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Sample records for a20 decreases glioma

  1. Decreasing glioma recurrence through adjuvant cancer stem cell inhibition.

    PubMed

    Neman, Josh; Jandial, Rahul

    2010-06-24

    Gliomas remain one of the most challenging solid organ tumors to treat and are marked clinically by invariable recurrence despite multimodal intervention (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation). This recurrence perhaps, is as a consequence of the failure to eradicate a tumor cell subpopulation, termed cancer stem cells. Isolating, characterizing, and understanding these tumor-initiating cells through cellular and molecular markers, along with genetic and epigenetic understanding will allow for selective targeting through therapeutic agents and holds promise for decreasing glioma recurrence.

  2. Decreasing glioma recurrence through adjuvant cancer stem cell inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Neman, Josh; Jandial, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Gliomas remain one of the most challenging solid organ tumors to treat and are marked clinically by invariable recurrence despite multimodal intervention (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation). This recurrence perhaps, is as a consequence of the failure to eradicate a tumor cell subpopulation, termed cancer stem cells. Isolating, characterizing, and understanding these tumor-initiating cells through cellular and molecular markers, along with genetic and epigenetic understanding will allow for selective targeting through therapeutic agents and holds promise for decreasing glioma recurrence. PMID:20631819

  3. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) inhibitors decrease glioma progression.

    PubMed

    Kushal, Swati; Wang, Weijun; Vaikari, Vijaya Pooja; Kota, Rajesh; Chen, Kevin; Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Jhaveri, Niyati; Groshen, Susan L; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z; Chen, Thomas C; Hofman, Florence M; Shih, Jean C

    2016-03-22

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor which is currently treated with temozolomide (TMZ). Tumors usually become resistant to TMZ and recur; no effective therapy is then available. Monoamine Oxidase A (MAO A) oxidizes monoamine neurotransmitters resulting in reactive oxygen species which cause cancer. This study shows that MAO A expression is increased in human glioma tissues and cell lines. MAO A inhibitors, clorgyline or the near-infrared-dye MHI-148 conjugated to clorgyline (NMI), were cytotoxic for glioma and decreased invasion in vitro. Using the intracranial TMZ-resistant glioma model, clorgyline or NMI alone or in combination with low-dose TMZ reduced tumor growth and increased animal survival. NMI was localized specifically to the tumor. Immunocytochemistry studies showed that the MAO A inhibitor reduced proliferation, microvessel density and invasion, and increased macrophage infiltration. In conclusion, we have identified MAO A inhibitors as potential novel stand-alone drugs or as combination therapy with low dose TMZ for drug-resistant gliomas. NMI can also be used as a non-invasive imaging tool. Thus has a dual function for both therapy and diagnosis.

  4. Glioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells are called mixed gliomas. Tumors such as “optic nerve glioma” and “brain stem glioma” are named ... Oligodendroglioma: Click here to learn more about oligodendroglioma. Optic Glioma: These tumors may involve any part of ...

  5. IDH1 R132H decreases proliferation of glioma cell lines in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bralten, Linda B C; Kloosterhof, Nanne K; Balvers, Rutger; Sacchetti, Andrea; Lapre, Lariesa; Lamfers, Martine; Leenstra, Sieger; de Jonge, Hugo; Kros, Johan M; Jansen, Erwin E W; Struys, Eduard A; Jakobs, Cornelis; Salomons, Gajja S; Diks, Sander H; Peppelenbosch, Maikel; Kremer, Andreas; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Smitt, Peter A E Sillevis; French, Pim J

    2011-03-01

    A high percentage of grade II and III gliomas have mutations in the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1). This mutation is always a heterozygous point mutation that affects the amino acid arginine at position 132 and results in loss of its native enzymatic activity and gain of alternative enzymatic activity (producing D-2-hydroxyglutarate). The objective of this study was to investigate the cellular effects of R132H mutations in IDH1. Functional consequences of IDH1(R132H) mutations were examined among others using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, kinome and expression arrays, biochemical assays, and intracranial injections on 3 different (glioma) cell lines with stable overexpression of IDH1(R132H) . IDH1(R132H) overexpression in established glioma cell lines in vitro resulted in a marked decrease in proliferation, decreased Akt phosphorylation, altered morphology, and a more contact-dependent cell migration. The reduced proliferation is related to accumulation of D-2-hydroxyglutarate that is produced by IDH1(R132H) . Mice injected with IDH1(R132H) U87 cells have prolonged survival compared to mice injected with IDH1(wt) or green fluorescent protein-expressing U87 cells. Our results demonstrate that IDH1(R132H) dominantly reduces aggressiveness of established glioma cell lines in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the IDH1(R132H) -IDH1(wt) heterodimer has higher enzymatic activity than the IDH1(R132H) -IDH1(R132H) homodimer. Our observations in model systems of glioma might lead to a better understanding of the biology of IDH1 mutant gliomas, which are typically low grade and often slow growing. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  6. OKN-007 decreases free radical levels in a preclinical F98 rat glioma model.

    PubMed

    Coutinho de Souza, Patricia; Smith, Nataliya; Atolagbe, Oluwatomisin; Ziegler, Jadith; Njoku, Charity; Lerner, Megan; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Mason, Ronald P; Meek, Bill; Plafker, Scott M; Saunders, Debra; Mamedova, Nadezda; Towner, Rheal A

    2015-10-01

    Free radicals are associated with glioma tumors. Here, we report on the ability of an anticancer nitrone compound, OKN-007 [Oklahoma Nitrone 007; a disulfonyl derivative of α-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN)] to decrease free radical levels in F98 rat gliomas using combined molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) and immunospin-trapping (IST) methodologies. Free radicals are trapped with the spin-trapping agent, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), to form DMPO macromolecule radical adducts, and then further tagged by immunospin trapping by an antibody against DMPO adducts. In this study, we combined mMRI with a biotin-Gd-DTPA-albumin-based contrast agent for signal detection with the specificity of an antibody for DMPO nitrone adducts (anti-DMPO probe), to detect in vivo free radicals in OKN-007-treated rat F98 gliomas. OKN-007 was found to significantly decrease (P < 0.05) free radical levels detected with an anti-DMPO probe in treated animals compared to untreated rats. Immunoelectron microscopy was used with gold-labeled antibiotin to detect the anti-DMPO probe within the plasma membrane of F98 tumor cells from rats administered anti-DMPO in vivo. OKN-007 was also found to decrease nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, 3-nitrotyrosine, and malondialdehyde in ex vivo F98 glioma tissues via immunohistochemistry, as well as decrease 3-nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde adducts in vitro in F98 cells via ELISA. The results indicate that OKN-007 effectively decreases free radicals associated with glioma tumor growth. Furthermore, this method can potentially be applied toward other types of cancers for the in vivo detection of macromolecular free radicals and the assessment of antioxidants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Knockdown of miR-210 decreases hypoxic glioma stem cells stemness and radioresistance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Wei, Jing; Guo, Tiantian; Shen, Yueming; Liu, Fenju

    2014-08-01

    Glioma contains abundant hypoxic regions which provide niches to promote the maintenance and expansion of glioma stem cells (GSCs), which are resistant to conventional therapies and responsible for recurrence. Given the fact that miR-210 plays a vital role in cellular adaption to hypoxia and in stem cell survival and stemness maintenance, strategies correcting the aberrantly expressed miR-210 might open up a new therapeutic avenue to hypoxia GSCs. In the present study, to explore the possibility of miR-210 as an effective therapeutic target to hypoxic GSCs, we employed a lentiviral-mediated anti-sense miR-210 gene transfer technique to knockdown miR-210 expression and analyze phenotypic changes in hypoxic U87s and SHG44s cells. We found that hypoxia led to an increased HIF-2α mRNA expression and miR-210 expression in GSCs. Knockdown of miR-210 decreased neurosphere formation capacity, stem cell marker expression and cell viability, and induced differentiation and G0/G1 arrest in hypoxic GSCs by partially rescued Myc antagonist (MNT) protein expression. Knockdown of MNT could reverse the gene expression changes and the growth inhibition resulting from knockdown of miR-210 in hypoxic GSCs. Moreover, knockdown of miR-210 led to increased apoptotic rate and Caspase-3/7 activity and decreased invasive capacity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate production and radioresistance in hypoxic GSCs. These findings suggest that miR-210 might be a potential therapeutic target to eliminate GSCs located in hypoxic niches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreased circulation time offsets increased efficacy of PEGylated nanocarriers targeting folate receptors of glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeeley, Kathleen M.; Annapragada, Ananth; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2007-09-01

    Liposomal and other nanocarrier based drug delivery vehicles can localize to tumours through passive and/or active targeting. Passively targeted liposomal nanocarriers accumulate in tumours via 'leaky' vasculature through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Passive accumulation depends upon the circulation time and the degree of tumour vessel 'leakiness'. After extravasation, actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers efficiently deliver their payload by receptor-mediated uptake. However, incorporation of targeting moieties can compromise circulation time in the blood due to recognition and clearance by the reticuloendothelial system, decreasing passive accumulation. Here, we compare the efficacy of passively targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers to that of actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers in a rat 9L brain tumour model. Although folate receptor (FR)-targeted liposomal nanocarriers had significantly reduced blood circulation time compared to PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers; intratumoural drug concentrations both at 20 and 50 h after administration were equal for both treatments. Both treatments significantly increased tumour inoculated animal survival by 60-80% compared to non-treated controls, but no difference in survival was observed between FR-targeted and passively targeted nanocarriers. Therefore, alternate approaches allowing for active targeting without compromising circulation time may be important for fully realizing the benefits of receptor-mediated active targeting of gliomas.

  9. Decreasing GSH and increasing ROS in chemosensitivity gliomas with IDH1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinlong; Sun, Baolan; Shi, Wei; Zuo, Hao; Cui, Daming; Ni, Lanchun; Chen, Jian

    2015-02-01

    Gliomas are the most malignant and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Despite concerted efforts to improve therapies, their prognosis remains very poor. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations have been discovered frequently in glioma patients and are strongly correlated with improved survival. However, the effect of IDH1 mutations on the chemosensitivity of gliomas remains unclear. In this study, we generated clonal U87 and U251 glioma cell lines overexpressing the R132H mutant protein (IDH1-R132H). Compared with control cells and cells overexpressing IDH wild type (IDH1-WT), both types of IDH1-R132H cells were more sensitive to temozolomide (TMZ) and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The IDH1-R132H-induced higher chemosensitivity was associated with nicotine adenine disphosphonucleotide (NADPH), glutathione (GSH) depletion, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Accordingly, this IDH1-R132H-induced growth inhibition was effectively abrogated by GSH in vitro and in vivo. Our study provides direct evidence that the improved survival in patients with IDH1-R132H tumors may partly result from the effects of the IDH1-R132H protein on chemosensitivity. The primary cellular events associated with improved survival are the GSH depletion and increased ROS generation.

  10. β-Asarone promotes Temozolomide's entry into glioma cells and decreases the expression of P-glycoprotein and MDR1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nanbu; Zhang, Qinxin; Ning, Baile; Luo, Laiyu; Fang, Yongqi

    2017-06-01

    Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor and has an undesirable prognosis due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and drug resistance. A thorough investigation of the changes in intracellular drug concentrations is important to observe therapeutic effects and cell resistance. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an essential protein of Multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1). The over-expression of P-gp and MDR1 is associated with poor prognosis and drug-resistance in glioma. However, β-asarone can pass through the BBB easily and increase the drug concentration in the rat brain. Our aim is to study the effect of β-asarone on promoting the entry of temozolomide (TMZ) into human glioma U251 cells. The cells were divided into three groups: model group, TMZ group (300μM) and co-administration group (360μM β-asarone; 300μM TMZ). We further detected P-gp and MDR1 expression in U251 and rat glioma C6 cells in four groups: model group (U251/C6), TMZ group (U251 300μM, C6 420μM), β-asarone group (U251 360μM, C6 450μM) and co-administration group (β-asarone 360μM, TMZ 300μM for U251; β-asarone 450μM, TMZ 420μM for C6). Then, high performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the intracellular and extracellular levels of TMZ. Morphological changes in both cells were observed by the microscope. The Counting Kit-8 assay was used to measure the cell proliferation and toxicity. Cell immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence, flowcytometry and western blot were synchronously used to examine the expression of P-gp. We also determined the levels of MDR1 mRNA by RT-PCR. The results showed that β-asarone could promote the entry of TMZ into U251 cells through the membrane. The co-administration of β-asarone and TMZ also decreased cell proliferation and the expression of P-gp and MDR1 better than single medication in U251 and C6 cells. All of the data suggest that β-asarone might contribute to treatment by promoting TMZ's entry into glioma cells, thereby contributing to anti

  11. Decreased human leukocyte antigen A*02:01 frequency is associated with risk of glioma and existence of human cytomegalovirus: a case-control study in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Han, Sheng; Deng, Jian; Wang, Zixun; Liu, Huan; Cheng, Wen; Wu, Anhua

    2017-10-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) play an important role in host defense against viral infection and tumorigenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been linked to glioma development. This study investigated the relationship between HLA distribution, presence of HCMV, and glioma development in a Han Chinese population. The study population included 150 glioma patients and 150 tumor-free brain injury control subjects (control-A) matched according to geography, ethnicity, age, and gender. HLA allele frequency was compared between the two groups using peripheral blood samples by PCR sequence-based typing. These data were also compared with HLA frequencies obtained from a Northern Chinese Han population database (control-B). HCMV DNA was detected in the peripheral blood of glioma patients and control group-A by nested PCR. The expression of HCMV proteins IE1-72 and pp65 in tumor tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The frequency of HLA-A*02:01 was decreased in glioma patients as compared to control group-A and -B (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). The age/sex-adjusted odds ratio for HLA-A*02:01 positivity vs. negativity was 0.392 (95% confidence interval 0.225-0.683). HCMV was more frequently detected in the peripheral blood and tumor tissue of HLA-A*02:01-negative glioma patients. HLA-A*02:01 and HCMV were not associated with overall survival. There is a correlation between decreased HLA-A*0201 allele frequency and glioma susceptibility.

  12. Overexpression of SASH1 related to the decreased invasion ability of human glioma U251 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Liu, Mei; Gu, Zhikai; Chen, Jianguo; Yan, Yaohua; Li, Jian

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of SAM- and SH3-domain containing 1 (SASH1) on the biological behavior of glioma cells, including its effects on cellular growth, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis, and thereby to provide an experimental basis for future therapeutic treatments. A pcDNA3.1-SASH1 eukaryotic expression vector was constructed and transfected into the U251 human glioma cell line. Using the tetrazolium-based colorimetric (MTT) assay, flow cytometry analyses, transwell invasion chamber experiments, and other methods, we examined the impact of SASH1 on the biological behaviors of U251 cells, including effects on viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, and invasion. Furthermore, the effect of SASH1 on the expression of cyclin D1, caspase-3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and other proteins was observed. Compared to the empty vector and blank control groups, the pcDNA3.1-SASH1 group of U251 cells exhibited significantly reduced cell viability, proliferation, and invasion (p < 0.05), although there was no difference between the empty vector and blank control groups. The pcDNA3.1-SASH1 group demonstrated a significantly higher apoptotic index than did the empty vector and blank control groups (p < 0.05), and the percentage of apoptotic cells was similar between the empty vector and blank control groups. In addition, the pcDNA3.1-SASH1 group expressed significantly lower protein levels of cyclin D1 and MMP-2/9 compared to the control and empty vector groups (p < 0.05) and significantly higher protein levels of caspase-3 than the other two groups (p < 0.05). Cyclin D1, caspase-3, and MMP-2/9 expression was unchanged between the empty vector and blank control groups. SASH1 gene expression might be related to the inhibition of the growth, proliferation, and invasion of U251 cells and the promotion of U251 cells apoptosis.

  13. Blockage of angiotensin II type I receptor decreases the synthesis of growth factors and induces apoptosis in C6 cultured cells and C6 rat glioma

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, O; Guevara, P; Escobar, E; García-Navarrete, R; Pineda, B; Sotelo, J

    2005-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a main effector peptide in the renin–angiotensin system and participates in the regulation of vascular tone. It also has a role in the expression of growth factors that induce neovascularisation which is closely associated to the growth of malignant gliomas. We have shown that the selective blockage of the AT1 receptor of angiotensin inhibites tumour growth, cell proliferation and angiogenesis of C6 rat glioma. The aim of this study was to study the effects of the blockage of AT1 receptor on the synthesis of growth factors, and in the genesis of apoptosis in cultured C6 glioma cells and in rats with C6 glioma. Administration of losartan at doses of 40 or 80 mg kg−1 to rats with C6 glioma significantly decreased tumoral volume and production of platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. It also induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of Ang II increased cell proliferation of cultured C6 cells which decreased by the administration of losartan. Our results suggest that the selective blockage of AT1 diminishes tumoral growth through inhibition of growth factors and promotion of apoptosis. PMID:15785746

  14. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  15. Genetic Inactivation of ATRX Leads to a Decrease in the Amount of Telomeric Cohesin and Level of Telomere Transcription in Human Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Rita; Demattei, Marie-Véronique; Episkopou, Harikleia; Augé-Gouillou, Corinne; Decottignies, Anabelle; Grandin, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in ATRX (alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked), a chromatin-remodeling protein, are associated with the telomerase-independent ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres) pathway of telomere maintenance in several types of cancer, including human gliomas. In telomerase-positive glioma cells, we found by immunofluorescence that ATRX localized not far from the chromosome ends but not exactly at the telomere termini. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments confirmed a subtelomeric localization for ATRX, yet short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated genetic inactivation of ATRX failed to trigger the ALT pathway. Cohesin has been recently shown to be part of telomeric chromatin. Here, using ChIP, we showed that genetic inactivation of ATRX provoked diminution in the amount of cohesin in subtelomeric regions of telomerase-positive glioma cells. Inactivation of ATRX also led to diminution in the amount of TERRAs, noncoding RNAs resulting from transcription of telomeric DNA, as well as to a decrease in RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) levels at the telomeres. Our data suggest that ATRX might establish functional interactions with cohesin on telomeric chromatin in order to control TERRA levels and that one or the other or both of these events might be relevant to the triggering of the ALT pathway in cancer cells that exhibit genetic inactivation of ATRX. PMID:26055325

  16. Genetic Inactivation of ATRX Leads to a Decrease in the Amount of Telomeric Cohesin and Level of Telomere Transcription in Human Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Eid, Rita; Demattei, Marie-Véronique; Episkopou, Harikleia; Augé-Gouillou, Corinne; Decottignies, Anabelle; Grandin, Nathalie; Charbonneau, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in ATRX (alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked), a chromatin-remodeling protein, are associated with the telomerase-independent ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres) pathway of telomere maintenance in several types of cancer, including human gliomas. In telomerase-positive glioma cells, we found by immunofluorescence that ATRX localized not far from the chromosome ends but not exactly at the telomere termini. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments confirmed a subtelomeric localization for ATRX, yet short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated genetic inactivation of ATRX failed to trigger the ALT pathway. Cohesin has been recently shown to be part of telomeric chromatin. Here, using ChIP, we showed that genetic inactivation of ATRX provoked diminution in the amount of cohesin in subtelomeric regions of telomerase-positive glioma cells. Inactivation of ATRX also led to diminution in the amount of TERRAs, noncoding RNAs resulting from transcription of telomeric DNA, as well as to a decrease in RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) levels at the telomeres. Our data suggest that ATRX might establish functional interactions with cohesin on telomeric chromatin in order to control TERRA levels and that one or the other or both of these events might be relevant to the triggering of the ALT pathway in cancer cells that exhibit genetic inactivation of ATRX. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Decreased miR-106a inhibits glioma cell glucose uptake and proliferation by targeting SLC2A3 in GBM.

    PubMed

    Dai, Dong-Wei; Lu, Qiong; Wang, Lai-Xing; Zhao, Wen-Yuan; Cao, Yi-Qun; Li, Ya-Nan; Han, Guo-Sheng; Liu, Jian-Min; Yue, Zhi-Jian

    2013-10-14

    MiR-106a is frequently down-regulated in various types of human cancer. However the underlying mechanism of miR-106a involved in glioma remains elusive. The association of miR-106a with glioma grade and patient survival was analyzed. The biological function and target of miR-106a were determined by bioinformatic analysis and cell experiments (Western blot, luciferase reporter, cell cycle, ntracellular ATP production and glucose uptake assay). Finally, rescue expression of its target SLC2A3 was used to test the role of SLC2A3 in miR-106a-mediated cell glycolysis and proliferation. Here we showed that miR-106a was a tumor suppressor miRNA was involved in GBM cell glucose uptake and proliferation. Decreased miR-106a in GBM tissues and conferred a poor survival of GBM patients. SLC2A3 was identified as a core target of miR-106a in GBM cells. Inhibition of SLC2A3 by miR-106a attenuated cell proliferation and inhibited glucose uptake. In addition, for each biological process we identified ontology-associated transcripts that significantly correlated with SLC2A3 expression. Finally, the expression of SLC2A3 largely abrogated miR-106a-mediated cell proliferation and glucose uptake in GBM cells. Taken together, miR-106a and SLC2A3 could be potential therapeutic approaches for GBM.

  18. Optic glioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a strong association between optic glioma and neurofibromatosis type 1 ( NF1 ). Symptoms The symptoms are due ... brain (intracranial pressure). There may be signs of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The following tests may be ...

  19. Decreased survival of glioma patients with astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) associated with long-term use of mobile and cordless phones.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, Michael; Hardell, Lennart

    2014-10-16

    On 31 May 2011 the WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorised radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phones, and from other devices that emit similar non-ionising electromagnetic fields, as a Group 2B, i.e., a "possible", human carcinogen. A causal association would be strengthened if it could be shown that the use of wireless phones has an impact on the survival of glioma patients. We analysed survival of 1678 glioma patients in our 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 case-control studies. Use of wireless phones in the >20 years latency group (time since first use) yielded an increased hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.3 for glioma. For astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme; n = 926) mobile phone use yielded HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4-2.9 and cordless phone use HR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.04-11 in the same latency category. The hazard ratio for astrocytoma grade IV increased statistically significant per year of latency for wireless phones, HR = 1.020, 95% CI = 1.007-1.033, but not per 100 h cumulative use, HR = 1.002, 95% CI = 0.999-1.005. HR was not statistically significant increased for other types of glioma. Due to the relationship with survival the classification of IARC is strengthened and RF-EMF should be regarded as human carcinogen requiring urgent revision of current exposure guidelines.

  20. Decreased Survival of Glioma Patients with Astrocytoma Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme) Associated with Long-Term Use of Mobile and Cordless Phones

    PubMed Central

    Carlberg, Michael; Hardell, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    On 31 May 2011 the WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorised radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phones, and from other devices that emit similar non-ionising electromagnetic fields, as a Group 2B, i.e., a “possible”, human carcinogen. A causal association would be strengthened if it could be shown that the use of wireless phones has an impact on the survival of glioma patients. We analysed survival of 1678 glioma patients in our 1997–2003 and 2007–2009 case-control studies. Use of wireless phones in the >20 years latency group (time since first use) yielded an increased hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–2.3 for glioma. For astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme; n = 926) mobile phone use yielded HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4–2.9 and cordless phone use HR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.04–11 in the same latency category. The hazard ratio for astrocytoma grade IV increased statistically significant per year of latency for wireless phones, HR = 1.020, 95% CI = 1.007–1.033, but not per 100 h cumulative use, HR = 1.002, 95% CI = 0.999–1.005. HR was not statistically significant increased for other types of glioma. Due to the relationship with survival the classification of IARC is strengthened and RF-EMF should be regarded as human carcinogen requiring urgent revision of current exposure guidelines. PMID:25325361

  1. Glioma antigen.

    PubMed

    Toda, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Because several antigenic peptides of human tumors that are recognized by T-lymphocytes have been identified, immune responses against cancer can now be artificially manipulated. Furthermore, since T-lymphocytes have been found to play an important role in the rejection of tumors by the host and also to have antigen-specific proliferative potentials and memory mechanisms, T-lymphocytes are thought to play a central role in cancer vaccination. Although multidisciplinary therapies have been attempted for the treatment of gliomas, the results remain unsatisfactory. For the development of new therapies against gliomas, it is required to identify tumor antigens as targets for specific immunotherapy. In this chapter, recent progress in research on glioma antigens is described.

  2. Combination of photodynamic therapy and temozolomide on glioma in a rat C6 glioma model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Guo, Mian; Shen, Lei; Hu, Shaoshan

    2014-12-01

    For glioma, temozolomide (TMZ) is a commonly used chemotherapy drug and photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an important adjuvant therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of their combination for the treatment of glioma. A rat C6 glioma model using male Wistar rats (n=180) weighing 280-300 g was established. Glioma-bearing rats (n=100) were treated with mock, hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), laser or PDT. The expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in endothelial cells of the blood-tumor-barrier and in glioma tissues was detected using immunohistochemistry and western blot, respectively. Glioma-bearing rats (n=40) were treated with normal saline, TMZ (60 mg/m(2) for five consecutive days), PDT (630 nm for 10 min) or a combination of TMZ and PDT. TMZ concentration in glioma tissues was detected using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and cell death was observed using transmission microscopy. Concurrently, another batch of 40 glioma-bearing rats was subjected to the same treatment, and the survival of these rats was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. PDT significantly decreased the expression of P-gp in endothelial cells comprising the blood-tumor-barrier and in glioma tissues. The combination of TMZ with PDT significantly increased TMZ concentration in glioma tissues, enhanced glioma cell apoptosis and prolonged the median survival of glioma-bearing rats. The combination of PDT with TMZ shows synergistic effect in rat C6 glioma model, indicating its potential clinical use in glioma treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Decrease of motor cortex excitability following exposure to a 20 Hz magnetic field as generated by a rotating permanent magnet.

    PubMed

    Gallasch, Eugen; Rafolt, Dietmar; Postruznik, Magdalena; Fresnoza, Shane; Christova, Monica

    2018-04-19

    Rotation of a static magnet over the motor cortex (MC) generates a transcranial alternating magnetic field (tAMF), and a linked alternating electrical field. The aim of this transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study is to investigate whether such fields are able to influence MC excitability, and whether there are parallels to tACS induced effects. Fourteen healthy volunteers received 20 Hz tAMF stimulation over the MC, over the vertex, and 20 Hz tACS over the MC, each with a duration of 15 min. TMS assessments were performed before and after the interventions. Changes in motor evoked potentials (MEP), short interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI) and intra-cortical facilitation (ICF) were evaluated. The tACS and the tAMF stimulation over the MC affected cortical excitability in a different way. After tAMF stimulation MEP amplitudes and ICF decreased and the effect of SICI increased. After tACS MEP amplitudes increased and there were no effects on SICI and ICF. The recorded single and paired pulse MEPs indicate a general decrease of MC excitability following 15 min of tAMF stimulation. The effects demonstrate that devices based on rotating magnets are potentially suited to become a novel brain stimulation tool in clinical neurophysiology. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Focal brainstem gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J.; Alaqeel, Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved neuronavigation guidance as well as intraoperative imaging and neurophysiologic monitoring technologies have enhanced the ability of neurosurgeons to resect focal brainstem gliomas. In contrast, diffuse brainstem gliomas are considered to be inoperable lesions. This article is a continuation of an article that discussed brainstem glioma diagnostics, imaging, and classification. Here, we address open surgical treatment of and approaches to focal, dorsally exophytic, and cervicomedullary brainstem gliomas. Intraoperative neuronavigation, intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring, as well as intraoperative imaging are discussed as adjunctive measures to help render these procedures safer, more acute, and closer to achieving surgical goals. PMID:25864061

  5. Clinical Significance of SASH1 Expression in Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Zhang, Haitao; Yao, Qi; Yan, Yingying; Wu, Ronghua; Liu, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Objective. SAM and SH3 domain containing 1 (SASH1) is a recently discovered tumor suppressor gene. The role of SASH1 in glioma has not yet been described. We investigated SASH1 expression in glioma cases to determine its clinical significance on glioma pathogenesis and prognosis. Methods. We produced tissue microarrays using 121 patient-derived glioma samples and 30 patient-derived nontumor cerebral samples. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to evaluate SASH1 expression. We used Fisher's exact tests to determine relationships between SASH1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics; Cox regression analysis to evaluate the independency of different SASH1 expression; Kaplan-Meier analysis to determine any correlation of SASH1 expression with survival rate. Results. SASH1 expression was closely correlated with the WHO glioma grade. Of the 121 cases, 66.9% with low SASH1 expression were mostly grade III-IV cases, whereas 33.1% with high SASH1 expression were mostly grades I-II. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between SASH1 expression and postoperative survival. Conclusions. SASH1 was widely expressed in normal and low-grade glioma tissues. SASH1 expression strongly correlated with glioma grades, showing higher expression at a lower grade, which decreased significantly as grade increased. Furthermore, SASH1 expression was positively correlated with better postoperative survival in patients with glioma. PMID:26424902

  6. Clinical Significance of SASH1 Expression in Glioma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Zhang, Haitao; Yao, Qi; Yan, Yingying; Wu, Ronghua; Liu, Mei

    2015-01-01

    SAM and SH3 domain containing 1 (SASH1) is a recently discovered tumor suppressor gene. The role of SASH1 in glioma has not yet been described. We investigated SASH1 expression in glioma cases to determine its clinical significance on glioma pathogenesis and prognosis. We produced tissue microarrays using 121 patient-derived glioma samples and 30 patient-derived nontumor cerebral samples. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to evaluate SASH1 expression. We used Fisher's exact tests to determine relationships between SASH1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics; Cox regression analysis to evaluate the independency of different SASH1 expression; Kaplan-Meier analysis to determine any correlation of SASH1 expression with survival rate. SASH1 expression was closely correlated with the WHO glioma grade. Of the 121 cases, 66.9% with low SASH1 expression were mostly grade III-IV cases, whereas 33.1% with high SASH1 expression were mostly grades I-II. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between SASH1 expression and postoperative survival. SASH1 was widely expressed in normal and low-grade glioma tissues. SASH1 expression strongly correlated with glioma grades, showing higher expression at a lower grade, which decreased significantly as grade increased. Furthermore, SASH1 expression was positively correlated with better postoperative survival in patients with glioma.

  7. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Bralten, Linda B. C.; French, Pim J.

    2011-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes. PMID:24212656

  8. Molecular markers in glioma.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Kirsten; Kornblum, Harley I

    2017-09-01

    Gliomas are the most malignant and aggressive form of brain tumors, and account for the majority of brain cancer related deaths. Malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma are treated with radiation and temozolomide, with only a minor benefit in survival time. A number of advances have been made in understanding glioma biology, including the discovery of cancer stem cells, termed glioma stem cells (GSC). Some of these advances include the delineation of molecular heterogeneity both between tumors from different patients as well as within tumors from the same patient. Such research highlights the importance of identifying and validating molecular markers in glioma. This review, intended as a practical resource for both clinical and basic investigators, summarizes some of the more well-known molecular markers (MGMT, 1p/19q, IDH, EGFR, p53, PI3K, Rb, and RAF), discusses how they are identified, and what, if any, clinical relevance they may have, in addition to discussing some of the specific biology for these markers. Additionally, we discuss identification methods for studying putative GSC's (CD133, CD15, A2B5, nestin, ALDH1, proteasome activity, ABC transporters, and label-retention). While much research has been done on these markers, there is still a significant amount that we do not yet understand, which may account for some conflicting reports in the literature. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the investigator will be able to utilize one single marker to prospectively identify and isolate GSC from all, or possibly, any gliomas.

  9. TCGA_LowerGradeGliomas

    Cancer.gov

    TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

  10. Combating immunosuppression in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Eleanor A; Graner, Michael W; Sampson, John H

    2012-01-01

    Despite maximal therapy, malignant gliomas have a very poor prognosis. Patients with glioma express significant immune defects, including CD4 lymphopenia, increased fractions of regulatory T cells in peripheral blood and shifts in cytokine profiles from Th1 to Th2. Recent studies have focused on ways to combat immunosuppression in patients with glioma as well as in animal models for glioma. We concentrate on two specific ways to combat immunosuppression: inhibition of TGF-β signaling and modulation of regulatory T cells. TGF-β signaling can be interrupted by antisense oligonucleotide technology, TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitors, soluble TGF-β receptors and antibodies against TGF-β. Regulatory T cells have been targeted with antibodies against T-cell markers, such as CD25, CTLA-4 and GITR. In addition, vaccination against Foxp3 has been explored. The results of these studies have been encouraging; combating immunosuppression may be one key to improving prognosis in malignant glioma. PMID:18518768

  11. Potential of MR spectroscopy for assessment of glioma grading.

    PubMed

    Bulik, Martin; Jancalek, Radim; Vanicek, Jiri; Skoch, Antonin; Mechl, Marek

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an imaging diagnostic method based that allows non-invasive measurement of metabolites in tissues. There are a number of metabolites that can be identified by standard brain proton MRS but only a few of them has a clinical significance in diagnosis of gliomas including N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine, myo-inositol, lactate, and lipids. In this review, we describe potential of MRS for grading of gliomas. Low-grade gliomas are generally characterized by a relatively high concentration of N-acetylaspartate, low level of choline and absence of lactate and lipids. The increase in creatine concentration indicates low-grade gliomas with earlier progression and malignant transformation. Progression in grade of a glioma is reflected in the progressive decrease in the N-acetylaspartate and myo-inositol levels on the one hand and elevation in choline level up to grade III on the other. Malignant transformation of the glial tumors is also accompanied by the presence of lactate and lipids in MR spectra of grade III but mainly grade IV gliomas. It follows that MRS is a helpful method for detection of glioma regions with aggressive growth or upgrading due to favorable correlation of the choline and N-acetylaspartate levels with histopathological proliferation index Ki-67. Thus, magnetic resonance spectroscopy is also a suitable method for the targeting of brain biopsies. Gliomas of each grade have some specific MRS features that can be used for improvement of the diagnostic value of conventional magnetic resonance imaging in non-invasive assessment of glioma grade. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Repeat prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test before prostate biopsy: a 20% decrease in PSA values is associated with a reduced risk of cancer and particularly of high-grade cancer.

    PubMed

    De Nunzio, Cosimo; Lombardo, Riccardo; Nacchia, Antonio; Tema, Giorgia; Tubaro, Andrea

    2018-07-01

    To analyse the impact of repeating a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level assessment on prostate biopsy decision in a cohort of men undergoing prostate biopsy. From 2015 onwards, we consecutively enrolled, at a single institution in Italy, men undergoing 12-core transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate needle biopsy. Indication for prostate biopsy was a PSA level of ≥4 ng/mL. Demographic, clinical, and histopathological data were collected. The PSA level was tested at enrolment (PSA 1 ) and 4 weeks later on the day before biopsy (PSA 2 ). Variations in PSA level were defined as: stable PSA 2 within a 10% variation, stable PSA 2 within a 20% variation, PSA 2 decreased by ≥10%, PSA 2 decreased by ≥20%, PSA 2 increased by ≥10%, PSA 2 increased by ≥20%, and PSA 2 <4 ng/mL. Percentages and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyse biopsy outcomes. High-grade cancer was defined as Grade group ≥3. Overall, 331 patients were enrolled. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 153/331 (46%) patients and of them 80/153 (52%) had high-grade disease. When compared to the rest of the population, patients with a stable PSA within 20% variation had a higher risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.80, P < 0.05) and high grade disease (OR 2.56, P < 0.05), patients with a PSA2 decreased by ≥20% had a lower risk of prostate cancer (OR 0.37, P < 0.05) and high grade disease (OR 0.13, P < 0.05), whilst patients with a PSA2 increased by ≥10% had an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR 1.93, P < 0.05). When PSA returned to normal values (<4 ng/mL) both risks of prostate cancer and high-grade disease were reduced (OR 0.33 and 0.01, respectively, P = 0.001). In a cohort of Italian men undergoing prostate biopsy, a reduction of ≥20% in PSA levels significantly reduced the risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Further multicentre studies should validate our present results. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John

  13. A Phase I Study of Mebendazole for the Treatment of Pediatric Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-07

    Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Glioma, Astrocytic; Optic Nerve Glioma; Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Gliosarcoma; Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; DIPG; Low-grade Glioma; Brainstem Glioma

  14. Metabolic Reprogramming in Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Marie; Stoll, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Many cancers have long been thought to primarily metabolize glucose for energy production—a phenomenon known as the Warburg Effect, after the classic studies of Otto Warburg in the early twentieth century. Yet cancer cells also utilize other substrates, such as amino acids and fatty acids, to produce raw materials for cellular maintenance and energetic currency to accomplish cellular tasks. The contribution of these substrates is increasingly appreciated in the context of glioma, the most common form of malignant brain tumor. Multiple catabolic pathways are used for energy production within glioma cells, and are linked in many ways to anabolic pathways supporting cellular function. For example: glycolysis both supports energy production and provides carbon skeletons for the synthesis of nucleic acids; meanwhile fatty acids are used both as energetic substrates and as raw materials for lipid membranes. Furthermore, bio-energetic pathways are connected to pro-oncogenic signaling within glioma cells. For example: AMPK signaling links catabolism with cell cycle progression; mTOR signaling contributes to metabolic flexibility and cancer cell survival; the electron transport chain produces ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) which act as signaling molecules; Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs) mediate interactions with cells and vasculature within the tumor environment. Mutations in the tumor suppressor p53, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 and 2 have been implicated in oncogenic signaling as well as establishing metabolic phenotypes in genetically-defined subsets of malignant glioma. These pathways critically contribute to tumor biology. The aim of this review is two-fold. Firstly, we present the current state of knowledge regarding the metabolic strategies employed by malignant glioma cells, including aerobic glycolysis; the pentose phosphate pathway; one-carbon metabolism; the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is central to amino acid

  15. Light-controlled inhibition of malignant glioma by opsin gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Tu, J; Pan, J-Q; Luo, H-L; Liu, Y-H; Wan, J; Zhang, J; Wei, P-F; Jiang, T; Chen, Y-H; Wang, L-P

    2013-10-31

    Glioblastomas are aggressive cancers with low survival rates and poor prognosis because of their highly proliferative and invasive capacity. In the current study, we describe a new optogenetic strategy that selectively inhibits glioma cells through light-controlled membrane depolarization and cell death. Transfer of the engineered opsin ChETA (engineered Channelrhodopsin-2 variant) gene into primary human glioma cells or cell lines, but not normal astrocytes, unexpectedly decreased cell proliferation and increased mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, upon light stimulation. These optogenetic effects were mediated by membrane depolarization-induced reductions in cyclin expression and mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Importantly, the ChETA gene transfer and light illumination in mice significantly inhibited subcutaneous and intracranial glioma growth and increased the survival of the animals bearing the glioma. These results uncover an unexpected effect of opsin ion channels on glioma cells and offer the opportunity for the first time to treat glioma using a light-controllable optogenetic approach.

  16. Light-controlled inhibition of malignant glioma by opsin gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, F; Tu, J; Pan, J-Q; Luo, H-L; Liu, Y-H; Wan, J; Zhang, J; Wei, P-F; Jiang, T; Chen, Y-H; Wang, L-P

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas are aggressive cancers with low survival rates and poor prognosis because of their highly proliferative and invasive capacity. In the current study, we describe a new optogenetic strategy that selectively inhibits glioma cells through light-controlled membrane depolarization and cell death. Transfer of the engineered opsin ChETA (engineered Channelrhodopsin-2 variant) gene into primary human glioma cells or cell lines, but not normal astrocytes, unexpectedly decreased cell proliferation and increased mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, upon light stimulation. These optogenetic effects were mediated by membrane depolarization-induced reductions in cyclin expression and mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Importantly, the ChETA gene transfer and light illumination in mice significantly inhibited subcutaneous and intracranial glioma growth and increased the survival of the animals bearing the glioma. These results uncover an unexpected effect of opsin ion channels on glioma cells and offer the opportunity for the first time to treat glioma using a light-controllable optogenetic approach. PMID:24176851

  17. Formononetin sensitizes glioma cells to doxorubicin through preventing EMT via inhibition of histone deacetylase 5.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Sun, Yan; Zheng, Jie-Min; Yan, Xian-Lei; Chen, Hong-Mou; Chen, Jia-Kang; Huang, He-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance is a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy for glioma. Formononetin is a novel herbal isoflavonoid isolated from Astragalus membranaceus and possesses antitumorigenic properties. In the present study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of formononetin on human glioma cells, and further elucidated the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-tumor property. We found that formononetin enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity in glioma cells. Combined treatment with formononetin reversed the doxorubicin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cells. Moreover, we found that formononetin treatment significantly decreased the expression of HDAC5. Overexpression of HDAC5 diminished the suppressive effects of formononetin on glioma cell viability. Furthermore, knockdown of HDAC5 by siRNA inhibited the doxorubicin-induced EMT in glioma cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated that formononetin-combined therapy may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in glioma cells by preventing EMT through inhibition of HDAC5.

  18. Formononetin sensitizes glioma cells to doxorubicin through preventing EMT via inhibition of histone deacetylase 5

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quan; Sun, Yan; Zheng, Jie-Min; Yan, Xian-Lei; Chen, Hong-Mou; Chen, Jia-Kang; Huang, He-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance is a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy for glioma. Formononetin is a novel herbal isoflavonoid isolated from Astragalus membranaceus and possesses antitumorigenic properties. In the present study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of formononetin on human glioma cells, and further elucidated the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-tumor property. We found that formononetin enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity in glioma cells. Combined treatment with formononetin reversed the doxorubicin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cells. Moreover, we found that formononetin treatment significantly decreased the expression of HDAC5. Overexpression of HDAC5 diminished the suppressive effects of formononetin on glioma cell viability. Furthermore, knockdown of HDAC5 by siRNA inhibited the doxorubicin-induced EMT in glioma cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated that formononetin-combined therapy may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in glioma cells by preventing EMT through inhibition of HDAC5. PMID:26261519

  19. Microglia immunophenotyping in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Annovazzi, Laura; Mellai, Marta; Bovio, Enrica; Mazzetti, Samanta; Pollo, Bianca; Schiffer, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Microglia, once assimilated to peripheral macrophages, in gliomas has long been discussed and currently it is hypothesized to play a pro-tumor role in tumor progression. Uncertain between M1 and M2 polarization, it exchanges signals with glioma cells to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment and stimulates cell proliferation and migration. Four antibodies are currently used for microglia/macrophage identification in tissues that exhibit different cell forms and cell localization. The aim of the present work was to describe the distribution of the different cell forms and to deduce their significance on the basis of what is known on their function from the literature. Normal resting microglia, reactive microglia, intermediate and bumpy forms and macrophage-like cells can be distinguished by Iba1, CD68, CD16 and CD163 and further categorized by CD11b, CD45, c-MAF and CD98. The number of microglia/macrophages strongly increased from normal cortex and white matter to infiltrating and solid tumors. The ramified microglia accumulated in infiltration areas of both high- and low-grade gliomas, when hypertrophy and hyperplasia occur. In solid tumors, intermediate and bumpy forms prevailed and there is a large increase of macrophage-like cells in glioblastoma. The total number of microglia cells did not vary among the three grades of malignancy, but macrophage-like cells definitely prevailed in high-grade gliomas and frequently expressed CD45 and c-MAF. CD98+ cells were present. Microglia favors tumor progression, but many aspects suggest that the phagocytosing function is maintained. CD98+ cells can be the product of fusion, but also of phagocytosis. Microglia correlated with poorer survival in glioblastoma, when considering CD163+ cells, whereas it did not change prognosis in isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant low grade gliomas. PMID:29399160

  20. Plexin-B2 promotes invasive growth of malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Pingle, Sandeep C.; Kesari, Santosh; Wang, Huaien; Yong, Raymund L.; Zou, Hongyan; Friedel, Roland H.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive growth is a major determinant of the high lethality of malignant gliomas. Plexin-B2, an axon guidance receptor important for mediating neural progenitor cell migration during development, is upregulated in gliomas, but its function therein remains poorly understood. Combining bioinformatic analyses, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry of patient samples, we demonstrate that Plexin-B2 is consistently upregulated in all types of human gliomas and that its expression levels correlate with glioma grade and poor survival. Activation of Plexin-B2 by Sema4C ligand in glioblastoma cells induced actin-based cytoskeletal dynamics and invasive migration in vitro. This proinvasive effect was associated with activation of the cell motility mediators RhoA and Rac1. Furthermore, costimulation of Plexin-B2 and the receptor tyrosine kinase Met led to synergistic Met phosphorylation. In intracranial glioblastoma transplants, Plexin-B2 knockdown hindered invasive growth and perivascular spreading, and resulted in decreased tumor vascularity. Our results demonstrate that Plexin-B2 promotes glioma invasion and vascularization, and they identify Plexin-B2 as a potential novel prognostic marker for glioma malignancy. Targeting the Plexin-B2 pathway may represent a novel therapeutic approach to curtail invasive growth of glioblastoma. PMID:25762646

  1. Fluorescence-Guided Resection of Malignant Glioma with 5-ALA

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Sadahiro

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are extremely difficult to treat with no specific curative treatment. On the other hand, photodynamic medicine represents a promising technique for neurosurgeons in the treatment of malignant glioma. The resection rate of malignant glioma has increased from 40% to 80% owing to 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic diagnosis (ALA-PDD). Furthermore, ALA is very useful because it has no serious complications. Based on previous research, it is apparent that protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulates abundantly in malignant glioma tissues after ALA administration. Moreover, it is evident that the mechanism underlying PpIX accumulation in malignant glioma tissues involves an abnormality in porphyrin-heme metabolism, specifically decreased ferrochelatase enzyme activity. During resection surgery, the macroscopic fluorescence of PpIX to the naked eye is more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging, and the alert real time spectrum of PpIX is the most sensitive method. In the future, chemotherapy with new anticancer agents, immunotherapy, and new methods of radiotherapy and gene therapy will be developed; however, ALA will play a key role in malignant glioma treatment before the development of these new treatments. In this paper, we provide an overview and present the results of our clinical research on ALA-PDD. PMID:27429612

  2. Tunicamycin inhibits progression of glioma cells through downregulation of the MEG-3-regulated wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Xue, Lei; Peng, Qin

    2018-06-01

    Glioma is derived from the oncogenic transformation of brain and spinal cord glial cells, and is one of the most common primary brain tumors. Tunicamycin (TUN) can significantly inhibit glioma growth and aggressiveness by promoting apoptosis in glioma cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of TUN on growth of glioma cells and examine the TUN-mediated signaling pathway. The inhibitory effects of TUN on apoptosis, growth, aggressiveness and cell cycle arrest of glioma tumor cells were determined by western blotting, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, apoptotic assays and immunofluorescence. The results demonstrated that treatment with TUN suppressed growth, migration and invasion of glioma carcinoma cells. In addition, TUN treatment induced apoptosis of glioma cells through downregulation of Bcl-2 and P53 expression levels. Findings also indicated that TUN suppressed proliferation and arrested the glioma cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. Further analysis of the mechanisms of TUN demonstrated that TUN treatment upregulated the expression levels of maternally expressed gene (MEG)-3, wnt and β-catenin in glioma cells. Furthermore, knockdown of MEG-3 expression reversed the TUN-decreased wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which subsequently also reversed the TUN-inhibited growth and aggressiveness of glioma cells. In conclusion, the findings in the present study indicated that TUN treatment inhibited growth and aggressiveness through MEG-3-mediated wnt/β-catenin signaling, suggesting that TUN may be an efficient anticancer agent for the treatment of glioma.

  3. Ferritin heavy chain as a molecular imaging reporter gene in glioma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen; Mi, Ruifang; Xu, Yu; Jin, Guishan; Zhang, Junwen; Zhou, Yiqiang; Chen, Zhengguang; Liu, Fusheng

    2017-06-01

    The development of glioma therapy in clinical practice (e.g., gene therapy) calls for efficiently visualizing and tracking glioma cells in vivo. Human ferritin heavy chain is a novel gene reporter in magnetic resonance imaging. This study proposes hFTH as a reporter gene for MR molecular imaging in glioma xenografts. Rat C6 glioma cells were infected by packaged lentivirus carrying hFTH and EGFP genes and obtained by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The iron-loaded ability was analyzed by the total iron reagent kit. Glioma nude mouse models were established subcutaneously and intracranially. Then, in vivo tumor bioluminescence was performed via the IVIS spectrum imaging system. The MR imaging analysis was analyzed on a 7T animal MRI scanner. Finally, the expression of hFTH was analyzed by western blotting and histological analysis. Stable glioma cells carrying hFTH and EGFP reporter genes were successfully obtained. The intracellular iron concentration was increased without impairing the cell proliferation rate. Glioma cells overexpressing hFTH showed significantly decreased signal intensity on T 2 -weighted MRI both in vitro and in vivo. EGFP fluorescent imaging could also be detected in the subcutaneous and intracranial glioma xenografts. Moreover, the expression of the transferritin receptor was significantly increased in glioma cells carrying the hFTH reporter gene. Our study illustrated that hFTH generated cellular MR imaging contrast efficiently in glioma via regulating the expression of transferritin receptor. This might be a useful reporter gene in cell tracking and MR molecular imaging for glioma diagnosis, gene therapy and tumor metastasis.

  4. The role of drebrin in glioma migration and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Terakawa, Yuzo; Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka; Agnihotri, Sameer

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current advances in therapy consisting of surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation, the overall survival rate still remains poor. Therapeutic failures are partly attributable to the highly infiltrative nature of tumor adjacent to normal brain parenchyma. Recently, evidence is mounting to suggest that actin cytoskeleton dynamics are critical components of the cell invasion process. Drebrin is an actin-binding protein involved in the regulation of actin filament organization, and plays a significant role in cell motility; however, the role of drebrin in glioma cell invasiveness has not yet beenmore » fully elucidated. Therefore, this study was aimed to clarify the role of drebrin in glioma cell morphology and cell motility. Here we show that drebrin is expressed in glioma cell lines and in operative specimens of GBM. We demonstrate that stable overexpression of drebrin in U87 cells leads to alterations in cell morphology, and induces increased invasiveness in vitro while knockdown of drebrin in U87 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases invasion and migration. In addition, we show that depletion of drebrin by siRNA alters glioma cell morphology in A172 GBM cell line. Our results suggest that drebrin contributes to the maintenance of cell shape, and may play an important role in glioma cell motility. - Highlights: ► Drebrin is an actin-binding protein aberrantly expressed in several cancers. ► Role of drebrin in glioma cell morphology and motility is previously unknown. ► We demonstrate that drebrin is expressed in 40% of glioblastoma specimens. ► Drebrin plays a significant role in modulating glioma cell migration and invasion.« less

  5. Signal transduction molecules in gliomas of all grades.

    PubMed

    Ermoian, Ralph P; Kaprealian, Tania; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Yang, Xiaodong; Jelluma, Nannette; Arvold, Nils D; Zeidman, Ruth; Berger, Mitchel S; Stokoe, David; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A

    2009-01-01

    To interrogate grade II, III, and IV gliomas and characterize the critical effectors within the PI3-kinase pathway upstream and downstream of mTOR. Experimental design Tissues from 87 patients who were treated at UCSF between 1990 and 2004 were analyzed. Twenty-eight grade II, 17 grade III glioma, 26 grade IV gliomas, and 16 non-tumor brain specimens were analyzed. Protein levels were assessed by immunoblots; RNA levels were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification. To address the multiple comparisons, first an overall analysis was done comparing the four groups using Spearman's Correlation Coefficient. Only if this analysis was statistically significant were individual pairwise comparisons done. Multiple comparison analyses revealed a significant correlation with grade for all variables examined, except phosphorylated-S6. Expression of phosphorylated-4E-BP1, phosphorylated-PKB/Akt, PTEN, TSC1, and TSC2 correlated with grade (P < 0.01 for all). We extended our analyses to ask whether decreases in TSC proteins levels were due to changes in mRNA levels, or due to changes in post-transcriptional alterations. We found significantly lower levels of TSC1 and TSC2 mRNA in GBMs than in grade II gliomas or non-tumor brain (P < 0.01). Expression levels of critical signaling molecules upstream and downstream of mTOR differ between non-tumor brain and gliomas of any grade. The single variable whose expression did not differ between non-tumor brain and gliomas was phosphorylated-S6, suggesting that other protein kinases, in addition to mTOR, contribute significantly to S6 phosphorylation. mTOR provides a rational therapeutic target in gliomas of all grades, and clinical benefit may emerge as mTOR inhibitors are combined with additional agents.

  6. [Imaging of gliomas].

    PubMed

    Martin-Duverneuil, N; Guillevin, R; Chiras, J

    2008-11-01

    The imaging of gliomas, as well as diffuse infiltrative gliomas or as more recently individualized entities, has been profoundly modified these last years. Correlated with the classic morphological MRI, numerous new sequences have appeared that allowed a more metabolic approach of the tumors, such as diffusion, perfusion--related to angiogenesis--and spectroscopy--reflecting metabolic data. Their development in daily practice allows to precise the diagnostic, to definite the more active areas (correlated with the hyperperfused or more metabolic active areas in relation with the Ki67 index) and so optimize the biopsy and/or evaluate the evolution of the lesion. When associated, they allow also and perhaps especially to precise the diagnostic, particularly with other tumoral masses such as lymphomas or metastases that can present misleading patterns, but also with other more benign lesions such as abcesses. Always critically analysed, and reevaluated along the time if necessary, they can sometimes help the histological diagnosis, but never can be used in place of it.

  7. The epidemiology of glioma in adults: a “state of the science” review

    PubMed Central

    Ostrom, Quinn T.; Bauchet, Luc; Davis, Faith G.; Deltour, Isabelle; Fisher, James L.; Langer, Chelsea Eastman; Pekmezci, Melike; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Turner, Michelle C.; Walsh, Kyle M.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.

    2014-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor, representing 81% of malignant brain tumors. Although relatively rare, they cause significant mortality and morbidity. Glioblastoma, the most common glioma histology (∼45% of all gliomas), has a 5-year relative survival of ∼5%. A small portion of these tumors are caused by Mendelian disorders, including neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Genomic analyses of glioma have also produced new evidence about risk and prognosis. Recently discovered biomarkers that indicate improved survival include O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation, isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation, and a glioma cytosine–phosphate–guanine island methylator phenotype. Genome-wide association studies have identified heritable risk alleles within 7 genes that are associated with increased risk of glioma. Many risk factors have been examined as potential contributors to glioma risk. Most significantly, these include an increase in risk by exposure to ionizing radiation and a decrease in risk by history of allergies or atopic disease(s). The potential influence of occupational exposures and cellular phones has also been examined, with inconclusive results. We provide a “state of the science” review of current research into causes and risk factors for gliomas in adults. PMID:24842956

  8. MiR-661 inhibits glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting hTERT

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhen, E-mail: lizhen7111@163.com; Liu, Yun-hui; Diao, Hong-yu

    In this study, we analyzed the functional role of miR-661 in glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We found that overexpression of miR-661 obviously suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells. MiRNA target prediction algorithms implied that hTERT is a candidate target gene for miR-661. A fluorescent reporter assay confirmed that miR-661 could lead to hTERT gene silencing by recognizing and specifically binding to the predicted site of the hTERT mRNA 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) specifically. Furthermore, hTERT knockdown significantly decreased the growth and viability of glioma cells. These results indicate that miR-661 can inhibit glioma cell proliferation,more » migration and invasion by targeting hTERT. - Highlights: • MiR-661 was downregulated in glioma tissues and functional as a tumor suppressor. • MiR-661 modulates cell proliferation, invasion and migration of glioma cells. • MiR-661 directly target hTERT in glioma cells. • MiR-661 inhibits glioma cell tumorgenesis by targeting hTERT.« less

  9. Neural Precursor-Derived Pleiotrophin Mediates Subventricular Zone Invasion by Glioma.

    PubMed

    Qin, Elizabeth Y; Cooper, Dominique D; Abbott, Keene L; Lennon, James; Nagaraja, Surya; Mackay, Alan; Jones, Chris; Vogel, Hannes; Jackson, Peter K; Monje, Michelle

    2017-08-24

    The lateral ventricle subventricular zone (SVZ) is a frequent and consequential site of pediatric and adult glioma spread, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating this are poorly understood. We demonstrate that neural precursor cell (NPC):glioma cell communication underpins this propensity of glioma to colonize the SVZ through secretion of chemoattractant signals toward which glioma cells home. Biochemical, proteomic, and functional analyses of SVZ NPC-secreted factors revealed the neurite outgrowth-promoting factor pleiotrophin, along with required binding partners SPARC/SPARCL1 and HSP90B, as key mediators of this chemoattractant effect. Pleiotrophin expression is strongly enriched in the SVZ, and pleiotrophin knock down starkly reduced glioma invasion of the SVZ in the murine brain. Pleiotrophin, in complex with the binding partners, activated glioma Rho/ROCK signaling, and ROCK inhibition decreased invasion toward SVZ NPC-secreted factors. These findings demonstrate a pathogenic role for NPC:glioma interactions and potential therapeutic targets to limit glioma invasion. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pseudoprogression in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant gliomas and meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Yokoyama, Kunio; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Matsui, Hideki; Ono, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Pseudoprogression has been recognized and widely accepted in the treatment of malignant gliomas, as transient increases in the volume of the enhanced area just after chemoradiotherapy, especially using temozolomide. We experienced a similar phenomenon in the treatment of malignant gliomas and meningiomas using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a cell-selective form of particle radiation. Here, we introduce representative cases and analyze the pathogenesis. Fifty-two cases of malignant glioma and 13 cases of malignant meningioma who were treated by BNCT were reviewed retrospectively mainly via MR images. Eleven of 52 malignant gliomas and 3 of 13 malignant meningiomas showed transient increases of enhanced volume in MR images within 3 months after BNCT. Among these cases, five patients with glioma underwent surgery because of suspicion of relapse. In histology, most of the specimens showed necrosis with small amounts of residual tumor cells. Ki-67 labeling showed decreased positivity compared with previous samples from the individuals. Fluoride-labeled boronophenylalanine PET was applied in four and two cases of malignant gliomas and meningiomas, respectively, at the time of transient increase of lesions. These PET scans showed decreased lesion:normal brain ratios in all cases compared with scans obtained prior to BNCT. With or without surgery, all lesions were decreased or stable in size during observation. Transient increases in enhanced volume in malignant gliomas and meningiomas immediately after BNCT seemed to be pseudoprogression. This pathogenesis was considered as treatment-related intratumoral necrosis in the subacute phase after BNCT. PMID:19289492

  11. Boron neutron capture therapy induces cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis of glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioma stem cells in the quiescent state are resistant to clinical radiation therapy. An almost inevitable glioma recurrence is due to the persistence of these cells. The high linear energy transfer associated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could kill quiescent and proliferative cells. Methods The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of BNCT on glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro. The damage induced by BNCT was assessed using cell cycle progression, apoptotic cell ratio and apoptosis-associated proteins expression. Results The surviving fraction and cell viability of glioma stem/progenitor cells were decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells using the same boronophenylalanine pretreatment and the same dose of neutron flux. BNCT induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, with changes in the expression of associated proteins. Conclusions Glioma stem/progenitor cells, which are resistant to current clinical radiotherapy, could be effectively killed by BNCT in vitro via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis using a prolonged neutron irradiation, although radiosensitivity of glioma stem/progenitor cells was decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells when using the same dose of thermal neutron exposure and boronophenylalanine pretreatment. Thus, BNCT could offer an appreciable therapeutic advantage to prevent tumor recurrence, and may become a promising treatment in recurrent glioma. PMID:23915425

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy induces cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis of glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Zhang, Zizhu; Li, Bin; Chen, Guilin; Xie, Xueshun; Wei, Yongxin; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Youxin; Du, Ziwei

    2013-08-06

    Glioma stem cells in the quiescent state are resistant to clinical radiation therapy. An almost inevitable glioma recurrence is due to the persistence of these cells. The high linear energy transfer associated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could kill quiescent and proliferative cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of BNCT on glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro. The damage induced by BNCT was assessed using cell cycle progression, apoptotic cell ratio and apoptosis-associated proteins expression. The surviving fraction and cell viability of glioma stem/progenitor cells were decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells using the same boronophenylalanine pretreatment and the same dose of neutron flux. BNCT induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, with changes in the expression of associated proteins. Glioma stem/progenitor cells, which are resistant to current clinical radiotherapy, could be effectively killed by BNCT in vitro via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis using a prolonged neutron irradiation, although radiosensitivity of glioma stem/progenitor cells was decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells when using the same dose of thermal neutron exposure and boronophenylalanine pretreatment. Thus, BNCT could offer an appreciable therapeutic advantage to prevent tumor recurrence, and may become a promising treatment in recurrent glioma.

  13. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... glioma should have their treatment planned by a team of health care providers who are experts in ... treatment is best for their child. The healthcare team can give parents information to help them make ...

  14. Meta-analysis of diffusion metrics for the prediction of tumor grade in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Miloushev, V Z; Chow, D S; Filippi, C G

    2015-02-01

    Diffusion tensor metrics are potential in vivo quantitative neuroimaging biomarkers for the characterization of brain tumor subtype. This meta-analysis analyzes the ability of mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy to distinguish low-grade from high-grade gliomas in the identifiable tumor core and the region of peripheral edema. A meta-analysis of articles with mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy data for World Health Organization low-grade (I, II) and high-grade (III, IV) gliomas, between 2000 and 2013, was performed. Pooled data were analyzed by using the odds ratio and mean difference. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed for patient-level data. The minimum mean diffusivity of high-grade gliomas was decreased compared with low-grade gliomas. High-grade gliomas had decreased average mean diffusivity values compared with low-grade gliomas in the tumor core and increased average mean diffusivity values in the peripheral region. High-grade gliomas had increased FA values compared with low-grade gliomas in the tumor core, decreased values in the peripheral region, and a decreased fractional anisotropy difference between the tumor core and peripheral region. The minimum mean diffusivity differs significantly with respect to the World Health Organization grade of gliomas. Statistically significant effects of tumor grade on average mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were observed, supporting the concept that high-grade tumors are more destructive and infiltrative than low-grade tumors. Considerable heterogeneity within the literature may be due to systematic factors in addition to underlying lesion heterogeneity. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  15. MicroRNA-539 inhibits glioma cell proliferation and invasion by targeting DIXDC1.

    PubMed

    Quan, Junjie; Qu, Jianqiang; Zhou, Le

    2017-09-01

    Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been suggested to contribute to malignant progression of glioma. Previous studies have demonstrated that miR-539 is dysregulated in malignant progression of cancers. However, the potential role and mechanism of miR-539 in the progression of glioma remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression status and functional significance of miR-539 in glioma. We found that miR-539 expression was significantly decreased in glioma cell lines and tissues. Overexpression of miR-539 markedly inhibited glioma cell proliferation and invasion, while miR-539 suppression exhibited the opposite effect. Bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-539 directly targeted the 3'-untranslated region of Disheveled-axin domain containing 1 (DIXDC1). DIXDC1 expression was negatively regualted by miR-539 overexpression. An inverse correlation between DIXDC1 mRNA expression and miR-539 expression was found in glioma specimens. Furthermore, knockdown of DIXC1 significantly inhibited proliferation, invasion and Wnt signaling in glioma cells. Overexpression of DIXDC1 partially reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-539 on glioma cell proliferation and invasion. Overall, these findings demonstrate that miR-539 inhibits glioma cell proliferation and invasion by targeting DIXDC1. Our study suggests that the miR-539 may serve as a potential target for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of glioma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Therapeutic Strategy for Targeting Aggressive Malignant Gliomas by Disrupting Their Energy Balance.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Ahmed M; Yamada, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Kohno, Susumu; Ueno, Masaya; Ali, Mohamed A E; Ohta, Kumiko; Tadokoro, Yuko; Ino, Yasushi; Todo, Tomoki; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Takahashi, Chiaki; Hirao, Atsushi

    2016-10-07

    Although abnormal metabolic regulation is a critical determinant of cancer cell behavior, it is still unclear how an altered balance between ATP production and consumption contributes to malignancy. Here we show that disruption of this energy balance efficiently suppresses aggressive malignant gliomas driven by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) hyperactivation. In a mouse glioma model, mTORC1 hyperactivation induced by conditional Tsc1 deletion increased numbers of glioma-initiating cells (GICs) in vitro and in vivo Metabolic analysis revealed that mTORC1 hyperactivation enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, as evidenced by elevations in oxygen consumption rate and ATP production. Inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthetase was more effective in repressing sphere formation by Tsc1-deficient glioma cells than that by Tsc1-competent glioma cells, indicating a crucial function for mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity in GIC expansion. To translate this observation into the development of novel therapeutics targeting malignant gliomas, we screened drug libraries for small molecule compounds showing greater efficacy in inhibiting the proliferation/survival of Tsc1-deficient cells compared with controls. We identified several compounds able to preferentially inhibit mitochondrial activity, dramatically reducing ATP levels and blocking glioma sphere formation. In human patient-derived glioma cells, nigericin, which reportedly suppresses cancer stem cell properties, induced AMPK phosphorylation that was associated with mTORC1 inactivation and induction of autophagy and led to a marked decrease in sphere formation with loss of GIC marker expression. Furthermore, malignant characteristics of human glioma cells were markedly suppressed by nigericin treatment in vivo Thus, targeting mTORC1-driven processes, particularly those involved in maintaining a cancer cell's energy balance, may be an effective therapeutic strategy for glioma patients. © 2016 by The American

  17. Eckol suppresses maintenance of stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, Kyung-Hwan; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Rae-Kwon

    A subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell properties is responsible for tumor maintenance and progression, and may contribute to resistance to anticancer treatments. Thus, compounds that target cancer stem-like cells could be usefully applied to destroy cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of Eckol, a phlorotannin compound, on stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells. To determine whether Eckol targets glioma stem-like cells, we examined whether Eckol treatment could change the expression levels of glioma stem-like cell markers and self-renewal-related proteins as well as the sphere forming ability, and the sensitivity to anticancer treatments. Alterations in themore » malignant properties of sphere-derived cells by Eckol were also investigated by soft-agar colony forming assay, by xenograft assay in nude mice, and by cell invasion assay. Treatment of sphere-forming glioma cells with Eckol effectively decreased the sphere formation as well as the CD133{sup +} cell population. Eckol treatment suppressed expression of the glioma stem-like cell markers and the self-renewal-related proteins without cell death. Moreover, treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol significantly attenuated anchorage-independent growth on soft agar and tumor formation in xenograft mice. Importantly, Eckol treatment effectively reduced the resistance of glioma stem-like cells to ionizing radiation and temozolomide. Treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol markedly blocked both phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and Ras-Raf-1-Erk signaling pathways. These results indicate that the natural phlorotannin Eckol suppresses stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells, and thereby makes glioma stem-like cells more sensitive to anticancer treatments, providing novel therapeutic strategies targeting specifically cancer stem-like cells.« less

  18. The histone deacetylase SIRT6 suppresses the expression of the RNA-binding protein PCBP2 in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xin; Hao, Bin; Liu, Ying

    Highlights: • PCBP2 expression is over-expressed in human glioma tissues and cell lines. • SIRT6 is decreased in glioma and correlated with PCBP2. • SIRT6 inhibits PCBP2 expression by deacetylating H3K9. • SIRT6 inhibits glioma growth in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: More than 80% of tumors that occur in the brain are malignant gliomas. The prognosis of glioma patients is still poor, which makes glioma an urgent subject of cancer research. Previous evidence and our present data show that PCBP2 is over-expressed in human glioma tissues and predicts poor outcome. However, the mechanism by which PCBP2 is regulatedmore » in glioma remains elusive. We find that SIRT6, one of the NAD{sup +}-dependent class III deacetylase SIRTUINs, is down-regulated in human glioma tissues and that the level of SIRT6 is negatively correlated with PCBP2 level while H3K9ac enrichment on the promoter of PCBP2 is positively correlated with PCBP2 expression. Furthermore, we identify PCBP2 as a target of SIRT6. We demonstrate that PCBP2 expression is inhibited by SIRT6, which depends upon deacetylating H3K9ac. Finally, our results reveal that SIRT6 inhibits glioma cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro and glioma cell growth in vivo in a PCBP2 dependent manner. In summary, our findings implicate that SIRT6 inhibits PCBP2 expression through deacetylating H3K9ac and SIRT6 acts as a tumor suppressor in human glioma.« less

  19. Dihydroartemisinin increases temozolomide efficacy in glioma cells by inducing autophagy

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZE-SHUN; WANG, JING; SHEN, YOU-BI; GUO, CHENG-CHENG; SAI, KE; CHEN, FU-RONG; MEI, XIN; HAN, FU; CHEN, ZHONG-PING

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin, a powerful antimalarial medicine, is extracted from the Chinese herb, Artemisia annua L., and has the ability to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the major active metabolite of artemisinin, is able to inhibit the growth of a variety of types of human cancer. However, the effect of DHA on human glioma cells remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DHA on the proliferation of glioma cells, and whether DHA was able to enhance temozolomide (TMZ) sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. In total, 10 human glioma cell lines were used to analyze the growth inhibition ability of DHA by MTT assay. The typical autophagic vacuoles were monitored by the application of the autofluorescent agent, monodansylcadaverine. Western blotting was used to detect markers of apoptosis and autophagy, namely Caspase-3, Beclin-1 and LC3-B. The combination efficiency of DHA and TMZ was assessed in vitro and in vivo. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DHA differed among the ten human glioma cell lines. The number of autophagic vacuoles was higher in DHA-treated SKMG-4 cells; this was highest of all cell lines analyzed. The expression of autophagy molecular markers, Beclin-1 and LC3-B, was increased following DHA treatment, while no significant alteration was detected in the expression of apoptotic marker Caspase-3. When combined with DHA, the IC50 of TMZ decreased significantly in the four glioma cell lines analyzed. Furthermore, DHA enhanced the tumor inhibition ability of TMZ in tumor-burdened mice. The results of the present study demonstrated that DHA inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells and enhanced the tumor inhibition efficacy of TMZ in vitro and in vivo through the induction of autophagy. PMID:26171034

  20. Positron Spectroscopy Investigation of Normal Brain Section and Brain Section with Glioma Derived from a Rat Glioma Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, SH.; Ballmann, C.; Quarles, C. A.

    2009-03-10

    The application of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) to the study of animal or human tissue has only recently been reported [G. Liu, et al. phys. stat. sol. (C) 4, Nos. 10, 3912-3915 (2007)]. We have initiated a study of normal brain section and brain section with glioma derived from a rat glioma model. For the rat glioma model, 200,000 C6 cells were implanted in the basal ganglion of adult Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were sacrificed at 21 days after implantation. The brains were harvested, sliced into 2 mm thick coronal sections, and fixedmore » in 4% formalin. PALS lifetime runs were made with the samples soaked in formalin, and there was not significant evaporation of formalin during the runs. The lifetime spectra were analyzed into two lifetime components. While early results suggested a small decrease in ortho-Positronium (o-Ps) pickoff lifetime between the normal brain section and brain section with glioma, further runs with additional samples have showed no statistically significant difference between the normal and tumor tissue for this type of tumor. The o-Ps lifetime in formalin alone was lower than either the normal tissue or glioma sample. So annihilation in the formalin absorbed in the samples would lower the o-Ps lifetime and this may have masked any difference due to the glioma itself. DBS was also used to investigate the difference in positronium formation between tumor and normal tissue. Tissue samples are heterogeneous and this needs to be carefully considered if PALS and DBS are to become useful tools in distinguishing tissue samples.« less

  1. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Waitkus, Matthew S.; Diplas, Bill H.; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, extraordinary progress has been made in elucidating the underlying genetic causes of gliomas. In 2008, our understanding of glioma genetics was revolutionized when mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) were identified in the vast majority of progressive gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBMs). IDH enzymes normally catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to generate α-ketoglutarate (αKG), but recurrent mutations at Arg132 of IDH1 and Arg172 of IDH2 confer a neomorphic enzyme activity that catalyzes reduction of αKG into the putative oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutate (D2HG). D2HG inhibits αKG-dependent dioxygenases and is thought to create a cellular state permissive to malignant transformation by altering cellular epigenetics and blocking normal differentiation processes. Herein, we discuss the relevant literature on mechanistic studies of IDH1/2 mutations in gliomas, and we review the potential impact of IDH1/2 mutations on molecular classification and glioma therapy. PMID:26188014

  2. Upfront chemotherapy and subsequent resection for molecularly defined gliomas.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hikaru; Hirose, Yuichi; Yazaki, Takahito; Kitamura, Yohei; Katayama, Makoto; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Toda, Masahiro; Ohira, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2015-08-01

    Functional preservation is critical in glioma surgery, and the extent of resection influences survival outcome. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a promising option because of its potential to facilitate tumor shrinkage and maximum tumor resection. The object of this study was to assess the utility of the neoadjuvant strategy in a prospective series of gliomas with favorable molecular status. Twenty-six consecutive cases of diffuse gliomas of WHO grade II or III with either 1p19q codeletion or MGMT methylation were treated with upfront chemotherapy following maximal safe removal. In cases of incomplete initial surgery, second-look resection was intended after tumor volume decrease by chemotherapy. Among 22 evaluable cases, chemotherapy led to a median change in the sum of the product of perpendicular diameters of -35 %, and 14 out of the 22 cases (64 %) showed objective response. Second-look resection after tumor volume decrease was performed in 12 out of 19 cases of incomplete initial surgery (GTR/STR 9, removal of residual methionine PET uptake 3). The median progression-free survival among the 22 patients with grade II tumors was 57 months, with some cases showing durable progression-free survival after second-look resection. MIB-1 indices of the second-look resected tumors were lower than those of the initial tumors, and the methylation status of the MGMT gene was unchanged. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on molecular guidance often produces significant volume decrease of incompletely resected gliomas. Radical second-look resection is an optional advantage of upfront chemotherapy for chemosensitive gliomas compared with initial radiotherapy.

