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Sample records for a2058 melanoma cells

  1. EPR studies of free radicals in A-2058 human melanoma cells treated by valproic acid and 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin.

    PubMed

    Zdybel, Magdalena; Chodurek, Ewa; Pilawa, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals in A-2058 human melanoma cells were studied by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The aim of this work was to determine the changes in relative free radical concentrations in tumor A-2058 cells after treatment by valproic acid (VPA) and 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC). The influences of VPA and DMC on free radicals in A-2058 cells were compared with those for human melanoma malignum A-375 and G-361 cells, which were tested by us earlier. Human malignant melanoma A-2058 cells were exposed to interactions with VPA, DMC, and both VPA and DMC. The tumor cells A-2058 were purchased from LGC Standards (Lomianki, Poland), and they were grown in the standard conditions: at 37°C and in an atmosphere containing 95% air and 5% CO2, in the Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEM, Sigma-Aldrich). The A-2058 cells were incubated with VPA (1 mM) and DMC (10 μM) for 4 days. The first-derivative EPR spectra of the control A-2058 cells, and the cells treated with VPA, DMC, and both VPA and DMC, were measured by the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer of Radiopan (Poznań, Poland) with microwaves from an X-band (9.3 GHz). The parameters of the EPR lines: amplitudes (A), integral intensities (I), line widths (ΔBpp), and g-factors, were analyzed. The changes of amplitudes and line widths with microwave power increasing from 2.2 to 70 mW were drawn evaluated, o-Semiquinone free radicals of melanin biopolymer are mainly responsible for the EPR lines of A-2058 melanoma malignum cells. The amounts of free radicals in A-2058 cells treated with VPA, and both VPA and DMC, were lower than in the untreated control cells. Application of the tested substances (VPA, and both VPA and DMC) as the antitumor compounds was discussed. DMC without VPA did not decrease free radicals concentration in A-2058 cells. The studies con-firmed that EPR spectroscopy may be used to examine interactions of free radicals with antitumor compounds.

  2. Moringa oleifera fruit induce apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human melanoma A2058 cells

    PubMed Central

    Guon, Tae Eun; Chung, Ha Sook

    2017-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera fruit extract on the apoptosis of human melanoma A2058 cells. A2058 cells were treated for 72 h with Moringa oleifera fruit extract at 50–100 µg/ml, and cell viability with apoptotic changes was examined. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was examined. It was revealed that Moringa oleifera fruit extract significantly inhibited the cell viability and promoted apoptosis of A2058 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moringa oleifera fruit extract-treated A2058 cells exhibited increased activities of cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3. It also caused an enhancement of MAPK phosphorylation and ROS production. The pro-apoptotic activity of Moringa oleifera fruit extract was significantly reversed by pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98058 or ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Taken together, Moringa oleifera fruit extract is effective in inducing mitochondrial apoptosis of A2058 cells, which is mediated through induction of ROS formation, and JNK and ERK activation. Moringa oleifera fruit extract may thus have therapeutic benefits for human melanoma A2058 cells. PMID:28789398

  3. Moringa oleifera fruit induce apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human melanoma A2058 cells.

    PubMed

    Guon, Tae Eun; Chung, Ha Sook

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera fruit extract on the apoptosis of human melanoma A2058 cells. A2058 cells were treated for 72 h with Moringa oleifera fruit extract at 50-100 µg/ml, and cell viability with apoptotic changes was examined. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was examined. It was revealed that Moringa oleifera fruit extract significantly inhibited the cell viability and promoted apoptosis of A2058 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moringa oleifera fruit extract-treated A2058 cells exhibited increased activities of cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3. It also caused an enhancement of MAPK phosphorylation and ROS production. The pro-apoptotic activity of Moringa oleifera fruit extract was significantly reversed by pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98058 or ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Taken together, Moringa oleifera fruit extract is effective in inducing mitochondrial apoptosis of A2058 cells, which is mediated through induction of ROS formation, and JNK and ERK activation. Moringa oleifera fruit extract may thus have therapeutic benefits for human melanoma A2058 cells.

  4. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE EFFECT OF INOSITOL HEXAPHOSPHATE ON HUMAN SKIN MELANOMA CELLS IN VITRO.

    PubMed

    Wawszczyk, Joanna; Kapral, Małgorzata; Lodowska, Jolanta; Jesse, Katarzyna; Hollek, Andrzej; Węglarz, Ludmiła

    2015-01-01

    Human malignant melanoma is a highly metastatic tumor with poor prognosis. The majority of metastatic melanomas are resistant to diverse chemotherapeutic agents. Consequently, the search for novel antimelanoma agents continues. In recent years, the interest in plants and their biologically active constituents as a source of novel potential drugs significantly increased. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring compound that has been shown to inhibit the growth of a wide variety of tumor cells in multiple experimental model systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and cytotoxic influence of IP6 on melanotic melanoma cells in vitro. The A2058 cells used as a model of human skin melanoma malignum were exposed to different concentrations of IP6 (0.1-5 mM) for a various period of time and their growth was determined by sulforhodamine B assay after 24, 48 and 72 h. The cytotoxicity of IP6 was measured at 24 and 72 h by XTT assay. IP6 has been found to cause dose-dependent growth suppression of A2058 melanoma cells. At low concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 mM) it did not exert any influence on the cell proliferation as compared to control cultures. Higher concentrations of IP6 (from 1 to 5 mM) had a statistically significant, suppressive effect on cell proliferation after 24 h incubation. When the experimental time period was increased up to 72 h, statistically significant inhibition of cell proliferation was monitored at all IP6 concentrations used. Data obtained from XTT assay indicated that IP6 had dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on melanoma cells. The results demonstrate the antiproliferative and cytotoxic properties of IP6 in a wide range of concentrations on human A2058 melanoma cells. Hence, it can be suggested that IP6 could have a promising therapeutic significance in treating cancer.

  5. Piceatannol induced apoptosis through up-regulation of microRNA-181a in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Maotao; Zhang, Zhong; Gao, Tao

    2017-10-17

    Melanoma took top position among the lethal cancers and, despite there have been some great attempts made to increase the natural life of patients with metastatic disease, long-lasting and complete remissions are few. Piceatannol, owns the similar function as resveratrol, has been defined as an anti-cancer agent playing important role in inhibition of proliferation, migration and metastasis in various cancer. Thus, we aim to investigate the anti-cancer effect and mechanisms of piceatannol in melanoma cells. Melanoma cell lines WM266-4 and A2058 were treated either with or without piceatannol. Cell viability and cell apoptosis were assessed by using MTT and Annexin V/PI assay, respectively. Cells were transfected with specific miRNA using Lipfectamine 2000. miRNA bingding ability to 3'-UTR region within specific gene was assed by firefly luciferase analysis. Gene and protein expression was eveluated by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Our study showed that piceatannol inhibited WM266-4 and A2058 cells growth and induced apoptosis. Totally, 16 differentially expressed miRNAs were screened out including 8 up-regulated and 8 down-regulated miRNAs. Expression level of miR-181a is significantly higher in piceatannol-treated cells than normal control and is lower in melanoma cancer tissues than its adjacent normal tissues. Bcl-2 is a target gene of miR-181a. Moreover, silencing of miR-181a reverses the decrease of cell viability induced by piceatannol in WM266-4 and A2058 cells. Taken together, present study uncovered the ability of piceatannol to repress melanoma cell growth and clarified the contribution of miR-181a in the anticancer role of piceatannol. The present study proposes that piceatannol can be taken into account to be a hopeful anticancer agent for melanoma.

  6. Apigenin Attenuates Melanoma Cell Migration by Inducing Anoikis through Integrin and Focal Adhesion Kinase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Md Abul; Pervin, Mehnaz; Lim, Ji Hong; Lim, Beong Ou

    2015-11-27

    Apigenin, a nonmutagenic flavonoid, has been found to have antitumor properties and is therefore particularly relevant for the development of chemotherapeutic agents for cancers. In this study, time- and dose-dependent cell viability and cytotoxicity were assessed to determine the effects of apigenin on A2058 and A375 melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were pretreated with different concentrations of apigenin and analyzed for morphological changes, anoikis induction, cell migration, and levels of proteins associated with apoptosis. Apigenin reduced integrin protein levels and inhibited the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), which induce anoikis in human cutaneous melanoma cells. Apigenin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of melanoma cell migration, unlike untreated controls. Furthermore, apigenin treatment increased apoptotic factors such as caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating the metastasis of melanoma cells. Our results provide a new insight into the mechanisms by which apigenin prevents melanoma metastasis by sensitizing anoikis induced by the loss of integrin proteins in the FAK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These findings elucidate the related mechanisms and suggest the potential of apigenin in developing clinical treatment strategies against malignant melanoma.

  7. Physalin B from Physalis angulata triggers the NOXA-related apoptosis pathway of human melanoma A375 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Farh, Lynn; Du, Ying-Chi; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2012-03-01

    Melanoma is a lethal form of skin cancer that can metastasize rapidly. While surgery and radiation therapy provide palliative therapy for local tumor growth, systemic therapy is the mainstay of treatment for metastatic melanoma. However, limited chemotherapeutic agents are available for melanoma treatment. In this study, we investigated the anti-melanoma effect of physalin B, the major active compound from a widely used herb medicine, Physalis angulata L. This study demonstrated that physalin B exhibits cytotoxicity towards v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF)-mutated melanoma A375 and A2058 cells (the IC50 values are lower than 4.6 μg/ml). Cytotoxicity is likely resulted from apoptosis since the apoptotic marker phosphatidylserine are detected immediately under physalin B treatment and apoptotic cells formation. Further examination revealed that physalin B induces expression of the proapoptotic protein NOXA within 2 h and later triggers the expression of Bax and caspase-3 in A375 cells. These results indicate that physalin B can induce apoptosis of melanoma cancer cells via the NOXA, caspase-3, and mitochondria-mediated pathways, but not of human skin fibroblast cells and myoblastic cells. Thus, physalin B has the potential to be developed as an effective chemotherapeutic lead compound for the treatment of malignant melanoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. De-adhesion dynamics of melanoma cells from brain endothelial layer.

    PubMed

    Varga, Béla; Domokos, Réka Anita; Fazakas, Csilla; Wilhelm, Imola; Krizbai, István A; Szegletes, Zsolt; Gergely, Csilla; Váró, György; Végh, Attila G

    2018-03-01

    Metastasis formation is a complex and not entirely understood process. The poorest prognosis and the most feared complications are associated to brain metastases. Melanoma derived brain metastases show the highest prevalence. Due to the lack of classical lymphatic drainage, in the process of brain metastases formation the haematogenous route is of primordial importance. The first and crucial step in this multistep process is the establishment of firm adhesion between the blood travelling melanoma cells and the tightly connected layer of the endothelium, which is the fundamental structure of the blood-brain barrier. This study compares the de-adhesion properties and dynamics of three melanoma cells types (WM35, A2058 and A375) to a confluent layer of brain micro-capillary endothelial cells. Cell type dependent adhesion characteristics are presented, pointing towards the existence of metastatic potential related nanomechanical aspects. Apparent mechanical properties such as elasticity, maximal adhesion force, number, size and distance of individual rupture events showed altered values pointing towards cell type dependent aspects. Our results underline the importance of mechanical details in case of intercellular interactions. Nevertheless, it suggests that in adequate circumstances elastic and adhesive characterizations might be used as biomarkers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Adoptive Cell Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Merhavi-Shoham, Efrat; Itzhaki, Orit; Markel, Gal; Schachter, Jacob; Besser, Michal J

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is a powerful form of immunotherapy by inducing durable complete responses that significantly extend the survival of melanoma patients. Mutation-derived neoantigens were recently identified as key factors for tumor recognition and rejection by TILs. The isolation of T-cell receptor (TCR) genes directed against neoantigens and their retransduction into peripheral T cells may provide a new form of ACT.Genetic modifications of T cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have demonstrated remarkable clinical results in hematologic malignancies, but are so far less effective in solid tumors. Only very limited reports exist in melanoma. Progress in CAR T-cell engineering, including neutralization of inhibitory signals or additional safety switches, may open opportunities also in melanoma.We review clinical results and latest developments of adoptive therapies with TILs, T-cell receptor, and CAR-modified T cells and discuss future directions for the treatment of melanoma.

  10. Tumor Cell Plasticity in Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Folberg, Robert; Arbieva, Zarema; Moses, Jonas; Hayee, Amin; Sandal, Tone; Kadkol, ShriHari; Lin, Amy Y.; Valyi-Nagy, Klara; Setty, Suman; Leach, Lu; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia; Larsen, Peter; Majumdar, Dibyen; Pe’er, Jacob; Maniotis, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    The histological detection of laminin-rich vasculogenic mimicry patterns in human primary uveal melanomas is associated with death from metastases. We therefore hypothesized that highly invasive uveal melanoma cells forming vasculogenic mimicry patterns after exposure to a laminin-rich three-dimensional microenvironment would differentially express genes associated with invasive and metastatic behavior. However, we discovered that genes associated with differentiation (GDF15 and ATF3) and suppression of proliferation (CDKNa1/p21) were up-regulated in highly invasive uveal melanoma cells forming vasculogenic mimicry patterns, and genes associated with promotion of invasive and metastatic behavior such as CD44, CCNE2 (cyclin E2), THBS1 (thrombospondin 1), and CSPG2 (chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan; versican) were down-regulated. After forming vasculogenic mimicry patterns, uveal melanoma cells invaded only short distances, failed to replicate, and changed morphologically from the invasive epithelioid to the indolent spindle A phenotype. In human tissue samples, uveal melanoma cells within vasculogenic mimicry patterns assumed the spindle A morphology, and the expression of Ki67 was significantly reduced in adjacent melanoma cells. Thus, the generation of vasculogenic mimicry patterns is accompanied by dampening of the invasive and metastatic uveal melanoma genotype and phenotype and underscores the plasticity of these cells in response to cues from the microenvironment. PMID:17003493

  11. LncRNA MEG3 repressed malignant melanoma progression via inactivating Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Gao, Ying; Li, Jun; Zhou, Yu; Yuan, Jing; Guan, Huiwen; Yao, Peng

    2018-05-21

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that MEG3 can serve as a tumor suppressive lncRNA in various tumors. It is aberrantly expressed in multiple cancers. However, the biological roles of MEG3 in melanoma are poorly understood. Therefore, in our study, we concentrated on the biological mechanism of MEG3 in melanoma progression. First, we observed that MEG3 was obviously decreased in melanoma cells including A375, SK-MEL-1, B16, and A2058 cells compared to human epidermal melanocytes HEMa-LP. MEG3 was restored by transfecting LV-MEG3 in to A375 and A2058 cells. Subsequently, we found that overexpression of MEG3 was able to inhibit cell proliferation and colony formation capacity. Meanwhile, melanoma cell apoptosis was induced by up-regulation of MEG3. Overexpression of MEG3 greatly repressed melanoma cell migration and invasion ability. In addition, Wnt signaling pathway has been identified in the progression of various cancers. Here, in our study, it was indicated that Wnt signaling was highly activated in melanoma cells with β-catenin expression significantly increased and GSK-3β decreased. Interestingly, MEG restoration strongly inactivated Wnt signaling pathway by reducing β-catenin and CyclinD1, elevating GSK-3β levels in vitro. Finally, in vivo experiments were carried out to confirm the inhibitory roles of MEG3 in vivo. Taken these together, we suggested that MEG3 can inhibit melanoma development through blocking Wnt signaling pathway. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  13. Adoptive Cell Therapy for Patients with Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy can be an effective treatment for some patients with advanced cancer. This report summarizes clinical trial results from the Surgery Branch, NCI, investigating tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and gene engineered peripheral blood T cells for the therapy of patients with melanoma and other solid tumors. PMID:21716716

  14. Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. Often the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color, or feel of a mole. Most melanomas have a black or black-blue area. Melanoma ...

  15. Anti-tumor effects of differentiation-inducing factor-1 in malignant melanoma: GSK-3-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and GSK-3-independent suppression of cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Arioka, Masaki; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi; Kubo, Momoko; Igawa, Kazunobu; Tomooka, Katsuhiko; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2017-08-15

    Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) isolated from Dictyostelium discoideum strongly inhibits the proliferation of various mammalian cells through the activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). To evaluate DIF-1 as a novel anti-cancer agent for malignant melanoma, we examined whether DIF-1 has anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, and anti-invasive effects on melanoma cells using in vitro and in vivo systems. DIF-1 reduced the expression levels of cyclin D1 and c-Myc by facilitating their degradation via GSK-3 in mouse (B16BL6) and human (A2058) malignant melanoma cells, and thereby strongly inhibited their proliferation. DIF-1 suppressed the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by lowering the expression levels of transcription factor 7-like 2 and β-catenin, key transcription factors in this pathway. DIF-1 also inhibited cell migration and invasion, reducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2; however, this effect was not dependent on GSK-3 activity. In a mouse lung tumor formation model, repeated oral administrations of DIF-1 markedly reduced melanoma colony formation in the lung. These results suggest that DIF-1 inhibits cell proliferation by a GSK-3-dependent mechanism and suppresses cell migration and invasion by a GSK-3-independent mechanism. Therefore, DIF-1 may have a potential as a novel anti-cancer agent for the treatment of malignant melanoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin C at high concentrations induces cytotoxicity in malignant melanoma but promotes tumor growth at low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Yan, Yao; Ma, Younan; Yang, Yixin

    2017-08-01

    Vitamin C has been used in complementary and alternative medicine for cancers regardless of its ineffectiveness in clinical trials and the paradoxical effects antioxidants have on cancer. Vitamin C was found to induce cytotoxicity against cancers. However, the mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, and the effects of vitamin C on human malignant melanoma have not been examined. This study revealed that vitamin C at millimolar concentrations significantly reduced the cell viability as well as invasiveness, and induced apoptosis in human malignant melanoma cells. Vitamin C displayed stronger cytotoxicity against the Vemurafenib-resistance cell line A2058 compared with SK-MEL-28. In contrast, vitamin C at micromolar concentrations promoted cell growth, migration and cell cycle progression, and protected against mitochondrial stress. Vemurafenib paradoxically activated the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway in the Vemurafenib-resistant A2058, however, vitamin C abolished the activations. Vitamin C displayed synergistic cytotoxicity with Vemurafenib against the Vemurafenib-resistant A2058. In vivo assay suggested that lower dosage (equivalent to 0.5 g/70 kg) of vitamin C administered orally increased the melanoma growth. Therefore, vitamin C may exert pro- or anti-melanoma effect depending on concentration. The combination of vitamin C at high dosage and Vemurafenib is promising in overcoming the action of drug resistance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Nestin is expressed in HMB-45 negative melanoma cells in dermal parts of nodular melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kanoh, Maho; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Tanabe, Kenichi; Maejima, Hideki; Takasu, Hiroshi; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2010-06-01

    Nestin, a marker of neural stem cells, is expressed in the stem cells of the mouse hair follicle. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratocytes, smooth muscle cells and melanocytes in vitro. These pluripotent nestin-expressing stem cells are keratin 15 (K15)-negative, suggesting that they are in a relatively undifferentiated state. Recent studies suggest that the epithelial stem cells are important in tumorigenesis, and nestin expression is thought to be important in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we examined the expression of the hair follicle and neural stem cell marker nestin, as well as S-100 and HMB-45, in melanoma. Nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in all five cases of amelanotic nodular melanomas. Moreover, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the dermal parts in seven of 10 cases of melanotic nodular melanomas. Especially, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in the dermal parts of all 10 cases of HMB-45-negative amelanotic and melanotic nodular melanomas. On the other hand, nestin expression was negative in 10 of 12 cases of superficial spreading melanoma. These results suggest that nestin is an important marker of HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in the dermal parts of patients with nodular melanoma.

  18. Mast cells promote melanoma colonization of lungs.

    PubMed

    Öhrvik, Helena; Grujic, Mirjana; Waern, Ida; Gustafson, Ann-Marie; Ernst, Nancy; Roers, Axel; Hartmann, Karin; Pejler, Gunnar

    2016-10-18

    Mast cells have been implicated in malignant processes, mainly through clinical correlative studies and by experiments performed using animals lacking mast cells due to defective c-kit signaling. However, mast cell-deficient mouse models based on c-kit defects have recently been questioned for their relevance. Here we addressed the effect of mast cells in a tumor setting by using transgenic Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ mice, in which the deficiency of mast cells is independent of c-kit defects. Melanoma cells (B16.F10) were administered either subcutaneously or intravenously into Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ mice or Mcpt5-Cre- R-DTA+ littermate controls, followed by the assessment of formed tumors. In the subcutaneous model, mast cells were abundant in the tumor stroma of control mice but were absent in Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ mice. However, the absence of mast cells did not affect tumor size. In contrast, after intravenous administration of B16.F10 cells, melanoma colonization of the lungs was markedly reduced in Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ vs. Mcpt5-Cre- R-DTA+ animals. Decreased melanoma colonization of the lungs in Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ animals was accompanied by increased inflammatory cell recruitment into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, suggesting that mast cells suppress inflammation in this setting. Further, qPCR analysis revealed significant alterations in the expression of Twist and E-cadherin in lungs of Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ vs. control Mcpt5-Cre- R-DTA+ animals, suggesting an impact of mast cells on epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In conclusion, this study reveals that mast cells promote melanoma colonization of the lung.

  19. Identification of cells initiating human melanomas.

    PubMed

    Schatton, Tobias; Murphy, George F; Frank, Natasha Y; Yamaura, Kazuhiro; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Gasser, Martin; Zhan, Qian; Jordan, Stefan; Duncan, Lyn M; Weishaupt, Carsten; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C; Kupper, Thomas S; Sayegh, Mohamed H; Frank, Markus H

    2008-01-17

    Tumour-initiating cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation, which are responsible for tumour growth, have been identified in human haematological malignancies and solid cancers. If such minority populations are associated with tumour progression in human patients, specific targeting of tumour-initiating cells could be a strategy to eradicate cancers currently resistant to systemic therapy. Here we identify a subpopulation enriched for human malignant-melanoma-initiating cells (MMIC) defined by expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 (refs 7, 8) and show that specific targeting of this tumorigenic minority population inhibits tumour growth. ABCB5+ tumour cells detected in human melanoma patients show a primitive molecular phenotype and correlate with clinical melanoma progression. In serial human-to-mouse xenotransplantation experiments, ABCB5+ melanoma cells possess greater tumorigenic capacity than ABCB5- bulk populations and re-establish clinical tumour heterogeneity. In vivo genetic lineage tracking demonstrates a specific capacity of ABCB5+ subpopulations for self-renewal and differentiation, because ABCB5+ cancer cells generate both ABCB5+ and ABCB5- progeny, whereas ABCB5- tumour populations give rise, at lower rates, exclusively to ABCB5- cells. In an initial proof-of-principle analysis, designed to test the hypothesis that MMIC are also required for growth of established tumours, systemic administration of a monoclonal antibody directed at ABCB5, shown to be capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in ABCB5+ MMIC, exerted tumour-inhibitory effects. Identification of tumour-initiating cells with enhanced abundance in more advanced disease but susceptibility to specific targeting through a defining chemoresistance determinant has important implications for cancer therapy.

  20. Identification of cells initiating human melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Schatton, Tobias; Murphy, George F.; Frank, Natasha Y.; Yamaura, Kazuhiro; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Gasser, Martin; Zhan, Qian; Jordan, Stefan; Duncan, Lyn M.; Weishaupt, Carsten; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Frank, Markus H.

    2012-01-01

    Tumour-initiating cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation, which are responsible for tumour growth, have been identified in human haematological malignancies1,2 and solid cancers3–6. If such minority populations are associated with tumour progression in human patients, specific targeting of tumour-initiating cells could be a strategy to eradicate cancers currently resistant to systemic therapy. Here we identify a subpopulation enriched for human malignant-melanoma-initiating cells (MMIC) defined by expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 (refs 7, 8) and show that specific targeting of this tumorigenic minority population inhibits tumour growth. ABCB5+ tumour cells detected in human melanoma patients show a primitive molecular phenotype and correlate with clinical melanoma progression. In serial human-to-mouse xenotransplantation experiments, ABCB5+ melanoma cells possess greater tumorigenic capacity than ABCB5− bulk populations and re-establish clinical tumour heterogeneity. In vivo genetic lineage tracking demonstrates a specific capacity of ABCB5+ sub-populations for self-renewal and differentiation, because ABCB5+ cancer cells generate both ABCB5+ and ABCB5− progeny, whereas ABCB5− tumour populations give rise, at lower rates, exclusively to ABCB5− cells. In an initial proof-of-principle analysis, designed to test the hypothesis that MMIC are also required for growth of established tumours, systemic administration of a monoclonal antibody directed at ABCB5, shown to be capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in ABCB5+ MMIC, exerted tumour-inhibitory effects. Identification of tumour-initiating cells with enhanced abundance in more advanced disease but susceptibility to specific targeting through a defining chemoresistance determinant has important implications for cancer therapy. PMID:18202660

  1. Melanoma Stem Cells and Metastasis: Mimicking Hematopoietic Cell Trafficking?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nayoung; Barthel, Steven R.; Schatton, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly metastatic cancer that bears responsibility for the majority of skin cancer-related deaths. Amidst the research efforts to better understand melanoma progression, there has been increasing evidence that hints at a role for a subpopulation of virulent cancer cells, termed malignant melanoma stem or initiating cells (MMICs), in metastasis formation. MMICs are characterized by their preferential ability to initiate and propagate tumor growth and their selective capacity for self-renewal and differentiation into less tumorigenic melanoma cells. The frequency of MMICs has been shown to correlate with poor clinical prognosis in melanoma. Additionally, MMICs are enriched among circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of cancer patients, suggesting that MMICs may be a critical player in the metastatic cascade. Although these links exist between MMICs and metastatic disease, the mechanisms by which MMICs may advance metastatic progression are only beginning to be elucidated. Recent studies have shown that MMICs express molecules critical for hematopoietic cell maintenance and trafficking, providing a possible explanation for how circulating MMICs could drive melanoma dissemination. We therefore propose that MMICs might fuel melanoma metastasis by exploiting homing mechanisms commonly utilized by hematopoietic cells. Here we review the biological properties of MMICs and the existing literature on their metastatic potential. We will discuss possible mechanisms by which MMICs might initiate metastases in the context of established knowledge of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in other cancers and of hematopoietic homing molecules, with a particular focus on selectins, integrins, chemokines, and chemokine receptors known to be expressed by melanoma cells. Biological understanding of how these molecules might be utilized by MMICs to propel the metastatic cascade could critically impact the development of more effective therapies for advanced

  2. Modulation of T Cell Activation by Malignant Melanoma Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schatton, Tobias; Schütte, Ute; Frank, Natasha Y.; Zhan, Qian; Hoerning, André; Robles, Susanne C.; Zhou, Jun; Hodi, F. Stephen; Spagnoli, Giulio C.; Murphy, George F.; Frank, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Highly immunogenic cancers such as malignant melanoma are capable of inexorable tumor growth despite the presence of antitumor immunity. This raises the possibility that only a restricted minority of tumorigenic malignant cells might possess the phenotypic and functional characteristics to modulate tumor-directed immune activation. Here we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis, by demonstrating that tumorigenic ABCB5+ malignant melanoma-initiating cells (MMICs) possess the capacity to preferentially inhibit interleukin (IL)-2-dependent T cell activation and to support, in a B7.2-dependent manner, regulatory T (Treg) cell induction. Compared to melanoma bulk populations, ABCB5+ MMICs expressed lower levels of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, showed aberrant positivity for MHC class II, and exhibited lower expression levels of the melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs) MART-1, ML-IAP, NY-ESO-1, and MAGE-A. In addition, tumorigenic ABCB5+ subpopulations preferentially expressed the costimulatory molecules B7.2 and PD-1 in both established melanoma xenografts and clinical tumor specimens in vivo. In immune activation assays, ABCB5+ melanoma cells inhibited mitogen-dependent human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation and IL-2 production more efficiently than ABCB5− populations. Moreover, coculture with ABCB5+ MMICs increased, in a B7.2 signalling-dependent manner, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cell abundance and IL-10 production by mitogen-activated PBMCs. Consistent with these findings, ABCB5+ melanoma subsets also preferentially inhibited IL-2 production and induced IL-10 secretion by cocultured patient-derived, syngeneic PBMCs. Our findings identify novel T cell-modulatory functions of ABCB5+ melanoma subpopulations and suggest specific roles for MMICs in the evasion of antitumor immunity and in cancer immunotherapeutic resistance. PMID:20068175

  3. The Effect of Bornyl cis-4-Hydroxycinnamate on Melanoma Cell Apoptosis Is Associated with Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tzu-Yen; Wu, Yu-Jen; Chang, Chi-I; Wu, Mei-Li

    2018-01-01

    Bornyl cis-4-hydroxycinnamate, an active compound isolated from Piper betle stems, was investigated in terms of its effects on A2058 and A375 melanoma cell proliferation and protein expression in this study. We used flow cytometric analysis to examine the early stages of apoptosis induced by bornyl cis-4-hydroxycinnamate in the two melanoma cell lines and employed comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the effects of this compound on protein expression in A375 cells. Master maps generated by PDQuest software from two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis of A375 cells showed that the expression levels of 35 proteins were significantly altered, with 18 proteins upregulated and 17 downregulated. The proteomics study identified several proteins that are involved in mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), in addition to apoptosis-associated proteins, including prohibitin, hypoxia-upregulated protein 1, stress 70 protein, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), and protein deglycase DJ-1 (protein DJ-1) in melanoma cells exposed to bornyl cis-4-hydroxycinnamate. The treatment also resulted in a marked decline of the mitochondrial membrane potential, in cytochrome C release into the cytosol, in the activation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2-associated death promoter protein (Bad), caspase-3, and caspase-9, and in the decreased expression of p-Bad, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-xl, and induced myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein-1 (Mcl-1), indicating that apoptosis induced by bornyl cis-4-hydroxycinnamate was mediated by the mitochondria through the caspase-dependent pathway. Also, salubrinal (an eukaryotic initiation factor 2α inhibitor; eIF2α inhibitor) was able to protect the cells from bornyl cis-4-hydroxycinnamate-induced apoptosis. Bornyl cis-4-hydroxycinnamate-related cell death also implied that the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)–eIF2α–ATF4–CHOP signal pathways

  4. Reduced GNG2 expression levels in mouse malignant melanomas and human melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Hiro; Funasaka, Yoko; Suzuki, Tamio; Kato, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G protein is composed of a Gα-subunit and a Gβγ-dimer. Previous studies have revealed that Gβγ-dimers including the Gγ2 subunit (Gng2/GNG2) are associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and angiogenesis. At present, however, there is no information on the expression level of Gng2/GNG2 alone in any kind of tumor. In this study, we performed DNA microarray analysis in a benign melanocytic tumor and a malignant melanoma from RET-transgenic mice (RET-mice). Gng2 transcript expression levels in a malignant melanoma were less than 1/10 of the level in a benign tumor. The difference in Gng2 transcript expression levels between benign tumors and malignant melanomas was greatest among all of the G protein γ subunits examined in this study. Moreover, protein expression levels of Gng2 were decreased in malignant melanomas compared with those in benign melanocytic tumors in RET-mice. Analysis of human malignant melanomas also showed reduced GNG2 protein expression levels in five human malignant melanoma cell lines compared with the expression levels in normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM). Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that Gng2/GNG2 expression levels are reduced in malignant melanoma, suggesting that GNG2 could be a novel biomarker for malignant melanoma. PMID:22679562

  5. SOX2 and nestin expression in human melanoma: an immunohistochemical and experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Laga, Alvaro C.; Zhan, Qian; Weishaupt, Carsten; Ma, Jie; Frank, Markus H.; Murphy, George F.

    2012-01-01

    SOX2 is an embryonic neural crest stem-cell transcription factor recently shown to be expressed in human melanoma and to correlate with experimental tumor growth. SOX2 binds to an enhancer region of the gene that encodes for nestin, also a neural progenitor cell biomarker. To define further the potential relationship between SOX2 and nestin, we examined co-expression patterns in 135 melanomas and 37 melanocytic nevi. Immunohistochemical staining in 27 melanoma tissue sections showed an association between SOX2 positivity, spindle cell shape and a peripheral nestin distribution pattern. In contrast, SOX2-negative cells were predominantly epithelioid, and exhibited a cytoplasmic pattern for nestin. In tissue microarrays, co-expression correlated with tumor progression, with only 11% of nevi co-expressing SOX2 and nestin in contrast to 65% of metastatic melanomas, and preliminarily, with clinical outcome. Human melanoma lines that differentially expressed constitutive SOX2 revealed a positive correlation between SOX2 and nestin expression. Experimental melanomas grown from these respective cell lines in murine subcutis and dermis of xenografted human skin maintained the association between SOX2-positivity, spindle cell shape, and peripheral nestin distribution. Moreover, the cytoplasmic pattern of nestin distribution was observed in xenografts generated from SOX2-knockdown A2058 melanoma cells, in contrast to the periperhal nestin pattern seen in tumors grown from A2058 control cells transfected with non-target shRNA. In aggregate, these data further support a biologically significant linkage between SOX2 and nestin expression in human melanoma. PMID:21410764

  6. RASSF6 exhibits promoter hypermethylation in metastatic melanoma and inhibits invasion in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mezzanotte, Jessica J; Hill, Victoria; Schmidt, M Lee; Shinawi, Thoraia; Tommasi, Stella; Krex, Dietmar; Schackert, Gabriele; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Latif, Farida; Clark, Geoffrey J

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastasis is a major contributor to cancer mortality, yet, the genetic changes underlying the development of this capacity remain poorly understood. RASSF proteins are a family of tumor suppressors that often suffer epigenetic inactivation during tumorigenesis. However, their epigenetic status in brain metastases has not been well characterized. We have examined the promoter methylation of the classical RASSF members (RASSF1A-RASSF6) in a panel of metastatic brain tumor samples. RASSF1A and RASSF2 have been shown to undergo promoter methylation at high frequency in primary lung and breast tumors and in brain metastases. Other members exhibited little or no methylation in these tumors. In examining melanoma metastases, however, we found that RASSF6 exhibits the highest frequency of inactivation in melanoma and in melanoma brain metastases. Most melanomas are driven by an activating mutation in B-Raf. Introduction of RASSF6 into a B-RafV600E-containing metastatic melanoma cell line inhibited its ability to invade through collagen and suppressed MAPK pathway activation and AKT. RASSF6 also appears to increase the association of mutant B-Raf and MST1, providing a potential mechanism by which RASSF6 is able to suppress MAPK activation. Thus, we have identified a novel potential role for RASSF6 in melanoma development. Promoter methylation leading to reduced expression of RASSF6 may play an important role in melanoma development and may contribute to brain metastases. PMID:25482183

  7. Pigment Production Analysis in Human Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Hopkin, Amelia Soto; Paterson, Elyse K; Ruiz, Rolando; Ganesan, Anand K

    2016-05-25

    The human epidermal melanocyte is a highly specialized pigmented cell that serves to protect the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) damage through the production of melanin, or melanogenesis. Misregulation in melanogenesis leading to either hyper- or hypo-pigmentation is found in human diseases such as malasma and vitiligo. Current therapies for these diseases are largely unsuccessful and the need for new therapies is necessary. In order to identify genes and or compounds that can alter melanogenesis, methods are required that can detect changes in pigment production as well as expression of key melanogenesis transcription factors and enzymes. Here we describe methods to detect changes in melanogenesis in a human melanoma cell line, MNT-1, by (1) analyzing pigment production by measuring the absorbance of melanin present by spectrophotometry, (2) analyzing transcript expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by qunatitative reverse-transcription (RT)PCR and (3) analyzing protein expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by Western blot (WB).

  8. Modeling tandem AAG8-MEK inhibition in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bing; Kawahara, Masahiro; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance presents a challenge to the treatment of cancer patients, especially for melanomas, most of which are caused by the hyperactivation of MAPK signaling pathway. Innate or acquired drug-resistant relapse calls for the investigation of the resistant mechanisms and new anti-cancer drugs to provide implications for the ultimate goal of curative therapy. Aging-associated gene 8 (AAG8, encoded by the SIGMAR1 gene) is a chaperone protein profoundly elaborated in neurology. However, roles of AAG8 in carcinogenesis remain unclear. Herein, we discover AAG8 antagonists as new MEK inhibitors in melanoma cells and propose a novel drug combination strategy for melanoma therapy by presenting the experimental evidences. We report that specific antagonism of AAG8, efficiently suppresses melanoma cell growth and migration through, at least in part, the inactivation of the RAS-CRAF-MEK signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that melanoma cells that are resistant to AAG8 antagonist harbor refractory CRAF-MEK activity. MEK acts as a central mediator for anti-cancer effects and also for the resistance mechanism, leading to our proposal of tandem AAG8-MEK inhibition in melanoma cells. Combination of AAG8 antagonist and very low concentration of a MEK inhibitor synergistically restricts the growth of drug-resistant cells. These data collectively pinpoint AAG8 as a potential target and delineate a promising drug combination strategy for melanoma therapy. PMID:24634165

  9. Modeling tandem AAG8-MEK inhibition in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Kawahara, Masahiro; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2014-06-01

    Drug resistance presents a challenge to the treatment of cancer patients, especially for melanomas, most of which are caused by the hyperactivation of MAPK signaling pathway. Innate or acquired drug-resistant relapse calls for the investigation of the resistant mechanisms and new anti-cancer drugs to provide implications for the ultimate goal of curative therapy. Aging-associated gene 8 (AAG8, encoded by the SIGMAR1 gene) is a chaperone protein profoundly elaborated in neurology. However, roles of AAG8 in carcinogenesis remain unclear. Herein, we discover AAG8 antagonists as new MEK inhibitors in melanoma cells and propose a novel drug combination strategy for melanoma therapy by presenting the experimental evidences. We report that specific antagonism of AAG8, efficiently suppresses melanoma cell growth and migration through, at least in part, the inactivation of the RAS-CRAF-MEK signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that melanoma cells that are resistant to AAG8 antagonist harbor refractory CRAF-MEK activity. MEK acts as a central mediator for anti-cancer effects and also for the resistance mechanism, leading to our proposal of tandem AAG8-MEK inhibition in melanoma cells. Combination of AAG8 antagonist and very low concentration of a MEK inhibitor synergistically restricts the growth of drug-resistant cells. These data collectively pinpoint AAG8 as a potential target and delineate a promising drug combination strategy for melanoma therapy. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Identification of progenitor cancer stem cell in lentigo maligna melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno, M R; Doukaki, S; Malleo, F; Aricò, M

    2008-07-01

    The potential role of stem cells in neoplasia has aroused considerable interest over the past few years. A number of known biologic characteristics of melanomas support the theory that they may originate in a mutated stem cell. Melanocytic stem cell markers have been described recently. Moreover, the CD133 cells that show surface markers for CD34 are stem cells primitive. These stem cells are capable of differentiating into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. The identification of cancer stem/initiating cells with a crucial role in tumor formation may open up new pharmacologic perspectives. The purpose of this study is to detect the expression of CD133 and CD34, two putative markers of cancer stem cells in the lentigo maligna melanoma. Thirty cases of lentigo maligna melanoma were analyzed using indirect immunohistochemical staining. The vast majority of the samples analyzed showed the presence of rare cells, which were clearly positive for CD133 and CD34. Strong CD133 and CD34 staining was found in the outer root sheath of the mid-lower hair follicles, intermixed with atypical melanocytes extending along layers of the hair follicles. A number of these staminal cells were adjacent and intermixed with melanoma cells. This study supports the stem cell origin of this tumor and suggests that the precursor of the melanoma in question is a stem-like cell rather than the primitive melanoblast committed to be exclusively involved in melanocytic differentiation.

  11. Fibroblasts Protect Melanoma Cells from the Cytotoxic Effects of Doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Tiago, Manoela; de Oliveira, Edson Mendes; Brohem, Carla Abdo; Pennacchi, Paula Comune; Paes, Rafael Duarte; Haga, Raquel Brandão; Campa, Ana; de Moraes Barros, Silvia Berlanga; Smalley, Keiran S.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and until recently, it was extremely resistant to radio-, immuno-, and chemotherapy. Despite the latest success of BRAF V600E-targeted therapies, responses are typically short lived and relapse is all but certain. Furthermore, a percentage (40%) of melanoma cells is BRAF wild type. Emerging evidence suggests a role for normal host cells in the occurrence of drug resistance. In the current study, we compared a variety of cell culture models with an organotypic incomplete skin culture model (the “dermal equivalent”) to investigate the role of the tissue microenvironment in the response of melanoma cells to the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (Dox). In the dermal equivalent model, consisting of fibroblasts embedded in type I collagen matrix, melanoma cells showed a decreased cytotoxic response when compared with less complex culture conditions, such as seeding on plastic cell culture plate (as monolayers cultures) or on collagen gel. We further investigated the role of the microenvironment in p53 induction and caspase 3 and 9 cleavage. Melanoma cell lines cultured on dermal equivalent showed decreased expression of p53 after Dox treatment, and this outcome was accompanied by induction of interleukin IL-6, IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9. Here, we show that the growth of melanoma cells in the dermal equivalent model inflects drug responses by recapitulating important pro-survival features of the tumor microenvironment. These studies indicate that the presence of stroma enhances the drug resistance of melanoma in vitro, more closely mirroring the in vivo phenotype. Our data, thus, demonstrate the utility of organotypic cell culture models in providing essential context-dependent information critical for the development of new therapeutic strategies for melanoma. We believe that the organotypic model represents an improved screening platform to investigate novel anti-cancer agents, as it provides

  12. Safety assessment, biological effects, and mechanisms of Myrica rubra fruit extract for anti-melanogenesis, anti-oxidation, and free radical scavenging abilities on melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Juang, Lih-Jeng; Gao, Xiang-Yu; Mai, Shou-Ting; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Lee, Ming-Chung; Yao, Chao-Ling

    2018-02-20

    Currently, the cosmetic and medical industries are paying considerable attention to solve or prevent skin damage or diseases, such as hyperpigmentation and oxidation and free radical damage. In this study, the effective compounds in Myrica rubra fruit were extracted and studied the biological effects of these M. rubra fruit extracts. In this study, we extracted M. rubra fruit using solutions with various ratios of water to ethanol (100:0, 50:50, 5:95) and studied the anti-melanogenesis, anti-oxidation and radical scavenging effects of these M. rubra fruit extracts on two melanoma cell lines: mouse melanoma (B16-F0) and human melanoma (A2058). The cytotoxicity, melanin synthesis, mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities, enzyme kinetics, melanogenesis-related gene expression, melanogenesis-related protein secretion, radical DPPH scavenging activity and ROS inhibition after treatment with M. rubra fruit extracts were determined. The results showed that the water extract of M. rubra fruit was less cytotoxic to the melanoma cell lines, effectively inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity and down-regulated the gene expression and protein secretion of MITF and TRP-1. In addition, the M. rubra fruit extracts also showed the abilities to scavenge DPPH free radicals and suppress ROS production. Finally, the effective compounds in the water extract were Myricetin-O-deoxyhexoside, Quercetin-O-deoxyhexoside, and Kaempferol-O-hexoside determined by LC/MS/MS assay. Overall, the water extract of M. rubra fruit is a safe and effective melanin inhibitor and anti-oxidant and can be applied widely in the fields of cosmetics and medicine. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... flat or raised, large or small, light or dark, and can appear anywhere on our bodies. Sometimes, ... can still get melanoma even if they're dark skinned, young, and have no family history. Even ...

  14. FOXP3 expression is modulated by TGF-β1/NOTCH1 pathway in human melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Skarmoutsou, Eva; Bevelacqua, Valentina; D'Amico, Fabio; Russo, Angela; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Scalisi, Aurora

    2018-01-01

    Forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) transcription factor is expressed by immune cells and several human cancers and is associated with tumor aggressiveness and unfavorable clinical outcomes. NOTCH and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) protumorigenic effects are mediated by FOXP3 expression in several cancer models; however, their interaction and role in melanoma is unknown. We investigated TGF-β-induced FOXP3 gene expression during NOTCH1 signaling inactivation. Primary (WM35) and metastatic melanoma (A375 and A2058) cell lines and normal melanocytes (NHEM) were used. FOXP3 subcellular distribution was evaluated by immuno cytochemical analysis. Gene expression levels were assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Protein levels were assessed by western blot analysis. The γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) was used for NOTCH1 inhibition and recombinant human (rh)TGF-β was used for melanoma cell stimulation. Cell proliferation and viability were respectively assessed by MTT and Trypan blue dye assays. FOXP3 mRNA and protein levels were progressively higher in WM35, A375 and A2058 cell lines compared to NHEM and their levels were further increased after stimulation with rh-TGF-β. TGF-β-mediated FOXP3 expression was mediated by NOTCH1 signaling. Inhibition of NOTCH1 with concomitant rh-TGF-β stimulation determined the reduction in gene expression and protein level of FOXP3. Finally, melanoma cell line proliferation and viability were reduced by NOTCH1 inhibition. The results show that nn increase in FOXP3 expression in metastatic melanoma cell lines is a potential marker of tumor aggressiveness and metastasis. NOTCH1 is a central mediator of TGF-β-mediated FOXP3 expression and NOTCH1 inhibition produces a significant reduction of melanoma cell proliferation and viability. PMID:29620159

  15. An Inducible Endothelial Cell Surface Glycoprotein Mediates Melanoma Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, G. Edgar; Bevilacqua, Michael P.

    1989-12-01

    Hematogenous metastasis requires the arrest and extravasation of blood-borne tumor cells, possibly involving direct adhesive interactions with vascular endothelium. Cytokine activation of cultured human endothelium increases adhesion of melanoma and carcinoma cell lines. An inducible 110-kD endothelial cell surface glycoprotein, designated INCAM-110, appears to mediate adhesion of melanoma cells. In addition, an inducible endothelial receptor for neutrophils, ELAM-1, supports the adhesion of a human colon carcinoma cell line. Thus, activation of vascular endothelium in vivo that results in increased expression of INCAM-110 and ELAM-1 may promote tumor cell adhesion and affect the incidence and distribution of metastases.

  16. An electrochemical immunosensing method for detecting melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Seenivasan, Rajesh; Maddodi, Nityanand; Setaluri, Vijaysaradhi; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2015-06-15

    An electrochemical immunosensing method was developed to detect melanoma cells based on the affinity between cell surface melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) antigen and anti-MC1R antibody (MC1R-Ab). The MC1R-Abs were immobilized in amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles (n-SiNPs)-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite modified on working electrode surface of screen-printed electrode (SPE). Cyclic voltammetry was employed, with the help of redox mediator ([Fe(CN)6](3-)), to measure the change in anodic oxidation peak current arising due to the specific interaction between MC1R antigens and MC1R-Abs when the target melanoma cells are present in the sample. Various factors affecting the sensor performance, such as the amount of MC1R-Abs loaded, incubation time with the target melanoma cells, the presence of interfering non-melanoma cells, were tested and optimized over different expected melanoma cell loads in the range of 50-7500 cells/2.5 mL. The immunosensor is highly sensitive (20 cells/mL), specific, and reproducible, and the antibody-loaded electrode in ready-to-use stage is stable over two weeks. Thus, in conjunction with a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device our electrochemical immunosensing approach may be suitable for highly sensitive, selective, and rapid detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 regulates melanoma cell survival and associates with melanoma disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Cho, Sung-Nam; Roszik, Jason; Milton, Denái R.; Dal, Fulya; Kim, Sangwon F.; Menter, David G.; Yang, Peiying; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Grimm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary COX-2 and its product PGE2 enhance carcinogenesis and tumor progression, which has been previously reported in melanoma. As most COX inhibitors cause much toxicity, the downstream microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES1) is a consideration for targeting. Human melanoma TMAs were employed for testing mPGES1 protein staining intensity and percentage levels and both increased with clinical stage; employing a different Stage III TMA, mPGES1 intensity (not percentage) associated with reduced patient survival. Our results further show that iNOS was also highly expressed in melanoma tissues with high mPGES1 levels, and iNOS-mediated NO promoted mPGES1 expression and PGE2 production. An mPGES1specific inhibitor (CAY10526) as well as siRNA attenuated cell survival and increased apoptosis. CAY10526 significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased apoptosis in melanoma xenografts. Our findings support the value of a prognostic and predictive role for mPGES1, and suggest targeting this molecule in the PGE2 pathway as another avenue toward improving melanoma therapy. PMID:26801201

  18. Microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 regulates melanoma cell survival and associates with melanoma disease progression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Cho, Sung-Nam; Roszik, Jason; Milton, Denái R; Dal, Fulya; Kim, Sangwon F; Menter, David G; Yang, Peiying; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Grimm, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    COX-2 and its product PGE2 enhance carcinogenesis and tumor progression, which has been previously reported in melanoma. As most COX inhibitors cause much toxicity, the downstream microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES1) is a consideration for targeting. Human melanoma TMAs were employed for testing mPGES1 protein staining intensity and percentage levels, and both increased with clinical stage; employing a different Stage III TMA, mPGES1 intensity (not percentage) associated with reduced patient survival. Our results further show that iNOS was also highly expressed in melanoma tissues with high mPGES1 levels, and iNOS-mediated NO promoted mPGES1 expression and PGE2 production. An mPGES1-specific inhibitor (CAY10526) as well as siRNA attenuated cell survival and increased apoptosis. CAY10526 significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased apoptosis in melanoma xenografts. Our findings support the value of a prognostic and predictive role for mPGES1, and suggest targeting this molecule in the PGE2 pathway as another avenue toward improving melanoma therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cancer stem cell as therapeutic target for melanoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Alamodi, Abdulhadi A; Eshaq, Abdulaziz M; Hassan, Sofie-Yasmin; Al Hmada, Youssef; El Jamal, Siraj M; Fothan, Ahmed M; Arain, Omair M; Hassan, Sarah-Lilly; Haikel, Youssef; Megahed, Mosaad; Hassan, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Human malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive skin tumor that is characterized by its extraordinary heterogeneity, propensity for dissemination to distant organs and resistance to cytotoxic agents. Although chemo- and immune-based therapies have been evaluated in clinical trials, most of these therapeutics do not show significant benefit for patients with advanced disease. Treatment failure in melanoma patients is attributed mainly to the development of tumor heterogeneity resulting from the formation of genetically divergent subpopulations. These subpopulations are composed of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) as a small fraction and non-cancer stem cells that form the majority of the tumor mass. In recent years, CSCs gained more attention and suggested as valuable experimental model system for tumor study. In melanoma, intratumoral heterogeneity, progression and drug resistance result from the unique characteristics of melanoma stem cells (MSCs). These MSCs are characterized by their distinct protein signature and tumor growth-driving pathways, whose activation is mediated by driver mutation-dependent signal. The molecular features of MSCs are either in a causal or consequential relationship to melanoma progression, drug resistance and relapse. Here, we review the current scientific evidence that supports CSC hypothesis and the validity of MSCs-dependent pathways and their key molecules as potential therapeutic target for melanoma treatment.

  20. Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Gershenwald, J E

    2001-01-01

    The presentations at the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2001 meeting reported or updated the results of phase I, II, and III randomized trials and also reported important meta-analyses and retrospective studies impacting on the management of patients with melanoma. In the treatment of early stage melanoma, the prognostic significance of pathologic status of sentinel lymph nodes was affirmed. With respect to regional nodal involvement (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] stage III), investigators presented the interim results of the United Kingdom randomized low-dose interferon (IFN) trial, and up-to-date meta-analyses of several IFN trials including a pooled analysis of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trials evaluating interferon in the adjuvant setting. In the advanced disease setting (AJCC stage IV), several studies elucidated the pros and cons of biochemotherapy in patients with metastatic melanoma, with an emphasis on seeking to improve response in the central nervous system and durability of response in general. Thought provoking was new data regarding the potential for lovastatin to act as a chemopreventive agent for melanoma. Translational studies were presented, one supporting the importance of HLA-typing in developing targeted vaccine therapy. Finally, the results of a novel experimental melanoma vaccine were presented using autologous tumor-derived heat-shock protein peptide complex-96 (HSPPC-96).

  1. Noninvasive and label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Wei, Xunbin

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Circulating melanoma cell has high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC). PAFC is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. In our research, we developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting PA signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals were detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtained the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation. Our PAFC system is an efficient tool to monitor melanoma metastases, cancer recurrence and therapeutic efficacy.

  2. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  3. The gallium complex KP46 exerts strong activity against primary explanted melanoma cells and induces apoptosis in melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Valiahdi, Seied Mojtaba; Heffeter, Petra; Jakupec, Michael A.; Marculescu, Rodrig; Berger, Walter; Rappersberger, Klemens; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2012-01-01

    The antineoplastic properties of gallium are well documented. Owing to their robust accumulation of gallium, melanoma cells should be amenable to gallium-based anticancer drugs. With the aim of improving the disappointingly low activity of inorganic gallium salts, we have developed the orally bioavailable gallium complex KP46 [tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III)] that was already successfully studied in a phase I clinical trial. To assess its therapeutic potential in malignant melanoma, its antiproliferative effects were investigated in series of human cell lines and primary explanted melanoma samples by means of the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and the Human Tumor Cloning Assay, respectively. When compared with other cell lines, the majority of melanoma cells rank among the KP46-sensitive cell lines (50% inhibitory concentration values: 0.8–3.7 μmol/l). Clinically achievable concentrations of KP46 proved to be highly effective in melanoma cells from primary explants of cutaneous and lymph node metastases. Colony growth was inhibited in 10 of 10 specimens by 5 lmol/l KP46 (corresponding to the steady-state plasma concentration measured earlier in a study patient) and in four of 10 specimens by 0.5 μmol/l KP46. In-vitro potency of KP46 is higher than that of dacarbazine or fotemustine and comparable with that of cisplatin. The effects induced by KP46 in melanoma cell lines involve cell cycle perturbations (S-phase arrest) and apoptosis (activation of caspase-9, PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] cleavage, formation of apoptotic bodies). No effects on DNA secondary structure could be observed in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay using double-stranded plasmid DNA. Thus, further studies on the therapeutic applicability of KP46 in malignant melanoma are warranted. PMID:19584767

  4. Effects of Malignant Melanoma Initiating Cells on T-Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Schatton, Tobias; Schütte, Ute; Frank, Markus H.

    2016-01-01

    Although human malignant melanoma is a highly immunogenic cancer, both the endogenous antitumor immune response and melanoma immunotherapy often fail to control neoplastic progression. Accordingly, characterizing melanoma cell subsets capable of evading antitumor immunity could unravel optimized treatment strategies that might reduce morbidity and mortality from melanoma. By virtue of their preferential capacity to modulate antitumor immune responses and drive inexorable tumor growth and progression, malignant melanoma-initiating cells (MMICs) warrant closer investigation to further elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying melanoma immune evasion and immunotherapy resistance. Here we describe methodologies that enable the characterization of immunoregulatory effects of purified MMICs versus melanoma bulk populations in coculture with syngeneic or allogeneic lymphocytes, using [3H] thymidine incorporation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT), or ELISA assays. These assays were traditionally developed to analyze alloimmune processes and we successfully adapted them for the study of tumor-mediated immunomodulatory functions. PMID:26786883

  5. Assaying Wnt5A-mediated Invasion in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Michael P.; French, Amanda D.; Leotlela, Poloko D.; Weeraratna, Ashani T.

    2009-01-01

    Wnt5A has been implicated in melanoma metastasis, and the progression of other cancers including pancreatic, gastric, prostate and lung cancers. Assays to test motility and invasion include both in vivo assays, and in vitro assays. The former assays include the use of tail vein or footpad injections of metastatic cells, and are often laborious and expensive. In vitro invasion assays provide quick readouts that can help to establish conditions that either activate or inhibit melanoma cell motility, and to assess whether the conditions in question are worth translating into an in vivo model. Here we describe two standard methods for assaying motility and invasion in vitro including wound healing assays and Matrigel invasion assays (Boyden chamber assays). In addition, we and several other laboratories have previously shown that melanoma cells require MMP-2 for their invasion, and have recently shown that Wnt5A treatment can increase the levels of this enzyme in melanoma cells, as demonstrated by gelatin zymography. The use of these techniques can help to assess the migratory capacity of melanoma cells in response to Wnt treatment. PMID:19099260

  6. Metastatic potential of melanoma cells is not affected by electrochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Todorovic, Vesna; Sersa, Gregor; Mlakar, Vid; Glavac, Damjan; Flisar, Karel; Cemazar, Maja

    2011-06-01

    Electrochemotherapy is a local treatment combining chemotherapy and application of electric pulses to the tumour. Electrochemotherapy with bleomycin and cisplatin has shown its effectiveness in controlling local tumour growth in the treatment of malignant melanoma. However, the effect of electrochemotherapy on the metastatic potential of tumour cells is not known. Prevention of metastasis is an important aspect of successful treatment; however, it is known that metastasis can be induced by different treatment modalities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electrochemotherapy with cisplatin on the metastatic potential of human malignant melanoma cells. Cells treated by electrochemotherapy with cisplatin were tested for their ability to migrate and invade through Matrigel-coated porous membrane. In addition, RNA was isolated from cells after treatment and differentially expressed genes were investigated by microarray analysis to evaluate the effect of electrochemotherapy with cisplatin on gene expression. There were no significant changes observed in cell migration and invasion of melanoma cells after electrochemotherapy. In addition, there were no changes observed in cell adhesion on Matrigel. Gene expression analysis showed that a very low number of genes were differentially expressed after electrochemotherapy with cisplatin. Two genes, LAMB3 and CD63 involved in cell migration, were both downregulated after electrochemotherapy with cisplatin and the expression of metastasis promoting genes was not increased after electrochemotherapy. Our data suggest that electrochemotherapy does not increase the metastatic behaviour of human melanoma cells.

