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Sample records for a2-desulfoferrodoxin operon enzymes

  1. An operon encoding three glycolytic enzymes in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase and triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Branny, P; de la Torre, F; Garel, J R

    1998-04-01

    The structural genes gap, pgk and tpi encoding three glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), respectively, have been cloned and sequenced from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus). The genes were isolated after screening genomic sublibraries with specific gap and pgk probes obtained by PCR amplification of chromosomal DNA with degenerate primers corresponding to amino acid sequences highly conserved in GAPDHs and PGKs. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the three genes were organized in the order gap-pgk-tpi. The translation start codons of the three genes were identified by alignment of the N-terminal sequences. These genes predicted polypeptide chains of 338, 403 and 252 amino acids for GAPDH, PGK and TPI, respectively, and they were separated by 96 bp between gap and pgk, and by only 18 bp between pgk and tpi. The codon usage in gap, pgk, tpi and three other glycolytic genes from L. bulgaricus differed, noticeably from that in other chromosomal genes. The site of transcriptional initiation was located by primer extension, and a probable promoter was identified for the gap-pgk-tpi operon. Northern hybridization of total RNA with specific probes showed two transcripts, an mRNA of 1.4 kb corresponding to the gap gene, and a less abundant mRNA of 3.4 kb corresponding to the gap-pgk-tpi cluster. The absence of a visible terminator in the 3'-end of the shorter transcript and the location of this 3'-end inside the pgk gene indicated that this shorter transcript was produced by degradation of the longer one, rather than by an early termination of transcription after the gap gene.

  2. The cell wall and cell division gene cluster in the Mra operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: cloning, production, and purification of active enzymes.

    PubMed

    Azzolina, B A; Yuan, X; Anderson, M S; El-Sherbeini, M

    2001-04-01

    We have cloned the Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell wall biosynthesis and cell division gene cluster that corresponds to the mra operon in the 2-min region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. The organization of the two chromosomal regions in P. aeruginosa and E. coli is remarkably similar with the following gene order: pbp3/pbpB, murE, murF, mraY, murD, ftsW, murG, murC, ddlB, ftsQ, ftsA, ftsZ, and envA/LpxC. All of the above P. aeruginosa genes are transcribed from the same strand of DNA with very small, if any, intragenic regions, indicating that these genes may constitute a single operon. All five amino acid ligases, MurC, MurD, MurE, MurF, and DdlB, in addition to MurG and MraY were cloned in expression vectors. The four recombinant P. aeruginosa Mur ligases, MurC, MurD, MurE, and MurF were overproduced in E. coli and purified as active enzymes. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  3. Bacillus subtilis mutant LicT antiterminators exhibiting enzyme I- and HPr-independent antitermination affect catabolite repression of the bglPH operon.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Cordula; Hecker, Michael; Le Coq, Dominique; Deutscher, Josef

    2002-09-01

    The Bacillus subtilis antiterminator LicT regulates the expression of bglPH and bglS, which encode the enzymes for the metabolism of aryl-beta-glucosides and the beta-glucanase BglS. The N-terminal domain of LicT (first 55 amino acids) prevents the formation of rho-independent terminators on the respective transcripts by binding to target sites overlapping these terminators. Proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) regulate the antitermination activity of LicT by phosphorylating histidines in its two PTS regulation domains (PRDs). Phosphorylation at His-100 in PRD-1 requires the PTS proteins enzyme I and HPr and the phosphorylated permease BglP and inactivates LicT. During transport and phosphorylation of aryl-beta-glucosides, BglP is dephosphorylated, which renders LicT active and thus leads to bglPH and bglS induction. In contrast, phosphorylation at His-207 and/or His-269 in PRD-2, which requires only enzyme I and HPr, is absolutely necessary for LicT activity and bglPH and bglS expression. We isolated spontaneous licT mutants expressing bglPH even when enzyme I and HPr were absent (as indicated by the designation "Pia" [PTS-independent antitermination]). Introduced in a ptsHI(+) strain, two classes of licT(Pia) mutations could be distinguished. Mutants synthesizing LicT(Pia) antiterminators altered in PRD-2 still required induction by aryl-beta-glucosides, whereas mutations affecting PRD-1 caused constitutive bglPH expression. One of the two carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mechanisms operative for bglPH requires the rho-independent terminator and is probably prevented when LicT is activated by P approximately His-HPr-dependent phosphorylation in PRD-2 (where the prefix "P approximately " stands for "phospho"). During CCR, the small amount of P approximately His-HPr present in cells growing on repressing PTS sugars probably leads to insufficient phosphorylation at PRD-2 of LicT and therefore to reduced bglPH expression

  4. Bacillus subtilis Mutant LicT Antiterminators Exhibiting Enzyme I- and HPr-Independent Antitermination Affect Catabolite Repression of the bglPH Operon

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Cordula; Hecker, Michael; Le Coq, Dominique; Deutscher, Josef

    2002-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis antiterminator LicT regulates the expression of bglPH and bglS, which encode the enzymes for the metabolism of aryl-β-glucosides and the β-glucanase BglS. The N-terminal domain of LicT (first 55 amino acids) prevents the formation of ρ-independent terminators on the respective transcripts by binding to target sites overlapping these terminators. Proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) regulate the antitermination activity of LicT by phosphorylating histidines in its two PTS regulation domains (PRDs). Phosphorylation at His-100 in PRD-1 requires the PTS proteins enzyme I and HPr and the phosphorylated permease BglP and inactivates LicT. During transport and phosphorylation of aryl-β-glucosides, BglP is dephosphorylated, which renders LicT active and thus leads to bglPH and bglS induction. In contrast, phosphorylation at His-207 and/or His-269 in PRD-2, which requires only enzyme I and HPr, is absolutely necessary for LicT activity and bglPH and bglS expression. We isolated spontaneous licT mutants expressing bglPH even when enzyme I and HPr were absent (as indicated by the designation “Pia” [PTS-independent antitermination]). Introduced in a ptsHI+ strain, two classes of licT(Pia) mutations could be distinguished. Mutants synthesizing LicT(Pia) antiterminators altered in PRD-2 still required induction by aryl-β-glucosides, whereas mutations affecting PRD-1 caused constitutive bglPH expression. One of the two carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mechanisms operative for bglPH requires the ρ-independent terminator and is probably prevented when LicT is activated by P∼His-HPr-dependent phosphorylation in PRD-2 (where the prefix “P∼” stands for “phospho”). During CCR, the small amount of P∼His-HPr present in cells growing on repressing PTS sugars probably leads to insufficient phosphorylation at PRD-2 of LicT and therefore to reduced bglPH expression. In agreement with this concept

  5. Evidence against the selfish operon theory.

    PubMed

    Pál, Csaba; Hurst, Laurence D

    2004-06-01

    According to the selfish operon hypothesis, the clustering of genes and their subsequent organization into operons is beneficial for the constituent genes because it enables the horizontal gene transfer of weakly selected, functionally coupled genes. The majority of these are expected to be non-essential genes. From our analysis of the Escherichia coli genome, we conclude that the selfish operon hypothesis is unlikely to provide a general explanation for clustering nor can it account for the gene composition of operons. Contrary to expectations, essential genes with related functions have an especially strong tendency to cluster, even if they are not in operons. Moreover, essential genes are particularly abundant in operons.

  6. Enzyme

    MedlinePlus

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  7. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  8. The complete nucleotide sequence of the glnALG operon of Escherichia coli K12.

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Ríos, J; Sánchez-Pescador, R; Urdea, M; Covarrubias, A A

    1987-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the E. coli glnALG operon has been determined. The glnL (ntrB) and glnG (ntrC) genes present a high homology, at the nucleotide and aminoacid levels, with the corresponding genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The predicted aminoacid sequence for glutamine synthetase allowed us to locate some of the enzyme domains. The structure of this operon is discussed. PMID:2882477

  9. Detecting uber-operons in prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Che, Dongsheng; Li, Guojun; Mao, Fenglou; Wu, Hongwei; Xu, Ying

    2006-01-01

    We present a study on computational identification of uber-operons in a prokaryotic genome, each of which represents a group of operons that are evolutionarily or functionally associated through operons in other (reference) genomes. Uber-operons represent a rich set of footprints of operon evolution, whose full utilization could lead to new and more powerful tools for elucidation of biological pathways and networks than what operons have provided, and a better understanding of prokaryotic genome structures and evolution. Our prediction algorithm predicts uber-operons through identifying groups of functionally or transcriptionally related operons, whose gene sets are conserved across the target and multiple reference genomes. Using this algorithm, we have predicted uber-operons for each of a group of 91 genomes, using the other 90 genomes as references. In particular, we predicted 158 uber-operons in Escherichia coli K12 covering 1830 genes, and found that many of the uber-operons correspond to parts of known regulons or biological pathways or are involved in highly related biological processes based on their Gene Ontology (GO) assignments. For some of the predicted uber-operons that are not parts of known regulons or pathways, our analyses indicate that their genes are highly likely to work together in the same biological processes, suggesting the possibility of new regulons and pathways. We believe that our uber-operon prediction provides a highly useful capability and a rich information source for elucidation of complex biological processes, such as pathways in microbes. All the prediction results are available at our Uber-Operon Database: http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/uber, the first of its kind.

  10. Detecting uber-operons in prokaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Che, Dongsheng; Li, Guojun; Mao, Fenglou; Wu, Hongwei; Xu, Ying

    2006-01-01

    We present a study on computational identification of uber-operons in a prokaryotic genome, each of which represents a group of operons that are evolutionarily or functionally associated through operons in other (reference) genomes. Uber-operons represent a rich set of footprints of operon evolution, whose full utilization could lead to new and more powerful tools for elucidation of biological pathways and networks than what operons have provided, and a better understanding of prokaryotic genome structures and evolution. Our prediction algorithm predicts uber-operons through identifying groups of functionally or transcriptionally related operons, whose gene sets are conserved across the target and multiple reference genomes. Using this algorithm, we have predicted uber-operons for each of a group of 91 genomes, using the other 90 genomes as references. In particular, we predicted 158 uber-operons in Escherichia coli K12 covering 1830 genes, and found that many of the uber-operons correspond to parts of known regulons or biological pathways or are involved in highly related biological processes based on their Gene Ontology (GO) assignments. For some of the predicted uber-operons that are not parts of known regulons or pathways, our analyses indicate that their genes are highly likely to work together in the same biological processes, suggesting the possibility of new regulons and pathways. We believe that our uber-operon prediction provides a highly useful capability and a rich information source for elucidation of complex biological processes, such as pathways in microbes. All the prediction results are available at our Uber-Operon Database: , the first of its kind. PMID:16682449

  11. Operon-mapper: A Web Server for Precise Operon Identification in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Blanca; Estrada, Karel; Ciria, Ricardo; Merino, Enrique

    2018-06-19

    Operon-mapper is a web server that accurately, easily, and directly predicts the operons of any bacterial or archaeal genome sequence. The operon predictions are based on the intergenic distance of neighboring genes as well as the functional relationships of their protein-coding products. To this end, Operon-mapper finds all the ORFs within a given nucleotide sequence, along with their genomic coordinates, orthology groups, and functional relationships. We believe that Operon-mapper, due to its accuracy, simplicity and speed, as well as the relevant information that it generates, will be a useful tool for annotating and characterizing genomic sequences. http://biocomputo.ibt.unam.mx/operon_mapper/.

  12. Evolutionary dynamics of nematode operons: easy come, slow go.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wenfeng; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2008-03-01

    Operons are widespread in prokaryotes, but are uncommon in eukaryotes, except nematode worms, where approximately 15% of genes reside in over 1100 operons in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. It is unclear how operons have become abundant in nematode genomes. The "one-way street" hypothesis asserts that once formed by chance, operons are very difficult to break, because the breakage would leave downstream genes in an operon without a promoter, and hence, unexpressed. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the presence and absence of C. elegans operons in Caenorhabditis briggsae, Caenorhabditis remanei, and Caenorhabditis brenneri, using Pristionchus pacificus and Brugia malayi as outgroups, and identified numerous operon gains and losses. Coupled with experimental examination of trans-splicing patterns, our comparative genomic analysis revealed diverse molecular mechanisms of operon losses, including inversion, insertion, and relocation, but the presence of internal promoters was not found to facilitate operon losses. In several cases, the data allowed inference of mechanisms by which downstream genes are expressed after operon breakage. We found that the rate of operon gain is approximately 3.3 times that of operon loss. Thus, the evolutionary dynamics of nematode operons is better described as "easy come, slow go," rather than a "one-way street." Based on a mathematic model of operon gains and losses and additional assumptions, we projected that the number of operons in C. elegans will continue to rise by 6%-18% in future evolution before reaching equilibrium between operon gains and losses.

  13. Escherichia coli mutant with altered respiratory control of the frd operon.

    PubMed Central

    Iuchi, S; Kuritzkes, D R; Lin, E C

    1985-01-01

    In wild-type Escherichia coli, fumarate reductase encoded by the frd operon is inducible by its substrate in the absence of molecular oxygen and nitrate. Synthesis of this enzyme under permissive conditions requires the fnr+ gene product, which is believed to be a pleiotropic regulatory protein that activates transcription. A spontaneous mutant was isolated in which the expression of the frd operon no longer depended on the presence of fumarate or the fnr+ gene product. Aerobic repression of the operon was abolished, but nitrate repression remained intact. Transductional analysis showed that the mutation was closely linked to the frd locus. The mutant phenotype strongly suggests that repression by molecular oxygen and nitrate is mediated by different mechanisms. PMID:3882660

  14. Teaching the Big Ideas of Biology with Operon Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an activity that engages students in model-based reasoning, requiring them to predict the behavior of the trp and lac operons under different environmental conditions. Students are presented six scenarios for the "trp" operon and five for the "lac" operon. In most of the scenarios, specific mutations have…

  15. Cloning and Molecular Analysis of a Mannitol Operon of Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent Phosphotransferase (PTS) type From Vibrio cholerae O395

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanath; Smith, Kenneth P.; Floyd, Jody L.; Varela, Manuel F.

    2010-01-01

    A putative mannitol operon of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase (PTS) type was cloned from Vibrio cholerae O395 and its activity studied in Escherichia coli. The 3.9 kb operon comprising of three genes is organized as mtlADR. Based on the sequence analysis, these were identified as genes encoding a putative mannitol-specific enzyme IICBA (EIIMtl) component (MtlA), a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (MtlD) and a mannitol operon repressor (MtlR). The transport of [3H]mannitol by the cloned mannitol operon in E. coli was 13.8±1.4 nmol/min/mg protein. The insertional inactivation of EIIMtl abolished mannitol and sorbitol transport in V. cholerae O395. Comparison of the mannitol utilization apparatus of V. cholerae with those of Gram-negative and Gram positive bacteria suggests highly conserved nature of the system. MtlA and MtlD exhibit 75% similarity with corresponding sequences of E. coli mannitol operon genes, while MtlR has 63% similarity with MtlR of E. coli. The cloning of V. cholerae mannitol utilization system in an E. coli background will help in elucidating the functional properties of this operon. PMID:21184218

  16. Multiple regulatory elements for the glpA operon encoding anaerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and the glpD operon encoding aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli: further characterization of respiratory control.

    PubMed

    Iuchi, S; Cole, S T; Lin, E C

    1990-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate can be oxidized by two different flavo-dehydrogenases, an anaerobic enzyme encoded by the glpACB operon and an aerobic enzyme encoded by the glpD operon. These two operons belong to the glp regulon specifying the utilization of glycerol, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate, and glycerophosphodiesters. In glpR mutant cells grown under conditions of low catabolite repression, the glpA operon is best expressed anaerobically with fumarate as the exogenous electron acceptor, whereas the glpD operon is best expressed aerobically. Increased anaerobic expression of glpA is dependent on the fnr product, a pleiotropic activator of genes involved in anaerobic respiration. In this study we found that the expression of a glpA1(Oxr) (oxygen-resistant) mutant operon, selected for increased aerobic expression, became less dependent on the FNR protein but more dependent on the cyclic AMP-catabolite gene activator protein complex mediating catabolite repression. Despite the increased aerobic expression of glpA1(Oxr), a twofold aerobic repressibility persisted. Moreover, anaerobic repression by nitrate respiration remained normal. Thus, there seems to exist a redox control apart from the FNR-mediated one. We also showed that the anaerobic repression of the glpD operon was fully relieved by mutations in either arcA (encoding a presumptive DNA recognition protein) or arcB (encoding a presumptive redox sensor protein). The arc system is known to mediate pleiotropic control of genes of aerobic function.

  17. A global analysis of adaptive evolution of operons in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Memon, Danish; Singh, Abhay K; Pakrasi, Himadri B; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2013-02-01

    Operons are an important feature of prokaryotic genomes. Evolution of operons is hypothesized to be adaptive and has contributed significantly towards coordinated optimization of functions. Two conflicting theories, based on (i) in situ formation to achieve co-regulation and (ii) horizontal gene transfer of functionally linked gene clusters, are generally considered to explain why and how operons have evolved. Furthermore, effects of operon evolution on genomic traits such as intergenic spacing, operon size and co-regulation are relatively less explored. Based on the conservation level in a set of diverse prokaryotes, we categorize the operonic gene pair associations and in turn the operons as ancient and recently formed. This allowed us to perform a detailed analysis of operonic structure in cyanobacteria, a morphologically and physiologically diverse group of photoautotrophs. Clustering based on operon conservation showed significant similarity with the 16S rRNA-based phylogeny, which groups the cyanobacterial strains into three clades. Clade C, dominated by strains that are believed to have undergone genome reduction, shows a larger fraction of operonic genes that are tightly packed in larger sized operons. Ancient operons are in general larger, more tightly packed, better optimized for co-regulation and part of key cellular processes. A sub-clade within Clade B, which includes Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, shows a reverse trend in intergenic spacing. Our results suggest that while in situ formation and vertical descent may be a dominant mechanism of operon evolution in cyanobacteria, optimization of intergenic spacing and co-regulation are part of an ongoing process in the life-cycle of operons.

  18. Dechlorination of lindane by the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 depends on the function of the nir operon.

    PubMed Central

    Kuritz, T; Bocanera, L V; Rivera, N S

    1997-01-01

    Nitrate is essential for lindane dechlorination by the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 and Nostoc ellipsosporum, as it is for dechlorination of other organic compounds by heterotrophic microorganisms. Based on analyses of mutants and effects of environmental factors, we conclude that lindane dechlorination by Anabaena sp. requires a functional nir operon that encodes the enzymes for nitrate utilization. PMID:9150239

  19. Transcription attenuation is the major mechanism by which the leu operon of Salmonella typhimurium is controlled.

    PubMed

    Searles, L L; Wessler, S R; Calvo, J M

    1983-01-25

    Three mutations, each causing constitutive expression of the Salmonella typhimurium leu operon, were cloned into phage vector lambda gt4 on EcoRI DNA fragments carrying all of that operon except for part of the promoter-distal last gene. Sequence analysis of DNA from these phage demonstrated that each contains a single base change in the leu attenuator. Transcription of mutant DNA in vitro resulted in transcription beyond the usual site of termination. The level of beta-IPM dehydrogenase, the leuB enzyme, was elevated 40-fold in a strain carrying one of these mutations, and starvation of this strain for leucine had little effect on the amount of activity expressed. Using a strain with a wild-type promoter-leader region of the leu operon, the rates of synthesis and degradation of leu leader RNA and readthrough RNA (leu mRNA) were measured by DNA-RNA hybridizations with specific DNA probes. The rate of synthesis of the leu leader was about the same in cells grown with excess or with limiting leucine. On the other hand, the rate of synthesis of leu mRNA was 12-fold higher for cells grown in limiting leucine as opposed to excess leucine. The rate of degradation of these RNA species was the same under both conditions of growth. Thus, the variation in expression of the leu operon observed for cells grown in minimal medium is, for the most part, not caused by control over the frequency of initiation or by the differential stability of these RNA species. Rather, the variation is a direct result of the frequency of transcription termination at an attenuator site. These results taken together suggest that transcription attenuation is the major mechanism by which leucine regulates expression of the leu operon of S. typhimurium for cells growing in a minimal medium.

  20. Hypermutation in derepressed operons of Escherichia coli K12

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Barbara E.; Longacre, Angelika; Reimers, Jacqueline M.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents evidence that starvation for leucine in an Escherichia coli auxotroph triggers metabolic activities that specifically target the leu operon for derepression, increased rates of transcription, and mutation. Derepression of the leu operon was a prerequisite for its activation by the signal nucleotide, guanosine tetraphosphate, which accumulates in response to nutritional stress (the stringent response). A quantitative correlation was established between leuB mRNA abundance and leuB− reversion rates. To further demonstrate that derepression increased mutation rates, the chromosomal leu operon was placed under the control of the inducible tac promoter. When the leu operon was induced by isopropyl-d-thiogalactoside, both leuB mRNA abundance and leuB− reversion rates increased. These investigations suggest that guanosine tetraphosphate may contribute as much as attenuation in regulating leu operon expression and that higher rates of mutation are specifically associated with the derepressed leu operon. PMID:10220423

  1. Genomic analysis of a xylose operon and characterization of novel xylose isomerase and xylulokinase from Bacillus coagulans NL01.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Lin, Xi; Jiang, Ting; Ye, Weihua; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the xylose operon and properties of xylose isomerase and xylulokinase in Bacillus coagulans that can effectively ferment xylose to lactic acid. The xylose operon is widely present in B. coagulans. It is composed of four putative ORFs. Novel xylA and xylB from B. coagulans NL01 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Sequence of xylose isomerase was more conserved than that of xylulokinase. Both the enzymes exhibited maximum activities at pH 7-8 but with a high temperature maximum of 80-85 °C, divalent metal ion was prerequisite for their activation. Xylose isomerase and xylulokinase were most effectively activated by Ni(2+) and Co(2+), respectively. Genomic analysis of xylose operon has contributed to understanding xylose metabolism in B. coagulans and the novel xylose isomerase and xylulokinase might provide new alternatives for metabolic engineering of other strains to improve their fermentation performance on xylose.

  2. Positions of Trp Codons in the Leader Peptide-Coding Region of the at Operon Influence Anti-Trap Synthesis and trp Operon Expression in Bacillus licheniformis▿

    PubMed Central

    Levitin, Anastasia; Yanofsky, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and several other metabolites are all synthesized from a common precursor, chorismic acid. Since tryptophan is a product of an energetically expensive biosynthetic pathway, bacteria have developed sensing mechanisms to downregulate synthesis of the enzymes of tryptophan formation when synthesis of the amino acid is not needed. In Bacillus subtilis and some other Gram-positive bacteria, trp operon expression is regulated by two proteins, TRAP (the tryptophan-activated RNA binding protein) and AT (the anti-TRAP protein). TRAP is activated by bound tryptophan, and AT synthesis is increased upon accumulation of uncharged tRNATrp. Tryptophan-activated TRAP binds to trp operon leader RNA, generating a terminator structure that promotes transcription termination. AT binds to tryptophan-activated TRAP, inhibiting its RNA binding ability. In B. subtilis, AT synthesis is upregulated both transcriptionally and translationally in response to the accumulation of uncharged tRNATrp. In this paper, we focus on explaining the differences in organization and regulatory functions of the at operon's leader peptide-coding region, rtpLP, of B. subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Our objective was to correlate the greater growth sensitivity of B. licheniformis to tryptophan starvation with the spacing of the three Trp codons in its at operon leader peptide-coding region. Our findings suggest that the Trp codon location in rtpLP of B. licheniformis is designed to allow a mild charged-tRNATrp deficiency to expose the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and start codon for the AT protein, leading to increased AT synthesis. PMID:20061467

  3. Insertional Mutations in the Hydrogenase vhc and frc Operons Encoding Selenium-Free Hydrogenases in Methanococcus voltae

    PubMed Central

    Berghofer, Y.; Klein, A.

    1995-01-01

    Methanococcus voltae, which contains four different gene groups that encode [NiFe]-hydrogenases, was transformed with integration vectors to achieve polar inactivation of two of the four hydrogenase operons that encode the selenium-free enzymes Vhc and Frc. Transformants which were selected by their acquired puromycin resistance showed site-specific insertions in either the vhc or frc operon by single crossover events. Southern hybridization revealed tandem integrations of whole vectors in the vhc operon, whereas only one vector copy was found in the frc operon. Northern (RNA) hybridizations showed a pac transcript of defined size, indicating strong termination in front of the hydrogenase genes downstream. In spite of the apparent abolition of expression of selenium-free hydrogenases through these polar insertions, they were not lethal to cells upon growth in selenium-deprived minimal medium, which we had previously shown to strongly induce transcription of the respective operons in M. voltae. Instead, like wild-type control cultures, transformants responded to selenium deprivation only with a reduction in growth rate. We conclude that loss of the potential to express a selenium-free hydrogenase can nevertheless be balanced by very small amounts of selenium hydrogenases under laboratory conditions in which the hydrogen supply is not likely to be a limiting growth factor. PMID:16535019

  4. Gene context conservation of a higher order than operons.

    PubMed

    Lathe, W C; Snel, B; Bork, P

    2000-10-01

    Operons, co-transcribed and co-regulated contiguous sets of genes, are poorly conserved over short periods of evolutionary time. The gene order, gene content and regulatory mechanisms of operons can be very different, even in closely related species. Here, we present several lines of evidence which suggest that, although an operon and its individual genes and regulatory structures are rearranged when comparing the genomes of different species, this rearrangement is a conservative process. Genomic rearrangements invariably maintain individual genes in very specific functional and regulatory contexts. We call this conserved context an uber-operon.

  5. Influence of the feedback loops in the trp operon of B. subtilis on the system dynamic response and noise amplitude.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Chimal, Criseida; Santillán, Moisés; Rodríguez-González, Jesús

    2012-10-07

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model for the tryptophan operon regulatory pathway in Bacillus subtilis. This model considers the transcription-attenuation, and the enzyme-inhibition regulatory mechanisms. Special attention is paid to the estimation of all the model parameters from reported experimental data. With the aid of this model we investigate, from a mathematical-modeling point of view, whether the existing multiplicity of regulatory feedback loops is advantageous in some sense, regarding the dynamic response and the biochemical noise in the system. The tryptophan operon dynamic behavior is studied by means of deterministic numeric simulations, while the biochemical noise is analyzed with the aid of stochastic simulations. The model feasibility is tested comparing its stochastic and deterministic results with experimental reports. Our results for the wildtype and for a couple of mutant bacterial strains suggest that the enzyme-inhibition feedback loop, dynamically accelerates the operon response, and plays a major role in the reduction of biochemical noise. Also, the transcription-attenuation feedback loop makes the trp operon sensitive to changes in the endogenous tryptophan level, and increases the amplitude of the biochemical noise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. mar Operon Involved in Multidrug Resistance of Enterobacter aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, Renaud; Bollet, Claude; Chevalier, Jacqueline; Malléa, Monique; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Davin-Regli, Anne

    2002-01-01

    We determined the sequence of the entire marRAB operon in Enterobacter aerogenes. It is functionally and structurally analogous to the Escherichia coli operon. The overexpression of E. aerogenes MarA induces a multidrug resistance phenotype in a susceptible strain, demonstrated by a noticeable resistance to various antibiotics, a decrease in immunodetected porins, and active efflux of norfloxacin. PMID:11897595

  7. Sequence and features of the tryptophan operon of Vibrio parahemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Crawford, I P; Han, C Y; Silverman, M

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the trp operon of the marine enteric bacterium Vibrio parahemolyticus is presented. The gene order E, G, D, C(F), B, A is identical to that of other enterics. The structural genes of the operon are preceded by a long leader region encoding a 41-residue peptide containing five tryptophan residues. The organization of the leader region suggests that transcription of the operon is subject to attenuation control. The promoter-operator region of the V. parahemolyticus trp operon is almost identical to the corresponding promoter-operator of E. coli. The similarities suggest that promoter strength and operator function are identical in the two species, and that transcription initiation is regulated by repression. The operon appears to lack the internal promoter within trpD that is common in terrestrial enteric species.

  8. The rec A operon: a novel stress response gene cluster in Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Samantha A; Smalley, Darren; Smith, C. Jeffrey; Abratt, Valerie R

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis, an opportunistic pathogen of humans, is a leading cause of bacteraemias and anaerobic abscesses which are often treated with metronidazole, a drug which damages DNA. This study investigated the responses of the B. fragilis recA three gene operon to the stress experienced during metronidazole treatment and exposure to reactive oxygen species simulating those generated by the host immune system during infection. A transcriptionally regulated response was observed using quantitative RT-PCR after metronidazole and hydrogen peroxide treatment, with all three genes being upregulated under stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis of the functional role of the second gene of the operon was done using heterologous complementation and protein expression (in Escherichia coli), with subsequent biochemical assay. This gene encoded a functional bacterioferritin co-migratory protein (BCP) which was thiol-specific and had antioxidant properties, including protection of the glutamine synthetase III enzyme. This in vitro data supports the hypothesis that the genes of the operon may be involved in protection of the bacteria from the oxidative burst during tissue invasion and may play a significant role in bacterial survival and metronidazole resistance during treatment of B. fragilis infections. PMID:24703997

  9. A phylogenomic analysis of the Actinomycetales mce operons.

    PubMed

    Casali, Nicola; Riley, Lee W

    2007-02-26

    The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis harbors four copies of a cluster of genes termed mce operons. Despite extensive research that has demonstrated the importance of these operons on infection outcome, their physiological function remains obscure. Expanding databases of complete microbial genome sequences facilitate a comparative genomic approach that can provide valuable insight into the role of uncharacterized proteins. The M. tuberculosis mce loci each include two yrbE and six mce genes, which have homology to ABC transporter permeases and substrate-binding proteins, respectively. Operons with an identical structure were identified in all Mycobacterium species examined, as well as in five other Actinomycetales genera. Some of the Actinomycetales mce operons include an mkl gene, which encodes an ATPase resembling those of ABC uptake transporters. The phylogenetic profile of Mkl orthologs exactly matched that of the Mce and YrbE proteins. Through topology and motif analyses of YrbE homologs, we identified a region within the penultimate cytoplasmic loop that may serve as the site of interaction with the putative cognate Mkl ATPase. Homologs of the exported proteins encoded adjacent to the M. tuberculosis mce operons were detected in a conserved chromosomal location downstream of the majority of Actinomycetales operons. Operons containing linked mkl, yrbE and mce genes, resembling the classic organization of an ABC importer, were found to be common in Gram-negative bacteria and appear to be associated with changes in properties of the cell surface. Evidence presented suggests that the mce operons of Actinomycetales species and related operons in Gram-negative bacteria encode a subfamily of ABC uptake transporters with a possible role in remodeling the cell envelope.

  10. A phylogenomic analysis of the Actinomycetales mce operons

    PubMed Central

    Casali, Nicola; Riley, Lee W

    2007-01-01

    Background The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis harbors four copies of a cluster of genes termed mce operons. Despite extensive research that has demonstrated the importance of these operons on infection outcome, their physiological function remains obscure. Expanding databases of complete microbial genome sequences facilitate a comparative genomic approach that can provide valuable insight into the role of uncharacterized proteins. Results The M. tuberculosis mce loci each include two yrbE and six mce genes, which have homology to ABC transporter permeases and substrate-binding proteins, respectively. Operons with an identical structure were identified in all Mycobacterium species examined, as well as in five other Actinomycetales genera. Some of the Actinomycetales mce operons include an mkl gene, which encodes an ATPase resembling those of ABC uptake transporters. The phylogenetic profile of Mkl orthologs exactly matched that of the Mce and YrbE proteins. Through topology and motif analyses of YrbE homologs, we identified a region within the penultimate cytoplasmic loop that may serve as the site of interaction with the putative cognate Mkl ATPase. Homologs of the exported proteins encoded adjacent to the M. tuberculosis mce operons were detected in a conserved chromosomal location downstream of the majority of Actinomycetales operons. Operons containing linked mkl, yrbE and mce genes, resembling the classic organization of an ABC importer, were found to be common in Gram-negative bacteria and appear to be associated with changes in properties of the cell surface. Conclusion Evidence presented suggests that the mce operons of Actinomycetales species and related operons in Gram-negative bacteria encode a subfamily of ABC uptake transporters with a possible role in remodeling the cell envelope. PMID:17324287

  11. High accuracy operon prediction method based on STRING database scores.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Blanca; Verde, Cristina; Merino, Enrique

    2010-07-01

    We present a simple and highly accurate computational method for operon prediction, based on intergenic distances and functional relationships between the protein products of contiguous genes, as defined by STRING database (Jensen,L.J., Kuhn,M., Stark,M., Chaffron,S., Creevey,C., Muller,J., Doerks,T., Julien,P., Roth,A., Simonovic,M. et al. (2009) STRING 8-a global view on proteins and their functional interactions in 630 organisms. Nucleic Acids Res., 37, D412-D416). These two parameters were used to train a neural network on a subset of experimentally characterized Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis operons. Our predictive model was successfully tested on the set of experimentally defined operons in E. coli and B. subtilis, with accuracies of 94.6 and 93.3%, respectively. As far as we know, these are the highest accuracies ever obtained for predicting bacterial operons. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the predictable accuracy of our model when using an organism's data set for the training procedure, and a different organism's data set for testing, we repeated the E. coli operon prediction analysis using a neural network trained with B. subtilis data, and a B. subtilis analysis using a neural network trained with E. coli data. Even for these cases, the accuracies reached with our method were outstandingly high, 91.5 and 93%, respectively. These results show the potential use of our method for accurately predicting the operons of any other organism. Our operon predictions for fully-sequenced genomes are available at http://operons.ibt.unam.mx/OperonPredictor/.

  12. Selfish operons: the evolutionary impact of gene clustering in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J

    1999-12-01

    The Selfish Operon Model postulates that the organization of bacterial genes into operons is beneficial to the constituent genes in that proximity allows horizontal cotransfer of all genes required for a selectable phenotype; eukaryotic operons formed for very different reasons. Horizontal transfer of selfish operons most probably promotes bacterial diversification.

  13. A Fluorescent Bioreporter for Acetophenone and 1-Phenylethanol derived from a Specifically Induced Catabolic Operon.

    PubMed

    Muhr, Enrico; Leicht, Oliver; González Sierra, Silvia; Thanbichler, Martin; Heider, Johann

    2015-01-01

    The β-proteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum degrades the aromatic ketone acetophenone, a key intermediate of anaerobic ethylbenzene metabolism, either aerobically or anaerobically via a complex ATP-dependent acetophenone carboxylase and a benzoylacetate-CoA ligase. The genes coding for these enzymes (apcABCDE and bal) are organized in an apparent operon and are expressed in the presence of the substrate acetophenone. To study the conditions under which this operon is expressed in more detail, we constructed a reporter strain by inserting a gene fusion of apcA, the first gene of the apc-bal operon, with the gene for the fluorescent protein mCherry into the chromosome of A. aromaticum. The fusion protein indeed accumulated consistently with the expression pattern of the acetophenone-metabolic enzymes under various growth conditions. After evaluating and quantifying the data by fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence-based flow cytometry and immunoblot analysis, mCherry production was found to be proportional to the applied acetophenone concentrations. The reporter strain allowed quantification of acetophenone within a concentration range of 50 μM (detection limit) to 250 μM after 12 and 24 h. Moreover, production of the Apc-mCherry fusion protein in the reporter strain was highly specific and responded to acetophenone and both enantiomers of 1-phenylethanol, which are easily converted to acetophenone. Other analogous substrates showed either a significantly weaker response or none at all. Therefore, the reporter strain provides a basis for the development of a specific bioreporter system for acetophenone with an application potential reaching from environmental monitoring to petroleum prospecting.

  14. A Fluorescent Bioreporter for Acetophenone and 1-Phenylethanol derived from a Specifically Induced Catabolic Operon

    PubMed Central

    Muhr, Enrico; Leicht, Oliver; González Sierra, Silvia; Thanbichler, Martin; Heider, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The β-proteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum degrades the aromatic ketone acetophenone, a key intermediate of anaerobic ethylbenzene metabolism, either aerobically or anaerobically via a complex ATP-dependent acetophenone carboxylase and a benzoylacetate-CoA ligase. The genes coding for these enzymes (apcABCDE and bal) are organized in an apparent operon and are expressed in the presence of the substrate acetophenone. To study the conditions under which this operon is expressed in more detail, we constructed a reporter strain by inserting a gene fusion of apcA, the first gene of the apc-bal operon, with the gene for the fluorescent protein mCherry into the chromosome of A. aromaticum. The fusion protein indeed accumulated consistently with the expression pattern of the acetophenone-metabolic enzymes under various growth conditions. After evaluating and quantifying the data by fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence-based flow cytometry and immunoblot analysis, mCherry production was found to be proportional to the applied acetophenone concentrations. The reporter strain allowed quantification of acetophenone within a concentration range of 50 μM (detection limit) to 250 μM after 12 and 24 h. Moreover, production of the Apc-mCherry fusion protein in the reporter strain was highly specific and responded to acetophenone and both enantiomers of 1-phenylethanol, which are easily converted to acetophenone. Other analogous substrates showed either a significantly weaker response or none at all. Therefore, the reporter strain provides a basis for the development of a specific bioreporter system for acetophenone with an application potential reaching from environmental monitoring to petroleum prospecting. PMID:26858693

  15. BadR and BadM Proteins Transcriptionally Regulate Two Operons Needed for Anaerobic Benzoate Degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Hidetada; Hirakawa, Yuko; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris grows with the aromatic acid benzoate and the alicyclic acid cyclohexanecarboxylate (CHC) as sole carbon sources. The enzymatic steps in an oxygen-independent pathway for CHC degradation have been elucidated, but it was unknown how the CHC operon (badHI aliAB badK) encoding the enzymes for CHC degradation was regulated. aliA and aliB encode enzymes for the conversion of CHC to cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl–coenzyme A (CHene-CoA). At this point, the pathway for CHC degradation merges with the pathway for anaerobic benzoate degradation, as CHene-CoA is an intermediate in both degradation pathways. Three enzymes, encoded by badK, badH, and badI, prepare and cleave the alicyclic ring of CHene-CoA to yield pimelyl-CoA. Here, we show that the MarR transcription factor family member, BadR, represses transcription of the CHC operon by binding near the transcription start site of badH. 2-Ketocyclohexane-1-carboxyl–CoA, an intermediate of CHC and benzoate degradation, interacts with BadR to abrogate repression. We also present evidence that the transcription factor BadM binds to the promoter of the badDEFGAB (Bad) operon for the anaerobic conversion of benzoate to CHene-CoA to repress its expression. Contrary to previous reports, BadR does not appear to control expression of the Bad operon. These data enhance our view of the transcriptional regulation of anaerobic benzoate degradation by R. palustris. PMID:25888170

  16. Role of the ganSPQAB Operon in Degradation of Galactan by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Watzlawick, Hildegard; Morabbi Heravi, Kambiz; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2016-10-15

    Bacillus subtilis possesses different enzymes for the utilization of plant cell wall polysaccharides. This includes a gene cluster containing galactan degradation genes (ganA and ganB), two transporter component genes (ganQ and ganP), and the sugar-binding lipoprotein-encoding gene ganS (previously known as cycB). These genes form an operon that is regulated by GanR. The degradation of galactan by B. subtilis begins with the activity of extracellular GanB. GanB is an endo-β-1,4-galactanase and is a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 53. This enzyme was active on high-molecular-weight arabinose-free galactan and mainly produced galactotetraose as well as galactotriose and galactobiose. These galacto-oligosaccharides may enter the cell via the GanQP transmembrane proteins of the galactan ABC transporter. The specificity of the galactan ABC transporter depends on the sugar-binding lipoprotein, GanS. Purified GanS was shown to bind galactotetraose and galactotriose using thermal shift assay. The energy for this transport is provided by MsmX, an ATP-binding protein. The transported galacto-oligosaccharides are further degraded by GanA. GanA is a β-galactosidase that belongs to GH family 42. The GanA enzyme was able to hydrolyze short-chain β-1,4-galacto-oligosaccharides as well as synthetic β-galactopyranosides into galactose. Thermal shift assay as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that galactobiose is the inducer of the galactan operon regulated by GanR. DNase I footprinting revealed that the GanR protein binds to an operator overlapping the -35 box of the σ(A)-type promoter of Pgan, which is located upstream of ganS IMPORTANCE: Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive soil bacterium that utilizes different types of carbohydrates, such as pectin, as carbon sources. So far, most of the pectin degradation systems and enzymes have been thoroughly studied in B. subtilis Nevertheless, the B. subtilis utilization system of galactan, which is

  17. Transcription of the extended hyp-operon in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Agervald, Åsa; Stensjö, Karin; Holmqvist, Marie; Lindblad, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background The maturation of hydrogenases into active enzymes is a complex process and e.g. a correctly assembled active site requires the involvement of at least seven proteins, encoded by hypABCDEF and a hydrogenase specific protease, encoded either by hupW or hoxW. The N2-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 may contain both an uptake and a bidirectional hydrogenase. The present study addresses the presence and expression of hyp-genes in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. Results RT-PCRs demonstrated that the six hyp-genes together with one ORF may be transcribed as a single operon. Transcriptional start points (TSPs) were identified 280 bp upstream from hypF and 445 bp upstream of hypC, respectively, demonstrating the existence of several transcripts. In addition, five upstream ORFs located in between hupSL, encoding the small and large subunits of the uptake hydrogenase, and the hyp-operon, and two downstream ORFs from the hyp-genes were shown to be part of the same transcript unit. A third TSP was identified 45 bp upstream of asr0689, the first of five ORFs in this operon. The ORFs are annotated as encoding unknown proteins, with the exception of alr0692 which is identified as a NifU-like protein. Orthologues of the four ORFs asr0689-alr0692, with a highly conserved genomic arrangement positioned between hupSL, and the hyp genes are found in several other N2-fixing cyanobacteria, but are absent in non N2-fixing cyanobacteria with only the bidirectional hydrogenase. Short conserved sequences were found in six intergenic regions of the extended hyp-operon, appearing between 11 and 79 times in the genome. Conclusion This study demonstrated that five ORFs upstream of the hyp-gene cluster are co-transcribed with the hyp-genes, and identified three TSPs in the extended hyp-gene cluster in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. This may indicate a function related to the assembly of a functional uptake hydrogenase, hypothetically in the assembly of the small subunit of

  18. The Mercury Resistance Operon: From an Origin in a Geothermal Environment to an Efficient Detoxification Machine

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eric S.; Barkay, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Mercuric mercury (Hg[II]) is a highly toxic and mobile element that is likely to have had a pronounced and adverse effect on biology since Earth’s oxygenation ∼2.4 billion years ago due to its high affinity for protein sulfhydryl groups, which upon binding destabilize protein structure and decrease enzyme activity, resulting in a decreased organismal fitness. The central enzyme in the microbial mercury detoxification system is the mercuric reductase (MerA) protein, which catalyzes the reduction of Hg(II) to volatile Hg(0). In addition to MerA, mer operons encode for proteins involved in regulation, Hg binding, and organomercury degradation. Mer-mediated approaches have had broad applications in the bioremediation of mercury-contaminated environments and industrial waste streams. Here, we examine the composition of 272 individual mer operons and quantitatively map the distribution of mer-encoded functions on both taxonomic SSU rRNA gene and MerA phylogenies. The results indicate an origin and early evolution of MerA among thermophilic bacteria and an overall increase in the complexity of mer operons through evolutionary time, suggesting continual gene recruitment and evolution leading to an improved efficiency and functional potential of the Mer detoxification system. Consistent with a positive relationship between the evolutionary history and topology of MerA and SSU rRNA gene phylogenies (Mantel R = 0.81, p < 0.01), the distribution of the majority of mer functions, when mapped on these phylograms, indicates an overall tendency to inherit mer-encoded functions through vertical descent. However, individual mer functions display evidence of a variable degree of vertical inheritance, with several genes exhibiting strong evidence for acquisition via lateral gene transfer and/or gene loss. Collectively, these data suggest that (i) mer has evolved from a simple system in geothermal environments to a widely distributed and more complex and efficient

  19. An Inducible Operon Is Involved in Inulin Utilization in Lactobacillus plantarum Strains, as Revealed by Comparative Proteogenomics and Metabolic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Buntin, Nirunya; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat; Ritari, Jarmo; Douillard, François P; Paulin, Lars; Boeren, Sjef; Shetty, Sudarshan A; de Vos, Willem M

    2017-01-15

    The draft genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Asian fermented foods, infant feces, and shrimp intestines were sequenced and compared to those of well-studied strains. Among 28 strains of L. plantarum, variations in the genomic features involved in ecological adaptation were elucidated. The genome sizes ranged from approximately 3.1 to 3.5 Mb, of which about 2,932 to 3,345 protein-coding sequences (CDS) were predicted. The food-derived isolates contained a higher number of carbohydrate metabolism-associated genes than those from infant feces. This observation correlated to their phenotypic carbohydrate metabolic profile, indicating their ability to metabolize the largest range of sugars. Surprisingly, two strains (P14 and P76) isolated from fermented fish utilized inulin. β-Fructosidase, the inulin-degrading enzyme, was detected in the supernatants and cell wall extracts of both strains. No activity was observed in the cytoplasmic fraction, indicating that this key enzyme was either membrane-bound or extracellularly secreted. From genomic mining analysis, a predicted inulin operon of fosRABCDXE, which encodes β-fructosidase and many fructose transporting proteins, was found within the genomes of strains P14 and P76. Moreover, pts1BCA genes, encoding sucrose-specific IIBCA components involved in sucrose transport, were also identified. The proteomic analysis revealed the mechanism and functional characteristic of the fosRABCDXE operon involved in the inulin utilization of L. plantarum The expression levels of the fos operon and pst genes were upregulated at mid-log phase. FosE and the LPXTG-motif cell wall anchored β-fructosidase were induced to a high abundance when inulin was present as a carbon source. Inulin is a long-chain carbohydrate that may act as a prebiotic, which provides many health benefits to the host by selectively stimulating the growth and activity of beneficial bacteria in the colon. While certain lactobacilli can catabolize

  20. An Inducible Operon Is Involved in Inulin Utilization in Lactobacillus plantarum Strains, as Revealed by Comparative Proteogenomics and Metabolic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Buntin, Nirunya; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat; Ritari, Jarmo; Douillard, François P.; Paulin, Lars; Boeren, Sjef; Shetty, Sudarshan A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The draft genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Asian fermented foods, infant feces, and shrimp intestines were sequenced and compared to those of well-studied strains. Among 28 strains of L. plantarum, variations in the genomic features involved in ecological adaptation were elucidated. The genome sizes ranged from approximately 3.1 to 3.5 Mb, of which about 2,932 to 3,345 protein-coding sequences (CDS) were predicted. The food-derived isolates contained a higher number of carbohydrate metabolism-associated genes than those from infant feces. This observation correlated to their phenotypic carbohydrate metabolic profile, indicating their ability to metabolize the largest range of sugars. Surprisingly, two strains (P14 and P76) isolated from fermented fish utilized inulin. β-Fructosidase, the inulin-degrading enzyme, was detected in the supernatants and cell wall extracts of both strains. No activity was observed in the cytoplasmic fraction, indicating that this key enzyme was either membrane-bound or extracellularly secreted. From genomic mining analysis, a predicted inulin operon of fosRABCDXE, which encodes β-fructosidase and many fructose transporting proteins, was found within the genomes of strains P14 and P76. Moreover, pts1BCA genes, encoding sucrose-specific IIBCA components involved in sucrose transport, were also identified. The proteomic analysis revealed the mechanism and functional characteristic of the fosRABCDXE operon involved in the inulin utilization of L. plantarum. The expression levels of the fos operon and pst genes were upregulated at mid-log phase. FosE and the LPXTG-motif cell wall anchored β-fructosidase were induced to a high abundance when inulin was present as a carbon source. IMPORTANCE Inulin is a long-chain carbohydrate that may act as a prebiotic, which provides many health benefits to the host by selectively stimulating the growth and activity of beneficial bacteria in the colon. While certain

  1. Cation-induced transcriptional regulation of the dlt operon of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Koprivnjak, Tomaz; Mlakar, Vid; Swanson, Lindsey; Fournier, Benedicte; Peschel, Andreas; Weiss, Jerrold P

    2006-05-01

    Lipoteichoic and wall teichoic acids (TA) are highly anionic cell envelope-associated polymers containing repeating polyglycerol/ribitol phosphate moieties. Substitution of TA with D-alanine is important for modulation of many cell envelope-dependent processes, such as activity of autolytic enzymes, binding of divalent cations, and susceptibility to innate host defenses. D-Alanylation of TA is diminished when bacteria are grown in medium containing increased NaCl concentrations, but the effects of increased salt concentration on expression of the dlt operon encoding proteins mediating D-alanylation of TA are unknown. We demonstrate that Staphylococcus aureus transcriptionally represses dlt expression in response to high concentrations of Na(+) and moderate concentrations of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) but not sucrose. Changes in dlt mRNA are induced within 15 min and sustained for several generations of growth. Mg(2+)-induced dlt repression depends on the ArlSR two-component system. Northern blotting, reverse transcription-PCR, and SMART-RACE analyses suggest that the dlt transcript begins 250 bp upstream of the dltA start codon and includes an open reading frame immediately upstream of dltA. Chloramphenicol transacetylase transcriptional fusions indicate that a region encompassing the 171 to 325 bp upstream of dltA is required for expression and Mg(2+)-induced repression of the dlt operon in S. aureus.

  2. Cation-Induced Transcriptional Regulation of the dlt Operon of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Koprivnjak, Tomaz; Mlakar, Vid; Swanson, Lindsey; Fournier, Benedicte; Peschel, Andreas; Weiss, Jerrold P.

    2006-01-01

    Lipoteichoic and wall teichoic acids (TA) are highly anionic cell envelope-associated polymers containing repeating polyglycerol/ribitol phosphate moieties. Substitution of TA with d-alanine is important for modulation of many cell envelope-dependent processes, such as activity of autolytic enzymes, binding of divalent cations, and susceptibility to innate host defenses. d-Alanylation of TA is diminished when bacteria are grown in medium containing increased NaCl concentrations, but the effects of increased salt concentration on expression of the dlt operon encoding proteins mediating d-alanylation of TA are unknown. We demonstrate that Staphylococcus aureus transcriptionally represses dlt expression in response to high concentrations of Na+ and moderate concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+ but not sucrose. Changes in dlt mRNA are induced within 15 min and sustained for several generations of growth. Mg2+-induced dlt repression depends on the ArlSR two-component system. Northern blotting, reverse transcription-PCR, and SMART-RACE analyses suggest that the dlt transcript begins 250 bp upstream of the dltA start codon and includes an open reading frame immediately upstream of dltA. Chloramphenicol transacetylase transcriptional fusions indicate that a region encompassing the 171 to 325 bp upstream of dltA is required for expression and Mg2+-induced repression of the dlt operon in S. aureus. PMID:16672616

  3. A functional glycogen biosynthesis pathway in Lactobacillus acidophilus: expression and analysis of the glg operon

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2013-01-01

    Glycogen metabolism contributes to energy storage and various physiological functions in some prokaryotes, including colonization persistence. A role for glycogen metabolism is proposed on the survival and fitness of Lactobacillus acidophilus, a probiotic microbe, in the human gastrointestinal environment. L. acidophilus NCFM possesses a glycogen metabolism (glg) operon consisting of glgBCDAP-amy-pgm genes. Expression of the glg operon and glycogen accumulation were carbon source- and growth phase-dependent, and were repressed by glucose. The highest intracellular glycogen content was observed in early log-phase cells grown on trehalose, which was followed by a drastic decrease of glycogen content prior to entering stationary phase. In raffinose-grown cells, however, glycogen accumulation gradually declined following early log phase and was maintained at stable levels throughout stationary phase. Raffinose also induced an overall higher temporal glg expression throughout growth compared with trehalose. Isogenic ΔglgA (glycogen synthase) and ΔglgB (glycogen-branching enzyme) mutants are glycogen-deficient and exhibited growth defects on raffinose. The latter observation suggests a reciprocal relationship between glycogen synthesis and raffinose metabolism. Deletion of glgB or glgP (glycogen phosphorylase) resulted in defective growth and increased bile sensitivity. The data indicate that glycogen metabolism is involved in growth maintenance, bile tolerance and complex carbohydrate utilization in L. acidophilus. PMID:23879596

  4. Operon Formation is Driven by Co-Regulation and Not by Horizontal Gene Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Huang, Katherine H.; Arkin, Adam P.

    Although operons are often subject to horizontal gene transfer (HGT), non-HGT genes are particularly likely to be in operons. To resolve this apparent discrepancy and to determine whether HGT is involved in operon formation, we examined the evolutionary history of the genes and operons in Escherichia coli K12. We show that genes that have homologs in distantly related bacteria but not in close relatives of E. coli (indicating HGTi) form new operons at about the same rates as native genes. Furthermore, genes in new operons are no more likely than other genes to have phylogenetic trees that are inconsistent withmore » the species tree. In contrast, essential genes and ubiquitous genes without paralogs (genes believed to undergo HGT rarely) often form new operons. We conclude that HGT is not associated with operon formation, but instead promotes the prevalence of pre-existing operons. To explain operon formation, we propose that new operons reduce the amount of regulatory information required to specify optimal expression patterns. Consistent with this hypothesis, operons have greater amounts of conserved regulatory sequences than do individually transcribed genes.« less

  5. The sim Operon Facilitates the Transport and Metabolism of Sucrose Isomers in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334▿

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John; Jakubovics, Nicholas; Abraham, Bindu; Hess, Sonja; Pikis, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Inspection of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 revealed two operons that might dissimilate the five isomers of sucrose. To test this hypothesis, cells of L. casei ATCC 334 were grown in a defined medium supplemented with various sugars, including each of the five isomeric disaccharides. Extracts prepared from cells grown on the sucrose isomers contained high levels of two polypeptides with Mrs of ∼50,000 and ∼17,500. Neither protein was present in cells grown on glucose, maltose or sucrose. Proteomic, enzymatic, and Western blot analyses identified the ∼50-kDa protein as an NAD+- and metal ion-dependent phospho-α-glucosidase. The oligomeric enzyme was purified, and a catalytic mechanism is proposed. The smaller polypeptide represented an EIIA component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system. Phospho-α-glucosidase and EIIA are encoded by genes at the LSEI_0369 (simA) and LSEI_0374 (simF) loci, respectively, in a block of seven genes comprising the sucrose isomer metabolism (sim) operon. Northern blot analyses provided evidence that three mRNA transcripts were up-regulated during logarithmic growth of L. casei ATCC 334 on sucrose isomers. Internal simA and simF gene probes hybridized to ∼1.5- and ∼1.3-kb transcripts, respectively. A 6.8-kb mRNA transcript was detected by both probes, which was indicative of cotranscription of the entire sim operon. PMID:18310337

  6. Molecular Characterization and Regulation of the aguBA Operon, Responsible for Agmatine Utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Nakada, Yuji; Jiang, Ying; Nishijyo, Takayuki; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 utilizes agmatine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source via two reactions catalyzed successively by agmatine deiminase (encoded by aguA; also called agmatine iminohydrolase) and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase (encoded by aguB). The aguBA and adjacent aguR genes were cloned and characterized. The predicted AguB protein (Mr 32,759; 292 amino acids) displayed sequence similarity (≤60% identity) to enzymes of the β-alanine synthase/nitrilase family. While the deduced AguA protein (Mr 41,190; 368 amino acids) showed no significant similarity to any protein of known function, assignment of agmatine deiminase to AguA in this report discovered a new family of carbon-nitrogen hydrolases widely distributed in organisms ranging from bacteria to Arabidopsis. The aguR gene encoded a putative regulatory protein (Mr 24,424; 221 amino acids) of the TetR protein family. Measurements of agmatine deiminase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase activities indicated the induction effect of agmatine and N-carbamoylputrescine on expression of the aguBA operon. The presence of an inducible promoter for the aguBA operon in the aguR-aguB intergenic region was demonstrated by lacZ fusion experiments, and the transcription start of this promoter was localized 99 bp upstream from the initiation codon of aguB by S1 nuclease mapping. Experiments with knockout mutants of aguR established that expression of the aguBA operon became constitutive in the aguR background. Interaction of AguR overproduced in Escherichia coli with the aguBA regulatory region was demonstrated by gel retardation assays, supporting the hypothesis that AguR serves as the negative regulator of the aguBA operon, and binding of agmatine and N-carbamoylputrescine to AguR would antagonize its repressor function. PMID:11673419

  7. The groESL Chaperone Operon of Lactobacillus johnsonii†

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D. Carey; Girgis, Hany S.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    1999-01-01

    The Lactobacillus johnsonii VPI 11088 groESL operon was localized on the chromosome near the insertion element IS1223. The operon was initially cloned as a series of three overlapping PCR fragments, which were sequenced and used to design primers to amplify the entire operon. The amplified fragment was used as a probe to recover the chromosomal copy of the groESL operon from a partial library of L. johnsonii VPI 11088 (NCK88) DNA, cloned in the shuttle vector pTRKH2. The 2,253-bp groESL fragment contained three putative open reading frames, two of which encoded the ubiquitous GroES and GroEL chaperone proteins. Analysis of the groESL promoter region revealed three transcription initiation sites, as well as three sets of inverted repeats (IR) positioned between the transcription and translation start sites. Two of the three IR sets bore significant homology to the CIRCE elements, implicated in negative regulation of the heat shock response in many bacteria. Northern analysis and primer extension revealed that multiple temperature-sensitive promoters preceded the groESL chaperone operon, suggesting that stress protein production in L. johnsonii is strongly regulated. Maximum groESL transcription activity was observed following a shift to 55°C, and a 15 to 30-min exposure of log-phase cells to this temperature increased the recovery of freeze-thawed L. johnsonii VPI 11088. These results suggest that a brief, preconditioning heat shock can be used to trigger increased chaperone production and provide significant cross-protection from the stresses imposed during the production of frozen culture concentrates. PMID:10388700

  8. Prevalence of transcription promoters within archaeal operons and coding sequences

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Tie; Reiss, David J; Bare, J Christopher; Pang, Wyming Lee; Facciotti, Marc T; Schmid, Amy K; Pan, Min; Marzolf, Bruz; Van, Phu T; Lo, Fang-Yin; Pratap, Abhishek; Deutsch, Eric W; Peterson, Amelia; Martin, Dan; Baliga, Nitin S

    2009-01-01

    Despite the knowledge of complex prokaryotic-transcription mechanisms, generalized rules, such as the simplified organization of genes into operons with well-defined promoters and terminators, have had a significant role in systems analysis of regulatory logic in both bacteria and archaea. Here, we have investigated the prevalence of alternate regulatory mechanisms through genome-wide characterization of transcript structures of ∼64% of all genes, including putative non-coding RNAs in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1. Our integrative analysis of transcriptome dynamics and protein–DNA interaction data sets showed widespread environment-dependent modulation of operon architectures, transcription initiation and termination inside coding sequences, and extensive overlap in 3′ ends of transcripts for many convergently transcribed genes. A significant fraction of these alternate transcriptional events correlate to binding locations of 11 transcription factors and regulators (TFs) inside operons and annotated genes—events usually considered spurious or non-functional. Using experimental validation, we illustrate the prevalence of overlapping genomic signals in archaeal transcription, casting doubt on the general perception of rigid boundaries between coding sequences and regulatory elements. PMID:19536208

  9. Prevalence of transcription promoters within archaeal operons and coding sequences.

    PubMed

    Koide, Tie; Reiss, David J; Bare, J Christopher; Pang, Wyming Lee; Facciotti, Marc T; Schmid, Amy K; Pan, Min; Marzolf, Bruz; Van, Phu T; Lo, Fang-Yin; Pratap, Abhishek; Deutsch, Eric W; Peterson, Amelia; Martin, Dan; Baliga, Nitin S

    2009-01-01

    Despite the knowledge of complex prokaryotic-transcription mechanisms, generalized rules, such as the simplified organization of genes into operons with well-defined promoters and terminators, have had a significant role in systems analysis of regulatory logic in both bacteria and archaea. Here, we have investigated the prevalence of alternate regulatory mechanisms through genome-wide characterization of transcript structures of approximately 64% of all genes, including putative non-coding RNAs in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1. Our integrative analysis of transcriptome dynamics and protein-DNA interaction data sets showed widespread environment-dependent modulation of operon architectures, transcription initiation and termination inside coding sequences, and extensive overlap in 3' ends of transcripts for many convergently transcribed genes. A significant fraction of these alternate transcriptional events correlate to binding locations of 11 transcription factors and regulators (TFs) inside operons and annotated genes-events usually considered spurious or non-functional. Using experimental validation, we illustrate the prevalence of overlapping genomic signals in archaeal transcription, casting doubt on the general perception of rigid boundaries between coding sequences and regulatory elements.

  10. rrndb: the Ribosomal RNA Operon Copy Number Database

    PubMed Central

    Klappenbach, Joel A.; Saxman, Paul R.; Cole, James R.; Schmidt, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The Ribosomal RNA Operon Copy Number Database (rrndb) is an Internet-accessible database containing annotated information on rRNA operon copy number among prokaryotes. Gene redundancy is uncommon in prokaryotic genomes, yet the rRNA genes can vary from one to as many as 15 copies. Despite the widespread use of 16S rRNA gene sequences for identification of prokaryotes, information on the number and sequence of individual rRNA genes in a genome is not readily accessible. In an attempt to understand the evolutionary implications of rRNA operon redundancy, we have created a phylogenetically arranged report on rRNA gene copy number for a diverse collection of prokaryotic microorganisms. Each entry (organism) in the rrndb contains detailed information linked directly to external websites including the Ribosomal Database Project, GenBank, PubMed and several culture collections. Data contained in the rrndb will be valuable to researchers investigating microbial ecology and evolution using 16S rRNA gene sequences. The rrndb web site is directly accessible on the WWW at http://rrndb.cme.msu.edu. PMID:11125085

  11. Sensitivity and Specificity of an Operon Immunochromatographic Test in Serum and Whole-Blood Samples for the Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Spain, an Area of Nonendemicity

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Chavez, María; Cruz, Israel; Nieto, Javier; Gárate, Teresa; Navarro, Miriam; Pérez-Ayala, Ana; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection is an imported parasitic disease in Spain, and the majority of infected individuals are in the chronic phase of the disease. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the Operon immunochromatographic test (ICT-Operon; Simple Stick Chagas and Simple Chagas WB [whole blood]; Operon S.A., Spain) for different biological samples. Well-characterized serum samples were obtained from chagasic patients (n = 63), nonchagasic individuals (n = 95), visceral leishmaniasis patients (n = 38), and malaria patients (n = 55). Noncharacterized specimens were obtained from Latin American immigrants and individuals at risk with a clinical and/or epidemiological background: these specimens were recovered serum or plasma samples (n = 450), whole peripheral blood (n = 94), and capillary blood (n = 282). The concordance of the results by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence test was considered to be the “gold standard” for diagnosis. Serum and plasma samples were analyzed by Stick Chagas, and whole blood was analyzed by Simple Chagas WB. The sensitivity and specificity of the ICT-Operon in well-characterized samples were 100% and 97.9%, respectively. No cross-reactivity was found with samples obtained from visceral leishmaniasis patients. In contrast, a false-positive result was obtained in 27.3% of samples from malaria patients. The sensitivities of the rapid test in noncharacterized serum or plasma, peripheral blood, and capillary blood samples were 100%, 92.1%, and 86.4%, respectively, while the specificities were 91.6%, 93.6%, and 95% in each case. ICT-Operon showed variable sensitivity, depending on the kind of sample, performing better when serum or plasma samples were used. It could therefore be used for serological screening combined with any other conventional test. PMID:22761296

  12. RtcB is the RNA ligase component of an Escherichia coli RNA repair operon.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoko; Shuman, Stewart

    2011-03-11

    RNA 2',3'-cyclic phosphate ends play important roles in RNA metabolism as substrates for RNA ligases during tRNA restriction-repair and tRNA splicing. Diverse bacteria from multiple phyla encode a two-component RNA repair cassette, comprising Pnkp (polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase-ligase) and Hen1 (RNA 3'-terminal ribose 2'-O-methyltransferase), that heals and then seals broken tRNAs with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ends. The Pnkp-Hen1 repair operon is absent in the majority of bacterial species, thereby raising the prospect that other RNA repair systems might be extant. A candidate component is RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase, a widely distributed enzyme that transforms RNA 3'-monophosphate termini into 2',3'-cyclic phosphates but cannot seal the ends it produces. Escherichia coli RNA cyclase (RtcA) is encoded in a σ(54)-regulated operon with RtcB, a protein of unknown function. Taking a cue from Pnkp-Hen1, we purified E. coli RtcB and tested it for RNA ligase activity. We report that RtcB per se seals broken tRNA-like stem-loop structures with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ends to form a splice junction with a 2'-OH, 3',5'-phosphodiester. We speculate that: (i) RtcB might afford bacteria a means to recover from stress-induced RNA damage; and (ii) RtcB homologs might catalyze tRNA repair or splicing reactions in archaea and eukarya.

  13. Operon Conservation and the Evolution of trans-Splicing in the Phylum Nematoda

    PubMed Central

    Guiliano, David B; Blaxter, Mark L

    2006-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unique among model animals in that many of its genes are cotranscribed as polycistronic pre-mRNAs from operons. The mechanism by which these operonic transcripts are resolved into mature mRNAs includes trans-splicing to a family of SL2-like spliced leader exons. SL2-like spliced leaders are distinct from SL1, the major spliced leader in C. elegans and other nematode species. We surveyed five additional nematode species, representing three of the five major clades of the phylum Nematoda, for the presence of operons and the use of trans-spliced leaders in resolution of polycistronic pre-mRNAs. Conserved operons were found in Pristionchus pacificus, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Strongyloides ratti, Brugia malayi, and Ascaris suum. In nematodes closely related to the rhabditine C. elegans, a related family of SL2-like spliced leaders is used for operonic transcript resolution. However, in the tylenchine S. ratti operonic transcripts are resolved using a family of spliced leaders related to SL1. Non-operonic genes in S. ratti may also receive these SL1 variants. In the spirurine nematodes B. malayi and A. suum operonic transcripts are resolved using SL1. Mapping these phenotypes onto the robust molecular phylogeny for the Nematoda suggests that operons evolved before SL2-like spliced leaders, which are an evolutionary invention of the rhabditine lineage. PMID:17121468

  14. Interplay of Noisy Gene Expression and Dynamics Explains Patterns of Bacterial Operon Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igoshin, Oleg

    2011-03-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are organized into operons -- sets of genes co-transcribed into polycistronic messenger RNA. Hypotheses explaining the emergence and maintenance of operons include proportional co-regulation, horizontal transfer of intact ``selfish'' operons, emergence via gene duplication, and co-production of physically interacting proteins to speed their association. We hypothesized an alternative: operons can reduce or increase intrinsic gene expression noise in a manner dependent on the post-translational interactions, thereby resulting in selection for or against operons in depending on the network architecture. We devised five classes of two-gene network modules and show that the effects of operons on intrinsic noise depend on class membership. Two classes exhibit decreased noise with co-transcription, two others reveal increased noise, and the remaining one does not show a significant difference. To test our modeling predictions we employed bioinformatic analysis to determine the relationship gene expression noise and operon organization. The results confirm the overrepresentation of noise-minimizing operon architectures and provide evidence against other hypotheses. Our results thereby suggest a central role for gene expression noise in selecting for or maintaining operons in bacterial chromosomes. This demonstrates how post-translational network dynamics may provide selective pressure for organizing bacterial chromosomes, and has practical consequences for designing synthetic gene networks. This work is supported by National Institutes of Health grant 1R01GM096189-01.