  3. Evaluation of neovascularization patterns in an orthotopic rat glioma model with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Xuesong, Du; Wei, Xue; Heng, Liu; Xiao, Chen; Shunan, Wang; Yu, Guo; Weiguo, Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Background Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been proved useful in evaluating glioma angiogenesis, but the utility in evaluating neovascularization patterns has not been reported. Purpose To evaluate in vivo real-time glioma neovascularization patterns by measuring glioma perfusion quantitatively using DCE-MRI. Material and Methods Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish C6 orthotopic glioma model and underwent MRI and pathology detections. As MRI and pathology were performed at six time points (i.e. 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 days) post transplantation, neovascularization patterns were evaluated via DCE-MRI. Results Four neovascularization patterns were observed in glioma tissues. Sprout angiogenesis and intussusceptive microvascular growth located inside tumor, while vascular co-option and vascular mimicry were found in the tumor margin and necrotic area, respectively. Sprout angiogenesis and intussusceptive microvascular growth increased with K trans , K ep , and V p inside tumor tissue. In addition, K ep and V p were positively correlated with sprout angiogenesis and intussusceptive microvascular growth. Vascular co-option was decreased at 12 and 16 days post transplantation and correlated negatively with K trans and K ep detected in the glioma margin, respectively. Changes of vascular mimicry showed no significant statistical difference at the six time points. Conclusion Our results indicate that DCE-MRI can evaluate neovascularization patterns in a glioma model. Furthermore, DCE-MRI could be an imaging biomarker for guidance of antiangiogenic treatments in humans in the future.

  4. Dobesilate diminishes activation of the mitogen - activated protein kinase ERK1/2 in glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, P; Diaz-González, Diana; Garcia-Martin-Córdova, C; Sánchez, I; Lozano, Rosa Maria; Giménez-Gallego, G; Dujovny, M

    2006-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors, regularly expressed at high levels in gliomas, are further upregulated during the transition of the tumor from low- to high-grade malignancy, and are essential for glioma progression. FGFs induce upregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade in cultured glioma cells, which suggests that MAPK pathway participates in the FGF-dependent glioma development. Recently, it has been shown that dobesilate, an inhibitor of FGF mitogenic activity, shows antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities in glioma cell cultures. Accordingly, it should be expected this new synthetic FGF inhibitor to affect the activation levels of MAPK. Here we report that immunocytochemical and Western blot data unequivocally show that treatment of cell cultures with dobesilate causes a significant decrease of the intracellular levels of ERK1/2 activation, one of the components of the MAPK signalling cascade. This finding supports an important role for dobesilate in glioma growth, suggesting that dobesilate should be a treatment to be born in mind for glioma management. PMID:16563234

  5. Glioma Selectivity of Magnetically Targeted Nanoparticles: A Role of Abnormal Tumor Hydrodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chertok, Beata; David, Allan E.; Huang, Yongzhuo; Yang, Victor C.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic targeting is a promising strategy for achieving localized drug delivery. Application of this strategy to treat brain tumors, however, is complicated by their deep intracranial location, since magnetic field density cannot be focused at a distance from an externally applied magnet. This study intended to examine whether, with magnetic targeting, pathological alteration in brain tumor flow dynamics could be of value in discriminating the diseased site from healthy brain. To address this question, the capture of magnetic nanoparticles was first assessed in vitro using a simple flow system under theoretically estimated glioma and normal brain flow conditions. Secondly, accumulation of nanoparticles via magnetic targeting was evaluated in vivo using 9L-glioma bearing rats. In vitro results that predicted a 7.6-fold increase in nanoparticle capture at glioma-versus contralateral brain-relevant flow rates were relatively consistent with the 9.6-fold glioma selectivity of nanoparticle accumulation over the contralateral brain observed in vivo. Based on these finding, the in vitro ratio of nanoparticle capture can be viewed as a plausible indicator of in vivo glioma selectivity. Overall, it can be concluded that the decreased blood flow rate in glioma, reflecting tumor vascular abnormalities, is an important contributor to glioma-selective nanoparticle accumulation with magnetic targeting. PMID:17628157

  6. The melatonin-MT1 receptor axis modulates tumor growth in PTEN-mutated gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huihui; Wang, Zhen; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Shangrong; Zhao, Chenggang; Yang, Haoran; Wang, Hongzhi; Fang, Zhiyou; Wu, Lijun; Chen, Xueran

    2018-02-19

    More than 40% of glioma patients have tumors that harbor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten) mutations; this disease is associated with poor therapeutic resistance and outcome. Such mutations are linked to increased cell survival and growth, decreased apoptosis, and drug resistance; thus, new therapeutic strategies focusing on inhibiting glioma tumorigenesis and progression are urgently needed. Melatonin, an indolamine produced and secreted predominantly by the pineal gland, mediates a variety of physiological functions and possesses antioxidant and antitumor properties. Here, we analyzed the relationship between PTEN and the inhibitory effect of melatonin in primary human glioma cells and cultured glioma cell lines. The results showed that melatonin can inhibit glioma cell growth both in culture and in vivo. This inhibition was associated with PTEN levels, which significantly correlated with the expression level of MT1 in patients. In fact, c-fos-mediated MT1 was shown to be a key modulator of the effect of melatonin on gliomas that harbor wild type PTEN. Taken together, these data suggest that melatonin-MT1 receptor complexes represent a potential target for the treatment of glioma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Glioma selectivity of magnetically targeted nanoparticles: a role of abnormal tumor hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Chertok, Beata; David, Allan E; Huang, Yongzhuo; Yang, Victor C

    2007-10-08

    Magnetic targeting is a promising strategy for achieving localized drug delivery. Application of this strategy to treat brain tumors, however, is complicated by their deep intracranial location, since magnetic field density cannot be focused at a distance from an externally applied magnet. This study intended to examine whether, with magnetic targeting, pathological alteration in brain tumor flow dynamics could be of value in discriminating the diseased site from healthy brain. To address this question, the capture of magnetic nanoparticles was first assessed in vitro using a simple flow system under theoretically estimated glioma and normal brain flow conditions. Secondly, accumulation of nanoparticles via magnetic targeting was evaluated in vivo using 9L-glioma bearing rats. In vitro results that predicted a 7.6-fold increase in nanoparticle capture at glioma- versus contralateral brain-relevant flow rates were relatively consistent with the 9.6-fold glioma selectivity of nanoparticle accumulation over the contralateral brain observed in vivo. Based on these finding, the in vitro ratio of nanoparticle capture can be viewed as a plausible indicator of in vivo glioma selectivity. Overall, it can be concluded that the decreased blood flow rate in glioma, reflecting tumor vascular abnormalities, is an important contributor to glioma-selective nanoparticle accumulation with magnetic targeting.

  8. CRNDE Promotes Malignant Progression of Glioma by Attenuating miR-384/PIWIL4/STAT3 Axis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian; Liu, Xiaobai; Wang, Ping; Xue, Yixue; Ma, Jun; Qu, Chengbin; Liu, Yunhui

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed (CRNDE) is the most upregulated long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in glioma. Herein, the function and potential molecular mechanisms of CRNDE and miR-384 were illustrated in glioma cells. CRNDE overexpression facilitated cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, while inhibited glioma cells apoptosis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated that miR-384 was downregulated in human glioma tissues and glioma cell lines. Moreover, restoration of miR-384 exerted tumor-suppressive functions. In addition, the expression of miR-384 was negatively correlated with CRNDE expression. A binding region between CRNDE and miR-384 was confirmed using luciferase assays. Moreover, CRNDE promoted cell malignant behavior by decreasing miR-384 expression. At the molecular level, treatment by CRNDE knockdown or miR-384 overexpression resulted in a decrease of piwi-like RNA-mediated gene silencing 4 (PIWIL4) protein. Besides, PIWIL4 was identified as a target of miR-384 and plays an oncogenic role in glioma. Similarly, downstream proteins of PIWIL4 such as STAT3, cyclin D1, VEGFA, SLUG, MMP-9, caspase 3, Bcl-2, and bcl-xL were modulated when treated with miR-384 and PIWIL4. Remarkably, CRNDE knockdown combined with miR-384 overexpression led to tumor regression in vivo. Overall, these results depicted a novel pathway mediated by CRNDE in glioma, which may be a potential application for glioma therapy. PMID:27058823

  9. Recent Advances in Targeted Therapy for Glioma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Cai, Jinquan; Jiang, Chuanlu

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumors, which have a universally fatal outcome. Current standard treatment for glioma patients is surgical removal followed by radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Due to therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence, efforts are ongoing to identify the molecules that are fundamental to regulate the tumor progression and provide additional methods for individual treatment of glioma patients. By studying the initiation and maintenance of glioma, studies focused on the targets of tyrosine kinase receptors including EGFR, PDGFR and other crucial signal pathways such as PI3K/AKT and RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway. Furthermore, recent advances in targeting immunotherapy and stem cell therapy also brought numerous strategies to glioma treatment. This article reviewed the researches focused on the advanced strategies of various target therapies for improving the glioma treatment efficacy, and discussed the challenges and future directions for glioma therapy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. CBX7 negatively regulates migration and invasion in glioma via Wnt/β-catenin pathway inactivation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhongyuan; Xu, Xiupeng; Liu, Yinlong; Chao, Honglu; Lin, Chao; Li, Zheng; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Ji, Jing

    2017-06-13

    CBX7, a member of the Polycomb-group proteins, plays a significant role in normal and cancerous tissues and has been defined as a tumor suppressor in thyroid, breast and pancreatic cancers. However, its function in glioma remains undefined. CBX7 expression is decreased in glioma, especially in higher grade cases, according to data in the CGGA, GSE16001 and TCGA databases. Further experimental evidence has shown that exogenous CBX7 overexpression induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation and migration of glioma cells. In this study, we show that the invasive ability of glioma cells was decreased following CBX7 overexpression and CBX7 overexpression was associated with Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibition, which also decreased downstream expression of ZEB1, a core epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition factor. This reduction in Wnt signaling is controlled by DKK1, a specific Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor. CBX7 enhances DKK1 expression by binding the DKK1 promoter, as shown in Luciferase reporter assays. Our data confirm that CBX7 inhibits EMT and invasion in glioma, which is manifested by influencing the expression of MMP2, MMP9, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin in LN229, T98G cells and primary glioma cells (PGC). Furthermore, as a tumor suppressor, CBX7 expression is pivotal to reduce tumor invasion and evaluate prognosis.

  11. Interactions between glioma and pregnancy: insight from a 52-case multicenter series.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Sophie; Pagès, Mélanie; Gauchotte, Guillaume; Miquel, Catherine; Cartalat-Carel, Stéphanie; Guillamo, Jean-Sébastien; Capelle, Laurent; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Beauchesne, Patrick; Debouverie, Marc; Fontaine, Denys; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Stecken, Jean; Menei, Philippe; De Witte, Olivier; Colin, Philippe; Frappaz, Didier; Lesimple, Thierry; Bauchet, Luc; Lopes, Manuel; Bozec, Laurence; Moyal, Elisabeth; Deroulers, Christophe; Varlet, Pascale; Zanello, Marc; Chretien, Fabrice; Oppenheim, Catherine; Duffau, Hugues; Taillandier, Luc; Pallud, Johan

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to provide insight into the influence of gliomas on gestational outcomes, the impact of pregnancy on gliomas, and the identification of patients at risk. METHODS In this multiinstitutional retrospective study, the authors identified 52 pregnancies in 50 women diagnosed with a glioma. RESULTS For gliomas known prior to pregnancy (n = 24), we found the following: 1) An increase in the quantified imaging growth rates occurred during pregnancy in 87% of cases. 2) Clinical deterioration occurred in 38% of cases, with seizures alone resolving after delivery in 57.2% of cases. 3) Oncological treatments were immediately performed after delivery in 25% of cases. For gliomas diagnosed during pregnancy (n = 28), we demonstrated the following: 1) The tumor was discovered during the second and third trimesters in 29% and 54% of cases, respectively, with seizures being the presenting symptom in 68% of cases. 2) The quantified imaging growth rates did not significantly decrease after delivery and before oncological treatment. 3) Clinical deterioration resolved after delivery in 21.4% of cases. 4) Oncological treatments were immediately performed after delivery in 70% of cases. Gliomas with a high grade of malignancy, negative immunoexpression of alpha-internexin, or positive immunoexpression for p53 were more likely to be associated with tumor progression during pregnancy. Deliveries were all uneventful (cesarean section in 54.5% of cases and vaginal delivery in 45.5%), and the infants were developmentally normal. CONCLUSIONS When a woman harboring a glioma envisions a pregnancy, or when a glioma is discovered in a pregnant patient, the authors suggest informing her and her partner that pregnancy may impact the evolution of the glioma clinically and radiologically. They strongly advise a multidisciplinary approach to management. ■ CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE Type of question: association; study design: case series; evidence: Class IV.

  12. Body mass index, physical activity, and risk of adult meningioma and glioma: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Niedermaier, Tobias; Behrens, Gundula; Schmid, Daniela; Schlecht, Inga; Fischer, Beate; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2015-10-13

    Whether adiposity and lack of physical activity affect the risk for developing meningioma and glioma is poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize these associations in detail. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of adiposity and physical activity in relation to meningioma and glioma using cohort and case-control studies published through February 2015. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We identified 12 eligible studies of body mass index (BMI) and 6 studies of physical activity, comprising up to 2,982 meningioma cases and 3,057 glioma cases. Using normal weight as the reference group, overweight (summary relative risk [RR] = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.43) and obesity (RR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.32-1.79) were associated with increased risk of meningioma. In contrast, overweight (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.94-1.20) and obesity (RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.98-1.27) were unrelated to glioma. Similarly, dose-response meta-analyses revealed a statistically significant positive association of BMI with meningioma, but not glioma. High vs low physical activity levels showed a modest inverse relation to meningioma (RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.61-0.88) and a weak inverse association with glioma (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.76-0.97). Relations persisted when the data were restricted to prospective studies, except for the association between physical activity and glioma, which was rendered statistically nonsignificant (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.77-1.07). Adiposity is related to enhanced risk for meningioma but is unassociated with risk for glioma. Based on a limited body of evidence, physical activity is related to decreased risk of meningioma but shows little association with risk of glioma. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Activation of the NRF2 pathway and its impact on the prognosis of anaplastic glioma patients

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, Masayuki; Higa, Tsuyoshi; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Murakami, Shohei; Dodo, Mina; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Keiko; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Watanabe, Mika; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Shibahara, Ichiyo; Saito, Ryuta; Yamashita, Yoji; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Motohashi, Hozumi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (NRF2) plays pivotal roles in cytoprotection. We aimed at clarifying the contribution of the NRF2 pathway to malignant glioma pathology. Methods NRF2 target gene expression and its association with prognosis were examined in 95 anaplastic gliomas with or without isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2 gene mutations and 52 glioblastomas. To explore mechanisms for the altered activity of the NRF2 pathway, we examined somatic mutations and expressions of the NRF2 gene and those encoding NRF2 regulators, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) and p62/SQSTSM. To clarify the functional interaction between IDH1 mutations and the NRF2 pathway, we introduced a mutant IDH1 to T98 glioblastoma-derived cells and examined the NRF2 activity in these cells. Results NRF2 target genes were elevated in 13.7% and 32.7% of anaplastic gliomas and glioblastomas, respectively. Upregulation of NRF2 target genes correlated with poor prognosis in anaplastic gliomas but not in glioblastomas. Neither somatic mutations of NRF2/KEAP1 nor dysregulated expression of KEAP1/p62 explained the increased expression of NRF2 target genes. In most cases of anaplastic glioma with mutated IDH1/2, NRF2 and its target genes were downregulated. This was reproducible in IDH1 R132H–expressing T98 cells. In minor cases of IDH1/2-mutant anaplastic gliomas with increased expression of NRF2 target genes, the clinical outcomes were significantly poor. Conclusions The NRF2 activity is increased in a significant proportion of malignant gliomas in general but decreased in the majority of IDH1/2-mutant anaplastic gliomas. It is plausible that the NRF2 pathway plays an important role in tumor progression of anaplastic gliomas with IDH1/2 mutations. PMID:25304134

  14. In silico gene expression analysis reveals glycolysis and acetate anaplerosis in IDH1 wild-type glioma and lactate and glutamate anaplerosis in IDH1-mutated glioma.

    PubMed

    Khurshed, Mohammed; Molenaar, Remco J; Lenting, Krissie; Leenders, William P; van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2017-07-25

    Hotspot mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) initiate low-grade glioma and secondary glioblastoma and induce a neomorphic activity that converts α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG). It causes metabolic rewiring that is not fully understood. We investigated the effects of IDH1 mutations (IDH1MUT) on expression of genes that encode for metabolic enzymes by data mining The Cancer Genome Atlas. We analyzed 112 IDH1 wild-type (IDH1WT) versus 399 IDH1MUT low-grade glioma and 157 IDH1WT versus 9 IDH1MUT glioblastoma samples. In both glioma types, IDH1WT was associated with high expression levels of genes encoding enzymes that are involved in glycolysis and acetate anaplerosis, whereas IDH1MUT glioma overexpress genes encoding enzymes that are involved in the oxidative tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In vitro, we observed that IDH1MUT cancer cells have a higher basal respiration compared to IDH1WT cancer cells and inhibition of the IDH1MUT shifts the metabolism by decreasing oxygen consumption and increasing glycolysis. Our findings indicate that IDH1WT glioma have a typical Warburg phenotype whereas in IDH1MUT glioma the TCA cycle, rather than glycolytic lactate production, is the predominant metabolic pathway. Our data further suggest that the TCA in IDH1MUT glioma is driven by lactate and glutamate anaplerosis to facilitate production of α-KG, and ultimately D-2-HG. This metabolic rewiring may be a basis for novel therapies for IDH1MUT and IDH1WT glioma.

  15. 14-3-3β exerts glioma-promoting effects and is associated with malignant progression and poor prognosis in patients with glioma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhixiong; Wang, Hao; Chen, Long; Ruan, Fuqiang; Zhang, Jihui; Hu, Yi; Luo, Hengshan; Wen, Shuai

    2018-03-01

    Glioma is a type of tumor that affects the central nervous system. It has been demonstrated that 14-3-3β, a protein that is mainly concentrated in the brain, serves an important role in tumor regulation. However, the mechanism of action of 14-3-3β that underlies the pathogenesis of glioma remains to be elucidated. In the present study, 14-3-3β was silenced by RNA interference in the human glioma cell line U373-MG. Following knockdown of 14-3-3β, the proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion of U373-MG cells were significantly decreased (P<0.01), whereas cell apoptosis was increased (P<0.01). Furthermore, in a tumor xenograft experiment, silencing 14-3-3β significantly inhibited the in vivo tumor growth of U373-MG cells (P<0.01). The results demonstrated that 14-3-3β levels were significantly higher in human glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues (P<0.01) and high 14-3-3β expression was significantly associated with advanced pathological grade (P<0.03) and low Karnofsky performance scale (P<0.003). Patients with glioma who had high 14-3-3β levels had a significantly shorter survival time compared with those with low expression of 14-3-3β (P=0.031), suggesting that 14-3-3β may be an effective predictor of the prognosis of patients with glioma. The results of the present study indicate that 14-3-3β serves an oncogenic role in glioma, suggesting that 14-3-3β may have potential as a promising therapeutic target for glioma.

  16. Atorvastatin Promotes Cytotoxicity and Reduces Migration and Proliferation of Human A172 Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Karen A; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Lopes, Flávia G; Ludka, Fabiana K; Nedel, Cláudia B; Tasca, Carla I

    2018-02-01

    Malignant gliomas have resistance mechanisms to chemotherapy that enable tumor invasiveness and aggressiveness. Alternative therapies in cancer treatment, as statins, have been suggested to decrease proliferation, inhibit cell migration, and induce cell death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin (ATOR) on cell viability, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy in A172 human glioma cells. Temozolomide (TMZ), a chemotherapic used to glioma treatment, was tested as a comparison to cytotoxic effects on gliomas. Cell viability was also assessed in primary culture of cortical astrocytes. ATOR treatment (0.1 to 20 μM) did not alter astrocytic viability. However, in glioma cells, ATOR showed cytotoxic effect at 10 and 20 μM concentrations. TMZ (500 μM) reduced cell viability similarly to ATOR, and drug association did not show additive effect on cell viability. ATOR, TMZ, and their association decreased cell migration. ATOR also decreased glioma cell proliferation. ATOR increased apoptosis, and TMZ association showed a potentiation effect, enhancing it. ATOR and TMZ treatment increased acidic vesicular organelle (AVO) presence in A172 cells, an indicative of autophagy. ATOR effect of reducing A172 cell viability did not alter glutamate transport and glutamine synthetase activity, but it was partially prevented through antagonism of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Our data shows a cytotoxic effect of ATOR on glioma cells, whereas no toxicity was observed to astrocytes. ATOR showed similar cytotoxic effect as TMZ to glioma cells, and it may be a safer drug, regarding side effect induction, than chemotherapic agents.

  17. CD44 Interacts with HIF-2α to Modulate the Hypoxic Phenotype of Perinecrotic and Perivascular Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Elinn; Grassi, Elisa S; Pantazopoulou, Vasiliki; Tong, Bei; Lindgren, David; Berg, Tracy J; Pietras, Elin J; Axelson, Håkan; Pietras, Alexander

    2017-08-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factors enhance glioma stemness, and glioma stem cells have an amplified hypoxic response despite residing within a perivascular niche. Still, little is known about differential HIF regulation in stem versus bulk glioma cells. We show that the intracellular domain of stem cell marker CD44 (CD44ICD) is released at hypoxia, binds HIF-2α (but not HIF-1α), enhances HIF target gene activation, and is required for hypoxia-induced stemness in glioma. In a glioma mouse model, CD44 was restricted to hypoxic and perivascular tumor regions, and in human glioma, a hypoxia signature correlated with CD44. The CD44ICD was sufficient to induce hypoxic signaling at perivascular oxygen tensions, and blocking CD44 cleavage decreased HIF-2α stabilization in CD44-expressing cells. Our data indicate that the stem cell marker CD44 modulates the hypoxic response of glioma cells and that the pseudo-hypoxic phenotype of stem-like glioma cells is achieved by stabilization of HIF-2α through interaction with CD44, independently of oxygen. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sox2 is translationally activated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E in human glioma-initiating cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Yuqing; Zhou, Fengbiao; Chen, Hong

    2010-07-09

    Sox2, a master transcription factor, contributes to the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells and plays significant roles in sustaining the self-renewal of neural stem cells and glioma-initiating cells. Understanding the functional differences of Sox2 between glioma-initiating cells and normal neural stem cells would contribute to therapeutic approach for treatment of brain tumors. Here, we first demonstrated that Sox2 could contribute to the self-renewal and proliferation of glioma-initiating cells. The following experiments showed that Sox2 was activated at translational level in a subset of human glioma-initiating cells compared with the normal neural stem cells. Further investigation revealed there was amore » positive correlation between Sox2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in glioma tissues. Down-regulation of eIF4E decreased Sox2 protein level without altering its mRNA level in glioma-initiating cells, indicating that Sox2 was activated by eIF4E at translational level. Furthermore, eIF4E was presumed to regulate the expression of Sox2 by its 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) sequence. Our results suggest that the eIF4E-Sox2 axis is a novel mechanism of unregulated self-renewal of glioma-initiating cells, providing a potential therapeutic target for glioma.« less

  19. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) in gliomas: expression and exploitation as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Honavar, Mrinalini; Pinheiro, Céline; Martinho, Olga; Pires, Manuel M.; Pinheiro, Célia; Cordeiro, Michelle; Bebiano, Gil; Costa, Paulo; Palmeirim, Isabel; Reis, Rui M.; Baltazar, Fátima

    2013-01-01

    Background Gliomas exhibit high glycolytic rates, and monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) play a major role in the maintenance of the glycolytic metabolism through the proton-linked transmembrane transport of lactate. However, their role in gliomas is poorly studied. Thus, we aimed to characterize the expression of MCT1, MCT4, and their chaperone CD147 and to assess the therapeutic impact of MCT inhibition in gliomas. Methods MCTs and CD147 expressions were characterized by immunohistochemistry in nonneoplastic brain and glioma samples. The effect of CHC (MCT inhibitor) and MCT1 silencing was assessed in in vitro and in vivo glioblastoma models. Results MCT1, MCT4, and CD147 were overexpressed in the plasma membrane of glioblastomas, compared with diffuse astrocytomas and nonneoplastic brain. CHC decreased glycolytic metabolism, migration, and invasion and induced cell death in U251 cells (more glycolytic) but only affected proliferation in SW1088 (more oxidative). The effectiveness of CHC in glioma cells appears to be dependent on MCT membrane expression. MCT1 downregulation showed similar effects on different glioma cells, supporting CHC as an MCT1 inhibitor. There was a synergistic effect when combining CHC with temozolomide treatment in U251 cells. In the CAM in vivo model, CHC decreased the size of tumors and the number of blood vessels formed. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study reporting the expression of MCTs and CD147 in gliomas. The MCT1 inhibitor CHC exhibited anti-tumoral and anti-angiogenic activity in gliomas and, of importance, enhanced the effect of temozolomide. Thus, our results suggest that development of therapeutic approaches targeting MCT1 may be a promising strategy in glioblastoma treatment. PMID:23258846

  20. Sirt2 suppresses glioma cell growth through targeting NF-κB–miR-21 axis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ya’nan; Dai, Dongwei; Lu, Qiong

    Highlights: •Sirt2 expression is down-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. •Sirt2 regresses glioma cell growth and colony formation via inducing apoptosis. •miR-21 is essential for the functions of Sirt2 in glioma cells. •Sirt2 deacetylates p65 to decrease miR-21 expression. -- Abstract: Sirtuins are NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylases that regulate numerous cellular processes including aging, DNA repair, cell cycle, metabolism, and survival under stress conditions. The roles of sirtuin family members are widely studied in carcinogenesis. However, their roles in glioma remain unclear. Here we report that Sir2 was under expressed in human glioma tissues and cell lines. We foundmore » that Sirt2 overexpression decreased cell proliferation and colony formation capacity. In addition, Sirt2 overexpression induced cellular apoptosis via up-regulating cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, and down-regulating anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Sirt2 knockdown obtained opposing results. We showed that Sirt2 overexpression inhibited miR-21 expression, and Sirt2 was not sufficient to reduce cell proliferation and colony formation as well as to induce apoptosis when miR-21 was knocked down in glioma cells. Mechanically, we demonstrated that Sirt2 deacetylated p65 at K310 and blocked p65 binding to the promoter region of miR-21, thus regressing the transcription of miR-21. In summary, Sirt2 is critical in human glioma via NF-κB–miR-21 pathway and Sirt2 activator may serve as candidate drug for glioma therapy.« less

  1. Methylation of the miR-126 gene associated with glioma progression.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongwei; Mu, Yongping; Yu, Lei; Xi, Ya-guang; Matthiesen, Rune; Su, Xiulan; Sun, Wenjie

    2016-04-01

    miR-126 was found in 40% of glioma patients in our study (20/50 cases), resulting in significantly decreased miR-126 expression (0.1715 ± 0.1376; P < 0.05). Our results indicate that we verified successfully the miRNA-126 down-regulation phenomenon in patients with glioma which showed in the results of glioma tissue miRNAs chip and the miRNA-126 down-regulation through methylation in patients with glioma. So we could say that epigenetic modification is a crucial mechanism for controlling the expression of miR-126 in glioma.

  2. Knockdown of HDAC1 expression suppresses invasion and induces apoptosis in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Bai, Hong-Min; Li, Shi-Ting; Sun, Hui; Min, Ling-Zhao; Tao, Bang-Bao; Zhong, Jun; Li, Bin

    2017-07-18

    Glioma is the most common malignant tumor of the central nervous system, with a low survival rate of five years worldwide. Although high expression and prognostic value of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) have been recently reported in various types of human tumors, the molecular mechanism underlying the biological function of HDAC1 in glioma is still unclear. We found that HDAC1 was elevated in glioma tissues and cell lines. HDAC1 expression was closely related with pathological grade and overall survival of patients with gliomas. Downregulation of HDAC1 inhibited cell proliferation, prevented invasion of glioma cell lines, and induced cell apoptosis. The expression of apoptosis and metastasis related molecules were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively, in U251 and T98G cells with HDAC1 knockdown. We found that HDAC1 knockdown upregulated expression of BIM, BAX, cleaved CASPASE3 and E-CADHERIN, and decreased expression of TWIST1, SNAIL and MMP9 in U251 and T98G cells with HDAC1 knockdown. In vivo data showed that knockdown of HDAC1 inhibited tumor growth in nude mice. In summary, HDAC1 may therefore be considered an unfavorable progression indicator for glioma patients, and may also serve as a potential therapeutic target.

  3. Microglia cyclooxygenase-2 activity in experimental gliomas: possible role in cerebral edema formation.

    PubMed

    Badie, Behnam; Schartner, Jill M; Hagar, Aaron R; Prabakaran, Sakthivel; Peebles, Todd R; Bartley, Becky; Lapsiwala, Samir; Resnick, Daniel K; Vorpahl, Jessica

    2003-02-01

    Cerebral edema is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in patients harboring malignant gliomas. To examine the role of inflammatory cells in brain edema formation, we studied the expression cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, a key enzyme in arachidonic acid metabolism, by microglia in the C6 rodent glioma model. The expression of COX-2 in primary microglia cultures obtained from intracranial rat C6 gliomas was examined using reverse transcription-PCR, Western analysis, and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) enzyme immunoassay. Blood-tumor barrier permeability was studied in the same tumor model using magnetic resonance imaging. In contrast to C6 glioma cells, microglia isolated from intracranial C6 tumors produced high levels of PGE(2) through a COX-2-dependent pathway. To test whether the observed microglia COX-2 activity played a role in brain edema formation in gliomas, tumor-bearing rats were treated with rofecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor. Rofecoxib was as effective as dexamethasone in decreasing the diffusion of contrast material into the brain parenchyma (P = 0.01, rofecoxib versus control animals), suggesting a reduction in blood-tumor barrier permeability. These findings suggest that glioma-infiltrating microglia are a major source of PGE(2) production through the COX-2 pathway and support the use of COX-2 inhibitors as possible alternatives to glucocorticoids in the treatment of peritumoral edema in patients with malignant brain tumors.

  4. Carbon Ion Radiation Inhibits Glioma and Endothelial Cell Migration Induced by Secreted VEGF

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Chao; Gan, Lu; Zhang, Luwei; Mao, Aihong; Du, Yuting; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of carbon ion and X-ray radiation and the tumor microenvironment on the migration of glioma and endothelial cells, a key process in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis during cancer progression. C6 glioma and human microvascular endothelial cells were treated with conditioned medium from cultures of glioma cells irradiated at a range of doses and the migration of both cell types, tube formation by endothelial cells, as well as the expression and secretion of migration-related proteins were evaluated. Exposure to X-ray radiation-conditioned medium induced dose-dependent increases in cell migration and tube formation, which were accompanied by an upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 expression. However, glioma cells treated with conditioned medium of cells irradiated at a carbon ion dose of 4.0 Gy showed a marked decrease in migratory potential and VEGF secretion relative to non-irradiated cells. The application of recombinant VEGF165 stimulated migration in glioma and endothelial cells, which was associated with increased FAK phosphorylation at Tyr861, suggesting that the suppression of cell migration by carbon ion radiation could be via VEGF-activated FAK signaling. Taken together, these findings indicate that carbon ion may be superior to X-ray radiation for inhibiting tumorigenesis and angiogenesis through modulation of VEGF level in the glioma microenvironment. PMID:24893038

  5. Aberrant rhythmic expression of cryptochrome2 regulates the radiosensitivity of rat gliomas.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wang; Caiyan, Li; Ling, Zhu; Jiayun, Zhao

    2017-09-29

    In this study, we investigated the role of the clock regulatory protein cryptochrome 2 (Cry2) in determining the radiosensitivity of C6 glioma cells in a rat model. We observed that Cry2 mRNA and protein levels showed aberrant rhythmic periodicity of 8 h in glioma tissues, compared to 24 h in normal brain tissue. Cry2 mRNA and protein levels did not respond to irradiation in normal tissues, but both were increased at the ZT4 (low Cry2) and ZT8 (high Cry2) time points in gliomas. Immunohistochemical staining of PCNA and TUNEL assays demonstrated that high Cry2 expression in glioma tissues was associated with increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that glioma cell fate was independent of p53, but was probably dependent on p73, which was more highly expressed at ZT4 (low Cry2) than at ZT8 (high Cry2). Levels of both p53 and p73 were unaffected by irradiation in normal brain tissues. These findings suggest aberrant rhythmic expression of Cry2 influence on radiosensitivity in rat gliomas.

  6. Sea Buckthorn Leaf Extract Inhibits Glioma Cell Growth by Reducing Reactive Oxygen Species and Promoting Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jo; Hwang, Eunmi; Yi, Sun Shin; Song, Ki Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Heo, Tae-Hwe; Park, Sang-Kyu; Jung, Yun Joo; Jun, Hyun Sik

    2017-08-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides L., also known as sea buckthorn (SBT), possesses a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. The present study examined whether SBT leaf extract could inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of rat glioma C6 cells. The results revealed that the treatment with SBT leaf extract inhibited proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner. SBT-induced reduction of C6 glioma cell proliferation and viability was accompanied by a decrease in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are critical for the proliferation of tumor cells. SBT treatment not only significantly upregulated the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) but also promoted its localization in the nucleus. Although increased expression and nuclear translocation of Bax were observed in SBT-treated C6 glioma cells, the induced nuclear morphological change was distinct from that of typical apoptotic cells in that most of SBT-treated cells were characterized by convoluted nuclei with cavitations and clumps of chromatin. All of these results suggest that SBT leaf extract could inhibit the rapid proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells, possibly by inducing the early events of apoptosis. Thus, SBT may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioma.

  7. In vivo detection of c-Met expression in a rat C6 glioma model.

    PubMed

    Towner, R A; Smith, N; Doblas, S; Tesiram, Y; Garteiser, P; Saunders, D; Cranford, R; Silasi-Mansat, R; Herlea, O; Ivanciu, L; Wu, D; Lupu, F

    2008-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor, c-Met, and its substrate, the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), are implicated in the malignant progression of glioblastomas. In vivo detection of c-Met expression may be helpful in the diagnosis of malignant tumours. The C6 rat glioma model is a widely used intracranial brain tumour model used to study gliomas experimentally. We used a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) molecular targeting agent to specifically tag the cell surface receptor, c-Met, with an anti-c-Met antibody (Ab) linked to biotinylated Gd (gadolinium)-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetic acid)-albumin in rat gliomas to detect overexpression of this antigen in vivo. The anti-c-Met probe (anti-c-Met-Gd-DTPA-albumin) was administered intravenously, and as determined by an increase in MRI signal intensity and a corresponding decrease in regional T(1) relaxation values, this probe was found to detect increased expression of c-Met protein levels in C6 gliomas. In addition, specificity for the binding of the anti-c-Met contrast agent was determined by using fluorescence microscopic imaging of the biotinylated portion of the targeting agent within neoplastic and 'normal'brain tissues following in vivo administration of the anti-c-Met probe. Controls with no Ab or with a normal rat IgG attached to the contrast agent component indicated no non-specific binding to glioma tissue. This is the first successful visualization of in vivo overexpression of c-Met in gliomas.

  8. Non-additive and epistatic effects of HLA polymorphisms contributing to risk of adult glioma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenan; de Smith, Adam J; Smirnov, Ivan V; Wiencke, John K; Wiemels, Joseph L; Witte, John S; Walsh, Kyle M

    2017-11-01

    Although genome-wide association studies have identified several susceptibility loci for adult glioma, little is known regarding the potential contribution of genetic variation in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region to glioma risk. HLA associations have been reported for various malignancies, with many studies investigating selected candidate HLA polymorphisms. However, no systematic analysis has been conducted in glioma patients, and no investigation into potential non-additive effects has been described. We conducted comprehensive genetic analyses of HLA variants among 1746 adult glioma patients and 2312 controls of European-ancestry from the GliomaScan Consortium. Genotype data were generated with the Illumina 660-Quad array, and we imputed HLA alleles using a reference panel of 5225 individuals in the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium who underwent high-resolution HLA typing via next-generation sequencing. Case-control comparisons were adjusted for population stratification using ancestry-informative principal components. Because alleles in different loci across the HLA region are linked, we created multigene haplotypes consisting of the genes DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1. Although none of the haplotypes were associated with glioma in additive models, inclusion of a dominance term significantly improved the model for multigene haplotype HLA-DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 (P = 0.002). Heterozygous carriers of the haplotype had an increased risk of glioma [odds ratio (OR) 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.49], while homozygous carriers were at decreased risk compared with non-carriers (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.40-1.01). Our results suggest that the DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 haplotype may contribute to the risk of glioma in a non-additive manner, with the positive dominance effect partly explained by an epistatic interaction with HLA-DRB1*0401-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0301.

  9. Inhibition of autophagy induced by proteasome inhibition increases cell death in human SHG-44 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Zhou; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Meng, Fan-Kai; Li, Wen-Chen; Luan, Yong-Xin; Ling, Feng; Luo, Yi-Nan

    2009-07-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and lysosome-dependent macroautophagy (autophagy) are two major intracellular pathways for protein degradation. Recent studies suggest that proteasome inhibitors may reduce tumor growth and activate autophagy. Due to the dual roles of autophagy in tumor cell survival and death, the effect of autophagy on the destiny of glioma cells remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate whether inhibition of the proteasome can induce autophagy and the effects of autophagy on the fate of human SHG-44 glioma cells. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 was used to induce autophagy in SHG-44 glioma cells, and the effect of autophagy on the survival of SHG-44 glioma cells was investigated using an autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of autophagy related proteins was determined by Western blot. MG-132 inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell death and cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase, and activated autophagy in SHG-44 glioma cells. The expression of autophagy-related Beclin-1 and LC3-I was significantly up-regulated and part of LC3-I was converted into LC3-II. However, when SHG-44 glioma cells were co-treated with MG-132 and 3-MA, the cells became less viable, but cell death and cell numbers at G(2)/M phase increased. Moreover, the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles was decreased, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3 was significantly down-regulated and the conversion of LC3-II from LC3-I was also inhibited. Inhibition of the proteasome can induce autophagy in human SHG-44 glioma cells, and inhibition of autophagy increases cell death. This discovery may shed new light on the effect of autophagy on modulating the fate of SHG-44 glioma cells.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica (2009) 30: 1046-1052; doi: 10.1038/aps.2009.71.

  10. Silencing Nrf2 impairs glioma cell proliferation via AMPK-activated mTOR inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Yue; Wang, Handong, E-mail: njhdwang@hotmail.com; Wang, Qiang

    Gliomas are the leading cause of death among adults with primary brain malignancies. Treatment for malignant gliomas remains limited, and targeted therapies have been incompletely explored. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription regulator for antioxidant and detoxification enzymes, is abundantly expressed in cancer cells. In this study, the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in cancer cell proliferation was investigated in multiple glioma cell lines. We first evaluated the expression patterns of Nrf2 in four glioma cell lines and found all four cell lines expressed Nrf2, but the highest level was observed in U251 cells. We further evaluatedmore » the biological functions of Nrf2 in U251 glioma cell proliferation by specific inhibition of Nrf2 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA). We found that Nrf2 depletion inhibited glioma cell proliferation. Nrf2 depletion also decreased colony formation in U251 cells stably expressing Nrf2 shRNA compared to scrambled control shRNA. Moreover, suppression of Nrf2 expression could lead to ATP depletion (with concomitant rise in AMP/ATP ratio) and consequently to AMPK-activated mTOR inhibition. Finally, activation of adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) by treated with phenformin, an AMPK agonist, can mimic the inhibitory effect of Nrf2 knockdown in U251 cells. In conclusion, our findings will shed light to the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in regulating glioma proliferation via ATP-depletion-induced AMPK activation and consequent mTOR inhibition, a novel insight into our understanding the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in glioma pathoetiology. To our knowledge, this is also the first report to provide a rationale for the implication of cross-linking between Nrf2 and mTOR signaling.« less

  11. Coffee, tea, caffeine intake and risk of adult glioma in 3 prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Holick, Crystal N.; Smith, Scott G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S.

    2009-01-01

    Current data suggest that caffeinated beverages may be associated with lower risk of glioma. Caffeine has different effects on the brain, some which could play a role in brain carcinogenesis, and coffee has been consistently associated with reduced risk of liver cancer, thus suggesting a potential anticarcinogenic effect. A total of 335 incident cases of gliomas (men = 133, women = 202) were available from three independent cohort studies. Dietary intake was assessed by food-frequency questionnaires obtained at baseline and during follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between consumption of coffee, tea, carbonated beverages, caffeine, and glioma risk adjusting for age and total caloric intake. Estimates from each cohort were pooled using a random-effects model. Consumption of five or more cups of coffee and tea a day compared to no consumption was associated with a decrease risk of glioma (RR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.41–0.87; p-trend = 0.04). Inverse, although weaker, associations were also observed between coffee, caffeinated coffee, tea, carbonated beverages and glioma risk. No association was observed between decaffeinated coffee and glioma risk. Among men, a statistically significant inverse association was observed between caffeine consumption and risk of glioma (RR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.26–0.81; p-trend = 0.03); the association was weaker among women. Our findings suggest that consumption of caffeinated beverages, including coffee and tea, may reduce the risk of adult glioma, but further research is warranted to confirm these findings in other populations. PMID:20056621

  12. Joint associations between genetic variants and reproductive factors in glioma risk among women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sophia S; Hartge, Patricia; Yeager, Meredith; Carreón, Tania; Ruder, Avima M; Linet, Martha; Inskip, Peter D; Black, Amanda; Hsing, Ann W; Alavanja, Michael; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Safaiean, Mahboobeh; Chanock, Stephen J; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2011-10-15

    In a pooled analysis of 4 US epidemiologic studies (1993-2001), the authors evaluated the role of 5 female reproductive factors in 357 women with glioma and 822 controls. The authors further evaluated the independent association between 5 implicated gene variants and glioma risk among the study population, as well as the joint associations of female reproductive factors (ages at menarche and menopause, menopausal status, use of oral contraceptives, and menopausal hormone therapy) and these gene variants on glioma risk. Risk estimates were calculated as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals that were adjusted for age, race, and study. Three of the gene variants (rs4295627, a variant of CCDC26; rs4977756, a variant of CDKN2A and CDKN2B; and rs6010620, a variant of RTEL1) were statistically significantly associated with glioma risk in the present population. Compared with women who had an early age at menarche (<12 years of age), those who reported menarche at 12-13 years of age or at 14 years of age or older had a 1.7-fold higher risk and a 1.9-fold higher risk of glioma, respectively (P for trend = 0.009). Postmenopausal women and women who reported ever having used oral contraceptives had a decreased risk of glioma. The authors did not observe joint associations between these reproductive characteristics and the implicated glioma gene variants. These results require replication, but if confirmed, they would suggest that the gene variants that have previously been implicated in the development of glioma are unlikely to act through the same hormonal mechanisms in women.

  13. Density-Dependent Regulation of Glioma Cell Proliferation and Invasion Mediated by miR-9.

    PubMed

    Katakowski, Mark; Charteris, Nicholas; Chopp, Michael; Khain, Evgeniy

    2016-12-01

    The phenotypic axis of invasion and proliferation in malignant glioma cells is a well-documented phenomenon. Invasive glioma cells exhibit a decreased proliferation rate and a resistance to apoptosis, and invasive tumor cells dispersed in brain subsequently revert to proliferation and contribute to secondary tumor formation. One miRNA can affect dozens of mRNAs, and some miRNAs are potent oncogenes. Multiple miRNAs are implicated in glioma malignancy, and several of which have been identified to regulate tumor cell motility and division. Using rat 9 L gliosarcoma and human U87 glioblastoma cell lines, we investigated miRNAs associated with the switch between glioma cell invasion and proliferation. Using micro-dissection of 9 L glioma tumor xenografts in rat brain, we identified disparate expression of miR-9 between cells within the periphery of the primary tumor, and those comprising tumor islets within the invasive zone. Modifying miR-9 expression in in vitro assays, we report that miR-9 controls the axis of glioma cell invasion/proliferation, and that its contribution to invasion or proliferation is biphasic and dependent upon local tumor cell density. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed elevated hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) in the invasive zone as compared to the primary tumor periphery. We also found that hypoxia promotes miR-9 expression in glioma cells. Based upon these findings, we propose a hypothesis for the contribution of miR-9 to the dynamics glioma invasion and satellite tumor formation in brain adjacent to tumor.

  14. [A correlation between diffusion kurtosis imaging and the proliferative activity of brain glioma].

    PubMed

    Tonoyan, A S; Pronin, I N; Pitshelauri, D I; Shishkina, L V; Fadeeva, L M; Pogosbekyan, E L; Zakharova, N E; Shults, E I; Khachanova, N V; Kornienko, V N; Potapov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the capabilities of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in diagnosis of the glioma proliferative activity and to evaluate a relationship between the glioma proliferative activity index and diffusion parameters of the contralateral normal appearing white matter (CNAWM). The study included 47 patients with newly diagnosed brain gliomas (23 low grade, 13 grade III, and 11 grade IV gliomas). We determined a relationship between absolute and normalized parameters of the diffusion tensor (mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities; fractional (FA) and relative (RA) anisotropies) and diffusion kurtosis (mean (MK), axial (AK), and radial (RK) kurtosis; kurtosis anisotropy (KA)) and the proliferative activity index in the most malignant glioma parts (p<0.05). We also established a relationship between the tensor and kurtosis parameters of CNAWM and the glioma proliferative activity index (p<0.05). The correlation between all the absolute and normalized diffusion parameters and the glioma proliferative activity index, except absolute and normalized FA and RA values, was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Kurtosis (MK, AK, and RK) and anisotropy (KA, FA, RA) values increased, and diffusivity (MD, AD, RD) values decreased as the glioma proliferative activity index increased. A strong correlation between the proliferative activity index and absolute RK (r=0,71; p=0.000001) and normalized values of MK (r=0.8; p=0.000001), AK (r=0.71; p=0.000001), RK (r=0.81; p=0.000001), and RD (r=-0.71; p=0.000001) was found. A weak, but statistically significant correlation between the glioma proliferative activity index and diffusion values RK (r=-0.36; p=0.014), KA (r=-0.39; p=0.007), RD (r=0.35; p=0.017), FA (r=-0.42; p=0.003), and RA (r=-0.41; p=0.004) of CNAWM was found. DKI has good capabilities to detect immunohistochemical changes in gliomas. DKI demonstrated a high sensitivity in detection of microstructural changes in the

  15. Venous thromboembolism in malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    JENKINS, E. O.; SCHIFF, D.; MACKMAN, N.; KEY, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Malignant gliomas are associated with a very high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). While many clinical risk factors have previously been described in brain tumor patients, the risk of VTE associated with newer anti-angiogenic therapies such as bevacizumab in these patients remains unclear. When VTE occurs in this patient population, concern regarding the potential for intracranial hemorrhage complicates management decisions regarding anticoagulation, and these patients have a worse prognosis than their VTE-free counterparts. Risk stratification models identifying patients at high risk of developing VTE along with predictive plasma biomarkers may guide the selection of eligible patients for primary prevention with pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. Recent studies exploring disordered coagulation, such as increased expression of tissue factor (TF), and tumorigenic molecular signaling may help to explain the increased risk of VTE in patients with malignant gliomas. PMID:19912518

  16. Long non-coding RNA ENST00462717 suppresses the proliferation, survival, and migration by inhibiting MDM2/MAPK pathway in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Aiqin; Meng, Mingzhu; Zhao, Xiuhe

    Gliomas are the most common and aggressive primary malignant tumor in the central nervous system, and requires new biomarkers and therapeutic methods. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important factors in numerous human diseases, including cancer. But studies on lncRNAs and gliomas are limited. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of lncRNAs in 3 pairs of glioma samples and adjacent non-tumor tissues via microarray and selected the most down-regulated lnc00462717 to further verify its roles in glioma. We observed that decreased lnc00462717 expression was associated with the malignant status in glioma. In vitro experiment demonstrated that lnc00462717 overexpression suppressed gliomamore » cell proliferation, survival and migration while knockdown of lnc00462717 had an opposite result. Moreover, we identified MDM2 as a direct target of lnc00462717 and lnc00462717 played a role by partially regulating the MDM2/MAPK pathway. In conclusion, lnc00462717 may function in suppressing glioma cell proliferation, survival, migration and may potentially serve as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for glioma. - Highlights: • Using microarray to investigate the expression patterns of lncRNAs in glioma. • Selecting the most down-regulated lnc00462717 via microarray to verify its roles. • Identifying MDM2 as a direct target of lnc00462717. • The mechanism of lnc00462717 regulating the MDM2/MAPK pathway. • lnc00462717 serve as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for treating glioma.« less

  17. Frequent Nek1 overexpression in human gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jun; Neurosurgery Department, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai; Cai, Yu, E-mail: aihaozuqiu22@163.com

    Never in mitosis A (NIMA)-related kinase 1 (Nek1) regulates cell cycle progression to mitosis. Its expression and potential functions in human gliomas have not been studied. Here, our immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay and Western blot assay results showed that Nek1 expression was significantly upregulated in fresh and paraffin-embedded human glioma tissues. Its level in normal brain tissues was low. Nek1 overexpression in human gliomas was correlated with the proliferation marker (Ki-67), tumor grade, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) and more importantly, patients’ poor survival. Further studies showed that Nek1 expression level was also increased in multiple human glioma cell lines (U251-MG, U87-MG,more » U118, H4 and U373). Significantly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nek1 inhibited glioma cell (U87-MG/U251-MG) growth. Nek1 siRNA also sensitized U87-MG/U251-MG cells to temozolomide (TMZ), causing a profound apoptosis induction and growth inhibition. The current study indicates Nek1 might be a novel and valuable oncotarget of glioma, it is important for glioma cell growth and TMZ-resistance. - Highlights: • Nek1 is upregulated in multiple human glioma tissues and cell lines. • Nek1 overexpression correlates with glioma grades and patients’ KPS score. • Nek1 overexpression correlates with patients’ poor overall survival. • siRNA knockdown of Nek1 inhibits glioma cell growth. • siRNA knockdown of Nek1 sensitizes human glioma cells to temozolomide.« less

  18. Intraarterial Infusion Of Erbitux and Bevacizumab For Relapsed/Refractory Intracranial Glioma In Patients Under 22

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-26

    Glioblastoma Multiforme; Fibrillary Astrocytoma of Brain; Glioma of Brainstem; Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Mixed Oligodendroglioma-Astrocytoma; Brain Stem Glioma; Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

  19. 3-Bromopyruvate antagonizes effects of lactate and pyruvate, synergizes with citrate and exerts novel anti-glioma effects.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, S M; El-Magd, R M Abou; Shishido, Y; Chung, S P; Diem, T H; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress-energy depletion therapy using oxidative stress induced by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and energy depletion induced by 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) was reported recently (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther., 19, 1-18, 2012). Even in the presence of oxygen, cancer cells oxidize glucose preferentially to produce lactate (Warburg effect) which seems vital for cancer microenvironment and progression. 3BP is a closely related structure to lactate and pyruvate and may antagonize their effects as a novel mechanism of its action. Pyruvate exerted a potent H(2)O(2) scavenging effect to exogenous H(2)O(2), while lactate had no scavenging effect. 3BP induced H(2)O(2) production. Pyruvate protected against H(2)O(2)-induced C6 glioma cell death, 3BP-induced C6 glioma cell death but not against DAO/D-serine-induced cell death, while lactate had no protecting effect. Lactate and pyruvate protected against 3BP-induced C6 glioma cell death and energy depletion which were overcome with higher doses of 3BP. Lactate and pyruvate enhanced migratory power of C6 glioma which was blocked by 3BP. Pyruvate and lactate did not protect against C6 glioma cell death induced by other glycolytic inhibitors e.g. citrate (inhibitor of phosphofructokinase) and sodium fluoride (inhibitor of enolase). Serial doses of 3BP were synergistic with citrate in decreasing viability of C6 glioma cells and spheroids. Glycolysis subjected to double inhibition using 3BP with citrate depleted ATP, clonogenic power and migratory power of C6 glioma cells. 3BP induced a caspase-dependent cell death in C6 glioma. 3BP was powerful in decreasing viability of human glioblastoma multiforme cells (U373MG) and C6 glioma in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  20. Recurrent high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Quant, Eudocia C; Drappatz, Jan; Wen, Patrick Y; Norden, Andrew D

    2010-07-01

    Opinions vary on the best treatment options for recurrent high-grade glioma. Some argue that bevacizumab should become standard of care for patients with recurrent glioblastoma, especially in light of recent FDA approval for this indication. However, this opinion is not uniformly accepted. Age, performance status, histology, tumor size and location, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status for glioblastoma, 1p/19q status for oligodendroglial tumors, and the number and types of prior therapies are important considerations. In addition, recurrent disease must be distinguished from "pseudoprogression" due to treatment effects. Enrollment in a clinical trial is the optimal choice for most patients with recurrent high-grade glioma after failure of radiation therapy and temozolomide. For patients who are ineligible or do not have access to clinical trials, then either bevacizumab monotherapy or bevacizumab in combination with a second agent such as irinotecan is recommended. Involved-field external beam radiation should be considered for patients with anaplastic gliomas who have not received radiation. For patients with anaplastic astrocytoma who progress after radiotherapy, temozolomide may be used. For patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma who progress after radiotherapy, PCV chemotherapy and temozolomide are options. Oligodendroglial tumors with 1p/19q deletions are more likely to respond to treatment. In the past, carmustine was commonly used to treat recurrent high-grade glioma, but the utility of carmustine in the modern era is unknown because most studies were performed prior to the widespread use of temozolomide. High-precision re-irradiation such as stereotactic radiosurgery is another option in high-grade glioma, especially for patients with poor bone marrow reserve or inability to tolerate chemotherapy, but there is a paucity of studies with adequate controls. Surgery may be useful as adjuvant treatment for patients with symptoms

  1. Asiatic Acid Inhibits Pro-Angiogenic Effects of VEGF and Human Gliomas in Endothelial Cell Culture Models

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Chandagirikoppal V.; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh; Deep, Gagan

    2011-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are one of the most devastating and incurable tumors. Sustained excessive angiogenesis by glioma cells is the major reason for their uncontrolled growth and resistance toward conventional therapies resulting in high mortality. Therefore, targeting angiogenesis should be a logical strategy to prevent or control glioma cell growth. Earlier studies have shown that Asiatic Acid (AsA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, is effective against glioma and other cancer cells; however, its efficacy against angiogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the anti-angiogenic efficacy of AsA using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Our results showed that AsA (5–20 µM) inhibits HUVEC growth and induces apoptotic cell death by activating caspases (3 and 9) and modulating the expression of apoptosis regulators Bad, survivin and pAkt-ser473. Further, AsA showed a dose-dependent inhibition of HUVEC migration, invasion and capillary tube formation, and disintegrated preformed capillary network. AsA also inhibited the VEGF-stimulated growth and capillary tube formation by HUVEC and HBMEC. Next, we analyzed the angiogenic potential of conditioned media collected from human glioma LN18 and U87-MG cells treated with either DMSO (control conditioned media, CCM) or AsA 20 µM (AsA20 conditioned media, AsA20CM). CCM from glioma cells significantly enhanced the capillary tube formation in both HUVEC and HBMEC, while capillary tube formation in both endothelial cell lines was greatly compromised in the presence of AsA20CM. Consistent with these results, VEGF expression was lesser in AsA20CM compared to CCM, and indeed AsA strongly inhibited VEGF level (both cellular and secreted) in glioma cells. AsA also showed dose-dependent anti-angiogenic efficacy in Matrigel plug assay, and inhibited the glioma cells potential to attract HUVEC/HBMEC. Overall, the present study clearly showed the strong anti

  2. Synergism between PKCδ regulators hypericin and rottlerin enhances apoptosis in U87 MG glioma cells after light stimulation.

    PubMed

    Misuth, Matus; Horvath, Denis; Miskovsky, Pavol; Huntosova, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    Gliomas belong to the most infiltrative types of tumors. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be applied to regulate glioma cell proliferation. The inhibitors of PKCs (Protein Kinase C) are very promising drugs that can mediate glioma cells apoptosis in PDT. Hypericin is one of PKCs regulators, and thanks to its physicochemical properties it can be used in PDT. Rottlerin is also considered to be the PKCδ inhibitor. Its implementation in PDT may significantly influence glioma cells response to PDT. The viability of U87 MG glioma cells in the presence of rottlerin and hypericin was assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry in the absence and presence of light. The flow cytometric data were analyzed through Shannon entropy. The oxidative stress and immunocytochemistry of PKCδ and phosphorylated Bcl-2 (the regulators of apoptosis) were observed using fluorescence microscopy. A pretreatment of glioma cells with rottlerin before hypericin induced PDT led to significant increase in apoptosis accompanied by the decrease of intracellular oxidative stress and increase of phosphorylated Bcl-2 in the cytoplasm of U87 MG cells. In conclusion, we assume that the synergism between rottlerin and hypericin leads firstly to activation of rescue mechanisms in the glioma cells, but finally this cooperation triggers apoptosis rather than necrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ER stress inducer tunicamycin suppresses the self-renewal of glioma-initiating cell partly through inhibiting Sox2 translation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yang; Ge, Yuqing; Liu, Chanjuan; Zhang, Xiaobiao; Jiang, Jianhai; Wei, Yuanyan

    2016-06-14

    Glioma-initiating cells possess tumor-initiating potential and are relatively resistant to conventional chemotherapy and irradiation. Therefore, their elimination is an essential factor for the development of efficient therapy. Here, we report that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer tunicamycin inhibits glioma-initiating cell self-renewal as determined by neurosphere formation assay. Moreover, tunicamycin decreases the efficiency of glioma-initiating cell to initiate tumor formation. Although tunicamycin induces glioma-initiating cell apoptosis, apoptosis inhibitor z-VAD-fmk only partly abrogates the reduction in glioma-initiating cell self-renewal induced by tunicamycin. Indeed, tunicamycin reduces the expression of self-renewal regulator Sox2 at translation level. Overexpression of Sox2 obviously abrogates the reduction in glioma-initiating cell self-renewal induced by tunicamycin. Taken together, tunicamycin suppresses the self-renewal and tumorigenic potential of glioma-initiating cell partly through reducing Sox2 translation. This finding provides a cue to potential effective treatment of glioblastoma through controlling stem cells.

  4. Cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and risk of glioma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Braganza, M Z; Rajaraman, P; Park, Y; Inskip, P D; Freedman, N D; Hollenbeck, A R; de González, A Berrington; Kitahara, C M

    2014-01-07

    Although cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking increase the risk of several cancers and certain components of cigarette smoke and alcohol can penetrate the blood-brain barrier, it remains unclear whether these exposures influence the risk of glioma. We examined the associations between cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and risk of glioma in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective study of 477,095 US men and women ages 50-71 years at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using models with age as the time metric and adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. During a median 10.5 person-years of follow-up, 492 men and 212 women were diagnosed with first primary glioma. Among men, current, heavier smoking was associated with a reduced risk of glioma compared with never smoking, but this was based on only nine cases. No associations were observed between smoking behaviours and glioma risk in women. Greater alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of glioma, particularly among men (>2 drinks per day vs <1 drink per week: HR=0.67, 95% CI=0.51-0.90). Smoking and alcohol drinking do not appear to increase the risk of glioma.

  5. Analysis of the activation status of Akt, NFkappaB, and Stat3 in human diffuse gliomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Helen J; Liao, Warren S L; Fuller, Gregory N

    2004-08-01

    Loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene contribute to the progression of gliomas. As downstream targets of the PTEN and EGFR signaling pathways, Akt, NFkappaB, and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) have been shown to play important roles in the control of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and oncogenesis. We examined the activation status of Akt, NFkappaB, and Stat3 in 259 diffuse gliomas using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, and evaluated their association with glioma grade. We observed significant positive correlations between the activation status of Akt and NFkappaB and glioma grade. In contrast, only focal immunoreactivity for phospho-Stat3 was observed in < 9% of high-grade gliomas. In addition, we observed a significant correlation between the activation of Akt and NFkappaB. Functional correlation between Akt activation and the activation of NFkappaB was confirmed in U251MG GBM cells in which inhibition of Akt activation either by stable expression of PTEN or by the PI3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, led to a concomitant decrease in NFkappaB-binding activity. Thus, our results demonstrate that constitutive activation of Akt and NFkappaB, but not Stat3, contributes significantly to the progression of diffuse gliomas, and activation of Akt may lead to NFkappaB activation in high-grade gliomas.

  6. Associations of High-Grade Glioma With Glioma Risk Alleles and Histories of Allergy and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lachance, Daniel H.; Yang, Ping; Johnson, Derek R.; Decker, Paul A.; Kollmeyer, Thomas M.; McCoy, Lucie S.; Rice, Terri; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Ali-Osman, Francis; Wang, Frances; Stoddard, Shawn M.; Sprau, Debra J.; Kosel, Matthew L.; Wiencke, John K.; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Patoka, Joseph S.; Davis, Faith; McCarthy, Bridget; Rynearson, Amanda L.; Worra, Joel B.; Fridley, Brooke L.; O’Neill, Brian Patrick; Buckner, Jan C.; Il’yasova, Dora; Jenkins, Robert B.; Wrensch, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    Glioma risk has consistently been inversely associated with allergy history but not with smoking history despite putative biologic plausibility. Data from 855 high-grade glioma cases and 1,160 controls from 4 geographic regions of the United States during 1997–2008 were analyzed for interactions between allergy and smoking histories and inherited variants in 5 established glioma risk regions: 5p15.3 (TERT), 8q24.21 (CCDC26/MLZE), 9p21.3 (CDKN2B), 11q23.3 (PHLDB1/DDX6), and 20q13.3 (RTEL1). The inverse relation between allergy and glioma was stronger among those who did not (odds ratioallergy-glioma = 0.40, 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.58) versus those who did (odds ratioallergy-glioma = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.97; Pinteraction = 0.02) carry the 9p21.3 risk allele. However, the inverse association with allergy was stronger among those who carried (odds ratioallergy-glioma = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 0.68) versus those who did not carry (odds ratioallergy-glioma = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 0.86) the 20q13.3 glioma risk allele, but this interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.14). No relation was observed between glioma risk and smoking (odds ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.77, 1.10; P = 0.37), and there were no interactions for glioma risk of smoking history with any of the risk alleles. The authors’ observations are consistent with a recent report that the inherited glioma risk variants in chromosome regions 9p21.3 and 20q13.3 may modify the inverse association of allergy and glioma. PMID:21742680

  7. Acyl-CoA Synthetase VL3 Knockdown Inhibits Human Glioma Cell Proliferation and Tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Zhengtong; Sun, Peng; Huang, Ping; Lal, Bachchu; Laterra, John; Watkins, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of lipid metabolic pathways to malignancy is poorly understood. Expression of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase, ACSVL3, was found to be markedly elevated in clinical malignant glioma specimens but nearly undetectable in normal glia. ACSVL3 levels correlated with the malignant behavior of human glioma cell lines and glioma cells propagated as xenografts. ACSVL3 expression was induced by the activation of oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) c-Met and EGFR. Inhibiting c-Met activation with neutralizing anti-HGF monoclonal antibodies reduced ACSVL3 expression concurrent with tumor growth inhibition in vivo. ACSVL3 expression knockdown using RNA interference, which decreased long-chain fatty acid activation, inhibited anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent glioma cell growth by ~70% and ~ 90%, respectively. ACSVL3-depleted cells were less tumorigenic than control cells and subcutaneous xenografts grew ~60% slower than control tumors. Orthotopic xenografts produced by ACSVL3-depleted cells were 82–86 % smaller than control xenografts. ACSVL3 knockdown disrupted Akt function as evidenced by RTK-induced transient decreases in total and phosphorylated Akt, as well as GSK3β, via a caspase-dependent mechanism. Expressing constitutively active myr-Akt rescued cells from the anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth inhibitory effects of ACSVL3 depletion. These studies show that ACSVL3 maintains oncogenic properties of malignant glioma cells via a mechanism that involves, in part, the regulation of Akt function. PMID:19920185

  8. Toward Distinguishing Recurrent Tumor From Radiation Necrosis: DWI and MTC in a Gamma Knife–Irradiated Mouse Glioma Model

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Torres, Carlos J.; Engelbach, John A.; Cates, Jeremy

    Purpose: Accurate noninvasive diagnosis is vital for effective treatment planning. Presently, standard anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is incapable of differentiating recurring tumor from delayed radiation injury, as both lesions are hyperintense in both postcontrast T1- and T2-weighted images. Further studies are therefore necessary to identify an MRI paradigm that can differentially diagnose these pathologies. Mouse glioma and radiation injury models provide a powerful platform for this purpose. Methods and Materials: Two MRI contrasts that are widely used in the clinic were chosen for application to a glioma/radiation-injury model: diffusion weighted imaging, from which the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ismore » obtained, and magnetization transfer contrast, from which the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) is obtained. These metrics were evaluated longitudinally, first in each lesion type alone–glioma versus irradiation – and then in a combined irradiated glioma model. Results: MTR was found to be consistently decreased in all lesions compared to nonlesion brain tissue (contralateral hemisphere), with limited specificity between lesion types. In contrast, ADC, though less sensitive to the presence of pathology, was increased in radiation injury and decreased in tumors. In the irradiated glioma model, ADC also increased immediately after irradiation, but decreased as the tumor regrew. Conclusions: ADC is a better metric than MTR for differentiating glioma from radiation injury. However, MTR was more sensitive to both tumor and radiation injury than ADC, suggesting a possible role in detecting lesions that do not enhance strongly on T1-weighted images.« less

  9. Erythropoietin Augments Survival of Glioma Cells After Radiation and Temozolomide

    SciTech Connect

    Hassouna, Imam; Sperling, Swetlana; Kim, Ella

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: Despite beneficial effects of irradiation/chemotherapy on survival of glioblastoma (GBM) patients, collateral damage to intact neural tissue leads to 'radiochemobrain' and reduced quality of life in survivors. For prophylactic neuroprotection, erythropoietin (EPO) is a promising candidate, provided that concerns regarding potential tumor promoting effects are alleviated. Methods and Materials: Human GBM-derived cell lines U87, G44, G112, and the gliosarcoma-derived line G28 were treated with EPO, with and without combinations of irradiation or temozolomide (TMZ). Responsiveness of glioma cells to EPO was measured by cell migration from spheroids, cell proliferation, and clonogenic survival. Implantation of U87 cells into brains ofmore » nude mice, followed 5 days later by EPO treatment (5,000 U/kg intraperitoneal every other day for 2 weeks) should reveal effects of EPO on tumor growth in vivo. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed for EPOR, HIF-1{alpha}, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)vIII in cell lines and 22 human GBM specimens. Results: EPO did not modulate basal glioma cell migration and stimulated proliferation in only one of four cell lines. Importantly, EPO did not enhance tumor growth in mouse brains. Preincubation of glioma cells with EPO for 3 h, followed by irradiation and TMZ for another 24 h, resulted in protection against chemoradiation-induced cytotoxicity in three cell lines. Conversely, EPO induced a dose-dependent decrease in survival of G28 gliosarcoma cells. In GBM specimens, expression of HIF-1{alpha} correlated positively with expression of EPOR and EGFRvIII. EPOR and EGFRvIII expression did not correlate. Conclusions: EPO is unlikely to appreciably influence basal glioma growth. However, concomitant use of EPO with irradiation/chemotherapy in GBM patients is not advisable.« less

  10. Characterization of PD-1 upregulation on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in human and murine gliomas and preclinical therapeutic blockade.

    PubMed

    Dejaegher, Joost; Verschuere, Tina; Vercalsteren, Ellen; Boon, Louis; Cremer, Jonathan; Sciot, Raf; Van Gool, Stefaan W; De Vleeschouwer, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Blockade of the immune checkpoint molecule programmed-cell-death-protein-1 (PD-1) yielded promising results in several cancers. To understand the therapeutic potential in human gliomas, quantitative data describing the expression of PD-1 are essential. Moreover, due the immune-specialized region of the brain in which gliomas arise, differences between tumor-infiltrating and circulating lymphocytes should be acknowledged. In this study we have used flow cytometry to quantify PD-1 expression on tumor-infiltrating T cells of 25 freshly resected glioma cell suspensions (10 newly and 5 relapsed glioblastoma, 10 lower grade gliomas) and simultaneously isolated circulating T cells. A strong upregulation of PD-1 expression in the tumor microenvironment compared to the blood circulation was seen in all glioma patients. Additionally, circulating T cells were isolated from 15 age-matched healthy volunteers, but no differences in PD-1 expression were found compared to glioma patients. In the murine GL261 malignant glioma model, there was a similar upregulation of PD-1 on brain-infiltrating lymphocytes. Using a monoclonal PD-1 blocking antibody, we found a marked prolonged survival with 55% of mice reaching long-term survival. Analysis of brain-infiltrating cells 21 days after GL261 tumor implantation showed a shift in infiltrating lymphocyte subgroups with increased CD8+ T cells and decreased regulatory T cells. Together, our results suggest an important role of PD-1 in glioma-induced immune escape, and provide translational evidence for the use of PD-1 blocking antibodies in human malignant gliomas. © 2017 UICC.

  11. Guanosine promotes cytotoxicity via adenosine receptors and induces apoptosis in temozolomide-treated A172 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Karen A; Dal-Cim, Tharine A; Lopes, Flávia G; Nedel, Cláudia B; Tasca, Carla Inês

    2017-09-01

    Gliomas are a malignant tumor group whose patients have survival rates around 12 months. Among the treatments are the alkylating agents as temozolomide (TMZ), although gliomas have shown multiple resistance mechanisms for chemotherapy. Guanosine (GUO) is an endogenous nucleoside involved in extracellular signaling that presents neuroprotective effects and also shows the effect of inducing differentiation in cancer cells. The chemotherapy allied to adjuvant drugs are being suggested as a novel approach in gliomas treatment. In this way, this study evaluated whether GUO presented cytotoxic effects on human glioma cells as well as GUO effects in association with a classical chemotherapeutic compound, TMZ. Classical parameters of tumor aggressiveness, as alterations on cell viability, type of cell death, migration, and parameters of glutamatergic transmission, were evaluated. GUO (500 and 1000 μM) decreases the A172 glioma cell viability after 24, 48, or 72 h of treatment. TMZ alone or GUO plus TMZ also reduced glioma cell viability similarly. GUO combined with TMZ showed a potentiation effect of increasing apoptosis in A172 glioma cells, and a similar pattern was observed in reducing mitochondrial membrane potential. GUO per se did not elevate the acidic vesicular organelles occurrence, but TMZ or GUO plus TMZ increased this autophagy hallmark. GUO did not alter glutamate transport per se, but it prevented TMZ-induced glutamate release. GUO or TMZ did not alter glutamine synthetase activity. Pharmacological blockade of glutamate receptors did not change GUO effect on glioma viability. GUO cytotoxicity was partially prevented by adenosine receptor (A 1 R and A 2A R) ligands. These results point to a cytotoxic effect of GUO on A172 glioma cells and suggest an anticancer effect of GUO as a putative adjuvant treatment, whose mechanism needs to be unraveled.