  7. BNIP3 contributes to the glutamine-driven aggressive behavior of melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Vara-Perez, Monica; Maes, Hannelore; Van Dingenen, Sarah; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2018-06-01

    Aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) is used by cancer cells to fuel tumor growth. Interestingly, metastatic melanoma cells rely on glutaminolysis rather than aerobic glycolysis for their bioenergetic needs through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Here, we compared the effects of glucose or glutamine on melanoma cell proliferation, migration and oxidative phosphorylation in vitro. We found that glutamine-driven melanoma cell's aggressive traits positively correlated with increased expression of HIF1α and its pro-autophagic target BNIP3. BNIP3 silencing reduced glutamine-mediated effects on melanoma cell growth, migration and bioenergetics. Hence, BNIP3 is a vital component of the mitochondria quality control required for glutamine-driven melanoma aggressiveness.

  8. Photoacoustic imaging of single circulating melanoma cells in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lidai; Yao, Junjie; Zhang, Ruiying; Xu, Song; Li, Guo; Zou, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma, one of the most common types of skin cancer, has a high mortality rate, mainly due to a high propensity for tumor metastasis. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is a potential predictor for metastasis. Label-free imaging of single circulating melanoma cells in vivo provides rich information on tumor progress. Here we present photoacoustic microscopy of single melanoma cells in living animals. We used a fast-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope to image the microvasculature in mouse ears. The imaging system has sub-cellular spatial resolution and works in reflection mode. A fast-scanning mirror allows the system to acquire fast volumetric images over a large field of view. A 500-kHz pulsed laser was used to image blood and CTCs. Single circulating melanoma cells were imaged in both capillaries and trunk vessels in living animals. These high-resolution images may be used in early detection of CTCs with potentially high sensitivity. In addition, this technique enables in vivo study of tumor cell extravasation from a primary tumor, which addresses an urgent pre-clinical need.

  9. Detection of melanoma cells suspended in mononuclear cells and blood plasma using photoacoustic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spradling, Emily M.; Viator, John A.

    2009-02-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Although the initial malignant cells are removed, it is impossible to determine whether or not the cancer has metastasized until a secondary tumor forms that is large enough to detect with conventional imaging. Photoacoustic detection of circulating melanoma cells in the bloodstream has shown promise for early detection of metastasis that may aid in treatment of this aggressive cancer. When blood is irradiated with energy from an Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm, photoacoustic signals are created and melanoma cells can be differentiated from the surrounding cells based on waveforms produced by an oscilloscope. Before this can be used as a diagnostic technique, however, we needed to investigate several parameters. Specifically, the current technique involves the in vitro separation of blood through centrifugation to isolate and test only the white blood cell layer. Using this method, we have detected a single cultured melanoma cell among a suspension of white blood cells. However, the process could be made simpler if the plasma layer were used for detection instead of the white blood cell layer. This layer is easier to obtain after blood separation, the optical difference between plasma and melanoma cells is more pronounced in this layer than in the white blood cell layer, and the possibility that any stray red blood cells could distort the results is eliminated. Using the photoacoustic apparatus, we detected no melanoma cells within the plasma of whole blood samples spiked with cultured melanoma cells.

  10. CD133 Is Not Suitable Marker for Isolating Melanoma Stem Cells from D10 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Rajabi Fomeshi, Motahareh; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Firouzi, Javad; Khosravani, Pardis

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is the most hazardous malignancy of skin cancer with a high mortality rate. It has been reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for malignancy in most of cancers including melanoma. The aim of this study is to compare two common methods for melanoma stem cell enriching; isolating based on the CD133 cell surface marker and spheroid cell culture. In this experimental study, melanoma stem cells were enriched by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) based on the CD133 protein expression and spheroid culture of D10 melanoma cell line,. To determine stemness features, the mRNA expression analysis of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN, OCT4-A and -B genes as well as colony and spheroid formation assays were utilized in unsorted CD133(+), CD133(-) and spheroid cells. Significant differences of the two experimental groups were compared using student's t tests and a two-tailed value of P<0.05 was statistically considered as a significant threshold. Our results demonstrated that spheroid cells had more colony and spheroid forming ability, rather than CD133(+) cells and the other groups. Moreover, melanospheres expressed higher mRNA expression level of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN and OCT4-A com- pared to other groups (P<0.05). Although CD133(+) derived melanoma cells represented stemness fea- tures, our findings demonstrated that spheroid culture could be more effective meth- od to enrich melanoma stem cells.

  11. CD133 Is Not Suitable Marker for Isolating Melanoma Stem Cells from D10 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi Fomeshi, Motahareh; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Firouzi, Javad; Khosravani, Pardis

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cutaneous melanoma is the most hazardous malignancy of skin cancer with a high mortality rate. It has been reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for malignancy in most of cancers including melanoma. The aim of this study is to compare two common methods for melanoma stem cell enriching; isolating based on the CD133 cell surface marker and spheroid cell culture. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, melanoma stem cells were enriched by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) based on the CD133 protein expression and spheroid culture of D10 melanoma cell line,. To determine stemness features, the mRNA expression analysis of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN, OCT4-A and -B genes as well as colony and spheroid formation assays were utilized in unsorted CD133+, CD133- and spheroid cells. Significant differences of the two experimental groups were compared using student’s t tests and a two-tailed value of P<0.05 was statistically considered as a significant threshold. Results Our results demonstrated that spheroid cells had more colony and spheroid forming ability, rather than CD133+ cells and the other groups. Moreover, melanospheres expressed higher mRNA expression level of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN and OCT4-A com- pared to other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Although CD133+ derived melanoma cells represented stemness fea- tures, our findings demonstrated that spheroid culture could be more effective meth- od to enrich melanoma stem cells. PMID:27054115

  12. The antimicrobial peptide nisin Z induces selective toxicity and apoptotic cell death in cultured melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lewies, Angélique; Wentzel, Johannes Frederik; Miller, Hayley Christy; Du Plessis, Lissinda Hester

    2018-01-01

    Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is now considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Most malignant cells present with altered energy metabolism which is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This is also evident for melanoma, the leading cause of skin cancer related deaths. Altered mechanisms affecting mitochondrial bioenergetics pose attractive targets for novel anticancer therapies. Antimicrobial peptides have been shown to exhibit selective anticancer activities. In this study, the anti-melanoma potential of the antimicrobial peptide, nisin Z, was evaluated in vitro. Nisin Z was shown to induce selective toxicity in melanoma cells compared to non-malignant keratinocytes. Furthermore, nisin Z was shown to negatively affect the energy metabolism (glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration) of melanoma cells, increase reactive oxygen species generation and cause apoptosis. Results also indicate that nisin Z can decrease the invasion and proliferation of melanoma cells demonstrating its potential use against metastasis associated with melanoma. As nisin Z seems to place a considerable extra burden on the energy metabolism of melanoma cells, combination therapies with known anti-melanoma agents may be effective treatment options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  13. Melanoma cell-intrinsic PD-1 receptor functions promote tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Kleffel, Sonja; Posch, Christian; Barthel, Steven R.; Mueller, Hansgeorg; Schlapbach, Christoph; Guenova, Emmanuella; Elco, Christopher P.; Lee, Nayoung; Juneja, Vikram R.; Zhan, Qian; Lian, Christine G.; Thomi, Rahel; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Cozzio, Antonio; Dummer, Reinhard; Mihm, Martin C.; Flaherty, Keith T.; Frank, Markus H.; Murphy, George F.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Schatton, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Therapeutic antibodies targeting programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) activate tumor-specific immunity and have shown remarkable efficacy in the treatment of melanoma. Yet, little is known about tumor cell-intrinsic PD-1 pathway effects. Here we show that murine and human melanomas contain PD-1-expressing cancer subpopulations and demonstrate that melanoma cell-intrinsic PD-1 promotes tumorigenesis, even in mice lacking adaptive immunity. PD-1 inhibition on melanoma cells by RNA interference, blocking antibodies, or mutagenesis of melanoma-PD-1 signaling motifs suppresses tumor growth in immunocompetent, immunocompromised and PD-1-deficient tumor graft recipient mice. Conversely, melanoma-specific PD-1 overexpression enhances tumorigenicity, as does engagement of melanoma-PD-1 by its ligand, PD-L1, whereas melanoma-PD-L1 inhibition or knockout of host-PD-L1 attenuate growth of PD-1-positive melanomas. Mechanistically, the melanoma-PD-1 receptor modulates downstream effectors of mTOR signaling. Our results identify melanoma cell-intrinsic functions of the PD-1:PD-L1 axis in tumor growth and suggest that blocking melanoma-PD-1 might contribute to the striking clinical efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy. PMID:26359984

  14. PK-PD modeling of combination efficacy effect from administration of the MEK inhibitor GDC-0973 and PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 in A2058 xenografts.

    PubMed

    Choo, Edna F; Ng, Chee M; Berry, Leanne; Belvin, Marcia; Lewin-Koh, Nicholas; Merchant, Mark; Salphati, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mutations and activations of the MEK and PI3K pathways are associated with the development of many cancers. GDC-0973 and GDC-0941 are inhibitors of MEK and PI3K, respectively, currently being evaluated clinically in combination as anti-cancer treatment. The objective of these studies was to characterize the relationship between the plasma concentrations of GDC-0973 and GDC-0941 administered in combination and efficacy in A2058 melanoma xenograft. GDC-0973 and GDC-0941 were administered to A2058 tumor-bearing mice daily (QD) or every third day (Q3D) either as single agents or in combination. A semi-mechanistic population anti-cancer model was developed to simultaneously describe the tumor growth following QD/Q3D single-agent and QD combination treatments. The interaction terms ψ included in the model were used to assess whether the combination was additive. Using this model, data from the Q3D combination regimen were simulated and compared with the observed tumor volumes. The model consisting of saturable tumor growth provided the best fit of the data. The estimates for ψ were not significantly different from 1, suggesting an additive effect of GDC-0973 and GDC-0941 on tumor growth inhibition. The population rate constants associated with tumor growth inhibition for GDC-0973 and GDC-0941 were 0.00102 and 0000651 μM(-1) h(-1), respectively. Using the model based on single-agent and QD combination efficacy data, simulations adequately described the tumor growth from the Q3D combination regimen. These findings suggest that, based on minimal data, it is possible to predict the effects of various combinations preclinically and also assess the potential clinical efficacy of combinations using human pharmacokinetic inputs.

  15. Quantifying rates of cell migration and cell proliferation in co-culture barrier assays reveals how skin and melanoma cells interact during melanoma spreading and invasion.

    PubMed

    Haridas, Parvathi; Penington, Catherine J; McGovern, Jacqui A; McElwain, D L Sean; Simpson, Matthew J

    2017-06-21

    Malignant spreading involves the migration of cancer cells amongst other native cell types. For example, in vivo melanoma invasion involves individual melanoma cells migrating through native skin, which is composed of several distinct subpopulations of cells. Here, we aim to quantify how interactions between melanoma and fibroblast cells affect the collective spreading of a heterogeneous population of these cells in vitro. We perform a suite of circular barrier assays that includes: (i) monoculture assays with fibroblast cells; (ii) monoculture assays with SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells; and (iii) a series of co-culture assays initiated with three different ratios of SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells and fibroblast cells. Using immunostaining, detailed cell density histograms are constructed to illustrate how the two subpopulations of cells are spatially arranged within the spreading heterogeneous population. Calibrating the solution of a continuum partial differential equation to the experimental results from the monoculture assays allows us to estimate the cell diffusivity and the cell proliferation rate for the melanoma and the fibroblast cells, separately. Using the parameter estimates from the monoculture assays, we then make a prediction of the spatial spreading in the co-culture assays. Results show that the parameter estimates obtained from the monoculture assays lead to a reasonably accurate prediction of the spatial arrangement of the two subpopulations in the co-culture assays. Overall, the spatial pattern of spreading of the melanoma cells and the fibroblast cells is very similar in monoculture and co-culture conditions. Therefore, we find no clear evidence of any interactions other than cell-to-cell contact and crowding effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Epac1 increases migration of endothelial cells and melanoma cells via FGF2-mediated paracrine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Baljinnyam, Erdene; Umemura, Masanari; Chuang, Christine; De Lorenzo, Mariana S; Iwatsubo, Mizuka; Chen, Suzie; Goydos, James S; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Whitelock, John M; Iwatsubo, Kousaku

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) regulates endothelial and melanoma cell migration. The binding of FGF2 to its receptor requires N-sulfated heparan sulfate (HS) glycosamine. We have previously reported that Epac1, an exchange protein activated by cAMP, increases N-sulfation of HS in melanoma. Therefore, we examined whether Epac1 regulates FGF2-mediated cell–cell communication. Conditioned medium (CM) of melanoma cells with abundant expression of Epac1 increased migration of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) and melanoma cells with poor expression of Epac1. CM-induced increase in migration was inhibited by antagonizing FGF2, by the removal of HS and by the knockdown of Epac1. In addition, knockdown of Epac1 suppressed the binding of FGF2 to FGF receptor in HUVEC, and in vivo angiogenesis in melanoma. Furthermore, knockdown of Epac1 reduced N-sulfation of HS chains attached to perlecan, a major secreted type of HS proteoglycan that mediates the binding of FGF2 to FGF receptor. These data suggested that Epac1 in melanoma cells regulates melanoma progression via the HS–FGF2-mediated cell–cell communication. PMID:24725364

  17. Cross-Priming of Naive Cd8 T Cells against Melanoma Antigens Using Dendritic Cells Loaded with Killed Allogeneic Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Berard, Frederic; Blanco, Patrick; Davoust, Jean; Neidhart-Berard, Eve-Marie; Nouri-Shirazi, Mahyar; Taquet, Nicolas; Rimoldi, Donata; Cerottini, Jean Charles; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A. Karolina

    2000-01-01

    The goal of tumor immunotherapy is to elicit immune responses against autologous tumors. It would be highly desirable that such responses include multiple T cell clones against multiple tumor antigens. This could be obtained using the antigen presenting capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) and cross-priming. That is, one could load the DC with tumor lines of any human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) type to elicit T cell responses against the autologous tumor. In this study, we show that human DCs derived from monocytes and loaded with killed melanoma cells prime naive CD45RA+CD27+CD8+ T cells against the four shared melanoma antigens: MAGE-3, gp100, tyrosinase, and MART-1. HLA-A201+ naive T cells primed by DCs loaded with HLA-A201− melanoma cells are able to kill several HLA-A201+ melanoma targets. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte priming towards melanoma antigens is also obtained with cells from metastatic melanoma patients. This demonstration of cross-priming against shared tumor antigens builds the basis for using allogeneic tumor cell lines to deliver tumor antigens to DCs for vaccination protocols. PMID:11104796

  18. HTB140 melanoma cells under proton irradiation and/or alkylating agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korićanac, L.; Petrović, I.; Privitera, G.; Cuttone, G.; Ristić-Fira, A.

    2007-09-01

    Chemoresistance is a major problem in the treatment of malignant melanoma. The mainstay of treatment for melanoma is the DNA-alkylating agent dacarbazine (DTIC). Fotemustine (FM), a member of the chloroethylnitrosourea group of alkylating agents, has also demonstrated significant antitumor effects in malignant melanoma. However, the intrinsic and acquired resistance of melanoma limits the clinical application of these drugs. Melanomas are also extremely radioresistant. With the objective of enhancing growth inhibition of melanoma cells, combined treatments of FM or DTIC with proton irradiation have been investigated. These effects were studied on HTB140 melanoma cell viability and proliferation. Cells exposed to treatment with FM and protons have shown inhibition of cell growth and significant reduction of proliferation capacity compared to single irradiation or drug treatment. Treatment with DTIC and protons has shown improved growth inhibition compared to appropriate single drug treatment, while the effects of single proton irradiation have been the most pronounced.

  19. At the bench: adoptive cell therapy for melanoma.

    PubMed

    Urba, Walter J

    2014-06-01

    The cellular and molecular principles that furnish the foundation for ACT of melanoma and their implications for further clinical research are reviewed. The parallel advances in basic immunology, preclinical animal studies, and clinical trials over the last two decades have been integrated successfully with improvements in technology to produce an effective ACT strategy for patients with melanoma. From the initial observation that tumors could be treated effectively by the transfer of immune cells to current strategies using preconditioning with myeloablative therapy before adoptive transfer of native or genetically altered T cells, the role of preclinical animal models is discussed. The importance of the pmel transgenic mouse model in the determination of the mechanisms of lymphodepletion, the ongoing work to identify the optimal T cells for adoptive immunotherapy, and the early impact of the emerging discipline of synthetic biology are highlighted. The clinical consequences of the research described herein are reviewed in the companion manuscript. © 2014 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  20. Label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Gao, Wenyuan; Tang, Shuo; Wei, Xunbin

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Melanoma cells have high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC), which is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. We have developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting photoacoustic signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we have constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells, B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals are detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. The raw signal detected from target cells often contains some noise caused by electronic devices, such as background noise and thermal noise. We choose the Wavelet denoising method to effectively distinguish the target signal from background noise. Processing in time domain and frequency domain would be combined to analyze the signal after denoising. This algorithm contains time domain filter and frequency transformation. The frequency spectrum image of the signal contains distinctive features that can be used to analyze the property of target cells or particles. The processing methods have a great potential for analyzing signals accurately and rapidly. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtain the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Laser Microdissected Melanoma Cells from Skin Organ Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Brian L.; Grahovac, Jelena; Flint, Melanie S.; Sun, Mai; Charro, Nuno; Becker, Dorothea; Wells, Alan; Conrads, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Gaining insights into the molecular events that govern the progression from melanoma in situ to advanced melanoma, and understanding how the local microenvironment at the melanoma site influences this progression, are two clinically pivotal aspects that to date are largely unexplored. In an effort to identify key regulators of the crosstalk between melanoma cells and the melanoma-skin microenvironment, primary and metastatic human melanoma cells were seeded into skin organ cultures (SOCs), and grown for two weeks. Melanoma cells were recovered from SOCs by laser microdissection and whole-cell tryptic digests analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with an LTQ-Orbitrap. The differential protein abundances were calculated by spectral counting, the results of which provides evidence that cell-matrix and cell-adhesion molecules that are upregulated in the presence of these melanoma cells recapitulate proteomic data obtained from comparative analysis of human biopsies of invasive melanoma and a tissue sample of adjacent, non-involved skin. This concordance demonstrates the value of SOCs for conducting proteomic investigations of the melanoma microenvironment. PMID:20459140

  2. BRAF and MEK inhibitor therapy eliminates nestin expressing melanoma cells in human tumors.

    PubMed

    Doxie, Deon B; Greenplate, Allison R; Gandelman, Jocelyn S; Diggins, Kirsten E; Roe, Caroline E; Dahlman, Kimberly B; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Kelley, Mark C; Irish, Jonathan M

    2018-05-19

    Little is known about the in vivo impacts of targeted therapy on melanoma cell abundance and protein expression. Here, 21 antibodies were added to an established melanoma mass cytometry panel to measure 32 cellular features, distinguish malignant cells, and characterize dabrafenib and trametinib responses in BRAF V 600mut melanoma. Tumor cells were biopsied before neoadjuvant therapy and compared to cells surgically resected from the same site after 4 weeks of therapy. Approximately 50,000 cells per tumor were characterized by mass cytometry and computational tools t-SNE/viSNE, FlowSOM, and MEM. The resulting single cell view of melanoma treatment response revealed initially heterogeneous melanoma tumors were consistently cleared of Nestin expressing melanoma cells. Melanoma cells subsets that persisted to week 4 were heterogeneous but expressed SOX2 or SOX10 proteins and specifically lacked surface expression of MHC I proteins by MEM analysis. Traditional histology imaging of tissue microarrays from the same tumors confirmed mass cytometry results, including persistence of NES- SOX10+ S100β+ melanoma cells. This quantitative single cell view of melanoma treatment response revealed protein features of malignant cells that are not eliminated by targeted therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Adoptive Cell Therapy of Melanoma with Cytokine-induced Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sung; Kim, Yong Guk; Pyo, Minji; Lee, Hong Kyung; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer and its incidence is gradually increasing worldwide. Patients with metastatic melanoma have a very poor prognosis (estimated 5-year survival rate of <16%). In the last few years, several drugs have been approved for malignant melanoma, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockades. Although new therapeutic agents have improved progression-free and overall survival, their use is limited by drug resistance and drug-related toxicity. At the same time, adoptive cell therapy of metastatic melanoma with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has shown promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. In this review, we summarize the currently available drugs for treatment of malignant melanoma. In addition, we suggest cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells as another candidate approach for adoptive cell therapy of melanoma. Our preclinical study and several previous studies have shown that CIK cells have potent anti-tumor activity against melanomas in vitro and in an in vivo human tumor xenograft model without any toxicity. PMID:25922594

  4. Adoptive Cell Therapy of Melanoma with Cytokine-induced Killer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Sung; Kim, Yong Guk; Pyo, Minji; Lee, Hong Kyung; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Han, Sang-Bae

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer and its incidence is gradually increasing worldwide. Patients with metastatic melanoma have a very poor prognosis (estimated 5-year survival rate of <16%). In the last few years, several drugs have been approved for malignant melanoma, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockades. Although new therapeutic agents have improved progression-free and overall survival, their use is limited by drug resistance and drug-related toxicity. At the same time, adoptive cell therapy of metastatic melanoma with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has shown promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. In this review, we summarize the currently available drugs for treatment of malignant melanoma. In addition, we suggest cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells as another candidate approach for adoptive cell therapy of melanoma. Our preclinical study and several previous studies have shown that CIK cells have potent anti-tumor activity against melanomas in vitro and in an in vivo human tumor xenograft model without any toxicity.

  5. ABCB1 identifies a subpopulation of uveal melanoma cells with high metastatic propensity

    PubMed Central

    Landreville, Solange; Agapova, Olga A.; Kneass, Zachary T.; Salesse, Christian; Harbour, J. William

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Metastasis of tumor cells to distant organs is the leading cause of death in melanoma. Yet, the mechanisms of metastasis remain poorly understood. One key question is whether all cells in a primary tumor are equally likely to metastasize or whether subpopulations of cells preferentially give rise to metastases. Here, we identified a subpopulation of uveal melanoma cells expressing the multidrug resistance transporter ABCB1 that are highly metastatic compared to ABCB1− bulk tumor cells. ABCB1+ cells also exhibited enhanced clonogenicity, anchorage independent growth, tumorigenicity and mitochondrial activity compared to ABCB1− cells. A375 cutaneous melanoma cells contained a similar subpopulation of highly metastatic ABCB1+ cells. These findings suggest that some uveal melanoma cells have greater potential for metastasis than others, and that a better understanding of such cells may be necessary for more successful therapies for metastatic melanoma. PMID:21575142

  6. TRIM16 inhibits proliferation and migration through regulation of interferon beta 1 in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Selina K.; Koach, Jessica; Tan, Owen; Liu, Bing; Carter, Daniel R.; Wilmott, James S.; Yosufi, Benafsha; Haydu, Lauren E.; Mann, Graham J.; Thompson, John F.; Long, Georgina V.; Liu, Tao; McArthur, Grant; Zhang, Xu Dong; Scolyer, Richard A.; Cheung, Belamy B.; Marshall, Glenn M.

    2014-01-01

    High basal or induced expression of the tripartite motif protein, TRIM16, leads to reduce cell growth and migration of neuroblastoma and skin squamous cell carcinoma cells. However, the role of TRIM16 in melanoma is currently unknown. TRIM16 protein levels were markedly reduced in human melanoma cell lines, compared with normal human epidermal melanocytes due to both DNA methylation and reduced protein stability. TRIM16 knockdown strongly increased cell migration in normal human epidermal melanocytes, while TRIM16 overexpression reduced cell migration and proliferation of melanoma cells in an interferon beta 1 (IFNβ1)-dependent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed TRIM16 directly bound the IFNβ1 gene promoter. Low level TRIM16 expression in 91 melanoma patient samples, strongly correlated with lymph node metastasis, and, predicted poor patient prognosis in a separate cohort of 170 melanoma patients with lymph node metastasis. The BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, increased TRIM16 protein levels in melanoma cells in vitro, and induced growth arrest in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells in a TRIM16-dependent manner. High levels of TRIM16 in melanoma tissues from patients treated with Vemurafenib correlated with clinical response. Our data, for the first time, demonstrates TRIM16 is a marker of cell migration and metastasis, and a novel treatment target in melanoma. PMID:25333256

  7. Melanoma: Genetic Abnormalities, Tumor Progression, Clonal Evolution and Tumor Initiating Cells.

    PubMed

    Testa, Ugo; Castelli, Germana; Pelosi, Elvira

    2017-11-20

    Melanoma is an aggressive neoplasia issued from the malignant transformation of melanocytes, the pigment-generating cells of the skin. It is responsible for about 75% of deaths due to skin cancers. Melanoma is a phenotypically and molecularly heterogeneous disease: cutaneous, uveal, acral, and mucosal melanomas have different clinical courses, are associated with different mutational profiles, and possess distinct risk factors. The discovery of the molecular abnormalities underlying melanomas has led to the promising improvement of therapy, and further progress is expected in the near future. The study of melanoma precursor lesions has led to the suggestion that the pathway of tumor evolution implies the progression from benign naevi, to dysplastic naevi, to melanoma in situ and then to invasive and metastatic melanoma. The gene alterations characterizing melanomas tend to accumulate in these precursor lesions in a sequential order. Studies carried out in recent years have, in part, elucidated the great tumorigenic potential of melanoma tumor cells. These findings have led to speculation that the cancer stem cell model cannot be applied to melanoma because, in this malignancy, tumor cells possess an intrinsic plasticity, conferring the capacity to initiate and maintain the neoplastic process to phenotypically different tumor cells.

  8. Melanoma: Genetic Abnormalities, Tumor Progression, Clonal Evolution and Tumor Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Germana; Pelosi, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive neoplasia issued from the malignant transformation of melanocytes, the pigment-generating cells of the skin. It is responsible for about 75% of deaths due to skin cancers. Melanoma is a phenotypically and molecularly heterogeneous disease: cutaneous, uveal, acral, and mucosal melanomas have different clinical courses, are associated with different mutational profiles, and possess distinct risk factors. The discovery of the molecular abnormalities underlying melanomas has led to the promising improvement of therapy, and further progress is expected in the near future. The study of melanoma precursor lesions has led to the suggestion that the pathway of tumor evolution implies the progression from benign naevi, to dysplastic naevi, to melanoma in situ and then to invasive and metastatic melanoma. The gene alterations characterizing melanomas tend to accumulate in these precursor lesions in a sequential order. Studies carried out in recent years have, in part, elucidated the great tumorigenic potential of melanoma tumor cells. These findings have led to speculation that the cancer stem cell model cannot be applied to melanoma because, in this malignancy, tumor cells possess an intrinsic plasticity, conferring the capacity to initiate and maintain the neoplastic process to phenotypically different tumor cells. PMID:29156643

  9. The kin17 Protein in Murine Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Anelise C.; Gaspar, Vanessa P.; Kelmer, Sabrina M. G.; Sellani, Tarciso A.; Batista, Ana G. U.; De Lima Neto, Quirino A.; Rodrigues, Elaine G.; Fernandez, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    kin17 has been described as a protein involved in the processes of DNA replication initiation, DNA recombination, and DNA repair. kin17 has been studied as a potential molecular marker of breast cancer. This work reports the detection and localization of this protein in the murine melanoma cell line B16F10-Nex2 and in two derived subclones with different metastatic potential, B16-8HR and B16-10CR. Nuclear and chromatin-associated protein fractions were analyzed, and kin17 was detected in all fractions, with an elevated concentration observed in the chromatin-associated fraction of the clone with low metastatic potential, suggesting that the kin17 expression level could be a marker of melanoma. PMID:26610484

  10. MITF suppression improves the sensitivity of melanoma cells to a BRAF inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Aida, Satoshi; Sonobe, Yukiko; Tanimura, Hiromi; Oikawa, Nobuhiro; Yuhki, Munehiro; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Takakazu

    2017-11-28

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is expressed in melanomas and has a critical role in melanocyte development and transformation. Because inhibition of MITF inhibits cell growth in melanoma, MITF is a potential therapeutic target molecule. Here, we report the identification of CH6868398, which has a novel chemical structure and suppresses MITF expression at the protein level in melanoma cells. CH6868398 showed cell growth inhibition activity against MITF-dependent melanoma cells both with and without BRAF mutation and also exhibited anti-tumor efficacy in a melanoma xenograft model. Because selective BRAF inhibitors are standard therapeutics for BRAF-mutated melanoma, we investigated the effect of CH6868398 with a BRAF inhibitor, PLX4720, on cell growth inhibition. The addition of CH6868398 enhanced the cell growth inhibition activity of PLX4720 in melanoma cell lines. Furthermore, combination of CH6868398 and PLX4720 efficiently suppressed MITF protein and enhanced cleavage of Caspase3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in melanoma cell lines. These data support the therapeutic potential of CH6868398 as an anti-melanoma agent that reduces MITF protein levels in combination with BRAF inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The detection of melanoma cells in peripheral blood by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Foss, A. J.; Guille, M. J.; Occleston, N. L.; Hykin, P. G.; Hungerford, J. L.; Lightman, S.

    1995-01-01

    Both cutaneous and uveal melanoma undergo haematogenous dissemination. Detection of tyrosinase mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been described as an extremely sensitive way of detecting circulating viable melanoma cells in the peripheral venous blood, and this technique may be of value in the early detection of dissemination. Also, it has been suggested that surgical manipulation of the eye, such as occurs during enucleation, can provoke uveal melanoma dissemination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether tyrosinase mRNA is detectable in the peripheral blood of patients with uveal and cutaneous melanoma and in patients with uveal melanoma undergoing surgical procedures on the eye harbouring the tumour. Venous blood samples from 36 patients diagnosed as having active uveal melanoma and from six patients with advanced metastatic cutaneous melanoma were analysed. In addition, blood samples were spiked with known numbers of cells from three cell lines and four primary uveal melanoma cultures. The reported sensitivity of the technique was confirmed, with an ability to detect down to one cell per ml of blood. All 51 blood samples from the 36 patients with uveal melanoma were negative, and this included 20 perioperative blood samples. The test was also negative for the six patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma. There were two positives among 31 control samples analysed. This study demonstrates that there are far fewer circulating viable melanocytes than has been previously supposed in patients with melanoma and that the RT-PCR is of no clinical value in detecting metastatic melanoma disease. There was no evidence for surgery causing a bolus of melanoma cells to enter the peripheral circulation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7599046

  12. Intracranial Tumor Cell Migration and the Development of Multiple Brain Metastases in Malignant Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Trude G; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Rofstad, Einar K

    2016-06-01

    A majority of patients with melanoma brain metastases develop multiple lesions, and these patients show particularly poor prognosis. To develop improved treatment strategies, detailed insights into the biology of melanoma brain metastases, and particularly the development of multiple lesions, are needed. The purpose of this preclinical investigation was to study melanoma cell migration within the brain after cell injection into a well-defined intracerebral site. A-07, D-12, R-18, and U-25 human melanoma cells transfected with green fluorescent protein were injected stereotactically into the right cerebral hemisphere of nude mice. Moribund mice were killed and autopsied, and the brain was evaluated by fluorescence imaging or histological examination. Intracerebral inoculation of melanoma cells produced multiple lesions involving all regions of the brain, suggesting that the cells were able to migrate over substantial distances within the brain. Multiple modes of transport were identified, and all transport modes were observed in all four melanoma lines. Thus, the melanoma cells were passively transported via the flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the meninges and ventricles, they migrated actively along leptomeningeal and brain parenchymal blood vessels, and they migrated actively along the surfaces separating different brain compartments. Migration of melanoma cells after initial arrest, extravasation, and growth at a single location within the brain may contribute significantly to the development of multiple melanoma brain metastases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human Single-Chain Fv Immunoconjugates Targeted to a Melanoma-Associated Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Mediate Specific Lysis of Human Melanoma Cells by Natural Killer Cells and Complement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baiyang; Chen, Yi-Bin; Ayalon, Oran; Bender, Jeffrey; Garen, Alan

    1999-02-01

    Two antimelanoma immunoconjugates containing a human single-chain Fv (scFv) targeting domain conjugated to the Fc effector domain of human IgG1 were synthesized as secreted two-chain molecules in Chinese hamster ovary and Drosophila S2 cells, and purified by affinity chromatography on protein A. The scFv targeting domains originally were isolated as melanoma-specific clones from a scFv fusion-phage library, derived from the antibody repertoire of a vaccinated melanoma patient. The purified immunoconjugates showed similar binding specificity as did the fusion-phage clones. Binding occurred to human melanoma cells but not to human melanocytes or to several other types of normal cells and tumor cells. A 250-kDa melanoma protein was immunoprecipitated by the immunoconjugates and analyzed by mass spectrometry, using two independent procedures. A screen of protein sequence databases showed an exact match of several peptide masses between the immunoprecipitated protein and the core protein of a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, which is expressed on the surface of most human melanoma cells. The Fc effector domain of the immunoconjugates binds natural killer (NK) cells and also the C1q protein that initiates the complement cascade; both NK cells and complement can activate powerful cytolytic responses against the targeted tumor cells. An in vitro cytolysis assay was used to test for an immunoconjugate-dependent specific cytolytic response against cultured human melanoma cells by NK cells and complement. The melanoma cells, but not the human fibroblast cells used as the control, were efficiently lysed by both NK cells and complement in the presence of the immunoconjugates. The in vitro results suggest that the immunoconjugates also could activate a specific cytolytic immune response against melanoma tumors in vivo.

  14. The fragile X mental retardation protein regulates tumor invasiveness-related pathways in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zalfa, Francesca; Panasiti, Vincenzo; Carotti, Simone; Zingariello, Maria; Perrone, Giuseppe; Sancillo, Laura; Pacini, Laura; Luciani, Flavie; Roberti, Vincenzo; D'Amico, Silvia; Coppola, Rosa; Abate, Simona Osella; Rana, Rosa Alba; De Luca, Anastasia; Fiers, Mark; Melocchi, Valentina; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Farace, Maria Giulia; Achsel, Tilmann; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Morini, Sergio; Bagni, Claudia

    2017-11-16

    The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is lacking or mutated in patients with the fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most frequent form of inherited intellectual disability. FMRP affects metastasis formation in a mouse model for breast cancer. Here we show that FMRP is overexpressed in human melanoma with high Breslow thickness and high Clark level. Furthermore, meta-analysis of the TCGA melanoma data revealed that high levels of FMRP expression correlate significantly with metastatic tumor tissues, risk of relapsing and disease-free survival. Reduction of FMRP in metastatic melanoma cell lines impinges on cell migration, invasion and adhesion. Next-generation sequencing in human melanoma cells revealed that FMRP regulates a large number of mRNAs involved in relevant processes of melanoma progression. Our findings suggest an association between FMRP levels and the invasive phenotype in melanoma and might open new avenues towards the discovery of novel therapeutic targets.

  15. The fragile X mental retardation protein regulates tumor invasiveness-related pathways in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zalfa, Francesca; Panasiti, Vincenzo; Carotti, Simone; Zingariello, Maria; Perrone, Giuseppe; Sancillo, Laura; Pacini, Laura; Luciani, Flavie; Roberti, Vincenzo; D'Amico, Silvia; Coppola, Rosa; Abate, Simona Osella; Rana, Rosa Alba; De Luca, Anastasia; Fiers, Mark; Melocchi, Valentina; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Farace, Maria Giulia; Achsel, Tilmann; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Morini, Sergio; Bagni, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is lacking or mutated in patients with the fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most frequent form of inherited intellectual disability. FMRP affects metastasis formation in a mouse model for breast cancer. Here we show that FMRP is overexpressed in human melanoma with high Breslow thickness and high Clark level. Furthermore, meta-analysis of the TCGA melanoma data revealed that high levels of FMRP expression correlate significantly with metastatic tumor tissues, risk of relapsing and disease-free survival. Reduction of FMRP in metastatic melanoma cell lines impinges on cell migration, invasion and adhesion. Next-generation sequencing in human melanoma cells revealed that FMRP regulates a large number of mRNAs involved in relevant processes of melanoma progression. Our findings suggest an association between FMRP levels and the invasive phenotype in melanoma and might open new avenues towards the discovery of novel therapeutic targets. PMID:29144507

  16. A Novel Therapy for Melanoma Developed in Mice: Transformation of Melanoma into Dendritic Cells with Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Bronchalo-Vicente, Lucia; Rodriguez-Del Rio, Estela; Freire, Javier; Calderon-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Gomez-Roman, Jose Javier; Fernández-Llaca, Hector; Yañez-Diaz, Sonsoles; Alvarez-Dominguez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacteria and human pathogen widely used in cancer immunotherapy because of its capacity to induce a specific cytotoxic T cell response in tumours. This bacterial pathogen strongly induces innate and specific immunity with the potential to overcome tumour induced tolerance and weak immunogenicity. Here, we propose a Listeria based vaccination for melanoma based in its tropism for these tumour cells and its ability to transform in vitro and in vivo melanoma cells into matured and activated dendritic cells with competent microbicidal and antigen processing abilities. This Listeria based vaccination using low doses of the pathogen caused melanoma regression by apoptosis as well as bacterial clearance. Vaccination efficacy is LLO dependent and implies the reduction of LLO-specific CD4+ T cell responses, strong stimulation of innate pro-inflammatory immune cells and a prevalence of LLO-specific CD8+ T cells involved in tumour regression and Listeria elimination. These results support the use of low doses of pathogenic Listeria as safe melanoma therapeutic vaccines that do not require antibiotics for bacterial removal. PMID:25760947

  17. Notch3 Signaling-Mediated Melanoma-Endothelial Crosstalk Regulates Melanoma Stem-Like Cell Homeostasis and Niche Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Mei-Yu; Yang, Moon Hee; Schnegg, Caroline I.; Hwang, Soonyean; Ryu, Byungwoo; Alani, Rhoda M.

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is among the most virulent cancers, owing to its propensity to metastasize and its resistance to current therapies. The treatment failure is largely attributed to tumor heterogeneity, particularly subpopulations possessing stem cell-like properties, i.e., melanoma stem-like cells (MSLCs). Evidence indicates that the MSLC phenotype is malleable and may be acquired by non-MSLCs through phenotypic switching upon appropriate stimuli, the so–called “dynamic stemness”. Since the phenotypic characteristics and functional integrity of MSLCs depend on their vascular niche, using a two dimensional (2D) melanoma-endothelium co-culture model, where the MSLC niche is recapitulated in vitro, we identified Notch3 signaling pathway as a micro-environmental cue governing MSLC phenotypic plasticity via pathway-specific gene expression arrays. Accordingly, lentiviral shRNA-mediated Notch3 knockdown (KD) in melanoma cell lines exhibiting high levels of endogenous Notch3 led to retarded/abolished tumorigenicity in vivo through both depleting MSLC fractions, evinced by MSLC marker down-regulation (e.g., CD133 and CD271); and impeding the MSLC niche, corroborated by the attenuated tumor angiogenesis as well as vasculogenic mimicry. In contrast, Notch3 KD affected neither tumor growth nor MSLC subsets in a melanoma cell line with relatively low endogenous Notch3 expression. Thus, Notch3 signaling may facilitate MSLC plasticity and niche morphogenesis in a cell context-dependent fashion. Our findings illustrate Notch3 as a molecular switch driving melanoma heterogeneity, and provide the biological rationale for Notch inhibition as a promising therapeutic option. PMID:28165469

  18. Notch3 signaling-mediated melanoma-endothelial crosstalk regulates melanoma stem-like cell homeostasis and niche morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Mei-Yu; Yang, Moon Hee; Schnegg, Caroline I; Hwang, Soonyean; Ryu, Byungwoo; Alani, Rhoda M

    2017-06-01

    Melanoma is among the most virulent cancers, owing to its propensity to metastasize and its resistance to current therapies. The treatment failure is largely attributed to tumor heterogeneity, particularly subpopulations possessing stem cell-like properties, ie, melanoma stem-like cells (MSLCs). Evidence indicates that the MSLC phenotype is malleable and may be acquired by non-MSLCs through phenotypic switching upon appropriate stimuli, the so-called 'dynamic stemness'. Since the phenotypic characteristics and functional integrity of MSLCs depend on their vascular niche, using a two-dimensional (2D) melanoma-endothelium co-culture model, where the MSLC niche is recapitulated in vitro, we identified Notch3 signaling pathway as a micro-environmental cue governing MSLC phenotypic plasticity via pathway-specific gene expression arrays. Accordingly, lentiviral shRNA-mediated Notch3 knockdown (KD) in melanoma cell lines exhibiting high levels of endogenous Notch3 led to retarded/abolished tumorigenicity in vivo through both depleting MSLC fractions, evinced by MSLC marker downregulation (eg, CD133 and CD271); and impeding the MSLC niche, corroborated by the attenuated tumor angiogenesis as well as vasculogenic mimicry. In contrast, Notch3 KD affected neither tumor growth nor MSLC subsets in a melanoma cell line with relatively low endogenous Notch3 expression. Thus, Notch3 signaling may facilitate MSLC plasticity and niche morphogenesis in a cell context-dependent manner. Our findings illustrate Notch3 as a molecular switch driving melanoma heterogeneity, and provide the biological rationale for Notch inhibition as a promising therapeutic option.

  19. Tight Junction–Associated Signaling Pathways Modulate Cell Proliferation in Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jayagopal, Ashwath; Yang, Jin-Long; Haselton, Frederick R.; Chang, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the role of tight junction (TJ)–associated signaling pathways in the proliferation of uveal melanoma. Methods. Human uveal melanoma cell lines overexpressing the TJ molecule blood vessel epicardial substance (Bves) were generated. The effects of Bves overexpression on TJ protein expression, cell proliferation, and cell cycle distribution were quantified. In addition, localization and transcription activity of the TJ-associated protein ZO-1–associated nucleic acid binding protein (ZONAB) were evaluated using immunofluorescence and bioluminescence reporter assays to study the involvement of Bves signaling in cell proliferation-associated pathways. Results. Bves overexpression in uveal melanoma cell lines resulted in increased expression of the TJ proteins occludin and ZO-1, reduced cell proliferation, and increased sequestration of ZONAB at TJs and reduced ZONAB transcriptional activity. Conclusions. TJ proteins are present in uveal melanoma, and TJ-associated signaling pathways modulate cell signaling pathways relevant to proliferation in uveal melanoma. PMID:20861479

  20. Differential PAX3 functions in normal skin melanocytes and melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Medic, Sandra; Rizos, Helen; Ziman, Mel, E-mail: m.ziman@ecu.edu.au

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} PAX3 retains embryonic roles in adult melanocytes and melanoma cells. {yields} Promotes 'stem' cell-like phenotype via NES and SOX9 in both cells types. {yields} Regulates melanoma and melanocyte migration through MCAM and CSPG4. {yields} PAX3 regulates melanoma but not melanocyte proliferation via TPD52. {yields} Regulates melanoma cell (but not melanocyte) survival via BCL2L1 and PTEN. -- Abstract: The PAX3 transcription factor is the key regulator of melanocyte development during embryogenesis and is also frequently found in melanoma cells. While PAX3 is known to regulate melanocyte differentiation, survival, proliferation and migration during development, it is not clear if itsmore » function is maintained in adult melanocytes and melanoma cells. To clarify this we have assessed which genes are targeted by PAX3 in these cells. We show here that similar to its roles in development, PAX3 regulates complex differentiation networks in both melanoma cells and melanocytes, in order to maintain cells as 'stem' cell-like (via NES and SOX9). We show also that mediators of migration (MCAM and CSPG4) are common to both cell types but more so in melanoma cells. By contrast, PAX3-mediated regulation of melanoma cell proliferation (through TPD52) and survival (via BCL2L1 and PTEN) differs from that in melanocytes. These results suggest that by controlling cell proliferation, survival and migration as well as maintaining a less differentiated 'stem' cell like phenotype, PAX3 may contribute to melanoma development and progression.« less

  1. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Qin, J-Z; Xin, H; Nickoloff, B J

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genomic alterations in spontaneous and carcinogen-induced murine melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Melnikova, Vladislava O; Bolshakov, Svetlana V; Walker, Christopher; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N

    2004-03-25

    We have conducted an analysis of genetic alterations in spontaneous murine melanoma cell line B16F0 and its two metastatic clones, B16F1 and B16F10 and the carcinogen-induced murine melanoma cell lines CM519, CM3205, and K1735. We found that unlike human melanomas, the murine melanoma cell lines did not have activating mutations in the Braf oncogene at exon 11 or 15. However, there were distinct patterns of alterations in the ras, Ink4a/Arf, and p53 genes in the two melanoma groups. In the spontaneous B16 melanoma cell lines, expression of p16Ink4a and p19Arf tumor suppressor proteins was lost as a consequence of a large deletion spanning Ink4a/Arf exons 1alpha, 1beta, and 2. In contrast, the carcinogen-induced melanoma cell lines expressed p16Ink4a but had inactivating mutations in either p19Arf (K1735) or p53 (CM519 and CM3205). Inactivation of p19Arf or p53 in carcinogen-induced melanomas was accompanied by constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and/or mutation-associated activation of N-ras. These results indicate that genetic alterations in p16Ink4a/p19Arf, p53 and ras-MAPK pathways can cooperate in the development of murine melanoma.

  3. Therapeutic potential of the metabolic modulator phenformin in targeting the stem cell compartment in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Petrachi, Tiziana; Romagnani, Alessandra; Albini, Adriana; Longo, Caterina; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Grisendi, Giulia; Dominici, Massimo; Ciarrocchi, Alessia; Dallaglio, Katiuscia

    2017-01-24

    Melanoma is the most dangerous and treatment-resistant skin cancer. Tumor resistance and recurrence are due to the persistence in the patient of aggressive cells with stem cell features, the cancer stem cells (CSC). Recent evidences have shown that CSC display a distinct metabolic profile as compared to tumor bulk population: a promising anti-tumor strategy is therefore to target specific metabolic pathways driving CSC behavior. Biguanides (metformin and phenformin) are anti-diabetic drugs able to perturb cellular metabolism and displaying anti-cancer activity. However, their ability to target the CSC compartment in melanoma is not known. Here we show that phenformin, but not metformin, strongly reduces melanoma cell viability, growth and invasion in both 2D and 3D (spheroids) models. While phenformin decreases melanoma CSC markers expression and the levels of the pro-survival factor MITF, MITF overexpression fails to prevent phenformin effects. Phenformin significantly reduces cell viability in melanoma by targeting both CSC (ALDHhigh) and non-CSC cells and by significantly reducing the number of viable cells in ALDHhigh and ALDHlow-derived spheroids. Consistently, phenformin reduces melanoma cell viability and growth independently from SOX2 levels. Our results show that phenformin is able to affect both CSC and non-CSC melanoma cell viability and growth and suggests its potential use as anti-cancer therapy in melanoma.

  4. Therapeutic potential of the metabolic modulator phenformin in targeting the stem cell compartment in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Albini, Adriana; Longo, Caterina; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Grisendi, Giulia; Dominici, Massimo; Ciarrocchi, Alessia; Dallaglio, Katiuscia

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous and treatment-resistant skin cancer. Tumor resistance and recurrence are due to the persistence in the patient of aggressive cells with stem cell features, the cancer stem cells (CSC). Recent evidences have shown that CSC display a distinct metabolic profile as compared to tumor bulk population: a promising anti-tumor strategy is therefore to target specific metabolic pathways driving CSC behavior. Biguanides (metformin and phenformin) are anti-diabetic drugs able to perturb cellular metabolism and displaying anti-cancer activity. However, their ability to target the CSC compartment in melanoma is not known. Here we show that phenformin, but not metformin, strongly reduces melanoma cell viability, growth and invasion in both 2D and 3D (spheroids) models. While phenformin decreases melanoma CSC markers expression and the levels of the pro-survival factor MITF, MITF overexpression fails to prevent phenformin effects. Phenformin significantly reduces cell viability in melanoma by targeting both CSC (ALDHhigh) and non-CSC cells and by significantly reducing the number of viable cells in ALDHhigh and ALDHlow-derived spheroids. Consistently, phenformin reduces melanoma cell viability and growth independently from SOX2 levels. Our results show that phenformin is able to affect both CSC and non-CSC melanoma cell viability and growth and suggests its potential use as anti-cancer therapy in melanoma. PMID:28036292

  5. Multimarker Quantitative Real-Time PCR Detection of Circulating Melanoma Cells in Peripheral Blood: Relation to Disease Stage in Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Koyanagi, Kazuo; Kuo, Christine; Nakagawa, Taku; Mori, Takuji; Ueno, Hideaki; Lorico, Arnulfo R.; Wang, He-Jing; Hseuh, Eddie; O’Day, Steven J.; Hoon, Dave S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Detection of melanoma cells in circulation may be important in assessing tumor progression. The objective of this study was to develop a specific, reliable, multimarker quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT) assay for detecting melanoma cells in patients’ blood. Methods We developed qRT assays for the mRNA of four melanoma-associated markers: MART-1, GalNAc-T, PAX-3, and MAGE-A3. In optimization studies, we tested 17 melanoma cell lines and 49 peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) samples from volunteers. We performed RNA and melanoma cell dilution studies to assess the detection limits and imprecision of the assays. We measured the mRNAs in blood specimens from 94 melanoma patients [American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I, n = 20; II, n = 20; III, n = 32; IV, n = 22]. Results All markers were frequently detected in melanoma cell lines, whereas none of the markers was detected in PBLs from volunteers. The qRT assay could detect 1 melanoma cell in 107 PBLs in the melanoma cell-dilution studies. Markers were detected in 15%, 30%, 75%, and 86% of melanoma patients with AJCC stage I, II, III, and IV disease, respectively. The number of positive markers and AJCC stage were significantly correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.58; P <0.0001). Conclusions Multimarker qRT can detect circulating melanoma cells in blood. Measurement of the studied molecular markers in blood may be useful in detection of metastasis and monitoring treatment response of melanoma patients. PMID:15817820

  6. Thymoquinone suppresses metastasis of melanoma cells by inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Israr; Muneer, Kashiff M.; Tamimi, Iman A.

    2013-07-01

    The inflammasome is a multi-protein complex which when activated regulates caspase-1 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. The NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3) inflammasome is constitutively assembled and activated in human melanoma cells. We have examined the inhibitory effect of thymoquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzo-1,4-quinone), a major ingredient of black seed obtained from the plant Nigella sativa on metastatic human (A375) and mouse (B16F10) melanoma cell lines. We have assessed whether thymoquinone inhibits metastasis of melanoma cells by targeting NLRP3 subunit of inflammasomes. Using an in vitro cell migration assay, we found that thymoquinone inhibited the migration of both humanmore » and mouse melanoma cells. The inhibitory effect of thymoquinone on metastasis was also observed in vivo in B16F10 mouse melanoma model. The inhibition of migration of melanoma cells by thymoquinone was accompanied by a decrease in expression of NLRP3 inflammasome resulting in decrease in proteolytic cleavage of caspase-1. Inactivation of caspase-1 by thymoquinone resulted in inhibition of IL-1β and IL-18. Treatment of mouse melanoma cells with thymoquinone also inhibited NF-κB activity. Furthermore, inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by thymoquinone resulted in partial inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, thymoquinone exerts its inhibitory effect on migration of human and mouse melanoma cells by inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, our results indicate that thymoquinone can be a potential immunotherapeutic agent not only as an adjuvant therapy for melanoma, but also, in the control and prevention of metastatic melanoma. - Highlights: • Thymoquinone causes inhibition of migration of melanoma cells. • Thymoquinone causes inhibition of metastasis in vivo. • Thymoquinone causes inhibition of migration by activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.« less

  7. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-02-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events.

  8. ARMS depletion facilitates UV irradiation induced apoptotic cell death in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Hua; Hsu, Su-Ming; Huang, Pei-Hsin

    2007-12-15

    Tumor cells often aberrantly reexpress molecules that mediate proper embryonic development for advantageous growth or survival. Here, we report that ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), a transmembrane protein abundant in the developing and adult neural tissues, is overexpressed in melanoma, a tumor ontogenetically originating from neural crest. Immunohistochemical study of 79 melanocytic lesions showed significantly increased expression of ARMS in primary malignant melanomas (92.9%) and metastatic melanoma (60.0%) in comparison with benign nevocellular nevi (26.7%). To investigate the role of ARMS in melanoma formation, murine B16F0 melanoma cells with stable knockdown of ARMS were established by RNA interference. Down-regulation of ARMS resulted in significant inhibition of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and restrictive growth of melanoma in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Importantly, depletion of ARMS facilitated UVB-induced apoptosis in melanoma cells through inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK. Addition of MEK inhibitor PD98059 further sensitized ARMS-depleted melanoma cells to UVB-induced apoptosis, whereas constitutively active MEK rescued ARMS-depleted cells from apoptosis. We further showed that BRAF, a downstream signaling molecule of ARMS in ERK pathway, is not mutated as a constitutively active form in acral lentiginous melanoma; in contrast, BRAF(T1799A) mutation, which leads to constitutive activation of ERK signaling, was detected in 57.1% of superficial spreading melanoma. Our study suggests that overexpression of ARMS per se serves as one mechanism to promote melanoma formation by preventing stress-induced apoptotic death mediated by the MEK/ERK signaling pathway, especially in acral lentiginous melanoma, most of which does not harbor BRAF mutation.

  9. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, J.-Z.; Xin, H.; Nickoloff, B.J., E-mail: bnickol@lumc.edu

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cellmore » killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.« less

  10. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is the achille's heel of melanoma cells resistant to Braf-mutant inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    André, Fanny; Jonneaux, Aurélie; Scalbert, Camille; Garçon, Guillaume; Malet-Martino, Myriam; Balayssac, Stéphane; Rocchi, Stephane; Savina, Ariel; Formstecher, Pierre; Mortier, Laurent; Kluza, Jérome; Marchetti, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Vemurafenib/PLX4032, a selective inhibitor of mutant BRAFV600E, constitutes a paradigm shift in melanoma therapy. Unfortunately, acquired resistance, which unavoidably occurs, represents one major limitation to clinical responses. Recent studies have highlighted that vemurafenib activated oxidative metabolism in BRAFV600E melanomas expressing PGC1α. However, the oxidative state of melanoma resistant to BRAF inhibitors is unknown. We established representative in vitro and in vivo models of human melanoma resistant to vemurafenib including primary specimens derived from melanoma patients. Firstly, our study reveals that vemurafenib increased mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in BRAFV600E melanoma cell lines regardless the expression of PGC1α. Secondly, melanoma cells that have acquired resistance to vemurafenib displayed intrinsically high rates of mitochondrial respiration associated with elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress irrespective of the presence of vemurafenib. Thirdly, the elevated ROS level rendered vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells prone to cell death induced by pro-oxidants including the clinical trial drug, elesclomol. Based on these observations, we propose that the mitochondrial oxidative signature of resistant melanoma constitutes a novel opportunity to overcome resistance to BRAF inhibition. PMID:24161908

  11. CD133+ cell content correlates with tumour growth in melanomas from skin with chronic sun-induced damage.

    PubMed

    González-Herrero, I; Romero-Camarero, I; Cañueto, J; Cardeñoso-Álvarez, E; Fernández-López, E; Pérez-Losada, J; Sánchez-García, I; Román-Curto, C

    2013-10-01

    Melanoma is responsible for almost 80% of the deaths attributed to skin cancer. Stem cells, defined by CD133 expression, have been implicated in melanoma tumour growth, but their specific role is still uncertain. We hypothesized that the phenotypic heterogeneity of human cutaneous melanomas is related to their content of CD133+ cells. We compared the percentages of CD133+ cells in 29 tumours from four classic types of melanoma: lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM), superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma and acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM). Also, we compared the percentages of CD133+ cells in melanomas with different degrees of exposure to ultraviolet radiation: 16 melanomas from skin with chronic sun-induced damage and 13 melanomas from skin without such damage. We found a statistically significant increase of CD133+ cells in three different contexts: in melanomas arising on skin with signs of chronic sun-induced damage vs. nonexposed skin, in melanomas in situ vs. invasive melanomas, and in LMM vs. ALM. The proportions of CD133+ cells did not differ among samples of normal skin with different degrees of sun exposure. A distinct subpopulation of CD133+CXCR4+ cancer stem cells (CSCs) was identified and shown to be related to the invasive phenotype of the tumours. Here, we provide evidence showing, for the first time, that an increase in the CD133+ cell content is associated both with melanomas arising on skin with signs of chronic sun-induced damage and in melanomas in situ with better prognosis. Moreover, our study further confirms the existence of a subpopulation of CD133+CXCR4+ CSCs in cutaneous melanomas with invasive phenotype and poor prognosis. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Detection and capture of single circulating melanoma cells using photoacoustic flowmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Christine; Mosley, Jeffrey; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S.; Viator, John A.

