. It shows excess energy consumed in low-value room. Although numbers of electronic devices do not always mean the consumption of electrical energy and there are plenty electronic devices, it is recommended for occupant to be careful in utilizing electronic devices in low-value room to minimize energy consumption.

  13. If the Design of Express Waybill Influences Customer’s Parcel-seeking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Pengji; Shi, Juan

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, college students have become the main flow of online-shopping, hence positioning their own buying in express bulks is getting more and more difficult. In order to figure out how to easily seek out their names on express waybill and fetch their express, an experiment is being conducted to identify on which part the students’ name shall be noticed first. 36 college students (except freshman) from 3 different majors (12 from each major) were tested with the collecting and analyzing of Dikablis by being shown pictures of 4 different express waybills with consignee information on different part of them. The analysis result from relative software shows that consignee information set at parts with larger number of fixation point and longer duration are likely to reinforce the significance of consignee information. Consequently, the consignee information is recommended to set at parts for the sake of students’ convenience.

  14. Informatic parcellation of the network involved in the computation of subjective value

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how the brain computes value is a basic question in neuroscience. Although individual studies have driven this progress, meta-analyses provide an opportunity to test hypotheses that require large collections of data. We carry out a meta-analysis of a large set of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of value computation to address several key questions. First, what is the full set of brain areas that reliably correlate with stimulus values when they need to be computed? Second, is this set of areas organized into dissociable functional networks? Third, is a distinct network of regions involved in the computation of stimulus values at decision and outcome? Finally, are different brain areas involved in the computation of stimulus values for different reward modalities? Our results demonstrate the centrality of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventral striatum and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in the computation of value across tasks, reward modalities and stages of the decision-making process. We also find evidence of distinct subnetworks of co-activation within VMPFC, one involving central VMPFC and dorsal PCC and another involving more anterior VMPFC, left angular gyrus and ventral PCC. Finally, we identify a posterior-to-anterior gradient of value representations corresponding to concrete-to-abstract rewards. PMID:23887811

  15. 'Poppets and parcels': the links between staff experience of work and acutely ill older peoples' experience of hospital care.

    PubMed

    Maben, Jill; Adams, Mary; Peccei, Riccardo; Murrells, Trevor; Robert, Glenn

    2012-06-01

    Few empirical studies have directly examined the relationship between staff experiences of providing healthcare and patient experience. Present concerns over the care of older people in UK acute hospitals - and the reported attitudes of staff in such settings - highlight an important area of study. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. To examine the links between staff experience of work and patient experience of care in a 'Medicine for Older People' (MfOP) service in England. A mixed methods case study undertaken over 8 months incorporating a 149-item staff survey (66/192 - 34% response rate), a 48-item patient survey (26/111 - 23%), 18 staff interviews, 18 patient and carer interviews and 41 hours of non-participant observation. Variation in patient experience is significantly influenced by staff work experiences. A high-demand/low-control work environment, poor staffing, ward leadership and co-worker relationships can each add to the inherent difficulties staff face when caring for acutely ill older people. Staff seek to alleviate the impact of such difficulties by finding personal satisfaction from caring for 'the poppets'; those patients they enjoy caring for and for whom they feel able to 'make a difference'. Other patients - noting dehumanising aspects of their care - felt like 'parcels'. Patients are aware of being seen by staff as 'difficult' or 'demanding' and seek to manage their relationships with nursing staff accordingly. The work experiences of staff in a MfOP service impacted directly on patient care experience. Poor ward and patient care climates often lead staff to seek job satisfaction through caring for 'poppets', leaving less favoured - and often more complex patients - to receive less personalised care. Implications for practice. Investment in staff well-being and ward climate is essential for the consistent delivery of high-quality care for older people in acute settings. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Development and validation of a 2nd tier test for identification of purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency patients during expanded newborn screening by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Giocaliere, Elisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Villanelli, Fabio; Funghini, Silvia; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria; Forni, Giulia; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; Romano, Francesca; Guerrini, Renzo; Resti, Massimo; Azzari, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency has been recently introduced in the newborn screening program in Tuscany. In order to improve the PNP screening efficiency, we developed a 2nd tier test to quantify PNP primary markers deoxyguanosine (dGuo) and deoxyinosine (dIno). Dried blood spots (DBS) samples were extracted with 200 μL of methanol and 100 μL of water (by two steps). Internal standards were added at a final concentration of 10 μmol/L. After extraction, samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS. The chromatographic run was performed in gradient mode by using a Synergi Fusion column. The assay was linear over a concentration range of 0.05-50 μmol/L (R2>0.999) for dGuo and 0.5-50 μmol/L (R2>0.998) for dIno. Intra- and interassay imprecision (mean CVs) for dIno and dGuo ranged from 2.9% to 12%. Limit of quantitaion (LOQ) were found to be 0.05 μmol/L and 0.5 μmol/L for dGuo and dIno, respectively. The reference ranges, obtained by measuring dGuo and dIno concentrations on DBS, were close to zero for both biomarkers. Moreover, DBS samples from seven patients with confirmed PNP were retrospectively evaluated and correctly identified. The LC-MS/MS method can reliably measure dIno and dGuo in DBS for the diagnosis of PNP. Validation data confirm the present method is characterised by good reproducibility, accuracy and imprecision for the quantitation of dIno and dGuo. The assay also appears suitable for use in monitoring treatment of PNP patients.

  17. Parceling the Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiatt, Blanchard; Gwynne, Peter

    1984-01-01

    To make computing power broadly available and truly friendly, both soft and hard meshing and synchronization problems will have to be solved. Possible solutions and research related to these problems are discussed. Topics considered include compilers, parallelism, networks, distributed sensors, dataflow, CEDAR system (using dataflow principles),…

  18. Biochemical differences in the mass and activity tests of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 explain the discordance in results between the two assay methods.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Shaoqiu; Wolfert, Robert L; Yuan, Chong

    2017-12-01

    There are two platforms for the detection of Lp-PLA 2 in sera or plasmas: by its enzymatic activity (PLAC® activity test) and by its mass concentration (PLAC® mass test). It has been long recognized that these two platforms are not correlated well. The underlying cause for this is therefore investigated by the biochemical characterization of the two PLAC tests. Human sera with and without the treatment by detergent were fractionated by using a Superose-6 column in phosphate buffered saline and the phospholipid associated Lp-PLA 2 was assessed by both PLAC mass and activity tests. The Lp-PLA 2 values of the two PLAC tests were compared under such conditions. Fractionation of sera and plasmas indicates that the association of Lp-PLA 2 with phospholipids, especially LDL and other large size phospholipid vesicles, may block the detection of the enzyme by antibodies in the immunoassay format under the conditions of the PLAC mass test. Inclusion of high concentration (>CMC, critical micelle concentration) of detergents in the assay buffer of PLAC mass test dissociates Lp-PLA 2 from phospholipid vesicles and results in the full detection of all Lp-PLA 2 in sera or plasmas for concentration. Such assay modification significantly improves the correlation between the PLAC mass and PLAC activity tests. PLAC mass test only detects a small portion of the total Lp-PLA 2 , mainly the Lp-PLA 2 associated with HDL. This is the main cause of the discordance and poor correlation between the PLAC mass and activity tests. Our results demonstrate the PLAC activity test is more accurate in assessing the total level of circulating Lp-PLA 2 . Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An aerosol activation metamodel of v1.2.0 of the pyrcel cloud parcel model: development and offline assessment for use in an aerosol–climate model

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberg, Daniel; Wang, Chien

    We describe an emulator of a detailed cloud parcel model which has been trained to assess droplet nucleation from a complex, multimodal aerosol size distribution simulated by a global aerosol–climate model. The emulator is constructed using a sensitivity analysis approach (polynomial chaos expansion) which reproduces the behavior of the targeted parcel model across the full range of aerosol properties and meteorology simulated by the parent climate model. An iterative technique using aerosol fields sampled from a global model is used to identify the critical aerosol size distribution parameters necessary for accurately predicting activation. Across the large parameter space used tomore » train them, the emulators estimate cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) with a mean relative error of 9.2% for aerosol populations without giant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and 6.9% when including them. Versus a parcel model driven by those same aerosol fields, the best-performing emulator has a mean relative error of 4.6%, which is comparable with two commonly used activation schemes also evaluated here (which have mean relative errors of 2.9 and 6.7%, respectively). We identify the potential for regional biases in modeled CDNC, particularly in oceanic regimes, where our best-performing emulator tends to overpredict by 7%, whereas the reference activation schemes range in mean relative error from -3 to 7%. The emulators which include the effects of giant CCN are more accurate in continental regimes (mean relative error of 0.3%) but strongly overestimate CDNC in oceanic regimes by up to 22%, particularly in the Southern Ocean. Finally, the biases in CDNC resulting from the subjective choice of activation scheme could potentially influence the magnitude of the indirect effect diagnosed from the model incorporating it.« less

  20. MR Imaging Anatomy in Neurodegeneration: A Robust Volumetric Parcellation Method of the Frontal Lobe Gyri with Quantitative Validation in Patients with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Iordanova, B.; Rosenbaum, D.; Norman, D.; Weiner, M.; Studholme, C.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Brain volumetry is widely used for evaluating tissue degeneration; however, the parcellation methods are rarely validated and use arbitrary planes to mark boundaries of brain regions. The goal of this study was to develop, validate, and apply an MR imaging tracing method for the parcellation of 3 major gyri of the frontal lobe, which uses only local landmarks intrinsic to the structures of interest, without the need for global reorientation or the use of dividing planes or lines. METHODS Studies were performed on 25 subjects—healthy controls and subjects diagnosed with Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer disease—with significant variation in the underlying gyral anatomy and state of atrophy. The protocol was evaluated by using multiple observers tracing scans of subjects diagnosed with neurodegenerative disease and those aging normally, and the results were compared by spatial overlap agreement. To confirm the results, observers marked the same locations in different brains. We illustrated the variabilities of the key boundaries that pose the greatest challenge to defining consistent parcellations across subjects. RESULTS The resulting gyral volumes were evaluated, and their consistency across raters was used as an additional assessment of the validity of our marking method. The agreement on a scale of 0–1 was found to be 0.83 spatial and 0.90 volumetric for the same rater and 0.85 spatial and 0.90 volumetric for 2 different raters. The results revealed that the protocol remained consistent across different neurodegenerative conditions. CONCLUSION Our method provides a simple and reliable way for the volumetric evaluation of frontal lobe neurodegeneration and can be used as a resource for larger comparative studies as well as a validation procedure of automated algorithms. PMID:16971629

  1. An aerosol activation metamodel of v1.2.0 of the pyrcel cloud parcel model: development and offline assessment for use in an aerosol–climate model

    DOE PAGES

    Rothenberg, Daniel; Wang, Chien

    2017-04-27

    We describe an emulator of a detailed cloud parcel model which has been trained to assess droplet nucleation from a complex, multimodal aerosol size distribution simulated by a global aerosol–climate model. The emulator is constructed using a sensitivity analysis approach (polynomial chaos expansion) which reproduces the behavior of the targeted parcel model across the full range of aerosol properties and meteorology simulated by the parent climate model. An iterative technique using aerosol fields sampled from a global model is used to identify the critical aerosol size distribution parameters necessary for accurately predicting activation. Across the large parameter space used tomore » train them, the emulators estimate cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) with a mean relative error of 9.2% for aerosol populations without giant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and 6.9% when including them. Versus a parcel model driven by those same aerosol fields, the best-performing emulator has a mean relative error of 4.6%, which is comparable with two commonly used activation schemes also evaluated here (which have mean relative errors of 2.9 and 6.7%, respectively). We identify the potential for regional biases in modeled CDNC, particularly in oceanic regimes, where our best-performing emulator tends to overpredict by 7%, whereas the reference activation schemes range in mean relative error from -3 to 7%. The emulators which include the effects of giant CCN are more accurate in continental regimes (mean relative error of 0.3%) but strongly overestimate CDNC in oceanic regimes by up to 22%, particularly in the Southern Ocean. Finally, the biases in CDNC resulting from the subjective choice of activation scheme could potentially influence the magnitude of the indirect effect diagnosed from the model incorporating it.« less

  2. Development and Testing of Geo-Processing Models for the Automatic Generation of Remediation Plan and Navigation Data to Use in Industrial Disaster Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, G.; Lénárt, C.; Solymosi, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces research done on the automatic preparation of remediation plans and navigation data for the precise guidance of heavy machinery in clean-up work after an industrial disaster. The input test data consists of a pollution extent shapefile derived from the processing of hyperspectral aerial survey data from the Kolontár red mud disaster. Three algorithms were developed and the respective scripts were written in Python. The first model aims at drawing a parcel clean-up plan. The model tests four different parcel orientations (0, 90, 45 and 135 degree) and keeps the plan where clean-up parcels are less numerous considering it is an optimal spatial configuration. The second model drifts the clean-up parcel of a work plan both vertically and horizontally following a grid pattern with sampling distance of a fifth of a parcel width and keep the most optimal drifted version; here also with the belief to reduce the final number of parcel features. The last model aims at drawing a navigation line in the middle of each clean-up parcel. The models work efficiently and achieve automatic optimized plan generation (parcels and navigation lines). Applying the first model we demonstrated that depending on the size and geometry of the features of the contaminated area layer, the number of clean-up parcels generated by the model varies in a range of 4% to 38% from plan to plan. Such a significant variation with the resulting feature numbers shows that the optimal orientation identification can result in saving work, time and money in remediation. The various tests demonstrated that the model gains efficiency when 1/ the individual features of contaminated area present a significant orientation with their geometry (features are long), 2/ the size of pollution extent features becomes closer to the size of the parcels (scale effect). The second model shows only 1% difference with the variation of feature number; so this last is less interesting for planning

  3. Correspondent Functional Topography of the Human Left Inferior Parietal Lobule at Rest and Under Task Revealed Using Resting-State fMRI and Coactivation Based Parcellation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaojian; Xie, Sangma; Guo, Xin; Becker, Benjamin; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-03-01

    The human left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive functions and is an important node in the default mode network (DMN). Although many previous studies have proposed different parcellation schemes for the LIPL, the detailed functional organization of the LIPL and the exact correspondence between the DMN and LIPL subregions remain unclear. Mounting evidence indicates that spontaneous fluctuations in the brain are strongly associated with cognitive performance at the behavioral level. However, whether a consistent functional topographic organization of the LIPL during rest and under task can be revealed remains unknown. Here, they used resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and task-related coactivation patterns separately to parcellate the LIPL and identified seven subregions. Four subregions were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and three subregions were located in the angular gyrus (AG). The subregion-specific networks and functional characterization revealed that the four anterior subregions were found to be primarily involved in sensorimotor processing, movement imagination and inhibitory control, audition perception and speech processing, and social cognition, whereas the three posterior subregions were mainly involved in episodic memory, semantic processing, and spatial cognition. The results revealed a detailed functional organization of the LIPL and suggested that the LIPL is a functionally heterogeneous area. In addition, the present study demonstrated that the functional architecture of the LIPL during rest corresponds with that found in task processing. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1659-1675, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Environmental Baseline Survey Report for the Title Transfer of Parcel ED-9 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    SAIC

    2010-05-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Parcel ED-9 at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). Parcel ED-9 consists of about 13 acres that DOE proposes to transfer to Heritage Center, LLC (hereafter referred to as 'Heritage Center'), a subsidiary of the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET). The 13 acres include two tracts of land, referred to as ED-9A (7.06 acres) and ED-9B (5.02 acres), and a third tract consisting of about 900 linear feet of paved road and adjacent right-of-way, referred to as ED-9C (0.98more » acres). Transfer of the title to ED-9 will be by deed under a Covenant Deferral Request (CDR) pursuant to Section 120(h)(3)(C) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This report provides a summary of information to support the transfer of this government-owned property at ETTP to a non-federal entity.« less

  5. On The Cloud Processing of Aerosol Particles: An Entraining Air Parcel Model With Two-dimensional Spectral Cloud Microphysics and A New Formulation of The Collection Kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bott, Andreas; Kerkweg, Astrid; Wurzler, Sabine

    A study has been made of the modification of aerosol spectra due to cloud pro- cesses and the impact of the modified aerosols on the microphysical structure of future clouds. For this purpose an entraining air parcel model with two-dimensional spectral cloud microphysics has been used. In order to treat collision/coalescence processes in the two-dimensional microphysical module, a new realistic and continuous formu- lation of the collection kernel has been developed. Based on experimental data, the kernel covers the entire investigated size range of aerosols, cloud and rain drops, that is the kernel combines all important coalescence processes such as the collision of cloud drops as well as the impaction scavenging of small aerosols by big raindrops. Since chemical reactions in the gas phase and in cloud drops have an important impact on the physico-chemical properties of aerosol particles, the parcel model has been extended by a chemical module describing gas phase and aqueous phase chemical reactions. However, it will be shown that in the numerical case studies presented in this paper the modification of aerosols by chemical reactions has a minor influence on the microphysical structure of future clouds. The major process yielding in a second cloud event an enhanced formation of rain is the production of large aerosol particles by collision/coalescence processes in the first cloud.

  6. DIFFUSION-WEIGHTED IMAGING TRACTOGRAPHY-BASED PARCELLATION OF THE HUMAN PARIETAL CORTEX AND COMPARISON WITH HUMAN AND MACAQUE RESTING STATE FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Rogier B.; Jbabdi, Saad; Sallet, Jérôme; O’Reilly, Jill X.; Croxson, Paula L.; Olivier, Etienne; Noonan, MaryAnn P.; Bergmann, Caroline; Mitchell, Anna S.; Baxter, Mark G.; Behrens, Timothy E.J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Tomassini, Valentina; Miller, Karla L.; Rushworth, Matthew F.S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prominence of parietal activity in human neuromaging investigations of sensorimotor and cognitive processes there remains uncertainty about basic aspects of parietal cortical anatomical organization. Descriptions of human parietal cortex draw heavily on anatomical schemes developed in other primate species but the validity of such comparisons has been questioned by claims that there are fundamental differences between the parietal cortex in humans and other primates. A scheme is presented for parcellation of human lateral parietal cortex into component regions on the basis of anatomical connectivity and the functional interactions of the resulting clusters with other brain regions. Anatomical connectivity was estimated using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) based tractography and functional interactions were assessed by correlations in activity measured with functional MRI (fMRI) at rest. Resting state functional connectivity was also assessed directly in the rhesus macaque lateral parietal cortex in an additional experiment and the patterns found reflected known neuroanatomical connections. Cross-correlation in the tractography-based connectivity patterns of parietal voxels reliably parcellated human lateral parietal cortex into ten component clusters. The resting state functional connectivity of human superior parietal and intraparietal clusters with frontal and extrastriate cortex suggested correspondences with areas in macaque superior and intraparietal sulcus. Functional connectivity patterns with parahippocampal cortex and premotor cortex again suggested fundamental correspondences between inferior parietal cortex in humans and macaques. In contrast, the human parietal cortex differs in the strength of its interactions between the central inferior parietal lobule region and the anterior prefrontal cortex. PMID:21411650

  7. Realizing the cognitive potential of children 5-7 with a mathematics focus: post-test and long-term effects of a 2-year intervention.