  15. Unprecedented high-resolution view of bacterial operon architecture revealed by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Conway, Tyrrell; Creecy, James P; Maddox, Scott M; Grissom, Joe E; Conkle, Trevor L; Shadid, Tyler M; Teramoto, Jun; San Miguel, Phillip; Shimada, Tomohiro; Ishihama, Akira; Mori, Hirotada; Wanner, Barry L

    2014-07-08

    We analyzed the transcriptome of Escherichia coli K-12 by strand-specific RNA sequencing at single-nucleotide resolution during steady-state (logarithmic-phase) growth and upon entry into stationary phase in glucose minimal medium. To generate high-resolution transcriptome maps, we developed an organizational schema which showed that in practice only three features are required to define operon architecture: the promoter, terminator, and deep RNA sequence read coverage. We precisely annotated 2,122 promoters and 1,774 terminators, defining 1,510 operons with an average of 1.98 genes per operon. Our analyses revealed an unprecedented view of E. coli operon architecture. A large proportion (36%) of operons are complex with internal promoters or terminators that generate multiple transcription units. For 43% of operons, we observed differential expression of polycistronic genes, despite being in the same operons, indicating that E. coli operon architecture allows fine-tuning of gene expression. We found that 276 of 370 convergent operons terminate inefficiently, generating complementary 3' transcript ends which overlap on average by 286 nucleotides, and 136 of 388 divergent operons have promoters arranged such that their 5' ends overlap on average by 168 nucleotides. We found 89 antisense transcripts of 397-nucleotide average length, 7 unannotated transcripts within intergenic regions, and 18 sense transcripts that completely overlap operons on the opposite strand. Of 519 overlapping transcripts, 75% correspond to sequences that are highly conserved in E. coli (>50 genomes). Our data extend recent studies showing unexpected transcriptome complexity in several bacteria and suggest that antisense RNA regulation is widespread. Importance: We precisely mapped the 5' and 3' ends of RNA transcripts across the E. coli K-12 genome by using a single-nucleotide analytical approach. Our resulting high-resolution transcriptome maps show that ca. one-third of E. coli operons are

  16. hisT is part of a multigene operon in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Marvel, C C; Arps, P J; Rubin, B C; Kammen, H O; Penhoet, E E; Winkler, M E

    1985-01-01

    The Escherichia coli K-12 hisT gene has been cloned, and its organization and expression have been analyzed on multicopy plasmids. The hisT gene, which encodes tRNA pseudouridine synthase I (PSUI), was isolated on a Clarke-Carbon plasmid known to contain the purF gene. The presence of the hisT gene on this plasmid was suggested by its ability to restore both production of PSUI enzymatic activity and suppression of amber mutations in a hisT mutant strain. A 2.3-kilobase HindIII-ClaI restriction fragment containing the hisT gene was subcloned into plasmid pBR322, and the resulting plasmid (designated psi 300) was mapped with restriction enzymes. Complementation analysis with different kinds of hisT mutations and tRNA structural analysis confirmed that plasmid psi 300 contained the hisT structural gene. Enzyme assays showed that plasmid psi 300 overproduced PSUI activity by ca. 20-fold compared with the wild-type level. Subclones containing restriction fragments from plasmid psi 300 inserted downstream from the lac promoter established that the hisT gene is oriented from the HindIII site toward the ClaI site. Other subclones and derivatives of plasmid psi 300 containing insertion or deletion mutations were constructed and assayed for production of PSUI activity and production of proteins in minicells. These experiments showed that: (i) the proximal 1.3-kilobase HindIII-BssHII restriction fragment contains a promoter for the hisT gene and encodes a 45,000-dalton polypeptide that is not PSUI; (ii) the distal 1.0-kilobase BssHII-ClaI restriction fragment encodes the 31,000-dalton PSUI polypeptide; (iii) the 45,000-dalton polypeptide is synthesized in an approximately eightfold excess compared with PSUI; and (iv) synthesis of the two polypeptides is coupled, suggesting that the two genes are part of an operon. Insertion of mini-Mu d1 (lac Km) phage into plasmid psi 300 confirmed that the hisT gene is the downstream gene in the operon. Images PMID:2981810

  17. Chromosomal Organization of Rrna Operons in Bacillus Subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, E. D.; Widom, R. L.; LaFauci, G.; Setoguchi, Y.; Richter, I. R.; Rudner, R.

    1988-01-01

    Integrative mapping with vectors containing ribosomal DNA sequences were used to complete the mapping of the 10 rRNA gene sets in the endospore forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Southern hybridizations allowed the assignment of nine operons to distinct BclI restriction fragments and their genetic locus identified by transductional crosses. Nine of the ten rRNA gene sets are located between 0 and 70° on the genomic map. In the region surrounding cysA14, two sets of closely spaced tandem clusters are present. The first (rrnJ and rrnW) is located between purA16 and cysA14 closely linked to the latter; the second (rrnI, rrnH and rrnG) previously mapped within this area is located between attSPO2 and glpT6. The operons at or near the origin of replication (rrnO,rrnA and rrnJ,rrnW) represent ``hot spots'' of plasmid insertion. PMID:2465199

  18. A predictive biophysical model of translational coupling to coordinate and control protein expression in bacterial operons

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tian; Salis, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Natural and engineered genetic systems require the coordinated expression of proteins. In bacteria, translational coupling provides a genetically encoded mechanism to control expression level ratios within multi-cistronic operons. We have developed a sequence-to-function biophysical model of translational coupling to predict expression level ratios in natural operons and to design synthetic operons with desired expression level ratios. To quantitatively measure ribosome re-initiation rates, we designed and characterized 22 bi-cistronic operon variants with systematically modified intergenic distances and upstream translation rates. We then derived a thermodynamic free energy model to calculate de novo initiation rates as a result of ribosome-assisted unfolding of intergenic RNA structures. The complete biophysical model has only five free parameters, but was able to accurately predict downstream translation rates for 120 synthetic bi-cistronic and tri-cistronic operons with rationally designed intergenic regions and systematically increased upstream translation rates. The biophysical model also accurately predicted the translation rates of the nine protein atp operon, compared to ribosome profiling measurements. Altogether, the biophysical model quantitatively predicts how translational coupling controls protein expression levels in synthetic and natural bacterial operons, providing a deeper understanding of an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism and offering the ability to rationally engineer operons with desired behaviors. PMID:26117546

  19. Glycopeptide Resistance vanA Operons in Paenibacillus Strains Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Guardabassi, Luca; Perichon, Bruno; van Heijenoort, Jean; Blanot, Didier; Courvalin, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    The sequence and gene organization of the van operons in vancomycin (MIC of >256 μg/ml)- and teicoplanin (MIC of ≥32 μg/ml)-resistant Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B isolated from soil were determined. Both operons had regulatory (vanR and vanS), resistance (vanH, vanA, and vanX), and accessory (vanY, vanZ, and vanW) genes homologous to the corresponding genes in enterococcal vanA and vanB operons. The vanAPT operon in P. thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 had the same gene organization as that of vanA operons whereas vanAPA in P. apiarius PA-B2B resembled vanB operons due to the presence of vanW upstream from the vanHAX cluster but was closer to vanA operons in sequence. Reference P. apiarius strains NRRL B-4299 and NRRL B-4188 were found to harbor operons indistinguishable from vanAPA by PCR mapping, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and partial sequencing, suggesting that this operon was species specific. As in enterococci, resistance was inducible by glycopeptides and associated with the synthesis of pentadepsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-Ala-d-Lac, as demonstrated by d,d-dipeptidase activities, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The precursors differed from those in enterococci by the presence of diaminopimelic acid instead of lysine in the peptide chain. Altogether, the results are compatible with the notion that van operons in soil Paenibacillus strains and in enterococci have evolved from a common ancestor. PMID:16189102

  20. Glycopeptide resistance vanA operons in Paenibacillus strains isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Guardabassi, Luca; Perichon, Bruno; van Heijenoort, Jean; Blanot, Didier; Courvalin, Patrice

    2005-10-01

    The sequence and gene organization of the van operons in vancomycin (MIC of >256 microg/ml)- and teicoplanin (MIC of > or =32 microg/ml)-resistant Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B isolated from soil were determined. Both operons had regulatory (vanR and vanS), resistance (vanH, vanA, and vanX), and accessory (vanY, vanZ, and vanW) genes homologous to the corresponding genes in enterococcal vanA and vanB operons. The vanA(PT) operon in P. thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 had the same gene organization as that of vanA operons whereas vanA(PA) in P. apiarius PA-B2B resembled vanB operons due to the presence of vanW upstream from the vanHAX cluster but was closer to vanA operons in sequence. Reference P. apiarius strains NRRL B-4299 and NRRL B-4188 were found to harbor operons indistinguishable from vanA(PA) by PCR mapping, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and partial sequencing, suggesting that this operon was species specific. As in enterococci, resistance was inducible by glycopeptides and associated with the synthesis of pentadepsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors ending in D-Ala-D-Lac, as demonstrated by D,D-dipeptidase activities, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The precursors differed from those in enterococci by the presence of diaminopimelic acid instead of lysine in the peptide chain. Altogether, the results are compatible with the notion that van operons in soil Paenibacillus strains and in enterococci have evolved from a common ancestor.

  1. Insights into arsenic multi-operons expression and resistance mechanisms in Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chungui; Zhang, Yi; Chan, Zhuhua; Chen, Shicheng; Yang, Suping

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is widespread in the environment and causes numerous health problems. Rhodopseudomonas palustris has been regarded as a good model organism for studying arsenic detoxification since it was first demonstrated to methylate environmental arsenic by conversion to soluble or gaseous methylated species. However, the detailed arsenic resistance mechanisms remain unknown though there are at least three arsenic-resistance operons (ars1, ars2, and ars3) in R. palustris. In this study, we investigated how arsenic multi-operons contributed to arsenic detoxification in R. palustris. The expression of ars2 or ars3 operons increased with increasing environmental arsenite (As(III)) concentrations (up to 1.0 mM) while transcript of ars1 operon was not detected in the middle log-phase (55 h). ars2 operon was actively expressed even at the low concentration of As(III) (0.01 μM), whereas the ars3 operon was expressed at 1.0 μM of As(III), indicating that there was a differential regulation mechanism for the three arsenic operons. Furthermore, ars2 and ars3 operons were maximally transcribed in the early log-phase where ars2 operon was 5.4-fold higher than that of ars3 operon. A low level of ars1 transcript was only detected at 43 h (early log-phase). Arsenic speciation analysis demonstrated that R. palustris could reduce As(V) to As(III). Collectively, strain CGA009 detoxified arsenic by using arsenic reduction and methylating arsenic mechanism, while the latter might occur with the presence of higher concentrations of arsenic. PMID:26441915

  2. (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, a product of the mva operon of Pseudomonas mevalonii, is regulated at the transcriptional level.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y L; Beach, M J; Rodwell, V W

    1989-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced a 505-base-pair (bp) segment of DNA situated upstream of mvaA, the structural gene for (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (EC 1.1.1.88) of Pseudomonas mevalonii. The DNA segment that we characterized includes the promoter region for the mva operon. Nuclease S1 mapping and primer extension analysis showed that mvaA is the promoter-proximal gene of the mva operon. Transcription initiates at -56 bp relative to the first A (+1) of the translation start site. Transcription in vivo was induced by mevalonate. Structural features of the mva promoter region include an 80-bp A + T-rich region, and -12, -24 consensus sequences that resemble sequences of sigma 54 promoters in enteric organisms. The relative amplitudes of catalytic activity, enzyme protein, and mvaA mRNA are consistent with a model of regulation of this operon at the transcriptional level. Images PMID:2477360

  3. Increased dipicolinic acid production with an enhanced spoVF operon in Bacillus subtilis and medium optimization.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumikazu; Sumitomo, Nobuyuki; Hagihara, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Dipicolinic acid (DPA) is a multi-functional agent for cosmetics, antimicrobial products, detergents, and functional polymers. The aim of this study was to design a new method for producing DPA from renewable material. The Bacillus subtilis spoVF operon encodes enzymes for DPA synthase and the part of lysine biosynthetic pathway. However, DPA is only synthesized in the sporulation phase, so the productivity of DPA is low level. Here, we report that DPA synthase was expressed in vegetative cells, and DPA was produced in the culture medium by replacement of the spoVFA promoter with other highly expressed promoter in B. subtilis vegetative cells, such as spoVG promoter. DPA levels were increased in the culture medium of genetically modified strains. DPA productivity was significantly improved up to 29.14 g/L in 72 h culture by improving the medium composition using a two-step optimization technique with the Taguchi methodology.

  4. Bistability of the lac operon during growth of Escherichia coli on lactose and lactose+glucose.

    PubMed

    Narang, Atul; Pilyugin, Sergei S

    2008-05-01

    is proportional to e. These results imply that the lac operon is much more prone to bistability if the medium contains carbon sources that cannot be metabolized by the lac enzymes, e.g., succinate during growth on TMG/succinate and glucose during growth on lactose+glucose. We discuss the experimental data in the light of these results.

  5. A four-gene operon in Bacillus cereus produces two rare spore-decorating sugars.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi; Mukherjee, Thiya; Bowler, Kyle; Namdari, Sholeh; Snow, Zachary; Prestridge, Sarah; Carlton, Alexandra; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2017-05-05

    Bacterial glycan structures on cell surfaces are critical for cell-cell recognition and adhesion and in host-pathogen interactions. Accordingly, unraveling the sugar composition of bacterial cell surfaces can shed light on bacterial growth and pathogenesis. Here, we found that two rare sugars with a 3- C -methyl-6-deoxyhexose structure were linked to spore glycans in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10876. Moreover, we identified a four-gene operon in B. cereus ATCC 14579 that encodes proteins with the following sequential enzyme activities as determined by mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR methods: CTP:glucose-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, CDP-Glc 4,6-dehydratase, NADH-dependent SAM: C -methyltransferase, and NADPH-dependent CDP-3- C -methyl-6-deoxyhexose 4-reductase. The last enzyme predominantly yielded CDP-3- C -methyl-6-deoxygulose (CDP-cereose) and likely generated a 4-epimer CDP-3- C -methyl-6-deoxyallose (CDP-cillose). Some members of the B. cereus sensu lato group produce CDP-3- C -methyl-6-deoxy sugars for the formation of cereose-containing glycans on spores, whereas others such as Bacillus anthracis do not. Gene knockouts of the Bacillus C -methyltransferase and the 4-reductase confirmed their involvement in the formation of cereose-containing glycan on B. cereus spores. We also found that cereose represented 0.2-1% spore dry weight. Moreover, mutants lacking cereose germinated faster than the wild type, yet the mutants exhibited no changes in sporulation or spore resistance to heat. The findings reported here may provide new insights into the roles of the uncommon 3- C -methyl-6-deoxy sugars in cell-surface recognition and host-pathogen interactions of the genus Bacillus . © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. A four-gene operon in Bacillus cereus produces two rare spore-decorating sugars

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zi; Mukherjee, Thiya; Bowler, Kyle; Namdari, Sholeh; Snow, Zachary; Prestridge, Sarah; Carlton, Alexandra; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial glycan structures on cell surfaces are critical for cell-cell recognition and adhesion and in host-pathogen interactions. Accordingly, unraveling the sugar composition of bacterial cell surfaces can shed light on bacterial growth and pathogenesis. Here, we found that two rare sugars with a 3-C-methyl-6-deoxyhexose structure were linked to spore glycans in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10876. Moreover, we identified a four-gene operon in B. cereus ATCC 14579 that encodes proteins with the following sequential enzyme activities as determined by mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR methods: CTP:glucose-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, CDP-Glc 4,6-dehydratase, NADH-dependent SAM:C-methyltransferase, and NADPH-dependent CDP-3-C-methyl-6-deoxyhexose 4-reductase. The last enzyme predominantly yielded CDP-3-C-methyl-6-deoxygulose (CDP-cereose) and likely generated a 4-epimer CDP-3-C-methyl-6-deoxyallose (CDP-cillose). Some members of the B. cereus sensu lato group produce CDP-3-C-methyl-6-deoxy sugars for the formation of cereose-containing glycans on spores, whereas others such as Bacillus anthracis do not. Gene knockouts of the Bacillus C-methyltransferase and the 4-reductase confirmed their involvement in the formation of cereose-containing glycan on B. cereus spores. We also found that cereose represented 0.2–1% spore dry weight. Moreover, mutants lacking cereose germinated faster than the wild type, yet the mutants exhibited no changes in sporulation or spore resistance to heat. The findings reported here may provide new insights into the roles of the uncommon 3-C-methyl-6-deoxy sugars in cell-surface recognition and host-pathogen interactions of the genus Bacillus. PMID:28298443

  7. Ancient Origin of the Tryptophan Operon and the Dynamics of Evolutionary Change†

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gary; Keyhani, Nemat O.; Bonner; Jensen, Roy A.

    2003-01-01

    The seven conserved enzymatic domains required for tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis are encoded in seven genetic regions that are organized differently (whole-pathway operons, multiple partial-pathway operons, and dispersed genes) in prokaryotes. A comparative bioinformatics evaluation of the conservation and organization of the genes of Trp biosynthesis in prokaryotic operons should serve as an excellent model for assessing the feasibility of predicting the evolutionary histories of genes and operons associated with other biochemical pathways. These comparisons should provide a better understanding of possible explanations for differences in operon organization in different organisms at a genomics level. These analyses may also permit identification of some of the prevailing forces that dictated specific gene rearrangements during the course of evolution. Operons concerned with Trp biosynthesis in prokaryotes have been in a dynamic state of flux. Analysis of closely related organisms among the Bacteria at various phylogenetic nodes reveals many examples of operon scission, gene dispersal, gene fusion, gene scrambling, and gene loss from which the direction of evolutionary events can be deduced. Two milestone evolutionary events have been mapped to the 16S rRNA tree of Bacteria, one splitting the operon in two, and the other rejoining it by gene fusion. The Archaea, though less resolved due to a lesser genome representation, appear to exhibit more gene scrambling than the Bacteria. The trp operon appears to have been an ancient innovation; it was already present in the common ancestor of Bacteria and Archaea. Although the operon has been subjected, even in recent times, to dynamic changes in gene rearrangement, the ancestral gene order can be deduced with confidence. The evolutionary history of the genes of the pathway is discernible in rough outline as a vertical line of descent, with events of lateral gene transfer or paralogy enriching the analysis as interesting

  8. Sequence and molecular characterization of a DNA region encoding the dibenzothiophene desulfurization operon of Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8.

    PubMed Central

    Piddington, C S; Kovacevich, B R; Rambosek, J

    1995-01-01

    Dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model compound for sulfur-containing organic molecules found in fossil fuels, can be desulfurized to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) by Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8. Complementation of a desulfurization (dsz) mutant provided the genes from Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8 responsible for desulfurization. A 6.7-kb TaqI fragment cloned in Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle vector pRR-6 was found to both complement this mutation and confer desulfurization to Rhodococcus fascians, which normally is not able to desulfurize DBT. Expression of this fragment in E. coli also conferred the ability to desulfurize DBT. A molecular analysis of the cloned fragment revealed a single operon containing three open reading frames involved in the conversion of DBT to 2-HBP. The three genes were designated dszA, dszB, and dszC. Neither the nucleotide sequences nor the deduced amino acid sequences of the enzymes exhibited significant similarity to sequences obtained from the GenBank, EMBL, and Swiss-Prot databases, indicating that these enzymes are novel enzymes. Subclone analyses revealed that the gene product of dszC converts DBT directly to DBT-sulfone and that the gene products of dszA and dszB act in concert to convert DBT-sulfone to 2-HBP. PMID:7574582

  9. Quantitative approaches to the study of bistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Santillán, Moisés; Mackey, Michael C

    2008-08-06

    In this paper, the history and importance of the lac operon in the development of molecular and systems biology are briefly reviewed. We start by presenting a description of the regulatory mechanisms in this operon, taking into account the most recent discoveries. Then we offer a survey of the history of the lac operon, including the discovery of its main elements and the subsequent influence on the development of molecular and systems biology. Next the bistable behaviour of the operon is discussed, both with respect to its discovery and its molecular origin. A review of the literature in which this bistable phenomenon has been studied from a mathematical modelling viewpoint is then given. We conclude with some brief remarks.

  10. Parallel Evolution and Horizontal Gene Transfer of the pst Operon in Firmicutes from Oligotrophic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Olmedo, Gabriela; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Martinez-Castilla, Leon; Souza, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The high affinity phosphate transport system (pst) is crucial for phosphate uptake in oligotrophic environments. Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB) has extremely low P levels and its endemic Bacillus are closely related to oligotrophic marine Firmicutes. Thus, we expected the pst operon of CCB to share the same evolutionary history and protein similarity to marine Firmicutes. Orthologs of the pst operon were searched in 55 genomes of Firmicutes and 13 outgroups. Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed for the pst operon and 14 concatenated housekeeping genes using maximum likelihood methods. Conserved domains and 3D structures of the phosphate-binding protein (PstS) were also analyzed. The pst operon of Firmicutes shows two highly divergent clades with no correlation to the type of habitat nor a phylogenetic congruence, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Despite sequence divergence, the PstS protein had a similar 3D structure, which could be due to parallel evolution after horizontal gene transfer events. PMID:21461370

  11. Incorporation of a horizontally transferred gene into an operon during cnidarian evolution.

    PubMed

    Dana, Catherine E; Glauber, Kristine M; Chan, Titus A; Bridge, Diane M; Steele, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Genome sequencing has revealed examples of horizontally transferred genes, but we still know little about how such genes are incorporated into their host genomes. We have previously reported the identification of a gene (flp) that appears to have entered the Hydra genome through horizontal transfer. Here we provide additional evidence in support of our original hypothesis that the transfer was from a unicellular organism, and we show that the transfer occurred in an ancestor of two medusozoan cnidarian species. In addition we show that the gene is part of a bicistronic operon in the Hydra genome. These findings identify a new animal phylum in which trans-spliced leader addition has led to the formation of operons, and define the requirements for evolution of an operon in Hydra. The identification of operons in Hydra also provides a tool that can be exploited in the construction of transgenic Hydra strains.

  12. Solving a discrete model of the lac operon using Z3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Natalia A.

    2014-05-01

    A discrete model for the Lcac Operon is solved using the SMT-solver Z3. Traditionally the Lac Operon is formulated in a continuous math model. This model is a system of ordinary differential equations. Here, it was considerated as a discrete model, based on a Boolean red. The biological problem of Lac Operon is enunciated as a problem of Boolean satisfiability, and it is solved using an STM-solver named Z3. Z3 is a powerful solver that allows understanding the basic dynamic of the Lac Operon in an easier and more efficient way. The multi-stability of the Lac Operon can be easily computed with Z3. The code that solves the Boolean red can be written in Python language or SMT-Lib language. Both languages were used in local version of the program as online version of Z3. For future investigations it is proposed to solve the Boolean red of Lac Operon using others SMT-solvers as cvc4, alt-ergo, mathsat and yices.

  13. Synergic role of the two ars operons in arsenic tolerance in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Matilde; Udaondo, Zulema; Niqui, José-Luis; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2014-10-01

    The chromosome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 carries two clusters of genes, denoted ars1 and ars2, that are annotated as putative arsenic resistance operons. In this work, we present evidence that both operons encode functional arsenic-response regulatory genes as well as arsenic extrusion systems that confer resistance to both arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. Transcriptional fusions of P(ars1) and P(ars2) to lacZ revealed that expression of both operons was induced by arsenite and arsenate. We generated single mutants in ars1 and ars2, which showed lower resistance to arsenic than the wild-type strain. A double ars1/ars2 was found to be highly sensitive to arsenic. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for single mutants decreased two- to fourfold with respect to the parental strain, while in the double mutant the MIC decreased 128-fold for arsenite and 32-fold for arsenate. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the ars2 resistance operon is part of the core genome of P. putida, while the ars1 operon appears to only occur in the KT2440 strain, suggesting that ars1 was acquired by horizontal gene transfer. The presence of ars1 in KT2440 may explain why it exhibits higher resistance to arsenic than other P. putida strains, which bear only the ars2 operon.

  14. A Novel Method for Accurate Operon Predictions in All SequencedProkaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Huang, Katherine H.; Alm, Eric J.

    2004-12-01

    We combine comparative genomic measures and the distance separating adjacent genes to predict operons in 124 completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Our method automatically tailors itself to each genome using sequence information alone, and thus can be applied to any prokaryote. For Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillus subtilis, our method is 85 and 83% accurate, respectively, which is similar to the accuracy of methods that use the same features but are trained on experimentally characterized transcripts. In Halobacterium NRC-1 and in Helicobacterpylori, our method correctly infers that genes in operons are separated by shorter distances than they are in E.coli, andmore » its predictions using distance alone are more accurate than distance-only predictions trained on a database of E.coli transcripts. We use microarray data from sixphylogenetically diverse prokaryotes to show that combining intergenic distance with comparative genomic measures further improves accuracy and that our method is broadly effective. Finally, we survey operon structure across 124 genomes, and find several surprises: H.pylori has many operons, contrary to previous reports; Bacillus anthracis has an unusual number of pseudogenes within conserved operons; and Synechocystis PCC6803 has many operons even though it has unusually wide spacings between conserved adjacent genes.« less

  15. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products, and functions.

    PubMed

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits - which differ among various taxa - affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating (i) the expression of the biosynthesis apparatus, (ii) the export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and (iii) the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of resulting biofilms, which is particularly important for the interactions of bacteria with higher organisms - leading to rhizosphere colonization and modulating the virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. We review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operon found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms and in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    PubMed Central

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  17. Induction of the Nitrate Assimilation nirA Operon and Protein-Protein Interactions in the Maturation of Nitrate and Nitrite Reductases in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Frías, José E; Flores, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    Nitrate is widely used as a nitrogen source by cyanobacteria, in which the nitrate assimilation structural genes frequently constitute the so-called nirA operon. This operon contains the genes encoding nitrite reductase (nirA), a nitrate/nitrite transporter (frequently an ABC-type transporter; nrtABCD), and nitrate reductase (narB). In the model filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, which can fix N2 in specialized cells termed heterocysts, the nirA operon is expressed at high levels only in media containing nitrate or nitrite and lacking ammonium, a preferred nitrogen source. Here we examined the genes downstream of the nirA operon in Anabaena and found that a small open reading frame of unknown function, alr0613, can be cotranscribed with the operon. The next gene in the genome, alr0614 (narM), showed an expression pattern similar to that of the nirA operon, implying correlated expression of narM and the operon. A mutant of narM with an insertion mutation failed to produce nitrate reductase activity, consistent with the idea that NarM is required for the maturation of NarB. Both narM and narB mutants were impaired in the nitrate-dependent induction of the nirA operon, suggesting that nitrite is an inducer of the operon in Anabaena. It has previously been shown that the nitrite reductase protein NirA requires NirB, a protein likely involved in protein-protein interactions, to attain maximum activity. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis confirmed possible NirA-NirB and NarB-NarM interactions, suggesting that the development of both nitrite reductase and nitrate reductase activities in cyanobacteria involves physical interaction of the corresponding enzymes with their cognate partners, NirB and NarM, respectively. Nitrate is an important source of nitrogen for many microorganisms that is utilized through the nitrate assimilation system, which includes nitrate/nitrite membrane transporters and the nitrate and nitrite reductases. Many cyanobacteria

  18. Coordinated Regulation of the EIIMan and fruRKI Operons of Streptococcus mutans by Global and Fructose-Specific Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lin; Chakraborty, Brinta; Farivar, Tanaz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The glucose/mannose-phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease EIIMan encoded by manLMN in the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans has a dominant influence on sugar-specific, CcpA-independent catabolite repression (CR). Mutations in manL affect energy metabolism and virulence-associated traits, including biofilm formation, acid tolerance, and competence. Using promoter::reporter fusions, expression of the manLMN and the fruRKI operons, encoding a transcriptional regulator, a fructose-1-phosphate kinase and a fructose-PTS permease EIIFru, respectively, was monitored in response to carbohydrate source and in mutants lacking CcpA, FruR, and components of EIIMan. Expression of genes for EIIMan and EIIFru was directly regulated by CcpA and CR, as evinced by in vivo and in vitro methods. Unexpectedly, not only was the fruRKI operon negatively regulated by FruR, but also so was manLMN. Carbohydrate transport by EIIMan had a negative influence on expression of manLMN but not fruRKI. In agreement with the proposed role of FruR in regulating these PTS operons, loss of fruR or fruK substantially altered growth on a number of carbohydrates, including fructose. RNA deep sequencing revealed profound changes in gene regulation caused by deletion of fruK or fruR. Collectively, these findings demonstrate intimate interconnection of the regulation of two major PTS permeases in S. mutans and reveal novel and important contributions of fructose metabolism to global regulation of gene expression. IMPORTANCE The ability of Streptococcus mutans and other streptococcal pathogens to survive and cause human diseases is directly dependent upon their capacity to metabolize a variety of carbohydrates, including glucose and fructose. Our research reveals that metabolism of fructose has broad influences on the regulation of utilization of glucose and other sugars, and mutants with changes in certain genes involved in fructose metabolism display profoundly different abilities to

  19. Coordinated Regulation of the EIIMan and fruRKI Operons of Streptococcus mutans by Global and Fructose-Specific Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lin; Chakraborty, Brinta; Farivar, Tanaz; Burne, Robert A

    2017-11-01

    The glucose/mannose-phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease EII Man encoded by manLMN in the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans has a dominant influence on sugar-specific, CcpA-independent catabolite repression (CR). Mutations in manL affect energy metabolism and virulence-associated traits, including biofilm formation, acid tolerance, and competence. Using promoter::reporter fusions, expression of the manLMN and the fruRKI operons, encoding a transcriptional regulator, a fructose-1-phosphate kinase and a fructose-PTS permease EII Fru , respectively, was monitored in response to carbohydrate source and in mutants lacking CcpA, FruR, and components of EII Man Expression of genes for EII Man and EII Fru was directly regulated by CcpA and CR, as evinced by in vivo and in vitro methods. Unexpectedly, not only was the fruRKI operon negatively regulated by FruR, but also so was manLMN Carbohydrate transport by EII Man had a negative influence on expression of manLMN but not fruRKI In agreement with the proposed role of FruR in regulating these PTS operons, loss of fruR or fruK substantially altered growth on a number of carbohydrates, including fructose. RNA deep sequencing revealed profound changes in gene regulation caused by deletion of fruK or fruR Collectively, these findings demonstrate intimate interconnection of the regulation of two major PTS permeases in S. mutans and reveal novel and important contributions of fructose metabolism to global regulation of gene expression. IMPORTANCE The ability of Streptococcus mutans and other streptococcal pathogens to survive and cause human diseases is directly dependent upon their capacity to metabolize a variety of carbohydrates, including glucose and fructose. Our research reveals that metabolism of fructose has broad influences on the regulation of utilization of glucose and other sugars, and mutants with changes in certain genes involved in fructose metabolism display profoundly different abilities to grow and

  20. Transcription of the Streptococcus pyogenes Hyaluronic Acid Capsule Biosynthesis Operon Is Regulated by Previously Unknown Upstream Elements

    PubMed Central

    Falaleeva, Marina; Zurek, Oliwia W.; Watkins, Robert L.; Reed, Robert W.; Ali, Hadeel; Sumby, Paul; Voyich, Jovanka M.

    2014-01-01

    The important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) produces a hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule that plays critical roles in immune evasion. Previous studies showed that the hasABC operon encoding the capsule biosynthesis enzymes is under the control of a single promoter, P1, which is negatively regulated by the two-component regulatory system CovR/S. In this work, we characterize the sequence upstream of P1 and identify a novel regulatory region controlling transcription of the capsule biosynthesis operon in the M1 serotype strain MGAS2221. This region consists of a promoter, P2, which initiates transcription of a novel small RNA, HasS, an intrinsic transcriptional terminator that inefficiently terminates HasS, permitting read-through transcription of hasABC, and a putative promoter which lies upstream of P2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and transcriptional reporter data identified CovR as a negative regulator of P2. We found that the P1 and P2 promoters are completely repressed by CovR, and capsule expression is regulated by the putative promoter upstream of P2. Deletion of hasS or of the terminator eliminates CovR-binding sequences, relieving repression and increasing read-through, hasA transcription, and capsule production. Sequence analysis of 44 GAS genomes revealed a high level of polymorphism in the HasS sequence region. Most of the HasS variations were located in the terminator sequences, suggesting that this region is under strong selective pressure. We discovered that the terminator deletion mutant is highly resistant to neutrophil-mediated killing and is significantly more virulent in a mouse model of GAS invasive disease than the wild-type strain. Together, these results are consistent with the naturally occurring mutations in this region modulating GAS virulence. PMID:25287924

  1. Identification and Characterization of MalA in the Maltose/Maltodextrin Operon of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Hwang, Sungmin

    2013-01-01

    A putative maltose/maltodextrin operon was found in the Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639 genome. The gene cluster consisted of 7 genes (malA, trmB, amyA, malG, malF, malE, and malK). Here, we report the identification of MalA, which is responsible for the hydrolysis of maltose or maltodextrin to glucose in S. acidocaldarius. The transcription level of malA was increased 3-fold upon the addition of maltose or starch to the medium. Moreover, the α-glucosidase activity for maltose as a substrate in cell extracts of S. acidocaldarius DSM639 was also 11- and 10-fold higher during growth in YT medium (Brock's mineral salts, 0.1% [wt/vol] tryptone, and 0.005% [wt/vol] yeast extract) containing maltose or starch, respectively, than during growth on other sugars. The gene encoding MalA was cloned and expressed in S. acidocaldarius. The enzyme purified from the organism was a dodecamer in its active state and showed strong maltose-hydrolyzing activity at 100°C and pH 5.0. MalA was remarkably thermostable, with half-lives of 33.8 h, 10.6 h, and 1.8 h at 95°C, 100°C, and 105°C, respectively. Substrate specificity and kinetic studies of MalA with maltooligosaccharides indicated that MalA efficiently hydrolyzed maltose to maltopentaose, which is a typical characteristic of GH31-type α-glucosidases. However, glycogen or starch was not hydrolyzed. Reverse transcription-PCR, sugar uptake, and growth studies of the wild-type DSM639 and ΔmalEFG mutant on different sugars demonstrated that MalA located in the mal operon gene cluster is involved in maltose and starch metabolism in S. acidocaldarius. PMID:23396915

  2. Induction of the mar operon by miscellaneous groceries.

    PubMed

    Rickard, A H; Lindsay, S; Lockwood, G B; Gilbert, P

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the potential of non-antibacterial consumer products to act as inducers of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon of Escherichia coli SPC105. Wells were cut into chemically defined agar medium (CDM) contained within Petri dishes. Molten agar slurries were prepared by mixing known quantities of 35 consumer products with molten CDM and these were pipetted into each well. Plates were overlaid with molten CDM (5 ml), containing 40 microg ml(-1) X-gal and approx. 1000 CFU ml(-1) of an overnight culture of E. coli SPC105 containing a chromosomal marOII::lacZ fusion. After incubation (37 degrees C, 24 h), plates were examined for zones of growth inhibition and the presence of a blue coloration, indicative of mar (marOII::lacZ) induction. Of the 35 products tested (nine herbs and spices, 19 food and drinks and seven household products), 24 (69%) of the items produced inhibitory zones and 22 (63%) of the items induced mar expression. Apple puree was inhibitory but did not induce marOII::lacZ. Mustard, chilli and garlic were shown to be powerful inducers of marOII::lacZ. Overall six products were shown to be powerful marOII::lacZ inducers. None of these made hygiene claims. In addition to induction by specific biocides and antibiotics, mar is induced by the exposure of bacteria to natural substances, many of which are common to a domiciliary setting. Concern that the overuse of antibacterials within consumer products might select for mar-mediated resistance is shortsighted and fails to recognize the ubiquity of inducers in our environment.

  3. The nif Gene Operon of the Methanogenic Archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Peter S.; Blank, Carrine; Leigh, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation occurs in two domains, Archaea and Bacteria. We have characterized a nif (nitrogen fixation) gene cluster in the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis. Sequence analysis revealed eight genes, six with sequence similarity to known nif genes and two with sequence similarity to glnB. The gene order, nifH, ORF105 (similar to glnB), ORF121 (similar to glnB), nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, and nifX, was the same as that found in part in other diazotrophic methanogens and except for the presence of the glnB-like genes, also resembled the order found in many members of the Bacteria. Using transposon insertion mutagenesis, we determined that an 8-kb region required for nitrogen fixation corresponded to the nif gene cluster. Northern analysis revealed the presence of either a single 7.6-kb nif mRNA transcript or 10 smaller mRNA species containing portions of the large transcript. Polar effects of transposon insertions demonstrated that all of these mRNAs arose from a single promoter region, where transcription initiated 80 bp 5′ to nifH. Distinctive features of the nif gene cluster include the presence of the six primary nif genes in a single operon, the placement of the two glnB-like genes within the cluster, the apparent physical separation of the cluster from any other nif genes that might be in the genome, the fragmentation pattern of the mRNA, and the regulation of expression by a repression mechanism described previously. Our study and others with methanogenic archaea reporting multiple mRNAs arising from gene clusters with only a single putative promoter sequence suggest that mRNA processing following transcription may be a common occurrence in methanogens. PMID:9515920

  4. The speEspeD operon of Escherichia coli. Formation and processing of a proenzyme form of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Tabor, C W; Tabor, H

    1987-11-25

    We have previously shown that the gene (speD) for S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase is part of an operon that also contains the gene (speE) for spermidine synthase (Tabor, C. W., Tabor, H., and Xie, Q.-W. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 83, 6040-6044). We have now determined the nucleotide sequence of this operon and have found that speD codes for a polypeptide of Mr = 30,400, which is considerably greater than the subunit size of the purified enzyme. Our studies show that S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase is first formed as a Mr = 30,400 polypeptide and that this proenzyme is then cleaved at the Lys111-Ser112 peptide bond to form a Mr = 12,400 subunit and a Mr = 18,000 subunit. The latter subunit contains the pyruvoyl moiety that we previously showed is required for enzymatic activity. Both subunits are present in the purified enzyme. These conclusions are based on (i) pulse-chase experiments with a strain containing a speD+ plasmid which showed a precursor-product relationship between the proenzyme and the enzyme subunits, (ii) the amino acid sequence of the proenzyme form of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (derived from the nucleotide sequence of the speD gene), and (iii) comparison of this sequence of the proenzyme with the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the two subunits of the purified enzyme reported by Anton and Kutny (Anton, D. L., and Kutny, R. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 2817-2822).

  5. Discovery of an operon that participates in agmatine metabolism and regulates biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Bryan J.; Du, Rui-Hong; Calcutt, M. Wade; Abdolrasulnia, Rasul; Christman, Brian W.; Blackwell, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Agmatine is the decarboxylation product of arginine and a number of bacteria have devoted enzymatic pathways for its metabolism. Pseudomonas aeruginosa harbours the aguBA operon that metabolizes agmatine to putrescine, which can be subsequently converted into other polyamines or shunted into the TCA cycle for energy production. We discovered an alternate agmatine operon in the P. aeruginosa strain PA14 named agu2ABCA′ that contains two genes for agmatine deiminases (agu2A and agu2A′). This operon was found to be present in 25% of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. Agu2A′ contains a twin-arginine translocation signal at its N-terminus and site-directed mutagenesis and cell fractionation experiments confirmed this protein is secreted to the periplasm. Analysis of the agu2ABCA′ promoter demonstrates that agmatine induces expression of the operon during the stationary phase of growth and during biofilm growth and agu2ABCA′ provides only weak complementation of aguBA, which is induced during log phase. Biofilm assays of mutants of all three agmatine deiminase genes in PA14 revealed that deletion of agu2ABCA′, specifically its secreted product Agu2A′, reduces biofilm production of PA14 following addition of exogenous agmatine. Together, these findings reveal a novel role for the agu2ABCA′ operon in the biofilm development of P. aeruginosa. PMID:20149107

  6. Quantifying translational coupling in E. coli synthetic operons using RBS modulation and fluorescent reporters.

    PubMed

    Levin-Karp, Ayelet; Barenholz, Uri; Bareia, Tasneem; Dayagi, Michal; Zelcbuch, Lior; Antonovsky, Niv; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2013-06-21

    Translational coupling is the interdependence of translation efficiency of neighboring genes encoded within an operon. The degree of coupling may be quantified by measuring how the translation rate of a gene is modulated by the translation rate of its upstream gene. Translational coupling was observed in prokaryotic operons several decades ago, but the quantitative range of modulation translational coupling leads to and the factors governing this modulation were only partially characterized. In this study, we systematically quantify and characterize translational coupling in E. coli synthetic operons using a library of plasmids carrying fluorescent reporter genes that are controlled by a set of different ribosome binding site (RBS) sequences. The downstream gene expression level is found to be enhanced by the upstream gene expression via translational coupling with the enhancement level varying from almost no coupling to over 10-fold depending on the upstream gene's sequence. Additionally, we find that the level of translational coupling in our system is similar between the second and third locations in the operon. The coupling depends on the distance between the stop codon of the upstream gene and the start codon of the downstream gene. This study is the first to systematically and quantitatively characterize translational coupling in a synthetic E. coli operon. Our analysis will be useful in accurate manipulation of gene expression in synthetic biology and serves as a step toward understanding the mechanisms involved in translational expression modulation.

  7. Identification of an operon, Pil-Chp, that controls twitching motility and virulence in Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Cursino, Luciana; Galvani, Cheryl D; Athinuwat, Dusit; Zaini, Paulo A; Li, Yaxin; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2011-10-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an important phytopathogenic bacterium that causes many serious plant diseases, including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Disease manifestation by X. fastidiosa is associated with the expression of several factors, including the type IV pili that are required for twitching motility. We provide evidence that an operon, named Pil-Chp, with genes homologous to those found in chemotaxis systems, regulates twitching motility. Transposon insertion into the pilL gene of the operon resulted in loss of twitching motility (pilL is homologous to cheA genes encoding kinases). The X. fastidiosa mutant maintained the type IV pili, indicating that the disrupted pilL or downstream operon genes are involved in pili function, and not biogenesis. The mutated X. fastidiosa produced less biofilm than wild-type cells, indicating that the operon contributes to biofilm formation. Finally, in planta the mutant produced delayed and less severe disease, indicating that the Pil-Chp operon contributes to the virulence of X. fastidiosa, presumably through its role in twitching motility.

  8. ArgR is an essential local transcriptional regulator of the arcABC operon in Streptococcus suis and is crucial for biological fitness in an acidic environment.

    PubMed

    Fulde, Marcus; Willenborg, Joerg; de Greeff, Astrid; Benga, Laurentiu; Smith, Hilde E; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2011-02-01

    Streptococcus suis is one of the most important pathogens in pigs and can also cause severe infections in humans. Despite its clinical relevance, very little is known about the factors that contribute to its virulence. Recently, we identified a new putative virulence factor in S. suis, the arginine deiminase system (ADS), an arginine catabolic enzyme system encoded by the arcABC operon, which enables S. suis to survive in an acidic environment. In this study, we focused on ArgR, an ADS-associated regulator belonging to the ArgR/AhrC arginine repressor family. Using an argR knockout strain we were able to show that ArgR is essential for arcABC operon expression and necessary for the biological fitness of S. suis. By cDNA expression microarray analyses and quantitative real-time RT-PCR we found that the arcABC operon is the only gene cluster regulated by ArgR, which is in contrast to the situation in many other bacteria. Reporter gene analysis with gfp under the control of the arcABC promoter demonstrated that ArgR is able to activate the arcABC promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with fragments of the arcABC promoter and recombinant ArgR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed against ArgR, revealed that ArgR interacts with the arcABC promoter in vitro and in vivo by binding to a region from -147 to -72 bp upstream of the transcriptional start point. Overall, our results show that in S. suis, ArgR is an essential, system-specific transcriptional regulator of the ADS that interacts directly with the arcABC promoter in vivo.

  9. Structural Explanation for Allolactose (lac Operon Inducer) Synthesis by lacZ β-Galactosidase and the Evolutionary Relationship between Allolactose Synthesis and the lac Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Robert W.; Lo, Summie; Jancewicz, Larisa J.; Dugdale, Megan L.; Huber, Reuben E.

    2013-01-01

    β-Galactosidase (lacZ) has bifunctional activity. It hydrolyzes lactose to galactose and glucose and catalyzes the intramolecular isomerization of lactose to allolactose, the lac operon inducer. β-Galactosidase promotes the isomerization by means of an acceptor site that binds glucose after its cleavage from lactose and thus delays its exit from the site. However, because of its relatively low affinity for glucose, details of this site have remained elusive. We present structural data mapping the glucose site based on a substituted enzyme (G794A-β-galactosidase) that traps allolactose. Various lines of evidence indicate that the glucose of the trapped allolactose is in the acceptor position. The evidence includes structures with Bis-Tris (2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2′,2″-nitrilotriethanol) and l-ribose in the site and kinetic binding studies with substituted β-galactosidases. The site is composed of Asn-102, His-418, Lys-517, Ser-796, Glu-797, and Trp-999. Ser-796 and Glu-797 are part of a loop (residues 795–803) that closes over the active site. This loop appears essential for the bifunctional nature of the enzyme because it helps form the glucose binding site. In addition, because the loop is mobile, glucose binding is transient, allowing the release of some glucose. Bioinformatics studies showed that the residues important for interacting with glucose are only conserved in a subset of related enzymes. Thus, intramolecular isomerization is not a universal feature of β-galactosidases. Genomic analyses indicated that lac repressors were co-selected only within the conserved subset. This shows that the glucose binding site of β-galactosidase played an important role in lac operon evolution. PMID:23486479

  10. Characterization of the first alginolytic operons in a marine bacterium: from their emergence in marine Flavobacteriia to their independent transfers to marine Proteobacteria and human gut Bacteroides.

    PubMed

    Thomas, François; Barbeyron, Tristan; Tonon, Thierry; Génicot, Sabine; Czjzek, Mirjam; Michel, Gurvan

    2012-09-01

    Alginate constitutes a significant part of seaweed biomass and thus a crucial nutrient for numerous marine heterotrophic bacteria. However, the mechanisms for alginate assimilation remain largely unknown in marine microorganisms. We show here that the genome of the marine flavobacterium Zobellia galactanivorans contains seven putative alginate lyase genes, five of them localized within two clusters comprising additional carbohydrate-related genes. The transcription of these genes and the alginolytic activity were strongly induced when Z. galactanivorans used alginate as sole carbon source. These clusters were shown to be transcribed as polycistronic mRNAs and thus to constitute operons. Several candidate enzymes were successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and their activity tested. Particularly, AlyA1, AlyA4, AlyA5 and AlyA7 are confirmed as active alginate lyases. Zg2622 and Zg2614 are a dehydrogenase and a kinase, respectively, further converting the terminal unsaturated monosaccharides released by alginate lyases into 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate. In-depth phylogenomic analyses reveal that such alginolytic operons originated from an ancestral marine flavobacterium and were independently transferred to marine proteobacteria and Japanese gut Bacteroides. These bacteria thus gained the capacity to assimilate the main polysaccharide of brown algae, an adaptive advantage in coastal environments but also in the gut microbiota of specific human population. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The pkI gene encoding pyruvate kinase I links to the luxZ gene which enhances bioluminescence of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Lu, H C; Chen, H Y; Weng, S F

    1997-10-09

    Partial 3'-end nucleotide sequence of the pkI gene (GenBank accession No. AF019143) from Photobacterium leiognathi ATCC 25521 has been determined, and the encoded pyruvate kinase I is deduced. Pyruvate kinase I is the key enzyme of glycolysis, which converts phosphoenol pyruvate to pyruvate. Alignment and comparison of pyruvate kinase Is from P. leiognathi, E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium show that they are homologous. Nucleotide sequence reveals that the pkI gene is linked to the luxZ gene that enhances bioluminescence of the lux operon from P. leiognathi. The gene order of the pkI and luxZ genes is-pk1-ter-->-R&R"-luxZ-ter"-->, whereas ter is transcriptional terminator for the pkI and related genes, and R&R" is the regulatory region and ter" is transcriptional terminator for the luxZ gene. It clearly elicits that the pkI gene and luxZ gene are divided to two operons. Functional analysis confirms that the potential hairpin loop omega T is the transcriptional terminator for the pkI and related genes. It infers that the pkI and related genes are simply linked to the luxZ gene in P. leiognathi genome.

  12. High levels of bioplastic are produced in fertile transplastomic tobacco plants engineered with a synthetic operon for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate.

    PubMed

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Daughtry, Sean; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2011-04-01

    An optimized genetic construct for plastid transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the production of the renewable, biodegradable plastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was designed using an operon extension strategy. Bacterial genes encoding the PHB pathway enzymes were selected for use in this construct based on their similarity to the codon usage and GC content of the tobacco plastome. Regulatory elements with limited homology to the host plastome yet known to yield high levels of plastidial recombinant protein production were used to enhance the expression of the transgenes. A partial transcriptional unit, containing genes of the PHB pathway and a selectable marker gene encoding spectinomycin resistance, was flanked at the 5' end by the host plant's psbA coding sequence and at the 3' end by the host plant's 3' psbA untranslated region. This design allowed insertion of the transgenes into the plastome as an extension of the psbA operon, rendering the addition of a promoter to drive the expression of the transgenes unnecessary. Transformation of the optimized construct into tobacco and subsequent spectinomycin selection of transgenic plants yielded T0 plants that were capable of producing up to 18.8% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue. These plants were fertile and produced viable seed. T1 plants producing up to 17.3% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue and 8.8% dry weight PHB in the total biomass of the plant were also isolated.

  13. High Levels of Bioplastic Are Produced in Fertile Transplastomic Tobacco Plants Engineered with a Synthetic Operon for the Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Daughtry, Sean; Peoples, Oliver P.; Snell, Kristi D.

    2011-01-01

    An optimized genetic construct for plastid transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the production of the renewable, biodegradable plastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was designed using an operon extension strategy. Bacterial genes encoding the PHB pathway enzymes were selected for use in this construct based on their similarity to the codon usage and GC content of the tobacco plastome. Regulatory elements with limited homology to the host plastome yet known to yield high levels of plastidial recombinant protein production were used to enhance the expression of the transgenes. A partial transcriptional unit, containing genes of the PHB pathway and a selectable marker gene encoding spectinomycin resistance, was flanked at the 5′ end by the host plant’s psbA coding sequence and at the 3′ end by the host plant’s 3′ psbA untranslated region. This design allowed insertion of the transgenes into the plastome as an extension of the psbA operon, rendering the addition of a promoter to drive the expression of the transgenes unnecessary. Transformation of the optimized construct into tobacco and subsequent spectinomycin selection of transgenic plants yielded T0 plants that were capable of producing up to 18.8% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue. These plants were fertile and produced viable seed. T1 plants producing up to 17.3% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue and 8.8% dry weight PHB in the total biomass of the plant were also isolated. PMID:21325565

  14. Enzyme Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Alderson, Rosanna G.; Ferrari, Luna De; Mavridis, Lazaros; McDonagh, James L.; Mitchell, John B. O.; Nath, Neetika

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, sequencing, structural biology and bioinformatics have completely revolutionised biomolecular science, with millions of sequences and tens of thousands of three dimensional structures becoming available. The bioinformatics of enzymes is well served by, mostly free, online databases. BRENDA describes the chemistry, substrate specificity, kinetics, preparation and biological sources of enzymes, while KEGG is valuable for understanding enzymes and metabolic pathways. EzCatDB, SFLD and MACiE are key repositories for data on the chemical mechanisms by which enzymes operate. At the current rate of genome sequencing and manual annotation, human curation will never finish the functional annotation of the ever-expanding list of known enzymes. Hence there is an increasing need for automated annotation, though it is not yet widespread for enzyme data. In contrast, functional ontologies such as the Gene Ontology already profit from automation. Despite our growing understanding of enzyme structure and dynamics, we are only beginning to be able to design novel enzymes. One can now begin to trace the functional evolution of enzymes using phylogenetics. The ability of enzymes to perform secondary functions, albeit relatively inefficiently, gives clues as to how enzyme function evolves. Substrate promiscuity in enzymes is one example of imperfect specificity in protein-ligand interactions. Similarly, most drugs bind to more than one protein target. This may sometimes result in helpful polypharmacology as a drug modulates plural targets, but also often leads to adverse side-effects. Many cheminformatics approaches can be used to model the interactions between druglike molecules and proteins in silico. We can even use quantum chemical techniques like DFT and QM/MM to compute the structural and energetic course of enzyme catalysed chemical reaction mechanisms, including a full description of bond making and breaking. PMID:23116471

  15. Klebsiella pneumoniae yfiRNB operon affects biofilm formation, polysaccharide production and drug susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Huertas, Mónica G; Zárate, Lina; Acosta, Iván C; Posada, Leonardo; Cruz, Diana P; Lozano, Marcela; Zambrano, María M

    2014-12-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen important in hospital-acquired infections, which are complicated by the rise of drug-resistant strains and the capacity of cells to adhere to surfaces and form biofilms. In this work, we carried out an analysis of the genes in the K. pneumoniae yfiRNB operon, previously implicated in biofilm formation. The results indicated that in addition to the previously reported effect on type 3 fimbriae expression, this operon also affected biofilm formation due to changes in cellulose as part of the extracellular matrix. Deletion of yfiR resulted in enhanced biofilm formation and an altered colony phenotype indicative of cellulose overproduction when grown on solid indicator media. Extraction of polysaccharides and treatment with cellulase were consistent with the presence of cellulose in biofilms. The enhanced cellulose production did not, however, correlate with virulence as assessed using a Caenorhabditis elegans assay. In addition, cells bearing mutations in genes of the yfiRNB operon varied with respect to the WT control in terms of susceptibility to the antibiotics amikacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem and meropenem. These results indicated that the yfiRNB operon is implicated in the production of exopolysaccharides that alter cell surface characteristics and the capacity to form biofilms--a phenotype that does not necessarily correlate with properties related with survival, such as resistance to antibiotics. © 2014 The Authors.

  16. Nonhemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates That Lack Large Regions of the sag Operon Mediating Streptolysin S Production▿

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Miho; Murayama, Somay Y.; Sunaoshi, Katsuhiko; Wajima, Takeaki; Takahashi, Miki; Masaki, Junko; Kurokawa, Iku; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2010-01-01

    Among nonhemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) strains (n = 9) isolated from patients with pharyngitis or acute otitis media, we identified three deletions in the region from the epf gene, encoding the extracellular matrix binding protein, to the sag operon, mediating streptolysin S production. PMID:20018818

  17. Identification and characterization of transcripts from the biotin biosynthetic operon of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, J B; Bower, S; Howitt, C L; Yocum, R R; Pero, J

    1996-01-01

    Northern (RNA) blot analysis of the Bacillus subtilis biotin operon, bioWAFDBIorf2, detected at least two steady-state polycistronic transcripts initiated from a putative vegetative (Pbio) promoter that precedes the operon, i.e., a full-length 7.2-kb transcript covering the entire operon and a more abundant 5.1-kb transcript covering just the first five genes of the operon. Biotin and the B. subtilis birA gene product regulated synthesis of the transcripts. Moreover, replacing the putative Pbio promoter and regulatory sequence with a constitutive SP01 phage promoter resulted in higher-level constitutive synthesis. Removal of a rho-independent terminator-like sequence located between the fifth (bioB) and sixth (bioI) genes prevented accumulation of the 5.1-kb transcript, suggesting that the putative terminator functions to limit expression of bioI, which is thought to be involved in an early step in biotin synthesis. PMID:8892842

  18. Identification and characterization of transcripts from the biotin biosynthetic operon of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Perkins, J B; Bower, S; Howitt, C L; Yocum, R R; Pero, J

    1996-11-01

    Northern (RNA) blot analysis of the Bacillus subtilis biotin operon, bioWAFDBIorf2, detected at least two steady-state polycistronic transcripts initiated from a putative vegetative (Pbio) promoter that precedes the operon, i.e., a full-length 7.2-kb transcript covering the entire operon and a more abundant 5.1-kb transcript covering just the first five genes of the operon. Biotin and the B. subtilis birA gene product regulated synthesis of the transcripts. Moreover, replacing the putative Pbio promoter and regulatory sequence with a constitutive SP01 phage promoter resulted in higher-level constitutive synthesis. Removal of a rho-independent terminator-like sequence located between the fifth (bioB) and sixth (bioI) genes prevented accumulation of the 5.1-kb transcript, suggesting that the putative terminator functions to limit expression of bioI, which is thought to be involved in an early step in biotin synthesis.

  19. Redundant phenazine operons in Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibit environment-dependent expression and differential roles in pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Recinos, David A.; Sekedat, Matthew D.; Hernandez, Adriana; Cohen, Taylor Sitarik; Sakhtah, Hassan; Prince, Alice S.; Price-Whelan, Alexa; Dietrich, Lars E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists have postulated that several fitness advantages may be conferred by the maintenance of duplicate genes, including environmental adaptation resulting from differential regulation. We examined the expression and physiological contributions of two redundant operons in the adaptable bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. These operons, phzA1-G1 (phz1) and phzA2-G2 (phz2), encode nearly identical sets of proteins that catalyze the synthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, the precursor for several phenazine derivatives. Phenazines perform diverse roles in P. aeruginosa physiology and act as virulence factors during opportunistic infections of plant and animal hosts. Although reports have indicated that phz1 is regulated by the Pseudomonas quinolone signal, factors controlling phz2 expression have not been identified, and the relative contributions of these redundant operons to phenazine biosynthesis have not been evaluated. We found that in liquid cultures, phz1 was expressed at higher levels than phz2, although phz2 showed a greater contribution to phenazine production. In colony biofilms, phz2 was expressed at high levels, whereas phz1 expression was not detectable, and phz2 was responsible for virtually all phenazine production. Analysis of mutants defective in quinolone signal synthesis revealed a critical role for 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline in phz2 induction. Finally, deletion of phz2, but not of phz1, decreased lung colonization in a murine model of infection. These results suggest that differential regulation of the redundant phz operons allows P. aeruginosa to adapt to diverse environments. PMID:23129634

  20. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of Bacillus sp. CDB3 arsenic-resistance operon ars1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuefei; Zheng, Wei; Bhat, Somanath; Aquilina, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus sp. CDB3 possesses a novel eight-gene ars cluster (ars1, arsRYCDATorf7orf8) with some unusual features in regard to expression regulation. This study demonstrated that the cluster is a single operon but can also produce a short three-gene arsRYC transcript. A hairpin structure formed by internal inverted repeats between arsC and arsD was shown to diminish the expression of the full operon, thereby probably acting as a transcription attenuator. A degradation product of the arsRYC transcript was also identified. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis demonstrated that ArsR interacts with the ars1 promoter forming a protein-DNA complex that could be impaired by arsenite. However, no interaction was detected between ArsD and the ars1 promoter, suggesting that the CDB3 ArsD protein may not play a regulatory role. Compared to other ars gene clusters, regulation of the Bacillus sp. CDB3 ars1 operon is more complex. It represents another example of specific mRNA degradation in the transporter gene region and possibly the first case of attenuator-mediated regulation of ars operons. PMID:26355338

  1. Two Paralogous Families of a Two-Gene Subtilisin Operon Are Widely Distributed in Oral Treponemes

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Frederick F.; Plummer, Alvin R.; Ellen, Richard P.; Wyss, Chris; Boches, Susan K.; Galvin, Jamie L.; Paster, Bruce J.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2003-01-01

    Certain oral treponemes express a highly proteolytic phenotype and have been associated with periodontal diseases. The periodontal pathogen Treponema denticola produces dentilisin, a serine protease of the subtilisin family. The two-gene operon prcA-prtP is required for expression of active dentilisin (PrtP), a putative lipoprotein attached to the treponeme's outer membrane or sheath. The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity and structure of treponemal subtilisin-like proteases in order to better understand their distribution and function. The complete sequences of five prcA-prtP operons were determined for Treponema lecithinolyticum, “Treponema vincentii,” and two canine species. Partial operon sequences were obtained for T. socranskii subsp. 04 as well as 450- to 1,000-base fragments of prtP genes from four additional treponeme strains. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequences fall into two paralogous families. The first family includes the sequence from T. denticola. Treponemes possessing this operon family express chymotrypsin-like protease activity and can cleave the substrate N-succinyl-alanyl-alanyl-prolyl-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide (SAAPFNA). Treponemes possessing the second paralog family do not possess chymotrypsin-like activity or cleave SAAPFNA. Despite examination of a range of protein and peptide substrates, the specificity of the second protease family remains unknown. Each of the fully sequenced prcA and prtP genes contains a 5′ hydrophobic leader sequence with a treponeme lipobox. The two paralogous families of treponeme subtilisins represent a new subgroup within the subtilisin family of proteases and are the only subtilisin lipoprotein family. The present study demonstrated that the subtilisin paralogs comprising a two-gene operon are widely distributed among treponemes. PMID:14617650

  2. Bioluminescent symbionts of the Caribbean flashlight fish (Kryptophanaron alfredi) have a single rRNA operon.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, C J; Haygood, M G

    1993-08-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operon copy number and gene order were determined for the luminous bacterial symbiont of Kryptophanaron alfredi, an anomalopid (flashlight) fish, and estimated for the luminous symbionts of 3 other fish families and of 3 luminous seawater isolates. Compared with the seawater isolates and other fish symbionts, the copy number of rRNA genes in the K. alfredi symbiont was radically reduced, although gene order appeared conserved among all the strains. The K. alfredi symbiont possesses only a single rRNA operon, whereas the other strains examined have minimum copy numbers ranging from 8 to 11. No difference in copy number was observed between light organ and seawater isolates of the same species, or between isolates of the same species from the light organs of 2 different host families. Thus, the anomalopid symbiosis appears unique among characterized light organ symbioses.

  3. Assembly and multiple gene expression of thermophilic enzymes in Escherichia coli for in vitro metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Ninh, Pham Huynh; Honda, Kohsuke; Sakai, Takaaki; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In vitro reconstitution of an artificial metabolic pathway is an emerging approach for the biocatalytic production of industrial chemicals. However, several enzymes have to be separately prepared (and purified) for the construction of an in vitro metabolic pathway, thereby limiting the practical applicability of this approach. In this study, genes encoding the nine thermophilic enzymes involved in a non-ATP-forming chimeric glycolytic pathway were assembled in an artificial operon and co-expressed in a single recombinant Escherichia coli strain. Gene expression levels of the thermophilic enzymes were controlled by their sequential order in the artificial operon. The specific activities of the recombinant enzymes in the cell-free extract of the multiple-gene-expression E. coli were 5.0-1,370 times higher than those in an enzyme cocktail prepared from a mixture of single-gene-expression strains, in each of which a single one of the nine thermophilic enzymes was overproduced. Heat treatment of a crude extract of the multiple-gene-expression cells led to the denaturation of indigenous proteins and one-step preparation of an in vitro synthetic pathway comprising only a limited number of thermotolerant enzymes. Coupling this in vitro pathway with other thermophilic enzymes including the H2 O-forming NADH oxidase or the malate/lactate dehydrogenase facilitated one-pot conversion of glucose to pyruvate or lactate, respectively. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Structure and regulation of the Yersinia pestis yscBCDEF operon.

    PubMed Central

    Haddix, P L; Straley, S C

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the physical and genetic structure and regulation of the Yersinia pestis yscBCDEF region, previously called lcrC. DNA sequence analysis showed that this region is homologous to the corresponding part of the ysc locus of Yersinia enterocolitica and suggested that the yscBCDEF cistrons belong to a single operon on the low-calcium response virulence plasmid pCD1. Promoter activity measurements of ysc subclones indicated that yscBCDEF constitutes a suboperon of the larger ysc region by revealing promoter activity in a clone containing the 3' end of yscD, intact yscE and yscF, and part of yscG. These experiments also revealed an additional weak promoter upstream of yscD. Northern (RNA) analysis with a yscD probe showed that operon transcription is thermally induced and downregulated in the presence of Ca2+. Primer extension of operon transcripts suggested that two promoters, a moderate-level constitutive one and a stronger, calcium-downregulated one, control full-length operon transcription at 37 degrees C. Primer extension provided additional support for the proposed designation of a yscBCDEF suboperon by identifying a 5' end within yscF, for which relative abundances in the presence and absence of Ca2+ revealed regulation that is distinct from that for transcripts initiating farther upstream. YscB and YscC were expressed in Escherichia coli by using a high-level transcription system. Attempts to express YscD were only partially successful, but they revealed interesting regulation at the translational level. Images PMID:1624469

  5. Silencing of Essential Genes within a Highly Coordinated Operon in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hohmeier, Angela; Stone, Timothy C.; Offord, Victoria; Sarabia, Francisco; Garcia-Ruiz, Cristina; Good, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Essential bacterial genes located within operons are particularly challenging to study independently because of coordinated gene expression and the nonviability of knockout mutants. Essentiality scores for many operon genes remain uncertain. Antisense RNA (asRNA) silencing or in-frame gene disruption of genes may help establish essentiality but can lead to polar effects on genes downstream or upstream of the target gene. Here, the Escherichia coli ribF-ileS-lspA-fkpB-ispH operon was used to evaluate the possibility of independently studying an essential gene using expressed asRNA and target gene overexpression to deregulate coupled expression. The gene requirement for growth in conditional silencing strains was determined by the relationship of target mRNA reduction with growth inhibition as the minimum transcript level required for 50% growth (MTL50). Mupirocin and globomycin, the protein inhibitors of IleS and LspA, respectively, were used in sensitization assays of strains containing both asRNA-expressing and open reading frame-expressing plasmids to examine deregulation of the overlapping ileS-lspA genes. We found upstream and downstream polar silencing effects when either ileS or lspA was silenced, indicating coupled expression. Weighted MTL50 values (means and standard deviations) of ribF, ileS, and lspA were 0.65 ± 0.18, 0.64 ± 0.06, and 0.76 ± 0.10, respectively. However, they were not significantly different (P = 0.71 by weighted one-way analysis of variance). The gene requirement for ispH could not be determined due to insufficient growth reduction. Mupirocin and globomycin sensitization experiments indicated that ileS-lspA expression could not be decoupled. The results highlight the inherent challenges associated with genetic analyses of operons; however, coupling of essential genes may provide opportunities to improve RNA-silencing antimicrobials. PMID:26070674

  6. Organization and post-transcriptional processing of the psb B operon from chloroplasts of Populus deltoides.

    PubMed

    Dixit, R; Trivedi, P K; Nath, P; Sane, P V

    1999-09-01

    Chloroplast genes are typically organized into polycistronic transcription units that give rise to complex sets of mono- and oligo-cistronic overlapping RNAs through a series of processing steps. The psbB operon contains genes for the PSII (psbB, psbT, psbH) and cytochrome b(6)f (petB and petD) complexes which are needed in different amounts during chloroplast biogenesis. The functional significance of gene organization in this polycistronic unit, containing information for two different complexes, is not known and is of interest. To determine the organization and expression of these complexes, studies have been carried out on crop plants by different groups, but not much information is known about trees. We present the nucleotide sequences of PSII genes and RNA profiles of the genes located in the psbB operon from Populus deltoides, a tree species. Although the gene organization of this operon in P. deltoides is similar to that in other species, a few variations have been observed in the processing scheme.

  7. Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of the Bacillus subtilis biotin biosynthetic operon.

    PubMed

    Bower, S; Perkins, J B; Yocum, R R; Howitt, C L; Rahaim, P; Pero, J

    1996-07-01

    A 10-kb region of the Bacillus subtilis genome that contains genes involved in biotin-biosynthesis was cloned and sequenced. DNA sequence analysis indicated that B. subtilis contains homologs of the Escherichia coli and Bacillus sphaericus bioA, bioB, bioD, and bioF genes. These four genes and a homolog of the B. sphaericus bioW gene are arranged in a single operon in the order bioWAFDR and are followed by two additional genes, bioI and orf2. bioI and orf2 show no similarity to any other known biotin biosynthetic genes. The bioI gene encodes a protein with similarity to cytochrome P-450s and was able to complement mutations in either bioC or bioH of E. coli. Mutations in bioI caused B. subtilis to grow poorly in the absence of biotin. The bradytroph phenotype of bioI mutants was overcome by pimelic acid, suggesting that the product of bioI functions at a step prior to pimelic acid synthesis. The B. subtilis bio operon is preceded by a putative vegetative promoter sequence and contains just downstream a region of dyad symmetry with homology to the bio regulatory region of B. sphaericus. Analysis of a bioW-lacZ translational fusion indicated that expression of the biotin operon is regulated by biotin and the B. subtilis birA gene.