    2010-02-01

    Photoacoustic flowmetry has been used to detect single circulating melanoma cells in vitro. Circulating melanoma cells are those cells that travel in the blood and lymph systems to create secondary tumors and are the hallmark of metastasis. This technique involves taking blood samples from patients, separating the white blood and melanoma cells from whole blood and irradiating them with a pulsed laser in a flowmetry set up. Rapid, visible wavelength laser pulses on the order of 5 ns can induce photoacoustic waves in melanoma cells due to their melanin content, while surrounding white blood cells remain acoustically passive. We have developed a system that identifies rare melanoma cells and captures them in 50 microliter volumes using suction applied near the photoacoustic detection chamber. The 50 microliter sample is then diluted and the experiment is repeated using the new sample until only a melanoma cell remains. We have tested this system on dyed microspheres ranging in size from 300 to 500 microns. Capture of circulating melanoma cells may provide the opportunity to study metastatic cells for basic understanding of the spread of cancer and to optimize patient specific therapies.

  13. Eradication of melanomas by targeted elimination of a minor subset of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Patrick; Kopecky, Caroline; Hombach, Andreas; Zigrino, Paola; Mauch, Cornelia; Abken, Hinrich

    2011-01-01

    Proceeding on the assumption that all cancer cells have equal malignant capacities, current regimens in cancer therapy attempt to eradicate all malignant cells of a tumor lesion. Using in vivo targeting of tumor cell subsets, we demonstrate that selective elimination of a definite, minor tumor cell subpopulation is particularly effective in eradicating established melanoma lesions irrespective of the bulk of cancer cells. Tumor cell subsets were specifically eliminated in a tumor lesion by adoptive transfer of engineered cytotoxic T cells redirected in an antigen-restricted manner via a chimeric antigen receptor. Targeted elimination of less than 2% of the tumor cells that coexpress high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA) (melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, MCSP) and CD20 lastingly eradicated melanoma lesions, whereas targeting of any random 10% tumor cell subset was not effective. Our data challenge the biological therapy and current drug development paradigms in the treatment of cancer. PMID:21282657

  14. Dendritic cell-based vaccines for pancreatic cancer and melanoma.

    PubMed

    Mulé, James J

    2009-09-01

    Based on leads from our recent animal studies, we are embarking on a series of new clinical trials to evaluate potential improvements in dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines for melanoma and pancreatic cancer. The first new strategy involves the use of a powerful chemokine (denoted secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine; SLC/CCL-21), which can both create functioning lymph node-like structures at sites of vaccination with tumor-loaded DCs and dramatically enhance vaccine efficacy in animal tumor models. Using this strategy, we are embarking on a clinical trial in melanoma patients with the intent to create functioning, ectopic, lymph node-like structures to enhance host antitumor immunity. The second strategy, in the setting of pancreatic cancer, involves a gene therapy and immunotherapy combination of a locally administered tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene vector followed by radiation (to induce tumor apoptosis/necrosis) and intratumorally administered monocyte-derived DCs (to uptake and present antigens from dying tumor cells to elicit potent, systemic, antitumor immunity).

  15. Proton beam irradiation inhibits the migration of melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jasińska-Konior, Katarzyna; Pochylczuk, Katarzyna; Czajka, Elżbieta; Michalik, Marta; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena; Swakoń, Jan; Urbańska, Krystyna; Elas, Martyna

    2017-01-01

    In recent years experimental data have indicated that low-energy proton beam radiation might induce a difference in cellular migration in comparison to photons. We therefore set out to compare the effect of proton beam irradiation and X-rays on the survival and long-term migratory properties of two cell lines: uveal melanoma Mel270 and skin melanoma BLM. Cells treated with either proton beam or X-rays were analyzed for their survival using clonogenic assay and MTT test. Long-term migratory properties were assessed with time-lapse monitoring of individual cell movements, wound test and transpore migration, while the expression of the related proteins was measured with western blot. Exposure to proton beam and X-rays led to similar survival but the quality of the cell colonies was markedly different. More paraclones with a low proliferative activity and fewer highly-proliferative holoclones were found after proton beam irradiation in comparison to X-rays. At 20 or 40 days post-irradiation, migratory capacity was decreased more by proton beam than by X-rays. The beta-1-integrin level was decreased in Mel270 cells after both types of radiation, while vimentin, a marker of EMT, was increased in BLM cells only. We conclude that proton beam irradiation induced long-term inhibition of cellular motility, as well as changes in the level of beta-1 integrin and vimentin. If confirmed, the change in the quality, but not in the number of colonies after proton beam irradiation might favor tumor growth inhibition after fractionated proton therapy.

  16. Regulation of cell cycle checkpoint kinase WEE1 by miR-195 in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, A; Schmitz, U; Wolkenhauer, O; Schönherr, M; Raatz, Y; Kunz, M

    2013-06-27

    WEE1 kinase has been described as a major gate keeper at the G2 cell cycle checkpoint and to be involved in tumour progression in different malignant tumours. Here we analysed the expression levels of WEE1 in a series of melanoma patient samples and melanoma cell lines using immunoblotting, quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. WEE1 expression was significantly downregulated in patient samples of metastatic origin as compared with primary melanomas and in melanoma cell lines of high aggressiveness as compared with cell lines of low aggressiveness. Moreover, there was an inverse correlation between the expression of WEE1 and WEE1-targeting microRNA miR-195. Further analyses showed that transfection of melanoma cell lines with miR-195 indeed reduced WEE1 mRNA and protein expression in these cells. Reporter gene analysis confirmed direct targeting of the WEE1 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) by miR-195. Overexpression of miR-195 in SK-Mel-28 melanoma cells was accompanied by WEE1 reduction and significantly reduced stress-induced G2-M cell cycle arrest, which could be restored by stable overexpression of WEE1. Moreover, miR-195 overexpression and WEE1 knockdown, respectively, increased melanoma cell proliferation. miR-195 overexpression also enhanced migration and invasiveness of melanoma cells. Taken together, the present study shows that WEE1 expression in malignant melanoma is directly regulated by miR-195. miR-195-mediated downregulation of WEE1 in metastatic lesions may help to overcome cell cycle arrest under stress conditions in the local tissue microenvironment to allow unrestricted growth of tumour cells.

  17. Aggressive melanoma cells escape from BMP7-mediated autocrine growth inhibition through coordinated Noggin upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Mei-Yu; Rovinsky, Sherry; Lai, Chiou-Yan; Qasem, Shadi; Liu, Xiaoming; How, Joan; Engelhardt, John F.; Murphy, George F.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β superfamily responsible for mediating a diverse array of cellular functions both during embryogenesis and in adult life. Previously, we reported that upregulation of BMP7 in human melanoma correlates with tumor progression. However, melanoma cells are either inhibited by or become resistant to BMP7 as a function of tumor progression, with normal melanocytes being most susceptible. Herein, real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions and Western blotting revealed that the expression of BMP antagonist, Noggin, correlates with resistance to BMP7 in advanced melanoma cells. To test the hypothesis that coordinated upregulation of Noggin protects advanced melanoma cells from autocrine inhibition by BMP7, functional expression of Noggin in susceptible melanoma cells was achieved by adenoviral gene transfer. The Noggin-overexpressing cells exhibited a growth advantage in response to subsequent BMP7 transduction in vitro under anchorage-dependent and -independent conditions, in three-dimensional skin reconstructs, as well as in vivo in severe combined immune-deficiency mice. In concordance, Noggin knockdown by lentiviral shRNA confers sensitivity to BMP7-induced growth inhibition in advanced melanoma cells. Our findings suggest that, like TGF-β, BMP7 acts as an autocrine growth inhibitor in melanocytic cells, and that advanced melanoma cells may escape from BMP7-induced inhibition through concomitant aberrant expression of Noggin. PMID:18560367

  18. Stem cell media culture of melanoma results in the induction of a nonrepresentative neural expression profile.

    PubMed

    Anaka, Matthew; Freyer, Claudia; Gedye, Craig; Caballero, Otavia; Davis, Ian D; Behren, Andreas; Cebon, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    The ability of cell lines to accurately represent cancer is a major concern in preclinical research. Culture of glioma cells as neurospheres in stem cell media (SCM) has been shown to better represent the genotype and phenotype of primary glioblastoma in comparison to serum cell lines. Despite the use of neurosphere-like models of many malignancies, there has been no robust analysis of whether other cancers benefit from a more representative phenotype and genotype when cultured in SCM. We analyzed the growth properties, transcriptional profile, and genotype of melanoma cells grown de novo in SCM, as while melanocytes share a common precursor with neural cells, melanoma frequently demonstrates divergent behavior in cancer stem cell assays. SCM culture of melanoma cells induced a neural lineage gene expression profile that was not representative of matched patient tissue samples and which could be induced in serum cell lines by switching them into SCM. There was no enrichment for expression of putative melanoma stem cell markers, but the SCM expression profile did overlap significantly with that of SCM cultures of glioma, suggesting that the observed phenotype is media-specific rather than melanoma-specific. Xenografts derived from either culture condition provided the best representation of melanoma in situ. Finally, SCM culture of melanoma did not prevent ongoing acquisition of DNA copy number abnormalities. In conclusion, SCM culture of melanoma does not provide a better representation of the phenotype or genotype of metastatic melanoma, and the resulting neural bias could potentially confound therapeutic target identification. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  19. Pim-3 enhances melanoma cell migration and invasion by promoting STAT3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Qu, Xinyu; Shao, Liwei; Hu, Yuan; Yu, Xin; Lan, Peixiang; Guo, Qie; Han, Qiuju; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Cai

    2018-03-04

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of commonly encountered skin cancer, and has fast propagating and highly invasive characteristics. Pim-3, a highly expressed oncogene in melanoma, is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase with various biological activities, such as proliferation-accelerating and anti-apoptosis effects on cancer progression. However, whether Pim-3 regulates melanoma metastasis has not been determined. Here, we constructed a Pim-3-silencing short hairpin RNA (sh-Pim-3), a TLR7-stimulating ssRNA and a dual-function vector containing a sh-Pim-3 and a ssRNA, and transfected them into the B16F10 melanoma cell line to investigate the effects of Pim-3 on migration and invasion in melanoma. We found that sh-Pim-3 inhibited B16F10 cell migration and invasion in vitro. In a tumor-bearing mouse model, sh-Pim-3 significantly downregulated pulmonary metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cell in vivo. Mechanistically, sh-Pim-3 inhibited metastasis by regulating the expression of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further study revealed that by promoting the phosphorylation of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), Pim-3 induced the expression of Slug, Snail, and ZEB1, which enhanced EMT-related changes and induced melanoma migration and invasion. Our study suggests that Pim-3 is a potential effective target for melanoma therapy.

  20. A novel immune resistance mechanism of melanoma cells controlled by the ADAR1 enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Nemlich, Yael; Greenberg, Eyal; Ashkenazi, Shira; Hakim, Motti; Itzhaki, Orit; Shoshani, Noa; Shapira-Fromer, Ronnie; Ben-Ami, Eytan; Ofek, Efrat; Anafi, Liat; Besser, Michal J.

    2015-01-01

    The blossom of immunotherapy in melanoma highlights the need to delineate mechanisms of immune resistance. Recently, we have demonstrated that the RNA editing protein, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1) is down-regulated during metastatic transition of melanoma, which enhances melanoma cell proliferation and tumorigenicity. Here we investigate the role of ADAR1 in melanoma immune resistance. Importantly, knockdown of ADAR1 in human melanoma cells induces resistance to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in a cell contact-dependent mechanism. We show that ADAR1, in an editing-independent manner, regulates the biogenesis of miR-222 at the transcription level and thereby Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1) expression, which consequently affects melanoma immune resistance. ADAR1 thus has a novel, pivotal, role in cancer immune resistance. Corroborating with these results, the expression of miR-222 in melanoma tissue specimens was significantly higher in patients who had no clinical benefit from treatment with ipilimumab as compared to patients that responded clinically, suggesting that miR-222 could function as a biomarker for the prediction of response to ipilimumab. These results provide not only novel insights on melanoma immune resistance, but also pave the way to the development of innovative personalized tools to enable optimal drug selection and treatment. PMID:26338962

  1. Folate-conjugated immunoglobulin targets melanoma tumor cells for NK cell effector functions

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Cassandra C.; McMichael, Elizabeth L.; Jaime-Ramirez, Alena C.; Abrams, Zachary B.; Lee, Robert J.; Carson, William E.

    2016-01-01

    The folate receptor (FR) is over-expressed on the vascular side of cancerous cells including those of the breast, ovaries, testes, and cervix. We hypothesized that a folate-conjugated immunoglobulin (F-IgG) would bind to the FR that is over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells to target these cells for lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Folate receptor expression was confirmed in the Mel-39 (human melanoma) cell line by flow cytometry and immunoblot analysis, using KB (human oral epithelial) and F01 (human melanoma) as a positive and negative control, respectively. FR-positive and negative cell lines were treated with F-IgG or control immunoglobulin G (C-IgG) in the presence or absence of cytokines in order to determine NK cell ability to lyse FR-positive cell lines. NK cell activation was significantly upregulated and lysis of Mel 39 tumor cells enhanced following treatment with F-IgG, as compared to C-IgG at all effector:target (E:T) ratios (p<0.01). This trend was further enhanced by NK cell stimulation with the activating cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12). NK cell production of cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1α), and regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) were also significantly increased in response to co-stimulation with IL-12 stimulation and F-IgG-coated Mel 39 target cells, as compared to controls (p<0.01). In contrast, F-IgG did not bind to the FR-negative cell line F01 and had no significant effect on NK cell lysis or cytokine production. This research indicates the potential use of F-IgG for its ability to induce an immune response from NK cells against FR-positive melanoma tumor cells which can be further enhanced by the addition of cytokines. PMID:27035691

  2. SOX2 regulates self-renewal and tumorigenicity of human melanoma-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Santini, R; Pietrobono, S; Pandolfi, S; Montagnani, V; D'Amico, M; Penachioni, J Y; Vinci, M C; Borgognoni, L; Stecca, B

    2014-09-18

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive types of human cancer, characterized by enhanced heterogeneity and resistance to conventional therapy at advanced stages. We and others have previously shown that HEDGEHOG-GLI (HH-GLI) signaling is required for melanoma growth and for survival and expansion of melanoma-initiating cells (MICs). Recent reports indicate that HH-GLI signaling regulates a set of genes typically expressed in embryonic stem cells, including SOX2 (sex-determining region Y (SRY)-Box2). Here we address the function of SOX2 in human melanomas and MICs and its interaction with HH-GLI signaling. We find that SOX2 is highly expressed in melanoma stem cells. Knockdown of SOX2 sharply decreases self-renewal in melanoma spheres and in putative melanoma stem cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(high)). Conversely, ectopic expression of SOX2 in melanoma cells enhances their self-renewal in vitro. SOX2 silencing also inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in melanoma cells. In addition, depletion of SOX2 progressively abrogates tumor growth and leads to a significant decrease in tumor-initiating capability of ALDH(high) MICs upon xenotransplantation, suggesting that SOX2 is required for tumor initiation and for continuous tumor growth. We show that SOX2 is regulated by HH signaling and that the transcription factors GLI1 and GLI2, the downstream effectors of HH-GLI signaling, bind to the proximal promoter region of SOX2 in primary melanoma cells. In functional studies, we find that SOX2 function is required for HH-induced melanoma cell growth and MIC self-renewal in vitro. Thus SOX2 is a critical factor for self-renewal and tumorigenicity of MICs and an important mediator of HH-GLI signaling in melanoma. These findings could provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies based on the inhibition of SOX2 for the treatment of a subset of human melanomas.

  3. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) overexpression downregulates MV3 melanoma cell proliferation, migration and adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Takabe, Piia, E-mail: piia.takabe@uef.fi; Bart, Geneviève; Ropponen, Antti

    2015-09-10

    Malignant skin melanoma is one of the most deadly human cancers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) influences the growth of malignant tumors by modulating tumor cells adhesion and migration. Hyaluronan is an essential component of the ECM, and its amount is altered in many tumors, suggesting an important role for hyaluronan in tumorigenesis. Nonetheless its role in melanomagenesis is not understood. In this study we produced a MV3 melanoma cell line with inducible expression of the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) and studied its effect on the behavior of the melanoma cells. HAS3 overexpression expanded the cell surface hyaluronan coat and decreased melanomamore » cell adhesion, migration and proliferation by cell cycle arrest at G1/G0. Melanoma cell migration was restored by removal of cell surface hyaluronan by Streptomyces hyaluronidase and by receptor blocking with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, while the effect on cell proliferation was receptor independent. Overexpression of HAS3 decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation suggesting that inhibition of MAP-kinase signaling was responsible for these suppressive effects on the malignant phenotype of MV3 melanoma cells. - Highlights: • Inducible HAS3-MV3 melanoma cell line was generated using Lentiviral transduction. • HAS3 overexpression inhibits MV3 cell migration via hyaluronan–receptor interaction. • HAS3 overexpression decreases MV3 melanoma cell proliferation and adhesion. • ERK1/2 phosphorylation is downregulated by 50% in HAS3 overexpressing cells. • The results suggest that hyaluronan has anti-cancer like effects in melanoma.« less

  4. A natural product-like JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor induces apoptosis of malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hai-Jing; Dong, Zhen-Zhen; Vellaisamy, Kasipandi; Lu, Jin-Jian; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Chiu, Pauline; Kwong, Daniel W. J.; Han, Quan-Bin; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2017-01-01

    The JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway plays a critical role in tumorigenesis, and has been suggested as a potential molecular target for anti-melanoma therapeutics. However, few JAK2 inhibitors were being tested for melanoma therapy. In this study, eight amentoflavone analogues were evaluated for their activity against human malignant melanoma cells. The most potent analogue, compound 1, inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in human melanoma cells, but had no discernible effect on total JAK2 and STAT3 levels. A cellular thermal shift assay was performed to identify that JAK2 is engaged by 1 in cell lysates. Moreover, compound 1 showed higher antiproliferative activity against human melanoma A375 cells compared to a panel of cancer and normal cell lines. Compound 1 also activated caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, which are markers of apoptosis, and suppressed the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 level. Finally, compound 1 induced apoptosis in 80% of treated melanoma cells. To our knowledge, compound 1 is the first amentoflavone-based JAK2 inhibitor to be investigated for use as an anti-melanoma agent. PMID:28570563

  5. Capture and On-chip analysis of Melanoma Cells Using Tunable Surface Shear forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Simon Chang-Hao; Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Dey, Shuvashis; Carrascosa, Laura G.; Christophi, Christopher; Cebon, Jonathan; Shiddiky, Muhammad J. A.; Behren, Andreas; Trau, Matt

    2016-01-01

    With new systemic therapies becoming available for metastatic melanoma such as BRAF and PD-1 inhibitors, there is an increasing demand for methods to assist with treatment selection and response monitoring. Quantification and characterisation of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) has been regarded as an excellent non-invasive candidate but a sensitive and efficient tool to do these is lacking. Herein we demonstrate a microfluidic approach for melanoma cell capture and subsequent on-chip evaluation of BRAF mutation status. Our approach utilizes a recently discovered alternating current electrohydrodynamic (AC-EHD)-induced surface shear forces, referred to as nanoshearing. A key feature of nanoshearing is the ability to agitate fluid to encourage contact with surface-bound antibody for the cell capture whilst removing nonspecific cells from the surface. By adjusting the AC-EHD force to match the binding affinity of antibodies against the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (MCSP), a commonly expressed melanoma antigen, this platform achieved an average recovery of 84.7% from biological samples. Subsequent staining with anti-BRAFV600E specific antibody enabled on-chip evaluation of BRAFV600E mutation status in melanoma cells. We believe that the ability of nanoshearing-based capture to enumerate melanoma cells and subsequent on-chip characterisation has the potential as a rapid screening tool while making treatment decisions.

  6. Targeting melanoma stem cells with the Vitamin E derivative δ-tocotrienol.

    PubMed

    Marzagalli, Monica; Moretti, Roberta Manuela; Messi, Elio; Marelli, Marina Montagnani; Fontana, Fabrizio; Anastasia, Alessia; Bani, Maria Rosa; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Limonta, Patrizia

    2018-01-12

    The prognosis of metastatic melanoma is very poor, due to the development of drug resistance. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may play a crucial role in this mechanism, contributing to disease relapse. We first characterized CSCs in melanoma cell lines. We observed that A375 (but not BLM) cells are able to form melanospheres and show CSCs traits: expression of the pluripotency markers SOX2 and KLF4, higher invasiveness and tumor formation capability in vivo with respect to parental adherent cells. We also showed that a subpopulation of autofluorescent cells expressing the ABCG2 stem cell marker is present in the A375 spheroid culture. Based on these data, we investigated whether δ-TT might target melanoma CSCs. We demonstrated that melanoma cells escaping the antitumor activity of δ-TT are completely devoid of the ability to form melanospheres. In contrast, cells that escaped vemurafenib treatment show a higher ability to form melanospheres than control cells. δ-TT also induced disaggregation of A375 melanospheres and reduced the spheroidogenic ability of sphere-derived cells, reducing the expression of the ABCG2 marker. These data demonstrate that δ-TT exerts its antitumor activity by targeting the CSC subpopulation of A375 melanoma cells and might represent a novel chemopreventive/therapeutic strategy against melanoma.

  7. Active immunotherapy with ultraviolet B-irradiated autologous whole melanoma cells plus DETOX in patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Eton, O; Kharkevitch, D D; Gianan, M A; Ross, M I; Itoh, K; Pride, M W; Donawho, C; Buzaid, A C; Mansfield, P F; Lee, J E; Legha, S S; Plager, C; Papadopoulos, N E; Bedikian, A Y; Benjamin, R S; Balch, C M

    1998-03-01

    Our objective was to determine the clinical activity, toxicity, and immunological effects of active immunotherapy using UVB-irradiated (UVR) autologous tumor (AT) cells plus adjuvant DETOX in metastatic melanoma patients. Eligibility included nonanergic patients fully recovered after resection of 5 or more grams of metastatic melanoma. Treatment consisted of intradermal injections of 10(7) UVR-AT plus 0.25 ml of DETOX every 2 weeks x 6, then monthly. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were harvested for cytotoxicity assays, and skin testing was performed for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) determinations before the first, fourth, seventh, and subsequent treatments. Forty-two patients were treated, 18 in the adjuvant setting and 24 with measurable disease. Among the latter group, there were two durable responses in soft-tissue sites and in a bone metastasis. Treatment was well tolerated. Thirty-five patients were assessable for immunological parameters; 10 of these patients, including the 2 responders, demonstrated early induction of PBMC cytotoxicity against AT cells that persisted up to 10 months on treatment before falling to background levels. In five of seven patients, the fall-off heralded progressive disease. Late induction of a weak DTH reaction to AT cells was observed in eight patients. Active immunotherapy with UVR-AT + DETOX had modest but definite clinical activity in advanced melanoma. The induction of both PBMC cytotoxicity and DTH reactivity to AT cells supported a specific systemic immune effect of treatment, although the former more closely followed disease course in this study.

  8. Hedgehog-GLI signaling drives self-renewal and tumorigenicity of human melanoma-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Santini, Roberta; Vinci, Maria C; Pandolfi, Silvia; Penachioni, Junia Y; Montagnani, Valentina; Olivito, Biagio; Gattai, Riccardo; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Gerlini, Gianni; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Stecca, Barbara

    2012-09-01

    The question of whether cancer stem/tumor-initiating cells (CSC/TIC) exist in human melanomas has arisen in the last few years. Here, we have used nonadherent spheres and the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymatic activity to enrich for CSC/TIC in a collection of human melanomas obtained from a broad spectrum of sites and stages. We find that melanomaspheres display extensive in vitro self-renewal ability and sustain tumor growth in vivo, generating human melanoma xenografts that recapitulate the phenotypic composition of the parental tumor. Melanomaspheres express high levels of Hedgehog (HH) pathway components and of embryonic pluripotent stem cell factors SOX2, NANOG, OCT4, and KLF4. We show that human melanomas contain a subset of cells expressing high ALDH activity (ALDH(high)), which is endowed with higher self-renewal and tumorigenic abilities than the ALDH(low) population. A good correlation between the number of ALDH(high) cells and sphere formation efficiency was observed. Notably, both pharmacological inhibition of HH signaling by the SMOOTHENED (SMO) antagonist cyclopamine and GLI antagonist GANT61 and stable expression of shRNA targeting either SMO or GLI1 result in a significant decrease in melanoma stem cell self-renewal in vitro and a reduction in the number of ALDH(high) melanoma stem cells. Finally, we show that interference with the HH-GLI pathway through lentiviral-mediated silencing of SMO and GLI1 drastically diminishes tumor initiation of ALDH(high) melanoma stem cells. In conclusion, our data indicate an essential role of the HH-GLI1 signaling in controlling self-renewal and tumor initiation of melanoma CSC/TIC. Targeting HH-GLI1 is thus predicted to reduce the melanoma stem cell compartment. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  9. VEGFR-1 Expressed by Malignant Melanoma-Initiating Cells Is Required for Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Natasha Y.; Schatton, Tobias; Kim, Soo; Zhan, Qian; Wilson, Brian J.; Ma, Jie; Saab, Karim R.; Osherov, Veronika; Widlund, Hans R.; Gasser, Martin; Waaga-Gasser, Ana-Maria; Kupper, Thomas S.; Murphy, George F.; Frank, Markus H.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma growth is driven by malignant melanoma-initiating cells (MMIC) identified by expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) member ABCB5. ABCB5+ melanoma subpopulations have been shown to overexpress the vasculogenic differentiation markers CD144 (VE-cadherin) and TIE1 and are associated with CD31− vasculogenic mimicry (VM), an established biomarker associated with increased patient mortality. Here we identify a critical role for VEGFR-1 signaling in ABCB5+ MMIC-dependent VM and tumor growth. Global gene expression analyses, validated by mRNA and protein determinations, revealed preferential expression of VEGFR-1 on ABCB5+ tumor cells purified from clinical melanomas and established melanoma lines. In vitro, VEGF induced the expression of CD144 in ABCB5+ subpopulations that constitutively expressed VEGFR-1 but not in ABCB5− bulk populations that were predominantly VEGFR-1−. In vivo, melanoma-specific shRNA-mediated knockdown of VEGFR-1 blocked the development of ABCB5+ VM morphology and inhibited ABCB5+ VM-associated production of the secreted melanoma mitogen laminin. Moreover, melanoma-specific VEGFR-1 knockdown markedly inhibited tumor growth (by >90%). Our results show that VEGFR-1 function in MMIC regulates VM and associated laminin production and show that this function represents one mechanism through which MMICs promote tumor growth. PMID:21212411

  10. VEGFR-1 expressed by malignant melanoma-initiating cells is required for tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Frank, Natasha Y; Schatton, Tobias; Kim, Soo; Zhan, Qian; Wilson, Brian J; Ma, Jie; Saab, Karim R; Osherov, Veronika; Widlund, Hans R; Gasser, Martin; Waaga-Gasser, Ana-Maria; Kupper, Thomas S; Murphy, George F; Frank, Markus H

    2011-02-15

    Melanoma growth is driven by malignant melanoma-initiating cells (MMIC) identified by expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) member ABCB5. ABCB5(+) melanoma subpopulations have been shown to overexpress the vasculogenic differentiation markers CD144 (VE-cadherin) and TIE1 and are associated with CD31(-) vasculogenic mimicry (VM), an established biomarker associated with increased patient mortality. Here we identify a critical role for VEGFR-1 signaling in ABCB5(+) MMIC-dependent VM and tumor growth. Global gene expression analyses, validated by mRNA and protein determinations, revealed preferential expression of VEGFR-1 on ABCB5(+) tumor cells purified from clinical melanomas and established melanoma lines. In vitro, VEGF induced the expression of CD144 in ABCB5(+) subpopulations that constitutively expressed VEGFR-1 but not in ABCB5(-) bulk populations that were predominantly VEGFR-1(-). In vivo, melanoma-specific shRNA-mediated knockdown of VEGFR-1 blocked the development of ABCB5(+) VM morphology and inhibited ABCB5(+) VM-associated production of the secreted melanoma mitogen laminin. Moreover, melanoma-specific VEGFR-1 knockdown markedly inhibited tumor growth (by > 90%). Our results show that VEGFR-1 function in MMIC regulates VM and associated laminin production and show that this function represents one mechanism through which MMICs promote tumor growth. ©2011 AACR.

  11. Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Montagnani Marelli, Marina; Marzagalli, Monica; Moretti, Roberta M.; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Casati, Lavinia; Comitato, Raffaella; Gravina, Giovanni L.; Festuccia, Claudio; Limonta, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin cancer. Drug toxicity and resistance represent a serious challange for melanoma treatments. Evidence demonstrates that natural compounds may play a crucial role in cancer prevention, growth and progression. Vitamin E tocotrienols (TT) were shown to possess antitumor activity. Here, we analyzed the effects of δ-TT on melanoma cell growth and the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in this activity. The experiments were performed on human melanoma cell lines, BLM and A375. δ-TT exerted a significant proapoptotic effect on both cell lines, involving the intrinsic apoptosis pathway; importantly, this compound did not affect the viability of normal human melanocytes. In melanoma cells, δ-TT exerted its antitumor effect through activation of the PERK/p-eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP, IRE1α and caspase-4 ER stress-related branches. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of the ER stress, counteracted the cytotoxic activity of δ-TT. In vivo experiments performed in nude mice bearing A375 xenografts evidenced that δ-TT reduces tumor volume and tumor mass; importantly, tumor progression was significantly delayed by δ-TT treatment. In conclusion, δ-TT exerts a proapoptotic activity on melanoma cells, through activation of the ER stress-related pathways. δ-TT might represent an effective option for novel chemopreventive/therapeutic strategies for melanoma. PMID:27461002

  12. Apigenin inhibits proliferation and invasion, and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangming; Han, Xiaodong; Cheng, Wei; Ni, Jing; Zhang, Yunfei; Lin, Jingrong; Song, Zhiqi

    2017-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most invasive and fatal form of cutaneous cancer. Moreover it is extremely resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Apigenin, a non-mutagenic flavonoid, has been found to exhibit chemopreventive and/or anticancerogenic properties in many different types of human cancer cells. Therefore, apigenin may have particular relevance for development as a chemotherapeutic agent for cancer treatment. In the present study, we investigated the effects of apigenin on the viability, migration and invasion potential, dendrite morphology, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in human melanoma A375 and C8161 cell lines in vitro. Apigenin effectively suppressed the proliferation of melanoma cells in vitro. Moreover, it inhibited cell migration and invasion, lengthened the dendrites, and induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, apigenin promoted the activation of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP proteins and decreased the expression of phosphorylated (p)‑ERK1/2 proteins, p-AKT and p-mTOR. Consequently, apigenin is a novel therapeutic candidate for melanoma.

  13. The effect of Taurolidine on adherent and floating subpopulations of melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shrayer, D P; Lukoff, H; King, T; Calabresi, P

    2003-04-01

    The annual incidence of malignant melanoma is estimated at 10-12 per 100000 inhabitants in countries of Central Europe and the US, with more recent estimates showing a dramatic upward trend. Taurolidine (Carter/Wallace, Cranberry, NJ) is a novel, potentially effective, antitumor chemotherapeutic agent. We hypothesized that Taurolidine could inhibit the growth, induce apoptosis, affect the cell cycle and change morphology of melanoma cells. We expected this process to be different in adherent and floating subpopulations that may be reflective of solid tumors and their metastases. Analysis of MNT-1 human and B16F10 murine melanoma cells showed that at 72 h the IC(50) of Taurolidine was 25.4+/-3.3 microM for MNT-1 human melanoma cells and 30.9+/-3.6 microM for B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Taurolidine induced DNA fragmentation of melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Taurolidine (75 and 100 microM) induced 52-97% Annexin-V binding (apoptosis), respectively. Evaluation of cell cycle after 72 h exposure to Taurolidine (0-100 microM) revealed that the percentage of melanoma cells in S phase increased from 27 to 40% in the adherent subpopulation and from 33 to 49% in the floating subpopulation. Phase contrast microscopy revealed a marked swelling of melanoma cells and decreasing cell numbers in adherent subpopulation starting at 24 h with 25 microM Taurolidine. Shrinkage of cells dominated at 75-100 microM Taurolidine. Using Cytospin assay in the floating population, we observed swelling of melanoma cells induced by 25-100 micro Taurolidine and appearance of giant (multinuclear) forms resulting from exposure to 75-100 micro Taurolidine. Some floating cells with normal morphology were observed with low concentrations of Taurolidine (0-25 microM). These data show that effects of Taurolidine may be different in adherent and floating subpopulations of melanoma cells. More importantly, floating subpopulations that may contain some viable melanoma cells, may be reflective

  14. Autologous cytokine-induced killer cell immunotherapy may improve overall survival in advanced malignant melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Yu'nan; Zhao, Erjiang; He, Xiaolei; Zhao, Lingdi; Wang, Zibing; Fu, Xiaomin; Qi, Yalong; Ma, Baozhen; Song, Yongping; Gao, Quanli

    2017-11-01

    Our study was conducted to explore the efficacy of autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells in patients with advanced malignant melanoma. Materials & Methods: Here we reviewed 113 stage IV malignant melanoma patients among which 68 patients received CIK cell immunotherapy alone, while 45 patients accepted CIK cell therapy combined with chemotherapy. Results: We found that the median survival time in CIK cell group was longer than the combined therapy group (21 vs 15 months, p = 0.07). In addition, serum hemoglobin level as well as monocyte proportion and lymphocyte count were associated with patients' survival time. These indicated that CIK cell immunotherapy might extend survival time in advanced malignant melanoma patients. Furthermore, serum hemoglobin level, monocyte proportion and lymphocyte count could be prognostic indicators for melanoma.

  15. Platelet GPIIb supports initial pulmonary retention but inhibits subsequent proliferation of melanoma cells during hematogenic metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Echtler, Katrin; Konrad, Ildiko; Lorenz, Michael; Schneider, Simon; Hofmaier, Sebastian; Plenagl, Florian; Stark, Konstantin; Czermak, Thomas; Tirniceriu, Anca; Eichhorn, Martin; Walch, Axel; Enders, Georg; Massberg, Steffen; Schulz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Platelets modulate the process of cancer metastasis. However, current knowledge on the direct interaction of platelets and tumor cells is mostly based on findings obtained in vitro. We addressed the role of the platelet fibrinogen receptor glycoprotein IIb (integrin αIIb) for experimental melanoma metastasis in vivo. Highly metastatic B16-D5 melanoma cells were injected intravenously into GPIIb-deficient (GPIIb-/-) or wildtype (WT) mice. Acute accumulation of tumor cells in the pulmonary vasculature was assessed in real-time by confocal videofluorescence microscopy. Arrest of tumor cells was dramatically reduced in GPIIb-/- mice as compared to WT. Importantly, we found that mainly multicellular aggregates accumulated in the pulmonary circulation of WT, instead B16-D5 aggregates were significantly smaller in GPIIb-/- mice. While pulmonary arrest of melanoma was clearly dependent on GPIIb in this early phase of metastasis, we also addressed tumor progression 10 days after injection. Inversely, and unexpectedly, we found that melanoma metastasis was now increased in GPIIb-/- mice. In contrast, GPIIb did not regulate local melanoma proliferation in a subcutaneous tumor model. Our data suggest that the platelet fibrinogen receptor has a differential role in the modulation of hematogenic melanoma metastasis. While platelets clearly support early steps in pulmonary metastasis via GPIIb-dependent formation of platelet-tumor-aggregates, at a later stage its absence is associated with an accelerated development of melanoma metastases. PMID:28253287

  16. Platelet GPIIb supports initial pulmonary retention but inhibits subsequent proliferation of melanoma cells during hematogenic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Echtler, Katrin; Konrad, Ildiko; Lorenz, Michael; Schneider, Simon; Hofmaier, Sebastian; Plenagl, Florian; Stark, Konstantin; Czermak, Thomas; Tirniceriu, Anca; Eichhorn, Martin; Walch, Axel; Enders, Georg; Massberg, Steffen; Schulz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Platelets modulate the process of cancer metastasis. However, current knowledge on the direct interaction of platelets and tumor cells is mostly based on findings obtained in vitro. We addressed the role of the platelet fibrinogen receptor glycoprotein IIb (integrin αIIb) for experimental melanoma metastasis in vivo. Highly metastatic B16-D5 melanoma cells were injected intravenously into GPIIb-deficient (GPIIb-/-) or wildtype (WT) mice. Acute accumulation of tumor cells in the pulmonary vasculature was assessed in real-time by confocal videofluorescence microscopy. Arrest of tumor cells was dramatically reduced in GPIIb-/- mice as compared to WT. Importantly, we found that mainly multicellular aggregates accumulated in the pulmonary circulation of WT, instead B16-D5 aggregates were significantly smaller in GPIIb-/- mice. While pulmonary arrest of melanoma was clearly dependent on GPIIb in this early phase of metastasis, we also addressed tumor progression 10 days after injection. Inversely, and unexpectedly, we found that melanoma metastasis was now increased in GPIIb-/- mice. In contrast, GPIIb did not regulate local melanoma proliferation in a subcutaneous tumor model. Our data suggest that the platelet fibrinogen receptor has a differential role in the modulation of hematogenic melanoma metastasis. While platelets clearly support early steps in pulmonary metastasis via GPIIb-dependent formation of platelet-tumor-aggregates, at a later stage its absence is associated with an accelerated development of melanoma metastases.

  17. MiR-767 promoted cell proliferation in human melanoma by suppressing CYLD expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kejin; Guo, Ling

    2018-01-30

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators for cancer development and progression of human melanoma. However, the potential molecular mechanism of miR-767 in human melanoma has not been intensively investigated. In this present study, we confirmed that miR-767 was frequently up-regulated in human melanoma tissues and cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-767 promoted cell proliferation in human melanoma cell lines A375 and WM35, whereas miR-767-in reversed the function. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that cylindromatosis (CYLD) was hypothesized to be a possible target gene of miR-767, and this was confirmed by luciferase activity assay. Knockdown of CYLD counteracted the proliferation arrest by miR-767-in in melanoma cells A375 and WM35. In conclusion, our study indicated that miR-767 acted as a role of tumor promoter by targeting CYLD in human melanoma, and might serve as a prognostic or therapeutic target for human melanoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Intravital third harmonic generation microscopy of collective melanoma cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Weigelin, Bettina; Bakker, Gert-Jan; Friedl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion is an adaptive process based on cell-intrinsic properties to migrate individually or collectively, and their adaptation to encountered tissue structure acting as barrier or providing guidance. Whereas molecular and physical mechanisms of cancer invasion are well-studied in 3D in vitro models, their topographic relevance, classification and validation toward interstitial tissue organization in vivo remain incomplete. Using combined intravital third and second harmonic generation (THG, SHG), and three-channel fluorescence microscopy in live tumors, we here map B16F10 melanoma invasion into the dermis with up to 600 µm penetration depth and reconstruct both invasion mode and tissue tracks to establish invasion routes and outcome. B16F10 cells preferentially develop adaptive invasion patterns along preformed tracks of complex, multi-interface topography, combining single-cell and collective migration modes, without immediate anatomic tissue remodeling or destruction. The data suggest that the dimensionality (1D, 2D, 3D) of tissue interfaces determines the microanatomy exploited by invading tumor cells, emphasizing non-destructive migration along microchannels coupled to contact guidance as key invasion mechanisms. THG imaging further detected the presence and interstitial dynamics of tumor-associated microparticles with submicron resolution, revealing tumor-imposed conditioning of the microenvironment. These topographic findings establish combined THG, SHG and fluorescence microscopy in intravital tumor biology and provide a template for rational in vitro model development and context-dependent molecular classification of invasion modes and routes. PMID:29607252

  19. Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous Melanoma Cells Engineered to Secrete Human Granulocyte--Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Generates Potent Antitumor Immunity in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soiffer, Robert; Lynch, Thomas; Mihm, Martin; Jung, Ken; Rhuda, Catherine; Schmollinger, Jan C.; Hodi, F. Stephen; Liebster, Laura; Lam, Prudence; Mentzer, Steven; Singer, Samuel; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Benedict Cosimi, A.; Duda, Rosemary; Sober, Arthur; Bhan, Atul; Daley, John; Neuberg, Donna; Parry, Gordon; Rokovich, Joseph; Richards, Laurie; Drayer, Jan; Berns, Anton; Clift, Shirley; Cohen, Lawrence K.; Mulligan, Richard C.; Dranoff, Glenn

    1998-10-01

    We conducted a Phase I clinical trial investigating the biologic activity of vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with metastatic melanoma. Immunization sites were intensely infiltrated with T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and eosinophils in all 21 evaluable patients. Although metastatic lesions resected before vaccination were minimally infiltrated with cells of the immune system in all patients, metastatic lesions resected after vaccination were densely infiltrated with T lymphocytes and plasma cells and showed extensive tumor destruction (at least 80%), fibrosis, and edema in 11 of 16 patients examined. Antimelanoma cytotoxic T cell and antibody responses were associated with tumor destruction. These results demonstrate that vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent antitumor immunity in humans with metastatic melanoma.

  20. Melanoma cells revive an embryonic transcriptional network to dictate phenotypic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Niels; Berx, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Compared to the overwhelming amount of literature describing how epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducing transcription factors orchestrate cellular plasticity in embryogenesis and epithelial cells, the functions of these factors in non-epithelial contexts, such as melanoma, are less clear. Melanoma is an aggressive tumor arising from melanocytes, endowed with unique features of cellular plasticity. The reversible phenotype-switching between differentiated and invasive phenotypes is increasingly appreciated as a mechanism accounting for heterogeneity in melanoma and is driven by oncogenic signaling and environmental cues. This phenotypic switch is coupled with an intriguing and somewhat counterintuitive signaling switch of EMT-inducing transcription factors. In contrast to carcinomas, different EMT-inducing transcription factors have antagonizing effects in melanoma. Balancing between these different EMT transcription factors is likely the key to successful metastatic spread of melanoma.

  1. Epigenetic regulation of the transcription factor Foxa2 directs differential elafin expression in melanocytes and melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Kyung Sook; Jo, Ji Yoon; Kim, Su Jin

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Elafin expression is epigenetically silenced in human melanoma cells. {yields} Foxa2 expression in melanoma cells is silenced by promoter hypermethylation. {yields} Foxa2 directs activation of the elafin promoter in vivo. {yields} Foxa2 expression induces apoptosis of melanoma cells via elafin re-expression. -- Abstract: Elafin, a serine protease inhibitor, induces the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in human melanoma cells, where its expression is transcriptionally silenced. However, it remains unknown how the elafin gene is repressed in melanoma cells. We here demonstrate that elafin expression is modulated via epigenetically regulated expression of the transcription factor Foxa2. Treatment of melanoma cells withmore » a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor induced elafin expression, which was specifically responsible for reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. Suppression of Foxa2 transcription, mediated by DNA hypermethylation in its promoter region, was released in melanoma cells upon treatment with the demethylating agent. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that the Foxa2 binding site in the elafin promoter was critical for the activation of the promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further showed that Foxa2 bound to the elafin promoter in vivo. Analyses of melanoma cells with varied levels of Foxa2 revealed a correlated expression between Foxa2 and elafin and the ability of Foxa2 to induce apoptosis. Our results collectively suggest that, in melanoma cells, Foxa2 expression is silenced and therefore elafin is maintained unexpressed to facilitate cell proliferation in the disease melanoma.« less

  2. The Efficacy of Dandelion Root Extract in Inducing Apoptosis in Drug-Resistant Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, S. J.; Ovadje, P.; Mousa, M.; Hamm, C.; Pandey, S.

    2011-01-01

    Notoriously chemoresistant melanoma has become the most prevalent form of cancer for the 25–29 North American age demographic. Standard treatment after early detection involves surgical excision (recurrence is possible), and metastatic melanoma is refractory to immuno-, radio-, and most harmful chemotherapies. Various natural compounds have shown efficacy in killing different cancers, albeit not always specifically. In this study, we show that dandelion root extract (DRE) specifically and effectively induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells without inducing toxicity in noncancerous cells. Characteristic apoptotic morphology of nuclear condensation and phosphatidylserine flipping to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of A375 human melanoma cells was observed within 48 hours. DRE-induced apoptosis activates caspase-8 in A375 cells early on, demonstrating employment of an extrinsic apoptotic pathway to kill A375 cells. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated from DRE-treated isolated mitochondria indicates that natural compounds in DRE can also directly target mitochondria. Interestingly, the relatively resistant G361 human melanoma cell line responded to DRE when combined with the metabolism interfering antitype II diabetic drug metformin. Therefore, treatment with this common, yet potent extract of natural compounds has proven novel in specifically inducing apoptosis in chemoresistant melanoma, without toxicity to healthy cells. PMID:21234313

  3. Resveratrol Overcomes Cellular Resistance to Vemurafenib Through Dephosphorylation of AKT in BRAF-mutated Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hao; Umebayashi, Masayo; Doi, Keiko; Morisaki, Takashi; Shirasawa, Senji; Tsunoda, Toshiyuki

    2016-07-01

    The serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf (BRAF) V600E mutant (BRAF(V600E)) inhibitor vemurafenib, has improved clinical outcomes for patients with BRAF(V600E) melanoma, but acquired cellular resistance mediated by AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT) phosphorylation limits its efficacy. We examined the effect of resveratrol on vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells. A vemurafenib-resistant human metastatic melanoma cell line positive for the BRAF V600E mutation was established. The anti-tumorigenic effects of vemurafenib and resveratrol, both alone and in combination, were examined through analysis of cell proliferation and protein expression. The level of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) was increased in the primary melanoma cells after treatment with vemurafenib, and the basal level of p-AKT was increased in vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells. Notably, resveratrol both alone and in combination with vemurafenib effectively suppressed cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation in both parental and vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells. Vemurafenib resistance can be reversed by addition of resveratrol in patients undergoing treatment with BRAF inhibitors. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. CXCR1 as a novel target for directing reactive T cells toward melanoma: implications for adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sapoznik, Sivan; Ortenberg, Rona; Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Kozlovski, Stav; Levy, Daphna; Avivi, Camila; Barshack, Iris; Cohen, Cyrille J; Besser, Michal J; Schachter, Jacob; Markel, Gal

    2012-10-01

    Adoptive cell transfer therapy with reactive T cells is one of the most promising immunotherapeutic modalities for metastatic melanoma patients. Homing of the transferred T cells to all tumor sites in sufficient numbers is of great importance. Here, we seek to exploit endogenous chemotactic signals in order to manipulate and enhance the directional trafficking of transferred T cells toward melanoma. Chemokine profiling of 15 melanoma cultures shows that CXCL1 and CXCL8 are abundantly expressed and secreted from melanoma cultures. However, the complimentary analysis on 40 melanoma patient-derived tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) proves that the corresponding chemokine receptors are either not expressed (CXCR2) or expressed at low levels (CXCR1). Using the in vitro transwell system, we demonstrate that TIL cells preferentially migrate toward melanoma and that endogenously expressing CXCR1 TIL cells are significantly enriched among the migrating lymphocytes. The role of the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL8 is demonstrated by partial abrogation of this enrichment with anti-CXCL1 and anti-CXCL8 neutralizing antibodies. The role of the chemokine receptor CXCR1 is validated by the enhanced migration of CXCR1-engineered TIL cells toward melanoma or recombinant CXCL8. Cytotoxicity and IFNγ secretion activity are unaltered by CXCR1 expression profile. Taken together, these results mark CXCR1 as a candidate for genetic manipulations to enhance trafficking of adoptively transferred T cells. This approach is complimentary and potentially synergistic with other genetic strategies designed to enhance anti-tumor potency.

  5. Monitoring the Systemic Human Memory B Cell Compartment of Melanoma Patients for Anti-Tumor IgG Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Amy E.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Dodev, Tihomir; Koers, Alexander; Lacy, Katie; Josephs, Debra H.; Takhar, Pooja; Geh, Jenny L. C.; Healy, Ciaran; Harries, Mark; Acland, Katharine M.; Rudman, Sarah M.; Beavil, Rebecca L.; Blower, Philip J.; Beavil, Andrew J.; Gould, Hannah J.; Spicer, James; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma, a potentially lethal skin cancer, is widely thought to be immunogenic in nature. While there has been much focus on T cell-mediated immune responses, limited knowledge exists on the role of mature B cells. We describe an approach, including a cell-based ELISA, to evaluate mature IgG antibody responses to melanoma from human peripheral blood B cells. We observed a significant increase in antibody responses from melanoma patients (n = 10) to primary and metastatic melanoma cells compared to healthy volunteers (n = 10) (P<0.0001). Interestingly, we detected a significant reduction in antibody responses to melanoma with advancing disease stage in our patient cohort (n = 21) (P<0.0001). Overall, 28% of melanoma patient-derived B cell cultures (n = 1,800) compared to 2% of cultures from healthy controls (n = 600) produced antibodies that recognized melanoma cells. Lastly, a patient-derived melanoma-specific monoclonal antibody was selected for further study. This antibody effectively killed melanoma cells in vitro via antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. These data demonstrate the presence of a mature systemic B cell response in melanoma patients, which is reduced with disease progression, adding to previous reports of tumor-reactive antibodies in patient sera, and suggesting the merit of future work to elucidate the clinical relevance of activating humoral immune responses to cancer. PMID:21559411

  6. Effects of combined treatment with interferon and mezerein on melanogenesis and growth in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fisher, P B; Prignoli, D R; Hermo, H; Weinstein, I B; Pestka, S

    1985-01-01

    We have analyzed the effects of various human interferons produced in bacteria and the antileukemic compound mezerein (MEZ) on growth and melanogenesis in human melanoma cells. In four human melanoma cell lines, recombinant human fibroblast interferon (IFN-beta) was more active than recombinant human leukocyte interferons (IFN-alpha A, IFN-alpha D, or IFN-alpha A/D (Bgl] in inhibiting cellular proliferation. When monolayer cultures were exposed to 1000 IU/ml IFN-beta for four days the degree of growth inhibition in the different melanoma cell lines varied between 94 and 26%. Similarly, four days growth in medium containing 10 ng/ml MEZ resulted in either no inhibition of growth or as much as 53% inhibition of growth, depending on the specific melanoma cell line tested. MEZ induced dendrite-like processes, cytoplasmic projections morphologically similar to those normally found in neurons and melanocytes, in all four melanoma cell lines, whereas none of the interferons tested had this effect. The combination of interferon and MEZ resulted in a dramatic inhibition in cellular proliferation in all four melanoma cell lines. When cell extracts were assayed for melanin content, a marker of melanoma cell differentiation, the combination of IFN-beta and MEZ resulted in higher levels of melanin than with either agent alone. Dendrite-like formation was also prominent in the cultures treated with this combination. These results indicate that the antiproliferative effect of interferon toward human melanoma dells can be enhanced by treatment with MEZ and that this effect is associated with an enhancement of terminal differentiation.

  7. Melanoma Cell Colony Expansion Parameters Revealed by Approximate Bayesian Computation

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Brenda N.; Drovandi, Christopher C.; Pettitt, Anthony N.; Pettet, Graeme J.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro studies and mathematical models are now being widely used to study the underlying mechanisms driving the expansion of cell colonies. This can improve our understanding of cancer formation and progression. Although much progress has been made in terms of developing and analysing mathematical models, far less progress has been made in terms of understanding how to estimate model parameters using experimental in vitro image-based data. To address this issue, a new approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) algorithm is proposed to estimate key parameters governing the expansion of melanoma cell (MM127) colonies, including cell diffusivity, D, cell proliferation rate, λ, and cell-to-cell adhesion, q, in two experimental scenarios, namely with and without a chemical treatment to suppress cell proliferation. Even when little prior biological knowledge about the parameters is assumed, all parameters are precisely inferred with a small posterior coefficient of variation, approximately 2–12%. The ABC analyses reveal that the posterior distributions of D and q depend on the experimental elapsed time, whereas the posterior distribution of λ does not. The posterior mean values of D and q are in the ranges 226–268 µm2h−1, 311–351 µm2h−1 and 0.23–0.39, 0.32–0.61 for the experimental periods of 0–24 h and 24–48 h, respectively. Furthermore, we found that the posterior distribution of q also depends on the initial cell density, whereas the posterior distributions of D and λ do not. The ABC approach also enables information from the two experiments to be combined, resulting in greater precision for all estimates of D and λ. PMID:26642072

  8. Cytotoxic effect of the serotonergic drug 1-(1-Naphthyl)piperazine against melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ana Catarina; Carvalheiro, Manuela; Ferreira de Oliveira, José Miguel P; Ascenso, Andreia; Oliveira, Helena

    2018-03-01

    1-(1-Naphthyl)piperazine (1-NPZ) is a serotonergic derivative of quipazine acting both as antagonist and agonist of different serotonin receptors, with promising results for the management of skin cancer. In this work, we studied the effect of 1-NPZ on human MNT-1 melanoma cells by evaluating its effects on cell viability, ability to form colonies, cell cycle dynamics, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis. Treatment of MNT-1 cells with 1-NPZ for 24h decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Activity against melanoma was confirmed with a different melanoma cell line, SK-MEL-28. Simultaneously, 1-NPZ affected cell cycle progression by mediating a S-phase delay. Higher levels of ROS were also detected in MNT-1 cells after treatment with 1-NPZ. Furthermore, 1-NPZ significantly increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in MNT-1 cells. These findings suggest that 1-NPZ pretreatment is able to induce oxidative stress, and consequently apoptotic cell death in melanoma cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of 1-NPZ against melanoma cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antitumor agent 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy mediated cell death in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Riaz Ahmed, Kausar Begam; Kanduluru, Ananda Kumar; Feng, Li; Fuchs, Philip L; Huang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    Metastatic melanoma is the most aggressive of all skin cancers and is associated with poor prognosis owing to lack of effective treatments. 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N is a novel antitumor agent with yet undefined mechanisms of action. We sought to delineate the antitumor mechanisms of 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N in melanoma cells to determine the potential of this compound as a treatment for melanoma. Activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) has been associated with increased melanoma progression, oncogenic signaling, drug resistance, and suppression of cell death. We found that 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N induced cell death in melanoma cells at nanomolar concentrations, and this cell death was characterized by inhibition of GRP78 expression, increased expression of the ER stress marker CHOP, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and lipidation of the autophagy marker protein LC3B. Importantly, normal melanocytes exhibited limited sensitivity to 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N. Subsequent in vivo results demonstrated that 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N reduced melanoma growth in mouse tumor xenografts and did not affect body weight, suggesting minimal toxicity. In summary, our findings indicate that 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N causes ER stress and massive autophagy, leading to collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and cell death in melanoma cells, with minimal effects in normal melanocytes. Thus, 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N is a promising anticancer agent that warrants further investigation.

  10. PD-L1 Promotes Self-Renewal and Tumorigenicity of Malignant Melanoma Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Jianzhong; Zha, Hui; Zhang, Bingyu; Lin, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that therapeutic antibodies targeting PD-L1 show remarkable efficacy in clinical trials in multiple tumors and that a melanoma cell-intrinsic PD-1: PD-L1 axis promotes tumor growth. However, few studies have shown tumor-intrinsic PD-L1 effects in malignant melanoma initiating cells (MMICs). Here, we aim to determine the possible regulatory effects of PD-L1 on MMICs. The ALDEFLUOR kit was used to identify ALDH+ MMICs. Flow cytometry was used to examine the expression of PD-L1 on ALDH+ MMICs. To determine the role of PD-L1 in MMICs self-renewal, we cultured melanoma cells with anti-PD-L1 and measured tumorsphere formation and apoptosis. In addition, the effects of anti-PD-L1 on tumorigenicity and residual ALDH+ MMICs in tumors were evaluated in vivo. We demonstrated that melanoma cell-intrinsic PD-L1 was expressed in ALDH+ MMICs. Blocking PD-L1 in melanoma cell lines impaired tumorsphere formation and induced the apoptosis of sphere cells. In addition, blocking PD-L1 inhibited tumor growth in vivo. We observed residual ALDH+ MMICs within the tumor. The results showed that blocking PD-L1 also significantly decreased the residual ALDH+ MMICs in the tumors. In conclusion, these results suggest a new mechanism underlying melanoma progression and PD-L1-targeted therapy, which is distinct from the immunomodulatory actions of PD-L1. PMID:29250533

  11. Biflorin induces cytotoxicity by DNA interaction in genetically different human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Ana Carolina Lima; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; da Silva Souza, Luciana Gregório; de Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; de Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is a public health problem and the second leading cause of death worldwide. The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has been notably increasing, resulting in high aggressiveness and poor survival rates. Taking into account the antitumor activity of biflorin, a substance isolated from Capraria biflora L. roots that is cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo, this study aimed to demonstrate the action of biflorin against three established human melanoma cell lines that recapitulate the molecular landscape of the disease in terms of genetic alterations and mutations, such as the TP53, NRAS and BRAF genes. The results presented here indicate that biflorin reduces the viability of melanoma cell lines by DNA interactions. Biflorin causes single and double DNA strand breaks, consequently inhibiting cell cycle progression, replication and DNA repair and promoting apoptosis. Our data suggest that biflorin could be considered as a future therapeutic option for managing melanoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psoralea glandulosa as a potential source of anticancer agents for melanoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Alejandro; Cardile, Venera; González, César; Montenegro, Ivan; Villena, Joan; Caggia, Silvia; Graziano, Adriana; Russo, Alessandra

    2015-04-09

    With the aim of identifying novel agents with antigrowth and pro-apoptotic activity on melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the biological activity of the resinous exudate of aerial parts from Psoralea glandulosa, and its active components (bakuchiol (1), 3-hydroxy-bakuchiol (2) and 12-hydroxy-iso-bakuchiol (3)) against melanoma cells (A2058). In addition, the effect in cancer cells of bakuchiol acetate (4), a semi-synthetic derivative of bakuchiol, was examined. The results obtained show that the resinous exudate inhibited the growth of cancer cells with IC50 value of 10.5 μg/mL after 48 h of treatment, while, for pure compounds, the most active was the semi-synthetic compound 4. Our data also demonstrate that resin is able to induce apoptotic cell death, which could be related to an overall action of the meroterpenes present. In addition, our data seem to indicate that the apoptosis correlated to the tested products appears, at least in part, to be associated with an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In summary, our study provides the first evidence that P. glandulosa may be considered a source of useful molecules in the development of analogues with more potent efficacy against melanoma cells.