  12. Nrf2 suppresses the function of dendritic cells to facilitate the immune escape of glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jialiang; Liu, Peng; Xin, Shaoyan; Wang, Zongbao; Li, Jun

    2017-11-15

    Nrf2 is presented in dendritic cells (DCs) and contributes to the maintenance of redox homeostasis. However, the expression pattern and function of Nrf2 in the maturation of DCs in the glioma-infiltrated microenvironment remain unrevealed. Our study aims to investigate the roles of Nrf2 in glioma cell-tamed DCs and their impact on the downstream T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity to glioma cells. It was showed that the inducible maturation of DCs was significantly suppressed after stimulation with tumor-conditioned medium (TCM) prepared from glioma cells (LN-18 and U118MG), as suggested by the decreased CD80, CD86 and IL-12 p70 expression and higher levels of IL-10 than the normal astrocyte medium treated DCs. Moreover, the TCM-exposed DCs had significantly increased expression and transcriptional activity of Nrf2 compared to the negative control. Nrf2 inhibition in DC cells substantially antagonized the inhibitory effects of TCM on the maturation and activation of DC cells, reflected by the elevated maturation markers and IL-12 p70. We further confirmed that Nrf2 inhibition in TCM-exposed DC cells promoted the proliferation of T cells as evaluated by the CFSE-labeled assay and Th1 response shown by the elevated production of IFN-γ. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay revealed that Nrf2 genetic suppression in DC cells greatly enhanced the capacity of T cells in the cytotoxicity to glioma cells dependent on the E:T ratio. Collectively, our study demonstrated that Nrf2 inhibition in DCs in glioma-exposed microenvironment could enhance the maturation of DCs and the subsequent activation of T cells and their cytotoxicity on glioma cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. MicroRNA-128 inhibits proliferation and invasion of glioma cells by targeting COX-2.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yihai; Wu, Zhangyi

    2018-06-05

    MicroRNAs (miRNA), a class of small noncoding RNAs, regulates message RNA (mRNA) by targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) resulting in suppression of gene expression. In this study, we identified the expression and function of miR-128, which was found to be downregulated in glioma tissues and glioma cells by real time PCR. Overexpression of miR-128 mimics into LN229 and U251 cells could inhibit proliferation and invasion of glioma cells. However, the inhibitory effects of miR-128 mimics on the invasion and proliferation of glioma cells were reversed by overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Our data showed that COX-2 was a candidate target of miR-128. Luciferase activity of 3'-UTR of COX-2 was reduced in the presence of miR-128. Additionally, miR-128 obviously decreased COX-2 mRNA stability determined by real time PCR. Contrarily, we found that miR-128 inhibitor significantly increased the COX-2 mRNA expression, and elevated the protein expression of MMP9 and ki67, and promoted the proliferation of glioma cells. Furthermore, luciferase activity of the 3'-UTR was upregulated by miR-128 inhibitor. All of these results supported that miR-128 was a direct regulator of COX-2. Further studies proved that COX-2 was elevated in glioma tissues and its expression was negatively correlated with the levels of miR-128. These findings may establish miR-128 as a new potential target for the treatment of patients with gliomas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein Kinase C- ɛ Regulates the Apoptosis and Survival of Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Okhrimenko, Hana; Lu, Wei; Xiang, Cunli; Hamburger, Nathan; Kazimirsky, Gila; Brodie, Chaya

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of protein kinase C (PKC)-ɛ in the apoptosis and survival of glioma cells using tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)- stimulated cells and silencing of PKCɛ expression. Treatment of glioma cells with TRAIL induced activation, caspase-dependent cleavage, and down-regulation of PKCɛ within 3 to 5 hours of treatment. Overexpression of PKCɛ inhibited the apoptosis induced by TRAIL, acting downstream of caspase 8 and upstream of Bid cleavage and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. A caspase-resistant PKCɛ mutant (D383A) was more protective than PKCɛ, suggesting that both the cleavage of PKCɛ and its down-regulation contributed to the apoptotic effect of TRAIL. To further study the role of PKCɛ in glioma cell apoptosis, we employed short interfering RNAs directed against the mRNA of PKCɛ and found that silencing of PKCɛ expression induced apoptosis of various glioma cell lines and primary glioma cultures. To delineate the molecular mechanisms involved in the apoptosis induced by silencing of PKCɛ, we examined the expression and phosphorylation of various apoptosis-related proteins. We found that knockdown of PKCɛ did not affect the expression of Bcl2 and Bax or the phosphorylation and expression of Erk1/2, c-Jun-NH2-kinase, p38, or STAT, whereas it selectively reduced the expression of AKT. Similarly, TRAIL reduced the expression of AKT in glioma cells and this decrease was abolished in cells overexpressing PKCɛ. Our results suggest that the cleavage of PKCɛ and its down-regulation play important roles in the apoptotic effect of TRAIL. Moreover, PKCɛ regulates AKT expression and is essential for the survival of glioma cells. PMID:16103081

  15. Temozolomide combined with PD-1 Antibody therapy for mouse orthotopic glioma model.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bailing; Qi, Na; Li, Junchao; Zhang, Guilong

    2018-07-02

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is the most frequent adjuvant chemotherapy drug in gliomas. PDL1 expresses on various tumors, including gliomas, and anti-PD-1 antibodies have been approved for treating some tumors by FDA. This study was to evaluate the therapeutical potential of combined TMZ with anti-PD-1 antibody therapy for mouse orthotopic glioma model. We performed C57BL/6 mouse orthotopic glioma model by stereotactic intracranial implantation of glioma cell line GL261, mice were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control group; (2) TMZ group; (3) anti-PD-1 antibody group; (4) TMZ combined with anti-PD-1 antibody group. Then the volume or size of tumor was assessed by 7.0 T MRI and immunohistochemistry, and the number of CD4 and CD8 infiltrating cells in brain tumor and spleen was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Western blot was used to evaluate the expression of PDL1. Furthermore, Overall survival of each group mice was also evaluated. Overall survival was significantly improved in combined group compared to other groups (χ2 = 32.043, p < 0.01). The volume or size of tumor was significantly decreased in combined group compared with other groups (F = 42.771, P < 0.01). And the number of CD4 and CD8 infiltrating cells in brain tumor was also obviously increased in combined group (CD4 F = 45.67, P < 0.01; CD8 F = 53.75, P < 0.01). Anti-PD1 antibody combined with TMZ therapy for orthotopic mouse glioma model could significantly improve the survival time of tumor-bear mice. Thus, this study provides the effective preclinical evidence for support clinical chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy for glioma patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Attention dysfunction of postoperative patients with glioma.

    PubMed

    Fang, Dazhao; Jiang, Jian; Sun, Xiaoyang; Wang, Weijie; Dong, Nan; Fu, Xianhua; Pang, Cong; Chen, Xingui; Ding, Lianshu

    2014-10-15

    Attention dysfunction has been observed among many kinds of nervous system diseases, including glioma. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between glioma localization, malignancy, postoperative recovery time and attention deficit. A total of 45 patients with glioma who underwent surgical resection and 18 healthy volunteers were enrolled. The attention network test, digital span test, color trail test II and Stroop test were used to detect the characteristics of attention deficit. Orientation network dysfunction was detected in the parietal lobe tumor group, and execution network deficit was detected in both the frontal and parietal lobe groups, while no significant difference was detected in the temporal lobe group compared to healthy controls. The high-grade glioma group (grade III-IV) exhibited more serious functional impairment than the low-grade group (grade I-II). No significant correlation was observed between postoperative recovery time and attention impairment. High-grade glioma patients suffer more severe attention impairment. In addition, the frontal and parietal lobe glioma patients suffer attention dysfunction in dissimilar manner. These findings will provide important guidance on the care of glioma patients after therapy.

  17. Handedness and the risk of glioma.

    PubMed

    Miller, Briana; Peeri, Noah C; Nabors, Louis Burt; Creed, Jordan H; Thompson, Zachary J; Rozmeski, Carrie M; LaRocca, Renato V; Chowdhary, Sajeel; Olson, Jeffrey J; Thompson, Reid C; Egan, Kathleen M

    2018-05-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of malignant primary brain tumor and few risk factors have been linked to their development. Handedness has been associated with several pathologic neurological conditions such as schizophrenia, autism, and epilepsy, but few studies have evaluated a connection between handedness and risk of glioma. In this study, we examined the relationship between handedness and glioma risk in a large case-control study (1849 glioma cases and 1354 healthy controls) and a prospective cohort study (326,475 subjects with 375 incident gliomas). In the case-control study, we found a significant inverse association between left handedness and glioma risk, with left-handed persons exhibiting a 35% reduction in the risk of developing glioma [odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.83] after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, and state of residence; similar inverse associations were observed for GBM (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.91), and non-GBM (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.42-0.82) subgroups. The association was consistent in both males and females, and across age strata, and was observed in both glioblastoma and in lower grade tumors. In the prospective cohort study, we found no association between handedness and glioma risk (hazards ratio = 0.92, 95% CI 0.67-1.28) adjusting for age, gender, and race. Further studies on this association may help to elucidate mechanisms of pathogenesis in glioma.

  18. A report on radiation-induced gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Salvati, M.; Artico, M.; Caruso, R.

    1991-01-15

    Radiation-induced gliomas are uncommon, with only 73 cases on record to date. The disease that most frequently occasioned radiation therapy has been acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Three more cases are added here, two after irradiation for ALL and one after irradiation for tinea capitis. In a review of the relevant literature, the authors stress the possibility that the ALL-glioma and the retinoblastoma-glioma links point to syndromes in their own right that may occur without radiation therapy.56 references.

  19. Cellular immunotherapy for malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Okada, Hideho

    2016-10-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has made much progress in recent years. Clinical trials evaluating a variety of immunotherapeutic approaches are underway in patients with malignant gliomas. Thanks to recent advancements in cell engineering technologies, infusion of ex vivo prepared immune cells have emerged as promising strategies of cancer immunotherapy. Herein, the authors review recent and current studies using cellular immunotherapies for malignant gliomas. Specifically, they cover the following areas: a) cellular vaccine approaches using tumor cell-based or dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines, and b) adoptive cell transfer (ACT) approaches, including lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells, γδ T cells, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells and T-cell receptor (TCR) transduced T cells. While some of the recent studies have shown promising results, the ultimate success of cellular immunotherapy in brain tumor patients would require improvements in the following areas: 1) feasibility in producing cellular therapeutics; 2) identification and characterization of targetable antigens given the paucity and heterogeneity of tumor specific antigens; 3) the development of strategies to promote effector T-cell trafficking; 4) overcoming local and systemic immune suppression, and 5) proper interpretation of imaging data for brain tumor patients receiving immunotherapy.

  20. Cellular immunotherapy for malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cancer immunotherapy has made much progress in recent years. Clinical trials evaluating a variety of immunotherapeutic approaches are underway in patients with malignant gliomas. Thanks to recent advancements in cell engineering technologies, infusion of ex vivo prepared immune cells have emerged as promising strategies of cancer immunotherapy. Areas covered Herein, the authors review recent and current studies using cellular immunotherapies for malignant gliomas. Specifically, they cover the following areas: a) cellular vaccine approaches using tumor cell-based or dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines, and b) adoptive cell transfer (ACT) approaches, including lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells, γδ T cells, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells and T-cell receptor (TCR) transduced T cells. Expert opinion While some of the recent studies have shown promising results, the ultimate success of cellular immunotherapy in brain tumor patients would require improvements in the following areas: 1) feasibility in producing cellular therapeutics; 2) identification and characterization of targetable antigens given the paucity and heterogeneity of tumor specific antigens; 3) the development of strategies to promote effector T-cell trafficking; 4) overcoming local and systemic immune suppression, and 5) proper interpretation of imaging data for brain tumor patients receiving immunotherapy. PMID:27434205

  1. A new anti-glioma therapy, AG119: pre-clinical assessment in a mouse GL261 glioma model.

    PubMed

    Towner, Rheal A; Ihnat, Michael; Saunders, Debra; Bastian, Anja; Smith, Nataliya; Pavana, Roheeth Kumar; Gangjee, Aleem

    2015-07-17

    High grade gliomas (HGGs; grades III and IV) are the most common primary brain tumors in adults, and their malignant nature ranks them fourth in incidence of cancer death. Standard treatment for glioblastomas (GBM), involving surgical resection followed by radiation and chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) and the anti-angiogenic therapy bevacizumab, have not substantially improved overall survival. New therapeutic agents are desperately needed for this devastating disease. Here we study the potential therapeutic agent AG119 in a pre-clinical model for gliomas. AG119 possesses both anti-angiogenic (RTK inhibition) and antimicrotubule cytotoxic activity in a single molecule. GL261 glioma-bearing mice were either treated with AG119, anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) antibody, anti c-Met antibody or TMZ, and compared to untreated tumor-bearing mice. Animal survival was assessed, and tumor volumes and vascular alterations were monitored with morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perfusion-weighted imaging, respectively. Percent survival of GL261 HGG-bearing mice treated with AG119 was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to untreated tumors. Tumor volumes (21-31 days following intracerebral implantation of GL261 cells) were found to be significantly lower for AG119 (p < 0.001), anti-VEGF (p < 0.05) and anti-c-Met (p < 0.001) antibody treatments, and TMZ-treated (p < 0.05) mice, compared to untreated controls. Perfusion data indicated that both AG119 and TMZ were able to reduce the effect of decreasing perfusion rates significantly (p < 0.05 for both), when compared to untreated tumors. It was also found that IC50 values for AG119 were much lower than those for TMZ in T98G and U251 cells. These data support further exploration of the anticancer activity AG119 in HGG, as this compound was able to increase animal survival and decrease tumor volumes in a mouse GL261 glioma model, and that AG119 is also not subject to methyl guanine

  2. Astragaloside IV inhibits progression of glioma via blocking MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Wang, Fei; Liu, Ningtao; Shen, Wen; Huang, Tao

    2017-09-09

    Glioma is one of the most common primary brain tumors in adults with a high mortality rate and relapse rate. Thus, finding better effective approaches to treat glioma has become very urgent. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), the major active triterpenoid in Radix Astragali, has shown anti-tumorigenic properties in certain cancers. However, its role in glioma remains unclear. Here, we studied the effects of AS-IV on glioma in vitro and in vivo, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Our results revealed that AS-IV dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of U251 cells in vitro and attenuated tumor growth in vivo. In addition, the migration and invasion ability of U251 cell has been suppressed in presence of AS-IV. The levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Ki67, matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) -2, MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were decreased significantly by the treatment of different concentrations AS-IV. Furthermore, AS-IV also significantly weakened the activation of Mitogen-activated protein kinase/Extracellular regulated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. Taken together our study has identified a novel function of AS-IV and provided a molecular basis for AS-IV potential applications in the treatment of glioma and other cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abscisic-acid-induced cellular apoptosis and differentiation in glioma via the retinoid acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Yao, Yu; Ye, Hongxing; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Liang; Mao, Ying

    2016-04-15

    Retinoid acid (RA) plays critical roles in regulating differentiation and apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Abscisic acid (ABA) and RA are direct derivatives of carotenoids and share structural similarities. Here we proposed that ABA may also play a role in cellular differentiation and apoptosis by sharing a similar signaling pathway with RA that may be involved in glioma pathogenesis. We reported for the first time that the ABA levels were twofold higher in low-grade gliomas compared with high-grade gliomas. In glioma tissues, there was a positive correlation between the ABA levels and the transcription of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2) and a negative correlation between the ABA levels and transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5). ABA treatment induced a significant increase in the expression of CRABP2 and a decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in glioblastoma cells. Remarkably, both cellular apoptosis and differentiation were increased in the glioblastoma cells after ABA treatment. ABA-induced cellular apoptosis and differentiation were significantly reduced by selectively silencing RAR-α, while RAR-α overexpression exaggerated the ABA-induced effects. These results suggest that ABA may play a role in the pathogenesis of glioma by promoting cellular apoptosis and differentiation through the RA signaling pathway. © 2015 UICC.

  4. The association between birth order, sibship size and glioma development in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Amirian, E; Scheurer, Michael E; Bondy, Melissa L

    2010-06-01

    The etiology of brain tumors is still largely unknown. Previous research indicates that infectious agents and immunological characteristics may influence adult glioma risk. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effects of birth order and sibship size (total number of siblings), as indicators of the timing and frequency of early life infections, on adult glioma risk using a population of 489 cases and 540 cancer-free controls from the Harris County Brain Tumor Study. Odds ratios for birth order and sibship size were calculated separately from multivariable logistic regression models, adjusting for sex, family history of cancer, education, and age. Each one-unit increase in birth order confers a 13% decreased risk of glioma development in adulthood (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79-0.97). However, sibship size was not significantly associated with adult glioma status (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.91-1.04). Our study indicates that individuals who were more likely to develop common childhood infections at an earlier age (those with a higher birth order) may be more protected against developing glioma in adulthood. More biological and epidemiological research is warranted to clarify the exact mechanisms through which the timing of common childhood infections and the course of early life immune development affect gliomagenesis.

  5. Aberrant Expression of Retinoic Acid Signaling Molecules Influences Patient Survival in Astrocytic Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Benito; Centner, Franz-Simon; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Ali, Ramadan; Dorsch, Katharina; Wan, Feng; Felsberg, Jörg; Ahmadi, Rezvan; Grabe, Niels; Reifenberger, Guido; Unterberg, Andreas; Burhenne, Jürgen; Herold-Mende, Christel

    2011-01-01

    Undifferentiated cell populations may influence tumor growth in malignant glioma. We investigated potential disruptions in the retinoic acid (RA) differentiation pathway that could lead to a loss of differentiation capacity, influencing patient prognosis. Expression of key molecules belonging to the RA differentiation pathway was analyzed in 283 astrocytic gliomas and was correlated with tumor proliferation, tumor differentiation, and patient survival. In addition, in situ concentrations of retinoids were measured in tumors, and RA signaling events were studied in vitro. Unlike other tumors, in gliomas expression of most RA signaling molecules increased with malignancy and was associated with augmented intratumoral retinoid levels in high-grade gliomas. Aberrantly expressed RA signaling molecules included i) the retinol-binding protein CRBP1, which facilitates cellular retinoid uptake; ii) ALDH1A1, capable of activating RA precursors; iii) the RA-degrading enzyme CYP26B1; and iv) the RA-binding protein FABP5, which can inhibit RA-induced differentiation. In contrast, expression of the RA-binding protein CRABP2, which fosters differentiation, was decreased in high-grade tumors. Moreover, expression of CRBP1 correlated with tumor proliferation, and FABP5 expression correlated with an undifferentiated tumor phenotype. CRBP1 and ALDH1A1 were independent prognostic markers for adverse patient survival. Our data indicate a complex and clinically relevant deregulation of RA signaling, which seems to be a central event in glioma pathogenesis. PMID:21514413

  6. DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX23 modulates glioma malignancy via elevating miR-21 biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jinlong; Park, Gunwoo; Lee, Jeong Eun; Choi, Eun Young; Park, Ju Young; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Park, Nayun; Jin, Xiong; Jung, Ji-Eun; Shin, Daye; Hong, Jun Hee; Kim, Hyunggee; Yoo, Heon; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Youn-Jae; Park, Jong Bae; Kim, Jong Heon

    2015-09-01

    Upregulation of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is known to be strongly associated with the proliferation, invasion, and radio-resistance of glioma cells. However, the regulatory mechanism that governs the biogenesis of miR-21 in glioma is still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the DEAD-box RNA helicase, DDX23, promotes miR-21 biogenesis at the post-transcriptional level. The expression of DDX23 was enhanced in glioma tissues compared to normal brain, and expression level of DDX23 was highly associated with poor survival of glioma patients. Specific knockdown of DDX23 expression suppressed glioma cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo, which is similar to the function of miR-21. We found that DDX23 increased the level of miR-21 by promoting primary-to-precursor processing of miR-21 through an interaction with the Drosha microprocessor. Mutagenesis experiments critically demonstrated that the helicase activity of DDX23 was essential for the processing (cropping) of miR-21, and we further found that ivermectin, a RNA helicase inhibitor, decreased miR-21 levels by potentially inhibiting DDX23 activity and blocked invasion and cell proliferation. Moreover, treatment of ivermectin decreased glioma growth in mouse xenografts. Taken together, these results suggest that DDX23 plays an essential role in glioma progression, and might thus be a potential novel target for the therapeutic treatment of glioma. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Repression of the expression of PPP3CC by ZEB1 confers activation of NF-κB and contributes to invasion and growth in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongquan; Zhao, Shuli; Chen, Bo; Fu, Chuhua; Dang, Yanwei; Fang, Peihai; Wang, Jun; Wang, Ning; Liu, Lijun

    2018-02-01

    Gliomas are highly malignant brain tumors. Aberrant activation of NF-κB plays a crucial role in tumor progression. ELISA assay was used to detect NF-κB activity in glimoas cells with different treatments. PPP3CC expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot assay. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated the overall survival rates according to the protein level of PPP3CC. Transwell and MTS assay were performed to determine cell invasion and growth. Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with luciferase reporter assays illustrated the transcriptional regulation of PPP3CC. We showed that PPP3CC decrease was responsible for constitutive activation of NF-κB in gliomas. Restored PPP3CC expression inhibited activation of NF-κB. PPP3CC was frequently decreased in gliomas and that repression of the expression of PPP3CC correlated glioma progression. The ectopic expression of PPP3CC inhibited the invasive potential of glioma cells, and inhibited glioma cells proliferation in vitro and growth in vivo. Additionally, the expression of Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1(ZEB1) was increased in gliomas and was negatively correlated with clinical outcomes of glioma patients. ZEB1 inversely correlated with the expression of PPP3CC. ZEB1 was also confirmed to physically bind to the PPP3CC promoter. ZEB1 knockdown resulted in an increase in the expression of PPP3CC and elevation of PPP3CC promoter activity in glioma cells. These findings indicated that the down-regulation of PPP3CC by ZEB1 resulted in activation of NF-κB is a critical oncogenic event in gliomas. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Pediatric Glioma at the Optic Pathway and Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Suk; Park, Jun Bum; Ra, Young-Shin

    2018-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common pediatric tumors of the central nervous system. In this review, we discuss the clinical features, treatment paradigms, and evolving concepts related to two types of pediatric gliomas affecting two main locations: the optic pathway and thalamus. In particular, we discuss recently revised pathologic classification, which adopting molecular parameter. We believe that our review contribute to the readers’ better understanding of pediatric glioma because pediatric glioma differs in many ways from adult glioma according to the newest advances in molecular characterization of this tumor. A better understanding of current and evolving issues in pediatric glioma is needed to ensure effective management decision. PMID:29742884

  9. New developments in surgery of malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Vranic, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant gliomas account for a high proportion of brain tumours. With new advances in neurooncology, the recurrence-free survival of patients with malignant gliomas has been substantially prolonged. It, however, remains dependent on the thoroughness of the surgical resection. The maximal tumour resection without additional postoperative deficit is the goal of surgery on patients with malignant gliomas. In order to minimize postoperative deficit, several pre- and intraoperative techniques have been developed. Conclusions Several techniques used in malignant glioma surgery have been developed, including microsurgery, neuroendoscopy, stereotactic biopsy and brachytherapy. Imaging and functional techniques allowing for safer tumour resection have a special value. Imaging techniques allow for better preoperative visualization and choice of the approach, while functional techniques help us locate eloquent regions of the brain. PMID:22933950

  10. MR Imaging-derived Oxygen Metabolism and Neovascularization Characterization for Grading and IDH Gene Mutation Detection of Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Andreas; Zimmermann, Max; Kitzwögerer, Melitta; Oberndorfer, Stefan; Rössler, Karl; Dörfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Heinz, Gertraud

    2017-06-01

    Purpose To explore the diagnostic performance of physiological magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of oxygen metabolism and neovascularization activity for grading and characterization of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutation status of gliomas. Materials and Methods This retrospective study had institutional review board approval; written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Eighty-three patients with histopathologically proven glioma (World Health Organization [WHO] grade II-IV) were examined with quantitative blood oxygen level-dependent imaging and vascular architecture mapping. Biomarker maps of neovascularization activity (microvessel radius, microvessel density, and microvessel type indicator [MTI]) and oxygen metabolism (oxygen extraction fraction [OEF] and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen [CMRO 2 ]) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine diagnostic performance for grading and detection of IDH gene mutation status. Results Low-grade (WHO grade II) glioma showed areas with increased OEF (+18%, P < .001, n = 20), whereas anaplastic glioma (WHO grade III) and glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) showed decreased OEF when compared with normal brain tissue (-54% [P < .001, n = 21] and -49% [P < .001, n = 41], respectively). This allowed clear differentiation between low- and high-grade glioma (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 1) for the patient cohort. MTI had the highest diagnostic performance (AUC, 0.782) for differentiation between gliomas of grades III and IV among all biomarkers. CMRO 2 was decreased (P = .037) in low-grade glioma with a mutated IDH gene, and MTI was significantly increased in glioma grade III with IDH mutation (P = .013) when compared with the IDH wild-type counterparts. CMRO 2 showed the highest diagnostic performance for IDH gene mutation detection in low-grade glioma (AUC, 0.818) and MTI in high-grade glioma (AUC, 0.854) and for all WHO grades (AUC, 0

  11. Brainstem angiocentric glioma: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Kristin J; Crawford, Lexi M; Bennett, Jeffrey A; Rivera-Zengotita, Marie L; Pincus, David W

    2017-10-01

    Angiocentric glioma is a rare tumor that was recognized by the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System as a distinct clinicopathological entity in 2007. Since this initial description, the vast majority of cases of angiocentric glioma reported in the literature have involved tumors of the cerebral hemispheres. To date, only 1 case of angiocentric glioma arising from the posterior midbrain has been reported. The authors present the cases of 2 pediatric patients who were found to have brainstem angiocentric gliomas. The clinical course, radiological and pathological features, treatment, and follow-up are described. The first case is one of a 5-year-old girl who presented with double vision, headache, and nausea and was found to have a midbrain lesion with pathological features consistent with angiocentric glioma. She was treated with resection and endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), followed by close observation and serial neuroimaging. The second case is one of a 6-year-old boy who presented with progressive mouth drooping and problems with balance. He was found to have a pontine lesion with pathological features consistent with angiocentric glioma. This patient was treated with ETV, followed by close observation and serial neuroimaging. This report includes 6 and 1.5 years of follow-up of the patients, respectively. While there are limited data regarding the prognosis or long-term management of patients with brainstem angiocentric gliomas, the cases described in this report suggest an indolent course for this tumor, similar to the course of angiocentric gliomas located in the cerebral hemispheres.

  12. MicroRNA-145 is downregulated in glial tumors and regulates glioma cell migration by targeting connective tissue growth factor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Kyung; Bier, Ariel; Cazacu, Simona; Finniss, Susan; Xiang, Cunli; Twito, Hodaya; Poisson, Laila M; Mikkelsen, Tom; Slavin, Shimon; Jacoby, Elad; Yalon, Michal; Toren, Amos; Rempel, Sandra A; Brodie, Chaya

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBM), the most common and aggressive type of malignant glioma, are characterized by increased invasion into the surrounding brain tissues. Despite intensive therapeutic strategies, the median survival of GBM patients has remained dismal over the last decades. In this study we examined the expression of miR-145 in glial tumors and its function in glioma cells. Using TCGA analysis and real-time PCR we found that the expression of miR-145/143 cluster was downregulated in astrocytic tumors compared to normal brain specimens and in glioma cells and glioma stem cells (GSCs) compared to normal astrocytes and neural stem cells. Moreover, the low expression of both miR-145 and miR-143 in GBM was correlated with poor patient prognosis. Transfection of glioma cells with miR-145 mimic or transduction with a lentivirus vector expressing pre-miR 145 significantly decreased the migration and invasion of glioma cells. We identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) as a novel target of miR-145 in glioma cells; transfection of the cells with this miRNA decreased the expression of CTGF as determined by Western blot analysis and the expression of its 3'-UTR fused to luciferase. Overexpression of a CTGF plasmid lacking the 3'-UTR and administration of recombinant CTGF protein abrogated the inhibitory effect of miR-145 on glioma cell migration. Similarly, we found that silencing of CTGF decreased the migration of glioma cells. CTGF silencing also decreased the expression of SPARC, phospho-FAK and FAK and overexpression of SPARC abrogated the inhibitory effect of CTGF silencing on cell migration. These results demonstrate that miR-145 is downregulated in glial tumors and its low expression in GBM predicts poor patient prognosis. In addition miR-145 regulates glioma cell migration by targeting CTGF which downregulates SPARC expression. Therefore, miR-145 is an attractive therapeutic target for anti-invasive treatment of astrocytic tumors.

  13. Rapid Intraoperative Molecular Characterization of Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Ganesh M.; Francis, Joshua M.; Rinne, Mikael L.; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Huang, Franklin W.; Venteicher, Andrew S.; Akama-Garren, Elliot H.; Kang, Yun Jee; Lelic, Nina; Kim, James C.; Brown, Loreal E.; Charbonneau, Sarah K.; Golby, Alexandra J.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Hoang, Mai P.; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Garraway, Levi A.; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Reardon, David A.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Brastianos, Priscilla K.; Curry, William T.; Barker, Fred G.; Hahn, William C.; Nahed, Brian V.; Ligon, Keith L.; Louis, David N.; Cahill, Daniel P.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Conclusive intraoperative pathologic confirmation of diffuse infiltrative glioma guides the decision to pursue definitive neurosurgical resection. Establishing the intraoperative diagnosis by histologic analysis can be difficult in low-cellularity infiltrative gliomas. Therefore, we developed a rapid and sensitive genotyping assay to detect somatic single-nucleotide variants in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1). OBSERVATIONS This assay was applied to tissue samples from 190 patients with diffuse gliomas, including archived fixed and frozen specimens and tissue obtained intraoperatively. Results demonstrated 96% sensitivity (95% CI, 90%–99%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 95%–100%) for World Health Organization grades II and III gliomas. In a series of live cases, glioma-defining mutations could be identified within 60 minutes, which could facilitate the diagnosis in an intraoperative timeframe. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The genotyping method described herein can establish the diagnosis of low-cellularity tumors like glioma and could be adapted to the point-of-care diagnosis of other lesions that are similarly defined by highly recurrent somatic mutations. PMID:26181761

  14. Multifunctional targeting vinorelbine plus tetrandrine liposomes for treating brain glioma along with eliminating glioma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-tao; Tang, Wei; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Xiao-min; Wang, Yan-hong; Cheng, Lan; Meng, Xian-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Malignant brain glioma is the most lethal and aggressive type of cancer. Surgery and radiotherapy cannot eliminate all glioma stem cells (GSCs) and blood–brain barrier (BBB) restricts the movement of antitumor drugs from blood to brain, thus leading to the poor prognosis with high recurrence rate. In the present study, the targeting conjugates of cholesterol polyethylene glycol polyethylenimine (CHOL-PEG2000-PEI) and D-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate vapreotide (TPGS1000-VAP) were newly synthesized for transporting drugs across the BBB and targeting glioma cells and GSCs. The multifunctional targeting vinorelbine plus tetrandrine liposomes were constructed by modifying the targeting conjugates. The studies were undertaken on BBB model, glioma cells, GSCs, and glioma-bearing mice. In vitro results showed that multifunctional targeting drugs-loaded liposomes with suitable physicochemical property could enhance the transport drugs across the BBB, increase the intracellular uptake, inhibit glioma cells and GSCs, penetrate and destruct the GSCs spheroids, and induce apoptosis via activating related apoptotic proteins. In vivo results demonstrated that multifunctional targeting drugs-loaded liposomes could significantly accumulate into brain tumor location, show the specificity to tumor sites, and result in a robust overall antitumor efficacy in glioma-bearing mice. These data suggested that the multifunctional targeting vinorelbine plus tetrandrine liposomes could offer a promising strategy for treating brain glioma. PMID:27029055

  15. Salvage immunotherapy of malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Ingram, M; Jacques, S; Freshwater, D B; Techy, G B; Shelden, C H; Helsper, J T

    1987-12-01

    We present the preliminary results of a phase I trial of adoptive immunotherapy for recurrent or residual malignant glioma. The protocol is based on surgical debulking followed by implantation into the tumor bed of autologous lymphocytes that have been stimulated with phytohemagglutinin-P and then cultured in vitro in the presence of interleukin 2. Fifty-five patients with a mean Karnofsky rating of 64 were treated between February 1985 and March 1987. No significant toxicity was associated with the immunotherapy. Fifty patients had a positive initial response to therapy, nine patients had early recurrence (two to four months after treatment), and 22 patients died. We comment on major differences between the protocol described and other immunotherapy protocols.

  16. D-amino acid oxidase gene therapy sensitizes glioma cells to the antiglycolytic effect of 3-bromopyruvate.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, S M; Abou El-Magd, R M; Shishido, Y; Chung, S P; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-01-01

    Glioma tumors are refractory to conventional treatment. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive type of primary brain tumors in humans. In this study, we introduce oxidative stress-energy depletion (OSED) therapy as a new suggested treatment for glioblastoma. OSED utilizes D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), which is a promising therapeutic protein that induces oxidative stress and apoptosis through generating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). OSED combines DAO with 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), a hexokinase II (HK II) inhibitor that interferes with Warburg effect, a metabolic alteration of most tumor cells that is characterized by enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Our data revealed that 3BP induced depletion of energetic capabilities of glioma cells. 3BP induced H2O2 production as a novel mechanism of its action. C6 glioma transfected with DAO and treated with D-serine together with 3BP-sensitized glioma cells to 3BP and decreased markedly proliferation, clonogenic power and viability in a three-dimensional tumor model with lesser effect on normal astrocytes. DAO gene therapy using atelocollagen as an in vivo transfection agent proved effective in a glioma tumor model in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, especially after combination with 3BP. OSED treatment was safe and tolerable in SD rats. OSED therapy may be a promising therapeutic modality for glioma.

  17. CPEB1 modulates differentiation of glioma stem cells via downregulation of HES1 and SIRT1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Ju Young; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Youn-Jae; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Yoo, Heon; Kim, Jong Heon; Park, Jong Bae

    2014-01-01

    Glioma stemness has been recognized as the most important reason for glioma relapse and drug resistance. Differentiation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) has been implicated as a novel approach to target recurrent glioma. However, the detailed molecular mechanism involved in the differentiation of GSCs has not yet been elucidated. This study identified CPEB1 as the key modulator that induces the differentiation of GSCs at the post-transcriptional level. Gain and loss of function experiments showed that CPEB1 expression reduced sphere formation ability and the expression of stemness markers such as Nestin and Notch. To elucidate the detailed molecular mechanism underlying the action of CPEB1, we investigated the interacting ribonome of the CPEB1 complex using a Ribonomics approach. CPEB1 specifically suppressed the translation of HES1 and SIRT1 by interacting with a cytoplasmic polyadenylation element. The expression profile of CPEB1 negatively correlated with overall survival in glioma patients. Overexpression of CPEB1 decreased the number of GSCs in an orthotopically implanted glioma animal model. These results suggest that CPEB1-mediated translational control is essential for the differentiation of GSCs and provides novel therapeutic concepts for differentiation therapy. PMID:25216517

  18. MiR-26b Mimic Inhibits Glioma Proliferation In Vitro and In Vivo Suppressing COX-2 Expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng-Gang; Zheng, Chuan-Yi; Cai, Wang-Qing; Li, Da-Wei; Ye, Fu-Yue; Zhou, Jian; Wu, Ran; Yang, Kun

    2017-08-11

    Glioma is the most common malignant tumor of the nervous system. Studies have shown the microRNA (miR)-26b/cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 axis in the development and progression in many tumor cells. Our study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-26b/COX-2 axis in glioma. Decreased expression of miR-26b with increased level of COX-2 was found in glioma tissues compared with matched normal tissues. A strong negative correlation was observed between the level of miR-26b and COX-2 in 30 glioma tissues. The miR-26b was then overexpressed by transfecting miR-26b mimic into U-373 cells. The invasive cell number and wounld closing rate were reduced in U-373 cells transfected with miR-26b mimic. Besides, COX2 siRNA enhanced the effect of miR-26b mimic in suppressing the expression of p-ERK1 and p-JNK. Finally, the in vivo experiment revealed that miR-26b mimic transfection strongly reduced the tumor growth, tumor volume and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9). Taken together, our research indicated a miR-26b/COX-2/ERK/JNK axis in regulating the motility of glioma in vitro and in vivo, providing a new sight for treatment of glioma.

  19. Long non-coding RNA DANCR facilitates glioma malignancy by sponging miR-33a-5p.

    PubMed

    Yang, J X; Sun, Y; Gao, L; Meng, Q; Yang, B Y

    2018-06-26

    Glioma is among the most fatal brain tumors characterized by a highly malignancy and rapid progression and early metastasis. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNA differentiation antagonizing non-protein coding RNA (LncRNA DANCR) is associated with the development, progression and metastasis of various cancers. In the present study, we investigated functional role of LncRNA DANCR in the malignancy of glioma. The results showed that LncRNA DANCR was increased in glioma tissues and cells compared with normal brain tissues and cells. DANCR expression was positively correlated with the malignancy and poor prognosis of glioma patients. DANCR contained a binding site of miR-33a-5p. miR-33a-5p was decreased in glioma tissues and cells compared with normal brain tissues and cells. Downregulation of miR-33a-5p was positively correlated with the malignancy and poor prognosis of glioma patients. In glioma tissues, the expression of DANCR was negatively correlated with the expression of miR-33a-5p. Downregulation of DANCR increased miR-33a-5p expression. miR-33a-5p mimic reduced the luciferase of DANCR-WT but not DANCR-MUT. DANCR pull-down showed the expression of miR-33a-5p. miR-33a-5p mimic enhanced knockdown of DANCR -induced inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and EMT, and increase of apoptosis. Anti-miR-33a-5p reversed the effects of si- DANCR on cell malignancy. Knockdown of DANCR remarkably reduced the increase of tumor volumes in xenograft mouse models. In tumor tissues, knockdown of DANCR increased the expression of miR-33a-5p, reduced EMT and increased apoptosis. Our study provides novel insights in the functions of LncRNA DANCR-miR-33a-5p axis in tumorigenesis of glioma.

  20. Nitrosoureas inhibit the stathmin-mediated migration and invasion of malignant glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xing-Jie; Choi, Yong; Sackett, Dan L; Park, John K

    2008-07-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common primary intrinsic brain tumors and are highly lethal. The widespread migration and invasion of neoplastic cells from the initial site of tumor formation into the surrounding brain render these lesions refractory to definitive surgical treatment. Stathmin, a microtubule-destabilizing protein that mediates cell cycle progression, can also regulate directed cell movement. Nitrosoureas, traditionally viewed as DNA alkylating agents, can also covalently modify proteins such as stathmin. We therefore sought to establish a role for stathmin in malignant glioma cell motility, migration, and invasion and determine the effects of nitrosoureas on these cell movement-related processes. Scratch wound-healing recovery, Boyden chamber migration, Matrigel invasion, and organotypic slice invasion assays were performed before and after the down-regulation of cellular stathmin levels and in the absence and presence of sublethal nitrosourea ([1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-l-nitrosourea]; CCNU) concentrations. We show that decreases in stathmin expression lead to significant decreases in malignant glioma cell motility, migration, and invasion. CCNU, at a concentration of 10 micromol/L, causes similar significant decreases, even in the absence of any effects on cell viability. The direct inhibition of stathmin by CCNU is likely a contributing factor. These findings suggest that the inhibition of stathmin expression and function may be useful in limiting the spread of malignant gliomas within the brain, and that nitrosoureas may have therapeutic benefits in addition to their antiproliferative effects.

  1. Nitrosoureas Inhibit the Stathmin Mediated Migration and Invasion of Malignant Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xing-Jie; Choi, Yong; Sackett, Dan L.; Park, John K.

    2008-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common primary intrinsic brain tumors and are highly lethal. The widespread migration and invasion of neoplastic cells from the initial site of tumor formation into the surrounding brain render these lesions refractory to definitive surgical treatment. Stathmin, a microtubule destabilizing protein that mediates cell cycle progression, can also regulate directed cell movement. Nitrosoureas, traditionally viewed as DNA alkylating agents, can also covalently modify proteins such as stathmin. We therefore sought to establish a role for stathmin in malignant glioma cell motility, migration, and invasion and determine the effects of nitrosoureas on these cell movement related processes. Scratch-wound healing recovery, Boyden chamber migration, Matrigel invasion, and organotypic slice invasion assays were performed before and after the down regulation of cellular stathmin levels and in the absence and presence of sub-lethal nitrosourea (CCNU; [1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-l-nitrosourea]) concentrations. We demonstrate that decreases in stathmin expression lead to significant decreases in malignant glioma cell motility, migration, and invasion. CCNU, at a concentration of 10 μM, causes similar significant decreases, even in the absence of any effects on cell viability. The direct inhibition of stathmin by CCNU is likely a contributing factor. These findings suggest that the inhibition of stathmin expression and function may be useful in limiting the spread of malignant gliomas within the brain and that nitrosoureas may have therapeutic benefits in addition to their anti-proliferative effects. PMID:18593927

  2. Glioma Stem Cells and Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Malignant Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell research has led to the discovery of glioma stem cells (GSCs), and because these cells are resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, analysis of their properties has been rapidly pursued for targeted treatment of malignant glioma. Recent studies have also revealed complex crosstalk between GSCs and their specialized environment (niche). Therefore, targeting not only GSCs but also their niche may be a principle for novel therapies of malignant glioma. One possible novel strategy for targeting GSCs and their niches is immunotherapy with different antitumor mechanism(s) from those of conventional therapy. Recent clinical studies of immunotherapy using peptide vaccines and antibodies have shown promising results. This review describes the recent findings related to GSCs and their niches, as well as immunotherapies for glioma, followed by discussion of immunotherapies that target GSCs for the treatment of malignant glioma. PMID:23762610

  3. Glioma stem cells and immunotherapy for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Toda, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell research has led to the discovery of glioma stem cells (GSCs), and because these cells are resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, analysis of their properties has been rapidly pursued for targeted treatment of malignant glioma. Recent studies have also revealed complex crosstalk between GSCs and their specialized environment (niche). Therefore, targeting not only GSCs but also their niche may be a principle for novel therapies of malignant glioma. One possible novel strategy for targeting GSCs and their niches is immunotherapy with different antitumor mechanism(s) from those of conventional therapy. Recent clinical studies of immunotherapy using peptide vaccines and antibodies have shown promising results. This review describes the recent findings related to GSCs and their niches, as well as immunotherapies for glioma, followed by discussion of immunotherapies that target GSCs for the treatment of malignant glioma.

  4. Resveratrol Represses Pokemon Expression in Human Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yutao; Cui, Jiajun; Xue, Feng; Overstreet, Anne-Marie; Zhan, Yiping; Shan, Dapeng; Li, Hui; Li, Hui; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Mengmeng; Yu, Chunjiang; Xu, Zhi-Qing David

    2016-03-01

    POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon), an important proto-oncoprotein, is a transcriptional repressor that regulates the expression of many genes and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenolic compound, has many beneficial biological effects on health. In this study, we investigated the role of Pokemon in RSV-induced biological effects and the effect of RSV on the expression of Pokemon in glioma cells. We found that overexpression of Pokemon decreased RSV-induced cell apoptosis, senescence, and anti-proliferative effects. Moreover, we showed that RSV could efficiently decrease the activity of the Pokemon promoter and the expression of Pokemon. Meanwhile, RSV also inhibited Sp1 DNA binding activity to the Pokemon promoter; whereas, it did not influence the expression and nuclear translocation of Sp1. In addition, we found that RSV could increase the recruitment of HDAC1, but decreased p300 to the Pokemon promoter. Taken together, all these results extended our understanding on the anti-cancer mechanism of RSV in glioma cells.

  5. TTBK2 circular RNA promotes glioma malignancy by regulating miR-217/HNF1β/Derlin-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Liu, Xiaobai; Xue, Yixue; Gong, Wei; Ma, Jun; Xi, Zhuo; Que, Zhongyou; Liu, Yunhui

    2017-02-20

    Circular RNAs are a subgroup of non-coding RNAs and generated by a mammalian genome. Herein, the expression and function of circular RNA circ-TTBK2 were investigated in human glioma cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR were conducted to profile the cell distribution and expression of circ-TTBK2 and microRNA-217 (miR-217) in glioma tissues and cells. Immunohistochemical and western blot were used to determine the expression of HNF1β and Derlin-1 in glioma tissues and cells. Stable knockdown of circ-TTBK2 or overexpression of miR-217 glioma cell lines (U87 and U251) were established to explore the function of circ-TTBK2 and miR-217 in glioma cells. Further, luciferase reports and RNA immunoprecipitation were used to investigate the correlation between circ-TTBK2 and miR-217. Cell Counting Kit-8, transwell assays, and flow cytometry were used to investigate circ-TTBK2 and miR-217 function including cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and apoptosis, respectively. ChIP assays were used to ascertain the correlations between HNF1β and Derlin-1. We found that circ-TTBK2 was upregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines, while linear TTBK2 was not dysregulated in glioma tissues and cells. Enhanced expression of circ-TTBK2 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, while inhibited apoptosis. MiR-217 was downregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines. We also found that circ-TTBK2, but not linear TTBK2, acted as miR-217 sponge in a sequence-specific manner. In addition, upregulated circ-TTBK2 decreased miR-217 expression and there was a reciprocal negative feedback between them in an Argonaute2-dependent manner. Moreover, reintroduction of miR-217 significantly reversed circ-TTBK2-mediated promotion of glioma progression. HNF1β was a direct target of miR-217, and played oncogenic role in glioma cells. Remarkably, circ-TTBK2 knockdown combined with miR-217 overexpression led to tumor regression in vivo. These results

  6. Molecular Diagnostics of Gliomas Using Next Generation Sequencing of a Glioma-Tailored Gene Panel.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Angela; Kaulich, Kerstin; Stepanow, Stefanie; Wolter, Marietta; Köhrer, Karl; Felsberg, Jörg; Malzkorn, Bastian; Reifenberger, Guido

    2017-03-01

    Current classification of gliomas is based on histological criteria according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system. Over the past years, characteristic genetic profiles have been identified in various glioma types. These can refine tumor diagnostics and provide important prognostic and predictive information. We report on the establishment and validation of gene panel next generation sequencing (NGS) for the molecular diagnostics of gliomas. We designed a glioma-tailored gene panel covering 660 amplicons derived from 20 genes frequently aberrant in different glioma types. Sensitivity and specificity of glioma gene panel NGS for detection of DNA sequence variants and copy number changes were validated by single gene analyses. NGS-based mutation detection was optimized for application on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens including small stereotactic biopsy samples. NGS data obtained in a retrospective analysis of 121 gliomas allowed for their molecular classification into distinct biological groups, including (i) isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (IDH) 1 or 2 mutant astrocytic gliomas with frequent α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) gene mutations, (ii) IDH mutant oligodendroglial tumors with 1p/19q codeletion, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation and frequent Drosophila homolog of capicua (CIC) gene mutation, as well as (iii) IDH wildtype glioblastomas with frequent TERT promoter mutation, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) mutation and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification. Oligoastrocytic gliomas were genetically assigned to either of these groups. Our findings implicate gene panel NGS as a promising diagnostic technique that may facilitate integrated histological and molecular glioma classification. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  7. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Childhood brain stem glioma treatment options can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cerebral spinal fluid diversion, observation, and targeted therapy. Learn more about newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood brain stem glioma in this expert-reviewed summary.

  8. Contribution of diffusion tensor imaging to delineation of gliomas and glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Tropine, A; Vucurevic, G; Delani, P; Boor, S; Hopf, N; Bohl, J; Stoeter, P

    2004-12-01

    To determine if the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) can differentiate between accompanying edema and tumor cell infiltration of white matter (WM) beyond the tumor edge as defined from conventional MRI in low- and high-grade gliomas. We examined 12 patients with high-grade gliomas/glioblastomas and eight patients with low-grade gliomas and compared them to 10 patients with meningiomas, in which no tumor infiltration is expected. The tumor was defined as the enhancing area in glioblastomas and meningiomas and as the area of increased T2-signal in low-grade gliomas. FA and MD were measured in the center of the tumor and in the adjacent WM. The contralateral WM and internal capsule were used as an internal standard. Comparing the WM areas of increased T2-signal adjacent to meningiomas and glioblastomas, we saw a trend (without significance) towards a reduction of FA, but not of MD, in glioblastomas. We found no changes of FA and MD in the WM adjacent to low-grade gliomas (without T2-signal increase) compared to the WM of the contralateral hemisphere. In meningiomas and high-grade gliomas/glioblastomas, a narrow rim of significantly (P < 0.01) increased FA and decreased MD values around the enhancing tumor area was seen, whereas in low-grade gliomas, such a rim could not be defined. There was no contribution of FA or MD to grading of gliomas. In glioblastomas, a reduction of FA in the edematous area surrounding the tumor may indicate tumor cell infiltration, but a reliable differentiation between infiltration and vasogenic edema is not yet possible on the basis of DTI. The additional finding of a narrow rim of increased FA and decreased MD at the edge of glioblastomas (as well as in meningiomas) may be caused by com-pressed WM fibers and/or increased vascularity, but does not contribute to exclude peripheral cellular infiltration. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Roles of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors in malignant behavior of glioma cells. Differential effects of S1P{sub 2} on cell migration and invasiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Nicholas; Van Brocklyn, James R.

    2007-05-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that signals through a family of five G-protein-coupled receptors, termed S1P{sub 1-5}. S1P stimulates growth and invasiveness of glioma cells, and high expression levels of the enzyme that forms S1P, sphingosine kinase-1, correlate with short survival of glioma patients. In this study we examined the mechanism of S1P stimulation of glioma cell proliferation and invasion by either overexpressing or knocking down, by RNA interference, S1P receptor expression in glioma cell lines. S1P{sub 1}, S1P{sub 2} and S1P{sub 3} all contribute positively to S1P-stimulated glioma cell proliferation, with S1P{sub 1} being the major contributor. Stimulationmore » of glioma cell proliferation by these receptors correlated with activation of ERK MAP kinase. S1P{sub 5} blocks glioma cell proliferation, and inhibits ERK activation. S1P{sub 1} and S1P{sub 3} enhance glioma cell migration and invasion. S1P{sub 2} inhibits migration through Rho activation, Rho kinase signaling and stress fiber formation, but unexpectedly, enhances glioma cell invasiveness by stimulating cell adhesion. S1P{sub 2} also potently enhances expression of the matricellular protein CCN1/Cyr61, which has been implicated in tumor cell adhesion, and invasion as well as tumor angiogenesis. A neutralizing antibody to CCN1 blocked S1P{sub 2}-stimulated glioma invasion. Thus, while S1P{sub 2} decreases glioma cell motility, it may enhance invasion through induction of proteins that modulate glioma cell interaction with the extracellular matrix.« less

  10. Phase II Study of Aflibercept in Recurrent Malignant Glioma: A North American Brain Tumor Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, John F.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Chang, Susan M.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Aldape, Kenneth; Yao, Jun; Jackson, Edward F.; Lieberman, Frank; Robins, H. Ian; Mehta, Minesh P.; Lassman, Andrew B.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Yung, W.K. Alfred; Chen, Alice; Prados, Michael D.; Wen, Patrick Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy is a promising treatment approach for patients with recurrent glioblastoma. This single-arm phase II study evaluated the efficacy of aflibercept (VEGF Trap), a recombinantly produced fusion protein that scavenges both VEGF and placental growth factor in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. Patients and Methods Forty-two patients with glioblastoma and 16 patients with anaplastic glioma who had received concurrent radiation and temozolomide and adjuvant temozolomide were enrolled at first relapse. Aflibercept 4 mg/kg was administered intravenously on day 1 of every 2-week cycle. Results The 6-month progression-free survival rate was 7.7% for the glioblastoma cohort and 25% for patients with anaplastic glioma. Overall radiographic response rate was 24% (18% for glioblastoma and 44% for anaplastic glioma). The median progression-free survival was 24 weeks for patients with anaplastic glioma (95% CI, 5 to 31 weeks) and 12 weeks for patients with glioblastoma (95% CI, 8 to 16 weeks). A total of 14 patients (25%) were removed from the study for toxicity, on average less than 2 months from treatment initiation. The main treatment-related National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria grades 3 and 4 adverse events (38 total) included fatigue, hypertension, and lymphopenia. Two grade 4 CNS ischemias and one grade 4 systemic hemorrhage were reported. Aflibercept rapidly decreases permeability on dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular analysis of baseline tumor tissue identified tumor-associated markers of response and resistance. Conclusion Aflibercept monotherapy has moderate toxicity and minimal evidence of single-agent activity in unselected patients with recurrent malignant glioma. PMID:21606416

  11. In vivo detection of c-Met expression in a rat C6 glioma model

    PubMed Central

    Towner, RA; Smith, N; Doblas, S; Tesiram, Y; Garteiser, P; Saunders, D; Cranford, R; Silasi-Mansat, R; Herlea, O; Ivanciu, L; Wu, D; Lupu, F

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The tyrosine kinase receptor, c-Met, and its substrate, the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), are implicated in the malignant progression of glioblastomas. In vivo detection of c-Met expression may be helpful in the diagnosis of malignant tumours. The C6 rat glioma model is a widely used intracranial brain tumour model used to study gliomas experimentally. We used a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) molecular targeting agent to specifically tag the cell surface receptor, c-Met, with an anti-c-Met antibody (Ab) linked to biotinylated Gd (gadolinium)-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetic acid)-albumin in rat gliomas to detect overexpression of this antigen in vivo. The anti-c-Met probe (anti-c-Met-Gd-DTPA-albumin) was administered intravenously, and as determined by an increase in MRI signal intensity and a corresponding decrease in regional T1 relaxation values, this probe was found to detect increased expression of c-Met protein levels in C6 gliomas. In addition, specificity for the binding of the anti-c-Met contrast agent was determined by using fluorescence microscopic imaging of the biotinylated portion of the targeting agent within neoplastic and ‘normal’brain tissues following in vivo administration of the anti-c-Met probe. Controls with no Ab or with a normal rat IgG attached to the contrast agent component indicated no non-specific binding to glioma tissue. This is the first successful visualization of in vivo overexpression of c-Met in gliomas. PMID:18194445

  12. Blood glutamate scavengers prolong the survival of rats and mice with brain-implanted gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ruban, Angela; Berkutzki, Tamara; Cooper, Itzik; Mohar, Boaz; Teichberg, Vivian I

    2012-12-01

    L-Glutamate (Glu) plays a crucial role in the growth of malignant gliomas. We have established the feasibility of accelerating a naturally occurring brain to-blood Glu efflux by decreasing blood Glu levels with intravenous oxaloacetate, the respective Glu co-substrate of the blood resident enzyme humane glutamate–oxaloacetate transaminase(hGOT). We wished to demonstrate that blood Glu scavenging provides neuroprotection in the case of glioma.We now describe the neuroprotective effects of blood Glu scavenging in a fatal condition such as brain-implanted C6 glioma in rats and brain-implanted human U87 MG glioma in nude mice. Rat (C-6) or human (U87) glioma cells were grafted stereotactically in the brain of rats or mice. After development of tumors, the animals were drinking oxaloacetate with or without injections of hGOT. In addition, mice were treated with combination treatment, which included drinking oxaloacetate with intracutaneous injections of hGOT and intraperitoneal injection of Temozolomide. Animals drinking oxaloacetate with or without injections of hGOT displayed a smaller tumor volume, reduced invasiveness and prolonged survival than control animals drinking saline. These effects were significantly enhanced by Temozolomide in mice, which increased survival by 237%. This is the first demonstration of blood Glu scavenging in brain cancer, and because of its safety, is likely to be of clinical significance for the future treatment of human gliomas. As we demonstrated, the blood glutamate scavenging treatment in combination with TMZ could be a good candidate or as an alternative treatment to the patients that do not respond to TMZ.

  13. MEG Network Differences between Low- and High-Grade Glioma Related to Epilepsy and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    van Dellen, Edwin; Douw, Linda; Hillebrand, Arjan; Ris-Hilgersom, Irene H. M.; Schoonheim, Menno M.; Baayen, Johannes C.; De Witt Hamer, Philip C.; Velis, Demetrios N.; Klein, Martin; Heimans, Jan J.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To reveal possible differences in whole brain topology of epileptic glioma patients, being low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG) patients. We studied functional networks in these patients and compared them to those in epilepsy patients with non-glial lesions (NGL) and healthy controls. Finally, we related network characteristics to seizure frequency and cognitive performance within patient groups. Methods We constructed functional networks from pre-surgical resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of 13 LGG patients, 12 HGG patients, 10 NGL patients, and 36 healthy controls. Normalized clustering coefficient and average shortest path length as well as modular structure and network synchronizability were computed for each group. Cognitive performance was assessed in a subset of 11 LGG and 10 HGG patients. Results LGG patients showed decreased network synchronizability and decreased global integration compared to healthy controls in the theta frequency range (4–8 Hz), similar to NGL patients. HGG patients’ networks did not significantly differ from those in controls. Network characteristics correlated with clinical presentation regarding seizure frequency in LGG patients, and with poorer cognitive performance in both LGG and HGG glioma patients. Conclusion Lesion histology partly determines differences in functional networks in glioma patients suffering from epilepsy. We suggest that differences between LGG and HGG patients’ networks are explained by differences in plasticity, guided by the particular lesional growth pattern. Interestingly, decreased synchronizability and decreased global integration in the theta band seem to make LGG and NGL patients more prone to the occurrence of seizures and cognitive decline. PMID:23166829

  14. Pembrolizumab in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory High-Grade Gliomas, Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas, Hypermutated Brain Tumors, Ependymoma or Medulloblastoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-28

    Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome; Lynch Syndrome; Malignant Glioma; Progressive Ependymoma; Progressive Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; Recurrent Medulloblastoma; Refractory Brain Neoplasm; Refractory Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; Refractory Ependymoma; Refractory Medulloblastoma

  15. Distinct molecular profile of diffuse cerebellar gliomas.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Masashi; Mukasa, Akitake; Nagae, Genta; Yamamoto, Shogo; Tatsuno, Kenji; Ueda, Hiroki; Fukuda, Shiro; Umeda, Takayoshi; Suzuki, Tomonari; Otani, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Keiichi; Maruyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Shota; Takayanagi, Shunsaku; Nejo, Takahide; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ichimura, Koichi; Nakamura, Taishi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Narita, Yoshitaka; Nagane, Motoo; Ueki, Keisuke; Nishikawa, Ryo; Shibahara, Junji; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Saito, Nobuhito

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that tumor-driving alterations are often different among gliomas that originated from different brain regions and have underscored the importance of analyzing molecular characteristics of gliomas stratified by brain region. Therefore, to elucidate molecular characteristics of diffuse cerebellar gliomas (DCGs), 27 adult, mostly glioblastoma cases were analyzed. Comprehensive analysis using whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, and Infinium methylation array (n = 17) demonstrated their distinct molecular profile compared to gliomas in other brain regions. Frequent mutations in chromatin-modifier genes were identified including, noticeably, a truncating mutation in SETD2 (n = 4), which resulted in loss of H3K36 trimethylation and was mutually exclusive with H3F3A K27M mutation (n = 3), suggesting that epigenetic dysregulation may lead to DCG tumorigenesis. Alterations that cause loss of p53 function including TP53 mutation (n = 9), PPM1D mutation (n = 2), and a novel type of PPM1D fusion (n = 1), were also frequent. On the other hand, mutations and copy number changes commonly observed in cerebral gliomas were infrequent. DNA methylation profile analysis demonstrated that all DCGs except for those with H3F3A mutations were categorized in the "RTK I (PDGFRA)" group, and those DCGs had a gene expression signature that was highly associated with PDGFRA. Furthermore, compared with the data of 315 gliomas derived from different brain regions, promoter methylation of transcription factors genes associated with glial development showed a characteristic pattern presumably reflecting their tumor origin. Notably, SOX10, a key transcription factor associated with oligodendroglial differentiation and PDGFRA regulation, was up-regulated in both DCG and H3 K27M-mutant diffuse midline glioma, suggesting their developmental and biological commonality. In contrast, SOX10 was silenced by promoter methylation in most cerebral gliomas. These

  16. HOXA13 is a potential GBM diagnostic marker and promotes glioma invasion by activating the Wnt and TGF-β pathways

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ran; Han, Lei; Wang, Qixue; Wei, Jianwei; Chen, Luyue; Zhang, Jianning; Kang, Chunsheng; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Homeobox (HOX) genes, including HOXA13, are involved in human cancer. We found that HOXA13 expression was associated with glioma grade and prognosis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that most of the HOXA13-associated genes were enriched in cancer-related signaling pathways and mainly involved in the regulation of transcription. We transfected four glioma cell lines with Lenti-si HOXA13. HOXA13 increased cell proliferation and invasion and inhibited apoptosis. HOXA13 decreased β-catenin, phospho-SMAD2, and phospho-SMAD3 in the nucleus and increased phospho-β-catenin in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, downregulation of HOXA13 in orthotopic tumors decreased tumor growth. We suggest that HOXA13 promotes glioma progression in part via Wnt- and TGF-β-induced EMT and is a potential diagnostic biomarker for glioblastoma and an independent prognostic factor in high-grade glioma. PMID:26356815

  17. Role of microglia in glioma biology.

    PubMed

    Badie, B; Schartner, J

    2001-07-15

    Microglia, a type of differentiated tissue macrophage, are considered to be the most plastic cell population of the central nervous system (CNS). In response to pathological conditions, resting microglia undergo a stereotypic activation process and become capable of phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and lymphocyte activation. Considering their immune effector function, it is not surprising to see microglia accumulation in almost every CNS disease process, including malignant brain tumors or malignant gliomas. Although the function of these cells in CNS inflammatory processes is being studied, their role in malignant glioma biology remains unclear. On one hand, microglia may represent a CNS anti-tumor response, which is inactivated by local secretion of immunosuppressive factors by glioma cells. On the other hand, taking into account that microglia are capable of secreting a variety of immunomodulatory cytokines, it is possible that they are attracted by gliomas to promote tumor growth. A better understanding of microglia-glioma interaction will be helpful in designing novel immune-based therapies against these fatal tumors. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The pathobiology of collagens in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Leo S.; Huang, Paul H.

    2013-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are characterised by diffuse infiltration into the surrounding brain parenchyma. Infiltrating glioma cells exist in close proximity with components of the tumour microenvironment, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). While levels of collagens in the normal adult brain are low, in glioma, collagen levels are elevated and play an important role in driving the tumor progression. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the nature of collagens found in gliomas and offer insights into the mechanisms by which cancer cells interact with this ECM via receptors including the integrins, discoidin domain receptors and Endo180. We further describe the major remodelling pathways of brain tumour collagen mediated by the matrix metalloproteinases and highlight the reciprocal relationship between these enzymes and the collagen receptors. Finally, we conclude by offering a perspective on how the biophysical properties of the collagen ECM, in particular, mechanical stiffness and compliance may influence malignant outcome. Understanding the complex interactions between glioma cells and the collagen ECM may provide new avenues to combat the rampant tumor progression and chemoresistance in brain cancer patients. PMID:23861322

  19. Management of Elderly Patients With Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The current progressive aging of the population is resulting in a continuous increase in the incidence of gliomas in elderly people, especially the most frequent subtype, glioblastoma (GBM). This sociohealth shift, known as the “silver tsunami,” has prompted the neuro-oncology community to investigate the role of specific antitumor treatments, such as surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and other targeted therapies, for these traditionally undertreated patients. Advanced age, a widely recognized poor prognostic factor in both low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma patients, should no longer be the sole reason for excluding such older patients from receiving etiologic treatments. Far from it, results from recent prospective trials conducted on elderly patients with GBM demonstrate that active management of these patients can have a positive impact on survival without impairing either cognition or quality of life. Although prospective studies specifically addressing the management of grade 2 and 3 gliomas are lacking and thus needed, the aforementioned tendency toward acknowledging a therapeutic benefit for GBM patients might also apply to the treatment of patients with LGG and anaplastic gliomas. In order to optimize such etiologic treatment in conjunction with symptomatic management, neuro-oncology multidisciplinary boards must individually consider important features such as resectability of the tumor, functional and cognitive status, associated comorbidities, and social support. PMID:25342314

  20. New insights into susceptibility to glioma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhong; Shete, Sanjay; Hosking, Fay J; Robertson, Lindsay B; Bondy, Melissa L; Houlston, Richard S

    2010-03-01

    The study of inherited susceptibility to cancer has been one of the most informative areas of research in the past decade. Most of the cancer genetics studies have been focused on the common tumors such as breast and colorectal cancers. As the allelic architecture of these tumors is unraveled, research attention is turning to other rare cancers such as glioma, which are also likely to have a major genetic component as the basis of their development. In this brief review we discuss emerging data on glioma whole genome-association searches to identify risk loci. Two glioma genome-wide association studies have so far been reported. Our group identified 5 risk loci for glioma susceptibility (TERT rs2736100, CCDC26 rs4295627, CDKN2A/CDKN2B rs4977756, RTEL1 rs6010620, and PHLDB1 rs498872). Wrensch and colleagues provided further evidence to 2 risk loci (CDKN2B rs1412829 and RTEL1 rs6010620) for GBM and anaplastic astrocytoma. Although these data provide the strongest evidence to date for the role of common low-risk variants in the etiology of glioma, the single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified alone are unlikely to be candidates for causality. Identifying the causal variant at each specific locus and its biological impact now poses a significant challenge, contingent on a combination of fine mapping and functional analyses. Finally, we hope that a greater understanding of the biological basis of the disease will lead to the development of novel therapeutic interventions.

  1. Beyond Alkylating Agents for Gliomas: Quo Vadimus?

    PubMed

    Puduvalli, Vinay K; Chaudhary, Rekha; McClugage, Samuel G; Markert, James

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in therapies have yielded notable success in terms of improved survival in several cancers. However, such treatments have failed to improve outcome in patients with gliomas for whom surgery followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy with alkylating agents remain the standard of care. Genetic and epigenetic studies have helped identify several alterations specific to gliomas. Attempts to target these altered pathways have been unsuccessful due to various factors, including tumor heterogeneity, adaptive resistance of tumor cells, and limitations of access across the blood-brain barrier. Novel therapies that circumvent such limitations have been the focus of intense study and include approaches such as immunotherapy, targeting of signaling hubs and metabolic pathways, and use of biologic agents. Immunotherapeutic approaches including tumor-targeted vaccines, immune checkpoint blockade, antibody-drug conjugates, and chimeric antigen receptor-expressing cell therapies are in various stages of clinical trials. Similarly, identification of key metabolic pathways or converging hubs of signaling pathways that are tumor specific have yielded novel targets for therapy of gliomas. In addition, the failure of conventional therapies against gliomas has led to a growing interest among patients in the use of alternative therapies, which in turn has necessitated developing evidence-based approaches to the application of such therapies in clinical studies. The development of these novel approaches bears potential for providing breakthroughs in treatment of more meaningful and improved outcomes for patients with gliomas.

  2. DNA methylation in adult diffuse gliomas.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Veronique G; Marra, Marco A

    2016-11-01

    Adult diffuse gliomas account for the majority of primary malignant brain tumours, and are in most cases lethal. Current therapies are often only marginally effective, and improved options will almost certainly benefit from further insight into the various processes contributing to gliomagenesis and pathology. While molecular characterization of these tumours classifies them on the basis of genetic alterations and chromosomal abnormalities, DNA methylation patterns are increasingly understood to play a role in glioma pathogenesis. Indeed, a subset of gliomas associated with improved survival is characterized by the glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), which can be induced by the expression of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1/2). Aberrant methylation of particular genes or regulatory elements, within the context of G-CIMP-positive and/or negative tumours, has also been shown to be associated with differential survival. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding the role of DNA methylation in adult diffuse gliomas. In particular, we discuss IDH mutations and G-CIMP, MGMT promoter methylation, DNA methylation-mediated microRNA regulation and aberrant methylation of specific genes or groups of genes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Tissue Proteome Analysis of Different Grades of Human Gliomas Provides Major Cues for Glioma Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gollapalli, Kishore; Ghantasala, Saicharan; Atak, Apurva; Rapole, Srikanth; Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Epari, Sridhar; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2017-05-01

    Gliomas are heterogeneous and most commonly occurring brain tumors. Blood-brain barrier restricts the entry of brain tumor proteins into blood stream thus limiting the usage of serum or plasma for proteomic analysis. Our study aimed at understanding the molecular basis of aggressiveness of various grades of brain tumors using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based mass spectrometry. Tissue proteomic analysis of various grades of gliomas was performed using four-plex iTRAQ. We labeled five sets (each set consists of control, grade-II, III, and IV tumor samples) of individual glioma patients using iTRAQ reagents. Significantly altered proteins were subjected to bioinformatics analysis using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Various metabolic pathways like glycolysis, TCA-cycle, electron transport chain, lactate metabolism, and blood coagulation pathways were majorly observed to be perturbed in gliomas. Most of the identified proteins involved in redox reactions, protein folding, pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) processing, antiapoptosis, and blood coagulation were found to be upregulated in gliomas. Transcriptomics data of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), low-grade gliomas (LGGs), and controls were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data portal and further analyzed using BRB-Array tools. Expression levels of a few significantly altered proteins like lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-1 antitrypsin, fibrinogen alpha chain, nucleophosmin, annexin A5, thioredoxin, ferritin light chain, thymosin beta-4-like protein 3, superoxide dismutase-2, and peroxiredoxin-1 and 6 showed a positive correlation with increasing grade of gliomas thereby offering an insight into molecular basis behind their aggressive nature. Several proteins identified in different grades of gliomas are potential grade-specific markers, and perturbed pathways provide comprehensive overview of molecular cues involved in glioma

  4. Downregulation of miR-130a promotes cell growth and epithelial to mesenchymal transition by activating HMGB2 in glioma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chunhai; Yang, Zhenxiu; Chen, Dongliang; Xie, Qinghai; Peng, Tao; Wu, Jingzhan; Qi, Songtao

    2017-12-01

    Aberrant expression of miR-130a is usually found in cancer studies; however, the role of miR-130a has seldom been reported in glioma. We explored miR-130a's function and the underlying mechanism in glioma. It was found that miR-130a expression was significantly down-regulated in glioma tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-130a decreased glioma cell growth and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. We identified the oncogene HMGB2 as a downstream target of miR-130a by using luciferase and western blot assays. Knockdown of HMGB2 mimicked the effect of miR-130a in glioma cells. Taken together, our study demonstrate that miR-130a may function as a tumor suppressor in glioma and suggest that miR-130a is a potential therapeutic target for glioma patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Novel histone deacetylase inhibitor N25 exerts anti-tumor effects and induces autophagy in human glioma cells by inhibiting HDAC3

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Qu, Yue; Ni, An-Ran; Wang, Gui-Xiang; Huang, Wei-Bin; Chen, Zhong-Ping; Lv, Zhu-Fen; Zhang, Song; Lindsay, Holly; Zhao, Sibo; Li, Xiao-Nan; Feng, Bing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    N25, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, was created through structural modification of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. To evaluate the anti-tumor activity of N25 and clarify its molecular mechanism of inducing autophagy in glioma cells, we investigated its in vitro anti-proliferative effect and in vivo anticancer effect. Moreover, we detected whether N25 induces autophagy in glioma cells by transmission electron microscope and analyzed the protein expression level of HDAC3, Tip60, LC3 in glioma samples by western blot. We additionally analyzed the protein expression level of HDAC3, Tip60, ULK1 (Atg1), and Beclin-1 (Atg6) after treatment with N25 in glioma cells. Our results showed that the anti-tumor activity of N25 in glioma cells is slightly stronger than SAHA both in vitro and in vivo. We found that N25 induced autophagy, and HDAC3 was significantly elevated and Tip60 and LC3 significantly decreased in glioma samples compared with normal brain tissues. Nevertheless, N25 inhibited HDAC3 and up-regulated the protein expression of Tip60, ULK1 (Atg1), and Beclin-1 (Atg6) after treatment of glioma cells with N25. In conclusion, these data suggest that N25 has striking anti-tumor activity in part due to inhibition of HDAC3. Additionally, N25 may induce autophagy through inhibiting HDAC3. PMID:29088860

  6. The role of radiotherapy in the management of patients with diffuse low grade glioma: A systematic review and evidence-based clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    Ryken, Timothy C; Parney, Ian; Buatti, John; Kalkanis, Steven N; Olson, Jeffrey J

    2015-12-01

    gliomas. Level III It is recommended that increasing age, decreasing performance status, decreasing cognition, presence of astrocytic histological component (along with additional relevant factors (see Tables 1, 2) be considered as negative prognostic indicators when predicting response to radiotherapy.