  8. Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of the Bacillus subtilis biotin biosynthetic operon.

    PubMed Central

    Bower, S; Perkins, J B; Yocum, R R; Howitt, C L; Rahaim, P; Pero, J

    1996-01-01

    A 10-kb region of the Bacillus subtilis genome that contains genes involved in biotin-biosynthesis was cloned and sequenced. DNA sequence analysis indicated that B. subtilis contains homologs of the Escherichia coli and Bacillus sphaericus bioA, bioB, bioD, and bioF genes. These four genes and a homolog of the B. sphaericus bioW gene are arranged in a single operon in the order bioWAFDR and are followed by two additional genes, bioI and orf2. bioI and orf2 show no similarity to any other known biotin biosynthetic genes. The bioI gene encodes a protein with similarity to cytochrome P-450s and was able to complement mutations in either bioC or bioH of E. coli. Mutations in bioI caused B. subtilis to grow poorly in the absence of biotin. The bradytroph phenotype of bioI mutants was overcome by pimelic acid, suggesting that the product of bioI functions at a step prior to pimelic acid synthesis. The B. subtilis bio operon is preceded by a putative vegetative promoter sequence and contains just downstream a region of dyad symmetry with homology to the bio regulatory region of B. sphaericus. Analysis of a bioW-lacZ translational fusion indicated that expression of the biotin operon is regulated by biotin and the B. subtilis birA gene. PMID:8763940

  9. Amplification of the groESL operon in Pseudomonas putida increases siderophore gene promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Venturi, V; Wolfs, K; Leong, J; Weisbeek, P J

    1994-10-17

    Pseudobactin 358 is the yellow-green fluorescent siderophore [microbial iron(III) transport agent] produced by Pseudomonas putida WCS358 under iron-limiting conditions. The genes encoding pseudobactin 358 biosynthesis are iron-regulated at the level of transcription. In this study, the molecular characterization is reported of a cosmid clone of WCS358 DNA that can stimulate, in an iron-dependent manner, the activity of a WCS358 siderophore gene promoter in the heterologous Pseudomonas strain A225. The functional region in the clone was identified by subcloning, transposon mutagenesis and DNA sequencing as the groESL operon of strain WCS358. This increase in promoter activity was not observed when the groESL genes of strain WCS358 were integrated via a transposon vector into the genome of Pseudomonas A225, indicating that multiple copies of the operon are necessary for the increase in siderophore gene promoter activity. Amplification of the Escherichia coli and WCS358 groESL genes also increased iron-regulated promoter activity in the parent strain WCS358. The groESL operon codes for the chaperone proteins GroES and GroEL, which are responsible for mediating the folding and assembly of many proteins.

  10. The Mannitol Operon Repressor MTIR belongs to a new class of transcription regulators in bacteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K.; Borovilos, M.; Zhou, M

    2009-12-25

    Many bacteria express phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTS). The mannitol-specific PTS catalyze the uptake and phosphorylation of d-mannitol. The uptake system comprises several genes encoded in the single operon. The expression of the mannitol operon is regulated by a proposed transcriptional factor, mannitol operon repressor (MtlR) that was first studied in Escherichia coli. Here we report the first crystal structures of MtlR from Vibrio parahemeolyticus (Vp-MtlR) and its homolog YggD protein from Shigella flexneri (Sf-YggD). MtlR and YggD belong to the same protein family (Pfam05068). Although Vp-MtlR and Sf-YggD share low sequence identity (22%), their overall structures are very similar, representingmore » a novel all {alpha}-helical fold, and indicate similar function. However, their lack of any known DNA-binding structural motifs and their unfavorable electrostatic properties imply that MtlR/YggD are unlikely to bind a specific DNA operator directly as proposed earlier. This structural observation is further corroborated by in vitro DNA-binding studies of E. coli MtlR (Ec-MtlR), which detected no interaction of Ec-MtlR with the well characterized mannitol operator/promoter region. Therefore, MtlR/YggD belongs to a new class of transcription factors in bacteria that may regulate gene expression indirectly as a part of a larger transcriptional complex.« less

  11. Structural and physiological studies of the Escherichia coli histidine operon inserted into plasmid vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, C B; Musti, A M; Frunzio, R; Blasi, F

    1980-01-01

    A fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid 5,300 base paris long and containing the promoter-proximal portion of the histidine operon of Escherichia coli K-12, has been cloned in plasmid pBR313 (plasmids pCB2 and pCB3). Restriction mapping, partial nucleotide sequencing, and studies on functional expression in vivo and on protein synthesis in minicells have shown that the fragment contains the regulatory region of the operon, the hisG, hisD genes, and part of the hisC gene. Another plasmid (pCB5) contained the hisG gene and part of the hisD gene. Expression of the hisG gene in the latter plasmid was under control of the tetracycline promoter of the pBR313 plasmid. The in vivo expression of the two groups of plasmids described above, as well as their effect on the expression of the histidine genes not carried by the plasmids but present on the host chromosome, has been studied. The presence of multiple copies of pCB2 or pCB3, but not of pCB5, prevented derepression of the chromosomal histidine operon. Possible interpretations of this phenomenon are discussed. Images PMID:6246067

  12. Regulation of nrf operon expression in pathogenic enteric bacteria: sequence divergence reveals new regulatory complexity

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Rita E.; Lee, David J.; Busby, Stephen J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The Escherichia coli K‐12 nrf operon encodes a periplasmic nitrite reductase, the expression of which is driven from a single promoter, pnrf. Expression from pnrf is activated by the FNR transcription factor in response to anaerobiosis and further increased in response to nitrite by the response regulator proteins, NarL and NarP. FNR‐dependent transcription is suppressed by the binding of two nucleoid associated proteins, IHF and Fis. As Fis levels increase in cells grown in rich medium, the positioning of its binding site, overlapping the promoter −10 element, ensures that pnrf is sharply repressed. Here, we investigate the expression of the nrf operon promoter from various pathogenic enteric bacteria. We show that pnrf from enterohaemorrhagic E. coli is more active than its K‐12 counterpart, exhibits substantial FNR‐independent activity and is insensitive to nutrient quality, due to an improved −10 element. We also demonstrate that the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium core promoter is more active than previously thought, due to differences around the transcription start site, and that its expression is repressed by downstream sequences. We identify the CsrA RNA binding protein as being responsible for this, and show that CsrA differentially regulates the E. coli K‐12 and Salmonella nrf operons. PMID:28211111

  13. Biphenyl-Metabolizing Microbial Community and a Functional Operon Revealed in E-Waste-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Longfei; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Dayi; Song, Mengke; Sun, Yingtao; Zhang, Gan

    2018-05-18

    Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities release massive amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals into surrounding soils, posing a major threat to the ecosystem and human health. Microbes capable of metabolizing POPs play important roles in POPs remediation in soils, but their phylotypes and functions remain unclear. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), one of the main pollutants in e-waste contaminated soils, have drawn increasing attention due to their high persistence, toxicity, and bioaccumulation. In the present study, we employed the culture-independent method of DNA stable-isotope probing to identify active biphenyl and PCB degraders in e-waste-contaminated soil. A total of 19 rare operational taxonomic units and three dominant bacterial genera ( Ralstonia, Cupriavidus, and uncultured bacterium DA101) were enriched in the 13 C heavy DNA fraction, confirming their functions in PCBs metabolism. Additionally, a 13.8 kb bph operon was amplified, containing a bphA gene labeled by 13 C that was concentrated in the heavy DNA fraction. The tetranucleotide signature characteristics of the bph operon suggest that it originated from Ralstonia. The bph operon may be shared by horizontal gene transfer because it contains a transposon gene and is found in various bacterial species. This study gives us a deeper understanding of PCB-degrading mechanisms and provides a potential resource for the bioremediation of PCBs-contaminated soils.

  14. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of dnaK-operon proteins from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Osipiuk, J; Joachimiak, A

    1997-09-12

    We propose that the dnaK operon of Thermus thermophilus HB8 is composed of three functionally linked genes: dnaK, grpE, and dnaJ. The dnaK and dnaJ gene products are most closely related to their cyanobacterial homologs. The DnaK protein sequence places T. thermophilus in the plastid Hsp70 subfamily. In contrast, the grpE translated sequence is most similar to GrpE from Clostridium acetobutylicum, a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium. A single promoter region, with homology to the Escherichia coli consensus promoter sequences recognized by the sigma70 and sigma32 transcription factors, precedes the postulated operon. This promoter is heat-shock inducible. The dnaK mRNA level increased more than 30 times upon 10 min of heat shock (from 70 degrees C to 85 degrees C). A strong transcription terminating sequence was found between the dnaK and grpE genes. The individual genes were cloned into pET expression vectors and the thermophilic proteins were overproduced at high levels in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The recombinant T. thermophilus DnaK protein was shown to have a weak ATP-hydrolytic activity, with an optimum at 90 degrees C. The ATPase was stimulated by the presence of GrpE and DnaJ. Another open reading frame, coding for ClpB heat-shock protein, was found downstream of the dnaK operon.

  15. The rpoE operon regulates heat stress response in Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Vanaporn, Muthita; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Korbsrisate, Sunee

    2008-07-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, one of the important lethal diseases in tropical regions. In this article, we demonstrate the crucial role of the B. pseudomallei rpoE locus in the response to heat stress. The rpoE operon knockout mutant exhibited growth retardation and reduced survival when exposed to a high temperature. Expression analysis using rpoH promoter-lacZ fusion revealed that heat stress induction of rpoH, which encodes heat shock sigma factor (sigma(H)), was abolished in the B. pseudomallei rpoE mutant. Analysis of the rpoH promoter region revealed sequences sharing high homology to the consensus sequence of sigma(E)-dependent promoters. Moreover, the putative heat-induced sigma(H)-regulated heat shock proteins (i.e. GroEL and HtpG) were also absent in the rpoE operon mutant. Altogether, our data suggest that the rpoE operon regulates B. pseudomallei heat stress response through the function of rpoH.

  16. Functional Analysis of the Magnetosome Island in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense: The mamAB Operon Is Sufficient for Magnetite Biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Lohße, Anna; Ullrich, Susanne; Katzmann, Emanuel; Borg, Sarah; Wanner, Gerd; Richter, Michael; Voigt, Birgit; Schweder, Thomas; Schüler, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial magnetosomes are membrane-enveloped, nanometer-sized crystals of magnetite, which serve for magnetotactic navigation. All genes implicated in the synthesis of these organelles are located in a conserved genomic magnetosome island (MAI). We performed a comprehensive bioinformatic, proteomic and genetic analysis of the MAI in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. By the construction of large deletion mutants we demonstrate that the entire region is dispensable for growth, and the majority of MAI genes have no detectable function in magnetosome formation and could be eliminated without any effect. Only <25% of the region comprising four major operons could be associated with magnetite biomineralization, which correlated with high expression of these genes and their conservation among magnetotactic bacteria. Whereas only deletion of the mamAB operon resulted in the complete loss of magnetic particles, deletion of the conserved mms6, mamGFDC, and mamXY operons led to severe defects in morphology, size and organization of magnetite crystals. However, strains in which these operons were eliminated together retained the ability to synthesize small irregular crystallites, and weakly aligned in magnetic fields. This demonstrates that whereas the mamGFDC, mms6 and mamXY operons have crucial and partially overlapping functions for the formation of functional magnetosomes, the mamAB operon is the only region of the MAI, which is necessary and sufficient for magnetite biomineralization. Our data further reduce the known minimal gene set required for magnetosome formation and will be useful for future genome engineering approaches. PMID:22043287

  17. Maximization of transcription of the serC (pdxF)-aroA multifunctional operon by antagonistic effects of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-cAMP complex and Lrp global regulators of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Man, T K; Pease, A J; Winkler, M E

    1997-06-01

    The arrangement of the Escherichia coli serC (pdxF) and aroA genes into a cotranscribed multifunctional operon allows coregulation of two enzymes required for the biosynthesis of L-serine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, chorismate, and the aromatic amino acids and vitamins. RNase T2 protection assays revealed two major transcripts that were initiated from a promoter upstream from serC (pdxF). Between 80 to 90% of serC (pdxF) transcripts were present in single-gene mRNA molecules that likely arose by Rho-independent termination between serC (pdxF) and aroA. serC (pdxF)-aroA cotranscripts terminated at another Rho-independent terminator near the end of aroA. We studied operon regulation by determining differential rates of beta-galactosidase synthesis in a merodiploid strain carrying a single-copy lambda[phi(serC [pdxF]'-lacZYA)] operon fusion. serC (pdxF) transcription was greatest in bacteria growing in minimal salts-glucose medium (MMGlu) and was reduced in minimal salts-glycerol medium, enriched MMGlu, and LB medium. serC (pdxF) transcription was increased in cya or crp mutants compared to their cya+ crp+ parent in MMGlu or LB medium. In contrast, serC (pdxF) transcription decreased in an lrp mutant compared to its lrp+ parent in MMGlu. Conclusions obtained by using the operon fusion were corroborated by quantitative Western immunoblotting of SerC (PdxF), which was present at around 1,800 dimers per cell in bacteria growing in MMGlu. RNase T2 protection assays of serC (pdxF)-terminated and serC (pdxF)-aroA cotranscript amounts supported the conclusion that the operon was regulated at the transcription level under the conditions tested. Results with a series of deletions upstream of the P(serC (pdxF)) promoter revealed that activation by Lrp was likely direct, whereas repression by the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-cAMP complex (CRP-cAMP) was likely indirect, possibly via a repressor whose amount or activity was stimulated by CRP-cAMP.

  18. The F-ATPase operon from the oral streptococci S. mutans and S. sanguis: How structure relates to function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, Wendi Lee

    1999-10-01

    The oral microbe, Streptococcus mutans is known to be a primary contributor to the most common infection in humans, dental caries. In the plaque environment, resident bacteria metabolize dietary sucrose which results in the production of organic acids and a decrease in plaque pH. The proton-translocating ATPase (F-ATPase) protects the bacteria from acidification by extruding protons, at the expense of ATP, to maintain an internal pH which is more neutral than the external environment. Examination of this enzyme will help us to gain insight regarding its contribution to the aciduricity characteristics of oral bacteria. In this work, our goal was to begin the molecular dissection of the mechanism by which streptococcal ATPases are regulated and function enzymatically. Sequence analysis of the F-ATPase from the non-pathogenic S. sanguis revealed that the structural genes are homologous to S. mutans as well as other sequenced F-ATPases. Cloned subunits were functionally similar as shown by complementing E. coli ATPase mutants. S. sanguis/E. coli hybrid enzymes hydrolyzed ATP, but proton conduction was uncoupled as demonstrated with inhibition studies. Transcriptional regulation of the F-ATPase operon from S. mutans was examined using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene fusions. Fusions containing 136 bp of DNA upstream of the promoter showed higher levels of expression as compared to those with only 16 bp. Similar to ATPase enzymatic activity, CAT expression also increased during growth at low pH. Analysis of RNA demonstrated that ATPase mRNA levels were higher at low pH, which supported the CAT activity data. Therefore, the F-ATPase from S. mutans was regulated, at least partially, by both the DNA located upstream of the promoter as well as by pH. Examination of structural models of the F-ATPase from the pathogenic oral organisms S. mutans and Lactobacillus casei and the non- pathogenic S. sanguis showed that the differences noted in the sequence of the catalytic

  19. Food Enzymes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Rachel; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2007-01-01

    Many students view biology and chemistry as two unrelated, separate sciences; how these courses are generally taught in high schools may do little to change that impression. The study of enzymes provide a great opportunity for both biology and chemistry teachers to share with students the interdisciplinary nature of science. This article describes…

  20. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  1. The Bacillus subtilis ywjI (glpX) gene encodes a class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, functionally equivalent to the class III Fbp enzyme.

    PubMed

    Jules, Matthieu; Le Chat, Ludovic; Aymerich, Stéphane; Le Coq, Dominique

    2009-05-01

    We present here experimental evidence that the Bacillus subtilis ywjI gene encodes a class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, functionally equivalent to the fbp-encoded class III enzyme, and constitutes with the upstream gene, murAB, an operon transcribed at the same level under glycolytic or gluconeogenic conditions.

  2. Operator design and mechanism for CarA repressor-mediated down-regulation of the photoinducible carB operon in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    López-Rubio, José Juan; Padmanabhan, S; Lázaro, Jose María; Salas, Margarita; Murillo, Francisco José; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat

    2004-07-09

    The carB operon encodes all except one of the enzymes involved in light-induced carotenogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus. Expression of its promoter (P(B)) is repressed in the dark by sequence-specific DNA binding of CarA to a palindrome (pI) located between positions -47 and -64 relative to the transcription start site. This promotes subsequent binding of CarA to additional sites that remain to be defined. CarS, produced in the light, interacts physically with CarA, abrogates CarA-DNA binding, and thereby derepresses P(B). In this study, we delineate the operator design that exists for CarA by precisely mapping out the second operator element. For this, we examined how stepwise deletions and site-directed mutagenesis in the region between the palindrome and the transcription start site affect CarA binding around P(B) in vitro and expression of P(B) in vivo. These revealed the second operator element to be an imperfect interrupted palindrome (pII) spanning positions -26 to -40. In vitro assays using purified M. xanthus RNA polymerase showed that CarA abolishes P(B)-RNA polymerase binding and runoff transcription and that both were restored by CarS, thus rationalizing the observations in vivo. CarA binding to pII (after association with pI) effectively occludes RNA polymerase from P(B) and so provides the operative mechanism for the repression of the carB operon by CarA. The bipartite operator design, whereby transcription is blocked by the low affinity CarA-pII binding and is readily restored by CarS, may have evolved to match the needs for a rapid and an effective response to light.

  3. Characterization of the biotin uptake system encoded by the biotin-inducible bioYMN operon of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The amino acid-producing Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum is auxotrophic for biotin although biotin ring assembly starting from the precursor pimeloyl-CoA is still functional. It possesses AccBC, the α-subunit of the acyl-carboxylases involved in fatty acid and mycolic acid synthesis, and pyruvate carboxylase as the only biotin-containing proteins. Comparative genome analyses suggested that the putative transport system BioYMN encoded by cg2147, cg2148 and cg2149 might be involved in biotin uptake by C. glutamicum. Results By comparison of global gene expression patterns of cells grown with limiting or excess supply of biotin or with dethiobiotin as supplement replacing biotin revealed that expression of genes coding for enzymes of biotin ring assembly and for the putative uptake system was regulated according to biotin availability. RT-PCR and 5'-RACE experiments demonstrated that the genes bioY, bioM, and bioN are transcribed from one promoter as a single transcript. Biochemical analyses revealed that BioYMN catalyzes the effective uptake of biotin with a concentration of 60 nM biotin supporting a half-maximal transport rate. Maximal biotin uptake rates were at least five fold higher in biotin-limited cells as compared to cells grown with excess biotin. Overexpression of bioYMN led to an at least 50 fold higher biotin uptake rate as compared to the empty vector control. Overproduction of BioYMN alleviated biotin limitation and interfered with triggering L-glutamate production by biotin limitation. Conclusions The operon bioYMN from C. glutamicum was shown to be induced by biotin limitation. Transport assays with radio-labeled biotin revealed that BioYMN functions as a biotin uptake system. Overexpression of bioYMN affected L-glutamate production triggered by biotin limitation. PMID:22243621

  4. Anaerobically controlled expression system derived from the arcDABC operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: application to lipase production.

    PubMed Central

    Winteler, H V; Schneidinger, B; Jaeger, K E; Haas, D

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobically inducible arcDABC operon encodes the enzymes of the arginine deiminase pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Upon induction, the arcAB mRNAs and proteins reach high intracellular levels, because of a strong anaerobically controlled promoter and mRNA processing in arcD, leading to stable downstream transcripts. We explored the usefulness of this system for the construction of expression vectors. The lacZ gene of Escherichia coli was expressed to the highest levels when fused close to the arc promoter. Insertion of lacZ further downstream into arcA or arcB did not stabilize the intrinsically unstable lacZ mRNA. On the contrary, lacZ mRNA appeared to be a vulnerable endonuclease target destabilizing arcAB mRNAs in the 5'-to-3' direction in P. aeruginosa. The native arc promoter was modified for optional expression in the -10 sequence and in the -40 region, which is a binding site for the anaerobic regulator ANR. In P. aeruginosa grown either anaerobically or with oxygen limitation in unshaken cultures, this promoter was stronger than the induced tac promoter. The P. aeruginosa lipAH genes, which encode extracellular lipase and lipase foldase, respectively, were fused directly to the modified arc promoter in an IncQ vector plasmid. Semianaerobic static cultures of P. aeruginosa PAO1 carrying this recombinant plasmid overproduced extracellular lipase 30-fold during stationary phase compared with the production by strain PAO1 without the plasmid. Severe oxygen limitation, in contrast, resulted in poor lipase productivity despite effective induction of the ANR-dependent promoter, suggesting that secretion of active lipase is blocked by the absence of oxygen. In conclusion, the modified arc promoter is useful for driving the expression of cloned genes in P. aeruginosa during oxygen-limited growth and stationary phase. PMID:8795231

  5. Characterization of the biotin uptake system encoded by the biotin-inducible bioYMN operon of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jens; Peters-Wendisch, Petra; Stansen, K Corinna; Götker, Susanne; Maximow, Stanislav; Krämer, Reinhard; Wendisch, Volker F

    2012-01-13

    The amino acid-producing Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum is auxotrophic for biotin although biotin ring assembly starting from the precursor pimeloyl-CoA is still functional. It possesses AccBC, the α-subunit of the acyl-carboxylases involved in fatty acid and mycolic acid synthesis, and pyruvate carboxylase as the only biotin-containing proteins. Comparative genome analyses suggested that the putative transport system BioYMN encoded by cg2147, cg2148 and cg2149 might be involved in biotin uptake by C. glutamicum. By comparison of global gene expression patterns of cells grown with limiting or excess supply of biotin or with dethiobiotin as supplement replacing biotin revealed that expression of genes coding for enzymes of biotin ring assembly and for the putative uptake system was regulated according to biotin availability. RT-PCR and 5'-RACE experiments demonstrated that the genes bioY, bioM, and bioN are transcribed from one promoter as a single transcript. Biochemical analyses revealed that BioYMN catalyzes the effective uptake of biotin with a concentration of 60 nM biotin supporting a half-maximal transport rate. Maximal biotin uptake rates were at least five fold higher in biotin-limited cells as compared to cells grown with excess biotin. Overexpression of bioYMN led to an at least 50 fold higher biotin uptake rate as compared to the empty vector control. Overproduction of BioYMN alleviated biotin limitation and interfered with triggering L-glutamate production by biotin limitation. The operon bioYMN from C. glutamicum was shown to be induced by biotin limitation. Transport assays with radio-labeled biotin revealed that BioYMN functions as a biotin uptake system. Overexpression of bioYMN affected L-glutamate production triggered by biotin limitation.

  6. Extrachromosomal Nucleolus-Like Compartmentalization by a Plasmid-Borne Ribosomal RNA Operon and Its Role in Nucleoid Compaction.

    PubMed

    Mata Martin, Carmen; Sun, Zhe; Zhou, Yan Ning; Jin, Ding Jun

    2018-01-01

    In the fast-growing Escherichia coli cells, RNA polymerase (RNAP) molecules are concentrated and form foci at clusters of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons resembling eukaryotic nucleolus. The bacterial nucleolus-like organization, spatially compartmentalized at the surface of the compact bacterial chromosome (nucleoid), serves as transcription factories for rRNA synthesis and ribosome biogenesis, which influences the organization of the nucleoid. Unlike wild type that has seven rRNA operons in the genome in a mutant that has six (Δ6 rrn ) rRNA operons deleted in the genome, there are no apparent transcription foci and the nucleoid becomes uncompacted, indicating that formation of RNAP foci requires multiple copies of rRNA operons clustered in space and is critical for nucleoid compaction. It has not been determined, however, whether a multicopy plasmid-borne rRNA operon (p rrnB ) could substitute the multiple chromosomal rRNA operons for the organization of the bacterial nucleolus-like structure in the mutants of Δ6 rrn and Δ7 rrn that has all seven rRNA operons deleted in the genome. We hypothesized that extrachromosomal nucleolus-like structures are similarly organized and functional in trans from p rrnB in these mutants. In this report, using multicolor images of three-dimensional superresolution Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM), we determined the distributions of both RNAP and NusB that are a transcription factor involved in rRNA synthesis and ribosome biogenesis, p rrnB clustering, and nucleoid structure in these two mutants in response to environmental cues. Our results found that the extrachromosomal nucleolus-like organization tends to be spatially located at the poles of the mutant cells. In addition, formation of RNAP foci at the extrachromosomal nucleolus-like structure condenses the nucleoid, supporting the idea that active transcription at the nucleolus-like organization is a driving force in nucleoid compaction.

  7. Gene structure and transcriptional organization of the dnaK operon of Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 and application of the operon in bifidobacterial tracing.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Marco; Zink, Ralf; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation and delivery of bifidobacterial strains as probiotic components in many food preparations expose these microorganisms to a multitude of environmental insults, including heat and osmotic stresses. We characterized the dnaK gene region of Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003. Sequence analysis of the dnaK locus revealed four genes with the organization dnaK-grpE-dnaJ-ORF1, whose deduced protein products display significant similarity to corresponding chaperones found in other bacteria. Northern hybridization and real-time LightCycler PCR analysis revealed that the transcription of the dnaK operon was strongly induced by osmotic shock but was not induced significantly by heat stress. A 4.4-kb polycistronic mRNA, which represented the transcript of the complete dnaK gene region, was detected. Many other small transcripts, which were assumed to have resulted from intensive processing or degradation of this polycistronic mRNA, were identified. The transcription start site of the dnaK operon was determined by primer extension. Phylogenetic analysis of the available bifidobacterial grpE and dnaK genes suggested that the evolutionary development of these genes has been similar. The phylogeny derived from the various bifidobacterial grpE and dnaK sequences is consistent with that derived from 16S rRNA. The use of these genes in bifidobacterial species as an alternative or complement to the 16S rRNA gene marker provides sequence signatures that allow a high level of discrimination between closely related species of this genus.

  8. Comparison of the overlapping frd and ampC operons of Escherichia coli with the corresponding DNA sequences in other gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bergström, S; Lindberg, F P; Olsson, O; Normark, S

    1983-09-01

    Specific DNA probes from Escherichia coli K-12 were used to analyze the sequence divergence of the frd and ampC operons in various species of gram-negative bacteria. These operons code for the fumarate reductase complex and the chromosomal beta-lactamase, respectively. We demonstrate that the two operons show the same general pattern of divergence, although the frd operon is considerably more conserved than is the ampC operon. The major exception is Salmonella typhimurium LT2, which shows a strong homology to the E. coli frd probe but none to the E. coli ampC probe. The operons from Citrobacter freundii and Shigella sonnei were cloned and characterized by physical mapping, Southern hybridization, and protein synthesis in minicells. In S. sonnei, as in E. coli K-12, the frd and ampC operons overlap (T. Grundström and B. Jaurin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79:1111-1115, 1982). Only minor discrepancies between the two operons were found over the entire frd-ampC region. In C. freundii, the ampC and frd operons do not overlap, being separated by about 1,100 base pairs. Presumably the inducible property of the C. freundii chromosomal beta-lactamase is encoded by this 1,100-base-pair DNA segment.

  9. A mutation in a new gene bglJ, activates the bgl operon in Escherichia coli K-12

    SciTech Connect

    Giel, M.; Desnoyer, M.; Lopilato, J.

    1996-06-01

    A new mutation , bglJ4, has been characterized that results in the expression of the silent bgl operon. The bgl operon encodes proteins necessary for the transport and utilization of the aromatic {beta}-glucosides arbutin and salicin. A variety of mutations activate the operon and result in a Bgl{sup +} phenotype. Activating mutations are located upstream of the bgl promoter and in genes located elsewhere on the chromosome. Mutations outside of the bgl operon occur in the genes encoding DNA gyrase and in the gene encoding the nucleoid associated protein H-NS. The mutation described here, bglJ4, has been mapped to amore » new locus at min 99 on the Escherichia coli K-12 genetic map. The putative protein encoded by the bglJ gene has homology to a family of transcriptional activators. Evidence is presented that increased expression of the bglJ product is needed for activation of the bgl operon. 56 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  10. A quantitative study of the benefits of co-regulation using the spoIIA operon as an example

    PubMed Central

    Iber, Dagmar

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of most genes is not random, and functionally linked genes are often found in clusters. Several theories have been put forward to explain the emergence and persistence of operons in bacteria. Careful analysis of genomic data favours the co-regulation model, where gene organization into operons is driven by the benefits of coordinated gene expression and regulation. Direct evidence that coexpression increases the individual's fitness enough to ensure operon formation and maintenance is, however, still lacking. Here, a previously described quantitative model of the network that controls the transcription factor σF during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is employed to quantify the benefits arising from both organization of the sporulation genes into the spoIIA operon and from translational coupling. The analysis shows that operon organization, together with translational coupling, is important because of the inherent stochastic nature of gene expression, which skews the ratios between protein concentrations in the absence of co-regulation. The predicted impact of different forms of gene regulation on fitness and survival agrees quantitatively with published sporulation efficiencies. PMID:16924264

  11. A quantitative study of the benefits of co-regulation using the spoIIA operon as an example.

    PubMed

    Iber, Dagmar

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of most genes is not random, and functionally linked genes are often found in clusters. Several theories have been put forward to explain the emergence and persistence of operons in bacteria. Careful analysis of genomic data favours the co-regulation model, where gene organization into operons is driven by the benefits of coordinated gene expression and regulation. Direct evidence that coexpression increases the individual's fitness enough to ensure operon formation and maintenance is, however, still lacking. Here, a previously described quantitative model of the network that controls the transcription factor sigma(F) during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is employed to quantify the benefits arising from both organization of the sporulation genes into the spoIIA operon and from translational coupling. The analysis shows that operon organization, together with translational coupling, is important because of the inherent stochastic nature of gene expression, which skews the ratios between protein concentrations in the absence of co-regulation. The predicted impact of different forms of gene regulation on fitness and survival agrees quantitatively with published sporulation efficiencies.

  12. Transcriptional activation of the tad type IVb pilus operon by PypB in Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Jennifer; Wagner, Karin; Seekircher, Stephanie; Greune, Lilo; Humberg, Verena; Schmidt, M Alexander; Heusipp, Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    Type IV pili are virulence factors in various bacteria and mediate, among other functions, the colonization of diverse surfaces. Various subclasses of type IV pili have been identified, but information on pilus expression, biogenesis, and the associated phenotypes is sparse for the genus Yersinia. We recently described the identification of PypB as a transcriptional regulator in Yersinia enterocolitica. Here we show that the pypB gene is associated with the tad locus, a genomic island that is widespread among bacterial and archaeal species. The genetic linkage of pypB with the tad locus is conserved throughout the yersiniae but is not found among other bacteria carrying the tad locus. We show that the genes of the tad locus form an operon in Y. enterocolitica that is controlled by PypB and that pypB is part of this operon. The tad genes encode functions necessary for the biogenesis of the Flp subfamily of type IVb pili initially described for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to mediate a tight-adherence phenotype. In Y. enterocolitica, the Flp pilin protein shows some peculiarities in its amino acid sequence that imply similarities as well as differences compared to typical motifs found in the Flp subtype of type IVb pili. Flp is expressed and processed after PypB overproduction, resulting in microcolony formation but not in increased adherence to biotic or abiotic surfaces. Our data describe the transcriptional regulation of the tad type IVb pilus operon by PypB in Y. enterocolitica but fail to show most previously described phenotypes associated with this type of pilus in other bacteria.

  13. Role of Tellurite Resistance Operon in Filamentous Growth of Yersinia pestis in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis initiates infection by parasitism of host macrophages. In response to macrophage infections, intracellular Y. pestis can assume a filamentous cellular morphology which may mediate resistance to host cell innate immune responses. We previously observed the expression of Y. pestis tellurite resistance proteins TerD and TerE from the terZABCDE operon during macrophage infections. Others have observed a filamentous response associated with expression of tellurite resistance operon in Escherichia coli exposed to tellurite. Therefore, in this study we examine the potential role of Y. pestis tellurite resistance operon in filamentous cellular morphology during macrophage infections. In vitro treatment of Y. pestis culture with sodium tellurite (Na2TeO3) caused the bacterial cells to assume a filamentous phenotype similar to the filamentous phenotype observed during macrophage infections. A deletion mutant for genes terZAB abolished the filamentous morphologic response to tellurite exposure or intracellular parasitism, but without affecting tellurite resistance. However, a terZABCDE deletion mutant abolished both filamentous morphologic response and tellurite resistance. Complementation of the terZABCDE deletion mutant with terCDE, but not terZAB, partially restored tellurite resistance. When the terZABCDE deletion mutant was complemented with terZAB or terCDE, Y. pestis exhibited filamentous morphology during macrophage infections as well as while these complemented genes were being expressed under an in vitro condition. Further in E. coli, expression of Y. pestis terZAB, but not terCDE, conferred a filamentous phenotype. These findings support the role of Y. pestis terZAB mediation of the filamentous response phenotype; whereas, terCDE confers tellurite resistance. Although the beneficial role of filamentous morphological responses by Y. pestis during macrophage infections is yet to be fully defined, it may be a bacterial adaptive strategy to macrophage

  14. Spontaneous mutations in the flhD operon generate motility heterogeneity in Escherichia coli biofilm.

    PubMed

    Horne, Shelley M; Sayler, Joseph; Scarberry, Nicholas; Schroeder, Meredith; Lynnes, Ty; Prüß, Birgit M

    2016-11-08

    Heterogeneity and niche adaptation in bacterial biofilm involve changes to the genetic makeup of the bacteria and gene expression control. We hypothesized that i) spontaneous mutations in the flhD operon can either increase or decrease motility and that ii) the resulting motility heterogeneity in the biofilm might lead to a long-term increase in biofilm biomass. We allowed the highly motile E. coli K-12 strain MC1000 to form seven- and fourteen-day old biofilm, from which we recovered reduced motility isolates at a substantially greater frequency (5.4 %) than from a similar experiment with planktonic bacteria (0.1 %). Biofilms formed exclusively by MC1000 degraded after 2 weeks. In contrast, biofilms initiated with a 1:1 ratio of MC1000 and its isogenic flhD::kn mutant remained intact at 4 weeks and the two strains remained in equilibrium for at least two weeks. These data imply that an 'optimal' biofilm may contain a mixture of motile and non-motile bacteria. Twenty-eight of the non-motile MC1000 isolates contained an IS1 element in proximity to the translational start of FlhD or within the open reading frames for FlhD or FlhC. Two isolates had an IS2 and one isolate had an IS5 in the open reading frame for FlhD. An additional three isolates contained deletions that included the RNA polymerase binding site, five isolates contained point mutations and small deletions in the open reading frame for FlhC. The locations of all these mutations are consistent with the lack of motility and further downstream within the flhD operon than previously published IS elements that increased motility. We believe that the location of the mutation within the flhD operon determines whether the effect on motility is positive or negative. To test the second part of our hypothesis where motility heterogeneity in a biofilm may lead to a long-term increase in biofilm biomass, we quantified biofilm biomass by MC1000, MC1000 flhD::kn, and mixtures of the two strains at ratios of 1:1, 10

  15. fbpABC gene cluster in Neisseria meningitidis is transcribed as an operon.

    PubMed

    Khun, H H; Deved, V; Wong, H; Lee, B C

    2000-12-01

    The neisserial fbpABC locus has been proposed to constitute a single transcriptional unit. To confirm this operonic arrangement, transcription assays using reverse transcriptase PCR amplification were conducted with Neisseria meningitidis. The presence of fbpAB and fbpBC transcripts obtained by priming cDNA synthesis with an fbpC-sequence-specific oligonucleotide indicates that fbpABC is organized as a single expression unit. The ratio of fbpA to fbpABC mRNA was approximately between 10- to 20-fold, as determined by real-time quantitative PCR.

  16. fbpABC Gene Cluster in Neisseria meningitidis Is Transcribed as an Operon

    PubMed Central

    Khun, Heng H.; Deved, Vinay; Wong, Howard; Lee, B. Craig

    2000-01-01

    The neisserial fbpABC locus has been proposed to constitute a single transcriptional unit. To confirm this operonic arrangement, transcription assays using reverse transcriptase PCR amplification were conducted with Neisseria meningitidis. The presence of fbpAB and fbpBC transcripts obtained by priming cDNA synthesis with an fbpC-sequence-specific oligonucleotide indicates that fbpABC is organized as a single expression unit. The ratio of fbpA to fbpABC mRNA was approximately between 10- to 20-fold, as determined by real-time quantitative PCR. PMID:11083849

  17. Role of P27 -P55 operon from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the resistance to toxic compounds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The P27-P55 (lprG-Rv1410c) operon is crucial for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, during infection in mice. P55 encodes an efflux pump that has been shown to provide Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG with resistance to several drugs, while P27 encodes a mannosylated glycoprotein previously described as an antigen that modulates the immune response against mycobacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the individual contribution of the proteins encoded in the P27-P55 operon to the resistance to toxic compounds and to the cell wall integrity of M. tuberculosis. Method In order to test the susceptibility of a mutant of M. tuberculosis H37Rv in the P27-P55 operon to malachite green, sodium dodecyl sulfate, ethidium bromide, and first-line antituberculosis drugs, this strain together with the wild type strain and a set of complemented strains were cultivated in the presence and in the absence of these drugs. In addition, the malachite green decolorization rate of each strain was obtained from decolorization curves of malachite green in PBS containing bacterial suspensions. Results The mutant strain decolorized malachite green faster than the wild type strain and was hypersensitive to both malachite green and ethidium bromide, and more susceptible to the first-line antituberculosis drugs: isoniazid and ethambutol. The pump inhibitor reserpine reversed M. tuberculosis resistance to ethidium bromide. These results suggest that P27-P55 functions through an efflux-pump like mechanism. In addition, deletion of the P27-P55 operon made M. tuberculosis susceptible to sodium dodecyl sulfate, suggesting that the lack of both proteins causes alterations in the cell wall permeability of the bacterium. Importantly, both P27 and P55 are required to restore the wild type phenotypes in the mutant. Conclusions The results clearly indicate that P27 and P55 are functionally connected in

  18. Silencing of Essential Genes within a Highly Coordinated Operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Goh, Shan; Hohmeier, Angela; Stone, Timothy C; Offord, Victoria; Sarabia, Francisco; Garcia-Ruiz, Cristina; Good, Liam

    2015-08-15

    Essential bacterial genes located within operons are particularly challenging to study independently because of coordinated gene expression and the nonviability of knockout mutants. Essentiality scores for many operon genes remain uncertain. Antisense RNA (asRNA) silencing or in-frame gene disruption of genes may help establish essentiality but can lead to polar effects on genes downstream or upstream of the target gene. Here, the Escherichia coli ribF-ileS-lspA-fkpB-ispH operon was used to evaluate the possibility of independently studying an essential gene using expressed asRNA and target gene overexpression to deregulate coupled expression. The gene requirement for growth in conditional silencing strains was determined by the relationship of target mRNA reduction with growth inhibition as the minimum transcript level required for 50% growth (MTL50). Mupirocin and globomycin, the protein inhibitors of IleS and LspA, respectively, were used in sensitization assays of strains containing both asRNA-expressing and open reading frame-expressing plasmids to examine deregulation of the overlapping ileS-lspA genes. We found upstream and downstream polar silencing effects when either ileS or lspA was silenced, indicating coupled expression. Weighted MTL50 values (means and standard deviations) of ribF, ileS, and lspA were 0.65 ± 0.18, 0.64 ± 0.06, and 0.76 ± 0.10, respectively. However, they were not significantly different (P = 0.71 by weighted one-way analysis of variance). The gene requirement for ispH could not be determined due to insufficient growth reduction. Mupirocin and globomycin sensitization experiments indicated that ileS-lspA expression could not be decoupled. The results highlight the inherent challenges associated with genetic analyses of operons; however, coupling of essential genes may provide opportunities to improve RNA-silencing antimicrobials. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Primary enzyme quantitation

    DOEpatents

    Saunders, G.C.

    1982-03-04

    The disclosure relates to the quantitation of a primary enzyme concentration by utilizing a substrate for the primary enzyme labeled with a second enzyme which is an indicator enzyme. Enzyme catalysis of the substrate occurs and results in release of the indicator enzyme in an amount directly proportional to the amount of primary enzyme present. By quantifying the free indicator enzyme one determines the amount of primary enzyme present.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of trans-splicing in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus unravels conserved gene functions for germline and dauer development in divergent operons.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit; Langnick, Claudia; Sommer, Ralf J; Dieterich, Christoph

    2014-09-01

    Discovery of trans-splicing in multiple metazoan lineages led to the identification of operon-like gene organization in diverse organisms, including trypanosomes, tunicates, and nematodes, but the functional significance of such operons is not completely understood. To see whether the content or organization of operons serves similar roles across species, we experimentally defined operons in the nematode model Pristionchus pacificus. We performed affinity capture experiments on mRNA pools to specifically enrich for transcripts that are trans-spliced to either the SL1- or SL2-spliced leader, using spliced leader-specific probes. We obtained distinct trans-splicing patterns from the analysis of three mRNA pools (total mRNA, SL1 and SL2 fraction) by RNA-seq. This information was combined with a genome-wide analysis of gene orientation and spacing. We could confirm 2219 operons by RNA-seq data out of 6709 candidate operons, which were predicted by sequence information alone. Our gene order comparison of the Caenorhabditis elegans and P. pacificus genomes shows major changes in operon organization in the two species. Notably, only 128 out of 1288 operons in C. elegans are conserved in P. pacificus. However, analysis of gene-expression profiles identified conserved functions such as an enrichment of germline-expressed genes and higher expression levels of operonic genes during recovery from dauer arrest in both species. These results provide support for the model that a necessity for increased transcriptional efficiency in the context of certain developmental processes could be a selective constraint for operon evolution in metazoans. Our method is generally applicable to other metazoans to see if similar functional constraints regulate gene organization into operons. © 2014 Sinha et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  1. Characterization of the regulation of a plant polysaccharide utilization operon and its role in biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Cameron; Yu, Yiyang; Gozzi, Kevin; Ching, Carly; Shemesh, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is often found in association with plants in the rhizosphere. Previously, plant polysaccharides have been shown to stimulate formation of root-associated multicellular communities, or biofilms, in this bacterium, yet the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. A five-gene gan operon (ganSPQAB) in B. subtilis has recently been shown to be involved in utilization of the plant-derived polysaccharide galactan. Despite these findings, molecular details about the regulation of the operon and the role of the operon in biofilm formation remain elusive. In this study, we performed comprehensive genetic analyses on the regulation of the gan operon. We show that this operon is regulated both by a LacI-like transcription repressor (GanR), which directly binds to pairs of inverted DNA repeats in the promoter region of the operon, and by the catabolite control protein A (CcpA). Derepression can be triggered by the presence of the inducer β-1,4-galactobiose, a hydrolysis product of galactan, or in situ when B. subtilis cells are associated with plant roots. In addition to the transcriptional regulation, the encoded ß-galactosidase GanA (by ganA), which hydrolyzes ß-1,4-galactobiose into galactose, is inhibited at the enzymatic level by the catalytic product galactose. Thus, the galactan utilization pathway is under complex regulation involving both positive and negative feedback mechanisms in B. subtilis. We discuss about the biological significance of such complex regulation as well as a hypothesis of biofilm induction by galactan via multiple mechanisms. PMID:28617843

  2. Identification of the Operon for the Sorbitol (Glucitol) Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, David A.; Thevenot, Tracy; Gumbmann, Markus; Honeyman, Allen L.; Hamilton, Ian R.

    2000-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis and marker rescue were used to isolate and identify an 8.5-kb contiguous region containing six open reading frames constituting the operon for the sorbitol P-enolpyruvate phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) of Streptococcus mutans LT11. The first gene, srlD, codes for sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, followed downstream by srlR, coding for a transcriptional regulator; srlM, coding for a putative activator; and the srlA, srlE, and srlB genes, coding for the EIIC, EIIBC, and EIIA components of the sorbitol PTS, respectively. Among all sorbitol PTS operons characterized to date, the srlD gene is found after the genes coding for the EII components; thus, the location of the gene in S. mutans is unique. The SrlR protein is similar to several transcriptional regulators found in Bacillus spp. that contain PTS regulator domains (J. Stülke, M. Arnaud, G. Rapoport, and I. Martin-Verstraete, Mol. Microbiol. 28:865–874, 1998), and its gene overlaps the srlM gene by 1 bp. The arrangement of these two regulatory genes is unique, having not been reported for other bacteria. PMID:10639465

  3. Glucose & sodium chloride induced biofilm production & ica operon in clinical isolates of staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Astha; Jain, Amita

    2013-01-01

    All colonizing and invasive staphylococcal isolates may not produce biofilm but may turn biofilm producers in certain situations due to change in environmental factors. This study was done to test the hypothesis that non biofilm producing clinical staphylococci isolates turn biofilm producers in presence of sodium chloride (isotonic) and high concentration of glucose, irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon. Clinical isolates of 100 invasive, 50 colonizing and 50 commensal staphylococci were tested for biofilm production by microtiter plate method in different culture media (trypticase soy broth alone or supplemented with 0.9% NaCl/ 5 or 10% glucose). All isolates were tested for the presence of ica ADBC genes by PCR. Biofilm production significantly increased in the presence of glucose and saline, most, when both glucose and saline were used together. All the ica positive staphylococcal isolates and some ica negative isolates turned biofilm producer in at least one of the tested culture conditions. Those remained biofilm negative in different culture conditions were all ica negative. The present results showed that the use of glucose or NaCl or combination of both enhanced biofilm producing capacity of staphylococcal isolates irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon.

  4. Cross-Regulation between the phz1 and phz2 Operons Maintain a Balanced Level of Phenazine Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bei; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Linde; Ge, Yihe; Hu, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication often provides selective advantages for the survival of microorganisms in adapting to varying environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa PAO1 possesses two seven-gene operons [phz1 (phzA1B1C1D1E1F1G1) and phz2 (phzA2B2C2D2E2F2G2)] that are involved in the biosynthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and its derivatives. Although the two operons are highly homologous and their functions are well known, it is unclear how the two phz operons coordinate their expressions to maintain the phenazine biosynthesis. By constructing single and double deletion mutants of the two phz operons, we found that the phz1-deletion mutant produced the same or less amount of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin in GA medium than the phz2-knockout mutant while the phz1-phz2 double knockout mutant did not produce any phenazines. By generating phzA1 and phzA2 translational and transcriptional fusions with a truncated lacZ reporter, we found that the expression of the phz1 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and did not alter at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz2 operon. Surprisingly, the expression the phz2 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and only moderately at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz1 operon. Our findings suggested that a complex cross-regulation existed between the phz1 and phz2 operons. By mediating the upregulation of one phz operon expression while the other was deleted, this crosstalk would maintain the homeostatic balance of phenazine biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:26735915

  5. Organization of tcp, acf, and toxT genes within a ToxT-dependent operon.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C; Taylor, R K

    1995-05-01

    The toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) is required for Vibrio cholerae to colonize the human intestine. The expression of the pilin gene, tcpA, is dependent upon ToxR and upon ToxT. The toxT gene was recently mapped within the TCP biogenesis gene cluster and shown to be capable of activating a tcpA::TnphoA fusion when cloned in Escherichia coli. In this study, we determined that ToxR/ToxT activation occurs at the level of tcpA transcription. ToxT expressed in E. coli could activate a tcp operon fusion, while ToxR, ToxR with ToxS, or a ToxR-PhoA fusion failed to activate the tcp operon fusion and we could not demonstrate binding of a ToxR extract to the tcpA promoter region in DNA mobility-shift assays. The start site for the regulated promoter was shown by primer extension to lie 75 bp upstream of the first codon of tcpA. An 800-base tcpA message was identified, by Northern analysis, that correlates by size to the distance between the transcriptional start and a hairpin-loop sequence between tcpA and tcpB. The more-sensitive assay of RNase protection analysis demonstrated that a regulated transcript probably extends through the rest of the downstream tcp genes, including toxT and the adjacent accessory colonization factor (acf) genes. An in-frame tcpA deletion, but not a polar tcpA::TnphoA fusion, could be complemented for pilus surface expression by providing tcpA in trans. This evidence suggests that the tcp genes, including toxT, are organized in an operon directly activated by ToxT in a ToxR-dependent manner. Most of the toxT expression under induced conditions requires transcription of the tcpA promoter. Further investigation of how tcp::TnphoA insertions that are polar on toxT expression retain regulation showed that a low basal level of toxT expression is present in toxR and tcp::TnphoA strains. Overall, these observations support the ToxR/ToxT cascade of regulation for tcp. Once induced, toxT expression becomes autoregulatory via the tcp promoter, linking tcp

  6. The dev Operon Regulates the Timing of Sporulation during Myxococcus xanthus Development.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Ramya; Kroos, Lee

    2017-05-15

    Myxococcus xanthus undergoes multicellular development when starved. Thousands of rod-shaped cells coordinate their movements and aggregate into mounds in which cells differentiate into spores. Mutations in the dev operon impair development. The dev operon encompasses a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated (CRISPR-Cas) system. Null mutations in devI , a small gene at the beginning of the dev operon, suppress the developmental defects caused by null mutations in the downstream devR and devS genes but failed to suppress defects caused by a small in-frame deletion in devT We provide evidence that the original mutant has a second-site mutation. We show that devT null mutants exhibit developmental defects indistinguishable from devR and devS null mutants, and a null mutation in devI suppresses the defects of a devT null mutation. The similarity of DevTRS proteins to components of the CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense (Cascade), together with our molecular characterization of dev mutants, support a model in which DevTRS form a Cascade-like subcomplex that negatively autoregulates dev transcript accumulation and prevents DevI overproduction that would strongly inhibit sporulation. Our results also suggest that DevI transiently inhibits sporulation when regulated normally. The mechanism of transient inhibition may involve MrpC, a key transcription factor, whose translation appears to be weakly inhibited by DevI. Finally, our characterization of a devI devS mutant indicates that very little exo transcript is required for sporulation, which is surprising since Exo proteins help form the polysaccharide spore coat. IMPORTANCE CRISPR-Cas systems typically function as adaptive immune systems in bacteria. The dev CRISPR-Cas system of M. xanthus has been proposed to prevent bacteriophage infection during development, but how dev controls sporulation has been elusive. Recent evidence supported a model in which DevR and DevS prevent

  7. The dev Operon Regulates the Timing of Sporulation during Myxococcus xanthus Development

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Ramya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Myxococcus xanthus undergoes multicellular development when starved. Thousands of rod-shaped cells coordinate their movements and aggregate into mounds in which cells differentiate into spores. Mutations in the dev operon impair development. The dev operon encompasses a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated (CRISPR-Cas) system. Null mutations in devI, a small gene at the beginning of the dev operon, suppress the developmental defects caused by null mutations in the downstream devR and devS genes but failed to suppress defects caused by a small in-frame deletion in devT. We provide evidence that the original mutant has a second-site mutation. We show that devT null mutants exhibit developmental defects indistinguishable from devR and devS null mutants, and a null mutation in devI suppresses the defects of a devT null mutation. The similarity of DevTRS proteins to components of the CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense (Cascade), together with our molecular characterization of dev mutants, support a model in which DevTRS form a Cascade-like subcomplex that negatively autoregulates dev transcript accumulation and prevents DevI overproduction that would strongly inhibit sporulation. Our results also suggest that DevI transiently inhibits sporulation when regulated normally. The mechanism of transient inhibition may involve MrpC, a key transcription factor, whose translation appears to be weakly inhibited by DevI. Finally, our characterization of a devI devS mutant indicates that very little exo transcript is required for sporulation, which is surprising since Exo proteins help form the polysaccharide spore coat. IMPORTANCE CRISPR-Cas systems typically function as adaptive immune systems in bacteria. The dev CRISPR-Cas system of M. xanthus has been proposed to prevent bacteriophage infection during development, but how dev controls sporulation has been elusive. Recent evidence supported a model in which DevR and Dev

  8. Characterization of the orf1glnKamtB operon of Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    PubMed

    Noindorf, Lilian; Rego, Fabiane G M; Baura, Valter A; Monteiro, Rose A; Wassem, Roseli; Cruz, Leonardo M; Rigo, Liu U; Souza, Emanuel M; Steffens, Maria B R; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Chubatsu, Leda S

    2006-03-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that colonizes economically important grasses. In this organism, the amtB gene is co-transcribed with two other genes: glnK that codes for a PII-like protein and orf1 that codes for a probable periplasmatic protein of unknown function. The expression of the orf1glnKamtB operon is increased under nitrogen-limiting conditions and is dependent on NtrC. An amtB mutant failed to transport methylammonium. Post-translational control of nitrogenase was also partially impaired in this mutant, since a complete switch-off of nitrogenase after ammonium addition was not observed. This result suggests that the AmtB protein is involved in the signaling pathway for the reversible inactivation of nitrogenase in H. seropedicae.

  9. The Use of Amino Sugars by Bacillus subtilis: Presence of a Unique Operon for the Catabolism of Glucosamine

    PubMed Central

    Gaugué, Isabelle; Oberto, Jacques; Putzer, Harald; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    B. subtilis grows more rapidly using the amino sugar glucosamine as carbon source, than with N-acetylglucosamine. Genes for the transport and metabolism of N-acetylglucosamine (nagP and nagAB) are found in all the sequenced Bacilli (except Anoxybacillus flavithermus). In B. subtilis there is an additional operon (gamAP) encoding second copies of genes for the transport and catabolism of glucosamine. We have developed a method to make multiple deletion mutations in B. subtilis employing an excisable spectinomycin resistance cassette. Using this method we have analysed the contribution of the different genes of the nag and gam operons for their role in utilization of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Faster growth on glucosamine is due to the presence of the gamAP operon, which is strongly induced by glucosamine. Although the gamA and nagB genes encode isozymes of GlcN6P deaminase, catabolism of N-acetylglucosamine relies mostly upon the gamA gene product. The genes for use of N-acetylglucosamine, nagAB and nagP, are repressed by YvoA (NagR), a GntR family regulator, whose gene is part of the nagAB yvoA(nagR) operon. The gamAP operon is repressed by YbgA, another GntR family repressor, whose gene is expressed divergently from gamAP. The nagAB yvoA synton is found throughout the Bacilli and most firmicutes. On the other hand the ybgA-gamAP synton, which includes the ybgB gene for a small protein of unknown provenance, is only found in B. subtilis (and a few very close relatives). The origin of ybgBA-gamAP grouping is unknown but synteny analysis suggests lateral transfer from an unidentified donor. The presence of gamAP has enabled B. subtilis to efficiently use glucosamine as carbon source. PMID:23667565

  10. Crosstalk between virulence loci: regulation of Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) by products of the std fimbrial operon.

    PubMed

    López-Garrido, Javier; Casadesús, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells is a critical step in Salmonella infection and requires the expression of genes located in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). A key factor for SPI-1 expression is DNA adenine (Dam) methylation, which activates synthesis of the SPI-1 transcriptional activator HilD. Dam-dependent regulation of hilD is postranscriptional (and therefore indirect), indicating the involvement of unknown cell functions under Dam methylation control. A genetic screen has identified the std fimbrial operon as the missing link between Dam methylation and SPI-1. We show that all genes in the std operon are part of a single transcriptional unit, and describe three previously uncharacterized ORFs (renamed stdD, stdE, and stdF). We present evidence that two such loci (stdE and stdF) are involved in Dam-dependent control of Salmonella SPI-1: in a Dam(-) background, deletion of stdE or stdF suppresses SPI-1 repression; in a Dam(+) background, constitutive expression of StdE and/or StdF represses SPI-1. Repression of SPI-1 by products of std operon explains the invasion defect of Salmonella Dam(-) mutants, which constitutively express the std operon. Dam-dependent repression of std in the ileum may be required to permit invasion, as indicated by two observations: constitutive expression of StdE and StdF reduces invasion of epithelial cells in vitro (1,000 fold) and attenuates Salmonella virulence in the mouse model (>60 fold). In turn, crosstalk between std and SPI-1 may play a role in intestinal infections by preventing expression of SPI-1 in the caecum, an intestinal compartment in which the std operon is known to be expressed.

  11. Conjugative Plasmid Transfer in Xylella fastidiosa Is Dependent on tra and trb Operon Functions.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Lindsey P; Van Horn, Christopher R

    2017-11-01

    The insect-transmitted plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa is capable of efficient horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination. Natural transformation occurs at high rates in X. fastidiosa , but there also is evidence that certain strains of X. fastidiosa carry native plasmids equipped with transfer and mobilization genes, suggesting conjugation as an additional mechanism of HGT in some instances. Two operons, tra and trb , putatively encoding a conjugative type IV secretion system, are found in some but not all X. fastidiosa isolates, often on native plasmids. X. fastidiosa strains that carry the conjugative transfer genes can belong to different subspecies and frequently differ in host ranges. Using X. fastidiosa strain M23 ( X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa ) or Dixon ( X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex ) as the donor strain and Temecula ( X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa ) as the recipient strain, plasmid transfer was characterized using the mobilizable broad-host-range vector pBBR5pemIK. Transfer of plasmid pBBR5pemIK was observed under in vitro conditions with both donor strains and was dependent on both tra and trb operon functions. A conjugative mechanism likely contributes to gene transfer between diverse strains of X. fastidiosa , possibly facilitating adaptation to new environments or different hosts. IMPORTANCE Xylella fastidiosa is an important plant pathogen worldwide, infecting a wide range of different plant species. The emergence of new diseases caused by X. fastidiosa , or host switching of existing strains, is thought to be primarily due to the high frequency of HGT and recombination in this pathogen. Transfer of plasmids by a conjugative mechanism enables movement of larger amounts of genetic material at one time, compared with other routes of gene transfer such as natural transformation. Establishing the prevalence and functionality of this mechanism in X. fastidiosa contributes to a better understanding of HGT, adaptation, and disease emergence

  12. A mutant crp allele that differentially activates the operons of the fuc regulon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Lin, E C

    1988-05-01

    L-Fucose is used by Escherichia coli through an inducible pathway mediated by a fucP-encoded permease, a fucI-encoded isomerase, a fucK-encoded kinase, and a fucA-encoded aldolase. The adolase catalyzes the formation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-lactaldehyde. Anaerobically, lactaldehyde is converted by a fucO-encoded oxidoreductase to L-1,2-propanediol, which is excreted. The fuc genes belong to a regulon comprising four linked operons: fucO, fucA, fucPIK, and fucR. The positive regulator encoded by fucR responds to fuculose 1-phosphate as the effector. Mutants serially selected for aerobic growth on propanediol became constitutive in fucO and fucA [fucO(Con) fucA(Con)], but noninducible in fucPIK [fucPIK(Non)]. An external suppressor mutation that restored growth on fucose caused constitutive expression of fucPIK. Results from this study indicate that this suppressor mutation occurred in crp, which encodes the cyclic AMP-binding (or receptor) protein. When the suppressor allele (crp-201) was transduced into wild-type strains, the recipient became fucose negative and fucose sensitive (with glycerol as the carbon and energy source) because of impaired expression of fucA. The fucPIK operon became hyperinducible. The growth rate on maltose was significantly reduced, but growth on L-rhamnose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, glycerol, or glycerol 3-phosphate was close to normal. Lysogenization of fuc+ crp-201 cells by a lambda bacteriophage bearing crp+ restored normal growth ability on fucose. In contrast, lysogenization of [fucO(Con)fucA(Con)fucPIK(Non)crp-201] cells by the same phage retarded their growth on fucose.

  13. A mutant crp allele that differentially activates the operons of the fuc regulon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Y; Lin, E C

    1988-01-01

    L-Fucose is used by Escherichia coli through an inducible pathway mediated by a fucP-encoded permease, a fucI-encoded isomerase, a fucK-encoded kinase, and a fucA-encoded aldolase. The adolase catalyzes the formation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-lactaldehyde. Anaerobically, lactaldehyde is converted by a fucO-encoded oxidoreductase to L-1,2-propanediol, which is excreted. The fuc genes belong to a regulon comprising four linked operons: fucO, fucA, fucPIK, and fucR. The positive regulator encoded by fucR responds to fuculose 1-phosphate as the effector. Mutants serially selected for aerobic growth on propanediol became constitutive in fucO and fucA [fucO(Con) fucA(Con)], but noninducible in fucPIK [fucPIK(Non)]. An external suppressor mutation that restored growth on fucose caused constitutive expression of fucPIK. Results from this study indicate that this suppressor mutation occurred in crp, which encodes the cyclic AMP-binding (or receptor) protein. When the suppressor allele (crp-201) was transduced into wild-type strains, the recipient became fucose negative and fucose sensitive (with glycerol as the carbon and energy source) because of impaired expression of fucA. The fucPIK operon became hyperinducible. The growth rate on maltose was significantly reduced, but growth on L-rhamnose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, glycerol, or glycerol 3-phosphate was close to normal. Lysogenization of fuc+ crp-201 cells by a lambda bacteriophage bearing crp+ restored normal growth ability on fucose. In contrast, lysogenization of [fucO(Con)fucA(Con)fucPIK(Non)crp-201] cells by the same phage retarded their growth on fucose. PMID:2834341

  14. Conjugative Plasmid Transfer in Xylella fastidiosa Is Dependent on tra and trb Operon Functions

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The insect-transmitted plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa is capable of efficient horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination. Natural transformation occurs at high rates in X. fastidiosa, but there also is evidence that certain strains of X. fastidiosa carry native plasmids equipped with transfer and mobilization genes, suggesting conjugation as an additional mechanism of HGT in some instances. Two operons, tra and trb, putatively encoding a conjugative type IV secretion system, are found in some but not all X. fastidiosa isolates, often on native plasmids. X. fastidiosa strains that carry the conjugative transfer genes can belong to different subspecies and frequently differ in host ranges. Using X. fastidiosa strain M23 (X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa) or Dixon (X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex) as the donor strain and Temecula (X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa) as the recipient strain, plasmid transfer was characterized using the mobilizable broad-host-range vector pBBR5pemIK. Transfer of plasmid pBBR5pemIK was observed under in vitro conditions with both donor strains and was dependent on both tra and trb operon functions. A conjugative mechanism likely contributes to gene transfer between diverse strains of X. fastidiosa, possibly facilitating adaptation to new environments or different hosts. IMPORTANCE Xylella fastidiosa is an important plant pathogen worldwide, infecting a wide range of different plant species. The emergence of new diseases caused by X. fastidiosa, or host switching of existing strains, is thought to be primarily due to the high frequency of HGT and recombination in this pathogen. Transfer of plasmids by a conjugative mechanism enables movement of larger amounts of genetic material at one time, compared with other routes of gene transfer such as natural transformation. Establishing the prevalence and functionality of this mechanism in X. fastidiosa contributes to a better understanding of HGT, adaptation, and disease emergence

  15. Deregulation of the arginine deiminase (arc) operon in penicillin-tolerant mutants of Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Caldelari, I; Loeliger, B; Langen, H; Glauser, M P; Moreillon, P

    2000-10-01

    Penicillin tolerance is an incompletely understood phenomenon that allows bacteria to resist drug-induced killing. Tolerance was studied with independent Streptococcus gordonii mutants generated by cyclic exposure to 500 times the MIC of penicillin. Parent cultures lost 4 to 5 log(10) CFU/ml of viable counts/24 h. In contrast, each of four independent mutant cultures lost < or =2 log(10) CFU/ml/24 h. The mutants had unchanged penicillin-binding proteins but contained increased amounts of two proteins with respective masses of ca. 50 and 45 kDa. One mutant (Tol1) was further characterized. The two proteins showing increased levels were homologous to the arginine deiminase and ornithine carbamoyl transferase of other gram-positive bacteria and were encoded by an operon that was >80% similar to the arginine-deiminase (arc) operon of these organisms. Partial nucleotide sequencing and insertion inactivation of the S. gordonii arc locus indicated that tolerance was not a direct consequence of arc alteration. On the other hand, genetic transformation of tolerance by Tol1 DNA always conferred arc deregulation. In nontolerant recipients, arc was repressed during exponential growth and up-regulated during postexponential growth. In tolerant transformants, arc was constitutively expressed. Tol1 DNA transformed tolerance at the same rate as transformation of a point mutation (10(-2) to 10(-3)). The tolerance mutation mapped on a specific chromosomal fragment but was physically distant from arc. Importantly, arc deregulation was observed in most (6 of 10) of additional independent penicillin-tolerant mutants. Thus, although not exclusive, the association between arc deregulation and tolerance was not fortuitous. Since penicillin selection mimicked the antibiotic pressure operating in the clinical environment, arc deregulation might be an important correlate of naturally occurring tolerance and help in understanding the mechanism(s) underlying this clinically problematic

  16. The atlA operon of Streptococcus mutans: role in autolysin maturation and cell surface biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A

    2006-10-01

    The Smu0630 protein (AtlA) was recently shown to be involved in cell separation, biofilm formation, and autolysis. Here, transcriptional studies revealed that atlA is part of a multigene operon under the control of at least three promoters. The morphology and biofilm-forming capacity of a nonpolar altA mutant could be restored to that of the wild-type strain by adding purified AtlA protein to the medium. A series of truncated derivatives of AtlA revealed that full activity required the C terminus and repeat regions. AtlA was cell associated and readily extractable from with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Of particular interest, the surface protein profile of AtlA-deficient strains was dramatically altered compared to the wild-type strain, as was the nature of the association of the multifunctional adhesin P1 with the cell wall. In addition, AtlA-deficient strains failed to develop competence as effectively as the parental strain. Mutation of thmA, which can be cotranscribed with atlA and encodes a putative pore-forming protein, resulted in a phenotype very similar to that of the AtlA-deficient strain. ThmA was also shown to be required for efficient processing of AtlA to its mature form, and treatment of the thmA mutant strain with full-length AtlA protein did not restore normal cell separation and biofilm formation. The effects of mutating other genes in the operon on cell division, biofilm formation, or AtlA biogenesis were not as profound. This study reveals that AtlA is a surface-associated protein that plays a critical role in the network connecting cell surface biogenesis, biofilm formation, genetic competence, and autolysis.