    PubMed

    Shayer, Michael; Adhami, Mundher

    2010-09-01

    In the context of the British Government's policy directed on improving standards in schools, this paper presents research on the effects of a programme intended to promote the cognitive development of children in the first 2 years of primary school (Y1 & 2, aged 5-7 years). The programme is based on earlier work dealing with classroom-based interventions with older children at both primary and secondary levels of schooling. The hypothesis tested is that it is possible to increase the cognitive ability of children by assisting teachers towards that aim in the context of mathematics. A corollary hypothesis is that such an increase would result in an increase in long-term school achievement. The participants were 8 teachers in one local education authority (LEA) and 10 teachers in another. Data were analysed on 275 children present at Year 1 pre-test in 2002 and at long-term Key Stage 2 post-test in 2008. Two intervention methods were employed: a Y1 set of interactive activities designed around Piagetian concrete operational schemata, and mathematics lessons in both Y1 and Y2 designed from a theory-base derived from both Piaget and Vygotsky. At post-test in 2004, the mean effect sizes for cognitive development of the children - assessed by the Piagetian test Spatial Relations - were 0.71 SD in one LEA and 0.60 SD in the other. Five classes achieved a median increase of 1.3 SD. The mean gains over pre-test in 2002 for all children in Key Stage 1 English in 2004 were 0.51 SD, and at Key Stage 2 English in 2008 - the long-term effect - were 0.36 SD, an improvement of 14 percentile points. The main hypothesis was supported by the data on cognitive development. The corollary hypothesis is supported by the gains in English. The implications of this study are that relative intelligence can be increased and is not fixed, and that children can be led into collaborating with each other to the benefit of their own thinking, and that there does exist a theory-based methodology

  8. Wind-tunnel Tests of a 2-engine Airplane Model as a Preliminary Study of Flight Conditions Arising on the Failure of the Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Edwin P

    1938-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 15-foot-span model of a two-engine low wing transport airplane were made as a preliminary study of the emergency arising from the failure of one engine in flight. Two methods of reducing the initial yawing moment resulting from the failure of one engine were investigated and the equilibrium conditions were explored for two basic modes on one engine, one with zero angle of sideslip and the other with several degrees of sideslip. The added drag resulting from the unsymmetrical attitudes required for flight on one engine was determined for the model airplane. The effects of the application of power upon the stability, controllability, lift, and drag of the model airplane were measured. A dynamic pressure survey of the propeller slipstream was made in the neighborhood of the tail surfaces at three angles of attack. The added parasite drag of the model airplane resulting from the unfavorable conditions of flight on one engine was estimated. From 35 to 50 percent of this added drag was due to the drag of the dead engine propeller and the other 50 to 65 percent was due to the unsymmetrical attitude of the airplane. The mode of flight on one engine in which the angle of sideslip was zero was found to require less power than the mode in which the angle of sideslip was several degrees.

  9. Covenant Deferral Request for the Proposed Transfer of Land Parcel ED-8 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Final - May 2009

    SciTech Connect

    SAIC

    2009-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to transfer a land parcel (hereinafter referred to as 'the Property') designated as Land Parcel ED-8 at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by deed, and is submitting this Covenant Deferral Request (CDR) pursuant to Section 120(h)(3)(C) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, and applicable U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance. The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), which includes ETTP, was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in November 1989. Environmental investigation and cleanup activities are continuing at ETTP inmore » accordance with CERCLA, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). The FFA was entered into by the DOE-Oak Ridge Office (ORO), EPA Region 4, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in 1991. The FFA establishes the schedule and milestones for environmental remediation of the ORR. The proposed property transfer is a key component of the Oak Ridge Performance Management Plan (ORPMP) for accelerated cleanup of the ORR. DOE, using its authority under Section 161(g) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), proposes to transfer the Property to Heritage Center, LLC, a subsidiary of the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET), hereafter referred to as 'Heritage Center.' CROET is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit corporation established to foster the diversification of the regional economy by re-utilizing DOE property for private-sector investment and job creation. The Property is located in the southern portion of ETTP and consists of approximately 84 acres proposed as the potential site for new facilities to be used for office space, industrial activities, or other commercial uses. The parcel contains both grassy fields located outside the ETTP 'main plant' area and infrastructure located inside the 'main plant' area

  10. Hippocampal Volume Is Reduced in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder But Not in Psychotic Bipolar I Disorder Demonstrated by Both Manual Tracing and Automated Parcellation (FreeSurfer)

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Sara J. M.; Ivleva, Elena I.; Gopal, Tejas A.; Reddy, Anil P.; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Sacco, Carolyn B.; Francis, Alan N.; Tandon, Neeraj; Bidesi, Anup S.; Witte, Bradley; Poudyal, Gaurav; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Sweeney, John A.; Clementz, Brett A.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Tamminga, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined hippocampal volume as a putative biomarker for psychotic illness in the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) psychosis sample, contrasting manual tracing and semiautomated (FreeSurfer) region-of-interest outcomes. The study sample (n = 596) included probands with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 71), schizoaffective disorder (SAD, n = 70), and psychotic bipolar I disorder (BDP, n = 86); their first-degree relatives (SZ-Rel, n = 74; SAD-Rel, n = 62; BDP-Rel, n = 88); and healthy controls (HC, n = 145). Hippocampal volumes were derived from 3Tesla T1-weighted MPRAGE images using manual tracing/3DSlicer3.6.3 and semiautomated parcellation/FreeSurfer5.1,64bit. Volumetric outcomes from both methodologies were contrasted in HC and probands and relatives across the 3 diagnoses, using mixed-effect regression models (SAS9.3 Proc MIXED); Pearson correlations between manual tracing and FreeSurfer outcomes were computed. SZ (P = .0007–.02) and SAD (P = .003–.14) had lower hippocampal volumes compared with HC, whereas BDP showed normal volumes bilaterally (P = .18–.55). All relative groups had hippocampal volumes not different from controls (P = .12–.97) and higher than those observed in probands (P = .003–.09), except for FreeSurfer measures in bipolar probands vs relatives (P = .64–.99). Outcomes from manual tracing and FreeSurfer showed direct, moderate to strong, correlations (r = .51–.73, P < .05). These findings from a large psychosis sample support decreased hippocampal volume as a putative biomarker for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but not for psychotic bipolar I disorder, and may reflect a cumulative effect of divergent primary disease processes and/or lifetime medication use. Manual tracing and semiautomated parcellation regional volumetric approaches may provide useful outcomes for defining measurable biomarkers underlying severe mental illness. PMID:24557771

  11. Synchronous Changes of Cortical Thickness and Corresponding White Matter Microstructure During Brain Development Accessed by Diffusion MRI Tractography from Parcellated Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Ouyang, Minhui; Chen, Min; Huang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Cortical thickness (CT) changes during normal brain development is associated with complicated cellular and molecular processes including synaptic pruning and apoptosis. In parallel, the microstructural enhancement of developmental white matter (WM) axons with their neuronal bodies in the cerebral cortex has been widely reported with measurements of metrics derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), especially fractional anisotropy (FA). We hypothesized that the changes of CT and microstructural enhancement of corresponding axons are highly interacted during development. DTI and T1-weighted images of 50 healthy children and adolescents between the ages of 7 and 25 years were acquired. With the parcellated cortical gyri transformed from T1-weighted images to DTI space as the tractography seeds, probabilistic tracking was performed to delineate the WM fibers traced from specific parcellated cortical regions. CT was measured at certain cortical regions and FA was measured from the WM fibers traced from same cortical regions. The CT of all frontal cortical gyri, including Brodmann areas 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 44, 45, 46, and 47, decreased significantly and heterogeneously; concurrently, significant, and heterogeneous increases of FA of WM traced from corresponding regions were found. We further revealed significant correlation between the slopes of the CT decrease and the slopes of corresponding WM FA increase in all frontal cortical gyri, suggesting coherent cortical pruning and corresponding WM microstructural enhancement. Such correlation was not found in cortical regions other than frontal cortex. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of these synchronous changes may be associated with overlapping signaling pathways of axonal guidance, synaptic pruning, neuronal apoptosis, and more prevalent interstitial neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Revealing the coherence of cortical and WM structural changes during development may open a new window for understanding the

  12. Environmental baseline survey report for West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge and parcel 21D in the vicinity of the East Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    King, David A.

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE?s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property wheremore » hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY REPORT FOR WEST BLACK OAK RIDGE, EAST BLACK OAK RIDGE, MCKINNEY RIDGE, WEST PINE RIDGE, AND PARCEL 21D IN THE VICINITY OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    David A. King

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. The goal is to obtain all media no-further-investigation (NFI) determinations for the subject parcels considering existing soils. To augment the existing soils-only NFI determinations, samples of groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment were collected to support all media NFI decisions. The only updates presented here are those that were made after the original issuance ofmore » the NFI documents. In the subject parcel where the soils NFI determination was not completed for approval (Parcel 21d), the full process has been performed to address the soils as well. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils

  14. Comparison between the Standardized Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A2 Method and a 2,3-Bis(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-[(Sulphenylamino)Carbonyl]-2H-Tetrazolium Hydroxide- Based Method for Testing Antifungal Susceptibility of Dermatophytes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Atef S.; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we determined the utility of a 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-[(sulfenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT)-based assay for determining antifungal susceptibilities of dermatophytes to terbinafine, ciclopirox, and voriconazole in comparison to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 method. Forty-eight dermatophyte isolates, including Trichophyton rubrum (n = 15), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (n = 7), Trichophyton tonsurans (n = 11), and Epidermophyton floccosum (n = 13), and two quality control strains, were tested. In the XTT-based method, MICs were determined spectrophotometrically at 490 nm after addition of XTT and menadione. For the CLSI method, the MICs were determined visually. With T. rubrum, the XTT assay revealed MIC ranges of 0.004 to >64 μg/ml, 0.125 to 0.25 μg/ml, and 0.008 to 0.025 μg/ml for terbinafine, ciclopirox, and voriconazole, respectively. Similar MIC ranges were obtained against T. rubrum by using the CLSI method. Additionally, when tested with T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, and E. floccosum isolates, the XTT and CLSI methods resulted in comparable MIC ranges. Both methods revealed similar lowest drug concentrations that inhibited 90% of the isolates for the majority of tested drug-dermatophyte combinations. The levels of agreement within 1 dilution between both methods were as follows: 100% with terbinafine, 97.8% with ciclopirox, and 89.1% with voriconazole. However, the agreement within 2 dilutions between these two methods was 100% for all tested drugs. Our results revealed that the XTT assay can be a useful tool for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes. PMID:18832129

  15. LGALS4, CEACAM6, TSPAN8, and COL1A2: Blood Markers for Colorectal Cancer-Validation in a Cohort of Subjects With Positive Fecal Immunochemical Test Result.

    PubMed

    Rodia, Maria Teresa; Solmi, Rossella; Pasini, Francesco; Nardi, Elena; Mattei, Gabriella; Ugolini, Giampaolo; Ricciardiello, Luigi; Strippoli, Pierluigi; Miglio, Rossella; Lauriola, Mattia

    2018-06-01

    A noninvasive blood test for the early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly required. We evaluated a panel of 4 mRNAs as putative markers of CRC. We tested LGALS4, CEACAM6, TSPAN8, and COL1A2, referred to as the CELTiC panel, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, on subjects with positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) results and undergoing colonoscopy. Using a nonparametric test and multinomial logistic model, FIT-positive subjects were compared with CRC patients and healthy individuals. All the genes of the CELTiC panel displayed statistically significant differences between the healthy subjects (n = 67), both low-risk (n = 36) and high-risk/CRC (n = 92) subjects, and those in the negative-colonoscopy, FIT-positive group (n = 36). The multinomial logistic model revealed LGALS4 was the most powerful marker discriminating the 4 groups. When assessing the diagnostic values by analysis of the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs), the CELTiC panel reached an AUC of 0.91 (sensitivity, 79%; specificity, 94%) comparing normal subjects to low-risk subjects, and 0.88 (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 87%) comparing normal and high-risk/CRC subjects. The comparison between the normal subjects and the negative-colonoscopy, FIT-positive group revealed an AUC of 0.93 (sensitivity, 82%; specificity, 97%). The CELTiC panel could represent a useful tool for discriminating subjects with positive FIT findings and for the early detection of precancerous adenomatous lesions and CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changing spatial patterns of evapotranspiration and deep drainage in response to the interactions among impervious surface arrangement, soil characteristics, and weather on a residential parcel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voter, C. B.; Steven, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    The introduction impervious surfaces in urban areas is a key driver of hydrologic change. It is now well understood that the amount of "effective" impervious area directly connected to the storm sewer network is a better indicator of hydrologic behavior than the total amount of impervious area. Most studies in urban hydrology have focused on the relationship between impervious connectivity and stormwater runoff or other surface water flows, with the result that the effect on subsurface flow is not as well understood. In the field, we observe differences in soil moisture availability that are dependent on proximity to impervious features and significant from a root water uptake perspective, which indicates that parcel-scale subsurface and plant water fluxes may also be sensitive to fine-scaled heterogeneity in impervious surface arrangement and connectivity. We use ParFlow with CLM, a watershed model with fully integrated variably-saturated subsurface flow, overland flow, and land-surface processes, to explore the extent to which soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and deep drainage vary under various impervious surface arrangement and soil condition scenarios, as well as under a range of precipitation regimes. We investigate the effect of several impervious surface and soil characteristics, including general lot layout, downspout disconnect, and direction of driveway/sidewalk slope, and soil compaction. We show that that some impervious connectivity schemes transfer more water from impervious areas to pervious ones and promote localized recharge by developing well-defined, fast-moving wetting fronts that are able to penetrate the root zone. Enhanced infiltration is translated more directly to recharge in normal to wet years but partitioned more often to transpiration in dry years, leading to a nonlinear relationship among precipitation, runoff and recharge.

  17. Nucleus of the solitary tract in the C57BL/6J mouse: Subnuclear parcellation, chorda tympani nerve projections, and brainstem connections.

    PubMed

    Ganchrow, Donald; Ganchrow, Judith R; Cicchini, Vanessa; Bartel, Dianna L; Kaufman, Daniel; Girard, David; Whitehead, Mark C

    2014-05-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) processes gustatory and related somatosensory information rostrally and general viscerosensory information caudally. To compare its connections with those of other rodents, this study in the C57BL/6J mouse provides a subnuclear cytoarchitectonic parcellation (Nissl stain) of the NST into rostral, intermediate, and caudal divisions. Subnuclei are further characterized by NADPH staining and P2X2 immunoreactivity (IR). Cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) labeling revealed those NST subnuclei receiving chorda tympani nerve (CT) afferents, those connecting with the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and reticular formation (RF), and those interconnecting NST subnuclei. CT terminals are densest in the rostral central (RC) and medial (M) subnuclei; less dense in the rostral lateral (RL) subnucleus; and sparse in the ventral (V), ventral lateral (VL), and central lateral (CL) subnuclei. CTb injection into the PBN retrogradely labels cells in the aforementioned subnuclei; RC and M providing the largest source of PBN projection neurons. Pontine efferent axons terminate mainly in V and rostral medial (RM) subnuclei. CTb injection into the medullary RF labels cells and axonal endings predominantly in V at rostral and intermediate NST levels. Small CTb injections within the NST label extensive projections from the rostral division to caudal subnuclei. Projections from the caudal division primarily interconnect subnuclei confined to the caudal division of the NST; they also connect with the area postrema. P2X2 -IR identifies probable vagal nerve terminals in the central (Ce) subnucleus in the intermediate/caudal NST. Ce also shows intense NADPH staining and does not project to the PBN. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Nucleus of the solitary tract in the C57BL/6J mouse: Subnuclear parcellation, chorda tympani nerve projections, and brainstem connections

    PubMed Central

    Ganchrow, Donald; Ganchrow, Judith R; Cicchini, Vanessa; Bartel, Dianna L; Kaufman, Daniel; Girard, David; Whitehead, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) processes gustatory and related somatosensory information rostrally and general viscerosensory information caudally. To compare its connections with those of other rodents, this study in the C57BL/6J mouse provides a subnuclear cytoarchitectonic parcellation (Nissl stain) of the NST into rostral, intermediate, and caudal divisions. Subnuclei are further characterized by NADPH staining and P2X2 immunoreactivity (IR). Cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) labeling revealed those NST subnuclei receiving chorda tympani nerve (CT) afferents, those connecting with the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and reticular formation (RF), and those interconnecting NST subnuclei. CT terminals are densest in the rostral central (RC) and medial (M) subnuclei; less dense in the rostral lateral (RL) subnucleus; and sparse in the ventral (V), ventral lateral (VL), and central lateral (CL) subnuclei. CTb injection into the PBN retrogradely labels cells in the aforementioned subnuclei; RC and M providing the largest source of PBN projection neurons. Pontine efferent axons terminate mainly in V and rostral medial (RM) subnuclei. CTb injection into the medullary RF labels cells and axonal endings predominantly in V at rostral and intermediate NST levels. Small CTb injections within the NST label extensive projections from the rostral division to caudal subnuclei. Projections from the caudal division primarily interconnect subnuclei confined to the caudal division of the NST; they also connect with the area postrema. P2X2-IR identifies probable vagal nerve terminals in the central (Ce) subnucleus in the intermediate/caudal NST. Ce also shows intense NADPH staining and does not project to the PBN. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:1565–1596, 2014. PMID:24151133

  19. Evaluation of CLSI M44-A2 Disk Diffusion and Associated Breakpoint Testing of Caspofungin and Micafungin Using a Well-Characterized Panel of Wild-Type and fks Hot Spot Mutant Candida Isolates▿

    PubMed Central

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Park, Steven; Brown, Steven; Pfaller, Michael; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Disk diffusion testing has recently been standardized by the CLSI, and susceptibility breakpoints have been established for several antifungal compounds. For caspofungin, 5-μg disks are approved, and for micafungin, 10-μg disks are under evaluation. We evaluated the performances of caspofungin and micafungin disk testing using a panel of Candida isolates with and without known FKS echinocandin resistance mechanisms. Disk diffusion and microdilution assays were performed strictly according to CLSI documents M44-A2 and M27-A3. Eighty-nine clinical Candida isolates were included: Candida albicans (20 isolates/10 mutants), C. glabrata (19 isolates/10 mutants), C. dubliniensis (2 isolates/1 mutant), C. krusei (16 isolates/3 mutants), C. parapsilosis (14 isolates/0 mutants), and C. tropicalis (18 isolates/4 mutants). Quality control strains were C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and C. krusei ATCC 6258. The correlations between zone diameters and MIC results were good for both compounds, with identical susceptibility classifications for 93.3% of the isolates by applying the current CLSI breakpoints. However, the numbers of fks hot spot mutant isolates misclassified as being susceptible (S) (very major errors [VMEs]) were high (61% for caspofungin [S, ≥11 mm] and 93% for micafungin [S, ≥14 mm]). Changing the disk diffusion breakpoint to S at ≥22 mm significantly improved the discrimination. For caspofungin, 1 VME was detected (a C. tropicalis isolate with an F76S substitution) (3.5%), and for micafungin, 10 VMEs were detected, the majority of which were for C. glabrata (8/10). The broadest separation between zone diameter ranges for wild-type (WT) and mutant isolates was seen for caspofungin (6 to 12 mm versus −4 to 7 mm). In conclusion, caspofungin disk diffusion testing with a modified breakpoint led to excellent separation between WT and mutant isolates for all Candida species. PMID:21357293

  20. Testing Testing Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  1. Performance of p16INK4a ELISA as a primary cervical cancer screening test among a large cohort of HIV-infected women in western Kenya: a 2-year cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tara J; Smith-McCune, Karen; Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Maloba, May; Huchko, Megan J