  7. Syndecan-1 knockdown inhibits glioma cell proliferation and invasion by deregulating a c-src/FAK-associated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuang; Zhong, Dong; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Bing; Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Fu'an; Huang, Haoyang

    2017-06-20

    Recent studies have shown that increased syndecan-1 (SDC1) expression in human glioma is associated with higher tumor grades and poor prognoses, but its oncogenic functions and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we examined SDC1 expression in datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus. Elevated SDC1 expression in glioma was closely associated with increases in tumor progression and shorter survival. We also examined SDC1 expression and evaluated the effects of stable SDC1 knockdown in glioma cell lines. SDC1 knockdown attenuated proliferation and invasion by glioma cells and markedly decreased PCNA and MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression. In a xenograft model, SDC1 knockdown suppressed the tumorigenic effects of U87 cells in vivo. SDC1 knockdown decreased phosphorylation of the c-src/FAK complex and its downstream signaling molecules, Erk, Akt and p38 MAPK. These results suggest that SDC1 may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of glioma.

  8. Molecular Alterations of KIT Oncogene in Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ana L.; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Lopes, José M.; Martinho, Olga; Lambros, Maryou B. K.; Martins, Albino; Schmitt, Fernando; Pardal, Fernando; Reis, Rui M.

    2007-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common and devastating primary brain tumours. Despite therapeutic advances, the majority of gliomas do not respond either to chemo or radiotherapy. KIT, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is frequently involved in tumourigenic processes. Currently, KIT constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. In the present study we assessed the frequency of KIT overexpression in gliomas and investigated the genetic mechanisms underlying KIT overexpression. KIT (CD117) immunohistochemistry was performed in a series of 179 gliomas of various grades. KIT activating gene mutations (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and gene amplification analysis, as defined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were performed in CD117 positive cases. Tumour cell immunopositivity was detected in 15.6% (28/179) of cases, namely in 25% (1/4) of pilocytic astrocytomas, 25% (5/20) of diffuse astrocytomas, 20% (1/5) of anaplastic astrocytomas, 19.5% (15/77) of glioblastomas and one third (3/9) of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas. Only 5.7% (2/35) of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas showed CD117 immunoreactivity. No association was found between tumour CD117 overexpression and patient survival. In addition, we also observed CD117 overexpression in endothelial cells, which varied from 0–22.2% of cases, being more frequent in high-grade lesions. No KIT activating mutations were identified. Interestingly, CISH and/or qRT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of KIT gene amplification in 6 glioblastomas and 2 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, corresponding to 33% (8/24) of CD117 positive cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that KIT gene amplification rather than gene mutation is a common genetic mechanism underlying KIT expression in subset of malignant gliomas. Further studies are warranted to determine whether glioma patients exhibiting KIT overexpression and KIT gene amplification may benefit from therapy with anti-KIT RTK inhibitors. PMID

  9. Nitrosoureas in the Management of Malignant Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Brandes, Alba A; Bartolotti, Marco; Tosoni, Alicia; Franceschi, Enrico

    2016-02-01

    Nitrosoureas represent one of the most active classes of agents in the treatment of high-grade gliomas and glioblastoma. In clinical practice, the most commonly used compounds are lomustine (either alone or in combination with procarbazine and vincristine), carmustine, and fotemustine. Given their toxicity profile and subsequent to the introduction of temozolomide in clinical practice, most of these agents were moved to the recurrent setting. This review focuses on the role of the nitrosoureas currently used in clinical practice for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

  10. [Guidelines for the radiotherapy of gliomas].

    PubMed

    Feuvret, L; Antoni, D; Biau, J; Truc, G; Noël, G; Mazeron, J-J

    2016-09-01

    Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumours. Treating these tumours is difficult because of the proximity of organs at risk, infiltrating nature, and radioresistance. Clinical prognostic factors such as age, Karnofsky performance status, tumour location, and treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have long been recognized in the management of patients with gliomas. Molecular biomarkers are increasingly evolving as additional factors that facilitate diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making. These practice guidelines aim at helping in choosing the best treatment, in particular radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [Multidisciplinar approach to the management of gliomas].

    PubMed

    Moura, Bianca; Migliorini, Denis; Bourhis, Jean; Daniel, Roy; Levivier, Marc; Hottinger, Andreas F

    2016-04-27

    Gliomas represent two thirds of all primary brain tumors. Their prognosis depends directly upon their level of differentiation. On MRI, tumoral aggressivity is highlighted by contrast uptake and the infiltrative nature of the lesion. Clinical suspicion must however be confirmed by histology and molecular markers become essential to refine the diagnosis and tailor the treatment. Isocytrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, codeletion of 1p and 19q and the presence of methylation of the MGMT promoter identify a subgroup of gliomas with better prognosis and may help predict response to treatment. Management of patients with primary brain tumors should always be defined in multidisciplinar tumor boards involving neurosurgeons, oncologists, radiation oncologists, neuropathologists and neuroradiologists.

  12. Comprehensive analysis of the functional microRNA–mRNA regulatory network identifies miRNA signatures associated with glioma malignant progression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongsheng; Xu, Juan; Chen, Hong; Bai, Jing; Li, Shengli; Zhao, Zheng; Shao, Tingting; Jiang, Tao; Ren, Huan; Kang, Chunsheng; Li, Xia

    2013-01-01

    Glioma is the most common and fatal primary brain tumour with poor prognosis; however, the functional roles of miRNAs in glioma malignant progression are insufficiently understood. Here, we used an integrated approach to identify miRNA functional targets during glioma malignant progression by combining the paired expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs across 160 Chinese glioma patients, and further constructed the functional miRNA–mRNA regulatory network. As a result, most tumour-suppressive miRNAs in glioma progression were newly discovered, whose functions were widely involved in gliomagenesis. Moreover, three miRNA signatures, with different combinations of hub miRNAs (regulations≥30) were constructed, which could independently predict the survival of patients with all gliomas, high-grade glioma and glioblastoma. Our network-based method increased the ability to identify the prognostic biomarkers, when compared with the traditional method and random conditions. Hsa-miR-524-5p and hsa-miR-628-5p, shared by these three signatures, acted as protective factors and their expression decreased gradually during glioma progression. Functional analysis of these miRNA signatures highlighted their critical roles in cell cycle and cell proliferation in glioblastoma malignant progression, especially hsa-miR-524-5p and hsa-miR-628-5p exhibited dominant regulatory activities. Therefore, network-based biomarkers are expected to be more effective and provide deep insights into the molecular mechanism of glioma malignant progression. PMID:24194606

  13. Zn{sup 2+} induces apoptosis in human highly metastatic SHG-44 glioma cells, through inhibiting activity of the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifan; Zhang, Shangrong; Li, Shu Jie, E-mail: shujieli@nankai.edu.cn

    Highlights: •Hv1 is expressed in highly metastatic glioma cell. •Zn{sup 2+} ions induces apoptosis in highly metastatic glioma cells. •Zn{sup 2+} ions markedly inhibit proton secretion. •Zn{sup 2+} ions reduce the gelatinase activity. •Inhibition of Hv1 activity via Zn{sup 2+} ions can effectively retard the cancer growth. -- Abstract: In contrast to the voltage-gated K{sup +} channels, the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 contains a voltage-sensor domain but lacks a pore domain. Here, we showed that Hv1 is expressed in the highly metastatic glioma cell SHG-44, but lowly in the poorly metastatic glioma cell U-251. Inhibition of Hv1 activity by 140more » μM zinc chloride induces apoptosis in the human highly metastatic glioma cells. Zn{sup 2+} ions markedly inhibit proton secretion, and reduce the gelatinase activity in the highly metastatic glioma cells. In vivo, the glioma tumor sizes of the implantation of the SHG-44 xenografts in nude mice that were injected zinc chloride solution, were dramatically smaller than that in the controlled groups. The results demonstrated that the inhibition of Hv1 activity via Zn{sup 2+} ions can effectively retard the cancer growth and suppress the cancer metastasis by the decrease of proton extrusion and the down-regulation of gelatinase activity. Our results suggest that Zn{sup 2+} ions may be used as a potential anti-glioma drug for glioma therapy.« less

  14. Dynamic 18F-FET PET in newly diagnosed astrocytic low-grade glioma identifies high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Nathalie L; Suchorska, Bogdana; Wenter, Vera; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Schmid-Tannwald, Christine; Zwergal, Andreas; Niyazi, Maximilian; Drexler, Mark; Bartenstein, Peter; Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Thon, Niklas; Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm; la Fougère, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Because the clinical course of low-grade gliomas in the individual adult patient varies considerably and is unpredictable, we investigated the prognostic value of dynamic (18)F-fluorethyltyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET in the early diagnosis of astrocytic low-grade glioma (World Health Organization grade II). Fifty-nine patients with newly diagnosed low-grade glioma and dynamic (18)F-FET PET before histopathologic assessment were retrospectively investigated. (18)F-FET PET analysis comprised a qualitative visual classification of lesions; assessment of the semiquantitative parameters maximal, mean, and total standardized uptake value as ratio to background and biologic tumor volume; and dynamic analysis of intratumoral (18)F-FET uptake over time (increasing vs. decreasing time-activity curves). The correlation between PET parameters and progression-free survival, overall survival, and time to malignant transformation was investigated. (18)F-FET uptake greater than the background level was found in 34 of 59 tumors. Dynamic (18)F-FET uptake analysis was available for 30 of these 34 patients. Increasing and decreasing time-activity curves were found in 18 and 12 patients, respectively. Neither the qualitative factor presence or absence of (18)F-FET uptake nor any of the semiquantitative uptake parameters significantly influenced clinical outcome. In contrast, decreasing time-activity curves in the kinetic analysis were highly prognostic for shorter progression-free survival and time to malignant transformation (P < 0.001). Absence of (18)F-FET uptake in newly diagnosed astrocytic low-grade glioma does not generally indicate an indolent disease course. Among the (18)F-FET-positive gliomas, decreasing time-activity curves in dynamic (18)F-FET PET constitute an unfavorable prognostic factor in astrocytic low-grade glioma and, by identifying high-risk patients, may ease treatment decisions.

  15. Metabolic remodeling of malignant gliomas for enhanced sensitization during radiotherapy: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Colen, Chaim B; Seraji-Bozorgzad, Navid; Marples, Brian; Galloway, Matthew P; Sloan, Andrew E; Mathupala, Saroj P

    2006-12-01

    To investigate a novel method to enhance radiosensitivity of gliomas via modification of metabolite flux immediately before radiotherapy. Malignant gliomas are highly glycolytic and produce copious amounts of lactic acid, which is effluxed to the tumor microenvironment via lactate transporters. We hypothesized that inhibition of lactic acid efflux would alter glioma metabolite profiles, including those that are radioprotective. H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to quantify key metabolites, including those most effective for induction of low-dose radiation-induced cell death. We inhibited lactate transport in U87-MG gliomas with alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (ACCA). Flow cytometry was used to assess induction of cell death in treated cells. Cells were analyzed by MRS after ACCA treatment. Control and treated cells were subjected to low-dose irradiation, and the surviving fractions of cells were determined by clonogenic assays. MRS revealed changes to intracellular lactate on treatment with ACCA. Significant decreases in the metabolites taurine, glutamate, glutathione, alanine, and glycine were observed, along with inversion of the choline/phosphocholine profile. On exposure to low-dose radiation, ACCA-pretreated U-87MG cells underwent rapid morphological changes, which were followed by apoptotic cell death. Inhibition of lactate efflux in malignant gliomas results in alterations of glycolytic metabolism, including decreased levels of the antioxidants taurine and glutathione and enhanced radiosensitivity of ACCA-treated cells. Thus, in situ application of lactate transport inhibitors such as ACCA as a novel adjunctive therapeutic strategy against glial tumors may greatly enhance the level of radiation-induced cell killing during a combined radio- and chemotherapeutic regimen.

  16. GANT61, a GLI inhibitor, sensitizes glioma cells to the temozolomide treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianlong; Cai, Jinquan; Zhao, Shihong; Yao, Kun; Sun, Ying; Li, Yongli; Chen, Lingchao; Li, Ruiyan; Zhai, Xiuwei; Zhang, Junhe; Jiang, Chuanlu

    2016-11-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of downregulating Hedgehog pathway by GANT61 on human glioma cells, examine the consequent changes of temozolomide (TMZ)-induced effects and explore the molecular mechanisms. The cytotoxicity of a Gli1/2 inhibitor, GANT61 was examined both alone and in combination with TMZ in human glioma cell lines. The mRNA and protein expression alterations were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. CCK-8 assay detected the cell proliferative capability. Apoptotic cell number was measured by flow cytometry. The transwell assay was used to test the cell invasive capability. DNA damage effect was identified by COMET assay and γH2AX expression. Proliferation of tumor cells treated with GANT61 in combination with TMZ was significantly suppressed compared with those treated with either drug used alone. The combination treatment induced a higher rate of apoptosis, DNA damage and reduced the invasive capability of glioma cells. DNA damage repair enzyme MGMT and the Notch1 pathway increased in the cells treated by TMZ treatment. However, GANT61 could abrogated the protein increasing. GANT61 sensitizes glioma cells to TMZ treatment by enhancing DNA damage effect, decreasing MGMT expression and the Notch1 pathway.

  17. Glioma targeting and blood-brain barrier penetration by dual-targeting doxorubincin liposomes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian-Qing; Lv, Qing; Li, Li-Ming; Tang, Xin-Jiang; Li, Fan-Zhu; Hu, Yu-Lan; Han, Min

    2013-07-01

    Effective chemotherapy for glioblastoma requires a carrier that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequently target the glioma cells. Dual-targeting doxorubincin (Dox) liposomes were produced by conjugating liposomes with both folate (F) and transferrin (Tf), which were proven effective in penetrating the BBB and targeting tumors, respectively. The liposome was characterized by particle size, Dox entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release profile. Drug accumulation in cells, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression, and drug transport across the BBB in the dual-targeting liposome group were examined by using bEnd3 BBB models. In vivo studies demonstrated that the dual-targeting Dox liposomes could transport across the BBB and mainly distribute in the brain glioma. The anti-tumor effect of the dual-targeting liposome was also demonstrated by the increased survival time, decreased tumor volume, and results of both hematoxylin-eosin staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling analysis. The dual-targeting Dox liposome could improve the therapeutic efficacy of brain glioma and were less toxic than the Dox solution, showing a dual-targeting effect. These results indicate that this dual-targeting liposome can be used as a potential carrier for glioma chemotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. RasGRP3 regulates the migration of glioma cells via interaction with Arp3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae Kyung; Finniss, Susan; Cazacu, Simona; Xiang, Cunli; Poisson, Laila M.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Brodie, Chaya

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumors, are highly infiltrative. Although GBM express high Ras activity and Ras proteins have been implicated in gliomagenesis, Ras-activating mutations are not frequent in these tumors. RasGRP3, an important signaling protein responsive to diacylglycerol (DAG), increases Ras activation. Here, we examined the expression and functions of RasGRP3 in GBM and glioma cells. RasGRP3 expression was upregulated in GBM specimens and glioma stem cells compared with normal brains and neural stem cells, respectively. RasGRP3 activated Ras and Rap1 in glioma cells and increased cell migration and invasion partially via Ras activation. Using pull-down assay and mass spectroscopy we identified the actin-related protein, Arp3, as a novel interacting protein of RasGRP3. The interaction of RasGRP3 and Arp3 was validated by immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation, and PMA, which activates RasGRP3 and induces its translocation to the peri-nuclear region, increased the association of Arp3 and RasGRP3. Arp3 was upregulated in GBM, regulated cell spreading and migration and its silencing partially decreased these effects of RasGRP3 in glioma cells. In summary, RasGRP3 acts as an important integrating signaling protein of the DAG and Ras signaling pathways and actin polymerization and represents an important therapeutic target in GBM. PMID:25682201

  19. Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption, Sodium Fluorescein, And Fluorescence-Guided Surgery Of Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Peng; Zhao, Jian-Nong; Huang, Guo-Hao; Tang, Jun-Hai; Chen, Huan-Ran; Du, Lei; Zhang, Dong; Tang, Xue-Feng; Yang, Hui; Lv, Sheng-Qing

    2018-01-22

    Sodium fluorescein (SF) is an ideal dye for intraoperative guided-resection of high-grade gliomas (HGGs). However, it is not well understood whether the SF-guided technique is suitable for different grades of gliomas, and the correlation between fluorescence and pathology is also not yet clear. In this study, we investigated 28 patients, including 23 patients with HGG and 5 patients with low-grade glioma (LGG). All patients were treated using the SF-guided technique on a Pentero 900 microscope (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany). Claudin-5 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for the tumours and peritumour tissues was analyzed. Intraoperative yellow fluorescence was noted in all the HGGs but not in the LGGs. Claudin-5 expression in the blood brain barrier endothelial cells was downregulated and disconnected in the HGGs (p < 0.05), but had no difference or slightly decreased in the LGGs (p > 0.05). The SF-guided technique is suitable for HGG surgery but not for LGG surgery. Downregulation of claudin-5 expression may contribute to the presence of yellow fluorescence in the glioma in SF-guided surgery.

  20. IDH1 R132H mutation generates a distinct phospholipid metabolite profile in glioma.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Morteza; Hamans, Bob C; Navis, Anna C; van Horssen, Remco; Bathen, Tone F; Gribbestad, Ingrid S; Leenders, William P; Heerschap, Arend

    2014-09-01

    Many patients with glioma harbor specific mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene IDH1 that associate with a relatively better prognosis. IDH1-mutated tumors produce the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate. Because IDH1 also regulates several pathways leading to lipid synthesis, we hypothesized that IDH1-mutant tumors have an altered phospholipid metabolite profile that would impinge on tumor pathobiology. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed (31)P-MRS imaging in mouse xenograft models of four human gliomas, one of which harbored the IDH1-R132H mutation. (31)P-MR spectra from the IDH1-mutant tumor displayed a pattern distinct from that of the three IDH1 wild-type tumors, characterized by decreased levels of phosphoethanolamine and increased levels of glycerophosphocholine. This spectral profile was confirmed by ex vivo analysis of tumor extracts, and it was also observed in human surgical biopsies of IDH1-mutated tumors by (31)P high-resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy. The specificity of this profile for the IDH1-R132H mutation was established by in vitro (31)P-NMR of extracts of cells overexpressing IDH1 or IDH1-R132H. Overall, our results provide evidence that the IDH1-R132H mutation alters phospholipid metabolism in gliomas involving phosphoethanolamine and glycerophosphocholine. These new noninvasive biomarkers can assist in the identification of the mutation and in research toward novel treatments that target aberrant metabolism in IDH1-mutant glioma. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Overexpression of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant proteins renders glioma cells more sensitive to radiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Sichen; Chou, Arthur P; Chen, Weidong; Chen, Ruihuan; Deng, Yuzhong; Phillips, Heidi S; Selfridge, Julia; Zurayk, Mira; Lou, Jerry J; Everson, Richard G; Wu, Kuan-Chung; Faull, Kym F; Cloughesy, Timothy; Liau, Linda M; Lai, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or 2 (IDH2) are found in a subset of gliomas. Among the many phenotypic differences between mutant and wild-type IDH1/2 gliomas, the most salient is that IDH1/2 mutant glioma patients demonstrate markedly improved survival compared with IDH1/2 wild-type glioma patients. To address the mechanism underlying the superior clinical outcome of IDH1/2 mutant glioma patients, we investigated whether overexpression of the IDH1(R132H) protein could affect response to therapy in the context of an isogenic glioma cell background. Stable clonal U87MG and U373MG cell lines overexpressing IDH1(WT) and IDH1(R132H) were generated, as well as U87MG cell lines overexpressing IDH2(WT) and IDH2(R172K). In vitro experiments were conducted to characterize baseline growth and migration and response to radiation and temozolomide. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured under various conditions. U87MG-IDH1(R132H) cells, U373MG-IDH1(R132H) cells, and U87MG-IDH2(R172K) cells demonstrated increased sensitivity to radiation but not to temozolomide. Radiosensitization of U87MG-IDH1(R132H) cells was accompanied by increased apoptosis and accentuated ROS generation, and this effect was abrogated by the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Interestingly, U87MG-IDH1(R132H) cells also displayed decreased growth at higher cell density and in soft agar, as well as decreased migration. Overexpression of IDH1(R132H) and IDH2(R172K) mutant protein in glioblastoma cells resulted in increased radiation sensitivity and altered ROS metabolism and suppression of growth and migration in vitro. These findings provide insight into possible mechanisms contributing to the improved outcomes observed in patients with IDH1/2 mutant gliomas.

  2. The RTEL1 rs6010620 polymorphism and glioma risk: a meta-analysis based on 12 case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Du, Shu-Li; Geng, Ting-Ting; Feng, Tian; Chen, Cui-Ping; Jin, Tian-Bo; Chen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The association between the RTEL1 rs6010620 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and glioma risk has been extensively studied. However, the results remain inconclusive. To further examine this association, we performed a meta-analysis. A computerized search of the PubMed and Embase databases for publications regarding the RTEL1 rs6010620 polymorphism and glioma cancer risk was performed. Genotype data were analyzed in a meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association. Sensitivity analyses, tests of heterogeneity, cumulative meta-analyses, and assessments of bias were performed in our meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis confirmed that risk with allele A is lower than with allele G for glioma. The A allele of rs6010620 in RTEL1 decreased the risk of developing glioma in the 12 case-control studies for all genetic models: the allele model (OR=0.752, 95%CI: 0.715-0.792), the dominant model (OR=0.729, 95%CI: 0.685-0.776), the recessive model (OR=0.647, 95%CI: 0.569-0.734), the homozygote comparison (OR=0.528, 95%CI: 0.456-0.612), and the heterozygote comparison (OR=0.761, 95%CI: 0.713-0.812). In all genetic models, the association between the RTEL1 rs6010620 polymorphism and glioma risk was significant. This meta-analysis suggests that the RTEL1 rs6010620 polymorphism may be a risk factor for glioma. Further functional studies evaluating this polymorphism and glioma risk are warranted.

  3. Arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Maimaitili, Aisha; Shu, Zunhua; Cheng, Xiaojiang; Kaheerman, Kadeer; Sikandeer, Alifu; Li, Weimin

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticancer potential of arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, in malignant gliomas. The U87MG and T98G human glioma cell lines were treated with various concentrations of arctigenin for 48 h and the effects of arctigenin on the aggressive phenotypes of glioma cells were assessed. The results demonstrated that arctigenin dose-dependently inhibited the growth of U87MG and T98G cells, as determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays. Arctigenin exposure also induced a 60-75% reduction in colony formation compared with vehicle-treated control cells. However, arctigenin was not observed to affect the invasiveness of glioma cells. Arctigenin significantly increased the proportion of cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase and reduced the number of cells in the S phase, as compared with the control group (P<0.05). Western blot analysis demonstrated that arctigenin increased the expression levels of p21, retinoblastoma and p53 proteins, and significantly decreased the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 proteins. Additionally, arctigenin was able to induce apoptosis in glioma cells, coupled with increased expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 and the pro-apoptotic BCL2-associated X protein. Furthermore, arctigenin-induced apoptosis was significantly suppressed by the pretreatment of cells with Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor. In conclusion, the results suggest that arctigenin is able to inhibit cell proliferation and may induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G 0 /G 1 phase in glioma cells. These results warrant further investigation of the anticancer effects of arctigenin in animal models of gliomas.

  4. Arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Maimaitili, Aisha; Shu, Zunhua; Cheng, Xiaojiang; Kaheerman, Kadeer; Sikandeer, Alifu; Li, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticancer potential of arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, in malignant gliomas. The U87MG and T98G human glioma cell lines were treated with various concentrations of arctigenin for 48 h and the effects of arctigenin on the aggressive phenotypes of glioma cells were assessed. The results demonstrated that arctigenin dose-dependently inhibited the growth of U87MG and T98G cells, as determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays. Arctigenin exposure also induced a 60–75% reduction in colony formation compared with vehicle-treated control cells. However, arctigenin was not observed to affect the invasiveness of glioma cells. Arctigenin significantly increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase and reduced the number of cells in the S phase, as compared with the control group (P<0.05). Western blot analysis demonstrated that arctigenin increased the expression levels of p21, retinoblastoma and p53 proteins, and significantly decreased the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 proteins. Additionally, arctigenin was able to induce apoptosis in glioma cells, coupled with increased expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 and the pro-apoptotic BCL2-associated X protein. Furthermore, arctigenin-induced apoptosis was significantly suppressed by the pretreatment of cells with Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor. In conclusion, the results suggest that arctigenin is able to inhibit cell proliferation and may induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in glioma cells. These results warrant further investigation of the anticancer effects of arctigenin in animal models of gliomas. PMID:28356992

  5. Revealing the potential pathogenesis of glioma by utilizing a glioma associated protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weiran; Li, Gang; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Miao, Jinming

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to explore the potential mechanism of glioma through bioinformatic approaches. The gene expression profile (GSE4290) of glioma tumor and non-tumor samples was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 180 samples were available, including 23 non-tumor and 157 tumor samples. Then the raw data were preprocessed using robust multiarray analysis, and 8,890 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by using t-test (false discovery rate < 0.0005). Furthermore, 16 known glioma related genes were abstracted from Genetic Association Database. After mapping 8,890 DEGs and 16 known glioma related genes to Human Protein Reference Database, a glioma associated protein-protein interaction network (GAPN) was constructed. In addition, 51 sub-networks in GAPN were screened out through Molecular Complex Detection (score ≥ 1), and sub-network 1 was found to have the closest interaction (score = 3). What' more, for the top 10 sub-networks, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis (p value < 0.05) was performed, and DEGs involved in sub-network 1 and 2, such as BRMS1L and CCNA1, were predicted to regulate cell growth, cell cycle, and DNA replication via interacting with known glioma related genes. Finally, the overlaps of DEGs and human essential, housekeeping, tissue-specific genes were calculated (p value = 1.0, 1.0, and 0.00014, respectively) and visualized by Venn Diagram package in R. About 61% of human tissue-specific genes were DEGs as well. This research shed new light on the pathogenesis of glioma based on DEGs and GAPN, and our findings might provide potential targets for clinical glioma treatment.

  6. Products of cells from gliomas: VIII. Multiple-well immunoperoxidase assay of immunoreactivity of primary hybridoma supernatants with human glioma and brain tissue and cultured glioma cells.

    PubMed

    McKeever, P E; Wahl, R L; Shakui, P; Jackson, G A; Letica, L H; Liebert, M; Taren, J A; Beierwaltes, W H; Hoff, J T

    1990-06-01

    To test the feasibility of primary screening of hybridoma supernatants against human glioma tissue, over 5000 combinations of hybridoma supernatants with glioma tissue, cultured glioma cells, and normal central neural tissue were screened with a new multiple-well (M-well) screening system. This is an immunoperoxidase assay system with visual endpoints for screening 20-30 hybridoma supernatants per single microscope slide. There were extensive differences between specificities to tissue and to cultured glioma cells when both were screened with M-wells and when cultured cells were screened with standard semi-automated fluorescence. Primary M-well screening with glioma tissue detected seven hybridoma supernatants that specifically identified parenchymal cells of glioma tissue and that were not detected with cultured cells. Immunoreactivities of individual supernatants for vascular components (nine supernatants), necrosis (five supernatants), and nuclei (three supernatants) were detected. Other supernatants bound multiple sites on glioma tissue and/or subpopulations of neurons and glia of normal tissue. The results show that primary screening with glioma tissue detects a number of different specificities of hybridoma supernatants to gliomas not detected by conventional screening with cultured cells. These are potentially applicable to diagnosis and therapy.

  7. Decreased Libido

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Decreased Libido Editors Bradley Anawalt, MD Maria Yialamas, MD Additional Resources: Mayo Clinic NIDDK MedlinePlus What is libido? Libido is the desire to engage in sexual ...

  8. Appetite - decreased

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...

  9. Spontaneous complete regression of a brain stem glioma pathologically diagnosed as a high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Kazumi; Miwa, Hideaki; Nishi, Masaya

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous regressions of brain stem gliomas are extremely rare. Only six cases have been reported in the literature. We describe the case of a patient who was diagnosed with a pontomedullary dorsal brain stem glioma at the age of 15 years. An open biopsy showed the presence of an anaplastic glioma. Because the patient and her parents refused conventional therapies, including radiation and chemotherapy, we followed up the patient by performing magnetic resonance imaging scans on her every 3 months. At 3 months after biopsy, we observed the radiological disappearance of her tumor. One year after biopsy, the tumor retained the spontaneous complete regression observed earlier. In this case report, we present the first report of the spontaneous complete regression of a brain stem glioma that was histologically proven to be a high-grade glioma and we believe that this regression was the natural progression of this case, as may be the scenario in a few other cases of brain stem gliomas.

  10. Photodynamic therapy of supratentorial gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Paul J.; Wilson, Brian C.

    1997-05-01

    We are reporting the results form intraoperative intracavitary PDT treatment in 56 patients with recurrent supratentorial gliomas who had failed previous surgery and radiotherapy. These patients received 2mg/kg Photofin iv. 12-36 hours prior to surgical resection of their tumor or tumor cyst drainage. The median survival times in weeks for glioblastoma (GBM), malignant astrocytoma (MA), malignant mixed astrocytoma-oligodendroglioma and ependymoma were 30, 40, >56 and >174 weeks, respectively. Eight patients with recurrent GBM who received >60 J/cm2 had a median survival of 58 weeks and 24 patients who received <60 J/cm2 survived 29 weeks. The survival of patients with recurrent glioblastoma who undergo surgical treatment alone is only 20 weeks. We are also reporting the results of PDT treatment in 20 patients with newly diagnosed MA or GBM treated with intracavitary Photofin-PDT at the time of their initial craniotomy. The median survival of the whole cohort was 44 weeks with a 1 and 2 year survival of 40 percent and 15 percent, respectively. The median survival of patients with GBM was 37 weeks with a 1 and 2 year actuarial survival of 35 percent and 0 percent, respectively. The median survival of patients with MA as 48 weeks with a 1 and 2 year actuarial survival of 44 percent and 33 percent, respectively. Six patients with a Karnofsky score of >70 who received a light dose of >1260J had a median survival of 92 weeks with a 1 and 2 year survival of 83 percent and 33 percent, respectively. The mortality rate in our total series of 93 PDT treatments or brain tumor is 3 percent. The combined serious mortality-morbidity rate is 8 percent.

  11. Long non-coding RNA SNHG6 promotes glioma tumorigenesis by sponging miR-101-3p.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qiang; Yang, Bao-Ying; Liu, Bei; Yang, Ji-Xue; Sun, Yang

    2018-05-01

    Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor. The small nucleolar RNA host gene (SNHG) SNHG6 is a potential oncogene in the development of several types of cancers. In this study, we investigated the functional role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) SNHG6 in the malignancy of glioma in cell lines and transplanted nude mice. We found that the expression of lncRNA SNHG6 was higher in glioma tissues and cells than in normal brain tissues and cells. The expression of lncRNA SNHG6 was positively correlated with the malignancy and poor prognosis of glioma patients. microRNA (miR)-101-3p expression was decreased in glioma tissues and cells and was negatively correlated with the malignancy and poor prognosis of glioma patients. In glioma tissues, the expression of lncRNA SNHG6 was negatively correlated with the expression of miR-101-3p. SNHG6 contained a binding site of miR-101-3p. Knockdown of SNHG6 expression resulted in a significant increase of miR-101-3p expression. miR-101-3p mimic markedly decreased the luciferase activity of SNHG6. Knockdown of SNHG6 inhibited glioma cell proliferation, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and increased apoptosis. miR-101-3p mimic enhanced knockdown of SNHG6-induced inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and EMT, and an increase of apoptosis. Anti-miR-101-3p reversed the the effects of si-SNHG6 on cell malignancy. Knockdown of SNHG6 remarkably reduced the increase of tumor volumes in xenograft mouse models. In tumor tissues, knockdown of SNHG6 increased the expression of miR-101-3p and reduced EMT biomarker expression. Our study provides novel insights into the functions of lncRNA SNHG6/miR-101-3p axis in the tumorigenesis of glioma.

  12. Exosomes from Glioma-Associated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Increase the Tumorigenicity of Glioma Stem-like Cells via Transfer of miR-1587.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Javier; Phillips, Lynette M; Shahar, Tal; Hossain, Anwar; Gumin, Joy; Kim, Hoon; Bean, Andrew J; Calin, George A; Fueyo, Juan; Walters, Edgar T; Kalluri, Raghu; Verhaak, Roel G; Lang, Frederick F

    2017-11-01

    Tumor-stromal communications impact tumorigenesis in ways that are incompletely understood. Here, we show that glioma-associated human mesenchymal stem cells (GA-hMSC), a newly identified stromal component of glioblastoma, release exosomes that increase the proliferation and clonogenicity of tumor-initiating glioma stem-like cells (GSC). This event leads to a significantly greater tumor burden and decreased host survival compared with untreated GSCs in orthotopic xenografts. Analysis of the exosomal content identified miR-1587 as a mediator of the exosomal effects on GSCs, in part via downregulation of the tumor-suppressive nuclear receptor corepressor NCOR1. Our results illuminate the tumor-supporting role for GA-hMSCs by identifying GA-hMSC-derived exosomes in the intercellular transfer of specific miRNA that enhance the aggressiveness of glioblastoma. Cancer Res; 77(21); 5808-19. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Gliomas and exposure to wood preservatives.

    PubMed Central

    Cordier, S; Poisson, M; Gerin, M; Varin, J; Conso, F; Hemon, D

    1988-01-01

    A case-referent study was undertaken to look for occupational risk factors among patients with glioma treated in a neurological hospital in Paris between 1975 and 1984. In the study group were 125 men with gliomas (aged less than or equal to 65) and 238 patients (also less than or equal to 65) admitted for non-neoplastic, non-malformative vascular diseases in the same department during the same period constituting the reference group. All diagnoses were confirmed by tomodensitometry. Information on occupational history was obtained from a postal questionnaire and from medical records. Comparison of cases and referents showed a significant excess risk among teachers (OR = 4.1) and a raised risk among wood workers (OR = 1.6). Four of nine cases of glioma who had been employed as wood workers reported that a colleague had suffered from glioma (those reports were confirmed by hospital records). None were reported among 11 referent wood workers. Using a complementary questionnaire on wood work, exposure assessment to wood preservatives and solvents showed that frequent exposure to organochlorine wood preservatives and to organic solvents occurred more often among cases than referent wood workers (p less than 0.10). PMID:3196664

  14. Veliparib, Radiation Therapy, and Temozolomide in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Pontine Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-30

    Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Brain Stem Glioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma

  15. Why one-size-fits-all vaso-modulatory interventions fail to control glioma invasion: in silico insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, J. C. L.; Köhn-Luque, A.; Stylianopoulos, T.; Feuerhake, F.; Deutsch, A.; Hatzikirou, H.

    2016-11-01

    Gliomas are highly invasive brain tumours characterised by poor prognosis and limited response to therapy. There is an ongoing debate on the therapeutic potential of vaso-modulatory interventions against glioma invasion. Prominent vasculature-targeting therapies involve tumour blood vessel deterioration and normalisation. The former aims at tumour infarction and nutrient deprivation induced by blood vessel occlusion/collapse. In contrast, the therapeutic intention of normalising the abnormal tumour vasculature is to improve the efficacy of conventional treatment modalities. Although these strategies have shown therapeutic potential, it remains unclear why they both often fail to control glioma growth. To shed some light on this issue, we propose a mathematical model based on the migration/proliferation dichotomy of glioma cells in order to investigate why vaso-modulatory interventions have shown limited success in terms of tumour clearance. We found the existence of a critical cell proliferation/diffusion ratio that separates glioma responses to vaso-modulatory interventions into two distinct regimes. While for tumours, belonging to one regime, vascular modulations reduce the front speed and increase the infiltration width, for those in the other regime, the invasion speed increases and infiltration width decreases. We discuss how these in silico findings can be used to guide individualised vaso-modulatory approaches to improve treatment success rates.

  16. Why one-size-fits-all vaso-modulatory interventions fail to control glioma invasion: in silico insights.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, J C L; Köhn-Luque, A; Stylianopoulos, T; Feuerhake, F; Deutsch, A; Hatzikirou, H

    2016-11-23

    Gliomas are highly invasive brain tumours characterised by poor prognosis and limited response to therapy. There is an ongoing debate on the therapeutic potential of vaso-modulatory interventions against glioma invasion. Prominent vasculature-targeting therapies involve tumour blood vessel deterioration and normalisation. The former aims at tumour infarction and nutrient deprivation induced by blood vessel occlusion/collapse. In contrast, the therapeutic intention of normalising the abnormal tumour vasculature is to improve the efficacy of conventional treatment modalities. Although these strategies have shown therapeutic potential, it remains unclear why they both often fail to control glioma growth. To shed some light on this issue, we propose a mathematical model based on the migration/proliferation dichotomy of glioma cells in order to investigate why vaso-modulatory interventions have shown limited success in terms of tumour clearance. We found the existence of a critical cell proliferation/diffusion ratio that separates glioma responses to vaso-modulatory interventions into two distinct regimes. While for tumours, belonging to one regime, vascular modulations reduce the front speed and increase the infiltration width, for those in the other regime, the invasion speed increases and infiltration width decreases. We discuss how these in silico findings can be used to guide individualised vaso-modulatory approaches to improve treatment success rates.

  17. RTVP-1 promotes mesenchymal transformation of glioma via a STAT-3/IL-6-dependent positive feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Giladi, Nis David; Ziv-Av, Amotz; Lee, Hae Kyung; Finniss, Susan; Cazacu, Simona; Xiang, Cunli; Ben-Asher, Hiba Waldman; deCarvalho, Ana; Mikkelsen, Tom; Poisson, Laila; Brodie, Chaya

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs), the most aggressive primary brain tumors, exhibit increased invasiveness and resistance to anti-tumor treatments. We explored the role of RTVP-1, a glioma-associated protein that promotes glioma cell migration, in the mesenchymal transformation of GBM. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) demonstrated that RTVP-1 expression was higher in mesenchymal GBM and predicted tumor recurrence and poor clinical outcome. ChiP analysis revealed that the RTVP-1 promoter binds STAT3 and C/EBPβ, two master transcription factors that regulate mesenchymal transformation of GBM. In addition, IL-6 induced RTVP-1 expression in a STAT3-dependent manner. RTVP-1 increased the migration and mesenchymal transformation of glioma cells. Similarly, overexpression of RTVP-1 in human neural stem cells induced mesenchymal differentiation, whereas silencing of RTVP-1 in glioma stem cells (GSCs) decreased the mesenchymal transformation and stemness of these cells. Silencing of RTVP-1 also increased the survival of mice bearing GSC-derived xenografts. Using gene array analysis of RTVP-1 silenced glioma cells we identified IL-6 as a mediator of RTVP-1 effects on the mesenchymal transformation and migration of GSCs, therefore acting in a positive feedback loop by upregulating RTVP-1 expression via the STAT3 pathway. Collectively, these results implicate RTVP-1 as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target in GBM. PMID:26267319

  18. Economics of Malignant Gliomas: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Raizer, Jeffrey J.; Fitzner, Karen A.; Jacobs, Daniel I.; Bennett, Charles L.; Liebling, Dustin B.; Luu, Thanh Ha; Trifilio, Steven M.; Grimm, Sean A.; Fisher, Matthew J.; Haleem, Meraaj S.; Ray, Paul S.; McKoy, Judith M.; DeBoer, Rebecca; Tulas, Katrina-Marie E.; Deeb, Mohammed; McKoy, June M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 18,500 persons are diagnosed with malignant glioma in the United States annually. Few studies have investigated the comprehensive economic costs. We reviewed the literature to examine costs to patients with malignant glioma and their families, payers, and society. Methods: A total of 18 fully extracted studies were included. Data were collected on direct and indirect costs, and cost estimates were converted to US dollars using the conversion rate calculated from the study's publication date, and updated to 2011 values after adjustment for inflation. A standardized data abstraction form was used. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results: Before approval of effective chemotherapeutic agents for malignant gliomas, estimated total direct medical costs in the United States for surgery and radiation therapy per patient ranged from $50,600 to $92,700. The addition of temozolomide (TMZ) and bevacizumab to glioblastoma treatment regimens has resulted in increased overall costs for glioma care. Although health care costs are now less front-loaded, they have increased over the course of illness. Analysis using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year suggests that the benefits of TMZ fall on the edge of acceptable therapies. Furthermore, indirect medical costs, such as productivity losses, are not trivial. Conclusion: With increased chemotherapy use for malignant glioma, the paradigm for treatment and associated out-of-pocket and total medical costs continue to evolve. Larger out-of-pocket costs may influence the choice of chemotherapeutic agents, the economic implications of which should be evaluated prospectively. PMID:25466707

  19. Economics of Malignant Gliomas: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Raizer, Jeffrey J; Fitzner, Karen A; Jacobs, Daniel I; Bennett, Charles L; Liebling, Dustin B; Luu, Thanh Ha; Trifilio, Steven M; Grimm, Sean A; Fisher, Matthew J; Haleem, Meraaj S; Ray, Paul S; McKoy, Judith M; DeBoer, Rebecca; Tulas, Katrina-Marie E; Deeb, Mohammed; McKoy, June M

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 18,500 persons are diagnosed with malignant glioma in the United States annually. Few studies have investigated the comprehensive economic costs. We reviewed the literature to examine costs to patients with malignant glioma and their families, payers, and society. A total of 18 fully extracted studies were included. Data were collected on direct and indirect costs, and cost estimates were converted to US dollars using the conversion rate calculated from the study's publication date, and updated to 2011 values after adjustment for inflation. A standardized data abstraction form was used. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Before approval of effective chemotherapeutic agents for malignant gliomas, estimated total direct medical costs in the United States for surgery and radiation therapy per patient ranged from $50,600 to $92,700. The addition of temozolomide (TMZ) and bevacizumab to glioblastoma treatment regimens has resulted in increased overall costs for glioma care. Although health care costs are now less front-loaded, they have increased over the course of illness. Analysis using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year suggests that the benefits of TMZ fall on the edge of acceptable therapies. Furthermore, indirect medical costs, such as productivity losses, are not trivial. With increased chemotherapy use for malignant glioma, the paradigm for treatment and associated out-of-pocket and total medical costs continue to evolve. Larger out-of-pocket costs may influence the choice of chemotherapeutic agents, the economic implications of which should be evaluated prospectively. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. Metabolic Remodeling Precedes Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Permeabilization in Human Glioma Xenograft Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ponnala, Shivani; Chetty, Chandramu; Veeravalli, Krishna Kumar; Dinh, Dzung H.; Klopfenstein, Jeffrey D.; Rao, Jasti S.

    2011-01-01

    Glioma cancer cells adapt to changing microenvironment and shift from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis for their metabolic needs irrespective of oxygen availability. In the present study, we show that silencing MMP-9 in combination with uPAR/cathepsin B switch glioma cells glycolytic metabolism to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to predispose glioma cells to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. shRNA for MMP-9 and uPAR (pMU) as well as shRNA for MMP-9 and cathepsin B (pMC) activated complexes of mitochondria involved in OXPHOS and inhibited glycolytic hexokinase expression. The decreased interaction of hexokinase 2 with mitochondria in the treated cells indicated the inhibition of glycolysis activation. Overexpression of Akt reversed the pMU- and pMC-mediated glycolysis to OXPHOS switch. OXPHOS un-coupler oligomycin A altered the expression levels of the Bcl-2 family of proteins; treatment with pMU or pMC reversed this effect and induced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. In addition, our results show changes in mitochondrial pore transition to release cytochrome c due to change in the VDAC-Bcl-XL and BAX-BAK interaction with pMU and pMC treatments. Taken together, our results suggest that pMU and pMC treatments switch glioma cells from glycolytic to OXPHOS pathway through an inhibitory effect on Akt, ROS induction, and an increase of cytosolic cytochrome c accumulation. These results demonstrate the potential of pMU and pMC as therapeutic candidates for treatment of glioma. PMID:22076676

  1. Metabolic remodeling precedes mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in human glioma xenograft cells.

    PubMed

    Ponnala, Shivani; Chetty, Chandramu; Veeravalli, Krishna Kumar; Dinh, Dzung H; Klopfenstein, Jeffrey D; Rao, Jasti S

    2012-02-01

    Glioma cancer cells adapt to changing microenvironment and shift from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis for their metabolic needs irrespective of oxygen availability. In the present study, we show that silencing MMP-9 in combination with uPAR/cathepsin B switch the glycolytic metabolism of glioma cells to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to predispose glioma cells to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. shRNA for MMP-9 and uPAR (pMU) as well as shRNA for MMP-9 and cathepsin B (pMC) activated complexes of mitochondria involved in OXPHOS and inhibited glycolytic hexokinase expression. The decreased interaction of hexokinase 2 with mitochondria in the treated cells indicated the inhibition of glycolysis activation. Overexpression of Akt reversed the pMU- and pMC-mediated OXPHOS to glycolysis switch. The OXPHOS un-coupler oligomycin A altered the expression levels of the Bcl-2 family of proteins; treatment with pMU or pMC reversed this effect and induced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. In addition, our results show changes in mitochondrial pore transition to release cytochrome c due to changes in the VDAC-Bcl-XL and BAX-BAK interaction with pMU and pMC treatments. Taken together, our results suggest that pMU and pMC treatments switch glioma cells from the glycolytic to the OXPHOS pathway through an inhibitory effect on Akt, ROS induction and an increase of cytosolic cytochrome c accumulation. These results demonstrate the potential of pMU and pMC as therapeutic candidates for the treatment of glioma.

  2. MicroRNA-124 inhibits the proliferation of C6 glioma cells by targeting Smad4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zechuan; Gong, Qiaoyun; Li, Meiying; Xu, Jinying; Zheng, Yangyang; Ge, Pengfei; Chi, Guangfan

    2017-10-01

    MicroRNA-124 (miR-124) has been shown to be downregulated in glioma; however, its biological functions in glioma are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to examine the Smad4‑dependent effects of miR‑124 on C6 glioma cell proliferation. In this study, the level of miR‑124 was found to be enhanced in C6 cells upon transfection with miR‑124 mimics, and the mechanisms of action of miR‑124 in C6 cells were investigated by reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, MTT assay, western blot analysis and luciferase reporter assays in vitro. The results revealed that miR‑124 expression was significantly lower in the C6 cells than in either normal rat brain tissue or astrocytes. Upon the overexpression of miR‑124, the proliferation of the C6 cells decreased and Smad4 expression was significantly suppressed. Smad4 was identified as a direct target of miR‑124 through luciferase reporter assays. Furthermore, miR‑124 was found to modulate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) by downregulating Smad4 expression. Using small interfering RNA targeting Smad4 mRNA, we also confirmed that miR‑124 downregulated c‑Myc by modulating Smad4 expression. In addition, caspase‑3 expression was induced by miR‑124 overexpression, but not via Smad4 downregulation. On the whole, our results demonstrate that miR‑124 upregulation inhibits the growth of C6 glioma cells by targeting Smad4 directly. These findings may be clinically useful for the development of therapeutic strategies directed toward miR‑124 function in patients with glioma.

  3. Antitumor activity of combined endostatin and thymidine kinase gene therapy in C6 glioma models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Huang, Honglan; Yao, Chunshan; Su, Fengbo; Guan, Wenming; Yan, Shijun; Ni, Zhaohui

    2016-09-01

    The combination of Endostatin (ES) and Herpes Simplex Virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene therapy is known to have antitumor activity in bladder cancer. The potential effect of ES and TK therapy in glioma has not yet been investigated. In this study, pTK-internal ribosome entry site (IRES), pIRES-ES, and pTK-IRES-ES plasmids were constructed; pIRES empty vector served as the negative control. The recombinant constructs were transfected into human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) ECV304 and C6 rat glioma cell line. Ganciclovir (GCV) was used to induce cell death in transfected C6 cells. We found that ECV304 cells expressing either ES or TK-ES showed reduced proliferation, decreased migration capacity, and increased apoptosis, as compared to untransfected cells or controls. pTK-IRES-ES/GCV or pTK-IRES/GCV significantly suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in C6 cells, as compared to the control. In addition, the administration of pIRES-ES, pTK-IRES/GCV, or pTK-IRES-ES/GCV therapy improved animal activity and behavior; was associated with prolonged animal survival, and a lower microvessel density (MVD) value in tumor tissues of C6 glioma rats. In comparison to others, dual gene therapy in form of pTK-IRES-ES/GCV had a significant antitumor activity against C6 glioma. These findings indicate combined TK and ES gene therapy was associated with a superior antitumor efficacy as compared to single gene therapy in C6 glioma. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Overexpressed KDM5B is associated with the progression of glioma and promotes glioma cell growth via downregulating p21

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Bin; Hu, Zhiqiang, E-mail: zhiqhutg@126.com; Huang, Hui

    Highlights: • KDM5B is overexpressed in glioma samples. • KDM5B stimulated proliferation of glioma cells. • Inhibition of p21contributes to KDM5B-induced proliferation. - Abstract: Epigenetic alterations such as aberrant expression of histone-modifying enzymes have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Upregulation of lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5B (KDM5B) has been reported in a variety of malignant tumors. However, the impact of KDM5B in glioma remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic value of KDM5B in glioma. In clinical glioma samples, we found that KDM5B expression was significantly upregulated in cancer lesions compared with normal brain tissues.more » Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that patients with glioma and higher KDM5B expression tend to have shorter overall survival time. By silencing or overexpressing KDM5B in glioma cells, we found that KDM5B could promote cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated that KDM5B promoted glioma proliferation partly via regulation of the expression of p21. Our study provided evidence that KDM5B functions as a novel tumor oncogene in glioma and may be a potential therapeutic target for glioma management.« less

  5. [Expression and mechanism of Twist2 in glioma].

    PubMed

    Wang, L Z; Wang, W J; Xiong, Y F; Xu, S; Wang, S S; Tu, Y; Wang, Z Y; Yan, X L; Mei, J H; Wang, C L

    2017-12-08

    Objective: To investigate the significance of Twist2 in glioma and whether it is involved in the malignant transformation of glioma by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods: Using immunohistochemical method detected the expression level of Twist2 in 60 cases of gliomas (including WHO grades Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ, each for 20 cases) and 20 cases of non-tumor brain tissues. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression level of Twist2 mRNA and protein in 61 cases of fresh glioma tissue (WHO grade Ⅱ 16 cases, Ⅲ 21 cases, Ⅳ 24 cases) and 12 cases of adjacent tissues, and the expression levels of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin were also investigated in fresh glioma tissue. Results: Immunohistochemistry results showed that the percentages of Twist2 expression in glioma was 90%(54/60) compared with 30%(6/20) in non-tumor brain tissues( P <0.01). The percentages of Twist2 expression were 75% (15/20), 95% (19/20), and 100% (20/20) in the WHO gradesⅡ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ gliomas, respectively. WHO grades Ⅳ and Ⅲ were significantly higher than that of WHO grade Ⅱ ( P <0.01). There was no significant difference between WHO grade Ⅳand WHO Ⅲ glioma ( P >0.05). Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot showed that the expression level of Twist 2 in gliomas was significantly higher than that in para-cancerous tissues ( P <0.01), and those in WHO grades Ⅳ and Ⅲ gliomas were significantly higher than that in WHO grade Ⅱ glioma ( P <0.01). There was no significant difference between WHO grade Ⅳand grade Ⅲ glioma ( P >0.05). Detection of key protein expression in EMT by Western blot displayed that the expression of E-cadherin was negatively associated with Twist2 in glioma ( r =-0.972, P <0.01). The expression of N-cadherin and vimentin was positively associated with Twist2 in glioma( r =0.971, P <0.01; r =0.968, P <0.01). Conclusions: The expression of Twist2 in human glioma is positively

  6. The relationship between Cho/NAA and glioma metabolism: implementation for margin delineation of cerebral gliomas.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Yao, Chengjun; Chen, Hong; Zhuang, Dongxiao; Tang, Weijun; Ren, Guang; Wang, Yin; Wu, Jinsong; Huang, Fengping; Zhou, Liangfu

    2012-08-01

    The marginal delineation of gliomas cannot be defined by conventional imaging due to their infiltrative growth pattern. Here we investigate the relationship between changes in glioma metabolism by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H-MRSI) and histopathological findings in order to determine an optimal threshold value of choline/N-acetyl-aspartate (Cho/NAA) that can be used to define the extent of glioma spread. Eighteen patients with different grades of glioma were examined using (1)H-MRSI. Needle biopsies were performed under the guidance of neuronavigation prior to craniotomy. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to evaluate the accuracy of sampling. Haematoxylin and eosin, and immunohistochemical staining with IDH1, MIB-1, p53, CD34 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibodies were performed on all samples. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between Cho/NAA and MIB-1, p53, CD34, and the degree of tumour infiltration. The clinical threshold ratio distinguishing tumour tissue in high-grade (grades III and IV) glioma (HGG) and low-grade (grade II) glioma (LGG) was calculated. In HGG, higher Cho/NAA ratios were associated with a greater probability of higher MIB-1 counts, stronger CD34 expression, and tumour infiltration. Ratio threshold values of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 appeared to predict the specimens containing the tumour with respective probabilities of 0.38, 0.60, 0.79, 0.90 in HGG and 0.16, 0.39, 0.67, 0.87 in LGG. HGG and LGG exhibit different spectroscopic patterns. Using (1)H-MRSI to guide the extent of resection has the potential to improve the clinical outcome of glioma surgery.

  7. Induction of specific T helper-9 cells to inhibit glioma cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haiyan; Yang, Baohua; Xu, Dedong; Wang, Wenbo; Tan, Jie; Sun, Liyuan; Li, Qinghua; Sun, Li; Xia, Xuewei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) on regulation of immune response have been recognized; whether SEB can enhance the effects of immunotherapy on glioma remains to be investigated. This study tests a hypothesis that administration with SEB enhances the effects of specific immunotherapy on glioma growth in mice. In this study, a glioma-bearing mouse model was developed by adoptive transfer with GL261 cells (a mouse glioma cell line). The mice were treated with the GL261 cell extracts (used as an Ag) with or without administration of SEB. We observed that treating glioma-bearing mice with the glioma Ag and SEB induced glioma-specific Th9 cells in both glioma tissue and the spleen. Treating CD4+ CD25− T cells with SEB increased p300 phosphorylation, histone H3K4 acetylation at the interleukin (IL)-9 promoter locus, and increased the IL-9 transcriptional factor binding to the IL-9 promoter. Treating CD4+ CD25− T cells with both SEB and glioma Ag induced glioma-specific Th9 cells. The glioma-specific Th9 cells induced glioma cell apoptosis in the culture. Treating the glioma-bearing mice with SEB and glioma Ag significantly inhibited the glioma growth. In conclusion, SEB plus glioma Ag immunotherapy inhibits the experimental glioma growth, which may be a novel therapeutic remedy for the treatment of glioma. PMID:28002799

  8. Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Young Bin; Oh, Seung Jae; Kang, Seok-Gu; Heo, Jung; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Choi, Yuna; Song, Seungri; Son, Hye Young; Kim, Se Hoon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Haam, Seung Joo; Huh, Yong Min; Chang, Jong Hee; Joo, Chulmin; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2016-10-01

    Gross total resection (GTR) of glioma is critical for improving the survival rate of glioma patients. One of the greatest challenges for achieving GTR is the difficulty in discriminating low grade tumor or peritumor regions that have an intact blood brain barrier (BBB) from normal brain tissues and delineating glioma margins during surgery. Here we present a highly sensitive, label-free terahertz reflectometry imaging (TRI) that overcomes current key limitations for intraoperative detection of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), and grade III and IV (high grade) gliomas. We demonstrate that TRI provides tumor discrimination and delineation of tumor margins in brain tissues with high sensitivity on the basis of Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained image. TRI may help neurosurgeons to remove gliomas completely by providing visualization of tumor margins in WHO grade II, III, and IV gliomas without contrast agents, and hence, improve patient outcomes.

  9. IGFBP6 Regulates Cell Apoptosis and Migration in Glioma.

    PubMed

    Bei, Yuanqi; Huang, Qingfeng; Shen, Jianhong; Shi, Jinlong; Shen, Chaoyan; Xu, Peng; Chang, Hao; Xia, Xiaojie; Xu, Li; Ji, Bin; Chen, JianGuo

    2017-07-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6), as an inhibitor of IGF-II actions, plays an important role in inhibiting survival and migration of tumor cells. In our study, we intended to demonstrate the biological function of IGFBP6 in the development of glioma and its clinical significance. Firstly, Western blot and immunohistochemistry revealed that the expression of IGFBP6 inversely correlated with glioma grade. Secondly, multivariate analysis with the Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that IGFBP6 could be an independent prognostic factor for the survival of glioma patients. In addition, overexpression of IGFBP6 induced glioma cell apoptosis, and depletion of IGFBP6 had the opposite action. Finally, overexpression of IGFBP6 inhibited migration of glioma cells, and depletion of IGFBP6 had the opposite action. Together our findings suggest that IGFBP6 might be an important regulator and prognostic factor for glioma.

  10. Receptor-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems Targeting to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Meng, Ying; Li, Chengyi; Qian, Min; Huang, Rongqin

    2015-01-01

    Glioma has been considered to be the most frequent primary tumor within the central nervous system (CNS). The complexity of glioma, especially the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), makes the survival and prognosis of glioma remain poor even after a standard treatment based on surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This provides a rationale for the development of some novel therapeutic strategies. Among them, receptor-mediated drug delivery is a specific pattern taking advantage of differential expression of receptors between tumors and normal tissues. The strategy can actively transport drugs, such as small molecular drugs, gene medicines, and therapeutic proteins to glioma while minimizing adverse reactions. This review will summarize recent progress on receptor-mediated drug delivery systems targeting to glioma, and conclude the challenges and prospects of receptor-mediated glioma-targeted therapy for future applications. PMID:28344260

  11. Forkhead box K2 inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of human glioma cells and predicts a favorable prognosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, XueBin; Wang, Wei; Zhu, ZhiZhong; Tang, Fan; Wang, Dong; Liu, Xi; Zhuang, Hao; Yan, XiaoLing

    2018-01-01

    Forkhead box K2 (FOXK2) is a member of the forkhead box family of transcription factors. Recently, researchers discovered that overexpression of FOXK2 inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and colorectal cancer, and is related to the clinical prognosis. However, in hepatocellular carcinoma, FOXK2 results in the opposite phenotypes. Currently, the contribution of FOXK2 to glioma pathogenesis is not clear. We evaluated the expression of FOXK2 in 151 glioma patients using immunohistochemistry assays. The associations among the expression of FOXK2, clinicopathological parameters, and the prognosis of glioma patients were statistically analyzed. We downregulated and upregulated the level of FOXK2 in glioma cells by transfections with small interfering RNA and plasmids. Then, we investigated the effects on tumor cell behavior in vitro by Cell Counting Kit-8 assays, colony-formation assay, transwell assay, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarker levels. The clinical data showed that expression of FOXK2 gradually decreased with increasing World Health Organization (WHO) grades and a low level of FOXK2 indicates a poor prognosis. FOXK2 expression is negatively correlated with Ki67 expression and the WHO degree but is not correlated with other clinicopathological parameters, including sex, age, Karnofsky Performance Status, tumor diameter, O -6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, and glutathione S -transferase pi. FOXK2 knockdown enhances glioma cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and EMT process, and, in contrast, FOXK2 overexpression inhibits glioma cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and the EMT process. Expression of FOXK2 gradually decreases with increasing WHO grades. FOXK2 inhibits tumor proliferation, migration, and invasion. FOXK2 is a critical mediator of the EMT process.

  12. Downregulation of Pygopus 2 inhibits vascular mimicry in glioma U251 cells by suppressing the canonical Wnt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HAIDONG; FU, JIANHUA; XU, DIANSHUANG; XU, WEIWEI; WANG, SHIYONG; ZHANG, LIU; XIANG, YONGSHENG

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of malignant primary brain tumor, and the Wnt signaling pathway is associated with glioma malignancy. Pygopus protein plays an important role in developmental brain patterning, and has been identified to be a component of the Wnt signaling pathway. In the present study, the Pygopus 2 (Pygo2) protein was examined in 80 glioma tissue samples. Short hairpin (sh)RNA-Pygo2 was transfected into glioma U251 cells, and the cell proliferation, colony formation and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation were analyzed. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the expression of Pygo2. A vascular mimicry assay was performed to examine the vascular mimicry of U251 cells. A luciferase reporter assay was used to detect the β-catenin/Wnt system. The cyclin D1 protein was also detected using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that inhibition of the expression of Pygo2 significantly triggered the decrease of cell proliferation, colony formation and BrdU incorporation compared with the cells treated with scramble control shRNA (shRNA-Scr). shRNA-Pygo2 transfection was found to inhibit vascular-mimicry and block the Wnt signaling pathway compared to the cells transfected with shRNA-Scr. The transfection of shRNA-Pygo2 also decreased the expression of the Wnt target gene cyclin D1. In conclusion, shRNA-Pygo2 suppressed glioma cell proliferation effectively and inhibited vascular mimicry by inhibiting the expression of cyclin D1 in the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway in brain glioma cells. PMID:26870266

  13. The effects of gene polymorphisms on glioma prognosis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying; Li, Guolin; Yan, Mengdan; Li, Jing; Jin, Tianbo; Li, Shanqu; Mu, Shijie

    2017-11-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Various genetic factors play important roles in the development and prognosis of glioma. The present study focuses on the impact of MPHOSPH6, TNIP1 and several other genes (ACYP2, NAF1, TERC, TERT, OBFC1, ZNF208 and RTEL1) on telomere length and how this affects the prognosis of glioma. Forty-three polymorphisms in nine genes from 605 glioma patients were selected. The association between genotype and survival outcome was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox regression analysis and the log-rank test. The 1-year overall survival (OS) rates of patients younger than 40 years of age was higher compared to those in patients older than 40 years of age. The 1-year OS rate of patients who underwent total resection was higher than that of patients whose gliomas were not completely resected. The 1-year OS rates of patients undergoing chemotherapy and of patients who did not undergo chemotherapy were 39.90% and 26.80%, respectively. Univariate analyses showed that ACYP2 rs12615793 and TERT rs2853676 loci affected progression-free survival in glioma patients; both ZNF208 rs8105767 and ACYP2 rs843720 affected the OS of patients with low-grade gliomas. Multivariate analyses suggested that MPHOSPH6 rs1056629 and rs1056654, and TERT rs2853676 loci were associated with good prognoses of patients with glioma or high-grade gliomas, whereas ZNF208 rs8105767 was associated with good prognosis of patients with low-grade glioma. Age, surgical resection and chemotherapy influenced the survival rates of glioma patients. TERT, MPHOSPH6, ACYP2 and ZNF208 genes were found to affect glioma prognosis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Functional analysis of a novel glioma antigen, EFTUD1

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Katsuya; Iizuka, Yukihiko; Ohta, Shigeki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Kenta; Saya, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kawakami, Yutaka; Toda, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Background A cDNA library made from 2 glioma cell lines, U87MG and T98G, was screened by serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression (SEREX) using serum from a glioblastoma patient. Elongation factor Tu GTP binding domain containing protein 1 (EFTUD1), which is required for ribosome biogenesis, was identified. A cancer microarray database showed overexpression of EFTUD1 in gliomas, suggesting that EFTUD1 is a candidate molecular target for gliomas. Methods EFTUD1 expression in glioma cell lines and glioma tissue was assessed by Western blot, quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemistry. The effect on ribosome biogenesis, cell growth, cell cycle, and induction of apoptosis and autophagy in glioma cells during the downregulation of EFTUD1 was investigated. To reveal the role of autophagy, the autophagy-blocker, chloroquine (CQ), was used in glioma cells downregulating EFTUD1. The effect of combining CQ with EFTUD1 inhibition in glioma cells was analyzed. Results EFTUD1 expression in glioma cell lines and tissue was higher than in normal brain tissue. Downregulating EFTUD1 induced G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, leading to reduced glioma cell proliferation. The mechanism underlying this antitumor effect was impaired ribosome biogenesis via EFTUD1 inhibition. Additionally, protective autophagy was induced by glioma cells as an adaptive response to EFTUD1 inhibition. The antitumor effect induced by the combined treatment was significantly higher than that of either EFTUD1 inhibition or CQ alone. Conclusion These results suggest that EFTUD1 represents a novel therapeutic target and that the combination of EFTUD1 inhibition with autophagy blockade may be effective in the treatment of gliomas. PMID:25015090

  15. Awake craniotomy for supratentorial gliomas: why, when and how?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, George M; Bernstein, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Awake craniotomy has become an increasingly utilized procedure in the treatment of supratentorial intra-axial tumors. The popularity of this procedure is partially attributable to improvements in intraoperative technology and anesthetic techniques. The application of awake craniotomy to the field of neuro-oncology has decreased iatrogenic postoperative neurological deficits, allowed for safe maximal tumor resection and improved healthcare resource stewardship by permitting early patient discharge. In this article, we review recent evidence for the utility of awake craniotomy in the resection of gliomas and describe the senior author's experience in performing this procedure. Furthermore, we explore innovative applications of awake craniotomy to outpatient tumor resections and the conduct of neurosurgery in resource-poor settings. We conclude that awake craniotomy is an effective and versatile neurosurgical procedure with expanding applications in neuro-oncology.

  16. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles inhibit the growth of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Dong-Fu; Ma, Yan-Bin; Li, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAPs) have been reported to exhibit antitumor effects on various human cancers, but the effects of nano-HAPs on human glioma cells remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the inhibitory effect of nano-HAPs on the growth of human glioma U251 and SHG44 cells in vitro and in vivo. Nano-HAPs could inhibit the growth of U251 and SHG44 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, according to methyl thiazoletetrazolium assay and flow cytometry. Treated with 120 mg/L and 240 mg/L nano-HAPs for 48 hours, typical apoptotic morphological changes were noted under Hoechst staining and transmission electron microscopy. The tumor growth of cells was inhibited after the injection in vivo, and the related side effects significantly decreased in the nano-HAP-and-drug combination group. Because of the function of nano-HAPs, the expression of c-Met, SATB1, Ki-67, and bcl-2 protein decreased, and the expression of SLC22A18 and caspase-3 protein decreased noticeably. The findings indicate that nano-HAPs have an evident inhibitory action and induce apoptosis of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. In a drug combination, they can significantly reduce the adverse reaction related to the chemotherapeutic drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU).

  17. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles inhibit the growth of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Dong-Fu; Ma, Yan-Bin; Li, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAPs) have been reported to exhibit antitumor effects on various human cancers, but the effects of nano-HAPs on human glioma cells remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the inhibitory effect of nano-HAPs on the growth of human glioma U251 and SHG44 cells in vitro and in vivo. Nano-HAPs could inhibit the growth of U251 and SHG44 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, according to methyl thiazoletetrazolium assay and flow cytometry. Treated with 120 mg/L and 240 mg/L nano-HAPs for 48 hours, typical apoptotic morphological changes were noted under Hoechst staining and transmission electron microscopy. The tumor growth of cells was inhibited after the injection in vivo, and the related side effects significantly decreased in the nano-HAP-and-drug combination group. Because of the function of nano-HAPs, the expression of c-Met, SATB1, Ki-67, and bcl-2 protein decreased, and the expression of SLC22A18 and caspase-3 protein decreased noticeably. The findings indicate that nano-HAPs have an evident inhibitory action and induce apoptosis of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. In a drug combination, they can significantly reduce the adverse reaction related to the chemotherapeutic drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). PMID:22888225

  18. The H3.3 K27M mutation results in a poorer prognosis in brainstem gliomas than thalamic gliomas in adults.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Hao, Shuyu; Pan, Changcun; Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Junting; Yan, Hai; Zhang, Liwei; Wan, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Brainstem and thalamic gliomas are rare, and they are poorly understood in adults. Genetic aberrations that occur in these tumors are still unknown. In this study, we investigated whether thalamic gliomas have different genetic aberrations and clinical outcomes compared with brainstem gliomas in adults. Forty-three glioma samples were selected, including 28 brainstem and 15 thalamic gliomas. The frequency of the K27M mutation in adult midline gliomas was 58.1%. High-grade gliomas in the thalamus were statistically significantly more numerous than brainstem gliomas. Patients with K27M mutant brainstem gliomas had a significantly shorter overall survival than patients with wild-type tumors (P = .020) by Cox regression after adjustment for other independent risk factors. However, there was no statistical tendency toward a poorer overall survival in thalamic gliomas containing the K27M mutation compared with wild-type tumors. The presence of the K27M mutation significantly corresponded with mutations in TP53 in thalamic gliomas. Interestingly, the K27M mutation was mutually exclusive with mutations in IDH1, which was detected only in brainstem gliomas. The microarray data identified 86 differentially expressed genes between brainstem and thalamic gliomas with the K27M mutation. The cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) gene, which plays an important role in cancer pathways, was found to be differentially expressed between brainstem and thalamic gliomas with K27M mutations. Although the K27M mutation was frequently observed in adult brainstem and thalamic gliomas, this mutation tended to be associated with a poorer prognosis in brainstem gliomas but not in thalamic gliomas. Brainstem gliomas may present different genetic aberrations from thalamic gliomas. These differences may provide guidance for therapeutic decisions for the treatment of adult brainstem and thalamic gliomas, which may have different molecular targets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-29

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma

  20. Down-Regulation of AQP4 Expression via p38 MAPK Signaling in Temozolomide-Induced Glioma Cells Growth Inhibition and Invasion Impairment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuqin; Gao, Fei; Jiang, Rong; Liu, Hui; Hou, Jiaojiao; Yi, Yaoxing; Kang, Lili; Liu, Xueyuan; Li, Yuan; Yang, Mei

    2017-12-01

    Glioma is the most common and lethal central nervous system tumors. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an effective drug for malignant glioma, however, the intracellular and molecular mechanisms behind this anti-cancer effect have yet to be fully understood. The aim of the present study was to determine whether TMZ inhibits proliferation, invasion of glioma cells in vitro and whether these effects can be mediated through modulation of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and phosphorylation of the MAPK pathway. The viability of U87 and U251 human glioma cells was evaluated using MTT assay. The cell cycle distribution was detected with flow cytometry. Migration ability and invasion ability were tested by scratch assays and transwell assays, respectively. The levels of AQP4 and MAPK were measured using immunoblot analyses. Our results showed that TMZ inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced G2/M arrest in U87 and U251 glioma cell lines. These changes were associated with a decrease in the levels of AQP4 expression as well as activation phosphorylated level of p38. Treatment with a p38 chemical activator (anisomycin) resulted in similar effects as TMZ treatment on glioma cells. And p38 chemical inhibitor (SB203580) could block these effects in glioma treated with TMZ, suggesting a direct up-regulation of the p38 signaling pathway. Therefore, we identified that TMZ might have therapeutic potential for controlling proliferation, invasion of malignant glioma by inhibiting AQP4 expression through activation of p38 signal transduction pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4905-4913, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. MicroRNA-1231 exerts a tumor suppressor role through regulating the EGFR/PI3K/AKT axis in glioma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiale; Zhang, Jie; Qiu, Wenjin; Zhang, Jian; Li, Yangyang; Kong, Enjun; Lu, Ailin; Xu, Jia; Lu, Xiaoming

    2018-05-17

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be involved in the initiation and progression of glioma. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. We performed microarray analysis to evaluate miRNA expression levels in 158 glioma tissue samples, and examined miR-1231 levels in glioma samples and healthy brain tissues using qRT-PCR. In vitro analyses were performed using miR-1231 mimics, inhibitors, and siRNA targeting EGFR. We used flow cytometry, CCK-8 assays, and colony formation assays to examine glioma proliferation and cell cycle analysis. A dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to examine miR-1231 regulation of EGFR, and the effect of upregulated miR-1231 was investigated in a subcutaneous GBM model. We found that miR-1231 expression was decreased in human glioma tissues and negatively correlated with EGFR levels. Moreover, the downregulation of miR-1231 negatively correlated with the clinical stage of human glioma patients. miR-1231 overexpression dramatically downregulated glioma cell proliferation, and suppressed tumor growth in a nude mouse model. Bioinformatics prediction and a luciferase assay confirmed EGFR as a direct target of miR-1231. EGFR overexpression abrogated the suppressive effect of miR-1231 on the PI3K/AKT pathway and G1 arrest. Taken together, these results demonstrated that EGFR is a direct target of miR-1231. Our findings suggest that the miR-1231/EGFR axis may be a helpful future diagnostic target for malignant glioma.