  17. Regulation of the glv Operon in Bacillus subtilis: YfiA (GlvR) Is a Positive Regulator of the Operon That Is Repressed through CcpA and cre

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hiroki; Serizawa, Masakuni; Thompson, John; Sekiguchi, Junichi

    2001-01-01

    Maltose metabolism and the regulation of the glv operon of Bacillus subtilis, comprising three genes, glvA (6-phospho-α-glucosidase), yfiA (now designated glvR), and glvC (EIICB transport protein), were investigated. Maltose dissimilation was dependent primarily upon the glv operon, and insertional inactivation of either glvA, glvR, or glvC markedly inhibited growth on the disaccharide. A second system (MalL) contributed to a minor extent to maltose metabolism. Northern blotting revealed two transcripts corresponding to a monocistronic mRNA of glvA and a polycistronic mRNA of glvA-glvR-glvC. Primer extension analysis showed that both transcripts started at the same base (G) located 26 bp upstream of the 5′ end of glvA. When glvR was placed under control of the spac promoter, expression of the glv operon was dependent upon the presence of isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). In regulatory studies, the promoter sequence of the glv operon was fused to lacZ and inserted into the amyE locus, and the resultant strain (AMGLV) was then transformed with a citrate-controlled glvR plasmid, pHYCM2VR. When cultured in Difco sporulation medium containing citrate, this transformant [AMGLV(pHYCM2VR)] expressed LacZ activity, but synthesis of LacZ was repressed by glucose. In an isogenic strain, [AMGLVCR(pHYCM2VR)], except for a mutation in the sequence of a catabolite-responsive element (cre), LacZ activity was expressed in the presence of citrate and glucose. Insertion of a citrate-controlled glvR plasmid at the amyE locus of ccpA+ and ccpA mutant organisms yielded strains AMCMVR and AMCMVRCC, respectively. In the presence of both glucose and citrate, AMCMVR failed to express the glv operon, whereas under the same conditions high-level expression of both mRNA transcripts was found in strain AMCMVRCC. Collectively, our findings suggest that GlvR (the product of the glvR gene) is a positive regulator of the glv operon and that glucose exerts its effect via catabolite

  18. N-terminal truncations in the FhlA protein result in formate- and MoeA-independent expression of the hyc (formate hydrogenlyase) operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Self, W T; Hasona, A; Shanmugam, K T

    2001-11-01

    The formate hydrogenlyase complex of Escherichia coli catalyses the cleavage of formate to CO2 and H2 and consists of a molybdoenzyme formate dehydrogenase-H, hydrogenase 3 and intermediate electron carriers. The structural genes of this enzyme complex are activated by the FhlA protein in the presence of both formate and molybdate; ModE-Mo serves as a secondary activator. Mutational analysis of the FhlA protein established that the unique N-terminal region of this protein was responsible for formate- and molybdenum-dependent transcriptional control of the hyc operon. Analysis of the N-terminal sequence of the FhlA protein revealed a unique motif (amino acids 7-37), which is also found in ATPases associated with several members of the ABC-type transporter family. A deletion derivative of FhlA lacking these amino acids (FhlA9-2) failed to activate the hyc operon in vivo, although the FhlA9-2 did bind to hyc promoter DNA in vitro. The ATPase activity of the FhlA9-2-DNA-formate complex was at least three times higher than that of the native protein-DNA-formate complex, and this degree of activity was achieved at a lower formate level. Extending the deletion to amino acid 117 (FhlA167) not only reversed the FhlA(-) phenotype of FhlA9-2, but also led to both molybdenum- and formate-independence. Deleting the entire N-terminal domain (between amino acids 5 and 374 of the 692 amino acid protein) also led to an effector-independent transcriptional activator (FhlA165), which had a twofold higher level of hyc operon expression than the native protein. Both FhlA165 and FhlA167 still required ModE-Mo as a secondary activator for an optimal level of hyc-lac expression. The FhlA165 protein also had a twofold higher affinity to hyc promoter DNA than the native FhlA protein, while the FhlA167 protein had a significantly lower affinity for hyc promoter DNA in vitro. Although the ATPase activity of the native protein was increased by formate, the ATPase activity of neither FhlA165 or

  19. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  20. Study of Staphylococcus aureus N315 Pathogenic Genes by Text Mining and Enrichment Analysis of Pathways and Operons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Feng; Gou, Wei-Hui; Dai, Xin-Lun; Li, Yu-Mei

    2018-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a versatile pathogen found in many environments and can cause nosocomial infections in the community and hospitals. S. aureus infection is an increasingly serious threat to global public health that requires action across many government bodies, medical and health sectors, and scientific research institutions. In the present study, S. aureus N315 genes that have been shown in the literature to be pathogenic were extracted using a bibliometric method for functional enrichment analysis of pathways and operons to statistically discover novel pathogenic genes associated with S. aureus N315. A total of 383 pathogenic genes were mined from the literature using bibliometrics, and subsequently a few new pathogenic genes of S. aureus N315 were identified by functional enrichment analysis of pathways and operons. The discovery of these novel S. aureus N315 pathogenic genes is of great significance to treat S. aureus induced diseases and identify potential diagnostic markers, thus providing theoretical fundamentals for epidemiological prevention.

  1. Bistable behavior of the lac operon in E. coli when induced with a mixture of lactose and TMG.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Hernández, Orlando; Santillán, Moisés

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigate multistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli when it is induced by a mixture of lactose and the non-metabolizable thiomethyl galactoside (TMG). In accordance with previously published experimental results and computer simulations, our simulations predict that: (1) when the system is induced by TMG, the system shows a discernible bistable behavior while, (2) when the system is induced by lactose, bistability does not disappear but excessively high concentrations of lactose would be required to observe it. Finally, our simulation results predict that when a mixture of lactose and TMG is used, the bistability region in the extracellular glucose concentration vs. extracellular lactose concentration parameter space changes in such a way that the model predictions regarding bistability could be tested experimentally. These experiments could help to solve a recent controversy regarding the existence of bistability in the lac operon under natural conditions.

  2. Bistable Behavior of the Lac Operon in E. Coli When Induced with a Mixture of Lactose and TMG

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Hernández, Orlando; Santillán, Moisés

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigate multistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli when it is induced by a mixture of lactose and the non-metabolizable thiomethyl galactoside (TMG). In accordance with previously published experimental results and computer simulations, our simulations predict that: (1) when the system is induced by TMG, the system shows a discernible bistable behavior while, (2) when the system is induced by lactose, bistability does not disappear but excessively high concentrations of lactose would be required to observe it. Finally, our simulation results predict that when a mixture of lactose and TMG is used, the bistability region in the extracellular glucose concentration vs. extracellular lactose concentration parameter space changes in such a way that the model predictions regarding bistability could be tested experimentally. These experiments could help to solve a recent controversy regarding the existence of bistability in the lac operon under natural conditions. PMID:21423364

  3. Development and validation of an rDNA operon based primer walking strategy applicable to de novo bacterial genome finishing

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Alexander W.; Yuan, Ze-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Advances in sequencing technology have drastically increased the depth and feasibility of bacterial genome sequencing. However, little information is available that details the specific techniques and procedures employed during genome sequencing despite the large numbers of published genomes. Shotgun approaches employed by second-generation sequencing platforms has necessitated the development of robust bioinformatics tools for in silico assembly, and complete assembly is limited by the presence of repetitive DNA sequences and multi-copy operons. Typically, re-sequencing with multiple platforms and laborious, targeted Sanger sequencing are employed to finish a draft bacterial genome. Here we describe a novel strategy based on the identification and targeted sequencing of repetitive rDNA operons to expedite bacterial genome assembly and finishing. Our strategy was validated by finishing the genome of Paenibacillus polymyxa strain CR1, a bacterium with potential in sustainable agriculture and bio-based processes. An analysis of the 38 contigs contained in the P. polymyxa strain CR1 draft genome revealed 12 repetitive rDNA operons with varied intragenic and flanking regions of variable length, unanimously located at contig boundaries and within contig gaps. These highly similar but not identical rDNA operons were experimentally verified and sequenced simultaneously with multiple, specially designed primer sets. This approach also identified and corrected significant sequence rearrangement generated during the initial in silico assembly of sequencing reads. Our approach reduces the required effort associated with blind primer walking for contig assembly, increasing both the speed and feasibility of genome finishing. Our study further reinforces the notion that repetitive DNA elements are major limiting factors for genome finishing. Moreover, we provided a step-by-step workflow for genome finishing, which may guide future bacterial genome finishing projects. PMID

  4. Direct cloning from enrichment cultures, a reliable strategy for isolation of complete operons and genes from microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Entcheva, P; Liebl, W; Johann, A; Hartsch, T; Streit, W R

    2001-01-01

    Enrichment cultures of microbial consortia enable the diverse metabolic and catabolic activities of these populations to be studied on a molecular level and to be explored as potential sources for biotechnology processes. We have used a combined approach of enrichment culture and direct cloning to construct cosmid libraries with large (>30-kb) inserts from microbial consortia. Enrichment cultures were inoculated with samples from five environments, and high amounts of avidin were added to the cultures to favor growth of biotin-producing microbes. DNA was extracted from three of these enrichment cultures and used to construct cosmid libraries; each library consisted of between 6,000 and 35,000 clones, with an average insert size of 30 to 40 kb. The inserts contained a diverse population of genomic DNA fragments isolated from the consortia organisms. These three libraries were used to complement the Escherichia coli biotin auxotrophic strain ATCC 33767 Delta(bio-uvrB). Initial screens resulted in the isolation of seven different complementing cosmid clones, carrying biotin biosynthesis operons. Biotin biosynthesis capabilities and growth under defined conditions of four of these clones were studied. Biotin measured in the different culture supernatants ranged from 42 to 3,800 pg/ml/optical density unit. Sequencing the identified biotin synthesis genes revealed high similarities to bio operons from gram-negative bacteria. In addition, random sequencing identified other interesting open reading frames, as well as two operons, the histidine utilization operon (hut), and the cluster of genes involved in biosynthesis of molybdopterin cofactors in bacteria (moaABCDE).

  5. Swarming differentiation and swimming motility in Bacillus subtilis are controlled by swrA, a newly identified dicistronic operon.

    PubMed

    Calvio, Cinzia; Celandroni, Francesco; Ghelardi, Emilia; Amati, Giuseppe; Salvetti, Sara; Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Galizzi, Alessandro; Senesi, Sonia

    2005-08-01

    The number and disposition of flagella harbored by eubacteria are regulated by a specific trait successfully maintained over generations. The genes governing the number of flagella in Bacillus subtilis have never been identified, although the ifm locus has long been recognized to influence the motility phenotype of this microorganism. The characterization of a spontaneous ifm mutant of B. subtilis, displaying diverse degrees of cell flagellation in both liquid and solid media, raised the question of how the ifm locus governs the number and assembly of functional flagella. The major finding of this investigation is the characterization of a newly identified dicistronic operon, named swrA, that controls both swimming motility and swarming differentiation in B. subtilis. Functional analysis of the swrA operon allowed swrAA (previously named swrA [D. B. Kearns, F. Chu, R. Rudner, and R. Losick, Mol. Microbiol. 52:357-369, 2004]) to be the first gene identified in B. subtilis that controls the number of flagella in liquid environments and the assembly of flagella in response to cell contact with solid surfaces. Evidence is given that the second gene of the operon, swrAB, is essential for enabling the surface-adhering cells to undergo swarming differentiation. Preliminary data point to a molecular interaction between the two gene products.

  6. A distinct alleles and genetic recombination of pmrCAB operon in species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate pmrCAB sequence divergence in 5 species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex, a total of 80 isolates from a Korean hospital were explored. We evaluated nucleotide and amino acid polymorphisms of pmrCAB operon, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for each gene of prmCAB operon. Colistin and polymyxin B susceptibility was determined for all isolates, and multilocus sequence typing was also performed for A. baumannii isolates. Our results showed that each species of A. baumannii complex has divergent pmrCAB operon sequences. We identified a distinct pmrCAB allele allied with Acinetobacter nosocomialis in gene trees. Different grouping in each gene tree suggests sporadic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes among Acinetobacter species. Sequence polymorphisms among Acinetobacter species might not be associated with colistin resistance. We revealed that a distinct pmrCAB allele may be widespread across the continents such as North America and Asia and that sporadic genetic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes might occur. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An operon for production of bioactive gibberellin A4 phytohormone with wide distribution in the bacterial rice leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Raimund; Turrini, Paula C G; Nett, Ryan S; Leach, Jan E; Verdier, Valérie; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Peters, Reuben J

    2017-05-01

    Phytopathogens have developed elaborate mechanisms to attenuate the defense response of their host plants, including convergent evolution of complex pathways for production of the GA phytohormones, which were actually first isolated from the rice fungal pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi. The rice bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) has been demonstrated to contain a biosynthetic operon with cyclases capable of producing the universal GA precursor ent-kaurene. Genetic (knock-out) studies indicate that the derived diterpenoid serves as a virulence factor for this rice leaf streak pathogen, serving to reduce the jasmonic acid-mediated defense response. Here the functions of the remaining genes in the Xoc operon are elucidated and the distribution of the operon in X. oryzae is investigated in over 100 isolates. The Xoc operon leads to production of the bioactive GA 4 , an additional step beyond production of the penultimate precursor GA 9 mediated by the homologous operons recently characterized from rhizobia. Moreover, this GA biosynthetic operon was found to be widespread in Xoc (> 90%), but absent in the other major X. oryzae pathovar. These results indicate selective pressure for production of GA 4 in the distinct lifestyle of Xoc, and the importance of GA to both fungal and bacterial pathogens of rice. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. An operon for production of bioactive gibberellin A4 phytohormone with wide distribution in the bacterial rice leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Raimund; Turrini, Paula C. G.; Nett, Ryan S.; Leach, Jan E.; Verdier, Valérie; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Peters, Reuben J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phytopathogens have developed elaborate mechanisms to attenuate the defense response of their host plants, including convergent evolution of complex pathways for production of the gibberellin (GA) phytohormones, which were actually first isolated from the rice fungal pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi. The rice bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) has been demonstrated to contain a biosynthetic operon with cyclases capable of producing the universal GA precursor ent-kaurene. Genetic (knock-out) studies indicate that the derived diterpenoid serves as a virulence factor for this rice leaf streak pathogen, serving to reduce the jasmonic acid (JA) mediated defense response.Here the function of the remaining genes in the Xoc operon are elucidated and the distribution of the operon in X. oryzae investigated in over 100 isolates.The Xoc operon leads to production of the bioactive GA4, an additional step beyond production of the penultimate precursor GA9 mediated by the homologous operons recently characterized from rhizobia. Moreover, this GA biosynthetic operon was found to be widespread in Xoc (>90%), but absent in the other major oryzae pathovar.These results indicate selective pressure for production of GA4 in the distinct lifestyle of Xoc, and the importance of GA to both fungal and bacterial pathogens of rice. PMID:28134995

  9. Regulation and Adaptive Evolution of Lactose Operon Expression in Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    PubMed Central

    Lapierre, Luciane; Mollet, Beat; Germond, Jacques-Edouard

    2002-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis are both used in the dairy industry as homofermentative lactic acid bacteria in the production of fermented milk products. After selective pressure for the fast fermentation of milk in the manufacture of yogurts, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus loses its ability to regulate lac operon expression. A series of mutations led to the constitutive expression of the lac genes. A complex of insertion sequence (IS) elements (ISL4 inside ISL5), inserted at the border of the lac promoter, induced the loss of the palindromic structure of one of the operators likely involved in the binding of regulatory factors. A lac repressor gene was discovered downstream of the β-galactosidase gene of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis and was shown to be inactivated by several mutations in L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Regulatory mechanisms of the lac gene expression of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis were compared by heterologous expression in Lactococcus lactis of the two lac promoters in front of a reporter gene (β-glucuronidase) in the presence or absence of the lac repressor gene. Insertion of the complex of IS elements in the lac promoter of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus increased the promoter's activity but did not prevent repressor binding; rather, it increased the affinity of the repressor for the promoter. Inactivation of the lac repressor by mutations was then necessary to induce the constitutive expression of the lac genes in L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. PMID:11807052

  10. Structure of Salmonella FlhE, conserved member of a flagellar Type III secretion operon

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jaemin; Monzingo, Arthur F.; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T.; ...

    2014-12-26

    In this paper, the bacterial flagellum is assembled by a multicomponent transport apparatus categorized as a type III secretion system. The secretion of proteins that assemble into the flagellum is driven by the proton motive force. The periplasmic protein FlhE is a member of the flhBAE operon in the majority of bacteria where FlhE is found. FlhA and FlhB are established components of the flagellar type III secretion system. The absence of FlhE results in a proton leak through the flagellar system, inappropriate secretion patterns, and cell death, indicating that FlhE regulates an important aspect of proper flagellar biosynthesis. Wemore » isolated FlhE from the periplasm of Salmonella and solved its structure to 1.5 Å resolution. The structure reveals a β-sandwich fold, with no close structural homologs. Finally, possible roles of FlhE, including that of a chaperone, are discussed.« less

  11. Cu(I)-mediated Allosteric Switching in a Copper-sensing Operon Repressor (CsoR)*

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Feng-Ming James; Coyne, H. Jerome; Cubillas, Ciro; Vinuesa, Pablo; Fang, Xianyang; Ma, Zhen; Ma, Dejian; Helmann, John D.; García-de los Santos, Alejandro; Wang, Yun-Xing; Dann, Charles E.; Giedroc, David P.

    2014-01-01

    The copper-sensing operon repressor (CsoR) is representative of a major Cu(I)-sensing family of bacterial metalloregulatory proteins that has evolved to prevent cytoplasmic copper toxicity. It is unknown how Cu(I) binding to tetrameric CsoRs mediates transcriptional derepression of copper resistance genes. A phylogenetic analysis of 227 DUF156 protein members, including biochemically or structurally characterized CsoR/RcnR repressors, reveals that Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (Gt) CsoR characterized here is representative of CsoRs from pathogenic bacilli Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus anthracis. The 2.56 Å structure of Cu(I)-bound Gt CsoR reveals that Cu(I) binding induces a kink in the α2-helix between two conserved copper-ligating residues and folds an N-terminal tail (residues 12–19) over the Cu(I) binding site. NMR studies of Gt CsoR reveal that this tail is flexible in the apo-state with these dynamics quenched upon Cu(I) binding. Small angle x-ray scattering experiments on an N-terminally truncated Gt CsoR (Δ2–10) reveal that the Cu(I)-bound tetramer is hydrodynamically more compact than is the apo-state. The implications of these findings for the allosteric mechanisms of other CsoR/RcnR repressors are discussed. PMID:24831014

  12. [Insertional Inactivation of Virulence Operon in Population of Persistent Bordetella pertussis Bacteria].

    PubMed

    Karataev, G I; Sinyashina, L N; Medkova, A Yu; Semin, E G; Shevtsova, Z V; Matua, A Z; Kondzariya, I G; Amichba, A A; Kubrava, D T; Mikvabia, Z Ya

    2016-04-01

    Avirulent B. pertussis bacteria containing IS elements in the bvgAS operon were detected during the study of whooping cough patients and bacilli carriers. The present work is devoted to the study of the accumulation dynamics and the mechanisms of generation of persistent forms of the B. pertussis bacteria in lower monkeys as the most adequate model for extrapolation ofthe experiment results to humans. By means of the real-time PCR method, it was established that the B. pertussis bacteria lived more than three months in the upper respiratory tract after a single intranasal monkey infection; the period was reduced to 14-28 days during repeated infection. An increase in the portion of B. pertussis Bvg mutants in the population to tens of percent from the total number of registered bacteria was registered. The experimental confirmation ofthe development and accumulation of avirulent B. pertussis Bvg mutants during the development of the infectious process was obtained. Further study of the composition of the B. pertussis persistent bacteria population at different stages of the disease will make it possible to formulate new approaches to the whooping cough diagnostics and prevention and creation of fundamentally new drugs.

  13. Secrets of the lac operon. Glucose hysteresis as a mechanism in dietary restriction, aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Mobbs, Charles V; Mastaitis, Jason W; Zhang, Minhua; Isoda, Fumiko; Cheng, Hui; Yen, Kelvin

    2007-01-01

    Elevated blood glucose associated with diabetes produces progressive and apparently irreversible damage to many cell types. Conversely, reduction of glucose extends life span in yeast, and dietary restriction reduces blood glucose. Therefore it has been hypothesized that cumulative toxic effects of glucose drive at least some aspects of the aging process and, conversely, that protective effects of dietary restriction are mediated by a reduction in exposure to glucose. The mechanisms mediating cumulative toxic effects of glucose are suggested by two general principles of metabolic processes, illustrated by the lac operon but also observed with glucose-induced gene expression. First, metabolites induce the machinery of their own metabolism. Second, induction of gene expression by metabolites can entail a form of molecular memory called hysteresis. When applied to glucose-regulated gene expression, these two principles suggest a mechanism whereby repetitive exposure to postprandial excursions of glucose leads to an age-related increase in glycolytic capacity (and reduction in beta-oxidation of free fatty acids), which in turn leads to an increased generation of oxidative damage and a decreased capacity to respond to oxidative damage, independent of metabolic rate. According to this mechanism, dietary restriction increases life span and reduces pathology by reducing exposure to glucose and therefore delaying the development of glucose-induced glycolytic capacity.

  14. Exploiting rRNA operon copy number to investigate bacterial reproductive strategies.

    PubMed

    Roller, Benjamin R K; Stoddard, Steven F; Schmidt, Thomas M

    2016-09-12

    The potential for rapid reproduction is a hallmark of microbial life, but microbes in nature must also survive and compete when growth is constrained by resource availability. Successful reproduction requires different strategies when resources are scarce and when they are abundant 1,2 , but a systematic framework for predicting these reproductive strategies in bacteria has not been available. Here, we show that the number of ribosomal RNA operons (rrn) in bacterial genomes predicts two important components of reproduction-growth rate and growth efficiency-which are favoured under contrasting regimes of resource availability 3,4 . We find that the maximum reproductive rate of bacteria doubles with a doubling of rrn copy number, and the efficiency of carbon use is inversely related to maximal growth rate and rrn copy number. We also identify a feasible explanation for these patterns: the rate and yield of protein synthesis mirror the overall pattern in maximum growth rate and growth efficiency. Furthermore, comparative analysis of genomes from 1,167 bacterial species reveals that rrn copy number predicts traits associated with resource availability, including chemotaxis and genome streamlining. Genome-wide patterns of orthologous gene content covary with rrn copy number, suggesting convergent evolution in response to resource availability. Our findings imply that basic cellular processes adapt in contrasting ways to long-term differences in resource availability. They also establish a basis for predicting changes in bacterial community composition in response to resource perturbations using rrn copy number measurements 5 or inferences 6,7 .

  15. Gene position in a long operon governs motility development in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Cozy, Loralyn M.; Kearns, Daniel B.

    2010-01-01

    Growing cultures of Bacillus subtilis bifurcate into subpopulations of motile individuals and non-motile chains of cells that are differentiated at the level of gene expression. The motile cells are ON and the chaining cells are OFF for transcription that depends on RNA polymerase and the alternative sigma factor σD. Here we show that chaining cells were OFF for σD-dependent gene expression because σD levels fell below a threshold, and σD activity was inhibited by the anti-sigma factor FlgM. The probability that σD exceeded the threshold was governed by the position of the sigD genes. The proportion of ON cells increased when sigD was artificially moved forward in the 27kb fla/che operon. In addition, we identified a new σD-dependent promoter that increases sigD expression and may provide positive feedback to stabilize the ON state. Finally, we demonstrate that ON/OFF motility states in B. subtilis are a form of development because mosaics of stable and differentiated epigenotypes were evident when the normally dispersed bacteria were forced to grow in one dimension. PMID:20233303

  16. Structure of Salmonella FlhE, conserved member of a flagellar Type III secretion operon

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jaemin; Monzingo, Arthur F.; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T.

    In this paper, the bacterial flagellum is assembled by a multicomponent transport apparatus categorized as a type III secretion system. The secretion of proteins that assemble into the flagellum is driven by the proton motive force. The periplasmic protein FlhE is a member of the flhBAE operon in the majority of bacteria where FlhE is found. FlhA and FlhB are established components of the flagellar type III secretion system. The absence of FlhE results in a proton leak through the flagellar system, inappropriate secretion patterns, and cell death, indicating that FlhE regulates an important aspect of proper flagellar biosynthesis. Wemore » isolated FlhE from the periplasm of Salmonella and solved its structure to 1.5 Å resolution. The structure reveals a β-sandwich fold, with no close structural homologs. Finally, possible roles of FlhE, including that of a chaperone, are discussed.« less

  17. Differential desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by newly identified MTCC strains: Influence of Operon Array

    PubMed Central

    Bhanjadeo, Madhabi M.; Rath, Kalyani; Gupta, Dhirendra; Pradhan, Nilotpala; Biswal, Surendra K.; Mishra, Barada K.

    2018-01-01

    Since the sulfur specific cleavage is vital for the organic sulfur removal from fossil fuel, we explored potential bacterial strains of MTCC (Microbial Type Culture Collection) to desulfurize the Dibenzothiophene (DBT) through C-S bond cleavage (4-S pathway). MTCC strains Rhodococcus rhodochrous (3552), Arthrobacter sulfureus (3332), Gordonia rubropertincta (289), and Rhodococcus erythropolis (3951) capable of growing in 0.5 mM DBT were examined for their desulfurization ability. The presence of dsz genes as well as the metabolites was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and HPLC, respectively. All these strains showed > 99% DBT desulfurization with 10 days of incubation in minimal salt medium. From the HPLC analysis it was further revealed that these MTCC strains show differences in the end metabolites and desulfurize DBT differently following a variation in the regular 4-S pathway. These findings are also well corroborating with their respective organization of dszABC operons and their relative abundance. The above MTCC strains are capable of desulfurizing DBT efficiently and hence can be explored for biodesulfurization of petrochemicals and coal with an eco-friendly and energy economical process. PMID:29518089

  18. cea-kil operon of the ColE1 plasmid.

    PubMed Central

    Sabik, J F; Suit, J L; Luria, S E

    1983-01-01

    We isolated a series of Tn5 transposon insertion mutants and chemically induced mutants with mutations in the region of the ColE1 plasmid that includes the cea (colicin) and imm (immunity) genes. Bacterial cells harboring each of the mutant plasmids were tested for their response to the colicin-inducing agent mitomycin C. All insertion mutations within the cea gene failed to bring about cell killing after mitomycin C treatment. A cea- amber mutation exerted a polar effect on killing by mitomycin C. Two insertions beyond the cea gene but within or near the imm gene also prevented the lethal response to mitomycin C. These findings suggest the presence in the ColE1 plasmid of an operon containing the cea and kil genes whose product is needed for mitomycin C-induced lethality. Bacteria carrying ColE1 plasmids with Tn5 inserted within the cea gene produced serologically cross-reacting fragments of the colicin E1 molecule, the lengths of which were proportional to the distance between the insertion and the promoter end of the cea gene. Images PMID:6298187

  19. Insolubilization process increases enzyme stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.; Lyn, J.

    1971-01-01

    Enzymes complexed with polymeric matrices contain properties suggesting application to enzyme-controlled reactions. Stability of insolubilized enzyme derivatives is markedly greater than that of soluble enzymes and physical form of insolubilized enzymes is useful in column and batch processes.

  20. Organizational requirements of the SaeR binding sites for a functional P1 promoter of the sae operon in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hoonsik; Jeong, Do-Won; Li, Chunling; Bae, Taeok

    2012-06-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus, the SaeRS two-component system controls the expression of multiple virulence factors. Of the two promoters in the sae operon, P1 is autoinduced and has two binding sites for the response regulator SaeR. In this study, we examined the organizational requirements of the SaeR binding sites in P1 for transcription activation. Mutational studies showed that both binding sites are essential for binding to phosphorylated SaeR (P-SaeR) and transcription activation. When the 21-bp distance between the centers of the two SaeR binding sites was altered to 26 bp, 31 bp, 36 bp, or 41 bp, only the 31-bp mutant retained approximately 40% of the original promoter activity. When the -1-bp spacing (i.e.,1-bp overlap) between the primary SaeR binding site and the -35 promoter region was altered, all mutant P1 promoters failed to initiate transcription; however, when the first nucleotide of the -35 region was changed from A to T, the mutants with 0-bp or 22-bp spacing showed detectable promoter activity. Although P-SaeR was essential for the binding of RNA polymerase to P1, it was not essential for the binding of the enzyme to the alpha-hemolysin promoter. When the nonoptimal spacing between promoter elements in P1 or the coagulase promoter was altered to the optimal spacing of 17 bp, both promoters failed to initiate transcription. These results suggest that SaeR binding sites are under rather strict organizational restrictions and provide clues for understanding the molecular mechanism of sae-mediated transcription activation.

  1. A Conserved UDP-Glucose Dehydrogenase Encoded outside the hasABC Operon Contributes to Capsule Biogenesis in Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jason N.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Kuipers, Kirsten; Timmer, Anjuli M.; Nizet, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific bacterial pathogen responsible for serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule of GAS is a major virulence factor, contributing to bloodstream survival through resistance to neutrophil and antimicrobial peptide killing and to in vivo pathogenicity. Capsule biosynthesis has been exclusively attributed to the ubiquitous hasABC hyaluronan synthase operon, which is highly conserved across GAS serotypes. Previous reports indicate that hasA, encoding hyaluronan synthase, and hasB, encoding UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, are essential for capsule production in GAS. Here, we report that precise allelic exchange mutagenesis of hasB in GAS strain 5448, a representative of the globally disseminated M1T1 serotype, did not abolish HA capsule synthesis. In silico whole-genome screening identified a putative HasB paralog, designated HasB2, with 45% amino acid identity to HasB at a distant location in the GAS chromosome. In vitro enzymatic assays demonstrated that recombinant HasB2 is a functional UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase enzyme. Mutagenesis of hasB2 alone slightly decreased capsule abundance; however, a ΔhasB ΔhasB2 double mutant became completely acapsular. We conclude that HasB is not essential for M1T1 GAS capsule biogenesis due to the presence of a newly identified HasB paralog, HasB2, which most likely resulted from gene duplication. The identification of redundant UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenases underscores the importance of HA capsule expression for M1T1 GAS pathogenicity and survival in the human host. PMID:22961854

  2. Prediction of operon-like gene clusters in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome based on co-expression analysis of neighboring genes.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Nakamura, Kensuke; Hirai, Masami Y; Ohta, Daisaku; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2012-07-15

    Operon-like arrangements of genes occur in eukaryotes ranging from yeasts and filamentous fungi to nematodes, plants, and mammals. In plants, several examples of operon-like gene clusters involved in metabolic pathways have recently been characterized, e.g. the cyclic hydroxamic acid pathways in maize, the avenacin biosynthesis gene clusters in oat, the thalianol pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana, and the diterpenoid momilactone cluster in rice. Such operon-like gene clusters are defined by their co-regulation or neighboring positions within immediate vicinity of chromosomal regions. A comprehensive analysis of the expression of neighboring genes therefore accounts a crucial step to reveal the complete set of operon-like gene clusters within a genome. Genome-wide prediction of operon-like gene clusters should contribute to functional annotation efforts and provide novel insight into evolutionary aspects acquiring certain biological functions as well. We predicted co-expressed gene clusters by comparing the Pearson correlation coefficient of neighboring genes and randomly selected gene pairs, based on a statistical method that takes false discovery rate (FDR) into consideration for 1469 microarray gene expression datasets of A. thaliana. We estimated that A. thaliana contains 100 operon-like gene clusters in total. We predicted 34 statistically significant gene clusters consisting of 3 to 22 genes each, based on a stringent FDR threshold of 0.1. Functional relationships among genes in individual clusters were estimated by sequence similarity and functional annotation of genes. Duplicated gene pairs (determined based on BLAST with a cutoff of E<10(-5)) are included in 27 clusters. Five clusters are associated with metabolism, containing P450 genes restricted to the Brassica family and predicted to be involved in secondary metabolism. Operon-like clusters tend to include genes encoding bio-machinery associated with ribosomes, the ubiquitin/proteasome system, secondary

  3. Interplay of protein and DNA structure revealed in simulations of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Czapla, Luke; Grosner, Michael A; Swigon, David; Olson, Wilma K

    2013-01-01

    The E. coli Lac repressor is the classic textbook example of a protein that attaches to widely spaced sites along a genome and forces the intervening DNA into a loop. The short loops implicated in the regulation of the lac operon suggest the involvement of factors other than DNA and repressor in gene control. The molecular simulations presented here examine two likely structural contributions to the in-vivo looping of bacterial DNA: the distortions of the double helix introduced upon association of the highly abundant, nonspecific nucleoid protein HU and the large-scale deformations of the repressor detected in low-resolution experiments. The computations take account of the three-dimensional arrangements of nucleotides and amino acids found in crystal structures of DNA with the two proteins, the natural rest state and deformational properties of protein-free DNA, and the constraints on looping imposed by the conformation of the repressor and the orientation of bound DNA. The predicted looping propensities capture the complex, chain-length-dependent variation in repression efficacy extracted from gene expression studies and in vitro experiments and reveal unexpected chain-length-dependent variations in the uptake of HU, the deformation of repressor, and the folding of DNA. Both the opening of repressor and the presence of HU, at levels approximating those found in vivo, enhance the probability of loop formation. HU affects the global organization of the repressor and the opening of repressor influences the levels of HU binding to DNA. The length of the loop determines whether the DNA adopts antiparallel or parallel orientations on the repressor, whether the repressor is opened or closed, and how many HU molecules bind to the loop. The collective behavior of proteins and DNA is greater than the sum of the parts and hints of ways in which multiple proteins may coordinate the packaging and processing of genetic information.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of the lux operon distinguishes two evolutionarily distinct clades of Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Ast, Jennifer C; Dunlap, Paul V

    2004-05-01

    The luminous marine bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis was synonymized several years ago with Photobacterium leiognathi based on a high degree of phenotypic and genetic similarity. To test the possibility that P. leiognathi as now formulated, however, actually contains two distinct bacterial groups reflecting the earlier identification of P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi as separate species, we compared P. leiognathi strains isolated from light-organ symbiosis with leiognathid fishes (i.e., ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1) with strains from seawater originally described as P. mandapamensis and later synonymized as P. leiognathi (i.e., ATCC 27561(T) and ATCC 33981) and certain strains initially identified as P. leiognathi (i.e., PL-721, PL-741, 554). Analysis of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes did not resolve distinct clades, affirming a close relationship among these strains. However, strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 were found to bear a luxF gene in the lux operon ( luxABFE), whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 lack this gene ( luxABE). Phylogenetic analysis of the luxAB(F)E region confirmed this distinction. Furthermore, ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 all produced a higher level of luminescence on high-salt medium, as previously described for PL-721, whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 all produced a higher level of luminescence on low-salt medium, a characteristic of P. leiognathi from leiognathid fish light organs. These results demonstrate that P. leiognathi contains two evolutionarily and phenotypically distinct clades, P. leiognathi subsp. leiognathi (strains ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1), and P. leiognathi subsp. mandapamensis (strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554).

  5. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Hwan; Jo, Youmi; Jang, Song Yee; Kwon, Haenaem; Irie, Yasuhiko; Parsek, Matthew R.; Kim, Myung Hee; Choi, Sang Ho

    2015-01-01

    A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix, and produced as the biofilm matured. These results, together with the observation that CabA also contributes to the development of rugose colony morphology, indicated that CabA is a matrix-associated protein required for maturation, rather than adhesion involved in the initial attachment, of biofilms. Microscopic comparison of the structure of biofilms produced by JN111 and the cabA mutant demonstrated that CabA is an extracellular matrix component essential for the development of the mature biofilm structures in flow cells and on oyster shells. Exogenously providing purified CabA restored the biofilm- and rugose colony-forming abilities of the cabA mutant when calcium was available. Circular dichroism and size exclusion analyses revealed that calcium binding induces CabA conformational changes which may lead to multimerization. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that CabA can assemble a functional matrix only when exopolysaccharides coexist. Consequently, the combined results suggested that CabA is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix and multimerizes to a conformation functional in building robust biofilms, which may render V. vulnificus to survive in hostile environments and reach a concentrated infective dose. PMID:26406498

  6. Identification of the Staphylococcus aureus vfrAB operon, a novel virulence factor regulatory locus.

    PubMed

    Bose, Jeffrey L; Daly, Seth M; Hall, Pamela R; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2014-05-01

    During a screen of the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library, we identified 71 mutations in the Staphylococcus aureus genome that altered hemolysis on blood agar medium. Although many of these mutations disrupted genes known to affect the production of alpha-hemolysin, two of them were associated with an apparent operon, designated vfrAB, that had not been characterized previously. Interestingly, a ΔvfrB mutant exhibited only minor effects on the transcription of the hla gene, encoding alpha-hemolysin, when grown in broth, as well as on RNAIII, a posttranscriptional regulatory RNA important for alpha-hemolysin translation, suggesting that VfrB may function at the posttranscriptional level. Indeed, a ΔvfrB mutant had increased aur and sspAB protease expression under these conditions. However, disruption of the known secreted proteases in the ΔvfrB mutant did not restore hemolytic activity in the ΔvfrB mutant on blood agar. Further analysis revealed that, in contrast to the minor effects of VfrB on hla transcription when strains were cultured in liquid media, the level of hla transcription was decreased 50-fold in the absence of VfrB on solid media. These results demonstrate that while VfrB represses protease expression when strains are grown in broth, hla regulation is highly responsive to factors associated with growth on solid media. Intriguingly, the ΔvfrB mutant displayed increased pathogenesis in a model of S. aureus dermonecrosis, further highlighting the complexity of VfrB-dependent virulence regulation. The results of this study describe a phenotype associated with a class of highly conserved yet uncharacterized proteins found in Gram-positive bacteria, and they shed new light on the regulation of virulence factors necessary for S. aureus pathogenesis.

  7. The Xylella fastidosa RTX operons: evidence for the evolution of protein mosaics through novel genetic exchanges.

    PubMed

    Gambetta, Gregory A; Matthews, Mark A; Syvanen, Michael

    2018-05-04

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a gram negative bacterium inhabiting the plant vascular system. In most species this bacterium lives as a benign symbiote, but in several agriculturally important plants (e.g. coffee, citrus, grapevine) Xf is pathogenic. Xf has four loci encoding homologues to hemolysin RTX proteins, virulence factors involved in a wide range of plant pathogen interactions. We show that all four genes are expressed during pathogenesis in grapevine. The sequences from these four genes have a complex repetitive structure. At the C-termini, sequence diversity between strains is what would be expected from orthologous genes. However, within strains there is no N-terminal homology, indicating these loci encode RTXs of different functions and/or specificities. More striking is that many of the orthologous loci between strains share this extreme variation at the N-termini. Thus these RTX orthologues are most easily visualized as fusions between the orthologous C-termini and different N-termini. Further, the four genes are found in operons having a peculiar structure with an extensively duplicated module encoding a small protein with homology to the N-terminal region of the full length RTX. Surprisingly, some of these small peptides are most similar not to their corresponding full length RTX, but to the N-termini of RTXs from other Xf strains, and even other remotely related species. These results demonstrate that these genes are expressed in planta during pathogenesis. Their structure suggests extensive evolutionary restructuring through horizontal gene transfers and heterologous recombination mechanisms. The sum of the evidence suggests these repetitive modules are a novel kind of mobile genetic element.

  8. [Human drug metabolizing enzymes. II. Conjugation enzymes].

    PubMed

    Vereczkey, L; Jemnitz, K; Gregus, Z

    1998-09-01

    In this review we focus on human conjugation enzymes (UDP-glucuronyltransferases, methyl-trasferases, N-acetyl-transferases, O-acetyl-transferases, Amidases/carboxyesterases, sulfotransferases, Glutation-S-transferases and the enzymes involved in the conjugation with amino acids) that participate in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Although conjugation reactions in most of the cases result in detoxication, more and more publications prove that the reactions catalysed by these enzymes very often lead to activated molecules that may attack macromolecules (proteins, RNAs, DNAs), resulting in toxicity (liver, neuro-, embryotoxicity, allergy, carcinogenecity). We have summarised the data available on these enzymes concerning their catalytic profile and specificity, inhibition, induction properties, their possible role in the generation of toxic compounds, their importance in clinical practice and drug development.

  9. Variability of rRNA Operon Copy Number and Growth Rate Dynamics of Bacillus Isolated from an Extremely Oligotrophic Aquatic Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia-Anistro, Jorge A.; Eguiarte-Fruns, Luis E.; Delgado-Sapién, Gabriela; Márquez-Zacarías, Pedro; Gasca-Pineda, Jaime; Learned, Jennifer; Elser, James J.; Olmedo-Alvarez, Gabriela; Souza, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    The ribosomal RNA (rrn) operon is a key suite of genes related to the production of protein synthesis machinery and thus to bacterial growth physiology. Experimental evidence has suggested an intrinsic relationship between the number of copies of this operon and environmental resource availability, especially the availability of phosphorus (P), because bacteria that live in oligotrophic ecosystems usually have few rrn operons and a slow growth rate. The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is a complex aquatic ecosystem that contains an unusually high microbial diversity that is able to persist under highly oligotrophic conditions. These environmental conditions impose a variety of strong selective pressures that shape the genome dynamics of their inhabitants. The genus Bacillus is one of the most abundant cultivable bacterial groups in the CCB and usually possesses a relatively large number of rrn operon copies (6–15 copies). The main goal of this study was to analyze the variation in the number of rrn operon copies of Bacillus in the CCB and to assess their growth-related properties as well as their stoichiometric balance (N and P content). We defined 18 phylogenetic groups within the Bacilli clade and documented a range of from six to 14 copies of the rrn operon. The growth dynamic of these Bacilli was heterogeneous and did not show a direct relation to the number of operon copies. Physiologically, our results were not consistent with the Growth Rate Hypothesis, since the copies of the rrn operon were decoupled from growth rate. However, we speculate that the diversity of the growth properties of these Bacilli as well as the low P content of their cells in an ample range of rrn copy number is an adaptive response to oligotrophy of the CCB and could represent an ecological mechanism that allows these taxa to coexist. These findings increase the knowledge of the variability in the number of copies of the rrn operon in the genus Bacillus and give insights about the

  10. Role of the parCBA Operon of the Broad-Host-Range Plasmid RK2 in Stable Plasmid Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Carla L.; Schwab, Helmut; Helinski, Donald R.

    1998-01-01

    The par region of the stably maintained broad-host-range plasmid RK2 is organized as two divergent operons, parCBA and parDE, and a cis-acting site. parDE encodes a postsegregational killing system, and parCBA encodes a resolvase (ParA), a nuclease (ParB), and a protein of unknown function (ParC). The present study was undertaken to further delineate the role of the parCBA region in the stable maintenance of RK2 by first introducing precise deletions in the three genes and then assessing the abilities of the different constructs to stabilize RK2 in three strains of Escherichia coli and two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The intact parCBA operon was effective in stabilizing a conjugation-defective RK2 derivative in E. coli MC1061K and RR1 but was relatively ineffective in E. coli MV10Δlac. In the two strains in which the parCBA operon was effective, deletions in parB, parC, or both parB and parC caused an approximately twofold reduction in the stabilizing ability of the operon, while a deletion in the parA gene resulted in a much greater loss of parCBA activity. For P. aeruginosa PAO1161Rifr, the parCBA operon provided little if any plasmid stability, but for P. aeruginosa PAC452Rifr, the RK2 plasmid was stabilized to a substantial extent by parCBA. With this latter strain, parA and res alone were sufficient for stabilization. The cer resolvase system of plasmid ColE1 and the loxP/Cre system of plasmid P1 were tested in comparison with the parCBA operon. We found that, not unlike what was previously observed with MC1061K, cer failed to stabilize the RK2 plasmid with par deletions in strain MV10Δlac, but this multimer resolution system was effective in stabilizing the plasmid in strain RR1. The loxP/Cre system, on the other hand, was very effective in stabilizing the plasmid in all three E. coli strains. These observations indicate that the parA gene, along with its res site, exhibits a significant level of plasmid stabilization in the absence of the parC and

  11. Long-range transcriptional control of an operon necessary for virulence-critical ESX-1 secretion in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Debbie M; Sweeney, Nathan P; Mori, Luisa; Whalan, Rachael H; Comas, Iñaki; Norman, Laura; Cortes, Teresa; Arnvig, Kristine B; Davis, Elaine O; Stapleton, Melanie R; Green, Jeffrey; Buxton, Roger S

    2012-05-01

    The ESX-1 secretion system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has to be precisely regulated since the secreted proteins, although required for a successful virulent infection, are highly antigenic and their continued secretion would alert the immune system to the infection. The transcription of a five-gene operon containing espACD-Rv3613c-Rv3612c, which is required for ESX-1 secretion and is essential for virulence, was shown to be positively regulated by the EspR transcription factor. Thus, transcription from the start site, found to be located 67 bp upstream of espA, was dependent upon EspR enhancer-like sequences far upstream (between 884 and 1,004 bp), which we term the espA activating region (EAR). The EAR contains one of the known binding sites for EspR, providing the first in vivo evidence that transcriptional activation at the espA promoter occurs by EspR binding to the EAR and looping out DNA between this site and the promoter. Regulation of transcription of this operon thus takes place over long regions of the chromosome. This regulation may differ in some members of the M. tuberculosis complex, including Mycobacterium bovis, since deletions of the intergenic region have removed the upstream sequence containing the EAR, resulting in lowered espA expression. Consequent differences in expression of ESX-1 in these bacteria may contribute to their various pathologies and host ranges. The virulence-critical nature of this operon means that transcription factors controlling its expression are possible drug targets.

  12. Regulation of ciaXRH Operon Expression and Identification of the CiaR Regulon in Streptococcus mutans▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenggang; Ayala, Eduardo A.; Downey, Jennifer S.; Merritt, Justin; Goodman, Steven D.; Qi, Fengxia

    2010-01-01

    The ciaRH operon in Streptococcus mutans contains 3 contiguous genes, ciaXRH. Unlike the CiaRH system in other streptococci, only the ciaH-null mutant displays defective phenotypes, while the ciaR-null mutant behaves like the wild type. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism of this unusual property. We demonstrate that the ciaH mutation caused a >20-fold increase in ciaR transcript synthesis. A ciaRH double deletion reversed the ciaH phenotype, suggesting that overexpressed ciaR might be responsible for the observed ciaH phenotypes. When ciaR was forced to be overexpressed by a transcriptional fusion to the ldh promoter in the wild-type background, the same ciaH phenotypes were restored, confirming the involvement of overexpressed ciaR in the ciaH phenotypes. The ciaH mutation and ciaR overexpression also caused transcriptional alterations in 100 genes, with 15 genes upregulated >5-fold. Bioinformatics analysis identified a putative CiaR regulon consisting of 8 genes/operons, including the ciaXRH operon itself, all of which were upregulated. In vitro footprinting on 4 of the 8 promoters revealed a protected region of 26 to 28 bp encompassing two direct repeats, NTTAAG-n5-WTTAAG, 10 bp upstream of the −10 region, indicating direct binding of the CiaR protein to these promoters. Taken together, we conclude that overexpressed CiaR, as a result of either ciaH deletion or forced expression from a constitutive promoter, is a mediator in the CiaH-regulated phenotypes. PMID:20639331

  13. Identification and Characterization of lpfABCC′DE, a Fimbrial Operon of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Alfredo G.; Giron, Jorge A.; Perna, Nicole T.; Burland, Valerie; Blattner, Fred R.; Avelino-Flores, Fabiola; Kaper, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strains to intestinal epithelial cells are poorly understood. We have identified a chromosomal region (designated lpfABCC′DE) in EHEC O157:H7 containing six putative open reading frames that was found to be closely related to the long polar (LP) fimbria operon (lpf) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, both in gene order and in conservation of the deduced amino acid sequences. We show that lpfABCC′DE is organized as an operon and that its expression is induced during the exponential growth phase. The lpf genes from EHEC strain EDL933 were introduced into a nonfimbriated (Fim−) E. coli K-12 strain, and the transformed strain produced fimbriae as visualized by electron microscopy and adhered to tissue culture cells. Anti-LpfA antiserum recognized a ca. 16-kDa LpfA protein when expressed under regulation of the T7 promoter system. The antiserum also cross-reacted with the LP fimbriae in immunogold electron microscopy and Western blot experiments. Isogenic E. coli O157:H7 lpf mutants derived from strains 86-24 and AGT300 showed slight reductions in adherence to tissue culture cells and formed fewer microcolonies compared with their wild-type parent strains. The adherence and microcolony formation phenotypes were restored when the lpf operon was introduced on a plasmid. We propose that LP fimbriae participate in the interaction of E. coli O157:H7 with eukaryotic cells by assisting in microcolony formation. PMID:12228266

  14. Profiling the orphan enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Maria; Stam, Mark; Médigue, Claudine; Lespinet, Olivier; Vallenet, David

    2014-06-06

    The emergence of Next Generation Sequencing generates an incredible amount of sequence and great potential for new enzyme discovery. Despite this huge amount of data and the profusion of bioinformatic methods for function prediction, a large part of known enzyme activities is still lacking an associated protein sequence. These particular activities are called "orphan enzymes". The present review proposes an update of previous surveys on orphan enzymes by mining the current content of public databases. While the percentage of orphan enzyme activities has decreased from 38% to 22% in ten years, there are still more than 1,000 orphans among the 5,000 entries of the Enzyme Commission (EC) classification. Taking into account all the reactions present in metabolic databases, this proportion dramatically increases to reach nearly 50% of orphans and many of them are not associated to a known pathway. We extended our survey to "local orphan enzymes" that are activities which have no representative sequence in a given clade, but have at least one in organisms belonging to other clades. We observe an important bias in Archaea and find that in general more than 30% of the EC activities have incomplete sequence information in at least one superkingdom. To estimate if candidate proteins for local orphans could be retrieved by homology search, we applied a simple strategy based on the PRIAM software and noticed that candidates may be proposed for an important fraction of local orphan enzymes. Finally, by studying relation between protein domains and catalyzed activities, it appears that newly discovered enzymes are mostly associated with already known enzyme domains. Thus, the exploration of the promiscuity and the multifunctional aspect of known enzyme families may solve part of the orphan enzyme issue. We conclude this review with a presentation of recent initiatives in finding proteins for orphan enzymes and in extending the enzyme world by the discovery of new activities.

  15. The pap Operon of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strain O1:K1 Is Located on a Novel Pathogenicity Island

    PubMed Central

    Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Johnson, Timothy J.; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2006-01-01

    We have identified a 56-kb pathogenicity island (PAI) in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain O1:K1 (APEC-O1). This PAI, termed PAI IAPEC-O1, is integrated adjacent to the 3′ end of the pheV tRNA gene. It carries putative virulence genes of APEC (pap operon), other E. coli genes (tia and ireA), and a 1.5-kb region unique to APEC-O1. The kps gene cluster required for the biosynthesis of polysialic acid capsule was mapped to a location immediately downstream of this PAI. PMID:16369033

  16. Induction of surfactin production in Bacillus subtilis by gsp, a gene located upstream of the gramicidin S operon in Bacillus brevis.

    PubMed Central

    Borchert, S; Stachelhaus, T; Marahiel, M A

    1994-01-01

    The deduced amino acid sequence of the gsp gene, located upstream of the 5' end of the gramicidin S operon (grs operon) in Bacillus brevis, showed a high degree of similarity to the sfp gene product, which is located downstream of the srfA operon in B. subtilis. The gsp gene complemented in trans a defect in the sfp gene (sfpO) and promoted production of the lipopeptide antibiotic surfactin. The functional homology of Gsp and Sfp and the sequence similarity of these two proteins to EntD suggest that the three proteins represent a new class of proteins involved in peptide secretion, in support of a hypothesis published previously (T. H. Grossman, M. Tuckman, S. Ellestad, and M. S. Osburne, J. Bacteriol. 175:6203-6211, 1993). Images PMID:7512553

  17. The transcriptional terminator sequences downstream of the covR gene terminate covR/S operon transcription to generate covR monocistronic transcripts in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Tsou, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Yee-Shin; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Lin, Ming-T; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2008-12-31

    CovR/S is an important two component regulatory system, which regulates about 15% of the gene expression in Streptococcus pyogenes. The covR/S locus was identified as an operon generating an RNA transcript around 2.5-kb in size. In this study, we found the covR/S operon produced three RNA transcripts (around 2.5-, 1.0-, and 0.8-kb in size). Using RNA transcriptional terminator sequence prediction and transcriptional terminator analysis, we identified two atypical rho-independent terminator sequences downstream of the covR gene and showed these terminator sequences terminate RNA transcription efficiently. These results indicate that covR/S operon generates covR/S transcript and monocistronic covR transcripts.

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, L

    1995-08-01

    This paper codifies and rationalizes the large diversity in reaction rates and substrate specificity of enzymes in terms of a model which postulates that the kinetic properties of present-day enzymes are the consequence of the evolutionary force of mutation and selection acting on a class of primordial enzymes with poor catalytic activity and broad substrate specificity. Enzymes are classified in terms of their thermodynamic parameters, activation enthalpy delta H* and activation entropy delta S*, in their kinetically significant transition states as follows: type 1, delta H* > 0, delta S* < 0; type 2, delta H* < or = 0, delta S* < or = 0; type 3, delta H* > 0, delta S* > 0. We study the evolutionary dynamics of these three classes of enzymes subject to mutation, which acts at the level of the gene which codes for the enzyme and selection, which acts on the organism that contains the enzyme. Our model predicts the following evolutionary trends in the reaction rate and binding specificity for the three classes of molecules. In type 1 enzymes, evolution results in random, non-directional changes in the reaction rate and binding specificity. In type 2 and 3 enzymes, evolution results in a unidirectional increase in both the reaction rate and binding specificity. We exploit these results in order to codify the diversity in functional properties of present-day enzymes. Type 1 molecules will be described by intermediate reaction rates and broad substrate specificity. Type 2 enzymes will be characterized by diffusion-controlled rates and absolute substrate specificity. The type 3 catalysts can be further subdivided in terms of their activation enthalpy into two classes: type 3a (delta H* small) and type 3b (delta H* large). We show that type 3a will be represented by the same functional properties that identify type 2, namely, diffusion-controlled rates and absolute substrate specificity, whereas type 3b will be characterized by non-diffusion-controlled rates and absolute

  19. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    DOEpatents

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  20. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarik, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (-20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties.

  1. Catalyzed enzyme electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Wilson, Mahlon S.; Rishpon, Judith; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    1993-01-01

    An enzyme electrode is prepared with a composite coating on an electrical conductor. The composite coating is formed from a casting solution of a perfluorosulfonic acid polymer, an enzyme, and a carbon supported catalyst. The solution may be cast directly on the conductor surface or may be formed as a membrane and applied to the surface. The perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer formed from the casting solution provides an insoluble biocompatible protective matrix for the enzyme and acts to retain the enzyme for long term availability in the electrode structure. The carbon supported catalyst provides catalytic sites throughout the layer for the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide from the enzyme reactions. The carbon support then provides a conductive path for establishing an electrical signal to the electrical conductor. In one embodiment, the electrical conductor is a carbon cloth that permits oxygen or other gas to be introduced to the perfluorosulfonic polymer to promote the enzyme reaction independent of oxygen in the solution being tested.

  2. Fnr, NarP, and NarL Regulation of Escherichia coli K-12 napF (Periplasmic Nitrate Reductase) Operon Transcription In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Darwin, Andrew J.; Ziegelhoffer, Eva C.; Kiley, Patricia J.; Stewart, Valley

    1998-01-01

    The expression of several Escherichia coli operons is activated by the Fnr protein during anaerobic growth and is further controlled in response to nitrate and nitrite by the homologous response regulators, NarL and NarP. Among these operons, the napF operon, encoding a periplasmic nitrate reductase, has unique features with respect to its Fnr-, NarL-, and NarP-dependent regulation. First, the Fnr-binding site is unusually located compared to the control regions of most other Fnr-activated operons, suggesting different Fnr-RNA polymerase contacts during transcriptional activation. Second, nitrate and nitrite activation is solely dependent on NarP but is antagonized by the NarL protein. In this study, we used DNase I footprint analysis to confirm our previous assignment of the unusual location of the Fnr-binding site in the napF control region. In addition, the in vivo effects of Fnr-positive control mutations on napF operon expression indicate that the napF promoter is atypical with respect to Fnr-mediated activation. The transcriptional regulation of napF was successfully reproduced in vitro by using a supercoiled plasmid template and purified Fnr, NarL, and NarP proteins. These in vitro transcription experiments demonstrate that, in the presence of Fnr, the NarP protein causes efficient transcription activation whereas the NarL protein does not. This suggests that Fnr and NarP may act synergistically to activate napF operon expression. As observed in vivo, this activation by Fnr and NarP is antagonized by the addition of NarL in vitro. PMID:9696769

  3. Evaluation of the Role of the opgGH Operon in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Its Deletion during the Emergence of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Quintard, Kévin; Dewitte, Amélie; Reboul, Angéline; Madec, Edwige; Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Dondeyne, Jacqueline; Marceau, Michaël; Simonet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The opgGH operon encodes glucosyltransferases that synthesize osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) from UDP-glucose, using acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a cofactor. OPGs are required for motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in various bacteria. OpgH also sequesters FtsZ in order to regulate cell size according to nutrient availability. Yersinia pestis (the agent of flea-borne plague) lost the opgGH operon during its emergence from the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. When expressed in OPG-negative strains of Escherichia coli and Dickeya dadantii, opgGH from Y. pseudotuberculosis restored OPGs synthesis, motility, and virulence. However, Y. pseudotuberculosis did not produce OPGs (i) under various growth conditions or (ii) when overexpressing its opgGH operon, its galUF operon (governing UDP-glucose), or the opgGH operon or Acp from E. coli. A ΔopgGH Y. pseudotuberculosis strain showed normal motility, biofilm formation, resistance to polymyxin and macrophages, and virulence but was smaller. Consistently, Y. pestis was smaller than Y. pseudotuberculosis when cultured at ≥37°C, except when the plague bacillus expressed opgGH. Y. pestis expressing opgGH grew normally in serum and within macrophages and was fully virulent in mice, suggesting that small cell size was not advantageous in the mammalian host. Lastly, Y. pestis expressing opgGH was able to infect Xenopsylla cheopis fleas normally. Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario whereby an ancestral Yersinia strain lost a factor required for OPG biosynthesis but kept opgGH (to regulate cell size). The opgGH operon was presumably then lost because OpgH-dependent cell size control became unnecessary. PMID:26150539

  4. Profiling the orphan enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Next Generation Sequencing generates an incredible amount of sequence and great potential for new enzyme discovery. Despite this huge amount of data and the profusion of bioinformatic methods for function prediction, a large part of known enzyme activities is still lacking an associated protein sequence. These particular activities are called “orphan enzymes”. The present review proposes an update of previous surveys on orphan enzymes by mining the current content of public databases. While the percentage of orphan enzyme activities has decreased from 38% to 22% in ten years, there are still more than 1,000 orphans among the 5,000 entries of the Enzyme Commission (EC) classification. Taking into account all the reactions present in metabolic databases, this proportion dramatically increases to reach nearly 50% of orphans and many of them are not associated to a known pathway. We extended our survey to “local orphan enzymes” that are activities which have no representative sequence in a given clade, but have at least one in organisms belonging to other clades. We observe an important bias in Archaea and find that in general more than 30% of the EC activities have incomplete sequence information in at least one superkingdom. To estimate if candidate proteins for local orphans could be retrieved by homology search, we applied a simple strategy based on the PRIAM software and noticed that candidates may be proposed for an important fraction of local orphan enzymes. Finally, by studying relation between protein domains and catalyzed activities, it appears that newly discovered enzymes are mostly associated with already known enzyme domains. Thus, the exploration of the promiscuity and the multifunctional aspect of known enzyme families may solve part of the orphan enzyme issue. We conclude this review with a presentation of recent initiatives in finding proteins for orphan enzymes and in extending the enzyme world by the discovery of new

  5. LOV Histidine Kinase Modulates the General Stress Response System and Affects the virB Operon Expression in Brucella abortus

    PubMed Central

    Sycz, Gabriela; Carrica, Mariela Carmen; Tseng, Tong-Seung; Bogomolni, Roberto A.; Briggs, Winslow R.; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Paris, Gastón

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease brucellosis, and its success as an intracellular pathogen relies on its ability to adapt to the harsh environmental conditions that it encounters inside the host. The Brucella genome encodes a sensor histidine kinase containing a LOV domain upstream from the kinase, LOVHK, which plays an important role in light-regulated Brucella virulence. In this report we study the intracellular signaling pathway initiated by the light sensor LOVHK using an integrated biochemical and genetic approach. From results of bacterial two-hybrid assays and phosphotransfer experiments we demonstrate that LOVHK functionally interacts with two response regulators: PhyR and LovR, constituting a functional two-component signal-transduction system. LOVHK contributes to the activation of the General Stress Response (GSR) system in Brucella via PhyR, while LovR is proposed to be a phosphate-sink for LOVHK, decreasing its phosphorylation state. We also show that in the absence of LOVHK the expression of the virB operon is down-regulated. In conclusion, our results suggest that LOVHK positively regulates the GSR system in vivo, and has an effect on the expression of the virB operon. The proposed regulatory network suggests a similar role for LOVHK in other microorganisms. PMID:25993430

  6. Novel Twin Streptolysin S-Like Peptides Encoded in the sag Operon Homologue of Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus anginosus

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Atsushi; Nakano, Kota; Ohkura, Kazuto; Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Kikuchi, Ken; Whiley, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is a member of the anginosus group streptococci, which form part of the normal human oral flora. In contrast to the pyogenic group streptococci, our knowledge of the virulence factors of the anginosus group streptococci, including S. anginosus, is not sufficient to allow a clear understanding of the basis of their pathogenicity. Generally, hemolysins are thought to be important virulence factors in streptococcal infections. In the present study, a sag operon homologue was shown to be responsible for beta-hemolysis in S. anginosus strains by random gene knockout. Interestingly, contrary to pyogenic group streptococci, beta-hemolytic S. anginosus was shown to have two tandem sagA homologues, encoding streptolysin S (SLS)-like peptides, in the sag operon homologue. Gene deletion and complementation experiments revealed that both genes were functional, and these SLS-like peptides were essential for beta-hemolysis in beta-hemolytic S. anginosus. Furthermore, the amino acid sequence of these SLS-like peptides differed from that of the typical SLS of S. pyogenes, especially in their propeptide domain, and an amino acid residue indicated to be important for the cytolytic activity of SLS in S. pyogenes was deleted in both S. anginosus homologues. These data suggest that SLS-like peptides encoded by two sagA homologues in beta-hemolytic S. anginosus may be potential virulence factors with a different structure essential for hemolytic activity and/or the maturation process compared to the typical SLS present in pyogenic group streptococci. PMID:23292771

  7. Regulation of the Salmonella enterica std fimbrial operon by DNA adenine methylation, SeqA, and HdfR.

    PubMed

    Jakomin, Marcello; Chessa, Daniela; Bäumler, Andreas J; Casadesús, Josep

    2008-11-01

    DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium grown under laboratory conditions express the std fimbrial operon, which is tightly repressed in the wild type. Here, we show that uncontrolled production of Std fimbriae in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium dam mutants contributes to attenuation in mice, as indicated by the observation that an stdA dam strain is more competitive than a dam strain upon oral infection. Dam methylation appears to regulate std transcription, rather than std mRNA stability or turnover. A genetic screen for std regulators showed that the GATC-binding protein SeqA directly or indirectly represses std expression, while the poorly characterized yifA gene product serves as an std activator. YifA encodes a putative LysR-like protein and has been renamed HdfR, like its Escherichia coli homolog. Activation of std expression by HdfR is observed only in dam and seqA backgrounds. These data suggest that HdfR directly or indirectly activates std transcription. Since SeqA is unable to bind nonmethylated DNA, it is possible that std operon derepression in dam and seqA mutants may result from unconstrained HdfR-mediated activation of std transcription. Derepression of std in dam and seqA mutants of S. enterica occurs in only a fraction of the bacterial population, suggesting the occurrence of either bistable expression or phase variation.

  8. Dissipative Dynamics of Enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyaratne, Amila; Wu, Chenhao; Tseng, Chiao-Yu; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    We explore enzyme conformational dynamics at sub-Å resolution, specifically, temperature effects. The ensemble-averaged mechanical response of the folded enzyme is viscoelastic in the whole temperature range between the warm and cold denaturation transitions. The dissipation parameter γ of the viscoelastic description decreases by a factor of 2 as the temperature is raised from 10 to 45 °C ; the elastic parameter K shows a similar decrease. Thus, when probed dynamically, the enzyme softens for increasing temperature. Equilibrium mechanical experiments with the DNA spring (and a different enzyme) also show, qualitatively, a small softening for increasing temperature.

  9. Dissipative Dynamics of Enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyaratne, Amila; Wu, Chenhao; Tseng, Chiao-Yu; Zocchi, Giovanni; Zocchi LabMolecular Biophysics Team

    2015-03-01

    We explore enzyme conformational dynamics at sub - Å resolution, specifically temperature effects. The ensemble averaged mechanical response of the folded enzyme is viscoelastic in the whole temperature range between the warm and cold denaturation transitions. The dissipation parameter γ of the viscoelastic description decreases by a factor 2 as the temperature is raised from 10 C to 45 C; the elastic parameter K shows a similar decrease. Thus when probed dynamically, the enzyme softens for increasing temperature. Equilibrium mechanical experiments with the DNA spring (and a different enzyme) also show, qualitatively, a small softening for increasing temperature.

  10. Dissipative dynamics of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ariyaratne, Amila; Wu, Chenhao; Tseng, Chiao-Yu; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2014-11-07

    We explore enzyme conformational dynamics at sub-Å resolution, specifically, temperature effects. The ensemble-averaged mechanical response of the folded enzyme is viscoelastic in the whole temperature range between the warm and cold denaturation transitions. The dissipation parameter γ of the viscoelastic description decreases by a factor of 2 as the temperature is raised from 10 to 45 °C; the elastic parameter K shows a similar decrease. Thus, when probed dynamically, the enzyme softens for increasing temperature. Equilibrium mechanical experiments with the DNA spring (and a different enzyme) also show, qualitatively, a small softening for increasing temperature.

  11. Participation of S. Typhimurium cysJIH Operon in the H2S-mediated Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Presence of Sulfate as Sulfur Source

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Ricardo; Frávega, Jorge; Rodas, Paula I.; Fuentes, Juan A.; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Calderón, Iván L.; Gil, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    H2S production has been proposed as a mechanism to explain bacterial resistance to antibiotics. In this work, we present evidence for the role of the cysJIH operon in resistance to ciprofloxacin mediated by H2S production with different sulfate as the only sulfur source. We found that the products of the cysJIH operon are involved in ciprofloxacin resistance by increasing both, the levels of H2S and reduced thiols apparently counteracting antimicrobial-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). This protective effect was observed only when bacteria were cultured in the presence of sulfate, but not with cysteine, as the sole sulfur source.

  12. The copYAZ Operon Functions in Copper Efflux, Biofilm Formation, Genetic Transformation, and Stress Tolerance in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamna; Senadheera, Dilani B.; Lévesque, Céline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacteria, copper homeostasis is closely monitored to ensure proper cellular functions while avoiding cell damage. Most Gram-positive bacteria utilize the copYABZ operon for copper homeostasis, where copA and copB encode copper-transporting P-type ATPases, whereas copY and copZ regulate the expression of the cop operon. Streptococcus mutans is a biofilm-forming oral pathogen that harbors a putative copper-transporting copYAZ operon. Here, we characterized the role of copYAZ operon in the physiology of S. mutans and delineated the mechanisms of copper-induced toxicity in this bacterium. We observed that copper induced toxicity in S. mutans cells by generating oxidative stress and disrupting their membrane potential. Deletion of the copYAZ operon in S. mutans strain UA159 resulted in reduced cell viability under copper, acid, and oxidative stress relative to the viability of the wild type under these conditions. Furthermore, the ability of S. mutans to form biofilms and develop genetic competence was impaired under copper stress. Briefly, copper stress significantly reduced cell adherence and total biofilm biomass, concomitantly repressing the transcription of the gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, and gbpC genes, whose products have roles in maintaining the structural and/or functional integrity of the S. mutans biofilm. Furthermore, supplementation with copper or loss of copYAZ resulted in significant reductions in transformability and in the transcription of competence-associated genes. Copper transport assays revealed that the ΔcopYAZ strain accrued significantly large amounts of intracellular copper compared with the amount of copper accumulation in the wild-type strain, thereby demonstrating a role for CopYAZ in the copper efflux of S. mutans. The complementation of the CopYAZ system restored copper expulsion, membrane potential, and stress tolerance in the copYAZ-null mutant. Taking these results collectively, we have established the function of the S. mutans

  13. An Automated Pipeline for Engineering Many-Enzyme Pathways: Computational Sequence Design, Pathway Expression-Flux Mapping, and Scalable Pathway Optimization.