  13. Psoralea glandulosa as a Potential Source of Anticancer Agents for Melanoma Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Madrid, Alejandro; Cardile, Venera; González, César; Montenegro, Ivan; Villena, Joan; Caggia, Silvia; Graziano, Adriana; Russo, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of identifying novel agents with antigrowth and pro-apoptotic activity on melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the biological activity of the resinous exudate of aerial parts from Psoralea glandulosa, and its active components (bakuchiol (1), 3-hydroxy-bakuchiol (2) and 12-hydroxy-iso-bakuchiol (3)) against melanoma cells (A2058). In addition, the effect in cancer cells of bakuchiol acetate (4), a semi-synthetic derivative of bakuchiol, was examined. The results obtained show that the resinous exudate inhibited the growth of cancer cells with IC50 value of 10.5 μg/mL after 48 h of treatment, while, for pure compounds, the most active was the semi-synthetic compound 4. Our data also demonstrate that resin is able to induce apoptotic cell death, which could be related to an overall action of the meroterpenes present. In addition, our data seem to indicate that the apoptosis correlated to the tested products appears, at least in part, to be associated with an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In summary, our study provides the first evidence that P. glandulosa may be considered a source of useful molecules in the development of analogues with more potent efficacy against melanoma cells. PMID:25860949

  14. Defective Cell Cycle Checkpoint Functions in Melanoma Are Associated with Altered Patterns of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, William K.; Nevis, Kathleen R.; Qu, Pingping; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yingchun; Simpson, Dennis A.; Helms-Deaton, Jennifer; Cordeiro-Stone, Marila; Moore, Dominic T.; Thomas, Nancy E.; Hao, Honglin; Liu, Zhi; Shields, Janiel M.; Scott, Glynis A.; Sharpless, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    Defects in DNA damage responses may underlie genetic instability and malignant progression in melanoma. Cultures of normal human melanocytes (NHMs) and melanoma lines were analyzed to determine whether global patterns of gene expression could predict the efficacy of DNA damage cell cycle checkpoints that arrest growth and suppress genetic instability. NHMs displayed effective G1 and G2 checkpoint responses to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. A majority of melanoma cell lines (11/16) displayed significant quantitative defects in one or both checkpoints. Melanomas with B-RAF mutations as a class displayed a significant defect in DNA damage G2 checkpoint function. In contrast the epithelial-like subtype of melanomas with wild-type N-RAS and B-RAF alleles displayed an effective G2 checkpoint but a significant defect in G1 checkpoint function. RNA expression profiling revealed that melanoma lines with defects in the DNA damage G1 checkpoint displayed reduced expression of p53 transcriptional targets, such as CDKN1A and DDB2, and enhanced expression of proliferation-associated genes, such as CDC7 and GEMININ. A Bayesian analysis tool was more accurate than significance analysis of microarrays for predicting checkpoint function using a leave-one-out method. The results suggest that defects in DNA damage checkpoints may be recognized in melanomas through analysis of gene expression. PMID:17597816

  15. Immune cell-poor melanomas benefit from PD-1 blockade after targeted type I IFN activation.

    PubMed

    Bald, Tobias; Landsberg, Jennifer; Lopez-Ramos, Dorys; Renn, Marcel; Glodde, Nicole; Jansen, Philipp; Gaffal, Evelyn; Steitz, Julia; Tolba, Rene; Kalinke, Ulrich; Limmer, Andreas; Jönsson, Göran; Hölzel, Michael; Tüting, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Infiltration of human melanomas with cytotoxic immune cells correlates with spontaneous type I IFN activation and a favorable prognosis. Therapeutic blockade of immune-inhibitory receptors in patients with preexisting lymphocytic infiltrates prolongs survival, but new complementary strategies are needed to activate cellular antitumor immunity in immune cell-poor melanomas. Here, we show that primary melanomas in Hgf-Cdk4(R24C) mice, which imitate human immune cell-poor melanomas with a poor outcome, escape IFN-induced immune surveillance and editing. Peritumoral injections of immunostimulatory RNA initiated a cytotoxic inflammatory response in the tumor microenvironment and significantly impaired tumor growth. This critically required the coordinated induction of type I IFN responses by dendritic, myeloid, natural killer, and T cells. Importantly, antibody-mediated blockade of the IFN-induced immune-inhibitory interaction between PD-L1 and PD-1 receptors further prolonged the survival. These results highlight important interconnections between type I IFNs and immune-inhibitory receptors in melanoma pathogenesis, which serve as targets for combination immunotherapies. Using a genetically engineered mouse melanoma model, we demonstrate that targeted activation of the type I IFN system with immunostimulatory RNA in combination with blockade of immune-inhibitory receptors is a rational strategy to expose immune cell-poor tumors to cellular immune surveillance. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Uptake in melanoma cells of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-2-iodobenzamide (BZA2), an imaging agent for melanoma staging: relation to pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mansard, Sandrine; Papon, Janine; Moreau, Marie-France; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Labarre, Pierre; Bayle, Martine; Veyre, Annie; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Moins, Nicole

    2005-07-01

    N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-2-iodobenzamide (BZA(2)) has been singled out as the most efficacious melanoma scintigraphy imaging agent. Our work was designed to assess the mechanisms of the specific affinity of the radioiodinated iodobenzamide for melanoma tissue. We studied the cellular uptake and retention of [(125)I]-BZA(2) on various cell lines. In vitro, cellular [(125)I]-BZA(2) uptake was related to the pigmentation status of the cells: higher in pigmented melanoma cell lines (M4 Beu, IPC 227, B 16) than in a nonpigmented one (M3 Dau) and nonmelanoma cell lines (MCF 7 and L 929). Two mechanisms were assessed: binding of the tracer to melanin or to sigma receptors of melanoma cells. First, the uptake of [(125)I]-BZA(2) after melanogenesis stimulation by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and l-tyrosine increased in the B 16 melanoma cell line both in vitro and in vivo according to melanin concentration. Moreover, the binding of [(125)I]-BZA(2) to synthetic melanin was dependent on melanin concentration and could be saturated. Second, no competition was evidenced on M4 Beu cells between [(125)I]-BZA(2) and haloperidol, a sigma ligand, at concentrations < or =10(-6) M. We show that the specificity and sensibility of BZA(2) as a melanoma scintigraphic imaging agent are mostly due to interactions with melanic pigments.

  17. Antitumoral effect of vanadium compounds in malignant melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rozzo, Carla; Sanna, Daniele; Garribba, Eugenio; Serra, Maria; Cantara, Alessio; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Pisano, Marina

    2017-09-01

    In this study we evaluated the anticancer activity against malignant melanoma (MM) of four different vanadium species: the inorganic anion vanadate(V) (indicated with VN), and three oxidovanadium(IV) complexes, [V IV O(dhp) 2 ] where dhp - is the anion 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS2), [V IV O(mpp) 2 ] where mpp - is 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS3), and [V IV O(ppp) 2 ] where ppp - is 1-phenyl-2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS4). The antitumor effects of these compounds were studied against two different MM cell lines (A375 and CN-mel) and a fibroblast cell line (BJ) as normal control. All tested V compounds exert antiproliferative activity on MM cells in a dose dependent manner (IC 50 ranges from 2.4μM up to 14μM) being A375 the most sensitive cell line. VN and VS2 were the two most active compounds against A375 (IC 50 of 4.7 and 2.6μM, respectively), causing apoptosis and cell cycle block. The experimental data indicate that the cell cycle arrest occurs at different phases for the two V species analyzed (G2 checkpoint for VN and G0/G1 for VS2), showing the importance of the chemical form in determining their mechanism of action. These results add more insights into the landscape of vanadium versatility in biological systems and into its role as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. CB2 Receptor Activation Inhibits Melanoma Cell Transmigration through the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Haskó, János; Fazakas, Csilla; Molnár, Judit; Nyúl-Tóth, Ádám; Herman, Hildegard; Hermenean, Anca; Wilhelm, Imola; Persidsky, Yuri; Krizbai, István A.

    2014-01-01

    During parenchymal brain metastasis formation tumor cells need to migrate through cerebral endothelial cells, which form the morphological basis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The mechanisms of extravasation of tumor cells are highly uncharacterized, but in some aspects recapitulate the diapedesis of leukocytes. Extravasation of leukocytes through the BBB is decreased by the activation of type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2); therefore, in the present study we sought to investigate the role of CB2 receptors in the interaction of melanoma cells with the brain endothelium. First, we identified the presence of CB1, CB2(A), GPR18 (transcriptional variant 1) and GPR55 receptors in brain endothelial cells, while melanoma cells expressed CB1, CB2(A), GPR18 (transcriptional variants 1 and 2), GPR55 and GPR119. We observed that activation of CB2 receptors with JWH-133 reduced the adhesion of melanoma cells to the layer of brain endothelial cells. JWH-133 decreased the transendothelial migration rate of melanoma cells as well. Our results suggest that changes induced in endothelial cells are critical in the mediation of the effect of CB2 agonists. Our data identify CB2 as a potential target in reducing the number of brain metastastes originating from melanoma. PMID:24815068

  19. Imatinib mesylate induction of ROS-dependent apoptosis in melanoma B16F0 cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shao-Ping; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Lee, Woan-Rouh; Yang, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2011-06-01

    Imatinib mesylate (STI571), a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was shown to reduce the viability of several cancer cell lines via apoptosis induction; however, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in STI571-induced melanoma cell apoptosis is still undefined. In this study, we investigated the contribution of ROS to STI571-induced apoptosis in melanoma B16F0 cells, and the apoptotic mechanism elicited by STI571 was illustrated. Using an in vitro cell culture system, the effects of STI571 on ROS production, cell cycle progression, caspase activation, and mitochondrial functions were examined via Western blotting, a flow cytometric analysis, an enzyme activity assay, and a DNA integrity assay. In pharmacological studies, the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, dipheylene iodide (DPI), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors (PD98059, SP600125, and SB203580) were applied to investigate the mechanism. STI571 reduced the viability of melanoma cells B16F0, but not human skin fibroblasts WS1, via apoptosis induction. Besides, apoptosis induced by STI571 was inhibited by the addition of NAC and DPI, and an increase in the intracellular peroxide level by STI571 was identified in melanoma B16F0 cells. Activation of caspases 3 and 9 enzyme activities accompanied by disrupting the mitochondria membrane potential in according with stimulating JNK and p38 protein phosphorylation was identified in STI571-treated B16F0 cells. STI571-mediated a ROS-dependent apoptosis potentiated by JNK inhibitor SP600125 was first identified in melanoma B16F0 cells. Our results support the idea that ROS-dependent apoptosis in STI571-treated melanoma cells B16F0. The combination of a JNK inhibitor with STI571 for treating melanomas is suggested for further in vivo studies. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MicroRNA-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates cyclin D1 in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiamin; Feilotter, Harriet E; Paré, Geneviève C; Zhang, Xiao; Pemberton, Joshua G W; Garady, Cherif; Lai, Dulcie; Yang, Xiaolong; Tron, Victor A

    2010-05-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of human skin cancer characterized by high metastatic potential and poor prognosis. To better understand the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in melanoma, the expression of 470 miRNAs was profiled in tissue samples from benign nevi and metastatic melanomas. We identified 31 miRNAs that were differentially expressed (13 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in metastatic melanomas relative to benign nevi. Notably, miR-193b was significantly down-regulated in the melanoma tissues examined. To understand the role of miR-193b in melanoma, functional studies were undertaken. Overexpression of miR-193b in melanoma cell lines repressed cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling identified 314 genes down-regulated by overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells. Eighteen of these down-regulated genes, including cyclin D1 (CCND1), were also identified as putative miR-193b targets by TargetScan. Overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells down-regulated CCND1 mRNA and protein by > or = 50%. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-193b directly regulates CCND1 by binding to the 3'untranslated region of CCND1 mRNA. These studies indicate that miR-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates CCND1 expression and suggest that dysregulation of miR-193b may play an important role in melanoma development.

  1. MicroRNA-193b Represses Cell Proliferation and Regulates Cyclin D1 in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiamin; Feilotter, Harriet E.; Paré, Geneviève C.; Zhang, Xiao; Pemberton, Joshua G.W.; Garady, Cherif; Lai, Dulcie; Yang, Xiaolong; Tron, Victor A.

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of human skin cancer characterized by high metastatic potential and poor prognosis. To better understand the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in melanoma, the expression of 470 miRNAs was profiled in tissue samples from benign nevi and metastatic melanomas. We identified 31 miRNAs that were differentially expressed (13 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in metastatic melanomas relative to benign nevi. Notably, miR-193b was significantly down-regulated in the melanoma tissues examined. To understand the role of miR-193b in melanoma, functional studies were undertaken. Overexpression of miR-193b in melanoma cell lines repressed cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling identified 314 genes down-regulated by overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells. Eighteen of these down-regulated genes, including cyclin D1 (CCND1), were also identified as putative miR-193b targets by TargetScan. Overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells down-regulated CCND1 mRNA and protein by ≥50%. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-193b directly regulates CCND1 by binding to the 3′untranslated region of CCND1 mRNA. These studies indicate that miR-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates CCND1 expression and suggest that dysregulation of miR-193b may play an important role in melanoma development. PMID:20304954

  2. ZEB1-mediated melanoma cell plasticity enhances resistance to MAPK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Richard, Geoffrey; Dalle, Stéphane; Monet, Marie-Ambre; Ligier, Maud; Boespflug, Amélie; Pommier, Roxane M; de la Fouchardière, Arnaud; Perier-Muzet, Marie; Depaepe, Lauriane; Barnault, Romain; Tondeur, Garance; Ansieau, Stéphane; Thomas, Emilie; Bertolotto, Corine; Ballotti, Robert; Mourah, Samia; Battistella, Maxime; Lebbé, Céleste; Thomas, Luc; Puisieux, Alain; Caramel, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Targeted therapies with MAPK inhibitors (MAPKi) are faced with severe problems of resistance in BRAF-mutant melanoma. In parallel to the acquisition of genetic mutations, melanoma cells may also adapt to the drugs through phenotype switching. The ZEB1 transcription factor, a known inducer of EMT and invasiveness, is now considered as a genuine oncogenic factor required for tumor initiation, cancer cell plasticity, and drug resistance in carcinomas. Here, we show that high levels of ZEB1 expression are associated with inherent resistance to MAPKi in BRAF V 600 -mutated cell lines and tumors. ZEB1 levels are also elevated in melanoma cells with acquired resistance and in biopsies from patients relapsing while under treatment. ZEB1 overexpression is sufficient to drive the emergence of resistance to MAPKi by promoting a reversible transition toward a MITF low /p75 high stem-like and tumorigenic phenotype. ZEB1 inhibition promotes cell differentiation, prevents tumorigenic growth in vivo, sensitizes naive melanoma cells to MAPKi, and induces cell death in resistant cells. Overall, our results demonstrate that ZEB1 is a major driver of melanoma cell plasticity, driving drug adaptation and phenotypic resistance to MAPKi. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  3. Lentivirus-mediated bifunctional cell labeling for in vivo melanoma study

    PubMed Central

    Day, Chi-Ping; Carter, John; Bonomi, Carrie; Esposito, Dominic; Crise, Bruce; Ortiz-Conde, Betty; Hollingshead, Melinda; Merlino, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Lentiviral vectors (LVs) are capable of labeling a broad spectrum of cell types, achieving stable expression of transgenes. However, for in vivo studies, the duration of marker gene expression has been highly variable. We have developed a series of LVs harboring different promoters for expressing reporter gene in mouse cells. Long-term culture and colony formation of several LV-labeled mouse melanoma cells showed that promoters derived from mammalian house-keeping genes, especially those encoding RNA polymerase II (Pol2) and ferritin (FerH), provided the highest consistency for reporter expression. For in vivo studies, primary B16BL6 mouse melanoma were infected with LVs whose luciferase-GFP fusion gene (Luc/GFP) was driven by either Pol2 or FerH promoters. When transplanted into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, Luc/GFP-labeled B16BL6 mouse melanoma cells can be monitored by bioluminescence imaging in vivo, and GFP-positive cells can be isolated from the tumors by FACS. Pol2-Luc/GFP labeling, while lower in activity, was more sustainable than FerH-Luc/GFP labeling in B16BL6 over consecutive passages into mice. We conclude that Pol-2-Luc/GFP labeling allows long-term in vivo monitoring and tumor cell isolation in immunocompetent mouse melanoma models. SIGNIFICANCE In this study we have developed and identified lentiviral vectors that allow labeled mouse melanoma cells to maintain long-term and consistent expression of a bifunctional luciferase-GFP marker gene, even in syngeneic mice with an intact immune function. This cell-labeling system can be used to build immunocompetent mouse melanoma models that permit both tumor monitoring and FACS-based tumor cell isolation from tissues, greatly facilitating the in vivo study of melanoma. PMID:19175523

  4. Lansoprazole and carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors sinergize against human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Federici, Cristina; Lugini, Luana; Marino, Maria Lucia; Carta, Fabrizio; Iessi, Elisabetta; Azzarito, Tommaso; Supuran, Claudiu T; Fais, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) reduce tumor acidity and therefore resistance of tumors to drugs. Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CA IX) inhibitors have proven to be effective against tumors, while tumor acidity might impair their full effectiveness. To analyze the effect of PPI/CA IX inhibitors combined treatment against human melanoma cells. The combination of Lansoprazole (LAN) and CA IX inhibitors (FC9-399A and S4) has been investigated in terms of cell proliferation inhibition and cell death in human melanoma cells. The combination of these inhibitors was more effective than the single treatments in both inhibiting cell proliferation and in inducing cell death in human melanoma cells. These results represent the first successful attempt in combining two different proton exchanger inhibitors. This is the first evidence on the effectiveness of a new approach against tumors based on the combination of PPI and CA IX inhibitors, thus providing an alternative strategy against tumors.

  5. HDAC6 interacts with PTPN1 to enhance melanoma cells progression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiaqi; Luan, Wenjie; Zhang, Yong; Gu, Jianying; Shi, Yuedong; Yang, Yanwen; Feng, Zihao; Qi, Fazhi

    2018-01-22

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) plays an important role in oncogenic transformation and cancer metastasis. Our previous study has demonstrated that HDAC6 was highly expressed in melanoma cells, and contributed to the proliferation and metastasis of melanoma cells. However, the underlying mechanism of HDAC6 in melanoma metastasis and progression remains largely unclear. In this study, we reported that HDAC6 directly interacted with Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 1 (PTPN1) by performing co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). HDAC6 increased the protein level of PTPN1 independent of histone modifying activity. In addition, PTPN1 promoted proliferation, colony formation and migration while decreased apoptosis of melanoma cells through activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Furthermore, we found that matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) was increased by HDAC6/PTPN1/ERK1/2 axis, which might serve as a mechanism for melanoma invasion and metastasis. In conclusion, HDAC6 might enhance aggressive melanoma cells progression via interacting with PTPN1, which was independent of its histone modifying activity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Fisetin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in human uveal melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Hu, Dan-Ning; Lin, Hui-Wen; Yang, Wei-En; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Chien, Hsiang-Wen; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2018-05-01

    Fisetin, a diatery flavonoid, been reported that possess anticancer effects in various cancers. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antitumor effects of fisetin in cultured uveal melanoma cell lines and compared with normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. MTT assay was used for evaluating cytotoxic effects of fisetin. Flow cytometry study was used for the determination of apoptosis. JC-1 fluorescent reader was used to determine mitochondrial transmembrane potential changes. The results shown that fisetin dose-dependently decreased the cell viability of uveal melanoma cells but not influenced the cell viability of RPE cells. Apoptosis of uveal melanoma cells was induced by fisetin efficiently. Fisetin inhibited antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins and damaged the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. The levels of proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, cytochrome c, and various caspase activities were increased by fisetin. In conclusion, fisetin induces apoptosis of uveal melanoma cells selectively and may be a promising agent to be explored for the treatment of uveal melanoma. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Anti-melanoma activity of the 9.2.27PE immunotoxin in dacarbazine resistant cells.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Karianne; Fodstad, Oystein; Andersson, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    We have earlier shown that the 9.2.27 Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) immunotoxin (IT) efficiently kills melanoma cells through inhibition of protein synthesis followed by some morphologic and biochemical features of apoptosis, a different cell killing mechanism than the one caused by Dacarbazine (DTIC), a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat malignant melanoma. To examine whether induced DTIC resistance also is a determining factor for the effectiveness of 9.2.27PE IT, we developed a DTIC resistant subline, FEMX-200DR, from the DTIC sensitive cell line FEMX. The cell variants were treated with 9.2.27PE, an IT binding to the high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA) expressed on most malignant melanoma cells. The IT was equally effective in killing the FEMX-200DR and the FEMX cells, and the cell death was primarily caused by inhibition of protein synthesis. The DNA repair enzyme and apoptotic marker PARP, a substrate of caspase-3, was inactivated, although we observed only a minor activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8, intracellular proteases involved in apoptosis. In addition to being DTIC resistant, the FEMX-200DR cells were also more resistant to apoptosis than the parent cells as a 3 times higher concentration of the apoptotic inducer Staurosporine was needed to obtain IC50. Furthermore, in early passage malignant melanoma cell lines established from lymph node metastases, the 9.2.27PE caused a time-dependent and dose-dependent decrease in cell viability independent of their DTIC sensitivity. These findings show that the 9.2.27PE IT efficiently can cause cell death in malignant melanoma cells independent of their level of resistance to apoptosis and DTIC.

  8. WNT5A enhances resistance of melanoma cells to targeted BRAF inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Anastas, Jamie N.; Kulikauskas, Rima M.; Tamir, Tigist; Rizos, Helen; Long, Georgina V.; von Euw, Erika M.; Yang, Pei-Tzu; Chen, Hsiao-Wang; Haydu, Lauren; Toroni, Rachel A.; Lucero, Olivia M.; Chien, Andy J.; Moon, Randall T.

    2014-01-01

    About half of all melanomas harbor a mutation that results in a constitutively active BRAF kinase mutant (BRAFV600E/K) that can be selectively inhibited by targeted BRAF inhibitors (BRAFis). While patients treated with BRAFis initially exhibit measurable clinical improvement, the majority of patients eventually develop drug resistance and relapse. Here, we observed marked elevation of WNT5A in a subset of tumors from patients exhibiting disease progression on BRAFi therapy. WNT5A transcript and protein were also elevated in BRAFi-resistant melanoma cell lines generated by long-term in vitro treatment with BRAFi. RNAi-mediated reduction of endogenous WNT5A in melanoma decreased cell growth, increased apoptosis in response to BRAFi challenge, and decreased the activity of prosurvival AKT signaling. Conversely, overexpression of WNT5A promoted melanoma growth, tumorigenesis, and activation of AKT signaling. Similarly to WNT5A knockdown, knockdown of the WNT receptors FZD7 and RYK inhibited growth, sensitized melanoma cells to BRAFi, and reduced AKT activation. Together, these findings suggest that chronic BRAF inhibition elevates WNT5A expression, which promotes AKT signaling through FZD7 and RYK, leading to increased growth and therapeutic resistance. Furthermore, increased WNT5A expression in BRAFi-resistant melanomas correlates with a specific transcriptional signature, which identifies potential therapeutic targets to reduce clinical BRAFi resistance. PMID:24865425

  9. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  10. Amino Acid Signature in Human Melanoma Cell Lines from Different Disease Stages.

    PubMed

    Wasinger, Christine; Hofer, Alexandra; Spadiut, Oliver; Hohenegger, Martin

    2018-04-19

    Cancer cells rewire metabolism to sustain high proliferation rates. Beside glycolysis and glutaminolysis, amino acids substitute as energy source, feed fatty acid biosynthesis and represent part of the secretome of transformed cells, including melanoma. We have therefore investigated acetate, pyruvate and the amino acid composition of the secretome of human melanoma cells representing the early slow (WM35, WM278, WM793b and VM21) and metastatic fast (A375, 518a2, 6F and WM8) growth phase in order to identify possible signalling components within these profiles. Proliferation assays and a principle component analysis revealed a stringent difference between the fast and slow growing melanoma cells. Moreover, upon inhibition of the mevalonate pathway, glutamic acid and alanine were identified as the central difference in the conditional media. A supplementation of the media with glutamic acid and the combination with alanine significantly accelerated the proliferation, migration and invasion of early stage melanoma cells, but not metastatic cells. Finally, the inhibition of the mevalonate pathway abolished the growth advantage of the melanoma cells in a time dependent manner. Taken together, these data corroborate a stage specific response in growth and aggressiveness to extracellular glutamic acid and alanine, indicative for microenvironmental signalling of individual amino acids.

  11. Characterization of Thermally Activated Metalloenediyne Cytotoxicity in Human Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Keller, Eric J; Porter, Meghan; Garrett, Joy E; Varie, Meredith; Wang, Haiyan; Pollok, Karen E; Turchi, John J; Zaleski, Jeffrey M; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2018-05-15

    Enediynes are a highly cytotoxic class of compounds. However, metallation of these compounds may modulate their activation, and thus their cytotoxicity. We previously demonstrated that cytotoxicity of two different metalloenediynes, including (Z)-N,N'-bis[1-pyridyl-2-yl-meth-(E)-ylidene]octa-4-ene-2,6-diyne-1,8-diamine] (PyED), is potentiated when the compounds are administered to HeLa cells during hyperthermia treatment at concentrations that are minimally or not cytotoxic at 37°C. In this study, we further characterized the concentration, time and temperature dependence of cytotoxicity of PyED on human U-1 melanoma cells. We also investigated the potential mechanisms by which PyED cytotoxicity is enhanced during hyperthermia treatment. Cell killing with PyED was dependent on concentration, temperature during treatment and time of exposure. Potentiation of cytotoxicity was observed when cells were treated with PyED at temperatures ≥39.5°C, and enhancement of cell killing increased with temperature and with increasing time at a given temperature. All cells treated with PyED were shown to have DNA damage, but substantially more damage was observed in cells treated with PyED during heating. DNA repair was also inhibited in cells treated with the drug during hyperthermia. Thus, potentiation of PyED cytotoxicity by hyperthermia may be due to enhancement of drug-induced DNA lesions, and/or the inhibition of repair of sublethal DNA damage. While the selective thermal activation of PyED supports the potential clinical utility of metalloenediynes as cancer thermochemotherapeutic agents, therapeutic gain could be optimized by identifying compounds that produce minimal toxicity at 37°C but which become activated and show enhancement of cytotoxicity within a tumor subjected to localized hyperthermic or thermal ablative treatment, or which might act as bifunctional agents. We thus also describe the development and initial characterization of a novel cofactor complex of Py

  12. Pre-clinical evaluation and efficacy studies of a melanin-binding IgM antibody labeled with 188Re against experimental human metastatic melanoma in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Revskaya, E; Sesay, M A; Damania, H; Boucher, R; Sellers, R S; Howell, R C; Burns, L; Thornton, G B; Natarajan, A; Mirick, G R; DeNardo, S J; DeNardo, G L; Casadevall, A

    2008-07-01

    Currently there is no satisfactory treatment for metastatic melanoma. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses the antigen-antibody interaction to deliver lethal radiation to target cells. Recently we established the feasibility of targeting melanin in tumors with 188-Rhenium ((188)Re)-labeled 6D2 mAb to melanin. Here we carried out pre-clinical development of (188)Re-6D2 to accrue information necessary for a Phase I trial in patients with metastatic melanoma. TCEP proved to be effective in generating a sufficient number of -SH groups on 6D2 to ensure high radiolabeling yields with (188)Re and preserved its structural integrity. (188)Re-6D2 was quickly cleared from the blood with the half-life of approximately 5 hrs and from the body--with the half-life of 10 hr. The doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mCi significantly (p < 0.05) slowed down A2058 tumor growth in nude mice, also causing release of melanin into the extracellular space which could provide additional target for repeated treatments. Transient effects of RIT on WBC and platelet counts resolved by Day 14 post-treatment. Tris(2-Carboxyethyl) Phosphine Hydrochloride (TCEP) was evaluated as potential agent for generation of -SH groups on 6D2 mAb. TCEP-treated 6D2 mAb was radiolabeled with (188)Re and its radiochemical purity and stability was measured by ITLC and HPLC and its immunoreactivity--by melanin-binding ELISA. The pharmacokinetics, therapeutic efficacy and acute hematologic toxicity studies were performed in nude mice bearing lightly pigmented A2058 human metastatic melanoma tumors. We have developed radiolabeling and quality control procedures for melanin-binding (188)Re-6D2 mAb which made possible currently an on-going Phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  13. Loss of cell invasiveness through PKC-mediated syndecan-1 downregulation in melanoma cells under anchorage independency.

    PubMed

    Wang, ChiaChen; Tseng, TingTing; Jhang, Yaoyun; Tseng, JenChih; Hsieh, ChiaoHui; Wu, Wen-guey; Lee, ShaoChen

    2014-11-01

    Anchorage-independent survival is one of the key features for malignant tumor cells. Whether specific gene alterations contributed by anchorage independency would further affect metastatic phenotypes of melanoma cells was unclear. We adapted suspension culture of melanoma cells to establish anchorage independency. The suspended melanoma cells lost their invasive abilities in vitro. Specific loss of laminin-binding ability in suspended melanoma cells was observed, which was correlated with downregulation of syndecan-1 as revealed by microarray and validated by qPCR and Western blot. Modulation of syndecan-1 expression level affected laminin binding, transwell migration and matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion in melanoma cells. SDC1 expression and transwell migration were correlated with activity or level of protein kinase Cδ as evidence by specific inhibitors and shRNA transfection. In this study, we compared metastatic phenotypes and gene expressions of adherent and suspended melanoma cells. The anchorage independency led to protein kinase Cδ-mediated syndecan-1 downregulation, which contributed to loss of laminin-binding ability, reduced metalloproteinase-2 secretion and loss of invasiveness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Melanoma Cells Can Adopt the Phenotype of Stromal Fibroblasts and Macrophages by Spontaneous Cell Fusion in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kemény, Lajos V; Kurgyis, Zsuzsanna; Buknicz, Tünde; Groma, Gergely; Jakab, Ádám; Zänker, Kurt; Dittmar, Thomas; Kemény, Lajos; Németh, István B

    2016-06-02

    After the removal of primary cutaneous melanoma some patients develop local recurrences, even after having histologically tumor-free re-excision. A potential explanation behind this phenomenon is that tumor cells switch their phenotype, making their recognition via standard histopathological assessments extremely difficult. Tumor-stromal cell fusion has been proposed as a potential mechanism for tumor cells to acquire mesenchymal traits; therefore, we hypothesized that melanoma cells could acquire fibroblast- and macrophage-like phenotypes via cell fusion. We show that melanoma cells spontaneously fuse with human dermal fibroblasts and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro. The hybrid cells' nuclei contain chromosomes from both parental cells and are indistinguishable from the parental fibroblasts or macrophages based on their morphology and immunophenotype, as they could lose the melanoma specific MART1 marker, but express the fibroblast marker smooth muscle actin or the macrophage marker CD68. Our results suggest that, by spontaneous cell fusion in vitro, tumor cells can adopt the morphology and immunophenotype of stromal cells while still carrying oncogenic, tumor-derived genetic information. Therefore, melanoma-stromal cell fusion might play a role in missing tumor cells by routine histopathological assessments.

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of Fotemustine analogues on human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Winum, Jean Yves; Bouissière, Jean Luc; Passagne, Isabelle; Evrard, Alexandre; Montero, Véronique; Cuq, Pierre; Montero, Jean Louis

    2003-03-01

    Two new analogues of Fotemustine have been synthesized and tested on two melanoma cell lines. Compounds 4 and 8 proved to be more potent than the reference compound on A375 cell line which express the MGMT enzyme involved in the chemoresistance of tumoral cells.

  16. Melanoma exosomes educate bone marrow progenitor cells toward a pro-metastatic phenotype through MET

    PubMed Central

    Peinado, Héctor; Alečković, Maša; Lavotshkin, Simon; Matei, Irina; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Hergueta-Redondo, Marta; Williams, Caitlin; García-Santos, Guillermo; Nitadori-Hoshino, Ayuko; Hoffman, Caitlin; Badal, Karen; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Callahan, Margaret K.; Yuan, Jianda; Martins, Vilma R.; Skog, Johan; Kaplan, Rosandra N.; Brady, Mary S.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Chapman, Paul B.; Kang, Yibin; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-derived exosomes are emerging mediators of tumorigenesis with tissue-specific addresses and messages. We explored the function of melanoma-derived exosomes in the formation of primary tumor and metastases in mouse and human subjects. Exosomes from highly metastatic melanoma increased the metastatic behavior of primary tumors by permanently “educating” bone marrow (BM) progenitors via the MET receptor. Melanoma-derived exosomes also induced vascular leakiness at pre-metastatic sites, and reprogrammed BM progenitors towards a c-Kit+Tie2+Met+ pro-vasculogenic phenotype. Reducing Met expression in exosomes diminished the pro-metastatic behavior of BM cells. Importantly, MET expression was elevated in circulating CD45−C-KITlow/+TIE2+ BM progenitors from metastatic melanoma subjects. RAB1a, RAB5b, RAB7, and RAB27a were highly expressed in melanoma cells and Rab27a RNA interference decreased exosome production, preventing BM education, tumor growth and metastasis. Finally, we identified an exosome-specific “melanoma signature” with prognostic and therapeutic potential, comprised of TYRP2, VLA-4, HSP70, an HSP90 isoform and the MET oncoprotein. PMID:22635005

  17. Ligand-activated BMP signaling inhibits cell differentiation and death to promote melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arvind M.; Vyas, Rajesh; Gramann, Alec K.; Gujja, Sharvari; Bhatnagar, Sanchita; Gomes, Camilla Borges Ferreira; Xi, Hualin Simon; Lian, Christine G.; Houvras, Yariv; Edwards, Yvonne J. K.; Deng, April; Ceol, Craig J.

    2017-01-01

    Oncogenomic studies indicate that copy number variation (CNV) alters genes involved in tumor progression; however, identification of specific driver genes affected by CNV has been difficult, as these rearrangements are often contained in large chromosomal intervals among several bystander genes. Here, we addressed this problem and identified a CNV-targeted oncogene by performing comparative oncogenomics of human and zebrafish melanomas. We determined that the gene encoding growth differentiation factor 6 (GDF6), which is the ligand for the BMP family, is recurrently amplified and transcriptionally upregulated in melanoma. GDF6-induced BMP signaling maintained a trunk neural crest gene signature in melanomas. Additionally, GDF6 repressed the melanocyte differentiation gene MITF and the proapoptotic factor SOX9, thereby preventing differentiation, inhibiting cell death, and promoting tumor growth. GDF6 was specifically expressed in melanomas but not melanocytes. Moreover, GDF6 expression levels in melanomas were inversely correlated with patient survival. Our study has identified a fundamental role for GDF6 and BMP signaling in governing an embryonic cell gene signature to promote melanoma progression, thus providing potential opportunities for targeted therapy to treat GDF6-positive cancers. PMID:29202482

  18. Noscapine alters microtubule dynamics in living cells and inhibits the progression of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Landen, Jaren W; Lang, Roland; McMahon, Steve J; Rusan, Nasser M; Yvon, Anne-Marie; Adams, Ashley W; Sorcinelli, Mia D; Campbell, Ross; Bonaccorsi, Paola; Ansel, John C; Archer, David R; Wadsworth, Patricia; Armstrong, Cheryl A; Joshi, Harish C

    2002-07-15

    Cellular microtubules, polymers of tubulin, alternate relentlessly between phases of growth and shortening. We now show that noscapine, a tubulin-binding agent, increases the time that cellular microtubules spend idle in a paused state. As a result, most mammalian cell types observed arrest in mitosis in the presence of noscapine. We demonstrate that noscapine-treated murine melanoma B16LS9 cells do not arrest in mitosis but rather become polyploid followed by cell death, whereas primary melanocytes reversibly arrest in mitosis and resume a normal cell cycle after noscapine removal. Furthermore, in a syngeneic murine model of established s.c. melanoma, noscapine treatment resulted in an 85% inhibition of tumor volume on day 17 when delivered by gavage compared with untreated animals (P melanoma progression by 83% on day 18 when delivered in drinking water (P melanoma cells through alterations in microtubule dynamics, with no detected toxicity to the host. Consequently, noscapine could be a valuable chemotherapeutic agent, alone or in combination, for the treatment of advanced melanoma.

  19. Cytologic Features of Malignant Melanoma with Osteoclast-Like Giant Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; Adrados, Magdalena; Muñoz-Hernández, Patricia; Fernández-Rico, Paloma; Ballesteros-García, Ana I; Fraga, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Malignant melanoma showing numerous osteoclast-like giant cells (OGCs) is an uncommon morphologic phenomenon, rarely mentioned in the cytologic literature. The few reported cases seem to have an aggressive clinical behavior. Although most findings support monocyte/macrophage differentiation, the exact nature of OGCs is not clear. A 57-year-old woman presented with an inguinal lymphadenopathy. Sixteen years before, cutaneous malignant melanoma of the lower limb had been excised. Needle aspiration revealed abundant neoplastic single cells as well as numerous multinucleated OGCs. Occasional neoplastic giant cells were also present. Nuclei of OGCs were monomorphic with oval morphology and were smaller than those of melanoma cells. The immunophenotype of OGCs (S100-, HMB45-, Melan-A-, SOX10-, Ki67-, CD163-, BRAF-, CD68+, MiTF+, p16+) was the expected for reactive OGCs of monocyte/macrophage origin. The tumor has shown an aggressive behavior with further metastases to the axillary lymph nodes and oral cavity. Numerous OGCs are a rare and relevant finding in malignant melanoma. Their presence should not induce confusion with other tumors rich in osteoclastic cells. Since a relevant number of OGCs in melanoma may mean a more aggressive behavior, and patients may benefit from specific treatments, their presence should be mentioned in the pathologic report. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor ICG-001 enhances pigmentation of cultured melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Il; Jeong, Do-Sun; Jung, Eui Chang; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Chang Deok; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling is important in development and differentiation of melanocytes. The object of this study was to evaluate the effects of several Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitors on pigmentation using melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were treated with Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitors, and then melanin content and tyrosinase activity were checked. Although some inhibitors showed slight inhibition of pigmentation, we failed to observe potential inhibitory effect of those chemicals on pigmentation of HM3KO melanoma cells. Rather, one of powerful Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitors, ICG-001, increased the pigmentation of HM3KO melanoma cells. Pigmentation-enhancing effect of ICG-001 was reproducible in other melanoma cell line MNT-1. Consistent with these results. ICG-001 increased the expression of pigmentation-related genes, such as MITF, tyrosinase and TRP1. When ICG-001 was treated, the phosphorylation of CREB was significantly increased. In addition, ICG-001 treatment led to quick increase of intracellular cAMP level, suggesting that ICG-001 activated PKA signaling. The blockage of PKA signaling with pharmaceutical inhibitor H89 inhibited the ICG-001-induced pigmentation significantly. These results suggest that PKA signaling is pivotal in pigmentation process itself, while the importance of Wnt/β-catenin signaling should be emphasized in the context of development and differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Host-Derived Pericytes and Sca-1+ Cells Predominate in the MART-1− Stroma Fraction of Experimentally Induced Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Treviño-Villarreal, J. Humberto; Cotanche, Douglas A.; Sepúlveda, Rosalinda; Bortoni, Magda E.; Manneberg, Otto; Udagawa, Taturo

    2011-01-01

    Identification of cell types in tumor-associated stroma that are involved in the development of melanoma is hampered by their heterogeneity. The authors used flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate that anti–MART-1 antibodies can discriminate between melanoma and stroma cells. They investigated the cellular composition of the MART-1−, non-hematopoietic melanoma-associated stroma, finding it consisted mainly of Sca-1+ and CD146+ cells. These cell types were also observed in the skin and muscle adjacent to developing melanomas. The Sca-1+ cell population was observed distributed in the epidermis, hair follicle bulges, and tumor capsule. The CD146+ population was found distributed within the tumor, mainly associated with blood vessels in a perivascular location. In addition to a perivascular distribution, CD146+ cells expressed α-smooth muscle actin, lacked expression of endothelial markers CD31 and CD34, and were therefore identified as pericytes. Pericytes were found to be associated with CD31+ endothelial cells; however, some pericytes were also observed associated with CD31−, MART-1+ B16 melanoma cells that appeared to form blood vessel structures. Furthermore, the authors observed extensive nuclear expression of HIF-1α in melanoma and stroma cells, suggesting hypoxia is an important factor associated with the melanoma microenvironment and vascularization. The results suggest that pericytes and Sca-1+ stroma cells are important contributors to melanoma development. PMID:22147606

  2. Transmigration characteristics of breast cancer and melanoma cells through the brain endothelium: Role of Rac and PI3K.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Judit; Fazakas, Csilla; Haskó, János; Sipos, Orsolya; Nagy, Krisztina; Nyúl-Tóth, Ádám; Farkas, Attila E; Végh, Attila G; Váró, György; Galajda, Péter; Krizbai, István A; Wilhelm, Imola

    2016-05-03

    Brain metastases are common and devastating complications of both breast cancer and melanoma. Although mammary carcinoma brain metastases are more frequent than those originating from melanoma, this latter has the highest tropism to the brain. Using static and dynamic in vitro approaches, here we show that melanoma cells have increased adhesion to the brain endothelium in comparison to breast cancer cells. Moreover, melanoma cells can transmigrate more rapidly and in a higher number through brain endothelial monolayers than breast cancer cells. In addition, melanoma cells have increased ability to impair tight junctions of cerebral endothelial cells. We also show that inhibition of Rac or PI3K impedes adhesion of breast cancer cells and melanoma cells to the brain endothelium. In addition, inhibition of Rac or PI3K inhibits the late phase of transmigration of breast cancer cells and the early phase of transmigration of melanoma cells. On the other hand, the Rac inhibitor EHT1864 impairs the junctional integrity of the brain endothelium, while the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 has no damaging effect on interendothelial junctions. We suggest that targeting the PI3K/Akt pathway may represent a novel opportunity in preventing the formation of brain metastases of melanoma and breast cancer.

  3. Everolimus selectively targets vemurafenib resistant BRAFV600E melanoma cells adapted to low pH.

    PubMed

    Ruzzolini, Jessica; Peppicelli, Silvia; Andreucci, Elena; Bianchini, Francesca; Margheri, Francesca; Laurenzana, Anna; Fibbi, Gabriella; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Calorini, Lido

    2017-11-01

    Vemurafenib, a BRAF inhibitor, elicits in ∼80% of BRAF V600E -mutant melanoma patients a transient anti-tumor response which precedes the emergence of resistance. We tested whether an acidic tumor microenvironment may favor a BRAF inhibitor resistance. A375M6 BRAF V600E melanoma cells, either exposed for a short period or chronically adapted to an acidic medium, showed traits compatible with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, reduced proliferation and high resistance to apoptosis. Both types of acidic cells treated with vemurafenib did not change their proliferation, distribution in cell cycle and level of p-AKT, in contrast to cells grown at standard pH, which showed reduced proliferation, cell cycle arrest and ERK/AKT inhibition. Even after treatment with trametinib (MEK inhibitor) acidic cell features did not change. Then, since both types of acidic cells exhibited high p-p70S6K, i.e. active mTOR signaling, we tested everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, which was efficient in inducing apoptosis in acidic cells without affecting melanoma cells grown at standard pH. Our results indicate that an acidic microenvironment may cooperate in inducing a BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma cells and a combined therapy with everolimus could be used to overcome that resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. TIL therapy broadens the tumor-reactive CD8+ T cell compartment in melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Kvistborg, Pia; Shu, Chengyi Jenny; Heemskerk, Bianca; Fankhauser, Manuel; Thrue, Charlotte Albæk; Toebes, Mireille; van Rooij, Nienke; Linnemann, Carsten; van Buuren, Marit M.; Urbanus, Jos H.M.; Beltman, Joost B.; thor Straten, Per; Li, Yong F.; Robbins, Paul F.; Besser, Michal J.; Schachter, Jacob; Kenter, Gemma G.; Dudley, Mark E.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Haanen, John B.A.G.; Hadrup, Sine Reker; Schumacher, Ton N.M.

    2012-01-01

    There is strong evidence that both adoptive T cell transfer and T cell checkpoint blockade can lead to regression of human melanoma. However, little data are available on the effect of these cancer therapies on the tumor-reactive T cell compartment. To address this issue we have profiled therapy-induced T cell reactivity against a panel of 145 melanoma-associated CD8+ T cell epitopes. Using this approach, we demonstrate that individual tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte cell products from melanoma patients contain unique patterns of reactivity against shared melanoma-associated antigens, and that the combined magnitude of these responses is surprisingly low. Importantly, TIL therapy increases the breadth of the tumor-reactive T cell compartment in vivo, and T cell reactivity observed post-therapy can almost in full be explained by the reactivity observed within the matched cell product. These results establish the value of high-throughput monitoring for the analysis of immuno-active therapeutics and suggest that the clinical efficacy of TIL therapy can be enhanced by the preparation of more defined tumor-reactive T cell products. PMID:22754759

  5. TIL therapy broadens the tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cell compartment in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Kvistborg, Pia; Shu, Chengyi Jenny; Heemskerk, Bianca; Fankhauser, Manuel; Thrue, Charlotte Albæk; Toebes, Mireille; van Rooij, Nienke; Linnemann, Carsten; van Buuren, Marit M; Urbanus, Jos H M; Beltman, Joost B; Thor Straten, Per; Li, Yong F; Robbins, Paul F; Besser, Michal J; Schachter, Jacob; Kenter, Gemma G; Dudley, Mark E; Rosenberg, Steven A; Haanen, John B A G; Hadrup, Sine Reker; Schumacher, Ton N M

    2012-07-01

    There is strong evidence that both adoptive T cell transfer and T cell checkpoint blockade can lead to regression of human melanoma. However, little data are available on the effect of these cancer therapies on the tumor-reactive T cell compartment. To address this issue we have profiled therapy-induced T cell reactivity against a panel of 145 melanoma-associated CD8(+) T cell epitopes. Using this approach, we demonstrate that individual tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte cell products from melanoma patients contain unique patterns of reactivity against shared melanoma-associated antigens, and that the combined magnitude of these responses is surprisingly low. Importantly, TIL therapy increases the breadth of the tumor-reactive T cell compartment in vivo, and T cell reactivity observed post-therapy can almost in full be explained by the reactivity observed within the matched cell product. These results establish the value of high-throughput monitoring for the analysis of immuno-active therapeutics and suggest that the clinical efficacy of TIL therapy can be enhanced by the preparation of more defined tumor-reactive T cell products.

  6. Metastatic Melanoma Secreted IL-10 Down-Regulates CD1 Molecules on Dendritic Cells in Metastatic Tumor Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gerlini, Gianni; Tun-Kyi, Adrian; Dudli, Christa; Burg, Günter; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Nestle, Frank O.

    2004-01-01

    CD1 molecules are expressed by antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells and mediate primary immune responses to lipids and glycolipids which have been shown to be expressed by various tumors. Glycolipids are expressed by melanoma cells but, despite their immunogenicity, no efficient spontaneous immune responses are elicited. As IL-10 has previously been shown to down-regulate CD1a on dendritic cells and is known to be expressed by various melanoma cell lines, we investigated if melanoma-derived IL-10 could down-regulate CD1 molecule expression on dendritic cells as a possible way to circumvent immune recognition. We found that CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d were significantly down-regulated on dendritic cells in metastatic (n = 10) but not in primary melanoma lesions (n = 10). We further detected significantly higher IL-10 protein levels in metastatic than in primary melanomas. Moreover, supernatants from metastatic melanomas were significantly more effective in down-regulating CD1 molecules on dendritic cells than supernatants from primary melanoma cultures. This effect was blocked using a neutralizing IL-10 antibody in a dose dependent manner. Our findings suggest that metastatic but not primary melanomas can down-regulate CD1 molecules on infiltrating dendritic cells by secreting IL-10 which may represent a novel way to escape the immune response directed against the tumor. PMID:15579430

  7. The Cytolytic Amphipathic β(2,2)-Amino Acid LTX-401 Induces DAMP Release in Melanoma Cells and Causes Complete Regression of B16 Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Eike, Liv-Marie; Mauseth, Brynjar; Camilio, Ketil André; Rekdal, Øystein; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined the ability of the amino acid derivative LTX-401 to induce cell death in cancer cell lines, as well as the capacity to induce regression in a murine melanoma model. Mode of action studies in vitro revealed lytic cell death and release of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules, preceded by massive cytoplasmic vacuolization and compromised lysosomes in treated cells. The use of a murine melanoma model demonstrated that the majority of animals treated with intratumoural injections of LTX-401 showed complete and long-lasting remission. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of LTX-401 as an immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of solid tumors.

  8. Apoptosis and injuries of heavy ion beam and x-ray radiation on malignant melanoma cell.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jin; Li, Sha; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Dong-Wei; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Hong; Jin, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Yang

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of high linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ion ( 12 C 6+ ) and low LET X-ray radiation on apoptosis and related proteins of malignant melanoma on tumor-bearing mice under the same physical dosage. C57BL/6 J mice were burdened by tumors and randomized into three groups. These mice received heavy ion ( 12 C 6+ ) and X-ray radiation under the same physical dosage, respectively; their weight and tumor volumes were measured every three days post-radiation. After 30 days, these mice were sacrificed. Then, median survival time was calculated and tumors on mice were proliferated. In addition, immunohistochemistry was carried out for apoptosis-related proteins to reflect the expression level. After tumor-bearing mice were radiated to heavy ion, median survival time improved and tumor volume significantly decreased in conjunction with the upregulated expression of pro-apoptosis factors, Bax and cytochrome C, and the downregulated expression of apoptosis-profilin (Bcl-2, Survivin) and proliferation-related proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen). The results indicated that radiation can promote the apoptosis of malignant melanoma cells and inhibit their proliferation. This case was more suitable for heavy ion ( 12 C 6+ ). High LET heavy ion ( 12 C 6+ ) radiation could significantly improve the killing ability for malignant melanoma cells by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells and inhibiting their proliferation. These results demonstrated that heavy ion ( 12 C 6+ ) presented special advantages in terms of treating malignant melanoma. Impact statement Malignant melanoma is a malignant skin tumor derived from melanin cells, which has a high malignant degree and high fatality rate. In this study, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) can induce the apoptosis of malignant melanoma cells and inhibit its proliferation, and its induction effect on apoptosis is significantly higher than low LET X-ray; hence, it is expected to

  9. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on choroidal melanocytes and melanoma cell lines: cell survival and matrix metalloproteinase production.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kenneth; Di Girolamo, Nick; Conway, Robert M; Jager, Martine J; Madigan, Michele C

    2007-05-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can induce DNA damage and regulate the expression of factors important for tumour growth and metastasis, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic UVR exposure, especially during early adulthood, may be a risk factor in patients with choroidal melanoma. However, the effects of UV(R)-B on human choroidal melanocyte survival and growth are unknown. In this study, we investigated if UV(R)-B affected the in vitro survival, growth and MMP production of choroidal melanocytes and melanoma cells. Cultures of primary choroidal melanocytes and melanoma cell lines (OCM-1 and OCM-8) were exposed to UV(R)-B (0-30 mJ/cm(2)). The cell morphology and growth were examined, and cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay. Gelatin zymography was used to assess the enzymatic activity for MMP-2 and -9 in conditioned media following UV(R)-B treatment. UV(R)-B > or =20 mJ/cm(2) was cytotoxic for choroidal melanocytes. Cytotoxic doses of 5 to 10 mJ/cm(2) were found for OCM-8 and OCM-1 melanoma cell lines. Low levels of UV(R)-B (2.5 and 3.5 mJ/cm(2)) significantly reduced melanoma cell viability after 48 h, although melanocyte viability was not affected by doses of UV(R)-B <10 mJ/cm(2). Conditioned media from melanoma cells and melanocytes displayed pro-MMP-2 activity independent of UV(R)-B. Control and UV(R)-B-treated OCM-1 cells secreted active MMP-2 up to 72 h. Pro-MMP-9 activity was seen from 36 h for control and UV(R)-B-treated OCM-1 and OCM-8 cells. Melanocytes appeared more resistant to physiological doses of UV(R)-B than melanoma cells; the potential of melanocytes to initially survive DNA damage following UV(R)-B exposure may be relevant to the subsequent transformation of melanocytes to melanomas. Although UV(R)-B did not induce the production and/or activation of MMP-2 and -9 in melanocytes or melanoma cells, we are currently investigating whether DNA damage-response genes such as p53 and p21 can be

  10. Exploiting cannabinoid-induced cytotoxic autophagy to drive melanoma cell death.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jane L; Hill, David S; McKee, Christopher S; Hernandez-Tiedra, Sonia; Lorente, Mar; Lopez-Valero, Israel; Eleni Anagnostou, Maria; Babatunde, Fiyinfoluwa; Corazzari, Marco; Redfern, Christopher P F; Velasco, Guillermo; Lovat, Penny E

    2015-06-01

    Although the global incidence of cutaneous melanoma is increasing, survival rates for patients with metastatic disease remain <10%. Novel treatment strategies are therefore urgently required, particularly for patients bearing BRAF/NRAS wild-type tumors. Targeting autophagy is a means to promote cancer cell death in chemotherapy-resistant tumors, and the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cannabinoids promote autophagy-dependent apoptosis in melanoma. Treatment with Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) resulted in the activation of autophagy, loss of cell viability, and activation of apoptosis, whereas cotreatment with chloroquine or knockdown of Atg7, but not Beclin-1 or Ambra1, prevented THC-induced autophagy and cell death in vitro. Administration of Sativex-like (a laboratory preparation comprising equal amounts of THC and cannabidiol (CBD)) to mice bearing BRAF wild-type melanoma xenografts substantially inhibited melanoma viability, proliferation, and tumor growth paralleled by an increase in autophagy and apoptosis compared with standard single-agent temozolomide. Collectively, our findings suggest that THC activates noncanonical autophagy-mediated apoptosis of melanoma cells, suggesting that cytotoxic autophagy induction with Sativex warrants clinical evaluation for metastatic disease.