  2. Analysis of difference of association between polymorphisms in the XRCC5, RPA3 and RTEL1 genes and glioma, astrocytoma and glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tianbo; Wang, Yuan; Li, Gang; Du, Shuli; Yang, Hua; Geng, Tingting; Hou, Peng; Gong, Yongkuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gliomas are the most common aggressive brain tumors and have many complex pathological types. Previous reports have discovered that genetic mutations are associated with the risk of glioma. However, it is unclear whether uniform genetic mutations exist difference between glioma and its two pathological types in the Han Chinese population. Materials and methods: We evaluated 20 SNPs of 703 glioma cases (338 astrocytoma cases, 122 glioblastoma cases) and 635 controls in a Han Chinese population using χ2 test and genetic model analysis. Results: In three case-control studies, we found rs9288516 in XRCC5 gene showed a decreased risk of glioma (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.99; P = 0.042) and glioblastoma (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.92; P = 0.001) in the allele model. We identified rs414805 in RPA3 gene showed an increased risk of glioblastoma in allele model (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.00-1.89; P = 0.047) and dominant model (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05-2.35; P = 0.027), analysis respectively. Meanwhile, rs2297440 in RTEL1 gene showed an increased risk of glioma (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.54; P = 0.002) and astrocytoma (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.02-1.54; P = 0.029) in the allele model. In addition, we also observed a haplotype of “GCT” in the RTEL1 gene with an increased risk of astrocytoma (P = 0.005). Conclusions: Polymorphisms in the XRCC5, RPA3 and RTEL1 genes, combinating with previous reaserches, are associated with glioma developing. However, those genes mutations may play different roles in the glioma, astrocytoma and glioblastoma, respectively. PMID:26328260

  3. Analysis of difference of association between polymorphisms in the XRCC5, RPA3 and RTEL1 genes and glioma, astrocytoma and glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tianbo; Wang, Yuan; Li, Gang; Du, Shuli; Yang, Hua; Geng, Tingting; Hou, Peng; Gong, Yongkuan

    2015-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common aggressive brain tumors and have many complex pathological types. Previous reports have discovered that genetic mutations are associated with the risk of glioma. However, it is unclear whether uniform genetic mutations exist difference between glioma and its two pathological types in the Han Chinese population. We evaluated 20 SNPs of 703 glioma cases (338 astrocytoma cases, 122 glioblastoma cases) and 635 controls in a Han Chinese population using χ(2) test and genetic model analysis. In three case-control studies, we found rs9288516 in XRCC5 gene showed a decreased risk of glioma (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.99; P = 0.042) and glioblastoma (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.92; P = 0.001) in the allele model. We identified rs414805 in RPA3 gene showed an increased risk of glioblastoma in allele model (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.00-1.89; P = 0.047) and dominant model (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05-2.35; P = 0.027), analysis respectively. Meanwhile, rs2297440 in RTEL1 gene showed an increased risk of glioma (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.54; P = 0.002) and astrocytoma (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.02-1.54; P = 0.029) in the allele model. In addition, we also observed a haplotype of "GCT" in the RTEL1 gene with an increased risk of astrocytoma (P = 0.005). Polymorphisms in the XRCC5, RPA3 and RTEL1 genes, combinating with previous reaserches, are associated with glioma developing. However, those genes mutations may play different roles in the glioma, astrocytoma and glioblastoma, respectively.

  4. Inhibition of CYP4A by a novel flavonoid FLA-16 prolongs survival and normalizes tumor vasculature in glioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenlong; Li, Ying; Chen, Honglei; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jing; Qin, Tian; Duan, Chenfan; Chen, Xuewei; Liu, Yanzhuo; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Yang, Jing

    2017-08-28

    Glioblastomas rapidly become refractory to anti-VEGF therapies. We previously showed that cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A-derived 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) promotes angiogenesis. Here, we tested whether a novel flavonoid (FLA-16) prolongs survival and normalizes tumor vasculature in glioma through CYP4A inhibition. FLA-16 improved survival, reduced tumor burden, and normalized vasculature, accompanied with the decreased secretion of 20-HETE, VEGF and TGF-β in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in C6 and U87 gliomas. FLA-16 attenuated vascular abnormalization induced by co-implantation of GL261 glioma cells with CYP4A10 high macrophages or EPCs. Mechanistically, the conditional medium from TAMs and EPCs treated with FLA-16 enhanced the migration of pericyte cells, and decreased the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, which were reversed by CYP4A overexpression or exogenous addition of 20-HETE, VEGF and TGF-β. Furthermore, FLA-16 prevented crosstalk between TAMs and EPCs during angiogenesis. These results suggest that CYP4A inhibition by FLA-16 prolongs survival and normalizes vasculature in glioma through decreasing production of TAMs and EPCs-derived VEGF and TGF-β. This may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to overcome resistance to anti-VEGF treatment by effects on vessels and immune cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Glioma-mediated microglial activation promotes glioma proliferation and migration: roles of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wen; Carney, Karen E.; Pigott, Victoria M.; Falgoust, Lindsay M.; Clark, Paul A.; Kuo, John S.; Sun, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Microglia play important roles in extracellular matrix remodeling, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and suppression of adaptive immunity in glioma. Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) regulates microglial activation and migration. However, little is known about the roles of NHE1 in intratumoral microglial activation and microglia–glioma interactions. Our study revealed up-regulation of NHE1 protein expression in both glioma cells and tumor-associated Iba1+ microglia in glioma xenografts and glioblastoma multiforme microarrays. Moreover, we observed positive correlation of NHE1 expression with Iba1 intensity in microglia/macrophages. Glioma cells, via conditioned medium or non-contact glioma-microglia co-cultures, concurrently upregulated microglial expression of NHE1 protein and other microglial activation markers (iNOS, arginase-1, TGF-β, IL-6, IL-10 and the matrix metalloproteinases MT1-MMP and MMP9). Interestingly, glioma-stimulated microglia reciprocally enhanced glioma proliferation and migration. Most importantly, inhibition of microglial NHE1 activity via small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or the potent NHE1-specific inhibitor HOE642 significantly attenuated microglial activation and abolished microglia-stimulated glioma migration and proliferation. Taken together, our findings provide the first evidence that NHE1 function plays an important role in glioma–microglia interactions, enhancing glioma proliferation and invasion by stimulating microglial release of soluble factors. NHE1 upregulation is a novel marker of the glioma-associated microglial activation phenotype. Inhibition of NHE1 represents a novel glioma therapeutic strategy by targeting tumor-induced microglial activation. PMID:27287871

  6. Microglial SMAD4 regulated by microRNA-146a promotes migration of microglia which support tumor progression in a glioma environment

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Aparna; Gupta, Neelima; Tang, Carol; Mallilankaraman, Karthik; Silambarasan, Maskomani; Shi, Meng; Lu, Lei; Ang, Beng Ti; Ling, Eng-Ang; Dheen, S. Thameem

    2018-01-01

    Glioma tumors constitute a significant portion of microglial cells, which are known to support tumor progression. The present study demonstrates that transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling pathway in microglia in a glioma environment is involved in tumor progression and pathogenesis. It has been shown that the TGFβ level is elevated in higher grades of gliomas and its signaling pathway regulates tumor progression through phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3, which form a complex with SMAD4 to regulate target gene transcription. In an in vitro cell line-based model increased protein levels of pSMAD2/3, total SMAD2/3 and SMAD4 were observed in murine BV2 microglia cultured in glioma conditioned medium (GCM), indicative of the activated TGFβ signaling pathway in microglia associated with glioma environment. Immunofluorescence labeling further revealed the expression of SMAD4 in microglial and non-microglial cells of human glioblastomas tissue in vivo. Functional analysis through shRNA-mediated stable knockdown of SMAD4 in microglia revealed the downregulation of the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), which has been shown to be involved in tumor progression and cell migration. Further, knockdown of SMAD4 in microglia decreased the migration of microglial cells towards GCM, indicating that SMAD4 promotes microglial migration in glioma environment. In addition, SMAD4 has been shown to be post-transcriptionally regulated by microRNA-146a, which was downregulated in microglia treated with GCM. Overexpression of miR-146a resulted in decreased expression of SMAD4 together with tumor supportive gene MMP9 in microglia, and subsequently suppressed microglial migration towards GCM, possibly through regulation of SMAD4. On the other hand, the cell viability assay revealed decreased viability of glioma cells when they were treated with conditioned medium derived from SMAD4 knockdown microglia or miR-146a overexpressed microglia as compared to glioma cells

  7. Glioma infiltration sign on high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging in gliomas and its prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; Ling, Chenhan; Shi, Feina; Dong, Fei; Jiang, Biao; Zhang, Jianmin

    2018-03-01

    Glioma cells may infiltrate beyond the tumor margins revealed on conventional structural images. To investigate whether the presence of a glioma infiltration sign on high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of gliomas. Retrospective cohort. Fifty-two patients with gliomas (14 WHO grade II; 13 WHO grade III; 25 WHO grade IV). 3.0T, including a T 1 -weighted contrast-enhanced (T 1 w-CE) sequence, contrast-enhanced T 2 -flair sequence, and a DWI sequence. T 1 w-CE images and contrast-enhanced T 2 -flair images were used for identifying the tumor region for enhancing and nonenhancing gliomas, respectively. The glioma infiltration sign was defined as the presence of a peritumoral abnormal high signal region on DWI map, which was adjacent to the tumor region and had higher signal than surrounding areas. This sign was assessed on a high b-value DWI map with b = 3000 s/mm 2 . For patients with glioma infiltration sign, DWI3000 max , DWI1000 max , ADC3000 min , and ADC1000 min were measured by drawing a region of interest over the peritumoral abnormal high signal region. Survival analysis was conducted by using Cox regression. Glioma infiltration sign was observed in 28 (53.8%) patients. The occurrence rate of this sign was 92.0% in grade IV gliomas, 30.8% in grade III gliomas, and 7.1% in grade II gliomas. The glioma infiltration sign could independently predict both the progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.58 [3.19-23.03], P < 0.001) and overall survival (HR, 95% CI = 11.90 [3.41-41.55], P < 0.001) after adjustment. For patients with glioma infiltration sign, DWI3000 max (P = 0.005) and ADC3000 min (P = 0.008) were both independent predictors of overall survival after adjustment, while DWI1000 max and ADC1000 min were not. The glioma infiltration sign on high b-value DWI is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in glioma patients. High b-value DWI might be a

  8. Bevacizumab and Irinotecan in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Ependymoma, or Low Grade Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-23

    Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma

  9. Nanotechnology Applications for Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.

    PubMed

    Bredlau, Amy Lee; Dixit, Suraj; Chen, Chao; Broome, Ann-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are invariably fatal tumors found in the pons of elementary school aged children. These tumors are grade II-IV gliomas, with a median survival of less than 1 year from diagnosis when treated with standard of care (SOC) therapy. Nanotechnology may offer therapeutic options for the treatment of DIPGs. Multiple nanoparticle formulations are currently being investigated for the treatment of DIPGs. Nanoparticles based upon stable elements, polymer nanoparticles, and organic nanoparticles are under development for the treatment of brain tumors, including DIPGs. Targeting of nanoparticles is now possible as delivery techniques that address the difficulty in crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB) are developed. Theranostic nanoparticles, a combination of therapeutics and diagnostic nanoparticles, improve imaging of the cancerous tissue while delivering therapy to the local region. However, additional time and attention should be directed to developing a nanoparticle delivery system for treatment of the uniformly fatal pediatric disease of DIPG.

  10. Overview of current immunotherapeutic strategies for glioma

    PubMed Central

    Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra; Kamran, Neha; Baker, Gregory; Mineharu, Yohei; Lowenstein, Pedro Ricardo; Castro, Maria Graciela

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, numerous studies of immunotherapy for malignant glioma (glioblastoma multiforme) have brought new knowledge and new hope for improving the prognosis of this incurable disease. Some clinical trials have reached Phase III, following positive outcomes in Phase I and II, with respect to safety and immunological end points. Results are encouraging especially when considering the promise of sustained efficacy by inducing antitumor immunological memory. Progress in understanding the mechanisms of tumor-induced immune suppression led to the development of drugs targeting immunosuppressive checkpoints, which are used in active clinical trials for glioblastoma multiforme. Insights related to the heterogeneity of the disease bring new challenges for the management of glioma and underscore a likely cause of therapeutic failure. An emerging therapeutic strategy is represented by a combinatorial, personalized approach, including the standard of care: surgery, radiation, chemotherapy with added active immunotherapy and multiagent targeting of immunosuppressive checkpoints. PMID:26598957

  11. Nanotechnology Applications for Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Bredlau, Amy Lee; Dixit, Suraj; Chen, Chao; Broome, Ann-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are invariably fatal tumors found in the pons of elementary school aged children. These tumors are grade II-IV gliomas, with a median survival of less than 1 year from diagnosis when treated with standard of care (SOC) therapy. Nanotechnology may offer therapeutic options for the treatment of DIPGs. Multiple nanoparticle formulations are currently being investigated for the treatment of DIPGs. Nanoparticles based upon stable elements, polymer nanoparticles, and organic nanoparticles are under development for the treatment of brain tumors, including DIPGs. Targeting of nanoparticles is now possible as delivery techniques that address the difficulty in crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB) are developed. Theranostic nanoparticles, a combination of therapeutics and diagnostic nanoparticles, improve imaging of the cancerous tissue while delivering therapy to the local region. However, additional time and attention should be directed to developing a nanoparticle delivery system for treatment of the uniformly fatal pediatric disease of DIPG. PMID:26903150

  12. Intra-cerebral schwannoma simulating glioma.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elie; Cret, Corina; Poirier, Jacques; Cornu, Philippe; Martin-Duverneuil, Nadine; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Sanson, Marc

    2003-09-01

    An intra-cerebral schwannoma, presenting as a cystic, calcified, enhancing frontal mass, arising in a 52-year-old woman was misdiagnosed as a glioma and treated with radiotherapy. This observation emphasizes the importance of careful histological reexamination of all brain tumors when a discrepancy appears between the initial histological diagnosis and the clinical evolution, in order to recognize rare curable entities and to avoid potentially toxic treatment.

  13. Meningiomas, dicentric chromosomes, gliomas, and telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Carroll, T; Maltby, E; Brock, I; Royds, J; Timperley, W; Jellinek, D

    1999-08-01

    Lack of telomere maintenance during cell replication leads to telomere erosion and loss of function. This can result in telomere associations which probably cause the dicentric chromosomes seen in some tumour cells. One mechanism of telomere maintenance in dividing cells is the action of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds TTAGGG repeats onto telomeres and compensates for their shortening during cell division. Over 90 per cent of extracranial malignant neoplasms have been found to have telomerase activity. This study sought to determine if there was a relationship between absence of telomerase activity and presence of dicentric chromosomes in meningiomas and to what extent the other main group of central nervous system tumours, the gliomas, expressed telomerase activity. Telomerase activity was measured on 25 meningiomas and 29 gliomas. Four of the meningiomas were atypical variants and 11 were positive for dicentric chromosomes. Twenty-five of 29 gliomas were glioblastoma multiforme tumours. Measures were taken to ensure absence of false positives due to primer-dimer interaction and false negatives due to protein degradation or the presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors. All 25 meningiomas and the four low-grade gliomas (WHO grade II) were telomerase activity-negative. Seven (28 per cent) of the 25 glioblastoma multiforme tumours showed telomerase activity. The absence of telomerase activity in meningiomas and the high frequency of telomere associations support the hypothesis that these tumours are benign, transformed but pre-crisis. The relatively low frequency of telomerase activity in the malignant glioblastoma multiforme suggests that most of these tumours may have other mechanisms of telomere maintenance and that the potentially therapeutic telomerase inhibitors will not be of great value in the future management of the majority of patients suffering from these tumours. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cholecystokinin (CCK) and CCK receptor expression by human gliomas: Evidence for an autocrine/paracrine stimulatory loop.

    PubMed

    Oikonomou, Eftychia; Buchfelder, Michael; Adams, Eric F

    2008-06-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gut-brain peptide has been described to be able to induce mitosis according to recent studies. Additionally, conflicting data has been published on whether tumours of the central and peripheral nervous system in general, and gliomas in particular, express CCK receptors. In the present in vitro study we employed reverse transcription followed by the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to investigate whether mRNA for CCK-A and CCK-B receptors as well as CCK peptide itself is present in primary human gliomas and the U-87 MG GBM cell line. The data show that 14/14 (100%) of the primary gliomas exhibited mRNA expression for the CCK peptide gene and the B receptor including the U-87 MG cells, whereas, only 2/14 (14%) showed presence of the CCK-A receptor. The presence of CCK receptors together with CCK peptide expression itself suggests presence of an autocrine loop controlling glioma cell growth. In support of this conclusion, a neutralizing antibody against the CCK peptide exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of cell growth whereas, antagonists to CCK caused a dose depend inhibition of exogenous stimulated glioma cell growth in vitro, via the CCK-B receptor which is PKC activated. Assessment of apoptosis and proteasome activity were undertaken and we report that treatment with CCK antagonists decreased proteasome and increased caspase-3 activity. These data indicate that CCK peptide and CCK-B are abundant in human gliomas and they act to stimulate cell growth in an autocrine manner, primarily via the high affinity CCK-B receptor, which was blocked by antagonists to CCK, perhaps via apoptosis.

  15. IDH-mutant glioma specific association of rs55705857 located at 8q24.21 involves MYC deregulation

    PubMed Central

    Oktay, Yavuz; Ülgen, Ege; Can, Özge; Akyerli, Cemaliye B.; Yüksel, Şirin; Erdemgil, Yiğit; Durası, İ. Melis; Henegariu, Octavian Ioan; Nanni, E. Paolo; Selevsek, Nathalie; Grossmann, Jonas; Erson-Omay, E. Zeynep; Bai, Hanwen; Gupta, Manu; Lee, William; Turcan, Şevin; Özpınar, Aysel; Huse, Jason T.; Sav, M. Aydın; Flanagan, Adrienne; Günel, Murat; Sezerman, O. Uğur; Yakıcıer, M. Cengiz; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Özduman, Koray

    2016-01-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphism rs55705857, located in a non-coding but evolutionarily conserved region at 8q24.21, is strongly associated with IDH-mutant glioma development and was suggested to be a causal variant. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this association has remained unknown. With a case control study in 285 gliomas, 316 healthy controls, 380 systemic cancers, 31 other CNS-tumors, and 120 IDH-mutant cartilaginous tumors, we identified that the association was specific to IDH-mutant gliomas. Odds-ratios were 9.25 (5.17–16.52; 95% CI) for IDH-mutated gliomas and 12.85 (5.94–27.83; 95% CI) for IDH-mutated, 1p/19q co-deleted gliomas. Decreasing strength with increasing anaplasia implied a modulatory effect. No somatic mutations were noted at this locus in 114 blood-tumor pairs, nor was there a copy number difference between risk-allele and only-ancestral allele carriers. CCDC26 RNA-expression was rare and not different between the two groups. There were only minor subtype-specific differences in common glioma driver genes. RNA sequencing and LC-MS/MS comparisons pointed to significantly altered MYC-signaling. Baseline enhancer activity of the conserved region specifically on the MYC promoter and its further positive modulation by the SNP risk-allele was shown in vitro. Our findings implicate MYC deregulation as the underlying cause of the observed association. PMID:27282637

  16. Association between glioma and history of allergies, asthma, and eczema: a case-control study with three groups of controls

    PubMed Central

    Il’yasova, Dora; McCarthy, Bridget; Marcello, Jennifer; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Moorman, Patricia G.; Krishnamachari, Bhuma; Ali-Osman, Francis; Bigner, Darell D.; Davis, Faith

    2009-01-01

    Because glioma etiology is largely unknown, the inverse association of glioma risk with atopic conditions is promising and deserves close scrutiny. We examined the association between a history of allergies, asthma, and eczema and glioma risk using sibling, friend, and clinic-based controls. This analysis included 388 incident glioma cases and 80 sibling, 191 friend, and 177 clinic-based controls. Each subject’s medical history was assessed via a web-based or telephone survey. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals for the associations with allergies, asthma, eczema, and the overall number of these conditions were calculated from conditional (for sibling and friend controls) and unconditional (for clinic-based controls) logistic models. Allergies were consistently inversely associated with the glioma: ORs were 0.53 (95% CI, 0.15–1.84), 0.54 (95% CI, 0.28–1.07), and 0.34 (95% CI, 0.23–0.50) with sibling, friend, and clinic-based controls, respectively. Asthma showed an inverse association only in the comparison with sibling controls (OR=0.43; 95% CI, 0.19–1.00). Eczema showed an inverse association only in the comparison with friend controls (OR=0.42; 95% CI, 0.15–1.18). The overall number of these conditions (ordinal score 0, 1, 2, 3) was inversely associated with glioma: The risk decreased 31–45% with each addition of an atopic condition. These estimates were the most stable when different control groups were considered. Comparing the prevalence of these conditions in the three control groups with published data, we note that clinic-based controls generally better approximate the prevalence data for population-based groups. These controls appear to present a reasonable choice for clinic-centered case-control studies. PMID:19336556

  17. LncRNA-TP53TG1 Participated in the Stress Response Under Glucose Deprivation in Glioma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Gao, Yang; Li, Deheng; Cao, Yiqun; Hao, Bin

    2017-12-01

    Gliomas are the most common brain tumors of the center nervous system. And long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts, which have been considered as one type of gene expression regulator for cancer development. In this study, we investigated the role of lncRNA-TP53TG1 in response to glucose deprivation in human gliomas. The expression levels of TP53TG1 in glioma tissues and cells were analyzed by qRT-PCR. In addition, the influence of TP53TG1 on glucose metabolism related genes at the mRNA level during both high and low glucose treatment was detected by qRT-PCR. MTT, clonogenicity assays, and flow cytometry were performed to detect the cell proliferation and cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the migration of glioma cells was examined by Transwell assays. The expression of TP53TG1 was significantly higher in human glioma tissues or cell lines compared with normal brain tissue or NHA. Moreover, TP53TG1 and some tumor glucose metabolism related genes, such as GRP78, LDHA, and IDH1 were up-regulated significantly in U87 and LN18 cells under glucose deprivation. In addition, knockdown of TP53TG1 decreased cell proliferation and migration and down-regulated GRP78 and IDH1 expression levels and up-regulated PKM2 levels in U87 cells under glucose deprivation. However, over-expression of TP53TG1 showed the opposite tendency. Moreover, the effects of TP53TG1 were more remarkable in low glucose than that in high glucose. Our data showed that TP53TG1 under glucose deprivation may promote cell proliferation and migration by influencing the expression of glucose metabolism related genes in glioma. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4897-4904, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Statistical considerations on prognostic models for glioma

    PubMed Central

    Molinaro, Annette M.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.

    2016-01-01

    Given the lack of beneficial treatments in glioma, there is a need for prognostic models for therapeutic decision making and life planning. Recently several studies defining subtypes of glioma have been published. Here, we review the statistical considerations of how to build and validate prognostic models, explain the models presented in the current glioma literature, and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each model. The 3 statistical considerations to establishing clinically useful prognostic models are: study design, model building, and validation. Careful study design helps to ensure that the model is unbiased and generalizable to the population of interest. During model building, a discovery cohort of patients can be used to choose variables, construct models, and estimate prediction performance via internal validation. Via external validation, an independent dataset can assess how well the model performs. It is imperative that published models properly detail the study design and methods for both model building and validation. This provides readers the information necessary to assess the bias in a study, compare other published models, and determine the model's clinical usefulness. As editors, reviewers, and readers of the relevant literature, we should be cognizant of the needed statistical considerations and insist on their use. PMID:26657835

  19. Perspectives in Intraoperative Diagnostics of Human Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Tyurikova, O.; Dembitskaya, Y.; Yashin, K.; Mishchenko, M.; Vedunova, M.; Medyanik, I.; Kazantsev, V.

    2015-01-01

    Amongst large a variety of oncological diseases, malignant gliomas represent one of the most severe types of tumors. They are also the most common type of the brain tumors and account for over half of the astrocytic tumors. According to different sources, the average life expectancy of patients with various glioblastomas varies between 10 and 12 months and that of patients with anaplastic astrocytic tumors between 20 and 24 months. Therefore, studies of the physiology of transformed glial cells are critical for the development of treatment methods. Modern medical approaches offer complex procedures, including the microsurgical tumor removal, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, supplemented with photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy. The most radical of them is surgical resection, which allows removing the largest part of the tumor, reduces the intracranial hypertension, and minimizes the degree of neurological deficit. However, complete removal of the tumor remains impossible. The main limitations are insufficient visualization of glioma boundaries, due to its infiltrative growth, and the necessity to preserve healthy tissue. This review is devoted to the description of advantages and disadvantages of modern intraoperative diagnostics of human gliomas and highlights potential perspectives for development of their treatment. PMID:26543495

  20. Single vs. combination immunotherapeutic strategies for glioma

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Mayuri; Candolfi, Marianela; Shah, Diana; Mineharu, Yohei; Yadav, Vivek; Koschmann, Carl; Asad, Antonela S.; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Malignant gliomas are highly invasive tumors, associated with a dismal survival rate despite standard of care, which includes surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ). Precision immunotherapies or combinations of immunotherapies that target unique tumor-specific featuresmay substantially improve upon existing treatments. Areas covered Clinical trials of single immunotherapies have shown therapeutic potential in high-grade glioma patients, and emerging preclinical studies indicate that combinations of immunotherapies may be more effective than monotherapies. In this review we discuss emerging combinations of immunotherapies and compare efficacy of single vs. combined therapies tested in preclinical brain tumor models. Expert opinion Malignant gliomas are characterized by a number of factors which may limit the success of single immunotherapies including inter-tumor and intra-tumor heterogeneity, intrinsic resistance to traditional therapies, immunosuppression, and immune selection for tumor cells with low antigenicity. Combination of therapies which target multiple aspects of tumor physiology are likely to be more effective than single therapies. While we describe a limited number of combination immunotherapies which are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical studies, the field is expanding at an astounding rate, and endless combinations remain open for exploration. PMID:28286975

  1. Perfluorocarbon emulsions radiosensitise brain tumors in carbogen breathing mice with orthotopic GL261 gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Lisa A.; Fabre, Marie-Sophie; Grasso, Carole; Reid, Dana; Broaddus, William C.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Spiess, Bruce D.; Garbow, Joel R.; McConnell, Melanie J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Tumour hypoxia limits the effectiveness of radiation therapy. Delivering normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen therapy elevates pO2 in both tumour and normal brain tissue. However, pO2 levels return to baseline within 15 minutes of stopping therapy. Aim To investigate the effect of perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions on hypoxia in subcutaneous and intracranial mouse gliomas and their radiosensitising effect in orthotopic gliomas in mice breathing carbogen (95%O2 and 5%CO2). Results PFC emulsions completely abrogated hypoxia in both subcutaneous and intracranial GL261 models and conferred a significant survival advantage orthotopically (Mantel Cox: p = 0.048) in carbogen breathing mice injected intravenously (IV) with PFC emulsions before radiation versus mice receiving radiation alone. Carbogen alone decreased hypoxia levels substantially and conferred a smaller but not statistically significant survival advantage over and above radiation alone. Conclusion IV injections of PFC emulsions followed by 1h carbogen breathing, radiosensitises GL261 intracranial tumors. PMID:28873460

  2. Carbon Ion Irradiation Inhibits Glioma Cell Migration Through Downregulation of Integrin Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Rieken@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Habermehl, Daniel; Wuerth, Lena

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of carbon ion irradiation on glioma cell migration. Methods and Materials: U87 and Ln229 glioma cells were irradiated with photons and carbon ions. Migration was analyzed 24 h after irradiation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was performed in order to quantify surface expression of integrins. Results: Single photon doses of 2 Gy and 10 Gy enhanced {alpha}{sub {nu}}{beta}{sub 3} and {alpha}{sub {nu}}{beta}{sub 5} integrin expression and caused tumor cell hypermigration on both vitronectin (Vn) and fibronectin (Fn). Compared to integrin expression in unirradiated cells, carbon ion irradiation caused decreased integrin expression and inhibited cell migration onmore » both Vn and Fn. Conclusion: Photon radiotherapy (RT) enhances the risk of tumor cell migration and subsequently promotes locoregional spread via photon induction of integrin expression. In contrast to photon RT, carbon ion RT causes decreased integrin expression and suppresses glioma cell migration on both Vn and Fn, thus promising improved local control.« less

  3. Quantitative evaluation of malignant gliomas damage induced by photoactivation of IR700 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Morito; Kita, Sayaka; Higuchi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    The processes involved in malignant gliomas damage were quantitatively evaluated by microscopy. The near-infrared fluorescent dye IR700 that is conjugated to an anti-CD133 antibody (IR700-CD133) specifically targets malignant gliomas (U87MG) and stem cells (BT142) and is endocytosed into the cells. The gliomas are then photodamaged by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the heat induced by illumination of IR700 by a red laser, and the motility of the vesicles within these cells is altered as a result of cellular damage. To investigate these changes in motility, we developed a new method that measures fluctuations in the intensity of phase-contrast images obtained from small areas within cells. The intensity fluctuation in U87MG cells gradually decreased as cell damage progressed, whereas the fluctuation in BT142 cells increased. The endocytosed IR700 dye was co-localized in acidic organelles such as endosomes and lysosomes. The pH in U87MG cells, as monitored by a pH indicator, was decreased and then gradually increased by the illumination of IR700, while the pH in BT142 cells increased monotonically. In these experiments, the processes of cell damage were quantitatively evaluated according to the motility of vesicles and changes in pH.

  4. Hypoxic regulation of the expression of genes encoded estrogen related proteins in U87 glioma cells: eff ect of IRE1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Minchenko, D O; Riabovol, O O; Ratushna, O O; Minchenko, O H

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, mediated by IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1), which is a central mediator of the unfolded protein response on the expression of genes encoded estrogen related proteins (NRIP1/RIP140, TRIM16/EBBP, ESRRA/NR3B1, FAM162A/E2IG5, PGRMC2/PMBP, and SLC39A6/LIV-1) and their hypoxic regulation in U87 glioma cells for evaluation of their possible significance in the control of glioma cells proliferation. The expression of NRIP1, EBBP, ESRRA, E2IG5, PGRMC2, and SLC39A6 genes in U87 glioma cells, transfected by empty vector pcDNA3.1 (control) and cells without IRE1 signaling enzyme function (transfected by dnIRE1) upon hypoxia, was studied by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Inhibition of both enzymatic activities (kinase and endoribonuclease) of IRE1 signaling enzyme function up-regulates the expression of EBBP, E2IG5, PGRMC2, and SLC39A6 genes is in U87 glioma cells in comparison with the control glioma cells, with more significant changes for E2IG5 and PGRMC2 genes. At the same time, the expression of NRIP1 and ESRRA genes is strongly down-regulated in glioma cells upon inhibition of IRE1. We also showed that hypoxia increases the expression of E2IG5, PGRMC2, and EBBP genes and decreases NRIP1 and ESRRA genes expression in control glioma cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of IRE1 in U87 glioma cells decreases the eff ect of hypoxia on the expression of E2IG5 and PGRMC2 genes, eliminates hypoxic regulation of NRIP1 gene, and enhances the sensitivity of ESRRA gene to hypoxic condition. Furthermore, the expression of SLC39A6 gene is resistant to hypoxia in both the glioma cells with and without IRE1 signaling enzyme function. Results of this investigation demonstrate that inhibition of IRE1 signaling enzyme function affects the expression of NRIP1, EBBP, ESRRA, E2IG5, PGRMC2, and SLC39A6 genes in U87 glioma cells in gene specific manner and these changes

  5. RTVP-1 regulates glioma cell migration and invasion via interaction with N-WASP and hnRNPK

    PubMed Central

    Ziv-Av, Amotz; Giladi, Nissim David; Lee, Hae Kyung; Cazacu, Simona; Finniss, Susan; Xiang, Cunli; Pauker, Maor H.; Barda-Saad, Mira; Poisson, Laila; Brodie, Chaya

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) are characterized by increased invasion into the surrounding normal brain tissue. RTVP-1 is highly expressed in GBM and regulates the migration and invasion of glioma cells. To further study RTVP-1 effects we performed a pull-down assay using His-tagged RTVP-1 followed by mass spectrometry and found that RTVP-1 was associated with the actin polymerization regulator, N-WASP. This association was further validated by co-immunoprecipitation and FRET analysis. We found that RTVP-1 increased cell spreading, migration and invasion and these effects were at least partly mediated by N-WASP. Another protein which was found by the pull-down assay to interact with RTVP-1 is hnRNPK. This protein has been recently reported to associate with and to inhibit the effect of N-WASP on cell spreading. hnRNPK decreased cell migration, spreading and invasion in glioma cells. Using co-immunoprecipitation we validated the interactions of hnRNPK with N-WASP and RTVP-1 in glioma cells. In addition, we found that overexpression of RTVP-1 decreased the association of N-WASP and hnRNPK. In summary, we report that RTVP-1 regulates glioma cell spreading, migration and invasion and that these effects are mediated via interaction with N-WASP and by interfering with the inhibitory effect of hnRNPK on the function of this protein. PMID:26305187

  6. Glioma-related seizures in relation to histopathological subtypes: a report from the glioma international case-control study.

    PubMed

    Berntsson, Shala G; Merrell, Ryan T; Amirian, E Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Lachance, Daniel; Smits, Anja; Zhou, Renke; Jacobs, Daniel I; Wrensch, Margaret R; Olson, Sara H; Il'yasova, Dora; Claus, Elizabeth B; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Schildkraut, Joellen; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Houlston, Richard S; Jenkins, Robert B; Bernstein, Jonine L; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Amos, Christopher I; Bondy, Melissa L; Melin, Beatrice S

    2018-04-23

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of glioma-related seizures and seizure control at the time of tumor diagnosis with respect to tumor histologic subtypes, tumor treatment and patient characteristics, and to compare seizure history preceding tumor diagnosis (or study enrollment) between glioma patients and healthy controls. The Glioma International Case Control study (GICC) risk factor questionnaire collected information on demographics, past medical/medication history, and occupational history. Cases from eight centers were also asked detailed questions on seizures in relation to glioma diagnosis; cases (n = 4533) and controls (n = 4171) were also asked about seizures less than 2 years from diagnosis and previous seizure history more than 2 years prior to tumor diagnosis, including childhood seizures. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs), particularly oligodendrogliomas/oligoastrocytomas, had the highest proportion of glioma-related seizures. Patients with low-grade astrocytoma demonstrated the most medically refractory seizures. A total of 83% of patients were using only one antiepileptic drug (AED), which was levetiracetam in 71% of cases. Gross total resection was strongly associated with reduced seizure frequency (p < 0.009). No significant difference was found between glioma cases and controls in terms of seizure occurring more than 2 years before diagnosis or during childhood. Our study showed that glioma-related seizures were most common in low-grade gliomas. Gross total resection was associated with lower seizure frequency. Additionally, having a history of childhood seizures is not a risk factor ***for developing glioma-related seizures or glioma.

  7. The molecular profile of microglia under the influence of glioma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Graeber, Manuel B.

    2012-01-01

    Microglia, which contribute substantially to the tumor mass of glioblastoma, have been shown to play an important role in glioma growth and invasion. While a large number of experimental studies on functional attributes of microglia in glioma provide evidence for their tumor-supporting roles, there also exist hints in support of their anti-tumor properties. Microglial activities during glioma progression seem multifaceted. They have been attributed to the receptors expressed on the microglia surface, to glioma-derived molecules that have an effect on microglia, and to the molecules released by microglia in response to their environment under glioma control, which can have autocrine effects. In this paper, the microglia and glioma literature is reviewed. We provide a synopsis of the molecular profile of microglia under the influence of glioma in order to help establish a rational basis for their potential therapeutic use. The ability of microglia precursors to cross the blood–brain barrier makes them an attractive target for the development of novel cell-based treatments of malignant glioma. PMID:22573310

  8. A role for ion channels in perivascular glioma invasion

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Emily G.

    2017-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are devastating tumors, frequently killing those diagnosed in little over a year. The profuse infiltration of glioma cells into healthy tissue surrounding the main tumor mass is one of the major obstacles limiting the improvement of patient survival. Migration along the abluminal side of blood vessels is one of the salient features of glioma cell invasion. Invading glioma cells are attracted to the vascular network, in part by the neuro-peptide bradykinin, where glioma cells actively modify the gliovascular interface and undergo volumetric alterations to navigate the confined space. Critical to these volume modifications is a proposed hydrodynamic model that involves the flux of ions in and out of the cell, followed by osmotically obligated water. Ion and water channels expressed by the glioma cell are essential in this model of invasion and make opportune therapeutic targets. Lastly, there is growing evidence that vascular-associated glioma cells are able to control the vascular tone, presumably to free up space for invasion and growth. The unique mechanisms that enable perivascular glioma invasion may offer critical targets for therapeutic intervention in this devastating disease. Indeed, a chloride channel-blocking peptide has already been successfully tested in human clinical trials. PMID:27424110

  9. Photodynamic therapy on the ultrastructure of glioma cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaoshan; Zhang, Ruyou; Zheng, Yongri

    2005-07-01

    OBJECTIVE :the main purpose of this experiment was to study the change of C6 glioma cells' ultrastructure treated by photodynamic therapy(PDT), observe the change of morphology METHOD :Make the model of rat glioma by transplanted C6 glioma cells into caudate nucleus,treated the glioma rat by PDT after two weeks. Observed the difference of subcellular structure before and after PDT by electron microscope. RESULT : Apoptosis and necrosis can be seen after treated by PDT in the C6 glioma, basal membrance damaged ,number of cellular organ of endothelial cell of blood capillary declined,tight junction of endothelial cell lengthen and the gap enlarge. The PDT has slightly effect on the nomorl rat"s subcellular structue. CONCLUSION: PDT can induce the apoptosis and necrosis of C6 glioma cell. The damage of the ultramicrostructure of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum was the foundmentol of the change. PDT initiate the damage of BBB of the C6 glioma cell and weeken the function、and makes it a useful way of treating the glioma combained with chemotherapy.

  10. Tumor-related neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with diffuse glioma: a systematic review of neurocognitive functioning prior to anti-tumor treatment.

    PubMed

    van Kessel, Emma; Baumfalk, Anniek E; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Robe, Pierre A; Snijders, Tom J

    2017-08-01

    Deficits in neurocognitive functioning (NCF) frequently occur in glioma patients. Both treatment and the tumor itself contribute to these deficits. Data about the role of the tumor are scarce, because NCF has mostly been studied postoperatively. We aimed to summarize data on pre-treatment NCF in glioma patients and to determine the overall and domain-specific prevalence of neurocognitive dysfunction. We searched PubMed and Embase according to PRISMA-P protocol for studies that evaluated pre-treatment NCF in glioma patients (1995-November 2016) and extracted information about NCF. We performed analysis of data for two main outcome measures; mean cognitive functioning of the study sample (at group level) and the percentage of impaired patients (at individual level). We included 23 studies. Most studies were small observational prospective cohort studies. In 11 (47.5%) studies, patient selection was based on tumor location. NCF was analyzed at the group level in 14 studies, of which 13 (92.9%) found decreased NCF at group level, compared to normative data or matched controls. The proportion of individuals with decreased NCF was reported in 15 studies. NCF was impaired (in any domain) in 62.6% of the individuals (median; interquartile range 31.0-79.0). Cognitive impairments were more common in patients with high-grade glioma than with low-grade glioma (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.71-3.66). Cognitive impairment occurs in the majority of treatment-naive glioma patients, suggesting that neurocognitive dysfunction is related to the tumor. However, the literature about pre-treatment NCF in glioma patients is characterized by small-scale studies and strong heterogeneity in patient selection, resulting in high risk of bias.

  11. R132H mutation in IDH1 gene reduces proliferation, cell survival and invasion of human glioma by downregulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Cui, Daming; Ren, Jie; Shi, Jinlong; Feng, Lijing; Wang, Ke; Zeng, Tao; Jin, Yi; Gao, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene commonly occur in gliomas. Remarkably, the R132H mutation in IDH1 (IDH1-R132H) is associated with better prognosis and increased survival than patients lacking this mutation. The molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated potential cross-talk between IDH1-R132H and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in regulating the cellular properties of human glioma. Although aberrant nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is linked to the malignant progression of gliomas, its association with IDH1 remains unknown. We identified an inverse correlation between IDH1-R132H and the expression and activity of β-catenin in human gliomas. In addition, overexpression of IDH1-R132H in glioblastoma cell lines U87 and U251 led to reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion, accompanied by increased apoptosis. At the molecular level, we detected a significant reduction in the expression, nuclear accumulation and activity of β-catenin following overexpression of IDH1-R132H. A microarray-based comparison of gene expression indicated that several mediators, effectors and targets of Wnt/β-catenin signaling are downregulated, while negative regulators are upregulated in IDH1-R132H gliomas. Further, overexpression of β-catenin in IDH1-R132H glioma cells restored the cellular phenotype induced by this mutation. Specifically, β-catenin abrogated the decrease in proliferation, invasion and migration, and the increase in apoptosis, triggered by overexpression of IDH1-R132H. Finally, we demonstrate that xenografts of IDH1-R132H overexpressing U87 cells can significantly decrease the growth of tumors in vivo. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that the R132H mutation in IDH1 serves a tumor suppressor function in human glioma by negatively regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK) in the expansion of glioma-initiating cells by fractionated radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Rae-Kwon; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Hyun, Kyung-Hwan

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} Activation of Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK) is involved in the fractionated radiation-induced expansion of glioma stem-like cells. {yields} Inhibition of LCK prevents acquisition of fractionated radiation-induced resistance to chemotherapeutic treatment. {yields} LCK activity is critical for the maintenance of self-renewal in glioma stem-like cells. -- Abstract: Brain cancers frequently recur or progress as focal masses after treatment with ionizing radiation. Radiation used to target gliomas may expand the cancer stem cell population and enhance the aggressiveness of tumors; however, the mechanisms underlying the expansion of cancer stem cell population after radiation have remained unclear. In thismore » study, we show that LCK (lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) is involved in the fractionated radiation-induced expansion of the glioma-initiating cell population and acquisition of resistance to anticancer treatments. Fractionated radiation caused a selective increase in the activity of LCK, a Src family non-receptor tyrosine kinase. The activities of other Src family kinases Src, Fyn, and Lyn were not significantly increased. Moreover, knockdown of LCK expression with a specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) effectively blocked fractionated radiation-induced expansion of the CD133{sup +} cell population. siRNA targeting of LCK also suppressed fractionated radiation-induced expression of the glioma stem cell marker proteins CD133, Nestin, and Musashi. Expression of the known self-renewal-related proteins Notch2 and Sox2 in glioma cells treated with fractionated radiation was also downregulated by LCK inhibition. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of LCK effectively restored the sensitivity of glioma cells to cisplatin and etoposide. These results indicate that the non-receptor tyrosine kinase LCK is critically involved in fractionated radiation-induced expansion of the glioma-initiating cell population

  13. MicroRNA-211 expression is down-regulated and associated with poor prognosis in human glioma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Lv, Jianguang; Zhang, Feng; Che, Hongmin; Liao, Qiwei; Huang, Wobin; Li, Shaopeng; Li, Yuqian

    2017-07-01

    Accumulating evidence has supported the role of microRNAs in the initiation and development of malignant tumors. MicroRNA-211 (miR-211), which was reported to involve in diverse physiological activities in several cancers, was investigated for its expression in human glioma and adjacent normal brain tissues, as well as its correlation with patient prognosis. Glioma tissues and adjacent normal brain tissues were obtained from 82 patients who underwent surgical resection, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess the expression level of miR-211. Here, we found that miR-211 was significantly decreased in glioma tissues compared with adjacent normal brain tissues (glioma, 3.52 ± 0.14 vs. normal, 4.96 ± 0.17, p < 0.001), and inversely associated with ascending WHO classification (grade III-IV, 3.16 ± 0.21 vs. grade I-II, 4.22 ± 0.26, p < 0.001). Then, the correlation of miR-211 with clinicopathological factors was investigated by Pearson's Chi square test, indicating that miR-211 might be a potential biomarker to predict the malignant status of glioma. Further, Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank analysis were carried out to determine the relationship between miR-211 expression level and the overall survival rate of glioma patients. Our data showed that there was a close correlation between down-regulated miR-211 and shorter survival time in 82 patients (p = 0.026). Finally, the multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that WHO grade (HR = 2.437, 95% CI 1.251-4.966, p = 0.007), KPS (HR = 2.215, 95% CI 1.168-4.259, p = 0.016), and miR-211 expression level (HR = 3.614, 95% CI 2.152-6.748, p < 0.001) were considered as independent risk factors for glioma prognosis. These results suggested that lower miR-211 expression might be a marker for poor prognosis of glioma patients.

  14. Brain tumor modeling: glioma growth and interaction with chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banaem, Hossein Y.; Ahmadian, Alireza; Saberi, Hooshangh; Daneshmehr, Alireza; Khodadad, Davood

    2011-10-01

    In last decade increasingly mathematical models of tumor growths have been studied, particularly on solid tumors which growth mainly caused by cellular proliferation. In this paper we propose a modified model to simulate the growth of gliomas in different stages. Glioma growth is modeled by a reaction-advection-diffusion. We begin with a model of untreated gliomas and continue with models of polyclonal glioma following chemotherapy. From relatively simple assumptions involving homogeneous brain tissue bounded by a few gross anatomical landmarks (ventricles and skull) the models have been expanded to include heterogeneous brain tissue with different motilities of glioma cells in grey and white matter. Tumor growth is characterized by a dangerous change in the control mechanisms, which normally maintain a balance between the rate of proliferation and the rate of apoptosis (controlled cell death). Result shows that this model closes to clinical finding and can simulate brain tumor behavior properly.

  15. The biology and mathematical modelling of glioma invasion: a review

    PubMed Central

    Talkenberger, K.; Seifert, M.; Klink, B.; Hawkins-Daarud, A.; Swanson, K. R.; Hatzikirou, H.

    2017-01-01

    Adult gliomas are aggressive brain tumours associated with low patient survival rates and limited life expectancy. The most important hallmark of this type of tumour is its invasive behaviour, characterized by a markedly phenotypic plasticity, infiltrative tumour morphologies and the ability of malignant progression from low- to high-grade tumour types. Indeed, the widespread infiltration of healthy brain tissue by glioma cells is largely responsible for poor prognosis and the difficulty of finding curative therapies. Meanwhile, mathematical models have been established to analyse potential mechanisms of glioma invasion. In this review, we start with a brief introduction to current biological knowledge about glioma invasion, and then critically review and highlight future challenges for mathematical models of glioma invasion. PMID:29118112

  16. Promoting oligodendroglial-oriented differentiation of glioma stem cell: a repurposing of quetiapine for the treatment of malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Huang, Nanxin; Li, Hongli; Liu, Shubao; Chen, Xianjun; Yu, Shichang; Wu, Nan; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Shen, Hai-Ying; Li, Chengren; Xiao, Lan

    2017-06-06

    As a major contributor of chemotherapy resistance and malignant recurrence, glioma stem cells (GSCs) have been proposed as a target for the treatment of gliomas. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of quetiapine (QUE), an atypical antipsychotic, for the treatment of malignant glioma, we established mouse models with GSCs-initiated orthotopic xenograft gliomas and subcutaneous xenograft tumors, using GSCs purified from glioblastoma cell line GL261. We investigated antitumor effects of QUE on xenograft gliomas and its underlying mechanisms on GSCs. Our data demonstrated that (i) QUE monotherapy can effectively suppress GSCs-initiated tumor growth; (ii) QUE has synergistic effects with temozolomide (TMZ) on glioma suppression, and importantly, QUE can effectively suppress TMZ-resistant (or -escaped) tumors generated from GSCs; (iii) mechanistically, the anti-glioma effect of QUE was due to its actions of promoting the differentiation of GSCs into oligodendrocyte (OL)-like cells and its inhibitory effect on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Together, our findings suggest an effective approach for anti-gliomagenic treatment via targeting OL-oriented differentiation of GSCs. This also opens a door for repurposing QUE, an FDA approved drug, for the treatment of malignant glioma.

  17. Promoting oligodendroglial-oriented differentiation of glioma stem cell: a repurposing of quetiapine for the treatment of malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongli; Liu, Shubao; Chen, Xianjun; Yu, Shichang; Wu, Nan; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Li, Chengren

    2017-01-01

    As a major contributor of chemotherapy resistance and malignant recurrence, glioma stem cells (GSCs) have been proposed as a target for the treatment of gliomas. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of quetiapine (QUE), an atypical antipsychotic, for the treatment of malignant glioma, we established mouse models with GSCs-initiated orthotopic xenograft gliomas and subcutaneous xenograft tumors, using GSCs purified from glioblastoma cell line GL261. We investigated antitumor effects of QUE on xenograft gliomas and its underlying mechanisms on GSCs. Our data demonstrated that (i) QUE monotherapy can effectively suppress GSCs-initiated tumor growth; (ii) QUE has synergistic effects with temozolomide (TMZ) on glioma suppression, and importantly, QUE can effectively suppress TMZ-resistant (or -escaped) tumors generated from GSCs; (iii) mechanistically, the anti-glioma effect of QUE was due to its actions of promoting the differentiation of GSCs into oligodendrocyte (OL)-like cells and its inhibitory effect on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Together, our findings suggest an effective approach for anti-gliomagenic treatment via targeting OL-oriented differentiation of GSCs. This also opens a door for repurposing QUE, an FDA approved drug, for the treatment of malignant glioma. PMID:28415586

  18. L1 stimulation of human glioma cell motility correlates with FAK activation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Muhua; Li, Yupei; Chilukuri, Kalyani; Brady, Owen A.; Boulos, Magdy I.; Kappes, John C.

    2011-01-01

    The neural adhesion/recognition protein L1 (L1CAM; CD171) has been shown or implicated to function in stimulation of cell motility in several cancer types, including high-grade gliomas. Our previous work demonstrated the expression and function of L1 protein in stimulation of cell motility in rat glioma cells. However, the mechanism of this stimulation is still unclear. This study further investigated the function of L1 and L1 proteolysis in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell migration and invasion, as well as the mechanism of this stimulation. L1 mRNA was found to be present in human T98G GBM cell line but not in U-118 MG grade III human glioma cell line. L1 protein expression, proteolysis, and release were found in T98G cells and human surgical GBM cells by Western blotting. Exosome-like vesicles released by T98G cells were purified and contained full-length L1. In a scratch assay, T98G cells that migrated into the denuded scratch area exhibited upregulation of ADAM10 protease expression coincident with loss of surface L1. GBM surgical specimen cells exhibited a similar loss of cell surface L1 when xenografted into the chick embryo brain. When lentivirally introduced shRNA was used to attenuate L1 expression, such T98G/shL1 cells exhibited significantly decreased cell motility by time lapse microscopy in our quantitative Super Scratch assay. These cells also showed a decrease in FAK activity and exhibited increased focal complexes. L1 binding integrins which activate FAK were found in T98G and U-118 MG cells. Addition of L1 ectodomain-containing media (1) rescued the decreased cell motility of T98G/shL1 cells and (2) increased cell motility of U-118 MG cells but (3) did not further increase T98G cell motility. Injection of L1-attenuated T98G/shL1 cells into embryonic chick brains resulted in the absence of detectable invasion compared to control cells which invaded brain tissue. These studies support a mechanism where glioma cells at the edge of a cell mass

  19. L1 stimulation of human glioma cell motility correlates with FAK activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Muhua; Li, Yupei; Chilukuri, Kalyani; Brady, Owen A; Boulos, Magdy I; Kappes, John C; Galileo, Deni S

    2011-10-01

    The neural adhesion/recognition protein L1 (L1CAM; CD171) has been shown or implicated to function in stimulation of cell motility in several cancer types, including high-grade gliomas. Our previous work demonstrated the expression and function of L1 protein in stimulation of cell motility in rat glioma cells. However, the mechanism of this stimulation is still unclear. This study further investigated the function of L1 and L1 proteolysis in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell migration and invasion, as well as the mechanism of this stimulation. L1 mRNA was found to be present in human T98G GBM cell line but not in U-118 MG grade III human glioma cell line. L1 protein expression, proteolysis, and release were found in T98G cells and human surgical GBM cells by Western blotting. Exosome-like vesicles released by T98G cells were purified and contained full-length L1. In a scratch assay, T98G cells that migrated into the denuded scratch area exhibited upregulation of ADAM10 protease expression coincident with loss of surface L1. GBM surgical specimen cells exhibited a similar loss of cell surface L1 when xenografted into the chick embryo brain. When lentivirally introduced shRNA was used to attenuate L1 expression, such T98G/shL1 cells exhibited significantly decreased cell motility by time lapse microscopy in our quantitative Super Scratch assay. These cells also showed a decrease in FAK activity and exhibited increased focal complexes. L1 binding integrins which activate FAK were found in T98G and U-118 MG cells. Addition of L1 ectodomain-containing media (1) rescued the decreased cell motility of T98G/shL1 cells and (2) increased cell motility of U-118 MG cells but (3) did not further increase T98G cell motility. Injection of L1-attenuated T98G/shL1 cells into embryonic chick brains resulted in the absence of detectable invasion compared to control cells which invaded brain tissue. These studies support a mechanism where glioma cells at the edge of a cell mass

  20. MicroRNA 203 Modulates Glioma Cell Migration via Robo1/ERK/MMP-9 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dontula, Ranadheer; Dinasarapu, Ashok; Chetty, Chandramu; Pannuru, Padmavathi; Herbert, Engelhard; Ozer, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary adult brain cancer. Allelic deletion on chromosome 14q plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GBM, and this site was thought to harbor multiple tumor suppressor genes associated with GBM, a region that also encodes microRNA-203 (miR-203). In this study, we sought to identify the role of miR-203 as a tumor suppressor in the pathogenesis of GBM. We analyzed the miR-203 expression data of GBM patients in 10 normal and 495 tumor tissue samples derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas data set. Quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization in 10 high-grade GBM and 10 low-grade anaplastic astrocytoma tumor samples showed decreased levels of miR-203 expression in anaplastic astrocytoma and GBM tissues and cell lines. Exogenous expression of miR-203 using a plasmid expressing miR-203 precursor (pmiR-203) suppressed glioma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. We determined that one relevant target of miR-203 was Robo1, given that miR-203 expression decreased mRNA and protein levels as determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Moreover, cotransfection experiments using a luciferase-based transcription reporter assay have shown direct regulation of Robo1 by miR-203. We also show that Robo1 mediates miR-203 mediated antimigratory functions as up-regulation of Robo1 abrogates miR-203 mediated antimigratory effects. We also show that miR-203 expression suppressed ERK phosphorylation and MMP-9 expression in glioma cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-203 inhibits migration of the glioma cells by disrupting the Robo1/ERK/MMP-9 signaling axis. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that up-regulation of Robo1 in response to the decrease in miR-203 in glioma cells is responsible for glioma tumor cell migration and invasion. PMID:24167656

  1. Propofol inhibits invasion and proliferation of C6 glioma cells by regulating the Ca2+ permeable AMPA receptor-system xc- pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Yue; Li, Yan-Li; Wang, Hai-Yun; Zhu, Min; Guo, Di; Wang, Guo-Lin; Gao, Ying-Tang; Yang, Zhuo; Li, Tang; Yang, Chen-Yi; Chen, Yi-Meng

    2017-10-01

    Anesthetics are documented to affect tumors; therefore, we studied the antiglioma effect of propofol on proliferation and invasiveness of glioma cells and explored the underlying mechanism. C6 glioma cells were cultured and treated with propofol, and cell viability, invasiveness, and migration were measured. Glutamate release was measured using an enzyme-catalyzed kinetic reaction. xCT protein and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor GluR2 subunit protein expression was assessed with Western blot analysis and immunofluorescent staining. We observed that propofol significantly inhibited C6 glioma cell viability, invasiveness, and migration and decreased glutamate release. An agonist of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system (system x c - ), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), reversed propofol's effects, and propofol could inhibit C6 glioma cell proliferation by adding excess exogenous glutamate (100μM). Finally, propofol increased the surface expression of GluR2, but decreased surface expression of xCT. The effects of propofol on surface expression of GluR2 and xCT could be rescued by (R, S)-AMPA, an agonist of Ca 2+ permeable AMPA receptor (CPAR). Thus, propofol can inhibit cell viability, invasiveness, and migration of C6 glioma cells, and the CPAR-system x c - pathway contributes to these events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Extracellular levels of amino acids and choline in human high grade gliomas: an intraoperative microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, L; De Micheli, E; Bricolo, A; Ballini, C; Fattori, M; Venturi, C; Pedata, F; Tipton, K F; Della Corte, L

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of endogenous amino acids and choline in the extracellular fluid of human cerebral gliomas have been measured, for the first time, by in vivo microdialysis. Glioblastoma growth was associated with increased concentrations of choline, GABA, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, taurine, tyrosine, and valine. There was no difference between grade III and grade IV tumors in the concentrations of phenylalanine, isoleucine, tyrosine, valine, and lysine, whereas the concentrations of choline, aspartate, taurine, GABA, leucine, and glutamate were significantly different in the two tumor-grade subgroups. In contrast to the other compounds, the concentration of glutamate was decreased in glioma. The parenchyma adjacent to the tumor showed significant changes only in the extracellular concentration of glutamate, isoleucine, and valine. The concentrations of choline and the amino acids, glutamate, leucine, taurine, and tyrosine showed significant positive correlations with the degree of cell proliferation. Epilepsy, which is relatively common in subjects with gliomas, was shown to be a significant confounding variable when the extracellular concentrations of aspartate, glutamate and GABA were considered.

  3. Visual Outcomes in Pediatric Optic Pathway Glioma After Conformal Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Awdeh, Richard M.; Kiehna, Erin N.; Drewry, Richard D.

    Purpose: To assess visual outcome prospectively after conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in children with optic pathway glioma. Methods and Materials: We used CRT to treat optic pathway glioma in 20 children (median age 9.3 years) between July 1997 and January 2002. We assessed changes in visual acuity using the logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution after CRT (54 Gy) with a median follow-up of 24 months. We included in the study children who underwent chemotherapy (8 patients) or resection (9 patients) before CRT. Results: Surgery played a major role in determining baseline (pre-CRT) visual acuity (better eye: P=.0431; worsemore » eye: P=.0032). The visual acuity in the worse eye was diminished at baseline (borderline significant) with administration of chemotherapy before CRT (P=.0726) and progression of disease prior to receiving CRT (P=.0220). In the worse eye, improvement in visual acuity was observed in patients who did not receive chemotherapy before CRT (P=.0289). Conclusions: Children with optic pathway glioma initially treated with chemotherapy prior to receiving radiation therapy have decreased visual acuity compared with those who receive primary radiation therapy. Limited surgery before radiation therapy may have a role in preserving visual acuity.« less

  4. Alteration of the Intra- and Cross- Hemisphere Posterior Default Mode Network in Frontal Lobe Glioma Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haosu; Shi, Yonghong; Yao, Chengjun; Tang, Weijun; Yao, Demin; Zhang, Chenxi; Wang, Manning; Wu, Jinsong; Song, Zhijian

    2016-06-01

    Patients with frontal lobe gliomas often experience neurocognitive dysfunctions before surgery, which affects the default mode network (DMN) to different degrees. This study quantitatively analyzed this effect from the perspective of cerebral hemispheric functional connectivity (FC). We collected resting-state fMRI data from 20 frontal lobe glioma patients before treatment and 20 healthy controls. All of the patients and controls were right-handed. After pre-processing the images, FC maps were built from the seed defined in the left or right posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to the target regions determined in the left or right temporal-parietal junction (TPJ), respectively. The intra- and cross-group statistical calculations of FC strength were compared. The conclusions were as follows: (1) the intra-hemisphere FC strength values between the PCC and TPJ on the left and right were decreased in patients compared with controls; and (2) the correlation coefficients between the FC pairs in the patients were increased compared with the corresponding controls. When all of the patients were grouped by their tumor's hemispheric location, (3) the FC of the subgroups showed that the dominant hemisphere was vulnerable to glioma, and (4) the FC in the dominant hemisphere showed a significant correlation with WHO grade.

  5. Non-standard radiotherapy fractionations delay the time to malignant transformation of low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Henares-Molina, Araceli; Benzekry, Sebastien; Lara, Pedro C; García-Rojo, Marcial; Pérez-García, Víctor M; Martínez-González, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Grade II gliomas are slowly growing primary brain tumors that affect mostly young patients. Cytotoxic therapies (radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy) are used initially only for patients having a bad prognosis. These therapies are planned following the "maximum dose in minimum time" principle, i. e. the same schedule used for high-grade brain tumors in spite of their very different behavior. These tumors transform after a variable time into high-grade gliomas, which significantly decreases the patient's life expectancy. In this paper we study mathematical models describing the growth of grade II gliomas in response to radiotherapy. We find that protracted metronomic fractionations, i.e. therapeutical schedules enlarging the time interval between low-dose radiotherapy fractions, may lead to a better tumor control without an increase in toxicity. Other non-standard fractionations such as protracted or hypoprotracted schemes may also be beneficial. The potential survival improvement depends on the tumor's proliferation rate and can be even of the order of years. A conservative metronomic scheme, still being a suboptimal treatment, delays the time to malignant progression by at least one year when compared to the standard scheme.

  6. Targeting Gliomas: Can a New Alkylating Hybrid Compound Make a Difference?

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Rui; Braga, Cláudia; Santos, Gisela; Bronze, Maria R; Perry, Maria J; Moreira, Rui; Brites, Dora; Falcão, Ana S

    2017-01-18

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of brain tumor in adults. The triazene Temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating drug, is the classical chemotherapeutic agent for gliomas, but has been disappointing against the highly invasive and resistant nature of GBM. Hybrid compounds may open new horizons within this challenge. The multicomponent therapeutic strategy here used resides on a combination of two repurposing drugs acting by different but potentially synergistic mechanisms, improved efficacy, and lower resistance effects. We synthesized a new hybrid compound (HYBCOM) by covalently binding a TMZ analogue to valproic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor drug that was shown to sensitize TMZ-resistant glioma cells. Advantages of this new molecule as compared to TMZ, in terms of chemotherapeutic efficacy, were investigated. Our results evidenced that HYBCOM more efficiently decreased the viability and proliferation of the GL261 glioma cells, while showing to better target the tumor cells than the functionally normal astrocytes. Increased cytotoxicity by HYBCOM may be a consequence of the improved autophagic process observed. Additionally, HYBCOM changed the morphology of GL261 cells into a nonpolar, more rounded shape, impairing cell migration ability. Most interesting, and in opposite to TMZ, cells exposed to HYBCOM did not enhance the expression of drug resistance proteins, a major issue in the treatment of GBM. Overall, our studies indicate that HYBCOM has promising chemotherapeutic benefits over the classical TMZ, and future studies should assess if the treatment translates into efficacy in glioblastoma experimental models and reveal clinical benefits in GBM patients.

  7. Mannose phosphate isomerase regulates fibroblast growth factor receptor family signaling and glioma radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Cazet, Aurélie; Charest, Jonathan; Bennett, Daniel C; Sambrooks, Cecilia Lopez; Contessa, Joseph N

    2014-01-01

    Asparagine-linked glycosylation is an endoplasmic reticulum co- and post-translational modification that enables the transit and function of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) glycoproteins. To gain insight into the regulatory role of glycosylation enzymes on RTK function, we investigated shRNA and siRNA knockdown of mannose phosphate isomerase (MPI), an enzyme required for mature glycan precursor biosynthesis. Loss of MPI activity reduced phosphorylation of FGFR family receptors in U-251 and SKMG-3 malignant glioma cell lines and also resulted in significant decreases in FRS2, Akt, and MAPK signaling. However, MPI knockdown did not affect ligand-induced activation or signaling of EGFR or MET RTKs, suggesting that FGFRs are more susceptible to MPI inhibition. The reductions in FGFR signaling were not caused by loss of FGF ligands or receptors, but instead were caused by interference with receptor dimerization. Investigations into the cellular consequences of MPI knockdown showed that cellular programs driven by FGFR signaling, and integral to the clinical progression of malignant glioma, were impaired. In addition to a blockade of cellular migration, MPI knockdown also significantly reduced glioma cell clonogenic survival following ionizing radiation. Therefore our results suggest that targeted inhibition of enzymes required for cell surface receptor glycosylation can be manipulated to produce discrete and limited consequences for critical client glycoproteins expressed by tumor cells. Furthermore, this work identifies MPI as a potential enzymatic target for disrupting cell surface receptor-dependent survival signaling and as a novel approach for therapeutic radiosensitization.

  8. Increased rate of positive penicillin skin tests among patients with glioma: insights into the association between allergies and glioma risk.

    PubMed

    Han, Sheng; Huang, Yanming; Wang, Zixun; Li, Zhonghua; Qin, Xiaofei; Wu, Anhua

    2014-11-01

    Allergy and immunoglobulin E levels are inversely associated with glioma risk. Previous studies have focused on respiratory and food allergies, and little information is available regarding drug allergies. This study evaluated the rate of positive penicillin skin tests (PenSTs) and blood eosinophil counts in a large population of patients with glioma compared with nontumor controls to provide evidence for the relationship between drug allergies and glioma risk. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in patients diagnosed with glioma (n = 913) between January 2004 and June 2013. The study patients were matched with nontumor controls (n = 1091) for age, sex, and date of admission to the hospital. Preoperative results of the PenST and eosinophil counts were obtained, and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models, while a Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess overall survival. The percentage of positive PenSTs was higher among patients with glioma than in control subjects. The age-, sex-, and admission date-adjusted OR for positive versus negative PenSTs was 2.392 (95% CI 1.891-3.026). Eosinophil counts were also higher in glioma cases than in controls: the OR for eosinophil > 0.06 × 10(9)/L versus ≤ 0.06 × 10(9)/L was 1.923 (95% CI 1.608-2.301). There was no association between positive PenST/eosinophil counts and glioma grade or patient survival (n = 105). In contrast to previously reported relationships between allergy and glioma, in the present study a significantly higher rate of positive PenSTs and higher eosinophil counts were found in patients with glioma than in nontumor controls. These results suggest a complex relationship between allergies and glioma development.

  9. Advanced and amplified BOLD fluctuations in high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lalit; Gupta, Rakesh K; Postma, Alida A; Sahoo, Prativa; Gupta, Pradeep K; Patir, Rana; Ahlawat, Sunita; Saha, Indrajit; Backes, Walter H

    2018-06-01

    Glioma grade along with patient's age and general health are used for treatment planning and prognosis. To characterize and quantify the spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations in gliomas using measures based on T2*-weighted signal time-series and to distinguish between high- and low-grade gliomas. Retrospective. Twenty-one patients with high-grade and 13 patients with low-grade gliomas confirmed on histology were investigated. Dynamic T2*-weighted (multislice single-shot echo-planar-imaging) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 3T system with an 8-element receive-only head coil to measure the BOLD fluctuations. In addition, a dynamic T 1 -weighted (3D fast field echo) dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) perfusion scan was performed. Three BOLD measures were determined: the temporal shift (TS), amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF), and regional homogeneity (ReHo). DCE perfusion-based cerebral blood volume (CBV) and time-to-peak (TTP) maps were concurrently evaluated for comparison. An analysis-of-variance test was first used. When the test appeared significant, post-hoc analysis was performed using analysis-of-covariance with age as covariate. Logistic regression and receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis were also performed. TS was significantly advanced in high-grade gliomas compared to the contralateral cortex (P = 0.01) and low-grade gliomas (P = 0.009). In high-grade gliomas, ALFF and CBV were significantly higher than the contralateral cortex (P = 0.041 and P = 0.008, respectively) and low-grade gliomas (P = 0.036 and P = 0.01, respectively). ReHo and TTP did not show significant differences between high- and low-grade gliomas (P = 0.46 and P = 0.42, respectively). The area-under-curve was above 0.7 only for the TS, ALFF, and CBV measures. Advanced and amplified hemodynamic fluctuations manifest in high-grade gliomas, but not in low-grade gliomas, and can be assessed using BOLD

  10. Preclinical Pharmacological Evaluation of Letrozole as a Novel Treatment for Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Nimita; Chow, Lionel M.L.; Gudelsky, Gary A.; LaSance, Kathleen; Qi, Xiaoyang; Desai, Pankaj B.

    2015-01-01

    We present data that letrozole, an extensively used aromatase inhibitor in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast tumors in postmenopausal women, may be potentially used in the treatment of glioblastomas. First, we measured the in vitro cytotoxicity of letrozole and aromatase (CYP19A1) expression and activity in human LN229, T98G, U373MG, U251MG, and U87MG, and rat C6 glioma cell lines. Estrogen receptor (ER)positive MCF-7 and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells served as controls. Cytotoxicity was determined employing the MTT assay, and aromatase activity using an immunoassay that measures the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. Second, in vivo activity of letrozole was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats orthotopically implanted with C6 gliomas. The changes in tumor volume with letrozole treatment (4 mg/kg/day) were assessed employing μPET/CT imaging, employing [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (F18-FDG) as the radiotracer. Brain tissues were collected for histologic evaluations. All glioma cell lines included here expressed CYP19A1 and letrozole exerted considerable cytotoxicity and decrease in aromatase activity against these cells (IC50, 0.1–3.5 μmol/L). Imaging analysis employing F18-FDG μPET/CT demonstrated a marked reduction of active tumor volume (>75%) after 8 days of letrozole treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed marked reduction in aromatase expression in tumoral regions of the brain after letrozole treatment. Thus, employing multifaceted tools, we demonstrate that aromatase may be a novel target for the treatment of gliomas and that letrozole, an FDA-approved drug with an outstanding record of safety may be repurposed for the treatment of such primary brain tumors, which currently have few therapeutic options. PMID:25695958

  11. Preclinical pharmacological evaluation of letrozole as a novel treatment for gliomas.

    PubMed

    Dave, Nimita; Chow, Lionel M L; Gudelsky, Gary A; LaSance, Kathleen; Qi, Xiaoyang; Desai, Pankaj B

    2015-04-01

    We present data that letrozole, an extensively used aromatase inhibitor in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast tumors in postmenopausal women, may be potentially used in the treatment of glioblastomas. First, we measured the in vitro cytotoxicity of letrozole and aromatase (CYP19A1) expression and activity in human LN229, T98G, U373MG, U251MG, and U87MG, and rat C6 glioma cell lines. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells served as controls. Cytotoxicity was determined employing the MTT assay, and aromatase activity using an immunoassay that measures the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. Second, in vivo activity of letrozole was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats orthotopically implanted with C6 gliomas. The changes in tumor volume with letrozole treatment (4 mg/kg/day) were assessed employing μPET/CT imaging, employing [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (F18-FDG) as the radiotracer. Brain tissues were collected for histologic evaluations. All glioma cell lines included here expressed CYP19A1 and letrozole exerted considerable cytotoxicity and decrease in aromatase activity against these cells (IC50, 0.1-3.5 μmol/L). Imaging analysis employing F18-FDG μPET/CT demonstrated a marked reduction of active tumor volume (>75%) after 8 days of letrozole treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed marked reduction in aromatase expression in tumoral regions of the brain after letrozole treatment. Thus, employing multifaceted tools, we demonstrate that aromatase may be a novel target for the treatment of gliomas and that letrozole, an FDA-approved drug with an outstanding record of safety may be repurposed for the treatment of such primary brain tumors, which currently have few therapeutic options. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Mobile phone use and incidence of glioma in the Nordic countries 1979-2008: consistency check.

    PubMed

    Deltour, Isabelle; Auvinen, Anssi; Feychting, Maria; Johansen, Christoffer; Klaeboe, Lars; Sankila, Risto; Schüz, Joachim

    2012-03-01

    Some case-control studies have reported increased risks of glioma associated with mobile phone use. If true, this would ultimately affect the time trends for incidence rates (IRs). Correspondingly, lack of change in IRs would exclude certain magnitudes of risk. We investigated glioma IR trends in the Nordic countries, and compared the observed with expected incidence rates under various risk scenarios. We analyzed annual age-standardized incidence rates in men and women aged 20 to 79 years during 1979-2008 using joinpoint regression (35,250 glioma cases). Probabilities of detecting various levels of relative risk were computed using simulations. For the period 1979 through 2008, the annual percent change in incidence rates was 0.4% (95% confidence interval = 0.1% to 0.6%) among men and 0.3% (0.1% to 0.5%) among women. Incidence rates have decreased in young men (20-39 years) since 1987, remained stable in middle-aged men (40-59 years) throughout the 30-year study period, and increased slightly in older men (60-79 years). In simulations, assumed relative risks for all users of 2.0 for an induction time of up to 15 years, 1.5 for up to 10 years, and 1.2 for up to 5 years were incompatible with observed incidence time trends. For heavy users of mobile phones, risks of 2.0 for up to 5 years' induction were also incompatible. No clear trend change in glioma incidence rates was observed. Several of the risk increases seen in case-control studies appear to be incompatible with the observed lack of incidence rate increase in middle-aged men. This suggests longer induction periods than currently investigated, lower risks than reported from some case-control studies, or the absence of any association.