    PubMed

    Halper, Sean M; Cetnar, Daniel P; Salis, Howard M

    2018-01-01

    Engineering many-enzyme metabolic pathways suffers from the design curse of dimensionality. There are an astronomical number of synonymous DNA sequence choices, though relatively few will express an evolutionary robust, maximally productive pathway without metabolic bottlenecks. To solve this challenge, we have developed an integrated, automated computational-experimental pipeline that identifies a pathway's optimal DNA sequence without high-throughput screening or many cycles of design-build-test. The first step applies our Operon Calculator algorithm to design a host-specific evolutionary robust bacterial operon sequence with maximally tunable enzyme expression levels. The second step applies our RBS Library Calculator algorithm to systematically vary enzyme expression levels with the smallest-sized library. After characterizing a small number of constructed pathway variants, measurements are supplied to our Pathway Map Calculator algorithm, which then parameterizes a kinetic metabolic model that ultimately predicts the pathway's optimal enzyme expression levels and DNA sequences. Altogether, our algorithms provide the ability to efficiently map the pathway's sequence-expression-activity space and predict DNA sequences with desired metabolic fluxes. Here, we provide a step-by-step guide to applying the Pathway Optimization Pipeline on a desired multi-enzyme pathway in a bacterial host.

  14. Rapid Identification of Sequences for Orphan Enzymes to Power Accurate Protein Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Sunil; Watson, Douglas S.; Bomar, Martha G.; Galande, Amit K.; Shearer, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    The power of genome sequencing depends on the ability to understand what those genes and their proteins products actually do. The automated methods used to assign functions to putative proteins in newly sequenced organisms are limited by the size of our library of proteins with both known function and sequence. Unfortunately this library grows slowly, lagging well behind the rapid increase in novel protein sequences produced by modern genome sequencing methods. One potential source for rapidly expanding this functional library is the “back catalog” of enzymology – “orphan enzymes,” those enzymes that have been characterized and yet lack any associated sequence. There are hundreds of orphan enzymes in the Enzyme Commission (EC) database alone. In this study, we demonstrate how this orphan enzyme “back catalog” is a fertile source for rapidly advancing the state of protein annotation. Starting from three orphan enzyme samples, we applied mass-spectrometry based analysis and computational methods (including sequence similarity networks, sequence and structural alignments, and operon context analysis) to rapidly identify the specific sequence for each orphan while avoiding the most time- and labor-intensive aspects of typical sequence identifications. We then used these three new sequences to more accurately predict the catalytic function of 385 previously uncharacterized or misannotated proteins. We expect that this kind of rapid sequence identification could be efficiently applied on a larger scale to make enzymology’s “back catalog” another powerful tool to drive accurate genome annotation. PMID:24386392

  15. Rapid identification of sequences for orphan enzymes to power accurate protein annotation.

    PubMed

    Ramkissoon, Kevin R; Miller, Jennifer K; Ojha, Sunil; Watson, Douglas S; Bomar, Martha G; Galande, Amit K; Shearer, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    The power of genome sequencing depends on the ability to understand what those genes and their proteins products actually do. The automated methods used to assign functions to putative proteins in newly sequenced organisms are limited by the size of our library of proteins with both known function and sequence. Unfortunately this library grows slowly, lagging well behind the rapid increase in novel protein sequences produced by modern genome sequencing methods. One potential source for rapidly expanding this functional library is the "back catalog" of enzymology--"orphan enzymes," those enzymes that have been characterized and yet lack any associated sequence. There are hundreds of orphan enzymes in the Enzyme Commission (EC) database alone. In this study, we demonstrate how this orphan enzyme "back catalog" is a fertile source for rapidly advancing the state of protein annotation. Starting from three orphan enzyme samples, we applied mass-spectrometry based analysis and computational methods (including sequence similarity networks, sequence and structural alignments, and operon context analysis) to rapidly identify the specific sequence for each orphan while avoiding the most time- and labor-intensive aspects of typical sequence identifications. We then used these three new sequences to more accurately predict the catalytic function of 385 previously uncharacterized or misannotated proteins. We expect that this kind of rapid sequence identification could be efficiently applied on a larger scale to make enzymology's "back catalog" another powerful tool to drive accurate genome annotation.

  16. Extracellular enzyme production and cheating in Pseudomonas fluorescens depend on diffusion rates

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Steven D.; Lu, Lucy; Kent, Alyssa G.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria produce extracellular enzymes to obtain resources from complex chemical substrates, but this strategy is vulnerable to cheating by cells that take up reaction products without paying the cost of enzyme production. We hypothesized that cheating would suppress enzyme production in co-cultures of cheater and producer bacteria, particularly under well-mixed conditions. To test this hypothesis, we monitored protease expression and frequencies of Pseudomonas fluorescens producer and cheater genotypes over time in mixed liquid cultures and on agar plates. In mixed culture inoculated with equal frequencies of cheaters and producers, enzyme concentration declined to zero after 20 days, consistent with our hypothesis. We observed a similar decline in cultures inoculated with producers only, suggesting that cheater mutants arose de novo and swept the population. DNA sequencing showed that genetic changes most likely occurred outside the protease operon. In one experimental replicate, the population regained the ability to produce protease, likely due to further genetic changes or population dynamics. Under spatially structured conditions on agar plates, cheaters did not sweep the population. Instead, we observed a significant increase in the variation of enzyme activity levels expressed by clones isolated from the population. Together these results suggest that restricted diffusion favors a diversity of enzyme production strategies. In contrast, well-mixed conditions favor population sweeps by cheater strains, consistent with theoretical predictions. Cheater and producer strategies likely coexist in natural environments with the frequency of cheating increasing with diffusion rate. PMID:24782855

  17. Targeted enzyme prodrug therapies.

    PubMed

    Schellmann, N; Deckert, P M; Bachran, D; Fuchs, H; Bachran, C

    2010-09-01

    The cure of cancer is still a formidable challenge in medical science. Long-known modalities including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are successful in a number of cases; however, invasive, metastasized and inaccessible tumors still pose an unresolved and ongoing problem. Targeted therapies designed to locate, detect and specifically kill tumor cells have been developed in the past three decades as an alternative to treat troublesome cancers. Most of these therapies are either based on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs or tumor site-specific activation of prodrugs. The latter is a two-step procedure. In the first step, a selected enzyme is accumulated in the tumor by guiding the enzyme or its gene to the neoplastic cells. In the second step, a harmless prodrug is applied and specifically converted by this enzyme into a cytotoxic drug only at the tumor site. A number of targeting systems, enzymes and prodrugs were investigated and improved since the concept was first envisioned in 1974. This review presents a concise overview on the history and latest developments in targeted therapies for cancer treatment. We cover the relevant technologies such as antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) as well as related therapies such as clostridial- (CDEPT) and polymer-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (PDEPT) with emphasis on prodrug-converting enzymes, prodrugs and drugs.

  18. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    PubMed

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Finding New Enzymes from Bacterial Physiology: A Successful Approach Illustrated by the Detection of Novel Oxidases in Marinomonas mediterranea

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Solano, Francisco; Lucas-Elío, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The identification and study of marine microorganisms with unique physiological traits can be a very powerful tool discovering novel enzymes of possible biotechnological interest. This approach can complement the enormous amount of data concerning gene diversity in marine environments offered by metagenomic analysis, and can help to place the activities associated with those sequences in the context of microbial cellular metabolism and physiology. Accordingly, the detection and isolation of microorganisms that may be a good source of enzymes is of great importance. Marinomonas mediterranea, for example, has proven to be one such useful microorganism. This Gram-negative marine bacterium was first selected because of the unusually high amounts of melanins synthesized in media containing the amino acid l-tyrosine. The study of its molecular biology has allowed the cloning of several genes encoding oxidases of biotechnological interest, particularly in white and red biotechnology. Characterization of the operon encoding the tyrosinase responsible for melanin synthesis revealed that a second gene in that operon encodes a protein, PpoB2, which is involved in copper transfer to tyrosinase. This finding made PpoB2 the first protein in the COG5486 group to which a physiological role has been assigned. Another enzyme of interest described in M. mediterranea is a multicopper oxidase encoding a membrane-associated enzyme that shows oxidative activity on a wide range of substrates typical of both laccases and tyrosinases. Finally, an enzyme very specific for l-lysine, which oxidises this amino acid in epsilon position and that has received a new EC number (1.4.3.20), has also been described for M. mediterranea. Overall, the studies carried out on this bacterium illustrate the power of exploring the physiology of selected microorganisms to discover novel enzymes of biotechnological relevance. PMID:20411113

  20. X-Prolyl Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidase Gene (pepX) Is Part of the glnRA Operon in Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    PubMed Central

    Varmanen, Pekka; Savijoki, Kirsi; Åvall, Silja; Palva, Airi; Tynkkynen, Soile

    2000-01-01

    A peptidase gene expressing X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (PepX) activity was cloned from Lactobacillus rhamnosus 1/6 by using the chromogenic substrate l-glycyl-l-prolyl-β-naphthylamide for screening of a genomic library in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of a 3.5-kb HindIII fragment expressing the peptidase activity revealed one complete open reading frame (ORF) of 2,391 nucleotides. The 797-amino-acid protein encoded by this ORF was shown to be 40, 39, and 36% identical with PepXs from Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Lactococcus lactis, respectively. By Northern analysis with a pepX-specific probe, transcripts of 4.5 and 7.0 kb were detected, indicating that pepX is part of a polycistronic operon in L. rhamnosus. Cloning and sequencing of the upstream region of pepX revealed the presence of two ORFs of 360 and 1,338 bp that were shown to be able to encode proteins with high homology to GlnR and GlnA proteins, respectively. By multiple primer extension analyses, the only functional promoter in the pepX region was located 25 nucleotides upstream of glnR. Northern analysis with glnA- and pepX-specific probes indicated that transcription from glnR promoter results in a 2.0-kb dicistronic glnR-glnA transcript and also in a longer read-through polycistronic transcript of 7.0 kb that was detected with both probes in samples from cells in exponential growth phase. The glnA gene was disrupted by a single-crossover recombinant event using a nonreplicative plasmid carrying an internal part of glnA. In the disruption mutant, glnRA-specific transcription was derepressed 10-fold compared to the wild type, but the 7.0-kb transcript was no longer detectable with either the glnA- or pepX-specific probe, demonstrating that pepX is indeed part of glnRA operon in L. rhamnosus. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis further supported this operon structure. An extended stem-loop structure was identified immediately upstream of pepX in the gln

  1. X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase gene (pepX) is part of the glnRA operon in Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    PubMed

    Varmanen, P; Savijoki, K; Avall, S; Palva, A; Tynkkynen, S

    2000-01-01

    A peptidase gene expressing X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (PepX) activity was cloned from Lactobacillus rhamnosus 1/6 by using the chromogenic substrate L-glycyl-L-prolyl-beta-naphthylamide for screening of a genomic library in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of a 3.5-kb HindIII fragment expressing the peptidase activity revealed one complete open reading frame (ORF) of 2,391 nucleotides. The 797-amino-acid protein encoded by this ORF was shown to be 40, 39, and 36% identical with PepXs from Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Lactococcus lactis, respectively. By Northern analysis with a pepX-specific probe, transcripts of 4.5 and 7.0 kb were detected, indicating that pepX is part of a polycistronic operon in L. rhamnosus. Cloning and sequencing of the upstream region of pepX revealed the presence of two ORFs of 360 and 1,338 bp that were shown to be able to encode proteins with high homology to GlnR and GlnA proteins, respectively. By multiple primer extension analyses, the only functional promoter in the pepX region was located 25 nucleotides upstream of glnR. Northern analysis with glnA- and pepX-specific probes indicated that transcription from glnR promoter results in a 2.0-kb dicistronic glnR-glnA transcript and also in a longer read-through polycistronic transcript of 7.0 kb that was detected with both probes in samples from cells in exponential growth phase. The glnA gene was disrupted by a single-crossover recombinant event using a nonreplicative plasmid carrying an internal part of glnA. In the disruption mutant, glnRA-specific transcription was derepressed 10-fold compared to the wild type, but the 7.0-kb transcript was no longer detectable with either the glnA- or pepX-specific probe, demonstrating that pepX is indeed part of glnRA operon in L. rhamnosus. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis further supported this operon structure. An extended stem-loop structure was identified immediately upstream of pepX in the gln

  2. Transcriptional Regulation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lsrACDBFG and lsrRK Operons and Their Role in Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Lamont, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is required for biofilm formation and virulence of the oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and we previously showed that lsrB codes for a receptor for AI-2. The lsrB gene is expressed as part of the lsrACDBFG operon, which is divergently transcribed from an adjacent lsrRK operon. In Escherichia coli, lsrRK encodes a repressor and AI-2 kinase that function to regulate lsrACDBFG. To determine if lsrRK controls lsrACDBFG expression and influences biofilm growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans, we first defined the promoters for each operon. Transcriptional reporter plasmids containing the 255-bp lsrACDBFG-lsrRK intergenic region (IGR) fused to lacZ showed that essential elements of lsrR promoter reside 89 to 255 bp upstream from the lsrR start codon. Two inverted repeat sequences that represent potential binding sites for LsrR and two sequences resembling the consensus cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) binding site were identified in this region. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), purified LsrR and CRP proteins were shown to bind probes containing these sequences. Surprisingly, the 255-bp IGR did not contain the lsrA promoter. Instead, a fragment encompassing nucleotides +1 to +159 of lsrA together with the 255-bp IGR was required to promote lsrA transcription. This suggests that a region within the lsrA coding sequence influences transcription, or alternatively that the start codon of A. actinomycetemcomitans lsrA has been incorrectly annotated. Transformation of ΔlsrR, ΔlsrK, ΔlsrRK, and Δcrp deletion mutants with lacZ reporters containing the lsrA or lsrR promoter showed that LsrR negatively regulates and CRP positively regulates both lsrACDBFG and lsrRK. However, in contrast to what occurs in E. coli, deletion of lsrK had no effect on the transcriptional activity of the lsrA or lsrR promoters, suggesting that another kinase may be capable of phosphorylating AI-2 in A. actinomycetemcomitans. Finally, biofilm

  3. Transcription of the pst Operon of Clostridium acetobutylicum Is Dependent on Phosphate Concentration and pH

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Oehmcke, Sonja; Meyer, Uta; Mix, Maren; Schwarz, Katrin; Fiedler, Tomas; Bahl, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    The pst operon of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 comprises five genes, pstS, pstC, pstA, pstB, and phoU, and shows a gene architecture identical to that of Escherichia coli. Deduced proteins are predicted to represent a high-affinity phosphate-specific ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transport system (Pst) and a protein homologous to PhoU, a negative phosphate regulon regulator. We analyzed the expression patterns of the pst operon in Pi-limited chemostat cultures during acid production at pH 5.8 or solvent production at pH 4.5 and in response to Pi pulses. Specific mRNA transcripts were found only when external Pi concentrations had dropped below 0.2 mM. Two specific transcripts were detected, a 4.7-kb polycistronic mRNA spanning the whole operon and a quantitatively dominating 1.2-kb mRNA representing the first gene, pstS. The mRNA levels clearly differed depending on the external pH. The amounts of the full-length mRNA detected were about two times higher at pH 5.8 than at pH 4.5. The level of pstS mRNA increased by a factor of at least 8 at pH 5.8 compared to pH 4.5 results. Primer extension experiments revealed only one putative transcription start point 80 nucleotides upstream of pstS. Thus, additional regulatory sites are proposed in the promoter region, integrating two different extracellular signals, namely, depletion of inorganic phosphate and the pH of the environment. After phosphate pulses were applied to a phosphate-limited chemostat we observed faster phosphate consumption at pH 5.8 than at pH 4.5, although higher optical densities were recorded at pH 4.5. PMID:16855236

  4. A method for constructing single-copy lac fusions in Salmonella typhimurium and its application to the hemA-prfA operon.

    PubMed

    Elliott, T

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a set of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium strains that permits the reversible transfer of lac fusions between a plasmid and either bacterial chromosome. The system relies on homologous recombination in an E. coli recD host for transfer from plasmid to chromosome. This E. coli strain carries the S. typhimurium put operon inserted into trp, and the resulting fusions are of the form trp::put::[Kanr-X-lac], where X is the promoter or gene fragment under study. The put homology flanks the lac fusion segment, so that fusions can be transduced into S. typhimurium, replacing the resident put operon. Subsequent transduction into an S. typhimurium strain with a large chromosomal deletion covering put allows selection for recombinants that inherit the fusion on a plasmid. A transposable version of the put operon was constructed and used to direct lac fusions to novel locations, including the F plasmid and the ara locus. Transductional crosses between strains with fusions bearing different segments of the hemA-prfA operon were used to determine the contribution of the hemA promoter region to expression of the prfA gene and other genes downstream of hemA in S. typhimurium.

  5. Improved vectors for transcriptional/translational signal screening in corynebacteria using the melC operon from Streptomyces glaucescens as reporter.

    PubMed

    Adham, Sirin A I; Rodríguez, Sonia; Ramos, Angelina; Santamaría, Ramón I; Gil, José A

    2003-07-01

    The tyrosinase operon ( melC) from Streptomyces glaucescens was cloned and functionally expressed in Brevibacterium lactofermentum and Corynebacterium glutamicum under the control of the promoter of the kan gene from Tn 5. Recombinant corynebacterial cells containing the tyrosinase operon produced melanin on agar plates and in liquid culture when supplemented with copper and tyrosine. A conjugative bifunctional replacement vector for transcriptional/translational signal screening (pEMel-1) was constructed using expression of the melC operon from S. glaucescens, which can be used for cloning promoter sequences as EcoRI- NdeI fragments. When the DNA fragments with promoter activity such as cspBp or trpp were inserted into pEMel-1, B. lactofermentum harboring the chimeric plasmids produced melanin at different stages of growth, allowing temporal detection of promoter activity. The vector was also used to detect the activity of a Streptomyces promoter ( xysAp), which was inactive in B. lactofermentum, after PCR mutagenesis. The melC operon can be used for the visual, inexpensive (compared to the high price of starch azure for amylase detection), and non-selective (in contrast to the kan or cat genes) screening of several thousand clones at high colony density without killing of the transformants due to the presence of iodine (as in the case of amylase assay).

  6. Modular Ligation Extension of Guide RNA Operons (LEGO) for Multiplexed dCas9 Regulation of Metabolic Pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Deaner, Matthew; Holzman, Allison; Alper, Hal S

    2018-04-16

    Metabolic engineering typically utilizes a suboptimal step-wise gene target optimization approach to parse a highly connected and regulated cellular metabolism. While the endonuclease-null CRISPR/Cas system has enabled gene expression perturbations without genetic modification, it has been mostly limited to small sets of gene targets in eukaryotes due to inefficient methods to assemble and express large sgRNA operons. In this work, we develop a TEF1p-tRNA expression system and demonstrate that the use of tRNAs as splicing elements flanking sgRNAs provides higher efficiency than both Pol III and ribozyme-based expression across a variety of single sgRNA and multiplexed contexts. Next, we devise and validate a scheme to allow modular construction of tRNA-sgRNA (TST) operons using an iterative Type IIs digestion/ligation extension approach, termed CRISPR-Ligation Extension of sgRNA Operons (LEGO). This approach enables facile construction of large TST operons. We demonstrate this utility by constructing a metabolic rewiring prototype for 2,3-butanediol production in 2 distinct yeast strain backgrounds. These results demonstrate that our approach can act as a surrogate for traditional genetic modification on a much shorter design-cycle timescale. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Decaffeination and measurement of caffeine content by addicted Escherichia coli with a refactored N-demethylation operon from Pseudomonas putida CBB5.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Erik M; Hammerling, Michael J; Summers, Ryan M; Otoupal, Peter B; Slater, Ben; Alnahhas, Razan N; Dasgupta, Aurko; Bachman, James L; Subramanian, Mani V; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2013-06-21

    The widespread use of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and other methylxanthines in beverages and pharmaceuticals has led to significant environmental pollution. We have developed a portable caffeine degradation operon by refactoring the alkylxanthine degradation (Alx) gene cluster from Pseudomonas putida CBB5 to function in Escherichia coli. In the process, we discovered that adding a glutathione S-transferase from Janthinobacterium sp. Marseille was necessary to achieve N 7 -demethylation activity. E. coli cells with the synthetic operon degrade caffeine to the guanine precursor, xanthine. Cells deficient in de novo guanine biosynthesis that contain the refactored operon are ″addicted″ to caffeine: their growth density is limited by the availability of caffeine or other xanthines. We show that the addicted strain can be used as a biosensor to measure the caffeine content of common beverages. The synthetic N-demethylation operon could be useful for reclaiming nutrient-rich byproducts of coffee bean processing and for the cost-effective bioproduction of methylxanthine drugs.

  8. Mosaic Structure and Molecular Evolution of the Leukotoxin Operon (lktCABD) in Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, Mannheimia glucosida, and Pasteurella trehalosi

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Robert L.; Campbell, Susan; Whittam, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    The mosaic structure and molecular evolution of the leukotoxin operon (lktCABD) was investigated by nucleotide sequence comparison of the lktC, lktB, and lktD genes in 23 Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, 6 Mannheimia glucosida, and 4 Pasteurella trehalosi strains. Sequence variation in the lktA gene has been described previously (R. L. Davies et al., J. Bacteriol. 183:1394–1404, 2001). The leukotoxin operon of M. haemolytica has a complex mosaic structure and has been derived by extensive inter- and intraspecies horizontal DNA transfer and intragenic recombination events. However, the pattern of recombination varies throughout the operon and among the different evolutionary lineages of M. haemolytica. The lktA and lktB genes have the most complex mosaic structures with segments derived from up to four different sources, including M. glucosida and P. trehalosi. In contrast, the lktD gene is highly conserved in M. haemolytica. The lktC, lktA, and lktB genes of strains representing the major ovine lineages contain recombinant segments derived from bovine or bovine-like serotype A2 strains. These findings support the previous conclusion that host switching of bovine A2 strains from cattle to sheep has played a major role in the evolution of the leukotoxin operon in ovine strains of M. haemolytica. Homologous segments of donor and recipient alleles are identical, or nearly identical, indicating that the recombinational exchanges occurred relatively recent in evolutionary terms. The 5′ and 3′ ends of the operon are highly conserved in M. haemolytica, which suggests that multiple horizontal exchanges of the complete operon have occurred by a common mechanism such as transduction. Although the lktA and lktB genes both have complex mosaic structures and high nucleotide substitution rates, the amino acid diversity of LktB is significantly lower than that of LktA due to a higher degree of evolutionary constraint against amino acid replacement. The recombinational

  9. Haloarcula marismortui cytochrome b-561 is encoded by the narC gene in the dissimilatory nitrate reductase operon.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Araya, Osamu; Fujiwara, Taketomo

    2007-01-01

    The composition of membrane-bound electron-transferring proteins from denitrifying cells of Haloarcula marismortui was compared with that from the aerobic cells. Accompanying nitrate reductase catalytic NarGH subcomplex, cytochrome b-561, cytochrome b-552, and halocyanin-like blue copper protein were induced under denitrifying conditions. Cytochrome b-561 was purified to homogeneity and was shown to be composed of a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 40 kDa. The cytochrome was autooxidizable and its redox potential was -27 mV. The N-terminal sequence of the cytochrome was identical to the deduced amino acid sequence of the narC gene product encoded in the third ORF of the nitrate reductase operon with a unique arrangement of ORFs. The sequence of the cytochrome was homologous with that of the cytochrome b subunit of respiratory cytochrome bc. A possibility that the cytochrome bc and the NarGH constructed a supercomplex was discussed.

  10. Assessment of Mycobacterium bovis deleted in p27-p55 virulence operon as candidate vaccine against tuberculosis in animal models.

    PubMed

    Bianco, María V; Clark, Simon; Blanco, Federico C; Garbaccio, Sergio; García, Elizabeth; Cataldi, Angel A; Williams, Ann; Bigi, Fabiana

    2014-01-01

    A Mycobacterium bovis knockout in p27-p55 operon was tested as an antituberculosis experimental vaccine in animal models. The mutant MbΔp27-p55 was significantly more attenuated in nude mice than its parental strain but more virulent than BCG Pasteur. Challenge experiments in mice and guinea pigs using M. bovis or M. tuberculosis strains showed similar protection conferred by MbΔp27-p55 mutant than BCG in terms of pathology and bacterial loads in spleen but lower protection than BCG in lungs. When tested in cattle, MbΔp27-p55 did not induce IL-2 expression and induced a very low production of IFNγ, suggesting that the lack of P27/P55 reduces the capacity of M. bovis of triggering an adequate Th1 response.

  11. Awakening sleeping beauty: production of propionic acid in Escherichia coli through the sbm operon requires the activity of a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Ricardo Axayacatl; McCubbin, Tim; Wille, Annalena; Plan, Manuel; Nielsen, Lars Keld; Marcellin, Esteban

    2017-07-17

    Propionic acid is used primarily as a food preservative with smaller applications as a chemical building block for the production of many products including fabrics, cosmetics, drugs, and plastics. Biological production using propionibacteria would be competitive against chemical production through hydrocarboxylation of ethylene if native producers could be engineered to reach near-theoretical yield and good productivity. Unfortunately, engineering propionibacteria has proven very challenging. It has been suggested that activation of the sleeping beauty operon in Escherichia coli is sufficient to achieve propionic acid production. Optimising E. coli production should be much easier than engineering propionibacteria if tolerance issues can be addressed. Propionic acid is produced in E. coli via the sleeping beauty mutase operon under anaerobic conditions in rich medium via amino acid degradation. We observed that the sbm operon enhances amino acids degradation to propionic acid and allows E. coli to degrade isoleucine. However, we show here that the operon lacks an epimerase reaction that enables propionic acid production in minimal medium containing glucose as the sole carbon source. Production from glucose can be restored by engineering the system with a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase from Propionibacterium acidipropionici (0.23 ± 0.02 mM). 1-Propanol production was also detected from the promiscuous activity of the native alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE). We also show that aerobic conditions are favourable for propionic acid production. Finally, we increase titre 65 times using a combination of promoter engineering and process optimisation. The native sbm operon encodes an incomplete pathway. Production of propionic acid from glucose as sole carbon source is possible when the pathway is complemented with a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Although propionic acid via the restored succinate dissimilation pathway is considered a fermentative process, the engineered pathway

  12. A Coarse-Grained Biophysical Model of E. coli and Its Application to Perturbation of the rRNA Operon Copy Number

    PubMed Central

    Tadmor, Arbel D.; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2008-01-01

    We propose a biophysical model of Escherichia coli that predicts growth rate and an effective cellular composition from an effective, coarse-grained representation of its genome. We assume that E. coli is in a state of balanced exponential steady-state growth, growing in a temporally and spatially constant environment, rich in resources. We apply this model to a series of past measurements, where the growth rate and rRNA-to-protein ratio have been measured for seven E. coli strains with an rRNA operon copy number ranging from one to seven (the wild-type copy number). These experiments show that growth rate markedly decreases for strains with fewer than six copies. Using the model, we were able to reproduce these measurements. We show that the model that best fits these data suggests that the volume fraction of macromolecules inside E. coli is not fixed when the rRNA operon copy number is varied. Moreover, the model predicts that increasing the copy number beyond seven results in a cytoplasm densely packed with ribosomes and proteins. Assuming that under such overcrowded conditions prolonged diffusion times tend to weaken binding affinities, the model predicts that growth rate will not increase substantially beyond the wild-type growth rate, as indicated by other experiments. Our model therefore suggests that changing the rRNA operon copy number of wild-type E. coli cells growing in a constant rich environment does not substantially increase their growth rate. Other observations regarding strains with an altered rRNA operon copy number, such as nucleoid compaction and the rRNA operon feedback response, appear to be qualitatively consistent with this model. In addition, we discuss possible design principles suggested by the model and propose further experiments to test its validity. PMID:18437222

  13. The dimerization domain in DapE enzymes is required for catalysis.

    PubMed

    Nocek, Boguslaw; Starus, Anna; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Gutierrez, Blanca; Sanchez, Stephen; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Mack, Jamey C; Olsen, Kenneth W; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Holz, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains underscores the importance of identifying new drug targets and developing new antimicrobial compounds. Lysine and meso-diaminopimelic acid are essential for protein production and bacterial peptidoglycan cell wall remodeling and are synthesized in bacteria by enzymes encoded within dap operon. Therefore dap enzymes may serve as excellent targets for developing a new class of antimicrobial agents. The dapE-encoded N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) converts N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid to L,L-diaminopimelic acid and succinate. The enzyme is composed of catalytic and dimerization domains, and belongs to the M20 peptidase family. To understand the specific role of each domain of the enzyme we engineered dimerization domain deletion mutants of DapEs from Haemophilus influenzae and Vibrio cholerae, and characterized these proteins structurally and biochemically. No activity was observed for all deletion mutants. Structural comparisons of wild-type, inactive monomeric DapE enzymes with other M20 peptidases suggest that the dimerization domain is essential for DapE enzymatic activity. Structural analysis and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that removal of the dimerization domain increased the flexibility of a conserved active site loop that may provide critical interactions with the substrate.

  14. Homo-D-lactic acid production from mixed sugars using xylose-assimilating operon-integrated Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shogo; Okano, Kenji; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2011-10-01

    In order to achieve efficient D-lactic acid fermentation from a mixture of xylose and glucose, the xylose-assimilating xylAB operon from Lactobacillus pentosus (PXylAB) was introduced into an L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL1)-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum (ΔldhL1-xpk1::tkt-Δxpk2) strain in which the phosphoketolase 1 gene (xpk1) was replaced with the transketolase gene (tkt) from Lactococcus lactis, and the phosphoketolase 2 (xpk2) gene was deleted. Two copies of xylAB introduced into the genome significantly improved the xylose fermentation ability, raising it to the same level as that of ΔldhL1-xpk1::tkt-Δxpk2 harboring a xylAB operon-expressing plasmid. Using the two-copy xylAB integrated strain, successful homo-D-lactic acid production was achieved from a mixture of 25 g/l xylose and 75 g/l glucose without carbon catabolite repression. After 36-h cultivation, 74.2 g/l of lactic acid was produced with a high yield (0.78 g per gram of consumed sugar) and an optical purity of D-lactic acid of 99.5%. Finally, we successfully demonstrated homo-D-lactic acid fermentation from a mixture of three kinds of sugar: glucose, xylose, and arabinose. This is the first report that describes homo-D-lactic acid fermentation from mixed sugars without carbon catabolite repression using the xylose-assimilating pathway integrated into lactic acid bacteria.

  15. Different enzyme kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Eleanore; Tracy, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    As described in Chapter 2 , a large number of enzymatic reactions can be adequately described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten equation represents a rectangular hyperbola, with a y-asymptote at the V max value. In many cases, more complex kinetic models are required to explain the observed data. Atypical kinetic profiles are believed to arise from the simultaneous binding of multiple molecules within the active site of the enzyme (Tracy and Hummel, Drug Metab Rev 36:231-242, 2004). Several cytochromes P450 have large active sites that enable binding of multiple molecules (Wester et al. J Biol Chem 279:35630-35637, 2004; Yano et al. J Biol Chem 279:38091-38094, 2004). Thus, atypical kinetics are not uncommon in in vitro drug metabolism studies. This chapter covers enzyme kinetic reactions in which a single enzyme has multiple binding sites for substrates and/or inhibitors as well as reactions catalyzed by multiple enzymes.

  16. Enzyme Kinetics in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. C.; Licata, V. J.

    2010-04-01

    The kinetics of some enzymes have been found to be enhanced by the microgravity environment. This is a relatively small effect, but is sufficient to have physiological effects and to impact pharmaceutical therapy in microgravity.

  17. Starch Biorefinery Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Läufer, Albrecht

    2017-03-07

    Nature uses enzymes to build and convert biomass; mankind uses the same enzymes and produces them on a large scale to make optimum use of biomass in biorefineries. Bacterial α-amylases and fungal glucoamylases have been the workhorses of starch biorefineries for many decades. Pullulanases were introduced in the 1980s. Proteases, cellulases, hemicellulases, and phytases have been on the market for a few years as process aids, improving yields, performance, and costs. Detailed studies of the complex chemical structures of biomass and of the physicochemical limitations of industrial biorefineries have led enzyme developers to produce novel tailor-made solutions for improving yield and profitability in the industry. This chapter reviews the development of enzyme applications in the major starch biorefining processes.

  18. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  19. RNA as an Enzyme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews current findings that explain RNA's function as an enzyme in addition to being an informational molecule. Highlights recent research efforts and notes changes in the information base on RNA activity. Includes models and diagrams of RNA activity. (ML)

  20. Overproduction of ligninolytic enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Torok, Tamas

    Methods, compositions, and systems for overproducing ligninolytic enzymes from the basidiomycetous fungus are described herein. As described, the method can include incubating a fungal strain of Cerrena unicolor IBB 303 in a fermentation system having growth medium which includes lignocellulosic material and then cultivating the fungal strain in the fermentation system under conditions wherein the fungus expresses the ligninolytic enzymes. In some cases, the lignocellulosic material is mandarin peel, ethanol production residue, walnut pericarp, wheat bran, wheat straw, or banana peel.

  1. Random-walk enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mak, Chi H; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A; Goodman, Myron F

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C→U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  2. Random-walk enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C → U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics. PMID:26465508

  3. Random-walk enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C →U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  4. Phenotypical Analysis of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Fimbrial spaFED Operon: Surface Expression and Functional Characterization of Recombinant SpaFED Pili in Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    A noticeable genomic feature of many piliated Gram-positive bacterial species is the presence of more than one pilus-encoding operon. Paradigmatically, the gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain contains two different fimbrial operons in its genome. However, whereas one of these operons (called spaCBA) is encoding for the functionally mucus-/collagen-binding SpaCBA pilus, for the other operon (called spaFED) any native expression of the SpaFED-called pili is still the subject of some uncertainty. Irrespective of such considerations, we decided it would be of relevance or interest to decipher the gross structure of this pilus type, and as well assess its functional capabilities for cellular adhesion and immunostimulation. For this, and by following the approach we had used previously to explicate the immuno-properties of SpaCBA pili, we constructed nisin-inducible expression clones producing either wild-type or SpaF pilin-deleted surface-assembled L. rhamnosus GG SpaFED pili on Lactococcus lactis cells. Using these piliated lactococcal constructs, we found that the pilin-polymerized architecture of a recombinant-produced SpaFED pilus coincides with sequence-based functional predictions of the related pilins, and in fact is prototypical of those other sortase-dependent pilus-like structures thus far characterized for piliated Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, we confirmed that among the different pilin subunits encompassing spaFED operon-encoded pili, the SpaF pilin is a main adhesion determinant, and when present in the assembled structure can mediate pilus binding to mucus, certain extracellular matrix proteins, and different gut epithelial cell lines. However, somewhat unexpectedly, when recombinant SpaFED pili are surface-attached, we found that they could not potentiate the existing lactococcal cell-induced immune responses so elicited from intestinal- and immune-related cells, but rather instead, they could dampen them. Accordingly, we have now provided

  5. Phenotypical analysis of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG fimbrial spaFED operon: surface expression and functional characterization of recombinant SpaFED pili in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Rintahaka, Johanna; Yu, Xia; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    A noticeable genomic feature of many piliated Gram-positive bacterial species is the presence of more than one pilus-encoding operon. Paradigmatically, the gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain contains two different fimbrial operons in its genome. However, whereas one of these operons (called spaCBA) is encoding for the functionally mucus-/collagen-binding SpaCBA pilus, for the other operon (called spaFED) any native expression of the SpaFED-called pili is still the subject of some uncertainty. Irrespective of such considerations, we decided it would be of relevance or interest to decipher the gross structure of this pilus type, and as well assess its functional capabilities for cellular adhesion and immunostimulation. For this, and by following the approach we had used previously to explicate the immuno-properties of SpaCBA pili, we constructed nisin-inducible expression clones producing either wild-type or SpaF pilin-deleted surface-assembled L. rhamnosus GG SpaFED pili on Lactococcus lactis cells. Using these piliated lactococcal constructs, we found that the pilin-polymerized architecture of a recombinant-produced SpaFED pilus coincides with sequence-based functional predictions of the related pilins, and in fact is prototypical of those other sortase-dependent pilus-like structures thus far characterized for piliated Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, we confirmed that among the different pilin subunits encompassing spaFED operon-encoded pili, the SpaF pilin is a main adhesion determinant, and when present in the assembled structure can mediate pilus binding to mucus, certain extracellular matrix proteins, and different gut epithelial cell lines. However, somewhat unexpectedly, when recombinant SpaFED pili are surface-attached, we found that they could not potentiate the existing lactococcal cell-induced immune responses so elicited from intestinal- and immune-related cells, but rather instead, they could dampen them. Accordingly, we have now provided

  6. Carboxylesterases: General detoxifying enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, M. Jason; Umans, Robyn A.; Hyatt, Janice L.; Edwards, Carol C; Wierdl, Monika; Tsurkan, Lyudmila; Taylor, Michael R.; Potter, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Carboxylesterases (CE) are members of the esterase family of enzymes, and as their name suggests, they are responsible for the hydrolysis of carboxylesters into the corresponding alcohol and carboxylic acid. To date, no endogenous CE substrates have been identified and as such, these proteins are thought to act as a mechanism to detoxify ester-containing xenobiotics. As a consequence, they are expressed in tissues that might be exposed to such agents (lung and gut epithelia, liver, kidney, etc.). CEs demonstrate very broad substrate specificities and can hydrolyze compounds as diverse as cocaine, oseltamivir (Tamiflu), permethrin and irinotecan. In addition, these enzymes are irreversibly inhibited by organophosphates such as Sarin and Tabun. In this overview, we will compare and contrast the two human enzymes that have been characterized, and evaluate the biology of the interaction of these proteins with organophosphates (principally nerve agents). PMID:26892220

  7. [Micro fabricated enzyme battery].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Karube, I

    1996-10-01

    Although various work has been done in the field of implantable micro actuators such as artificial organs and micro surgery robots, a suitable electric power supply for these is yet to be developed. For this purpose a micro fabricated enzyme fuel cell was developed which uses glucose contained in the human body as a fuel. In order to obtain enough voltage each cell was formed as part of a serial array on a silicon wafer. Glucose solution enters the cells by a capillary effect. In this article fuel cells already developed using biocatalysts are described, and the future possibility of a micro fabricated enzyme battery is discussed.

  8. Oxysterol biosynthetic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Russell, D W

    2000-12-15

    Oxysterols, herein defined as derivatives of cholesterol with a hydroxyl group on the side chain, play several roles in lipid metabolism. Members of this class regulate the expression of genes that participate in both sterol and fat metabolism, serve as substrates for the synthesis of bile acids, and are intermediates in the transfer of sterols from the periphery to the liver. Three abundant naturally occurring oxysterols are 24-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, and 27-hydroxycholesterol. The cholesterol hydroxylase enzymes that synthesize each of these have been isolated over the last several years and their study has produced insight into the biology of oxysterols. This article focuses on the properties of these enzymes.

  9. Coordination of the Arc Regulatory System and Pheromone-Mediated Positive Feedback in Controlling the Vibrio fischeri lux Operon

    PubMed Central

    Septer, Alecia N.; Stabb, Eric V.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pheromone signaling is often governed both by environmentally responsive regulators and by positive feedback. This regulatory combination has the potential to coordinate a group response among distinct subpopulations that perceive key environmental stimuli differently. We have explored the interplay between an environmentally responsive regulator and pheromone-mediated positive feedback in intercellular signaling by Vibrio fischeri ES114, a bioluminescent bacterium that colonizes the squid Euprymna scolopes. Bioluminescence in ES114 is controlled in part by N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3OC6), a pheromone produced by LuxI that together with LuxR activates transcription of the luxICDABEG operon, initiating a positive feedback loop and inducing luminescence. The lux operon is also regulated by environmentally responsive regulators, including the redox-responsive ArcA/ArcB system, which directly represses lux in culture. Here we show that inactivating arcA leads to increased 3OC6 accumulation to initiate positive feedback. In the absence of positive feedback, arcA-mediated control of luminescence was only ∼2-fold, but luxI-dependent positive feedback contributed more than 100 fold to the net induction of luminescence in the arcA mutant. Consistent with this overriding importance of positive feedback, 3OC6 produced by the arcA mutant induced luminescence in nearby wild-type cells, overcoming their ArcA repression of lux. Similarly, we found that artificially inducing ArcA could effectively repress luminescence before, but not after, positive feedback was initiated. Finally, we show that 3OC6 produced by a subpopulation of symbiotic cells can induce luminescence in other cells co-colonizing the host. Our results suggest that even transient loss of ArcA-mediated regulation in a sub-population of cells can induce luminescence in a wider community. Moreover, they indicate that 3OC6 can communicate information about both cell density and the state of

  10. Toying with Enzyme Catalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Debbie

    1998-01-01

    Describes a set of manipulatives that are used to establish a secure understanding of the concepts related to the environmental factors that affect the activities of enzymes. Includes a description of the model components and procedures for construction of the model. (DDR)

  11. Enzyme leaps fuel antichemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Ah-Young; Dutta, Sandipan; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2018-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that enzyme diffusivity is enhanced when the enzyme is catalytically active. Here, using superresolution microscopy [stimulated emission-depletion fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (STED-FCS)], we show that active enzymes migrate spontaneously in the direction of lower substrate concentration (“antichemotaxis”) by a process analogous to the run-and-tumble foraging strategy of swimming microorganisms and our theory quantifies the mechanism. The two enzymes studied, urease and acetylcholinesterase, display two families of transit times through subdiffraction-sized focus spots, a diffusive mode and a ballistic mode, and the latter transit time is close to the inverse rate of catalytic turnover. This biochemical information-processing algorithm may be useful to design synthetic self-propelled swimmers and nanoparticles relevant to active materials. Executed by molecules lacking the decision-making circuitry of microorganisms, antichemotaxis by this run-and-tumble process offers the biological function to homogenize product concentration, which could be significant in situations when the reactant concentration varies from spot to spot. PMID:29255047

  12. Embedded enzymes catalyse capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentish, Sandra

    2018-05-01

    Membrane technologies for carbon capture can offer economic and environmental advantages over conventional amine-based absorption, but can suffer from limited gas flux and selectivity to CO2. Now, a membrane based on enzymes embedded in hydrophilic pores is shown to exhibit combined flux and selectivity that challenges the state of the art.

  13. Cold-Adapted Enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georlette, D.; Bentahir, M.; Claverie, P.; Collins, T.; D'amico, S.; Delille, D.; Feller, G.; Gratia, E.; Hoyoux, A.; Lonhienne, T.; Meuwis, M.-a.; Zecchinon, L.; Gerday, Ch.

    In the last few years, increased attention has been focused on enzymes produced by cold-adapted micro-organisms. It has emerged that psychrophilic enzymes represent an extremely powerful tool in both protein folding investigations and for biotechnological purposes. Such enzymes are characterised by an increased thermosensitivity and, most of them, by a higher catalytic efficiency at low and moderate temperatures, when compared to their mesophilic counterparts. The high thermosensitivity probably originates from an increased flexibility of either a selected area of the molecular edifice or the overall protein structure, providing enhanced abilities to undergo conformational changes during catalysis at low temperatures. Structure modelling and recent crystallographic data have allowed to elucidate the structural parameters that could be involved in this higher resilience. It was demonstrated that each psychrophilic enzyme adopts its own adaptive strategy. It appears, moreover, that there is a continuum in the strategy of protein adaptation to temperature, as the previously mentioned structural parameters are implicated in the stability of thermophilic proteins. Additional 3D crystal structures, site-directed and random mutagenesis experiments should now be undertaken to further investigate the stability-flexibility-activity relationship.

  14. Participation of the arcRACME protein in self-activation of the arc operon located in the arginine catabolism mobile element in pandemic clone USA300.

    PubMed

    Rozo, Zayda Lorena Corredor; Márquez-Ortiz, Ricaurte Alejandro; Castro, Betsy Esperanza; Gómez, Natasha Vanegas; Escobar-Pérez, Javier

    2017-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pandemic clone USA300 has, in addition to its constitutive arginine catabolism (arc) gene cluster, an arginine catabolism mobile element (ACME) carrying another such cluster, which gives this clone advantages in colonisation and infection. Gene arcR, which encodes an oxygen-sensitive transcriptional regulator, is inside ACME and downstream of the constitutive arc gene cluster, and this situation may have an impact on its activation. Different relative expression behaviours are proven here for arcRACME and the arcACME operon compared to the constitutive ones. We also show that the artificially expressed recombinant ArcRACME protein binds to the promoter region of the arcACME operon; this mechanism can be related to a positive feedback model, which may be responsible for increased anaerobic survival of the USA300 clone during infection-related processes.

  15. The Enzyme Function Initiative†

    PubMed Central

    Gerlt, John A.; Allen, Karen N.; Almo, Steven C.; Armstrong, Richard N.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Cronan, John E.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C. Dale; Raushel, Frank M.; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-01-01

    The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily-specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include: 1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation); 2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia; 3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy; 4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization; and 5) dissemination of data via the EFI’s website, enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal and pharmaceutical efforts. PMID

  16. The Enzyme Function Initiative.

    PubMed

    Gerlt, John A; Allen, Karen N; Almo, Steven C; Armstrong, Richard N; Babbitt, Patricia C; Cronan, John E; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J; Jacobson, Matthew P; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C Dale; Raushel, Frank M; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2011-11-22

    The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic, we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include (1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation), (2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia, (3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy, (4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization, and (5) dissemination of data via the EFI's Website, http://enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal, and pharmaceutical efforts.

  17. High-Level Heat Resistance of Spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus licheniformis Results from the Presence of a spoVA Operon in a Tn1546 Transposon

    PubMed Central

    Berendsen, Erwin M.; Koning, Rosella A.; Boekhorst, Jos; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial endospore formers can produce spores that are resistant to many food processing conditions, including heat. Some spores may survive heating processes aimed at production of commercially sterile foods. Recently, it was shown that a spoVA operon, designated spoVA2mob, present on a Tn1546 transposon in Bacillus subtilis, leads to profoundly increased wet heat resistance of B. subtilis spores. Such Tn1546 transposon elements including the spoVA2mob operon were also found in several strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus licheniformis, and these strains were shown to produce spores with significantly higher resistances to wet heat than their counterparts lacking this transposon. In this study, the locations and compositions of Tn1546 transposons encompassing the spoVA2mob operons in B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis were analyzed. Introduction of these spoVA2mob operons into B. subtilis 168 (producing spores that are not highly heat resistant) rendered mutant 168 strains that produced high-level heat resistant spores, demonstrating that these elements in B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis are responsible for high level heat resistance of spores. Assessment of growth of the nine strains of each species between 5.2°C and 57.7°C showed some differences between strains, especially at lower temperatures, but all strains were able to grow at 57.7°C. Strains of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis that contain the Tn1546 elements (and produce high-level heat resistant spores) grew at temperatures similar to those of their Tn1546-negative counterparts that produce low-level heat resistant spores. The findings presented in this study allow for detection of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis strains that produce highly heat resistant spores in the food chain. PMID:27994575

  18. Mutation of a Broadly Conserved Operon (RL3499-RL3502) from Rhizobium leguminosarum Biovar viciae Causes Defects in Cell Morphology and Envelope Integrity▿†

    PubMed Central

    Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M.; Magnus, Samantha A.; Tambalo, Dinah D.; Koval, Susan F.; Yost, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial cell envelope is of critical importance to the function and survival of the cell; it acts as a barrier against harmful toxins while allowing the flow of nutrients into the cell. It also serves as a point of physical contact between a bacterial cell and its host. Hence, the cell envelope of Rhizobium leguminosarum is critical to cell survival under both free-living and symbiotic conditions. Transposon mutagenesis of R. leguminosarum strain 3841 followed by a screen to isolate mutants with defective cell envelopes led to the identification of a novel conserved operon (RL3499-RL3502) consisting of a putative moxR-like AAA+ ATPase, a hypothetical protein with a domain of unknown function (designated domain of unknown function 58), and two hypothetical transmembrane proteins. Mutation of genes within this operon resulted in increased sensitivity to membrane-disruptive agents such as detergents, hydrophobic antibiotics, and alkaline pH. On minimal media, the mutants retain their rod shape but are roughly 3 times larger than the wild type. On media containing glycine or peptides such as yeast extract, the mutants form large, distorted spheres and are incapable of sustained growth under these culture conditions. Expression of the operon is maximal during the stationary phase of growth and is reduced in a chvG mutant, indicating a role for this sensor kinase in regulation of the operon. Our findings provide the first functional insight into these genes of unknown function, suggesting a possible role in cell envelope development in Rhizobium leguminosarum. Given the broad conservation of these genes among the Alphaproteobacteria, the results of this study may also provide insight into the physiological role of these genes in other Alphaproteobacteria, including the animal pathogen Brucella. PMID:21357485

  19. The Anaerobe-Specific Orange Protein Complex of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough Is Encoded by Two Divergent Operons Coregulated by σ54 and a Cognate Transcriptional Regulator▿†

    PubMed Central

    Fiévet, Anouchka; My, Laetitia; Cascales, Eric; Ansaldi, Mireille; Pauleta, Sofia R.; Moura, Isabel; Dermoun, Zorah; Bernard, Christophe S.; Dolla, Alain; Aubert, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of sequenced bacterial genomes revealed that the genomes encode more than 30% hypothetical and conserved hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Among proteins of unknown function that are conserved in anaerobes, some might be determinants of the anaerobic way of life. This study focuses on two divergent clusters specifically found in anaerobic microorganisms and mainly composed of genes encoding conserved hypothetical proteins. We show that the two gene clusters DVU2103-DVU2104-DVU2105 (orp2) and DVU2107-DVU2108-DVU2109 (orp1) form two divergent operons transcribed by the σ54-RNA polymerase. We further demonstrate that the σ54-dependent transcriptional regulator DVU2106, located between orp1 and orp2, collaborates with σ54-RNA polymerase to orchestrate the simultaneous expression of the divergent orp operons. DVU2106, whose structural gene is transcribed by the σ70-RNA polymerase, negatively retrocontrols its own expression. By using an endogenous pulldown strategy, we identify a physiological complex composed of DVU2103, DVU2104, DVU2105, DVU2108, and DVU2109. Interestingly, inactivation of DVU2106, which is required for orp operon transcription, induces morphological defects that are likely linked to the absence of the ORP complex. A putative role of the ORP proteins in positioning the septum during cell division is discussed. PMID:21531797

  20. The Dickeya dadantii biofilm matrix consists of cellulose nanofibres, and is an emergent property dependent upon the type III secretion system and the cellulose synthesis operon.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Courtney E; Selimi, Dija A; Barak, Jeri D; Charkowski, Amy O

    2011-10-01

    Dickeya dadantii is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that produces cellulose-containing biofilms, called pellicles, at the air-liquid interface of liquid cultures. D. dadantii pellicle formation appears to be an emergent property dependent upon at least three gene clusters, including cellulose synthesis, type III secretion system (T3SS) and flagellar genes. The D. dadantii cellulose synthesis operon is homologous to that of Gluconacetobacter xylinus, which is used for industrial cellulose production, and the cellulose nanofibres produced by D. dadantii were similar in diameter and branching pattern to those produced by G. xylinus. Salmonella enterica, an enterobacterium closely related to D. dadantii, encodes a second type of cellulose synthesis operon, and it produced biofilm strands that differed in width and branching pattern from those of D. dadantii and G. xylinus. Unlike any previously described cellulose fibre, the D. dadantii cellulose nanofibres were decorated with bead-like structures. Mutation of the cellulose synthesis operon genes resulted in loss of cellulose synthesis and production of a cellulase-resistant biofilm. Mutation of other genes required for pellicle formation, including those encoding FliA (a sigma factor that regulates flagella production), HrpL (a sigma factor that regulates the T3SS), and AdrA, a GGDEF protein, affected both biofilm and cell morphology. Mutation of the cellulose synthase bcsA or of bcsC resulted in decreased accumulation of the T3SS-secreted protein HrpN.

  1. Transcriptional Activation of Pyoluteorin Operon Mediated by the LysR-Type Regulator PltR Bound at a 22 bp lys Box in Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guohao; Xu, Yuquan

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18, a rhizosphere-isolated bacterial strain showing strong antifungal activity, can produce secondary metabolites such as phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyoluteorin (Plt). The LysR-type transcriptional regulator PltR activates the Plt biosynthesis operon pltLABCDEFG, the expression of which is induced by Plt. Here, we identified and characterized the non-conserved pltL promoter (pltLp) specifically activated by PltR and its upstream neighboring lys box from the complicated pltR–pltL intergenic sequence. The 22 bp palindromic lys box, which consists of two 9 bp complementary inverted repeats interrupted by 4 bp, was found to contain the conserved, GC-rich LysR-binding motif (T-N11-A). Evidence obtained in vivo from mutational and lacZ report analyses and in vitro from electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveals that the PltR protein directly bound to the pltLp region as the indispensable binding motif “lys box”, thereby transcriptionally activating the pltLp-driven plt operon expression. Plt, as a potential non-essential coinducer of PltR, specifically induced the pltLp expression and thus strengthened its biosynthetic plt operon expression. PMID:22761817

  2. A Homologue of an Operon Required for DNA Transfer in Agrobacterium Is Required in Brucella abortus for Virulence and Intracellular Multiplication

    PubMed Central

    Sieira, Rodrigo; Comerci, Diego J.; Sánchez, Daniel O.; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.

    2000-01-01

    As part of a Brucella abortus 2308 genome project carried out in our laboratory, we identified, cloned, and sequenced a genomic DNA fragment containing a locus (virB) highly homologous to bacterial type IV secretion systems. The B. abortus virB locus is a collinear arrangement of 13 open reading frames (ORFs). Between virB1 and virB2 and downstream of ORF12, two degenerated, palindromic repeat sequences characteristic of Brucella intergenic regions were found. Gene reporter studies demonstrated that the B. abortus virB locus constitutes an operon transcribed from virB1 which is turned on during the stationary phase of growth. A B. abortus polar virB1 mutant failed to replicate in HeLa cells, indicating that the virB operon plays a critical role in intracellular multiplication. Mutants with polar and nonpolar mutations introduced in virB10 showed different behaviors in mice and in the HeLa cell infection assay, suggesting that virB10 per se is necessary for the correct function of this type IV secretion apparatus. Mouse infection assays demonstrated that the virB operon constitutes a major determinant of B. abortus virulence. It is suggested that putative effector molecules secreted by this type IV secretion system determine routing of B. abortus to an endoplasmic reticulum-related replication compartment. PMID:10940027

  3. Terminator Operon Reporter: combining a transcription termination switch with reporter technology for improved gene synthesis and synthetic biology applications.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Massimiliano; Mur, Luis A J; Rees Stevens, Pauline; Pachebat, Justin A; Newbold, C James; Hayes, Finbarr; Kingston-Smith, Alison

    2016-05-25

    Synthetic biology is characterized by the development of novel and powerful DNA fabrication methods and by the application of engineering principles to biology. The current study describes Terminator Operon Reporter (TOR), a new gene assembly technology based on the conditional activation of a reporter gene in response to sequence errors occurring at the assembly stage of the synthetic element. These errors are monitored by a transcription terminator that is placed between the synthetic gene and reporter gene. Switching of this terminator between active and inactive states dictates the transcription status of the downstream reporter gene to provide a rapid and facile readout of the accuracy of synthetic assembly. Designed specifically and uniquely for the synthesis of protein coding genes in bacteria, TOR allows the rapid and cost-effective fabrication of synthetic constructs by employing oligonucleotides at the most basic purification level (desalted) and without the need for costly and time-consuming post-synthesis correction methods. Thus, TOR streamlines gene assembly approaches, which are central to the future development of synthetic biology.

  4. Curli Fibers Are Highly Conserved between Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli with Respect to Operon Structure and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Römling, Ute; Bian, Zhao; Hammar, Mårten; Sierralta, Walter D.; Normark, Staffan

    1998-01-01

    Mouse-virulent Salmonella typhimurium strains SR-11 and ATCC 14028-1s express curli fibers, thin aggregative fibers, at ambient temperature on plates as judged by Western blot analysis and electron microscopy. Concomitantly with curli expression, cells develop a rough and dry colony morphology and bind the dye Congo red (called the rdar morphotype). Cloning and characterization of the two divergently transcribed operons required for curli biogenesis, csgBA(C) and csgDEFG, from S. typhimurium SR-11 revealed the same gene order and flanking genes as in Escherichia coli. The divergence of the curli region between S. typhimurium and E. coli at the nucleotide level is above average (22.4%). However, a high level of conservation at the protein level, which ranged from 86% amino acid homology for the fiber subunit CsgA to 99% homology for the lipoprotein CsgG, implies functional constraints on the gene products. Consequently, S. typhimurium genes on low-copy-number plasmids were able to complement respective E. coli mutants, although not always to wild-type levels. rpoS and ompR are required for transcriptional activation of (at least) the csgD promoter. The high degree of conservation at the protein level and the identical regulation patterns in E. coli and S. typhimurium suggest similar roles of curli fibers in the same ecological niche in the two species. PMID:9457880

  5. Conformational and thermodynamic hallmarks of DNA operator site specificity in the copper sensitive operon repressor from Streptomyces lividans

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Benedict G.; Vijgenboom, Erik; Worrall, Jonathan A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Metal ion homeostasis in bacteria relies on metalloregulatory proteins to upregulate metal resistance genes and enable the organism to preclude metal toxicity. The copper sensitive operon repressor (CsoR) family is widely distributed in bacteria and controls the expression of copper efflux systems. CsoR operator sites consist of G-tract containing pseudopalindromes of which the mechanism of operator binding is poorly understood. Here, we use a structurally characterized CsoR from Streptomyces lividans (CsoRSl) together with three specific operator targets to reveal the salient features pertaining to the mechanism of DNA binding. We reveal that CsoRSl binds to its operator site through a 2-fold axis of symmetry centred on a conserved 5′-TAC/GTA-3′ inverted repeat. Operator recognition is stringently dependent not only on electropositive residues but also on a conserved polar glutamine residue. Thermodynamic and circular dichroic signatures of the CsoRSl–DNA interaction suggest selectivity towards the A-DNA-like topology of the G-tracts at the operator site. Such properties are enhanced on protein binding thus enabling the symmetrical binding of two CsoRSl tetramers. Finally, differential binding modes may exist in operator sites having more than one 5′-TAC/GTA-3′ inverted repeat with implications in vivo for a mechanism of modular control. PMID:24121681

  6. RNA interference can target pre-mRNA: consequences for gene expression in a Caenorhabditis elegans operon.

    PubMed Central

    Bosher, J M; Dufourcq, P; Sookhareea, S; Labouesse, M

    1999-01-01

    In nematodes, flies, trypanosomes, and planarians, introduction of double-stranded RNA results in sequence-specific inactivation of gene function, a process termed RNA interference (RNAi). We demonstrate that RNAi against the Caenorhabditis elegans gene lir-1, which is part of the lir-1/lin-26 operon, induced phenotypes very different from a newly isolated lir-1 null mutation. Specifically, lir-1(RNAi) induced embryonic lethality reminiscent of moderately strong lin-26 alleles, whereas the lir-1 null mutant was viable. We show that the lir-1(RNAi) phenotypes resulted from a severe loss of lin-26 gene expression. In addition, we found that RNAi directed against lir-1 or lin-26 introns induced similar phenotypes, so we conclude that lir-1(RNAi) targets the lir-1/lin-26 pre-mRNA. This provides direct evidence that RNA interference can prevent gene expression by targeting nuclear transcripts. Our results highlight that caution may be necessary when interpreting RNA interference without the benefit of mutant alleles. PMID:10545456

  7. The thiostrepton-resistance-encoding gene in Streptomyces laurentii is located within a cluster of ribosomal protein operons.

    PubMed

    Smith, T M; Jiang, Y F; Shipley, P; Floss, H G

    1995-10-16

    A common approach to identify and clone biosynthetic gene from an antibiotic-producing streptomycete is to clone the resistance gene for the antibiotic of interest and then use that gene to clone DNA that is linked to it. As a first step toward cloning the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of thiostrepton (Th) in Streptomyces laurentii (Sl), the Th resistance-encoding gene (tsnR) was cloned as a 1.5-kb BamHI-PvuII fragment in Escherichia coli (Ec), and shown to confer Th resistance when introduced into S. lividans TK24. The tsnR-containing DNA fragment was used as a probe to isolate clones from cosmid libraries of DNA in the Ec cosmid vector SuperCos, and pOJ446 (an Ec/streptomycete) cosmid vector. Sequence and genetic analysis of the DNA flanking the tsnR indicates that the Sl tsnR is not closely linked to biosynthetic genes. Instead it is located within a cluster of ribosomal protein operons.

  8. Enzyme nanoparticle fabrication: magnetic nanoparticle synthesis and enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Patrick A; Park, Hee Joon; Driscoll, Ashley J

    2011-01-01

    Immobilized enzymes are drawing significant attention for potential commercial applications as biocatalysts by reducing operational expenses and by increasing process utilization of the enzymes. Typically, immobilized enzymes have greater thermal and operational stability at various pH values, ionic strengths and are more resistant to denaturation that the soluble native form of the enzyme. Also, immobilized enzymes can be recycled by utilizing the physical or chemical properties of the supporting material. Magnetic nanoparticles provide advantages as the supporting material for immobilized enzymes over competing materials such as: higher surface area that allows for greater enzyme loading, lower mass transfer resistance, less fouling effect, and selective, nonchemical separation from the reaction mixture by an applied a magnetic field. Various surface modifications of magnetic nanoparticles, such as silanization, carbodiimide activation, and PEG or PVA spacing, aid in the binding of single or multienzyme systems to the particles, while cross-linking using glutaraldehyde can also stabilize the attached enzymes.

  9. Synthetic Helizyme Enzymes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-18

    NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP I Synthetic enzymes...chymotrypsin; molecular modeling; 03 peptide synthesis 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) The object of this...for AChE. Additionally, synthetic models ofcL- chymotrypsin built using cyclo- dextrins show catalytic activity over a limited pH range.2 Using L

  10. Amperometric Enzyme Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    form of carbon (glascy carbon , graphite, reticulated vitreous carbon , carbon paste, fiber or foil). Carbon is favored for enzyme immoblization...the surface for covalent bonding. The most frequently used electrode material, glassy carbon , often displays complex behavior. Although attempts have...Mixed Carbon Paste Electrode with an Immobilized Layer of D-Gluconate Dehydrogenase from Bacteral Membranes," Agric. Biol. Chelm., 51 (1987), 747-754

  11. Uronic polysaccharide degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Garron, Marie-Line; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2014-10-01

    In the past several years progress has been made in the field of structure and function of polysaccharide lyases (PLs). The number of classified polysaccharide lyase families has increased to 23 and more detailed analysis has allowed the identification of more closely related subfamilies, leading to stronger correlation between each subfamily and a unique substrate. The number of as yet unclassified polysaccharide lyases has also increased and we expect that sequencing projects will allow many of these unclassified sequences to emerge as new families. The progress in structural analysis of PLs has led to having at least one representative structure for each of the families and for two unclassified enzymes. The newly determined structures have folds observed previously in other PL families and their catalytic mechanisms follow either metal-assisted or Tyr/His mechanisms characteristic for other PL enzymes. Comparison of PLs with glycoside hydrolases (GHs) shows several folds common to both classes but only for the β-helix fold is there strong indication of divergent evolution from a common ancestor. Analysis of bacterial genomes identified gene clusters containing multiple polysaccharide cleaving enzymes, the Polysaccharides Utilization Loci (PULs), and their gene complement suggests that they are organized to process completely a specific polysaccharide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcript analysis of the extended hyp-operon in the cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 and Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyanobacteria harbor two [NiFe]-type hydrogenases consisting of a large and a small subunit, the Hup- and Hox-hydrogenase, respectively. Insertion of ligands and correct folding of nickel-iron hydrogenases require assistance of accessory maturation proteins (encoded by the hyp-genes). The intergenic region between the structural genes encoding the uptake hydrogenase (hupSL) and the accessory maturation proteins (hyp genes) in the cyanobacteria Nostoc PCC 7120 and N. punctiforme were analysed using molecular methods. Findings The five ORFs, located in between the uptake hydrogenase structural genes and the hyp-genes, can form a transcript with the hyp-genes. An identical genomic localization of these ORFs are found in other filamentous, N2-fixing cyanobacterial strains. In N. punctiforme and Nostoc PCC 7120 the ORFs upstream of the hyp-genes showed similar transcript level profiles as hupS (hydrogenase structural gene), nifD (nitrogenase structural gene), hypC and hypF (accessory hydrogenase maturation genes) after nitrogen depletion. In silico analyzes showed that these ORFs in N. punctiforme harbor the same conserved regions as their homologues in Nostoc PCC 7120 and that they, like their homologues in Nostoc PCC 7120, can be transcribed together with the hyp-genes forming a larger extended hyp-operon. DNA binding studies showed interactions of the transcriptional regulators CalA and CalB to the promoter regions of the extended hyp-operon in N. punctiforme and Nostoc PCC 7120. Conclusions The five ORFs upstream of the hyp-genes in several filamentous N2-fixing cyanobacteria have an identical genomic localization, in between the genes encoding the uptake hydrogenase and the maturation protein genes. In N. punctiforme and Nostoc PCC 7120 they are transcribed as one operon and may form transcripts together with the hyp-genes. The expression pattern of the five ORFs within the extended hyp-operon in both Nostoc punctiforme and Nostoc PCC 7120 is similar to

  13. Genome analysis of the freshwater planktonic Vulcanococcus limneticus sp. nov. reveals horizontal transfer of nitrogenase operon and alternative pathways of nitrogen utilization.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Andrea; Cabello-Yeves, Pedro J; Chrismas, Nathan A M; Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Salcher, Michaela M; Callieri, Cristiana

    2018-04-16

    Many cyanobacteria are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, playing a crucial role in biogeochemical cycling. Little is known about freshwater unicellular cyanobacteria Synechococcus spp. at the genomic level, despite being recognised of considerable ecological importance in aquatic ecosystems. So far, it has not been shown whether these unicellular picocyanobacteria have the potential for nitrogen fixation. Here, we present the draft-genome of the new pink-pigmented Synechococcus-like strain Vulcanococcus limneticus. sp. nov., isolated from the volcanic Lake Albano (Central Italy). The novel species Vulcanococcus limneticus sp. nov. falls inside the sub-cluster 5.2, close to the estuarine/marine strains in a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree generated with 259 marker genes with representatives from marine, brackish, euryhaline and freshwater habitats. V.limneticus sp. nov. possesses a complete nitrogenase and nif operon. In an experimental setup under nitrogen limiting and non-limiting conditions, growth was observed in both cases. However, the nitrogenase genes (nifHDK) were not transcribed, i.e., V.limneticus sp. nov. did not fix nitrogen, but instead degraded the phycobilisomes to produce sufficient amounts of ammonia. Moreover, the strain encoded many other pathways to incorporate ammonia, nitrate and sulphate, which are energetically less expensive for the cell than fixing nitrogen. The association of the nif operon to a genomic island, the relatively high amount of mobile genetic elements (52 transposases) and the lower observed GC content of V.limneticus sp. nov. nif operon (60.54%) compared to the average of the strain (68.35%) support the theory that this planktonic strain may have obtained, at some point of its evolution, the nif operon by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from a filamentous or heterocystous cyanobacterium. In this study, we describe the novel species Vulcanococcus limneticus sp. nov., which possesses a complete nif operon for

  14. Micellar Polymer Encapsulation of Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Besic, Sabina; Minteer, Shelley D

    2017-01-01

    Although enzymes are highly efficient and selective catalysts, there have been problems incorporating them into fuel cells. Early enzyme-based fuel cells contained enzymes in solution rather than immobilized on the electrode surface. One problem utilizing an enzyme in solution is an issue of transport associated with long diffusion lengths between the site of bioelectrocatalysis and the electrode. This issue drastically decreases the theoretical overall power output due to the poor electron conductivity. On the other hand, enzymes immobilized at the electrode surface have eliminated the issue of poor electron conduction due to close proximity of electron transfer between electrode and the biocatalyst. Another problem is inefficient and short term stability of catalytic activity within the enzyme that is suspended in free flowing solution. Enzymes in solutions are only stable for hours to days, whereas immobilized enzymes can be stable for weeks to months and now even years. Over the last decade, there has been substantial research on immobilizing enzymes at electrode surfaces for biofuel cell and sensor applications. The most commonly used techniques are sandwich or wired. Sandwich techniques are powerful and successful for enzyme immobilization; however, the enzymes optimal activity is not retained due to the physical distress applied by the polymer limiting its applications as well as the non-uniform distribution of the enzyme and the diffusion of analyte through the polymer is slowed significantly. Wired techniques have shown to extend the lifetime of an enzyme at the electrode surface; however, this technique is very hard to master due to specific covalent bonding of enzyme and polymer which changes the three-dimensional configuration of enzyme and with that decreases the optimal catalytic activity. This chapter details encapsulation techniques where an enzyme will be immobilized within the pores/pockets of the hydrophobically modified micellar polymers such as

  15. Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

    1997-11-25

    An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 19 figs.