  11. Lebein, a Snake Venom Disintegrin, Induces Apoptosis in Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammouda, Manel B.; Montenegro, María F.; Sánchez-del-Campo, Luis; Zakraoui, Ons; Aloui, Zohra; Riahi-Chebbi, Ichrak; Karoui, Habib; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma, the most threatening form of skin cancer, has a very poor prognosis and is characterized by its very invasive and chemoresistant properties. Despite the recent promising news from the field of immunotherapy, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches that are free of resistance mechanisms and side effects. Anti-neoplasic properties have been highlighted for different disintegrins from snake venom including Lebein; however, the exact effect of Lebein on melanoma has not yet been defined. In this study, we showed that Lebein blocks melanoma cell proliferation and induces a more differentiated phenotype with inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) overexpression. Melanoma cells became detached but were less invasive with upregulation of E-cadherin after Lebein exposure. Lebein induced a caspase-independent apoptotic program with apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX) and Bim overexpression together with downregulation of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2). It generated a distinct response in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and p53 levels depending on the p53 cell line status (wild type or mutant). Therefore, we propose Lebein as a new candidate for development of potential therapies for melanoma. PMID:27399772

  12. Melanogenesis inhibits respiration in B16-F10 melanoma cells whereas enhances mitochondrial cell content

    SciTech Connect

    Meira, Willian Vanderlei; Heinrich, Tassiele Andréa; Cadena, Silvia Maria Suter Correia

    Melanoma is a rare and aggressive skin tumor; the survival of patients diagnosed late is fairly low. This high mortality rate is due to the characteristics of the cells that allow them to be resistant to radiotherapy and conventional chemotherapy, besides of being able to evade the immune system. Melanin, the pigment responsible for skin, hair and eye color, seems to be involved in this resistance. The main function of melanin is to protect the cells against ultraviolet (UV) light by absorbing this radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging. But this pigment may have also a role as photosensitizer,more » because when it is irradiated with UVA light (320-400 nm), the generation of ROS was detected. Besides, the melanogenesis stimulation on B16-F10 cells resulted in cell cycle arrest, induction of a quiescent state, change in the expression of several proteins and alterations on ADP/ATP ratio. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of melanogenesis stimulation in mitochondrial function of B16-F10 melanoma cells. Therefore, we analyzed cells respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}) and mitochondria mass in B16-F10 melanoma cells stimulated with 0.4 mM L-tyrosine and 10 mM NH{sub 4}Cl. Our results showed that the induction of melanin synthesis was able to reduce significantly the oxygen consumption after 48 h of stimulation, without changes of mitochondrial membrane potential when compared to non-stimulated cells. Despite of respiration inhibition, the mitochondria mass was higher in cells with melanogenesis stimulation. We suggest that the stimulation in the melanin synthesis might be promoting the inhibition of electrons transport chain by some intermediate compound from the synthesis of the pigment and this effect could contribute to explain the entry in the quiescent state. - Highlights: • Melanoma pigmentation alters mitochondrial respiration. • Induction of melanin synthesis by 48 h do not change mitochondrial

  13. The helicase HAGE expressed by malignant melanoma-initiating cells is required for tumor cell proliferation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Linley, Adam J; Mathieu, Morgan G; Miles, Amanda K; Rees, Robert C; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Regad, Tarik

    2012-04-20

    Malignant melanoma-initiating cells (MMIC) are a subpopulation of cells responsible for melanoma tumor growth and progression. They are defined by the expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily B member 5 (ABCB5). Here, we identified a critical role for the DEAD-box helicase antigen (HAGE) in ABCB5+ MMIC-dependent tumorigenesis and show that HAGE-specific inactivation inhibits melanoma tumor growth mediated by this tumor-initiating population. Knockdown of HAGE led to a significant decrease in RAS protein expression with a concomitant decrease in activation of the AKT and ERK signaling pathways implicated to play an important role in melanoma progression. To confirm that the reduction in NRAS (Neuroblastoma RAS) expression was dependent on the HAGE helicase activity, we showed that NRAS, effectively silenced by siRNA, could be rescued by reintroduction of HAGE in cells lacking HAGE. Furthermore, we provide a mechanism by which HAGE promotes NRAS unwinding in vitro. We also observed using tumor transplantation in Non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice that the HAGE knockdown in a ABCB5+ melanoma cell line displayed a significant decrease in tumor growth and compared with the control. Our results suggest that the helicase HAGE is required for ABCB5+ MMIC-dependent tumor growth through promoting RAS protein expression and that cancer therapies targeting HAGE helicase may have broad applications for treating malignant melanoma and potentially other cancer types.

  14. The Helicase HAGE Expressed by Malignant Melanoma-Initiating Cells Is Required for Tumor Cell Proliferation in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Linley, Adam J.; Mathieu, Morgan G.; Miles, Amanda K.; Rees, Robert C.; McArdle, Stephanie E. B.; Regad, Tarik

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma-initiating cells (MMIC) are a subpopulation of cells responsible for melanoma tumor growth and progression. They are defined by the expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily B member 5 (ABCB5). Here, we identified a critical role for the DEAD-box helicase antigen (HAGE) in ABCB5+ MMIC-dependent tumorigenesis and show that HAGE-specific inactivation inhibits melanoma tumor growth mediated by this tumor-initiating population. Knockdown of HAGE led to a significant decrease in RAS protein expression with a concomitant decrease in activation of the AKT and ERK signaling pathways implicated to play an important role in melanoma progression. To confirm that the reduction in NRAS (Neuroblastoma RAS) expression was dependent on the HAGE helicase activity, we showed that NRAS, effectively silenced by siRNA, could be rescued by reintroduction of HAGE in cells lacking HAGE. Furthermore, we provide a mechanism by which HAGE promotes NRAS unwinding in vitro. We also observed using tumor transplantation in Non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice that the HAGE knockdown in a ABCB5+ melanoma cell line displayed a significant decrease in tumor growth and compared with the control. Our results suggest that the helicase HAGE is required for ABCB5+ MMIC-dependent tumor growth through promoting RAS protein expression and that cancer therapies targeting HAGE helicase may have broad applications for treating malignant melanoma and potentially other cancer types. PMID:22393060

  15. Human melanoma immunotherapy using tumor antigen-specific T cells generated in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Xia, Jinxing; Fan, Wei; Wargo, Jennifer; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    A major factor hindering the exploration of adoptive immunotherapy in preclinical settings is the limited availability of tumor-reactive human T cells. Here we developed a humanized mouse model that permits large-scale production of human T cells expressing the engineered melanoma antigen MART-1-specific TCR. Humanized mice, made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue and CD34+ cells virally-transduced with HLA class I-restricted melanoma antigen (MART-1)-specific TCR gene, showed efficient development of MART-1-TCR+ human T cells with predominantly CD8+ cells. Importantly, MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells developing in these mice were capable of mounting antigen-specific responses in vivo, as evidenced by their proliferation, phenotypic conversion and IFN-γ production following MART-1 peptide immunization. Moreover, these MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells mediated efficient killing of melanoma cells in an HLA/antigen-dependent manner. Adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells induced potent antitumor responses that were further enhanced by IL-15 treatment in melanoma-bearing recipients. Finally, a short incubation of MART-1-specific T cells with rapamycin acted synergistically with IL-15, leading to significantly improved tumor-free survival in recipients with metastatic melanoma. These data demonstrate the practicality of using humanized mice to produce potentially unlimited source of tumor-specific human T cells for experimental and preclinical exploration of cancer immunotherapy. This study also suggests that pretreatment of tumor-reactive T cells with rapamycin in combination with IL-15 administration may be a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:26824989

  16. Role of CD44 in lymphokine-activated killer cell-mediated killing of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingping; Law, Gabriela P; McKallip, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    In the current study, we examined the potential significance of CD44 expression on lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells in their interaction and killing of melanoma cells. Stimulation of splenocytes with IL-2 led to a significant increase in the expression of CD44 on T cells, NK cells, and NKT cells. Treatment of melanoma-bearing CD44 WT mice with IL-2 led to a significant reduction in the local tumor growth while treatment of melanoma-bearing CD44 KO mice with IL-2 was ineffective at controlling tumor growth. Furthermore, the ability of splenocytes from IL-2-treated CD44 KO mice to kill melanoma tumor targets was significantly reduced when compared to the anti-tumor activity of splenocytes from IL-2-treated CD44 WT mice. The importance of CD44 expression on the LAK cells was further confirmed by the observation that adoptively transferred CD44 WT LAK cells were significantly more effective than CD44 KO LAK cells at controlling tumor growth in vivo. Next, the significance of the increased expression of CD44 in tumor killing was examined and showed that following stimulation with IL-2, distinct populations of cells with low (CD44(lo)) or elevated (CD44(hi)) expression of CD44 are generated and that the CD44(hi) cells are responsible for killing of the melanoma cells. The reduced killing activity of the CD44 KO LAK cells did not result from reduced activation or expression of effector molecules but was due, at least in part, to a reduced ability to adhere to B16F10 tumor cells.

  17. Direct detection of a BRAF mutation in total RNA from melanoma cells using cantilever arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, F.; Lang, H. P.; Backmann, N.; Rimoldi, D.; Gerber, Ch.

    2013-02-01

    Malignant melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, is characterized by a predominant mutation in the BRAF gene. Drugs that target tumours carrying this mutation have recently entered the clinic. Accordingly, patients are routinely screened for mutations in this gene to determine whether they can benefit from this type of treatment. The current gold standard for mutation screening uses real-time polymerase chain reaction and sequencing methods. Here we show that an assay based on microcantilever arrays can detect the mutation nanomechanically without amplification in total RNA samples isolated from melanoma cells. The assay is based on a BRAF-specific oligonucleotide probe. We detected mutant BRAF at a concentration of 500 pM in a 50-fold excess of the wild-type sequence. The method was able to distinguish melanoma cells carrying the mutation from wild-type cells using as little as 20 ng µl-1 of RNA material, without prior PCR amplification and use of labels.

  18. Ferroxitosis: A cell death from modulation of oxidative phosphorylation and PKM2-dependent glycolysis in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Lakhter, Alexander J.; Hamilton, James; Dagher, Pierre C.; Mukkamala, Suresh; Hato, Takashi; Dong, X. Charlie; Mayo, Lindsey D.; Harris, Robert A.; Shekhar, Anantha; Ivan, Mircea; Brustovetsky, Nickolay; Naidu, Samisubbu R.

    2014-01-01

    Reliance on glycolysis is a characteristic of malignancy, yet the development of resistance to BRAF inhibitors in melanoma is associated with gain of mitochondrial function. Concurrent attenuation of oxidative phosphorylation and HIF-1α/PKM2-dependent glycolysis promotes a non-apoptotic, iron- and oxygen-dependent cell death that we term ferroxitosis. The redox cycling agent menadione causes a robust increase in oxygen consumption, accompanied by significant loss of intracellular ATP and rapid cell death. Conversely, either hypoxic adaptation or iron chelation prevents menadione-induced ferroxitosis. Ectopic expression of K213Q HIF-1α mutant blunts the effects of menadione. However, knockdown of HIF-1α or PKM2 restores menadione-induced cytotoxicity in hypoxia. Similarly, exposure of melanoma cells to shikonin, a menadione analog and a potential PKM2 inhibitor, is sufficient to induce ferroxitosis under hypoxic conditions. Collectively, our findings reveal that ferroxitosis curtails metabolic plasticity in melanoma. PMID:25587028

  19. Decoding the regulatory landscape of melanoma reveals TEADS as regulators of the invasive cell state

    PubMed Central

    Verfaillie, Annelien; Imrichova, Hana; Atak, Zeynep Kalender; Dewaele, Michael; Rambow, Florian; Hulselmans, Gert; Christiaens, Valerie; Svetlichnyy, Dmitry; Luciani, Flavie; Van den Mooter, Laura; Claerhout, Sofie; Fiers, Mark; Journe, Fabrice; Ghanem, Ghanem-Elias; Herrmann, Carl; Halder, Georg; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Aerts, Stein

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional reprogramming of proliferative melanoma cells into a phenotypically distinct invasive cell subpopulation is a critical event at the origin of metastatic spreading. Here we generate transcriptome, open chromatin and histone modification maps of melanoma cultures; and integrate this data with existing transcriptome and DNA methylation profiles from tumour biopsies to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying this key reprogramming event. This shows thousands of genomic regulatory regions underlying the proliferative and invasive states, identifying SOX10/MITF and AP-1/TEAD as regulators, respectively. Knockdown of TEADs shows a previously unrecognized role in the invasive gene network and establishes a causative link between these transcription factors, cell invasion and sensitivity to MAPK inhibitors. Using regulatory landscapes and in silico analysis, we show that transcriptional reprogramming underlies the distinct cellular states present in melanoma. Furthermore, it reveals an essential role for the TEADs, linking it to clinically relevant mechanisms such as invasion and resistance. PMID:25865119

  20. Iterative sorting reveals CD133+ and CD133- melanoma cells as phenotypically distinct populations.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Carole; Anaka, Matthew; Hofmann, Oliver; Sompallae, Ramakrishna; Broadley, Kate; Hide, Winston; Berridge, Michael V; Cebon, Jonathan; Behren, Andreas; McConnell, Melanie J

    2016-09-09

    The heterogeneity and tumourigenicity of metastatic melanoma is attributed to a cancer stem cell model, with CD133 considered to be a cancer stem cell marker in melanoma as well as other tumours, but its role has remained controversial. We iteratively sorted CD133+ and CD133- cells from 3 metastatic melanoma cell lines, and observed tumourigenicity and phenotypic characteristics over 7 generations of serial xeno-transplantation in NOD/SCID mice. We demonstrate that iterative sorting is required to make highly pure populations of CD133+ and CD133- cells from metastatic melanoma, and that these two populations have distinct characteristics not related to the cancer stem cell phenotype. In vitro, gene set enrichment analysis indicated CD133+ cells were related to a proliferative phenotype, whereas CD133- cells were of an invasive phenotype. However, in vivo, serial transplantation of CD133+ and CD133- tumours over 7 generations showed that both populations were equally able to initiate and propagate tumours. Despite this, both populations remained phenotypically distinct, with CD133- cells only able to express CD133 in vivo and not in vitro. Loss of CD133 from the surface of a CD133+ cell was observed in vitro and in vivo, however CD133- cells derived from CD133+ retained the CD133+ phenotype, even in the presence of signals from the tumour microenvironment. We show for the first time the necessity of iterative sorting to isolate pure marker-positive and marker-negative populations for comparative studies, and present evidence that despite CD133+ and CD133- cells being equally tumourigenic, they display distinct phenotypic differences, suggesting CD133 may define a distinct lineage in melanoma.

  1. Fasting boosts sensitivity of human skin melanoma to cisplatin-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Antunes, Fernanda; Corazzari, Marco; National Institute for Infectious Diseases IRCCS “Lazzaro Spallanzani”

    Melanoma is one of leading cause of tumor death worldwide. Anti-cancer strategy includes combination of different chemo-therapeutic agents as well as radiation; however these treatments have limited efficacy and induce significant toxic effects on healthy cells. One of most promising novel therapeutic approach to cancer therapy is the combination of anti-cancer drugs with calorie restriction. Here we investigated the effect Cisplatin (CDDP), one of the most potent chemotherapeutic agent used to treat tumors, in association with fasting in wild type and mutated BRAF{sup V600E} melanoma cell lines. Here we show that nutrient deprivation can consistently enhance the sensitivity of tumormore » cells to cell death induction by CDDP, also of those malignancies particularly resistant to any treatment, such as oncogenic BRAF melanomas. Mechanistic studies revealed that the combined therapy induced cell death is characterized by ROS accumulation and ATF4 in the absence of ER-stress. In addition, we show that autophagy is not involved in the enhanced sensitivity of melanoma cells to combined CDDP/EBSS-induced apoptosis. While, the exposure to 2-DG further enhanced the apoptotic rate observed in SK Mel 28 cells upon treatment with both CDDP and EBSS. - Highlights: • Calorie restriction associated to chemo-therapeutic drugs enhance cell death induction in many resistant malignancies • Cisplatin in association with starvation significantly increases cell death also in those high resistant melanoma cells bearing BRAF mutations • Combined treatment also including 2-DG results in similar cell death levels in both wild type and mutated BRAF cells.« less

  2. Inhibition of melanoma cell motility by the snake venom disintegrin eristostatin

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jing; Paquette-Straub, Carrie; Sage, E. Helene; Funk, Sarah E.; Patel, Vivek; Galileo, Deni; McLane, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Eristostatin, an RGD-containing disintegrin isolated from the venom of Eristicophis macmahoni, inhibits lung or liver colonization of melanoma cells in a mouse model. In this study, transwell migration and in vitro wound closure assays were used to determine the effect of eristostatin on the migration of melanoma cells. Eristostatin significantly impaired the migration of 5 human melanoma cell lines. Furthermore, it specifically inhibited cell migration on fibronectin in a concentration-dependent manner, but not that on collagen IV or laminin. In contrast, eristostatin was found to have no effect on cell proliferation or angiogenesis. These results indicate that the interaction between eristostatin and melanoma cells may involve fibronectin-binding integrins that mediate cell migration. Mutations to alanine of seven residues within the RGD loop of eristostatin and four residues outside the RGD loop of eristostatin resulted in significantly less potency in both platelet aggregation and wound closure assays. For six of the mutations, however, decreased activity was found only in the latter assay. We conclude that a different mechanism and/or integrin is involved in these two cell activities. PMID:17316731

  3. The anti-apoptotic BAG3 protein is involved in BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Luana; Palmieri, Giuseppe; De Marco, Margot; Cossu, Antonio; Remondelli, Paolo; Capunzo, Mario; Turco, Maria Caterina; Rosati, Alessandra

    2017-10-06

    BAG3 protein, a member of BAG family of co-chaperones, has a pro-survival role in several tumour types. BAG3 anti-apoptotic properties rely on its characteristic to bind several intracellular partners, thereby modulating crucial events such as apoptosis, differentiation, cell motility, and autophagy. In human melanomas, BAG3 positivity is correlated with the aggressiveness of the tumour cells and can sustain IKK-γ levels, allowing a sustained activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, BAG3 is able to modulate BRAFV600E levels and activity in thyroid carcinomas. BRAFV600E is the most frequent mutation detected in malignant melanomas and is targeted by Vemurafenib, a specific inhibitor found to be effective in the treatment of advanced melanoma. However, patients with BRAF-mutated melanoma may result insensitive ab initio or, mostly, develop acquired resistance to the treatment with this molecule. Here we show that BAG3 down-modulation interferes with BRAF levels in melanoma cells and sensitizes them to Vemurafenib treatment. Furthermore, the down-modulation of BAG3 protein in an in vitro model of acquired resistance to Vemurafenib can induce sensitization to the BRAFV600E specific inhibition by interfering with BRAF pathway through reduction of ERK phosphorylation, but also on parallel survival pathways. Future studies on BAG3 molecular interactions with key proteins responsible of acquired BRAF inhibitor resistance may represent a promising field for novel multi-drugs treatment design.

  4. The anti-apoptotic BAG3 protein is involved in BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Luana; Palmieri, Giuseppe; De Marco, Margot; Cossu, Antonio; Remondelli, Paolo; Capunzo, Mario; Turco, Maria Caterina; Rosati, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    BAG3 protein, a member of BAG family of co-chaperones, has a pro-survival role in several tumour types. BAG3 anti-apoptotic properties rely on its characteristic to bind several intracellular partners, thereby modulating crucial events such as apoptosis, differentiation, cell motility, and autophagy. In human melanomas, BAG3 positivity is correlated with the aggressiveness of the tumour cells and can sustain IKK-γ levels, allowing a sustained activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, BAG3 is able to modulate BRAFV600E levels and activity in thyroid carcinomas. BRAFV600E is the most frequent mutation detected in malignant melanomas and is targeted by Vemurafenib, a specific inhibitor found to be effective in the treatment of advanced melanoma. However, patients with BRAF-mutated melanoma may result insensitive ab initio or, mostly, develop acquired resistance to the treatment with this molecule. Here we show that BAG3 down-modulation interferes with BRAF levels in melanoma cells and sensitizes them to Vemurafenib treatment. Furthermore, the down-modulation of BAG3 protein in an in vitro model of acquired resistance to Vemurafenib can induce sensitization to the BRAFV600E specific inhibition by interfering with BRAF pathway through reduction of ERK phosphorylation, but also on parallel survival pathways. Future studies on BAG3 molecular interactions with key proteins responsible of acquired BRAF inhibitor resistance may represent a promising field for novel multi-drugs treatment design. PMID:29113311

  5. A novel compound which sensitizes BRAF wild-type melanoma cells to vemurafenib in a TRIM16-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Selina K; Carter, Daniel R; Kim, Patrick; Tan, Owen; Arndt, Greg M; Zhang, Xu Dong; Baell, Jonathan; Noll, Benjamin D; Wang, Shudong; Kumar, Naresh; McArthur, Grant A; Cheung, Belamy B; Marshall, Glenn M

    2016-08-09

    There is an urgent need for better therapeutic options for advanced melanoma patients, particularly those without the BRAFV600E/K mutation. In melanoma cells, loss of TRIM16 expression is a marker of cell migration and metastasis, while the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, induces melanoma cell growth arrest in a TRIM16-dependent manner. Here we identify a novel small molecule compound which sensitized BRAF wild-type melanoma cells to vemurafenib. High throughput, cell-based, chemical library screening identified a compound (C012) which significantly reduced melanoma cell viability, with limited toxicity for normal human fibroblasts. When combined with the BRAFV600E/K inhibitor, vemurafenib, C012 synergistically increased vemurafenib potency in 5 BRAFWT and 4 out of 5 BRAFV600E human melanoma cell lines (Combination Index: CI < 1), and, dramatically reduced colony forming ability. In addition, this drug combination was significantly anti-tumorigenic in vivo in a melanoma xenograft mouse model. The combination of vemurafenib and C012 markedly increased expression of TRIM16 protein, and knockdown of TRIM16 significantly reduced the growth inhibitory effects of the vemurafenib and C012 combination. These findings suggest that the combination of C012 and vemurafenib may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of melanoma, and, that reactivation of TRIM16 may be an effective strategy for patients with this disease.

  6. A novel compound which sensitizes BRAF wild-type melanoma cells to vemurafenib in a TRIM16-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Selina K.; Carter, Daniel R.; Kim, Patrick; Tan, Owen; Arndt, Greg M.; Zhang, Xu Dong; Baell, Jonathan; Noll, Benjamin D.; Wang, Shudong; Kumar, Naresh; McArthur, Grant A.; Cheung, Belamy B.; Marshall, Glenn M.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for better therapeutic options for advanced melanoma patients, particularly those without the BRAFV600E/K mutation. In melanoma cells, loss of TRIM16 expression is a marker of cell migration and metastasis, while the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, induces melanoma cell growth arrest in a TRIM16-dependent manner. Here we identify a novel small molecule compound which sensitized BRAF wild-type melanoma cells to vemurafenib. High throughput, cell-based, chemical library screening identified a compound (C012) which significantly reduced melanoma cell viability, with limited toxicity for normal human fibroblasts. When combined with the BRAFV600E/K inhibitor, vemurafenib, C012 synergistically increased vemurafenib potency in 5 BRAFWT and 4 out of 5 BRAFV600E human melanoma cell lines (Combination Index: CI < 1), and, dramatically reduced colony forming ability. In addition, this drug combination was significantly anti-tumorigenic in vivo in a melanoma xenograft mouse model. The combination of vemurafenib and C012 markedly increased expression of TRIM16 protein, and knockdown of TRIM16 significantly reduced the growth inhibitory effects of the vemurafenib and C012 combination. These findings suggest that the combination of C012 and vemurafenib may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of melanoma, and, that reactivation of TRIM16 may be an effective strategy for patients with this disease. PMID:27447557

  7. IRF-8 Controls Melanoma Progression by Regulating the Cross Talk between Cancer and Immune Cells within the Tumor Microenvironment12

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Fabrizio; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Sestili, Paola; Spadaro, Francesca; Fragale, Alessandra; Sistigu, Antonella; Lucarini, Valeria; Spada, Massimo; Sanchez, Massimo; Scala, Stefania; Battistini, Angela; Belardelli, Filippo; Gabriele, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8) is crucial for myeloid cell development and immune response and also acts as a tumor suppressor gene. Here, we analyzed the role of IRF-8 in the cross talk between melanoma cells and tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. B16-F10 melanoma cells transplanted into IRF-8-deficient (IRF-8-/-) mice grow more rapidly, leading to higher numbers of lung metastasis, with respect to control animals. These events correlated with reduced dendritic cell and T cell infiltration, accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and a chemokine/chemokine receptor expression profile within the tumor microenvironment supporting tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Noticeably, primary tumors developing in IRF-8-/- mice displayed a clear-cut inhibition of IRF-8 expression in melanoma cells. Injection of the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine into melanoma-bearing IRF-8-/- animals induced intratumoral IRF-8 expression and resulted in the re-establishment of a chemokine/ chemokine receptor pattern favoring leukocyte infiltration and melanoma growth arrest. Importantly, intrinsic IRF-8 expression was progressively down-modulated during melanoma growth in mice and in human metastatic melanoma cells with respect to primary tumors. Lastly, IRF-8 expression in melanoma cells was directly modulated by soluble factors, among which interleukin-27 (IL-27), released by immune cells from tumor-bearing mice. Collectively, these results underscore a key role of IRF-8 in the cross talk between melanoma and immune cells, thus revealing its critical function within the tumor microenvironment in regulating melanoma progression and invasiveness. PMID:23308054

  8. Genetic Engineering of T Cells to Target HERV-K, an Ancient Retrovirus on Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Janani; Rabinovich, Brian A; Mi, Tiejuan; Switzer, Kirsten C; Olivares, Simon; Maiti, Sourindra N; Plummer, Joshua B; Singh, Harjeet; Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R; Huls, Helen M; Wang-Johanning, Feng; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2015-07-15

    The human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-K) envelope (env) protein is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on melanoma but not normal cells. This study was designed to engineer a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) on T-cell surface, such that they target tumors in advanced stages of melanoma. Expression of HERV-K protein was analyzed in 220 melanoma samples (with various stages of disease) and 139 normal organ donor tissues using immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. HERV-K env-specific CAR derived from mouse monoclonal antibody was introduced into T cells using the transposon-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) system. HERV-K env-specific CAR(+) T cells were expanded ex vivo on activating and propagating cells (AaPC) and characterized for CAR expression and specificity. This includes evaluating the HERV-K-specific CAR(+) T cells for their ability to kill A375-SM metastasized tumors in a mouse xenograft model. We detected HERV-K env protein on melanoma but not in normal tissues. After electroporation of T cells and selection on HERV-K(+) AaPC, more than 95% of genetically modified T cells expressed the CAR with an effector memory phenotype and lysed HERV-K env(+) tumor targets in an antigen-specific manner. Even though there is apparent shedding of this TAA from tumor cells that can be recognized by HERV-K env-specific CAR(+) T cells, we observed a significant antitumor effect. Adoptive cellular immunotherapy with HERV-K env-specific CAR(+) T cells represents a clinically appealing treatment strategy for advanced-stage melanoma and provides an approach for targeting this TAA on other solid tumors. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Dihydroxyacetone induces G2/M arrest and apoptotic cell death in A375P melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kelly R; Granberry, Molley; Tan, Marcus C B; Daniel, Casey L; Gassman, Natalie R

    2018-03-01

    The active ingredient in sunless tanning products (STPs) is a simple sugar, dihydroxyacetone (DHA). Several studies have demonstrated that DHA is absorbed within the viable layers of skin and not fully contained within the stratum corneum. Additionally, spray tanning and other aerosolized application methods have increased the risk of internal exposure through mucous membranes and inhalation. Beyond its presence in STPs, DHA also occurs as an endogenous by-product of fructose metabolism, and an excess of DHA in cells can induce advanced glycation end (AGE) products and oxidative stress. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous exposures to DHA may be harmful to cells, and it has already been demonstrated that exogenous exposure to DHA is cytotoxic in immortalized keratinocytes. Still, little is known about the exogenous DHA exposure effects on other skin components. In this study, we explore the effects of exogenous DHA exposure in a human melanoma cell line, A375P. Melanoma cells were sensitive to DHA and displayed a transient burst of reactive oxygen species within an hour of exposure. Cell cycle arrest at G2/M was observed within 24 h of exposure, and apoptosis, monitored by the cleavage of PARP-1 and Caspase-3, was detected within 72 h of exposure to DHA. Together, these demonstrate that exogenous exposure to DHA has cytotoxic effects in our selected cell model and indicates the need to further investigate the exogenous exposure effects of DHA in other relevant exposure models. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. New target genes of MITF-induced microRNA-211 contribute to melanoma cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Margue, Christiane; Philippidou, Demetra; Reinsbach, Susanne E; Schmitt, Martina; Behrmann, Iris; Kreis, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The non-coding microRNAs (miRNA) have tissue- and disease-specific expression patterns. They down-regulate target mRNAs, which likely impacts on most fundamental cellular processes. Differential expression patterns of miRNAs are currently being exploited for identification of biomarkers for early disease diagnosis, prediction of progression for melanoma and other cancers and as promising drug targets, since they can easily be inhibited or replaced in a given cellular context. Before successfully manipulating miRNAs in clinical settings, their precise expression levels, endogenous functions and thus their target genes have to be determined. MiR-211, a melanocyte lineage-specific small non-coding miRNA, is located in an intron of TRPM1, a target gene of the microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). By transcriptionally up-regulating TRPM1, MITF, which is critical for both melanocyte differentiation and survival and for melanoma progression, indirectly drives the expression of miR-211. Expression of this miRNA is often reduced in melanoma samples. Here, we investigated functional roles of miR-211 by identifying and studying new target genes. We show that MITF-correlated miR-211 expression levels are mostly but not always reduced in a panel of 11 melanoma cell lines and in primary and metastatic melanoma compared to normal melanocytes and nevi, respectively. MiR-211 itself only marginally impacted on cell invasion and migration, while perturbation of some new miR-211 target genes, such as AP1S2, SOX11, IGFBP5, and SERINC3 significantly increased invasion. These results and the variable expression levels of miR-211 raise serious doubts on the value of miR-211 as a melanoma tumor-suppressing miRNA and/or as a biomarker for melanoma.

  11. Combined pitavastatin and dacarbazine treatment activates apoptosis and autophagy resulting in synergistic cytotoxicity in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Qatati, Abeer; Aliwaini, Saeb

    2017-12-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer and its incidence is increasing faster than any other type of cancer. Whilst dacarbazine (DTIC) is the standard chemotherapy for metastatic melanoma, it has limited success. Statins, including pitavastatin, have been demonstrated to have a range of anti-cancer effects in a number of human cancer cell lines. The present study therefore explored the anti-cancer activity of combined DTIC and pitavastatin in A375 and WM115 human melanoma cells. Cell survival assays demonstrated that combined DTIC and pitavastatin treatment resulted in synergistic cell death. Cell cycle analyses further revealed that this combined treatment resulted in a G1 cell cycle arrest, as well as a sub-G1 population, indicative of apoptosis. Activation of apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double-staining and an increase in the levels of active caspase 3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that apoptosis occurs through the intrinsic pathway, evident from the release of cytochrome c. Finally, combined DTIC and pitavastatin treatment was demonstrated to also activate autophagy as part of a cell death mechanism. The present study provides novel evidence to suggest that the combined treatment of DTIC and pitavastatin may be effective in the treatment of melanoma.

  12. Combined pitavastatin and dacarbazine treatment activates apoptosis and autophagy resulting in synergistic cytotoxicity in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qatati, Abeer; Aliwaini, Saeb

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer and its incidence is increasing faster than any other type of cancer. Whilst dacarbazine (DTIC) is the standard chemotherapy for metastatic melanoma, it has limited success. Statins, including pitavastatin, have been demonstrated to have a range of anti-cancer effects in a number of human cancer cell lines. The present study therefore explored the anti-cancer activity of combined DTIC and pitavastatin in A375 and WM115 human melanoma cells. Cell survival assays demonstrated that combined DTIC and pitavastatin treatment resulted in synergistic cell death. Cell cycle analyses further revealed that this combined treatment resulted in a G1 cell cycle arrest, as well as a sub-G1 population, indicative of apoptosis. Activation of apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double-staining and an increase in the levels of active caspase 3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that apoptosis occurs through the intrinsic pathway, evident from the release of cytochrome c. Finally, combined DTIC and pitavastatin treatment was demonstrated to also activate autophagy as part of a cell death mechanism. The present study provides novel evidence to suggest that the combined treatment of DTIC and pitavastatin may be effective in the treatment of melanoma. PMID:29344241

  13. Ethanol inhibits B16-BL6 melanoma metastasis and cell phenotypes associated with metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kushiro, Kyoko; Núñez, Nomelí P

    2012-01-01

    Every year, approximately 68,000 new cases of malignant melanoma are diagnosed in the US. Ethanol consumption inhibits metastasis of melanoma in mice, but the mechanism is not well understood. C57BL/6J ob/+ mice, given either water or 20% ethanol, were injected intravenously with B16-BL6 melanoma cells to determine pulmonary metastasis. The effects of ethanol on cell phenotypes and markers of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition were determined in cell culture. In mice, ethanol consumption inhibited experimental pulmonary metastasis. This inhibition was associated with decreased body weight, and levels of systemic leptin, and insulin. In cell culture, ethanol inhibited B16-BL6 cell motility, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. Additionally, ethanol reduced Snai1 expression and increased E-cadherin expression. Lastly, ethanol increased the expression of Kiss1 metastasis-suppressor and the metastasis suppressor Nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase. In both animal and in cell culture conditions, ethanol inhibited the metastatic ability of B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

  14. [The effect of Angelica sinensis on adhesion, invasion, migration and metastasis of melanoma cells].

    PubMed

    Gu, Qin; Xu, Jian-ya; Cheng, Luo-gen; Xia, Wei-jun

    2007-03-01

    To study the effect of Angelica sinensis on invasion, adhesion, migration and metastasis of B16-BL6 metastatic mouse melanoma cells and discuss its functional mechanism. The proliferation, adhesion, invasion and migration capacity of B16-BL6 metastatic cells was evaluated by MTT assay, adhesion assay and reconstituted basement membrane invasion and migration assay in vitro respectively. Mouse spontaneous melanoma model was used to study the effect of Angelica sinensis on metastasis in vivo. The extract of Angelica sinensis inhibited the proliferation of B16-BL6 metastatic cells and its migration capacity significantly. It regulated bidirectionally the adhesion of B16-BL6 metastatic cells to the basement component laminin while it had no effect on the invasion capacity. In the mouse spotaneous melanoma model, the lung metastatic nodes number and its volume were significantly decreased after continuously treated with the extract of Angelica sinensis at the concentration of 3.67 mg/kg. The extract of Angelica sinensis can inhibit the metastasis of of B16-BL6 metastatic mouse melanoma cells and its mechanism is maybe that Angelica sinensis can inhibit the B16-BL6 cells adhering to the ECM and reduce the migration of B16-BL6 cells.

  15. Vemurafenib potently induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in BRAFV600E melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Daniela; Niessner, Heike; Smalley, Keiran S.M.; Flaherty, Keith; Paraiso, Kim H.T.; Busch, Christian; Sinnberg, Tobias; Vasseur, Sophie; Iovanna, Juan Lucio; Drießen, Stefan; Stork, Björn; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Schaller, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Bauer, Jürgen; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Weide, Benjamin; Eberle, Jürgen; Schittek, Birgit; Schadendorf, Dirk; Garbe, Claus; Kulms, Dagmar; Meier, Friedegund

    2013-01-01

    The V600E mutation in the kinase BRAF is frequently detected in melanomas and results in constitutive activation of BRAF, which then promotes cell proliferation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Although the BRAFV600E kinase inhibitor vemurafenib has remarkable antitumor activity in patients with BRAFV600E-mutated melanoma, its effects are limited by the onset of drug resistance. We found that exposure of melanoma cell lines with the BRAFV600E mutation to vemurafenib decreased the abundance of anti-apoptotic proteins and induced intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis. Vemurafenib-treated melanoma cells showed increased cytosolic concentration of calcium, a potential trigger for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which can lead to apoptosis. Consistent with an ER stress-induced response, vemurafenib decreased the abundance of the ER chaperone protein GRP78, increased the abundance of the spliced isoform of the transcription factor X-box protein 1 (XBP1) (which transcriptionally activates genes involved in ER stress responses), increased the phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α (which would be expected to inhibit protein synthesis), and induced the expression of ER stress-related genes. Knockdown of the ER stress response protein ATF4 significantly reduced vemurafenib-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the ER stress inducer thapsigargin prevented invasive growth of tumors formed from vemurafenib-sensitive melanoma cells in vivo. In melanoma cells with low sensitivity or resistance to vemurafenib, combination treatment with thapsigargin augmented or induced apoptosis. Thus, thapsigargin or other inducers of ER stress may be useful in combination therapies to overcome vemurafenib resistance. PMID:23362240

  16. Dacarbazine inhibits proliferation of melanoma FEMX-1 cells by up-regulating expression of miRNA-200.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-N

    2017-03-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive tumour, and treatment efficacy depends on the stage of the tumour. Early stage cutaneous melanoma is efficiently treated by surgical excision. In contrast, late-stage melanoma requires chemotherapy with dacarbazine (DTIC). Unfortunately, advanced melanoma can often be resistant to DTIC. The mechanisms of anti-melanoma effects of DTIC are still poorly understood, which hinders development of more potent therapies. In this study, we examined the effects of DTIC on growth inhibition of FEMX-1 melanoma cell line, expression of apoptosis-related proteins, and expression of micro (mi)RNA-200 (miRNA-200a, miRNA-200b, miRNA-200c, and miRNA-141). DTIC was used at 50 (low dose) or 100 (high dose) mg/ml. Cell growth inhibition was documented by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was quantified by propidium iodide staining and caspase 3-8 activity assay. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bim, Bak, BAX, and Bad were documented by Western blot analysis, while expression of miRNA-200 by PCR. DTIC dose-dependently inhibited growth of FEMX-1 melanoma cell line, induced cell apoptosis, modulated the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, and up-regulated expression of miRNA-200 family members. DTIC inhibits the growth of melanoma cells by up-regulating expression of miRNA-200.

  17. Cinnamic acid induces apoptotic cell death and cytoskeleton disruption in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer activities of cinnamic acid derivatives include induction of apoptosis by irreversible DNA damage leading to cell death. The present work aimed to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of cinnamic acid in human melanoma cell line (HT-144) and human melanocyte cell line derived from blue nevus (NGM). Viability assay showed that the IC50 for HT-144 cells was 2.4 mM, while NGM cells were more resistant to the treatment. The growth inhibition was probably associated with DNA damage leading to DNA synthesis inhibition, as shown by BrdU incorporation assay, induction of nuclear aberrations and then apoptosis. The frequency of cell death caused by cinnamic acid was higher in HT-144 cells. Activated-caspase 3 staining showed apoptosis after 24 hours of treatment with cinnamic acid 3.2 mM in HT-144 cells, but not in NGM. We observed microtubules disorganization after cinnamic acid exposure, but this event and cell death seem to be independent according to M30 and tubulin labeling. The frequency of micronucleated HT-144 cells was higher after treatment with cinnamic acid (0.4 and 3.2 mM) when compared to the controls. Cinnamic acid 3.2 mM also increased the frequency of micronucleated NGM cells indicating genotoxic activity of the compound, but the effects were milder. Binucleation and multinucleation counting showed similar results. We conclude that cinnamic acid has effective antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells. However, the increased frequency of micronucleation in NGM cells warrants the possibility of genotoxicity and needs further investigation. PMID:23701745

  18. Cinnamic acid induces apoptotic cell death and cytoskeleton disruption in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Niero, Evandro Luís de Oliveira; Machado-Santelli, Gláucia Maria

    2013-05-23

    Anticancer activities of cinnamic acid derivatives include induction of apoptosis by irreversible DNA damage leading to cell death. The present work aimed to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of cinnamic acid in human melanoma cell line (HT-144) and human melanocyte cell line derived from blue nevus (NGM). Viability assay showed that the IC50 for HT-144 cells was 2.4 mM, while NGM cells were more resistant to the treatment. The growth inhibition was probably associated with DNA damage leading to DNA synthesis inhibition, as shown by BrdU incorporation assay, induction of nuclear aberrations and then apoptosis. The frequency of cell death caused by cinnamic acid was higher in HT-144 cells. Activated-caspase 3 staining showed apoptosis after 24 hours of treatment with cinnamic acid 3.2 mM in HT-144 cells, but not in NGM. We observed microtubules disorganization after cinnamic acid exposure, but this event and cell death seem to be independent according to M30 and tubulin labeling. The frequency of micronucleated HT-144 cells was higher after treatment with cinnamic acid (0.4 and 3.2 mM) when compared to the controls. Cinnamic acid 3.2 mM also increased the frequency of micronucleated NGM cells indicating genotoxic activity of the compound, but the effects were milder. Binucleation and multinucleation counting showed similar results. We conclude that cinnamic acid has effective antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells. However, the increased frequency of micronucleation in NGM cells warrants the possibility of genotoxicity and needs further investigation.

  19. MITF and PAX3 Play Distinct Roles in Melanoma Cell Migration; Outline of a "Genetic Switch" Theory Involving MITF and PAX3 in Proliferative and Invasive Phenotypes of Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Michael R; He, Shujie; Ahn, Antonio; Slobbe, Lynn J; Jeffs, Aaron R; Yoon, Han-Seung; Baguley, Bruce C

    2013-09-11

    Melanoma is a very aggressive neoplasm with a propensity to undergo progression and invasion early in its evolution. The molecular pathways underpinning invasion in melanoma are now just beginning to be elucidated, but a clear understanding of the transition from non-invasive to invasive melanoma cells remains elusive. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), is thought to be a central player in melanoma biology, and it controls many aspects of the phenotypic expression of the melanocytic lineage. However, recently the paired box transcription factor PAX3 was shown to transcriptionally activate POU3F2/BRN2, leading to direct repression of MITF expression. Here we present a theory to explain melanoma phenotype switching and discuss the predictions that this theory makes. One prediction is that independent and opposing roles for MITF and PAX3 in melanoma would be expected, and we present empirical evidence supporting this: in melanoma tissues PAX3 expression occurs independently of MITF, and PAX3 does not play a key role in melanoma cell proliferation. Furthermore, we show that knockdown of PAX3 inhibits cell migration in a group of "lower MITF" melanoma cell lines, while knockdown of MITF promotes cell migration in a complementary "higher MITF" group of melanoma cell lines. Moreover, the morphological effects of knocking down PAX3 versus MITF in melanoma cells were found to differ. While these data support the notion of independent roles for MITF and PAX3, additional experiments are required to provide robust examination of the proposed genetic switch theory. Only upon clear delineation of the mechanisms associated with progression and invasion of melanoma cells will successful treatments for invasive melanoma be developed.

  20. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Mediates Leflunomide-Induced Growth Inhibition of Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Edmond F.; Kopparapu, Prasad Rao; Koch, Daniel C.; Jang, Hyo Sang; Phillips, Jessica Lynne; Tanguay, Robert L.; Kerkvliet, Nancy I.; Kolluri, Siva Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A novel role of the dihydroorotatedehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitor leflunomide as a potential anti-melanoma therapy was recently reported (Nature 471∶518-22, 2011). We previously reported that leflunomide strongly activates the transcriptional activity of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). We therefore tested whether the AhR regulates the anti-proliferative effects of leflunomide in melanoma. We first evaluated the expression of AhR in melanoma cells and found that AhR is highly expressed in A375 melanoma as well as in several other cancer cell types. To evaluate whether AhR plays a role in regulating the growth inhibitory effects of leflunomide in A375 cells, we generated a stable cell line from parental A375 cells expressing a doxycycline (DOX) inducible AhR shRNA. Using these cells in the absence or presence of DOX (normal AhR levels or AhR-knockdown, respectively) we found that the anti-proliferative effects of leflunomide, but not its metabolite A771726, were strongly dependent upon AhR expression. It has been well established that supplementation of cells with exogenous uridine completely rescues the anti-proliferative effects due to DHODH inhibition. Thus, we performed uridine rescue experiments in A375 cells to determine whether the anti-proliferative effects of leflunomide are solely due to DHODH inhibition as previously reported. Interestingly, saturating levels of uridine only modestly rescued A375 cells from the anti-proliferative effects of both leflunomide and A771726, indicating additional mechanism(s), apart from DHODH inhibition are responsible for the anti-proliferative effects of leflunomide in melanoma cells. Uridine also did not rescue MDA-MB-435S melanoma cell proliferation after leflunomide treatment. Our results reveal that the AhR is a molecular target of leflunomide and support the feasibility of the clinical application of leflunomide for treating melanoma. Furthermore, analysis of expression data from 967 cancer cell lines revealed

  1. Cutaneous amelanotic signet-ring cell malignant melanoma with interspersed myofibroblastic differentiation in a young cat.

    PubMed

    Hirz, Manuela; Herden, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of malignant melanoma can be difficult because these tumors can be amelanotic and may contain diverse variants and divergent differentiations, of which the signet-ring cell subtype is very rare and has only been described in humans, dogs, cats, and a hamster. We describe herein histopathologic and immunohistochemical approaches taken to diagnose a case of signet-ring cell malignant melanoma with myofibroblastic differentiation in a cat. A tumor within the abdominal skin of a 2-year-old cat was composed of signet-ring cells and irregularly interwoven streams of spindle cells. Both neoplastic cell types were periodic-acid-Schiff, Fontana, and Sudan black B negative. Signet-ring cells strongly expressed vimentin and S100 protein. Spindle cells strongly expressed vimentin and smooth muscle actin; some cells expressed S100, moderately neuron-specific enolase, and others variably actin and desmin. A few round cells expressed melan A, and a few plump spindle cells expressed melan A and PNL2, confirming the diagnosis of amelanotic signet-ring cell malignant melanoma with myofibroblastic differentiation in a cat. Differential diagnoses were excluded, including signet-ring cell forms of adenocarcinomas, lymphomas, liposarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, and adnexal tumors. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Interaction of dacarbazine and imexon, in vitro and in vivo, in human A375 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Samulitis, Betty K; Dorr, Robert T; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated mechanisms of interaction between the alkyating agent dacarbazine (DTIC) and the pro-oxidant, imexon, in the human A375 melanoma cell line. The effect of DTIC and imexon, alone and in combination, was evaluated for growth inhibition (MTT), radiolabeled drug uptake, cellular thiol content (HPLC), and DNA strand breaks (Comet assay). Pharmacokinetic and antitumor effects were evaluated in mice. Growth inhibition in vitro was additive with the two drugs. There was no effect on drug uptake or on the number of DNA strand breaks. There was a >75% reduction in cellular glutathione and cysteine with imexon but not DTIC. Co-administration of the two drugs in mice caused an increase in the area under the curve of both drugs, but the combination was not effective in reducing human A375 melanoma tumors in vivo. Imexon and dacarbazine show additive effects in vitro but not in vivo in human A375 melanoma cells.

  3. Chloroquine Promotes Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells by Inhibiting BH3 domain Mediated PUMA Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lakhter, Alexander J; Sahu, Ravi P; Sun, Yang; Kaufmann, William K; Androphy, Elliot J; Travers, Jeffrey B; Naidu, Samisubbu R

    2013-01-01

    The BH3-only protein PUMA counters Bcl-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins and promotes apoptosis. Although PUMA is a key regulator of apoptosis, the post-transcriptional mechanisms that control PUMA protein stability are not understood. We show that a lysosome-independent activity of chloroquine prevents degradation of PUMA protein, promotes apoptosis and reduces the growth of melanoma xenografts in mice. Compared to wild–type PUMA, a BH3 domain deleted PUMA protein showed impaired decay in melanoma cells. Fusion of the BH3 domain to a heterologous protein led to its rapid turnover that was inhibited by chloroquine. While both chloroquine and inhibitors of lysosomal proteases stalled autophagy, only choroquine stabilized PUMA protein and promoted apoptosis. Our results reveal a lysosomal protease independent activity of chloroquine that selectively promotes apoptosis in melanoma cells. PMID:23370537

  4. p53 prevents progression of nevi to melanoma predominantly through cell cycle regulation

    PubMed Central

    Terzian, Tamara; Torchia, Enrique C.; Dai, Daisy; Robinson, Steven E.; Murao, Kazutoshi; Stiegmann, Regan A.; Gonzalez, Victoria; Boyle, Glen M.; Powell, Marianne B.; Pollock, Pamela M.; Lozano, Guillermina; Robinson, William A.; Roop, Dennis R.; Box, Neil F.

    2011-01-01

    p53 is the central member of a critical tumor suppressor pathway in virtually all tumor types, where it is silenced mainly by missense mutations. In melanoma, p53 predominantly remains wild type, thus its role has been neglected. To study the effect of p53 on melanocyte function and melanomagenesis, we crossed the ‘high-p53’ Mdm4+/− mouse to the well-established TP-ras0/+ murine melanoma progression model. After treatment with the carcinogen dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), TP-ras0/+ mice on the Mdm4+/− background developed fewer tumors with a delay in the age of onset of melanomas compared to TP-ras0/+ mice. Furthermore, we observed a dramatic decrease in tumor growth, lack of metastasis with increased survival of TP-ras0/+: Mdm4+/− mice. Thus, p53 effectively prevented the conversion of small benign tumors to malignant and metastatic melanoma. p53 activation in cultured primary melanocyte and melanoma cell lines using Nutlin-3, a specific Mdm2 antagonist, supported these findings. Moreover, global gene expression and network analysis of Nutlin-3-treated primary human melanocytes indicated that cell cycle regulation through the p21WAF1/CIP1 signaling network may be the key anti-melanomagenic activity of p53. PMID:20849464

  5. Morphological changes in human melanoma cells following irradiation with thermal neutrons.

    PubMed

    Barkla, D H; Allen, B J; Brown, J K; Mountford, M; Mishima, Y; Ichihashi, M

    1989-01-01

    Morphological changes in two human melanoma cell lines, MM96 and MM418, following irradiation with thermal neutrons, were studied using light and electron microscopy. The results show that the response of human malignant melanoma cells to neutron irradiation is both cell line dependent and dose dependent, and that in any given cell line, some cells are more resistant to irradiation than others, thus demonstrating heterogeneity in respect to radiosensitivity. Cells repopulating MM96 flasks after irradiation were morphologically similar to the cells of origin whereas in MM418 flasks cells differentiated into five morphologically distinct subgroups and showed increased melanization. The results also show that radiation causes distinctive morphological patterns of damage although ultrastructural changes unique to the high LET particles released from boron 10 neutron capture are yet to be identified.

  6. Serum CEACAM1 Elevation Correlates with Melanoma Progression and Failure to Respond to Adoptive Cell Transfer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ortenberg, R.; Sapoznik, S.; Zippel, D.; Shapira-Frommer, R.; Itzhaki, O.; Kubi, A.; Zikich, D.; Besser, M. J.; Schachter, J.; Markel, G.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a devastating disease whose incidences are continuously rising. The recently approved antimelanoma therapies carry new hope for metastatic patients for the first time in decades. However, the clinical management of melanoma is severely hampered by the absence of effective screening tools. The expression of the CEACAM1 adhesion molecule on melanoma cells is a strong predictor of poor prognosis. Interestingly, a melanoma-secreted form of CEACAM1 (sCEACAM1) has recently emerged as a potential tumor biomarker. Here we add novel evidences supporting the prognostic role of serum CEACAM1 by using a mice xenograft model of human melanoma and showing a correlation between serum CEACAM1 and tumor burden. Moreover, we demonstrate that serum CEACAM1 is elevated over time in progressive melanoma patients who fail to respond to immunotherapy as opposed to responders and stable disease patients, thus proving a correlation between sCEACAM1, response to treatment, and clinical deterioration. PMID:26688824

  7. Plasma Membrane Integrity and Survival of Melanoma Cells After Nanosecond Laser Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Francisco G.; Camacho-López, Santiago; Evans, Rodger; Guillén, Gabriel; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S.; Viator, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) photoacoustic detection systems can aid clinical decision-making in the treatment of cancer. Interaction of melanin within melanoma cells with nanosecond laser pulses generates photoacoustic waves that make its detection possible. This study aims at: (1) determining melanoma cell survival after laser pulses of 6 ns at λ = 355 and 532 nm; (2) comparing the potential enhancement in the photoacoustic signal using λ = 355 nm in contrast with λ = 532 nm; (3) determining the critical laser fluence at which melanin begins to leak out from melanoma cells; and (4) developing a time-resolved imaging (TRI) system to study the intracellular interactions and their effect on the plasma membrane integrity. Monolayers of melanoma cells were grown on tissue culture-treated clusters and irradiated with up to 1.0 J/cm2. Surviving cells were stained with trypan blue and counted using a hemacytometer. The phosphate buffered saline absorbance was measured with a nanodrop spectrophotometer to detect melanin leakage from the melanoma cells post-laser irradiation. Photoacoustic signal magnitude was studied at both wavelengths using piezoelectric sensors. TRI with 6 ns resolution was used to image plasma membrane damage. Cell survival decreased proportionally with increasing laser fluence for both wavelengths, although the decrease is more pronounced for 355 nm radiation than for 532 nm. It was found that melanin leaks from cells equally for both wavelengths. No significant difference in photoacoustic signal was found between wavelengths. TRI showed clear damage to plasma membrane due to laser-induced bubble formation. PMID:20589533

  8. Genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells producing TNFα have tumour suppressing effect on human melanoma xenograft.

    PubMed

    Tyciakova, Silvia; Matuskova, Miroslava; Bohovic, Roman; Polakova, Katarina; Toro, Lenka; Skolekova, Svetlana; Kucerova, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are a promising tool for targeted cancer therapy due to their tumour-homing ability. Intrinsic resistance enables the MSC to longer tolerate therapeutic factors, such as prodrug converting enzymes, cytokines and pro-apoptotic proteins. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is known to be cytotoxic to a variety of cancer cells and exert a tumour-destructive capacity. MSC were retrovirally transduced to stable express an exogenous gene encoding the desired therapeutic agent hTNFα. The effect of a TNFα-producing adipose tissue-derived MSC (AT-MSC/hTNFα) was tested on the tumour cell lines of different origins: melanoma (A375), breast carcinoma (SKBR3, MDA-MB-231), colon carcinoma (HT29), ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3) and glioblastoma (U87-MG) cells. The tumour suppressing effect of AT-MSC/hTNFα on A375 melanoma xenografts was monitored in an immunodeficient mouse model in vivo. Engineered AT-MSC are able to constitutively secrete human TNFα protein, induce apoptosis of tumour cell lines via caspase 3/7 activation and inhibit the tumour cell proliferation in vitro. Melanoma A375 and breast carcinoma SKBR3 cells were the most sensitive, and their proliferation in vitro was reduced by conditioned media produced by AT-MSC/hTNFα to 60% and 40%, respectively. The previously reported tumour supportive effect of AT-MSC on subcutaneous A375 melanoma xenograft growth was neutralised and suppressed by engineered AT-MSC stably producing hTNFα. When AT-MSC/hTNFα were coinjected with A375 melanoma cells, the tumour mass inhibition was up to 97.5%. The results of the present study demonstrate that tumour cells respond to hTNFα-based treatment mediated by genetically engineered AT-MSC/hTNFα both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Silymarin Targets β-Catenin Signaling in Blocking Migration/Invasion of Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Sun, Qian; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a leading cause of death from skin diseases, and is often associated with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We have examined the inhibitory effect of silymarin, a plant flavanoid from Silybum marianum, on cell migration of metastasis-specific human melanoma cell lines (A375 and Hs294t) and assessed whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is the target of silymarin. Using an in vitro invasion assay, we found that treatment of human melanoma cell lines with silymarin resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration, which was associated with accumulation of cytosolic β-catenin, while reducing the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin (i.e., β-catenin inactivation) and reducing the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 and MMP-9 which are the down-stream targets of β-catenin. Silymarin enhanced: (i) the levels of casein kinase 1α, glycogen synthase kinase-3β and phosphorylated-β-catenin on critical residues Ser45, Ser33/37 and Thr41, and (ii) the binding of β-transducin repeat-containing proteins (β-TrCP) with phospho forms of β-catenin in melanoma cells. These events play important roles in degradation or inactivation of β-catenin. To verify whether β-catenin is a potent molecular target of silymarin, the effect of silymarin was determined on β-catenin-activated (Mel 1241) and β-catenin-inactivated (Mel 1011) melanoma cells. Treatment of Mel 1241 cells with silymarin or FH535, an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, significantly inhibited cell migration of Mel 1241 cells, which was associated with the elevated levels of casein kinase 1α and glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and decreased accumulation of nuclear β-catenin and inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. However, this effect of silymarin and FH535 was not found in Mel 1011 melanoma cells. These results indicate for the first time that silymarin inhibits melanoma cell migration by targeting β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:21829575

  10. Reprogramming of Melanoma Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hidehito; Okita, Keisuke; Fusaki, Noemi; Sabel, Michael S.; Chang, Alfred E.; Ito, Fumito

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients hold great promise for autologous cell therapies. One of the possible applications of iPSCs is to use them as a cell source for producing autologous lymphocytes for cell-based therapy against cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that express programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) are tumor-reactive T cells, and adoptive cell therapy with autologous TILs has been found to achieve durable complete response in selected patients with metastatic melanoma. Here, we describe the derivation of human iPSCs from melanoma TILs expressing high level of PD-1 by Sendai virus-mediated transduction of the four transcription factors, OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC. TIL-derived iPSCs display embryonic stem cell-like morphology, have normal karyotype, express stem cell-specific surface antigens and pluripotency-associated transcription factors, and have the capacity to differentiate in vitro and in vivo. A wide variety of T cell receptor gene rearrangement patterns in TIL-derived iPSCs confirmed the heterogeneity of T cells infiltrating melanomas. The ability to reprogram TILs containing patient-specific tumor-reactive repertoire might allow the generation of patient- and tumor-specific polyclonal T cells for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27057178

  11. Melanoma Cells Can Adopt the Phenotype of Stromal Fibroblasts and Macrophages by Spontaneous Cell Fusion in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kemény, Lajos V.; Kurgyis, Zsuzsanna; Buknicz, Tünde; Groma, Gergely; Jakab, Ádám; Zänker, Kurt; Dittmar, Thomas; Kemény, Lajos; Németh, István B.