    2016-01-01

    Objective A biomarker with increased specificity for cervical dysplasia compared with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing would be an attractive option for cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected women in resource-limited settings. p16INK4a has been explored as a biomarker for screening in general populations. Design A 2-year cross-sectional study. Setting 2 large HIV primary care clinics in western Kenya. Participants 1054 HIV-infected women in western Kenya undergoing cervical cancer screening as part of routine HIV care from October 2010 to November 2012. Interventions Participants underwent p16INK4a specimen collection and colposcopy. Lesions with unsatisfactory colposcopy or suspicious for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ (CIN2+; including CIN2/3 or invasive cervical cancer) were biopsied. Following biopsy, disease status was determined by histopathological diagnosis. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of p16INK4a ELISA for CIN2+ detection among HIV-infected women and compared them to the test characteristics of current screening methods used in general as well as HIV-infected populations. Results Average p16INK4a concentration in cervical samples was 37.4 U/mL. After colposcopically directed biopsy, 127 (12%) women were determined to have CIN2+. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.664 for p16INK4a to detect biopsy-proven CIN2+. At a p16INK4a cut-off level of 9 U/mL, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 89.0%, 22.9%, 13.6% and 93.8%, respectively. The overall p16INK4a positivity at a cut-off level of 9 U/mL was 828 (78.6%) women. There were 325 (30.8%) cases of correct p16INK4a prediction to detect or rule out CIN2+, and 729 (69.2%) cases of incorrect p16INK4a prediction. Conclusions p16INK4a ELISA did not perform well as a screening test for CIN2+ detection among HIV-infected women due to low

  2. Performance of p16INK4a ELISA as a primary cervical cancer screening test among a large cohort of HIV-infected women in western Kenya: a 2-year cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tara J; Smith-McCune, Karen; Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Maloba, May; Huchko, Megan J

    2016-09-13

    A biomarker with increased specificity for cervical dysplasia compared with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing would be an attractive option for cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected women in resource-limited settings. p16(INK4a) has been explored as a biomarker for screening in general populations. A 2-year cross-sectional study. 2 large HIV primary care clinics in western Kenya. 1054 HIV-infected women in western Kenya undergoing cervical cancer screening as part of routine HIV care from October 2010 to November 2012. Participants underwent p16(INK4a) specimen collection and colposcopy. Lesions with unsatisfactory colposcopy or suspicious for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ (CIN2+; including CIN2/3 or invasive cervical cancer) were biopsied. Following biopsy, disease status was determined by histopathological diagnosis. We measured the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of p16(INK4a) ELISA for CIN2+ detection among HIV-infected women and compared them to the test characteristics of current screening methods used in general as well as HIV-infected populations. Average p16(INK4a) concentration in cervical samples was 37.4 U/mL. After colposcopically directed biopsy, 127 (12%) women were determined to have CIN2+. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.664 for p16(INK4a) to detect biopsy-proven CIN2+. At a p16(INK4a) cut-off level of 9 U/mL, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 89.0%, 22.9%, 13.6% and 93.8%, respectively. The overall p16(INK4a) positivity at a cut-off level of 9 U/mL was 828 (78.6%) women. There were 325 (30.8%) cases of correct p16(INK4a) prediction to detect or rule out CIN2+, and 729 (69.2%) cases of incorrect p16(INK4a) prediction. p16(INK4a) ELISA did not perform well as a screening test for CIN2+ detection among HIV-infected women due to low specificity. Our study contributes to the ongoing search for a more specific alternative to HPV

  3. High Ice Water Content at Low Radar Reflectivity near Deep Convection: Part II. Evaluation of Microphysical Pathways in Updraft Parcel Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Fridlind, A. M.; Grandin, A.; Dezitter, F.; Weber, M.; Strapp, J. W.; Korolev, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The aeronautics industry has established that a threat to aircraft is posed by atmospheric conditions of substantial ice water content (IWC) where equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) does not exceed 20-30 dBZ and supercooled water is not present; these conditions are encountered almost exclusively in the vicinity of deep convection. Part 1 (Fridlind et al., 2015) of this two-part study presents in situ measurements of such conditions sampled by Airbus in three tropical regions, commonly near 11 km and -43 C, and concludes that the measured ice particle size distributions are broadly consistent with past literature with profiling radar measurements of Z(sub e) and mean Doppler velocity obtained within monsoonal deep convection in one of the regions sampled. In all three regions, the Airbus measurements generally indicate variable IWC that often exceeds 2 gm (exp -3) with relatively uniform mass median area-equivalent diameter (MMD(sub eq) of 200-300 micrometers. Here we use a parcel model with size-resolved microphysics to investigate microphysical pathways that could lead to such conditions. Our simulations indicate that homogeneous freezing of water drops produces a much smaller ice MMD(sub eq) than observed, and occurs only in the absence of hydrometeor gravitational collection for the conditions considered. Development of a mass mode of ice aloft that overlaps with the measurements requires a substantial source of small ice particles at temperatures of about -10 C or warmer, which subsequently grow from water vapor. One conceivable source in our simulation framework is Hallett-Mossop ice production; another is abundant concentrations of heterogeneous ice freezing nuclei acting together with copious shattering of water drops upon freezing. Regardless of the production mechanism, the dominant mass modal diameter of vapor-grown ice is reduced as the ice-multiplication source strength increases and as competition for water vapor increases. Both mass and modal

  4. Assessing land-use history for reporting on cropland dynamics - A case study using the Land-Parcel Identification System in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Jesko; González, Ainhoa; Jones, Michael; O'Brien, Phillip; Stout, Jane C.; Green, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    In developed countries, cropland and grassland conversions and management can be a major factor in Land Use and Land Use Change (LULUC) related Greenhouse Gas (GHG) dynamics. Depending on land use, management and factors such as soil properties land can either act as source or sink for GHGs. Currently many countries depend on national statistics combined with socio-economic modelling to assess current land use as well as inter-annual changes. This potentially introduces a bias as it neither provides information on direct land- use change trajectories nor spatially explicit information to assess the environmental context. In order to improve reporting countries are shifting towards high resolution spatial datasets. In this case study, we used the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), a pan-European geographical database developed to assist farmers and authorities with agricultural subsidies, to analyse cropland dynamics in Ireland. The database offer high spatial resolution and is updated annually. Generally Ireland is considered grassland dominated with 90 % of its agricultural area under permanent grassland, and only a small area dedicated to cropland. However an in-depth analysis of the LPIS for the years 2000 to 2012 showed strong underlying dynamics. While the annual area reported as cropland remained relatively constant at 3752.3 ± 542.3 km2, the area of permanent cropland was only 1251.9 km2. Reversely, the area that was reported as cropland for at least one year during the timeframe was 7373.4 km2, revealing a significantly higher area with cropland history than annual statistics would suggest. Furthermore, the analysis showed that one quarter of the land converting from or to cropland will return to the previous land use within a year. To demonstrate potential policy impact, we assessed cropland/grassland dynamics from the 2008 to 2012 commitment period using (a) annual statistics, and (b) data including land use history derived from LPIS. Under

  5. POGO-FAN: Remarkable Empirical Indicators for the Local Chemical Production of Smog- Ozone and NOx-Sensitivity of Air Parcels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Browell, E. V.; Brune, W. H.; Crawford, J. H.; Esswein, R.; Fried, A.; Olson, J. R.; Shetter, R. E.; Singh, H. B.

    2006-12-01

    We propose and evaluate two related and surprisingly simple empirical estimators for the local chemical production term for photochemical ozone; each uses two moderate-technology chemical measurements and a measurement of ultraviolet light. We nickname the techniques POGO-FAN: Production of Ozone by Gauging Oxidation: Formaldehyde and NO. (1) A non-linear function of a single three-factor index-variable, j (HCHO=>rads) [HCHO] [NO] seems to provide a good estimator of the largest single term in the production of smog ozone, the HOO+NO term, over a very wide range of situations. (2) By considering empirical contour plots summarizing isopleths of HOO+NO using j (HCHO=>rads) [HCHO] and [NO] separately as coordinates, we provide a slightly more complex 2-d indicator of smog ozone production that additionally allows an estimate of the NOx-sensitivity or NOx-saturation (i.e., VOC-sensitivity) of sampled air parcels. ~85 to >90 % of the variance is explained. The correspondence to "EKMA" contour plots, estimating afternoon ozone based on morningtime organics and NOx mixes, is not coincidental. We utilize a broad set of urban plume, regionally polluted and cleaner NASA DC-8 PBL samples from the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-NA), in which each of the variables was measured, to help establish our relationship. The estimator is described in terms both both of asymptotic smog photochemistry theory; primarily this suggests appropriate statistical approaches which can capture some of the complex interrelations of lower-tropospheric smog mix through correlation of reactive mixture components. HCHO is not only an important source of HOO radicals, but it more important serves as a "gauge" of all photochemical processing of volatile organic compounds. It probably captures information related to coincident VOC sources of various compounds and parallels in photochemical processing. Constrained modeling of observed atmospheric concentrations suggests that

  6. Not one extrastriate body area: Using anatomical landmarks, hMT+, and visual field maps to parcellate limb-selective activations in human lateral occipitotemporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Kevin S.; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2011-01-01

    alone is an insufficient organization principle for defining brain areas. Instead, multiple properties are necessary in order to parcellate and understand the functional organization of high-level visual cortex. PMID:21439386

  7. Relationship between apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) and soil attributes at an experimental parcel under pasture in a region of Galicia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, M. D.; Paz-Gonzalez, A.; Dafonte, J. D.; Armesto, M. V.; Raposo, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial characterization of the variability of soil properties is a central point in site-specific agricultural management and precision agriculture. Geospatial measures of geophysical attributes are useful not only to rapidly characterize the spatial variability of soil properties but also for soil sampling optimization. This work reports partial results obtained at an experimental parcel under pasture located at Castro de Ribeira do Lea (Lugo/ Galicia/ Spain). An ECa automated survey was conducted in September 2011 employing an EM-38 DD (Geonics Ltd.) installed in a nonmetallic car, according to parallel lines spaced 10m one from each other and oriented at the east-west direction. The ECa values were recorded every second with a field computer and the locations were geo-referenced using a GPS. The entire survey was carried out in 1hour and 45 minutes and corrections due to differences in temperature were made. A total of 9.581 ECa registers were retained, configuring a sampling intensity of approximately 1 register per 1.5 m2. Employing the software ESAP 2.35 and the computational tool ESAP-RSSD, eighty positions were selected at the field to extract disturbed and undisturbed soil samples at two depths: 0.0-0.2m, 0.2-0.4m. Ten physical attributes (clay, silt, total sand, coarse sand and fine sand contents, soil bulk density, particle density, total porosity, soil water content, percentage of gravels) and 17 chemical attributes (soil organic matter-SOM, pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, H+Al, Sum of bases-S, Cation exchange capacity-CEC, Base saturation-V%, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined. The relationship between the geophysical variables and the soil attributes was performed using statistical and spatial analysis. There were significant correlations (p<0.01) between the geophysical variables and the textural attributes clay, silt, total sand and coarse sand contents. The biggest correlation (0.5623) was between ECa-V (vertical component) and clay content

  8. Relationship between apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) and soil attributes at an experimental parcel under pasture in a region of Galicia, Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, Mara de A.; Dafonte, Jorge D.; Armesto, Montserrat V.; Paz-González, Antonio; Raposo, Juan R.

    2013-04-01

    Spatial characterization of the variability of soil properties is a central point in site-specific agricultural management and precision agriculture. Geospatial measures of geophysical attributes are useful not only to rapidly characterize the spatial variability of soil properties but also for soil sampling optimization. This work reports partial results obtained at an experimental parcel under pasture located at Castro de Ribeira do Lea (Lugo/ Galicia/ Spain). An ECa automated survey was conducted in September 2011 employing an EM-38 DD (Geonics Ltd.) installed in a nonmetallic car, according to parallel lines spaced 10m one from each other and oriented at the east-west direction. The ECa values were recorded every second with a field computer and the locations were geo-referenced using a GPS. The entire survey was carried out in 1hour and 45 minutes and corrections due to differences in temperature were made. A total of 9.581 ECa registers were retained, configuring a sampling intensity of approximately 1 register per 1.5 m2. Employing the software ESAP 2.35 and the computational tool ESAP-RSSD, eighty positions were selected at the field to extract disturbed and undisturbed soil samples at two depths: 0.0-0.2m, 0.2-0.4m. Ten physical attributes (clay, silt, total sand, coarse sand and fine sand contents, soil bulk density, particle density, total porosity, soil water content, percentage of gravels) and 17 chemical attributes (soil organic matter-SOM, pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, H+Al, Sum of bases-S, Cation exchange capacity-CEC, Base saturation-V%, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined. The relationship between the geophysical variables and the soil attributes was performed using statistical and spatial analysis. There were significant correlations (p<0.01) between the geophysical variables and the textural attributes clay, silt, total sand and coarse sand contents. The biggest correlation (0.5623) was between ECa-V (vertical component) and clay content

  9. Historic tests

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-16

    Two large-engine tests were conducted simultaneously for the first time at Stennis Space Center on Aug. 16. A plume on the left indicates a test on the facility's E-1 Test Stand. On the right, a finger of fire indicates a test under way on the A-1 Test Stand. In another first, both tests were conducted by female engineers. The image was taken from atop the facility's A-2 Test Stand, offering a panoramic view that includes the new A-3 Test Stand under construction to the left.

  10. In search of a periodic table of the neurons: Axonal-dendritic circuitry as the organizing principle: Patterns of axons and dendrites within distinct anatomical parcels provide the blueprint for circuit-based neuronal classification.

    PubMed

    Ascoli, Giorgio A; Wheeler, Diek W

    2016-10-01

    No one knows yet how to organize, in a simple yet predictive form, the knowledge concerning the anatomical, biophysical, and molecular properties of neurons that are accumulating in thousands of publications every year. The situation is not dissimilar to the state of Chemistry prior to Mendeleev's tabulation of the elements. We propose that the patterns of presence or absence of axons and dendrites within known anatomical parcels may serve as the key principle to define neuron types. Just as the positions of the elements in the periodic table indicate their potential to combine into molecules, axonal and dendritic distributions provide the blueprint for network connectivity. Furthermore, among the features commonly employed to describe neurons, morphology is considerably robust to experimental conditions. At the same time, this core classification scheme is suitable for aggregating biochemical, physiological, and synaptic information. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. TESTING FOR DEPARTURES FROM ADDITIVITY FOR A 2:1 MIXTURE OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND CARBARYL ON CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN BRAIN, PLASMA, AND RED BLOOD CELLS OF LONG EVANS RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detecting and characterizing interactions among chemicals is an important environmental issue. This study was conducted to test for the existence of a significant departure from additivity for a mixture of two cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting pesticides: chlorpyrifos (CPF), an org...

  12. Generation and testing anti-influenza human monoclonal antibodies in a new humanized mouse model (DRAGA: HLA-A2. HLA-DR4. Rag1 KO. IL-2Rγc KO. NOD).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Mirian; Ballesteros, Angela; Qiu, Qi; Pow Sang, Luis; Shashikumar, Soumya; Casares, Sofia; Brumeanu, Teodor-D

    2018-02-01

    Pandemic outbreaks of influenza type A viruses have resulted in numerous fatalities around the globe. Since the conventional influenza vaccines (CIV) provide less than 20% protection for individuals with weak immune system, it has been considered that broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies may provide a better protection. Herein, we showed that a recently generated humanized mouse (DRAGA mouse; HLA-A2. HLA-DR4. Rag1KO. IL-2Rgc KO. NOD) that lacks the murine immune system and expresses a functional human immune system can be used to generate cross-reactive, human anti-influenza monoclonal antibodies (hu-mAb). DRAGA mouse was also found to be suitable for influenza virus infection, as it can clear a sub-lethal infection and sustain a lethal infection with PR8/A/34 influenza virus. The hu-mAbs were designed for targeting a human B-cell epitope ( 180 WGIHHPPNSKEQ QNLY 195 ) of hemagglutinin (HA) envelope protein of PR8/A/34 (H1N1) virus with high homology among seven influenza type A viruses. A single administration of HA 180-195 specific hu-mAb in PR8-infected DRAGA mice significantly delayed the lethality by reducing the lung damage. The results demonstrated that DRAGA mouse is a suitable tool to (i) generate heterotype cross-reactive, anti-influenza human monoclonal antibodies, (ii) serve as a humanized mouse model for influenza infection, and (iii) assess the efficacy of anti-influenza antibody-based therapeutics for human use.

  13. Total synthesis of panicein A2

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Lili; Pilkington, Lisa I; Cadelis, Melissa M; Copp, Brent R

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first total synthesis of the unusual aromatic sesquiterpene panicein A2 is reported and the structure of the natural product has been confirmed. When tested by the NCI against a range of human cancer cell lines, it was found that panicein A2 exhibits very little antiproliferative activity at 10 μM – an observation that is at odds with the earlier report that stated panicein A2 exhibits in vitro cytotoxicity against a number of tumour cell lines. PMID:26664619

  14. Adenosine A2A receptors and depression.

    PubMed

    El Yacoubi, Malika; Costentin, Jean; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie

    2003-12-09

    Adenosine and its analogues have been shown to induce "behavioral despair" in animal models believed to be relevant to depression. Recent data have shown that selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists (e.g., SCH 58261, ZM241385, and KW6002) or genetic inactivation of the receptor was effective in reversing signs of behavioral despair in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, two screening procedures predictive of antidepressant activity. A2A antagonists were active in the tail suspension test using either mice previously screened for having high immobility scores or mice that were selectively bred for their spontaneous "helplessness" in this test. At stimulant doses, caffeine, a nonselective A1/A2A receptor antagonist, was effective in the forced swim test. The authors have hypothesized that the antidepressant-like effect of selective A2A antagonists is linked to an interaction with dopaminergic transmission, possibly in the frontal cortex. In support of this idea, administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol prevented antidepressant-like effects elicited by SCH 58261 in the forced swim test (putatively involving cortex), whereas it had no effect on stimulant motor effects of SCH 58261 (putatively linked to ventral striatum). The interaction profile of caffeine with haloperidol differed markedly from that of SCH 58261 in the forced swim and motor activity tests. Therefore, a clear-cut antidepressant-like effect could not be ascribed to caffeine. In conclusion, available data support the proposition that a selective blockade of the adenosine A2A receptor may be an interesting target for the development of effective antidepressant agents.

  15. Origins of fine aerosol mass in the Baltimore-Washington corridor: implications from observation, factor analysis, and ensemble air parcel back trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony Chen, L.-W.; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Chow, Judith C.; Henry, Ronald C.

    Chemically speciated fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and trace gases (including NH 3, HNO 3, CO, SO 2, NO y) have been sampled at Fort Meade (FME: 39.10°N, 76.74°W; elevation 46 m MSL), Maryland, since July 1999. FME is suburban, located in the middle of the Baltimore-Washington corridor, and generally downwind of the highly industrialized Midwest. The PM 2.5 at FME is expected to be of both local and regional sources. Measurements over a 2-year period include eight seasonally representative months. The PM 2.5 shows an annual mean of 13 μg m -3 and primarily consists of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and carbonaceous material. Day-to-day and seasonal variations in the PM 2.5 chemical composition reflect changes of contribution from various sources. UNMIX, an innovative receptor model, is used to retrieve potential sources of the PM 2.5. A six-factor model, including regional sulfate, local sulfate, wood smoke, copper/iron processing industry, mobile, and secondary nitrate, is constructed and compared with reported source emission profiles. The six factors are studied further using an ensemble back trajectory method to identify possible source locations. Sources of local sulfate, mobile, and secondary nitrate are more localized around the receptor than those of other factors. Regional sulfate and wood smoke are more regional and associated with westerly and southerly transport, respectively. This study suggests that the local contribution to PM 2.5 mass can vary from <30% in summer to >60% in winter.

  16. Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container

    DOEpatents

    Sparks, Michael H.

    2001-06-12

    The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

  17. 36 CFR 910.59 - Development parcel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... goals of comprehensive planning and design for that particular coordinated planning area. ...

  18. 36 CFR 910.59 - Development parcel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... goals of comprehensive planning and design for that particular coordinated planning area. ...