  16. Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, Matthew R.; Bednarski, Mark D.; Gruber, Patrick R.

    1997-01-01

    An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups.

  17. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  18. The Catalytic Function of Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splittgerber, Allan G.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: structure of the enzyme molecule; active site; reaction mechanism; transition state; factors affecting enzyme reaction rates, concentration of enzyme; concentration of substrate; product concentration; temperature effects and pH effects; factors causing a lowering of activation energy; proximity and orientation effects; substrate strain…

  19. Protein Crystal Malic Enzyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Malic Enzyme is a target protein for drug design because it is a key protein in the life cycle of intestinal parasites. After 2 years of effort on Earth, investigators were unable to produce any crystals that were of high enough quality and for this reason the structure of this important protein could not be determined. Crystals obtained from one STS-50 were of superior quality allowing the structure to be determined. This is just one example why access to space is so vital for these studies. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  20. Sequence analysis of the phs operon in Salmonella typhimurium and the contribution of thiosulfate reduction to anaerobic energy metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Heinzinger, N K; Fujimoto, S Y; Clark, M A; Moreno, M S; Barrett, E L

    1995-01-01

    The phs chromosomal locus of Salmonella typhimurium is essential for the dissimilatory anaerobic reduction of thiosulfate to hydrogen sulfide. Sequence analysis of the phs region revealed a functional operon with three open reading frames, designated phsA, phsB, and phsC, which encode peptides of 82.7, 21.3, and 28.5 kDa, respectively. The predicted products of phsA and phsB exhibited significant homology with the catalytic and electron transfer subunits of several other anaerobic molybdoprotein oxidoreductases, including Escherichia coli dimethyl sulfoxide reductase, nitrate reductase, and formate dehydrogenase. Simultaneous comparison of PhsA to seven homologous molybdoproteins revealed numerous similarities among all eight throughout the entire frame, hence, significant amino acid conservation among molybdoprotein oxidoreductases. Comparison of PhsB to six other homologous sequences revealed four highly conserved iron-sulfur clusters. The predicted phsC product was highly hydrophobic and similar in size to the hydrophobic subunits of the molybdoprotein oxidoreductases containing subunits homologous to phsA and phsB. Thus, phsABC appears to encode thiosulfate reductase. Single-copy phs-lac translational fusions required both anaerobiosis and thiosulfate for full expression, whereas multicopy phs-lac translational fusions responded to either thiosulfate or anaerobiosis, suggesting that oxygen and thiosulfate control of phs involves negative regulation. A possible role for thiosulfate reduction in anaerobic respiration was examined. Thiosulfate did not significantly augment the final densities of anaerobic cultures grown on any of the 18 carbon sources tested. on the other hand, washed stationary-phase cells depleted of ATP were shown to synthesize small amounts of ATP on the addition of the formate and thiosulfate, suggesting that the thiosulfate reduction plays a unique role in anaerobic energy conservation by S typhimurium. PMID:7751291

  1. An l-Fucose Operon in the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Is Involved in Adaptation to Gastrointestinal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Jimmy E.; Yebra, María J.

    2015-01-01

    l-Fucose is a sugar present in human secretions as part of human milk oligosaccharides, mucins, and other glycoconjugates in the intestinal epithelium. The genome of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) carries a gene cluster encoding a putative l-fucose permease (fucP), l-fucose catabolic pathway (fucI, fucK, fucU, and fucA), and a transcriptional regulator (fucR). The metabolism of l-fucose in LGG results in 1,2-propanediol production, and their fucI and fucP mutants displayed a severe and mild growth defect on l-fucose, respectively. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the fuc genes are induced by l-fucose and subject to a strong carbon catabolite repression effect. This induction was triggered by FucR, which acted as a transcriptional activator necessary for growth on l-fucose. LGG utilized fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and contrarily to other lactobacilli, the presence of fuc genes allowed this strain to use the l-fucose moiety. In fucI and fucR mutants, but not in fucP mutant, l-fucose was not metabolized and it was excreted to the medium during growth on fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine. The fuc genes were induced by this fucosyl-disaccharide in the wild type and the fucP mutant but not in a fucI mutant, showing that FucP does not participate in the regulation of fuc genes and that l-fucose metabolism is needed for FucR activation. The l-fucose operon characterized here constitutes a new example of the many factors found in LGG that allow this strain to adapt to the gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:25819967

  2. An L-Fucose Operon in the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Is Involved in Adaptation to Gastrointestinal Conditions.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Jimmy E; Yebra, María J; Monedero, Vicente

    2015-06-01

    L-Fucose is a sugar present in human secretions as part of human milk oligosaccharides, mucins, and other glycoconjugates in the intestinal epithelium. The genome of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) carries a gene cluster encoding a putative L-fucose permease (fucP), L-fucose catabolic pathway (fucI, fucK, fucU, and fucA), and a transcriptional regulator (fucR). The metabolism of L-fucose in LGG results in 1,2-propanediol production, and their fucI and fucP mutants displayed a severe and mild growth defect on L-fucose, respectively. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the fuc genes are induced by L-fucose and subject to a strong carbon catabolite repression effect. This induction was triggered by FucR, which acted as a transcriptional activator necessary for growth on L-fucose. LGG utilized fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and contrarily to other lactobacilli, the presence of fuc genes allowed this strain to use the L-fucose moiety. In fucI and fucR mutants, but not in fucP mutant, L-fucose was not metabolized and it was excreted to the medium during growth on fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine. The fuc genes were induced by this fucosyl-disaccharide in the wild type and the fucP mutant but not in a fucI mutant, showing that FucP does not participate in the regulation of fuc genes and that L-fucose metabolism is needed for FucR activation. The l-fucose operon characterized here constitutes a new example of the many factors found in LGG that allow this strain to adapt to the gastrointestinal conditions. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of a Gene Operon for trans-Aconitic Acid, a Novel Nematicide from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Du, Cuiying; Cao, Shiyun; Shi, Xiangyu; Nie, Xiangtao; Zheng, Jinshui; Deng, Yun; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2017-02-24

    trans -Aconitic acid (TAA) is an isomer of cis -aconitic acid (CAA), an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle that is synthesized by aconitase. Although TAA production has been detected in bacteria and plants for many years and is known to be a potent inhibitor of aconitase, its biosynthetic origins and the physiological relevance of its activity have remained unclear. We have serendipitously uncovered key information relevant to both of these questions. Specifically, in a search for novel nematicidal factors from Bacillus thuringiensis , a significant nematode pathogen harboring many protein virulence factors, we discovered a high yielding component that showed activity against the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita and surprisingly identified it as TAA. Comparison with CAA, which displayed a much weaker nematicidal effect, suggested that TAA is specifically synthesized by B. thuringiensis as a virulence factor. Analysis of mutants deficient in plasmids that were anticipated to encode virulence factors allowed us to isolate a TAA biosynthesis-related ( tbr ) operon consisting of two genes, tbrA and tbrB We expressed the corresponding proteins, TbrA and TbrB, and characterized them as an aconitate isomerase and TAA transporter, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis of the TAA biosynthetic gene cluster revealed the association of the TAA genes with transposable elements relevant for horizontal gene transfer as well as a distribution across B. cereus bacteria and other B. thuringiensis strains, suggesting a general role for TAA in the interactions of B. cereus group bacteria with nematode hosts in the soil environment. This study reveals new bioactivity for TAA and the TAA biosynthetic pathway, improving our understanding of virulence factors employed by B. thuringiensis pathogenesis and providing potential implications for nematode management applications. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. The enzymic hydrolysis of amygdalin

    PubMed Central

    Haisman, D. R.; Knight, D. J.

    1967-01-01

    Chromatographic examination has shown that the enzymic hydrolysis of amygdalin by an almond β-glucosidase preparation proceeds consecutively: amygdalin was hydrolysed to prunasin and glucose; prunasin to mandelonitrile and glucose; mandelonitrile to benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid. Gentiobiose was not formed during the enzymic hydrolysis. The kinetics of the production of mandelonitrile and hydrocyanic acid from amygdalin by the action of the β-glucosidase preparation favour the probability that three different enzymes are involved, each specific for one hydrolytic stage, namely, amygdalin lyase, prunasin lyase and hydroxynitrile lyase. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of the enzyme preparation showed that it contained a number of enzymically active components. PMID:4291788

  5. Synthetic, switchable enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Vic; Krylov, Sergey N.; Agarwal, Pratul K.; White, Glenn J.

    2017-01-01

    The construction of switchable, radiation-controlled, aptameric enzymes alias swenzymes is, in principle, feasible. We propose a strategy to make such catalysts from two (or more) aptamers each selected to bind specifically to one of the substrates in, for example, a two-substrate reaction. Construction of a combinatorial library of candidate swenzymes entails selecting a set of a million aptamers that bind one substrate and a second set of a million aptamers that bind the second substrate; the aptamers in these sets are then linked pairwise by a linker so bringing together the substrates. In the presence of the substrates, some linked aptamer pairs catalyze the reaction when exposed to external energy in the form of a specific frequency of low intensity, non-ionizing electromagnetic or acoustic radiation. Such swenzymes are detected via a separate, product-capturing, aptamer that changes conformation on capturing the product; this altered conformation allows it (1) to bind to every potential swenzyme in its vicinity (thereby giving a higher probability of capture to the swenzymes that generate the product) and (2) to bind to a sequence on a magnetic bead (thereby permitting purification of the swenzyme plus product-capturing aptamer by precipitation). Attempts to implement the swenzyme strategy may help elucidate fundamental problems in enzyme catalysis. PMID:28448969

  6. Synthetic, Switchable Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Norris, Vic; Krylov, Sergey N; Agarwal, Pratul K; White, Glenn J

    2017-01-01

    The construction of switchable, radiation-controlled, aptameric enzymes - "swenzymes" - is, in principle, feasible. We propose a strategy to make such catalysts from 2 (or more) aptamers each selected to bind specifically to one of the substrates in, for example, a 2-substrate reaction. Construction of a combinatorial library of candidate swenzymes entails selecting a set of a million aptamers that bind one substrate and a second set of a million aptamers that bind the second substrate; the aptamers in these sets are then linked pairwise by a linker, thus bringing together the substrates. In the presence of the substrates, some linked aptamer pairs catalyze the reaction when exposed to external energy in the form of a specific frequency of low-intensity, nonionizing electromagnetic or acoustic radiation. Such swenzymes are detected via a separate product-capturing aptamer that changes conformation on capturing the product; this altered conformation allows it (1) to bind to every potential swenzyme in its vicinity (thereby giving a higher probability of capture to the swenzymes that generate the product) and (2) to bind to a sequence on a magnetic bead (thereby permitting purification of the swenzyme plus product-capturing aptamer by precipitation). Attempts to implement the swenzyme strategy may help elucidate fundamental problems in enzyme catalysis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Characterising Complex Enzyme Reaction Data

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Syed Asad; Thornton, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between enzyme-catalysed reactions and the Enzyme Commission (EC) number, the widely accepted classification scheme used to characterise enzyme activity, is complex and with the rapid increase in our knowledge of the reactions catalysed by enzymes needs revisiting. We present a manual and computational analysis to investigate this complexity and found that almost one-third of all known EC numbers are linked to more than one reaction in the secondary reaction databases (e.g., KEGG). Although this complexity is often resolved by defining generic, alternative and partial reactions, we have also found individual EC numbers with more than one reaction catalysing different types of bond changes. This analysis adds a new dimension to our understanding of enzyme function and might be useful for the accurate annotation of the function of enzymes and to study the changes in enzyme function during evolution. PMID:26840640

  8. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 Containing an Artificial Oxalate Operon and Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Secretes Oxalic Acid and Solubilizes Rock Phosphate in Acidic Alfisols

    PubMed Central

    Archana, G.; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2) transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2) containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah) and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp) secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil. PMID:24705024

  9. Complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA operons of two species of Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda): a molecular resource for taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of important fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Brabec, Jan; Kostadinova, Aneta; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2015-06-19

    The genus Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Diplostomidae) is a diverse group of freshwater parasites with complex life-cycles and global distribution. The larval stages are important pathogens causing eye fluke disease implicated in substantial impacts on natural fish populations and losses in aquaculture. However, the problematic species delimitation and difficulties in the identification of larval stages hamper the assessment of the distributional and host ranges of Diplostomum spp. and their transmission ecology. Total genomic DNA was isolated from adult worms and shotgun sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons were assembled using established bioinformatic tools and fully annotated. Mt protein-coding genes and nuclear rRNA genes were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood and the resulting topologies compared. We characterised novel complete mt genomes and nuclear rRNA operons of two closely related species, Diplostomum spathaceum and D. pseudospathaceum. Comparative mt genome assessment revealed that the cox1 gene and its 'barcode' region used for molecular identification are the most conserved regions; instead, nad4 and nad5 genes were identified as most promising molecular diagnostic markers. Using the novel data, we provide the first genome wide estimation of the phylogenetic relationships of the order Diplostomida, one of the two fundamental lineages of the Digenea. Analyses of the mitogenomic data invariably recovered the Diplostomidae as a sister lineage of the order Plagiorchiida rather than as a basal lineage of the Diplostomida as inferred in rDNA phylogenies; this was concordant with the mt gene order of Diplostomum spp. exhibiting closer match to the conserved gene order of the Plagiorchiida. Complete sequences of the mt genome and rRNA operon of two species of Diplostomum provide a valuable resource for novel genetic markers for species delineation and

  10. Cloning and identification of Group 1 mrp operon encoding a novel monovalent cation/proton antiporter system from the moderate halophile Halomonas zhaodongensis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lin; Hong, Shan; Liu, Henan; Huang, Haipeng; Sun, Hao; Xu, Tong; Jiang, Juquan

    2014-11-01

    The novel species Halomonas zhaodongensis NEAU-ST10-25(T) recently identified by our group is a moderate halophile which can grow at the range of 0-2.5 M NaCl (optimum 0.5 M) and pH 6-12 (optimum pH 9). To explore its halo-alkaline tolerant mechanism, genomic DNA was screened from NEAU-ST10-25(T) in this study for Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporter genes by selection in Escherichia coli KNabc lacking three major Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporters. One mrp operon could confer tolerance of E. coli KNabc to 0.8 M NaCl and 100 mM LiCl, and an alkaline pH. This operon was previously mainly designated mrp (also mnh, pha or sha) due to its multiple resistance and pH-related activity. Here, we will also use mrp to designate the homolog from H. zhaodongensis (Hz_mrp). Sequence analysis and protein alignment showed that Hz_mrp should belong to Group 1 mrp operons. Further phylogenetic analysis reveals that Hz_Mrp system should represent a novel sub-class of Group 1 Mrp systems. This was confirmed by a significant difference in pH-dependent activity profile or the specificity and affinity for the transported monovalent cations between Hz_Mrp system and all the known Mrp systems. Therefore, we propose that Hz_Mrp should be categorized as a novel Group 1 Mrp system.

  11. Measuring the Enzyme Activity of Arabidopsis Deubiquitylating Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Kamila; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Isono, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Deubiquitylating enzymes, or DUBs, are important regulators of ubiquitin homeostasis and substrate stability, though the molecular mechanisms of most of the DUBs in plants are not yet understood. As different ubiquitin chain types are implicated in different biological pathways, it is important to analyze the enzyme characteristic for studying a DUB. Quantitative analysis of DUB activity is also important to determine enzyme kinetics and the influence of DUB binding proteins on the enzyme activity. Here, we show methods to analyze DUB activity using immunodetection, Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining, and fluorescence measurement that can be useful for understanding the basic characteristic of DUBs.

  12. Evidence for a common gene pool and frequent recombinational exchange of the tbpBA operon in Mannheimia haemolytica, Mannheimia glucosida and Bibersteinia trehalosi

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inkyoung; Davies, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The tbpBA operon was sequenced in 42 representative isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica (32), Mannheimia glucosida (6) and Bibersteinia trehalosi (4). A total of 27 tbpB and 20 tbpA alleles were identified whilst the tbpBA operon was represented by 28 unique alleles that could be assigned to seven classes. There were 1566 (34.8% variation) polymorphic nucleotide sites and 482 (32.1% variation) variable inferred amino acid positions among the 42 tbpBA sequences. The tbpBA operons of serotype A2 M. haemolytica isolates are, with one exception, substantially more diverse than those of the other M. haemolytica serotypes and most likely have a different ancestral origin. The tbpBA phylogeny has been severely disrupted by numerous small- and large-scale intragenic recombination events. In addition, assortative (entire gene) recombination events, involving either the entire tbpBA operon or the individual tbpB and tbpA genes, have played a major role in shaping tbpBA structure and it’s distribution in the three species. Our findings indicate that a common gene pool exists for tbpBA in M. haemolytica, M. glucosida and B. trehalosi. In particular, B. trehalosi, M. glucosida and ovine M. haemolytica isolates share a large portion of the tbpA gene and this probably reflects selection for a conserved TbpA protein that provides effective iron-uptake in sheep. Bovine and ovine serotype A2 lineages have very different tbpBA alleles. Bovine-like tbpBA alleles have been partially, or completely, replaced by ovine-like tbpBA alleles in ovine serotype A2 isolates suggesting that different transferrin receptors are required by serotype A2 isolates for optimum iron uptake in cattle and sheep. Conversely, the tbpBA alleles of bovine-pathogenic serotype A1 and A6 isolates are very similar to those of closely related ovine isolates suggesting a recent and common evolutionary origin. PMID:20884693

  13. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Stone, Scot J.; Koliwad, Suneil; Harris, Charles; Farese, Robert V.

    2008-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms. Excessive accumulation of TGs, however, is associated with human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. The final and the only committed step in the biosynthesis of TGs is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, were identified in the past decade, and the use of molecular tools, including mice deficient in either enzyme, has shed light on their functions. Although DGAT enzymes are involved in TG synthesis, they have distinct protein sequences and differ in their biochemical, cellular, and physiological functions. Both enzymes may be useful as therapeutic targets for diseases. Here we review the current knowledge of DGAT enzymes, focusing on new advances since the cloning of their genes, including possible roles in human health and diseases. PMID:18757836

  14. Demand theory of gene regulation. II. Quantitative application to the lactose and maltose operons of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Savageau, M A

    1998-01-01

    Induction of gene expression can be accomplished either by removing a restraining element (negative mode of control) or by providing a stimulatory element (positive mode of control). According to the demand theory of gene regulation, which was first presented in qualitative form in the 1970s, the negative mode will be selected for the control of a gene whose function is in low demand in the organism's natural environment, whereas the positive mode will be selected for the control of a gene whose function is in high demand. This theory has now been further developed in a quantitative form that reveals the importance of two key parameters: cycle time C, which is the average time for a gene to complete an ON/OFF cycle, and demand D, which is the fraction of the cycle time that the gene is ON. Here we estimate nominal values for the relevant mutation rates and growth rates and apply the quantitative demand theory to the lactose and maltose operons of Escherichia coli. The results define regions of the C vs. D plot within which selection for the wild-type regulatory mechanisms is realizable, and these in turn provide the first estimates for the minimum and maximum values of demand that are required for selection of the positive and negative modes of gene control found in these systems. The ratio of mutation rate to selection coefficient is the most relevant determinant of the realizable region for selection, and the most influential parameter is the selection coefficient that reflects the reduction in growth rate when there is superfluous expression of a gene. The quantitative theory predicts the rate and extent of selection for each mode of control. It also predicts three critical values for the cycle time. The predicted maximum value for the cycle time C is consistent with the lifetime of the host. The predicted minimum value for C is consistent with the time for transit through the intestinal tract without colonization. Finally, the theory predicts an optimum value

  15. Phage lytic enzymes: a history.

    PubMed

    Trudil, David

    2015-02-01

    There are many recent studies regarding the efficacy of bacteriophage-related lytic enzymes: the enzymes of 'bacteria-eaters' or viruses that infect bacteria. By degrading the cell wall of the targeted bacteria, these lytic enzymes have been shown to efficiently lyse Gram-positive bacteria without affecting normal flora and non-related bacteria. Recent studies have suggested approaches for lysing Gram-negative bacteria as well (Briersa Y, et al., 2014). These enzymes include: phage-lysozyme, endolysin, lysozyme, lysin, phage lysin, phage lytic enzymes, phageassociated enzymes, enzybiotics, muralysin, muramidase, virolysin and designations such as Ply, PAE and others. Bacteriophages are viruses that kill bacteria, do not contribute to antimicrobial resistance, are easy to develop, inexpensive to manufacture and safe for humans, animals and the environment. The current focus on lytic enzymes has been on their use as anti-infectives in humans and more recently in agricultural research models. The initial translational application of lytic enzymes, however, was not associated with treating or preventing a specific disease but rather as an extraction method to be incorporated in a rapid bacterial detection assay (Bernstein D, 1997).The current review traces the translational history of phage lytic enzymes-from their initial discovery in 1986 for the rapid detection of group A streptococcus in clinical specimens to evolving applications in the detection and prevention of disease in humans and in agriculture.

  16. Enzyme Mimics: Advances and Applications.

    PubMed

    Kuah, Evelyn; Toh, Seraphina; Yee, Jessica; Ma, Qian; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-13

    Enzyme mimics or artificial enzymes are a class of catalysts that have been actively pursued for decades and have heralded much interest as potentially viable alternatives to natural enzymes. Aside from having catalytic activities similar to their natural counterparts, enzyme mimics have the desired advantages of tunable structures and catalytic efficiencies, excellent tolerance to experimental conditions, lower cost, and purely synthetic routes to their preparation. Although still in the midst of development, impressive advances have already been made. Enzyme mimics have shown immense potential in the catalysis of a wide range of chemical and biological reactions, the development of chemical and biological sensing and anti-biofouling systems, and the production of pharmaceuticals and clean fuels. This Review concerns the development of various types of enzyme mimics, namely polymeric and dendrimeric, supramolecular, nanoparticulate and proteinic enzyme mimics, with an emphasis on their synthesis, catalytic properties and technical applications. It provides an introduction to enzyme mimics and a comprehensive summary of the advances and current standings of their applications, and seeks to inspire researchers to perfect the design and synthesis of enzyme mimics and to tailor their functionality for a much wider range of applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Enzyme actuated bioresponsive hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Andrew Nolan

    Bioresponsive hydrogels are emerging with technological significance in targeted drug delivery, biosensors and regenerative medicine. Conferred with the ability to respond to specific biologically derived stimuli, the design challenge is in effectively linking the conferred biospecificity with an engineered response tailored to the needs of a particular application. Moreover, the fundamental phenomena governing the response must support an appropriate dynamic range and limit of detection. The design of these systems is inherently complicated due to the high interdependency of the governing phenomena that guide the sensing, transduction, and the actuation response of hydrogels. To investigate the dynamics of these materials, model systems may be used which seek to interrogate the system dynamics by uni-variable experimentation and limit confounding phenomena such as: polymer-solute interactions, polymer swelling dynamics and biomolecular reaction-diffusion concerns. To this end, a model system, alpha-chymotrypsin (Cht) (a protease) and a cleavable peptide-chromogen (pro-drug) covalently incorporated into a hydrogel, was investigated to understand the mechanisms of covalent loading and release by enzymatic cleavage in bio-responsive delivery systems. Using EDC and Sulfo-NHS, terminal carboxyl groups of N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide, a cleavable chromogen, were conjugated to primary amines of a hydrated poly(HEMA)-based hydrogel. Hydrogel discs were incubated in buffered Cht causing enzyme-mediated cleavage of the peptide and concomitant release of the chromophore for monitoring. To investigate substrate loading and the effects of hydrogel morphology on the system, the concentration of the amino groups (5, 10, 20, and 30 mol%) and the cross-linked density (1, 5, 7, 9 and 12 mol%) were independently varied. Loading-Release Efficiency of the chromogen was shown to exhibit a positive relation to increasing amino groups (AEMA). The release rates demonstrated a

  18. Immobilized enzymes: understanding enzyme - surface interactions at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Hoarau, Marie; Badieyan, Somayesadat; Marsh, E Neil G

    2017-11-22

    Enzymes immobilized on solid supports have important and industrial and medical applications. However, their uses are limited by the significant reductions in activity and stability that often accompany the immobilization process. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular level interactions between proteins and supporting surfaces that contribute to changes in stability and activity. This understanding has been facilitated by the application of various surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques that allow the structure and orientation of enzymes at the solid/liquid interface to be probed, often with monolayer sensitivity. An appreciation of the molecular interactions between enzyme and surface support has allowed the surface chemistry and method of enzyme attachement to be fine-tuned such that activity and stability can be greatly enhanced. These advances suggest that a much wider variety of enzymes may eventually be amenable to immobilization as green catalysts.

  19. Computational enzyme design: transitioning from catalytic proteins to enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mak, Wai Shun; Siegel, Justin B

    2014-08-01

    The widespread interest in enzymes stem from their ability to catalyze chemical reactions under mild and ecologically friendly conditions with unparalleled catalytic proficiencies. While thousands of naturally occurring enzymes have been identified and characterized, there are still numerous important applications for which there are no biological catalysts capable of performing the desired chemical transformation. In order to engineer enzymes for which there is no natural starting point, efforts using a combination of quantum chemistry and force-field based protein molecular modeling have led to the design of novel proteins capable of catalyzing chemical reactions not catalyzed by naturally occurring enzymes. Here we discuss the current status and potential avenues to pursue as the field of computational enzyme design moves forward. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The Antisense RNA As1_flv4 in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Prevents Premature Expression of the flv4-2 Operon upon Shift in Inorganic Carbon Supply*

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhut, Marion; Georg, Jens; Klähn, Stephan; Sakurai, Isamu; Mustila, Henna; Zhang, Pengpeng; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2012-01-01

    The functional relevance of natural cis-antisense transcripts is mostly unknown. Here we have characterized the association of three antisense RNAs and one intergenically encoded noncoding RNA with an operon that plays a crucial role in photoprotection of photosystem II under low carbon conditions in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Cyanobacteria show strong gene expression dynamics in response to a shift of cells from high carbon to low levels of inorganic carbon (Ci), but the regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Among the most up-regulated genes in Synechocystis are flv4, sll0218, and flv2, which are organized in the flv4-2 operon. The flavodiiron proteins encoded by this operon open up an alternative electron transfer route, likely starting from the QB site in photosystem II, under photooxidative stress conditions. Our expression analysis of cells shifted from high carbon to low carbon demonstrated an inversely correlated transcript accumulation of the flv4-2 operon mRNA and one antisense RNA to flv4, designated as As1_flv4. Overexpression of As1_flv4 led to a decrease in flv4-2 mRNA. The promoter activity of as1_flv4 was transiently stimulated by Ci limitation and negatively regulated by the AbrB-like transcription regulator Sll0822, whereas the flv4-2 operon was positively regulated by the transcription factor NdhR. The results indicate that the tightly regulated antisense RNA As1_flv4 establishes a transient threshold for flv4-2 expression in the early phase after a change in Ci conditions. Thus, it prevents unfavorable synthesis of the proteins from the flv4-2 operon. PMID:22854963

  1. Enzymes in human milk

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C.; German, J. Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Milk proteins are a complex and diverse source of biological activities. Beyond their function intact, milk proteins also act as carriers of encrypted functional sequences that when released as peptides exert biological functions, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory, which could contribute to the infant’s competitive success. Research has now revealed that the release of these functional peptides begins within the mammary gland itself. A complex array of proteases produced in mother’s milk have been shown to be active in the milk, releasing these peptides. Moreover, our recent research demonstrates that these milk proteases continue to digest milk proteins within the infant’s stomach, possibly even to a larger extent than the infant’s own proteases. As the neonate has relatively low digestive capacity, the activity of milk proteases in the infant may provide important assistance to digesting milk proteins. The coordinated release of these encrypted sequences is accomplished by selective proteolytic action provided by an array of native milk proteases and infant-produced enzymes. The task for scientists is now to discover the selective advantages of this protein-protease based peptide release system. PMID:28346930

  2. Enzymes in Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Dallas, David C; German, J Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Milk proteins are a complex and diverse source of biological activities. Beyond their function, intact milk proteins also act as carriers of encrypted functional sequences that, when released as peptides, exert biological functions, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity, which could contribute to the infant's competitive success. Research has now revealed that the release of these functional peptides begins within the mammary gland itself. A complex array of proteases produced in mother's milk has been shown to be active in the milk, releasing these peptides. Moreover, our recent research demonstrates that these milk proteases continue to digest milk proteins within the infant's stomach, possibly even to a larger extent than the infant's own proteases. As the neonate has relatively low digestive capacity, the activity of milk proteases in the infant may provide important assistance to digesting milk proteins. The coordinated release of these encrypted sequences is accomplished by selective proteolytic action provided by an array of native milk proteases and infant-produced enzymes. The task for scientists is now to discover the selective advantages of this protein-protease-based peptide release system. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Evidence of mercury trapping in biofilm-EPS and mer operon-based volatilization of inorganic mercury in a marine bacterium Bacillus cereus BW-201B.

    PubMed

    Dash, Hirak R; Basu, Subham; Das, Surajit

    2017-04-01

    Biofilm-forming mercury-resistant marine bacterium Bacillus cereus BW-201B has been explored to evident that the bacterial biofilm-EPS (exopolymers) trap inorganic mercury but subsequently release EPS-bound mercury for induction of mer operon-mediated volatilization of inorganic mercury. The isolate was able to tolerate 50 ppm of mercury and forms biofilm in presence of mercury. mer operon-mediated volatilization was confirmed, and -SH was found to be the key functional group of bacterial EPS responsible for mercury binding. Biofilm-EPS-bound mercury was found to be internalized to the bacterial system as confirmed by reversible conformational change of -SH group and increased expression level of merA gene in a timescale experiment. Biofilm-EPS trapped Hg after 24 h of incubation, and by 96 h, the volatilization process reaches to its optimum confirming the internalization of EPS-bound mercury to the bacterial cells. Biofilm disintegration at the same time corroborates the results.

  4. AguR, a Transmembrane Transcription Activator of the Putrescine Biosynthesis Operon in Lactococcus lactis, Acts in Response to the Agmatine Concentration.

    PubMed

    Linares, Daniel M; Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Ladero, Victor; Martin, M Cruz; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-09-01

    Dairy industry fermentative processes mostly use Lactococcus lactis as a starter. However, some dairy L. lactis strains produce putrescine, a biogenic amine that raises food safety and spoilage concerns, via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. The enzymatic activities responsible for putrescine biosynthesis in this bacterium are encoded by the AGDI gene cluster. The role of the catabolic genes aguB, aguD, aguA, and aguC has been studied, but knowledge regarding the role of aguR (the first gene in the cluster) remains limited. In the present work, aguR was found to be a very low level constitutively expressed gene that is essential for putrescine biosynthesis and is transcribed independently of the polycistronic mRNA encoding the catabolic genes (aguBDAC). In response to agmatine, AguR acts as a transcriptional activator of the aguB promoter (PaguB), which drives the transcription of the aguBDAC operon. Inverted sequences required for PaguB activity were identified by deletion analysis. Further work indicated that AguR is a transmembrane protein which might function as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and, accordingly, regulates the transcription of the aguBDAC operon through a C-terminal cytoplasmic DNA-binding domain typically found in LuxR-like proteins. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Contribution of Resistance-Nodulation-Division Efflux Pump Operon smeU1-V-W-U2-X to Multidrug Resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-Hsien; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Chung, Tsao-Chuen; Hu, Rouh-Mei; Huang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Tsuey-Ching

    2011-01-01

    KJ09C, a multidrug-resistant mutant of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KJ, was generated by in vitro selection with chloramphenicol. The multidrug-resistant phenotype of KJ09C was attributed to overexpression of a resistance nodulation division (RND)-type efflux system encoded by an operon consisting of five genes: smeU1, smeV, smeW, smeU2, and smeX. Proteins encoded by smeV, smeW, and smeX were similar to the membrane fusion protein, RND transporter, and outer membrane protein, respectively, of known RND-type systems. The proteins encoded by smeU1 and smeU2 were found to belong to the family of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases. Mutant KJ09C exhibited increased resistance to chloramphenicol, quinolones, and tetracyclines and susceptibility to aminoglycosides; susceptibility to β-lactams and erythromycin was not affected. The expression of the smeU1-V-W-U2-X operon was regulated by the divergently transcribed LysR-type regulator gene smeRv. Overexpression of the SmeVWX pump contributed to the acquired resistance to chloramphenicol, quinolones, and tetracyclines. Inactivation of smeV and smeW completely abolished the activity of the SmeVWX pump, whereas inactivation of smeX alone decreased the activity of the SmeVWX pump. The enhanced aminoglycoside susceptibility observed in KJ09C resulted from SmeX overexpression. PMID:21930878

  6. Nonencapsulated or nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae are more likely than their encapsulated or serotypeable counterparts to have mutations in their fucose operon.

    PubMed

    Shuel, Michelle L; Karlowsky, Kathleen E; Law, Dennis K S; Tsang, Raymond S W

    2011-12-01

    Population biology of Haemophilus influenzae can be studied by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and isolates are assigned sequence types (STs) based on nucleotide sequence variations in seven housekeeping genes, including fucK. However, the ST cannot be assigned if one of the housekeeping genes is absent or cannot be detected by the current protocol. Occasionally, strains of H. influenzae have been reported to lack the fucK gene. In this study, we examined the prevalence of this mutation among our collection of H. influenzae isolates. Of the 704 isolates studied, including 282 encapsulated and 422 nonencapsulated isolates, nine were not typeable by MLST owing to failure to detect the fucK gene. All nine fucK-negative isolates were nonencapsulated and belonged to various biotypes. DNA sequencing of the fucose operon region confirmed complete deletion of genes in the operon in seven of the nine isolates, while in the remaining two isolates, some of the genes were found intact or in parts. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  7. AguR, a Transmembrane Transcription Activator of the Putrescine Biosynthesis Operon in Lactococcus lactis, Acts in Response to the Agmatine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Daniel M.; del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, M. Cruz; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Fernandez, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dairy industry fermentative processes mostly use Lactococcus lactis as a starter. However, some dairy L. lactis strains produce putrescine, a biogenic amine that raises food safety and spoilage concerns, via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. The enzymatic activities responsible for putrescine biosynthesis in this bacterium are encoded by the AGDI gene cluster. The role of the catabolic genes aguB, aguD, aguA, and aguC has been studied, but knowledge regarding the role of aguR (the first gene in the cluster) remains limited. In the present work, aguR was found to be a very low level constitutively expressed gene that is essential for putrescine biosynthesis and is transcribed independently of the polycistronic mRNA encoding the catabolic genes (aguBDAC). In response to agmatine, AguR acts as a transcriptional activator of the aguB promoter (PaguB), which drives the transcription of the aguBDAC operon. Inverted sequences required for PaguB activity were identified by deletion analysis. Further work indicated that AguR is a transmembrane protein which might function as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and, accordingly, regulates the transcription of the aguBDAC operon through a C-terminal cytoplasmic DNA-binding domain typically found in LuxR-like proteins. PMID:26116671

  8. Making the Rate: Enzyme Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragsdale, Frances R.

    2004-01-01

    An enzyme exercise to address the problem of students inability to visualize chemical reaction at the molecular level is described. This exercise is designed as a dry lab exercise but can be modified into a classroom activity then can be augmented by a wet lab procedure, thereby providing students with a practical exposure to enzyme function.

  9. Measurement of Enzyme Isotope Effects.

    PubMed

    Kholodar, Svetlana A; Ghosh, Ananda K; Kohen, Amnon

    2017-01-01

    Enzyme isotope effects, or the kinetic effects of "heavy" enzymes, refer to the effect of isotopically labeled protein residues on the enzyme's activity or physical properties. These effects are increasingly employed in the examination of the possible contributions of protein dynamics to enzyme catalysis. One hypothesis assumed that isotopic substitution of all 12 C, 14 N, and nonexchangeable 1 H by 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H, would slow down protein picosecond to femtosecond dynamics without any effect on the system's electrostatics following the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. It was suggested that reduced reaction rates reported for several "heavy" enzymes accords with that hypothesis. However, numerous deviations from the predictions of that hypothesis were also reported. Current studies also attempt to test the role of individual residues by site-specific labeling or by labeling a pattern of residues on activity. It appears that in several systems the protein's fast dynamics are indeed reduced in "heavy" enzymes in a way that reduces the probability of barrier crossing of its chemical step. Other observations, however, indicated that slower protein dynamics are electrostatically altered in isotopically labeled enzymes. Interestingly, these effects appear to be system dependent, thus it might be premature to suggest a general role of "heavy" enzymes' effect on catalysis. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enzyme catalysis: Evolution made easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Eugene J. H.; Trau, Matt

    2014-09-01

    Directed evolution is a powerful tool for the development of improved enzyme catalysts. Now, a method that enables an enzyme, its encoding DNA and a fluorescent reaction product to be encapsulated in a gel bead enables the application of directed evolution in an ultra-high-throughput format.

  11. Identification and functional analysis of the L-ascorbate-specific enzyme II complex of the phosphotransferase system in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinyu; Hou, Jin; Chen, Xiaodan; Chen, Xuan; Zhao, Wanghong

    2016-03-22

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. It can metabolize a wide variety of carbohydrates and produce large amounts of organic acids that cause enamel demineralization. Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) plays an important role in carbohydrates uptake of S. mutans. The ptxA and ptxB genes in S. mutans encode putative enzyme IIA and enzyme IIB of the L-ascorbate-specific PTS. The aim of this study was to analyze the function of these proteins and understand the transcriptional regulatory mechanism. ptxA (-), ptxB (-), as well as ptxA (-) , ptxB (-) double-deletion mutants all had more extended lag phase and lower growth yield than wild-type strain UA159 when grown in the medium using L-ascorbate as the sole carbon source. Acid production and acid killing assays showed that the absence of the ptxA and ptxB genes resulted in a reduction in the capacity for acidogenesis, and all three mutant strains did not survive an acid shock. According to biofilm and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) formation analysis, all the mutant strains formed much less prolific biofilms with small amounts of EPS than wild-type UA159 when using L-ascorbate as the sole carbon source. Moreover, PCR analysis and quantitative real-time PCR revealed that sgaT, ptxA, ptxB, SMU.273, SMU.274 and SMU.275 appear to be parts of the same operon. The transcription levels of these genes were all elevated in the presence of L-ascorbate, and the expression of ptxA gene decreased significantly once ptxB gene was knockout. The ptxA and ptxB genes are involved in the growth, aciduricity, acidogenesis, and formation of biofilms and EPS of S. mutans when L-ascorbate is the sole carbon source. In addition, the expression of ptxA is regulated by ptxB. ptxA, ptxB, and the upstream gene sgaT, the downstream genes SMU.273, SMU.274 and SMU.275 appear to be parts of the same operon, and L-ascorbate is a potential inducer of the operon.

  12. Nanoporous Gold for Enzyme Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Stine, Keith J; Jefferson, Kenise; Shulga, Olga V

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) is a material of emerging interest for immobilization of biomolecules, especially enzymes. The material provides a high surface area form of gold that is suitable for physisorption or for covalent modification by self-assembled monolayers. The material can be used as a high surface area electrode and with immobilized enzymes can be used for amperometric detection schemes. NPG can be prepared in a variety of formats from alloys containing between 20 and 50 % atomic composition of gold and less noble element(s) by dealloying procedures. Materials resembling NPG can be prepared by hydrothermal and electrodeposition methods. Related high surface area gold structures have been prepared using templating approaches. Covalent enzyme immobilization can be achieved by first forming a self-assembled monolayer on NPG bearing a terminal reactive functional group followed by conjugation to the enzyme through amide linkages to lysine residues. Enzymes can also be entrapped by physisorption or immobilized by electrostatic interactions.

  13. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline andmore » L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.« less

  14. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-05-22

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  15. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgylinemore » and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.« less

  16. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Joanna S.; MacGregor, Robert R.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Langstrom, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  17. [Automated analyzer of enzyme immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Osawa, S

    1995-09-01

    Automated analyzers for enzyme immunoassay can be classified by several points of view: the kind of labeled antibodies or enzymes, detection methods, the number of tests per unit time, analytical time and speed per run. In practice, it is important for us consider the several points such as detection limits, the number of tests per unit time, analytical range, and precision. Most of the automated analyzers on the market can randomly access and measure samples. I will describe the recent advance of automated analyzers reviewing their labeling antibodies and enzymes, the detection methods, the number of test per unit time and analytical time and speed per test.

  18. Human Gut-Commensalic Lactobacillus ruminis ATCC 25644 Displays Sortase-Assembled Surface Piliation: Phenotypic Characterization of Its Fimbrial Operon through In Silico Predictive Analysis and Recombinant Expression in Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xia; Lyytinen, Outi; Kant, Ravi; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Palva, Airi

    2015-01-01

    Sortase-dependent surface pili (or fimbriae) in Gram-positive bacteria are well documented as a key virulence factor for certain harmful opportunistic pathogens. However, it is only recently known that these multi-subunit protein appendages are also belonging to the “friendly” commensals and now, with this new perspective, they have come to be categorized as a niche-adaptation factor as well. In this regard, it was shown earlier that sortase-assembled piliation is a native fixture of two human intestinal commensalics (i.e., Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium bifidum), and correspondingly where the pili involved have a significant role in cellular adhesion and immunomodulation processes. We now reveal that intestinal indigenous (or autochthonous) Lactobacillus ruminis is another surface-piliated commensal lactobacillar species. Heeding to in silico expectations, the predicted loci for the LrpCBA-called pili are organized tandemly in the L. ruminis genome as a canonical fimbrial operon, which then encodes for three pilin-proteins and a single C-type sortase enzyme. Through electron microscopic means, we showed that these pilus formations are a surface assemblage of tip, basal, and backbone pilin subunits (respectively named LrpC, LrpB, and LrpA) in L. ruminis, and also when expressed recombinantly in Lactococcus lactis. As well, by using the recombinant-piliated lactococci, we could define certain ecologically relevant phenotypic traits, such as the ability to adhere to extracellular matrix proteins and gut epithelial cells, but also to effectuate an induced dampening on Toll-like receptor 2 signaling and interleukin-8 responsiveness in immune-related cells. Within the context of the intestinal microcosm, by wielding such niche-advantageous cell-surface properties the LrpCBA pilus would undoubtedly have a requisite functional role in the colonization dynamics of L. ruminis indigeneity. Our study provides only the second description of a native

  19. Genes for 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Metabolism in Burkholderia cepacia AC1100: Characterization of the tftC and tftD Genes and Locations of the tft Operons on Multiple Replicons

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Anette; Danganan, Clyde E.; Xun, Luying; Chakrabarty, A. M.; Hendrickson, William

    1998-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 uses the chlorinated aromatic compound 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) as a sole source of carbon and energy. The enzyme which converts the first intermediate in the pathway, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, to 5-chlorohydroquinone has been purified and consists of two subunits of 58 and 22 kDa, encoded by the tftC and tftD genes (48). A degenerate primer was designed from the N terminus of the 58-kDa polypeptide and used to isolate a clone containing the tftC and tftD genes from a genomic library of AC1100. The derived amino acid sequences of tftC and tftD show significant homology to the two-component monooxygenases HadA of Burkholderia pickettii, HpaBC of Escherichia coli, and HpaAH of Klebsiella pneumonia. Expression of the tftC and tftD genes appeared to be induced when they were grown in the presence of 2,4,5-T, as shown by RNA slot blot and primer extension analyses. Three sets of cloned tft genes were used as probes to explore the genomic organization of the pathway. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analyses of whole chromosomes of B. cepacia AC1100 demonstrated that the genome is comprised of five replicons of 4.0, 2.7, 0.53, 0.34, and 0.15 Mbp, designated I to V, respectively. The tft genes are located on the smaller replicons: the tftAB cluster is on replicon IV, tftEFGH is on replicon III, and copies of the tftC and the tftCD operons are found on both replicons III and IV. When cells were grown in the absence of 2,4,5-T, the genes were lost at high frequency by chromosomal deletions and rearrangements to produce 2,4,5-T-negative mutants. In one mutant, the tftA and tftB genes translocated from one replicon to another, with the concomitant loss of tftEFGH and one copy of tftCD. PMID:9603818

  20. An operon from Lactobacillus helveticus composed of a proline iminopeptidase gene (pepI) and two genes coding for putative members of the ABC transporter family of proteins.

    PubMed

    Varmanen, P; Rantanen, T; Palva, A

    1996-12-01

    A proline iminopeptidase gene (pepI) of an industrial Lactobacillus helveticus strain was cloned and found to be organized in an operon-like structure of three open reading frames (ORF1, ORF2 and ORF3). ORF1 was preceded by a typical prokaryotic promoter region, and a putative transcription terminator was found downstream of ORF3, identified as the pepI gene. Using primer-extension analyses, only one transcription start site, upstream of ORF1, was identifiable in the predicted operon. Although the size of mRNA could not be judged by Northern analysis either with ORF1-, ORF2- or pepI-specific probes, reverse transcription-PCR analyses further supported the operon structure of the three genes. ORF1, ORF2 and ORF3 had coding capacities for 50.7, 24.5 and 33.8 kDa proteins, respectively. The ORF3-encoded PepI protein showed 65% identity with the PepI proteins from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis. The ORF1-encoded protein had significant homology with several members of the ABC transporter family but, with two distinct putative ATP-binding sites, it would represent an unusual type among the bacterial ABC transporters. ORF2 encoded a putative integral membrane protein also characteristic of the ABC transporter family. The pepI gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Purified PepI hydrolysed only di and tripeptides with proline in the first position. Optimum PepI activity was observed at pH 7.5 and 40 degrees C. A gel filtration analysis indicated that PepI is a dimer of M(r) 53,000. PepI was shown to be a metal-independent serine peptidase having thiol groups at or near the active site. Kinetic studies with proline-p-nitroanilide as substrate revealed Km and Vmax values of 0.8 mM and 350 mmol min-1 mg-1, respectively, and a very high turnover number of 135,000 s-1.

  1. The origins of enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Cornish-Bowden, Athel

    2013-09-02

    The equation commonly called the Michaelis-Menten equation is sometimes attributed to other authors. However, although Victor Henri had derived the equation from the correct mechanism, and Adrian Brown before him had proposed the idea of enzyme saturation, it was Leonor Michaelis and Maud Menten who showed that this mechanism could also be deduced on the basis of an experimental approach that paid proper attention to pH and spontaneous changes in the product after formation in the enzyme-catalysed reaction. By using initial rates of reaction they avoided the complications due to substrate depletion, product accumulation and progressive inactivation of the enzyme that had made attempts to analyse complete time courses very difficult. Their methodology has remained the standard approach to steady-state enzyme kinetics ever since. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Watching Individual Enzymes at Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Kerstin; Rocha, Susana; De Cremer, Gert; Roeffaers, Maarten B. J.; Uji-i, Hiroshi; Hofkens, Johan

    Single-molecule fluorescence experiments are a powerful tool to analyze reaction mechanisms of enzymes. Because of their unique potential to detect heterogeneities in space and time, they have provided unprecedented insights into the nature and mechanisms of conformational changes related to the catalytic reaction. The most important finding from experiments with single enzymes is the generally observed phenomenon that the catalytic rate constants fluctuate over time (dynamic disorder). These fluctuations originate from conformational changes occurring on time scales, which are similar to or slower than that of the catalytic reaction. Here, we summarize experiments with enzymes that show dynamic disorder and introduce new experimental strategies showing how single-molecule fluorescence experiments can be applied to address other open questions in medical and industrial enzymology, such as enzyme inactivation processes, reactant transfer in cascade reactions, and the mechanisms of interfacial catalysis.

  3. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed. PMID:26504249

  4. Heat Stable Enzymes from Thermophiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    final product and is somewhat messy to work with. Therefore, alternatives were tested. However, no combination of corn syrup , alternative sugars and...INTRODUCTION 9 CLONING OF ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE GENE AND PRODUCTION OF HIGH SPECIFIC ACTIVITY ENZYME 9 Cloning into E. coil and expression of high activity...JKR209, into an alternative, better producing organism. CLONING OF ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE GENE AND PRODUCTION OF HIGH SPECIFIC ACTIVITY ENZYME Cloning into

  5. Design Strategy of Multi-electron Transfer Catalysts Based on a Bioinformatic Analysis of Oxygen Evolution and Reduction Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Hideshi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Ryuhei

    2018-05-14

    Understanding the design strategy of photosynthetic and respiratory enzymes is important to develop efficient artificial catalysts for oxygen evolution and reduction reactions. Here, based on a bioinformatic analysis of cyanobacterial oxygen evolution and reduction enzymes (photosystem II: PS II and cytochrome c oxidase: COX, respectively), the gene encoding the catalytic D1 subunit of PS II was found to be expressed individually across 38 phylogenetically diverse strains, which is in contrast to the operon structure of the genes encoding major COX subunits. Selective synthesis of the D1 subunit minimizes the repair cost of PS II, which allows compensation for its instability by lowering the turnover number required to generate a net positive energy yield. The different bioenergetics observed between PS II and COX suggest that in addition to the catalytic activity rationalized by the Sabatier principle, stability factors have also provided a major influence on the design strategy of biological multi-electron transfer enzymes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. de novo computational enzyme design.

    PubMed

    Zanghellini, Alexandre

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in systems and synthetic biology as well as metabolic engineering are poised to transform industrial biotechnology by allowing us to design cell factories for the sustainable production of valuable fuels and chemicals. To deliver on their promises, such cell factories, as much as their brick-and-mortar counterparts, will require appropriate catalysts, especially for classes of reactions that are not known to be catalyzed by enzymes in natural organisms. A recently developed methodology, de novo computational enzyme design can be used to create enzymes catalyzing novel reactions. Here we review the different classes of chemical reactions for which active protein catalysts have been designed as well as the results of detailed biochemical and structural characterization studies. We also discuss how combining de novo computational enzyme design with more traditional protein engineering techniques can alleviate the shortcomings of state-of-the-art computational design techniques and create novel enzymes with catalytic proficiencies on par with natural enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interactions between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase at the Escherichia coli galactose operon P1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Attey, A; Belyaeva, T; Savery, N; Hoggett, J; Fujita, N; Ishihama, A; Busby, S

    1994-10-25

    DNAase I footprinting has been used to study open complexes between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the galactose operon P1 promoter, both in the absence and the presence of CRP (the cyclic AMP receptor protein, a transcription activator). From the effects of deletion of the C-terminal part of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit, we deduce that alpha binds at the upstream end of both the binary RNA polymerase-galP1 and ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes. Disruption of the alpha-upstream contact suppresses open complex formation at galP1 at lower temperatures. In ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes, alpha appears to make direct contact with Activating Region 1 in CRP. DNAase I footprinting has been used to detect and quantify interactions between purified alpha and CRP bound at galP1.

  8. Interactions between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase at the Escherichia coli galactose operon P1 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Attey, A; Belyaeva, T; Savery, N; Hoggett, J; Fujita, N; Ishihama, A; Busby, S

    1994-01-01

    DNAase I footprinting has been used to study open complexes between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the galactose operon P1 promoter, both in the absence and the presence of CRP (the cyclic AMP receptor protein, a transcription activator). From the effects of deletion of the C-terminal part of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit, we deduce that alpha binds at the upstream end of both the binary RNA polymerase-galP1 and ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes. Disruption of the alpha-upstream contact suppresses open complex formation at galP1 at lower temperatures. In ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes, alpha appears to make direct contact with Activating Region 1 in CRP. DNAase I footprinting has been used to detect and quantify interactions between purified alpha and CRP bound at galP1. Images PMID:7971267

  9. Engineering Cellulase Enzymes for Bioenergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atreya, Meera Elizabeth

    Sustainable energy sources, such as biofuels, offer increasingly important alternatives to fossil fuels that contribute less to global climate change. The energy contained within cellulosic biofuels derives from sunlight energy stored in the form of carbon-carbon bonds comprising sugars such as glucose. Second-generation biofuels are produced from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks, including agricultural waste products and non-food crops like Miscanthus, that contain lignin and the polysaccharides hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose is the most abundant biological material on Earth; it is a polymer of glucose and a structural component of plant cell walls. Accessing the sugar is challenging, as the crystalline structure of cellulose resists degradation; biochemical and thermochemical means can be used to depolymerize cellulose. Cellulase enzymes catalyze the biochemical depolymerization of cellulose into glucose. Glucose can be used as a carbon source for growth of a biofuel-producing microorganism. When it converts glucose to a hydrocarbon fuel, this microbe completes the biofuels process of transforming sunlight energy into accessible, chemical energy capable of replacing non-renewable transportation fuels. Due to strong intermolecular interactions between polymer chains, cellulose is significantly more challenging to depolymerize than starch, a more accessible polymer of glucose utilized in first-generation biofuels processes (often derived from corn). While most mammals cannot digest cellulose (dietary fiber), certain fungi and bacteria produce cellulase enzymes capable of hydrolyzing it. These organisms secrete a wide variety of glycoside hydrolase and other classes of enzymes that work in concert. Because cellulase enzymes are slow-acting and expensive to produce, my aim has been to improve the properties of these enzymes as a means to make a cellulosic biofuels process possible that is more efficient and, consequently, more economical than current

  10. The fruRBA Operon Is Necessary for Group A Streptococcal Growth in Fructose and for Resistance to Neutrophil Killing during Growth in Whole Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, Kayla M.; Sundar, Ganesh S.; Vega, Luis A.; Belew, Ashton T.; Islam, Emrul; Binet, Rachel; El-Sayed, Najib M.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on the availability of nutrients for survival in the host environment. The phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a global regulatory network connecting sugar uptake with signal transduction. Since the fructose PTS has been shown to impact virulence in several streptococci, including the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A Streptococcus [GAS]), we characterized its role in carbon metabolism and pathogenesis in the M1T1 strain 5448. Growth in fructose as a sole carbon source resulted in 103 genes affected transcriptionally, where the fru locus (fruRBA) was the most induced. Reverse transcriptase PCR showed that fruRBA formed an operon which was repressed by FruR in the absence of fructose, in addition to being under carbon catabolic repression. Growth assays and carbon utilization profiles revealed that although the entire fru operon was required for growth in fructose, FruA was the main transporter for fructose and also was involved in the utilization of three additional PTS sugars: cellobiose, mannitol, and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine. The inactivation of sloR, a fruA homolog that also was upregulated in the presence of fructose, failed to reveal a role as a secondary fructose transporter. Whereas the ability of both ΔfruR and ΔfruB mutants to survive in the presence of whole human blood or neutrophils was impaired, the phenotype was not reproduced in murine whole blood, and those mutants were not attenuated in a mouse intraperitoneal infection. Since the ΔfruA mutant exhibited no phenotype in the human or mouse assays, we propose that FruR and FruB are important for GAS survival in a human-specific environment. PMID:26787724

  11. MprAB regulates the espA operon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and modulates ESX-1 function and host cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiuhua; Samten, Buka; Cao, Guangxiang; Wang, Xisheng; Tvinnereim, Amy R; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Howard, Susan T

    2013-01-01

    The ESX-1 secretion system exports the immunomodulatory protein ESAT-6 and other proteins important in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Components and substrates of ESX-1 are encoded at several loci, but the regulation of the encoding genes is only partially understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the MprAB two-component system in the regulation of ESX-1 activity. We determined that MprAB directly regulates the espA gene cluster, a locus necessary for ESX-1 function. Transcript mapping determined that the five genes in the cluster form an operon with two transcriptional start points, and several MprA binding sites were detected in the espA promoter. Expression analyses and promoter constructs indicated that MprAB represses the espA operon. However, the MprAB mutant Rv-D981 secreted lower levels of EspA, ESAT-6, and the ESX-1 substrate EspB than control strains. Secretion of CFP10, which is normally cosecreted with ESAT-6, was similar in Rv-D981 and control strains, further demonstrating aberrant ESX-1 activity in the mutant. ESAT-6 induces proinflammatory cytokines, and macrophages infected with Rv-D981 elicited lower levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), consistent with the reduced levels of ESAT-6. These findings indicate that MprAB modulates ESX-1 function and reveal a new role for MprAB in host-pathogen interactions.

  12. Islands of non-essential genes, including a DNA translocation operon, in the genome of bacteriophage 0305ϕ8-36

    PubMed Central

    Pathria, Saurav; Rolando, Mandy; Lieman, Karen; Hayes, Shirley; Hardies, Stephen; Serwer, Philip

    2012-01-01

    We investigate genes of lytic, Bacillus thuringiensis bacteriophage 0305ϕ8-36 that are non-essential for laboratory propagation, but might have a function in the wild. We isolate deletion mutants to identify these genes. The non-permutation of the genome (218.948 Kb, with a 6.479 Kb terminal repeat and 247 identified orfs) simplifies isolation of deletion mutants. We find two islands of non-essential genes. The first island (3.01% of the genomic DNA) has an informatically identified DNA translocation operon. Deletion causes no detectable growth defect during propagation in a dilute agarose overlay. Identification of the DNA translocation operon begins with a DNA relaxase and continues with a translocase and membrane-binding anchor proteins. The relaxase is in a family, first identified here, with homologs in other bacteriophages. The second deleted island (3.71% of the genome) has genes for two metallo-protein chaperonins and two tRNAs. Deletion causes a significant growth defect. In addition, (1) we find by “in situ” (in-plaque) single-particle fluorescence microscopy that adsorption to the host occurs at the tip of the 486 nm long tail, (2) we develop a procedure of 0305ϕ8-36 purification that does not cause tail contraction, and (3) we then find by electron microscopy that 0305ϕ8-36 undergoes tail tip-tail tip dimerization that potentially blocks adsorption to host cells, presumably with effectiveness that increases as the bacteriophage particle concentration increases. These observations provide an explanation of the previous observation that 0305ϕ8-36 does not lyse liquid cultures, even though 0305ϕ8-36 is genomically lytic. PMID:22666654

  13. LhnR and upstream operon LhnABC in Agrobacterium vitis regulate the induction of tobacco hypersensitive responses, grape necrosis and swarming motility.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Desen; Hao, Guixia; Cursino, Luciana; Zhang, Hongsheng; Burr, Thomas J

    2012-09-01

    The characterization of Tn5 transposon insertional mutants of Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5 revealed a gene encoding a predicted LysR-type transcriptional regulator, lhnR (for 'LysR-type regulator associated with HR and necrosis'), and an immediate upstream operon consisting of three open reading frames (lhnABC) required for swarming motility, surfactant production and the induction of a hypersensitive response (HR) on tobacco and necrosis on grape. The operon lhnABC is unique to A. vitis among the sequenced members in Rhizobiaceae. Mutagenesis of lhnR and lhnABC by gene disruption and complementation of ΔlhnR and ΔlhnABC confirmed their roles in the expression of these phenotypes. Mutation of lhnR resulted in complete loss of HR, swarming motility, surfactant production and reduced necrosis, whereas mutation of lhnABC resulted in loss of swarming motility, delayed and reduced HR development and reduced surfactant production and necrosis. The data from promoter-green fluorescent protein (gfp) fusions showed that lhnR suppresses the expression of lhnABC and negatively autoregulates its own expression. It was also shown that lhnABC negatively affects its own expression and positively affects the transcription of lhnR. lhnR and lhnABC constitute a regulatory circuit that coordinates the transcription level of lhnR, resulting in the expression of swarming, surfactant, HR and necrosis phenotypes. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  14. lac operon induction in Escherichia coli: Systematic comparison of IPTG and TMG induction and influence of the transacetylase LacA.

    PubMed

    Marbach, Anja; Bettenbrock, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Most commonly used expression systems in bacteria are based on the Escherichia coli lac promoter. Furthermore, lac operon elements are used today in systems and synthetic biology. In the majority of the cases the gratuitous inducers IPTG or TMG are used. Here we report a systematic comparison of lac promoter induction by TMG and IPTG which focuses on the aspects inducer uptake, population heterogeneity and a potential influence of the transacetylase, LacA. We provide induction curves in E. coli LJ110 and in isogenic lacY and lacA mutant strains and we show that both inducers are substrates of the lactose permease at low inducer concentrations but can also enter cells independently of lactose permease if present at higher concentrations. Using a gfp reporter strain we compared TMG and IPTG induction at single cell level and showed that bimodal induction with IPTG occurred at approximately ten-fold lower concentrations than with TMG. Furthermore, we observed that lac operon induction is influenced by the transacetylase, LacA. By comparing two Plac-gfp reporter strains with and without a lacA deletion we could show that in the lacA(+) strain the fluorescence level decreased after few hours while the fluorescence further increased in the lacA(-) strain. The results indicate that through the activity of LacA the IPTG concentration can be reduced below an inducing threshold concentration-an influence that should be considered if low inducer amounts are used. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Transcription Factor AlsR Binds and Regulates the Promoter of the alsSD Operon Responsible for Acetoin Formation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Frädrich, Claudia; March, Anika; Fiege, Kerstin; Hartmann, Anja; Jahn, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis forms acetoin under anaerobic fermentative growth conditions and as a product of the aerobic carbon overflow metabolism. Acetoin formation from pyruvate requires α-acetolactate synthase and acetolactate decarboxylase, both encoded by the alsSD operon. The alsR gene, encoding the LysR-type transcriptional regulator AlsR, was found to be essential for the in vivo expression of alsSD in response to anaerobic acetate accumulation, the addition of acetate, low pH, and the aerobic stationary phase. The expressions of the alsSD operon and the alsR regulatory gene were independent of other regulators of the anaerobic regulatory network, including ResDE, Fnr, and ArfM. A negative autoregulation of alsR was observed. In vitro transcription from the alsSD promoter using purified B. subtilis RNA polymerase required AlsR. DNA binding studies with purified recombinant AlsR in combination with promoter mutagenesis experiments identified a 19-bp high-affinity palindromic binding site (TAAT-N11-ATTA) at positions −76 to −58 (regulatory binding site [RBS]) and a low-affinity site (AT-N11-AT) at positions −41 to −27 (activator binding site [ABS]) upstream of the transcriptional start site of alsSD. The RBS and ABS were found to be essential for in vivo alsSD transcription. AlsR binding to both sites induced the formation of higher-order, transcription-competent complexes. The AlsR protein carrying the S100A substitution at the potential coinducer binding site still bound to the RBS and ABS. However, AlsR(S100A) failed to form the higher-order complex and to initiate in vivo and in vitro transcription. A model for AlsR promoter binding and transcriptional activation was deduced. PMID:22178965

  16. The Yersinia pestis caf1M1A1 fimbrial capsule operon promotes transmission by flea bite in a mouse model of bubonic plague.

    PubMed

    Sebbane, Florent; Jarrett, Clayton; Gardner, Donald; Long, Daniel; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2009-03-01

    Plague is a zoonosis transmitted by fleas and caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis. During infection, the plasmidic caf1M1A1 operon that encodes the Y. pestis F1 protein capsule is highly expressed, and anti-F1 antibodies are protective. Surprisingly, the capsule is not required for virulence after injection of cultured bacteria, even though it is an antiphagocytic factor and capsule-deficient Y. pestis strains are rarely isolated. We found that a caf-negative Y. pestis mutant was not impaired in either flea colonization or virulence in mice after intradermal inoculation of cultured bacteria. In contrast, absence of the caf operon decreased bubonic plague incidence after a flea bite. Successful development of plague in mice infected by flea bite with the caf-negative mutant required a higher number of infective bites per challenge. In addition, the mutant displayed a highly autoaggregative phenotype in infected liver and spleen. The results suggest that acquisition of the caf locus via horizontal transfer by an ancestral Y. pestis strain increased transmissibility and the potential for epidemic spread. In addition, our data support a model in which atypical caf-negative strains could emerge during climatic conditions that favor a high flea burden. Human infection with such strains would not be diagnosed by the standard clinical tests that detect F1 antibody or antigen, suggesting that more comprehensive surveillance for atypical Y. pestis strains in plague foci may be necessary. The results also highlight the importance of studying Y. pestis pathogenesis in the natural context of arthropod-borne transmission.

  17. bdhA-patD operon as a virulence determinant, revealed by a novel large-scale approach for identification of Legionella pneumophila mutants defective for amoeba infection.

    PubMed

    Aurass, P; Pless, B; Rydzewski, K; Holland, G; Bannert, N; Flieger, A

    2009-07-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is an intracellular parasite of eukaryotic cells. In the environment, it colonizes amoebae. After being inhaled into the human lung, the bacteria infect and damage alveolar cells in a way that is mechanistically similar to the amoeba infection. Several L. pneumophila traits, among those the Dot/Icm type IVB protein secretion machinery, are essential for exploiting host cells. In our search for novel Legionella virulence factors, we developed an agar plate assay, designated the scatter screen, which allowed screening for mutants deficient in infecting Acanthamoeba castellanii amoebae. Likewise, an L. pneumophila clone bank consisting of 23,000 transposon mutants was investigated here, and 19 different established Legionella virulence genes, for example, dot/icm genes, were identified. Importantly, 70 novel virulence-associated genes were found. One of those is L. pneumophila bdhA, coding for a protein with homology to established 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenases involved in poly-3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism. Our study revealed that bdhA is cotranscribed with patD, encoding a patatin-like protein of L. pneumophila showing phospholipase A and lysophospholipase A activities. In addition to strongly reduced lipolytic activities and increased poly-3-hydroxybutyrate levels, the L. pneumophila bdhA-patD mutant showed a severe replication defect in amoebae and U937 macrophages. Our data suggest that the operon is involved in poly-3-hydroxybutyrate utilization and phospholipolysis and show that the bdhA-patD operon is a virulence determinant of L. pneumophila. In summary, the screen for amoeba-sensitive Legionella clones efficiently isolated mutants that do not grow in amoebae and, in the case of the bdhA-patD mutant, also human cells.

  18. Enzymes and Enzyme Activity Encoded by Nonenveloped Viruses.

    PubMed

    Azad, Kimi; Banerjee, Manidipa; Johnson, John E

    2017-09-29

    Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that rely on host cell machineries for their replication and survival. Although viruses tend to make optimal use of the host cell protein repertoire, they need to encode essential enzymatic or effector functions that may not be available or accessible in the host cellular milieu. The enzymes encoded by nonenveloped viruses-a group of viruses that lack any lipid coating or envelope-play vital roles in all the stages of the viral life cycle. This review summarizes the structural, biochemical, and mechanistic information available for several classes of enzymes and autocatalytic activity encoded by nonenveloped viruses. Advances in research and development of antiviral inhibitors targeting specific viral enzymes are also highlighted.