    2016-01-01

    After the removal of primary cutaneous melanoma some patients develop local recurrences, even after having histologically tumor-free re-excision. A potential explanation behind this phenomenon is that tumor cells switch their phenotype, making their recognition via standard histopathological assessments extremely difficult. Tumor-stromal cell fusion has been proposed as a potential mechanism for tumor cells to acquire mesenchymal traits; therefore, we hypothesized that melanoma cells could acquire fibroblast- and macrophage-like phenotypes via cell fusion. We show that melanoma cells spontaneously fuse with human dermal fibroblasts and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro. The hybrid cells’ nuclei contain chromosomes from both parental cells and are indistinguishable from the parental fibroblasts or macrophages based on their morphology and immunophenotype, as they could lose the melanoma specific MART1 marker, but express the fibroblast marker smooth muscle actin or the macrophage marker CD68. Our results suggest that, by spontaneous cell fusion in vitro, tumor cells can adopt the morphology and immunophenotype of stromal cells while still carrying oncogenic, tumor-derived genetic information. Therefore, melanoma–stromal cell fusion might play a role in missing tumor cells by routine histopathological assessments. PMID:27271591

  12. Biochemical basis of 4-hydroxyanisole induced cell toxicity towards B16-F0 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Moridani, Majid Y

    2006-11-18

    In the current work we investigated for the first time the biochemical basis of 4-hydroxyanisole (4-HA) induced toxicity in B16-F0 melanoma cells. It was found that dicoumarol, a diaphorase inhibitor, and 1-bromoheptane, a GSH depleting agent, increased 4-HA induced toxicity towards B16-F0 cells whereas dithiothreitol, a thiol containing agent, and ascorbic acid (AA), a reducing agent, largely prevented 4-HA toxicity. TEMPOL and pyrogallol, free radical scavengers, did not significantly prevent 4-HA toxicity towards B16-F0 cells. GSH>AA>NADH prevented the o-quinone formation when 4-HA was metabolized by tyrosinase/O(2). 4-HA metabolism by horseradish peroxidase/H(2)O(2) was prevented more effectively by AA than NADH>GSH. We therefore concluded that quinone formation was the major pathway for 4-HA induced toxicity in B16-F0 melanoma cells whereas free radical formation played a negligible role in the 4-HA induced toxicity.

  13. Combinatorial Discovery of Defined Substrates That Promote a Stem Cell State in Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is implicated in orchestrating cancer cell transformation and metastasis. However, specific cell–ligand interactions between cancer cells and the extracellular matrix are difficult to decipher due to a dynamic and multivariate presentation of many signaling molecules. Here we report a versatile peptide microarray platform that is capable of screening for cancer cell phenotypic changes in response to ligand–receptor interactions. Using a screen of 78 peptide combinations derived from proteins present in the melanoma microenvironment, we identify a proteoglycan binding and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) derived sequence that selectively promotes the expression of several putative melanoma initiating cell markers. We characterize signaling associated with each of these peptides in the activation of melanoma pro-tumorigenic signaling and reveal a role for proteoglycan mediated adhesion and signaling through Smad 2/3. A defined substratum that controls the state of malignant melanoma may prove useful in spatially normalizing a heterogeneous population of tumor cells for discovery of therapeutics that target a specific state and for identifying new drug targets and reagents for intervention. PMID:28573199

  14. [Combined effect of cisplatin and caffeine on murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells].

    PubMed

    Yasutake, H; Tsuchiya, H; Sugihara, M; Tomita, K; Ueda, Y; Tanaka, M; Sasaki, T

    1989-05-01

    Combined effect of cisplatin and caffeine on murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells was studied. Synergistic inhibition of the cell growth was observed when caffeine (2 mM) was added continuously after one hour exposure of cisplatin. On the other hand, when caffeine was added before one hour exposure of cisplatin or one hour simultaneous exposure with cisplatin, synergistic effect was not shown. In the analysis of DNA histogram obtained from flow cytometry, S and G2/M accumulation was observed by the treatment of cisplatin and that accumulation was reduced by the combination of cisplatin and caffeine. From this findings, it was suggested that caffeine would inhibit DNA repair process. Furthermore, according to morphological studies with hematoxylin-eosin stain and Fontana-Masson stain, the addition of caffeine alone resulted in mild swelling of melanoma cells and the decrease of nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. The combination of cisplatin and caffeine caused marked swelling of melanoma cells and remarkable increase of dendrite-like processes. Melanogenesis was also enhanced by the addition of these two drugs. Many matured melanosomes, increases of mitochondria, Golgi's apparatus and endoplasmic reticula were observed by the use of electron microscope. These findings implied that the combination of cisplatin and caffeine induced a differentiation of murine melanoma cells.

  15. [Effect of Spatholobus suberctus on adhesion, invasion, migration and metastasis of melanoma cells].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Ya; Gu, Qin; Xia, Wei-Jun

    2010-10-01

    To study the effect of Spatholobus suberctus, a kind of Chinese Traditional Medicine which can dissolve the stasis by activating the blood circulation, on invasion, adhesion, migration and metastasis of B16-BL6 metastatic mouse melanoma cells and its mechanism. The proliferation, adhesion, invasion and migration capacity of B16-BL6 metastatic cells was evaluated by MTP assay, adhesion assay and reconstituted basement membrane invasion and migration assay in vitro respectively. Mouse spontaneous motility melanoma model was used to study the effect of Spatholobus suberctus on metastasis in vivo. At the highest innoxious concentration, the extracts of Spatholobus suberctus inhibited the adhesion and invasion capacity of B16-BL6 metastatic cells significantly. In the mouse spontaneous melanoma model, the lung metastatic nodes number and its volume were significantly decreased after continuously treated with the extracts of Spatholobus suberctu. The extracts of Spatholobus suberctu can inhibit the metastasis of of B16-BI6 metastatic mouse melanoma cells and its mechanism may be inhibiting the capability of B16-BL6 cells in adhering to the ECM and invading the basement membrane.

  16. Phenotype and function of T cells infiltrating visceral metastases from gastrointestinal cancers and melanoma: implications for adoptive cell transfer therapy.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Simon; Gros, Alena; Hogan, Katherine; Tran, Eric; Hinrichs, Christian S; Wunderlich, John R; Dudley, Mark E; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2013-09-01

    Adoptive cell transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate cancer regression in patients with metastatic melanoma, but whether this approach can be applied to common epithelial malignancies remains unclear. In this study, we compared the phenotype and function of TILs derived from liver and lung metastases from patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers (n = 14) or melanoma (n = 42). Fewer CD3(+) T cells were found to infiltrate GI compared with melanoma metastases, but the proportions of CD8(+) cells, T cell differentiation stage, and expression of costimulatory molecules were similar for both tumor types. Clinical-scale expansion up to ~50 × 10(9) T cells on average was obtained for all patients with GI cancer and melanoma. From GI tumors, however, TIL outgrowth in high-dose IL-2 yielded 22 ± 1.4% CD3(+)CD8(+) cells compared with 63 ± 2.4% from melanoma (p < 0.001). IFN-γ ELISA demonstrated MHC class I-mediated reactivity of TIL against autologous tumor in 5 of 7 GI cancer patients tested (9% of 188 distinct TIL cultures) and in 9 of 10 melanoma patients (43% of 246 distinct TIL cultures). In these assays, MHC class I-mediated up-regulation of CD137 (4-1BB) expression on CD8(+) cells suggested that 0-3% of TILs expanded from GI cancer metastases were tumor-reactive. This study implies that the main challenge to the development of TIL adoptive cell transfer for metastatic GI cancers may not be the in vitro expansion of bulk TILs, but the ability to select and enrich for tumor-reactive T cells.

  17. Phenotype and Function of T Cells Infiltrating Visceral Metastases from Gastrointestinal Cancers and Melanoma: Implications for Adoptive Cell Transfer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Turcotte, Simon; Gros, Alena; Hogan, Katherine; Tran, Eric; Hinrichs, Christian S.; Wunderlich, John R.; Dudley, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate cancer regression in patients with metastatic melanoma, but whether this approach can be applied to common epithelial malignancies remains unclear. In this study, we compared the phenotype and function of TILs derived from liver and lung metastases from patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers (n = 14) or melanoma (n = 42). Fewer CD3+ T cells were found to infiltrate GI compared with melanoma metastases, but the proportions of CD8+ cells, T cell differentiation stage, and expression of costimulatory molecules were similar for both tumor types. Clinical-scale expansion up to ∼50 × 109 T cells on average was obtained for all patients with GI cancer and melanoma. From GI tumors, however, TIL outgrowth in high-dose IL-2 yielded 22 ± 1.4% CD3+CD8+ cells compared with 63 ± 2.4% from melanoma (p < 0.001). IFN-γ ELISA demonstrated MHC class I–mediated reactivity of TIL against autologous tumor in 5 of 7 GI cancer patients tested (9% of 188 distinct TIL cultures) and in 9 of 10 melanoma patients (43% of 246 distinct TIL cultures). In these assays, MHC class I–mediated up-regulation of CD137 (4-1BB) expression on CD8+ cells suggested that 0–3% of TILs expanded from GI cancer metastases were tumor-reactive. This study implies that the main challenge to the development of TIL adoptive cell transfer for metastatic GI cancers may not be the in vitro expansion of bulk TILs, but the ability to select and enrich for tumor-reactive T cells. PMID:23904171

  18. Ginsenoside G-Rh2 synergizes with SMI-4a in anti-melanoma activity through autophagic cell death.

    PubMed

    Lv, Da-Lun; Chen, Lei; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, He-Li; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Wen-Bei

    2018-01-01

    Melanoma is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and SMI-4a and G-Rh2 exert anti-tumor activity in multiple cancer. However, SMI-4a as well as a synergistic relationship between SMI-4a and G-Rh2 in anti-melanoma capacity are still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SMI-4a and combined SMI-4a with G-Rh2 on the viability, apoptosis and autophagy of melanoma, and to preliminarily explore the underlying mechanism of SMI-4a and combined SMI-4a with G-Rh2 in inhibiting tumor growth. Cell viability was examined with cell counting Kit 8 assay and colony formation assay; Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and Caspase 3/7 activity assay; Western blotting was used to test proteins related to autophagy and the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway; Tumor xenograft model in BALB/c nude mice was performed to evaluate the effects of SMI-4a and combined SMI-4a with G-Rh2 in anti-melanoma in vivo. SMI-4a, a pharmacological inhibitor of PIM-1, could decrease cell viability, induce apoptosis, and promote Caspase 3/7 activity in both A375 and G361 melanoma cells, and SMI-4a inhibited tumor growth by inducing autophagy via down-regulating AKT/mTOR axis in melanoma cells. Furthermore, G-Rh2 amplified the anti-tumor activity of SMI-4a in melanoma cells via strengthening autophagy. Our results suggested that SMI-4a could enhance autophagy-inducing apoptosis by inhibiting AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in melanoma cells, and G-Rh2 could enhance the effects of SMI-4a against melanoma cancer via amplifying autophagy induction. This study demonstrates that combined SMI-4a and G-Rh2 might be a novel alternative strategy for melanoma treatment.

  19. Nucleoli cytomorphology in cutaneous melanoma cells - a new prognostic approach to an old concept.

    PubMed

    Donizy, Piotr; Biecek, Przemyslaw; Halon, Agnieszka; Maciejczyk, Adam; Matkowski, Rafal

    2017-12-29

    The nucleolus is an organelle that is an ultrastructural element of the cell nucleus observed in H&E staining as a roundish body stained with eosin due to its high protein content. Changes in the nucleoli cytomorphology were one of the first histopathological characteristics of malignant tumors. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the cytomorphological characteristics of nucleoli and detailed clinicopathological parameters of melanoma patients. Moreover, we analyzed the correlation between cytomorphological parameters of nucleoli and immunoreactivity of selected proteins responsible for, among others, regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (SPARC, N-cadherin), cell adhesion and motility (ALCAM, ADAM-10), mitotic divisions (PLK1), cellular survival (FOXP1) and the functioning of Golgi apparatus (GOLPH3, GP73). Three characteristics of nucleoli - presence, size and number - of cancer cells were assessed in H&E-stained slides of 96 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary cutaneous melanoma tissue specimens. The results were correlated with classical clinicopathological features and patient survival. Immunohistochemical analysis of the above mentioned proteins was described in details in previous studies. Higher prevalence and size of nucleoli were associated with thicker and mitogenic tumors. All three nucleolar characteristics were related to the presence of ulceration. Moreover, microsatellitosis was strongly correlated with the presence of macronucleoli and polynucleolization (presence of two or more nucleoli). Lack of immunologic response manifested as no TILs in primary tumor was associated with high prevalence of melanoma cells with distinct nucleoli. Interestingly, in nodular melanoma a higher percentage of melanoma cells with prominent nucleoli was observed. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, increased prevalence and amount, but not size of nucleoli, were connected with shorter cancer-specific and disease-free survival. (1) High

  20. Differential chemosensitivity to antifolate drugs between RAS and BRAF melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of the genetic background of cancer cells for the individual susceptibility to cancer treatments is increasingly apparent. In melanoma, the existence of a BRAF mutation is a main predictor for successful BRAF-targeted therapy. However, despite initial successes with these therapies, patients relapse within a year and have to move on to other therapies. Moreover, patients harbouring a wild type BRAF gene (including 25% with NRAS mutations) still require alternative treatment such as chemotherapy. Multiple genetic parameters have been associated with response to chemotherapy, but despite their high frequency in melanoma nothing is known about the impact of BRAF or NRAS mutations on the response to chemotherapeutic agents. Methods Using cell proliferation and DNA methylation assays, FACS analysis and quantitative-RT-PCR we have characterised the response of a panel of NRAS and BRAF mutant melanoma cell lines to various chemotherapy drugs, amongst them dacarbazine (DTIC) and temozolomide (TMZ) and DNA synthesis inhibitors. Results Although both, DTIC and TMZ act as alkylating agents through the same intermediate, NRAS and BRAF mutant cells responded differentially only to DTIC. Further analysis revealed that the growth-inhibitory effects mediated by DTIC were rather due to interference with nucleotide salvaging, and that NRAS mutant melanoma cells exhibit higher activity of the nucleotide synthesis enzymes IMPDH and TK1. Importantly, the enhanced ability of RAS mutant cells to use nucleotide salvaging resulted in resistance to DHFR inhibitors. Conclusion In summary, our data suggest that the genetic background in melanoma cells influences the response to inhibitors blocking de novo DNA synthesis, and that defining the RAS mutation status could be used to stratify patients for the use of antifolate drugs. PMID:24941944

  1. Mapping heterogeneity in patient-derived melanoma cultures by single-cell RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Loeffler-Wirth, Henry; Hopp, Lydia; Schadendorf, Dirk; Schartl, Manfred; Anderegg, Ulf; Camp, Gray; Treutlein, Barbara; Binder, Hans; Kunz, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological advances in single-cell genomics make it possible to analyze cellular heterogeneity of tumor samples. Here, we applied single-cell RNA-seq to measure the transcriptomes of 307 single cells cultured from three biopsies of three different patients with a BRAF/NRAS wild type, BRAF mutant/NRAS wild type and BRAF wild type/NRAS mutant melanoma metastasis, respectively. Analysis based on self-organizing maps identified sub-populations defined by multiple gene expression modules involved in proliferation, oxidative phosphorylation, pigmentation and cellular stroma. Gene expression modules had prognostic relevance when compared with gene expression data from published melanoma samples and patient survival data. We surveyed kinome expression patterns across sub-populations of the BRAF/NRAS wild type sample and found that CDK4 and CDK2 were consistently highly expressed in the majority of cells, suggesting that these kinases might be involved in melanoma progression. Treatment of cells with the CDK4 inhibitor palbociclib restricted cell proliferation to a similar, and in some cases greater, extent than MAPK inhibitors. Finally, we identified a low abundant sub-population in this sample that highly expressed a module containing ABC transporter ABCB5, surface markers CD271 and CD133, and multiple aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs). Patient-derived cultures of the BRAF mutant/NRAS wild type and BRAF wild type/NRAS mutant metastases showed more homogeneous single-cell gene expression patterns with gene expression modules for proliferation and ABC transporters. Taken together, our results describe an intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity in melanoma short-term cultures which might be relevant for patient survival, and suggest promising targets for new treatment approaches in melanoma therapy. PMID:27903987

  2. Interleukin-like EMT inducer regulates partial phenotype switching in MITF-low melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Ken; Dalton, Annamarie C.; Howley, Breege V.; McCall, Buckley J.; Yoshida, Akihiro; Diehl, J. Alan

    2017-01-01

    ILEI (FAM3C) is a secreted factor that contributes to the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a cell biological process that confers metastatic properties to a tumor cell. Initially, we found that ILEI mRNA is highly expressed in melanoma metastases but not in primary tumors, suggesting that ILEI contributes to the malignant properties of melanoma. While melanoma is not an epithelial cell-derived tumor and does not undergo a traditional EMT, melanoma undergoes a similar process known as phenotype switching in which high (micropthalmia-related transcription factor) MITF expressing (MITF-high) proliferative cells switch to a low expressing (MITF-low) invasive state. We observed that MITF-high proliferative cells express low levels of ILEI (ILEI-low) and MITF-low invasive cells express high levels of ILEI (ILEI-high). We found that inducing phenotype switching towards the MITF-low invasive state increases ILEI mRNA expression, whereas phenotype switching towards the MITF-high proliferative state decreases ILEI mRNA expression. Next, we used in vitro assays to show that knockdown of ILEI attenuates invasive potential but not MITF expression or chemoresistance. Finally, we used gene expression analysis to show that ILEI regulates several genes involved in the MITF-low invasive phenotype including JARID1B, HIF-2α, and BDNF. Gene set enrichment analysis suggested that ILEI-regulated genes are enriched for JUN signaling, a known regulator of the MITF-low invasive phenotype. In conclusion, we demonstrate that phenotype switching regulates ILEI expression, and that ILEI regulates partial phenotype switching in MITF-low melanoma cell lines. PMID:28545079

  3. Combination of amino acids reduces pigmentation in B16F0 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masago; Kawase, Ichiro; Ishii, Fumio

    2007-04-01

    Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, play significant roles in numerous physiological events in mammals. As the effects of amino acids on melanogenesis have yet to be demonstrated, the present study was conducted to identify whether amino acids, in particular alanine, glycine, isoleucine and leucine, influence melanogenesis in B16F0 melanoma cells. Glycine and L-isoleucine, but not D-isoleucine, reduced melanogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner without any morphological changes in B16F0 melanoma cells. L-Alanine and L-leucine, but not D-alanine and D-leucine, also reduced melanogenesis without any morphological changes in B16F0 melanoma cells. However these amino acids did not show a concentration-dependency. Combination of L-alanine and the other amino acids, particularly 4 amino acids combination, had an additive effect on the inhibition of melanogenesis compared with single treatment of L-alanine. None of the amino acids affected the activity of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanogenesis. These results suggest that L-alanine, glycine, L-isoleucine and L-leucine, but not the D-form amino acids, have a hypopigmenting effect in B16F0 melanoma cells, and that these effects are not due to the inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Combination of these 4 amino acids had the additive effect on hypopigmentation that was as similar as that of kojic acid.

  4. Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Vaseghi, Golnaz; Taki, Mohamad Javad; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2017-10-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma. Cannabis-based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients. Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. In the treatment group, melanoma (B1617) was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C. sativa extract. Cells with no treatment were considered as the control group, then study was followed by Quantitative RT-Real Time PCR assay. Relative gene expression was calculated by the ΔΔct method. Migration assay was used to evaluate cancer metastasis. Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls. C. sativa decreased tau and stathmin gene expression and cancer metastasis. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis-based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  5. Nitric oxide donor augments antineoplastic effects of arginine deprivation in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mayevska, Oksana; Chen, Oleh; Karatsai, Olena; Bobak, Yaroslav; Barska, Maryna; Lyniv, Liliana; Pavlyk, Iuliia; Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Igumentseva, Natalia; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta; Stasyk, Oleh

    2017-06-15

    Anticancer therapy based on recombinant arginine-degrading enzymes has been proposed for the treatment of several types of malignant cells deficient in arginine biosynthesis. One of the predicted side effects of such therapy is restricted bioavailability of nitric oxide as arginine catabolic product. Prolonged NO limitation may lead to unwanted disturbances in NO-dependent vasodilation, cardiovascular and immune systems. This problem can be overcome by co-supplementation with exogenous NO donor. However, NO may potentially counteract anticancer effects of therapy based on arginine deprivation. In this study, we evaluate for the first time the effects of an exogenous NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, on viability and metastatic properties of two human melanoma cell lines SK-MEL-28 and WM793 under arginine-deprived conditions. It was revealed that NO did not rescue melanoma cells from specific effects evoked by arginine deprivation, namely decreased viability and induction of apoptosis, dramatically reduced motility, invasiveness and clonogenic potential. Moreover, sodium nitroprusside co-treatment augmented several of these antineoplastic effects. We report that a combination of NO-donor and arginine deprivation strongly and specifically impaired metastatic behavior of melanoma cells. Thus, sodium nitroprusside can be considered as an adjuvant for the more efficient treatment of malignant melanoma and possibly other tumors with arginine-degrading enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Real-time photoacoustic flow cytography and photothermolysis of single circulating melanoma cells in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yun; Wang, Lidai; Shi, Junhui; Yao, Junjie; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ruiying; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-03-01

    Metastasis is responsible for as many as 90% of cancer-related deaths, and the deadliest skin cancer, melanoma, has a high propensity for metastasis. Since hematogenous spread of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is cancer's main route of metastasis, detecting and destroying CTCs can impede metastasis and improve patients' prognoses. Extensive studies employing exogenous agents to detect tumor-specific biomarkers and guide therapeutics to CTCs have achieved promising results, but biosafety remains a critical concern. Taking another approach, physical detection and destruction of CTCs is a safer way to evaluate and reduce metastasis risks. Melanoma cells strongly express melanosomes, providing a striking absorption contrast with the blood background in the red to near-infrared spectrum. Exploiting this intrinsic optical absorption contrast of circulating melanoma cells, we coupled dual-wavelength photoacoustic flow cytography with a nanosecond-pulsed laser killing mechanism that specifically targets melanoma CTCs. We have successfully achieved in vivo label-free imaging of rare single CTCs and CTC clusters in mice. Further, the photoacoustic signal from a CTC immediately hardware-triggers a lethal pinpoint laser irradiation that lyses it on the spot in a thermally confined manner. Our technology can facilitate early inhibition of metastasis by clearing circulating tumor cells from vasculature.

  7. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Promotes Autophagy to Facilitate Cisplatin Resistance in Melanoma Cells through the Activation of PARP1.

    PubMed

    Ge, Rui; Liu, Lin; Dai, Wei; Zhang, Weigang; Yang, Yuqi; Wang, Huina; Shi, Qiong; Guo, Sen; Yi, Xiuli; Wang, Gang; Gao, Tianwen; Luan, Qi; Li, Chunying

    2016-06-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA), a key protein in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, has been shown to promote the resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs by facilitating the DNA repair process. However, the role of XPA in the resistance of melanoma to platinum-based drugs like cisplatin is largely unknown. In this study, we initially found that XPA was expressed at higher levels in cisplatin-resistant melanoma cells than in cisplatin-sensitive ones. Furthermore, the knockdown of XPA not only increased cellular apoptosis but also inhibited cisplatin-induced autophagy, which rendered the melanoma cells more sensitive to cisplatin. Moreover, we discovered that the increased XPA in resistant melanoma cells promoted poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) activation and that the inhibition of PARP1 could attenuate the cisplatin-induced autophagy. Finally, we proved that the inhibition of PARP1 and the autophagy process made resistant melanoma cells more susceptible to cisplatin treatment. Our study shows that XPA can promote cell-protective autophagy in a DNA repair-independent manner by enhancing the activation of PARP1 in melanoma cells resistant to cisplatin and that the XPA-PARP1-mediated autophagy process can be targeted to overcome cisplatin resistance in melanoma chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Uveal Melanoma Cell Lines: Where do they come from? (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    PubMed

    Jager, Martine J; Magner, J Antonio Bermudez; Ksander, Bruce R; Dubovy, Sander R

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether some of the most often used uveal melanoma cell lines resemble their original tumor. Analysis of the literature, patient charts, histopathology, mutations, chromosome status, HLA type, and expression of melanocyte markers on cell lines and their primary tumors. We examined five cell lines and the primary tumors from which they were derived. Four of the five examined primary tumors were unusual: one occupied the orbit, two were recurrences after prior irradiation, and one developed in an eye with a nevus of Ota. One cell line did not contain the GNA11 mutation, but it was present in the primary tumor. Three of the primary tumors had monosomy 3 (two of these lacked BAP1 expression); however, all five cell lines showed disomy 3 and BAP1 expression. All of the cell lines had gain of 8q. Two cell lines lacked expression of melanocyte markers, although these were present in the corresponding primary tumor. All cell lines could be traced back to their original uveal melanoma. Four of the five primary tumors were unusual. Cell lines often differed from their primary tumor in chromosome status and melanocyte markers. However, their specific chromosome aberrations and capacity to continue proliferation characterize them as uveal melanoma cell lines.

  9. Expression of Tissue Factor by Melanoma Cells Promotes Efficient Hematogenous Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Barbara M.; Reisfeld, Ralph A.; Edgington, Thomas S.; Ruf, Wolfram

    1992-12-01

    Metastasis is a multistep process which requires highly adapted interactions of tumor cells with host target organs. Compared with nonmetastatic cells, metastatic human melanoma cells express 1000-fold higher levels of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of the plasma coagulation protease cascades. To explore whether TF may contribute to metastatic tumor dissemination, we analyzed the effect of specific inhibition of TF function on human melanoma metastasis in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using species-specific antibodies to TF, we demonstrate that initial adherence is insufficient for successful tumor cell implantation in a target organ. Rapid arrest of human tumor cells in the lungs of mice was not diminished by inhibition of TF. However, inhibition of TF receptor function and consequent reduction in local protease generation abolished prolonged adherence of tumor cells, resulting in significantly reduced numbers of tumor cells retained in the vasculature of the lungs. The growth of pulmonary metastases was also significantly inhibited by a blocking anti-TF monoclonal antibody and Fab fragments thereof, whereas a noninhibitory antibody lacked antimetastatic effects. Cell surface expression of functional TF thus contributes to melanoma progression by allowing metastatic cells to provide requisite signals for prolonged adhesive interactions and/or transmigration of tumor cells across the endothelium, resulting in successful metastatic tumor implantation.

  10. Uveal Melanoma Cell Lines: Where do they come from? (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Martine J.; Magner, J. Antonio Bermudez; Ksander, Bruce R.; Dubovy, Sander R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether some of the most often used uveal melanoma cell lines resemble their original tumor. Methods Analysis of the literature, patient charts, histopathology, mutations, chromosome status, HLA type, and expression of melanocyte markers on cell lines and their primary tumors. We examined five cell lines and the primary tumors from which they were derived. Results Four of the five examined primary tumors were unusual: one occupied the orbit, two were recurrences after prior irradiation, and one developed in an eye with a nevus of Ota. One cell line did not contain the GNA11 mutation, but it was present in the primary tumor. Three of the primary tumors had monosomy 3 (two of these lacked BAP1 expression); however, all five cell lines showed disomy 3 and BAP1 expression. All of the cell lines had gain of 8q. Two cell lines lacked expression of melanocyte markers, although these were present in the corresponding primary tumor. Conclusions All cell lines could be traced back to their original uveal melanoma. Four of the five primary tumors were unusual. Cell lines often differed from their primary tumor in chromosome status and melanocyte markers. However, their specific chromosome aberrations and capacity to continue proliferation characterize them as uveal melanoma cell lines. PMID:28018010

  11. Hypoxia increases the heterogeneity of melanoma cell populations and affects the response to vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Daniela; Lengger, Nina; Takáčová, Martina; Csaderova, Lucia; Bartosova, Maria; Breiteneder, Heimo; Pastorekova, Silvia; Hafner, Christine

    2016-04-01

    A hypoxic microenvironment is one of the predominant reasons for incomplete response to melanoma treatment. Vemurafenib, which targets the mutated BRAF-V600 kinase, improves melanoma patient survival, however, resistance invariably develops. The present study evaluated the effect of hypoxia on three BRAF-V600E mutant melanoma cell lines, M14, A375 and 518A2, treated with vemurafenib. Compared with the other two cell lines, hypoxic vemurafenib-treated A375 cells exhibited an enhanced cell proliferation rate and migratory capacity compared with normoxic vemurafenib-treated A375 cells. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that the expression levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)1α and carbonic anhydrase IX were reduced in vemurafenib‑treated M14 and 518A2 cells, however, not in A375 cells. The expression levels of the mitogen‑activated protein kinase, Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription, and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3‑kinase signaling pathway proteins revealed a cell‑type specific response to vemurafenib and hypoxia. Knockdown experiments of HIF1α performed in hypoxic A375 cells decreased the expression of phosphorylated (p‑)protein kinase B, which was restored following vemurafenib treatment, and increased the expression of p‑extracellular‑signal‑regulated kinases. Therefore, three melanoma cell lines responded to vemurafenib under hypoxia in a cell type‑specific manner, suggesting that a subset of cells provides a treatment-resistant pool, from which disease relapse may originate. These data confirmed that vemurafenib may be successful in treating the proliferating cells, whereas the non‑proliferating subpopulation must be addressed by a combination of vemurafenib with other treatment strategies.

  12. COX-2 expression positively correlates with PD-L1 expression in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Botti, Gerardo; Fratangelo, Federica; Cerrone, Margherita; Liguori, Giuseppina; Cantile, Monica; Anniciello, Anna Maria; Scala, Stefania; D'Alterio, Crescenzo; Trimarco, Chiara; Ianaro, Angela; Cirino, Giuseppe; Caracò, Corrado; Colombino, Maria; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Pepe, Stefano; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Sabbatino, Francesco; Scognamiglio, Giosuè

    2017-02-23

    The resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for the treatment of melanoma have prompted investigators to implement novel clinical trials which combine immunotherapy with different treatment modalities. Moreover is also important to investigate the mechanisms which regulate the dynamic expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells and PD-1 on T cells in order to identify predictive biomarkers of response. COX-2 is currently investigated as a major player of tumor progression in several type of malignancies including melanoma. In the present study we investigated the potential relationship between COX-2 and PD-L1 expression in melanoma. Tumor samples obtained from primary melanoma lesions and not matched lymph node metastases were analyzed for both PD-L1 and COX-2 expression by IHC analysis. Status of BRAF and NRAS mutations was analyzed by sequencing and PCR. Co-localization of PD-L1 and COX-2 expression was analyzed by double fluorescence staining. Lastly the BRAF V600E A375 and NRAS Q61R SK-MEL-2 melanoma cell lines were used to evaluate the effect of COX-2 inhibition by celecoxib on expression of PD-L1 in vitro. BRAF V600E/V600K and NRAS Q61R/Q61L were detected in 57.8 and 8.9% of the metastatic lesions, and in 65.9 and 6.8% of the primary tumors, respectively. PD-L1 and COX-2 expression were heterogeneously expressed in both primary melanoma lesions and not matched lymph node metastases. A significantly lower number of PD-L1 negative lesions was found in primary tumors as compared to not matched metastatic lesions (P = 0.002). COX-2 expression significantly correlated with PD-L1 expression in both primary (P = 0.001) and not matched metastatic (P = 0.048) lesions. Furthermore, in melanoma tumors, cancer cells expressing a higher levels of COX-2 also co-expressed a higher level of PD-L1. Lastly, inhibition of COX-2 activity by celecoxib down-regulated the expression of PD-L1 in both BRAF V600E A375 and NRAS Q61R SK-MEL-2 melanoma cell lines. COX-2 expression correlates

  13. Effective adoptive transfer of haploidentical tumor-specific T cells in B16-melanoma bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Nai-peng; Xie, Shao-jian; Han, Jin-sheng; Ma, Zhen-feng; Chen, Bao-ping; Cai, Jian-hui

    2012-03-01

    Adoptive transfer of allogeneic tumor-specific T cells often results in severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here, we sought to maximize graft-versus-tumor and minimize GVHD by using haploidentical T cells in pre-irradiated B16-melanoma bearing mice. C57BL/6 mice bearing B16-melanoma tumors were irradiated with 0, 5, or 7 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), or 7 Gy TBI plus bone marrow transplantation. Tumor areas were measured every 3 days to assess the influence of irradiation treatment on tumor regression. B16-melanoma bearing mice were irradiated with 7 Gy TBI; sera and spleens were harvested at days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 after irradiation. White blood cell levels were measured and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-b1) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels in serum were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry were performed to test TGF-b1, IL-10 and Foxp3 mRNA levels and the proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells (Tregs) in spleens. B16-melanoma bearing C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with 7 Gy TBI followed by syngeneic (Syn1/Syn2) or haploidentical (Hap1/Hap2), dendritic cell-induced cytotoxic T lymphocytes (DC-CTLs) treatment, tumor areas and system GVHD were observed every 3 days. Mice were killed 21 days after the DC-CTLs adoptive transfer; histologic analyses of eyes, skin, liver, lungs, and intestine were then performed. Irradiation with 7 Gy TBI on the B16-melanoma-bearing mice did not influence tumor regression compared to the control group; however, it down-regulated the proportion of Tregs in spleens and the TGF-b1 and IL-10 levels in sera and spleens, suggesting inhibition of autoimmunity and intervention of tumor microenvironment. Adoptive transfer of haploidentical DC-CTLs significantly inhibited B16-melanoma growth. GVHD assessment and histology analysis showed no significant difference among the groups. Adoptive transfer of

  14. B-Raf inhibitor vemurafenib in combination with temozolomide and fotemustine in the killing response of malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Roos, Wynand P; Quiros, Steve; Krumm, Andrea; Merz, Stephanie; Switzeny, Olivier Jérôme; Christmann, Markus; Loquai, Carmen; Kaina, Bernd

    2014-12-30

    In the treatment of metastatic melanoma, a highly therapy-refractory cancer, alkylating agents are used and, for the subgroup of BRAFV600E cancers, the B-Raf inhibitor vemurafenib. Although vemurafenib is initially beneficial, development of drug resistance occurs leading to tumor relapse, which necessitates the requirement for combined or sequential therapy with other drugs, including genotoxic alkylating agents. This leads to the question whether vemurafenib and alkylating agents act synergistically and whether chronic vemurafenib treatment alters the melanoma cell response to alkylating agents. Here we show that a) BRAFV600E melanoma cells are killed by vemurafenib, driving apoptosis, b) BRAFV600E melanoma cells are neither more resistant nor sensitive to temozolomide/fotemustine than non-mutant cells, c) combined treatment with vemurafenib plus temozolomide or fotemustine has an additive effect on cell kill, d) acquired vemurafenib resistance of BRAFV600E melanoma cells does not affect MGMT, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2 and MLH1, nor does it affect the resistance to temozolomide and fotemustine, e) metastatic melanoma biopsies obtained from patients prior to and after vemurafenib treatment did not show a change in the MGMT promoter methylation status and MGMT expression level. The data suggest that consecutive treatment with vemurafenib and alkylating drugs is a reasonable strategy for metastatic melanoma treatment.

  15. B-Raf inhibitor vemurafenib in combination with temozolomide and fotemustine in the killing response of malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Andrea; Merz, Stephanie; Switzeny, Olivier Jérôme; Christmann, Markus; Loquai, Carmen; Kaina, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    In the treatment of metastatic melanoma, a highly therapy-refractory cancer, alkylating agents are used and, for the subgroup of BRAFV600E cancers, the B-Raf inhibitor vemurafenib. Although vemurafenib is initially beneficial, development of drug resistance occurs leading to tumor relapse, which necessitates the requirement for combined or sequential therapy with other drugs, including genotoxic alkylating agents. This leads to the question whether vemurafenib and alkylating agents act synergistically and whether chronic vemurafenib treatment alters the melanoma cell response to alkylating agents. Here we show that a) BRAFV600E melanoma cells are killed by vemurafenib, driving apoptosis, b) BRAFV600E melanoma cells are neither more resistant nor sensitive to temozolomide/fotemustine than non-mutant cells, c) combined treatment with vemurafenib plus temozolomide or fotemustine has an additive effect on cell kill, d) acquired vemurafenib resistance of BRAFV600E melanoma cells does not affect MGMT, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2 and MLH1, nor does it affect the resistance to temozolomide and fotemustine, e) metastatic melanoma biopsies obtained from patients prior to and after vemurafenib treatment did not show a change in the MGMT promoter methylation status and MGMT expression level. The data suggest that consecutive treatment with vemurafenib and alkylating drugs is a reasonable strategy for metastatic melanoma treatment. PMID:25557167

  16. uPA/uPAR system activation drives a glycolytic phenotype in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Laurenzana, Anna; Chillà, Anastasia; Luciani, Cristina; Peppicelli, Silvia; Biagioni, Alessio; Bianchini, Francesca; Tenedini, Elena; Torre, Eugenio; Mocali, Alessandra; Calorini, Lido; Margheri, Francesca; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario

    2017-09-15

    In this manuscript, we show the involvement of the uPA/uPAR system in the regulation of aerobic glycolysis of melanoma cells. uPAR over-expression in human melanoma cells controls an invasive and glycolytic phenotype in normoxic conditions. uPAR down-regulation by siRNA or its uncoupling from integrins, and hence from integrin-linked tyrosine kinase receptors (IL-TKRs), by an antagonist peptide induced a striking inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/HIF1α pathway, resulting into impairment of glucose uptake, decrease of several glycolytic enzymes and of PKM2, a checkpoint that controls metabolism of cancer cells. Further, binding of uPA to uPAR regulates expression of molecules that govern cell invasion, including extracellular matrix metallo-proteinases inducer (EMPPRIN) and enolase, a glycolytyc enzyme that also serves as a plasminogen receptor, thus providing a common denominator between tumor metabolism and phenotypic invasive features. Such effects depend on the α5β1-integrin-mediated uPAR connection with EGFR in melanoma cells with engagement of the PI3K-mTOR-HIFα pathway. HIF-1α trans-activates genes whose products mediate tumor invasion and glycolysis, thus providing the common denominator between melanoma metabolism and its invasive features. These findings unveil a unrecognized interaction between the invasion-related uPAR and IL-TKRs in the control of glycolysis and disclose a new pharmacological target (i.e., uPAR/IL-TKRs axis) for the therapy of melanoma. © 2017 UICC.

  17. Apolar and polar transitions drive the conversion between amoeboid and mesenchymal shapes in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Sam; Sadok, Amine; Bousgouni, Vicky; Bakal, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma cells can adopt two functionally distinct forms, amoeboid and mesenchymal, which facilitates their ability to invade and colonize diverse environments during the metastatic process. Using quantitative imaging of single living tumor cells invading three-dimensional collagen matrices, in tandem with unsupervised computational analysis, we found that melanoma cells can switch between amoeboid and mesenchymal forms via two different routes in shape space—an apolar and polar route. We show that whereas particular Rho-family GTPases are required for the morphogenesis of amoeboid and mesenchymal forms, others are required for transitions via the apolar or polar route and not amoeboid or mesenchymal morphogenesis per se. Altering the transition rates between particular routes by depleting Rho-family GTPases can change the morphological heterogeneity of cell populations. The apolar and polar routes may have evolved in order to facilitate conversion between amoeboid and mesenchymal forms, as cells are either searching for, or attracted to, particular migratory cues, respectively. PMID:26310441

  18. The selective cytotoxicity of new triazene compounds to human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana; Santos, Fábio; Gaspar, Maria Manuela; Calado, Susana; Pereira, João D; Mendes, Eduarda; Francisco, Ana Paula; Perry, Maria Jesus

    2017-08-01

    Metastatic melanoma still remains one the most difficult cancers to overcome. The aim of our research was the design of anti-tumour triazene compounds 3 for application to a melanoma-specific therapy. The strategy exploits the unique enzyme pathway of melanin biosynthesis for conversion of non-toxic prodrugs into toxic drugs in the melanoma cell. The compounds 3 were designed by coupling two active moieties, the alkylating triazenes and different tyrosinase substrates. All compounds 3 revealed to be chemically stable in isotonic phosphate buffer (PBS) at physiologic pH (t ½ ≥48h), and most of them showed to be slowly hydrolysed in human plasma (1.5≤t ½ (h)≤161). Compounds 3c-n revealed to be excellent tyrosinase substrates (0.74≤t ½ (min)≤6) with the best tyrosinase substrate 3l releasing MMT 45s after tyrosinase activation. Structure-activity relationship studies allowed the identification of the better structural features for enzyme affinity. Furthermore, the derivatives 3l and 3m showed cell selectivity with significant cytotoxic effects (IC 50 values of 46-65μM) against melanoma cell lines with tyrosinase overexpression MNT-1 and B16F10. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Imidazopyridine-fused [1,3]-diazepinones part 2: Structure-activity relationships and antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bellet, Virginie; Lichon, Laure; Arama, Dominique P; Gallud, Audrey; Lisowski, Vincent; Maillard, Ludovic T; Garcia, Marcel; Martinez, Jean; Masurier, Nicolas

    2017-01-05

    We recently described a pyrido-imidazodiazepinone derivative which could be a promising hit compound for the development of new drugs acting against melanoma cells. In this study, a series of 28 novel pyrido-imidazodiazepinones were synthesized and screened for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against the melanoma MDA-MB-435 cell line. Among the derivatives, seven of them showed 50% growth inhibitory activity at 1 μM concentration, and high selectivity against the melanoma cell line MDA-MB-435. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Ex vivo enrichment of circulating anti-tumor T cells from both cutaneous and ocular melanoma patients: clinical implications for adoptive cell transfer therapy.

    PubMed

    Mazzarella, Tonia; Cambiaghi, Valeria; Rizzo, Nathalie; Pilla, Lorenzo; Parolini, Danilo; Orsenigo, Elena; Colucci, Annalisa; Modorati, Giulio; Doglioni, Claudio; Parmiani, Giorgio; Maccalli, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been successfully used for adoptive cell transfer (ACT) immunotherapy; however, due to their scarce availability, this therapy is possible for a limited fraction of cutaneous melanoma patients. We assessed whether an effective protocol for ex vivo T-cell expansion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), suitable for ACT of both cutaneous and ocular melanoma patients, could be identified. PBMCs from both cutaneous and ocular melanoma patients were stimulated in vitro with autologous, irradiated melanoma cells (mixed lymphocyte tumor cell culture; MLTCs) in the presence of IL-2 and IL-15 followed by the rapid expansion protocol (REP). The functional activity of these T lymphocytes was characterized and compared with that of TILs. In addition, the immune infiltration in vivo of ocular melanoma lesions was analyzed. An efficient in vitro MLTC expansion of melanoma reactive T cells was achieved from all PBMC's samples obtained in 7 cutaneous and ocular metastatic melanoma patients. Large numbers of melanoma-specific T cells could be obtained when the REP protocol was applied to these MLTCs. Most MLTCs were enriched in non-terminally differentiated T(EM) cells homogeneously expressing co-stimulatory molecules (e.g., NKG2D, CD28, CD134, CD137). A similar pattern of anti-tumor activity, in association with a more variable expression of co-stimulatory molecules, was detected on short-term in vitro cultured TILs isolated from the same patients. In these ocular melanoma patients, we observed an immune infiltrate with suppressive characteristics and a low rate of ex vivo growing TILs (28.5% of our cases). Our MLTC protocol overcomes this limitation, allowing the isolation of T lymphocytes with effector functions even in these patients. Thus, anti-tumor circulating PBMC-derived T cells could be efficiently isolated from melanoma patients by our novel ex vivo enrichment protocol. This protocol appears suitable for ACT studies

  1. Cell cycle-tailored targeting of metastatic melanoma: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Haass, Nikolas K; Gabrielli, Brian

    2017-07-01

    The advent of targeted therapies of metastatic melanoma, such as MAPK pathway inhibitors and immune checkpoint antagonists, has turned dermato-oncology from the "bad guy" to the "poster child" in oncology. Current targeted therapies are effective, although here is a clear need to develop combination therapies to delay the onset of resistance. Many antimelanoma drugs impact on the cell cycle but are also dependent on certain cell cycle phases resulting in cell cycle phase-specific drug insensitivity. Here, we raise the question: Have combination trials been abandoned prematurely as ineffective possibly only because drug scheduling was not optimized? Firstly, if both drugs of a combination hit targets in the same melanoma cell, cell cycle-mediated drug insensitivity should be taken into account when planning combination therapies, timing of dosing schedules and choice of drug therapies in solid tumors. Secondly, if the combination is designed to target different tumor cell subpopulations of a heterogeneous tumor, one drug effective in a particular subpopulation should not negatively impact on the other drug targeting another subpopulation. In addition to the role of cell cycle stage and progression on standard chemotherapeutics and targeted drugs, we discuss the utilization of cell cycle checkpoint control defects to enhance chemotherapeutic responses or as targets themselves. We propose that cell cycle-tailored targeting of metastatic melanoma could further improve therapy outcomes and that our real-time cell cycle imaging 3D melanoma spheroid model could be utilized as a tool to measure and design drug scheduling approaches. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Non-thermal Plasma Induces Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells via Production of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Sensenig, Rachel; Kalghatgi, Sameer; Cerchar, Ekaterina; Fridman, Gregory; Shereshevsky, Alexey; Torabi, Behzad; Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Podolsky, Erica; Fridman, Alexander; Friedman, Gary; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane; Brooks, Ari D.

    2012-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma may provide a novel approach to treat malignancies via induction of apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of DBD plasma to induce apoptosis in melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were exposed to plasma at doses that did not induce necrosis, and cell viability and apoptotic activity were evaluated by Trypan blue exclusion test, Annexin-V/PI staining, caspase-3 cleavage, and TUNEL® analysis. Trypan blue staining revealed that non-thermal plasma treatment significantly decreased the viability of cells in a dose-dependent manner 3 and 24 h after plasma treatment. Annexin-V/PI staining revealed a significant increase in apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.001). Caspase-3 cleavage was observed 48 h post-plasma treatment at a dose of 15 J/cm2. TUNEL® analysis of plasma-treated cells demonstrated an increase in apoptosis at 48 and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.001) at a dose of 15 J/cm2. Pre-treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, significantly decreased apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 5 and 15 J/cm2. Plasma treatment induces apoptosis in melanoma cells through a pathway that appears to be dependent on production of intracellular ROS. DBD plasma production of intracellular ROS leads to dose-dependent DNA damage in melanoma cells, detected by γ-H2AX, which was completely abrogated by pre-treating cells with ROS scavenger, NAC. Plasma-induced DNA damage in turn may lead to the observed plasma-induced apoptosis. Since plasma is non-thermal, it may be used to selectively treat malignancies. PMID:21046465

  3. Cytotoxicity of citral against melanoma cells: The involvement of oxidative stress generation and cell growth protein reduction.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Larissa Juliani; Marinello, Poliana Camila; Panis, Carolina; Fagundes, Tatiane Renata; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; de-Freitas-Junior, Julio Cesar Madureira; Cecchini, Rubens; Cecchini, Alessandra Lourenço; Luiz, Rodrigo Cabral

    2017-03-01

    Citral is a natural compound that has shown cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects on breast and hematopoietic cancer cells; however, there are few studies on melanoma cells. Oxidative stress is known to be involved in all stages of melanoma development and is able to modulate intracellular pathways related to cellular proliferation and death. In this study, we hypothesize that citral exerts its cytotoxic effect on melanoma cells by the modulation of cellular oxidative status and/or intracellular signaling. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of citral on B16F10 murine melanoma cells evaluating its effects on cellular oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell death, and important signaling pathways, as these pathways, namely, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), AKT, and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. The p53 and nuclear factor kappa B were also investigated due to their ability to respond to intracellular stress. We observed that citral exerted antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects in B16F10; induced oxidative stress, DNA lesions, and p53 nuclear translocation; and reduced nitric oxide levels and nuclear factor kappa B, ERK1/2, and AKT. To investigate citral specificity, we used non-neoplastic human and murine cells, HaCaT (human skin keratinocytes) and NIH-3T3 cells (murine fibroblasts), and observed that although citral effects were not specific for cancer cells, non-neoplastic cells were more resistant to citral than B16F10. These findings highlight the potential clinical utility of citral in melanoma, with a mechanism of action involving the oxidative stress generation, nitric oxide depletion, and interference in signaling pathways related to cell proliferation.

  4. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of melatonin analogues on melanoma and breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Dugnani, Silvana; Calastretti, Angela; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Canti, Gianfranco; Scaglione, Francesco; Bevilacqua, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin plays different physiological functions ranging from the regulation of circadian rhythms to tumor inhibition, owing to its antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anti-aging properties. Due to its pleiotropic functions, melatonin has been shown to elicit cytoprotective processes in normal cells and trigger pro-apoptotic signals in cancer cells. The therapeutic potential of melatonin analogues prompted us to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of new melatonin derivatives and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The experiments revealed that the new melatonin analogues inhibited the growth of melanoma and breast cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, our results indicated that melatonin derivative UCM 1037 could induce apoptosis in melanoma and breast cancer cells, as well as cell necrosis, in MCF-7. Together, apoptosis and necrosis could be two possible mechanisms to explain the cytotoxic effect of the melatonin analogue against cancer cells. The suppression of tumor growth by the melatonin analogues was further demonstrated in vivo in a xenograft mice model. A decrease in the activation of MAPK pathway was observed in all cancer cells following UCM 1037 treatment. Overall, this study describes a promising antitumor compound showing antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity in melanoma and breast cancer cells. PMID:28978121

  5. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of melatonin analogues on melanoma and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Giuliana; Lucini, Valeria; Dugnani, Silvana; Calastretti, Angela; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Canti, Gianfranco; Scaglione, Francesco; Bevilacqua, Annamaria

    2017-09-15

    Melatonin plays different physiological functions ranging from the regulation of circadian rhythms to tumor inhibition, owing to its antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anti-aging properties. Due to its pleiotropic functions, melatonin has been shown to elicit cytoprotective processes in normal cells and trigger pro-apoptotic signals in cancer cells. The therapeutic potential of melatonin analogues prompted us to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of new melatonin derivatives and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The experiments revealed that the new melatonin analogues inhibited the growth of melanoma and breast cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, our results indicated that melatonin derivative UCM 1037 could induce apoptosis in melanoma and breast cancer cells, as well as cell necrosis, in MCF-7. Together, apoptosis and necrosis could be two possible mechanisms to explain the cytotoxic effect of the melatonin analogue against cancer cells. The suppression of tumor growth by the melatonin analogues was further demonstrated in vivo in a xenograft mice model. A decrease in the activation of MAPK pathway was observed in all cancer cells following UCM 1037 treatment. Overall, this study describes a promising antitumor compound showing antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity in melanoma and breast cancer cells.

  6. DNA methylation and histone acetylation regulate the expression of MGMT and chemosensitivity to temozolomide in malignant melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Ping; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Yang, Ming; Xu, Xi-Feng; Feng, Shou-Xin; Liu, Yan-Qun; Jiang, Guan

    2016-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive, highly lethal dermatological malignancy. Chemoresistance and rapid metastasis limit the curative effect of multimodal therapies like surgery or chemotherapy. The suicide enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) removes adducts from the O6-position of guanine to repair DNA damage. High MGMT expression is associated with resistance to therapy in melanoma. However, it is unknown if MGMT is regulated by DNA methylation or histone acetylation in melanoma. We examined the effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A alone or in combination on MGMT expression and promoter methylation and histone acetylation in A375, MV3, and M14 melanoma cells. This study demonstrates that MGMT expression, CpG island methylation, and histone acetylation vary between melanoma cell lines. Combined treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and Trichostatin A led to reexpression of MGMT, indicating that DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are associated with silencing of MGMT in melanoma. This study provides information on the role of epigenetic modifications in malignant melanoma that may enable the development of new strategies for treating malignant melanoma.

  7. Favorable overall survival in stage III melanoma patients after adjuvant dendritic cell vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bol, Kalijn F; Aarntzen, Erik H J G; Hout, Florentien E M in 't; Schreibelt, Gerty; Creemers, Jeroen H A; Lesterhuis, W Joost; Gerritsen, Winald R; Grunhagen, Dirk J; Verhoef, Cornelis; Punt, Cornelis J A; Bonenkamp, Johannes J; de Wilt, Johannes H W; Figdor, Carl G; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma patients with regional metastatic disease are at high risk for recurrence and metastatic disease, despite radical lymph node dissection (RLND). We investigated the immunologic response and clinical outcome to adjuvant dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in melanoma patients with regional metastatic disease who underwent RLND with curative intent. In this retrospective study, 78 melanoma patients with regional lymph node metastasis who underwent RLND received autologous DCs loaded with gp100 and tyrosinase and were analyzed for functional tumor-specific T cell responses in skin-test infiltrating lymphocytes. The study shows that adjuvant DC vaccination in melanoma patients with regional lymph node metastasis is safe and induced functional tumor-specific T cell responses in 71% of the patients. The presence of functional tumor-specific T cells was correlated with a better 2-year overall survival (OS) rate. OS was significantly higher after adjuvant DC vaccination compared to 209 matched controls who underwent RLND without adjuvant DC vaccination, 63.6 mo vs. 31.0 mo (p = 0.018; hazard ratio 0.59; 95%CI 0.42–0.84). Five-year survival rate increased from 38% to 53% (p < 0.01). In summary, in melanoma patients with regional metastatic disease, who are at high risk for recurrence and metastatic disease after RLND, adjuvant DC vaccination is well tolerated. It induced functional tumor-specific immune responses in the majority of patients and these were related to clinical outcome. OS was significantly higher compared to matched controls. A randomized clinical trial is needed to prospectively validate the efficacy of DC vaccination in the adjuvant setting. PMID:26942068

  8. CTLA-4 blockade plus adoptive T cell transfer promotes optimal melanoma immunity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mahvi, David A.; Meyers, Justin V.; Tatar, Andrew J.; Contreras, Amanda; Suresh, M.; Leverson, Glen E.; Sen, Siddhartha; Cho, Clifford S.

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of advanced melanoma have relied on strategies that augment the responsiveness of endogenous tumor-specific T cell populations (e.g., CTLA-4 blockade-mediated checkpoint inhibition) or introduce exogenously-prepared tumor-specific T cell populations (e.g., adoptive cell transfer). Although both approaches have shown considerable promise, response rates to these therapies remain suboptimal. We hypothesized that a combinatorial approach to immunotherapy using both CTLA-4 blockade and non-lymphodepletional adoptive cell transfer could offer additive therapeutic benefit. C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with syngeneic B16F10 melanoma tumors transfected to express low levels of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus peptide GP33 (B16GP33), and treated with no immunotherapy, CTLA-4 blockade, adoptive cell transfer, or combination immunotherapy of CTLA-4 blockade with adoptive cell transfer. Combination immunotherapy resulted in optimal control of B16GP33 melanoma tumors. Combination immunotherapy promoted a stronger local immune response reflected by enhanced tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte populations, as well as a stronger systemic immune responses reflected by more potent tumor antigen-specific T cell activity in splenocytes. In addition, whereas both CTLA-4 blockade and combination immunotherapy were able to promote long-term immunity against B16GP33 tumors, only combination immunotherapy was capable of promoting immunity against parental B16F10 tumors as well. Our findings suggest that a combinatorial approach using CTLA-4 blockade with non-lymphodepletional adoptive cell transfer may promote additive endogenous and exogenous T cell activities that enable greater therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25658614

  9. Antiproliferative Activity of Cyanophora paradoxa Pigments in Melanoma, Breast and Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baudelet, Paul-Hubert; Gagez, Anne-Laure; Bérard, Jean-Baptiste; Juin, Camille; Bridiau, Nicolas; Kaas, Raymond; Thiéry, Valérie; Cadoret, Jean-Paul; Picot, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa (Cp) was chemically investigated to identify pigments efficiently inhibiting malignant melanoma, mammary carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma cells growth. Cp water and ethanol extracts significantly inhibited the growth of the three cancer cell lines in vitro, at 100 µg·mL−1. Flash chromatography of the Cp ethanol extract, devoid of c-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, enabled the collection of eight fractions, four of which strongly inhibited cancer cells growth at 100 µg·mL−1. Particularly, two fractions inhibited more than 90% of the melanoma cells growth, one inducing apoptosis in the three cancer cells lines. The detailed analysis of Cp pigment composition resulted in the discrimination of 17 molecules, ten of which were unequivocally identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Pheophorbide a, β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin were the three main pigments or derivatives responsible for the strong cytotoxicity of Cp fractions in cancer cells. These data point to Cyanophora paradoxa as a new microalgal source to purify potent anticancer pigments, and demonstrate for the first time the strong antiproliferative activity of zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin in melanoma cells. PMID:24189278

  10. Induction of melanogenesis by rapamycin in human MNT-1 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hah, Young-Sool; Cho, Hee Young; Lim, Tae-Yeon; Park, Dong Hwa; Kim, Hwa Mi; Yoon, Jimi; Kim, Jin Gu; Kim, Chi Yeon; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2012-05-01

    Melanogenesis is one of the characteristic parameters of differentiation in melanocytes and melanoma cells. Specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), such as wortmannin and LY294002, stimulate melanin production in mouse and in human melanoma cells, suggesting that PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) might be involved in the regulation of melanogenesis. The involvement of the mTOR pathway in regulating melanogenesis was examined using human MNT-1 melanoma cells, and the effects of the potent inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin, in the presence or absence of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) were evaluated. In cells treated with rapamycin, cell viability, melanin content, and tyrosinase (TYR) activity were measured and compared with untreated controls. Protein levels of TYR, tyrosinase-related protein (TYRP)-1, TYRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were also analyzed by Western blot. In rapamycin-treated cells, the melanin content increased concomitantly with an elevation in TYR activity, which plays a major role in melanogenesis. There was also an up-regulation of TYR, TYRP-1, and MITF proteins. Combined treatment with rapamycin or wortmannin and α-MSH increased melanogenesis more strongly than α-MSH alone. Rapamycin-induced melanin formation may be mediated through the up-regulation of TYR protein and activity. Furthermore, rapamycin and wortmannin, inhibitors of mTOR and PI3K, respectively, have co-stimulatory effects with α-MSH in enhancing melanogenesis in melanocyte cells.