  19. Ultra-clean Layers (UCLs) and Low Albedo Clouds ("gray clouds") in the Marine Boundary Layer - CSET aircraft data, 2-D bin spectral cloud parcel model, large eddy simulation and satellite observations from CALIPSO, MODIS and COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O, K. T.; Wood, R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Eastman, R. M.; Tseng, H. H.

    2016-12-01

    During the 2015 Cloud System Evolution in the Trades (CSET) field program (CSET, Jul-Aug 2015, subtropical NE Pacific), the NSF/NCAR G-V aircraft frequently encountered ultra clean layers (hereafter UCLs) with extremely low accumulation mode aerosol (i.e. diameter da> 100nm) concentration (hereafter Na), and low albedo ( 0.2) warm clouds (termed "gray clouds" in our study) with low droplet concentration (hereafter Nd). The analysis of CSET aircraft data shows that (1) UCLs and gray clouds are mostly commonly found at a height of 1.5-2km, typically close to the top of the MBL, (2) UCLs and gray cloud coverage as high as 40-60% between 135W and 155W (i.e. Sc-Cu transition region) but occur very infrequently east of 130W (i.e. shallow, near-coastal stratocumulus region), and (3) UCLs and gray clouds exhibit remarkably low turbulence compared with non-UCL clear sky and clouds. It should be noted that most previous aircraft sampling of low clouds occurred close to the Californian coast, so the prevalence of UCLs and gray clouds has not been previously noted. Based on the analysis of aircraft data, we hypothesize that gray clouds result from detrainment of cloud close to the top of precipitating trade cumuli, and UCLs are remnants of these layers when gray clouds evaporates. The simulations in our study are performed using 2-D bin spectral cloud parcel model and version 6.9 of the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM). Our idealized simulations suggest that collision-coalescence plays a crucial role in reducing Nd such that gray clouds can easily form via collision-coalescence in layers detrained from the cloud top at trade cumulus regime, but can not form at stratocumulus regime. Upon evaporation of gray clouds, only few accumulation mode aerosols are returned to the clear sky, leaving horizontally-extensive UCLs (i.e. clean clear sky). Analysis of CSET flight data and idealized model simulations both suggest cloud top/PBL height may play an important role in the

  20. 50 Years of Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-23

    A 15-second test of a Saturn V rocket stage on the A-2 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center ushered in the Space Age for south Mississippi. Fifty years later, Stennis has grown into the nation’s largest rocket engine test site, continuing to test rocket engines and stages that power the nation’s space program.

  1. What State Tests Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Glenn W.

    What the Illinois Goal Assessment Program (IGAP) test actually tests and the consequences of these tests for funding decisions were studied with a random sample of 100 school districts in the Cook County suburbs of Chicago. Eighth-grade IGAP scores for reading were obtained from the state report card, a document prepared by each school district…

  2. Developing and Testing a 3d Cadastral Data Model a Case Study in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aien, A.; Kalantari, M.; Rajabifard, A.; Williamson, I. P.; Shojaei, D.

    2012-07-01

    Population growth, urbanization and industrialization place more pressure on land use with the need for increased space. To extend the use and functionality of the land, complex infrastructures are being built, both vertically and horizontally, layered and stacked. These three-dimensional (3D) developments affect the interests (Rights, Restrictions, and Responsibilities (RRRs)) attached to the underlying land. A 3D cadastre will assist in managing the effects of 3D development on a particular extent of land. There are many elements that contribute to developing a 3D cadastre, such as existing of 3D property legislations, 3D DBMS, 3D visualization. However, data modelling is one of the most important elements of a successful 3D cadastre. As architectural models of houses and high rise buildings help their users visualize the final product, 3D cadastre data model supports 3D cadastre users to understand the structure or behavior of the system and has a template that guides them to construct and implement the 3D cadastre. Many jurisdictions, organizations and software developers have built their own cadastral data model. Land Administration Domain Model (DIS-ISO 19152, The Netherlands) and ePlan (Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping, Australia) are examples of existing data models. The variation between these data models is the result of different attitudes towards cadastres. However, there is a basic common thread among them all. Current cadastral data models use a 2D land-parcel concept and extend it to support 3D requirements. These data models cannot adequately manage and represent the spatial extent of 3D RRRs. Most of the current cadastral data models have been influenced by a very broad understanding of 3D cadastral concepts because better clarity in what needs to be represented and analysed in the cadastre needs to be established. This paper presents the first version of a 3D Cadastral Data Model (3DCDM_Version 1.0). 3DCDM models both the legal

  3. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  4. A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-08

    A tethered Stennis Space Center employee climbs an A-3 Test Stand ladder June 8, 2012, against the backdrop of the A-2 and B-1/B-2 stands. The new A-3 Test Stand will enable simulated high-altitude testing of next-generation rocket engines.

  5. A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-08

    A tethered Stennis Space Center employee climbs an A-3 Test Stand ladded June 8, 2012, against the backdrop of the A-2 and B-1/B-2 stands. The new A-3 Test Stand will enable simulated high-altitude testing of next-generation rocket engines.

  6. Globulin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... of cancer Why do I need a globulin test? Your health care provider may order globulin tests as part your ... Globulin tests are blood tests. During a blood test, a health care professional will take a blood sample from a ...

  7. Schirmer test

    MedlinePlus

    Tear test; Tearing test; Dry eye test; Basal secretion test; Sjögren - Schirmer; Schirmer's test ... used when the eye doctor suspects you have dry eye. Symptoms include dryness of the eyes or excessive ...

  8. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  9. Pinworm test

    MedlinePlus

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  10. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  11. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  12. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  13. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  14. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  15. 42 CFR 136a.2 - Administrative instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative instructions. 136a.2 Section 136a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Purpose § 136a.2 Administrative instructions. The...

  16. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response..., or (ii) is an institution whose credits are accepted, on transfer, by not less than three...

  17. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response..., or (ii) is an institution whose credits are accepted, on transfer, by not less than three...

  18. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response..., or (ii) is an institution whose credits are accepted, on transfer, by not less than three...

  19. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  20. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  1. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  2. 32 CFR 352a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 352a.2 Section 352a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the...

  3. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  4. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  5. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  6. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  7. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  8. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  9. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  10. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  11. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES BASIC RESEARCH AND TRAINING GRANTS § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

  12. 42 CFR 59a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.2 Section 59a.2 Public Health... Grants for Establishing, Expanding, and Improving Basic Resources § 59a.2 Definitions. Undefined terms... relating to the health sciences. Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and any other...

  13. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  14. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  15. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  16. 32 CFR 237a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 237a.2 Section 237a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC AFFAIRS LIAISON WITH INDUSTRY § 237a.2 Applicability. The provisions of this part apply to all...

  17. ATP13A2 variability in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Soto, Alexandra I.; Lincoln, Sarah J.; Yahmed, Samia Ben; Kefi, Mounir; Heckman, Michael G.; Hulihan, Mary M.; Chai, Hua; Diehl, Nancy N.; Amouri, Rim; Rajput, Alex; Mash, Deborah C.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Middleton, Lefkos T.; Gibson, Rachel A.; Hentati, Faycal; Farrer, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    Recessively inherited mutations in ATP13A2 result in Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, whereas genetic variability and elevated ATP13A2 expression have been implicated in Parkinson disease (PD). Given this background, ATP13A2 was comprehensively assessed to support or refute its contribution to PD. Sequencing of ATP13A2 exons and intron-exon boundaries was performed in 89 probands with familial parkinsonism from Tunisia. The segregation of mutations with parkinsonism was subsequently assessed within pedigrees. The frequency of genetic variants and evidence for association was also examined in 240 patients with non-familial PD and 372 healthy controls. ATP13A2 mRNA expression was also quantified in brain tissues from 38 patients with non-familial PD and 38 healthy subjects from the US. Sequencing analysis revealed 37 new variants; seven missense, six silent and 24 that were noncoding. However, no single ATP13A2 mutation segregated with familial parkinsonism in either a dominant or recessive manner. Four markers showed marginal association with non-familial PD, prior to correction for multiple testing. ATP13A2 mRNA expression was marginally decreased in PD brains compared with tissue from control subjects. In conclusion, neither ATP13A2 genetic variability nor quantitative gene expression in brain appears to contribute to familial parkinsonism or non-familial PD. PMID:19085912

  18. RPR test

    MedlinePlus

    Rapid plasma reagin test; Syphilis screening test ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Rapid plasma regain (RPR) test – blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier ...

  19. Pregnancy Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... one or both types of blood tests: A quantitative blood test (also called a beta hCG test) ... taking the test to check the results window. Research suggests that waiting 10 minutes will give the ...

  20. Coombs test

    MedlinePlus

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  1. Ham test

    MedlinePlus

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  2. Magnesium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Health Professionals Subscribe Menu Search Global Sites Tests Tests Index Not Listed? Not Listed? 5-HIAA 17- ... BRCA Gene Mutation Testing Breast Cancer Gene Expression Tests C-peptide C-Reactive Protein (CRP) CA 15- ...

  3. X-15A-2 with dummy ramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This photo shows the X-15A-2 (56-6671) on a research flight with a dummy ramjet engine attached to the bottom of its wedge-shaped vertical tail. One of the experiments planned for the X-15A-2 involved tests of a functional ramjet at speeds above Mach 5. This photo was taken with a dummy ramjet. On this research flight, the X-15A-2 did not carry the two drop tanks used on its Mach 6.7 flight. It also had not yet been covered with an ablative coating. The X-15A-2 made several flights with the dummy ramjet, leading to the record Mach 6.7 flight on October 3, 1967. Delays in producing the operational ramjet, aerodynamic heating damage to the aircraft during the record flight (despite the ablative coating), and the end of the X-15 program in 1968 resulted in no flights with the actual ramjet. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft. The original three aircraft were about 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. The modified #2 aircraft (X-15A-2 was longer.) They were a missile-shaped vehicles with unusual wedge-shaped vertical tails, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was rated at 57,000 lb of thrust, although there are indications that it actually achieved up to 60,000 lb. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as testbeds to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and movable

  4. A 2-1-1 Research Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Eddens, Katherine S.; Alcaraz, Kassandra I.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Rath, Suchitra; Greer, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Background 2-1-1 serves as a lifeline in times of crises. These crises often cause a spike in call volume that can challenge 2-1-1’s ability to meet their service quality standards. For researchers gathering data through 2-1-1s, a sudden increase in call volume might reduce accrual as 2-1-1 has less time to administer study protocols. Research activities imbedded in 2-1-1 systems may directly affect 2-1-1 service quality indicators. Purpose Using data from a 2-1-1 research collaboration, this paper examines the impact of crises on call volume to 2-1-1, how call volume affects research participant accrual through 2-1-1, and how research recruitment efforts affect 2-1-1 service quality indicators. Methods t-tests were used to examine the effect of call volume on research participant accrual. Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the effect of research participant accrual on 2-1-1 service quality indicators. Data were collected June 2010–December 2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Results Findings from this collaboration suggest that crises causing spikes in call volume adversely affect 2-1-1 service quality indicators as well as accrual of research participants. Administering a brief (2–3 minute) health risk assessment did not negatively affect service quality, but administering a longer (15–18 minute) survey had a modest adverse effect on these indicators. Conclusions In 2-1-1 research collaborations, both partners need to understand the dynamic relationship between call volume, research accrual, and service quality, and adjust expectations accordingly. If research goals include administering a longer survey, increased staffing of 2-1-1 call centers may be needed to avoid compromising service quality. PMID:23157769

  5. Aerial shows Stennis test stands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-16

    An aerial photo shows the B-1/B-2 Test Stand (foreground), A-2 Test Stand (middle) and A-1 Test Stand (back). The historic stands have been used to test engines used on every manned Apollo and space shuttle mission.

  6. Annexin A2 in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    cells , leading to formation of an epiretinal membrane, retinal detachment, and loss of vision. At present, there are no reliable means of...type versus annexin A2- deficient mice, [2] define the role of A2 in the function of activated macrophages and RPE cells in PVR, and [3] examine the...expression is needed in both macrophages and RPE cells , and that A2 is extensively expressed within cells of epiretinal membranes in human PVR. Our

  7. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation for Genetic Testing Whole Genome Sequencing Screening vs. Testing What Is Genetic Counseling? Participating in Research Disease Research Patient Privacy Clinical ...

  8. Predictive Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation for Genetic Testing Whole Genome Sequencing Screening vs. Testing What Is Genetic Counseling? Participating in Research Disease Research Patient Privacy Clinical ...

  9. Test Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, Wanda B., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    There's accountability and then there's the testing craze an iatrogenic practice that undermines real learning. Hedrick documents the negative effects of testing, giving teachers another weapon in their arsenal against mindless preparation for high-stakes tests.

  10. Porphyrin Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... variability can occur due to differences in testing equipment, chemical reagents, and techniques. This is a reason ... healthcare practitioner's office? No. Porphyrin tests require specialized equipment and technical skills. Some tests may be performed ...

  11. Gonorrhea Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker ... NAT Neisseria gonorrhoeae Nucleic Acid Amplification Test, Culture, Gram Stain, DNA Probe Formal Name Neisseria gonorrhoeae This article ...

  12. Stool Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 More on this topic for: Parents Teens E. Coli Giardiasis Yersiniosis Stool Test: Bacteria Culture Stool Test: ... Stool Test: Ova and Parasites (O&P) Diarrhea E. Coli View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial ...

  13. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE... the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Departments, and the Defense Agencies (hereafter referred...

  14. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE... the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Departments, and the Defense Agencies (hereafter referred...

  15. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Human Services. NIH means the National Institutes of Health and its organizational components that award... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING...

  16. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Human Services. NIH means the National Institutes of Health and its organizational components that award... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING...

  17. 22 CFR 9a.2 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... important element of our national security. The effectiveness of the Agreement depends significantly upon... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General policy. 9a.2 Section 9a.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL...

  18. 42 CFR 54a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... financial assistance under an applicable program. (e) SAMHSA means the Substance Abuse and Mental Health... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 54a.2 Section 54a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS...

  19. Biased Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross

    This paper is concerned with the accusations made by such groups as the Association of Black Psychologists in their call for a moratorium on testing, that standardized tests are biased. A biased test measures one trait in one group of people but a different trait in a second group. Evidence about the amount of bias in tests is thin. Bias must be…

  20. Antithrombin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol ... Immunoreactive Trypsinogen (IRT) Influenza Tests Insulin Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 ... Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, ...

  1. Testing Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Trace Laboratories is an independent testing laboratory specializing in testing printed circuit boards, automotive products and military hardware. Technical information from NASA Tech Briefs and two subsequent JPL Technical Support packages have assisted Trace in testing surface insulation resistance on printed circuit board materials. Testing time was reduced and customer service was improved because of Jet Propulsion Laboratory technical support packages.

  2. CSG test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-15

    E-2 Test Stand team members at Stennis Space Center conducted their first series of tests on a three-module chemical steam generator unit Sept. 15. All three modules successfully fired during the tests. The chemical steam generator is a critical component for the A-3 Test Stand under construction at Stennis.

  3. Annexin A2 in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    migrate in the presence of macrophages in an in vitro system. In addition, analysis of human retinal tissue from subjects undergoing ocular surgery... tissue from subjects undergoing ocular surgery for PVR reveals the presence of A2- immunoreactive cells that express both macrophage and RPE cell...greatly attenuated in the absence of annexin A2. Task 2: Macrophage depletion and tissue specific knockout. We have completed the characterization

  4. Propfan Test Assessment (PTA): Flight test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, B. H.; Bartel, H. W.; Reddy, N. N.; Swift, G.; Withers, C. C.; Brown, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft was flown to obtain glade stress and noise data for a 2.74m (9 ft.) diameter single rotation propfan. Tests were performed at Mach numbers to 0.85 and altitudes to 12,192m (40,000 ft.). The propfan was well-behaved structurally over the entire flight envelope, demonstrating that the blade design technology was completely adequate. Noise data were characterized by strong signals at blade passage frequency and up to 10 harmonics. Cabin noise was not so high as to preclude attainment of comfortable levels with suitable wall treatment. Community noise was not excessive.

  5. Radiation Detection Field Test at the Federal Express (FedEx) Air Cargo Facility at Denver International Airport (DIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Weirup, D; Waters, A; Hall, H

    2004-02-11

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) recently conducted a field-test of radiation detection and identification equipment at the air cargo facility of Federal Express (FedEx) located at Denver International Airport (DIA) over a period of two weeks. Comprehensive background measurements were performed and were analyzed, and a trial strategy for detection and identification of parcels displaying radioactivity was implemented to aid in future development of a comprehensive protection plan. The purpose of this project was threefold: {sm_bullet} Quantify background radiation environments at an air cargo facility. {sm_bullet} Quantify and identify ''nuisance'' alarms. {sm_bullet} Evaluate the performance of various isotope identifiers deployedmore » in an operational environment (in this case, the operational environment included the biggest blizzard in over 90 years!).« less

  6. Rubella Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Mumps Tests Mercury Metanephrines Methotrexate Methylmalonic Acid Mononucleosis (Mono) Test MRSA Screening MTHFR Mutation Mycophenolic Acid ... 23 days after coming in contact with an infectious person. A person is usually infectious about a ...

  7. Hepatitis Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... They include hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. To diagnose hepatitis, your health care provider will ask you about your medical history and symptoms, do a physical exam, and order blood tests. There are blood tests ...

  8. Neuropathy Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mutation Mycophenolic Acid Mycoplasma Myoglobin Nicotine and Cotinine Non-High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Opioid Testing Osmolality Ova ... that make neuropathy worse Detect and evaluate complications Non-laboratory tests The diagnostic workup for neuropathy begins ...

  9. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Tests Used In Clinical Care Tests Used In Clinical Care ...

  10. Cholesterol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery disease. Other names for a cholesterol test: Lipid profile, Lipid panel What is it used for? If you ... Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017.Cholesterol Test: Overview; 2016 Jan 12 [ ...

  11. Triglycerides Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other names for a triglycerides test: TG, TRIG, lipid panel, fasting lipoprotein panel What is it used ... A triglycerides test is usually part of a lipid profile. Lipid is another word for fat. A ...

  12. Toxoplasmosis Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol ... Semen Analysis Serotonin Serum Free Light Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin ... Transferrin Receptor Stool Culture Stool Elastase Strep ...

  13. VMA Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol ... Semen Analysis Serotonin Serum Free Light Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin ... Transferrin Receptor Stool Culture Stool Elastase Strep ...

  14. Phosphorus Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol ... Semen Analysis Serotonin Serum Free Light Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin ... Transferrin Receptor Stool Culture Stool Elastase Strep ...

  15. Serotonin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol ... Semen Analysis Serotonin Serum Free Light Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin ... Transferrin Receptor Stool Culture Stool Elastase Strep ...

  16. Prolactin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol ... ordered, along with other hormone levels such as growth hormone , when a health practitioner suspects that a person ...

  17. PTH Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol ... Semen Analysis Serotonin Serum Free Light Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin ... Transferrin Receptor Stool Culture Stool Elastase Strep ...

  18. AMA Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol ... Semen Analysis Serotonin Serum Free Light Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin ... Transferrin Receptor Stool Culture Stool Elastase Strep ...

  19. Progesterone Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol ... Semen Analysis Serotonin Serum Free Light Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin ... Transferrin Receptor Stool Culture Stool Elastase Strep ...

  20. Tensilon test

    MedlinePlus

    Myasthenia gravis - tensilon ... Tensilon tests to help tell the difference between myasthenia gravis and other conditions. ... The test helps: Diagnose myasthenia gravis Tell the difference ... conditions Monitor treatment with oral anticholinesterase drugs ...