  19. Discovery of new enzymes and metabolic pathways by using structure and genome context.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suwen; Kumar, Ritesh; Sakai, Ayano; Vetting, Matthew W; Wood, B McKay; Brown, Shoshana; Bonanno, Jeffery B; Hillerich, Brandan S; Seidel, Ronald D; Babbitt, Patricia C; Almo, Steven C; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Gerlt, John A; Cronan, John E; Jacobson, Matthew P

    2013-10-31

    Assigning valid functions to proteins identified in genome projects is challenging: overprediction and database annotation errors are the principal concerns. We and others are developing computation-guided strategies for functional discovery with 'metabolite docking' to experimentally derived or homology-based three-dimensional structures. Bacterial metabolic pathways often are encoded by 'genome neighbourhoods' (gene clusters and/or operons), which can provide important clues for functional assignment. We recently demonstrated the synergy of docking and pathway context by 'predicting' the intermediates in the glycolytic pathway in Escherichia coli. Metabolite docking to multiple binding proteins and enzymes in the same pathway increases the reliability of in silico predictions of substrate specificities because the pathway intermediates are structurally similar. Here we report that structure-guided approaches for predicting the substrate specificities of several enzymes encoded by a bacterial gene cluster allowed the correct prediction of the in vitro activity of a structurally characterized enzyme of unknown function (PDB 2PMQ), 2-epimerization of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline betaine (tHyp-B) and cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline betaine (cHyp-B), and also the correct identification of the catabolic pathway in which Hyp-B 2-epimerase participates. The substrate-liganded pose predicted by virtual library screening (docking) was confirmed experimentally. The enzymatic activities in the predicted pathway were confirmed by in vitro assays and genetic analyses; the intermediates were identified by metabolomics; and repression of the genes encoding the pathway by high salt concentrations was established by transcriptomics, confirming the osmolyte role of tHyp-B. This study establishes the utility of structure-guided functional predictions to enable the discovery of new metabolic pathways.

  20. Nonclassical Kinetics of Clonal yet Heterogeneous Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Jun; Song, Sanggeun; Jeong, In-Chun; Koh, Hye Ran; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Sung, Jaeyoung

    2017-07-06

    Enzyme-to-enzyme variation in the catalytic rate is ubiquitous among single enzymes created from the same genetic information, which persists over the lifetimes of living cells. Despite advances in single-enzyme technologies, the lack of an enzyme reaction model accounting for the heterogeneous activity of single enzymes has hindered a quantitative understanding of the nonclassical stochastic outcome of single enzyme systems. Here we present a new statistical kinetics and exactly solvable models for clonal yet heterogeneous enzymes with possibly nonergodic state dynamics and state-dependent reactivity, which enable a quantitative understanding of modern single-enzyme experimental results for the mean and fluctuation in the number of product molecules created by single enzymes. We also propose a new experimental measure of the heterogeneity and nonergodicity for a system of enzymes.

  1. Subcellular localization of pituitary enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A cytochemical procedure is reported for identifying subcellular sites of enzymes hydrolyzing beta-naphthylamine substrates, and to study the sites of reaction product localization in cells of various tissues. Investigations using the substrate Leu 4-methoxy-8-naphthylamine, a capture with hexonium pararosaniline, and the final chelation of osmium have identified the hydrolyzing enzyme of rat liver cells; this enzyme localized on cell membranes with intense deposition in the areas of the parcanaliculi. The study of cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat showed the deposition of reaction product on cell membrane; and on the membranes of secretion granules contained within the cell. The deposition of reaction product on the cell membrane however showed no increase or decrease with changes in the physiological state of the gland and release of secretion granules from specific cells.

  2. Micromotors Powered by Enzyme Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Dey, Krishna K; Zhao, Xi; Tansi, Benjamin M; Méndez-Ortiz, Wilfredo J; Córdova-Figueroa, Ubaldo M; Golestanian, Ramin; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-12-09

    Active biocompatible systems are of great current interest for their possible applications in drug or antidote delivery at specific locations. Herein, we report the synthesis and study of self-propelled microparticles powered by enzymatic reactions and their directed movement in substrate concentration gradient. Polystyrene microparticles were functionalized with the enzymes urease and catalase using a biotin-streptavidin linkage procedure. The motion of the enzyme-coated particles was studied in the presence of the respective substrates, using optical microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis. The diffusion of the particles was found to increase in a substrate concentration dependent manner. The directed chemotactic movement of these enzyme-powered motors up the substrate gradient was studied using three-inlet microfluidic channel architecture.

  3. Supramolecular catalysis beyond enzyme mimics.

    PubMed

    Meeuwissen, Jurjen; Reek, Joost N H

    2010-08-01

    Supramolecular catalysis - the assembly of catalyst species by harnessing multiple weak intramolecular interactions - has, until recently, been dominated by enzyme-inspired approaches. Such approaches often attempt to create an enzyme-like 'active site' and have concentrated on reactions similar to those catalysed by enzymes themselves. Here, we discuss the application of supramolecular assembly to the more traditional transition metal catalysis and to small-molecule organocatalysis. The modularity of self-assembled multicomponent catalysts means that a relatively small pool of catalyst components can provide rapid access to a large number of catalysts that can be evaluated for industrially relevant reactions. In addition, we discuss how catalyst-substrate interactions can be tailored to direct substrates along particular reaction paths and selectivities.

  4. Internal friction in enzyme reactions.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Anna; Derényi, Imre; Gráf, László; Málnási-Csizmadia, András

    2013-01-01

    The empirical concept of internal friction was introduced 20 years ago. This review summarizes the results of experimental and theoretical studies that help to uncover the nature of internal friction. After the history of the concept, we describe the experimental challenges in measuring and interpreting internal friction based on the viscosity dependence of enzyme reactions. We also present speculations about the structural background of this viscosity dependence. Finally, some models about the relationship between the energy landscape and internal friction are outlined. Alternative concepts regarding the viscosity dependence of enzyme reactions are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Nickel-based Enzyme Systems*

    PubMed Central

    Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Of the eight known nickel enzymes, all but glyoxylase I catalyze the use and/or production of gases central to the global carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen cycles. Nickel appears to have been selected for its plasticity in coordination and redox chemistry and is able to cycle through three redox states (1+, 2+, 3+) and to catalyze reactions spanning ∼1.5 V. This minireview focuses on the catalytic mechanisms of nickel enzymes, with an emphasis on the role(s) of the metal center. The metal centers vary from mononuclear to complex metal clusters and catalyze simple hydrolytic to multistep redox reactions. PMID:19363030

  6. Taking the Mystery Out of Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, H. Garrett

    1984-01-01

    Discusses structure and function of enzymes, design of new enzymes and enzyme substitutes, and enzyme uses in industry, medicine, and wastewater treatment. The latter is a low-cost method which can remove as much as 99 percent of toxic substances found in many industrial wastewater streams. (JN)

  7. The MetaCyc database of metabolic pathways and enzymes and the BioCyc collection of pathway/genome databases

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Ron; Altman, Tomer; Dale, Joseph M.; Dreher, Kate; Fulcher, Carol A.; Gilham, Fred; Kaipa, Pallavi; Karthikeyan, Athikkattuvalasu S.; Kothari, Anamika; Krummenacker, Markus; Latendresse, Mario; Mueller, Lukas A.; Paley, Suzanne; Popescu, Liviu; Pujar, Anuradha; Shearer, Alexander G.; Zhang, Peifen; Karp, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    The MetaCyc database (MetaCyc.org) is a comprehensive and freely accessible resource for metabolic pathways and enzymes from all domains of life. The pathways in MetaCyc are experimentally determined, small-molecule metabolic pathways and are curated from the primary scientific literature. With more than 1400 pathways, MetaCyc is the largest collection of metabolic pathways currently available. Pathways reactions are linked to one or more well-characterized enzymes, and both pathways and enzymes are annotated with reviews, evidence codes, and literature citations. BioCyc (BioCyc.org) is a collection of more than 500 organism-specific Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs). Each BioCyc PGDB contains the full genome and predicted metabolic network of one organism. The network, which is predicted by the Pathway Tools software using MetaCyc as a reference, consists of metabolites, enzymes, reactions and metabolic pathways. BioCyc PGDBs also contain additional features, such as predicted operons, transport systems, and pathway hole-fillers. The BioCyc Web site offers several tools for the analysis of the PGDBs, including Omics Viewers that enable visualization of omics datasets on two different genome-scale diagrams and tools for comparative analysis. The BioCyc PGDBs generated by SRI are offered for adoption by any party interested in curation of metabolic, regulatory, and genome-related information about an organism. PMID:19850718

  8. The Classification and Evolution of Enzyme Function

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Cuesta, Sergio; Rahman, Syed Asad; Furnham, Nicholas; Thornton, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are the proteins responsible for the catalysis of life. Enzymes sharing a common ancestor as defined by sequence and structure similarity are grouped into families and superfamilies. The molecular function of enzymes is defined as their ability to catalyze biochemical reactions; it is manually classified by the Enzyme Commission and robust approaches to quantitatively compare catalytic reactions are just beginning to appear. Here, we present an overview of studies at the interface of the evolution and function of enzymes. PMID:25986631

  9. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  10. Curious Cases of the Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ulusu, Nuriye Nuray

    2015-07-01

    Life as we know it heavily relies on biological catalysis, in fact, in a very nonromantic version of it, life could be considered as a series of chemical reactions, regulated by the guarding principles of thermodynamics. In ancient times, a beating heart was a good sign of vitality, however, to me, it is actually the presence of active enzymes that counts… Though we do not usually pay attention, the history of enzymology is as old as humanity itself, and dates back to the ancient times. This paper is dedicated to these early moments of this remarkable science that touched our lives in the past and will make life a lot more efficient for humanity in the future. There was almost always a delicate, fundamentally essential relationship between mankind and the enzymes. Challenged by a very alien and hostile Nature full of predators, prehistoric men soon discovered the medicinal properties of the plants, through trial and error. In fact, they accidently discovered the enzyme inhibitors and thus, in crude terms, kindled a sparkling area of research. These plant-derivatives that acted as enzyme inhibitors helped prehistoric men in their pursuit of survival and protection from predators; in hunting and fishing… Later in history, while the underlying purposes of survival and increasing the quality of life stayed intact, the ways and means of enzymology experienced a massive transformation, as the 'trial and error' methodology of the ancients is now replaced with rational scientific theories.

  11. Biological abatement of enzyme inhibitors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lignocellulose pretreatments release phenolic compounds that cause enzyme inhibition and deactivation. Bio-abatement, the biological removal of furfurals, acetic acid and phenolics, may utilize fungal fermentation to metabolize these compounds to CO2, water, cell mass, and heat. Our work with Coni...

  12. Phage lytic enzymes targeting streptococci

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptococcal pathogens contribute to a wide variety of human and livestock diseases. There is a need for new antimicrobials to replace over-used conventional antibiotics. Bacteriophage (viruses that infect bacteria) endolysins (enzymes that help degrade the bacterial cell wall) are ideal candidat...

  13. Rennin--a Neglected Enzyme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; Saunders, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Presents investigations to explore the substrate specificity, pH, concentration, and temperature relations of an enzyme with only inexpensive commercial rennet and basic laboratory equipment. Describes how the activities were carried out with a group of 15-year-old students. (CW)

  14. Insolubilized enzymes for food synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Cellulose matrix with numerous enzyme-coated silica particles of colloidal size permanently bound at various sites within matrix was produced that has high activity and possesses requisite physical characteristics for filtration or column operations. Product also allows coupling step in synthesis of edible food to proceed under mild conditions.

  15. The enzymes associated with denitrification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the reduction of nitrogenous oxides are thought to be intermediates in denitrification processes. This review examines the roles of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductases, nitric oxide reductase, mechanisms of N-N bond formation, and nitrous oxide reductases.

  16. Rapid-Equilibrium Enzyme Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberty, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid-equilibrium rate equations for enzyme-catalyzed reactions are especially useful because if experimental data can be fit by these simpler rate equations, the Michaelis constants can be interpreted as equilibrium constants. However, for some reactions it is necessary to use the more complicated steady-state rate equations. Thermodynamics is…

  17. Lipolytic enzymes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Côtes, K; Bakala N'goma, J C; Dhouib, R; Douchet, I; Maurin, D; Carrière, F; Canaan, S

    2008-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a bacterial pathogen that can persist for decades in an infected patient without causing a disease. In vivo, the tubercle bacillus present in the lungs store triacylglycerols in inclusion bodies. The same process can be observed in vitro when the bacteria infect adipose tissues. Indeed, before entering in the dormant state, bacteria accumulate lipids originating from the host cell membrane degradation and from de novo synthesis. During the reactivation phase, these lipids are hydrolysed and the infection process occurs. The degradation of both extra and intracellular lipids can be directly related to the presence of lipolytic enzymes in mycobacteria, which have been ignored during a long period particularly due to the difficulties to obtain a high expression level of these enzymes in M. tuberculosis. The completion of the M. tuberculosis genome offered new opportunity to this kind of study. The aim of this review is to focus on the recent results obtained in the field of mycobacterium lipolytic enzymes and although no experimental proof has been shown in vivo, it is tempting to speculate that these enzymes could be involved in the virulence and pathogenicity processes.

  18. Structural aspects of denitrifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Moura, I; Moura, J J

    2001-04-01

    The reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas via nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide is the metabolic pathway usually known as denitrification, a key step in the nitrogen cycle. As observed for other elemental cycles, a battery of enzymes are utilized, namely the reductases for nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide, as well as multiple electron donors that interact with these enzymes, in order to carry out the stepwise reactions that involve key intermediates. Because of the importance of this pathway (of parallel importance to the nitrogen-fixation pathway), efforts are underway to understand the structures of the participating enzymes and to uncover mechanistic aspects. Three-dimensional structures have been solved for the majority of these enzymes in the past few years, revealing the architecture of the active metal sites as well as global structural aspects, and possible mechanistic aspects. In addition, the recognition of specific electron-transfer partners raises important questions regarding specific electron-transfer pathways, partner recognition and control of metabolism.

  19. Structural insights into conserved L-arabinose metabolic enzymes reveal the substrate binding site of a thermophilic L-arabinose isomerase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Sang-Jae; Kim, Seong-Bo; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Sung Haeng; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2014-03-18

    Structural genomics demonstrates that despite low levels of structural similarity of proteins comprising a metabolic pathway, their substrate binding regions are likely to be conserved. Herein based on the 3D-structures of the α/β-fold proteins involved in the ara operon, we attempted to predict the substrate binding residues of thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus L-arabinose isomerase (GSAI) with no 3D-structure available. Comparison of the structures of L-arabinose catabolic enzymes revealed a conserved feature to form the substrate-binding modules, which can be extended to predict the substrate binding site of GSAI (i.e., D195, E261 and E333). Moreover, these data implicated that proteins in the l-arabinose metabolic pathway might retain their substrate binding niches as the modular structure through conserved molecular evolution even with totally different structural scaffolds. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sequence analyses and evolutionary relationships among the energy-coupling proteins Enzyme I and HPr of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system.

    PubMed Central

    Reizer, J.; Hoischen, C.; Reizer, A.; Pham, T. N.; Saier, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    We have previously reported the overexpression, purification, and biochemical properties of the Bacillus subtilis Enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) (Reizer, J., et al., 1992, J. Biol. Chem. 267, 9158-9169). We now report the sequencing of the ptsI gene of B. subtilis encoding Enzyme I (570 amino acids and 63,076 Da). Putative transcriptional regulatory signals are identified, and the pts operon is shown to be subject to carbon source-dependent regulation. Multiple alignments of the B. subtilis Enzyme I with (1) six other sequenced Enzymes I of the PTS from various bacterial species, (2) phosphoenolpyruvate synthase of Escherichia coli, and (3) bacterial and plant pyruvate: phosphate dikinases (PPDKs) revealed regions of sequence similarity as well as divergence. Statistical analyses revealed that these three types of proteins comprise a homologous family, and the phylogenetic tree of the 11 sequenced protein members of this family was constructed. This tree was compared with that of the 12 sequence HPr proteins or protein domains. Antibodies raised against the B. subtilis and E. coli Enzymes I exhibited immunological cross-reactivity with each other as well as with PPDK of Bacteroides symbiosus, providing support for the evolutionary relationships of these proteins suggested from the sequence comparisons. Putative flexible linkers tethering the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains of protein members of the Enzyme I family were identified, and their potential significance with regard to Enzyme I function is discussed. The codon choice pattern of the B. subtilis and E. coli ptsI and ptsH genes was found to exhibit a bias toward optimal codons in these organisms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7686067

  1. Heterologous expression of Oenococcus oeni malolactic enzyme in Lactobacillus plantarum for improved malolactic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is involved in a multitude of food related industrial fermentation processes including the malolactic fermentation (MLF) of wine. This work is the first report on a recombinant L. plantarum strain successfully conducting MLF. The malolactic enzyme (MLE) from Oenococcus oeni was cloned into the lactobacillal expression vector pSIP409 which is based on the sakacin P operon of Lactobacillus sakei and expressed in the host strain L. plantarum WCFS1. Both recombinant and wild-type L. plantarum strains were tested for MLF using a buffered malic acid solution in absence of glucose. Under the conditions with L-malic acid as the only energy source and in presence of Mn2+ and NAD+, the recombinant L. plantarum and the wild-type strain converted 85% (2.5 g/l) and 51% (1.5 g/l), respectively, of L-malic acid in 3.5 days. Furthermore, the recombinant L. plantarum cells converted in a modified wine 15% (0.4 g/l) of initial L-malic acid concentration in 2 days. In conclusion, recombinant L. plantarum cells expressing MLE accelerate the malolactic fermentation. PMID:22452826

  2. The effector gene xopAE of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria 85-10 is part of an operon and encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Popov, Georgy; Majhi, Bharat Bhusan; Sessa, Guido

    2018-05-21

    The type III effector XopAE from the Xanthomonas euvesicatoria strain 85-10 ( Xe 85-10) was previously shown to inhibit plant immunity and enhance pathogen-induced disease symptoms. Evolutionary analysis of 60 xopAE alleles ( AEal ) revealed that the xopAE locus is conserved in multiple Xanthomonas species. The majority of xopAE alleles (55 out of 60) encodes a single ORF ( xopAE ), while in 5 alleles, including AEal 37 of the Xe 85-10 strain, a frame-shift splits the locus into two ORFs ( hpaF and a truncated xopAE ). To test whether the second ORF of AEal 37 ( xopAE 85-10 ) is translated, we examined expression of YFP fused downstream to truncated or mutant forms of the locus in Xanthomonas bacteria. YFP fluorescence was detected at maximal levels when the reporter was in proximity of an internal ribosome-binding site upstream to a rare ATT start codon in the xopAE 85-10 ORF, but severely reduced when these elements were abolished. In agreement with the notion that xopAE 85- 10 is a functional gene, its protein product was translocated into plant cells by the type III secretion system and translocation was dependent on its upstream ORF hpaF. Homology modeling predicted that XopAE 85-10 contains an E3 ligase XL-box domain at the C-terminus, and in vitro assays demonstrated that this domain displays mono-ubiquitination activity. Remarkably, the XL-box was essential for XopAE 85-10 to inhibit PAMP-induced gene expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Together, these results indicate that the xopAE 85-10 gene resides in a functional operon, which utilizes the alternative start codon ATT, and encodes a novel XL-box E3 ligase. Importance Xanthomonas bacteria utilize a type III secretion system to cause disease in many crops. This study provides insights into evolution, translocation and biochemical function of the XopAE type III secreted effector contributing to the understanding of Xanthomonas-host interactions. We establish XopAE as core effector of seven Xanthomonas

  3. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be safe...

  4. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be safe...

  5. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be safe...

  6. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be safe...

  7. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be safe...

  8. Heavy enzymes--experimental and computational insights in enzyme dynamics.

    PubMed

    Swiderek, Katarzyna; Ruiz-Pernía, J Javier; Moliner, Vicent; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2014-08-01

    The role of protein motions in the chemical step of enzyme-catalyzed reactions is the subject of an open debate in the scientific literature. The systematic use of isotopically substituted enzymes has been revealed as a useful tool to quantify the role of these motions. According to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, changing the mass of the protein does not change the forces acting on the system but alters the frequencies of the protein motions, which in turn can affect the rate constant. Experimental and theoretical studies carried out in this field are presented in this article and discussed in the framework of Transition State Theory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Flavobacterium johnsoniae sprB Is Part of an Operon Spanning the Additional Gliding Motility Genes sprC, sprD, and sprF ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nelson, Shawn S.; Pochiraju, Soumya; McBride, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Cells of Flavobacterium johnsoniae move rapidly over surfaces by a process known as gliding motility. Gld proteins are thought to comprise the gliding motor that propels cell surface adhesins, such as the 669-kDa SprB. A novel protein secretion apparatus called the Por secretion system (PorSS) is required for assembly of SprB on the cell surface. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that sprB is part of a seven-gene operon spanning 29.3 kbp of DNA. In addition to sprB, three other genes of this operon (sprC, sprD, and sprF) are involved in gliding. Mutations in sprB, sprC, sprD, and sprF resulted in cells that failed to form spreading colonies on agar but that exhibited some motility on glass in wet mounts. SprF exhibits some similarity to Porphyromonas gingivalis PorP, which is required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors via the P. gingivalis PorSS. F. johnsoniae sprF mutants produced SprB protein but were defective in localization of SprB to the cell surface, suggesting a role for SprF in secretion of SprB. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is involved in secretion of extracellular chitinase in addition to its role in secretion of SprB. SprF was not needed for chitinase secretion and may be specifically required for SprB secretion by the PorSS. Cells with nonpolar mutations in sprC or sprD produced and secreted SprB and propelled it rapidly along the cell surface. Multiple paralogs of sprB, sprC, sprD, and sprF are present in the genome, which may explain why mutations in sprB, sprC, sprD, and sprF do not result in complete loss of motility and suggests the possibility that semiredundant SprB-like adhesins may allow movement of cells over different surfaces. PMID:21131497

  10. Salt Stress-Induced Loss of Iron Oxidoreduction Activities and Reacquisition of That Phenotype Depend on rus Operon Transcription in Acidithiobacillus ferridurans.

    PubMed

    Bonnefoy, Violaine; Grail, Barry M; Johnson, D Barrie

    2018-04-01

    The type strain of the mineral-oxidizing acidophilic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferridurans was grown in liquid medium containing elevated concentrations of sodium chloride with hydrogen as electron donor. While it became more tolerant to chloride, after about 1 year, the salt-stressed acidophile was found to have lost its ability to oxidize iron, though not sulfur or hydrogen. Detailed molecular examination revealed that this was due to an insertion sequence, IS Afd1 , which belongs to the IS Pepr1 subgroup of the IS 4 family, having been inserted downstream of the two promoters PI and PII of the rus operon (which codes for the iron oxidation pathway in this acidophile), thereby preventing its transcription. The ability to oxidize iron was regained on protracted incubation of the culture inoculated onto salt-free solid medium containing ferrous iron and incubated under hydrogen. Two revertant strains were obtained. In one, the insertion sequence IS Afd1 had been excised, leaving an 11-bp signature, while in the other an ∼2,500-bp insertion sequence (belonging to the IS 66 family) was detected in the downstream inverted repeat of IS Afd1 The transcriptional start site of the rus operon in the second revertant strain was downstream of the two ISs, due to the creation of a new "hybrid" promoter. The loss and subsequent regaining of the ability of A. ferridurans T to reduce ferric iron were concurrent with those observed for ferrous iron oxidation, suggesting that these two traits are closely linked in this acidophile. IMPORTANCE Iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria have primary roles in the oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals, a process that underpins commercial mineral-processing biotechnologies ("biomining"). Most of these prokaryotes have relatively low tolerance to chloride, which limits their activities when only saline or brackish waters are available. The study showed that it was possible to adapt a typical iron-oxidizing acidophile to grow in the

  11. Functional Characterization of Key Enzymes involved in l-Glutamate Synthesis and Degradation in the Thermotolerant and Methylotrophic Bacterium Bacillus methanolicus

    PubMed Central

    Krog, Anne; Heggeset, Tonje Marita Bjerkan; Ellingsen, Trond Erling

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus methanolicus wild-type strain MGA3 secretes 59 g/liter−1 of l-glutamate in fed-batch methanol cultivations at 50°C. We recently sequenced the MGA3 genome, and we here characterize key enzymes involved in l-glutamate synthesis and degradation. One glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) that is encoded by yweB and two glutamate synthases (GOGATs) that are encoded by the gltAB operon and by gltA2 were found, in contrast to Bacillus subtilis, which has two different GDHs and only one GOGAT. B. methanolicus has a glutamine synthetase (GS) that is encoded by glnA and a 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) that is encoded by the odhAB operon. The yweB, gltA, gltB, and gltA2 gene products were purified and characterized biochemically in vitro. YweB has a low Km value for ammonium (10 mM) and a high Km value for l-glutamate (250 mM), and the Vmax value is 7-fold higher for l-glutamate synthesis than for the degradation reaction. GltA and GltA2 displayed similar Km values (1 to 1.4 mM) and Vmax values (4 U/mg) for both l-glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate as the substrates, and GltB had no effect on the catalytic activities of these enzymes in vitro. Complementation assays indicated that GltA and not GltA2 is dependent on GltB for GOGAT activity in vivo. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of two active GOGATs in a bacterium. In vivo experiments indicated that OGDH activity and, to some degree, GOGAT activity play important roles in regulating l-glutamate production in this organism. PMID:23811508

  12. Functional characterization of key enzymes involved in L-glutamate synthesis and degradation in the thermotolerant and methylotrophic bacterium Bacillus methanolicus.

    PubMed

    Krog, Anne; Heggeset, Tonje Marita Bjerkan; Ellingsen, Trond Erling; Brautaset, Trygve

    2013-09-01

    Bacillus methanolicus wild-type strain MGA3 secretes 59 g/liter(-1) of l-glutamate in fed-batch methanol cultivations at 50°C. We recently sequenced the MGA3 genome, and we here characterize key enzymes involved in l-glutamate synthesis and degradation. One glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) that is encoded by yweB and two glutamate synthases (GOGATs) that are encoded by the gltAB operon and by gltA2 were found, in contrast to Bacillus subtilis, which has two different GDHs and only one GOGAT. B. methanolicus has a glutamine synthetase (GS) that is encoded by glnA and a 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) that is encoded by the odhAB operon. The yweB, gltA, gltB, and gltA2 gene products were purified and characterized biochemically in vitro. YweB has a low Km value for ammonium (10 mM) and a high Km value for l-glutamate (250 mM), and the Vmax value is 7-fold higher for l-glutamate synthesis than for the degradation reaction. GltA and GltA2 displayed similar Km values (1 to 1.4 mM) and Vmax values (4 U/mg) for both l-glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate as the substrates, and GltB had no effect on the catalytic activities of these enzymes in vitro. Complementation assays indicated that GltA and not GltA2 is dependent on GltB for GOGAT activity in vivo. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of two active GOGATs in a bacterium. In vivo experiments indicated that OGDH activity and, to some degree, GOGAT activity play important roles in regulating l-glutamate production in this organism.

  13. Treponema pallidum 3-Phosphoglycerate Mutase Is a Heat-Labile Enzyme That May Limit the Maximum Growth Temperature for the Spirochete

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Stéphane; Posey, James E.; Chenoweth, Matthew R.; Gherardini, Frank C.

    2001-01-01

    In the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum, the gene encoding 3-phosphoglycerate mutase, gpm, is part of a six-gene operon (tro operon) that is regulated by the Mn-dependent repressor TroR. Since substrate-level phosphorylation via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway is the principal way to generate ATP in T. pallidum and Gpm is a key enzyme in this pathway, Mn could exert a regulatory effect on central metabolism in this bacterium. To study this, T. pallidum gpm was cloned, Gpm was purified from Escherichia coli, and antiserum against the recombinant protein was raised. Immunoblots indicated that Gpm was expressed in freshly extracted infective T. pallidum. Enzyme assays indicated that Gpm did not require Mn2+ while 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) was required for maximum activity. Consistent with these observations, Mn did not copurify with Gpm. The purified Gpm was stable for more than 4 h at 25°C, retained only 50% activity after incubation for 20 min at 34°C or 10 min at 37°C, and was completely inactive after 10 min at 42°C. The temperature effect was attenuated when 1 mM DPG was added to the assay mixture. The recombinant Gpm from pSLB2 complemented E. coli strain PL225 (gpm) and restored growth on minimal glucose medium in a temperature-dependent manner. Increasing the temperature of cultures of E. coli PL225 harboring pSLB2 from 34 to 42°C resulted in a 7- to 11-h period in which no growth occurred (compared to wild-type E. coli). These data suggest that biochemical properties of Gpm could be one contributing factor to the heat sensitivity of T. pallidum. PMID:11466272

  14. Discovery and characterization of a prevalent human gut bacterial enzyme sufficient for the inactivation of a family of plant toxins

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Nitzan; Bisanz, Jordan E; Pandelia, Maria-Eirini

    2018-01-01

    Although the human gut microbiome plays a prominent role in xenobiotic transformation, most of the genes and enzymes responsible for this metabolism are unknown. Recently, we linked the two-gene ‘cardiac glycoside reductase’ (cgr) operon encoded by the gut Actinobacterium Eggerthella lenta to inactivation of the cardiac medication and plant natural product digoxin. Here, we compared the genomes of 25 E. lenta strains and close relatives, revealing an expanded 8-gene cgr-associated gene cluster present in all digoxin metabolizers and absent in non-metabolizers. Using heterologous expression and in vitro biochemical characterization, we discovered that a single flavin- and [4Fe-4S] cluster-dependent reductase, Cgr2, is sufficient for digoxin inactivation. Unexpectedly, Cgr2 displayed strict specificity for digoxin and other cardenolides. Quantification of cgr2 in gut microbiomes revealed that this gene is widespread and conserved in the human population. Together, these results demonstrate that human-associated gut bacteria maintain specialized enzymes that protect against ingested plant toxins. PMID:29761785

  15. Regulation of the yjjQ-bglJ Operon, Encoding LuxR-Type Transcription Factors, and the Divergent yjjP Gene by H-NS and LeuO▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, Thomas; Madhusudan, S.; Schnetz, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The yjjQ and bglJ genes encode LuxR-type transcription factors conserved in several enterobacterial species. YjjQ is a potential virulence factor in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli. BglJ counteracts the silencing of the bgl (β-glucoside) operon by H-NS in E. coli K-12. Here we show that yjjQ and bglJ form an operon carried by E. coli K-12, whose expression is repressed by the histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) protein. The LysR-type transcription factor LeuO counteracts this repression. Furthermore, the yjjP gene, encoding a membrane protein of unknown function and located upstream in divergent orientation to the yjjQ-bglJ operon, is likewise repressed by H-NS. Mapping of the promoters as well as the H-NS and LeuO binding sites within the 555-bp intergenic region revealed that H-NS binds to the center of the AT-rich regulatory region and distal to the divergent promoters. LeuO sites map to the center and to positions distal to the yjjQ promoters, while one LeuO binding site overlaps with the divergent yjjP promoter. This latter LeuO site is required for full derepression of the yjjQ promoters. The arrangement of regulatory sites suggests that LeuO restructures the nucleoprotein complex formed by H-NS. Furthermore, the data support the conclusion that LeuO, whose expression is likewise repressed by H-NS and which is a virulence factor in Salmonella enterica, is a master regulator that among other loci, also controls the yjjQ-bglJ operon and thus indirectly the presumptive targets of YjjQ and BglJ. PMID:18055596

  16. Whole-Transcriptome Shotgun Sequencing (RNA-seq) Screen Reveals Upregulation of Cellobiose and Motility Operons of Lactobacillus ruminis L5 during Growth on Tetrasaccharides Derived from Barley β-Glucan

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Blair; Sims, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus ruminis is an inhabitant of human bowels and bovine rumens. None of 10 isolates (three from bovine rumen, seven from human feces) of L. ruminis that were tested could utilize barley β-glucan for growth. Seven of the strains of L. ruminis were, however, able to utilize tetrasaccharides (3-O-β-cellotriosyl-d-glucose [LDP4] or 4-O-β-laminaribiosyl-d-cellobiose [CDP4]) present in β-glucan hydrolysates for growth. The tetrasaccharides were generated by the use of lichenase or cellulase, respectively. To learn more about the utilization of tetrasaccharides by L. ruminis, whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) was tested as a transcriptional screen to detect altered gene expression when an autochthonous human strain (L5) was grown in medium containing CDP4. RNA-seq results were confirmed and extended by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR assays of selected genes in two upregulated operons when cells were grown as batch cultures in medium containing either CDP4 or LDP4. The cellobiose utilization operon had increased transcription, particularly in early growth phase, whereas the chemotaxis/motility operon was upregulated in late growth phase. Phenotypic changes were seen in relation to upregulation of chemotaxis/flagellar operons: flagella were rarely seen by electron microscopy on glucose-grown cells but cells cultured in tetrasaccharide medium were commonly flagellated. Chemotactic movement toward tetrasaccharides was demonstrated in capillary cultures. L. ruminis utilized 3-O-β-cellotriosyl-d-glucose released by β-glucan hydrolysis due to bowel commensal Coprococcus sp., indicating that cross feeding of tetrasaccharide between bacteria could occur. Therefore, the RNA-seq screen and subsequent experiments had utility in revealing foraging attributes of gut commensal Lactobacillus ruminis. PMID:23851085

  17. NAD(P)H-hydrate dehydratase- a metabolic repair enzyme and its role in Bacillus subtilis stress adaptation.

    PubMed

    Petrovova, Miroslava; Tkadlec, Jan; Dvoracek, Lukas; Streitova, Eliska; Licha, Irena

    2014-01-01

    One of the strategies for survival stress conditions in bacteria is a regulatory adaptive system called general stress response (GSR), which is dependent on the SigB transcription factor in Bacillus sp. The GSR is one of the largest regulon in Bacillus sp., including about 100 genes; however, most of the genes that show changes in expression during various stresses have not yet been characterized or assigned a biochemical function for the encoded proteins. Previously, we characterized the Bacillus subtilis168 osmosensitive mutant, defective in the yxkO gene (encoding a putative ribokinase), which was recently assigned in vitro as an ADP/ATP-dependent NAD(P)H-hydrate dehydratase and was demonstrated to belong to the SigB operon. We show the impact of YxkO on the activity of SigB-dependent Pctc promoter and adaptation to osmotic and ethanol stress and potassium limitation respectively. Using a 2DE approach, we compare the proteomes of WT and mutant strains grown under conditions of osmotic and ethanol stress. Both stresses led to changes in the protein level of enzymes that are involved in motility (flagellin), citrate cycle (isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase), glycolysis (phosphoglycerate kinase), and decomposition of Amadori products (fructosamine-6-phosphate deglycase). Glutamine synthetase revealed a different pattern after osmotic stress. The patterns of enzymes for branched amino acid metabolism and cell wall synthesis (L-alanine dehydrogenase, aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, ketol-acid reductoisomerase) were altered after ethanol stress. We performed the first characterization of a Bacillus subtilis168 knock-out mutant in the yxkO gene that encodes a metabolite repair enzyme. We show that such enzymes could play a significant role in the survival of stressed cells.

  18. Cloning and Expression of a Phloretin Hydrolase Gene from Eubacterium ramulus and Characterization of the Recombinant Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Schoefer, Lilian; Braune, Annett; Blaut, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Phloretin hydrolase catalyzes the hydrolytic C-C cleavage of phloretin to phloroglucinol and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid during flavonoid degradation in Eubacterium ramulus. The gene encoding the enzyme was cloned by screening a gene library for hydrolase activity. The insert of a clone conferring phloretin hydrolase activity was sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 822 bp (phy), a putative promoter region, and a terminating stem-loop structure. The deduced amino acid sequence of phy showed similarities to a putative protein of the 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic operon from Pseudomonas fluorescens. The phloretin hydrolase was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The molecular mass of the native enzyme was approximately 55 kDa as determined by gel filtration. The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the deduced amino acid sequence of phy indicated molecular masses of 30 and 30.8 kDa, respectively, suggesting that the enzyme is a homodimer. The recombinant phloretin hydrolase catalyzed the hydrolysis of phloretin to equimolar amounts of phloroglucinol and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid. The optimal temperature and pH of the catalyzed reaction mixture were 37°C and 7.0, respectively. The Km for phloretin was 13 ± 3 μM and the kcat was 10 ± 2 s−1. The enzyme did not transform phloretin-2′-glucoside (phloridzin), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propandione, or trans-1,3-diphenyl-2,3-epoxy-propan-1-one. The catalytic activity of the phloretin hydrolase was reduced by N-bromosuccinimide, o-phenanthroline, N-ethylmaleimide, and CuCl2 to 3, 20, 35, and 85%, respectively. Phloroglucinol and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid reduced the activity to 54 and 70%, respectively. PMID:15466559

  19. Metrological aspects of enzyme production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, T. M.; Dellamora-Ortiz, G. M.; Pereira-Meirelles, F. V.

    2010-05-01

    Enzymes are frequently used in biotechnology to carry out specific biological reactions, either in industrial processes or for the production of bioproducts and drugs. Microbial lipases are an important group of biotechnologically valuable enzymes that present widely diversified applications. Lipase production by microorganisms is described in several published papers; however, none of them refer to metrological evaluation and the estimation of the uncertainty in measurement. Moreover, few of them refer to process optimization through experimental design. The objectives of this work were to enhance lipase production in shaken-flasks with Yarrowia lipolytica cells employing experimental design and to evaluate the uncertainty in measurement of lipase activity. The highest lipolytic activity obtained was about three- and fivefold higher than the reported activities of CRMs BCR-693 and BCR-694, respectively. Lipase production by Y. lipolytica cells aiming the classification as certified reference material is recommended after further purification and stability studies.

  20. Research progress of nanoparticles as enzyme mimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, XiaoNa; Liu, JianBo; Hou, Shuai; Wen, Tao; Liu, WenQi; Zhang, Ke; He, WeiWei; Ji, YingLu; Ren, HongXuan; Wang, Qi; Wu, XiaoChun

    2011-10-01

    Natural enzymes as biological catalysts possess remarkable advantages, especially their highly efficient and selective catalysis under mild conditions. However, most natural enzymes are proteins, thus exhibiting an inherent low durability to harsh reaction conditions. Artificial enzyme mimetics have been pursued extensively to avoid this drawback. Quite recently, some inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) have been found to exhibit unique enzyme mimetics. In addition, their much higher stability overcomes the inherent disadvantage of natural enzymes. Furthermore, easy mass-production and low cost endow them more benefits. As a new member of artificial enzyme mimetics, they have received intense attention. In this review article, major progress in this field is summarized and future perspectives are highlighted.

  1. Allosteric regulation of epigenetic modifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zucconi, Beth E; Cole, Philip A

    2017-08-01

    Epigenetic enzymes including histone modifying enzymes are key regulators of gene expression in normal and disease processes. Many drug development strategies to target histone modifying enzymes have focused on ligands that bind to enzyme active sites, but allosteric pockets offer potentially attractive opportunities for therapeutic development. Recent biochemical studies have revealed roles for small molecule and peptide ligands binding outside of the active sites in modulating the catalytic activities of histone modifying enzymes. Here we highlight several examples of allosteric regulation of epigenetic enzymes and discuss the biological significance of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    relief from the symptoms of inflammation and pain Silica-IMERs 10 and is the mode of action of drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen .[61] Serotonin...supports and using the enantiomeric selectivity of the enzyme to resolve racemic mixtures.[100] Immobilization onto supports with various pore sizes and...activity (~37%) and used as a packed- bed IMER to catalyze the racemic resolution of (S)-ketoprofen from its constituent enantiomers . The optically pure (S

  3. Specific DNA binding of a potential transcriptional regulator, inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase-related protein VII, to the promoter region of a methyl coenzyme m reductase I-encoding operon retrieved from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus strain DeltaH.

    PubMed

    Shinzato, Naoya; Enoki, Miho; Sato, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kohei; Matsui, Toru; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2008-10-01

    Two methyl coenzyme M reductases (MCRs) encoded by the mcr and mrt operons of the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus DeltaH are expressed in response to H(2) availability. In the present study, cis elements and trans-acting factors responsible for the gene expression of MCRs were investigated by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and affinity particle purification. A survey of their operator regions by EMSA with protein extracts from mrt-expressing cultures restricted them to 46- and 41-bp-long mcr and mrt upstream regions, respectively. Affinity particle purification of DNA-binding proteins conjugated with putative operator regions resulted in the retrieval of a protein attributed to IMP dehydrogenase-related protein VII (IMPDH VII). IMPDH VII is predicted to have a winged helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif and two cystathionine beta-synthase domains, and it has been suspected to be an energy-sensing module. EMSA with oligonucleotide probes with unusual sequences showed that the binding site of IMPDH VII mostly overlaps the factor B-responsible element-TATA box of the mcr operon. The results presented here suggest that IMPDH VII encoded by MTH126 is a plausible candidate for the transcriptional regulator of the mcr operon in this methanogen.

  4. Self-powered enzyme micropumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Samudra; Patra, Debabrata; Ortiz-Rivera, Isamar; Agrawal, Arjun; Shklyaev, Sergey; Dey, Krishna K.; Córdova-Figueroa, Ubaldo; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Sen, Ayusman

    2014-05-01

    Non-mechanical nano- and microscale pumps that function without the aid of an external power source and provide precise control over the flow rate in response to specific signals are needed for the development of new autonomous nano- and microscale systems. Here we show that surface-immobilized enzymes that are independent of adenosine triphosphate function as self-powered micropumps in the presence of their respective substrates. In the four cases studied (catalase, lipase, urease and glucose oxidase), the flow is driven by a gradient in fluid density generated by the enzymatic reaction. The pumping velocity increases with increasing substrate concentration and reaction rate. These rechargeable pumps can be triggered by the presence of specific analytes, which enables the design of enzyme-based devices that act both as sensor and pump. Finally, we show proof-of-concept enzyme-powered devices that autonomously deliver small molecules and proteins in response to specific chemical stimuli, including the release of insulin in response to glucose.

  5. Immobilised enzymes in biorenewables production.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Maurice C R; Steunenberg, Peter; Scott, Elinor L; Zuilhof, Han; Sanders, Johan P M

    2013-08-07

    Oils, fats, carbohydrates, lignin, and amino acids are all important raw materials for the production of biorenewables. These compounds already play an important role in everyday life in the form of wood, fabrics, starch, paper and rubber. Enzymatic reactions do, in principle, allow the transformation of these raw materials into biorenewables under mild and sustainable conditions. There are a few examples of processes using immobilised enzymes that are already applied on an industrial scale, such as the production of High-Fructose Corn Syrup, but these are still rather rare. Fortunately, there is a rapid expansion in the research efforts that try to improve this, driven by a combination of economic and ecological reasons. This review focusses on those efforts, by looking at attempts to use fatty acids, carbohydrates, proteins and lignin (and their building blocks), as substrates in the synthesis of biorenewables using immobilised enzymes. Therefore, many examples (390 references) from the recent literature are discussed, in which we look both at the specific reactions as well as to the methods of immobilisation of the enzymes, as the latter are shown to be a crucial factor with respect to stability and reuse. The applications of the renewables produced in this way range from building blocks for the pharmaceutical and polymer industry, transport fuels, to additives for the food industry. A critical evaluation of the relevant factors that need to be improved for large-scale use of these examples is presented in the outlook of this review.

  6. Common Distribution of gad Operon in Lactobacillus brevis and its GadA Contributes to Efficient GABA Synthesis toward Cytosolic Near-Neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qinglong; Tun, Hein Min; Law, Yee-Song; Khafipour, Ehsan; Shah, Nagendra P.

    2017-01-01

    Many strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria have exhibited strain-specific capacity to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) via their glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) system, which is one of amino acid-dependent acid resistance (AR) systems in bacteria. However, the linkage between bacterial AR and GABA production capacity has not been well established. Meanwhile, limited evidence has been provided to the global diversity of GABA-producing LAB and bifidobacteria, and their mechanisms of efficient GABA synthesis. In this study, genomic survey identified common distribution of gad operon-encoded GAD system in Lactobacillus brevis for its GABA production among varying species of LAB and bifidobacteria. Importantly, among four commonly distributed amino acid-dependent AR systems in Lb. brevis, its GAD system was a major contributor to maintain cytosolic pH homeostasis by consuming protons via GABA synthesis. This highlights that Lb. brevis applies GAD system as the main strategy against extracellular and intracellular acidification demonstrating its high capacity of GABA production. In addition, the abundant GadA retained its activity toward near-neutral pH (pH 5.5–6.5) of cytosolic acidity thus contributing to efficient GABA synthesis in Lb. brevis. This is the first global report illustrating species-specific characteristic and mechanism of efficient GABA synthesis in Lb. brevis. PMID:28261168

  7. The glnAntrBC operon of Herbaspirillum seropedicae is transcribed by two oppositely regulated promoters upstream of glnA.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Stefan; Souza, Emanuel M; Yates, Marshall G; Persuhn, Darlene C; Steffens, M Berenice R; Chubatsu, Leda S; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Rigo, Liu U

    2007-01-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic bacterium that fixes nitrogen under microaerophilic conditions. The putative promoter sequences glnAp1 (sigma70-dependent) and glnAp2 (sigma54), and two NtrC-binding sites were identified upstream from the glnA, ntrB and ntrC genes of this microorganism. To study their transcriptional regulation, we used lacZ fusions to the H. seropedicae glnA gene, and the glnA-ntrB and ntrB-ntrC intergenic regions. Expression of glnA was up-regulated under low ammonium, but no transcription activity was detected from the intergenic regions under any condition tested, suggesting that glnA, ntrB and ntrC are co-transcribed from the promoters upstream of glnA. Ammonium regulation was lost in the ntrC mutant strain. A point mutation was introduced in the conserved -25/-24 dinucleotide (GG-->TT) of the putative sigma54-dependent promoter (glnAp2). Contrary to the wild-type promoter, glnA expression with the mutant glnAp2 promoter was repressed in the wild-type strain under low ammonium levels, but this repression was abolished in an ntrC background. Together our results indicate that the H. seropedicae glnAntrBC operon is regulated from two functional promoters upstream from glnA, which are oppositely regulated by the NtrC protein.

  8. Methicillin-Susceptible Teicoplanin-Resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus Isolate from a Bloodstream Infection with Novel Mutations in the tcaRAB Teicoplanin Resistance Operon.

    PubMed

    Bakthavatchalam, Yamuna Devi; Sudarsanam, Thambu David; Babu, Priyanka; Munuswamy, Elakkiya; Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Dhiviya Prabaa; Devanga Ragupathi, Naveen Kumar; Veeraraghavan, Balaji

    2017-07-24

    Staphylococcus haemolyticus is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus that is frequently isolated from blood cultures. Here, we report a case of methicillin-susceptible S. haemolyticus that is resistant to teicoplanin (TEC) and heteroresistant to vancomycin (VAN). The isolate was susceptible to cefoxitin and resistant to TEC by Etest. Population analysis profile-area under the curve analysis confirmed the presence of a VAN heteroresistant subpopulation. Next-generation sequencing analysis of the genome revealed the presence of blaZ and msr(A), which encode cross-resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B, and the quinolone resistance-conferring gene norA. In addition, several amino acid substitutions were observed in the TEC resistance operon tcaRAB, including I3N, I390N, and L450I in tcaA and L44V, G52V, and S87P in tcaR, as well as in the transpeptidase encoding gene walK (D336Y, R375L, and V404A) and L315 and P316 in graS. We hypothesized that this combination of mutations could confer TEC resistance and reduced VAN susceptibility.

  9. The flaA locus of Bacillus subtilis is part of a large operon coding for flagellar structures, motility functions, and an ATPase-like polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Albertini, A M; Caramori, T; Crabb, W D; Scoffone, F; Galizzi, A

    1991-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced 8.3 kb of Bacillus subtilis DNA corresponding to the flaA locus involved in flagellar biosynthesis, motility, and chemotaxis. The DNA sequence revealed the presence of 10 complete and 2 incomplete open reading frames. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences to data banks showed similarities of nine of the deduced products to a number of proteins of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium for which a role in flagellar functioning has been directly demonstrated. In particular, the sequence data suggest that the flaA operon codes for the M-ring protein, components of the motor switch, and the distal part of the basal-body rod. The gene order is remarkably similar to that described for region III of the enterobacterial flagellar regulon. One of the open reading frames was translated into a protein with 48% amino acid identity to S. typhimurium FliI and 29% identity to the beta subunit of E. coli ATP synthase. PMID:1828465

  10. The coxBAC Operon Encodes a Cytochrome c Oxidase Required for Heterotrophic Growth in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis Strain ATCC 29413

    PubMed Central

    Schmetterer, Georg; Valladares, Ana; Pils, Dietmar; Steinbach, Susanne; Pacher, Margit; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M.; Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia

    2001-01-01

    Three genes, coxB, coxA, and coxC, found in a clone from a gene library of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis strain ATCC 29413, were identified by hybridization with an oligonucleotide specific for aa3-type cytochrome c oxidases. Deletion of these genes from the genome of A. variabilis strain ATCC 29413 FD yielded strain CSW1, which displayed no chemoheterotrophic growth and an impaired cytochrome c oxidase activity. Photoautotrophic growth of CSW1, however, was unchanged, even with dinitrogen as the nitrogen source. A higher cytochrome c oxidase activity was detected in membrane preparations from dinitrogen-grown CSW1 than from nitrate-grown CSW1, but comparable activities of respiratory oxygen uptake were found in the wild type and in CSW1. Our data indicate that the identified cox gene cluster is essential for fructose-dependent growth in the dark, but not for growth on dinitrogen, and that other terminal respiratory oxidases are expressed in this cyanobacterium. Transcription analysis showed that coxBAC constitutes an operon which is expressed from two transcriptional start points. The use of one of them was stimulated by fructose. PMID:11591688

  11. Two groups of phenylalanine biosynthetic operon leader peptides genes: a high level of apparently incidental frameshifting in decoding Escherichia coli pheL

    PubMed Central

    Gurvich, Olga L.; Näsvall, S. Joakim; Baranov, Pavel V.; Björk, Glenn R.; Atkins, John F.

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial pheL gene encodes the leader peptide for the phenylalanine biosynthetic operon. Translation of pheL mRNA controls transcription attenuation and, consequently, expression of the downstream pheA gene. Fifty-three unique pheL genes have been identified in sequenced genomes of the gamma subdivision. There are two groups of pheL genes, both of which are short and contain a run(s) of phenylalanine codons at an internal position. One group is somewhat diverse and features different termination and 5′-flanking codons. The other group, mostly restricted to Enterobacteria and including Escherichia coli pheL, has a conserved nucleotide sequence that ends with UUC_CCC_UGA. When these three codons in E. coli pheL mRNA are in the ribosomal E-, P- and A-sites, there is an unusually high level, 15%, of +1 ribosomal frameshifting due to features of the nascent peptide sequence that include the penultimate phenylalanine. This level increases to 60% with a natural, heterologous, nascent peptide stimulator. Nevertheless, studies with different tRNAPro mutants in Salmonella enterica suggest that frameshifting at the end of pheL does not influence expression of the downstream pheA. This finding of incidental, rather than utilized, frameshifting is cautionary for other studies of programmed frameshifting. PMID:21177642

  12. Insight on specificity of uracil permeases of the NAT/NCS2 family from analysis of the transporter encoded in the pyrimidine utilization operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Botou, Maria; Lazou, Panayiota; Papakostas, Konstantinos; Lambrinidis, George; Evangelidis, Thomas; Mikros, Emmanuel; Frillingos, Stathis

    2018-04-01

    The uracil permease UraA of Escherichia coli is a structurally known prototype for the ubiquitous Nucleobase-Ascorbate Transporter (NAT) or Nucleobase-Cation Symporter-2 (NCS2) family and represents a well-defined subgroup of bacterial homologs that remain functionally unstudied. Here, we analyze four of these homologs, including RutG of E. coli which shares 35% identity with UraA and is encoded in the catabolic rut (pyrimidine utilization) operon. Using amplified expression in E. coli K-12, we show that RutG is a high-affinity permease for uracil, thymine and, at low efficiency, xanthine and recognizes also 5-fluorouracil and oxypurinol. In contrast, UraA and the homologs from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Aeromonas veronii are permeases specific for uracil and 5-fluorouracil. Molecular docking indicates that thymine is hindered from binding to UraA by a highly conserved Phe residue which is absent in RutG. Site-directed replacement of this Phe with Ala in the three uracil-specific homologs allows high-affinity recognition and/or transport of thymine, emulating the RutG profile. Furthermore, all RutG orthologs from enterobacteria retain an Ala at this position, implying that they can use both uracil and thymine and, possibly, xanthine as substrates and provide the bacterial cell with a range of catabolizable nucleobases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Richey, Christine; Chovanec, Peter; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282

    2009-05-01

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function asmore » a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe-S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.« less

  14. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richey, C.; Chovanec, P.; Hoeft, S.E.; Oremland, R.S.; Basu, P.; Stolz, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe–S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

  15. Extracellular enzyme kinetics scale with resource availability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial community metabolism relies on external digestion, mediated by extracellular enzymes that break down complex organic matter into molecules small enough for cells to assimilate. We analyzed the kinetics of 40 extracellular enzymes that mediate the degradation and assimi...

  16. ENZYME DEGRADATION OF CHIRAL ORGANIC PHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chiral organic phosphorus pesticides (OPs) are expected to be biologically degraded enantioselectively by endogenous enzymes. Various chiral Ops were treated with the enzyme phosphotriesterase (PTE) obtained from partially purified extracts of Escherichia coli strain DH-5- carryi...

  17. Biomedical Applications of Enzymes From Marine Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kamala, K; Sivaperumal, P

    Marine microbial enzyme technologies have progressed significantly in the last few decades for different applications. Among the various microorganisms, marine actinobacterial enzymes have significant active properties, which could allow them to be biocatalysts with tremendous bioactive metabolites. Moreover, marine actinobacteria have been considered as biofactories, since their enzymes fulfill biomedical and industrial needs. In this chapter, the marine actinobacteria and their enzymes' uses in biological activities and biomedical applications are described. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 864.4400 - Enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enzyme preparations. 864.4400 Section 864.4400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4400 Enzyme preparations. (a) Identification. Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the histopathology...

  19. 21 CFR 864.4400 - Enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enzyme preparations. 864.4400 Section 864.4400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4400 Enzyme preparations. (a) Identification. Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the histopathology...

  20. Determining Enzyme Activity by Radial Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bill D.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses advantages of radial diffusion assay in determining presence of enzyme and/or rough approximation of amount of enzyme activities. Procedures are included for the preparation of starch-agar plates, and the application and determination of enzyme. Techniques using plant materials (homogenates, tissues, ungerminated embryos, and seedlings)…

  1. Digestive Enzyme Supplementation in Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Pecere, Silvia; Giorgio, Valentina; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Cammarota, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymes are able to break down proteins and carbohydrates and lipids, and their supplementation may play a role in the management of digestive disorders, from lactose intolerance to cystic fibrosis. To date, several formulations of digestive enzymes are available on the market, being different each other in terms of enzyme type, source and origin, and dosage. This review, performed through a non-systematic search of the available literature, will provide an overview of the current knowledge of digestive enzyme supplementation in gastrointestinal disorders, discussion of the use of pancreatic enzymes, lactase (β-galactosidase) and conjugated bile acids, and also exploring the future perspective of digestive enzyme supplementation. Currently, the animal-derived enzymes represent an established standard of care, however the growing study of plant-based and microbe-derived enzymes offers great promise in the advancement of digestive enzyme therapy. New frontiers of enzyme replacement are being evaluated also in the treatment of diseases not specifically related to enzyme deficiency, whereas the combination of different enzymes might constitute an intriguing therapeutic option in the future.

  2. 21 CFR 864.4400 - Enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enzyme preparations. 864.4400 Section 864.4400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4400 Enzyme preparations. (a) Identification. Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the histopathology...

  3. 21 CFR 864.4400 - Enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enzyme preparations. 864.4400 Section 864.4400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4400 Enzyme preparations. (a) Identification. Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the histopathology...

  4. 21 CFR 864.4400 - Enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enzyme preparations. 864.4400 Section 864.4400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4400 Enzyme preparations. (a) Identification. Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the histopathology...

  5. Microorganisms detected by enzyme-catalyzed reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vango, S. P.; Weetall, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Enzymes detect the presence of microorganisms in soils. The enzyme lysozymi is used to release the enzyme catalase from the microorganisms in a soil sample. The catalase catalyzes the decomposition of added hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen which is detected manometrically. The partial pressure of the oxygen serves as an index of the samples bacteria content.

  6. Supercomputer Exposes Enzyme's Secrets | News | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    simulation of an enzyme from the fungus Trichoderma reesei (Cel7A). The simulation showed that a part of an enzyme, the linker, may play a necessary role in breaking down biomass into the sugars used to make long being a microsecond-simulation of the entire enzyme on the surface of cellulose," Beckham

  7. Cellulolytic enzyme compositions and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Prashant; Gaspar, Armindo Ribiero; Croonenberghs, James

    The present invention relates enzyme composition comprising a cellulolytic preparation and an acetylxylan esterase (AXE); and the used of cellulolytic enzyme compositions for hydrolyzing acetylated cellulosic material. Finally the invention also relates to processes of producing fermentation products from acetylated cellulosic materials using a cellulolytic enzyme composition of the invention.

  8. Immobilization of Enzymes in Polymer Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Hugh D.; Walt, David R.

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments in which an enzyme is immobilized onto a polymeric support are described. The experiments (which also demonstrate two different polymer preparations) involve: (1) entrapping an enzyme in an acrylamide polymer; and (2) reacting the amino groups on the enzyme's (esterase) lysine residues with an activated polymer. (JN)

  9. The nucleotide sequence of the intergenic region between the 5.8S and 26S rRNA genes of the yeast ribosomal RNA operon. Possible implications for the interaction between 5.8S and 26S rRNA and the processing of the primary transcript.

    PubMed Central

    Veldman, G M; Klootwijk, J; van Heerikhuizen, H; Planta, R J

    1981-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of part of a cloned yeast ribosomal RNA operon extending from the 5.8S RNA gene downstream into the 5' -terminal region of the 26S RNA gene. We mapped the pertinent processing sites, viz. the 5' end of 26S rRNA and the 3'ends of 5.8S rRNA and its immediate precursor, 7S RNA. At the 3' end of 7S RNA we find the sequence UCGUUU which is very similar to the type I consensus sequence UCAUUA/U present at the 3' ends of 17S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA as well as 18S precursor rRNA in yeast. At the 5' end of the 26S RNA gene we find a sequence of thirteen nucleotides which is homologous to the type II sequence present at the 5' termini of both the 17S and the 5.8S RNA gene. These findings further support the suggestion put forward earlier (G.M. Veldman et al. (1980) Nucl. Acids Res. 8, 2907-2920) that both consensus sequences are involved in the recognition of precursor rRNA by the processing nuclease(s). We discuss a model for the processing of yeast rRNA in which a processing enzyme sequentially recognizes several combinations of a type I and a type II consensus sequence. We also describe the existence of a significant base complementarity between sequences in the 5' -terminal region of 26S rRNA and the 3' -terminal region of 5.8S rRNA. We suggest that base pairing between these sequences contributes to the binding between 5.8S and 26S rRNA. Images PMID:7312619

  10. Carotenoid biosynthesis in bacteria: In vitro studies of a crt/bch transcription factor from Rhodobacter capsulatus and carotenoid enzymes from Erwinia herbicola

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, D.A.

    1992-11-01

    A putative transcription factor in Rhodobactor capsulatus which binds upstream of the crt and bch pigment biosynthesis operons and appears to play a role in the adaptation of the organism from the aerobic to the anaerobic-photosynthetic growth mode was characterized. Chapter 2 describes the identification of this factor through an in vitro mobility shift assay, as well as the determination of its binding properties and sequence specificity. Chapter 3 focuses on the isolation of this factor. Biochemistry of later carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes derived from the non-photosynthetic bacterium, Erwinia herbicola. Chapter 4 describes the separate overexpression and in vitro analysis ofmore » two enzymes involved in the main sequence of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, lycopene cyclase and 5-carotene hydroxylase. Chapter 5 examines the overexpression and enzymology of functionally active zeaxanthin glucosyltransferase, an enzyme which carries out a more unusual transformation, converting a carotenoid into its more hydrophilic mono- and diglucoside derivatives. In addition, amino acid homology with other glucosyltransferases suggests a putative binding site for the UDP-activated glucose substrate.« less

  11. Electrical Microengineering of Redox Enzymes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-31

    coating applied to the electrode 41 to prevent lose of mediator graphite foil potassium -~0.02a 0.03  electrolyte wus dioxane with 15% 42...hexacyanoferrats(ll)d aqueous buffer carbon fiber’ none h 40-5000 biotin/avidin complex used to obtain a 43 surface layer of HRP Pt organic metal, potassium ...OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH AD-A279 015 FINAL REPORT FOR CONTRACT NOOO 14-91 -J- 1656 R&T CODE 413h007---05 ELECTRICAL MICROENGINEERING OF REDOX ENZYMES

  12. The Classification and Evolution of Enzyme Function.

    PubMed

    Martínez Cuesta, Sergio; Rahman, Syed Asad; Furnham, Nicholas; Thornton, Janet M

    2015-09-15

    Enzymes are the proteins responsible for the catalysis of life. Enzymes sharing a common ancestor as defined by sequence and structure similarity are grouped into families and superfamilies. The molecular function of enzymes is defined as their ability to catalyze biochemical reactions; it is manually classified by the Enzyme Commission and robust approaches to quantitatively compare catalytic reactions are just beginning to appear. Here, we present an overview of studies at the interface of the evolution and function of enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzyme Analysis to Determine Glucose Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Charles; Ward, Robert E.

    Enzyme analysis is used for many purposes in food science and technology. Enzyme activity is used to indicate adequate processing, to assess enzyme preparations, and to measure constituents of foods that are enzyme substrates. In this experiment, the glucose content of corn syrup solids is determined using the enzymes, glucose oxidase and peroxidase. Glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of glucose to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which then reacts with a dye in the presence of peroxidase to give a stable colored product.

  14. Applications of Microbial Enzymes in Food Industry.

    PubMed

    Raveendran, Sindhu; Parameswaran, Binod; Ummalyma, Sabeela Beevi; Abraham, Amith; Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Madhavan, Aravind; Rebello, Sharrel; Pandey, Ashok

    2018-03-01

    The use of enzymes or microorganisms in food preparations is an age-old process. With the advancement of technology, novel enzymes with wide range of applications and specificity have been developed and new application areas are still being explored. Microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi and their enzymes are widely used in several food preparations for improving the taste and texture and they offer huge economic benefits to industries. Microbial enzymes are the preferred source to plants or animals due to several advantages such as easy, cost-effective and consistent production. The present review discusses the recent advancement in enzyme technology for food industries. A comprehensive list of enzymes used in food processing, the microbial source of these enzymes and the wide range of their application are discussed.

  15. Comparative Immunological Studies of Two Pseudomonas Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Stanier, R. Y.; Wachter, D.; Gasser, Charlotte; Wilson, A. C.

    1970-01-01

    Crystalline preparations of muconate lactonizing enzyme and muconolactone isomerase, two inducible enzymes that catalyze successive steps in the catechol branch of the β-ketoadipate pathway, were used to prepare antisera. Both enzymes were isolated from a strain of Pseudomonas putida biotype A. The antisera did not cross-react with enzymes of the same bacterial strain that catalyze the chemically analogous steps in the protocatechuate branch of the β-ketoadipate pathway, carboxymuconate lactonizing enzyme and carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase. The antisera gave heterologous cross-reactions of varying intensities with the muconate lactonizing enzymes and muconolactone isomerases of P. putida biotype B, P. aeruginosa, P. stutzeri, and all biotypes of P. fluorescens, but did not cross-react with the isofunctional enzymes of P. acidovorans, of P. multivorans, and of two bacterial species that belong to other genera. The evolutionary and taxonomic implications of the findings are discussed. Images PMID:4986759

  16. DNA-Based Enzyme Reactors and Systems

    PubMed Central

    Linko, Veikko; Nummelin, Sami; Aarnos, Laura; Tapio, Kosti; Toppari, J. Jussi; Kostiainen, Mauri A.

    2016-01-01

    During recent years, the possibility to create custom biocompatible nanoshapes using DNA as a building material has rapidly emerged. Further, these rationally designed DNA structures could be exploited in positioning pivotal molecules, such as enzymes, with nanometer-level precision. This feature could be used in the fabrication of artificial biochemical machinery that is able to mimic the complex reactions found in living cells. Currently, DNA-enzyme hybrids can be used to control (multi-enzyme) cascade reactions and to regulate the enzyme functions and the reaction pathways. Moreover, sophisticated DNA structures can be utilized in encapsulating active enzymes and delivering the molecular cargo into cells. In this review, we focus on the latest enzyme systems based on novel DNA nanostructures: enzyme reactors, regulatory devices and carriers that can find uses in various biotechnological and nanomedical applications. PMID:28335267

  17. Virulence-Associated Enzymes of Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fausto; Wolf, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes play key roles in fungal pathogenesis. Manipulation of enzyme expression or activity can significantly alter the infection process, and enzyme expression profiles can be a hallmark of disease. Hence, enzymes are worthy targets for better understanding pathogenesis and identifying new options for combatting fungal infections. Advances in genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and mass spectrometry have enabled the identification and characterization of new fungal enzymes. This review focuses on recent developments in the virulence-associated enzymes from Cryptococcus neoformans. The enzymatic suite of C. neoformans has evolved for environmental survival, but several of these enzymes play a dual role in colonizing the mammalian host. We also discuss new therapeutic and diagnostic strategies that could be based on the underlying enzymology. PMID:26453651

  18. Applications of Microbial Enzymes in Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Summary The use of enzymes or microorganisms in food preparations is an age-old process. With the advancement of technology, novel enzymes with wide range of applications and specificity have been developed and new application areas are still being explored. Microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi and their enzymes are widely used in several food preparations for improving the taste and texture and they offer huge economic benefits to industries. Microbial enzymes are the preferred source to plants or animals due to several advantages such as easy, cost-effective and consistent production. The present review discusses the recent advancement in enzyme technology for food industries. A comprehensive list of enzymes used in food processing, the microbial source of these enzymes and the wide range of their application are discussed. PMID:29795993

  19. Enzyme/non-enzyme discrimination and prediction of enzyme active site location using charge-based methods.

    PubMed

    Bate, Paul; Warwicker, Jim

    2004-07-02

    Calculations of charge interactions complement analysis of a characterised active site, rationalising pH-dependence of activity and transition state stabilisation. Prediction of active site location through large DeltapK(a)s or electrostatic strain is relevant for structural genomics. We report a study of ionisable groups in a set of 20 enzymes, finding that false positives obscure predictive potential. In a larger set of 156 enzymes, peaks in solvent-space electrostatic properties are calculated. Both electric field and potential match well to active site location. The best correlation is found with electrostatic potential calculated from uniform charge density over enzyme volume, rather than from assignment of a standard atom-specific charge set. Studying a shell around each molecule, for 77% of enzymes the potential peak is within that 5% of the shell closest to the active site centre, and 86% within 10%. Active site identification by largest cleft, also with projection onto a shell, gives 58% of enzymes for which the centre of the largest cleft lies within 5% of the active site, and 70% within 10%. Dielectric boundary conditions emphasise clefts in the uniform charge density method, which is suited to recognition of binding pockets embedded within larger clefts. The variation of peak potential with distance from active site, and comparison between enzyme and non-enzyme sets, gives an optimal threshold distinguishing enzyme from non-enzyme. We find that 87% of the enzyme set exceeds the threshold as compared to 29% of the non-enzyme set. Enzyme/non-enzyme homologues, "structural genomics" annotated proteins and catalytic/non-catalytic RNAs are studied in this context.