  11. Identification of DRG-1 As a Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized by CD4+ Th1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kiniwa, Yukiko; Li, Jiang; Wang, Mingjun; Sun, Chuang; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Wang, Rong-Fu; Wang, Helen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of cancer immunotherapy using tumor antigens recognized by CD8+ T cells. However, the overall immune responses induced by these antigens are too weak and transient to induce tumor regression in the majority of patients who received immunization. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4+ T helper (Th) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity. Therefore, the identification of MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens capable of stimulating CD4+ T cells may provide opportunities for developing effective cancer vaccines. To this end, we describe the identification of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG-1) as a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by HLA-DR11-restricted CD4+ Th1 cells. Epitope mapping analysis showed that the DRG1248-268 epitope of DRG-1 was required for T cell recognition. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that DRG-1 was highly expressed in melanoma cell lines but not in normal tissues. DRG-1 knockdown by lentiviral-based shRNA suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these data suggest that DRG-1 plays an important role in melanoma cell growth and transformation, indicating that DRG1 may represent a novel target for CD4+ T cell-mediated immunotherapy in melanoma. PMID:25993655

  12. Identification of DRG-1 As a Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized by CD4+ Th1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kiniwa, Yukiko; Li, Jiang; Wang, Mingjun; Sun, Chuang; Lee, Jeffrey E; Wang, Rong-Fu; Wang, Helen Y

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of cancer immunotherapy using tumor antigens recognized by CD8(+) T cells. However, the overall immune responses induced by these antigens are too weak and transient to induce tumor regression in the majority of patients who received immunization. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity. Therefore, the identification of MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens capable of stimulating CD4(+) T cells may provide opportunities for developing effective cancer vaccines. To this end, we describe the identification of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG-1) as a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by HLA-DR11-restricted CD4(+) Th1 cells. Epitope mapping analysis showed that the DRG1248-268 epitope of DRG-1 was required for T cell recognition. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that DRG-1 was highly expressed in melanoma cell lines but not in normal tissues. DRG-1 knockdown by lentiviral-based shRNA suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these data suggest that DRG-1 plays an important role in melanoma cell growth and transformation, indicating that DRG1 may represent a novel target for CD4(+) T cell-mediated immunotherapy in melanoma.

  13. Transcriptional Regulation of Seprase in Invasive Melanoma Cells by Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Tulley, Shaun; Chen, Wen-Tien

    2014-01-01

    The tumor invasive phenotype driven by seprase expression/activity has been widely examined in an array of malignant tumor cell types; however, very little is known about the transcriptional regulation of this critical protease. Seprase (also named fibroblast activation protein-α, antiplasmin-cleaving enzyme, and dipeptidyl prolyl peptidase 5) is expressed at high levels by stromal fibroblast, endothelial, and tumor cells in a variety of invasive tumors but is undetectable in the majority of normal adult tissues. To examine the transcriptional regulation of the gene, we cloned the human seprase promoter and demonstrated that endogenous seprase expression and exogenous seprase promoter activity are high in invasive melanoma cells but not in non-invasive melanoma cells/primary melanocytes. In addition, we identified a crucial TGF-β-responsive cis-regulatory element in the proximal seprase promoter region that enabled robust transcriptional activation of the gene. Treatment of metastatic but not normal/non-invasive cells with TGF-β1 caused a rapid and profound up-regulation of endogenous seprase mRNA, which coincided with an abolishment of the negative regulator c-Ski, and an increase in binding of Smad3/4 to the seprase promoter in vivo. Blocking TGF-β signaling in invasive melanoma cells through overexpression of c-Ski, chemically using SB-431542, or with a neutralizing antibody against TGF-β significantly reduced seprase mRNA levels. Strikingly, RNAi of seprase in invasive cells greatly diminished their invasive potential in vitro as did blocking TGF-β signaling using SB-431542. Altogether, we found that seprase is transcriptionally up-regulated in invasive melanoma cells via the canonical TGF-β signaling pathway, supporting the roles of both TGF-β and seprase in tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:24727589

  14. Limited genomic heterogeneity of circulating melanoma cells in advanced stage patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Carmen; Li, Julia; Luttgen, Madelyn S.; Kolatkar, Anand; Kendall, Jude T.; Flores, Edna; Topp, Zheng; Samlowski, Wolfram E.; McClay, Edward; Bethel, Kelly; Ferrone, Soldano; Hicks, James; Kuhn, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Purpose. Circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) constitute a potentially important representation of time-resolved tumor biology in patients. To date, genomic characterization of CMCs has been limited due to the lack of a robust methodology capable of identifying them in a format suitable for downstream characterization. Here, we have developed a methodology to detect intact CMCs that enables phenotypic, morphometric and genomic analysis at the single cell level. Experimental design. Blood samples from 40 metastatic melanoma patients and 10 normal blood donors were prospectively collected. A panel of 7 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was used to immunocytochemically label CMCs. Detection was performed by automated digital fluorescence microscopy and multi-parametric computational analysis. Individual CMCs were captured by micromanipulation for whole genome amplification and copy number variation (CNV) analysis. Results. Based on CSPG4 expression and nuclear size, 1-250 CMCs were detected in 22 (55%) of 40 metastatic melanoma patients (0.5-371.5 CMCs ml-1). Morphometric analysis revealed that CMCs have a broad spectrum of morphologies and sizes but exhibit a relatively homogeneous nuclear size that was on average 1.5-fold larger than that of surrounding PBMCs. CNV analysis of single CMCs identified deletions of CDKN2A and PTEN, and amplification(s) of TERT, BRAF, KRAS and MDM2. Furthermore, novel chromosomal amplifications in chr12, 17 and 19 were also found. Conclusions. Our findings show that CSPG4 expressing CMCs can be found in the majority of advanced melanoma patients. High content analysis of this cell population may contribute to the design of effective personalized therapies in patients with melanoma.

  15. Multiple Isoforms of ANRIL in Melanoma Cells: Structural Complexity Suggests Variations in Processing.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Debina; Oghabian, Ali; Bodiyabadu, Pasani K; Joseph, Wayne R; Leung, Euphemia Y; Finlay, Graeme J; Baguley, Bruce C; Askarian-Amiri, Marjan E

    2017-06-27

    The long non-coding RNA ANRIL , antisense to the CDKN2B locus, is transcribed from a gene that encompasses multiple disease-associated polymorphisms. Despite the identification of multiple isoforms of ANRIL , expression of certain transcripts has been found to be tissue-specific and the characterisation of ANRIL transcripts remains incomplete. Several functions have been associated with ANRIL . In our judgement, studies on ANRIL functionality are premature pending a more complete appreciation of the profusion of isoforms. We found differential expression of ANRIL exons, which indicates that multiple isoforms exist in melanoma cells. In addition to linear isoforms, we identified circular forms of ANRIL ( circANRIL ). Further characterisation of circANR IL in two patient-derived metastatic melanoma cell lines (NZM7 and NZM37) revealed the existence of a rich assortment of circular isoforms. Moreover, in the two melanoma cell lines investigated, the complements of circANRIL isoforms were almost completely different. Novel exons were also discovered. We also found the family of linear ANRIL was enriched in the nucleus, whilst the circular isoforms were enriched in the cytoplasm and they differed markedly in stability. With respect to the variable processing of circANRIL species, bioinformatic analysis indicated that intronic Arthrobacter luteus (Alu) restriction endonuclease inverted repeats and exon skipping were not involved in selection of back-spliced exon junctions. Based on our findings, we hypothesise that " ANRIL " has wholly distinct dual sets of functions in melanoma. This reveals the dynamic nature of the locus and constitutes a basis for investigating the functions of ANRIL in melanoma.

  16. The activation of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) is implicated in melanoma cell malignant transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Serafino, A.; Balestrieri, E.; Pierimarchi, P.

    2009-03-10

    Melanoma development is a multi-step process arising from a series of genetic and epigenetic events. Although the sequential stages involved in progression from melanocytes to malignant melanoma are clearly defined, our current understanding of the mechanisms leading to melanoma onset is still incomplete. Growing evidence show that the activation of endogenous retroviral sequences might be involved in transformation of melanocytes as well as in the increased ability of melanoma cells to escape immune surveillance. Here we show that human melanoma cells in vitro undergo a transition from adherent to a more malignant, non-adherent phenotype when exposed to stress conditions. Melanoma-derivedmore » non-adherent cells are characterized by an increased proliferative potential and a decreased expression of both HLA class I molecules and Melan-A/MART-1 antigen, similarly to highly malignant cells. These phenotypic and functional modifications are accompanied by the activation of human endogenous retrovirus K expression (HERV-K) and massive production of viral-like particles. Down-regulation of HERV-K expression by RNA interference prevents the transition from the adherent to the non-adherent growth phenotype in low serum. These results implicate HERV-K in at least some critical steps of melanoma progression.« less

  17. Primary Tr1 cells from metastatic melanoma eliminate tumor-promoting macrophages through granzyme B- and perforin-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongxia; Zhang, Ping; Kong, Xue; Hou, Xianglian; Zhao, Li; Li, Tianhang; Yuan, Xiaozhou; Fu, Hongjun

    2017-04-01

    In malignant melanoma, tumor-associated macrophages play multiple roles in promoting tumor growth, such as inducing the transformation of melanocytes under ultraviolet irradiation, increasing angiogenesis in melanomas, and suppressing antitumor immunity. Because granzyme B- and perforin-expressing Tr1 cells could specifically eliminate antigen-presenting cells of myeloid origin, we examined whether Tr1 cells in melanoma could eliminate tumor-promoting macrophages and how the interaction between Tr1 cells and macrophages could affect the growth of melanoma cells. Tr1 cells were characterized by high interleukin 10 secretion and low Foxp3 expression and were enriched in the CD4 + CD49b + LAG-3 + T-cell fraction. Macrophages derived from peripheral blood monocytes in the presence of modified melanoma-conditioned media demonstrated tumor-promoting capacity, exemplified by improving the proliferation of cocultured A375 malignant melanoma cells. But when primary Tr1 cells were present in the macrophage-A375 coculture, the growth of A375 cells was abrogated. The conventional CD25 + Treg cells, however, were unable to inhibit macrophage-mediated increase in tumor cell growth. Further analyses showed that Tr1 cells did not directly eliminate A375 cells, but mediated the killing of tumor-promoting macrophages through the secretion of granzyme B and perforin. The tumor-infiltrating interleukin 10 + Foxp3 - CD4 + T cells expressed very low levels of granzyme B and perforin, possibly suggested the downregulation of Tr1 cytotoxic capacity in melanoma tumors. Together, these data demonstrated an antitumor function of Tr1 cells through the elimination of tumor-promoting macrophages, which was not shared by conventional Tregs.

  18. Branched-chain amino acids complex inhibits melanogenesis in B16F0 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Young; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Young-Su

    2012-04-01

    Present study was investigated the effect of each or complex of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, and valine) on melanin production in B16F0 melanoma cells treated with various concentrations (1-16 mM) for 72 h. Among the 20 amino acids, lysine and glycine showed the highest activities of DPPH radical scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition, respectively. Each and combination of BCAAs reduced melanogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner without any morphological changes and cell viability in melanoma cells. Present study was also investigated the inhibitory effects of each or complex of BCAAs at each 10 mM concentration on the 100 μM IBMX-mediated stimulation of melanogenesis in melanoma cells for 72 h and found that IBMX treatment was stimulated to enhance melanin synthesis and that the complex of BCAAs was the most effectively inhibited in the melanin amounts of cellular and extracellular and the whitening the cell pellet. When the inhibitory effect of BCAAs on tyrosinase was examined by intracellular tyrosinase assay, both isoleucine and valine exhibit slightly inhibition, but leucine and combination of BCAAs did not inhibit the cell-derived tyrosinase activity. Present study demonstrated that complex of BCAAs inhibited melanin production without changes intercellular tyrosinase activity. Thus, the complex of BCAAs may be used in development of safe potentially depigmenting agents.

  19. Transketolase-like 1 ectopic expression is associated with DNA hypomethylation and induces the Warburg effect in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, Aparna; Lo, Pu-Han; Chueh, Anderly C; Prithviraj, Prashanth; Molania, Ramyar; Davalos-Salas, Mercedes; Anaka, Matthew; Walkiewicz, Marzena; Cebon, Jonathan; Behren, Andreas

    2016-02-22

    The metabolism of cancer cells is often reprogrammed by dysregulation of metabolic enzymes. Transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) is a homodimeric transketolase linking the pentose-phosphate pathway with the glycolytic pathway. It is generally silenced at a transcriptional level in somatic tissues. However, in human cancers its expression is associated with the acquisition of a glycolytic phenotype (the Warburg effect) by cancer cells that contributes to the progression of malignant tumors. In melanoma, defective promoter methylation results in the expression of genes and their products that can affect the tumor cell's phenotype including the modification of immune and functional characteristics. The present study evaluates the role of TKTL1 as a mediator of disease progression in melanoma associated with a defective methylation phenotype. The expression of TKTL1 in metastatic melanoma tumors and cell lines was analysed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The promoter methylation status of TKTL1 in melanoma cells was evaluated by quantitative methylation specific PCR. Using qRT-PCR, the effect of a DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5aza) on the expression of TKTL1 was examined. Biochemical and molecular analyses such as glucose consumption, lactate production, invasion, proliferation and cell cycle progression together with ectopic expression and siRNA mediated knockdown were used to investigate the role of TKTL1 in melanoma cells. Expression of TKTL1 was highly restricted in normal adult tissues and was overexpressed in a subset of metastatic melanoma tumors and derived cell lines. The TKTL1 promoter was activated by hypomethylation and treatment with 5aza induced TKTL1 expression in melanoma cells. Augmented expression of TKTL1 in melanoma cells was associated with a glycolytic phenotype. Loss and gain of function studies revealed that TKTL1 contributed to enhanced invasion of melanoma cells. Our data provide evidence for an important role of TKTL1 in

  20. In vitro effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors and mitomycin C on tenon capsule fibroblasts and conjunctival melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cunneen, Thomas S; Conway, R Max; Madigan, Michele C

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the effects of mitomycin C and the histone deacetylase inhibitors sodium butyrate and trichostatin on the viability and growth of conjunctival melanoma cell lines and Tenon capsule fibroblasts. Cells were treated with a range of concentrations of sodium butyrate, trichostatin, and mitomycin C. The MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays were performed 48 hours after treatment. Treated cells were stained with acridine orange/ethidium bromide to assess for cell death. Cell-cycle changes in histone deacetylase inhibitor-treated melanoma cells were quantified using flow cytometry. All agents induced dose-dependent cell death in the melanoma cell lines; however, sodium butyrate and trichostatin were relatively nontoxic to Tenon capsule fibroblasts. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining indicated that sodium butyrate and trichostatin induced apoptotic cell death. At low doses, sodium butyrate and trichostatin induced a G1 cell-cycle block in the melanoma cells. Sodium butyrate and trichostatin induced cell death in melanoma cells, comparable with mitomycin C, with minimal effect on Tenon capsule fibroblasts. In addition, they induced a G1 cell-cycle block. These findings support the need for further investigation into the in vivo efficacy of these agents.

  1. MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Teng, E-mail: tengyu33@yahoo.com; Ji, Jiang; Guo, Yong-li

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Curcumin activates MST1 in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells. •ROS production is involved in curcumin-induced MST1 activation. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced JNK activation in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced Foxo3a nuclear translocation and Bim expression. -- Abstract: Different groups including ours have shown that curcumin induces melanoma cell apoptosis, here we focused the role of mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) in it. We observed that curcumin activated MST1-dependent apoptosis in cultured melanoma cells. MST1 silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed curcumin-induced cell apoptosis, while MST1 over-expressing increased curcumin sensitivity. Meanwhile, curcumin induced reactive oxygen speciesmore » (ROS) production in melanoma cells, and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), almost blocked MST1 activation to suggest that ROS might be required for MST1 activation by curcumin. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation by curcumin was dependent on MST1, since MST1 inhibition by RNAi or NAC largely inhibited curcumin-induced JNK activation. Further, curcumin induced Foxo3 nuclear translocation and Bim-1 (Foxo3 target gene) expression in melanoma cells, such an effect by curcumin was inhibited by MST1 RNAi. In conclusion, we suggested that MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells.« less

  2. Human Macrophages and Dendritic Cells Can Equally Present MART-1 Antigen to CD8+ T Cells after Phagocytosis of Gamma-Irradiated Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, María Marcela; Abes, Riad; Colombo, Marina; Pizzurro, Gabriela; Boix, Charlotte; Roberti, María Paula; Gélizé, Emmanuelle; Rodriguez-Zubieta, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) can achieve cross-presentation of naturally-occurring tumor-associated antigens after phagocytosis and processing of dying tumor cells. They have been used in different clinical settings to vaccinate cancer patients. We have previously used gamma-irradiated MART-1 expressing melanoma cells as a source of antigens to vaccinate melanoma patients by injecting irradiated cells with BCG and GM-CSF or to load immature DC and use them as a vaccine. Other clinical trials have used IFN-gamma activated macrophage killer cells (MAK) to treat cancer patients. However, the clinical use of MAK has been based on their direct tumoricidal activity rather than on their ability to act as antigen-presenting cells to stimulate an adaptive antitumor response. Thus, in the present work, we compared the fate of MART-1 after phagocytosis of gamma-irradiated cells by clinical grade DC or MAK as well as the ability of these cells to cross present MART-1 to CD8+ T cells. Using a high affinity antibody against MART-1, 2A9, which specifically stains melanoma tumors, melanoma cell lines and normal melanocytes, the expression level of MART-1 in melanoma cell lines could be related to their ability to stimulate IFN-gamma production by a MART-1 specific HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8+ T cell clone. Confocal microscopy with Alexa Fluor®647-labelled 2A9 also showed that MART-1 could be detected in tumor cells attached and/or fused to phagocytes and even inside these cells as early as 1 h and up to 24 h or 48 h after initiation of co-cultures between gamma-irradiated melanoma cells and MAK or DC, respectively. Interestingly, MART-1 was cross-presented to MART-1 specific T cells by both MAK and DC co-cultured with melanoma gamma-irradiated cells for different time-points. Thus, naturally occurring MART-1 melanoma antigen can be taken-up from dying melanoma cells into DC or MAK and both cell types can induce specific CD8+ T cell cross-presentation thereafter. PMID:22768350

  3. Impact of BRAF kinase inhibitors on the miRNomes and transcriptomes of melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kozar, Ines; Cesi, Giulia; Margue, Christiane; Philippidou, Demetra; Kreis, Stephanie

    2017-11-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer with increasing incidence worldwide. The development of BRAF kinase inhibitors as targeted treatments for patients with BRAF-mutant tumours contributed profoundly to an improved overall survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. Despite these promising results, the emergence of rapid resistance to targeted therapy remains a serious clinical issue. To investigate the impact of BRAF inhibitors on miRNomes and transcriptomes, we used in vitro melanoma models consisting of BRAF inhibitor-sensitive and -resistant cell lines generated in our laboratory. Subsequently, microarray analyses were performed followed by RT-qPCR validations. Regarding miRNome and transcriptome changes, the long-term effects of BRAF inhibition differed in a cell line-specific manner with the two different BRAF inhibitors inducing comparable responses in three melanoma cell lines. Despite this heterogeneity, several miRNAs (e.g. miR-92a-1-5p, miR-708-5p) and genes (e.g. DOK5, PCSK2) were distinctly differentially expressed in drug-resistant versus -sensitive cell lines. Analyses of coexpressed miRNAs, as well as inversely correlated miRNA-mRNA pairs, revealed a low MITF/AXL ratio in two drug-resistant cell lines that might be regulated by miRNAs. Several genes and miRNAs were differentially regulated in the drug-resistant and -sensitive cell lines and might be considered as prognostic and/or diagnostic resistance biomarkers in melanoma drug resistance. Thus far, only little information is available on the significance and role of miRNAs with respect to kinase inhibitor treatments and emergence of drug resistance. In this study, promising miRNAs and genes were identified and associated to BRAF inhibitor-mediated resistance in melanoma. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The proliferation of malignant melanoma cells could be inhibited by ranibizumab via antagonizing VEGF through VEGFR1.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Cui, Yan; Wang, Qin; Guo, Dadong; Pan, Xuemei; Wang, Xingrong; Bi, Hongsheng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhengfeng; Zhao, Shengya

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an important mediator in tumor progression. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the major cytokines that can influence angiogenesis. However, the potential mechanism of tumor growth inhibition through anti-VEGF agents is still unclear. This study was performed to examine whether ranibizumab could inhibit malignant melanoma growth in vitro and to determine the safety of ranibizumab on human adult retinal pigment epithelium cell line (ARPE-19 cells). Malignant melanoma cells obtained from a clinic were cultured in vitro. VEGF concentrations secreted by malignant melanoma cells and the ARPE-19 cells were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The two kinds of cells were both treated with VEGF and its antagonist, ranibizumab. The dynamic changes of the two types of cells were monitored by real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) assay. The effect of ranibizumab on both types of cells was verified by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl (MTT) assay. The expression of VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) RNA in uveal melanoma was further investigated through the PCR technique. The levels of VEGF secreted by malignant melanoma cells were much higher than those of ARPE-19 cells, and were markedly decreased in the action of 0.1 mg/ml ranibizumab. However, there was no obvious reduction of VEGF in the presence of ranibizumab for ARPE-19 (p>0.05). Meanwhile, RT-CES showed that the viability of malignant melanoma cells increased greatly in the presence of VEGF. When VEGF was 20 ng/ml, viability of the malignant melanoma cells increased by 40% compared with the negative control. There was no evident effect on proliferation of ARPE-19 (p>0.05). Furthermore, the growth of malignant melanoma cells was obviously inhibited after ranibizumab intervention. When ranibizumab was administered at 0.25 mg/ml, the survival rate of the malignant melanoma cells decreased to 57.5%. Nevertheless, low-dose exposure to ranibizumab had only a slight

  5. Isolation and detection of circulating tumour cells from metastatic melanoma patients using a slanted spiral microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Aya-Bonilla, Carlos A; Marsavela, Gabriela; Freeman, James B; Lomma, Chris; Frank, Markus H; Khattak, Muhammad A; Meniawy, Tarek M; Millward, Michael; Warkiani, Majid E; Gray, Elin S; Ziman, Mel

    2017-09-15

    Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs) are promising cancer biomarkers. Several methods have been developed to isolate CTCs from blood samples. However, the isolation of melanoma CTCs is very challenging as a result of their extraordinary heterogeneity, which has hindered their biological and clinical study. Thus, methods that isolate CTCs based on their physical properties, rather than surface marker expression, such as microfluidic devices, are greatly needed in melanoma. Here, we assessed the ability of the slanted spiral microfluidic device to isolate melanoma CTCs via label-free enrichment. We demonstrated that this device yields recovery rates of spiked melanoma cells of over 80% and 55%, after one or two rounds of enrichment, respectively. Concurrently, a two to three log reduction of white blood cells was achieved with one or two rounds of enrichment, respectively. We characterised the isolated CTCs using multimarker flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and gene expression. The results demonstrated that CTCs from metastatic melanoma patients were highly heterogeneous and commonly expressed stem-like markers such as PAX3 and ABCB5. The implementation of the slanted microfluidic device for melanoma CTC isolation enables further understanding of the biology of melanoma metastasis for biomarker development and to inform future treatment approaches.

  6. Adoptive Cell Therapy with Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Advanced Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Jean, Mélanie; Volteau, Christelle; Quéreux, Gaëlle; Peuvrel, Lucie; Brocard, Anabelle; Saiagh, Soraya; Nguyen, Jean-Michel; Bedane, Christophe; Basset-Seguin, Nicole

    2018-01-01

    Immunotherapy for melanoma includes adoptive cell therapy with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). This monocenter retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this treatment of patients with advanced melanoma. All advanced melanoma patients treated with TILs using the same TIL expansion methodology and same treatment interleukin-2 (IL-2) regimen between 2009 and 2012 were included. After sterile intralesional excision of a cutaneous or subcutaneous metastasis, TILs were produced according to a previously described method and then infused into the patient who also received a complementary subcutaneous IL-2 regimen. Nine women and 1 man were treated for unresectable stage IIIC (n = 4) or IV (n = 6) melanoma. All but 1 patient with unresectable stage III melanoma (1st line) had received at least 2 previous treatments, including anti-CTLA-4 antibody for 4. The number of TILs infused ranged from 0.23 × 109 to 22.9 × 109. Regarding safety, no serious adverse effect was reported. Therapeutic responses included a complete remission, a partial remission, 2 stabilizations, and 6 progressions. Among these 4 patients with clinical benefit, 1 is still alive with 9 years of follow-up and 1 died from another cause after 8 years of follow-up. Notably, patients treated with high percentages of CD4 + CD25 + CD127lowFoxp3+ T cells among their TILs had significantly shorter OS. The therapeutic effect of combining TILs with new immunotherapies needs further investigation. PMID:29750176

  7. The Cytolytic Amphipathic β(2,2)-Amino Acid LTX-401 Induces DAMP Release in Melanoma Cells and Causes Complete Regression of B16 Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Eike, Liv-Marie; Mauseth, Brynjar; Camilio, Ketil André; Rekdal, Øystein; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined the ability of the amino acid derivative LTX-401 to induce cell death in cancer cell lines, as well as the capacity to induce regression in a murine melanoma model. Mode of action studies in vitro revealed lytic cell death and release of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules, preceded by massive cytoplasmic vacuolization and compromised lysosomes in treated cells. The use of a murine melanoma model demonstrated that the majority of animals treated with intratumoural injections of LTX-401 showed complete and long-lasting remission. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of LTX-401 as an immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:26881822

  8. Limbal Stem Cell Preservation During Proton Beam Irradiation for Diffuse Iris Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arun D; Dupps, William J; Biscotti, Charles V; Suh, John H; Lathrop, Kira L; Nairn, John P; Shih, Helen

    2017-01-01

    To report the outcome after limbal stem cell preservation during proton beam irradiation for diffuse iris melanoma. This is a single-case report of diffuse iris melanoma that was managed with proton beam radiation (53 Gy), wherein preemptively harvested superior and inferior limbal stem cells before radiation were replaced after irradiation. Regeneration of the palisades of Vogt and the limbal stem cells was documented by an optical coherence tomography-based imaging protocol. At 24 months after radiation therapy, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/25. The cornea was clear without evidence of limbal stem cell dysfunction. Clinical examination (including gonioscopy and ultrasound biomicroscopy [UBM]) was indicative of local control, and systemic surveillance was negative for metastatic disease. At posttransplant (21 months), there were more palisade structures visible in both anterior and posterior regions of the superior and inferior limbus, and the linear presentation of the inferior palisades appears to have regenerated. Diffuse iris melanoma can be managed successfully with proton beam radiation while preserving corneal limbal stem cells by harvesting them before radiation and then replacing them after irradiation. Regeneration of the palisades of Vogt could be documented by an optical coherence tomography-based imaging protocol.

  9. A Novel Inhibitor of STAT3 Activation Is Efficacious Against Established Central Nervous System Melanoma and Inhibits Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Yuan; Abou-Ghazal, Mohamed K.; Wei, Jun; Chakraborty, Arup; Sun, Wei; Qiao, Wei; Fuller, Gregory N.; Fokt, Izabela; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Schmittling, Robert J.; Archer, Gary E.; Sampson, John H.; Priebe, Waldemar; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Activation of STAT3 has been identified as a central mediator of melanoma growth and metastasis. We hypothesized that WP1066, a novel STAT3 blockade agent, has marked antitumor activity, even against the melanoma metastasis to brain, a site typically refractory to therapies. Experimental Design The antitumor activities and related mechanisms of WP1066 were investigated both in vitro on melanoma cell lines and in vivo on mice with subcutaneously syngeneic melanoma or with intracerebral melanoma tumors. Results WP1066 achieved an IC50 of 1.6 μM, 2.3 μM, and 1.5 μM against melanoma cell line A375, B16 and B16EGFRvIII, respectively. WP1066 suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 (Tyr705) in these cells. Tumor growth in mice with subcutaneously established syngeneic melanoma was markedly inhibited by WP1066 compared with that in controls. Long-term survival (>78 days) was observed in 80% of mice with established intracerebral syngeneic melanoma treated with 40 mg/kg of WP1066 in contrast to control mice who survived for a median of 15 days. Although WP1066 did not induce immunological memory or enhance humoral responses to EGFRvIII, this compound reduced the production of immunosuppressive cytokines and chemokines (TGF-β, RANTES, MCP-1, VEGF), markedly inhibited natural and inducible Treg proliferation, and significantly increased cytotoxic immune responses of T cells. Conclusions The antitumor cytotoxic effects of WP1066 and its ability to induce antitumor immune responses suggest that this compound has potential for the effective treatment of melanoma metastatic to brain. PMID:18794085

  10. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ungerer, Christopher; Doberstein, Kai; Buerger, Claudia

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. {yields} ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. {yields} TGF-{beta} can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. {yields} Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. {yields} Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far.more » In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-{gamma} and TGF-{beta} downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.« less

  11. Fucoidan Does Not Exert Anti-Tumorigenic Effects on Uveal Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dithmer, Michaela; Kirsch, Anna-Maria; Richert, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Sabine; Wang, Fanlu; Schmidt, Harald; Coupland, Sarah E.; Roider, Johann; Klettner, Alexa

    2017-01-01

    Background. The polysaccharide fucoidan is widely investigated as an anti-cancer agent. Here, we tested the effect of fucoidan on uveal melanoma cell lines. Methods. The effect of 100 µM fucoidan was investigated on five cell lines (92.1, Mel270 OMM1, OMM2.3, OMM2.5) and of 1 µg/mL–1 mg/mL fucoidan in two cell lines (OMM1, OMM2.3). Cell proliferation and viability were investigated with a WST-1 assay, migration in a wound healing (scratch) assay. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) was measured in ELISA. Angiogenesis was evaluated in co-cultures with endothelial cells. Cell toxicity was induced by hydrogen-peroxide. Protein expression (Akt, ERK1/2, Bcl-2, Bax) was investigated in Western blot. Results. Fucoidan increased proliferation in two and reduced it in one cell line. Migration was reduced in three cell lines. The effect of fucoidan on VEGF was cell type and concentration dependent. In endothelial co-culture with 92.1, fucoidan significantly increased tubular structures. Moreover, fucoidan significantly protected all tested uveal melanoma cell lines from hydrogen-peroxide induced cell death. Under oxidative stress, fucoidan did not alter the expression of Bcl-2, Bax or ERK1/2, while inducing Akt expression in 92.1 cells but not in any other cell line. Conclusion. Fucoidan did not show anti-tumorigenic effects but displayed protective and pro-angiogenic properties, rendering fucoidan unsuitable as a potential new drug for the treatment of uveal melanoma. PMID:28640204

  12. Interactions of B16F10 melanoma cells aggregated on a cellulose substrate.

    PubMed

    Hindié, M; Vayssade, M; Dufresne, M; Quéant, S; Warocquier-Clérout, R; Legeay, G; Vigneron, P; Olivier, V; Duval, J-L; Nagel, M-D

    2006-09-01

    There is evidence that the shape of cells and their contact with a matrix direct the growth and the differentiation of both normal and cancer cells. Cells in 3D culture resemble the in vivo situation more closely than do those in conventional 2D cultures. We have studied the interactions and functions of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells, which spread and grow well on tissue culture polystyrene (tPS), when they were made to aggregate on cellulose-coated Petri dishes (CEL). This aggregation of melanoma cells on CEL was Ca2+ dependent and mediated by N-cadherins. The levels of N-cadherin and beta-catenin transcripts in cells cultured on CEL and tPS were similar, but those on CEL contained less beta-catenin protein. Immunoprecipitation and immunostaining showed that both N-cadherins and beta-catenins were present at the membranes of cells on CEL. Cells proliferated significantly more slowly after 48 h on CEL and the cellulose coating caused most of them to arrest in G1. We also compared the melanin contents and tyrosinase activity of cells on CEL and controls grown on tPS. Melanogenesis was induced in cells aggregated on CEL. A cellulose substrate thus appears to be an outstanding tool for studying cell-cell interactions and cell functions in 3D cultures.

  13. MiR-135 post-transcriptionally regulates FOXO1 expression and promotes cell proliferation in human malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Wen; Li, Zhang-Jun; Tu, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of all skin cancers. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeted repression of transcription and translation and play essential roles during cancer development. Our study showed that miR-135a is upregulated in malignant melanoma tissues and cell lines by using Real-time PCR assay. Enforced expression of miR-135a in malignant melanoma cells promotes cell proliferation, tumorigenicity, and cell cycle progression, whereas inhibition of miR-135a reverses the function. Additionally, we demonstrated FOXO1 is a direct target of miR-135a and transcriptionally down-regulated by miR-135a. Ectopic expression of miR-135a led to downregulation of the FOXO1 protein, resulting in upregulation of Cyclin D1, and downregulation of P21(Cip1) and P27(Kip1) through AKT pathway. Our findings suggested that miR-135a represents a potential onco-miRNA and plays an important role in malignant melanoma progression by suppressing FOXO1 expression.

  14. Inhibition of p38 MAPK enhances ABT-737-induced cell death in melanoma cell lines: novel regulation of PUMA.

    PubMed

    Keuling, Angela M; Andrew, Susan E; Tron, Victor A

    2010-06-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is constitutively activated in the majority of melanomas, promoting cell survival, proliferation and migration. In addition, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 are frequently overexpressed, contributing to melanoma's well-documented chemoresistance. Recently, it was reported that the combination of MAPK pathway inhibition by specific MEK inhibitors and Bcl-2 family inhibition by BH3-mimetic ABT-737 synergistically induces apoptotic cell death in melanoma cell lines. Here we provide the first evidence that inhibition of another key MAPK, p38, synergistically induces apoptosis in melanoma cells in combination with ABT-737. We also provide novel mechanistic data demonstrating that inhibition of p38 increases expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein PUMA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PUMA can be cleaved by a caspase-dependent mechanism during apoptosis and identify what appears to be the PUMA cleavage product. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of ABT-737 and inhibition of p38 is a promising, new treatment strategy that acts through a novel PUMA-dependent mechanism.

  15. Inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion of B16-F10 melanoma cells by α-mangostin

    SciTech Connect

    Beninati, Simone, E-mail: beninati@bio.uniroma2.it; Oliverio, Serafina; Cordella, Martina

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We studied the anticancer potential of a new emerging molecule, α-mangostin (α-M). • We provide first evidences on the effects of α-M on transglutaminase activity. • We deeply examined the antimetastatic effects of α-M through many in vitro assays. • Proteomic analysis revealed that α-M promotes a reorganization at cellular level. - Abstract: In this study, we have evaluated the potential antineoplastic effects of α-mangostin (α-M), the most representative xanthone in Garcinia mangostana pericarp, on melanoma cell lines. This xanthone markedly inhibits the proliferation of high-metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells. Furthermore, by deeply analyzing which steps in the metastaticmore » process are influenced by xanthone it was observed that α-M strongly interferes with homotypic aggregation, adhesion, plasticity and invasion ability of B16-F10 cells, probably by the observed reduction of metalloproteinase-9 activity. The antiproliferative and antimetastatic properties of α-M have been established in human SK-MEL-28 and A375 melanoma cells. In order to identify pathways potentially involved in the antineoplastic properties of α-M, a comparative mass spectrometry proteomic approach was employed. These findings may improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of α-M on melanoma.« less

  16. Inhibitory effect of fentanyl citrate on the release of endothlin-1 induced by bradykinin in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Tsugunobu; Shinohara, Akira; Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2017-02-01

    Our previous study showed that the μ-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl citrate inhibits endothelin-1-and bradykinin-mediated pain responses in mice orthotopically inoculated with melanoma cells. We also demonstrated that bradykinin induces endothelin-1 secretion in melanoma cells. However, the analgesic mechanisms of fentanyl citrate remain unclear. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine whether fentanyl citrate affects bradykinin-induced endothelin-1 secretion in B16-BL6 melanoma cells. The amount of endothelin-1 in the culture medium was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. The expression of endothelin-1, kinin B 2 receptors, and μ-opioid receptors in B16-BL/6 melanoma cells was determined using immunocytochemistry. Fentanyl citrate inhibited bradykinin-induced endothelin-1 secretion. The inhibitory effect of fentanyl citrate on the secretion of endothelin-1 was attenuated by the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone methiodide. The immunoreactivities of endothelin-1, kinin B 2 receptors, and μ-opioid receptors in B16-BL6 melanoma cells were observed. These results suggest that fentanyl citrate regulates bradykinin-induced endothelin-1 secretion through μ-opioid receptors in melanoma cells. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. CD63 tetraspanin is a negative driver of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lupia, Antonella; Peppicelli, Silvia; Witort, Ewa; Bianchini, Francesca; Carloni, Vinicio; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Urso, Carmelo; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Capaccioli, Sergio; Calorini, Lido; Lulli, Matteo

    2014-12-01

    The CD63 tetraspanin is highly expressed in the early stages of melanoma and decreases in advanced lesions, suggesting it as a possible suppressor of tumor progression. We employed loss- and gain-of-gene-function approaches to investigate the role of CD63 in melanoma progression and acquisition of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program. We used two human melanoma cell lines derived from primary tumors and one primary human melanoma cell line isolated from a cutaneous metastasis, differing by levels of CD63 expression. CD63-silenced melanoma cells showed enhanced motility and invasiveness with downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of N-cadherin and Snail. In parallel experiments, transient and stable ectopic expression of CD63 resulted in a robust reduction of cell motility, invasiveness, and protease activities, which was proportional to the increase in CD63 protein level. Transfected cells overexpressing the highest level of CD63 when transplanted into immunodeficient mice showed a reduced incidence and rate of tumor growth. Moreover, these cells showed a reduction of N-cadherin, Vimentin, Zeb1, and a-SMA, and a significant resistance to undergo an EMT program both in basal condition and in the following stimulation with TGFβ. Thus, our results establish a previously unreported mechanistic link between the tetraspanin CD63 and EMT abrogation in melanoma.

  18. First Report of the 23S rRNA Gene A2058G Point Mutation Associated With Macrolide Resistance in Treponema pallidum From Syphilis Patients in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Noda, Angel A; Matos, Nelvis; Blanco, Orestes; Rodríguez, Islay; Stamm, Lola Virginia

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the presence of macrolide-resistant Treponema pallidum subtypes in Havana, Cuba. Samples from 41 syphilis patients were tested for T. pallidum 23S rRNA gene mutations. Twenty-five patients (61%) harbored T. pallidum with the A2058G mutation, which was present in all 8 subtypes that were identified. The A2059G mutation was not detected.

  19. Targeting the hedgehog transcription factors GLI1 and GLI2 restores sensitivity to vemurafenib-resistant human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Faião-Flores, F; Alves-Fernandes, D K; Pennacchi, P C; Sandri, S; Vicente, A L S A; Scapulatempo-Neto, C; Vazquez, V L; Reis, R M; Chauhan, J; Goding, C R; Smalley, K S; Maria-Engler, S S

    2017-01-01

    BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) therapy for melanoma patients harboring the V600E mutation is initially highly effective, but almost all patients relapse within a few months. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning BRAFi-based therapy is therefore an important issue. Here we identified a previously unsuspected mechanism of BRAFi resistance driven by elevated Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activation that is observed in a cohort of melanoma patients after vemurafenib treatment. Specifically, we demonstrate that melanoma cell lines, with acquired in vitro-induced vemurafenib resistance, show increased levels of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 and 2 (GLI1/GLI2) compared with naïve cells. We also observed these findings in clinical melanoma specimens. Moreover, the increased expression of the transcription factors GLI1/GLI2 was independent of canonical Hh signaling and was instead correlated with the noncanonical Hh pathway, involving TGFβ/SMAD (transforming growth factor-β/Sma- and Mad-related family) signaling. Knockdown of GLI1 and GLI2 restored sensitivity to vemurafenib-resistant cells, an effect associated with both growth arrest and senescence. Treatment of vemurafenib-resistant cells with the GLI1/GLI2 inhibitor Gant61 led to decreased invasion of the melanoma cells in a three-dimensional skin reconstruct model and was associated with a decrease in metalloproteinase (MMP2/MMP9) expression and microphthalmia transcription factor upregulation. Gant61 monotherapy did not alter the drug sensitivity of naïve cells, but could reverse the resistance of melanoma cells chronically treated with vemurafenib. We further noted that alternating dosing schedules of Gant61 and vemurafenib prevented the onset of BRAFi resistance, suggesting that this could be a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of therapeutic escape. Our results suggest that targeting the Hh pathway in BRAFi-resistant melanoma may represent a viable therapeutic strategy to restore vemurafenib

  20. Targeting the hedgehog transcription factors GLI1 and GLI2 restores sensitivity to vemurafenib-resistant human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Faião-Flores, F; Alves-Fernandes, D K; Pennacchi, P C; Sandri, S; Vicente, A L S A; Scapulatempo-Neto, C; Vazquez, V L; Reis, R M; Chauhan, J; Goding, C R; Smalley, K S; Maria-Engler, S S

    2017-03-30

    BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) therapy for melanoma patients harboring the V600E mutation is initially highly effective, but almost all patients relapse within a few months. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning BRAFi-based therapy is therefore an important issue. Here we identified a previously unsuspected mechanism of BRAFi resistance driven by elevated Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activation that is observed in a cohort of melanoma patients after vemurafenib treatment. Specifically, we demonstrate that melanoma cell lines, with acquired in vitro-induced vemurafenib resistance, show increased levels of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 and 2 (GLI1/GLI2) compared with naïve cells. We also observed these findings in clinical melanoma specimens. Moreover, the increased expression of the transcription factors GLI1/GLI2 was independent of canonical Hh signaling and was instead correlated with the noncanonical Hh pathway, involving TGFβ/SMAD (transforming growth factor-β/Sma- and Mad-related family) signaling. Knockdown of GLI1 and GLI2 restored sensitivity to vemurafenib-resistant cells, an effect associated with both growth arrest and senescence. Treatment of vemurafenib-resistant cells with the GLI1/GLI2 inhibitor Gant61 led to decreased invasion of the melanoma cells in a three-dimensional skin reconstruct model and was associated with a decrease in metalloproteinase (MMP2/MMP9) expression and microphthalmia transcription factor upregulation. Gant61 monotherapy did not alter the drug sensitivity of naïve cells, but could reverse the resistance of melanoma cells chronically treated with vemurafenib. We further noted that alternating dosing schedules of Gant61 and vemurafenib prevented the onset of BRAFi resistance, suggesting that this could be a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of therapeutic escape. Our results suggest that targeting the Hh pathway in BRAFi-resistant melanoma may represent a viable therapeutic strategy to restore vemurafenib

  1. Effects of fotemustine or dacarbasine on a melanoma cell line pretreated with therapeutic proton irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ristić-Fira, Aleksandra M; Korićanac, Lela B; Žakula, Jelena J; Valastro, Lucia M; Iannolo, Gioacchin; Privitera, Giuseppe; Cuttone, Giacomo; Petrović, Ivan M

    2009-01-01

    Background Considering that HTB140 melanoma cells have shown a poor response to either protons or alkylating agents, the effects of a combined use of these agents have been analysed. Methods Cells were irradiated in the middle of the therapeutic 62 MeV proton spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). Irradiation doses were 12 or 16 Gy and are those frequently used in proton therapy. Four days after irradiation cells were treated with fotemustine (FM) or dacarbazine (DTIC). Drug concentrations were 100 and 250 μM, values close to those that produce 50% of growth inhibition. Cell viability, proliferation, survival and cell cycle distribution were assessed 7 days after irradiation that corresponds to more than six doubling times of HTB140 cells. In this way incubation periods providing the best single effects of drugs (3 days) and protons (7 days) coincided at the same time. Results Single proton irradiations have reduced the number of cells to ~50%. FM caused stronger cell inactivation due to its high toxicity, while the effectiveness of DTIC, that was important at short term, almost vanished with the incubation of 7 days. Cellular mechanisms triggered by proton irradiation differently influenced the final effects of combined treatments. Combination of protons and FM did not improve cell inactivation level achieved by single treatments. A low efficiency of the single DTIC treatment was overcome when DTIC was introduced following proton irradiation, giving better inhibitory effects with respect to the single treatments. Most of the analysed cells were in G1/S phase, viable, active and able to replicate DNA. Conclusion The obtained results are the consequence of a high resistance of HTB140 melanoma cells to protons and/or drugs. The inactivation level of the HTB140 human melanoma cells after protons, FM or DTIC treatments was not enhanced by their combined application. PMID:19358719

  2. Effects of fotemustine or dacarbasine on a melanoma cell line pretreated with therapeutic proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ristić-Fira, Aleksandra M; Korićanac, Lela B; Zakula, Jelena J; Valastro, Lucia M; Iannolo, Gioacchin; Privitera, Giuseppe; Cuttone, Giacomo; Petrović, Ivan M

    2009-04-09

    Considering that HTB140 melanoma cells have shown a poor response to either protons or alkylating agents, the effects of a combined use of these agents have been analysed. Cells were irradiated in the middle of the therapeutic 62 MeV proton spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). Irradiation doses were 12 or 16 Gy and are those frequently used in proton therapy. Four days after irradiation cells were treated with fotemustine (FM) or dacarbazine (DTIC). Drug concentrations were 100 and 250 microM, values close to those that produce 50% of growth inhibition. Cell viability, proliferation, survival and cell cycle distribution were assessed 7 days after irradiation that corresponds to more than six doubling times of HTB140 cells. In this way incubation periods providing the best single effects of drugs (3 days) and protons (7 days) coincided at the same time. Single proton irradiations have reduced the number of cells to approximately 50%. FM caused stronger cell inactivation due to its high toxicity, while the effectiveness of DTIC, that was important at short term, almost vanished with the incubation of 7 days. Cellular mechanisms triggered by proton irradiation differently influenced the final effects of combined treatments. Combination of protons and FM did not improve cell inactivation level achieved by single treatments. A low efficiency of the single DTIC treatment was overcome when DTIC was introduced following proton irradiation, giving better inhibitory effects with respect to the single treatments. Most of the analysed cells were in G1/S phase, viable, active and able to replicate DNA. The obtained results are the consequence of a high resistance of HTB140 melanoma cells to protons and/or drugs. The inactivation level of the HTB140 human melanoma cells after protons, FM or DTIC treatments was not enhanced by their combined application.

  3. BRAFV600E Negatively Regulates the AKT Pathway in Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brenden; Tardell, Christine; Higgins, Brian; Packman, Kathryn; Boylan, John F.; Niu, Huifeng

    2012-01-01

    Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167) or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin) induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT) and downstream signal activation. Treatment-induced pAKT elevation is found in BRAF wild type melanoma cells but not in a subset of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Knock-down of BRAFV600E in these melanoma cells elevates basal pAKT and downstream signals, whereas knock-down of CRAF, MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 or treatment with a BRAF inhibitor have no impact on pAKT. Mechanistically, we show that BRAFV600E interacts with rictor complex (mTORC2) and regulates pAKT through mTORC2. BRAFV600E is identified in mTORC2 after immunoprecipitation of rictor. Knock-down of rictor abrogates BRAFV600E depletion induced pAKT. Knock-down of BRAFV600E enhances cellular enzyme activity of mTORC2. Aberrant activation of AKT pathway by PTEN loss appears to override the negative impact of BRAFV600E on pAKT. Taken together, our findings suggest that in a subset of BRAFV600E melanoma cells, BRAFV600E negatively regulates AKT pathway in a rictor-dependent, MEK/ERK and BRAF kinase-independent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways. PMID:22880048

  4. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brenden; Tardell, Christine; Higgins, Brian; Packman, Kathryn; Boylan, John F; Niu, Huifeng

    2012-01-01

    Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167) or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin) induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT) and downstream signal activation. Treatment-induced pAKT elevation is found in BRAF wild type melanoma cells but not in a subset of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Knock-down of BRAFV600E in these melanoma cells elevates basal pAKT and downstream signals, whereas knock-down of CRAF, MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 or treatment with a BRAF inhibitor have no impact on pAKT. Mechanistically, we show that BRAFV600E interacts with rictor complex (mTORC2) and regulates pAKT through mTORC2. BRAFV600E is identified in mTORC2 after immunoprecipitation of rictor. Knock-down of rictor abrogates BRAFV600E depletion induced pAKT. Knock-down of BRAFV600E enhances cellular enzyme activity of mTORC2. Aberrant activation of AKT pathway by PTEN loss appears to override the negative impact of BRAFV600E on pAKT. Taken together, our findings suggest that in a subset of BRAFV600E melanoma cells, BRAFV600E negatively regulates AKT pathway in a rictor-dependent, MEK/ERK and BRAF kinase-independent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  5. The histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate inhibits melanoma cell invasion of Matrigel.

    PubMed

    Kuwajima, Akiko; Iwashita, Jun; Murata, Jun; Abe, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have anticancer effects. Their effects on expression of cell adhesion molecules might be related to their effects on tumor cell invasion. Murine B16-BL6 cells were treated with the HDAC inhibitors, butyrate or trichostatin A. Melanoma cell invasion of the artificial basement membrane, Matrigel, was examined by Transwell chamber assay. Butyrate as well as trichostatin A inhibited the cell growth mainly by arresting the cell cycle. The cell invasion of Matrigel was inhibited by butyrate and trichostatin A. The butyrate treatment increased the cell-cell aggregation, although neither E-cadherin nor N-cadherin mRNA were up-regulated. Both mRNA expression and protein levels of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules, Mel-CAM and L1-CAM, were increased in the butyrate-treated cells. The HDAC inhibitor butyrate blocked the B16-BL6 melanoma cell invasion of Matrigel, although it increased the expression of Mel-CAM and L1-CAM which are important to the metastatic potential.

  6. Dietary supplementation with secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) reduces experimental metastasis of melanoma cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Yee, J A; Thompson, L U; Yan, L

    1999-07-19

    We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG), a lignan precursor isolated from flaxseed, on experimental metastasis of B16BL6 murine melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice. Four diets were compared: a basal diet (control group) and the basal diet supplemented with SDG at 73, 147 or 293 micromol/kg (equivalent to SDG provided in the 2.5, 5 or 10% flaxseed diet). Mice were fed the diet for 2 weeks before and after an intravenous injection of 0.6 x 10(5) tumor cells. At necropsy, the number and size of tumors that formed in the lungs were determined. The median number of tumors in the control group was 62, and those in the SDG-supplemented groups were 38, 36 and 29, respectively. The last was significantly different from the control (P < 0.01). Dietary supplementation with SDG at 73, 147 and 293 micromol/kg also decreased tumor size (tumor cross-sectional area and volume) in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control values. These results show that SDG reduced pulmonary metastasis of melanoma cells and inhibited the growth of metastatic tumors that formed in the lungs. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with SDG reduces experimental metastasis of melanoma cells in mice.

  7. Acid Ceramidase Expression Modulates the Sensitivity of A375 Melanoma Cells to Dacarbazine*

    PubMed Central

    Bedia, Carmen; Casas, Josefina; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Fabriàs, Gemma; Levade, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) is the treatment of choice for metastatic melanoma, but its response in patients remains very poor. Ceramide has been shown to be a death effector and to play an important role in regulating cancer cell growth upon chemotherapy. Among ceramidases, the enzymes that catabolize ceramide, acid ceramidase (aCDase) has been implicated in cancer progression. Here we show that DTIC elicits a time- and dose-dependent decrease of aCDase activity and an increase of intracellular ceramide levels in human A375 melanoma cells. The loss of enzyme activity occurred as a consequence of reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of cathepsin B-mediated degradation of aCDase. These events preceded autophagic features and loss of cell viability. Down-regulation of acid but not neutral or alkaline ceramidase 2 resulted in elevated levels of ceramide and sensitization to the toxic effects of DTIC. Conversely, inducible overexpression of acid but not neutral ceramidase reduced ceramide levels and conferred resistance to DTIC. In conclusion, we report that increased levels of ceramide, due to enhanced degradation of aCDase, are in part responsible for the cell death effects of DTIC. These results suggest that down-regulation of aCDase alone or in combination with DTIC may represent a useful tool in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:21700700

  8. Acid ceramidase expression modulates the sensitivity of A375 melanoma cells to dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Bedia, Carmen; Casas, Josefina; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Fabriàs, Gemma; Levade, Thierry

    2011-08-12

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) is the treatment of choice for metastatic melanoma, but its response in patients remains very poor. Ceramide has been shown to be a death effector and to play an important role in regulating cancer cell growth upon chemotherapy. Among ceramidases, the enzymes that catabolize ceramide, acid ceramidase (aCDase) has been implicated in cancer progression. Here we show that DTIC elicits a time- and dose-dependent decrease of aCDase activity and an increase of intracellular ceramide levels in human A375 melanoma cells. The loss of enzyme activity occurred as a consequence of reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of cathepsin B-mediated degradation of aCDase. These events preceded autophagic features and loss of cell viability. Down-regulation of acid but not neutral or alkaline ceramidase 2 resulted in elevated levels of ceramide and sensitization to the toxic effects of DTIC. Conversely, inducible overexpression of acid but not neutral ceramidase reduced ceramide levels and conferred resistance to DTIC. In conclusion, we report that increased levels of ceramide, due to enhanced degradation of aCDase, are in part responsible for the cell death effects of DTIC. These results suggest that down-regulation of aCDase alone or in combination with DTIC may represent a useful tool in the treatment of metastatic melanoma.

  9. Gene therapy with autologous, interleukin 2-secreting tumor cells in patients with malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Palmer, K; Moore, J; Everard, M; Harris, J D; Rodgers, S; Rees, R C; Murray, A K; Mascari, R; Kirkwood, J; Riches, P G; Fisher, C; Thomas, J M; Harries, M; Johnston, S R; Collins, M K; Gore, M E

    1999-05-20

    We vaccinated metastatic melanoma patients with irradiated, autologous melanoma cells genetically engineered to secrete interleukin 2 (IL-2) to investigate whether an anti-tumor immune response would be induced. Melanoma cell cultures were established from surgical specimens and were engineered to secrete IL-2 by infection with recombinant retrovirus. Twelve patients were vaccinated subcutaneously one, two, or three times with approximately 10(7) irradiated, autologous, IL-2-secreting tumor cells. Treatment was well tolerated, with local reactions at 11 of 24 injection sites and minor systemic symptoms of fever and headache after 6 injections. One patient developed anti-tumor DTH after the first vaccination and showed an increased response after the second vaccination. Anti-autologous tumor CTLs could be detected prevaccination in the peripheral blood of seven patients and their activity increased after vaccination in four patients. No UICC-defined clinical responses were seen, but three patients had stable disease for 7-15 months, one of whom has not yet progressed (15+ months). Thus, patient vaccination with autologous, genetically engineered tumor cells is feasible and safe. Anti-tumor DTH and CTLs can be induced in some patients with such a vaccine.