  1. HPV Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the development of genital warts, abnormal cervical cells or cervical cancer. Your doctor might recommend the HPV test if: Your Pap test was abnormal, showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) You're age 30 ...

  2. Lipase Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free Fetal DNA Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis Ceruloplasmin Chemistry Panels Chickenpox and Shingles Tests Chlamydia Testing Chloride ... D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 281-287. Wu, ...

  3. Kidney Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney tests check to see how well your kidneys are working. They include blood, urine, and imaging tests. Early kidney disease usually does not have signs ...

  4. ACT Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sample Required? A blood sample drawn from a vein in your arm Test Preparation Needed? None Looking ... is obtained by inserting a needle into a vein in the arm. Is any test preparation needed ...

  5. IQ testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... among others. Each test has its own scoring system. In general, IQ tests are only one way to measure how well a person functions. Other factors, such as genetics and environment, should be considered.

  6. METSAT: Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A2 (AMSU-A2) structural mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Wayne

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the Structural Mathematical Model of the METSAT AMSU-A2 instrument. The model is used to verify the structural adequacy of the AMSU-A2 instrument for the specified loading environments.

  7. Countering A2/AD with Swarming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    to prevent the U.S. from being able to fight such a war. Rather, the adversaries have adopted A2/AD strategies that would force the U.S. to fight an...undesirable war of attrition in order to achieve their objective. The current strategy to counter A2/AD is a strategy that forces the tenets of an...annihilation strategy into the context of an attrition environment. The result is that it weakens the military as an instrument of national power. The

  8. 12 CFR 261a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGARDING ACCESS TO PERSONAL INFORMATION UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT 1974 General Provisions § 261a.2 Definitions... Saturday, Sunday or a legal Federal holiday. (b) Guardian means the parent of a minor, or the legal... particular assigned to the individual. (h) You means an individual making a request under the Privacy Act. (i...

  9. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  10. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  11. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  12. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  13. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  14. 29 CFR 1912a.2 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.2 Membership. The Committee is a... occupational safety professions, and four members will represent the public. The Secretary of Health, Education...

  15. 29 CFR 1912a.2 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.2 Membership. The Committee is a... occupational safety professions, and four members will represent the public. The Secretary of Health, Education...

  16. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means... accredited school of medicine and a full-time academic medical staff holding faculty status in such school of medicine. Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services or his or her designee. ...

  17. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  18. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  19. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  20. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  1. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  2. 29 CFR 1912a.2 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.2 Membership. The Committee is a... occupational safety professions, and four members will represent the public. The Secretary of Health, Education...

  3. KRAS Testing

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, Rodney E.; Whitling, Nicholas A.; McNab, Patricia; Japa, Shanker

    2012-01-01

    Activating point mutations in codons 12, 13, and 61 of the KRAS proto-oncogene are common in colorectal, non–small cell lung, pancreatic, and thyroid cancers. Constitutively activated KRAS mutations are strongly associated with a resistance to anti–epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapies, such as panitumumab and cetuximab used for treating metastatic colorectal carcinoma and EGFR tyrosine inhibitors used for advanced non–small cell lung cancers. Since anti-EGFR therapies are costly and may exert deleterious effects on individuals without activating mutations, KRAS mutation testing is recommended prior to the initiation of anti-EGFR therapy for these malignancies. The goal of this review is to summarize the KRAS mutation testing methods. Testing is now routinely requested in the clinical practice to provide data to assign the most appropriate anticancer chemotherapy for each given patient. Review of the most relevant literature was performed. Several areas were considered: ordering of the test, selection of the sample to be tested, and review of the testing methodologies. We found that several different methods are used for clinical KRAS mutation testing. Each of the methodologies is described, and information is provided about their performance, cost, turnaround times, detection limits, sensitivities, and specificities. We also provided “tips” for the appropriate selection and preparation of the sample to be tested. This is an important aspect of KRAS testing for clinical use, as the results of the test will affect clinical decisions with consequences for the patient. PMID:23264846

  4. Annexin A2 antibodies but not inhibitors of the annexin A2 heterotetramer impair productive HIV-1 infection of macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Woodham, Andrew W; Sanna, Adriana M; Taylor, Julia R; Skeate, Joseph G; Da Silva, Diane M; Dekker, Lodewijk V; Kast, W Martin

    2016-11-18

    During sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), macrophages are initial targets for HIV infection. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) has been shown to protect against HIV infection of macrophages through interactions with annexin A2 (A2), which is found on the macrophage cell surface as a heterotetramer (A2t) consisting of A2 and S100A10. Therefore, we investigated potential protein-protein interactions between A2 and HIV-1 gp120 through a series of co-immunoprecipitation assays and a single molecule pulldown (SiMPull) technique. Additionally, inhibitors of A2t (A2ti) that target the interaction between A2 and S100A10 were tested for their ability to impair productive HIV-1 infection of macrophages. Our data suggest that interactions between HIV-1 gp120 and A2 exist, though this interaction may be indirect. Furthermore, an anti-A2 antibody impaired HIV-1 particle production in macrophages in vitro, whereas A2ti did not indicating that annexin A2 may promote HIV-1 infection of macrophages in its monomeric rather than tetrameric form.

  5. Diagnostic testing.

    PubMed

    Brewer, D E

    2000-09-01

    The results of cardiac tests must always be interpreted through the lens of pretest probabilities created by the history and the physical examination. Tests should be chosen with a clear diagnostic and prognostic purpose in mind. A clear understanding of the relationship between the history and physical examination and more technologic diagnostic testing improves the primary care physician's ability to evaluate potential cardiac disease in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

  6. Software testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.

    2016-01-01

    Now more than ever, scientific results are dependent on sophisticated software and analysis. Why should we trust code written by others? How do you ensure your own code produces sensible results? How do you make sure it continues to do so as you update, modify, and add functionality? Software testing is an integral part of code validation and writing tests should be a requirement for any software project. I will talk about Python-based tools that make managing and running tests much easier and explore some statistics for projects hosted on GitHub that contain tests.

  7. Diffuser Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-09-13

    Tests begun at Stennis Space Center's E Complex Sept. 13 evaluated a liquid oxygen lead for engine start performance, part of the A-3 Test Facility Subscale Diffuser Risk Mitigation Project at SSC's E-3 Test Facility. Phase 1 of the subscale diffuser project, completed Sept. 24, was a series of 18 hot-fire tests using a 1,000-pound liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen thruster to verify maximum duration and repeatability for steam generation supporting the A-3 Test Stand project. The thruster is a stand-in for NASA's developing J-2X engine, to validate a 6 percent scale version of A-3's exhaust diffuser. Testing the J-2X at altitude conditions requires an enormous diffuser. Engineers will generate nearly 4,600 pounds per second of steam to reduce pressure inside A-3's test cell to simulate altitude conditions. A-3's exhaust diffuser has to be able to withstand regulated pressure, temperatures and the safe discharge of the steam produced during those tests. Before the real thing is built, engineers hope to work out any issues on the miniature version. Phase 2 testing is scheduled to begin this month.

  8. Performance tests.

    PubMed Central

    Wetherell, A

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of psychological performance tests to assess the effects of environmental stressors. The large number and the variety of performance tests are illustrated, and the differences between performance tests and other psychological tests are described in terms of their design, construction, use, and purpose. The stressor emphasis is on the effects of drugs since that is where most performance tests have found their main application, although other stressors, e.g., fatigue, toxic chemicals, are mentioned where appropriate. Diazepam is used as an example. There is no particular performance emphasis since the tests are intended to have wide applicability. However, vehicle-driving performance is discussed because it has been the subject of a great deal of research and is probably one of the most important areas of application. Performance tests are discussed in terms of the four main underlying models--factor analysis, general information processing, multiple resource and strategy models, and processing-stage models--and in terms of their psychometric properties--sensitivity, reliability, and content, criterion, construct, and face validity. Some test taxonomies are presented. Standardization is also discussed with reference to the reaction time, mathematical processing, memory search, spatial processing, unstable tracking, verbal processing, and dual task tests used in the AGARD STRES battery. Some comments on measurement strengths and appropriate study designs and methods are included. PMID:9182033

  9. Celebrating 50 Years of Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-19

    What better way to mark 50 years of rocket engine testing than with a rocket engine test? Stennis Space Center employees enjoyed a chance to view an RS-68 engine test at the B-1 Test Stand on April 19, almost 50 years to the day that the first test was conducted at the south Mississippi site in 1966. The test viewing was part of a weeklong celebration of the 50th year of rocket engine testing at Stennis. The first test at the site occurred April 23, 1966, with a 15-second firing of a Saturn V second stage prototype (S-II-C) on the A-2 Test Stand. The center subsequently tested Apollo rocket stages that carried humans to the moon and every main engine used to power 135 space shuttle missions. It currently tests engines for NASA’s new Space Launch System vehicle.

  10. 2-Ethylhexanol; Final Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final test rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), requiring manufacturers and processors of 2-ethylhexanol (EH: CAS No. 104-76-7) to conduct a 2-year oncogenicity bioassay.

  11. HEOS-A2: Press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaway, H. G.; Kukowski, J.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the HEOS-A2 satellite and its assigned mission are discussed. The spacecraft carries seven experiments to investigate the strength and direction of the magnetic fields encountered, the energy distribution of protons and electrons, the nature of the solar winds, detection of micrometeorites, and low frequency solar observations. The highly elliptical polar orbit required for this mission will have an apogee of 38 earth radii. The lifetime of the satellite is expected to be one year minimum.

  12. EphA2 Receptor Unliganded Dimers Suppress EphA2 Pro-tumorigenic Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deo R.; Ahmed, Fozia; King, Christopher; Gupta, Nisha; Salotto, Matt; Pasquale, Elena B.; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cell migration and cancer malignancy through a ligand- and kinase-independent distinctive mechanism that has been linked to high Ser-897 phosphorylation and low tyrosine phosphorylation. Here, we demonstrate that EphA2 forms dimers in the plasma membrane of HEK293T cells in the absence of ephrin ligand binding, suggesting that the current seeding mechanism model of EphA2 activation is incomplete. We also characterize a dimerization-deficient EphA2 mutant that shows enhanced ability to promote cell migration, concomitant with increased Ser-897 phosphorylation and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation compared with EphA2 wild type. Our data reveal a correlation between unliganded dimerization and tumorigenic signaling and suggest that EphA2 pro-tumorigenic activity is mediated by the EphA2 monomer. Thus, a therapeutic strategy that aims at the stabilization of EphA2 dimers may be beneficial for the treatment of cancers linked to EphA2 overexpression. PMID:26363067

  13. EphA2 Receptor Unliganded Dimers Suppress EphA2 Pro-tumorigenic Signaling.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deo R; Ahmed, Fozia; King, Christopher; Gupta, Nisha; Salotto, Matt; Pasquale, Elena B; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-11-06

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cell migration and cancer malignancy through a ligand- and kinase-independent distinctive mechanism that has been linked to high Ser-897 phosphorylation and low tyrosine phosphorylation. Here, we demonstrate that EphA2 forms dimers in the plasma membrane of HEK293T cells in the absence of ephrin ligand binding, suggesting that the current seeding mechanism model of EphA2 activation is incomplete. We also characterize a dimerization-deficient EphA2 mutant that shows enhanced ability to promote cell migration, concomitant with increased Ser-897 phosphorylation and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation compared with EphA2 wild type. Our data reveal a correlation between unliganded dimerization and tumorigenic signaling and suggest that EphA2 pro-tumorigenic activity is mediated by the EphA2 monomer. Thus, a therapeutic strategy that aims at the stabilization of EphA2 dimers may be beneficial for the treatment of cancers linked to EphA2 overexpression. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Drug Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legal Memorandum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    A number of legal issues are involved in conducting a drug testing program to determine whether students--and occasionally teachers--are using illegal drugs. Two legal issues have been raised concerning the accuracy of the urinalysis test: whether it is chemically accurate and whether appropriate procedures have been followed to make certain that…

  15. Pregnancy test

    MedlinePlus

    For the urine test, you urinate into a cup. For the blood test, the health care provider uses a needle and syringe to draw blood from your vein into a tube. Any discomfort you might feel from the blood draw will only last a few seconds.

  16. Genetic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... is often the only way to determine if symptoms could possibly be related to celiac disease. For a person who faces this situation, a negative gene test would indicate that symptoms are not the result of celiac disease. A positive gene test, however, does not diagnose ...

  17. Testosterone Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol ... Puberty. PDF available for download at http://www.hormone.org/Resources/Growth/upload/bilingual_precocious_puberty.pdf. Accessed January 2009. ...

  18. Strength Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.

    1981-01-01

    Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

  19. Test-retest reliability of fMRI-based graph theoretical properties during working memory, emotion processing, and resting state.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hengyi; Plichta, Michael M; Schäfer, Axel; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Schneider, Michael; Esslinger, Christine; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Tost, Heike

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of the brain connectome with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and graph theory analyses has recently gained much popularity, but little is known about the robustness of these properties, in particular those derived from active fMRI tasks. Here, we studied the test-retest reliability of brain graphs calculated from 26 healthy participants with three established fMRI experiments (n-back working memory, emotional face-matching, resting state) and two parcellation schemes for node definition (AAL atlas, functional atlas proposed by Power et al.). We compared the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of five different data processing strategies and demonstrated a superior reliability of task-regression methods with condition-specific regressors. The between-task comparison revealed significantly higher ICCs for resting state relative to the active tasks, and a superiority of the n-back task relative to the face-matching task for global and local network properties. While the mean ICCs were typically lower for the active tasks, overall fair to good reliabilities were detected for global and local connectivity properties, and for the n-back task with both atlases, smallworldness. For all three tasks and atlases, low mean ICCs were seen for the local network properties. However, node-specific good reliabilities were detected for node degree in regions known to be critical for the challenged functions (resting-state: default-mode network nodes, n-back: fronto-parietal nodes, face-matching: limbic nodes). Between-atlas comparison demonstrated significantly higher reliabilities for the functional parcellations for global and local network properties. Our findings can inform the choice of processing strategies, brain atlases and outcome properties for fMRI studies using active tasks, graph theory methods, and within-subject designs, in particular future pharmaco-fMRI studies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Promoting independence in adolescent paraplegics: a 2-week "camping" experience.

    PubMed

    Bodzioch, J; Roach, J W; Schkade, J

    1986-01-01

    In the summer of 1982, Texas Scottish Rite Hospital (Dallas, TX, U.S.A.) sponsored a camp for paraplegic adolescents. Six patients, three boys and three girls 14-17 years of age, participated in a 2-week program that was designed to improve their self-esteem, independence, and eventual employability. In their pre- and postcamp psychological evaluations, the campers demonstrated improvement in social skills and self-concept testing as compared with the scores of a matched control group, although this improvement did not reach statistical significance. We believe the camp was immensely successful, an opinion that was shared by both the campers and their parents.

  1. Adenosine A2A receptor agonists with potent antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Manuel; Caballero, Julio; Palomo, Iván; Hinz, Sonja; El-Tayeb, Ali; Müller, Christa E

    2018-05-01

    Selected adenosine A 2A receptor agonists (PSB-15826, PSB-12404, and PSB-16301) have been evaluated as new antiplatelet agents. In addition, radioligand-binding studies and receptor-docking experiments were performed in order to explain their differential biological effects on a molecular level. Among the tested adenosine derivatives, PSB-15826 was the most potent compound to inhibit platelet aggregation (EC 50 0.32 ± 0.05 µmol/L) and platelet P-selectin cell-surface localization (EC 50 0.062 ± 0.2 µmol/L), and to increase intraplatelets cAMP levels (EC 50 0.24 ± 0.01 µmol/L). The compound was more active than CGS21680 (EC 50 0.97±0.07 µmol/L) and equipotent to NECA (EC 50 0.31 ± 0.05 µmol/L) in platelet aggregation induced by ADP. In contrast to the results from cAMP assays, K i values determined in radioligand-binding studies were not predictive of the A 2A agonists' antiplatelet activity. Docking studies revealed the key molecular determinants of this new family of adenosine A 2A receptor agonists: differences in activities are related to π-stacking interactions between the ligands and the residue His264 in the extracellular loop of the adenosine A 2A receptor which may result in increased residence times. In conclusion, these results provide an improved understanding of the requirements of antiplatelet adenosine A 2A receptor agonists.

  2. Tonopah Test Range Flight Test

    SciTech Connect

    None

    From a distance, the drop of a mock nuclear weapon — containing only non-nuclear components — was a mere puff of dust rising from a dry lake bed at Nevada’s Tonopah Test Range. However, it marked the start of a new series of test flights vital to the nation’s B61-12 weapon refurbishment program.

  3. Parcelization and affluence: Implications for nonindustrial private forests

    Treesearch

    Donald. F. Dennis

    1992-01-01

    The quality of life we cherish is in many ways dependent on the health and accessibility of our forests. Forests provide recreational and aesthetic relief from the pressures of modem society, as well as the raw material for a multitude of wood products. Many rural communities rely heavily on economic benefits provided by timber, tounsm, and other forest-related rec-...

  4. Body Topography Parcellates Human Sensory and Motor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Esther; Dinse, Juliane; Jakobsen, Estrid; Long, Xiangyu; Schäfer, Andreas; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Villringer, Arno; Sereno, Martin I; Margulies, Daniel S

    2017-07-01

    The cytoarchitectonic map as proposed by Brodmann currently dominates models of human sensorimotor cortical structure, function, and plasticity. According to this model, primary motor cortex, area 4, and primary somatosensory cortex, area 3b, are homogenous areas, with the major division lying between the two. Accumulating empirical and theoretical evidence, however, has begun to question the validity of the Brodmann map for various cortical areas. Here, we combined in vivo cortical myelin mapping with functional connectivity analyses and topographic mapping techniques to reassess the validity of the Brodmann map in human primary sensorimotor cortex. We provide empirical evidence that area 4 and area 3b are not homogenous, but are subdivided into distinct cortical fields, each representing a major body part (the hand and the face). Myelin reductions at the hand-face borders are cortical layer-specific, and coincide with intrinsic functional connectivity borders as defined using large-scale resting state analyses. Our data extend the Brodmann model in human sensorimotor cortex and suggest that body parts are an important organizing principle, similar to the distinction between sensory and motor processing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Nonparametric Hierarchical Bayesian Model for Functional Brain Parcellation

    PubMed Central

    Lashkari, Danial; Sridharan, Ramesh; Vul, Edward; Hsieh, Po-Jang; Kanwisher, Nancy; Golland, Polina

    2011-01-01

    We develop a method for unsupervised analysis of functional brain images that learns group-level patterns of functional response. Our algorithm is based on a generative model that comprises two main layers. At the lower level, we express the functional brain response to each stimulus as a binary activation variable. At the next level, we define a prior over the sets of activation variables in all subjects. We use a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process as the prior in order to simultaneously learn the patterns of response that are shared across the group, and to estimate the number of these patterns supported by data. Inference based on this model enables automatic discovery and characterization of salient and consistent patterns in functional signals. We apply our method to data from a study that explores the response of the visual cortex to a collection of images. The discovered profiles of activation correspond to selectivity to a number of image categories such as faces, bodies, and scenes. More generally, our results appear superior to the results of alternative data-driven methods in capturing the category structure in the space of stimuli. PMID:21841977

  6. Using a Simple Parcel Model to Investigate the Haines Index

    Treesearch

    Mary Ann Jenkins; Steven K. Krueger; Ruiyu Sun

    2003-01-01

    The Haines Index (Haines 1988) ia fire-weather index based on stability and moisture conditions of the lower atmosphere that rates the potential for large fire growth or extreme fire behavior. The Hained Index is calculated by adding a temperature term a to a moisture term b.

  7. Trichomonas Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing for Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Available online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. ... Accessed February 2017. (2016 November). Advances in laboratory detection of Trichomonas vaginalis (updated). Association of Public Health ...