  13. GLISTR: Glioma Image Segmentation and Registration

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Kilian M.; Bilello, Michel; Cirillo, Luigi; Biros, George; Melhem, Elias R.; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    We present a generative approach for simultaneously registering a probabilistic atlas of a healthy population to brain magnetic resonance (MR) scans showing glioma and segmenting the scans into tumor as well as healthy tissue labels. The proposed method is based on the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm that incorporates a glioma growth model for atlas seeding, a process which modifies the original atlas into one with tumor and edema adapted to best match a given set of patient’s images. The modified atlas is registered into the patient space and utilized for estimating the posterior probabilities of various tissue labels. EM iteratively refines the estimates of the posterior probabilities of tissue labels, the deformation field and the tumor growth model parameters. Hence, in addition to segmentation, the proposed method results in atlas registration and a low-dimensional description of the patient scans through estimation of tumor model parameters. We validate the method by automatically segmenting 10 MR scans and comparing the results to those produced by clinical experts and two state-of-the-art methods. The resulting segmentations of tumor and edema outperform the results of the reference methods, and achieve a similar accuracy from a second human rater. We additionally apply the method to 122 patients scans and report the estimated tumor model parameters and their relations with segmentation and registration results. Based on the results from this patient population, we construct a statistical atlas of the glioma by inverting the estimated deformation fields to warp the tumor segmentations of patients scans into a common space. PMID:22907965

  14. Adoptive cell transfer therapy for malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Eiichi; Takano, Shingo; Ohno, Tadao; Tsuboi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To date, various adoptive immunotherapies have been attempted for treatment of malignant gliomas using nonspecific and/or specific effector cells. Since the late 1980s, with the development of rIL-2, the efficacy of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell therapy with or without rIL-2 for malignant gliomas had been tested with some modifications in therapeutic protocols. With advancements in technology, ex vivo expanded tumor specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) or those lineages were used in clinical trials with higher tumor response rates. In addition, combinations of those adoptive cell transfer using LAK cells, CTLs or natural killer (NK) cells with autologous tumor vaccine (ATV) therapy were attempted. Also, a strategy of high-dose (or lymphodepleting) chemotherapy followed by adoptive cell transfer has been drawing attentions recently. The most important role of these clinical studies using cell therapy was to prove that these ex vivo expanded effector cells could kill tumor cells in vivo. Although recent clinical results could demonstrate radiologic tumor shrinkage in a number of cases, cell transfer therapy alone has been utilized less frequently, because of the high cost of ex vivo cell expansion, the short duration of antitumor activity in vivo, and the recent shift of interest to vaccine immunotherapy. Nevertheless, NK cell therapy using specific feeder cells or allergenic NK cell lines have potentials to be a good choice of treatment because of easy ex vivo expansion and their efficacy especially when combined with vaccine therapy as they are complementary to each other. Also, further studies are expected to clarify the efficacy of the high-dose chemotherapy followed by a large scale cell transfer therapy as a new therapeutic strategy for malignant gliomas.

  15. Canine ocular gliomas: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Carolina; Schobert, Charles; Dubielzig, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to classify glial tumors observed in the canine retina and optic nerve, describe the histopathological features and provide prognostic information on these neoplasms. The database of the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (COPLOW) was searched to collect canine glioma cases. Clinical and follow-up information was gathered from submission forms and an extensive follow-up survey. Slides were reviewed to describe the histopathological characteristics of the neoplasm and classify them. Immunohistochemistry for Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) was performed in all cases. 18 canine glioma cases were found in the COPLOW database. There was no breed or gender predilection. The mean age was 9.33 +/- 3.67 years. Follow-up information was available for 12 dogs, 8 of which were dead at the time of most recent contact, with a survival time ranging from 0 days (globes received after euthanasia) up to 20 months post-enucleation. In 6 of the 8 dogs that had died during this stud), tumor extended to the margin where the optic nerve had been sectioned. Light microscopic examination of the optic nerve of the affected eyes of four dogs that were still alive during this study revealed no tumor at this surgical margin. One neoplasm was classified as low-grade astrocytoma, 5 tumors as medium-grade astrocytoma, 11 tumors as high grade-astrocytoma and 1 tumor as oligodendroglioma. GFAP was positive in all but two tumors. Retinal and optic nerve gliomas may be considered as differential diagnoses of intraocular and orbital masses. The metastatic potential appears to be low, but ascending invasion into the ventral aspect of the brain is possible.

  16. Dendritic Cell-Based Vaccines that Utilize Myeloid Rather than Plasmacytoid Cells Offer a Superior Survival Advantage in Malignant Glioma.

    PubMed

    Dey, Mahua; Chang, Alan L; Miska, Jason; Wainwright, Derek A; Ahmed, Atique U; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Pytel, Peter; Han, Yu; Tobias, Alex; Zhang, Lingjiao; Qiao, Jian; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2015-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional APCs that are traditionally divided into two distinct subsets, myeloid DC (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DC (pDCs). pDCs are known for their ability to secrete large amounts of IFN-α. Apart from IFN-α production, pDCs can also process Ag and induce T cell immunity or tolerance. In several solid tumors, pDCs have been shown to play a critical role in promoting tumor immunosuppression. We investigated the role of pDCs in the process of glioma progression in the syngeneic murine model of glioma. We show that glioma-infiltrating pDCs are the major APC in glioma and are deficient in IFN-α secretion (p < 0.05). pDC depletion leads to increased survival of the mice bearing intracranial tumor by decreasing the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and by decreasing the suppressive capabilities of Tregs. We subsequently compared the ability of mDCs and pDCs to generate effective antiglioma immunity in a GL261-OVA mouse model of glioma. Our data suggest that mature pDCs and mDCs isolated from naive mice can be effectively activated and loaded with SIINFEKL Ag in vitro. Upon intradermal injection in the hindleg, a fraction of both types of DCs migrate to the brain and lymph nodes. Compared to mice vaccinated with pDC or control mice, mice vaccinated with mDCs generate a robust Th1 type immune response, characterized by high frequency of CD4(+)T-bet(+) T cells and CD8(+)SIINFEKEL(+) T cells. This robust antitumor T cell response results in tumor eradication and long-term survival in 60% of the animals (p < 0.001). Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Nuclear and cytoplasmic delivery of lactoferrin in glioma using chitosan nanoparticles: Cellular location dependent-action of lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Tammam, Salma N; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Lamprecht, Alf

    2018-08-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) exerts anti-cancer effects on glioma, however, the exact mechanism remains unclear. Despite possessing a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), Lf was found to allocate only in the cytoplasm of glioma 261. Lf was therefore loaded into nuclear and cytoplasmic targeted nanoparticles (NPs) to determine whether nuclear delivery of Lf would enhance its anti-cancer effect. Upon treatment with 300 and 800 µg/mL Lf loaded chitosan NPs, nuclear targeted Lf-NPs showed 1.3 and 2.7 folds increase in cell viability, whereas cytoplasmic targeted Lf-NPs at 300 µg/mL decreased cell viability by 0.8 folds in comparison to free Lf and controls. Results suggest that the cytotoxicity of Lf on glioma is attributable to its cytoplasmic allocation. Nuclear delivery of Lf induced cell proliferation rather than cytotoxicity, indicating that the mode of action of Lf in glioma is cell location dependent. This calls for caution about the general use of Lf as an anti-cancer protein. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Genetic variants in telomerase-related genes are associated with an older age at diagnosis in glioma patients: evidence for distinct pathways of gliomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kyle M; Rice, Terri; Decker, Paul A; Kosel, Matthew L; Kollmeyer, Thomas; Hansen, Helen M; Zheng, Shichun; McCoy, Lucie S; Bracci, Paige M; Anderson, Erik; Hsuang, George; Wiemels, Joe L; Pico, Alexander R; Smirnov, Ivan; Molinaro, Annette M; Tihan, Tarik; Berger, Mitchell S; Chang, Susan M; Prados, Michael D; Lachance, Daniel H; Sicotte, Hugues; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Wiencke, John K; Jenkins, Robert B; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2013-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 genes as glioma risk factors, including 2 (TERT, RTEL1) involved in telomerase structure/function. We examined associations of these 7 established glioma risk loci with age at diagnosis among patients with glioma. SNP genotype data were available for 2286 Caucasian glioma patients from the University of California, San Francisco (n = 1434) and the Mayo Clinic (n = 852). Regression analyses were performed to test for associations between "number of risk alleles" and "age at diagnosis," adjusted for sex and study site and stratified by tumor grade/histology where appropriate. Four SNPs were significantly associated with age at diagnosis. Carrying a greater number of risk alleles at rs55705857 (CCDC26) and at rs498872 (PHLDB1) was associated with younger age at diagnosis (P = 1.4 × 10(-22) and P = 9.5 × 10(-7), respectively). These SNPs are stronger risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors, which tend to occur in younger patients, and their association with age at diagnosis varied across tumor subtypes. In contrast, carrying more risk alleles at rs2736100 (TERT) and at rs6010620 (RTEL1) was associated with older age at diagnosis (P = 6.2 × 10(-4) and P = 2.5 × 10(-4), respectively). These SNPs are risk factors for all glioma grades/histologies, and their association with age at diagnosis was consistent across tumor subgroups. Carrying a greater number of risk alleles might be expected to decrease age at diagnosis. However, glioma susceptibility conferred by variation in telomerase-related genes did not follow this pattern. This supports the hypothesis that telomerase-related mechanisms of telomere maintenance are more associated with gliomas that develop later in life than those utilizing telomerase-independent mechanisms (ie, alternative lengthening of telomeres).

  19. Genetic variants in telomerase-related genes are associated with an older age at diagnosis in glioma patients: evidence for distinct pathways of gliomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kyle M.; Rice, Terri; Decker, Paul A.; Kosel, Matthew L.; Kollmeyer, Thomas; Hansen, Helen M.; Zheng, Shichun; McCoy, Lucie S.; Bracci, Paige M.; Anderson, Erik; Hsuang, George; Wiemels, Joe L.; Pico, Alexander R.; Smirnov, Ivan; Molinaro, Annette M.; Tihan, Tarik; Berger, Mitchell S.; Chang, Susan M.; Prados, Michael D.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Sicotte, Hugues; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; Wiencke, John K.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Wrensch, Margaret R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have implicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 genes as glioma risk factors, including 2 (TERT, RTEL1) involved in telomerase structure/function. We examined associations of these 7 established glioma risk loci with age at diagnosis among patients with glioma. Methods SNP genotype data were available for 2286 Caucasian glioma patients from the University of California, San Francisco (n = 1434) and the Mayo Clinic (n = 852). Regression analyses were performed to test for associations between “number of risk alleles” and “age at diagnosis,” adjusted for sex and study site and stratified by tumor grade/histology where appropriate. Results Four SNPs were significantly associated with age at diagnosis. Carrying a greater number of risk alleles at rs55705857 (CCDC26) and at rs498872 (PHLDB1) was associated with younger age at diagnosis (P = 1.4 × 10−22 and P = 9.5 × 10−7, respectively). These SNPs are stronger risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors, which tend to occur in younger patients, and their association with age at diagnosis varied across tumor subtypes. In contrast, carrying more risk alleles at rs2736100 (TERT) and at rs6010620 (RTEL1) was associated with older age at diagnosis (P = 6.2 × 10−4 and P = 2.5 × 10−4, respectively). These SNPs are risk factors for all glioma grades/histologies, and their association with age at diagnosis was consistent across tumor subgroups. Conclusions Carrying a greater number of risk alleles might be expected to decrease age at diagnosis. However, glioma susceptibility conferred by variation in telomerase-related genes did not follow this pattern. This supports the hypothesis that telomerase-related mechanisms of telomere maintenance are more associated with gliomas that develop later in life than those utilizing telomerase-independent mechanisms (ie, alternative lengthening of telomeres). PMID:23733245

  20. A Pilot Feasibility Study of Oral 5-Fluorocytosine and Genetically-Modified Neural Stem Cells Expressing E.Coli Cytosine Deaminase for Treatment of Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-07

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Grade III Glioma; Recurrent Grade IV Glioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent High Grade Glioma

  1. Tipifarnib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Progressive High-Grade Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, or Brain Stem Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  2. Proteomics of gliomas: Initial biomarker discovery and evolution of technology

    PubMed Central

    Kalinina, Juliya; Peng, Junmin; Ritchie, James C.; Van Meir, Erwin G.

    2011-01-01

    Gliomas are a group of aggressive brain tumors that diffusely infiltrate adjacent brain tissues, rendering them largely incurable, even with multiple treatment modalities and agents. Mostly asymptomatic at early stages, they present in several subtypes with astrocytic or oligodendrocytic features and invariably progress to malignant forms. Gliomas are difficult to classify precisely because of interobserver variability during histopathologic grading. Identifying biological signatures of each glioma subtype through protein biomarker profiling of tumor or tumor-proximal fluids is therefore of high priority. Such profiling not only may provide clues regarding tumor classification but may identify clinical biomarkers and pathologic targets for the development of personalized treatments. In the past decade, differential proteomic profiling techniques have utilized tumor, cerebrospinal fluid, and plasma from glioma patients to identify the first candidate diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and therapeutic response markers, highlighting the potential for glioma biomarker discovery. The number of markers identified, however, has been limited, their reproducibility between studies is unclear, and none have been validated for clinical use. Recent technological advancements in methodologies for high-throughput profiling, which provide easy access, rapid screening, low sample consumption, and accurate protein identification, are anticipated to accelerate brain tumor biomarker discovery. Reliable tools for biomarker verification forecast translation of the biomarkers into clinical diagnostics in the foreseeable future. Herein we update the reader on the recent trends and directions in glioma proteomics, including key findings and established and emerging technologies for analysis, together with challenges we are still facing in identifying and verifying potential glioma biomarkers. PMID:21852429

  3. Management of venous thromboembolism in patients with glioma.

    PubMed

    Al Megren, Mosaad; De Wit, Carine; Al Qahtani, Mohammad; Le Gal, Grégoire; Carrier, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication among patients with glioma. However, data on the safety of therapeutic doses of anticoagulation is scarce in this patient population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in glioma patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation for VTE treatment. We conducted a case-control study including glioma patients with and without acute VTE from Jan 2010 to March 2015. Controls were matched based on age, gender and tumor grade. 569 patients with glioma were identified, 76 (13.3%) developed acute VTE. Of the 70 patients treated with full dose anticoagulant therapy, 14 (20%) patients had a major bleeding including 11 (15.7%) ICH. The odds ratio for ICH in patients with glioma and VTE who were treated with anticoagulation compared to the control group was 7.5 (95% CI, 1.6-34.9) p=0.01. Overall survival was similar for VTE and control group (36 vs. 42months, p=0.93). Therapeutic anticoagulation is associated with a 7-fold increase risk of ICH in glioma patients. Data emerging from this study support the need for high quality studies to evaluate the risk of ICH in patients with glioma and VTE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Glioma epidemiology in the central Tunisian population: 1993-2012.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Saoussen; Brahim, Dorra H'mida-Ben; Ladib, Mohamed; Mama, Nadia; Harrabi, Imed; Tlili, Kalthoum; Yacoubi, Mohamed Tahar; Krifa, Hedi; Hmissa, Sihem; Saad, Ali; Mokni, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Glioma is a heterogeneous central nervous system (CNS) tumor group that encompasses different histological subtypes with high variability in prognosis. The lesions account for almost 80% of primary malignant brain tumors. The aim of this study is to extend our understanding of the glioma epidemiology in the central Tunisian region. We analyzed 393 gliomas recorded in cancer registry of central Tunisia from 1993 to 2012. Crude incidence rates (CR) and world age-standardized rates (ASR) were estimated using annual population data size and age structure. Statistic correlations were established using Chi-square and Kaplan-Meier test. Tunisian glioma patients were identified with a mean age at diagnosis of 48 years and 1.5 sex ratio (male/female). During the 19 years period of study the highest incidence value was observed in male group between 1998 and 2002 (CR: 0.28, ASR: 0.3). Incidence results underline increasing high grade glioma occurring in the adulthood in the last period (2007-2012). Median survival was 27 months, with 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates of 42%, 30% and 26%, respectively. Survival was greater in patients with younger age, lower tumor grade, infratentrial tumor location and undergoing a palliative treatment. This central Tunisia gliomas registry study provides important information that could improve glioma management and healthcare practice.

  5. The 1p-encoded protein stathmin and resistance of malignant gliomas to nitrosoureas.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Teri-T B; Peng, Tien; Liang, Xing-Jie; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Pastorino, Sandra; Zhang, Wei; Kotliarov, Yuri; Zenklusen, Jean C; Fine, Howard A; Maric, Dragan; Wen, Patrick Y; De Girolami, Umberto; Black, Peter McL; Wu, Wells W; Shen, Rong-Fong; Jeffries, Neal O; Kang, Dong-Won; Park, John K

    2007-04-18

    Malignant gliomas are generally resistant to all conventional therapies. Notable exceptions are anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 1p (1p+/-). Patients with 1p+/- anaplastic oligodendroglioma frequently respond to procarbazine, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-l-nitrosourea, and vincristine. Because the underlying biologic basis for this clinical finding is unclear, we evaluated differentially expressed 1p-encoded proteins in 1p+/- and 1p+/+ malignant glioma cell lines and then examined whether their expression was associated with outcome of patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma. We used a comparative proteomic screen of A172 (1p+/-) and U251 (1p+/+) malignant glioma cell lines to identify differentially expressed 1p-encoded proteins, including stathmin, a microtubule-associated protein. 1p+/- and 1p+/+ anaplastic oligodendroglioma specimens from 24 patients were assessed for stathmin expression by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between stathmin expression and clinical outcome was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analyses. RNA inhibition and cDNA transfection experiments tested effects of stathmin under- and overexpression, respectively, on the in vitro and in vivo resistance of malignant glioma cells to treatment with nitrosourea. For in vivo resistance studies, 36 mice with intracranial and 16 mice with subcutaneous xenograft tumor implants were used (one tumor per mouse). Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis. Immunoblotting was used to assess protein expression. All statistical tests were two-sided. Decreased stathmin expression in tumors was statistically significantly associated with loss of heterozygosity in 1p (P<.001) and increased recurrence-free survival (P<.001). The median recurrence-free survival times for patients with tumors expressing low, intermediate, or high stathmin levels were 45 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0 to 90 months), 17 months (95% CI = 10.6 to 23.4 months), and 6 months (95

  6. Epstein–Barr Virus in Gliomas: Cause, Association, or Artifact?

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saghir; Vranic, Semir; Cyprian, Farhan Sachal; Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin

    2018-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common malignant brain tumors and account for around 60% of all primary central nervous system cancers. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a grade IV glioma associated with a poor outcome despite recent advances in chemotherapy. The etiology of gliomas is unknown, but neurotropic viruses including the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) that is transmitted via salivary and genital fluids have been implicated recently. EBV is a member of the gamma herpes simplex family of DNA viruses that is known to cause infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever) and is strongly linked with the oncogenesis of several cancers, including B-cell lymphomas, nasopharyngeal, and gastric carcinomas. The fact that EBV is thought to be the causative agent for primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas in immune-deficient patients has led to its investigations in other brain tumors including gliomas. Here, we provide a review of the clinical literature pertaining to EBV in gliomas and discuss the possibilities of this virus being simply associative, causative, or even an experimental artifact. We searched the PubMed/MEDLINE databases using the following key words such as: glioma(s), glioblastoma multiforme, brain tumors/cancers, EBV, and neurotropic viruses. Our literature analysis indicates conflicting results on the presence and role of EBV in gliomas. Further comprehensive studies are needed to fully implicate EBV in gliomagenesis and oncomodulation. Understanding the role of EBV and other oncoviruses in the etiology of gliomas, would likely open up new avenues for the treatment and management of these, often fatal, CNS tumors. PMID:29732319

  7. Association between adult height, genetic susceptibility and risk of glioma

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Cari M; Wang, Sophia S; Melin, Beatrice S; Wang, Zhaoming; Braganza, Melissa; Inskip, Peter D; Albanes, Demetrius; Andersson, Ulrika; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Buring, Julie E; Carreón, Tania; Feychting, Maria; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E; Henriksson, Roger; Hsing, Ann W; Johansen, Christoffer; Linet, Martha S; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Michaud, Dominique S; Peters, Ulrike; Purdue, Mark P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M; Sesso, Howard D; Severi, Gianluca; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Stevens, Victoria L; Visvanathan, Kala; Waters, Martha A; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Hoover, Robert; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J; Hartge, Patricia; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2012-01-01

    Background Some, but not all, observational studies have suggested that taller stature is associated with a significant increased risk of glioma. In a pooled analysis of observational studies, we investigated the strength and consistency of this association, overall and for major sub-types, and investigated effect modification by genetic susceptibility to the disease. Methods We standardized and combined individual-level data on 1354 cases and 4734 control subjects from 13 prospective and 2 case–control studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for glioma and glioma sub-types were estimated using logistic regression models stratified by sex and adjusted for birth cohort and study. Pooled ORs were additionally estimated after stratifying the models according to seven recently identified glioma-related genetic variants. Results Among men, we found a positive association between height and glioma risk (≥190 vs 170–174 cm, pooled OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.11–2.61; P-trend = 0.01), which was slightly stronger after restricting to cases with glioblastoma (pooled OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.17–3.38; P-trend = 0.02). Among women, these associations were less clear (≥175 vs 160–164 cm, pooled OR for glioma = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.70–1.62; P-trend = 0.22; pooled OR for glioblastoma = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.77–2.39; P-trend = 0.04). In general, we did not observe evidence of effect modification by glioma-related genotypes on the association between height and glioma risk. Conclusion An association of taller adult stature with glioma, particularly for men and stronger for glioblastoma, should be investigated further to clarify the role of environmental and genetic determinants of height in the etiology of this disease. PMID:22933650

  8. Association between adult height, genetic susceptibility and risk of glioma.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Cari M; Wang, Sophia S; Melin, Beatrice S; Wang, Zhaoming; Braganza, Melissa; Inskip, Peter D; Albanes, Demetrius; Andersson, Ulrika; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Buring, Julie E; Carreón, Tania; Feychting, Maria; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E; Henriksson, Roger; Hsing, Ann W; Johansen, Christoffer; Linet, Martha S; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Michaud, Dominique S; Peters, Ulrike; Purdue, Mark P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M; Sesso, Howard D; Severi, Gianluca; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Stevens, Victoria L; Visvanathan, Kala; Waters, Martha A; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Hoover, Robert; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J; Hartge, Patricia; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2012-08-01

    Some, but not all, observational studies have suggested that taller stature is associated with a significant increased risk of glioma. In a pooled analysis of observational studies, we investigated the strength and consistency of this association, overall and for major sub-types, and investigated effect modification by genetic susceptibility to the disease. We standardized and combined individual-level data on 1354 cases and 4734 control subjects from 13 prospective and 2 case-control studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for glioma and glioma sub-types were estimated using logistic regression models stratified by sex and adjusted for birth cohort and study. Pooled ORs were additionally estimated after stratifying the models according to seven recently identified glioma-related genetic variants. Among men, we found a positive association between height and glioma risk (≥ 190 vs 170-174 cm, pooled OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.11-2.61; P-trend = 0.01), which was slightly stronger after restricting to cases with glioblastoma (pooled OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.17-3.38; P-trend = 0.02). Among women, these associations were less clear (≥ 175 vs 160-164 cm, pooled OR for glioma = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.70-1.62; P-trend = 0.22; pooled OR for glioblastoma = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.77-2.39; P-trend = 0.04). In general, we did not observe evidence of effect modification by glioma-related genotypes on the association between height and glioma risk. An association of taller adult stature with glioma, particularly for men and stronger for glioblastoma, should be investigated further to clarify the role of environmental and genetic determinants of height in the etiology of this disease.

  9. A Novel Candidate Molecule in Pathological Grading Of Gliomas: ELABELA.

    PubMed

    Artas, Gokhan; Ozturk, Sait; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Dagli, Adile Ferda; Gonen, Murat; Artas, Hakan; Aydin, Suleyman; Erol, Fatih Serhat

    2018-04-06

    This study aimed to investigate the possible role of ELABELA (ELA) in the histopathological grading of gliomas. We retrospectively assessed pathological specimens of patients who underwent surgery for intracranial space-occupying lesions. Only primary glioma specimens were included in this study. We enrolled 11 patients histologically diagnosed with low-grade glioma and 22 patients with high-grade glioma. The ELA antibody was applied to 4-6-µm-thick sections obtained from paraffin blocks. Histoscores were calculated using the distribution and intensity of staining immunoreactivity. An independent sample t-test was used for two-point inter-group assessments, whereas one-way analysis of variance was used for the other assessments. P 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The histoscores of the control brain, low-grade glioma, and high-grade glioma tissues were found to be 0.08, 0.37, and 0.92, respectively. The difference in ELA immunoreactivity between the control brain tissue and glioma tissue was statistically significant (p 0.05). In addition, a statistically significant increase was observed in ELA immunoreactivity in high-grade glioma tissues compared with that in low-grade glioma tissues (p 0.05). ELA has an angiogenetic role in the progression of glial tumors. ELA, which is an endogenous ligand of the apelin receptor, activates the apelinergic system and causes the progression of glial tumors. Further studies with a large number of patients are necessary to investigate the angiogenetic role of ELA in glial tumors.

  10. Comprehensive, Integrative Genomic Analysis of Diffuse Lower-Grade Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Brat, Daniel J; Verhaak, Roel G W; Aldape, Kenneth D; Yung, W K Alfred; Salama, Sofie R; Cooper, Lee A D; Rheinbay, Esther; Miller, C Ryan; Vitucci, Mark; Morozova, Olena; Robertson, A Gordon; Noushmehr, Houtan; Laird, Peter W; Cherniack, Andrew D; Akbani, Rehan; Huse, Jason T; Ciriello, Giovanni; Poisson, Laila M; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Berger, Mitchel S; Brennan, Cameron; Colen, Rivka R; Colman, Howard; Flanders, Adam E; Giannini, Caterina; Grifford, Mia; Iavarone, Antonio; Jain, Rajan; Joseph, Isaac; Kim, Jaegil; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mikkelsen, Tom; Murray, Bradley A; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Pachter, Lior; Parsons, Donald W; Sougnez, Carrie; Sulman, Erik P; Vandenberg, Scott R; Van Meir, Erwin G; von Deimling, Andreas; Zhang, Hailei; Crain, Daniel; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Yena, Peggy; Black, Aaron; Bowen, Jay; Dicostanzo, Katie; Gastier-Foster, Julie; Leraas, Kristen M; Lichtenberg, Tara M; Pierson, Christopher R; Ramirez, Nilsa C; Taylor, Cynthia; Weaver, Stephanie; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A; Eley, Greg; Ferguson, Martin L; Hutter, Carolyn M; Mills Shaw, Kenna R; Ozenberger, Bradley A; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Ayala, Brenda; Baboud, Julien; Chudamani, Sudha; Jensen, Mark A; Liu, Jia; Pihl, Todd; Raman, Rohini; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Ally, Adrian; Auman, J Todd; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Baylin, Stephen B; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bootwalla, Moiz S; Bowlby, Reanne; Bristow, Christopher A; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott; Chin, Lynda; Chu, Andy; Chuah, Eric; Cibulskis, Kristian; Clarke, Amanda; Coetzee, Simon G; Dhalla, Noreen; Fennell, Tim; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Gibbs, Richard; Guin, Ranabir; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Hayes, D Neil; Hinoue, Toshinori; Hoadley, Katherine; Holt, Robert A; Hoyle, Alan P; Jefferys, Stuart R; Jones, Steven; Jones, Corbin D; Kucherlapati, Raju; Lai, Phillip H; Lander, Eric; Lee, Semin; Lichtenstein, Lee; Ma, Yussanne; Maglinte, Dennis T; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S; Marra, Marco A; Mayo, Michael; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew L; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Moore, Richard A; Mose, Lisle E; Mungall, Andrew J; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Park, Peter J; Parker, Joel S; Perou, Charles M; Protopopov, Alexei; Ren, Xiaojia; Roach, Jeffrey; Sabedot, Thaís S; Schein, Jacqueline; Schumacher, Steven E; Seidman, Jonathan G; Seth, Sahil; Shen, Hui; Simons, Janae V; Sipahimalani, Payal; Soloway, Matthew G; Song, Xingzhi; Sun, Huandong; Tabak, Barbara; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Tang, Jiabin; Thiessen, Nina; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Waring, Scot; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Wong, Tina; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Xu, Andrew W; Yang, Lixing; Zack, Travis I; Zhang, Jianhua; Aksoy, B Arman; Arachchi, Harindra; Benz, Chris; Bernard, Brady; Carlin, Daniel; Cho, Juok; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fuller, Gregory N; Gao, JianJiong; Gehlenborg, Nils; Haussler, David; Heiman, David I; Iype, Lisa; Jacobsen, Anders; Ju, Zhenlin; Katzman, Sol; Kim, Hoon; Knijnenburg, Theo; Kreisberg, Richard Bailey; Lawrence, Michael S; Lee, William; Leinonen, Kalle; Lin, Pei; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yingchun; Liu, Yuexin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Ng, Sam; Noble, Michael S; Paull, Evan; Rao, Arvind; Reynolds, Sheila; Saksena, Gordon; Sanborn, Zack; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Shen, Ronglai; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sinha, Rileen; Stuart, Josh; Sumer, S Onur; Sun, Yichao; Tasman, Natalie; Taylor, Barry S; Voet, Doug; Weinhold, Nils; Weinstein, John N; Yang, Da; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Zheng, Siyuan; Zhang, Wei; Zou, Lihua; Abel, Ty; Sadeghi, Sara; Cohen, Mark L; Eschbacher, Jenny; Hattab, Eyas M; Raghunathan, Aditya; Schniederjan, Matthew J; Aziz, Dina; Barnett, Gene; Barrett, Wendi; Bigner, Darell D; Boice, Lori; Brewer, Cathy; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Campos, Benito; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Chan, Timothy A; Cuppini, Lucia; Curley, Erin; Cuzzubbo, Stefania; Devine, Karen; DiMeco, Francesco; Duell, Rebecca; Elder, J Bradley; Fehrenbach, Ashley; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Friedman, William; Fulop, Jordonna; Gardner, Johanna; Hermes, Beth; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jungk, Christine; Kendler, Ady; Lehman, Norman L; Lipp, Eric; Liu, Ouida; Mandt, Randy; McGraw, Mary; Mclendon, Roger; McPherson, Christopher; Neder, Luciano; Nguyen, Phuong; Noss, Ardene; Nunziata, Raffaele; Ostrom, Quinn T; Palmer, Cheryl; Perin, Alessandro; Pollo, Bianca; Potapov, Alexander; Potapova, Olga; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Rotin, Daniil; Scarpace, Lisa; Schilero, Cathy; Senecal, Kelly; Shimmel, Kristen; Shurkhay, Vsevolod; Sifri, Suzanne; Singh, Rosy; Sloan, Andrew E; Smolenski, Kathy; Staugaitis, Susan M; Steele, Ruth; Thorne, Leigh; Tirapelli, Daniela P C; Unterberg, Andreas; Vallurupalli, Mahitha; Wang, Yun; Warnick, Ronald; Williams, Felicia; Wolinsky, Yingli; Bell, Sue; Rosenberg, Mara; Stewart, Chip; Huang, Franklin; Grimsby, Jonna L; Radenbaugh, Amie J; Zhang, Jianan

    2015-06-25

    Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by interobserver variability in histologic diagnosis. Mutations in IDH, TP53, and ATRX and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion) have been implicated as clinically relevant markers of lower-grade gliomas. We performed genomewide analyses of 293 lower-grade gliomas from adults, incorporating exome sequence, DNA copy number, DNA methylation, messenger RNA expression, microRNA expression, and targeted protein expression. These data were integrated and tested for correlation with clinical outcomes. Unsupervised clustering of mutations and data from RNA, DNA-copy-number, and DNA-methylation platforms uncovered concordant classification of three robust, nonoverlapping, prognostically significant subtypes of lower-grade glioma that were captured more accurately by IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than by histologic class. Patients who had lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion had the most favorable clinical outcomes. Their gliomas harbored mutations in CIC, FUBP1, NOTCH1, and the TERT promoter. Nearly all lower-grade gliomas with IDH mutations and no 1p/19q codeletion had mutations in TP53 (94%) and ATRX inactivation (86%). The large majority of lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation had genomic aberrations and clinical behavior strikingly similar to those found in primary glioblastoma. The integration of genomewide data from multiple platforms delineated three molecular classes of lower-grade gliomas that were more concordant with IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than with histologic class. Lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation either had 1p/19q codeletion or carried a TP53 mutation. Most

  11. Current state and future prospects of immunotherapy for glioma.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Neha; Alghamri, Mahmoud S; Nunez, Felipe J; Shah, Diana; Asad, Antonela S; Candolfi, Marianela; Altshuler, David; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2018-02-01

    There is a large unmet need for effective therapeutic approaches for glioma, the most malignant brain tumor. Clinical and preclinical studies have enormously expanded our knowledge about the molecular aspects of this deadly disease and its interaction with the host immune system. In this review we highlight the wide array of immunotherapeutic interventions that are currently being tested in glioma patients. Given the molecular heterogeneity, tumor immunoediting and the profound immunosuppression that characterize glioma, it has become clear that combinatorial approaches targeting multiple pathways tailored to the genetic signature of the tumor will be required in order to achieve optimal therapeutic efficacy.

  12. Enhanced Anti-Tumor Effect of Zoledronic Acid Combined with Temozolomide against Human Malignant Glioma Cell Expressing O6-Methylguanine DNA Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Fukai, Junya; Koizumi, Fumiaki; Nakao, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ), a DNA methylating agent, is widely used in the adjuvant treatment of malignant gliomas. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltranferase (MGMT), a DNA repair enzyme, is frequently discussed as the main factor that limits the efficacy of TMZ. Zoledronic acid (ZOL), which is clinically applied to treat cancer-induced bone diseases, appears to possess direct anti-tumor activity through apoptosis induction by inhibiting mevalonate pathway and prenylation of intracellular small G proteins. In this study, we evaluated whether ZOL can be effectively used as an adjuvant to TMZ in human malignant glioma cells that express MGMT. Malignant glioma cell lines, in which the expression of MGMT was detected, did not exhibit growth inhibition by TMZ even at a longer exposure. However, combination experiment of TMZ plus ZOL revealed that a supra-additive effect resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth. In combined TMZ/ZOL treatment, an increased apoptotic rate was apparent and significant activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase were observed compared with each single drug exposure. There were decreased amounts of Ras-GTP, MAPK and Akt phosphorylation and MGMT expression in the ZOL-treated cells. Subcutanous xenograft models showed significant decrease of tumor growth with combined TMZ/ZOL treatment. These results suggest that ZOL efficaciously inhibits activity of Ras in malignant glioma cells and potentiates TMZ-mediated cytotoxicity, inducing growth inhibition and apoptosis of malignant glioma cells that express MGMT and resistant to TMZ. Based on this work, combination of TMZ with ZOL might be a potential therapy in malignant gliomas that receive less therapeutic effects of TMZ due to cell resistance. PMID:25111384

  13. Semiautomatic Segmentation of Glioma on Mobile Devices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Yu-Song; Wu, Wei-Guo; Yang, Cong; Gu, Jian-Qin; Bai, Yan; Wang, Mei-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Brain tumor segmentation is the first and the most critical step in clinical applications of radiomics. However, segmenting brain images by radiologists is labor intense and prone to inter- and intraobserver variability. Stable and reproducible brain image segmentation algorithms are thus important for successful tumor detection in radiomics. In this paper, we propose a supervised brain image segmentation method, especially for magnetic resonance (MR) brain images with glioma. This paper uses hard edge multiplicative intrinsic component optimization to preprocess glioma medical image on the server side, and then, the doctors could supervise the segmentation process on mobile devices in their convenient time. Since the preprocessed images have the same brightness for the same tissue voxels, they have small data size (typically 1/10 of the original image size) and simple structure of 4 types of intensity value. This observation thus allows follow-up steps to be processed on mobile devices with low bandwidth and limited computing performance. Experiments conducted on 1935 brain slices from 129 patients show that more than 30% of the sample can reach 90% similarity; over 60% of the samples can reach 85% similarity, and more than 80% of the sample could reach 75% similarity. The comparisons with other segmentation methods also demonstrate both efficiency and stability of the proposed approach.

  14. Gene Therapy and Targeted Toxins for Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Maria G.; Candolfi, Marianela; Kroeger, Kurt; King, Gwendalyn D.; Curtin, James F.; Yagiz, Kader; Mineharu, Yohei; Assi, Hikmat; Wibowo, Mia; Muhammad, AKM Ghulam; Foulad, David; Puntel, Mariana; Lowenstein, Pedro R.

    2011-01-01

    The most common primary brain tumor in adults is glioblastoma. These tumors are highly invasive and aggressive with a mean survival time of nine to twelve months from diagnosis to death. Current treatment modalities are unable to significantly prolong survival in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma. As such, glioma is an attractive target for developing novel therapeutic approaches utilizing gene therapy. This review will examine the available preclinical models for glioma including xenographs, syngeneic and genetic models. Several promising therapeutic targets are currently being pursued in pre-clinical investigations. These targets will be reviewed by mechanism of action, i.e., conditional cytotoxic, targeted toxins, oncolytic viruses, tumor suppressors/oncogenes, and immune stimulatory approaches. Preclinical gene therapy paradigms aim to determine which strategies will provide rapid tumor regression and long-term protection from recurrence. While a wide range of potential targets are being investigated preclinically, only the most efficacious are further transitioned into clinical trial paradigms. Clinical trials reported to date are summarized including results from conditionally cytotoxic, targeted toxins, oncolytic viruses and oncogene targeting approaches. Clinical trial results have not been as robust as preclinical models predicted; this could be due to the limitations of the GBM models employed. Once this is addressed, and we develop effective gene therapies in models that better replicate the clinical scenario, gene therapy will provide a powerful approach to treat and manage brain tumors. PMID:21453286

  15. Olaparib in Treating Patients With Advanced Glioma, Cholangiocarcinoma, or Solid Tumors With IDH1 or IDH2 Mutations

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-13

    Advanced Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Glioblastoma; IDH1 Gene Mutation; IDH2 Gene Mutation; Recurrent Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Glioma; Recurrent Malignant Solid Neoplasm; WHO Grade II Glioma; WHO Grade III Glioma

  16. Exploring the regulatory role of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant protein on glioma stem cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lu, H-C; Ma, J; Zhuang, Z; Qiu, F; Cheng, H-L; Shi, J-X

    2016-08-01

    Glioma is the most lethal form of cancer that originates mostly from the brain and less frequently from the spine. Glioma is characterized by abnormal regulation of glial cell differentiation. The severity of the glioma was found to be relaxed in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutant. The present study focused on histological discrimination and regulation of cancer stem cell between IDH1 mutant and in non-IDH1 mutant glioma tissue. Histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting techniques are used to analyze the glioma nature and variation in glioma stem cells that differ between IDH1 mutant and in non-IDH1 mutant glioma tissue. The aggressive form of non-IDH1 mutant glioma shows abnormal cellular histological variation with prominent larger nucleus along with abnormal clustering of cells. The longer survival form of IDH1 mutant glioma has a control over glioma stem cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry with stem cell markers, CD133 and EGFRvIII are used to demonstrate that the IDH1 mutant glioma shows limited dependence on cancer stem cells and it shows marked apoptotic signals in TUNEL assay to regulate abnormal cells. The non-IDH1 mutant glioma failed to regulate misbehaving cells and it promotes cancer stem cell proliferation. Our finding supports that the IDH1 mutant glioma has a regulatory role in glioma stem cells and their survival.

  17. Knockdown of long non-coding RNA XIST increases blood–tumor barrier permeability and inhibits glioma angiogenesis by targeting miR-137

    PubMed Central

    Yu, H; Xue, Y; Wang, P; Liu, X; Ma, J; Zheng, J; Li, Z; Li, Z; Cai, H; Liu, Y

    2017-01-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy plays a significant role in combined glioma treatment. However, poor permeability of the blood–tumor barrier (BTB) limits the transport of chemotherapeutic agents, including antiangiogenic drugs, into tumor tissues. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in various diseases, especially malignant tumors. The present study found that lncRNA X-inactive-specific transcript (XIST) was upregulated in endothelial cells that were obtained in a BTB model in vitro. XIST knockdown increased BTB permeability and inhibited glioma angiogenesis. The analysis of the mechanism of action revealed that the reduction of XIST inhibited the expression of the transcription factor forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) and zonula occludens 2 (ZO-2) by upregulating miR-137. FOXC1 decreased BTB permeability by increasing the promoter activity and expression of ZO-1 and occludin, and promoted glioma angiogenesis by increasing the promoter activity and expression of chemokine (C–X–C motif) receptor 7b (CXCR7). Overall, the present study demonstrates that XIST plays a pivotal role in BTB permeability and glioma angiogenesis, and the inhibition of XIST may be a potential target for the clinical management of glioma. PMID:28287613

  18. Nectin-like molecule 1 inhibits the migration and invasion of U251 glioma cells by regulating the expression of an extracellular matrix protein osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bin; Li, Ke-han; An, Tai; Chen, Tao; Peng, Xiao-zhong

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism of nectin-like molecule 1 (NECL1) inhibiting the migration and invasion of U251 glioma cells. We infected U251 glioma cells with adeno-nectin-like molecule 1 (Ad-NECL1) or empty adenovirus (Ad). Transwell and wound healing assays were performed to observe the migration of U251 cells incubated with the cell supernatant from Ad-NECL1 or Ad infected U251 cells. DNA microarray was applied to screen the gene expression profile after the restoration of NECL1 in U251 glioma cell lines. The differential expression of osteopontin (OPN), a gene related to migration and invasion, was further analyzed with semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The restoration of NECL1 inhibited migration of U251 cells significantly (P<0.05). Altogether 195 genes were found differentially expressed by microarray, in which 175 were up-regulated and 20 down-regulated, including 9 extracellular matrix proteins involved in the migration of cells. Both mRNA and protein expressions of OPN, the most markedly reduced extracellular matrix protein, were found decreased in U251 cells after restoration of NECL1. Immunohistochemical assay also detected an increase of OPN in glioma tissues, related with the progressing of malignant grade. A link might exist between NECL1 and the extracellular matrix protein OPN in inhibiting the migration and invasion of U251 glioma cells.

  19. Down-regulation of MicroRNA-133 predicts poor overall survival and regulates the growth and invasive abilities in glioma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Han, Lili; Bai, Yahui; Du, Wei; Yang, Bo

    2018-02-01

    miRNAs were reported as oncogene or tumour suppressors in various cancers and played important roles in tumour development and progression. Dysregulated miR-133 has been reported in several cancers, however, the expression and biological function of miR-133 in glioma remained unclear. In this study, we found that miR-133 expression level was significantly decreased in glioma tissues and cell lines by RT-qPCR. Then miR-133 mimics were used to evaluate the effects of miR-133 on cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. We found that overexpressed miR-133 could significantly suppress cell growth, and invasion in U87 cells. Additionally, we found that forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) was overexpressed in glioma tissue and it was directly regulated by miR-133. Overall, this study is the first proof to demonstrate that miR-133 function as tumour suppressor in glioma and inhibit cell proliferation and invasioned by directly targeting FOXC1, implying miR-133 as a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

  20. Multigene signature for predicting prognosis of patients with 1p19q co-deletion diffuse glioma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Martinez-Ledesma, Emmanuel; Zheng, Siyuan; Kim, Hoon; Barthel, Floris; Jiang, Tao; Hess, Kenneth R; Verhaak, Roel G W

    2017-06-01

    Co-deletion of 1p and 19q marks a diffuse glioma subtype associated with relatively favorable overall survival; however, heterogeneous clinical outcomes are observed within this category. We assembled gene expression profiles and sample annotation of 374 glioma patients carrying the 1p/19q co-deletion. We predicted 1p/19q status using gene expression when annotation was missing. A first cohort was randomly split into training (n = 170) and a validation dataset (n = 163). A second validation set consisted of 41 expression profiles. An elastic-net penalized Cox proportional hazards model was applied to build a classifier model through cross-validation within the training dataset. The selected 35-gene signature was used to identify high-risk and low-risk groups in the validation set, which showed significantly different overall survival (P = .00058, log-rank test). For time-to-death events, the high-risk group predicted by the gene signature yielded a hazard ratio of 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-3.11). The signature was also significantly associated with clinical outcome in the The Cancer Genome Atlas (CGA) IDH-mutant 1p/19q wild-type and IDH-wild-type glioma cohorts. Pathway analysis suggested that high risk was associated with increased acetylation activity and inflammatory response. Tumor purity was found to be significantly decreased in high-risk IDH-mutant with 1p/19q co-deletion gliomas and IDH-wild-type glioblastomas but not in IDH-wild-type lower grade or IDH-mutant, non-co-deleted gliomas. We identified a 35-gene signature that identifies high-risk and low-risk categories of 1p/19q positive glioma patients. We have demonstrated heterogeneity amongst a relatively new glioma subtype and provided a stepping stone towards risk stratification. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. miRNA-21 is developmentally regulated in mouse brain and is co-expressed with SOX2 in glioma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and their role during tumor development have been studied in great detail during the last decade, albeit their expression pattern and regulation during normal development are however not so well established. Previous studies have shown that miRNAs are differentially expressed in solid human tumors. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling is known to be involved in normal development of the brain as well as in malignant primary brain tumors, gliomas, but the complete mechanism is still lacking. We decided to investigate the expression of the oncogenic miR-21 during normal mouse development and glioma, focusing on PDGF signaling as a potential regulator of miR-21. Methods We generated mouse glioma using the RCAS/tv-a system for driving PDGF-BB expression in a cell-specific manner. Expression of miR-21 in mouse cell cultures and mouse brain were assessed using Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to investigate SOX2 expression. LNA-modified siRNA was used for irreversible depletion of miR-21. For inhibition of PDGF signaling Gleevec (imatinib mesylate), Rapamycin and U0126, as well as siRNA were used. Statistical significance was calculated using double-sided unpaired Student´s t-test. Results We identified miR-21 to be highly expressed during embryonic and newborn brain development followed by a gradual decrease until undetectable at postnatal day 7 (P7), this pattern correlated with SOX2 expression. Furthermore, miR-21 and SOX2 showed up-regulation and overlapping expression pattern in RCAS/tv-a generated mouse brain tumor specimens. Upon irreversible depletion of miR-21 the expression of SOX2 was strongly diminished in both mouse primary glioma cultures and human glioma cell lines. Interestingly, in normal fibroblasts the expression of miR-21 was induced by PDGF-BB, and inhibition of PDGF signaling in mouse glioma primary cultures resulted in suppression

  2. Reduced tumorigenicity of rat glioma cells in the brain when mediated by hygromycin phosphotransferase.

    PubMed

    Hormigo, A; Friedlander, D R; Brittis, P A; Zagzag, D; Grumet, M

    2001-04-01

    A variant of C6 glioma cells, C6R-G/H cells express hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT) and appear to have reduced tumorigenicity in the embryonic brain. The goal of this study was to investigate their reduced capacity to generate tumors in the adult rat brain. Cell lines were implanted into rat brains and tumorigenesis was evaluated. After 3 weeks, all rats with C6 cells showed signs of neurological disease, whereas rats with C6R-G/H cells did not and were either killed then or allowed to survive until later. Histological studies were performed to analyze tumor size, malignancy, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation. Cells isolated from rat brain tumors were analyzed for mutation to HPT by testing their sensitivity to hygromycin. The results indicate that HPT suppresses tumor formation. Three weeks after implantation, only 44% of animals implanted with C6R-G/H cells developed tumors, whereas all animals that received C6 glioma cells developed high-grade gliomas. The C6R-G/H cells filled a 20-fold smaller maximal cross-sectional area than the C6 cells, and exhibited less malignant characteristics, including reduced angiogenesis, mitosis, and cell proliferation. Similar results were obtained in the brain of nude rats, indicating that the immune system did not play a significant role in suppressing tumor growth. The combination of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and HPT was more effective in suppressing tumorigenesis than either plasmid by itself, indicating that the GFP may protect against inactivation of the HPT. Interestingly. hygromycin resistance was lost in tumor cells that were recovered from a group of animals in which C6R-G/H cells formed tumors, confirming the correlation of HPT with reduced tumorigenicity.

  3. Enhanced radiosensitivity of malignant glioma cells after adenoviral p53 transduction.

    PubMed

    Broaddus, W C; Liu, Y; Steele, L L; Gillies, G T; Lin, P S; Loudon, W G; Valerie, K; Schmidt-Ullrich, R K; Fillmore, H L

    1999-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether adenoviral vector-mediated expression of human wildtype p53 can enhance the radiosensitivity of malignant glioma cells that express native wild-type p53. The p53 gene is thought to function abnormally in the majority of malignant gliomas, although it has been demonstrated to be mutated in only approximately 30%. This has led to studies in which adenoviral transduction with wild-type human p53 has been investigated in an attempt to slow tumor cell growth. Recent studies suggest that reconstitution of wild-type p53 can render cells more susceptible to radiation-mediated death, primarily by p53-mediated apoptosis. Rat RT2 glioma cells were analyzed for native p53 status by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis and for p53 expression by Western blot analysis. Clonogenic survival and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling assay were used to characterize RT2 cell radiosensitivity and apoptosis, respectively, with and without prior transduction with p53-containing and control adenoviral vectors. Animal survival length was monitored after intracerebral implantation with transduced and nontransduced RT2 cells, with and without cranial radiation. The RT2 cells were demonstrated to express native rat wild-type p53 and to markedly overexpress human p53 following adenoviral p53 transduction. The combination of p53 transduction followed by radiation resulted in marked decreases in RT2 cell survival and increases in apoptosis at radiation doses from 2 to 6 Gy. Animals receiving cranial radiation after intracerebral implantation with RT2 cells previously transduced with p53 survived significantly longer than control animals (p<0.01). The ability to enhance the radiosensitivity of malignant glioma cells that express wild-type p53 by using adenoviral transduction to induce overexpression of p53 offers hope for this approach as a therapeutic strategy

  4. Isthmin inhibits glioma growth through antiangiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bangqing; Xian, Ronghua; Ma, Jianfang; Chen, Yujian; Lin, Chuangan; Song, Yaoming

    2012-09-01

    Among glioma treatment strategies, antiangiogenesis emerges as a meaningful and feasible treatment approach for inducing long-term survival. Isthmin is a gene highly expressed in the isthmus of the midbrain-hindbrain organizer in Xenopus, and has recently been identified as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. However, the potential of isthmin on the glioma angiogenesis has not been well studied. In the present study, we demonstrated that the recombinant adenovirus isthmin (Ad-isthmin) could inhibit VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through a caspase-dependent pathway. In addition, Ad-isthmin significantly suppressed glioma growth through antiangiogenesis without apparent side effects. Taken together, our results demonstrated that isthmin could act as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor and might be utilized in the glioma antiangiogenesis therapy.

  5. Immunotherapy Approaches for Malignant Glioma From 2007 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant glioma is a deadly disease for which there have been few therapeutic advances over the past century. Although previous treatments were largely unsuccessful, glioma may be an ideal target for immune-based therapy. Recently, translational research led to several clinical trials based on tumor immunotherapy to treat patients with malignant glioma. Here we review 17 recent glioma immunotherapy clinical trials, published over the past 3 years. Various approaches were used, including passive transfer of naked and radiolabeled antibodies, tumor antigen-specific peptide immunization, and the use of patient tumor cells with or without dendritic cells as vaccines. We compare and discuss the current state of the art of clinical immunotherapy treatment, as well as its limited successes, pitfalls, and future potential. PMID:20424975

  6. Erlotinib and Temsirolimus in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-29

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  7. Probing the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in gliomas: A phase 2 study of everolimus for recurrent adult low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Michael; Chang, Susan M; Phillips, Joanna J; Molinaro, Annette M; Costello, Joseph F; Mazor, Tali; Alexandrescu, Sanda; Lupo, Janine M; Nelson, Sarah J; Berger, Mitchel; Prados, Michael; Taylor, Jennie W; Butowski, Nicholas; Clarke, Jennifer L; Haas-Kogan, Daphne

    2017-12-01

    Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is common in patients with low-grade gliomas (LGGs), but agents that inhibit this pathway, including mTOR inhibitors, have not been studied in this population. Fifty-eight patients with pathologic evidence of recurrence after they had initially been diagnosed with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II gliomas were enrolled into a prospective phase 2 clinical trial and received daily everolimus (RAD001) for 1 year or until progression. Tissue at the time of enrollment was analyzed for markers of PI3K/mTOR pathway activation. Thirty-eight patients underwent serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, with the tumor volume and the perfusion metrics (the fractional blood volume [fBV] for capillary density and the transfer coefficient [K ps ] for vascular permeability) measured during treatment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS-6) in patients with WHO II disease at enrollment. For patients with WHO II gliomas at enrollment, the PFS-6 rate was 84%, and this met the primary endpoint (P < .001 for an improvement from the historical rate of 17%). Evidence of PI3K/mTOR activation by immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated ribosomal S6 Ser240/244 (p-S6 Ser240/244 ) was associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS; hazard ratio [HR], 3.03; P = .004) and overall survival (HR, 12.7; P = .01). Tumor perfusion decreased after 6 months (median decrease in fBV, 15%; P = .03; median decrease in K ps , 12%; P = .09), with greater decreases associated with improved PFS (HR for each 10% fBV decrease, 0.71; P = .01; HR for each 10% K ps decrease, 0.82; P = .04). Patients with recurrent LGGs demonstrated a high degree of disease stability during treatment with everolimus. PI3K/mTOR activation, as measured by immunohistochemistry for p-S6, was associated with a worse prognosis. Tumor vascular changes were

  8. Cationizable lipid micelles as vehicles for intraarterial glioma treatment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Juliane; Cooke, Johann R N; Ellis, Jason A; Deci, Michael; Emala, Charles W; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Bigio, Irving J; Straubinger, Robert M; Joshi, Shailendra

    2016-05-01

    The relative abundance of anionic lipids on the surface of endothelia and on glioma cells suggests a workable strategy for selective drug delivery by utilizing cationic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the extracellular pH of gliomas is relatively acidic suggesting that tumor selectivity could be further enhanced if nanoparticles can be designed to cationize in such an environment. With these motivating hypotheses the objective of this study was to determine whether nanoparticulate (20 nm) micelles could be designed to improve their deposition within gliomas in an animal model. To test this, we performed intra-arterial injection of micelles labeled with an optically quantifiable dye. We observed significantly greater deposition (end-tissue concentration) of cationizable micelles as compared to non-ionizable micelles in the ipsilateral hemisphere of normal brains. More importantly, we noted enhanced deposition of cationizable as compared to non-ionizable micelles in glioma tissue as judged by semiquantitative fluorescence analysis. Micelles were generally able to penetrate to the core of the gliomas tested. Thus we conclude that cationizable micelles may be constructed as vehicles for facilitating glioma-selective delivery of compounds after intraarterial injection.

  9. Ion channel gene expression predicts survival in glioma patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Gurguis, Christopher I.; Gu, Wanjun; Ko, Eun A; Lim, Inja; Bang, Hyoweon; Zhou, Tong; Ko, Jae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels are important regulators in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. The malfunction and/or aberrant expression of ion channels may disrupt these important biological processes and influence cancer progression. In this study, we investigate the expression pattern of ion channel genes in glioma. We designate 18 ion channel genes that are differentially expressed in high-grade glioma as a prognostic molecular signature. This ion channel gene expression based signature predicts glioma outcome in three independent validation cohorts. Interestingly, 16 of these 18 genes were down-regulated in high-grade glioma. This signature is independent of traditional clinical, molecular, and histological factors. Resampling tests indicate that the prognostic power of the signature outperforms random gene sets selected from human genome in all the validation cohorts. More importantly, this signature performs better than the random gene signatures selected from glioma-associated genes in two out of three validation datasets. This study implicates ion channels in brain cancer, thus expanding on knowledge of their roles in other cancers. Individualized profiling of ion channel gene expression serves as a superior and independent prognostic tool for glioma patients. PMID:26235283

  10. P41IDENTIFICATION OF GLIOMA SPECIFIC APTAMER TARGETS

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Mohit; Alder, Jane; Lawrence, Clare; Davis, Charles; Dawson, Tim; Hall, Greg; Shaw, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Aptamers are in vitro generated DNA and RNA sequences which are randomly created as a library, with multiple permutations and combinations. These are then exposed to the target structure against which we want an aptamer ‘selected’ using Sequential Enumeration of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX). METHOD: Commercially available glioma and glial cell lines and in-house generated primary glioma cultures were used. Modified aptamers based on published sequences against glioma cell lines and newly generated sequences were used in the project to identify their binding targets. Cy3 or biotin- conjugated aptamers were incubated with live glioma cell cultures and imaged using confocal or light microscopy.To determine the target ligand, aptamers were then reacted with glial cell lysate and subjected to precipitation using streptavidin agarose beads and SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Proteins were analysed by mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: Known and unknown aptamer protein ligands were co-precipitated. Ku70, Ku80 were precipitated along with nucleolin and related proteins. CONCLUSION: The aptamer has shown preferential binding to glioma cells and could act as a delivery system for therapeutic payloads. The aptamer targets Ku70 and Ku80, which are known to be over expressed in other forms of cancer but their role in gliomagenesis has not been fully elucidated. Other novel proteins have also been identified. Thus the aptamer co-precipitation technique has identified potential glioma biomarkers that may be of clinical significance.

  11. Intraoperative language localization in multilingual patients with gliomas.

    PubMed

    Bello, Lorenzo; Acerbi, Francesco; Giussani, Carlo; Baratta, Pietro; Taccone, Paolo; Songa, Valeria; Fava, Marica; Stocchetti, Nino; Papagno, Costanza; Gaini, Sergio M

    2006-07-01

    Intraoperative localization of speech is problematic in patients who are fluent in different languages. Previous studies have generated various results depending on the series of patients studied, the type of language, and the sensitivity of the tasks applied. It is not clear whether languages are mediated by multiple and separate cortical areas or shared by common areas. Globally considered, previous studies recommended performing a multiple intraoperative mapping for all the languages in which the patient is fluent. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of performing an intraoperative multiple language mapping in a group of multilingual patients with a glioma undergoing awake craniotomy for tumor removal and to describe the intraoperative cortical and subcortical findings in the area of craniotomy, with the final goal to maximally preserve patients' functional language. Seven late, highly proficient multilingual patients with a left frontal glioma were submitted preoperatively to a battery of tests to evaluate oral language production, comprehension, and repetition. Each language was tested serially starting from the first acquired language. Items that were correctly named during these tests were used to build personalized blocks to be used intraoperatively. Language mapping was undertaken during awake craniotomies by the use of an Ojemann cortical stimulator during counting and oral naming tasks. Subcortical stimulation by using the same current threshold was applied during tumor resection, in a back and forth fashion, and the same tests. Cortical sites essential for oral naming were found in 87.5% of patients, those for the first acquired language in one to four sites, those for the other languages in one to three sites. Sites for each language were distinct and separate. Number and location of sites were not predictable, being randomly and widely distributed in the cortex around or less frequently over the tumor area. Subcortical stimulations found

  12. Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase promotes the growth of human glioma cells by activating Notch-Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Shang-Hang; Yu, Ning; Liu, Xi-Yao

    Glioma as an aggressive type tumor is rapidly growing and has become one of the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. γ-Glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT) has been shown as a diagnostic marker in various cancers. To reveal whether there is a correlation between GGCT and human glioma, GGCT expression in human glioma tissues and cell lines was first determined. We found that GGCT expression was up-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. Further, we demonstrate that GGCT knockdown inhibits glioma cell T98G and U251 proliferation and colony formation, whereas GGCT overexpression leads to oppose effects. GGCT overexpression promotes the expression ofmore » Notch receptors and activates Akt signaling in glioma cells, and Notch-Akt signaling is activated in glioma tissues with high expression of GGCT. Finally, we show that inhibition of Notch-Akt signaling with Notch inhibitor MK-0752 blocks the effects of GGCT on glioma proliferation and colony formation. In conclusion, GGCT plays a critical role in glioma cell proliferation and may be a potential cancer therapeutic target. - Highlights: • GGCT expression is up-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. • GGCT promotes glioma cell growth and colony formation. • GGCT promotes the activation of Notch-Akt signaling in glioma cells and tissues. • Notch inhibition blocks the role of GGCT in human glioma cells.« less

  13. Biodisposition and metabolism of [18F]fluorocholine in 9L glioma cells and 9L glioma-bearing Fisher rats

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Aditya; Shuyan, Wang; Hara, Toshiko; Harris, Robert A.; DeGrado, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose [18F]Fluorocholine [18F]FCH) was developed as an analog of [11C]choline for tumor imaging, however, its metabolic handling remains ill-defined. In this study, the metabolism of [18F]FCH is evaluated in cultured 9L glioma cells and Fisher 344 rats bearing 9L glioma tumors. Methods 9L glioma cells were incubated with [18F]FCH and [14C]choline under normoxic and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions and analyzed for metabolic fate. [18F]FCH and [14C]choline kinetics and metabolism were studied in Fisher 344 rats bearing subcutaneous 9L tumors. Results [18F]FCH and [14C]choline were similarly metabolized in 9L cells in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions over a 2 hr incubation period. In normoxia, radioactivity was predominantly in phosphorylated form for both tracers after 5 min incubation. In hypoxia, the tracers remained mainly in nonmetabolized form at early timepoints (< 20 min). Slow dephosphorylation of intracellular [18F]phosphofluorocholine (0.043–0.060 min−1) and [14C]phosphocholine (0.072–0.088 min−1) was evidenced via efflux measurements. In rat, both [18F]FCH and [14C]choline showed high renal and hepatic uptake. Blood clearance of both tracers was rapid with oxidative metabolites, [18F]fluorobetaine and [14C]betaine, representing the majority of radiolabel in plasma after 5 min post-injection. Oxidation (in liver) and lipid incorporation (in lung) were somewhat slower for [18F]FCH relative to [14C]choline. The majority of radiolabel in hypoxic subcutaneous tumor, as in hypoxic cultured 9L cells, was found as nonmetabolized [18F]FCH and [14C]choline. Conclusions [18F]FCH mimics choline uptake and metabolism by 9L glioma cells and tumors. However, subtle changes in biodistribution, oxidative metabolism, dephosphorylation, lipid incorporation and renal excretion show moderate effects of the presence of the radiofluorine atom in [18F]FCH. The decrease in phosphorylation of exogenous choline by cancer cells should be considered in interpretation of PET

  14. Three-dimensional cultured glioma cell lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Marley, Garry M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Three-dimensional glioma spheroids were produced in vitro with size and histological differentiation previously unattained. The spheroids were grown in liquid media suspension in a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Rotating Wall Bioreactor without using support matrices such as microcarrier beads. Spheroid volumes of greater than 3.5 cu mm and diameters of 2.5 mm were achieved with a viable external layer or rim of proliferating cells, a transitional layer beneath the external layer with histological differentiation, and a degenerative central region with a hypoxic necrotic core. Cell debris was evident in the degenerative central region. The necrotics centers of some of the spheroids had hyaline droplets. Granular bodies were detected predominantly in the necrotic center.

  15. Utilizing the Dog Genome in the Search for Novel Candidate Genes Involved in Glioma Development—Genome Wide Association Mapping followed by Targeted Massive Parallel Sequencing Identifies a Strongly Associated Locus

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Peter; Xiong, Anqi; York, Daniel; Jayashankar, Kartika; Pielberg, Gerli; Koltookian, Michele; Murén, Eva; Fuxelius, Hans-Henrik; Weishaupt, Holger; Andersson, Göran; Hedhammar, Åke; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common form of malignant primary brain tumors in humans and second most common in dogs, occurring with similar frequencies in both species. Dogs are valuable spontaneous models of human complex diseases including cancers and may provide insight into disease susceptibility and oncogenesis. Several brachycephalic breeds such as Boxer, Bulldog and Boston Terrier have an elevated risk of developing glioma, but others, including Pug and Pekingese, are not at higher risk. To identify glioma-associated genetic susceptibility factors, an across-breed genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 39 dog glioma cases and 141 controls from 25 dog breeds, identifying a genome-wide significant locus on canine chromosome (CFA) 26 (p = 2.8 x 10−8). Targeted re-sequencing of the 3.4 Mb candidate region was performed, followed by genotyping of the 56 SNVs that best fit the association pattern between the re-sequenced cases and controls. We identified three candidate genes that were highly associated with glioma susceptibility: CAMKK2, P2RX7 and DENR. CAMKK2 showed reduced expression in both canine and human brain tumors, and a non-synonymous variant in P2RX7, previously demonstrated to have a 50% decrease in receptor function, was also associated with disease. Thus, one or more of these genes appear to affect glioma susceptibility. PMID:27171399

  16. History of chickenpox in glioma risk: a report from the glioma international case-control study (GICC).

    PubMed

    Amirian, E Susan; Scheurer, Michael E; Zhou, Renke; Wrensch, Margaret R; Armstrong, Georgina N; Lachance, Daniel; Olson, Sara H; Lau, Ching C; Claus, Elizabeth B; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Il'yasova, Dora; Schildkraut, Joellen; Ali-Osman, Francis; Sadetzki, Siegal; Jenkins, Robert B; Bernstein, Jonine L; Merrell, Ryan T; Davis, Faith G; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Amos, Christopher I; Melin, Beatrice S; Bondy, Melissa L

    2016-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic α-herpesvirus that causes chickenpox and establishes life-long latency in the cranial nerve and dorsal root ganglia of the host. To date, VZV is the only virus consistently reported to have an inverse association with glioma. The Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC) is a large, multisite consortium with data on 4533 cases and 4171 controls collected across five countries. Here, we utilized the GICC data to confirm the previously reported associations between history of chickenpox and glioma risk in one of the largest studies to date on this topic. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling, we found that a positive history of chickenpox was associated with a 21% lower glioma risk, adjusting for age and sex (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.65-0.96). Furthermore, the protective effect of chickenpox was stronger for high-grade gliomas. Our study provides additional evidence that the observed protective effect of chickenpox against glioma is unlikely to be coincidental. Future studies, including meta-analyses of the literature and investigations of the potential biological mechanism, are warranted. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Age-associated and therapy-induced alterations in the cellular microenvironment of experimental gliomas.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Hannah; Lohmann, Birthe; Wirsching, Hans-Georg; Hasenbach, Kathy; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Frei, Karl; Pruschy, Martin; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Weller, Michael

    2017-10-20

    The poor prognosis associated with advanced age in patients with glioblastoma remains poorly understood. Glioblastoma in the elderly has been particularly associated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-dependent angiogenesis, and early uncontrolled studies suggested that the anti-angiogenic agent bevacizumab (BEV), an antibody to VEGF, might be preferentially active in this patient population. Accordingly, we explored host age-dependent differences in survival and benefit from radiotherapy (RT) or BEV in syngeneic mouse glioma models. Survival was inferior in older mice in the SMA-540 and and less so in SMA-560, but not in the SMA-497 or GL-261 models. Detailed flow cytometric studies revealed increased myeloid and decreased effector T cell population frequencies in SMA-540 tumors of old compared to young mice, but no such difference in the SMA-497 model. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from young to old mice had no effect, whereas survival was reduced with BMT from old to young mice. BEV significantly decreased vessel densities in gliomas of old, but not young mice. Accordingly, old, but not young SMA-540 tumor-bearing mice benefited from BEV alone or in combination with RT. End-stage tumors of old BEV- and BEV/RT-treated mice exhibited increased infiltration of T helper and cytotoxic T cells compared to tumors of young mice. The SMA-540 model may provide a valuable tool to evaluate the influence of host age on glioblastoma progression and treatment response. The biological host factors that modulate glioma growth in old as opposed to young mice remain to be identified.

  18. Homozygously deleted gene DACH1 regulates tumor-initiating activity of glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Akira; Ogiwara, Hideki; Ehata, Shogo; Mukasa, Akitake; Ishikawa, Shumpei; Maeda, Daichi; Ueki, Keisuke; Ino, Yasushi; Todo, Tomoki; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Fukayama, Masashi; Saito, Nobuhito; Miyazono, Kohei; Aburatani, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Loss or reduction in function of tumor suppressor genes contributes to tumorigenesis. Here, by allelic DNA copy number analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array and mass spectrometry, we report homozygous deletion in glioblastoma multiformes at chromosome 13q21, where DACH1 gene is located. We found decreased cell proliferation of a series of glioma cell lines by forced expression of DACH1. We then generated U87TR-Da glioma cells, where DACH1 expression could be activated by exposure of the cells to doxycycline. Both ex vivo cellular proliferation and in vivo growth of s.c. transplanted tumors in mice are reduced in U87TR-Da cells with DACH1 expression (U87-DACH1-high), compared with DACH1-nonexpressing U87TR-Da cells (U87-DACH1-low). U87-DACH1-low cells form spheroids with CD133 and Nestin expression in serum-free medium but U87-DACH1-high cells do not. Compared with spheroid-forming U87-DACH1-low cells, adherent U87-DACH1-high cells display lower tumorigenicity, indicating DACH1 decreases the number of tumor-initiating cells. Gene expression analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay reveal that fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2/bFGF) is transcriptionally repressed by DACH1, especially in cells cultured in serum-free medium. Exogenous bFGF rescues spheroid-forming activity and tumorigenicity of the U87-DACH1-high cells, suggesting that loss of DACH1 increases the number of tumor-initiating cells through transcriptional activation of bFGF. These results illustrate that DACH1 is a distinctive tumor suppressor, which does not only suppress growth of tumor cells but also regulates bFGF-mediated tumor-initiating activity of glioma cells. PMID:21750150

  19. Quantitative multiparametric MRI assessment of glioma response to radiotherapy in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiaohua; Liu, Li; Wang, Meiyun; Ding, Kai; Fan, Ying; Ma, Bo; Lal, Bachchu; Tyler, Betty; Mangraviti, Antonella; Wang, Silun; Wong, John; Laterra, John; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2014-06-01

    The inability of structural MRI to accurately measure tumor response to therapy complicates care management for patients with gliomas. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of several noninvasive functional and molecular MRI biomarkers for the assessment of glioma response to radiotherapy. Fourteen U87 tumor-bearing rats were irradiated using a small-animal radiation research platform (40 or 20 Gy), and 6 rats were used as controls. MRI was performed on a 4.7 T animal scanner, preradiation treatment, as well as at 3, 6, 9, and 14 days postradiation. Image features of the tumors, as well as tumor volumes and animal survival, were quantitatively compared. Structural MRI showed that all irradiated tumors still grew in size during the initial days postradiation. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of tumors increased significantly postradiation (40 and 20 Gy), except at day 3 postradiation, compared with preradiation. The tumor blood flow decreased significantly postradiation (40 and 20 Gy), but the relative blood flow (tumor vs contralateral) did not show a significant change at most time points postradiation. The amide proton transfer weighted (APTw) signals of the tumor decreased significantly at all time points postradiation (40 Gy), and also at day 9 postradiation (20 Gy). The blood flow and APTw maps demonstrated tumor features that were similar to those seen on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images. Tumor ADC, blood flow, and APTw were all useful imaging biomarkers by which to predict glioma response to radiotherapy. The APTw signal was most promising for early response assessment in this model. © The Author(s) 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Splicing factors PTBP1 and PTBP2 promote proliferation and migration of glioma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Hannah C.; Hai, Tao; Zhu, Wen; Baggerly, Keith A.; Tsavachidis, Spiridon; Krahe, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) is a multi-functional RNA-binding protein that is aberrantly overexpressed in glioma. PTBP1 and its brain-specific homologue polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 2 (PTBP2) regulate neural precursor cell differentiation. However, the overlapping and non-overlapping target transcripts involved in this process are still unclear. To determine why PTBP1 and not PTBP2 would promote glial cell-derived tumours, both PTBP1 and PTBP2 were knocked down in the human glioma cell lines U251 and LN229 to determine the role of these proteins in cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion. Surprisingly, removal of both PTBP1 and PTBP2 slowed cell proliferation, with the double knockdown having no additive effects. Decreased expression of both proteins individually and in combination inhibited cell migration and increased adhesion of cells to fibronectin and vitronectin. A global survey of differential exon expression was performed following PTBP1 knockdown in U251 cells using the Affymetrix Exon Array to identify PTBP1-specific splicing targets that enhance gliomagenesis. In the PTBP1 knockdown, previously determined targets were unaltered in their splicing patterns. A single gene, RTN4 (Nogo) had significantly enhanced inclusion of exon 3 when PTBP1 was removed. Overexpression of the splice isoform containing exon 3 decreased cell proliferation to a similar degree as the removal of PTBP1. These results provide the first evidence that RNA-binding proteins affect the invasive and rapid growth characteristics of glioma cell lines. Its actions on proliferation appear to be mediated, in part, through alternative splicing of RTN4. PMID:19506066

  1. The CHAC1-inhibited Notch3 pathway is involved in temozolomide-induced glioma cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Hsu; Shen, Wan-Lin; Shih, Chwen-Ming; Ho, Kuo-Hao; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Liu, Ann-Jeng; Chen, Ku-Chung

    2017-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the high-grade primary glioma in adults. Temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent of the imidazotetrazine series, is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug for clinical therapy. However, the expense of TMZ therapy and increasing drug resistance to TMZ decreases its therapeutic effects. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms of TMZ-mediated cytotoxicity to enhance the efficacy of TMZ in clinical GBM therapy. First, TMZ-mediated gene expression profiles and networks in U87-MG cells were identified by transcriptome microarray and bioinformatic analyses. Cation transport regulator-like protein 1 (CHAC1) was the most highly TMZ-upregulated gene. Overexpression and knockdown of CHAC1 expression significantly influenced TMZ-mediated cell viability, apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/c-JUN pathway was identified to participate in TMZ-upregulated CHAC1 expression via transcriptional control. Furthermore, CHAC1 levels were significantly decreased in GBM cell lines, TCGA array data, and tumor tissues. Overexpression of CHAC1 enhanced glioma apoptotic death via caspase-3/9 activation, PARP degradation, autophagy formation, reactive oxygen species generation, increased intracellular calcium, and loss of the mitochondria membrane potential. Finally, we also identified that TMZ significantly reduced Notch3 levels, which are upregulated in gliomas. TMZ also induced CHAC1 to bind to the Notch3 protein and inhibit Notch3 activation, resulting in attenuation of Notch3-mediated downstream signaling pathways. These results emphasize that CHAC1-inhibited Notch3 signaling can influence TMZ-mediated cytotoxicity. Our findings may provide novel therapeutic strategies for future glioblastoma therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. IDH1 R132H mutation regulates glioma chemosensitivity through Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaishu; Ouyang, Leping; He, Mingliang; Luo, Ming; Cai, Wangqing; Tu, Yalin; Pi, Rongbiao; Liu, Anmin

    2017-04-25

    Numerous studies have reported that glioma patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1(IDH1) R132H mutation are sensitive to temozolomide treatment. However, the mechanism of IDH1 mutations on the chemosensitivity of glioma remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role and the potential mechanism of Nrf2 in IDH1 R132H-mediated drug resistance. Wild type IDH1 (R132H-WT) and mutant IDH1 (R132H) plasmids were constructed. Stable U87 cells and U251 cells overexpressing IDH1 were generated. Phenotypic differences between IDH1-WT and IDH1 R132H overexpressing cells were evaluated using MTT, cell colony formation assay, scratch test assay and flow cytometry. Expression of IDH1 and its associated targets, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), multidrug resistant protein 1 (MRP1) and p53 were analyzed. The IDH1 R132H overexpressing cells were more sensitive to temozolomide than WT and the control, and Nrf2 was significantly decreased in IDH1 R132H overexpressing cells. We found that knocking down Nrf2 could decrease resistance to temozolomide. The nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in IDH1 R132H overexpressing cells was lower than the WT and the control groups after temozolomide treatment. When compared with WT cells, NQO1 expression was reduced in IDH1 R132H cells, especially after temozolomide treatment. P53 was involved in the resistance mechanism of temozolomide mediated by Nrf2 and NQO1. Nrf2 played an important role in IDH1 R132H-mediated drug resistance. The present study provides new insight for glioma chemotherapy with temozolomide.