  20. The fruRBA Operon Is Necessary for Group A Streptococcal Growth in Fructose and for Resistance to Neutrophil Killing during Growth in Whole Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Kayla M; Sundar, Ganesh S; Vega, Luis A; Belew, Ashton T; Islam, Emrul; Binet, Rachel; El-Sayed, Najib M; Le Breton, Yoann; McIver, Kevin S

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on the availability of nutrients for survival in the host environment. The phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a global regulatory network connecting sugar uptake with signal transduction. Since the fructose PTS has been shown to impact virulence in several streptococci, including the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes(the group A Streptococcus[GAS]), we characterized its role in carbon metabolism and pathogenesis in the M1T1 strain 5448. Growth in fructose as a sole carbon source resulted in 103 genes affected transcriptionally, where the frulocus (fruRBA) was the most induced. Reverse transcriptase PCR showed that fruRBA formed an operon which was repressed by FruR in the absence of fructose, in addition to being under carbon catabolic repression. Growth assays and carbon utilization profiles revealed that although the entire fruoperon was required for growth in fructose, FruA was the main transporter for fructose and also was involved in the utilization of three additional PTS sugars: cellobiose, mannitol, and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. The inactivation of sloR, a fruA homolog that also was upregulated in the presence of fructose, failed to reveal a role as a secondary fructose transporter. Whereas the ability of both ΔfruR and ΔfruB mutants to survive in the presence of whole human blood or neutrophils was impaired, the phenotype was not reproduced in murine whole blood, and those mutants were not attenuated in a mouse intraperitoneal infection. Since the ΔfruA mutant exhibited no phenotype in the human or mouse assays, we propose that FruR and FruB are important for GAS survival in a human-specific environment. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Elucidation of the regulatory role of the fructose operon reveals a novel target for enhancing the NADPH supply in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihao; Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Sudarsan, Suresh; Blank, Lars M; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Solem, Christian

    2016-11-01

    The performance of Corynebacterium glutamicum cell factories producing compounds which rely heavily on NADPH has been reported to depend on the sugar being metabolized. While some aspects of this phenomenon have been elucidated, there are still many unresolved questions as to how sugar metabolism is linked to redox and to the general metabolism. We here provide new insights into the regulation of the metabolism of this important platform organism by systematically characterizing mutants carrying various lesions in the fructose operon. Initially, we found that a strain where the dedicated fructose uptake system had been inactivated (KO-ptsF) was hampered in growth on sucrose minimal medium, and suppressor mutants appeared readily. Comparative genomic analysis in conjunction with enzymatic assays revealed that suppression was linked to inactivation of the pfkB gene, encoding a fructose-1-phosphate kinase. Detailed characterization of KO-ptsF, KO-pfkB and double knock-out (DKO) derivatives revealed a strong role for sugar-phosphates, especially fructose-1-phosphate (F1P), in governing sugar as well as redox metabolism due to effects on transcriptional regulation of key genes. These findings allowed us to propose a simple model explaining the correlation between sugar phosphate concentration, gene expression and ultimately the observed phenotype. To guide us in our analysis and help us identify bottlenecks in metabolism we debugged an existing genome-scale model onto which we overlaid the transcriptome data. Based on the results obtained we managed to enhance the NADPH supply and transform the wild-type strain into delivering the highest yield of lysine ever obtained on sucrose and fructose, thus providing a good example of how regulatory mechanisms can be harnessed for bioproduction. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the vhoGAC and vhtGAC operons from Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1, both encoding a membrane-bound hydrogenase and a cytochrome b.

    PubMed

    Deppenmeier, U; Blaut, M; Lentes, S; Herzberg, C; Gottschalk, G

    1995-01-15

    DNA encompassing the structural genes of two membrane-bound hydrogenases from Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 was cloned and sequenced. The genes, arranged in the order vhoG and vhoA as well as vhtG and vhtA, were identified as those encoding the small and the large subunits of the NiFe hydrogenases [Deppenmeier, U., Blaut, M., Schmidt, B. & Gottschalk, G. (1992) Arch. Microbiol. 157, 505-511]. Northern-blot analysis revealed that the structural genes formed part of two operons, both containing one additional open reading frame (vhoC and vhtC) which codes for a cytochrome b. This conclusion was drawn from the homology of the deduced N-terminal amino acid sequences of vhoC and vhtC and the N-terminus of a 27-kDa cytochrome isolated from Ms. mazei C16. VhoC and VhtC contain four tentative hydrophobic segments which might span the cytoplasmic membrane. Hydropathy plots suggest that His23 and His50 are involved in heme coordination. The comparison of the sequencing data of vhoG and vhtG with the experimentally determined N-terminus of the small subunit indicate the presence of a 48-amino-acid leader peptide in front of the polypeptides. VhoA and VhtA contained the conserved sequence DPCXXC in the C-terminal region, which excludes the presence of a selenocysteine residue in these hydrogenases. Promoter sequences were found upstream of vhoG and vhtG, respectively. Downstream of vhoC, a putative terminator sequence was identified. Alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences of the gene clusters vhoGAC and vhtGAC showed 92-97% identity. Only the C-termini of VhoC and VhtC were not similar.

  3. An unusual Tn21-like transposon containing an ars operon is present in highly arsenic-resistant strains of the biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus caldus.

    PubMed

    Tuffin, I Marla; de Groot, Peter; Deane, Shelly M; Rawlings, Douglas E

    2005-09-01

    A transposon, TnAtcArs, that carries a set of arsenic-resistance genes was isolated from a strain of the moderately thermophilic, sulfur-oxidizing, biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus caldus. This strain originated from a commercial plant used for the bio-oxidation of gold-bearing arsenopyrite concentrates. Continuous selection for arsenic resistance over many years had made the bacterium resistant to high concentrations of arsenic. Sequence analysis indicated that TnAtcArs is 12 444 bp in length and has 40 bp terminal inverted repeat sequences and divergently transcribed resolvase and transposase genes that are related to the Tn21-transposon subfamily. A series of genes consisting of arsR, two tandem copies of arsA and arsD, two ORFs (7 and 8) and arsB is situated between the resolvase and transposase genes. Although some commercial strains of At. caldus contained the arsDA duplication, when transformed into Escherichia coli, the arsDA duplication was unstable and was frequently lost during cultivation or if a plasmid containing TnAtcArs was conjugated into a recipient strain. TnAtcArs conferred resistance to arsenite and arsenate upon E. coli cells. Deletion of one copy of arsDA had no noticeable effect on resistance to arsenite or arsenate in E. coli. ORFs 7 and 8 had clear sequence similarity to an NADH oxidase and a CBS-domain-containing protein, respectively, but their deletion did not affect resistance to arsenite or arsenate in E. coli. TnAtcArs was actively transposed in E. coli, but no increase in transposition frequency in the presence of arsenic was detected. Northern hybridization and reporter gene studies indicated that although ArsR regulated the 10 kb operon containing the arsenic-resistance genes in response to arsenic, ArsR had no effect on the regulation of genes associated with transposition activity.

  4. Cloning of hydrogenase genes and fine structure analysis of an operon essential for H/sub 2/ metabolism in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Sankar, P.; Lee, J.H.; Shanmugam, K.T.

    1985-04-01

    Escherichia coli has two unlinked genes that code for hydrogenase synthesis and activity. The DNA fragments containing the two genes (hydA and hydB) were cloned into a plasmid vector, pBR322. The plasmids containing the hyd genes (pSE-290 and pSE-111 carrying the hydA and hydB genes, respectively) were used to genetically map a total of 51 mutant strains with defects in hydrogenase activity. A total of 37 mutants carried a mutation in the hydB gene, whereas the remaining 14 hyd were hydA. This complementation analysis also established the presence of two new genes, so far unidentified, one coding for formate dehydrogenase-2more » (fdv) and another producing an electron transport protein (fhl) coupling formate dehydrogenase-2 to hydrogenase. Three of the four genes, hydB, fhl, and fdv, may constitute a single operon, and all three genes are carried by a 5.6-kilobase-pair chromosomal DNA insert in plasmid pSE-128. Plasmids carrying a part of this 5.6-kilobase-pair DNA (pSE-130) or fragments derived from this DNA in different orientations (pSE-126 and pSE-129) inhibited the production of active formate hydrogenlyase. This inhibition occurred even in a prototrophic E. coli, strain K-10, but only during an early induction period. These results, based on complementation analysis with cloned DNA fragments, show that both hydA and hydB genes are essential for the production of active hydrogenase. For the expression of active formate hydrogenlyase, two other gene products, fhl and fdv are also needed. All four genes map between 58 and 59 min in the E. coli chromosome.« less

  5. The flagellar master operon flhDC is a pleiotropic regulator involved in motility and virulence of the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    Jozwick, A K S; Graf, J; Welch, T J

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the function of the master flagellar operon flhDC in the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri and compare the effect of a constructed flhD mutation to a naturally occurring fliR mutation causing loss-of-motility in emergent biotype 2 (BT2) strains. Yersinia ruckeri flhD and fliR mutants were constructed in a motile strain. Both mutations caused loss-of-motility, ablation of flagellin synthesis and phospholipase secretion, similar to naturally occurring BT2 strains. Transcriptome analysis confirmed flhDC regulation of flagellar, chemotaxis and phospholipase loci as well as other genes of diverse function. The flhD mutation confers a competitive advantage within the fish host when compared with its parent strain, while this advantage was not seen with the naturally occurring fliR mutation. An intact flhD is necessary for expression of the flagellar secretion system as well as other diverse loci, consistent with a role for flhD as a pleiotropic regulator. The maintenance of the flhD locus in Y. ruckeri strains suggests its importance for aspects of Y. ruckeri biology other than virulence, since the flhD mutation conferred a competitive advantage during experimental challenge of rainbow trout. Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease, an invasive septicaemia that affects farmed salmonid fish species. Disease outbreaks can cause severe economic losses in aquaculture. BT2 variants, which have independently emerged worldwide, are an increasing threat to farmed fish production. Knowledge of mechanisms involved in virulence, conserved functions and gene regulation among strains may be exploited for the development of novel disease control strategies to prevent pathogen growth or virulence phenotypes within aquaculture. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Enzymes, detergents and skin: facts and fantasies.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D A; English, J S C; Wakelin, S H; White, I R

    2008-06-01

    In their raw state, enzymes of bacterial/fungal origin cause allergic reactions in the lung. Proteolytic enzymes also cause irritation to skin, eyes and the respiratory tract. For 40 years, encapsulated enzymes have been used worldwide in detergent products, especially laundry formulations, and have increasing importance due to biodegradability and functionality at low temperatures, offering environmental benefits. Uniquely to the U.K., for years it has been suggested that the inclusion of enzymes in such products leads to adverse skin reactions, including erythema, pruritus and exacerbation of eczema. In this review, we look at the facts, asking whether there is evidence that the hazards identified for enzymes translate into any risk for consumer health. By considering the actual exposures in consumer use and exaggerated product usage, it is concluded that the irritating and allergenic hazards of enzyme raw materials do not translate into a risk of skin reactions, either irritant or allergic. Investigations of numerous individuals with skin complaints attributed to laundry products demonstrate convincingly that enzymes were not responsible. Indeed, enzyme-containing laundry products have an extensive history of safe use. Thus, the supposed adverse effects of enzymes on skin seem to be a consequence of a mythology. The important practical lesson is that when primary or secondary care practitioners are presented with a skin complaint, it should not be dismissed as a result of using an enzyme-containing laundry product as the diagnosis will certainly lie elsewhere. Education for healthcare professionals could usefully be enhanced to take this on board.

  7. Electric Fields and Enzyme Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Stephen D.; Boxer, Steven G.

    2017-01-01

    What happens inside an enzyme’s active site to allow slow and difficult chemical reactions to occur so rapidly? This question has occupied biochemists’ attention for a long time. Computer models of increasing sophistication have predicted an important role for electrostatic interactions in enzymatic reactions, yet this hypothesis has proved vexingly difficult to test experimentally. Recent experiments utilizing the vibrational Stark effect make it possible to measure the electric field a substrate molecule experiences when bound inside its enzyme’s active site. These experiments have provided compelling evidence supporting a major electrostatic contribution to enzymatic catalysis. Here, we review these results and develop a simple model for electrostatic catalysis that enables us to incorporate disparate concepts introduced by many investigators to describe how enzymes work into a more unified framework stressing the importance of electric fields at the active site. PMID:28375745

  8. Carboxylic acid reductase enzymes (CARs).

    PubMed

    Winkler, Margit

    2018-04-01

    Carboxylate reductases (CARs) are emerging as valuable catalysts for the selective one-step reduction of carboxylic acids to their corresponding aldehydes. The substrate scope of CARs is exceptionally broad and offers potential for their application in diverse synthetic processes. Two major fields of application are the preparation of aldehydes as end products for the flavor and fragrance sector and the integration of CARs in cascade reactions with aldehydes as the key intermediates. The latest applications of CARs are dominated by in vivo cascades and chemo-enzymatic reaction sequences. The challenge to fully exploit product selectivity is discussed. Recent developments in the characterization of CARs are summarized, with a focus on aspects related to the domain architecture and protein sequences of CAR enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enzymes in Fish and Seafood Processing

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes have been used for the production and processing of fish and seafood for several centuries in an empirical manner. In recent decades, a growing trend toward a rational and controlled application of enzymes for such goals has emerged. Underlying such pattern are, among others, the increasingly wider array of enzyme activities and enzyme sources, improved enzyme formulations, and enhanced requirements for cost-effective and environmentally friendly processes. The better use of enzyme action in fish- and seafood-related application has had a significant impact on fish-related industry. Thus, new products have surfaced, product quality has improved, more sustainable processes have been developed, and innovative and reliable analytical techniques have been implemented. Recent development in these fields are presented and discussed, and prospective developments are suggested. PMID:27458583

  10. [Hepatic allopurinol oxidizing enzyme in mice].

    PubMed

    Huh, K; Iwata, H; Yamamoto, I

    1975-03-01

    The relationship between allopurinol oxidizing enzyme and aldehyde oxidase was investaged in mice. The oxidation of both N-methylnicotinamide and allopurinol appears to be catalized by a single enzyme, aldehyde oxidase (aldehyde-oxygen oxidoreductase EC, 1.2.3.1.). This conclusion is based on the following evidence; The postnatal changes of allopurinol and N-methylnicotinamide oxidizing activities were similar during growth and the levels of both activities increased in a parallel fashion upon the attainment of sexual maturity. The rates of loss of the activities of both enzymes by heat denaturation as well as dexamethasone administration were similar. The inhibitors of allopurinol oxidizing enzyme also suppressed N-methylnicotinamide oxidation. Competition of N-methylnicotineamide and allopurinol for oxidation was demonstrated. The rate of increase of the activities in both enzymes was almost parallel during each step of the purification from mouse liver supernatant. It was ascertained that xanthine oxidase in the enzyme preparation does not influence allopurinol oxidation.

  11. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes. PMID:21747869

  12. Virus scaffolds as enzyme nano-carriers.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Daniela; Carette, Noëlle; Michon, Thierry

    2012-07-01

    The cooperative organization of enzymes by cells is a key feature for the efficiency of living systems. In the field of nanotechnologies, effort currently aims at mimicking this natural organization. Nanoscale resolution and high-registration alignment are necessary to control enzyme distribution in nano-containers or on the surface of solid supports. Virus capsid self-assembly is driven by precise supramolecular combinations of protein monomers, which have made them attractive building blocks to engineer enzyme nano-carriers (ENCs). We discuss some examples of what in our opinion constitute the latest advances in the use of plant viruses, bacteriophages and virus-like particles (VLPs) as nano-scaffolds for enzyme selection, enzyme confinement and patterning, phage therapy, raw material processing, and single molecule enzyme kinetics studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A thermal biosensor based on enzyme reaction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi-Hua; Hua, Tse-Chao; Xu, Fei

    2005-01-01

    Application of the thermal biosensor as analytical tool is promising due to advantages as universal, simplicity and quick response. A novel thermal biosensor based on enzyme reaction has been developed. This biosensor is a flow injection analysis system and consists of two channels with enzyme reaction column and reference column. The reference column, which is set for eliminating the unspecific heat, is inactived on special enzyme reaction of the ingredient to be detected. The special enzyme reaction takes places in the enzyme reaction column at a constant temperature realizing by a thermoelectric thermostat. Thermal sensor based on the thermoelectric module containing 127 serial BiTe-thermocouples is used to monitor the temperature difference between two streams from the enzyme reaction column and the reference column. The analytical example for dichlorvos shows that this biosensor can be used as analytical tool in medicine and biology.

  14. How Do Enzymes 'Meet' Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials?

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Piao; Lai, Cui; Tang, Lin

    2017-11-01

    Enzymes are fundamental biological catalysts responsible for biological regulation and metabolism. The opportunity for enzymes to 'meet' nanoparticles and nanomaterials is rapidly increasing due to growing demands for applications in nanomaterial design, environmental monitoring, biochemical engineering, and biomedicine. Therefore, understanding the nature of nanomaterial-enzyme interactions is becoming important. Since 2014, enzymes have been used to modify, degrade, or make nanoparticles/nanomaterials, while numerous nanoparticles/nanomaterials have been used as materials for enzymatic immobilization and biosensors and as enzyme mimicry. Among the various nanoparticles and nanomaterials, metal nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials have received extensive attention due to their fascinating properties. This review provides an overview about how enzymes meet nanoparticles and nanomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of Enzymes from Marine Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X Q; Xu, X N; Chen, L Y

    Marine actinobacteria are well recognized for their capabilities to produce valuable natural products, which have great potential for applications in medical, agricultural, and fine chemical industries. In addition to producing unique enzymes responsible for biosynthesis of natural products, many marine actinobacteria also produce hydrolytic enzymes which are able to degrade various biopolymers, such as cellulose, xylan, and chitin. These enzymes are important to produce biofuels and biochemicals of interest from renewable biomass. In this chapter, the recent reports of novel enzymes produced by marine actinobacteria are reviewed, and advanced technologies that can be applied to search for novel marine enzymes as well as for improved enzyme production by marine actinobacteria are summarized, which include ribosome engineering, genome mining, as well as synthetic biology studies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Extracellular enzymes produced by marine eukaryotes, thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Taoka, Yousuke; Nagano, Naoki; Okita, Yuji; Izumida, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular enzymes produced by six strains of thraustochytrids, Thraustochytrium, Schizochytrium, and Aurantiochytrium, were investigated. These strains produced 5 to 8 kinds of the extracellular enzymes, depending on the species. Only the genus Thraustochytrium produced amylase. When insoluble cellulose was used as substrate, cellulase was not detected in the six strains of thraustochytrids. This study indicates that marine eukaryotes, thraustochytrids, produced a wide variety of extracellular enzymes.

  17. Advanced development of immobilized enzyme reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.; Schussel, Leonard J.; Carter, Layne

    1991-01-01

    Fixed-bed reactors have been used at NASA-Marshall to purify wastewater generated by an end-use equipment facility, on the basis of a combination of multifiltration unibeds and enzyme unibeds. The enzyme beds were found to effectively remove such targeted organics as urea, alcohols, and aldehydes, down to levels lying below detection limits. The enzyme beds were also found to remove organic contaminants not specifically targeted.

  18. [Advances on enzymes and enzyme inhibitors research based on microfluidic devices].

    PubMed

    Hou, Feng-Hua; Ye, Jian-Qing; Chen, Zuan-Guang; Cheng, Zhi-Yi

    2010-06-01

    With the continuous development in microfluidic fabrication technology, microfluidic analysis has evolved from a concept to one of research frontiers in last twenty years. The research of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors based on microfluidic devices has also made great progress. Microfluidic technology improved greatly the analytical performance of the research of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors by reducing the consumption of reagents, decreasing the analysis time, and developing automation. This review focuses on the development and classification of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors research based on microfluidic devices.

  19. Thermometric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay: TELISA.

    PubMed

    Mattiasson, B; Borrebaeck, C; Sanfridson, B; Mosbach, K

    1977-08-11

    A new method, thermometric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (TELISA), for the assay of endogenous and exogenous compounds in biological fluids is described. It is based on the previously described enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique, ELISA, but utilizes enzymic heat formation which is measured in an enzyme thermistor unit. In the model system studied determination of human serum albumin down to a concentration of 10(-10) M (5 ng/ml) was achieved, with both normal and catalase labelled human serum albumin competing for the binding sites on the immunosorbent, which was rabbit antihuman serum albumin immobilized onto Sepharose CL-4B.

  20. Designing Artificial Enzymes by Intuition and Computation

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Vikas; Koder, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    The rational design of artificial enzymes either by applying physio-chemical intuition of protein structure and function or with the aid of computation methods is a promising area of research with the potential to tremendously impact medicine, industrial chemistry and energy production. Designed proteins also provide a powerful platform for dissecting enzyme mechanisms of natural systems. Artificial enzymes have come a long way, from simple α-helical peptide catalysts to proteins that facilitate multi-step chemical reactions designed by state-of-the-art computational methods. Looking forward, we examine strategies employed by natural enzymes which could be used to improve the speed and selectivity of artificial catalysts. PMID:21124375

  1. Finding Sequences for over 270 Orphan Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Alexander G.; Altman, Tomer; Rhee, Christine D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in sequencing technology, there are still significant numbers of well-characterized enzymatic activities for which there are no known associated sequences. These ‘orphan enzymes’ represent glaring holes in our biological understanding, and it is a top priority to reunite them with their coding sequences. Here we report a methodology for resolving orphan enzymes through a combination of database search and literature review. Using this method we were able to reconnect over 270 orphan enzymes with their corresponding sequence. This success points toward how we can systematically eliminate the remaining orphan enzymes and prevent the introduction of future orphan enzymes. PMID:24826896

  2. Enzyme reactor design under thermal inactivation.

    PubMed

    Illanes, Andrés; Wilson, Lorena

    2003-01-01

    Temperature is a very relevant variable for any bioprocess. Temperature optimization of bioreactor operation is a key aspect for process economics. This is especially true for enzyme-catalyzed processes, because enzymes are complex, unstable catalysts whose technological potential relies on their operational stability. Enzyme reactor design is presented with a special emphasis on the effect of thermal inactivation. Enzyme thermal inactivation is a very complex process from a mechanistic point of view. However, for the purpose of enzyme reactor design, it has been oversimplified frequently, considering one-stage first-order kinetics of inactivation and data gathered under nonreactive conditions that poorly represent the actual conditions within the reactor. More complex mechanisms are frequent, especially in the case of immobilized enzymes, and most important is the effect of catalytic modulators (substrates and products) on enzyme stability under operation conditions. This review focuses primarily on reactor design and operation under modulated thermal inactivation. It also presents a scheme for bioreactor temperature optimization, based on validated temperature-explicit functions for all the kinetic and inactivation parameters involved. More conventional enzyme reactor design is presented merely as a background for the purpose of highlighting the need for a deeper insight into enzyme inactivation for proper bioreactor design.

  3. Modified kinetics of enzymes interacting with nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Sebastián. A.; Breger, Joyce C.; Malanoski, Anthony; Claussen, Jonathan C.; Walper, Scott A.; Ancona, Mario G.; Brown, Carl W.; Stewart, Michael H.; Oh, Eunkeu; Susumu, Kimihiro; Medintz, Igor L.

    2015-08-01

    Enzymes are important players in multiple applications, be it bioremediation, biosynthesis, or as reporters. The business of catalysis and inhibition of enzymes is a multibillion dollar industry and understanding the kinetics of commercial enzymes can have a large impact on how these systems are optimized. Recent advances in nanotechnology have opened up the field of nanoparticle (NP) and enzyme conjugates and two principal architectures for NP conjugate systems have been developed. In the first example the enzyme is bound to the NP in a persistent manner, here we find that key factors such as directed enzyme conjugation allow for enhanced kinetics. Through controlled comparative experiments we begin to tease out specific mechanisms that may account for the enhancement. The second system is based on dynamic interactions of the enzymes with the NP. The enzyme substrate is bound to the NP and the enzyme is free in solution. Here again we find that there are many variables , such as substrate positioning and NP selection, that modify the kinetics.

  4. Pectinolytic enzymes of anaerobic fungi.

    PubMed

    Kopecný, J; Hodrová, B

    1995-05-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes of four rumen fungi have been described. Three fungal species were monocentric Neocallimastix spp. H15, JL3 and OC2, and one isolate was a polycentric strain of Orpinomyces joyonii, A4. They differed in degree of pectin degradation and utilization. Only the strain Neocallimastix sp. H15 and partially Orpinomyces joyonii A4 were able to utilize pectin to a higher extent. The most important pectinolytic activity in all these isolates represented pectin lyase (EC 4.2.2.10) and polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15). Their specific activities were in the range of 100-900 and 10-450 micrograms galacturonic acid h-1 mg protein-1 for pectin lyase and polygalacturonase, respectively. Polygalacturonase, located mainly in the endocellular fraction, was inhibited by calcium ions and had the main pH optimum at pH 6.0. All strains produced pectate lyase (EC 4.2.2.2). None of the strains tested produced pectinesterase (EC 3.1.1.11).

  5. Trehalase: A New Pollen Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Gussin, Arnold E. S.; McCormack, Jeffrey H.; Waung, Lucille Yih-Lo; Gluckin, Doreen S.

    1969-01-01

    Pollen from 5 plant species (Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium Mill., Hermerocallis minor Mill., Galtonia condicans Decne., Camellia japonica L., and Lathyrus odoratus L.) representing 4 families germinated well in media containing trehalose as the sole carbon source. Data are presented indicating that pollen metabolized this disaccharide for germination and subsequent pollen-tube growth; the sugar was not merely an osmoregulator. An inhibitor of trehalase activity depressed germination in trehalose but not in sucrose. Phloridzin dihydrate, an inhibitor of glucose transport, depressed germination in both disaccharides. Biochemical tests demonstrated that a pollen extract was capable of hydrolyzing trehalose to its constituent glucose monomers. Heat inactivation experiments confirmed the presence of a distinct trehalase having a rigid specificity for its substrate. By this method, trehalase activity was completely distinguishable from the activities of other α- and β-glucosidases and β-galactosidases. Localization data indicated that the enzyme diffused from intact grains and was probably soluble. The presence of its substrate could not be demonstrated in pollen or in stigmatic or stylar tissues. PMID:5379538

  6. Trehalase: a new pollen enzyme.

    PubMed

    Gussin, A E; McCormack, J H; Waung, L Y; Gluckin, D S

    1969-08-01

    Pollen from 5 plant species (Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium Mill., Hermerocallis minor Mill., Galtonia condicans Decne., Camellia japonica L., and Lathyrus odoratus L.) representing 4 families germinated well in media containing trehalose as the sole carbon source. Data are presented indicating that pollen metabolized this disaccharide for germination and subsequent pollen-tube growth; the sugar was not merely an osmoregulator. An inhibitor of trehalase activity depressed germination in trehalose but not in sucrose. Phloridzin dihydrate, an inhibitor of glucose transport, depressed germination in both disaccharides. Biochemical tests demonstrated that a pollen extract was capable of hydrolyzing trehalose to its constituent glucose monomers. Heat inactivation experiments confirmed the presence of a distinct trehalase having a rigid specificity for its substrate. By this method, trehalase activity was completely distinguishable from the activities of other alpha- and beta-glucosidases and beta-galactosidases. Localization data indicated that the enzyme diffused from intact grains and was probably soluble. The presence of its substrate could not be demonstrated in pollen or in stigmatic or stylar tissues.

  7. Spectroscopy of Cu(II)-PcoC and the multicopper oxidase function of PcoA, two essential components of Escherichia coli pco copper resistance operon.

    PubMed

    Huffman, David L; Huyett, Jennifer; Outten, F Wayne; Doan, Peter E; Finney, Lydia A; Hoffman, Brian M; O'Halloran, Thomas V

    2002-08-06

    The plasmid-encoded pco copper resistance operon in Escherichia coli consists of seven genes that are expressed from two pco promoters in response to elevated copper; however, little is known about how they mediate resistance to excess environmental copper. Two of the genes encode the soluble periplasmic proteins PcoA and PcoC. We show here that inactivation of PcoC, and PcoA to a lesser extent, causes cells to become more sensitive to copper than wild-type nonresistant strains, consistent with a tightly coupled detoxification pathway. Periplasmic extracts show copper-inducible oxidase activity, attributed to the multicopper oxidase function of PcoA. PcoC, a much smaller protein than PcoA, binds one Cu(II) and exhibits a weak electronic transition characteristic of a type II copper center. ENDOR and ESEEM spectroscopy of Cu(II)-PcoC and the (15)N- and Met-CD(3)-labeled samples are consistent with a tetragonal ligand environment of three nitrogens and one aqua ligand "in the plane". A weakly associated S-Met and aqua are likely axial ligands. At least one N is a histidine and is likely trans to the in-plane aqua ligand. The copper chemistry of PcoC and the oxidase function of PcoA are consistent with the emerging picture of the chromosomally encoded copper homeostasis apparatus in the E. coli cell envelope [Outten, F. W., Huffman, D. L., Hale, J. A., and O'Halloran, T. V. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 30670-30677]. We propose a model for the plasmid system in which Cu(I)-PcoC functions in this copper efflux pathway as a periplasmic copper binding protein that docks with the multiple repeats of Met-rich domains in PcoA to effect oxidation of Cu(I) to the less toxic Cu(II) form. The solvent accessibility of the Cu(II) in PcoC may allow for metal transfer to other plasmid and chromosomal factors and thus facilitate removal of Cu(II) from the cell envelope.

  8. Electrostatic occlusion and quaternary structural ion pairing are key determinants of Cu(I)-mediated allostery in the copper-sensing operon repressor (CsoR).

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Ming James; Martin, Julia E; Giedroc, David P

    2015-04-21

    The copper-sensing operon repressor (CsoR) is an all-α-helical disc-shaped D2-symmetric homotetramer that forms a 2:1 tetramer/DNA operator complex and represses the expression of copper-resistance genes in a number of bacteria. A previous bioinformatics analysis of CsoR-family repressors distributes Cu(I)-sensing CsoRs in four of seven distinct clades on the basis of global sequence similarity. In this work, we define energetically important determinants of DNA binding in the apo-state (ΔΔGbind), and for allosteric negative coupling of Cu(I) binding to DNA binding (ΔΔGc) in a model clade IV CsoR from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (Gt) of known structure, by selectively targeting for mutagenesis those charged residues uniquely conserved in clade IV CsoRs. These include a folded N-terminal "tail" and a number of Cu(I)-sensor and clade-specific residues that when mapped onto a model of Cu(I)-bound Gt CsoR define a path across one face of the tetramer. We find that Cu(I)-binding prevents formation of the 2:1 "sandwich" complex rather than DNA binding altogether. Folding of the N-terminal tail (residues R18, E22, R74) upon Cu-binding to the periphery of the tetramer inhibits assembly of the 2:1 apoprotein-DNA complex. In contrast, Ala substitution of residues that surround the central "hole" (R65, K101) in the tetramer, as well R48, impact DNA binding. We also identify a quaternary structural ion-pair, E73-K101″, that crosses the tetramer interface, charge-reversal of which restores DNA binding activity, allosteric regulation by Cu(I), and transcriptional derepression by Cu(I) in cells. These findings suggest an "electrostatic occlusion" model, in which basic residues important for DNA binding and/or allostery become sequestered via ion-pairing specifically in the Cu(I)-bound state, and this aids in copper-dependent disassembly of a repression complex.

  9. Characterization of a novel chaperone/usher fimbrial operon present on KpGI-5, a methionine tRNA gene-associated genomic island in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several strain-specific Klebsiella pneumoniae virulence determinants have been described, though these have almost exclusively been linked with hypervirulent liver abscess-associated strains. Through PCR interrogation of integration hotspots, chromosome walking, island-tagging and fosmid-based marker rescue we captured and sequenced KpGI-5, a novel genomic island integrated into the met56 tRNA gene of K. pneumoniae KR116, a bloodstream isolate from a patient with pneumonia and neutropenic sepsis. Results The 14.0 kb KpGI-5 island exhibited a genome-anomalous G + C content, possessed near-perfect 46 bp direct repeats, encoded a γ1-chaperone/usher fimbrial cluster (fim2) and harboured seven other predicted genes of unknown function. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated expression of three fim2 genes, and suggested that the fim2A-fim2K cluster comprised an operon. As fimbrial systems are frequently implicated in pathogenesis, we examined the role of fim2 by analysing KR2107, a streptomycin-resistant derivative of KR116, and three isogenic mutants (Δfim, Δfim2 and ΔfimΔfim2) using biofilm assays, human cell adhesion assays and pair-wise competition-based murine models of intestinal colonization, lung infection and ascending urinary tract infection. Although no statistically significant role for fim2 was demonstrable, liver and kidney CFU counts for lung and urinary tract infection models, respectively, hinted at an ordered gradation of virulence: KR2107 (most virulent), KR2107∆fim2, KR2107∆fim and KR2107∆fim∆fim2 (least virulent). Thus, despite lack of statistical evidence there was a suggestion that fim and fim2 contribute additively to virulence in these murine infection models. However, further studies would be necessary to substantiate this hypothesis. Conclusion Although fim2 was present in 13% of Klebsiella spp. strains investigated, no obvious in vitro or in vivo role for the locus was identified, although there were subtle hints of

  10. Sequence and genetic organization of a Zymomonas mobilis gene cluster that encodes several enzymes of glucose metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Barnell, W.O.; Kyung Cheol Yi; Conway, T.

    1990-12-01

    The Zymomonas mobilis genes that encode glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (zwf), 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase (edd), and glucokinase (glk) were cloned independently by genetic complementation of specific defects in Escherichia coli metabolism. The identify of these cloned genes was confirmed by various biochemical means. Nucleotide sequence analysis established that these three genes are clustered on the genome and revealed an additional open reading frame in this region that has significant amino acid identity to the E.coli xylose-proton symporter and the human glucose transporter. On the basis of this evidence and structural analysis of the deduced primary amino acid sequence, this gene is believed tomore » encode the Z. mobilis glucose-facilitated diffusion protein, glf. The four genes in the 6-kb cluster are organized in the order glf, zwf, edd, glk. The glf and zwf genes are separated by 146 bp. The zwf and edd genes overlap by 8 bp, and their expression may be translationally coupled. The edd and glk genes are separated by 203 bp. The glk gene is followed by tandem transcriptional terminators. The four genes appear to be organized in an operon. Such an arrangement of the genes that govern glucose uptake and the first three steps of the Entner-Doudoroff glycolytic pathway provides the organism with a mechanism for carefully regulating the levels of the enzymes that control carbon flux into the pathway.« less

  11. Enzyme exposure in the British baking industry.

    PubMed

    Elms, J; Robinson, E; Mason, H; Iqbal, S; Garrod, A; Evans, G S

    2006-06-01

    Enzymes are commonly used in the baking industry, as they can improve dough quality and texture and lengthen the shelf life of the final product. There is little published information highlighting exposure to enzymes (other than fungal alpha-amylase) in the baking industry, therefore the purpose of this study was to identify antibodies and develop assays for the measurement of a variety of such enzymes in samples of airborne flour dust. Polyclonal antibodies to bacterial amylase, glucose oxidase and amyloglucosidase were identified and developed into ELISA assays. The assays showed limited cross-reactivity with other enzymes commonly used in the baking industry. We measured levels of airborne enzymes in 195 personal air samples taken from a sample of 55 craft baking establishments. We were able to detect amyloglucosidase in 9% (16/184) of the samples, fungal alpha-amylase in 6% (11/171), bacterial alpha-amylase in 7% (13/195). However, we were unable to detect glucose oxidase in any of the samples. Measurements for protease enzymes were not carried out. Median levels in detectable samples of amyloglucosidase, fungal alpha-amylase and bacterial amylase were similar at 10.3, 5.3 and 5.9 ng/m(3), respectively. These figures represent the total enzyme protein (active and inactive) measured. There are few data in the literature regarding sensitization and exposure-response relationships to these enzymes, and indeed there is often a lack of information within the industry as to the precise enzyme content of particular baking ingredients. As a precautionary measure, all enzymes are regarded as having the potential to cause respiratory sensitization. Consequently, exposures need to be controlled to as low a level as reasonably practicable, and future investigation may highlight the importance of measuring a variety of enzyme exposures and standardizing these methodologies to inform approaches to adequate control.

  12. Direct Electron Transfer of Enzymes in a Biologically Assembled Conductive Nanomesh Enzyme Platform.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Ki-Young; Song, Yong-Won; Choi, Won Kook; Chang, Joonyeon; Yi, Hyunjung

    2016-02-24

    Nondestructive assembly of a nanostructured enzyme platform is developed in combination of the specific biomolecular attraction and electrostatic coupling for highly efficient direct electron transfer (DET) of enzymes with unprecedented applicability and versatility. The biologically assembled conductive nanomesh enzyme platform enables DET-based flexible integrated biosensors and DET of eight different enzyme with various catalytic activities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Restriction Enzyme Mapping: A Simple Student Practical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Stephen J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An experiment that uses the recombinant plasmid pX1108 to illustrate restriction mapping is described. The experiment involves three restriction enzymes and employs single and double restriction enzyme digestions. A list of needed materials, procedures, safety precautions, results, and discussion are included. (KR)

  14. Enzyme Activity Experiments Using a Simple Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Experimental procedures for studying enzyme activity using a Spectronic 20 spectrophotometer are described. The experiments demonstrate the effect of pH, temperature, and inhibitors on enzyme activity and allow the determination of Km, Vmax, and Kcat. These procedures are designed for teaching large lower-level biochemistry classes. (MR)

  15. A DNA enzyme that cleaves RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, R. R.; Joyce, G. F.; Hoyce, G. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several types of RNA enzymes (ribozymes) have been identified in biological systems and generated in the laboratory. Considering the variety of known RNA enzymes and the similarity of DNA and RNA, it is reasonable to imagine that DNA might be able to function as an enzyme as well. No such DNA enzyme has been found in nature, however. We set out to identify a metal-dependent DNA enzyme using in vitro selection methodology. RESULTS: Beginning with a population of 10(14) DNAs containing 50 random nucleotides, we carried out five successive rounds of selective amplification, enriching for individuals that best promote the Pb(2+)-dependent cleavage of a target ribonucleoside 3'-O-P bond embedded within an otherwise all-DNA sequence. By the fifth round, the population as a whole carried out this reaction at a rate of 0.2 min-1. Based on the sequence of 20 individuals isolated from this population, we designed a simplified version of the catalytic domain that operates in an intermolecular context with a turnover rate of 1 min-1. This rate is about 10(5)-fold increased compared to the uncatalyzed reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Using in vitro selection techniques, we obtained a DNA enzyme that catalyzes the Pb(2+)-dependent cleavage of an RNA phosphoester in a reaction that proceeds with rapid turnover. The catalytic rate compares favorably to that of known RNA enzymes. We expect that other examples of DNA enzymes will soon be forthcoming.

  16. Enzyme Catalysis and the Gibbs Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2009-01-01

    Gibbs-energy profiles are often introduced during the first semester of organic chemistry, but are less often presented in connection with enzyme-catalyzed reactions. In this article I show how the Gibbs-energy profile corresponds to the characteristic kinetics of a simple enzyme-catalyzed reaction. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

  17. Illustrating Enzyme Inhibition Using Gibbs Energy Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearne, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Gibbs energy profiles have great utility as teaching and learning tools because they present students with a visual representation of the energy changes that occur during enzyme catalysis. Unfortunately, most textbooks divorce discussions of traditional kinetic topics, such as enzyme inhibition, from discussions of these same topics in terms of…

  18. Enzymes: A Workshop for Secondary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, C. Larry

    1994-01-01

    Describes the weekend science workshop on enzymes and includes several projects that involve students directly, parts of which can be incorporated into a traditional chemistry, biology, or physical science course at the secondary level. Subjects include catalysts and catalytic converters in cars, enzymes as consumer products and in industrial…

  19. [Potentialization of antibiotics by lytic enzymes].

    PubMed

    Brisou, J; Babin, P; Babin, R

    1975-01-01

    Few lytic enzymes, specially papaine and lysozyme, acting on the membrane and cell wall structures facilitate effects of bacitracine, streptomycine and other antibiotics. Streptomycino resistant strains became sensibles to this antibiotic after contact with papaine and lysozyme. The results of tests in physiological suspensions concern only the lytic activity of enzymes. The results on nutrient medium concern together lytic, and antibiotic activities.

  20. Enzyme Engineering for In Situ Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Fabian B H; Chen, Shuxiong; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2016-10-14

    Enzymes are used as biocatalysts in a vast range of industrial applications. Immobilization of enzymes to solid supports or their self-assembly into insoluble particles enhances their applicability by strongly improving properties such as stability in changing environments, re-usability and applicability in continuous biocatalytic processes. The possibility of co-immobilizing various functionally related enzymes involved in multistep synthesis, conversion or degradation reactions enables the design of multifunctional biocatalyst with enhanced performance compared to their soluble counterparts. This review provides a brief overview of up-to-date in vitro immobilization strategies while focusing on recent advances in enzyme engineering towards in situ self-assembly into insoluble particles. In situ self-assembly approaches include the bioengineering of bacteria to abundantly form enzymatically active inclusion bodies such as enzyme inclusions or enzyme-coated polyhydroxyalkanoate granules. These one-step production strategies for immobilized enzymes avoid prefabrication of the carrier as well as chemical cross-linking or attachment to a support material while the controlled oriented display strongly enhances the fraction of accessible catalytic sites and hence functional enzymes.

  1. KINEXP: Computer Simulation in Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelpi, Josep Lluis; Domenech, Carlos

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program which allows students to identify and characterize several kinetic inhibitory mechanisms. Uses the generic model of reversible inhibition of a monosubstrate enzyme but can be easily modified to run other models such as bisubstrate enzymes. Uses MS-DOS BASIC. (MVL)

  2. Characterization of Soil Samples of Enzyme Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    Described are nine enzyme essays for distinguishing soil samples. Colorimetric methods are used to compare enzyme levels in soils from different sites. Each soil tested had its own spectrum of activity. Attention is drawn to applications of this technique in forensic science and in studies of soil fertility. (Author/AJ)

  3. Enzyme Reactions and Acceptability of Plant Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James K.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of enzyme reactions which contribute to the character and acceptability of plant foods. A detailed discussion of polyphenoloxidase is also provided as an example of an enzyme which can markedly affect the character and acceptability of such foods. (JN)

  4. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  5. AN ENZYME-IMMOBILIZATION PROCEDURE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ENZYME-INHIBITING CHEMICALS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enzymes cholinesterase and urease were mixed individually with gelatin and immobilized onto the inside surface of glass capillary tubes. After the gelatin-enzyme mixture had dried, water samples containing various enzyme inhibiting test chemicals were pumped through the tubes...

  6. A complete thermodynamic analysis of enzyme turnover links the free energy landscape to enzyme catalysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hannah B L; Wells, Stephen A; Prentice, Erica J; Kwok, Anthony; Liang, Liyin L; Arcus, Vickery L; Pudney, Christopher R

    2017-09-01

    Our understanding of how enzymes work is coloured by static structure depictions where the enzyme scaffold is presented as either immobile, or in equilibrium between well-defined static conformations. Proteins, however, exhibit a large degree of motion over a broad range of timescales and magnitudes and this is defined thermodynamically by the enzyme free energy landscape (FEL). The role and importance of enzyme motion is extremely contentious. Much of the challenge is in the experimental detection of so called 'conformational sampling' involved in enzyme turnover. Herein we apply combined pressure and temperature kinetics studies to elucidate the full suite of thermodynamic parameters defining an enzyme FEL as it relates to enzyme turnover. We find that the key thermodynamic parameters governing vibrational modes related to enzyme turnover are the isobaric expansivity term and the change in heat capacity for enzyme catalysis. Variation in the enzyme FEL affects these terms. Our analysis is supported by a range of biophysical and computational approaches that specifically capture information on protein vibrational modes and the FEL (all atom flexibility calculations, red edge excitation shift spectroscopy and viscosity studies) that provide independent evidence for our findings. Our data suggest that restricting the enzyme FEL may be a powerful strategy when attempting to rationally engineer enzymes, particularly to alter thermal activity. Moreover, we demonstrate how rational predictions can be made with a rapid computational approach. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Enzyme activity assay of glycoprotein enzymes based on a boronate affinity molecularly imprinted 96-well microplate.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaodong; Liu, Zhen

    2014-12-16

    Enzyme activity assay is an important method in clinical diagnostics. However, conventional enzyme activity assay suffers from apparent interference from the sample matrix. Herein, we present a new format of enzyme activity assay that can effectively eliminate the effects of the sample matrix. The key is a 96-well microplate modified with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) prepared according to a newly proposed method called boronate affinity-based oriented surface imprinting. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a glycoprotein enzyme that has been routinely used as an indicator for several diseases in clinical tests, was taken as a representative target enzyme. The prepared MIP exhibited strong affinity toward the template enzyme (with a dissociation constant of 10(-10) M) as well as superb tolerance for interference. Thus, the enzyme molecules in a complicated sample matrix could be specifically captured and cleaned up for enzyme activity assay, which eliminated the interference from the sample matrix. On the other hand, because the boronate affinity MIP could well retain the enzymatic activity of glycoprotein enzymes, the enzyme captured by the MIP was directly used for activity assay. Thus, additional assay time and possible enzyme or activity loss due to an enzyme release step required by other methods were avoided. Assay of ALP in human serum was successfully demonstrated, suggesting a promising prospect of the proposed method in real-world applications.

  8. Directed evolution: an approach to engineer enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasjeet; Sharma, Rohit

    2006-01-01

    Directed evolution is being used increasingly in industrial and academic laboratories to modify and improve commercially important enzymes. Laboratory evolution is thought to make its biggest contribution in explorations of non-natural functions, by allowing us to distinguish the properties nurtured by evolution. In this review we report the significant advances achieved with respect to the methods of biocatalyst improvement and some critical properties and applications of the modified enzymes. The application of directed evolution has been elaborately demonstrated for protein solubility, stability and catalytic efficiency. Modification of certain enzymes for their application in enantioselective catalysis has also been elucidated. By providing a simple and reliable route to enzyme improvement, directed evolution has emerged as a key technology for enzyme engineering and biocatalysis.

  9. Computer Aided Enzyme Design and Catalytic Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Frushicheva, Maria P.; Mills, Matthew J. L.; Schopf, Patrick; Singh, Manoj K.; Warshel, Arieh

    2014-01-01

    Gaining a deeper understanding of enzyme catalysis is of great practical and fundamental importance. Over the years it has become clear that despite advances made in experimental mutational studies, a quantitative understanding of enzyme catalysis will not be possible without the use of computer modeling approaches. While we believe that electrostatic preorganization is by far the most important catalytic factor, convincing the wider scientific community of this may require the demonstration of effective rational enzyme design. Here we make the point that the main current advances in enzyme design are basically advances in directed evolution and that computer aided enzyme design must involve approaches that can reproduce catalysis in well-defined test cases. Such an approach is provided by the empirical valence bond method. PMID:24814389

  10. Conformational diversity and computational enzyme design

    PubMed Central

    Lassila, Jonathan K.

    2010-01-01

    The application of computational protein design methods to the design of enzyme active sites offers potential routes to new catalysts and new reaction specificities. Computational design methods have typically treated the protein backbone as a rigid structure for the sake of computational tractability. However, this fixed-backbone approximation introduces its own special challenges for enzyme design and it contrasts with an emerging picture of natural enzymes as dynamic ensembles with multiple conformations and motions throughout a reaction cycle. This review considers the impact of conformational variation and dynamics on computational enzyme design and it highlights new approaches to addressing protein conformational diversity in enzyme design including recent advances in multistate design, backbone flexibility, and computational library design. PMID:20829099

  11. Biotechnological uses of enzymes from psychrophiles

    PubMed Central

    Cavicchioli, R.; Charlton, T.; Ertan, H.; Omar, S. Mohd; Siddiqui, K. S.; Williams, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The bulk of the Earth's biosphere is cold (e.g. 90% of the ocean's waters are ≤ 5°C), sustaining a broad diversity of microbial life. The permanently cold environments vary from the deep ocean to alpine reaches and to polar regions. Commensurate with the extent and diversity of the ecosystems that harbour psychrophilic life, the functional capacity of the microorganisms that inhabitat the cold biosphere are equally diverse. As a result, indigenous psychrophilic microorganisms provide an enormous natural resource of enzymes that function effectively in the cold, and these cold‐adapted enzymes have been targeted for their biotechnological potential. In this review we describe the main properties of enzymes from psychrophiles and describe some of their known biotechnological applications and ways to potentially improve their value for biotechnology. The review also covers the use of metagenomics for enzyme screening, the development of psychrophilic gene expression systems and the use of enzymes for cleaning. PMID:21733127

  12. THE ALTERATION OF INTRACELLULAR ENZYMES

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, J. Gordin

    1954-01-01

    activated by concentrations of altering agent which cause no decrease in viability at all. Hence alteration, unlike death, may not be all-or-none per cell. 6. The fact that the biological criterion being examined was the activation of a water-soluble enzyme rules out the possibility that the reason for the logarithmic increase in altering activity with chain length was increase in concentration of the altering agent in some intracellular fat phase. It is concluded that these surface-active agents cause enzyme alteration by becoming adsorbed at some intracellular interface and thus causing, directly or indirectly, the modification of catalase properties. 7. It is considered that these data support, but do not provide critical proof for, the interfacial hypothesis, which states that catalase is present at the intracellular interface in question, but is desorbed into solution as a consequence of the alteration process. PMID:13211996

  13. Influence of RpoS, cAMP-receptor protein, and ppGpp on expression of the opgGH operon and osmoregulated periplasmic glucan content of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristina S; Pizarro, Ramón A; Antón, Dora N

    2009-11-01

    A transcriptional fusion (opgG1::MudJ) to the opgGH operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) LT2, isolated by resistance to mecillinam, was used to study the influence of global regulators RpoS, ppGpp, and cAMP/cAMP-receptor protein (CRP) on expression of the opgGH operon and osmoregulated periplasmic glucan (OPG) content. Neither high growth medium osmolarity nor absence of ppGpp or CRP had important effects on opgG1::MudJ expression in exponential cultures. However, under the same conditions, OPG content was strongly decreased by high osmolarity or cAMP/CRP defectiveness, and reduced to a half by lack of ppGpp. In stationary cultures, high osmolarity as well as CRP loss caused significant descents in opgG1::MudJ expression that were compensated by inactivation of RpoS sigma factor. No effect of RpoS inactivation on OPG content was observed. It is concluded that opgGH expression in S. Typhimurium is only slightly affected by high osmolarity, but is inversely modulated by RpoS level. On the other hand, osmolarity and the cAMP/CRP global regulatory system appear to control OPG content, either directly or indirectly, mainly at the post-transcriptional level.

  14. An overview of technologies for immobilization of enzymes and surface analysis techniques for immobilized enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad, Nur Royhaila; Marzuki, Nur Haziqah Che; Buang, Nor Aziah; Huyop, Fahrul; Wahab, Roswanira Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The current demands of sustainable green methodologies have increased the use of enzymatic technology in industrial processes. Employment of enzyme as biocatalysts offers the benefits of mild reaction conditions, biodegradability and catalytic efficiency. The harsh conditions of industrial processes, however, increase propensity of enzyme destabilization, shortening their industrial lifespan. Consequently, the technology of enzyme immobilization provides an effective means to circumvent these concerns by enhancing enzyme catalytic properties and also simplify downstream processing and improve operational stability. There are several techniques used to immobilize the enzymes onto supports which range from reversible physical adsorption and ionic linkages, to the irreversible stable covalent bonds. Such techniques produce immobilized enzymes of varying stability due to changes in the surface microenvironment and degree of multipoint attachment. Hence, it is mandatory to obtain information about the structure of the enzyme protein following interaction with the support surface as well as interactions of the enzymes with other proteins. Characterization technologies at the nanoscale level to study enzymes immobilized on surfaces are crucial to obtain valuable qualitative and quantitative information, including morphological visualization of the immobilized enzymes. These technologies are pertinent to assess efficacy of an immobilization technique and development of future enzyme immobilization strategies. PMID:26019635

  15. Expanding the Halohydrin Dehalogenase Enzyme Family: Identification of Novel Enzymes by Database Mining.

    PubMed

    Schallmey, Marcus; Koopmeiners, Julia; Wells, Elizabeth; Wardenga, Rainer; Schallmey, Anett

    2014-12-01

    Halohydrin dehalogenases are very rare enzymes that are naturally involved in the mineralization of halogenated xenobiotics. Due to their catalytic potential and promiscuity, many biocatalytic reactions have been described that have led to several interesting and industrially important applications. Nevertheless, only a few of these enzymes have been made available through recombinant techniques; hence, it is of general interest to expand the repertoire of these enzymes so as to enable novel biocatalytic applications. After the identification of specific sequence motifs, 37 novel enzyme sequences were readily identified in public sequence databases. All enzymes that could be heterologously expressed also catalyzed typical halohydrin dehalogenase reactions. Phylogenetic inference for enzymes of the halohydrin dehalogenase enzyme family confirmed that all enzymes form a distinct monophyletic clade within the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. In addition, the majority of novel enzymes are substantially different from previously known phylogenetic subtypes. Consequently, four additional phylogenetic subtypes were defined, greatly expanding the halohydrin dehalogenase enzyme family. We show that the enormous wealth of environmental and genome sequences present in public databases can be tapped for in silico identification of very rare but biotechnologically important biocatalysts. Our findings help to readily identify halohydrin dehalogenases in ever-growing sequence databases and, as a consequence, make even more members of this interesting enzyme family available to the scientific and industrial community. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Metagenomics as a Tool for Enzyme Discovery: Hydrolytic Enzymes from Marine-Related Metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Ana; Tchigvintsev, Anatoly; Tran, Hai; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Golyshina, Olga V; Yakimov, Michail M; Golyshin, Peter N; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses metagenomics and its application for enzyme discovery, with a focus on hydrolytic enzymes from marine metagenomic libraries. With less than one percent of culturable microorganisms in the environment, metagenomics, or the collective study of community genetics, has opened up a rich pool of uncharacterized metabolic pathways, enzymes, and adaptations. This great untapped pool of genes provides the particularly exciting potential to mine for new biochemical activities or novel enzymes with activities tailored to peculiar sets of environmental conditions. Metagenomes also represent a huge reservoir of novel enzymes for applications in biocatalysis, biofuels, and bioremediation. Here we present the results of enzyme discovery for four enzyme activities, of particular industrial or environmental interest, including esterase/lipase, glycosyl hydrolase, protease and dehalogenase.

  17. Expression of lignocellulolytic enzymes in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sustainable utilization of plant biomass as renewable source for fuels and chemical building blocks requires a complex mixture of diverse enzymes, including hydrolases which comprise the largest class of lignocellulolytic enzymes. These enzymes need to be available in large amounts at a low price to allow sustainable and economic biotechnological processes. Over the past years Pichia pastoris has become an attractive host for the cost-efficient production and engineering of heterologous (eukaryotic) proteins due to several advantages. Results In this paper codon optimized genes and synthetic alcohol oxidase 1 promoter variants were used to generate Pichia pastoris strains which individually expressed cellobiohydrolase 1, cellobiohydrolase 2 and beta-mannanase from Trichoderma reesei and xylanase A from Thermomyces lanuginosus. For three of these enzymes we could develop strains capable of secreting gram quantities of enzyme per liter in fed-batch cultivations. Additionally, we compared our achieved yields of secreted enzymes and the corresponding activities to literature data. Conclusion In our experiments we could clearly show the importance of gene optimization and strain characterization for successfully improving secretion levels. We also present a basic guideline how to correctly interpret the interplay of promoter strength and gene dosage for a successful improvement of the secretory production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in Pichia pastoris. PMID:22583625

  18. Bacterial enzymes involved in lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Colpa, Dana I; Habib, Mohamed H M; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-10-20

    Lignin forms a large part of plant biomass. It is a highly heterogeneous polymer of 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units and is embedded within polysaccharide polymers forming lignocellulose. Lignin provides strength and rigidity to plants and is rather resilient towards degradation. To improve the (bio)processing of lignocellulosic feedstocks, more effective degradation methods of lignin are in demand. Nature has found ways to fully degrade lignin through the production of dedicated ligninolytic enzyme systems. While such enzymes have been well thoroughly studied for ligninolytic fungi, only in recent years biochemical studies on bacterial enzymes capable of lignin modification have intensified. This has revealed several types of enzymes available to bacteria that enable them to act on lignin. Two major classes of bacterial lignin-modifying enzymes are DyP-type peroxidases and laccases. Yet, recently also several other bacterial enzymes have been discovered that seem to play a role in lignin modifications. In the present review, we provide an overview of recent advances in the identification and use of bacterial enzymes acting on lignin or lignin-derived products. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Artificial enzymes based on supramolecular scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zeyuan; Luo, Quan; Liu, Junqiu

    2012-12-07

    Enzymes are nanometer-sized molecules with three-dimensional structures created by the folding and self-assembly of polymeric chain-like components through supramolecular interactions. They are capable of performing catalytic functions usually accompanied by a variety of conformational states. The conformational diversities and complexities of natural enzymes exerted in catalysis seriously restrict the detailed understanding of enzymatic mechanisms in molecular terms. A supramolecular viewpoint is undoubtedly helpful in understanding the principle of enzyme catalysis. The emergence of supramolecular artificial enzymes therefore provides an alternative way to approach the structural complexity and thus to unravel the mystery of enzyme catalysis. This critical review covers the recent development of artificial enzymes designed based on supramolecular scaffolds ranging from the synthetic macrocycles to self-assembled nanometer-sized objects. Such findings are anticipated to facilitate the design of supramolecular artificial enzymes as well as their potential uses in important fields, such as manufacturing and food industries, environmental biosensors, pharmaceutics and so on.

  20. Abeta-degrading enzymes in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Miners, James Scott; Baig, Shabnam; Palmer, Jennifer; Palmer, Laura E; Kehoe, Patrick G; Love, Seth

    2008-04-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) Abeta accumulates because of imbalance between the production of Abeta and its removal from the brain. There is increasing evidence that in most sporadic forms of AD, the accumulation of Abeta is partly, if not in some cases solely, because of defects in its removal--mediated through a combination of diffusion along perivascular extracellular matrix, transport across vessel walls into the blood stream and enzymatic degradation. Multiple enzymes within the central nervous system (CNS) are capable of degrading Abeta. Most are produced by neurons or glia, but some are expressed in the cerebral vasculature, where reduced Abeta-degrading activity may contribute to the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Neprilysin and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), which have been most extensively studied, are expressed both neuronally and within the vasculature. The levels of both of these enzymes are reduced in AD although the correlation with enzyme activity is still not entirely clear. Other enzymes shown capable of degrading Abetain vitro or in animal studies include plasmin; endothelin-converting enzymes ECE-1 and -2; matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, -3 and -9; and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). The levels of plasmin and plasminogen activators (uPA and tPA) and ECE-2 are reported to be reduced in AD. Reductions in neprilysin, IDE and plasmin in AD have been associated with possession of APOEepsilon4. We found no change in the level or activity of MMP-2, -3 or -9 in AD. The level and activity of ACE are increased, the level being directly related to Abeta plaque load. Up-regulation of some Abeta-degrading enzymes may initially compensate for declining activity of others, but as age, genetic factors and diseases such as hypertension and diabetes diminish the effectiveness of other Abeta-clearance pathways, reductions in the activity of particular Abeta-degrading enzymes may become critical, leading to the development of AD and CAA.

  1. Glutathione-related enzymes and the eye.

    PubMed

    Ganea, Elena; Harding, John J

    2006-01-01

    Glutathione and the related enzymes belong to the defence system protecting the eye against chemical and oxidative stress. This review focuses on GSH and two key enzymes, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in lens, cornea, and retina. Lens contains a high concentration of reduced glutathione, which maintains the thiol groups in the reduced form. These contribute to lens complete transparency as well as to the transparent and refractive properties of the mammalian cornea, which are essential for proper image formation on the retina. In cornea, gluthatione also plays an important role in maintaining normal hydration level, and in protecting cellular membrane integrity. In retina, glutathione is distributed in the different types of retinal cells. Intracellular enzyme, glutathione reductase, involved in reducing the oxidized glutathione has been found at highest activity in human and primate lenses, as compared to other species. Besides the enzymes directly involved in maintaining the normal redox status of the cell, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase which catalyzes the first reaction of the pentose phosphate pathway, plays a key role in protection of the eye against reactive oxygen species. Cornea has a high activity of the pentose phosphate pathway and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. Glycation, the non-enzymic reaction between a free amino group in proteins and a reducing sugar, slowly inactivates gluthathione-related and other enzymes. In addition, glutathione can be also glycated. The presence of glutathione, and of the related enzymes has been also reported in other parts of the eye, such as ciliary body and trabecular meshwork, suggesting that the same enzyme systems are present in all tissues of the eye to generate NADPH and to maintain gluthatione in the reduced form. Changes of glutathione and related enzymes activity in lens, cornea, retina and other eye tissues, occur with ageing, cataract, diabetes, irradiation and

  2. Molecular dynamics investigation of the ionic liquid/enzyme interface: application to engineering enzyme surface charge.

    PubMed

    Burney, Patrick R; Nordwald, Erik M; Hickman, Katie; Kaar, Joel L; Pfaendtner, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Molecular simulations of the enzymes Candida rugosa lipase and Bos taurus α-chymotrypsin in aqueous ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate were used to study the change in enzyme-solvent interactions induced by modification of the enzyme surface charge. The enzymes were altered by randomly mutating lysine surface residues to glutamate, effectively decreasing the net surface charge by two for each mutation. These mutations resemble succinylation of the enzyme by chemical modification, which has been shown to enhance the stability of both enzymes in ILs. After establishing that the enzymes were stable on the simulated time scales, we focused the analysis on the organization of the ionic liquid substituents about the enzyme surface. Calculated solvent charge densities show that for both enzymes and in both solvents that changing positively charged residues to negative charge does indeed increase the charge density of the solvent near the enzyme surface. The radial distribution of IL constituents with respect to the enzyme reveals decreased interactions with the anion are prevalent in the modified systems when compared to the wild type, which is largely accompanied by an increase in cation contact. Additionally, the radial dependence of the charge density and ion distribution indicates that the effect of altering enzyme charge is confined to short range (≤1 nm) ordering of the IL. Ultimately, these results, which are consistent with that from prior experiments, provide molecular insight into the effect of enzyme surface charge on enzyme stability in ILs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Immobilized enzyme studies in a microscale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Jones, Francis; Forrest, Scott; Palmer, Jim; Lu, Zonghuan; Elmore, John; Elmore, Bill B

    2004-01-01

    Novel microreactors with immobilized enzymes were fabricated using both silicon and polymer-based microfabrication techniques. The effectiveness of these reactors was examined along with their behavior over time. Urease enzyme was successfully incorporated into microchannels of a polymeric matrix of polydimethylsiloxane and through layer-bylayer self-assembly techniques onto silicon. The fabricated microchannels had cross-sectional dimensions ranging from tens to hundreds of micrometers in width and height. The experimental results for continuous-flow microreactors are reported for the conversion of urea to ammonia by urease enzyme. Urea conversions of >90% were observed.

  4. The Mismetallation of Enzymes during Oxidative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Imlay, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Mononuclear iron enzymes can tightly bind non-activating metals. How do cells avoid mismetallation? The model bacterium Escherichia coli may control its metal pools so that thermodynamics favor the correct metallation of each enzyme. This system is disrupted, however, by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. These species oxidize ferrous iron and thereby displace it from many iron-dependent mononuclear enzymes. Ultimately, zinc binds in its place, confers little activity, and imposes metabolic bottlenecks. Data suggest that E. coli compensates by using thiols to extract the zinc and by importing manganese to replace the catalytic iron atom. Manganese resists oxidants and provides substantial activity. PMID:25160623

  5. Structure and Function of TET Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaotong; Xu, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian DNA methylation mainly occurs at the carbon-C5 position of cytosine (5mC). TET enzymes were discovered to successively oxidize 5mC to 5-hydromethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). TET enzymes and oxidized 5mC derivatives play important roles in various biological and pathological processes, including regulation of DNA demethylation, gene transcription, embryonic development, and oncogenesis. In this chapter, we will discuss the discovery of TET-mediated 5mC oxidation and the structure, function, and regulation of TET enzymes.

  6. Protein conformational disorder and enzyme catalysis.

    PubMed

    Schulenburg, Cindy; Hilvert, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Though lacking a well-defined three-dimensional structure, intrinsically unstructured proteins are ubiquitous in nature. These molecules play crucial roles in many cellular processes, especially signaling and regulation. Surprisingly, even enzyme catalysis can tolerate substantial disorder. This observation contravenes conventional wisdom but is relevant to an understanding of how protein dynamics modulates enzyme function. This chapter reviews properties and characteristics of disordered proteins, emphasizing examples of enzymes that lack defined structures, and considers implications of structural disorder for catalytic efficiency and evolution.

  7. Steroid promiscuity: Diversity of enzyme action. Preface.

    PubMed

    Lathe, Richard; Kotelevtsev, Yuri; Mason, J Ian

    2015-07-01

    This Special Issue on the topic of Steroid and Sterol Signaling: Promiscuity and Diversity, dwells on the growing realization that the 'one ligand, one binding site' and 'one enzyme, one reaction' concepts are out of date. Focusing on cytochromes P450 (CYP), hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), and related enzymes, the Special Issue highlights that a single enzyme can bind to diverse substrates, and in different conformations, and can catalyze multiple different conversions (and in different directions), thereby, generating an unexpectedly wide spectrum of ligands that can have subtly different biological actions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Steroid/Sterol Signaling' . Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Data mining of enzymes using specific peptides

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Predicting the function of a protein from its sequence is a long-standing challenge of bioinformatic research, typically addressed using either sequence-similarity or sequence-motifs. We employ the novel motif method that consists of Specific Peptides (SPs) that are unique to specific branches of the Enzyme Commission (EC) functional classification. We devise the Data Mining of Enzymes (DME) methodology that allows for searching SPs on arbitrary proteins, determining from its sequence whether a protein is an enzyme and what the enzyme's EC classification is. Results We extract novel SP sets from Swiss-Prot enzyme data. Using a training set of July 2006, and test sets of July 2008, we find that the predictive power of SPs, both for true-positives (enzymes) and true-negatives (non-enzymes), depends on the coverage length of all SP matches (the number of amino-acids matched on the protein sequence). DME is quite different from BLAST. Comparing the two on an enzyme test set of July 2008, we find that DME has lower recall. On the other hand, DME can provide predictions for proteins regarded by BLAST as having low homologies with known enzymes, thus supplying complementary information. We test our method on a set of proteins belonging to 10 bacteria, dated July 2008, establishing the usefulness of the coverage-length cutoff to determine true-negatives. Moreover, sifting through our predictions we find that some of them have been substantiated by Swiss-Prot annotations by July 2009. Finally we extract, for production purposes, a novel SP set trained on all Swiss-Prot enzymes as of July 2009. This new set increases considerably the recall of DME. The new SP set is being applied to three metagenomes: Sargasso Sea with over 1,000,000 proteins, producing predictions of over 220,000 enzymes, and two human gut metagenomes. The outcome of these analyses can be characterized by the enzymatic profile of the metagenomes, describing the relative numbers of enzymes

  9. Immobilization of enzymes by bioaffinity layering.

    PubMed

    Singh, Veena; Sardar, Meryam; Gupta, Munishwar Nath

    2013-01-01

    Bioaffinity immobilization exploits the affinity of the enzyme to a macro-(affinity ligand). Such a macro-(affinity ligand) could be a lectin, a water-soluble polymer, or a bioconjugate of a water-soluble polymer and the appropriate affinity ligand. Successive layering of the enzyme and the macro-(affinity ligand) on a matrix allows deposition of a large amount of enzyme activity on a small surface. Illustrative protocols show affinity layering of a pectinase and horseradish peroxidase on Concanavalin A-agarose and Concanavalin A-Sephadex matrices, respectively.

  10. Process for preparing multilayer enzyme coating on a fiber

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    A process for preparing high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials is disclosed and processes for using the same. The process involves coating of a material or fiber with enzymes and enzyme aggregate providing a material or fiber with high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environments. In one illustrative approach, enzyme "seeds" are covalently attached to polymer nanofibers followed by treatment with a reagent that crosslinks additional enzyme molecules to the seed enzymes forming enzyme aggregates thereby improving biocatalytic activity due to increased enzyme loading and enzyme stability. This approach creates a useful new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with potential applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are prepared...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme defects...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are prepared...

  14. Potato Peroxidase for the Study of Enzyme Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamaefsky, Brian R.

    1993-01-01

    Explains how the surface of a freshly sliced potato can be used for a variety of enzyme action experiments including the influence of pH on enzyme action, the enzyme denaturation potential of boiling water, the inhibition of enzymes by heavy metals, and the effects of salt concentration on enzyme effectiveness. (PR)

  15. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are prepared from refined beef fat; butterfat or...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.