  8. HIV Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... NAT means. Taking pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) or post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) may also reduce the accuracy of NAT if you have HIV. An antigen/antibody test looks for both HIV antibodies and antigens. Antibodies ...

  9. Osmolality Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP Body Fluid Analysis ... osmotic gap, tests for blood sodium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) , and glucose must be performed to calculate ...

  10. Ammonia Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... of hepatic encephalopathy, but there is not widespread agreement on its clinical utility. Since hepatic encephalopathy can ... more clinically useful, but there is not widespread agreement on this. Is ammonia testing used to detect ...

  11. Fungal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... preparation is needed. See More See Less Accordion Title Common Questions How is it used? Fungal tests ... involving skin, nails, or mucous membranes appear, for example: Itchy, red, scaly areas of skin Nails that ...

  12. Susceptibility Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... the drugs usually used to treat them. Some examples include staphylococci ("staph") and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Sometimes there ... susceptibility testing techniques is an active area of research. As the FDA approves more of these rapid ...

  13. DHEAS Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Time and International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR) PSEN1 Quantitative Immunoglobulins Red Blood Cell (RBC) Antibody Identification Red ... woman's menstrual period. See More See Less Accordion Title Common Questions How is it used? The test ...

  14. Digoxin test

    MedlinePlus

    Heart failure - digoxin test ... Mann DL. Management of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of ...

  15. Hemoglobinuria test

    MedlinePlus

    ... If the level of hemoglobin in the blood rises too high, then hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine. This is called hemoglobinuria. This test may be used to help diagnose causes of hemoglobinuria.

  16. Test Anxiety

    MedlinePlus

    ... More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & ... Like other anxiety reactions, test anxiety affects the body and the mind. When you're under stress, your body releases ...

  17. Copper Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Time and International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR) PSEN1 Quantitative Immunoglobulins Red Blood Cell (RBC) Antibody Identification Red ... and are usually performed in special reference or research laboratories. Rarely, a copper test may be used ...

  18. Troponins Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Time and International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR) PSEN1 Quantitative Immunoglobulins Red Blood Cell (RBC) Antibody Identification Red ... test is not approved in the U.S., but research is ongoing and it may become available in ...

  19. Neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Zucchella, Chiara; Federico, Angela; Martini, Alice; Tinazzi, Michele; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Tamburin, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    Neuropsychological testing is a key diagnostic tool for assessing people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment, but can also help in other neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. While cognitive screening tests offer gross information, detailed neuropsychological evaluation can provide data on different cognitive domains (visuospatial function, memory, attention, executive function, language and praxis) as well as neuropsychiatric and behavioural features. We should regard neuropsychological testing as an extension of the neurological examination applied to higher order cortical function, since each cognitive domain has an anatomical substrate. Ideally, neurologists should discuss the indications and results of neuropsychological assessment with a clinical neuropsychologist. This paper summarises the rationale, indications, main features, most common tests and pitfalls in neuropsychological evaluation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Test report :

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors have supplied their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and a subset of these systems were selected for performance evaluation at the BCIL. The technologies tested were electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. MILSPRAY Military Technologies has developed an energy storage systemmore » that utilizes lead acid batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited assessment of the Milspray Scorpion Energy Storage Device.« less

  1. Genomic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer or for Lynch syndrome, a form of hereditary colorectal cancer, are not ... the effective integration of genomics into health practice—Lynch syndrome ACCE Model for Evaluating Genetic Tests Recommendations by ...

  2. Myoglobin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease , Heart Disease , Heart Attack Elsewhere On The Web MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Rhabdomyolysis MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Myositis ... request form. If your question relates to this web site and not to a specific lab test, ...

  3. Insulin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes used in conjunction with the glucose tolerance test (GTT) . In this situation, blood glucose and insulin levels are measured at pre-established time intervals to evaluate insulin resistance. When ...

  4. Prenatal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease (STD) or cervical cancer In a developing child, prenatal tests can: identify treatable health problems that can affect the baby show characteristics of the baby, including size, sex, age, and position in the uterus help determine ...

  5. Testing Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A device for testing composites for strength characteristics has been developed by Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation. Called the Model 206AU, the system is lightweight and portable. It is comprised of three sections. The "pulser" section injects ultrasonic waves into the material under test. A receiver picks up the simulated stress waves as they pass through the material and relays the signals to the acoustic emission section, where they are electronically analyzed.

  6. a 2d Model of Ultrasonic Testing for Cracks Near a Nonplanar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westlund, Jonathan; Boström, Anders

    2010-02-01

    2D P-SV elastic wave scattering by a crack near a non-planar surface is investigated. The wave scattering problem is solved in the frequency domain using a combination of the boundary element method (BEM) for the back surface displacement and a Fourier series expansion of the crack opening displacement (COD). The model accounts for the action of the transmitting and receiving ultrasonic contact probes, and the time traces are obtained by applying an inverse temporal Fourier transform.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A-2 to Part 60 - Test Methods 2G through 3C

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the main probe to extend its reach. 3.6 “May,” “Must,” “Shall,” “Should,” and the imperative form of...,” and the imperative form of verbs (such as “record” or “enter”) are used to indicate that a provision... results on a form similar to Table 2F-1 presented in Method 2F. If there is visible damage to the 3-D...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A-2 to Part 60 - Test Methods 2G through 3C

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the main probe to extend its reach. 3.6 “May,” “Must,” “Shall,” “Should,” and the imperative form of...,” and the imperative form of verbs (such as “record” or “enter”) are used to indicate that a provision... results on a form similar to Table 2F-1 presented in Method 2F. If there is visible damage to the 3-D...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A-2 to Part 60 - Test Methods 2G through 3C

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the main probe to extend its reach. 3.6 “May,” “Must,” “Shall,” “Should,” and the imperative form of...,” and the imperative form of verbs (such as “record” or “enter”) are used to indicate that a provision... results on a form similar to Table 2F-1 presented in Method 2F. If there is visible damage to the 3-D...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A-2 to Part 60 - Test Methods 2G through 3C

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the main probe to extend its reach. 3.6 “May,” “Must,” “Shall,” “Should,” and the imperative form of...,” and the imperative form of verbs (such as “record” or “enter”) are used to indicate that a provision... results on a form similar to Table 2F-1 presented in Method 2F. If there is visible damage to the 3-D...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A-2 to Part 60 - Test Methods 2G through 3C

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the main probe to extend its reach. 3.6 “May,” “Must,” “Shall,” “Should,” and the imperative form of...,” and the imperative form of verbs (such as “record” or “enter”) are used to indicate that a provision... results on a form similar to Table 2F-1 presented in Method 2F. If there is visible damage to the 3-D...

  12. Enzymatic Comparisons of Aspergillus niger PhyA and Escherichia coli AppA2 Phytases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was to compare three phytase activity assays and kinetics of Aspergillus niger PhyA and Escherichia coli AppA2 phytases expressed in Pichia pastoris at the observed stomach pH of 3.5. In Experiment 1, equivalent phytase activities in the crude preparations of PhyA and AppA2 were tested ...

  13. Testing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This bulletin from Sandia National Laboratories presents current research highlights in testing technology. Ion microscopy offers new nondestructive testing technique that detects high resolution invisible defects. An inexpensive thin-film gauge checks detonators on centrifuge. Laser trackers ride the range and track helicopters at low-level flights that could not be detected by radar. Radiation transport software predicts electron/photon effects via cascade simulation. Acoustic research in noise abatement will lead to quieter travelling for Bay Area Rapid Transport (BART) commuters.

  14. Microalbumin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease, such as those with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure. Why it's done Your doctor may recommend a urine microalbumin test to detect early signs of kidney damage. Treatment may prevent or delay more advanced kidney disease. How often ...

  15. Runflat Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-09

    guidance and procedures for testing the performance characteristics of runflat tires as equipped on ground vehicles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS runflat... tire assembly tread life combat flat central tire inflation system (CTIS) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...3 3.4 Tire Assemblies ..................................................................... 3 3.5 Environmental

  16. Lead Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Childhood Exposures to Lead. CDC MMWR 56(RR08);1-14;16 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5608a1.htm. Accessed June 2009. (Revised 2007 August 20). Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM), Lead Toxicity, What Tests ...

  17. Paternity testing.

    PubMed

    Onoja, A M

    2011-01-01

    Molecular diagnostic techniques have found application in virtually all areas of medicine, including criminal investigations and forensic analysis. The techniques have become so precise that it is now possible to conclusively determine paternity using DNA from grand parents, cousins, or even saliva left on a discarded cigarette butt. This is a broad overview of paternity testing.

  18. 25. HISTORIC VIEW OF A2 ROCKET (FULLY ASSEMBLED) EXCEPT FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. HISTORIC VIEW OF A-2 ROCKET (FULLY ASSEMBLED) EXCEPT FOR GN2 CONTAINER. AT TEST STAND NO. 1 IN KUMMERSDORF. THE STAND WAS DESIGNED & CONSTRUCTED IN 1932. ROCKET IS BEING TANKED WITH LOX PRECEDING A STATIC FIRING. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  19. Composite Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    characterising the behaviour and ultimate load capacity of adhesively bonded joints for both composite-to-composite and composite-to-metal hybrid systems...novel hybrid joint details one of which involved perforations in the steel. The second detail employed bonding and bolting. The detail performed well...will be fabricated by four teams (3TEX, Space Micro, Tech Partnership, and Beltran) as part of the STTR Hybrid Joints Test Articles Program. Each

  20. Robonaut testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-05

    ISS036-E-029110 (6 Aug. 2013) --- In the International Space Station’s Destiny laboratory, NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 36 flight engineer, wears tele-operation gear consisting of a vest, gloves and visor to telerobotically test Robonaut 2’s maneuvers. Cassidy was able to manipulate R2’s head, neck, arms and fingers telerobotically through his own movements as well as through verbal commands.

  1. Robonaut testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-05

    ISS036-E-029109 (6 Aug. 2013) --- In the International Space Station’s Destiny laboratory, NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 36 flight engineer, wears tele-operation gear consisting of a vest, gloves and visor to telerobotically test Robonaut 2’s maneuvers. Cassidy was able to manipulate R2’s head, neck, arms and fingers telerobotically through his own movements as well as through verbal commands.

  2. Earthquake Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    During NASA's Apollo program, it was necessary to subject the mammoth Saturn V launch vehicle to extremely forceful vibrations to assure the moonbooster's structural integrity in flight. Marshall Space Flight Center assigned vibration testing to a contractor, the Scientific Services and Systems Group of Wyle Laboratories, Norco, California. Wyle-3S, as the group is known, built a large facility at Huntsville, Alabama, and equipped it with an enormously forceful shock and vibration system to simulate the liftoff stresses the Saturn V would encounter. Saturn V is no longer in service, but Wyle-3S has found spinoff utility for its vibration facility. It is now being used to simulate earthquake effects on various kinds of equipment, principally equipment intended for use in nuclear power generation. Government regulations require that such equipment demonstrate its ability to survive earthquake conditions. In upper left photo, Wyle3S is preparing to conduct an earthquake test on a 25ton diesel generator built by Atlas Polar Company, Ltd., Toronto, Canada, for emergency use in a Canadian nuclear power plant. Being readied for test in the lower left photo is a large circuit breaker to be used by Duke Power Company, Charlotte, North Carolina. Electro-hydraulic and electro-dynamic shakers in and around the pit simulate earthquake forces.

  3. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  4. Overexpression of Adenosine A2A Receptors in Rats: Effects on Depression, Locomotion, and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Joana E; Alves, Pedro; Canas, Paula M; Valadas, Jorge S; Shmidt, Tatiana; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Bader, Michael; Cunha, Rodrigo A; do Couto, Frederico Simões; Lopes, Luísa V

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are a sub-type of receptors enriched in basal ganglia, activated by the neuromodulator adenosine, which interact with dopamine D2 receptors. Although this reciprocal antagonistic interaction is well-established in motor function, the outcome in dopamine-related behaviors remains uncertain, in particular in depression and anxiety. We have demonstrated an upsurge of A2AR associated to aging and chronic stress. Furthermore, Alzheimer's disease patients present A2AR accumulation in cortical areas together with depressive signs. We now tested the impact of overexpressing A2AR in forebrain neurons on dopamine-related behavior, namely depression. Adult male rats overexpressing human A2AR under the control of CaMKII promoter [Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR)] and aged-matched wild-types (WT) of the same strain (Sprague-Dawley) were studied. The forced swimming test (FST), sucrose preference test (SPT), and the open-field test (OFT) were performed to evaluate behavioral despair, anhedonia, locomotion, and anxiety. Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) animals spent more time floating and less time swimming in the FST and presented a decreased sucrose preference at 48 h in the SPT. They also covered higher distances in the OFT and spent more time in the central zone than the WT. The results indicate that Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) rats exhibit depressive-like behavior, hyperlocomotion, and altered exploratory behavior. This A2AR overexpression may explain the depressive signs found in aging, chronic stress, and Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Signatures of the A2 term in ultrastrongly coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufarelli, Tommaso; McEnery, K. R.; Maier, S. A.; Kim, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    We study a bosonic matter excitation coupled to a single-mode cavity field via electric dipole. Counter-rotating and A2 terms are included in the interaction model, A being the vector potential of the cavity field. In the ultrastrong coupling regime the vacuum of the bare modes is no longer the ground state of the Hamiltonian and contains a nonzero population of polaritons, the true normal modes of the system. If the parameters of the model satisfy the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, we find that the two polaritons are always equally populated. We show how this prediction could be tested in a quenching experiment, by rapidly switching on the coupling and analyzing the radiation emitted by the cavity. A refinement of the model based on a microscopic minimal coupling Hamiltonian is also provided, and its consequences on our results are characterized analytically.

  6. Scutellarin inhibits cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jian, Tun-Yu; He, Jian-Chang; He, Gong-Hao; Feng, En-Fu; Li, Hong-Liang; Bai, Min; Xu, Gui-Li

    2012-08-01

    Scutellarin is the most important flavone glycoside in the herbal drug Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. It is used frequently in the clinic to treat ischemic vascular diseases in China. However, the direct relationship between scutellarin and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is unclear. The present study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of scutellarin on cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP 1A2) metabolism. According to in vitro experiments, scutellarin (10-250 µM) decreased the formation of 4-acetamidophenol in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC₅₀ value of 108.20 ± 0.657 µM. Furthermore, scutellarin exhibited a weak mixed-type inhibition against the activity of CYP1A2 in rat liver microsomes, with a K(i) value of 95.2 µM. Whereas in whole animal studies, scutellarin treatment for 7 days (at 5, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the clearance (CL), and increased the T(1/2) (at 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), it did not affect the V(d) of phenacetin. Scutellarin treatment (at 5, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the AUC(0-∞) by 14.3%, 67.3% and 159.2%, respectively. Scutellarin at 30 mg/kg also weakly inhibited CYP1A2 activity, in accordance with our in vitro study. Thus, the results indicate that CYP1A2 is inhibited directly, but weakly, by scutellarin in vivo, and provide useful information on the safe and effective use of scutellarin in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. UPS Hydraulic Hybrid Delivery Van Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    , use, fuel economy, reliability, and other vehicle performance data. The in-lab portion involves dynamometer evaluation at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory to determine the fuel economy and Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted

  8. Percolation Tests for Septic Systems: A Laboratory Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, John R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how the procedures by which a certificate soil tester evaluates a parcel of land for its suitability as a site for a private sewage system or septic tank can be used by college students as a laboratory exercise in environmental geology. (HM)

  9. Flight Testing of the TWiLiTE Airborne Molecular Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Machan, Roman; Reed, Daniel; Cargo, Ryan; Wilkens, David J.; Hart, William; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Wake, Shane; hide

    2010-01-01

    In September, 2009 the TWiLiTE (Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment) direct detection Doppler lidar was integrated for engineering flight testing on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The TWiI,iTE Doppler lidar measures vertical profiles of wind by transmitting a short ultraviolet (355 nm) laser pulse into the atmosphere, collecting the laser light scattered back to the lidar by air molecules and measuring the Doppler shifted frequency of that light. The magnitude of the Doppler shift is proportional to the wind speed of the air in the parcel scattering the laser light. TWiLiTE was developed with funding from the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (11P). The primary objectives of the TWiLiTE program are twofold: 1) to advance the development of key technologies and subsystems critical for a future space based Global 3-1) Wind Mission, as recommended by the National Research Council in the recent Decadal Survey for Earth Science [1] and 2) to develop, for the first time, a fully autonomous airborne Doppler lidar and to demonstrate tropospheric wind profile measurements from a high altitude downward looking, moving platform to simulate spaceborne measurements. In this paper we will briefly describe the instrument followed by a discussion of the results from the 2009 engineering test flights

  10. Development of Vehicle Model Test for Road Loading Analysis of Sedan Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Nor, M. K.; Noordin, A.; Ruzali, M. F. S.; Hussen, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) method is offered as a means of organizing the process for rationalizing the basic vehicle body structure load paths. The application of this simplified approach is highly beneficial in the design development of modern passenger car structure especially during the conceptual stage. In Malaysia, however, there is no real physical model of SSS available to gain considerable insight and understanding into the function of each major subassembly in the whole vehicle structures. Based on this motivation, a physical model of SSS for sedan model with the corresponding model vehicle tests of bending and torsion is proposed in this work. The proposed approach is relatively easy to understand as compared to Finite Element Method (FEM). The results show that the proposed vehicle model test is capable to show that satisfactory load paths can give a sufficient structural stiffness within the vehicle structure. It is clearly observed that the global bending stiffness reduce significantly when more panels are removed from a complete SSS model. It is identified that parcel shelf is an important subassembly to sustain bending load. The results also match with the theoretical hypothesis, as the stiffness of the structure in an open section condition is shown weak when subjected to torsion load compared to bending load. The proposed approach can potentially be integrated with FEM to speed up the design process of automotive vehicle.

  11. Performance Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, CA, developed an electronic Critical Tracking Task (CTT) system that analyzes and rates a subject's visual/motor responses for Ames Research Center. Originally applied to measuring the effects of long term confinement in the mid 1960's, the CTT system is now marketed as FACTOR 1000 by Performance Factors, Inc. Alameda, CA, under a licensing agreement with Systems Technology. The system is a non-invasive, self-administered test that takes less than a minute and detects impairment from a broad range of causes, including stress, fatigue, illness, drugs, or alcohol. It is used daily by Old Town Trolley Tours, San Diego, CA, to assess each driver's physical coordination skills prior to the start of each shift. FACTOR 1000 reduces liabilities and costs related to accidents, and costs less than one dollar per day per employee. Performance Factors is now BioFactors, Inc.