  3. IDH1 R132H mutation regulates glioma chemosensitivity through Nrf2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ming; Cai, Wangqing; Tu, Yalin; Pi, Rongbiao; Liu, Anmin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Numerous studies have reported that glioma patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1(IDH1) R132H mutation are sensitive to temozolomide treatment. However, the mechanism of IDH1 mutations on the chemosensitivity of glioma remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role and the potential mechanism of Nrf2 in IDH1 R132H-mediated drug resistance. Methods Wild type IDH1 (R132H-WT) and mutant IDH1 (R132H) plasmids were constructed. Stable U87 cells and U251 cells overexpressing IDH1 were generated. Phenotypic differences between IDH1-WT and IDH1 R132H overexpressing cells were evaluated using MTT, cell colony formation assay, scratch test assay and flow cytometry. Expression of IDH1 and its associated targets, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), multidrug resistant protein 1 (MRP1) and p53 were analyzed. Results The IDH1 R132H overexpressing cells were more sensitive to temozolomide than WT and the control, and Nrf2 was significantly decreased in IDH1 R132H overexpressing cells. We found that knocking down Nrf2 could decrease resistance to temozolomide. The nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in IDH1 R132H overexpressing cells was lower than the WT and the control groups after temozolomide treatment. When compared with WT cells, NQO1 expression was reduced in IDH1 R132H cells, especially after temozolomide treatment. P53 was involved in the resistance mechanism of temozolomide mediated by Nrf2 and NQO1. Conclusions Nrf2 played an important role in IDH1 R132H-mediated drug resistance. The present study provides new insight for glioma chemotherapy with temozolomide. PMID:28427200

  4. Proton Beam Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Low Grade Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-14

    Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Melanocytic Lesion; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  5. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Childhood brain stem glioma presents as a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG; a fast-growing tumor that is difficult to treat and has a poor prognosis) or a focal glioma (grows more slowly, is easier to treat, and has a better prognosis). Learn about the diagnosis, cellular classification, staging, treatment, and clinical trials for pediatric brain stem glioma in this expert-reviewed summary.

  6. Coffee, tea, soda, and caffeine intake in relation to risk of adult glioma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Dubrow, Robert; Darefsky, Amy S; Freedman, Neal D; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-05-01

    We utilized the large, prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study to further explore the hypothesis, suggested by two recent prospective cohort studies, that increased intake of coffee, tea, soda, and/or caffeine is associated with reduced adult glioma risk. At baseline in 1995-1996, dietary intake, including coffee, tea, and soda, was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for glioma risk in relation to beverage intake. During follow-up of 545,771 participants through 2006, 904 participants were diagnosed with glioma. We found no trends of decreasing glioma risk with increasing intake of specific beverages or total caffeine. HR patterns for consumption of the caffeinated versus decaffeinated form of each beverage were inconsistent with a specific caffeine effect. HR patterns of reduced glioma risk for most categories of beverage intake greater than "none" prompted a post hoc analysis that revealed borderline-significant inverse associations for any versus no intake of tea (HR = 0.84; 95 % CI, 0.69-1.03), total coffee plus tea (HR = 0.70; 95 % CI, 0.48-1.03), and soda (HR = 0.82; 95 % CI, 0.67-1.01). The borderline-significant inverse associations could be explained by a threshold effect in which any beverage intake above a low level confers a beneficial effect, most likely due to beverage constituents other than caffeine. They could also be explained by non-drinkers of these beverages sharing unknown extraneous characteristics associated with increased glioma risk, or by chance.

  7. Coffee, tea, soda, and caffeine intake in relation to risk of adult glioma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Dubrow, Robert; Darefsky, Amy S.; Freedman, Neal D.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We utilized the large, prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study to further explore the hypothesis, suggested by two recent prospective cohort studies, that increased intake of coffee, tea, soda, and/or caffeine is associated with reduced adult glioma risk. Methods At baseline in 1995–1996, dietary intake, including coffee, tea, and soda, was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) for glioma risk in relation to beverage intake. Results During follow-up of 545,771 participants through 2006, 904 participants were diagnosed with glioma. We found no trends of decreasing glioma risk with increasing intake of specific beverages or total caffeine. HR patterns for consumption of the caffeinated versus decaffeinated form of each beverage were inconsistent with a specific caffeine effect. HR patterns of reduced glioma risk for most categories of beverage intake greater than “none” prompted a post hoc analysis that revealed borderline-significant inverse associations for any versus no intake of tea (HR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.69–1.03), total coffee plus tea (HR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.48–1.03), and soda (HR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67–1.01). Conclusions The borderline-significant inverse associations could be explained by a threshold effect in which any beverage intake above a low level confers a beneficial effect, most likely due to beverage constituents other than caffeine. They also could be explained by non-drinkers of these beverages sharing unknown extraneous characteristics associated with increased glioma risk, or by chance. PMID:22457000

  8. IGFBP2 is a candidate biomarker for Ink4a-Arf status and a therapeutic target for high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lynette M; Holmes, Kristen M; Smith, Sarah M; Wu, Ying; Tchougounova, Elena; Uhrbom, Lene; Sawaya, Raymond; Bruner, Janet M; Fuller, Gregory N; Zhang, Wei

    2009-09-29

    The levels of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) are elevated during progression of many human cancers. By using a glial-specific transgenic mouse system (RCAS/Ntv-a), we reported previously that IGFBP2 is an oncogenic factor for glioma progression in combination with platelet-derived growth factor-beta (PDGFB). Because the INK4a-ARF locus is often deleted in high-grade gliomas (anaplastic oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma), we investigated the effect of the Ink4a-Arf-null background on IGFBP2-mediated progression of PDGFB-initiated oligodendroglioma. We demonstrate here that homozygous deletion of Ink4a-Arf bypasses the requirement of exogenously introduced IGFBP2 for glioma progression. Instead, absence of Ink4a-Arf resulted in elevated endogenous tumor cell IGFBP2. An inverse relationship between p16(INK4a) and IGFBP2 expression was also observed in human glioma tissue samples and in 90 different cancer cell lines by using Western blotting and reverse-phase protein lysate arrays. When endogenous IGFBP2 expression was attenuated by an RCAS vector expressing antisense IGFBP2 in our mouse model, a decreased incidence of anaplastic oligodendroglioma as well as prolonged survival was observed. Thus, p16(INK4a) is a negative regulator of the IGFBP2 oncogene. Loss of Ink4a-Arf results in increased IGFBP2, which contributes to glioma progression, thereby implicating IGFBP2 as a marker and potential therapeutic target for Ink4a-Arf-deleted gliomas.

  9. IGFBP2 is a candidate biomarker for Ink4a-Arf status and a therapeutic target for high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lynette M.; Holmes, Kristen M.; Smith, Sarah M.; Wu, Ying; Tchougounova, Elena; Uhrbom, Lene; Sawaya, Raymond; Bruner, Janet M.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Zhang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The levels of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) are elevated during progression of many human cancers. By using a glial-specific transgenic mouse system (RCAS/Ntv-a), we reported previously that IGFBP2 is an oncogenic factor for glioma progression in combination with platelet-derived growth factor-β (PDGFB). Because the INK4a-ARF locus is often deleted in high-grade gliomas (anaplastic oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma), we investigated the effect of the Ink4a-Arf-null background on IGFBP2-mediated progression of PDGFB-initiated oligodendroglioma. We demonstrate here that homozygous deletion of Ink4a-Arf bypasses the requirement of exogenously introduced IGFBP2 for glioma progression. Instead, absence of Ink4a-Arf resulted in elevated endogenous tumor cell IGFBP2. An inverse relationship between p16INK4a and IGFBP2 expression was also observed in human glioma tissue samples and in 90 different cancer cell lines by using Western blotting and reverse-phase protein lysate arrays. When endogenous IGFBP2 expression was attenuated by an RCAS vector expressing antisense IGFBP2 in our mouse model, a decreased incidence of anaplastic oligodendroglioma as well as prolonged survival was observed. Thus, p16INK4a is a negative regulator of the IGFBP2 oncogene. Loss of Ink4a-Arf results in increased IGFBP2, which contributes to glioma progression, thereby implicating IGFBP2 as a marker and potential therapeutic target for Ink4a-Arf-deleted gliomas. PMID:19805356

  10. Early life exposures and the risk of adult glioma.

    PubMed

    Anic, Gabriella M; Madden, Melissa H; Sincich, Kelly; Thompson, Reid C; Nabors, L Burton; Olson, Jeffrey J; LaRocca, Renato V; Browning, James E; Pan, Edward; Egan, Kathleen M

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to common infections in early life may stimulate immune development and reduce the risk for developing cancer. Birth order and family size are proxies for the timing of exposure to childhood infections with several studies showing a reduced risk of glioma associated with a higher order of birth (and presumed younger age at infection). The aim of this study was to examine whether birth order, family size, and other early life exposures are associated with the risk of glioma in adults using data collected in a large clinic-based US case-control study including 889 glioma cases and 903 community controls. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on family structure, childhood exposures and other potential risk factors. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between early life factors and glioma risk. Persons having any siblings were at significantly lower risk for glioma when compared to those reporting no siblings (OR=0.64; 95% CI 0.44-0.93; p=0.020). Compared to first-borns, individuals with older siblings had a significantly lower risk (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.61-0.91; p=0.004). Birth weight, having been breast fed in infancy, and season of birth were not associated with glioma risk. The current findings lend further support to a growing body of evidence that early exposure to childhood infections reduces the risk of glioma onset in children and adults.

  11. uPAR and Cathepsin B Downregulation Induces Apoptosis by Targeting Calcineurin A to BAD via Bcl-2 in Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Malla, Rama Rao; Gopinath, Sreelatha; Gondi, Christopher S.; Alapati, Kiranmai; Dinh, Dzung H.; Tsung, Andrew J.; Rao, Jasti S.

    2011-01-01

    Cathepsin B and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) are postulated to play key roles in glioma invasion. Calcineurin is one of the key regulators of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis, but its mechanism is poorly understood. Hence, we studied subcellular localization of calcineurin after transcriptional downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B in glioma. In the present study, efficient downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B increased the translocation of calcineurin A from the mitochondria to the cytosol, decreased pBAD (S136) expression and its interaction with 14-3-3ζ, and increased the interaction of BAD with Bcl-Xl. Co-depletion of uPAR and cathepsin B induced mitochondrial translocation of BAD and caspase 3 as well as PARP activation, cytochrome c and SMAC release. These effects were inhibited by FK506 (10 μM), a specific inhibitor of calcineurin. Calcineurin A was co-localized and also co-immunoprecipitated with Bcl-2. This interaction decreased with co-depletion of uPAR and cathepsin B and also with Bcl-2 inhibitor, HA 14-1 (20 μg/mL). Altered localization and interaction of calcineurin A with Bcl-2 was also observed in vivo when uPAR and cathepsin B were downregulated. In conclusion, downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B induced apoptosis by targeting calcineurin A to BAD via Bcl-2 in glioma. PMID:21964739

  12. Functional analysis of the DEPDC1 oncoantigen in malignant glioma and brain tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Ryogo; Sampetrean, Oltea; Saya, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Kazunari; Toda, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    DEP domain containing 1 (DEPDC1) is a novel oncoantigen expressed in cancer cells, which presents oncogenic activity and high immunogenicity. Although DEPDC1 has been predicted to be a useful antigen for the development of a cancer vaccine, its pathophysiological roles in glioma have not been investigated. Here, we analyzed the expression and function of DEPDC1 in malignant glioma. DEPDC1 expression in glioma cell lines, glioma tissues, and brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) was assessed by western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The effect of DEPDC1 downregulation on cell growth and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling in glioma cells was investigated. Overall survival was assessed in mouse glioma models using human glioma cells and induced mouse brain tumor stem cells (imBTSCs) to determine the effect of DEPDC1 suppression in vivo. DEPDC1 expression was increased in glioma cell lines, tissues, and BTICs. Suppression of endogenous DEPDC1 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited glioma cell viability and induced apoptosis through NFκB signaling. In mouse glioma models using human glioma cells and imBTSCs, downregulation of DEPDC1 expression prolonged overall survival. These results suggest that DEPDC1 represents a target molecule for the treatment of glioma.

  13. Setting the Stage for Personalized Treatment of Glioma | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Gliomas, the most common type of primary brain tumors in adults, arise from different types of glial cells, which support and protect the neurons of the central nervous system. How a patient’s glioma is treated depends in part on the type of glial cell from which the tumor developed. Classification of gliomas has traditionally been done by microscopic analysis of tumor

  14. Extracellular diffusion quantified by magnetic resonance imaging during rat C6 glioma cell progression.

    PubMed

    Song, G; Luo, T; Dong, L; Liu, Q

    2017-07-03

    Solution reflux and edema hamper the convection-enhanced delivery of the standard treatment for glioma. Therefore, a real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method was developed to monitor the dosing process, but a quantitative analysis of local diffusion and clearance parameters has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to compare diffusion into the extracellular space (ECS) at different stages of rat C6 gliomas, and analyze the effects of the extracellular matrix (ECM) on the diffusion process. At 10 and 20 days, after successful glioma modeling, gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was introduced into the ECS of rat C6 gliomas. Diffusion parameters and half-life of the reagent were then detected using MRI, and quantified according to the mathematical model of diffusion. The main ECM components [chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), collagen IV, and tenascin C] were detected by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. In 20-day gliomas, Gd-DTPA diffused more slowly and derived higher tortuosity, with lower clearance rate and longer half-life compared to 10-day gliomas. The increased glioma ECM was associated with different diffusion and clearance parameters in 20-day rat gliomas compared to 10-day gliomas. ECS parameters were altered with C6 glioma progression from increased ECM content. Our study might help better understand the glioma microenvironment and provide benefits for interstitial drug delivery to treat brain gliomas.

  15. Gap junctions modulate glioma invasion by direct transfer of microRNA.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiaoting; Sin, Wun Chey; Harris, Andrew L; Naus, Christian C

    2015-06-20

    The invasiveness of high-grade glioma is the primary reason for poor survival following treatment. Interaction between glioma cells and surrounding astrocytes are crucial to invasion. We investigated the role of gap junction mediated miRNA transfer in this context. By manipulating gap junctions with a gap junction inhibitor, siRNAs, and a dominant negative connexin mutant, we showed that functional glioma-glioma gap junctions suppress glioma invasion while glioma-astrocyte and astrocyte-astrocyte gap junctions promote it in an in vitro transwell invasion assay. After demonstrating that glioma-astrocyte gap junctions are permeable to microRNA, we compared the microRNA profiles of astrocytes before and after co-culture with glioma cells, identifying specific microRNAs as candidates for transfer through gap junctions from glioma cells to astrocytes. Further analysis showed that transfer of miR-5096 from glioma cells to astrocytes is through gap junctions; this transfer is responsible, in part, for the pro-invasive effect. Our results establish a role for glioma-astrocyte gap junction mediated microRNA signaling in modulation of glioma invasive behavior, and that gap junction coupling among astrocytes magnifies the pro-invasive signaling. Our findings reveal the potential for therapeutic interventions based on abolishing alteration of stromal cells by tumor cells via manipulation of microRNA and gap junction channel activity.

  16. Gap junctions modulate glioma invasion by direct transfer of microRNA

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xiaoting; Sin, Wun Chey; Harris, Andrew L.; Naus, Christian C.

    2015-01-01

    The invasiveness of high-grade glioma is the primary reason for poor survival following treatment. Interaction between glioma cells and surrounding astrocytes are crucial to invasion. We investigated the role of gap junction mediated miRNA transfer in this context. By manipulating gap junctions with a gap junction inhibitor, siRNAs, and a dominant negative connexin mutant, we showed that functional glioma-glioma gap junctions suppress glioma invasion while glioma-astrocyte and astrocyte-astrocyte gap junctions promote it in an in vitro transwell invasion assay. After demonstrating that glioma-astrocyte gap junctions are permeable to microRNA, we compared the microRNA profiles of astrocytes before and after co-culture with glioma cells, identifying specific microRNAs as candidates for transfer through gap junctions from glioma cells to astrocytes. Further analysis showed that transfer of miR-5096 from glioma cells to astrocytes is through gap junctions; this transfer is responsible, in part, for the pro-invasive effect. Our results establish a role for glioma-astrocyte gap junction mediated microRNA signaling in modulation of glioma invasive behavior, and that gap junction coupling among astrocytes magnifies the pro-invasive signaling. Our findings reveal the potential for therapeutic interventions based on abolishing alteration of stromal cells by tumor cells via manipulation of microRNA and gap junction channel activity. PMID:25978028

  17. The flavonoid apigenin from Croton betulaster Mull inhibits proliferation, induces differentiation and regulates the inflammatory profile of glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paulo L C; Oliveira, Mona N; da Silva, Alessandra B; Pitanga, Bruno P S; Silva, Victor D A; Faria, Giselle P; Sampaio, Geraldo P; Costa, Maria de Fatima D; Braga-de-Souza, Suzana; Costa, Silvia L

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antitumor and immunomodulatory properties of the flavonoid apigenin (5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone), which was extracted from Croton betulaster Mull, in glioma cell culture using the high-proliferative rat C6 glioma cell line as a model. Apigenin was found to have the ability to reduce the viability and proliferation of C6 cells in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 22.8 µmol/l, 40 times lower than that of temozolomide (1000 µmol/l), after 72 h of apigenin treatment. Even after C6 cells were treated with apigenin for 48 h, high proportions of C6 cells entered apoptosis (39.56%) and autophagy (22%) as shown by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide and acridine orange staining, respectively. In addition, the flavonoid apigenin induced cell accumulation in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and inhibited glioma cell migration efficiently. Moreover, apigenin induced astroglial differentiation and morphological changes in C6 cells, characterized by increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and decreased expression of nestin protein, a typical marker of neuronal precursors. The immunomodulating effects of apigenin were also characterized by a change in the inflammatory profile as evidenced by a significant decrease in interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor production and increased nitric oxide levels. Because apigenin can induce differentiation, apoptosis, and autophagy, can alter the profile of cytokines involved in regulating the immune response, and can reduce the survival, growth, proliferation, and migration of C6 cells, this flavonoid may be considered a potential antitumor drug for the adjuvant treatment of malignant gliomas.

  18. ATM-NFκB axis-driven TIGAR regulates sensitivity of glioma cells to radiomimetics in the presence of TNFα.

    PubMed

    Sinha, S; Ghildiyal, R; Mehta, V S; Sen, E

    2013-05-02

    Gliomas are resistant to radiation therapy, as well as to TNFα induced killing. Radiation-induced TNFα triggers Nuclear factor κB (NFκB)-mediated radioresistance. As inhibition of NFκB activation sensitizes glioma cells to TNFα-induced apoptosis, we investigated whether TNFα modulates the responsiveness of glioma cells to ionizing radiation-mimetic Neocarzinostatin (NCS). TNFα enhanced the ability of NCS to induce glioma cell apoptosis. NCS-mediated death involved caspase-9 activation, reduction of mitochondrial copy number and lactate production. Death was concurrent with NFκB, Akt and Erk activation. Abrogation of Akt and NFκB activation further potentiated the death inducing ability of NCS in TNFα cotreated cells. NCS-induced p53 expression was accompanied by increase in TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) levels and ATM phosphorylation. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TIGAR abrogated NCS-induced apoptosis. While DN-IκB abrogated NCS-induced TIGAR both in the presence and absence of TNFα, TIGAR had no effect on NFκB activation. Transfection with TIGAR mutant (i) decreased apoptosis and γH2AX foci formation (ii) decreased p53 (iii) elevated ROS and (iv) increased Akt/Erk activation in cells cotreated with NCS and TNFα. Heightened TIGAR expression was observed in GBM tumors. While NCS induced ATM phosphorylation in a NFκB independent manner, ATM inhibition abrogated TIGAR and NFκB activation. Metabolic gene profiling indicated that TNFα affects NCS-mediated regulation of several genes associated with glycolysis. The existence of ATM-NFκB axis that regulate metabolic modeler TIGAR to overcome prosurvival response in NCS and TNFα cotreated cells, suggests mechanisms through which inflammation could affect resistance and adaptation to radiomimetics despite concurrent induction of death.

  19. ATM-NFκB axis-driven TIGAR regulates sensitivity of glioma cells to radiomimetics in the presence of TNFα

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, S; Ghildiyal, R; Mehta, V S; Sen, E

    2013-01-01

    Gliomas are resistant to radiation therapy, as well as to TNFα induced killing. Radiation-induced TNFα triggers Nuclear factor κB (NFκB)-mediated radioresistance. As inhibition of NFκB activation sensitizes glioma cells to TNFα-induced apoptosis, we investigated whether TNFα modulates the responsiveness of glioma cells to ionizing radiation-mimetic Neocarzinostatin (NCS). TNFα enhanced the ability of NCS to induce glioma cell apoptosis. NCS-mediated death involved caspase-9 activation, reduction of mitochondrial copy number and lactate production. Death was concurrent with NFκB, Akt and Erk activation. Abrogation of Akt and NFκB activation further potentiated the death inducing ability of NCS in TNFα cotreated cells. NCS-induced p53 expression was accompanied by increase in TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) levels and ATM phosphorylation. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TIGAR abrogated NCS-induced apoptosis. While DN-IκB abrogated NCS-induced TIGAR both in the presence and absence of TNFα, TIGAR had no effect on NFκB activation. Transfection with TIGAR mutant (i) decreased apoptosis and γH2AX foci formation (ii) decreased p53 (iii) elevated ROS and (iv) increased Akt/Erk activation in cells cotreated with NCS and TNFα. Heightened TIGAR expression was observed in GBM tumors. While NCS induced ATM phosphorylation in a NFκB independent manner, ATM inhibition abrogated TIGAR and NFκB activation. Metabolic gene profiling indicated that TNFα affects NCS-mediated regulation of several genes associated with glycolysis. The existence of ATM-NFκB axis that regulate metabolic modeler TIGAR to overcome prosurvival response in NCS and TNFα cotreated cells, suggests mechanisms through which inflammation could affect resistance and adaptation to radiomimetics despite concurrent induction of death. PMID:23640457

  20. Dopamine induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprogramming M2-polarized macrophages in rat C6 glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Tian; Wang, Chenlong; Chen, Xuewei

    Dopamine (DA), a monoamine catecholamine neurotransmitter with antiangiogenic activity, stabilizes tumor vessels in colon, prostate and ovarian cancers, thus increases chemotherapeutic efficacy. Here, in the rat C6 glioma models, we investigated the vascular normalization effects of DA and its mechanisms of action. DA (25, 50 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth, while a precursor of DA (levodopa) prolonged the survival time of rats bearing orthotopic C6 glioma. DA improved tumor perfusion, with significant effects from day 3, and a higher level at days 5 to 7. In addition, DA decreased microvessel density and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in tumor tissues, while increasing themore » coverage of pericyte. Conversely, an antagonist of dopamine receptor 2 (DR2) (eticlopride) but not DR1 (butaclamol) abrogated DA-induced tumor regression and vascular normalization. Furthermore, DA improved the delivery and efficacy of temozolomide therapy. Importantly, DA increased representative M1 markers (iNOS, CXCL9, etc.), while decreasing M2 markers (CD206, arginase-1, etc.). Depletion of macrophages by clodronate or zoledronic acid attenuated the effects of DA. Notably, DA treatment induced M2-to-M1 polarization in RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages, and enhanced the migration of pericyte-like cells (10T1/2), which was reversed by eticlopride or DR2-siRNA. Such changes were accompanied by the downregulation of VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling. In summary, DA induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprogramming M2-polarized macrophages. Thus, targeting the tumor microvasculature by DA represents a promising strategy for human glioma therapy. - Highlights: • Dopamine induces tumor growth inhibition and vascular normalization in rat C6 glioma. • Dopamine switches macrophage phenotype from M2 to M1. • Dopamine-induced vascular normalization is mediated by macrophage polarization. • Dopamine is a promising agent targeting the microvasculature in

  1. Effect of hypoxia on the expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in U87 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Minchenko, O H; Riabovol, O O; Tsymbal, D O; Minchenko, D O; Ratushna, O O

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the effect of hypoxia on the expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in U87 glioma cells under the inhibition of IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme-1), which controls cell proliferation and tumor growth as a central mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress. It was shown that hypoxia down-regulated gene expression of malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2), malic enzyme 2 (ME2), mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (GOT2), and subunit B of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) in control (transfected by empty vector) glioma cells in a gene specific manner. At the same time, the expression level of mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) and subunit D of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHD) genes in these cells does not significantly change in hypoxic conditions. It was also shown that the inhibition of ІRE1 signaling enzyme function in U87 glioma cells decreases the effect of hypoxia on the expression of ME2, GOT2, and SDHB genes and introduces the sensitivity of IDH2 gene to hypoxia. Furthermore, the expression of all studied genes depends on IRE1-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling in gene specific manner, because ІRE1 knockdown significantly decreases their expression in normoxic conditions, except for IDH2 gene, which expression level is strongly up-regulated. Therefore, changes in the expression level of nuclear genes encoding ME2, MDH2, IDH2, SDHB, SDHD, and GOT2 proteins possibly reflect metabolic reprogramming of mitochondria by hypoxia and IRE1-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling and correlate with suppression of glioma cell proliferation under inhibition of the IRE1 enzyme function.

  2. TLR9-ERK-mTOR signaling is critical for autophagic cell death induced by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 107 combined with irradiation in glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoli; Cen, Yanyan; Cai, Yongqing; Liu, Tao; Liu, Huan; Cao, Guanqun; Liu, Dan; Li, Bin; Peng, Wei; Zou, Jintao; Pang, Xueli; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG ODN) function as potential radiosensitizers for glioma treatment, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. It was observed that CpG ODN107, when combined with irradiation, did not induce apoptosis. Herein, the effect of CpG ODN107 + irradiation on autophagy and the related signaling pathways was investigated. In vitro, CpG ODN107 + irradiation induced autophagosome formation, increased the ratio of LC3 II/LC3 I, beclin 1 and decreased p62 expression in U87 cells. Meanwhile, CpG ODN107 also increased LC3 II/LC3 I expression in U251 and CHG-5 cells. In vivo, CpG ODN107 combined with local radiotherapy induced autophagosome formation in orthotopic transplantation tumor. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms demonstrated that CpG ODN107 + irradiation increased the levels of TLR9 and p-ERK, and decreased the level of p-mTOR in glioma cells. Further, TLR9-specific siRNA could affect the expressions of p-ERK and autophagy-related proteins in glioma cells. Taken together, CpG ODN107 combined with irradiation could induce autophagic cell death, and this effect was closely related to the TLR9-ERK-mTOR signaling pathway in glioma cells, providing new insights into the investigation mechanism of CpG ODN. PMID:27251306

  3. Effects of anticancer drugs on glia-glioma brain tumor model characterized by acoustic impedance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, Thomas Tiong Kwong; Chean, Tan Wei; Yamada, Hikari; Takahashi, Kenta; Hozumi, Naohiro; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yoshida, Sachiko

    2017-07-01

    An ultrasonic microscope is a useful tool for observing living tissue without chemical fixation or histochemical processing. Two-dimensional (2D) acoustic impedance microscopy developed in our previous study for living cell observation was employed to visualize intracellular changes. We proposed a brain tumor model by cocultivating rat glial cells and C6 gliomas to quantitatively analyze the effects of two types of anticancer drugs, cytochalasin B (CyB) and temozolomide (TMZ), when they were applied. We reported that CyB treatment (25 µg/ml, T = 90 min) significantly reduced the acoustic impedance of gliomas and has little effect on glial cells. Meanwhile, TMZ treatment (2 mg/ml, T = 90 min) impacted both cells equally, in which both cells’ acoustic impedances were decreased. As CyB targets the actin filament polymerization of the cells, we have concluded that the decrease in acoustic impedance was in fact due to actin filament depolymerization and the data can be quantitatively assessed for future studies in novel drug development.

  4. Effect of saw palmetto extract on PI3K cell signaling transduction in human glioma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Hui, Lv; Yuqin, Che; Jie, Li; Shuai, Hou; Tiezhu, Zhou; Wei, Wang

    2014-08-01

    Saw palmetto extract can induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of saw palmetto extract on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling transduction pathway in human glioma U87 and U251 cell lines. Suspensions of U87 and U251 cells in a logarithmic growth phase were seeded into six-well plates at a density of 10 4 cells/well. In the experimental group, 1 μl/ml saw palmetto extract was added, while the control group was cultured without a drug for 24 h. The expression levels of PI3K, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) and p53 were evaluated through western blot analysis. In the experimental group, the U87 and U251 cells exhibited a lower expression level of PI3K protein as compared with the control group (t=6.849; P<0.001). In addition, the two cell lines had a higher expression level of p53 protein in the experimental group as compared with the control group (t=40.810; P<0.001). Protein expression levels of Bcl-xL decreased significantly in the experimental group as compared with the control group (t=19.640; P=0.000). Therefore, saw palmetto extract induces glioma cell growth arrest and apoptosis via decreasing PI3K/Akt signal transduction.

  5. Effect of saw palmetto extract on PI3K cell signaling transduction in human glioma

    PubMed Central

    YANG, YANG; HUI, LV; YUQIN, CHE; JIE, LI; SHUAI, HOU; TIEZHU, ZHOU; WEI, WANG

    2014-01-01

    Saw palmetto extract can induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of saw palmetto extract on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling transduction pathway in human glioma U87 and U251 cell lines. Suspensions of U87 and U251 cells in a logarithmic growth phase were seeded into six-well plates at a density of 104 cells/well. In the experimental group, 1 μl/ml saw palmetto extract was added, while the control group was cultured without a drug for 24 h. The expression levels of PI3K, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) and p53 were evaluated through western blot analysis. In the experimental group, the U87 and U251 cells exhibited a lower expression level of PI3K protein as compared with the control group (t=6.849; P<0.001). In addition, the two cell lines had a higher expression level of p53 protein in the experimental group as compared with the control group (t=40.810; P<0.001). Protein expression levels of Bcl-xL decreased significantly in the experimental group as compared with the control group (t=19.640; P=0.000). Therefore, saw palmetto extract induces glioma cell growth arrest and apoptosis via decreasing PI3K/Akt signal transduction. PMID:25009620

  6. The paradoxical effect of bevacizumab in the therapy of malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Eric M.; Frenkel, Eugene P.

    2011-01-01

    One rationale behind the use of agents that inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor in the therapy of primary CNS malignancies is based upon the concept that normalization of tumor vasculature with a decrease in tumor interstitial pressure will improve access of cytoreductive drugs and improve radiotherapy efficacy due to increased oxygen delivery. However, several studies have raised the concern that these agents may both rapidly restore the low permeability characteristics of the blood–brain barrier and counteract the beneficial effect of pseudoprogression. The result may be decreased therapeutic efficacy while increasing infiltration by co-opting normal vessels. In this discussion, we examine both histologic and radiographic tumor progression in the context of antiangiogenic agents. Issues dealing with the safety of bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) and its potential to decrease efficacy of standard radiochemotherapy when used to treat patients with newly diagnosed malignant glioma are emphasized. PMID:21205697

  7. Antitumor effect of fibrin glue containing temozolomide against malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Anai, Shigeo; Hide, Takuichiro; Takezaki, Tatsuya; Kuroda, Jun-ichiro; Shinojima, Naoki; Makino, Keishi; Nakamura, Hideo; Yano, Shigetoshi; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ), used to treat glioblastoma and malignant glioma, induces autophagy, apoptosis and senescence in cancer cells. We investigated fibrin glue (FG) as a drug delivery system for the local administration of high-concentration TMZ aimed at preventing glioma recurrence. Our high-power liquid chromatography studies indicated that FG containing TMZ (TMZ-FG) manifested a sustained drug release potential. We prepared a subcutaneous tumor model by injecting groups of mice with three malignant glioma cell lines and examined the antitumor effect of TMZ-FG. We estimated the tumor volume and performed immunostaining and immunoblotting using antibodies to Ki-67, cleaved caspase 3, LC3 and p16. When FG sheets containing TMZ (TMZ-FGS) were inserted beneath the tumors, their growth was significantly suppressed. In mice treated with peroral TMZ plus TMZ-FGS the tumors tended to be smaller than in mice whose tumors were treated with TMZ-FGS or peroral TMZ alone. The TMZ-FGS induced autophagy, apoptosis and senescence in subcutaneous glioma tumor cells. To assess the safety of TMZ-FG for normal brain, we placed it directly on the brain of living mice and stained tissue sections obtained in the acute and chronic phase immunohistochemically. In both phases, TMZ-FG failed to severely damage normal brain tissue. TMZ-FG may represent a safe new drug delivery system with sustained drug release potential to treat malignant glioma. PMID:24673719

  8. Isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant glioma: Evolving clinical and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Miller, Julie J; Shih, Helen A; Andronesi, Ovidiu C; Cahill, Daniel P

    2017-12-01

    The metabolic genes isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 are commonly mutated in low-grade glioma and in a subset of glioblastoma. These mutations co-occur with other recurrent molecular alterations, including 1p/19q codeletions and tumor suppressor protein 53 (TP53) and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation (ATRX) mutations, which together help to define a molecular signature that aids in the classification of gliomas and helps to better predict clinical behavior. A confluence of research suggests that glioma development in IDH-mutant and IDH wild-type tumors is driven by different oncogenic processes and responds differently to current treatment paradigms. Herein, the authors discuss the discovery of IDH mutations and associated molecular alterations in glioma, review clinical features common to patients with IDH-mutant glioma, and highlight current understanding of IDH mutation-driven gliomagenesis with implications for emerging treatment strategies. Cancer 2017;123:4535-4546. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. GRP78 enabled micelle-based glioma targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ran, Danni; Mao, Jiani; Shen, Qing; Xie, Cao; Zhan, Changyou; Wang, Ruifeng; Lu, Weiyue

    2017-06-10

    GRP78, a specific cancer cell-surface marker, is implicated in cancer cells proliferation, apoptosis resistance, metastasis and drug resistance. l-VAP (SNTRVAP) is a tumor homing peptide exhibiting high binding affinity in vitro to GRP78 protein overexpressed on glioma, glioma stem cells, vasculogenic mimicry and neovasculature. Even though short peptides are often non-immunogenic and demonstrate high affinity to tumor cells, their targeting efficacy is always undermined by rapid blood clearance and enzymatic degradation. In the present study, two d peptides RI-VAP (retro inverso isomer of l-VAP) and d-VAP (retro isomer of l-VAP) were developed by structure-guided peptide design and retro-inverso isomerization technique for glioma targeting. RI-VAP and d-VAP were predicted to bind their receptor GRP78 protein with similar binding affinity, which was experimentally confirmed. The results of in vivo imaging demonstrated that RI-VAP and d-VAP had remarkably advantage over l-VAP for tumor accumulation. In addition, RI-VAP and d-VAP modified paclitaxel-loaded polymeric micelle had better anti-tumor efficacy in comparison to taxol, paclitaxel-loaded plain micelles and l-VAP modified micelles. Overall, the VAP modified micelles suggested in the present study could effectively achieve glioma-targeted drug delivery, validating the potential of the stable VAP peptides in improving the therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel for glioma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Up regulation of phenylacetate to glioma homeobox gene expression].

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Yang, Chaohua; Zhao, Conghai

    2002-03-01

    Even though phenylacetate (PA) bas been shown to inhibit the growth and induce differentiation in rat C6 glioma cell line, its mechanisms are still poorly understood. This study is aimed to identify which Hox gene is related to glioma and to observe the change in expression on mRNA level as treated by phenylasetate. Twenty-two kinds of Hox gene were divided into 3 groups according to their primer sequence. Semiquantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to investigate the mRNA expression of Hox gene groups and some Hox gene in rat C6 glioma cell line following differentiation induced by PA. The level of Hox gene expression was expressed as ratio expression rate (RER) of Hox gene/beta-actin according to computer image analysis and the difference between C6 cells and PA treated C6 cells was analyzed by student t-test. It was found that Hox genes matching to primers P2 were mildly expressed in C6 cells and the expression of HoxB2 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in PA treated C6 cells (P < 0.001). The weak expression of HoxB2 may be involved in glioma origin and the mechanisms of PA action are correlated with transcription process in the glioma cells.

  11. A graphic method for identification of novel glioma related genes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Fei; Shu, Yang; Yang, Lei; He, Yi-Chun; Li, Li-Peng; Huang, GuaHua; Li, Hai-Peng; Jiang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Glioma, as the most common and lethal intracranial tumor, is a serious disease that causes many deaths every year. Good comprehension of the mechanism underlying this disease is very helpful to design effective treatments. However, up to now, the knowledge of this disease is still limited. It is an important step to understand the mechanism underlying this disease by uncovering its related genes. In this study, a graphic method was proposed to identify novel glioma related genes based on known glioma related genes. A weighted graph was constructed according to the protein-protein interaction information retrieved from STRING and the well-known shortest path algorithm was employed to discover novel genes. The following analysis suggests that some of them are related to the biological process of glioma, proving that our method was effective in identifying novel glioma related genes. We hope that the proposed method would be applied to study other diseases and provide useful information to medical workers, thereby designing effective treatments of different diseases.

  12. Clinical Relevance of Prognostic and Predictive Molecular Markers in Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Siegal, Tali

    2016-01-01

    Sorting and grading of glial tumors by the WHO classification provide clinicians with guidance as to the predicted course of the disease and choice of treatment. Nonetheless, histologically identical tumors may have very different outcome and response to treatment. Molecular markers that carry both diagnostic and prognostic information add useful tools to traditional classification by redefining tumor subtypes within each WHO category. Therefore, molecular markers have become an integral part of tumor assessment in modern neuro-oncology and biomarker status now guides clinical decisions in some subtypes of gliomas. The routine assessment of IDH status improves histological diagnostic accuracy by differentiating diffuse glioma from reactive gliosis. It carries a favorable prognostic implication for all glial tumors and it is predictive for chemotherapeutic response in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with codeletion of 1p/19q chromosomes. Glial tumors that contain chromosomal codeletion of 1p/19q are defined as tumors of oligodendroglial lineage and have favorable prognosis. MGMT promoter methylation is a favorable prognostic marker in astrocytic high-grade gliomas and it is predictive for chemotherapeutic response in anaplastic gliomas with wild-type IDH1/2 and in glioblastoma of the elderly. The clinical implication of other molecular markers of gliomas like mutations of EGFR and ATRX genes and BRAF fusion or point mutation is highlighted. The potential of molecular biomarker-based classification to guide future therapeutic approach is discussed and accentuated.

  13. Cortical GABAergic excitation contributes to epileptic activities around human glioma

    PubMed Central

    Pallud, Johan; Varlet, Pascale; Cresto, Noemie; Baulac, Michel; Duyckaerts, Charles; Kourdougli, Nazim; Chazal, Geneviève; Devaux, Bertrand; Rivera, Claudio; Miles, Richard; Capelle, Laurent; Huberfeld, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Diffuse brain gliomas induce seizures in a majority of patients. As in most epileptic disorders, excitatory glutamatergic mechanisms are involved in the generation of epileptic activities in the neocortex surrounding gliomas. However, chloride homeostasis is known to be perturbed in glial tumor cells. Thus the contribution of GABAergic mechanisms which depend on intracellular chloride and which are defective or pro-epileptic in other structural epilepsies merits closer study. Objective We studied in neocortical slices from the peritumoral security margin resected around human brain gliomas, the occurrence, networks, cells and signaling basis of epileptic activities. Results Postoperative glioma tissue from 69% of patients spontaneously generated interictal-like discharges. These events were synchronized, with a high frequency oscillation signature, in superficial layers of neocortex around glioma areas with tumor infiltration. Interictal-like events depended on both glutamatergic transmission and on depolarizing GABAergic signaling. About 65% of pyramidal cells were depolarized by GABA released by interneurons. This effect was related to perturbations in Chloride homeostasis, due to changes in expression of chloride co-transporters: KCC2 was reduced and expression of NKCC1 increased. Ictal-like activities were initiated by convulsant stimuli exclusively in these epileptogenic areas. Conclusions Epileptic activities are sustained by excitatory effects of GABA in the peritumoral human neocortex, as in temporal lobe epilepsies. Glutamate and GABA signaling are involved in oncogenesis and chloride homeostasis is perturbed. These same factors, induce an imbalance between synaptic excitatory and inhibition underly epileptic discharges in tumor patients. PMID:25009229

  14. Concurrent thermochemoradiotherapy for brain high-grade glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabova, A. I.; Novikov, V. A.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Bober, E. E.; Frolova, I. G.; Baranova, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    Despite the achievements in the current strategies for treatment, the prognosis in malignant glioma patients remains unsatisfactory. Hyperthermia is currently considered to be the most effective and universal modifier of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Preliminary treatment outcomes for 28 patients with newly diagnosed (23) and recurrent (5) high-grade gliomas were presented. All the patients received multimodality treatment including surgery, thermoche-moradiotherapy followed by 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. All the patients endured thermochemoradiotherapy well. A complication, limited skin burn (II stage), was diagnosed in two cases and treated conservatively without treatment interruption. A month after thermochemoradiotherapy the results were as follows: complete regression was achieved in 4 cases, partial regression in 4 cases, stable disease in 14 cases and disease progression in 6 cases (one of them is pseudo-progression). After completing the adjuvant chemotherapy 2 more patients demonstrated complete response and 1 patient had disease progression. Introduction of local hyperthermia in multimodal therapy of malignant glioma does not impair the combined modality treatment tolerability of patients with malignant gliomas. A small number of studied patients and short follow-up time do not allow making reliable conclusions about the impact of local hyperthermia on the treatment outcomes; however, there is a tendency towards the increase in disease-free survival in the patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas.

  15. Concurrent thermochemoradiotherapy for brain high-grade glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabova, A. I., E-mail: ranigor@mail.ru; Novikov, V. A.; Startseva, Zh. A.

    Despite the achievements in the current strategies for treatment, the prognosis in malignant glioma patients remains unsatisfactory. Hyperthermia is currently considered to be the most effective and universal modifier of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Preliminary treatment outcomes for 28 patients with newly diagnosed (23) and recurrent (5) high-grade gliomas were presented. All the patients received multimodality treatment including surgery, thermoche-moradiotherapy followed by 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. All the patients endured thermochemoradiotherapy well. A complication, limited skin burn (II stage), was diagnosed in two cases and treated conservatively without treatment interruption. A month after thermochemoradiotherapy the results were as follows: completemore » regression was achieved in 4 cases, partial regression in 4 cases, stable disease in 14 cases and disease progression in 6 cases (one of them is pseudo-progression). After completing the adjuvant chemotherapy 2 more patients demonstrated complete response and 1 patient had disease progression. Introduction of local hyperthermia in multimodal therapy of malignant glioma does not impair the combined modality treatment tolerability of patients with malignant gliomas. A small number of studied patients and short follow-up time do not allow making reliable conclusions about the impact of local hyperthermia on the treatment outcomes; however, there is a tendency towards the increase in disease-free survival in the patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas.« less

  16. Glioma Indian scenario: Is there a human leucocyte antigen association?

    PubMed

    Shankarkumar, U; Sridharan, B

    2011-07-01

    The central nervous system tumors are a rare neoplasm with little knowledge with Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) involvement. Primary brain tumors are cancers that originate in brain classified according to their appearance under a microscope as low grade (grade I and II) with diffuse astrocytomas, pliocytic astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, gangliogliomas, and mixed gliomas as common subtypes and high grade (grade III and IV). HLA associations in common glioma are reported from other parts of the world. The normal cancer treatment is surgery, followed by radiotherapy, and chemotherapy; nowadays immunotherapy is advised. HLA distribution in a Glioma patient was done based on serology and molecular techniques. The immune response gene studies have implicated the HLA allele association in most of the common diseases from India. Considerable variations are noted in HLA association with cancers; hence, we have summarized the HLA involvement in Glioma with respect to the literature. HLA A*030101, A*310102, B*350101, B*4406, Cw*040101, Cw*070101, DRB1*070101, and DRB1*1001. Ethnic diversity and HLA polymorphism precipitate differential immune response genes involved in variable disease manifestations. Therefore, caste-specific HLA allelic specificity needs to be identified, which may help in early identification of the associated HLA allele and establishing clinical practices among glioma patients.

  17. Mutant IDH1 Promotes Glioma Formation In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Philip, Beatrice; Yu, Diana X; Silvis, Mark R; Shin, Clifford H; Robinson, James P; Robinson, Gemma L; Welker, Adam E; Angel, Stephanie N; Tripp, Sheryl R; Sonnen, Joshua A; VanBrocklin, Matthew W; Gibbons, Richard J; Looper, Ryan E; Colman, Howard; Holmen, Sheri L

    2018-05-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is the most commonly mutated gene in grade II-III glioma and secondary glioblastoma (GBM). A causal role for IDH1 R132H in gliomagenesis has been proposed, but functional validation in vivo has not been demonstrated. In this study, we assessed the role of IDH1 R132H in glioma development in the context of clinically relevant cooperating genetic alterations in vitro and in vivo. Immortal astrocytes expressing IDH1 R132H exhibited elevated (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate levels, reduced NADPH, increased proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth. Although not sufficient on its own, IDH1 R132H cooperated with PDGFA and loss of Cdkn2a, Atrx, and Pten to promote glioma development in vivo. These tumors resembled proneural human mutant IDH1 GBM genetically, histologically, and functionally. Our findings support the hypothesis that IDH1 R132H promotes glioma development. This model enhances our understanding of the biology of IDH1 R132H -driven gliomas and facilitates testing of therapeutic strategies designed to combat this deadly disease. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved Intratumoral Oxygenation Through Vascular Normalization Increases Glioma Sensitivity to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, Mackenzie C.; Hamner, J. Blair; Williams, Regan F.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation, an important component of glioma therapy, is critically dependent on tumor oxygenation. However, gliomas are notable for areas of necrosis and hypoxia, which foster radioresistance. We hypothesized that pharmacologic manipulation of the typically dysfunctional tumor vasculature would improve intratumoral oxygenation and, thus, the antiglioma efficacy of ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: Orthotopic U87 xenografts were treated with either continuous interferon-beta (IFN-beta) or bevacizumab, alone, or combined with cranial irradiation (RT). Tumor growth was assessed by quantitative bioluminescence imaging; the tumor vasculature using immunohistochemical staining, and tumor oxygenation using hypoxyprobe staining. Results: Both IFN-beta and bevaziumab profoundly affectedmore » the tumor vasculature, albeit with different cellular phenotypes. IFN-beta caused a doubling in the percentage of area of perivascular cell staining, and bevacizumab caused a rapid decrease in the percentage of area of endothelial cell staining. However, both agents increased intratumoral oxygenation, although with bevacizumab, the effect was transient, being lost by 5 days. Administration of IFN-beta or bevacizumab before RT was significantly more effective than any of the three modalities as monotherapy or when RT was administered concomitantly with IFN-beta or bevacizumab or 5 days after bevacizumab. Conclusion: Bevacizumab and continuous delivery of IFN-beta each induced significant changes in glioma vascular physiology, improving intratumoral oxygenation and enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation. Additional investigation into the use and timing of these and other agents that modify the vascular phenotype, combined with RT, is warranted to optimize cytotoxic activity.« less

  19. The prosurvival role of autophagy in Resveratrol-induced cytotoxicity in human U251 glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous study reported that resveratrol has anti-tumor activity. In this study, we investigated the involvement of autophagy in the resveratrol-induced apoptotic death of human U251 glioma cells. Methods The growth inhibition of U251 cells induced by resveratrol was assessed with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT). The activation of autophagy and proapoptotic effect were characterized by monodansylcadaverine labeling and Hoechst stain, respectively. Mitochondrialtransmembrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured as a function of drug treatment using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1). The role of autophagy and apoptosis in the resveratrol-induced death of U251 cells was assessed using autophagic and caspase inhibitors. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis were used to study the apoptotic and autophagic mechanisms. Results Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays indicated that resveratrol decreased the viability of U251 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that resveratrol increased cell population at sub-G1 phase, an index of apoptosis. Furthermore, resveratrol-induced cell death was associated with a collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk suppressed resveratrol-induced U251 cell death. Resveratrol stimulated autophagy was evidenced by punctuate monodansylcadaverine(MDC) staining and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) immunoreactivty. Resveratrol also increased protein levels of beclin 1 and membrane form LC3 (LC3-II). Autophagy inhibitors 3-methylademine (3-MA) and bafilomycin A1 sensitized the cytotoxicity of resveratrol. Conclusion Together, these findings indicate that resveratrol induces autophagy in human U251 glioma cells and autophagy suppressed resveratrol-induced apoptosis. This study thus suggests that autophagy inhibitors can increase the cytotoxicity of resveratrol to

  20. Cytotoxic effect of menadione and sodium orthovanadate in combination on human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Delwar, Zahid M; Avramidis, Dimitrios; Follin, Elna; Hua, Yan; Siden, Åke; Cruz, Mabel; Paulsson, Kajsa M; Yakisich, Juan Sebastian

    2012-08-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor, and their treatment is still a challenge. Here, we evaluated the antiproliferative effect of a novel combination of two potent oxidative stress enhancers: menadione (M) and sodium orthovanadate (SO). We observed both short-term and prolonged growth inhibitory effects of M or SO alone as well as in combination (M:SO) on DBTRG.05MG human glioma cells. A stronger antiproliferative effect was observed in the short-term proliferation assay with the M:SO combination compared to either investigated agent alone. In the long-term proliferation assay, a 10-day exposure to M:SO at concentrations of 10 μM:17.5 μM or 17.5 μM:10 μM was enough to kill 100% of the cells; no cell regrowth was observed after re-incubation in drug-free media. When used in combination, the single concentration of M and SO could be decreased by 2.5- to 5-fold of those used for each experimental drug alone and still obtain a similar antiproliferative effect. The underlying molecular mechanism was investigated by co-incubating M:SO with dithiothreitol (DTT) and genistein. Both substances partially neutralized the effects of the M:SO combination, showing additive effects. This observation suggests a role of oxidative stress and tyrosine kinase stimulation in the M:SO cytotoxic effect. Our results indicate that M:SO combination is an attractive alternative for glioma treatment that encourages further study. The neutralizing effects of genistein and DTT reveal a possibility for their use in the minimization of potential M:SO systemic toxicity.

  1. Use of mobile and cordless phones and survival of patients with glioma.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the survival of patients after glioma diagnosis in relation to the use of wireless phones. All cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2003 with a malignant brain tumour (n = 1,251) in our case-control studies were included and followed from the date of diagnosis to the date of death or until May 30, 2012. For glioma, the use of wireless phones (mobile and cordless phones) gave a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.1 (95% confidence interval, CI = 0.9-1.2), with > 10-year latency HR = 1.2 (95% CI = 1.002-1.5, p trend = 0.02). For astrocytoma grade I-II (low-grade), the results were, HR = 0.5 (95% CI = 0.3-0.9) and for astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma), HR = 1.1 (95% CI = 0.95-1.4), with > 10 year latency HR = 1.3 (95% CI = 1.03-1.7). In the highest tertile (> 426 h) of cumulative use, HR = 1.2 (95% CI = 0.95-1.5) was found for glioblastoma. The results were similar for mobile and cordless phones. Decreased survival of glioma cases with long-term and high cumulative use of wireless phones was found. A survival disadvantage for astrocytoma grade IV, but a survival benefit for astrocytoma grade I-II was observed which could be due to exposure-related tumour symptoms leading to earlier diagnosis and surgery in that patient group. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Procollagen-lysine 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 promotes hypoxia-induced glioma migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yangyang; Zhang, Lin; Wei, Yuzhen; Zhang, Xin; Xu, Ran; Han, Mingzhi; Huang, Bing; Chen, Anjing; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Qing; Li, Gang; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Peng; Li, Xingang

    2017-01-01

    Poor prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme is strongly associated with the ability of tumor cells to invade the brain parenchyma, which is believed to be the major factor responsible for glioblastoma recurrence. Therefore, identifying the molecular mechanisms driving invasion may lead to the development of improved therapies for glioblastoma patients. Here, we investigated the role of procollagen-lysine 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2), an enzyme catalyzing collagen cross-linking, in the biology of glioblastoma invasion. PLOD2 mRNA was significantly overexpressed in glioblastoma compared to low-grade tumors based on the Oncomine datasets and REMBRANDT database for human gliomas. Kaplan-Meier estimates based on the TCGA dataset demonstrated that high PLOD2 expression was associated with poor prognosis. In vitro, hypoxia upregulated PLOD2 protein in U87 and U251 human glioma cell lines. siRNA knockdown of endogenous HIF-1α or treatment of cells with the HIF-1α inhibitor PX-478 largely abolished the hypoxia-mediated PLOD2 upregulation. Knockdown of PLOD2 in glioma cell lines led to decreases in migration and invasion under normoxia and hypoxia. In addition, levels of phosphorylated FAK (Tyr 397), an important kinase mediating cell adhesion, were reduced in U87-shPLOD2 and U251-shPLOD2 cells, particularly under hypoxic conditions. Finally, orthotopic U251-shPLOD2 xenografts were circumscribed rather than locally invasive. In conclusion, the results indicated that PLOD2 was a gene of clinical relevance with implications in glioblastoma invasion and treatment strategies. PMID:28423580

  3. Heparin affin regulatory peptide/pleiotrophin negatively affects diverse biological activities in C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Parthymou, Anastasia; Lampropoulou, Evgenia; Mikelis, Constantinos; Drosou, Georgia; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2008-01-01

    Heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP) or pleiotrophin seems to be involved in the progression of several tumors of diverse origin. In this study, we tried to determine the role of HARP in rat C6 glioma cells by using an antisense strategy for inhibition of HARP expression. Decrease of the expression of endogenous HARP in C6 cells (AS-C6 cells) significantly increased proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth of cells. Implantation of AS-C6 cells onto chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes resulted in a significant increase of tumor-induced angiogenesis compared with that induced by non-transfected or C6 cells transfected with the plasmid alone (PC-C6 cells). In the same line, conditioned medium from AS-C6 cells significantly increased endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro compared with the effect of conditioned medium from C6 or PC-C6 cells. Interestingly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced C6 cell proliferation and migration, and SU1496, a selective inhibitor of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), blocked increased glioma cell growth, migration, and angiogenicity observed in AS-C6 cell cultures. The above results seem to be due to a direct interaction between HARP and VEGF in the culture medium of C6 and PC-C6 cells, while AS-C6 cells secreted comparable amounts of VEGF that do not interact with HARP. Collectively, these data suggest that HARP negatively affects diverse biological activities in C6 glioma cells, mainly due to binding of HARP to VEGF, which may sequester secreted VEGF from signalling through VEGFR2.

  4. PID1 (NYGGF4), a new growth-inhibitory gene in embryonal brain tumors and gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Robison, Nathan; Ren, Xiuhai; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jingying; Davidson, Tom B.; Schur, Mathew; Gilles, Floyd H.; Ji, Lingyun; Malvar, Jemily; Shackleford, Gregory M.; Margol, Ashley S.; Krieger, Mark D.; Judkins, Alexander R.; Jones, David T.W.; Pfister, Stefan; Kool, Marcel; Sposto, Richard; Asgharazadeh, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We present here the first report of PID1 (Phosphotyrosine Interaction Domain containing 1; NYGGF4) in cancer. PID1 was identified in 2006 as a gene that modulates insulin signaling and mitochondrial function in adipocytes and muscle cells. Experimental Design and Results Using four independent medulloblastoma datasets, we show that mean PID1 mRNA levels were lower in unfavorable medulloblastomas (Groups 3 and 4, and anaplastic histology) compared with favorable medulloblastomas (SHH and WNT groups, and desmoplastic/nodular histology) and with fetal cerebellum. In two large independent glioma datasets PID1 mRNA was lower in glioblastomas (GBMs), the most malignant gliomas, compared to other astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and non-tumor brains. Neural and proneural GBM subtypes had higher PID1 mRNA compared to classical and mesenchymal GBM. Importantly, overall survival and radiation-free progression-free survival were longer in medulloblastoma patients with higher PID1 mRNA (univariate and multivariate analyses). Higher PID1 mRNA also correlated with longer overall survival in glioma and GBM patients. In cell culture, overexpression of PID1 inhibited colony formation in medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) and GBM cell lines. Increasing PID1 also increased cell death and apoptosis, inhibited proliferation, induced mitochondrial depolarization, and decreased serum-mediated phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in medulloblastoma, ATRT and/or GBM cell lines, whereas siRNA to PID1 diminished mitochondrial depolarization. Conclusions These data are the first to link PID1 to cancer and suggest that PID1 may have a tumor inhibitory function in these pediatric and adult brain tumors. PMID:24300787

  5. miR-489 inhibits proliferation, cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis of glioma cells via targeting SPIN1-mediated PI3K/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Ma, Xiaolin; Wang, Yanpeng; Li, Guohua

    2017-09-01

    microRNA-489 (miR-489), a newly identified tumor-related miRNA, functions as an oncogene or tumor suppressor via regulating growth and metastasis of human cancers. But, the clinical significance, biological function and underlying mechanisms of miR-489 in glioma remain rarely known. Here, we showed that the levels of miR-489 in glioma tissues were notably underexpressed compared to corresponding non-tumor tissues. In accordance, the relative levels of miR-489 were decreased in glioma cell lines compared with NHA cells. Kaplan-Meier plots indicated that miR-489 low expressing glioma patients showed a prominent shorter overall survival. In addition, miR-489 overexpression prohibited proliferation and cell cycle progression, and promoted apoptosis in U251 cells. While, miR-489 knockdown showed opposite effects on these cellular processes of U87 cells. In vivo experiments demonstrated that miR-489 restoration reduced the tumor volume and weight of subcutaneous glioma xenografts in nude mice. Notably, Spindlin 1 (SPIN1) was inversely and directly regulated by miR-489 in glioma cells. A negative correlation between the expression of miR-489 and SPIN1 mRNA was confirmed in glioma tissues. Interestingly, miR-489 inversely modulated activation of PI3K/AKT pathway and expression of downstream targets including p-mTOR, Cyclin D1 and BCL-XL. SPIN1 re-expression abolished the effects of miR-489 on U251 cells with enhanced activation of PI3K/AKT pathway and malignant phenotype. Meanwhile, AKT inhibitor MK-2206 blocked activation of PI3K/AKT pathway and resulted in reduced proliferation, cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis in miR-489 down-regulating U87 cells. Altogether, our data support that miR-489 loss facilitates malignant phenotype of glioma cells probably via SPIN1-mediated PI3K/AKT pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Immunotherapy for high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Sanjay

    2014-05-01

    4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology in conjunction with the 18th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuro-Oncology, San Francisco, CA, USA, 21-24 November 2013. Aside from temozolomide, there has been no major breakthrough for decades to improve outcome for high-grade glioma. Bevacizumab failed to show a survival advantage in two large studies - AVaglio and RTOG-0825 - and no other novel chemotherapy agents seem to be appearing on the horizon for this universally fatal disease. Consequently, the neuro-oncology fraternity is turning to immunotherapy. This became apparent in this meeting, considering a number of delegates focused their attention to presentations on immunotherapy. The ReACT study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the combination of a promising peptide vaccine, rindopepimut, and bevacizumab with longer survival seen in patients with a higher antibody titer. Several presentations reassured that dendritic cell-based immunotherapy is safe and can generate a lasting immune response. Employing gene therapy, increased intratumor 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy concentration can be achieved using TOCA 511, and temozolomide-resistant transgenic lymphocytes could be produced through retroviral coding. Blocking immune checkpoints PDL-01, CTLA-4 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase through monoclonal antibodies appears promising.

  7. Single-Cell RNA-Sequencing in Glioma.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eli; Dickerson, Katherine L; Connolly, Ian D; Hayden Gephart, Melanie

    2018-04-10

    In this review, we seek to summarize the literature concerning the use of single-cell RNA-sequencing for CNS gliomas. Single-cell analysis has revealed complex tumor heterogeneity, subpopulations of proliferating stem-like cells and expanded our view of tumor microenvironment influence in the disease process. Although bulk RNA-sequencing has guided our initial understanding of glioma genetics, this method does not accurately define the heterogeneous subpopulations found within these tumors. Single-cell techniques have appealing applications in cancer research, as diverse cell types and the tumor microenvironment have important implications in therapy. High cost and difficult protocols prevent widespread use of single-cell RNA-sequencing; however, continued innovation will improve accessibility and expand our of knowledge gliomas.

  8. Silver nanoparticles: a novel radiation sensitizer for glioma?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peidang; Huang, Zhihai; Chen, Zhongwen; Xu, Ruizhi; Wu, Hao; Zang, Fengchao; Wang, Cailian; Gu, Ning

    2013-11-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common primary intracranial tumors with a dismal prognosis. Previous investigations by our group demonstrated the radiosensitizing effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on glioma cells in vitro. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of intratumoral administration of AgNPs in combination with a single dose of ionizing radiation at clinically relevant MV energies for the treatment of C6 glioma-bearing rats. AgNPs (10 or 20 μg/10 μl) were stereotactically administered on day 8 after tumor implantation. One day after AgNP injection, rats bearing glioma received 10 Gy radiation. The mean survival times were 100.5 and 98 days, the corresponding percent increase in life spans was 513.2% and 497.7%, and the cure rates were 41.7 and 38.5% at 200 days for the 10 and 20 μg AgNPs and radiation combination groups, respectively. In contrast, the mean survival times for irradiated controls, 10 and 20 μg AgNPs alone, and untreated controls were 24.5, 16.1, 19.4, and 16.4 days, respectively. Furthermore, a cooperative antiproliferative and proapoptotic effect was obtained when gliomas were treated with AgNPs followed by radiotherapy. Our results showed the therapeutic efficacy of AgNPs in combination with radiotherapy without apparent systemic toxicity, suggesting the clinical potential of AgNPs in improving the outcome of malignant glioma radiotherapy.Malignant gliomas are the most common primary intracranial tumors with a dismal prognosis. Previous investigations by our group demonstrated the radiosensitizing effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on glioma cells in vitro. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of intratumoral administration of AgNPs in combination with a single dose of ionizing radiation at clinically relevant MV energies for the treatment of C6 glioma-bearing rats. AgNPs (10 or 20 μg/10 μl) were stereotactically administered on day 8 after tumor implantation. One day after Ag

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    treated with BPA-BNCT were significantly higher than those in Group B and Group C irradiated by [60Co] γ-rays (P < 0.01). The clonogenicity of glioma cells was reduced by BPA-BNCT compared with cells treated in the reactor (Group F, G, H, I), and with the control cells (P < 0.01). Upon BPA-BNCT treatment, the Bax level increased in glioma cells, whereas Bcl-2 expression decreased. Conclusions Compared with γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation, a higher RBE can be achieved upon treatment of glioma cells with BNCT. Glioma cell apoptosis induced by BNCT may be related to activation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. PMID:21122152

  10. Gpx 4 is involved in the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyu; Ji, Bin; Chen, Jianguo; Huang, Qingfeng; Lu, Xueguan

    2017-06-01

    Glioma is one of the most common and aggressive types of human brain tumor, it is important to explore novel glioma-associated genes. In this report, we defined Gpx4 as a therapeutic target for glioma. Western blot and immunohistochemistry(IHC) analysis revealed that the protein level of Gpx4 was higher in glioma tissues and cell lines. In addition, IHC stain revealed that there was statistical significance between the expression of Gpx4 and the WHO grade (P=0.004) and Ki-67(P=0.000) expression. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that high expression of Gpx4 was associated with poor prognosis of glioma patients (P<0.01). To determine whether Gpx4 could regulate the proliferation and migration of glioma cells, we transfected glioma cells with Gpx4-siRNA and then investigated cell proliferation with cell counting kit (CCK) -8, flow cytometry assay and colony formation analyses, and we used wound-healing and transwell assays to investigate cell migration. Our results indicated that knockdown of Gpx4 would inhibit the proliferation and migration of glioma cells. Besides, silencing of Gpx4 could induce the apoptosis of glioma cells. This research indicated that Gpx4 might be thought of as a new prognostic factor in glioma and be closely correlated with glioma cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Knockdown of DIXDC1 Inhibits the Proliferation and Migration of Human Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianguo; Shen, Chaoyan; Shi, Jinlong; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Wenjuan; Sun, Jie; Fan, Shaocheng; Bei, Yuanqi; Xu, Peng; Chang, Hao; Jiang, Rui; Hua, Lu; Ji, Bin; Huang, Qingfeng

    2017-08-01

    DIX domain containing 1 (DIXDC1), the human homolog of coiled-coil-DIX1 (Ccd1), is a positive regulator of Wnt signaling pathway. Recently, it was found to act as a candidate oncogene in colon cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, and gastric cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of DIXDC1 expression in human glioma and its biological function in glioma cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that DIXDC1 was overexpressed in glioma tissues and glioma cell lines. The expression level of DIXDC1 was evidently linked to glioma pathological grade and Ki-67 expression. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that high expression of DIXDC1 may lead to poor outcome of glioma patients. Serum starvation and refeeding assay indicated that the expression of DIXDC1 was associated with cell cycle. To determine whether DIXDC1 could regulate the proliferation and migration of glioma cells, we transfected glioma cells with interfering RNA-targeting DIXDC1; investigated cell proliferation with Cell Counting Kit (CCK)-8, flow cytometry assays, and colony formation analyses; and investigated cell migration with wound healing assays and transwell assays. According to our data, knockdown of DIXDC1 significantly inhibited proliferation and migration of glioma cells. These data implied that DIXDC1 might participate in the development of glioma, suggesting that DIXDC1 can become a potential therapeutic strategy for glioma.

  12. Known glioma risk loci are associated with glioma with a family history of brain tumours -- a case-control gene association study.

    PubMed

    Melin, Beatrice; Dahlin, Anna M; Andersson, Ulrika; Wang, Zhaoming; Henriksson, Roger; Hallmans, Göran; Bondy, Melissa L; Johansen, Christoffer; Feychting, Maria; Ahlbom, Anders; Kitahara, Cari M; Wang, Sophia S; Ruder, Avima M; Carreón, Tania; Butler, Mary Ann; Inskip, Peter D; Purdue, Mark; Hsing, Ann W; Mechanic, Leah; Gillanders, Elizabeth; Yeager, Meredith; Linet, Martha; Chanock, Stephen J; Hartge, Patricia; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2013-05-15

    Familial cancer can be used to leverage genetic association studies. Recent genome-wide association studies have reported independent associations between seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of glioma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether glioma cases with a positive family history of brain tumours, defined as having at least one first- or second-degree relative with a history of brain tumour, are associated with known glioma risk loci. One thousand four hundred and thirty-one glioma cases and 2,868 cancer-free controls were identified from four case-control studies and two prospective cohorts from USA, Sweden and Denmark and genotyped for seven SNPs previously reported to be associated with glioma risk in case-control designed studies. Odds ratios were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. In analyses including glioma cases with a family history of brain tumours (n = 104) and control subjects free of glioma at baseline, three of seven SNPs were associated with glioma risk: rs2736100 (5p15.33, TERT), rs4977756 (9p21.3, CDKN2A-CDKN2B) and rs6010620 (20q13.33, RTEL1). After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, only one marker was statistically significantly associated with glioma risk, rs6010620 (ORtrend for the minor (A) allele, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25-0.61; Bonferroni adjusted ptrend , 1.7 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, as previously shown for glioma regardless of family history of brain tumours, rs6010620 (RTEL1) was associated with an increased risk of glioma when restricting to cases with family history of brain tumours. These findings require confirmation in further studies with a larger number of glioma cases with a family history of brain tumours. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  13. Phosphatidylserine-targeted liposome for enhanced glioma-selective imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Habib, Amyn A; Zhao, Dawen

    2016-06-21

    Phosphatidylserine (PS), which is normally intracellular, becomes exposed on the outer surface of viable endothelial cells (ECs) of tumor vasculature. Utilizing a PS-targeting antibody, we have recently established a PS-targeted liposomal (PS-L) nanoplatform that has demonstrated to be highly tumor-selective. Because of the vascular lumen-exposed PS that is immediately accessible without a need to penetrate the intact blood brain barrier (BBB), we hypothesize that the systemically administered PS-L binds specifically to tumor vascular ECs, becomes subsequently internalized into the cells and then enables its cargos to be efficiently delivered to glioma parenchyma. To test this, we exploited the dual MRI/optical imaging contrast agents-loaded PS-L and injected it intravenously into mice bearing intracranial U87 glioma. At 24 h, both in vivo optical imaging and MRI depicted enhanced tumor contrast, distinct from the surrounding normal brain. Intriguingly, longitudinal MRI revealed temporal and spatial intratumoral distribution of the PS-L by following MRI contrast changes, which appeared punctate in tumor periphery at an earlier time point (4 h), but became clustering and disseminated throughout the tumor at 24 h post injection. Importantly, glioma-targeting specificity of the PS-L was antigen specific, since a control probe of irrelevant specificity showed minimal accumulation in the glioma. Together, these results indicate that the PS-L nanoplatform enables the enhanced, glioma-targeted delivery of imaging contrast agents by crossing the tumor BBB efficiently, which may also serve as a useful nanoplatform for anti-glioma drugs.