  12. LADEE Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Engineers at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., prepare NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Observatory for acoustic environmental testing. Credit: NASA/Ames ----- What is LADEE? The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is designed to study the Moon's thin exosphere and the lunar dust environment. An "exosphere" is an atmosphere that is so thin and tenuous that molecules don't collide with each other. Studying the Moon's exosphere will help scientists understand other planetary bodies with exospheres too, like Mercury and some of Jupiter's bigger moons. The orbiter will determine the density, composition and temporal and spatial variability of the Moon's exosphere to help us understand where the species in the exosphere come from and the role of the solar wind, lunar surface and interior, and meteoric infall as sources. The mission will also examine the density and temporal and spatial variability of dust particles that may get lofted into the atmosphere. The mission also will test several new technologies, including a modular spacecraft bus that may reduce the cost of future deep space missions and demonstrate two-way high rate laser communication for the first time from the Moon. LADEE now is ready to launch when the window opens on Sept. 6, 2013. Read more: www.nasa.gov/ladee NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. Interferometric Creep Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    33 3 FIGURES (Continued) 16. Temperature of Zerodur sample and apparent strain * as a function of time with PZT-modulated mirror (point b...moves vertically if all mirrors are at 45 deg. The lower beam path et remains constant if the prism moves up or down or if the Zerodur plate expands...using a 2-in. Zerodur test sample at room temperature and no load except that from the weight of the top steel mirror disk, equivalent to 0.5 psi

  14. Thromboxane A2 moderates permeability after limb ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Lelcuk, S; Alexander, F; Valeri, C R; Shepro, D; Hechtman, H B

    1985-01-01

    Reperfusion after limb ischemia results in muscle edema as well as excess secretion of thromboxane A2 (TxA2), an agent associated with permeability increase in other settings. This study tests whether TxA2 moderates the permeability following limb ischemia. A tourniquet inflated to 300 mmHg was applied for 2 hours around the hind limb of four groups of dogs. In untreated animals (N = 25), 2 hours following tourniquet release, plasma TxB2 values rose from 320 pg/ml to 2416 pg/ml (p less than 0.001), and popliteal lymph values rose from 378 pg/ml to 1046 pg/ml (p less than 0.001). Platelet TxB2 was unaltered and plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha levels did not vary. Following ischemia, lymph flow (QL) increased from 0.07 to 0.37 ml/h (p less than 0.05), while the lymph/plasma (L/P) protein ratio was unchanged at 0.41. These measurements indicate increased permeability since increase in hydrostatic pressure in a second group by tourniquet inflation to 50 mmHg (N = 7) led to a rise in QL from 0.07 to 0.22 ml/h, but a fall in the L/P ratio to 0.32, a value lower than the ischemic group (p less than 0.05). Pretreatment with the imidazole derivative ketoconazole (N = 11) reduced platelet Tx synthesis from 42 ng to 2 ng/10(9) platelets, but lymph TxB2 levels rose to 1703 pg/ml after ischemia, indicating an extravascular or vessel wall site of synthesis not inhibited by ketoconazole. Pretreatment with a lower molecular weight imidazole derivative OKY 046 (N = 9) inhibited all Tx synthesis after ischemia. Prior to tourniquet inflation, both OKY 046 and ketoconazole lowered plasma TxB2 levels as well as the L/P ratio (p less than 0.05). After ischemia, OKY 046, but not ketoconazole, maintained the L/P ratio at 0.33, a value below that of untreated animals (p less than 0.05). These results indicate that nonplatelet-derived TxA2 modulates both baseline and ischemia-induced increases in microvascular permeability in the dog hind limb. PMID:3840349

  15. Emerging strategies for EphA2 receptor targeting for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Manish; Vemula, Sai Vikram; Mittal, Suresh K

    2011-01-01

    High mortality rates with cancers warrant further development of earlier diagnostics and better treatment strategies. Membrane-bound erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor tyrosine kinase class A2 (EphA2) is overexpressed in breast, prostate, urinary bladder, skin, lung, ovary and brain cancers. EphA2 overexpression in cancers, its signaling mechanisms and strategies to target its deregulation. High EphA2 expression in cancer cells is correlated with a poor prognosis associated with recurrence due to enhanced metastasis. Interaction of the EphA2 receptor with its ligand (e.g., ephrinA1) triggers events that are deregulated and implicated in carcinogenesis. EphrinA1-independent oncogenic activity and ephrinA1-dependent tumor suppressor roles for EphA2 are described. Molecular interactions of EphA2 with signaling proteins are associated with the modulation of cytoskeleton dynamics, cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and metastasis. The deregulated signaling by EphA2 and its involvement in oncogenesis provide multiple avenues for the rational design of intervention approaches. EphA2 has been tested as a drug target using multiple approaches such as agonist antibodies, RNA interference, immunotherapy, virus vector-mediated gene transfer, small-molecule inhibitors and nanoparticles. With over a decade of research, encouraging results with targeting of EphA2 expression in various pre-clinical cancer models necessitate further studies.

  16. Sickle Cell Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autoantibodies Digoxin Direct Antiglobulin Test Direct LDL Cholesterol Drug Abuse Testing EGFR Mutation Testing Electrolytes Emergency and Overdose Drug Testing Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Antibody Tests Erythrocyte ...

  17. Nuclear stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  18. APU diaphragm testing. Test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) fuel (hydrazine) tanks have had to be removed from the Columbia Shuttle (OV-102) because they have been in service for 11 years, which is the limit of their useful life. As part of an effort to determine whether the useful life of the fuel tanks can be extended, examination of the ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) diaphragm and the metal from one of the APU tanks is required. The JSC Propulsion and Power Division has requested White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to examine the EPR diaphragm thoroughly and the metal casing generally from one tank. The objective is to examine the EPR diaphragm for signs of degradation that may limit the life of its function in the APU propellant tank. The metal casing will also be examined for signs of surface corrosion.

  19. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2 assay. (a) Identification. A hemoglobin A2 assay is a device used to determine the hemoglobin A2 content...

  20. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2 assay. (a) Identification. A hemoglobin A2 assay is a device used to determine the hemoglobin A2 content...

  1. What Is Stress Testing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Stress Testing Stress Testing Also known as What Is Stress Testing? ... test and an imaging stress test. Standard Exercise Stress Test A standard exercise stress test uses an ...

  2. J-2X engine test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-01

    NASA conducted a key stability test firing of the J-2X rocket engine on the A-2 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center on Dec. 1, marking another step forward in development of the upper-stage engine that will carry humans deeper into space than ever before. The J-2X will provide upper-stage power for NASA's new Space Launch System.

  3. Detergent enhances binding of a secreted HLA-A2 molecule to solid phase peptides.

    PubMed

    Tussey, L G; Frelinger, J A

    1991-11-01

    We have constructed a secreted analogue (sA2) of the human class I molecule HLA-A2. sA2 was affinity purified both in the presence and absence of detergent and the effects of detergent on the magnitude and specificity of A2 binding to solid phase peptides tested. sA2 purified in the presence of detergent and detergent-solubilized A2 are shown to function comparably in the binding of the synthetic peptide M.Y + 57-68, a known T-cell epitope derived from the influenza A matrix protein. The molecules binding to M.Y + 57-68 typically represent 8% to 10% of the added protein. In contrast, less than 1% of sA2 protein purified in the absence of detergent binds M.Y + 57-68. This reduced binding is not due to a change in the affinity of sA2 for M.Y + 57-68. Addition of detergent at various stages of the purification and iodination procedures indicates that the longer the sA2 molecules are exposed to detergent the better they bind. However, the concentration of detergent during the actual binding assay does not appear to be critical. We also find that while the sA2-detergent and the sA2-no detergent molecules differ in the extent to which they bind various peptides, they do not differ in their patterns of binding. We conclude that detergent probably does not influence the specificity of class I/peptide binding but does increase the number of sA2 molecules that can participate in the binding of peptide either by generating and stabilizing "empty" sA2 molecules or by stabilizing a structure that is more amenable to binding peptide.

  4. Cyclopentanoid analogs of phosphatidylcholine: susceptibility to phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Lister, M D; Hancock, A J

    1988-10-01

    Six isomers of dipalmitoylcyclopentanetriol phosphocholine (cyclopentano-lecithin) were tested as potential substrates for phospholipase A2. Since each of these analogs possesses a configuration that mimics a narrow range of conformations of a glycerophospholipid molecule, the analogs were used to assess the enzyme's conformational requirements. Studies showed that all of the analogs containing the phosphocholine at the C-1 (or C-3) position could be hydrolyzed, while only one of the three analogs that contains the polar head group at the C-2 position was susceptible. Kinetic studies, however, revealed that only the all-trans-(1,3/2-1P)-cyclopentano-lecithin gave initial rates of hydrolysis that were measurable by pH-stat. Acyl group specificity of the enzyme towards the all-trans isomer was determined with an analog was acyl groups were distinguishable. The synthesis of this mixed-acid-cyclopentano-PC is described herein. When this analog was enzymatically assayed, results unequivocally showed the enzyme to be specific for C-2 acyl hydrolysis. This specificity, and data showing that the all-trans analog is stereospecifically hydrolyzed, indicate that it is acted on in an analogous manner to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. These studies indicate that although the configuration of the analog is not necessarily a prerequisite for hydrolysis, there does appear to be an optimal spatial orientation for enzymatic activity. The analogy between the susceptibilities of all-trans-(1,3/2-1P)-cyclopentano-lecithin and glycero-lecithin suggests that the conformation of the glycero-lecithin during phospholipase A2-mediated hydrolysis may be best simulated by the all-trans orientation of C-O bonds in the artificial substrate.

  5. Thermal single-well injection-withdrawal tracer tests for determining fracture-matrix heat transfer area

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Doughty, C.

    2010-01-15

    Single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests involve injection of traced fluid and subsequent tracer recovery from the same well, usually with some quiescent time between the injection and withdrawal periods. SWIW are insensitive to variations in advective processes that arise from formation heterogeneities, because upon withdrawal, fluid parcels tend to retrace the paths taken during injection. However, SWIW are sensitive to diffusive processes, such as diffusive exchange of conservative or reactive solutes between fractures and rock matrix. This paper focuses on SWIW tests in which temperature itself is used as a tracer. Numerical simulations demonstrate the sensitivity of temperature returns tomore » fracture-matrix interaction. We consider thermal SWIW response to the two primary reservoir improvements targeted with stimulation, (1) making additional fractures accessible to injected fluids, and (2) increasing the aperture and permeability of pre-existing fractures. It is found that temperature returns in SWIW tests are insensitive to (2), while providing a strong signal of more rapid temperature recovery during the withdrawal phase for (1).« less

  6. Computer-Based Testing: Test Site Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Gerald A.

    Computer-based testing places great burdens on all involved parties to ensure test security. A task analysis of test site security might identify the areas of protecting the test, protecting the data, and protecting the environment as essential issues in test security. Protecting the test involves transmission of the examinations, identifying the…

  7. Vaccination with EphA2-derived T cell-epitopes promotes immunity against both EphA2-expressing and EphA2-negative tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Manabu; Kuwashima, Naruo; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Dusak, Jill E; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Reilly, Karlyne M; Storkus, Walter J; Okada, Hideho

    2004-01-01

    Background A novel tyrosine kinase receptor EphA2 is expressed at high levels in advanced and metastatic cancers. We examined whether vaccinations with synthetic mouse EphA2 (mEphA2)-derived peptides that serve as T cell epitopes could induce protective and therapeutic anti-tumor immunity. Methods C57BL/6 mice received subcutaneous (s.c.) vaccinations with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with synthetic peptides recognized by CD8+ (mEphA2671–679, mEphA2682–689) and CD4+ (mEphA230–44) T cells. Splenocytes (SPCs) were harvested from primed mice to assess the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against syngeneic glioma, sarcoma and melanoma cell lines. The ability of these vaccines to prevent or treat tumor (s.c. injected MCA205 sarcoma or B16 melanoma; i.v. injected B16-BL6) establishment/progression was then assessed. Results Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with mEphA2-derived peptides induced specific CTL responses in SPCs. Vaccination with mEPhA2 peptides, but not control ovalbumin (OVA) peptides, prevented the establishment or prevented the growth of EphA2+ or EphA2-negative syngeneic tumors in both s.c. and lung metastasis models. Conclusions These data indicate that mEphA2 can serve as an attractive target against which to direct anti-tumor immunity. The ability of mEphA2 vaccines to impact EphA2-negative tumors such as the B16 melanoma may suggest that such beneficial immunity may be directed against alternative EphA2+ target cells, such as the tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells. PMID:15563374

  8. Lab Test Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mumps Tests MPV Blood Test Mucus in Urine N Nitrites in Urine P Pap Smear Porphyrin Test ... V Vitamin D Test Vitamin E (tocopherol) Test Y Yeast Infection Test Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Laboratory ...

  9. Mononucleosis spot test

    MedlinePlus

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  10. Coccidioides precipitin test

    MedlinePlus

    Coccidioidomycosis antibody test; Coccidioides blood test; Valley fever blood test ... There is no special preparation for the test. ... The precipitin test is one of several tests that can be done to determine if you are infected with coccidioides, which ...

  11. Test ordering by GP trainees

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Simon; Morgan, Andy; Kerr, Rohan; Tapley, Amanda; Magin, Parker

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on test-ordering attitudes and intended practice of GP trainees, and any associations between changes in test ordering and trainee characteristics. Design Preworkshop and postworkshop survey of attitudes to test ordering, intended test-ordering practices for 3 clinical scenarios (fatigue, screening, and shoulder pain), and tolerance for uncertainty. Setting Three Australian regional general practice training providers. Participants General practice trainees (N = 167). Intervention A 2-hour workshop session and an online module. Main outcome measures Proportion of trainees who agreed with attitudinal statements before and after the workshop; proportion of trainees who would order tests, mean number of tests ordered, and number of appropriate and inappropriate tests ordered for each scenario before and after the workshop. Results Of 167 trainees, 132 (79.0%) completed both the preworkshop and postworkshop questionnaires. A total of 122 trainees attended the workshop. At baseline, 88.6% thought that tests can harm patients, 84.8% believed overtesting was a problem, 72.0% felt pressured by patients, 52.3% believed that tests would reassure patients, and 50.8% thought that they were less likely to be sued if they ordered tests. There were desirable changes in all attitudes after the workshop. Before the workshop, the mean number of tests that trainees would have ordered was 4.4, 4.8, and 1.5 for the fatigue, screening, and shoulder pain scenarios, respectively. After the workshop there were decreases in the mean number of both appropriate tests (decrease of 0.94) and inappropriate tests (decrease of 0.24) in the fatigue scenario; there was no change in the mean number of appropriate tests and a decrease in inappropriate tests (decrease of 0.76) in the screening scenario; and there was an increase in the proportion of trainees who would appropriately not order tests in the shoulder pain

  12. Serum apolipoprotein A2 isoforms in autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Sato, Yu; Nishiumi, Shin; Yagi, Yosuke; Sakai, Arata; Shiomi, Hideyuki; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Okaya, Shinobu; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Yoshida, Masaru; Honda, Kazufumi

    2018-03-11

    Recently, apolipoprotein A2 (apoA2) isoforms have been reported as candidate serum/plasma biomarkers of pancreatic cancer. However, the distribution of apoA2 isoforms in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has not been investigated yet. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of serum apoA2 isoforms; i.e., homodimer apoA2-ATQ/ATQ, heterodimer apoA2-ATQ/AT, and homodimer apoA2-AT/AT, in AIP patients and healthy volunteers (HV) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the clinical characteristics and serum levels of each apoA2 isoform in 32 AIP patients and 38 HV were investigated. The calculated apoA2-ATQ/AT levels of the AIP patients were significantly lower than those of the HV, which agreed with results obtained for patients with pancreatic cancer. Interestingly, most of the AIP patients exhibited high levels of apoA2-ATQ along with low levels of apoA2-AT, indicating that the processing of the C-terminal regions of apoA2 dimer was inhibited in the AIP patients. This specific distribution of serum apoA2 isoforms might provide important information about the disease states of AIP patients and aid the differential diagnosis of AIP versus pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Myoglobin urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  14. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)-2 - Exclusions from wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusions from wages. 31.3401(a)-2 Section 31... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(a)-2 Exclusions from wages. (a) In general. (1) The term “wages... specifically excepted from wages under section 3401(a). (2) The exception attaches to the remuneration for...

  15. A small peptide promotes EphA2 kinase-dependent signaling by stabilizing EphA2 dimers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deo R; Pasquale, Elena B; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-09-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase is known to promote cancer cell malignancy in the absence of activation by ephrin ligands. This behavior depends on high EphA2 phosphorylation on Ser897 and low tyrosine phosphorylation, resulting in increased cell migration and invasiveness. We have previously shown that EphA2 forms dimers in the absence of ephrin ligand binding, and that dimerization of unliganded EphA2 can decrease EphA2 Ser897 phosphorylation. We have also identified a small peptide called YSA, which binds EphA2 and competes with the naturally occurring ephrin ligands. Here, we investigate the effect of YSA on EphA2 dimer stability and EphA2 function using quantitative FRET techniques, Western blotting, and cell motility assays. We find that the YSA peptide stabilizes the EphA2 dimer, increases EphA2 Tyr phosphorylation, and decreases both Ser897 phosphorylation and cell migration. The experiments demonstrate that the small peptide ligand YSA reduces EphA2 Ser897 pro-tumorigenic signaling by stabilizing the EphA2 dimer. This work is a proof-of-principle demonstration that EphA2 homointeractions in the plasma membrane can be pharmacologically modulated to decrease the pro-tumorigenic signaling of the receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intermittent pancreatitis in a 2-year-old Chihuahua mixed breed dog

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A 2-year-old, female, Chihuahua mixed breed was presented on multiple occasions with vomiting and diarrhea. Diagnostic tests, including blood analyses and ultrasonography, established pancreatitis as the cause of gastrointestinal irritation. Hospitalization and supportive care, followed by maintenance of a prescription gastrointestinal diet, allowed management of the disease. PMID:16734375

  17. Brake testing methodology study : driver effects testing

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is exploring the feasibility of developing brake tests to measure brake system performance of light vehicles. Developing test procedures requires controlling test variability so that measured...

  18. Development of vehicle model test-bending of a simple structural surfaces model for automotive vehicle sedan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, M. K. Mohd; Noordin, A.; Ruzali, M. F. S.; Hussen, M. H.; Mustapa@Othman, N.

    2017-04-01

    Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) method is offered as a means of organizing the process for rationalizing the basic vehicle body structure load paths. The application of this simplified approach is highly beneficial in the development of modern passenger car structure design. In Malaysia, the SSS topic has been widely adopted and seems compulsory in various automotive programs related to automotive vehicle structures in many higher education institutions. However, there is no real physical model of SSS available to gain considerable insight and understanding into the function of each major subassembly in the whole vehicle structures. Based on this motivation, a real physical SSS of sedan model and the corresponding model vehicle tests of bending is proposed in this work. The proposed approach is relatively easy to understand as compared to Finite Element Method (FEM). The results prove that the proposed vehicle model test is useful to physically demonstrate the importance of providing continuous load path using the necessary structural components within the vehicle structures. It is clearly observed that the global bending stiffness reduce significantly when more panels are removed from the complete SSS model. The analysis shows the front parcel shelf is an important subassembly to sustain bending load.

  19. Test Review: TestDaF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John; Drackert, Anastasia

    2018-01-01

    The Test of German as a Foreign Language (TestDaF) plays a critical role as a standardized test of German language proficiency. Developed and administered by the Society for Academic Study Preparation and Test Development (g.a.s.t.), TestDaF was launched in 2001 and has experienced persistent annual growth, with more than 44,000 test takers in…

  20. Sonar Test and Test Instrumentation Support.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-29

    AD-AlSO 055 TEXAS UNIV AT AUSTIN APPLIED RESEARCH LABS F/6 17/1 SONAR TEST AND TEST INSTRUMENTATION SUPPORT (U) MAR 79 0 D BAKER N00140-76-C-64a7... SONAR TEST AND TEST INSTRUMENTATION SUPPORT quarterly progress report September - 30 November 197Pj 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) S...involves technical support with sonar testing, test instrumentation, and documentation. This report describes progress made under the tasks that are

  1. Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 12.0 ampere hour nickel cadmium spacecraft cells with design variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    All evaluation tests were performed at room ambient pressure and temperature, with discharges at a 2 hour rate. Tests consisted of phenolphthalein leak tests, three capacity tests, an auxiliary electrode test, a charge retention test, an internal short test, a charge efficiency test, overcharge tests, and a pressure versus capacity test. Results of the tests and recommendations for improvements in manufacturing are presented.

  2. Vasculogenic Mimicry in Prostate Cancer: The Roles of EphA2 and PI3K.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Lin, Hao; Pan, Jincheng; Mo, Chengqiang; Zhang, Faming; Huang, Bin; Wang, Zongren; Chen, Xu; Zhuang, Jintao; Wang, Daohu; Qiu, Shaopeng

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive tumor cells can form perfusable networks that mimic normal vasculature and enhance tumor growth and metastasis. A number of molecular players have been implicated in such vasculogenic mimicry, among them the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, which is aberrantly expressed in aggressive tumors. Here we study the role and regulation of EphA2 in vasculogenic mimicry in prostate cancer where this phenomenon is still poorly understood. Vasculogenic mimicry was characterized by tubules whose cellular lining was negative for the endothelial cell marker CD34 but positive for periodic acid-Schiff staining, and/or contained red blood cells. Vasculogenic mimicry was assessed in 92 clinical samples of prostate cancer and analyzed in more detail in three prostate cancer cell lines kept in three-dimensional culture. Tissue samples and cell lines were also assessed for total and phosphorylated levels of EphA2 and its potential regulator, Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K). In addition, the role of EphA2 in vasculogenic mimicry and in cell migration and invasion were investigated by manipulating the levels of EphA2 through specific siRNAs. Furthermore, the role of PI3K in vasculogenic mimicry and in regulating EphA2 was tested by application of an inhibitor, LY294002. Immunohistochemistry of prostate cancers showed a significant correlation between vasculogenic mimicry and high expression levels of EphA2, high Gleason scores, advanced TNM stage, and the presence of lymph node and distant metastases. Likewise, two prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and DU-145) formed vasculogenic networks on Matrigel and expressed high EphA2 levels, while one line (LNCaP) showed no vasculogenic networks and lower EphA2 levels. Specific silencing of EphA2 in PC3 and DU-145 cells decreased vasculogenic mimicry as well as cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, high expression levels of PI3K and EphA2 phosphorylation at Ser897 significantly correlated with the presence of vasculogenic mimicry and

  3. Vasculogenic Mimicry in Prostate Cancer: The Roles of EphA2 and PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Lin, Hao; Pan, Jincheng; Mo, Chengqiang; Zhang, Faming; Huang, Bin; Wang, Zongren; Chen, Xu; Zhuang, Jintao; Wang, Daohu; Qiu, Shaopeng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Aggressive tumor cells can form perfusable networks that mimic normal vasculature and enhance tumor growth and metastasis. A number of molecular players have been implicated in such vasculogenic mimicry, among them the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, which is aberrantly expressed in aggressive tumors. Here we study the role and regulation of EphA2 in vasculogenic mimicry in prostate cancer where this phenomenon is still poorly understood. METHODS. Vasculogenic mimicry was characterized by tubules whose cellular lining was negative for the endothelial cell marker CD34 but positive for periodic acid-Schiff staining, and/or contained red blood cells. Vasculogenic mimicry was assessed in 92 clinical samples of prostate cancer and analyzed in more detail in three prostate cancer cell lines kept in three-dimensional culture. Tissue samples and cell lines were also assessed for total and phosphorylated levels of EphA2 and its potential regulator, Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K). In addition, the role of EphA2 in vasculogenic mimicry and in cell migration and invasion were investigated by manipulating the levels of EphA2 through specific siRNAs. Furthermore, the role of PI3K in vasculogenic mimicry and in regulating EphA2 was tested by application of an inhibitor, LY294002. RESULTS. Immunohistochemistry of prostate cancers showed a significant correlation between vasculogenic mimicry and high expression levels of EphA2, high Gleason scores, advanced TNM stage, and the presence of lymph node and distant metastases. Likewise, two prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and DU-145) formed vasculogenic networks on Matrigel and expressed high EphA2 levels, while one line (LNCaP) showed no vasculogenic networks and lower EphA2 levels. Specific silencing of EphA2 in PC3 and DU-145 cells decreased vasculogenic mimicry as well as cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, high expression levels of PI3K and EphA2 phosphorylation at Ser897 significantly correlated with the

  4. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...

  5. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    GH suppression test; Glucose loading test; Acromegaly - blood test; Gigantism - blood test ... At least 3 blood samples are taken. The test is done in the following way: The first blood sample is collected between 6 ...

  6. Heart Health Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... early, when it is easier to treat. Blood tests and heart health tests can help find heart diseases or identify problems ... There are several different types of heart health tests. Your doctor will decide which test or tests ...

  7. Heart failure - tests

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... An echocardiogram (echo) is a test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart. The picture is much more detailed than a plain ...

  8. 7 CFR 3300.61 - Testing and verification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... THE SPECIAL EQUIPMENT TO BE USED FOR SUCH CARRIAGE (ATP); INSPECTION, TESTING, AND CERTIFICATION OF... accordance with ATP, Annex 1, Appendix 1, paragraphs 1, 1(a), 2(a), 2(b), 2(c) and 3, and Appendix 2...

  9. 7 CFR 3300.61 - Testing and verification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... THE SPECIAL EQUIPMENT TO BE USED FOR SUCH CARRIAGE (ATP); INSPECTION, TESTING, AND CERTIFICATION OF... accordance with ATP, Annex 1, Appendix 1, paragraphs 1, 1(a), 2(a), 2(b), 2(c) and 3, and Appendix 2...

  10. 7 CFR 3300.61 - Testing and verification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... THE SPECIAL EQUIPMENT TO BE USED FOR SUCH CARRIAGE (ATP); INSPECTION, TESTING, AND CERTIFICATION OF... accordance with ATP, Annex 1, Appendix 1, paragraphs 1, 1(a), 2(a), 2(b), 2(c) and 3, and Appendix 2...

  11. 7 CFR 3300.61 - Testing and verification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... THE SPECIAL EQUIPMENT TO BE USED FOR SUCH CARRIAGE (ATP); INSPECTION, TESTING, AND CERTIFICATION OF... accordance with ATP, Annex 1, Appendix 1, paragraphs 1, 1(a), 2(a), 2(b), 2(c) and 3, and Appendix 2...

  12. 7 CFR 3300.61 - Testing and verification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... THE SPECIAL EQUIPMENT TO BE USED FOR SUCH CARRIAGE (ATP); INSPECTION, TESTING, AND CERTIFICATION OF... accordance with ATP, Annex 1, Appendix 1, paragraphs 1, 1(a), 2(a), 2(b), 2(c) and 3, and Appendix 2...

  13. 1st SSME test of 2006

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-09

    Water vapor surges from the flame deflector of the A-2 Test Stand at NASA's Stennis Space Center on Jan. 9 during the first space shuttle main engine test of the year. The test was an engine acceptance test of flight engine 2058. It's the first space shuttle main engine to be completely assembled at Kennedy Space Center. Objectives also included first-time (green run) tests of a high-pressure oxidizer turbo pump and an Advanced Health System Monitor engine controller. The test ran for the planned duration of 520 seconds.

  14. Evaluating the ototoxicity of an anti-MRSA peptide KR-12-a2.

    PubMed

    Sung, Chung Man; Kim, Hong Chan; Cho, Yong Beom; Shin, Song Yub; Jang, Chul Ho

    2017-05-31

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus is an emerging problem for the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media, and also for pediatric tympanostomy tube otorrhea. To date, there are no effective topical antibiotic drugs to treat methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus otorrhea. In this study, we evaluated the ototoxicity of topical KR-12-a2 solution on the cochlea when it is applied topically in the middle ear of guinea pigs. The antimicrobial activity of KR-12-a2 against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus strains was examined by using the inhibition zone test. Topical application of KR-12-a2 solution, Gentamicin and Phosphate Buffered Saline were applied in the middle ear of the guinea pigs after inserting ventilation tubes. Ototoxicity was assessed by Auditory Brainstem Evoked Response and Scanning Electron Microscope examination. KR-12-a2 produced an inhibition zone against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus from 6.25 μg. Hearing threshold in the KR-12-a2 and PBS groups were similar to that before ventilation tube insertion. However, the Gentamicin group showed elevation of the hearing threshold and there were statistically significant differences compared to the PBS or the KR-12-a2 group. In the SEM findings, the KR-12-a2 group showed intact outer hair cells. However, the GM group showed total loss of outer hair cells. In our experiment, topically applied KR-12-a2 solution did not cause hearing loss or cochlear damage in guinea pigs. In our experiment, topically applied KR-12-a2 solution did not cause hearing loss or cochlear damage in guinea pigs. The KR-12-a2 solution can be used as ototopical drops for treating methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus otorrhea; however, further evaluations, such as the definition of optimal concentration and combination, are necessary. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Emerging strategies for EphA2 receptor targeting for cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Manish; Vemula, Sai Vikram; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field High mortality rates with cancers warrant further development of earlier diagnostics and better treatment strategies. Membrane-bound hepatocellular receptor tyrosine kinase class A2 (EphA2) is overexpressed in breast, prostate, urinary bladder, skin, lung, ovary and brain cancers. Areas covered in this review This review describes EphA2 overexpression in cancers, its signaling mechanisms and strategies to target its deregulation. What will the reader will gain High EphA2 expression in cancer cells is correlated to a poor prognosis associated with recurrence due to enhanced metastasis. Interaction of the EphA2 receptor with its ligand (e.g., EphrinA1) triggers events that are deregulated and implicated in carcinogenesis. Both EphrinA1-independent oncogenic activity and EphrinA1-dependent tumor suppressor roles for EphA2 are described. Molecular interactions of EphA2 with signaling proteins are associated with the modulation of cytoskeleton dynamics, cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and metastasis. The deregulated signaling by EphA2 and its involvement in oncogenesis provide multiple avenues for the rational design of intervention approaches. Take home message EphA2 has been tested as a drug target using multiple approaches such as agonist antibodies, RNA interference, immunotherapy, virus vectors-mediated gene transfer, small molecule inhibitors and nanoparticles. With over a decade of research, encouraging results with successful targeting of EphA2 expression in various pre-clinical cancer models necessitate further studies. PMID:21142802

  16. Final Report of the Rifling Profile Push Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    barrel lands through the copper alloy jacket, as shown in figure 6. As a result, compression of the jacket material above the steel core will occur...resistance pressure of the M855 projectile in an M16A2 barrel section. The M855 test projectiles were tested in a 2 × 2 matrix, two different M16A2 barrel ...1 Figure 2. M16A2 barrel machined section. The units of measure are in cm.................................2 Figure 3

  17. Draft Test Guideline: Daphnid Chronic Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  18. Draft Test Guideline: Chironomid Sediment Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  19. Draft Test Guideline: Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  20. Draft Test Guideline: Mysid Acute Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  1. Draft Test Guideline: Penaeid Acute Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  2. Tests, Testing, and Genuine School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The pressing need to improve achievement in American schools is widely recognized. In "Tests, Testing, and Genuine School Reform," Herbert J. Walberg draws on scientific studies of tests and their uses to inform citizens, educators, and policy makers about well-established principles of testing, current problems, and promising evidence-based…

  3. Draft Test Guideline: Mysid Chronic Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  4. Google Test MPI Listener

    SciTech Connect

    Oxberry, Geoffrey

    Google Test MPI Listener is a plugin for the Google Test c++ unit testing library that organizes test output of software that uses both the MPI parallel programming model and Google Test. Typically, such output is ordered arbitrarily and disorganized, making difficult the process of interpreting test output. This plug organizes output in MPI rank order, enabling easy interpretation of test results.

  5. Management matters: Testing a mitigation strategy of nitrous oxide emissions on managed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Kathrin; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Eugster, Werner; Koller, Patrick; Käslin, Florian; Merbold, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    The magnitude of greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange between managed grasslands and the atmosphere depends besides climate predominantly on management practices. While natural or extensively managed grasslands are known to function as GHG sinks, intensively managed grasslands are characterized by substantial nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions diminishing their sink function. One potential N2O mitigation strategy is to reduce the required amount of nitrogen (N) fertilizer input by using biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) via legumes. However, the effect of legumes on nitrous oxide emissions is still not fully understood. In this study we quantify net GHG fluxes from two differently managed grassland parcels (mitigation, control) and relate our results to productivity (yields). In addition, we aim at revealing the influence of various driver variables on N2O exchange. Our experimental setup consisted of an eddy covariance tower that measured the net exchange of the three major anthropogenic GHGs, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Both grassland parcels can be covered with this tower due to two prevailing wind directions. GHG flux measurements were accompanied by measurements of commonly known driver variables such as water filled pore space, soil temperature, soil oxygen concentrations and mineral N to disentangle the soil meteorological influence of N2O fluxes from human drivers. Following organic fertilizer application, we measured elevated N2O emissions (>1 nmol m-2 s-1) at the control parcel and unchanged N2O emissions at the treatment parcel. Net annual fluxes were 54% and 50% lower at the experimental parcel in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Annual yields did not significantly differ between parcels, but were slightly lower at the experimental parcel compared to the control parcel. Significantly lower nitrous oxide fluxes under experimental management indicate that nitrous oxide emissions can be effectively reduced at very low costs with a clover

  6. Test Series 2. 4: detailed test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    Test Series 2.4 comprises the fourth sub-series of tests to be scheduled as a part of Test Series 2, the second stage of the combustion research program to be carried out at the Grimethorpe Experimental Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Facility. Test Series 2.1, the first sub-series of tests, was completed in February 1983, and the first part of the second sub-series, Test Series 2.3, in October 1983. Test Series 2.2 was completed in February 1984 after which the second part of Test Series 2.3 commenced. The Plan for Test Series 2.4 consists of 350 data gathering hours to be completedmore » within 520 coal burning hours. This document provides a brief description of the Facility and modifications which have been made following the completion of Test Series 2.1. No further modifications were made following the completion of the first part of Test Series 2.3 or Test Series 2.2. The operating requirements for Test Series 2.4 are specified. The tests will be performed using a UK coal (Lady Windsor), and a UK limestone (Middleton) both nominated by the FRG. Seven objectives are proposed which are to be fulfilled by thirteen test conditions. Six part load tests based on input supplied by Kraftwerk Union AG are included. The cascade is expected to be on line for each test condition and total cascade exposure is expected to be in excess of 450 hours. Details of sampling and special measurements are given. A test plan schedule envisages the full test series being completed within a two month calendar period. Finally, a number of contingency strategies are proposed. 3 figures, 14 tables.« less

  7. Herbicide Tests For Kudzu Eradication

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller; Ronald E. True

    1986-01-01

    Kudzu control treatments using 15 herbicides at 1 and 2 rates were tested at six locations in Georgia and Alabama. Treatments and retreatments occurred over a 2-year period. Tordon® 101 Mixture at 2 gal/acre was the most cost-effective treatment, averaging about $77 per acre for herbicide costs. Tordon® 10K Pellets (presently not being manufactured) gave slightly...

  8. Aggravated brain damage after hypoxic ischemia in immature adenosine A2A knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Adén, Ulrika; Halldner, Linda; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Dalmau, Ishar; Ledent, Catherine; Fredholm, Bertil B

    2003-03-01

    Cerebral hypoxic ischemia (HI) is an important cause of brain injury in the newborn infant. Adenosine is believed to protect against HI brain damage. However, the roles of the different adenosine receptors are unclear, particularly in young animals. We examined the role of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) using 7-day-old A2A knockout (A2AR(-/-)) mice in a model of HI. HI was induced in 7-day-old CD1 mice by exposure to 8% oxygen for 30 minutes after occlusion of the left common carotid artery. The resulting unilateral focal lesion was evaluated with the use of histopathological scoring and measurements of residual brain areas at 5 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months after HI. Behavioral evaluation of brain injury by locomotor activity, rotarod, and beam-walking test was made 3 weeks and 3 months after HI. Cortical cerebral blood flow, assessed by laser-Doppler flowmetry, and rectal temperature were measured during HI. Reduction in cortical cerebral blood flow during HI and rectal temperature did not differ between wild-type (A2AR(+/+)) and knockout mice. In the A2AR(-/-) animals, brain injury was aggravated compared with wild-type mice. The A2AR(-/-) mice subjected to HI displayed increased forward locomotion and impaired rotarod performance in adulthood compared with A2AR(+/+) mice subjected to HI, whereas beam-walking performance was similarly defective in both groups. These results suggest that, in contrast to the situation in adult animals, A2AR play an important protective role in neonatal HI brain injury.

  9. Adenosine A2B Receptor Deficiency Promotes Host Defenses against Gram-Negative Bacterial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Kathryn E.; Cagnina, R. Elaine; Burdick, Marie D.; Linden, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Activation of the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) promotes antiinflammatory effects in diverse biological settings, but the role of this receptor in antimicrobial host defense in the lung has not been established. Gram-negative bacillary pneumonia is a common and serious illness associated with high morbidity and mortality, the treatment of which is complicated by increasing rates of antibiotic resistance. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that absence of adenosine A2B receptor signaling promotes host defense against bacterial pneumonia. Methods: We used a model of Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in wild-type mice and mice with targeted deletion of the A2BR. Host responses were compared in vivo and leukocyte responses to the bacteria were examined in vitro. Measurements and Main Results: A2BR–/– mice demonstrated enhanced bacterial clearance from the lung and improved survival after infection with K. pneumoniae compared with wild-type controls, an effect that was mediated by bone marrow–derived cells. Leukocyte recruitment to the lungs and expression of inflammatory cytokines did not differ between A2BR–/– and wild-type mice, but A2BR–/– neutrophils exhibited sixfold greater bactericidal activity and enhanced production of neutrophil extracellular traps compared with wild-type neutrophils when incubated with K. pneumoniae. Consistent with this finding, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from A2BR–/– mice with Klebsiella pneumonia contained more extracellular DNA compared with wild-type mice with pneumonia. Conclusions: These data suggest that the absence of A2BR signaling enhances antimicrobial activity in gram-negative bacterial pneumonia. PMID:22997203

  10. 17 CFR 240.6a-2 - Amendments to application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amendments to application. 240.6a-2 Section 240.6a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  11. 17 CFR 240.6a-2 - Amendments to application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amendments to application. 240.6a-2 Section 240.6a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  12. 17 CFR 240.6a-2 - Amendments to application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendments to application. 240.6a-2 Section 240.6a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  13. 12 CFR 708a.2 - Authority to convert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to convert. 708a.2 Section 708a.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CONVERSION OF... form without the prior approval of the NCUA, subject to applicable law governing mutual savings banks...

  14. Roles of EphA2 in Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Eun; Son, Alexander I.; Zhou, Renping

    2013-01-01

    The Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has been implicated in the regulation of many aspects of mammalian development. Recent analyses have revealed that the EphA2 receptor is a key modulator for a wide variety of cellular functions. This review focuses on the roles of EphA2 in both development and disease. PMID:24705208

  15. 40 CFR 721.4585 - Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed... Substances § 721.4585 Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as lecithins...

  16. 32 CFR 809a.2 - Military responsibility and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military responsibility and authority. 809a.2 Section 809a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... installations, to ensure the uninterrupted and successful accomplishment of the Air Force mission. (b) Each...

  17. 32 CFR 809a.2 - Military responsibility and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military responsibility and authority. 809a.2 Section 809a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... installations, to ensure the uninterrupted and successful accomplishment of the Air Force mission. (b) Each...

  18. 32 CFR 809a.2 - Military responsibility and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military responsibility and authority. 809a.2 Section 809a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... installations, to ensure the uninterrupted and successful accomplishment of the Air Force mission. (b) Each...

  19. 32 CFR 809a.2 - Military responsibility and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military responsibility and authority. 809a.2 Section 809a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... installations, to ensure the uninterrupted and successful accomplishment of the Air Force mission. (b) Each...

  20. 32 CFR 809a.2 - Military responsibility and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military responsibility and authority. 809a.2 Section 809a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... installations, to ensure the uninterrupted and successful accomplishment of the Air Force mission. (b) Each...