  14. Clinical characteristics associated with the intracranial dissemination of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xu; Qin, Jun-Jie; Hao, Shu-Yu; Li, Huan; Zeng, Chun; Sun, Sheng-Jun; Yu, Lan-Bing; Gao, Zhi-Xian; Xie, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Glioma is the most common malignant tumor of the brain and the intracranial dissemination of gliomas is the late stage of the development of the tumor. However, there is little research in literature on the occurrence of intracranial dissemination of gliomas. In order to provide a reference for clinical work, we carried out this study on intracranial dissemination of glioma. A total of 629 patients with gliomas received tumor resection by the same surgeon from August 2010 to September 2015 were included in this study. The authors performed a retrospective review of the patients and the information regarding clinical features, histopathological results, molecular pathologic results and clinical outcomes was collected and analyzed. In this retrospective study, we found that the intracranial dissemination phenomenon occurred in 53 patients (8.43%). We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients and found that the age at diagnosis (P = 0.011), WHO grade of the tumor (P < 0.001), and involvement of the corpus callosum (P = 0.010) were associated with the occurrence of dissemination. The higher grade of the tumor, the more prone to disseminate. Deletion of 1p/19q had no significant correlation with the intracranial dissemination. MMP9, Ki-67, and EGFR were highly expressed in tumor cells that caused dissemination, and the level of Ki-67 expression had significance in statistics (P < 0.01). In our study, older age (>40 years), high pathological grade, invasion of the corpus callosum and high levels of Ki-67 expression were risk factors associated with the intracranial dissemination of gliomas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular Subtypes of Glioblastoma Are Relevant to Lower Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Andrew E.; Chen, Yanwen; Brat, Daniel J.; O’Neill, Brian Patrick; de Groot, John; Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Yung, Wai-Kwan Alfred; Cohen, Mark L.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Rosenfeld, Steven; Verhaak, Roeland G. W.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults with great heterogeneity in histopathology and clinical course. The intent was to evaluate the relevance of known glioblastoma (GBM) expression and methylation based subtypes to grade II and III gliomas (ie. lower grade gliomas). Methods Gene expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and clinical data were obtained for 228 GBMs and 176 grade II/II gliomas (GII/III) from the publically available Rembrandt dataset. Two additional datasets with IDH1 mutation status were utilized as validation datasets (one publicly available dataset and one newly generated dataset from MD Anderson). Unsupervised clustering was performed and compared to gene expression subtypes assigned using the Verhaak et al 840-gene classifier. The glioma-CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (G-CIMP) was assigned using prediction models by Fine et al. Results Unsupervised clustering by gene expression aligned with the Verhaak 840-gene subtype group assignments. GII/IIIs were preferentially assigned to the proneural subtype with IDH1 mutation and G-CIMP. GBMs were evenly distributed among the four subtypes. Proneural, IDH1 mutant, G-CIMP GII/III s had significantly better survival than other molecular subtypes. Only 6% of GBMs were proneural and had either IDH1 mutation or G-CIMP but these tumors had significantly better survival than other GBMs. Copy number changes in chromosomes 1p and 19q were associated with GII/IIIs, while these changes in CDKN2A, PTEN and EGFR were more commonly associated with GBMs. Conclusions GBM gene-expression and methylation based subtypes are relevant for GII/III s and associate with overall survival differences. A better understanding of the association between these subtypes and GII/IIIs could further knowledge regarding prognosis and mechanisms of glioma progression. PMID:24614622

  16. Autophagy contributes to gefitinib-induced glioma cell growth inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Cheng-Yi; Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 406, Taiwan; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including gefitinib, have been evaluated in patients with malignant gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in gefitinib-mediated anticancer effects against glioma are incompletely understood. In the present study, the cytostatic potential of gefitinib was demonstrated by the inhibition of glioma cell growth, long-term clonogenic survival, and xenograft tumor growth. The cytostatic consequences were accompanied by autophagy, as evidenced by monodansylcadaverine staining of acidic vesicle formation, conversion of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), degradation of p62, punctate pattern of GFP-LC3, and conversion of GFP-LC3 to cleaved-GFP. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenosine and chloroquine and geneticmore » silencing of LC3 or Beclin 1 attenuated gefitinib-induced growth inhibition. Gefitinib-induced autophagy was not accompanied by the disruption of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Instead, the activation of liver kinase-B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling correlated well with the induction of autophagy and growth inhibition caused by gefitinib. Silencing of AMPK suppressed gefitinib-induced autophagy and growth inhibition. The crucial role of AMPK activation in inducing glioma autophagy and growth inhibition was further supported by the actions of AMP mimetic AICAR. Gefitinib was shown to be capable of reducing the proliferation of glioma cells, presumably by autophagic mechanisms involving AMPK activation. - Highlights: • Gefitinib causes cytotoxic and cytostatic effect on glioma. • Gefitinib induces autophagy. • Gefitinib causes cytostatic effect through autophagy. • Gefitinib induces autophagy involving AMPK.« less

  17. IDH1 mutation diminishes aggressive phenotype in glioma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi; Cai, Gang; Yu, Qi; Shen, Jianhong; Gu, Zhikai; Chen, Jian; Shi, Wei; Shi, Jinlong

    2018-01-01

    The R132H mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1-R132H) is associated with better prognosis in glioma patients. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) in glioma are believed to be responsible for glioma growth and maintenance. However, the relation between the R132H mutation and GSCs is not fully understood. In the present study, GSC markers were detected in patients with IDH1-R132H or wild-type IDH1 (IDH1-wt) by tissue microarray immunohistochemistry (TMA-IHC). The relationship between the expression patterns of GSC markers and the clinicopathological characteristics in glioma were analyzed. To confirm this mutation's role in GSCs, the IDH1-R132H in GSCs isolated from glioblastoma patients with IDH1 mutations was overexpressed by using lentiviral constructs in vitro, and then the proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of the transfected GSCs were explored. At the molecular level, we detected Wnt/β-catenin signaling expression to verify its role in regulating the cellular properties of GSCs. The results showed that the positive rate of GSCs in patients with IDH1-R132H was significantly less than that in patients with IDH1-wt. The positive rate of GSCs was correlated with IDH1 mutation, TNM stage and poor overall survive. After transfection in vitro, IDH1-R132H overexpression led to reduced GSCs proliferation, migration and invasion, inducing apoptosis and improving GSC differentiation, accompanied by a significant reduction in activity of β-catenin. Several mediators, effectors and targets of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling were downregulated. The data demonstrate that IDH1 mutation reduces the malignant progression of glioma by causing a less aggressive phenotype of GSCs which are involved in the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling.

  18. CREB1 regulates glucose transport of glioma cell line U87 by targeting GLUT1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaying; Zhang, Can; Mi, Yang; Chen, Fuxue; Du, Dongshu

    2017-12-01

    Glioma is stemmed from the glial cells in the brain, which is accounted for about 45% of all intracranial tumors. The characteristic of glioma is invasive growth, as well as there is no obvious boundary between normal brain tissue and glioma tissue, so it is difficult to resect completely with worst prognosis. The metabolism of glioma is following the Warburg effect. Previous researches have shown that GLUT1, as a glucose transporter carrier, affected the Warburg effect, but the molecular mechanism is not very clear. CREB1 (cAMP responsive element-binding protein1) is involved in various biological processes, and relevant studies confirmed that CREB1 protein regulated the expression of GLUT1, thus mediating glucose transport in cells. Our experiments mainly reveal that the CREB1 could affect glucose transport in glioma cells by regulating the expression of GLUT1, which controlled the metabolism of glioma and affected the progression of glioma.

  19. Phase I Pharmacokinetic Study of the VEGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Vatalanib (PTK787) plus Imatinib and Hydroxyurea for Malignant Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, David A.; Egorin, Merrill J.; Desjardins, Annick; Vredenburgh, James J.; Beumer, Jan H.; Lagattuta, Theodore F.; Gururangan, Sridharan; Herndon, James E.; Salvado, August J.; Friedman, Henry S.

    2009-01-01

    Background We determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) of the oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor, vatalanib, when administered with imatinib and hydroxyurea on a continuous daily schedule among recurrent malignant glioma patients. Methods All patients received 500 mg of hydroxyurea twice daily. Imatinib was dosed at 400 mg per day for patients not taking enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs; stratum A) and at 500 mg twice-a-day for patients taking EIAEDs (stratum B). Vatalanib was escalated from 500 mg to 1250 mg twice daily in successive cohorts, independently for each stratum. Pharmacokinetics of each drug were assessed. Results Thirty-seven recurrent patients, including 34 (92%) with glioblastoma and 3 (8%) with grade 3 malignant glioma, were enrolled. Nineteen patients (51%) were taking EIAEDs. The MTD of vatalanib for all patients was 1000 mg twice-a-day. DLTs were hematologic, gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic. No patients developed intracranial hemorrhage. Concurrent administration of imatinib and hydroxyurea did not affect vatalanib exposure, but EIAEDs decreased vatalanib and imatinib plasma exposures. Conclusion Vatalanib doses up to 1000 mg twice-a-day combined with imatinib and hydroxyurea are well tolerated. Strategies to target tumor blood vessel endothelial cells and pericytes by inhibiting VEGFR and PDGFR, respectively, are safe among recurrent malignant glioma patients and may enhance anti-angiogenesis activity. PMID:19248046

  20. Response assessment challenges in clinical trials of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Wen, Patrick Y; Norden, Andrew D; Drappatz, Jan; Quant, Eudocia

    2010-01-01

    Accurate, reproducible criteria for determining tumor response and progression after therapy are critical for optimal patient care and effective evaluation of novel therapeutic agents. Currently, the most widely used criteria for determining treatment response in gliomas is based on two-dimensional tumor measurements using neuroimaging studies (Macdonald criteria). In recent years, the limitation of these criteria, which only address the contrast-enhancing component of the tumor, have become increasingly apparent. This review discusses challenges that have emerged in assessing response in patients with gliomas and approaches being introduced to address them.

  1. Treatment and Outcome in 65 Children with Optic Pathway Gliomas.

    PubMed

    El Beltagy, Mohamed A; Reda, Mohamed; Enayet, Abdelrhman; Zaghloul, Mohamed Saad; Awad, Madeha; Zekri, Wael; Taha, Hala; El-Khateeb, Nada

    2016-05-01

    Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) are rare neoplasms in children with an unpredictable clinical course. There is significant controversy regarding the optimal management and outcome of these patients. Charts of all patients with OPG diagnosed and treated at Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt between July 2007 and July 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated the roles of surgical, ophthalmologic, endocrinologic, neurologic, and treatment aspects of care. Sixty-five patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 5.3 years. OPGs were chiasmatic (n = 25), optic nerve (n = 18), hypothalamic (n = 7), and chiasmatic/hypothalamic (n = 7). Extensive involvement of the optic pathway was seen in an additional 8 patients. Twenty cases had neurofibromatosis type 1. Four cases underwent surgical debulking, and 28 were biopsied (16 open, 11 stereotactic, and 1 endoscopic). Nine of the 18 optic nerve tumors were managed by total excision. Twenty-four patients did not undergo any surgical intervention. Forty-five patients received chemotherapy. Histopathology revealed pilocytic (n = 20), pilomyxoid (n = 15), fibrillary astrocytoma (n = 4), and grade I papillary-glioneuronal tumor (n = 1). Nonrepresentative sample (n = 1). The 4-year overall survival rate was 86.3% with mean follow-up period of 32.2 months. The initial role of surgery in newly developed OPG is biopsy for tissue diagnosis and relief of the hydrocephalus, if present, followed by chemotherapy. Chemotherapy decreases or stabilizes the tumor size in most cases, leading to preservation of both visual and endocrinal functions. The most significant prognostic factor confirmed in this study was the age of the patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Novel Methodology for Applying Multivoxel MR Spectroscopy to Evaluate Convection-Enhanced Drug Delivery in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Guisado, D I; Singh, R; Minkowitz, S; Zhou, Z; Haque, S; Peck, K K; Young, R J; Tsiouris, A J; Souweidane, M M; Thakur, S B

    2016-07-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas are inoperable high-grade gliomas with a median survival of less than 1 year. Convection-enhanced delivery is a promising local drug-delivery technique that can bypass the BBB in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma treatment. Evaluating tumor response is critical in the assessment of convection-enhanced delivery of treatment. We proposed to determine the potential of 3D multivoxel (1)H-MR spectroscopy to evaluate convection-enhanced delivery treatment effect in these tumors. We prospectively analyzed 3D multivoxel (1)H-MR spectroscopy data for 6 patients with nonprogressive diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas who received convection-enhanced delivery treatment of a therapeutic antibody (Phase I clinical trial NCT01502917). To compare changes in the metabolite ratios with time, we tracked the metabolite ratios Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA at several ROIs: normal white matter, tumor within the convection-enhanced delivery infusion site, tumor outside of the infused area, and the tumor average. There was a comparative decrease in both Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA metabolite ratios at the tumor convection-enhanced delivery site versus tumor outside the infused area. We used MR spectroscopy voxels with dominant white matter as a reference. The difference between changes in metabolite ratios became more prominent with increasing time after convection-enhanced delivery treatment. The comparative change in metabolite ratios between the convection-enhanced delivery site and the tumor site outside the infused area suggests that multivoxel (1)H-MR spectroscopy, in combination with other imaging modalities, may provide a clinical tool to accurately evaluate local tumor response after convection-enhanced delivery treatment. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. A glioma-derived analog to platelet-derived growth factor: demonstration of receptor competing activity and immunological crossreactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Nistér, M; Heldin, C H; Wasteson, A; Westermark, B

    1984-01-01

    A human clonal glioma cell line, U-343 MGa Cl 2, cultured under serum-free conditions, was found to release a factor that competed with 125I-labeled platelet-derived growth factor (125I-PDGF) for binding to human foreskin fibroblasts. The concentration of competing activity in conditioned medium was equal to 20-30 ng of PDGF per ml. The PDGF receptor competing activity had an elution position on Sephadex G-200 close to that of tracer PDGF. The same fractions in the chromatogram also contained growth-promoting activity and material active in a PDGF radioimmunoassay. Incubation of partially purified, 125I-labeled glioma factor with fibroblasts, or rabbit anti-PDGF serum, led to the selective binding of a component with an estimated Mr of 31,000, as shown by NaDodSO4/gel electrophoresis under nonreducing conditions. After reduction this component migrated as a Mr 18,000 protein. Thus, the behavior in NaDodSO4/gel electrophoresis was similar to that of PDGF. Furthermore, incubation of partially purified glioma factor with immobilized PDGF antibodies markedly decreased the amount of PDGF receptor competing activity remaining in the supernatant. These results suggest that the factor produced by glioma cells has structural, immunological, and functional resemblance to PDGF. We previously reported that a human osteosarcoma cell line produces a PDGF-like molecule with growth-promoting activity. Taken together with the recent finding that PDGF is homologous to the transforming gene product of simian sarcoma virus, our present data give additional support for the idea that an autocrine activation of the PDGF receptor may be operational in the growth of human tumors of mesenchymal or glial origin. Images PMID:6322178

  4. Concomitant treatment with pertussis toxin plus temozolomide increases the survival of rats bearing intracerebral RG2 glioma.

    PubMed

    Magaña-Maldonado, Roxana; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández-Pedro, Norma Y; Rangel-López, Edgar; Pérez-De la Cruz, Verónica; Rodríguez-Balderas, César; Sotelo, Julio; Pineda, Benjamín

    2014-02-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent primary brain tumor, it has poor prognosis, and it remains refractory to current treatment. The success of temozolomide (TMZ) appears to be limited by the occurrence of chemoresistance. Recently, we report the use of pertussis toxin as adjuvant immunotherapy in a C6 glioma model; showing a decrease in tumoral size, it induced selective cell death in Treg cells, and it elicited less infiltration of tumoral macrophages. Here, we evaluated the cytotoxic effect of pertussis toxin in combination with TMZ for glioma treatment, both in vitro and in vivo RG2 glioma model. We determined cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy on treated RG2 cells through flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot assays. Twenty-eight rats were divided in four groups (n = 7) for each treatment. After intracranial implantation of RG2 cells, animals were treated with TMZ (10 mg/Kg/200 μl of apple juice), PTx (2 μg/200 μl of saline solution), and TMZ + PTx. Animals without treatment were considered as control. We found an induction of apoptosis in around 20 % of RG2 cells, in both single treatments and in their combination. Also, we determined the presence of autophagy vesicles, without any modifications in the cell cycle in the TMZ - PTx-treated groups. The survival analyses showed an increase due to individual treatments; while in the group treated with the combination TMZ - PTx, this effect was enhanced. We show that the concomitant use of pertussis toxin plus TMZ could represent an advantage to improve the glioma treatment.

  5. Glioma Stem Cells but Not Bulk Glioma Cells Upregulate IL-6 Secretion in Microglia/Brain Macrophages via Toll-like Receptor 4 Signaling.

    PubMed

    a Dzaye, Omar Dildar; Hu, Feng; Derkow, Katja; Haage, Verena; Euskirchen, Philipp; Harms, Christoph; Lehnardt, Seija; Synowitz, Michael; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral macrophages and resident microglia constitute the dominant glioma-infiltrating cells. The tumor induces an immunosuppressive and tumor-supportive phenotype in these glioma-associated microglia/brain macrophages (GAMs). A subpopulation of glioma cells acts as glioma stem cells (GSCs). We explored the interaction between GSCs and GAMs. Using CD133 as a marker of stemness, we enriched for or deprived the mouse glioma cell line GL261 of GSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Over the same period of time, 100 CD133(+ )GSCs had the capacity to form a tumor of comparable size to the ones formed by 10,000 CD133(-) GL261 cells. In IL-6(-/-) mice, only tumors formed by CD133(+ )cells were smaller compared with wild type. After stimulation of primary cultured microglia with medium from CD133-enriched GL261 glioma cells, we observed an selective upregulation in microglial IL-6 secretion dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Our results show that GSCs, but not the bulk glioma cells, initiate microglial IL-6 secretion via TLR4 signaling and that IL-6 regulates glioma growth by supporting GSCs. Using human glioma tissue, we could confirm the finding that GAMs are the major source of IL-6 in the tumor context. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Destruction of vasculogenic mimicry channels by targeting epirubicin plus celecoxib liposomes in treatment of brain glioma

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Rui-Jun; Zeng, Fan; Liu, Lei; Mu, Li-Min; Xie, Hong-Jun; Zhao, Yao; Yan, Yan; Wu, Jia-Shuan; Hu, Ying-Jie; Lu, Wan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of chemotherapy for brain glioma is restricted by the blood–brain barrier (BBB), and surgery or radiotherapy cannot eliminate the glioma cells because of their unique location. Residual brain glioma cells can form vasculogenic mimicry (VM) channels that can cause a recurrence of brain glioma. In the present study, targeting liposomes incorporating epirubicin and celecoxib were prepared and used for the treatment of brain glioma, along with the destruction of their VM channels. Evaluations were performed on the human brain glioma U87MG cells in vitro and on intracranial brain glioma-bearing nude mice. Targeting epirubicin plus celecoxib liposomes in the circulatory blood system were able to be transported across the BBB, and accumulated in the brain glioma region. Then, the liposomes were internalized by brain glioma cells and killed glioma cells by direct cytotoxic injury and the induction of apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis was related to the activation of caspase-8- and -3-signaling pathways, the activation of the proapoptotic protein Bax, and the suppression of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1. The destruction of brain glioma VM channels was related to the downregulation of VM channel-forming indictors, which consisted of MMP-2, MMP-9, FAK, VE-Cad, and VEGF. The results demonstrated that the targeting epirubicin plus celecoxib liposomes were able to effectively destroy the glioma VM channels and exhibited significant efficacy in the treatment of intracranial glioma-bearing nude mice. Therefore, targeting epirubicin plus celecoxib liposomes could be a potential nanostructured formulation to treat gliomas and destroy their VM channels. PMID:27042063

  7. Changes in brain glioma incidence and laterality correlates with use of mobile phones--a nationwide population based study in Israel.

    PubMed

    Barchana, Micha; Margaliot, Menahem; Liphshitz, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones are in extensive use worldwide and concerns regarding their role in tumor formation were raised. Over the years multiple studies were published in order to investigate this issue using several approaches. The current study looks at secular trends of brain gliomas (low and high grade) incidence and changes in tumor's laterality over 30 years in a population extensively using this technology with a possible correlation to the spread of use of mobile phones. All brain gliomas that were diagnosed from 1980-2009 were included and subdivided into two groups--low and high grade. Secular and periodic time trend analyses of incidence rates and changes in laterality were performed. Preferred side of head using mobile phones was assessed with a questionnaire in a sample of adult individuals. A decrease in incidence of low grade giomas (LGG) that correlated with introduction of mobile technology was found from 2.57, 2.34 and 2.79 for every 100,000 in the period 1980 to the end of 1994 to 1.72, 1.82 and 1.57, respectively, over the last three 5-years periods (1995-2009). High-grade glioma incidences increased significantly from 1980-2009 but in the period after mobile phones were introduced (1994-2009) a lower, non significant, rate of increase was observed in males and a lower one (significant) in females. A shift towards left sided tumor location for all adult gliomas combined and separately for LGG and HGG was noted from 1995 onward. The shift was more marked for those who were diagnosed in ages 20-49 (p=0.03). We found a statistically significant decrease in LGG's over 30-years period that correlates with introducing of mobile phones technology and a shift in laterality towards left-sided tumors, the latter occurred in both low and high-grade gliomas.

  8. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Gabriele D; Brucker, Daniel P; Bähr, Oliver; Harter, Patrick N; Hattingen, Elke; Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2011-07-26

    Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2), 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents that efficiently target non-oxidative pathways.

  9. Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 1 Gene Demethylation Contributes to Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in Human U251 Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Xing, Zhiguo; Ni, Yaping; Zhao, Junjie; Ma, Xudong

    2017-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a type of central nervous system tumor with extremely poor prognosis. Previously, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), which promotes the oxidative stress response, has been reported to induce the apoptosis of glioma cells. Recently, secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) has been shown to be associated with various types of malignant tumors and with H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes by negatively regulating the Wnt signaling pathway. This study aimed to explore SFRP1 expression and its roles in H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis in human glioma cells. We found that the SFRP1 level was decreased in several human glioma cell lines, including U87, U251, and SW1783 cells. In U251 cells, SFRP1 could function as a cancer suppressor gene, and the growth of U251 cells could be inhibited not only by H 2 O 2 but also by the overexpression of SFRP1. Furthermore, we demonstrated that H 2 O 2 -induced SFRP1 gene demethylation partially contributed to H 2 O 2 -induced U251 cell apoptosis, which was verified by studies using an SFRP inhibitor (WAY-316606). Our research identified that H 2 O 2 -induced SFRP1 gene demethylation contributes to H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis in human U251 glioma cells.

  10. Prognostic significance of S-phase fractions in peritumoral invading zone analyzed by laser scanning cytometry in patients with high-grade glioma: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Syoichi; Morii, Ken; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Fujii, Yukihiko; Yamanaka, Ryuya

    2016-03-01

    The predominant characteristic of malignant glioma is the presence of invading tumor cells in the peritumoral zone. Distinguishing between tumor cells and normal cells in a peritumoral lesion is challenging. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the cell-cycle phase measurements of fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from the peritumoral invading zone of high-grade gliomas using laser scanning cytometry. A total of 12 high-grade gliomas (2 anaplastic astrocytomas and 10 glioblastomas) were studied. The tumor core and peritumoral invading zone of each tumor specimen were investigated. Tissue sections (50 µm) from the paraffin blocks were deparaffinized, rehydrated and enzymatically disintegrated, and the cells in suspension were stained with propidium iodide and placed on microscope slides. A slight trend for an increased S-phase fraction in the peritumoral invading zone compared with the tumor core was observed (P=0.24). Additionally, there was a trend for a decrease in the overall survival time of patients with increasing peritumoral invading zone S-phase fraction (P=0.12). These data suggest that laser scanning cytometry is a powerful and clinically relevant tool for the objective analysis of the cell cycle in malignant gliomas.

  11. Canine spontaneous glioma: A translational model system for convection-enhanced delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Peter J.; LeCouteur, Richard A.; Higgins, Robert J.; Bringas, John R.; Larson, Richard F.; Yamashita, Yoji; Krauze, Michal T.; Forsayeth, John; Noble, Charles O.; Drummond, Daryl C.; Kirpotin, Dmitri B.; Park, John W.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.

    2010-01-01

    Canine spontaneous intracranial tumors bear striking similarities to their human tumor counterparts and have the potential to provide a large animal model system for more realistic validation of novel therapies typically developed in small rodent models. We used spontaneously occurring canine gliomas to investigate the use of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of liposomal nanoparticles, containing topoisomerase inhibitor CPT-11. To facilitate visualization of intratumoral infusions by real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we included identically formulated liposomes loaded with Gadoteridol. Real-time MRI defined distribution of infusate within both tumor and normal brain tissues. The most important limiting factor for volume of distribution within tumor tissue was the leakage of infusate into ventricular or subarachnoid spaces. Decreased tumor volume, tumor necrosis, and modulation of tumor phenotype correlated with volume of distribution of infusate (Vd), infusion location, and leakage as determined by real-time MRI and histopathology. This study demonstrates the potential for canine spontaneous gliomas as a model system for the validation and development of novel therapeutic strategies for human brain tumors. Data obtained from infusions monitored in real time in a large, spontaneous tumor may provide information, allowing more accurate prediction and optimization of infusion parameters. Variability in Vd between tumors strongly suggests that real-time imaging should be an essential component of CED therapeutic trials to allow minimization of inappropriate infusions and accurate assessment of clinical outcomes. PMID:20488958

  12. Adenovirus-mediated p53 gene delivery inhibits 9L glioma growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Badie, B; Drazan, K E; Kramar, M H; Shaked, A; Black, K L

    1995-06-01

    Adenoviral vectors have recently been shown to effectively deliver genes into a variety of tissues. Since these vectors have some advantages over the more extensively investigated retroviruses, we studied the effect of two replication-defective adenovectors bearing human wild type tumor suppressor gene p53 (Adp53) and Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene (AdLacZ) on 9L glioma cells. Successful in vitro gene transfer was shown by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and expression was confirmed by reverse transcriptase RNA PCR and Western blot analyses. Transduction of 9L cells with the Adp53 inhibited cell growth and induced phenotypic changes consistent with cell death at low titers, while AdLacZ caused cytopathic changes only at high titers. Stereotactic injection of AdLacZ (10(7) plaque forming units) into tumor bed stained 25 to 30% of tumor cells at the site of vector delivery. Injection of Adp53 (10(7) plaque forming units), but not AdLacZ (controls), into established 4-day old 9L glioma brain tumors decreased tumor volume by 40% after 14 days. As a step toward gene therapy of brain tumors using replication-defective adenoviruses, these data support the use of tumor suppressor gene transfer for in vivo treatment of whole animal brain tumor models.

  13. The use of TMZ embedded hydrogels for the treatment of orthotopic human glioma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bandita; Li, Jie; Brandel, Michael G; Futalan, Diahnn; Akers, Johnny; Deming, Timothy; Chen, Clark C; Carter, Bob S

    2017-11-01

    The current treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is limited by the restricted arsenal of agents which effectively cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). For example, only a fraction of temozolomide (TMZ) administered systemically is available for therapeutic effect because of the BBB and the instability of TMZ under physiologic conditions. A novel approach to overcome this obstacle is to bypass the BBB and locally deliver chemotherapeutic agents directly to the tumor mass. We have explored the loading of TMZ into a novel hydrogel matrix, which can be delivered in liquid form and then solidifies in situ and releases chemotherapy as the matrix dissolves. Here, we tested the effect of amphiphilic diblock copolypeptide hydrogels (DCHs) of 180-poly-lysine and 20-poly-leucine (K 180 L 20 ) on TMZ using Glioblastoma models. In both the in vitro model, which involved treatment of a human glioblastoma GSC line suspended as neurospheres, and in vivo using an orthotopic glioma xenograft mouse model, we found that K 180 L 20 could safely enhance the efficacy of TMZ. This technique may offer the opportunity to 'coat' the inner lining of the cavity following glioma resection with a slow-release TMZ and potentially decrease recurrence. Future studies in larger animals are needed to delineate this effect. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Approaching a Scientific Consensus on the Association between Allergies and Glioma Risk: A Report from the Glioma International Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Amirian, E Susan; Zhou, Renke; Wrensch, Margaret R; Olson, Sara H; Scheurer, Michael E; Il'yasova, Dora; Lachance, Daniel; Armstrong, Georgina N; McCoy, Lucie S; Lau, Ching C; Claus, Elizabeth B; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Schildkraut, Joellen; Ali-Osman, Francis; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Houlston, Richard S; Jenkins, Robert B; Bernstein, Jonine L; Merrell, Ryan T; Davis, Faith G; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Amos, Christopher I; Melin, Beatrice S; Bondy, Melissa L

    2016-02-01

    Several previous studies have found inverse associations between glioma susceptibility and a history of allergies or other atopic conditions. Some evidence indicates that respiratory allergies are likely to be particularly relevant with regard to glioma risk. Using data from the Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC), we examined the effects of respiratory allergies and other atopic conditions on glioma risk. The GICC contains detailed information on history of atopic conditions for 4,533 cases and 4,171 controls, recruited from 14 study sites across five countries. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling to calculate meta-analysis ORs, we examined the associations between glioma and allergy status, respiratory allergy status, asthma, and eczema. Having a history of respiratory allergies was associated with an approximately 30% lower glioma risk, compared with not having respiratory allergies (mOR, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.90). This association was similar when restricting to high-grade glioma cases. Asthma and eczema were also significantly protective against glioma. A substantial amount of data on the inverse association between atopic conditions and glioma has accumulated, and findings from the GICC study further strengthen the existing evidence that the relationship between atopy and glioma is unlikely to be coincidental. As the literature approaches a consensus on the impact of allergies in glioma risk, future research can begin to shift focus to what the underlying biologic mechanism behind this association may be, which could, in turn, yield new opportunities for immunotherapy or cancer prevention. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Approaching a Scientific Consensus on the Association between Allergies and Glioma Risk: A Report from the Glioma International Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Amirian, E. Susan; Zhou, Renke; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Olson, Sara H.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Il’yasova, Dora; Lachance, Daniel; Armstrong, Georgina N.; McCoy, Lucie S.; Lau, Ching C.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Ali-Osman, Francis; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Houlston, Richard S.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Merrell, Ryan T.; Davis, Faith G.; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Amos, Christopher I.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Bondy, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several previous studies have found inverse associations between glioma susceptibility and a history of allergies or other atopic conditions. Some evidence indicates that respiratory allergies are likely to be particularly relevant with regard to glioma risk. Using data from the Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC), we examined the effects of respiratory allergies and other atopic conditions on glioma risk. Methods The GICC contains detailed information on history of atopic conditions for 4533 cases and 4171 controls, recruited from 14 study sites across five countries. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling to calculate meta-analysis odds ratios, we examined the associations between glioma and allergy status, respiratory allergy status, asthma, and eczema. Results Having a history of respiratory allergies was associated with an approximately 30% lower glioma risk, compared to not having respiratory allergies (mOR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58–0.90). This association was similar when restricting to high-grade glioma cases. Asthma and eczema were also significantly protective against glioma. Conclusions A substantial amount of data on the inverse association between atopic conditions and glioma has accumulated, and findings from the GICC study further strengthen the existing evidence that the relationship between atopy and glioma is unlikely to be coincidental. Impact As the literature approaches a consensus on the impact of allergies in glioma risk, future research can begin to shift focus to what the underlying biological mechanism behind this association may be, which could, in turn, yield new opportunities for immunotherapy or cancer prevention. PMID:26908595

  16. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Children with Low-Grade Gliomas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ris, M. Douglas; Beebe, Dean W.

    2008-01-01

    As a group, children with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) enjoy a high rate of long-term survival and do not require the intensity of neurotoxic treatments used with higher risk pediatric brain tumors. Because they are generally considered to have favorable neurobehavioral outcomes, they have not been studied as thoroughly as higher-grade brain tumors by…

  17. Mutant tristetraprolin: a potent inhibitor of malignant glioma cell growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Malignant gliomas rely on the production of certain critical growth factors including VEGF, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, to fuel rapid tumor growth, angiogenesis, and treatment resistance. Post-transcriptional regulation through adenine and uridine-rich elements of the 3' untranslated region is one ...

  18. Developing chemotherapy for diffuse pontine intrinsic gliomas (DIPG).

    PubMed

    Gwak, Ho-Shin; Park, Hyeon Jin

    2017-12-01

    Prognosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is poor, with a median survival of 10 months after radiation. At present, chemotherapy has failed to show benefits over radiation. Advances in biotechnology have enabled the use of autopsy specimens for genomic analyses and molecular profiling of DIPG, which are quite different from those of supratentorial high grade glioma. Recently, combined treatments of cytotoxic agents with target inhibitors, based on biopsied tissue, are being examined in on-going trials. Spontaneous DIPG mice models have been recently developed that is useful for preclinical studies. Finally, the convection-enhanced delivery could be used to infuse drugs directly into the brainstem parenchyma, to which conventional systemic administration fails to achieve effective concentration. The WHO glioma classification defines a diffuse midline glioma with a H3-K27M-mutation, and we expect increase of tissue confirmation of DIPG, which will give us the biological information helping the development of a targeted therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic stroma reorganization drives blood vessel dysmorphia during glioma growth.

    PubMed

    Mathivet, Thomas; Bouleti, Claire; Van Woensel, Matthias; Stanchi, Fabio; Verschuere, Tina; Phng, Li-Kun; Dejaegher, Joost; Balcer, Marly; Matsumoto, Ken; Georgieva, Petya B; Belmans, Jochen; Sciot, Raf; Stockmann, Christian; Mazzone, Massimiliano; De Vleeschouwer, Steven; Gerhardt, Holger

    2017-12-01

    Glioma growth and progression are characterized by abundant development of blood vessels that are highly aberrant and poorly functional, with detrimental consequences for drug delivery efficacy. The mechanisms driving this vessel dysmorphia during tumor progression are poorly understood. Using longitudinal intravital imaging in a mouse glioma model, we identify that dynamic sprouting and functional morphogenesis of a highly branched vessel network characterize the initial tumor growth, dramatically changing to vessel expansion, leakage, and loss of branching complexity in the later stages. This vascular phenotype transition was accompanied by recruitment of predominantly pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages in the early stages, followed by in situ repolarization to M2-like macrophages, which produced VEGF-A and relocate to perivascular areas. A similar enrichment and perivascular accumulation of M2 versus M1 macrophages correlated with vessel dilation and malignancy in human glioma samples of different WHO malignancy grade. Targeting macrophages using anti-CSF1 treatment restored normal blood vessel patterning and function. Combination treatment with chemotherapy showed survival benefit, suggesting that targeting macrophages as the key driver of blood vessel dysmorphia in glioma progression presents opportunities to improve efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. We propose that vessel dysfunction is not simply a general feature of tumor vessel formation, but rather an emergent property resulting from a dynamic and functional reorganization of the tumor stroma and its angiogenic influences. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  20. Senescence from glioma stem cell differentiation promotes tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchi, Rie; Laboratory of Molecular Target Therapy of Cancer, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550; Okabe, Sachiko

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor composed of heterogeneous cellular populations including glioma stem cells (GSCs) and differentiated non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs). While GSCs are involved in tumor initiation and propagation, NSGCs' role remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NSGCs undergo senescence and secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, boosting the GSC-derived tumor formation in vivo. We used a GSC model that maintains stemness in neurospheres, but loses the stemness and differentiates into NSGCs upon serum stimulation. These NSGCs downregulated telomerase, shortened telomeres, and eventually became senescent. The senescent NSGCs released pro-angiogenic proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factors and senescence-associated interleukins, such asmore » IL-6 and IL-8. Conditioned medium from senescent NSGCs promoted proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and mixed implantation of GSCs and senescent NSGCs into mice enhanced the tumorigenic potential of GSCs. The senescent NSGCs seem to be clinically relevant, because both clinical samples and xenografts of GBM contained tumor cells that expressed the senescence markers. Our data suggest that senescent NSGCs promote malignant progression of GBM in part via paracrine effects of the secreted proteins. - Highlights: • Non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs) lose telomerase and eventually become senescent. • Senescent NSGCs secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, such as VEGFs, IL-6, and IL-8. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the growth of brain microvascular endothelial cells. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the tumorigenic potential of glioma stem cells in vivo.« less

  1. Convection-enhanced Delivery of Therapeutics for Malignant Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ryuta; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-01-15

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) circumvents the blood-brain barrier by delivering agents directly into the tumor and surrounding parenchyma. CED can achieve large volumes of distribution by continuous positive-pressure infusion. Although promising as an effective drug delivery method in concept, the administration of therapeutic agents via CED is not without challenges. Limitations of distribution remain a problem in large brains, such as those of humans. Accurate and consistent delivery of an agent is another challenge associated with CED. Similar to the difficulties caused by immunosuppressive environments associated with gliomas, there are several mechanisms that make effective local drug distribution difficult in malignant gliomas. In this review, methods for local drug application targeting gliomas are discussed with special emphasis on CED. Although early clinical trials have failed to demonstrate the efficacy of CED against gliomas, CED potentially can be a platform for translating the molecular understanding of glioblastomas achieved in the laboratory into effective clinical treatments. Several clinical studies using CED of chemotherapeutic agents are ongoing. Successful delivery of effective agents should prove the efficacy of CED in the near future.

  2. Convection-enhanced Delivery of Therapeutics for Malignant Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, Ryuta; TOMINAGA, Teiji

    2017-01-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) circumvents the blood–brain barrier by delivering agents directly into the tumor and surrounding parenchyma. CED can achieve large volumes of distribution by continuous positive-pressure infusion. Although promising as an effective drug delivery method in concept, the administration of therapeutic agents via CED is not without challenges. Limitations of distribution remain a problem in large brains, such as those of humans. Accurate and consistent delivery of an agent is another challenge associated with CED. Similar to the difficulties caused by immunosuppressive environments associated with gliomas, there are several mechanisms that make effective local drug distribution difficult in malignant gliomas. In this review, methods for local drug application targeting gliomas are discussed with special emphasis on CED. Although early clinical trials have failed to demonstrate the efficacy of CED against gliomas, CED potentially can be a platform for translating the molecular understanding of glioblastomas achieved in the laboratory into effective clinical treatments. Several clinical studies using CED of chemotherapeutic agents are ongoing. Successful delivery of effective agents should prove the efficacy of CED in the near future. PMID:27980285

  3. Targeting Pediatric Glioma with Apoptosis and Autophagy Manipulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    hypothesis that late stage autophagosome fusion with the lysosome and degradation of the components and recycling of the macronutrients is critical to...inhibition of this upregulation at late stages of autophagy we can impair the recycling of these important macronutrients and improve glioma cell

  4. Benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, Lisa M

    2003-12-01

    The current standard of care for patients with high-grade glioma is resection followed by radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not widely accepted because of the low sensitivity of gliomas to traditional antineoplastic agents, the poor penetration of most drugs across the blood-brain barrier, and the significant systemic toxicity associated with current agents. However, nitrosoureas and, subsequently, temozolomide (Temodar [US], Temodal [international]; Schering-Plough Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ), a novel alkylating agent, cross the blood-brain barrier and have activity against gliomas. Nitrosoureas have been studied in phase III trials in the adjuvant setting. In individual trials, chemotherapy did not increase median survival but did increase the proportion of patients surviving >/=18 months by 15%. Only with large meta-analyses did the addition of chemotherapy achieve a statistically significant improvement in median survival. Currently there is no means of identifying which patients will benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, but nitrosoureas and temozolomide are well tolerated in most patients, justifying the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy to all newly diagnosed patients with malignant glioma.

  5. [Molecular Genetics as Best Evidence in Glioma Diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Masui, Kenta; Komori, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    The development of a genomic landscape of gliomas has led to the internally consistent, molecularly-based classifiers. However, development of a biologically insightful classification to guide therapy is still ongoing. Further, tumors are heterogeneous, and they change and adapt in response to drugs. The challenge of developing molecular classifiers that provide meaningful ways to stratify patients for therapy remains a major challenge for the field. Therefore, by incorporating molecular markers into the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system, the traditional principle of diagnosis based on histologic criteria will be replaced by a multilayered approach combining histologic features and molecular information in an "integrated diagnosis", to define tumor entities as narrowly as possible. We herein review the current status of diagnostic molecular markers for gliomas, focusing on IDH mutation, ATRX mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion, and TERT promoter mutation in adult tumors, as well as BRAF and H3F3A aberrations in pediatric gliomas, the combination of which will be a promising endeavor to render molecular genetics as a best evidence in the glioma diagnositics.

  6. Preliminary clinical trial of immunotherapy for malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Ingram, M; Shelden, C H; Jacques, S; Skillen, R G; Bradley, W G; Techy, G B; Freshwater, D B; Abts, R M; Rand, R W

    1987-10-01

    An immunotherapy protocol based on intracranial implantation of stimulated, autologous lymphocytes into the tumor bed following surgical debulking of malignant glioma is described. Phase I clinical trials in human patients are now in progress. Preliminary data representing the first 39 patients treated are presented briefly.

  7. Overexpressed homeobox B9 regulates oncogenic activities by transforming growth factor-β1 in gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Liping; Xu, Yinghui; Zou, Lijuan, E-mail: zoulijuantg@126.com

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • HOXB9 is overexpressed in gliomas. • HOXB9 over expression had shorter survival time than down expression in gliomas. • HOXB9 stimulated the proliferation, migration and sphere formation of glioma cells. • Activation of TGF-β1 contributed to HOXB9-induced oncogenic activities. - Abstract: Glioma is the leading cause of deaths related to tumors in the central nervous system. The mechanisms of gliomagenesis remain elusive to date. Homeobox B9 (HOXB9) has a crucial function in the regulation of gene expression and cell survival, but its functions in glioma formation and development have yet to be elucidated. This study showed that HOXB9more » expression in glioma tissues was significantly higher than that in nontumor tissues. Higher HOXB9 expression was also significantly associated with advanced clinical stage in glioma patients. HOXB9 overexpression stimulated the proliferation, migration, and sphere formation of glioma cells, whereas HOXB9 knockdown elicited an opposite effect. HOXB9 overexpression also increased the tumorigenicity of glioma cells in vivo. Moreover, the activation of transforming growth factor-β1 contributed to HOXB9-induced oncogenic activities. HOXB9 could be used as a predictable biomarker to be detected in different pathological and histological subtypes in glioma for diagnosis or prognosis.« less

  8. HOXB1 Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene Regulated by miR-3175 in Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Liang; Liu, Dehua; Li, Zhaohui; Tian, Nan; Han, Ziwu; Wang, Guang; Fu, Yao; Guo, Zhigang; Zhu, Zifeng

    2015-01-01

    The HOXB1 gene plays a critical role as an oncogene in diverse tumors. However, the functional role of HOXB1 and the mechanism regulating HOXB1 expression in glioma are not fully understood. A preliminary bioinformatics analysis showed that HOXB1 is ectopically expressed in glioma, and that HOXB1 is a possible target of miR-3175. In this study, we investigated the function of HOXB1 and the relationship between HOXB1 and miR-3175 in glioma. We show that HOXB1 expression is significantly downregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines, and that its expression may be closely associated with the degree of malignancy. Reduced HOXB1 expression promoted the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells, and inhibited their apoptosis in vitro, and the downregulation of HOXB1 was also associated with worse survival in glioma patients. More importantly, HOXB1 was shown experimentally to be a direct target of miR-3175 in this study. The downregulated expression of miR-3175 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion, and promoted apoptosis in glioma. The oncogenicity induced by low HOXB1 expression was prevented by an miR-3175 inhibitor in glioma cells. Our results suggest that HOXB1 functions as a tumor suppressor, regulated by miR-3175 in glioma. These results clarify the pathogenesis of glioma and offer a potential target for its treatment. PMID:26565624

  9. Diffusion kurtosis imaging can efficiently assess the glioma grade and cellular proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rifeng; Jiang, Jingjing; Zhao, Lingyun; Zhang, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Shun; Yao, Yihao; Yang, Shiqi; Shi, Jingjing; Shen, Nanxi; Su, Changliang; Zhang, Ju; Zhu, Wenzhen

    2015-12-08

    Conventional diffusion imaging techniques are not sufficiently accurate for evaluating glioma grade and cellular proliferation, which are critical for guiding glioma treatment. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), an advanced non-Gaussian diffusion imaging technique, has shown potential in grading glioma; however, its applications in this tumor have not been fully elucidated. In this study, DKI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) were performed on 74 consecutive patients with histopathologically confirmed glioma. The kurtosis and conventional diffusion metric values of the tumor were semi-automatically obtained. The relationships of these metrics with the glioma grade and Ki-67 expression were evaluated. The diagnostic efficiency of these metrics in grading was further compared. It was demonstrated that compared with the conventional diffusion metrics, the kurtosis metrics were more promising imaging markers in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas and distinguishing among grade II, III and IV gliomas; the kurtosis metrics also showed great potential in the prediction of Ki-67 expression. To our best knowledge, we are the first to reveal the ability of DKI to assess the cellular proliferation of gliomas, and to employ the semi-automatic method for the accurate measurement of gliomas. These results could have a significant impact on the diagnosis and subsequent therapy of glioma.

  10. Better Prognosis of Patients with Glioma Expressing FGF2-Dependent PDGFRA Irrespective of Morphological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongfeng; Persson, Annette; Sun, Yingyu; Salford, Leif G.; Nord, David Gisselsson; Englund, Elisabet; Jiang, Tao; Fan, Xiaolong

    2013-01-01

    Signaling of platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) is critically involved in the development of gliomas. However, the clinical relevance of PDGFRA expression in glioma subtypes and the mechanisms of PDGFRA expression in gliomas have been controversial. Under the supervision of morphological diagnosis, analysis of the GSE16011 and the Repository of Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data (Rembrandt) set revealed enriched PDGFRA expression in low-grade gliomas. However, gliomas with the top 25% of PDGFRA expression levels contained nearly all morphological subtypes, which was associated with frequent IDH1 mutation, 1p LOH, 19q LOH, less EGFR amplification, younger age at disease onset and better survival compared to those gliomas with lower levels of PDGFRA expression. SNP analysis in Rembrandt data set and FISH analysis in eleven low passage glioma cell lines showed infrequent amplification of PDGFRA. Using in vitro culture of these low passage glioma cells, we tested the hypothesis of gliogenic factor dependent expression of PDGFRA in glioma cells. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was able to maintain PDGFRA expression in glioma cells. FGF2 also induced PDGFRA expression in glioma cells with low or non-detectable PDGFRA expression. FGF2-dependent maintenance of PDGFRA expression was concordant with the maintenance of a subset of gliogenic genes and higher rates of cell proliferation. Further, concordant expression patterns of FGF2 and PDGFRA were detected in glioma samples by immunohistochemical staining. Our findings suggest a role of FGF2 in regulating PDGFRA expression in the subset of gliomas with younger age at disease onset and longer patient survival regardless of their morphological diagnosis. PMID:23630597

  11. Upregulation of B23 promotes tumor cell proliferation and predicts poor prognosis in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jianguo; Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu Province; Sun, Jie

    B23 (also known as Nucleophosmin, NPM, numatrin or NO38) is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein belonging to the nucleoplasmin family of chaperones. In this study we intended to investigate the clinical significance of B23 expression in human glioma and its biological function in glioma cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that B23 was overexpressed in glioma tissues and glioma cell lines. In addition, the expression level of B23 was positively correlated with glioma pathological grade and Ki-67 expression. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that a higher B23 expression in patients with glioma was associated with a poorer prognosis. In vitro, after the releasemore » of glioma cell lines from serum starvation, the expression of B23 was upregulated, as well as PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) and cyclin A. In addition, knockdown of B23 by small interfering RNA transfection diminished the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 and arrested cell growth at G1 phase. Taken together, our results implied that B23 could be a candidate prognostic biomarker as well as a potential therapeutical target of glioma. - Highlights: • B23 expression increased as the malignant degree of glioma increased, which was consistent with Ki-67 expression. • High expression of B23 could be a strong determinant of poor prognosis in glioma. • B23 may be involved in the proliferation of glioma in a cell-cycle-dependent pathway. • Knockdown of B23 expression by siRNA could affect the progression of glioma. • B23 may be a potential prognosis biomarker and a possible therapeutic target for glioma.« less

  12. Diffuse Gliomas for Nonneuropathologists: The New Integrated Molecular Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunhee C

    2018-05-18

    Diffuse gliomas comprise the bulk of "brain cancer" in adults. The recent update to the 4th edition of the World Health Organization's classification of tumors of the central nervous system reflects an unprecedented change in the landscape of the diagnosis and management of diffuse gliomas that will affect all those involved in the management and care of patients. Of the recently discovered gene alterations, mutations in the Krebs cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) 1 and 2 have fundamentally changed the way the gliomas are understood and classified. Incorporating information on a few genetic parameters (IDH, ATRX and/or p53, and chromosome 1p19q codeletion), a relatively straightforward diagnostic algorithm has been generated with robust and reproducible results that correlate with patients' survival far better than relying on conventional histology alone. Evidence also supports the conclusion that the vast majority of diffuse gliomas without IDH mutations (IDH-wild-type astrocytomas) behave like IDH-wild-type glioblastomas ("molecular GBM"). Together, these changes reflect a big shift in the practice of diagnostic neuropathology in which tumor risk stratification aligns better with molecular information than histology/grading. The purpose of this review is to provide the readers with a brief synopsis of the changes in the 2016 World Health Organization update with an emphasis on diffuse gliomas and to summarize key gene abnormalities on which these classifications are based. Practical points involved in day-to-day diagnostic workup are also discussed, along with a comparison of the various diagnostic tests, including immunohistochemistry, with an emphasis on targeted next-generation sequencing panel technology as a future universal approach.

  13. Glioma surgery in eloquent areas: can we preserve cognition?

    PubMed

    Satoer, Djaina; Visch-Brink, Evy; Dirven, Clemens; Vincent, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive preservation is crucial in glioma surgery, as it is an important aspect of daily life functioning. Several studies claimed that surgery in eloquent areas is possible without causing severe cognitive damage. However, this conclusion was relatively ungrounded due to the lack of extensive neuropsychological testing in homogenous patient groups. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the short-term and long-term effects of glioma surgery on cognition by identifying all studies who conducted neuropsychological tests preoperatively and postoperatively in glioma patients. We systematically searched the electronical databases Embase, Medline OvidSP, Web of Science, PsychINFO OvidSP, PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, Scirius and Proquest aimed at cognitive performance in glioma patients preoperatively and postoperatively. We included 17 studies with tests assessing the cognitive domains: language, memory, attention, executive functions and/or visuospatial abilities. Language was the domain most frequently examined. Immediately postoperatively, all studies except one, found deterioration in one or more cognitive domains. In the longer term (3-6/6-12 months postoperatively), the following tests showed both recovery and deterioration compared with the preoperative level: naming and verbal fluency (language), verbal word learning (memory) and Trailmaking B (executive functions). Cognitive recovery to the preoperative level after surgery is possible to a certain extent; however, the results are too arbitrary to draw definite conclusions and not all studies investigated all cognitive domains. More studies with longer postoperative follow-up with tests for cognitive change are necessary for a better understanding of the conclusive effects of glioma surgery on cognition.

  14. Association between Prediagnostic Allergy-Related Serum Cytokines and Glioma.

    PubMed

    Schwartzbaum, Judith; Seweryn, Michal; Holloman, Christopher; Harris, Randall; Handelman, Samuel K; Rempala, Grzegorz A; Huang, Ruo-Pan; Burkholder, Brett; Brandemihl, Adam; Kallberg, Henrik; Johannesen, Tom Borge; Ahlbom, Anders; Feychting, Maria; Grimsrud, Tom K

    2015-01-01

    Allergy is inversely related to glioma risk. To determine whether prediagnostic allergy-related serum proteins are associated with glioma, we conducted a nested case-control study of seven cytokines (IL4, IL13, IL5, IL6, IL10, IFNG, TGFB2), two soluble cytokine receptors (sIL4RA, sIL13RA2) and three allergy-related transcription factors (FOXP3, STAT3, STAT6) using serum specimens from the Janus Serum Bank Cohort in Oslo, Norway. Blood donors subsequently diagnosed with glioma (n = 487) were matched to controls (n = 487) on age and date of blood draw and sex. We first estimated individual effects of the 12 serum proteins and then interactions between IL4 and IL13 and their receptors using conditional logistic regression. We next tested equality of case-control inter-correlations among the 12 serum proteins. We found that TGFB2 is inversely related to glioblastoma (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.87, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)) = 0.76, 0.98). In addition, ≤ 5 years before diagnosis, we observed associations between IL4 (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.66, 1.01), sIL4RA (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65, 1.00), their interaction (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.12) and glioblastoma. This interaction was apparent > 20 years before diagnosis (IL4-sIL4RA OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.37). Findings for glioma were similar. Case correlations were different from control correlations stratified on time before diagnosis. Five years or less before diagnosis, correlations among case serum proteins were weaker than were those among controls. Our findings suggest that IL4 and sIL4RA reduce glioma risk long before diagnosis and early gliomagenesis affects circulating immune function proteins.

  15. Retinoids in the treatment of glioma: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Mawson, Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    Primary brain tumors are among the top ten causes of cancer-related deaths in the US. Malignant gliomas account for approximately 70% of the 22,500 new cases of malignant primary brain tumors diagnosed in adults each year and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite optimal treatment, the prognosis for patients with gliomas remains poor. The use of retinoids (vitamin A and its congeners) in the treatment of certain tumors was originally based on the assumption that these conditions were associated with an underlying deficiency of vitamin A and that supplementation with pharmacological doses would correct the deficiency. Yet the results of retinoid treatment have been only modestly beneficial and usually short-lived. Studies also indicate that vitamin A excess and supplementation have pro-oxidant effects and are associated with increased risks of mortality from cancer and other diseases. The therapeutic role of vitamin A in cancer thus remains uncertain and a new perspective on the facts is needed. The modest and temporary benefits of retinoid treatment could result from a process of feedback inhibition, whereby exogenous retinoid temporarily inhibits the endogenous synthesis of these compounds. In fact, repeated and/or excessive exposure of the tissues to endogenous retinoic acid may contribute to carcinogenesis. Gliomas, in particular, may result from an imbalance in retinoid receptor expression initiated by environmental factors that increase the endogenous production of retinoic acid in glia. At the receptor level, it is proposed that this imbalance is characterized by excessive expression of retinoic acid receptor-α (RARα) and reduced expression of retinoic acid receptor-β (RARβ). This suggests a potential new treatment strategy for gliomas, possibly even at a late stage of the disease, ie, to combine the use of a RARα antagonist and a RARβ agonist. According to this hypothesis, the RARα antagonist would be expected to inhibit RAR

  16. The translocator protein radioligand 18F-DPA-714 monitors antitumor effect of erufosine in a rat 9L intracranial glioma model.

    PubMed

    Awde, Ali R; Boisgard, Raphaël; Thézé, Benoit; Dubois, Albertine; Zheng, Jinzi; Dollé, Frédéric; Jacobs, Andreas H; Tavitian, Bertrand; Winkeler, Alexandra

    2013-12-01

    On the one hand, the translocator protein (TSPO) radioligand N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2-(18)F-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide ((18)F-DPA-714) has been suggested to serve as an alternative radiotracer to image human glioma, and on the other hand the alkylphosphocholine erufosine (ErPC3) has been reported to induce apoptosis in otherwise highly apoptosis-resistant glioma cell lines. The induction of apoptosis by ErPC3 requires TSPO, a mitochondrial membrane protein highly expressed in malignant gliomas. In this preclinical study, we monitored the effect of ErPC3 treatment in vivo using (18)F-DPA-714 PET. In vitro studies investigated the antitumor effect of ErPC3 in 9L rat gliosarcoma cells. In vivo, glioma-bearing rats were imaged with (18)F-DPA-714 for the time of treatment. A significant decrease in 9L cell proliferation and viability and a significant increase in apoptosis and caspase-3 activation were demonstrated on ErPC3 treatment in cell culture. In the rat model, ErPC3 administration resulted in significant changes in (18)F-DPA-714 tumor uptake over the course of the treatment. Immunohistochemistry revealed reduced tumor volume and increased cell death in ErPC3-treated animals accompanied by infiltration of the tumor core by CD11b-positive microglia/macrophages and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. Our findings demonstrate a potent antitumor effect of ErPC3 in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. PET imaging of TSPO expression using (18)F-DPA-714 allows effective monitoring and quantification of disease progression and response to ErPC3 therapy in intracranial 9L gliomas.

  17. Interference with the HSF1/HSP70/BAG3 Pathway Primes Glioma Cells to Matrix Detachment and BH3 Mimetic-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Antonietti, Patrick; Linder, Benedikt; Hehlgans, Stephanie; Mildenberger, Iris C; Burger, Michael C; Fulda, Simone; Steinbach, Joachim P; Gessler, Florian; Rödel, Franz; Mittelbronn, Michel; Kögel, Donat

    2017-01-01

    Malignant gliomas exhibit a high intrinsic resistance against stimuli triggering apoptotic cell death. HSF1 acts as transcription factor upstream of HSP70 and the HSP70 co-chaperone BAG3 that is overexpressed in glioblastoma. To specifically target this resistance mechanism, we applied the selective HSF1 inhibitor KRIBB11 and the HSP70/BAG3 interaction inhibitor YM-1 in combination with the pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor AT-101. Here, we demonstrate that lentiviral BAG3 silencing significantly enhances AT-101-induced cell death and reactivates effector caspase-mediated apoptosis in U251 glioma cells with high BAG3 expression, whereas these sensitizing effects were less pronounced in U343 cells expressing lower BAG3 levels. KRIBB11 decreased protein levels of HSP70, BAG3, and the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Mcl-1, and both KRIBB11 and YM-1 elicited significantly increased mitochondrial dysfunction, effector caspase activity, and apoptotic cell death after combined treatment with AT-101 and ABT-737. Depletion of BAG3 also led to a pronounced loss of cell-matrix adhesion, FAK phosphorylation, and in vivo tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse glioma model. Furthermore, it reduced the plating efficiency of U251 cells in three-dimensional clonogenic assays and limited clonogenic survival after short-term treatment with AT-101. Collectively, our data suggest that the HSF1/HSP70/BAG3 pathway plays a pivotal role for overexpression of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins and cell death resistance of glioma. They also support the hypothesis that interference with BAG3 function is an effective novel approach to prime glioma cells to anoikis. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 156-68. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. IDH1(R132H) mutation causes a less aggressive phenotype and radiosensitizes human malignant glioma cells independent of the oxygenation status.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Jacqueline; Güttler, Antje; Wichmann, Henri; Rot, Swetlana; Kappler, Matthias; Bache, Matthias; Vordermark, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    In malignant glioma the presence of the IDH1 mutation (IDH1(R132H)) is associated with better clinical outcome. However, it is unclear whether IDH1 mutation is associated with a less aggressive phenotype or directly linked to increased sensitivity to radiotherapy. We determined the influence of IDH1(R132H) mutant protein on proliferation and growth in 3D culture, migration, cell survival and radiosensitivity in vitro under normoxia (21% O2) and hypoxia (<1% O2) in a panel of human malignant glioma cell lines (U-251MG, U-343MG, LN-229) with stable overexpression of wild-type (IDH1(wt)) and mutated IDH1 (IDH1(R132H)). Overexpression of IDH1(R132H) in glioma cells resulted in slightly decreased cell proliferation, considerably reduced cell migration and caused differences in growth properties in 3D spheroid cultures. Furthermore, IDH1(R132H)-positive cells consistently demonstrated an increased radiosensitivity in human malignant glioma cells U-251MG (DMF10: 1.52, p<0.01 and 1.42, p<0.01), U-343MG (DMF10: 1.78, p<0.01 and 1.75, p<0.01) and LN-229 (DMF10: 1.41, p<0.05 and 1.68, p<0.01) under normoxia and hypoxia, respectively. Our data indicate that IDH1(R132H) mutation causes both a less aggressive biological behavior and direct radiosensitization of human malignant glioma cells. Targeting IDH1 appears to be an attractive approach in combination with radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vorinostat, Temozolomide, or Bevacizumab in Combination With Radiation Therapy Followed by Bevacizumab and Temozolomide in Young Patients With Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-11

    Brain Stem Glioma; Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebellar Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma

  20. NOS2 expression in glioma cell lines and glioma primary cell cultures: correlation with neurosphere generation and SOX-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Paola; Miconi, Gianfranca; Cinque, Benedetta; Lombardi, Francesca; La Torre, Cristina; Dehcordi, Soheila Raysi; Galzio, Renato; Cimini, Annamaria; Giordano, Antonio; Cifone, Maria Grazia

    2017-04-11

    Nitric oxide has been implicated in biology and progression of glioblastoma (GBM) being able to influence the cellular signal depending on the concentration and duration of cell exposure. NOS2 (inducible nitric oxide synthase) have been proposed as a component of molecular profile of several tumors, including glioma, one of the most aggressive primary brain tumor featuring local cancer stem cells responsible for enhanced resistance to therapies and for tumor recurrence. Here, we investigated the NOS2 mRNA expression by reverse transcription-PCR in human glioma primary cultures at several grade of malignancy and glioma stem cell (GSC) derived neurospheres. Glioma cell lines were used as positive controls both in terms of stemness marker expression that of capacity of generating neurospheres. NOS2 expression was detected at basal levels in cell lines and primary cultures and appeared significantly up-regulated in cultures kept in the specific medium for neurospheres. The immunofluorescence analysis of all cell cultures to evaluate the levels of SOX-2, a stemness marker aberrantly up-regulated in GBM, was also performed. The potential correlation between NOS2 expression and ability to generate neurospheres and between NOS2 and SOX-2 levels was also verified. The results show that the higher NOS2 expression is detected in all primary cultures able to arise neurosphere. A high and significant correlation between NOS2 expression and SOX-2 positive cells (%) in all cell cultures maintained in standard conditions has been observed. The results shed light on the potential relevance of NOS2 as a prognostic factor for glioma malignancy and recurrence.

  1. Molecular Biology in Pediatric High-Grade Glioma: Impact on Prognosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Daniela; Ruggiero, Antonio; Martini, Maurizio; Rizzo, Valentina; Maurizi, Palma; Riccardi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    High-grade gliomas are the main cause of death in children with brain tumours. Despite recent advances in cancer therapy, their prognosis remains poor and the treatment is still challenging. To date, surgery followed by radiotherapy and temozolomide is the standard therapy. However, increasing knowledge of glioma biology is starting to impact drug development towards targeted therapies. The identification of agents directed against molecular targets aims at going beyond the traditional therapeutic approach in order to develop a personalized therapy and improve the outcome of pediatric high-grade gliomas. In this paper, we critically review the literature regarding the genetic abnormalities implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric malignant gliomas and the current development of molecularly targeted therapies. In particular, we analyse the impact of molecular biology on the prognosis and treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma, comparing it to that of adult gliomas.

  2. Molecular Biology in Pediatric High-Grade Glioma: Impact on Prognosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Daniela; Ruggiero, Antonio; Martini, Maurizio; Rizzo, Valentina; Maurizi, Palma; Riccardi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    High-grade gliomas are the main cause of death in children with brain tumours. Despite recent advances in cancer therapy, their prognosis remains poor and the treatment is still challenging. To date, surgery followed by radiotherapy and temozolomide is the standard therapy. However, increasing knowledge of glioma biology is starting to impact drug development towards targeted therapies. The identification of agents directed against molecular targets aims at going beyond the traditional therapeutic approach in order to develop a personalized therapy and improve the outcome of pediatric high-grade gliomas. In this paper, we critically review the literature regarding the genetic abnormalities implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric malignant gliomas and the current development of molecularly targeted therapies. In particular, we analyse the impact of molecular biology on the prognosis and treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma, comparing it to that of adult gliomas. PMID:26448930

  3. Long Non-Coding RNA in Glioma: Target miRNA and Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yuan; Wei, Xudong; Xue, Laien; Wen, Fuli; Gu, Jianjun; Zheng, Heping

    2018-06-01

    Glioma is one of the most common and aggressive malignant tumors of the central nervous system. Here, we review and explore the use of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) as a therapeutic strategy for the targeting of gliomas. LncRNA is a functional RNA molecule with no protein coding function and is involved in the occurrence and progression of glioma. It is reported that the activation of several signaling pathways, including the MAPK, p53, Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, and epithelial mesenchymal transformation (EMT) pathways, are involved in the regulation of gliomas. In addition, microRNAs in glioma may also interact with lncRNAs and affect tumor growth and progression. Therefore, the exploration of lncRNA participation in signaling pathway regulatory mechanisms and the determination of the interaction between lncRNA and miRNA may help to develop new effective therapies for the treatment of glioma.

  4. Increased betulinic acid induced cytotoxicity and radiosensitivity in glioma cells under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bache, Matthias; Zschornak, Martin P; Passin, Sarina; Kessler, Jacqueline; Wichmann, Henri; Kappler, Matthias; Paschke, Reinhard; Kaluđerović, Goran N; Kommera, Harish; Taubert, Helge; Vordermark, Dirk

    2011-09-09

    Betulinic acid (BA) is a novel antineoplastic agent under evaluation for tumor therapy. Because of the selective cytotoxic effects of BA in tumor cells (including gliomas), the combination of this agent with conservative therapies (such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy) may be useful. Previously, the combination of BA with irradiation under hypoxic conditions had never been studied. In this study, the effects of 3 to 30 μM BA on cytotoxicity, migration, the protein expression of PARP, survivin and HIF-1α, as well as radiosensitivity under normoxic and hypoxic conditions were analyzed in the human malignant glioma cell lines U251MG and U343MG. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitivity were analyzed with clonogenic survival assays, migration was analyzed with Boyden chamber assays (or scratch assays) and protein expression was examined with Western blot analyses. Under normoxic conditions, a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 23 μM was observed in U251MG cells and 24 μM was observed in U343MG cells. Under hypoxic conditions, 10 μM or 15 μM of BA showed a significantly increased cytotoxicity in U251MG cells (p = 0.004 and p = 0.01, respectively) and U343MG cells (p < 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively). The combination of BA with radiotherapy resulted in an additive effect in the U343MG cell line under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Weak radiation enhancement was observed in U251MG cell line after treatment with BA under normoxic conditions. Furthermore, under hypoxic conditions, the incubation with BA resulted in increased radiation enhancement. The enhancement factor, at an irradiation dose of 15 Gy after treatment with 10 or 15 μM BA, was 2.20 (p = 0.02) and 4.50 (p = 0.03), respectively. Incubation with BA led to decreased cell migration, cleavage of PARP and decreased expression levels of survivin in both cell lines. Additionally, BA treatment resulted in a reduction of HIF-1α protein under hypoxic conditions. Our results suggest that BA is capable of

  5. Microglia Activate Migration of Glioma Cells through a Pyk2 Intracellular Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rolón-Reyes, Kimberleve; Kucheryavykh, Yuriy V.; Cubano, Luis A.; Inyushin, Mikhail; Skatchkov, Serguei N.; Eaton, Misty J.; Harrison, Jeffrey K.; Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and fatal brain cancers due to the highly invasive nature of glioma cells. Microglia infiltrate most glioma tumors and, therefore, make up an important component of the glioma microenvironment. In the tumor environment, microglia release factors that lead to the degradation of the extracellular matrix and stimulate signaling pathways to promote glioma cell invasion. In the present study, we demonstrated that microglia can promote glioma migration through a mechanism independent of extracellular matrix degradation. Using western blot analysis, we found upregulation of proline rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) protein phosphorylated at Tyr579/580 in glioma cells treated with microglia conditioned medium. This upregulation occurred in rodent C6 and GL261 as well as in human glioma cell lines with varying levels of invasiveness (U-87MG, A172, and HS683). siRNA knock-down of Pyk2 protein and pharmacological blockade by the Pyk2/focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF-562,271 reversed the stimulatory effect of microglia on glioma migration in all cell lines. A lower concentration of PF-562,271 that selectively inhibits FAK, but not Pyk2, did not have any effect on glioma cell migration. Moreover, with the use of the CD11b-HSVTK microglia ablation mouse model we demonstrated that elimination of microglia in the implanted tumors (GL261 glioma cells were used for brain implantation) by the local in-tumor administration of Ganciclovir, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Pyk2 at Tyr579/580 in implanted tumor cells. Taken together, these data indicate that microglial cells activate glioma cell migration/dispersal through the pro-migratory Pyk2 signaling pathway in glioma cells. PMID:26098895

  6. Subjective Quality of Life in Persons with Low-Grade Glioma and Their Next of Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvardsson, Tanja I.; Ahlstrom, Gerd I.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma have a longer survival than patients with highly malignant glioma, and for this reason questions of quality of life (QoL) are of particular importance to such patients as well as to their next of kin. No studies have been found in which both adult patients with low-grade glioma and their next of kin have estimated…

  7. Prenatal Diagnosis of Nasal Glioma Associated with Metopic Craniosynostosis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Andrew C; Krishnan, Anant; Goncalves, Luis F; Williams, Lindsay; Chaiyasate, Kongkrit

    2015-01-01

    Nasal gliomas (nasal glial heterotopia) are rare benign congenital frontonasal lesions occurring in approximately 1: 20.000 – 40,000 live births. The diagnosis is rarely reported prenatally. Nasal gliomas are typically isolated lesions, with syndromic association being exceedingly rare. Metopic craniosynostosis can occur as an isolated abnormality or in association with multiple syndromes. This case is the first reported case of nasal glioma in association with craniosynostosis in the published literature. PMID:26622922

  8. USP22 acts as an oncoprotein to maintain glioma malignancy through deubiquitinating BMI1 for stabilization.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guan-Zhong; Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Ma, Yue; Gao, Xing-Chun; Wang, Zhen; Jin, Ming-Zhu; Sun, Wei; Zou, Yong-Xiang; Lin, Jing; Fu, Hua-Lin; Jin, Wei-Lin

    2018-05-22

    USP22 is a member of "death-from-cancer" signature, which plays a key role in cancer progression. Although previous evidence has shown that USP22 is overexpressed and correlated with poor prognosis in glioma. The effect and mechanism of USP22 in glioma malignancy especially cancer stemness remain elusive. Here, we find USP22 is more enriched in stem-like tumorspheres than differentiated glioma cells. USP22 knockdown inhibits cancer stemness in glioma cell lines. With a cell-penetrating TAT-tag protein, BMI1, a robust glioma stem-cell marker, is found to mediate the effect of USP22 on glioma stemness. By immunofluorescence, USP22 and BMI1 are found to share similar intranuclear expression in glioma cells. By analysis with immunohistochemistry and bioinformatics, USP22 is found to positively correlated with BMI1 only in the post-translational level rather than transcriptional level. By immunoprecipitation and in vivo deubiquitination assay, USP22 is found to interact with and deubiquitinate BMI1 for protein stabilization. Microarray analysis reveals that USP22 and BMI1 mutually regulate a series of genes involved in glioma stemness such as POSTN, HEY2, PDGFRA and ATF3. In vivo study with nude mice confirms the role of USP22 in promoting glioma tumorigenesis by regulating BMI1. All these findings indicate USP22 as a novel deubiquitinase of BMI1 in glioma. We propose a working model of USP22-BMI1 axis, which promotes glioma stemness and tumorigenesis through oncogenic activation. Thus, targeting USP22 might be an effective strategy to treat glioma especially those with elevated BMI1 expression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Rangel-López, Edgar; Castillo, Claudia G.; Santamaría, Abel; Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A.; Gonzalez, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO3) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells.

  10. Genotype-based gene signature of glioma risk.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Zhijin; Michaud, Dominique S

    2017-07-01

    Glioma accounts for 80% of malignant brain tumors, but its etiologic determinants remain elusive. Despite genetic susceptibility loci identified by genome-wide association study (GWAS), the agnostic approach leaves open the possibility that other susceptibility genes remain to be discovered. Here we conduct a gene-centric integrative GWAS (iGWAS) of glioma risk that combines transcriptomics and genetics. We synthesized a brain transcriptomics dataset (n = 354), a GWAS dataset (n = 4203), and an advanced glioma tumor transcriptomic dataset (n = 483) to conduct an iGWAS. Using the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) dataset, we built models to predict gene expression for the GWAS data, based on eQTL genotypes. With the predicted gene expression, iGWAS analyses were performed using a novel statistical method. Gene signature risk score was constructed using a penalized logistic regression model. A total of 30527 transcripts were analyzed using the iGWAS approach. Four novel glioma susceptibility genes were identified with internal and external validation, including DRD5 (P = 3.0 × 10-79), WDR1 (P = 8.4 × 10-77), NOMO1 (P = 1.3 × 10-25), and PDXDC1 (P = 8.3 × 10-24). The genotype-predicted transcription pattern between cases and controls is consistent with that between tumor and its matched normal tissue. The genotype-based 4-gene signature improved the classification between glioma cases and controls based on age, gender, and population stratification, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increasing from 0.77 to 0.85 (P = 8.1 × 10-23). A new genotype-based gene signature of glioma was identified using a novel iGWAS approach, which integrates multiplatform genomic data as well as different genetic association studies. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. CD147 and glioma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Xi, Zhouhuan; Dai, Xuejiao; Wu, Wenyue; Li, Yanwen; Liu, Yanting; Zhang, Hanwen

    2017-08-01

    Gliomas are the mos