  10. Wnt interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rappa, Germana; College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104; Mercapide, Javier

    2013-04-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that threemore » distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1–positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ≤40 nm; intermediates ∼40–80 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1–containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. - Highlights: ► First report of release of prominin-1–containing microvesicles from cancer cells. ► Pro-metastatic role of prominin-1

  11. Dissection of stromal and cancer cell-derived signals in melanoma xenografts before and after treatment with DMXAA

    PubMed Central

    Henare, K; Wang, L; Wang, L-Cs; Thomsen, L; Tijono, S; Chen, C-Jj; Winkler, S; Dunbar, P R; Print, C; Ching, L-M

    2012-01-01

    Background: The non-malignant cells of the tumour stroma have a critical role in tumour biology. Studies dissecting the interplay between cancer cells and stromal cells are required to further our understanding of tumour progression and methods of intervention. For proof-of-principle of a multi-modal approach to dissect the differential effects of treatment on cancer cells and stromal cells, we analysed the effects of the stromal-targeting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid on melanoma xenografts. Methods: Flow cytometry and multi-colour immunofluorescence staining was used to analyse leukocyte numbers in xenografts. Murine-specific and human-specific multiplex cytokine panels were used to quantitate cytokines produced by stromal and melanoma cells, respectively. Human and mouse Affymetrix microarrays were used to separately identify melanoma cell-specific and stromal cell-specific gene expression. Results: 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid activated pro-inflammatory signalling pathways and cytokine expression from both stromal and cancer cells, leading to neutrophil accumulation and haemorrhagic necrosis and a delay in tumour re-growth of 26 days in A375 melanoma xenografts. Conclusion: 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid and related analogues may potentially have utility in the treatment of melanoma. The experimental platform used allowed distinction between cancer cells and stromal cells and can be applied to investigate other tumour models and anti-cancer agents. PMID:22415295

  12. Malignant melanocytic neoplasm of pancreas with liver metastasis: Is it malignant melanoma or clear cell sarcoma?

    PubMed

    Kodiatte, Thomas Alex; George, Sam Varghese; Chacko, Raju Titus; Ramakrishna, Banumathi

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanocytic neoplasm, usually seen in soft tissues, is rare in a visceral location and presents as a diagnostic dilemma. We present a case of pancreatic malignant melanocytic neoplasm with liver metastasis. A 58-year-old man presented with left upper abdominal swelling and loss of appetite. Imaging revealed a large mass arising from the pancreatic tail, and this was diagnosed as malignant neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation on biopsy with the possible differentials of malignant melanoma, clear cell sarcoma (CCS), and perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy for the same. Follow-up imaging 6 months later showed a metastatic liver lesion, for which he also underwent a liver resection. BRAF mutational analysis was found to be negative. Both CCS and malignant melanoma have similar morphological features and melanocytic differentiation, but each harbors a distinct genetic background. Differentiation of both has diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  13. Melanogenesis stimulation in murine B16 melanoma cells by Kava (Piper methysticum) rhizome extract and kavalactones.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Hirata, Noriko; Kawaguchi, Yoshiko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Takata, Takanobu; Oyama, Masayoshi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Kubo, Michinori

    2006-04-01

    Melanogenesis stimulation activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts obtained from several different parts of five Piper species, namely Piper longum, P. kadsura, P. methysticum, P. betle, and P. cubeba, were examined by using cultured murine B16 melanoma cells. Among them, the extract of P. methysticum rhizome (Kava) showed potent stimulatory effect on melanogenesis as well as P. nigrum leaf extract. Activity-guided fractionation of Kava extract led to the isolation of two active kavalactones, yangonin (2) and 7,8-epoxyyangonin (5), along with three inactive kavalactones, 5,6-dehydrokawain (1), (+)-kawain (3) and (+)-methysticin (4), and a glucosylsterol, daucosterin (6). 7,8-Epoxyyangonin (5) showed a significant stimulatory effect on melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. Yangonin (2) exhibited a weak melanogenesis stimulation activity.

  14. Differentiation of seborrheic keratosis from basal cell carcinoma, nevi and melanoma by RGB autofluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lihachev, Alexey; Lihacova, Ilze; Plorina, Emilija V.; Lange, Marta; Derjabo, Alexander; Spigulis, Janis

    2018-01-01

    A clinical trial on the autofluorescence imaging of skin lesions comprising 16 dermatologically confirmed pigmented nevi, 15 seborrheic keratosis, 2 dysplastic nevi, histologically confirmed 17 basal cell carcinomas and 1 melanoma was performed. The autofluorescence spatial properties of the skin lesions were acquired by smartphone RGB camera under 405 nm LED excitation. The diagnostic criterion is based on the calculation of the mean autofluorescence intensity of the examined lesion in the spectral range of 515 nm–700 nm. The proposed methodology is able to differentiate seborrheic keratosis from basal cell carcinoma, pigmented nevi and melanoma. The sensitivity and specificity of the proposed method was estimated as being close to 100%. The proposed methodology and potential clinical applications are discussed in this article. PMID:29675324

  15. [A case of small-cell malignant melanoma in a pregnant patient].

    PubMed

    Calderón Garcidueñas, Anna Laura; Dragustinovis Valdez, Irma Yadira; Castelán Maldonado, Edmundo Erbey; Zavala, Pompa Angel

    2005-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is an aggressive neoplasm that may affect pregnant women. Malignant melanoma with small-cell morphology (MMSCM) is a rare variant of MM that can cause confusion in its diagnosis. To report a fatal case of MMSCM in a pregnant woman, highlighting immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a very useful tool in the final diagnosis. A 22-year-old pregnant female presented with a 5-cm cutaneous tumor in her right leg. The lesion was excised but the patient refused any further therapy. The natural outcome of this neoplasm occurred with local recurrence and multiple metastases to the lungs, liver, and kidneys. MM should be included in the differential diagnosis of small-cell cutaneous tumor, and IHC is mandatory for diagnosis confirmation. The recommended suggested screening includes, as a minimum, one sensitive marker (S-100 protein) and one specific (HMB45) marker for melanogenesis.

  16. Differentiation of seborrheic keratosis from basal cell carcinoma, nevi and melanoma by RGB autofluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Lihachev, Alexey; Lihacova, Ilze; Plorina, Emilija V; Lange, Marta; Derjabo, Alexander; Spigulis, Janis

    2018-04-01

    A clinical trial on the autofluorescence imaging of skin lesions comprising 16 dermatologically confirmed pigmented nevi, 15 seborrheic keratosis, 2 dysplastic nevi, histologically confirmed 17 basal cell carcinomas and 1 melanoma was performed. The autofluorescence spatial properties of the skin lesions were acquired by smartphone RGB camera under 405 nm LED excitation. The diagnostic criterion is based on the calculation of the mean autofluorescence intensity of the examined lesion in the spectral range of 515 nm-700 nm. The proposed methodology is able to differentiate seborrheic keratosis from basal cell carcinoma, pigmented nevi and melanoma. The sensitivity and specificity of the proposed method was estimated as being close to 100%. The proposed methodology and potential clinical applications are discussed in this article.

  17. Accumulation of prohibitin is a common cellular response to different stressing stimuli and protects melanoma cells from ER stress and chemotherapy-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Tortelli, Tharcisio Citrangulo; de Godoy, Lyris Martins Franco; de Souza, Gustavo Antonio; Bonatto, Diego; Otake, Andreia Hanada; de Freitas Saito, Renata; Rosa, Jose Cesar; Greene, Lewis Joel; Chammas, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is responsible for most deaths among skin cancers and conventional and palliative care chemotherapy are limited due to the development of chemoresistance. We used proteomic analysis to identify cellular responses that lead to chemoresistance of human melanoma cell lines to cisplatin. A systems approach to the proteomic data indicated the participation of specific cellular processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial organization and homeostasis, as well as the unfolded protein response (UPR) to be required for the survival of cells treated with cisplatin. Prohibitin (PHB) was among the proteins consistently accumulated, interacting with the functional clusters associated with resistance to cisplatin. We showed PHB accumulated at different levels in melanoma cell lines under stressing stimuli, such as (i) treatment with temozolomide (TMZ), dacarbazine (DTIC) and cisplatin; (ii) serum deprivation; (iii) tunicamycin, an UPR inducer. Prohibitin accumulated in the mitochondria of melanoma cells after cisplatin and tunicamycin treatment and its de novo accumulation led to chemoresistance melanoma cell lines. In contrast, PHB knock-down sensitized melanoma cells to cisplatin and tunicamycin treatment. We conclude that PHB participates in the survival of cells exposed to different stress stimuli, and can therefore serve as a target for the sensitization of melanoma cells to chemotherapy. PMID:28562344

  18. Sub-apoptotic dosages of pro-oxidant vitamin cocktails sensitize human melanoma cells to NK cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Tremante, Elisa; Santarelli, Lory; Lo Monaco, Elisa; Sampaoli, Camilla; Ingegnere, Tiziano; Guerrieri, Roberto; Tomasetti, Marco; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2015-10-13

    Alpha-tocopheryl succinate (αTOS), vitamin K3 (VK3) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) were previously shown to synergistically promote different death pathways in carcinoma cells, depending on their concentrations and combinations. Similar effects were observed herein in melanoma cells, although αTOS behaved as an antagonist. Interestingly, suboptimal cell death-inducing concentrations (1.5 μM αTOS/20 μM AA/0.2 μM VK3) effectively up-regulated activating Natural Killer (NK) cell ligands, including MICA (the stress-signaling ligand of the NKG2D receptor), and/or the ligands of at least one of the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46) in 5/6 melanoma cell lines. Only an isolated MICA down-regulation was seen. HLA class I, HLA class II, ULBP1, ULBP2, ULBP3, Nectin-2, and PVR displayed little, if any, change in expression. Ligand up-regulation resulted in improved lysis by polyclonal NK cells armed with the corresponding activating receptors. These results provide the first evidence for concerted induction of cell death by cell-autonomous and extrinsic (immune) mechanisms. Alarming the immune system much below the cell damage threshold may have evolved as a sensitive readout of neoplastic transformation and oxidative stress. Cocktails of vitamin analogues at slightly supra-physiological dosages may find application as mild complements of melanoma treatment, and in chemoprevention.

  19. Sub-apoptotic dosages of pro-oxidant vitamin cocktails sensitize human melanoma cells to NK cell lysis

    PubMed Central

    Tremante, Elisa; Santarelli, Lory; Monaco, Elisa Lo; Sampaoli, Camilla; Ingegnere, Tiziano; Guerrieri, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-tochopheryl succinate (αTOS), vitamin K3 (VK3) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) were previously shown to synergistically promote different death pathways in carcinoma cells, depending on their concentrations and combinations. Similar effects were observed herein in melanoma cells, although αTOS behaved as an antagonist. Interestingly, suboptimal cell death-inducing concentrations (1.5 μM αTOS/20 μM AA/0.2 μM VK3) effectively up-regulated activating Natural Killer (NK) cell ligands, including MICA (the stress-signaling ligand of the NKG2D receptor), and/or the ligands of at least one of the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46) in 5/6 melanoma cell lines. Only an isolated MICA down-regulation was seen. HLA class I, HLA class II, ULBP1, ULBP2, ULBP3, Nectin-2, and PVR displayed little, if any, change in expression. Ligand up-regulation resulted in improved lysis by polyclonal NK cells armed with the corresponding activating receptors. These results provide the first evidence for concerted induction of cell death by cell-autonomous and extrinsic (immune) mechanisms. Alarming the immune system much below the cell damage threshold may have evolved as a sensitive readout of neoplastic transformation and oxidative stress. Cocktails of vitamin analogues at slightly supra-physiological dosages may find application as mild complements of melanoma treatment, and in chemoprevention. PMID:26427039

  20. Differential response of human melanoma and Ehrlich ascites cells in vitro to the ribosome-inactivating protein luffin.

    PubMed

    Poma, A; Miranda, M; Spanò, L

    1998-10-01

    The cytotoxicity and inhibitory effect on proliferation of the type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein luffin purified from the seeds of Luffa aegyptiaca were investigated both in human metastatic melanoma cells and in murine Ehrlich ascites tumour cells. Results indicate that luffin from the seeds of Luffa aegyptiaca is cytotoxic to the cell lines tested, with approximately 10 times greater potency in Ehrlich cells. Luffin was found to induce an increase in cytosolic oligonucleosome-bound DNA in both melanoma and Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, the level of DNA fragmentation in the former cell line being higher than in the latter. Experiments with melanoma cells indicate that an increase in cytosolic nucleosomes could be supportive of apoptosis as the type of cell death induced by luffin.

  1. Reprogramming human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells by catalase overexpression: Upregulation of antioxidant genes correlates with regression of melanoma malignancy and with malignant progression when downregulated

    PubMed Central

    Berenstein, Ariel; Notcovich, Cintia; Cerda, María B.; Klamt, Fabio; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Durán, Hebe

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in tumor transformation. The antioxidant system (AOS) protects cells from ROS damage. However, it is also hijacked by cancers cells to proliferate within the tumor. Thus, identifying proteins altered by redox imbalance in cancer cells is an attractive prognostic and therapeutic tool. Gene expression microarrays in A375 melanoma cells with different ROS levels after overexpressing catalase were performed. Dissimilar phenotypes by differential compensation to hydrogen peroxide scavenging were generated. The melanotic A375-A7 (A7) upregulated TYRP1, CNTN1 and UCHL1 promoting melanogenesis. The metastatic A375-G10 (G10) downregulated MTSS1 and TIAM1, proteins absent in metastasis. Moreover, differential coexpression of AOS genes (EPHX2, GSTM3, MGST1, MSRA, TXNRD3, MGST3 and GSR) was found in A7 and G10. Their increase in A7 improved its AOS ability and therefore, oxidative stress response, resembling less aggressive tumor cells. Meanwhile, their decrease in G10 revealed a disruption in the AOS and therefore, enhanced its metastatic capacity. These gene signatures, not only bring new insights into the physiopathology of melanoma, but also could be relevant in clinical prognostic to classify between non aggressive and metastatic melanomas. PMID:27206673

  2. Reprogramming human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells by catalase overexpression: Upregulation of antioxidant genes correlates with regression of melanoma malignancy and with malignant progression when downregulated.

    PubMed

    Bracalente, Candelaria; Ibañez, Irene L; Berenstein, Ariel; Notcovich, Cintia; Cerda, María B; Klamt, Fabio; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Durán, Hebe

    2016-07-05

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in tumor transformation. The antioxidant system (AOS) protects cells from ROS damage. However, it is also hijacked by cancers cells to proliferate within the tumor. Thus, identifying proteins altered by redox imbalance in cancer cells is an attractive prognostic and therapeutic tool. Gene expression microarrays in A375 melanoma cells with different ROS levels after overexpressing catalase were performed. Dissimilar phenotypes by differential compensation to hydrogen peroxide scavenging were generated. The melanotic A375-A7 (A7) upregulated TYRP1, CNTN1 and UCHL1 promoting melanogenesis. The metastatic A375-G10 (G10) downregulated MTSS1 and TIAM1, proteins absent in metastasis. Moreover, differential coexpression of AOS genes (EPHX2, GSTM3, MGST1, MSRA, TXNRD3, MGST3 and GSR) was found in A7 and G10. Their increase in A7 improved its AOS ability and therefore, oxidative stress response, resembling less aggressive tumor cells. Meanwhile, their decrease in G10 revealed a disruption in the AOS and therefore, enhanced its metastatic capacity.These gene signatures, not only bring new insights into the physiopathology of melanoma, but also could be relevant in clinical prognostic to classify between non aggressive and metastatic melanomas.

  3. R-Ras Regulates Migration through an Interaction with Filamin A in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gawecka, Joanna E.; Griffiths, Genevieve S.; Ek-Rylander, Barbro; Ramos, Joe W.; Matter, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Changes in cell adhesion and migration in the tumor microenvironment are key in the initiation and progression of metastasis. R-Ras is one of several small GTPases that regulate cell adhesion and migration on the extracellular matrix, however the mechanism has not been completely elucidated. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach we sought to identify novel R-Ras binding proteins that might mediate its effects on integrins. Methods and Findings We identified Filamin A (FLNa) as a candidate interacting protein. FLNa is an actin-binding scaffold protein that also binds to integrin β1, β2 and β7 tails and is associated with diverse cell processes including cell migration. Indeed, M2 melanoma cells require FLNa for motility. We further show that R-Ras and FLNa interact in co-immunoprecipitations and pull-down assays. Deletion of FLNa repeat 3 (FLNaΔ3) abrogated this interaction. In M2 melanoma cells active R-Ras co-localized with FLNa but did not co-localize with FLNa lacking repeat 3. Thus, activated R-Ras binds repeat 3 of FLNa. The functional consequence of this interaction was that active R-Ras and FLNa coordinately increased cell migration. In contrast, co-expression of R-Ras and FLNaΔ3 had a significantly reduced effect on migration. While there was enhancement of integrin activation and fibronectin matrix assembly, cell adhesion was not altered. Finally, siRNA knockdown of endogenous R-Ras impaired FLNa-dependent fibronectin matrix assembly. Conclusions These data support a model in which R-Ras functionally associates with FLNa and thereby regulates integrin-dependent migration. Thus in melanoma cells R-Ras and FLNa may cooperatively promote metastasis by enhancing cell migration. PMID:20585650

  4. Licochalcone D induces apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion in human melanoma A375 cells

    PubMed Central

    Si, Lingling; Yan, Xinyan; Hao, Wenjin; Ma, Xiaoyi; Ren, Huanhuan; Ren, Boxue; Li, Defang; Dong, Zhengping; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Licochalcone D (LD) on the apoptosis and migration and invasion in human melanoma A375 cells. Cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and JC-1 assay. Total intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined by DCFH-DA. Wound healing and Transwell assays were used to detect migration and invasion of the cells. The activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were assessed via gelatin zymography. Tumor growth in vivo was evaluated in C57BL/6 mice. RT-PCR, qPCR, ELISA and western blot analysis were utilized to measure the mRNA and protein levels. Our results showed that LD inhibited the proliferation of A375 and SK-MEL-5 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. After treatment with LD, A375 cells displayed obvious apoptotic characteristics, and the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased. Pro-apoptotic protein Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were upregulated, while anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was downregulated in the LD-treated cells. Meanwhile, LD induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and increased the level of ROS. ROS production was inhibited by the co-treatment of LD and free radical scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, LD also blocked A375 cell migration and invasion in vitro which was associated with the downregulation of MMP-9 and MMP-2. Finally, intragastric administration of LD suppressed tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model of murine melanoma B16F0 cells. These results suggest that LD may be a potential drug for human melanoma treatment by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and blocking cell migration and invasion. PMID:29565458

  5. [Study of migration and distribution of bone marrow cells transplanted animals with B16 melanoma ].

    PubMed

    Poveshchenko, A F; Solovieva, A O; Zubareva, K E; Strunkin, D N; Gricyk, O B; Poveshchenko, O V; Shurlygina, A V; Konenkov, V I

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Reveal features migration and distribution of syngeneic bone marrow cells (BMC) and subpopulations (MSC) after transplantation into the recipient carrier B16 melanoma bodies. Methods. We used mouse male and female C57BL/6 mice. Induction of Tumor Growth: B16 melanoma cells implanted subcutaneously into right hind paw of female C57BL/6 mice at a dose of 2.5 x 105 cells / mouse. migration study in vivo distribution and BMC and MSC was performed using genetic markers - Y-chromosome specific sequence line male C57Bl/6 syngeneic intravenous transplantation in females using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in real time on Authorized Termal Cycler - Light Cycler 480 II / 96 (Roche). Introduction suspension of unseparated bone marrow cells, mesenchymal stem cells from donor to recipient male mice (syngeneic recipient female C57BL/6), followed by isolation of recipients of organs was performed at regular intervals, then of organ recipients isolated DNA. Results. It was shown that bone marrow cells positive for Y-chromosome in migrate lymphoid (lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow) or in non-lymphoid organs (liver, heart, brain, skin) syngeneic recipients. In addition to the migration of cells from the bone marrow to other organs, there is a way back migration of cells from the circulation to the bone marrow. B16 melanoma stimulates the migration of transplanted MSCs and BMC in bone marrow. It is found that tumor growth enhanced migration of transplanted bone marrow cells, including populations of MSCs in the bone marrow. In the early stages of tumor formation MSC migration activity higher than the BMC. In the later stages of tumor formation undivided population of bone marrow cells migrate to the intense swelling compared with a population of MSCs. Conclusion. The possibility of using bone marrow MSCs for targeted therapy of tumor diseases, because migration of MSCs in tumor tissue can be used to effectively deliver anticancer drugs.

  6. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sustarsic, Elahu G.; Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH; Junnila, Riia K.

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Most cancer types of the NCI60 have sub-sets of cell lines with high GHR expression. •GHR is highly expressed in melanoma cell lines. •GHR is elevated in advanced stage IV metastatic tumors vs. stage III. •GH treatment of metastatic melanoma cell lines alters growth and cell signaling. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institute’s NCI60 panel includesmore » 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation

  7. Isoliquiritigenin-Induced Differentiation in Mouse Melanoma B16F0 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Bo; Yuan, Xuan; Yang, Fan; Liu, Jinglei; Zhao, Hong; Liu, Liangliang; Wang, Yanming; Wang, Zhenhua; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2012-01-01

    The chemotherapeutical treatment is very limited for malignant melanoma, a highly lethal disease occurs globally. Natural products derived from traditional Chinese medicine licorice are attractive in quest new treatments due to their anti-tumor activities. A new dietary flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ISL) were thus investigated to indentify its anti-melanoma activities on mouse melanoma B16F0 cells in present study. Using biochemical and free radical biological experiments in vitro, we identified the pro-differentiated profiles of ISL and evaluated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during B16F0 cell differentiation. The data showed a strong dose-response relationship between ISL exposure and the characteristics of B16F0 differentiation in terms of morphology changes and melanogenesis. The accumulated intercellular ROS during exposure are necessary to support ISL-induced differentiation, which was proven by additional redox modulators. It was confirmed further by the relative activities of enzymes and genes modulated melanogenesis in ISL-treatments with or without ROS modulators. The tumorigenicity of ISL-treated cells was limited significantly by using the colony formation assay in vitro and an animal model assay in vivo respectively. Our research demonstrated that isoliquiritigenin is a differentiation-inducing agent, and its mechanisms involve ROS accumulation facilitating melanogenesis. PMID:23304254

  8. Isoliquiritigenin-induced differentiation in mouse melanoma B16F0 cell line.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Bo; Yuan, Xuan; Yang, Fan; Liu, Jinglei; Zhao, Hong; Liu, Liangliang; Wang, Yanming; Wang, Zhenhua; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2012-01-01

    The chemotherapeutical treatment is very limited for malignant melanoma, a highly lethal disease occurs globally. Natural products derived from traditional Chinese medicine licorice are attractive in quest new treatments due to their anti-tumor activities. A new dietary flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ISL) were thus investigated to indentify its anti-melanoma activities on mouse melanoma B16F0 cells in present study. Using biochemical and free radical biological experiments in vitro, we identified the pro-differentiated profiles of ISL and evaluated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during B16F0 cell differentiation. The data showed a strong dose-response relationship between ISL exposure and the characteristics of B16F0 differentiation in terms of morphology changes and melanogenesis. The accumulated intercellular ROS during exposure are necessary to support ISL-induced differentiation, which was proven by additional redox modulators. It was confirmed further by the relative activities of enzymes and genes modulated melanogenesis in ISL-treatments with or without ROS modulators. The tumorigenicity of ISL-treated cells was limited significantly by using the colony formation assay in vitro and an animal model assay in vivo respectively. Our research demonstrated that isoliquiritigenin is a differentiation-inducing agent, and its mechanisms involve ROS accumulation facilitating melanogenesis.

  9. Adoptive Cell Therapy for Patients With Metastatic Melanoma: Evaluation of Intensive Myeloablative Chemoradiation Preparative Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Mark E.; Yang, James C.; Sherry, Richard; Hughes, Marybeth S.; Royal, Richard; Kammula, Udai; Robbins, Paul F.; Huang, JianPing; Citrin, Deborah E.; Leitman, Susan F.; Wunderlich, John; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Thomasian, Armen; Downey, Stephanie G.; Smith, Franz O.; Klapper, Jacob; Morton, Kathleen; Laurencot, Carolyn; White, Donald E.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The two approved treatments for patients with metastatic melanoma, interleukin (IL)-2 and dacarbazine, mediate objective response rates of 12% to 15%. We previously reported that adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with autologous antitumor lymphocytes in lymphodepleted hosts mediated objective responses in 51% of 35 patients. Here, we update that study and evaluate the safety and efficacy of two increased-intensity myeloablative lymphodepleting regimens. Patients and Methods We performed two additional sequential trials of ACT with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in patients with metastatic melanoma. Increasing intensity of host preparative lymphodepletion consisting of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine with either 2 (25 patients) or 12 Gy (25 patients) of total-body irradiation (TBI) was administered before cell transfer. Objective response rates by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and survival were evaluated. Immunologic correlates of effective treatment were studied. Results Although nonmyeloablative chemotherapy alone showed an objective response rate of 49%, when 2 or 12 Gy of TBI was added, the response rates were 52% and 72% respectively. Responses were seen in all visceral sites including brain. There was one treatment-related death in the 93 patients. Host lymphodepletion was associated with increased serum levels of the lymphocyte homeostatic cytokines IL-7 and IL-15. Objective responses were correlated with the telomere length of the transferred cells. Conclusion Host lymphodepletion followed by autologous TIL transfer and IL-2 results in objective response rates of 50% to 70% in patients with metastatic melanoma refractory to standard therapies. PMID:18809613

  10. Advances in the Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma: Adoptive T Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bernatchez, Chantale; Radvanyi, Laszlo G.; Hwu, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is notoriously resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. The prospect for newly diagnosed metastatic melanoma patients is grim with a median survival of less than a year. Currently, the only therapies resulting in long term disease free intervals, high dose Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and more recently anti-CTLA-41, work through activation of the immune system. However, with both therapies the response rate is low. Advances in our knowledge of how the immune system interacts with cancer have led to a number of strategies to manipulate anti-tumor immune responses through immunotherapy. This review will focus on one avenue of immunotherapy using the transfer of T cells referred to as “Adoptive Cell Therapy” (ACT), which involves the ex vivo expansion of autologous tumor-specific T cells to large numbers that are ultimately transferred back to the patient to boost anti-tumor immunity. This approach has been shown to be effective in the treatment of virally induced cancers, as well as metastatic melanoma. Recent successes with ACT hold promise and further emphasize the tremendous potential benefit of harnessing the immune system in the fight against cancer. PMID:22484193

  11. Effect of combination of taurine and azelaic acid on antimelanogenesis in murine melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pigmentation in human skin is an important defense mechanism against sunlight or oxidative stress. Despite the protective role of melanin, abnormal hyperpigmentation such as freckles and chloasma sometimes can be serious aesthetic problems. Because of these effects of hyperpigmentation, people have considered the effect of depigmentation. Azelaic acid (AZ) is a saturated dicarboxylic acid found naturally in wheat, rye, and barley. Previously, we showed that AZ inhibited melanogenesis. In this study, we investigated the antimelanogenic activity of combination of AZ and taurine (Tau) in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Methods The mouse melanoma cell line B16F10 was used in the study. We measured melanin contents and tyrosinase activity. To gain the change of protein expression, we carried out western blotting. Results We investigated that AZ combined with taurine (Tau) show more inhibitory effects in melanocytes than the treatment of AZ alone. AZ combined with Tau inhibited the melanin production and tyrosinase activity of B16F10 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. Also inhibitory effects after treatment with these combined chemical are stronger than AZ alone on melanogenesis. Conclusions These findings indicate that AZ with Tau might play an important role in the regulation of melanin formation and be useful as effective ingredients in antimelanogesis. PMID:20804622

  12. Effect of combination of taurine and azelaic acid on antimelanogenesis in murine melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji Sun; Kim, An Keun

    2010-08-24

    Pigmentation in human skin is an important defense mechanism against sunlight or oxidative stress. Despite the protective role of melanin, abnormal hyperpigmentation such as freckles and chloasma sometimes can be serious aesthetic problems. Because of these effects of hyperpigmentation, people have considered the effect of depigmentation. Azelaic acid (AZ) is a saturated dicarboxylic acid found naturally in wheat, rye, and barley. Previously, we showed that AZ inhibited melanogenesis. In this study, we investigated the antimelanogenic activity of combination of AZ and taurine (Tau) in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The mouse melanoma cell line B16F10 was used in the study. We measured melanin contents and tyrosinase activity. To gain the change of protein expression, we carried out western blotting. We investigated that AZ combined with taurine (Tau) show more inhibitory effects in melanocytes than the treatment of AZ alone. AZ combined with Tau inhibited the melanin production and tyrosinase activity of B16F10 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. Also inhibitory effects after treatment with these combined chemical are stronger than AZ alone on melanogenesis. These findings indicate that AZ with Tau might play an important role in the regulation of melanin formation and be useful as effective ingredients in antimelanogesis.

  13. Curcumin inhibited growth of human melanoma A375 cells via inciting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wang; Xiang, Wei; Wang, Fei-Fei; Wang, Rui; Ding, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol compound, possesses potent pharmacological properties in preventing cancers, which make it as a potential anti-cancer mediator. However, it is still unknown that whether Curcumin induced melanoma A375 cell was associated with oxidative stress. Here, we firstly found a fascinating result that Curcumin could reduce the proliferation and induced apoptosis of human melanoma A375 cells. Meanwhile, IC 50 of Curcumin on A375 cells is 80μM at 48h. In addition, Curcumin caused oxidative stress through inducing further ROS burst, decreasing GSH, and wrecking mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), which were reversed by ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Moreover, MMP disruption led to the release of Cytochrome c from mitochondria and subsequently led to intracellular apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that ROS-dependent HIF-1α and its downstream proteins also play an important role on Curcumin induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our results shed new lights on the therapy of melanoma that Curcumin may be a promising candidate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate(EGCG) suppresses melanoma cell growth and metastasis by targeting TRAF6 activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianglin; Lei, Zhou; Huang, Zunnan; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Youyou; Luo, Zhongling; Zeng, Weiqi; Su, Juan; Peng, Cong; Chen, Xiang

    2016-11-29

    TRAF6 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that contains a Ring domain, induces K63-linked polyubiquitination, and plays a critical role in signaling transduction. Our previous results demonstrated that TRAF6 is overexpressed in melanoma and that TRAF6 knockdown dramatically attenuates tumor cell growth and metastasis. In this study, we found that EGCG can directly bind to TRAF6, and a computational model of the interaction between EGCG and TRAF6 revealed that EGCG probably interacts with TRAF6 at the residues of Gln54, Gly55, Asp57 ILe72, Cys73 and Lys96. Among these amino acids, mutation of Gln54, Asp57, ILe72 in TRAF6 could destroy EGCG bound to TRAF6, furthermore, our results demonstrated that EGCG significantly attenuates interaction between TRAF6 and UBC13(E2) and suppresses TRAF6 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, the phosphorylation of IκBα, p-TAK1 expression are decreased and the nuclear translocation of p65 and p50 is blocked by treatment with EGCG, leading to inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. Moreover, EGCG significantly inhibits cell growth as well as the migration and invasion of melanoma cells. Taken together, these findings show that EGCG is a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibitor that could be used to target TRAF6 for chemotherapy or the prevention of melanoma.

  15. Withania somnifera Root Extract Has Potent Cytotoxic Effect against Human Malignant Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Babli; Singh, Shruti; Thakur, Suman S.

    2015-01-01

    In Ayurveda, Withania somnifera is commonly known as Ashwagandha, its roots are specifically used in medicinal and clinical applications. It possesses numerous therapeutic actions which include anti-inflammatory, sedative, hypnotic and narcotic. Extracts from this plant have been reported for its anticancer properties. In this study we evaluated for the first time, the cytotoxic effect of Withania root extract on human malignant melanoma A375 cells. The crude extract of Withania was tested for cytotoxicity against A375 cells by MTT assay. Cell morphology of treated A375 cells was visualized through phase contrast as well as fluorescence microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to check DNA fragmentation of the crude extract treated cells. Crude extract of Withania root has the potency to reduce viable cell count in dose as well as time dependent manner. Morphological change of the A375 cells was also observed in treated groups in comparison to untreated or vehicle treated control. Apoptotic body and nuclear blebbing were observed in DAPI stained treated cells under fluorescence microscope. A ladder of fragmented DNA was noticed in treated cells. Thus it might be said that the crude water extract of Withania somnifera has potent cytotoxic effect on human malignant melanoma A375 cells. PMID:26334881

  16. MiR-26b inhibits melanoma cell proliferation and enhances apoptosis by suppressing TRAF5-mediated MAPK activation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Meng; Long, Chaoqin; Yang, Guilan

    2016-03-11

    Alterations in microRNA-26b (miR-26b) expression have been shown to participate in various malignant tumor developments. However, the possible function of miR-26b in human melanoma cells remains unclarified. In this study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to explore the expression profiles of miR-26b in melanoma cells. The effect of miR-26b on cell viability was determined by using MTT assays and colony formation assay. The apoptosis levels were evaluated by using Annexin V/fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) apoptosis detection kit and the apoptosis cells were confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Luciferase reporter plasmids were constructed to confirm direct targeting. Our study foundmore » that the expression of miR-26b was downregulated in human melanoma specimens. Overexpression of miR-26b significantly increased the anti-proliferative effects and apoptosis in A375 and B16F10 melanoma cells. In addition, luciferase gene reporter assays confirmed that TRAF5 was a direct target gene of miR-26b and the anti-tumor effect of miR-26b in melanoma cells was significantly counteracted by treatment with TRAF5 overexpression. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms underlying the tumor suppressor of miR-26b in malignant melanomas may be due to the dephosphorylation of MAPK pathway caused by the decrease in TRAF5 expression when miR-26b is up-regulated in melanoma cells. These findings indicate that miR-26b might influence TRAF5-MAPK signaling pathways to facilitate the malignant progression of melanoma cells. - Highlights: • miR-26b is downregulated in human melanomas. • miR-26b suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and enhanced cell apoptosis. • TRAF5 is a direct target of miR-26b and inversely correlates with miR-26b expression. • miR-26b modulated MAPK signaling pathway by targeting TRAF5.« less

  17. Basic and clinical aspects of malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: The role of oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma; Laminin and fibronectin modulate the metastatic activity of melanoma cells; Structure, function and biosynthesis of ganglioside antigens associated with human tumors derived from the neuroectoderm; Epidemiology of ocular melanoma; Malignant melanoma: Prognostic factors; Endocrine influences on the natural history of human malignant melanoma; Psychosocial factors associated with prognostic indicators, progression, psychophysiology, and tumor-host response in cutaneous malignant melanoma; Central nervous system metastases in malignant melanoma; Interferon trials in the management of malignant melanoma and other neoplasms: an overview; and The treatment of malignantmore » melanoma by fast neutrons.« less

  18. Ror2-Src signaling in metastasis of mouse melanoma cells is inhibited by NRAGE.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shan-Shan; Xue, Bin; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Li; Chu, Chao-Shun; Hao, Jia-Yin; Wen, Chuan-Jun

    2012-11-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Ror2 plays important roles in developmental morphogenesis and mediates the filopodia formation in Wnt5a-induced cell migration. However, the function of Ror2 in noncanonical Wnt signaling resulting in cancer metastasis is largely unknown. Here, we show that Ror2 expression is higher in the highly metastatic murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells than in the low metastatic variant B16 cells. Overexpression of Ror2 increases the metastasis ability of B16 cells, and knockdown of Ror2 reduces the migration ability of B16-BL6 cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of Src kinase activity is critical for the Ror2-mediated cell migration upon Wnt5a treatment. The C-terminus of Ror2, which is deleted in brachydactyly type B (BDB), is essential for the mutual interaction with the SH1 domain of Src. Intriguingly, the Neurotrophin receptor-interacting MAGE homologue (NRAGE), which, as we previously reported, can remodel the cellular skeleton and inhibit cell-cell adhesion and metastasis of melanoma and pancreatic cancer, sharply blocks the interaction between Src and Ror2 and inhibits Ror2-mediated B16 cell migration by decreasing the activity of Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Our data show that Ror2 is a potential factor in the tumorigenesis and metastasis in a Src-dependent manner that is negatively regulated by NRAGE. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Caspase dependent apoptotic inhibition of melanoma and lung cancer cells by tropical Rubus extracts.

    PubMed

    George, Blassan Plackal Adimuriyil; Abrahamse, Heidi; Hemmaragala, Nanjundaswamy M

    2016-05-01

    Rubus fairholmianus Gard. inhibits human melanoma (A375) and lung cancer (A549) cell growth by the caspase dependent apoptotic pathway. Herbal products have a long history of clinical use and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. The plants and plant derived products became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years. The effects of R. fairholmianus root acetone extract (RFRA) on the proliferation of A375 and A549 cells was examined in this study. RFRA led to a decrease in cell viability, proliferation and an increase in cytotoxicity in a dose dependent manner when compared with control and normal skin fibroblast cells (WS1). The morphology of treated cells supported apoptotic cell death. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining indicated that RFRA induced apoptosis in A375 and A549 cells and the percentages of early and late apoptotic populations significantly increased. Moreover, the apoptotic inducing ability of RFRA when analysing effector caspase 3/7 activity, indicated a marked increase in treated cells. In summary, we have shown the anticancer effects of RFRA in A375 and A549 cancer cells via induction of caspase dependent apoptosis in vitro. The extract is more effective against melanoma; which may suggest the usefulness of RFRA-based anticancer therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. E-cadherin determines Caveolin-1 tumor suppression or metastasis enhancing function in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lobos-González, L; Aguilar, L; Diaz, J; Diaz, N; Urra, H; Torres, V; Silva, V; Fitzpatrick, C; Lladser, A; Hoek, K.S.; Leyton, L; Quest, AFG

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The role of caveolin-1 (CAV1) in cancer is highly controversial. CAV1 suppresses genes that favor tumor development, yet also promotes focal adhesion turnover and migration of metastatic cells. How these contrasting observations relate to CAV1 function in vivo is unclear. Our previous studies implicate E-cadherin in CAV1-dependent tumor suppression. Here we use murine melanoma B16F10 cells, with low levels of endogenous CAV1 and E-cadherin, to unravel how CAV1 affects tumor growth and metastasis, and to assess how co-expression of E-cadherin modulates CAV1 function in vivo in C57BL/6 mice. We find that overexpression of CAV1 in B16F10(cav-1) cells reduces subcutaneous tumor formation, but enhances metastasis relative to control cells. Furthermore, E-cadherin expression in B16F10(E-cad) cells reduces subcutaneous tumor formation, and lung metastasis when intravenously injected. Importantly, co-expression of CAV1 and E-cadherin in B16F10(cav1/E-cad) cells abolishes tumor formation, lung metastasis, increased Rac-1 activity and cell migration observed with B16F10(cav-1) cells. Finally, consistent with the notion that CAV1 participates in switching human melanomas to a more malignant phenotype, elevated levels of CAV1 expression correlated with enhanced migration and Rac-1 activation in these cells. PMID:23470013

  1. Direct targeting of MEK1/2 and RSK2 by silybin induces cell cycle arrest and inhibits melanoma cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mee-Hyun; Huang, Zunnan; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Myoung Ok; Lee, Sung-Young; Xie, Hua; Park, Si Jun; Kim, Jae Young; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Bode, Ann M.; Surh, Young-Joon; Dong, Zigang

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal functioning of multiple gene products underlies the neoplastic transformation of cells. Thus, chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agents with multigene targets hold promise in the development of effective anticancer drugs. Silybin, a component of milk thistle, is a natural anticancer agent. In the present study, we investigated the effect of silybin on melanoma cell growth and elucidated its molecular targets. Our study revealed that silybin attenuated the growth of melanoma xenograft tumors in nude mice. Silybin inhibited the kinase activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-1/2 and ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)-2 in melanoma cells. The direct binding of silybin with MEK1/2 and RSK2 was explored using a computational docking model. Treatment of melanoma cells with silybin attenuated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 and RSK2, which are regulated by the upstream kinases MEK1/2. The blockade of MEK1/2-ERK1/2-RSK2 signaling by silybin resulted in a reduced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, activator protein-1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, which are transcriptional regulators of a variety of proliferative genes in melanomas. Silybin, by blocking the activation of these transcription factors, induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and inhibited melanoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, silybin suppresses melanoma growth by directly targeting MEK- and RSK-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:23447564

  2. Mechanisms of Tanshinone II a inhibits malignant melanoma development through blocking autophagy signal transduction in A375 cell.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Li, Zhifeng; Li, Xianping; Liu, Baoguo; Liu, Zhijun

    2017-05-22

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is one of the high degree of malignancy and early prone to blood and lymph node metastasis. There is not cured for MM. Tan II A has been reported to reduce cancer cell proliferation. But the mechanism by which Tan II A inhibited melanoma growth are not well characterized. We sought to explore the possible mechanism by which Tan II A regulated cell proliferation through autophagy signaling pathway in A375 cells. We tested the effects of Tan II A on melanoma A375, MV3, M14, and other human cell lines including Hacat and HUVEC cells in cell culture model. Cell proliferation was assessed by using methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Cell migration ability melanoma A375 was monitored by using cell scratch assay. Transwell chamber experimental was performed to assess the effect of Tan II A on A375 melanoma cell invasion ability. The autophagy body was examined by using flow cytometry. The expression of autophagy-associated protein beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3)-II, as well as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)、protein kinase B (Akt)、mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)、p70S6K1 signaling pathways were detected by using Western blotting. The effects of Tan II A on tumor progression was also examined in melanoma A375 induced tumor in mouse model. We found that Tan IIA inhibited melanoma A375, MV3, and M14 cell proliferation in dose and time dependent manner. Tan II A reduced CXCL12-induced A375 cell invasive ability and migration in a dose dependent manner. Tan IIA promoted autophagic body production and increased autophagy-associated protein beclin-1 and LC3-II expression in A375 cells. However, Tan IIA reduced the phosphorylation of PI3K, P-AKT, P-mTOR, and P-p7036k1. We also confirmed that Tan II A reduced melanoma A375 induced tumor volume and weight in mouse model. We concluded that Tan II A reduced A375 cells proliferation by activation of autophagy production, blocked PI3K- Akt - mTOR - p70S6K1

  3. Expression and clinicopathological significance of microRNA-21 and programmed cell death 4 in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian; Fan, Yu; Zhang, Yan

    2015-10-01

    To measure levels of microRNA (miR)-21 and its target gene, programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), in samples of human cutaneous malignant melanoma and normal non-malignant control skin. Relative levels of miR-21 and PDCD4 mRNA were measured using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Correlations between the levels of the two molecules and the clinicopathological characteristics of malignant melanoma were analysed. A total of 67 cases of human cutaneous malignant melanoma were analysed and compared with 67 samples of normal nonmalignant control skin. Compared with normal skin samples, the relative level of miR-21 was significantly higher and the relative level of PDCD4 mRNA was significantly lower in the melanoma specimens. A significant negative correlation between PDCD4 mRNA and miR-21 was demonstrated in malignant melanoma (r = -0.602). Elevated miR-21 and reduced PDCD4 mRNA levels were both significantly correlated with increased tumour size, a higher Clark classification level and the presence of lymph node metastases in malignant melanoma. These findings suggest that miR-21 and PDCD4 might be potential biomarkers for malignant melanoma and might provide treatment targets in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Protein B61 as a new growth factor: expression of B61 and up-regulation of its receptor epithelial cell kinase during melanoma progression.

    PubMed

    Easty, D J; Guthrie, B A; Maung, K; Farr, C J; Lindberg, R A; Toso, R J; Herlyn, M; Bennett, D C

    1995-06-15

    Epithelial cell kinase (ECK) is a receptor protein tyrosine kinase, the role of which in melanoma biology is unclear. Here we studied the role of ECK during melanoma progression. ECK mRNA was overexpressed in virtually all melanoma lines tested, and levels were significantly higher in cell lines from distant metastases than primary melanomas; melanocytes were negative. Gene amplification was not detected in melanomas. Levels of ECK protein corresponded well with mRNA levels. B61 or LERK-1, recently identified as an ECK ligand, stimulated the growth of ECK-expressing melanoma cell lines, its first identified biological activity. Melanoma chemotaxis and chemoinvasion were not affected by B61. Growth of normal melanocytes was not affected. mRNA for B61 was detected in both melanoma cell lines and normal melanocytes. B61 was also identified by Western blotting and ECK binding activity with the use of a BIAcore binding assay in melanoma cell-conditioned media. These results suggest that B61 is an autocrine growth factor for melanomas but not normal melanocytes.

  5. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is critical for the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vachtenheim, Jiri, E-mail: jivach@upn.anet.cz; Ondrusova, Lubica; Borovansky, Jan

    2010-02-12

    The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is required for melanocyte development, maintenance of the melanocyte-specific transcription, and survival of melanoma cells. MITF positively regulates expression of more than 25 genes in pigment cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that expression of several MITF downstream targets requires the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, which contains one of the two catalytic subunits, Brm or Brg1. Here we show that the expression of MITF itself critically requires active SWI/SNF. In several Brm/Brg1-expressing melanoma cell lines, knockdown of Brg1 severely compromised MITF expression with a concomitant dowregulation of MITF targets and decreased cell proliferation. Although Brmmore » was able to substitute for Brg1 in maintaining MITF expression and melanoma cell proliferation, sequential knockdown of both Brm and Brg1 in 501mel cells abolished proliferation. In Brg1-null SK-MEL-5 melanoma cells, depletion of Brm alone was sufficient to abrogate MITF expression and cell proliferation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the binding of Brg1 or Brm to the promoter of MITF. Together these results demonstrate the essential role of SWI/SNF for expression of MITF and suggest that SWI/SNF may be a promissing target in melanoma therapy.« less

  6. Determination of cell cycle phases in live B16 melanoma cells using IRMS.

    PubMed

    Bedolla, Diana E; Kenig, Saša; Mitri, Elisa; Ferraris, Paolo; Marcello, Alessandro; Grenci, Gianluca; Vaccari, Lisa

    2013-07-21

    The knowledge of cell cycle phase distribution is of paramount importance for understanding cellular behaviour under normal and stressed growth conditions. This task is usually assessed using Flow Cytometry (FC) or immunohistochemistry. Here we report on the use of FTIR microspectroscopy in Microfluidic Devices (MD-IRMS) as an alternative technique for studying cell cycle distribution in live cells. Asynchronous, S- and G0-synchronized B16 mouse melanoma cells were studied by running parallel experiments based on MD-IRMS and FC using Propidium Iodide (PI) staining. MD-IRMS experiments have been done using silicon-modified BaF2 devices, where the thin silicon layer prevents BaF2 dissolution without affecting the transparency of the material and therefore enabling a better assessment of the Phosphate I (PhI) and II (PhII) bands. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) of cellular microspectra in the 1300-1000 cm(-1) region pointed out a distribution of cells among clusters, which is in good agreement with FC results among G0/G1, S and G2/M phases. The differentiation is mostly driven by the intensity of PhI and PhII bands. In particular, PhI almost doubles from the G0/G1 to G2/M phase, in agreement with the trend followed by nucleic acids during cellular progression. MD-IRMS is then proposed as a powerful method for the in situ determination of the cell cycle stage of an individual cell, without any labelling or staining, which gives the advantage of possibly monitoring specific cellular responses to several types of stimuli by clearly separating the spectral signatures related to the cellular response from those of cells that are normally progressing.

  7. MicroRNA miR-125b induces senescence in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Glud, Martin; Manfé, Valentina; Biskup, Edyta; Holst, Line; Dirksen, Anne Marie Ahlburg; Hastrup, Nina; Nielsen, Finn C; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gniadecki, Robert

    2011-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules involved in gene regulation. Aberrant expression of miRNA has been associated with the development or progression of several diseases, including cancer. In a previous study, we found that the expression of miRNA-125b (miR-125b) was two-fold lower in malignant melanoma producing lymph node micrometastases than in nonmetastasizing tumors. To get further insight into the functional role of miR-125b, we assessed whether its overexpression or silencing affects apoptosis, proliferation, or senescence in melanoma cell lines. We showed that overexpression of miR-125b induced typical senescent cell morphology, including increased cytoplasmatic/nucleus ratio and intensive cytoplasmatic β-galactosidase expression. In contrast, inhibition of miR-125b resulted in 30-35% decreased levels of spontaneous apoptosis. We propose that downregulation of miR-125b in an early cutaneous malignant melanoma can contribute to the increased metastatic capability of this tumor.

  8. Assessment of the tumourigenic and metastatic properties of SK-MEL28 melanoma cells surviving electrochemotherapy with bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Todorovic, Vesna; Sersa, Gregor; Mlakar, Vid; Glavac, Damjan; Cemazar, Maja

    2012-03-01

    Electrochemotherapy is a local treatment combining chemotherapy and electroporation and is highly effective treatment approach for subcutaneous tumours of various histologies. Contrary to surgery and radiation, the effect of electrochemotherapy on metastatic potential of tumour cells has not been extensively studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of electrochemotherapy with bleomycin on the metastatic potential of human melanoma cells in vitro. Viable cells 48 hours after electrochemotherapy were tested for their ability to migrate and invade through Matrigel coated porous membrane. In addition, microarray analysis and quantitative Real-Time PCR were used to detect changes in gene expression after electrochemotherapy. Cell migration and invasion were not changed in melanoma cells surviving electrochemotherapy. Interestingly, only a low number of tumourigenesis related genes was differentially expressed after electrochemotherapy. Our data suggest that metastatic potential of human melanoma cells is not affected by electrochemotherapy with bleomycin, confirming safe role of electrochemotherapy in the clinics.

  9. Tyrosinase overexpression promotes ATM-dependent p53 phosphorylation by quercetin and sensitizes melanoma cells to dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Thangasamy, Thilakavathy; Sittadjody, Sivanandane; Limesand, Kirsten H; Burd, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) has been used for the treatment of melanoma for decades. However, monotherapy with this chemotherapeutic agent results only in moderate response rates. To improve tumor response to DTIC current clinical trials in melanoma focus on combining a novel targeted agent with chemotherapy. Here, we demonstrate that tyrosinase which is commonly overexpressed in melanoma activates the bioflavonoid quercetin (Qct) and promotes an ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA damage response. This response sensitizes melanoma cells that overexpress tyrosinase to DTIC. In DB-1 melanoma cells that overexpress tyrosinase (Tyr(+) cells), the threshold for phosphorylation of ATM and p53 at serine 15 was observed at a low dose of Qct (25 microM) when compared to the mock transfected pcDNA3 cells, which required a higher dose (75 microM). Both pcDNA3 and Tyr(+) DB-1 cells demonstrated similar increases in phosphorylation of p53 at other serine sites, but in the Tyr(+) cells, DNApk expression was found to be reduced compared to control cells, indicating a shift towards an ATM-mediated response. The DB-1 control cells were resistant to DTIC, but were sensitized to apoptosis with high dose Qct, while Tyr(+) cells were sensitized to DTIC with low or high dose Qct. Qct also sensitized SK Mel 5 (p53 wildtype) and 28 (p53 mutant) cells to DTIC. However, when SK Mel 5 cells were transiently transfected with tyrosinase and treated with Qct plus DTIC, SK Mel 5 cells demonstrated a more than additive induction of apoptosis. Therefore, this study demonstrates that tyrosinase overexpression promotes an ATM-dependent p53 phosphorylation by Qct treatment and sensitizes melanoma cells to dacarbazine. In conclusion, these results suggest that Qct or Qct analogues may significantly improve DTIC response rates in tumors that express tyrosinase.

  10. Tyrosinase Overexpression Promotes ATM-Dependent p53 Phosphorylation by Quercetin and Sensitizes Melanoma Cells to Dacarbazine

    PubMed Central

    Thangasamy, Thilakavathy; Sittadjody, Sivanandane; H. Limesand, Kirsten; Burd, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) has been used for the treatment of melanoma for decades. However, monotherapy with this chemotherapeutic agent results only in moderate response rates. To improve tumor response to DTIC current clinical trials in melanoma focus on combining a novel targeted agent with chemotherapy. Here, we demonstrate that tyrosinase which is commonly overexpressed in melanoma activates the bioflavonoid quercetin (Qct) and promotes an ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA damage response. This response sensitizes melanoma cells that overexpress tyrosinase to DTIC. In DB-1 melanoma cells that overexpress tyrosinase (Tyr cells), the threshold for phosphorylation of ATM and p53 at serine 15 was observed at a low dose of Qct (25 μM) when compared to the mock transfected pcDNA3 cells, which required a higher dose (75 μM). Both pcDNA3 and Tyr DB-1 cells demonstrated similar increases in phosphorylation of p53 at other serine sites, but in the Tyr cells, DNApk expression was found to be reduced compared to control cells, indicating a shift towards an ATM-mediated response. The DB-1 control cells were resistant to DTIC, but were sensitized to apoptosis with high dose Qct, while Tyr cells were sensitized to DTIC with low or high dose Qct. Qct also sensitized SK Mel 5 (p53 wildtype) and 28 (p53 mutant) cells to DTIC. However, when SK Mel 5 cells were transiently transfected with tyrosinase and treated with Qct plus DTIC, SK Mel 5 cells demonstrated a more than additive induction of apoptosis. Therefore, this study demonstrates that tyrosinase overexpression promotes an ATM-dependent p53 phosphorylation by Qct treatment and sensitizes melanoma cells to dacarbazine. In conclusion, these results suggest that Qct or Qct analogues may significantly improve DTIC response rates in tumors that express tyrosinase. PMID:18791269

  11. miR-137 inhibits the invasion of melanoma cells through downregulation of multiple oncogenic target genes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chonglin; Tetteh, Paul W; Merz, Patrick R; Dickes, Elke; Abukiwan, Alia; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Sinnberg, Tobias; Schittek, Birgit; Schadendorf, Dirk; Diederichs, Sven; Eichmüller, Stefan B

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression and have important roles in various types of cancer. Previously, miR-137 was reported to act as a tumor suppressor in different cancers, including malignant melanoma. In this study, we show that low miR-137 expression is correlated with poor survival in stage IV melanoma patients. We identified and validated two genes (c-Met and YB1) as direct targets of miR-137 and confirmed two previously known targets, namely enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Functional studies showed that miR-137 suppressed melanoma cell invasion through the downregulation of multiple target genes. The decreased invasion caused by miR-137 overexpression could be phenocopied by small interfering RNA knockdown of EZH2, c-Met, or Y box-binding protein 1 (YB1). Furthermore, miR-137 inhibited melanoma cell migration and proliferation. Finally, miR-137 induced apoptosis in melanoma cell lines and decreased BCL2 levels. In summary, our study confirms that miR-137 acts as a tumor suppressor in malignant melanoma and reveals that miR-137 regulates multiple targets including c-Met, YB1, EZH2, and MITF.

  12. Differential effects of selenite and selenate on human melanocytes, keratinocytes, and melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bandura, Laura; Drukala, Justyna; Wolnicka-Glubisz, Agnieszka; Björnstedt, Mikael; Korohoda, Wlodzimierz

    2005-04-01

    Among the substances that attracted the attention of oncologists in recent years are selenium-containing compounds, both inorganic and organic. Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between selenium intake and cancer incidence. In the experiments reported here, we compared the effects of 2 inorganic selenium-containing salts that differed in the level of selenium oxidation, selenite IV and selenate VI. We tested the effects of these 2 compounds on cell survival and growth, cell cycle processing, cell morphology, cytoskeleton, and lipid peroxidation in 3 human skin cell types: normal keratinocytes, melanocytes, and human melanoma cell line HTB140. The different effects of selenite and selenate on the viability, growth, and morphology of normal cells and tumor cells are reported and provide a base for future research and treatment of some neoplastic diseases. The attention is paid to cell apoptosis induced by selenite and not by selenate, and the effects of tested substances on thioredoxin reductase system are postulated.

  13. At the bedside: adoptive cell therapy for melanoma-clinical development.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jeffrey S

    2014-06-01

    Adoptive cell therapy for melanoma, particularly using TIL, consists of a complex and difficult set of procedures, although it has a strong preclinical background and justification and has been pursued clinically by one small group of investigators over the last 20 years. More recent developments and a better understanding of the molecular basis of the anti-tumor immune response have led to the conduct of clinical trials that use lymphoid depletion with chemotherapy and/or TBI to exploit the favorable immune milieu of homeostatic lymphoid reconstitution during transfer of effector T cells. Improved ways of propagating T cells ex vivo have also simplified and shortened the cell-growth process. Current TIL trials have now been expanded beyond the initial center where it was developed, reproducing excellent objective response rates of 40-50% in previously treated melanoma patients and more importantly, demonstrating that a significant proportion of patients will be alive and free of disease 3-5 years after treatment, raising the possibility that those patients may be cured of their disease. Newer methods for growing the infiltrating T cells using immune-checkpoint antibodies or other agents to condition the tumor before harvest and improved technology to simplify the complex and often cumbersome cell-growth process suggest that this technology may be able to be disseminated to a wide selection of cancer centers and may be a candidate for testing in a randomized Phase III trial to show definitively its benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma. In the accompanying review, the preclinical work that supports the idea of adoptive cell therapy with TIL and expands the concept in promising new ways will be explored. © 2014 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  14. Effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet with floating electrode on murine melanoma and fibroblast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, G.; Liu, J.; Yao, C.; Chen, S.; Lin, F.; Li, P.; Shi, X.; Zhang, Guan-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma jets have been recently shown as a highly promising tool in certain cancer therapies. In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with a one inner floating and two outer electrode configuration using helium gas for medical applications is developed. Subjected to a range of applied voltages with a frequency of 19.8 kHz at a fixed rate of gas flow (i.e., 3 l/min), electrical and optical characteristics of the APPJ are investigated. Compared with the device only with two outer electrodes, higher discharge current, longer jet, and more active species in the plasma plume at the same applied voltage together with the lower gas breakdown voltage can be achieved through embedding a floating inner electrode. Employing the APPJ with a floating electrode, the effects of identical plasma treatment time durations on murine melanoma cancer and normal fibroblast cells cultured in vitro are evaluated. The results of cell viability, cell apoptosis, and DNA damage detection show that the plasma can inactivate melanoma cells in a time-dependent manner from 10 s to 60 s compared with the control group (p < 0.05). However, for fibroblast cells compared with their control group, the plasma with treatment time from 30 s to 60 s can induce significant changes (p < 0.05), showing a less cytotoxic effect than that on melanoma cells at the same treatment time. The different basal reactive oxygen species level and antioxidant superoxide dismutase level of two kinds of cells may account for their different responses towards the identical plasma exposure.

  15. Induction of Melanogenesis by Rapamycin in Human MNT-1 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hah, Young-Sool; Cho, Hee Young; Lim, Tae-Yeon; Park, Dong Hwa; Kim, Hwa Mi; Yoon, Jimi; Kim, Jin Gu; Kim, Chi Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Background Melanogenesis is one of the characteristic parameters of differentiation in melanocytes and melanoma cells. Specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), such as wortmannin and LY294002, stimulate melanin production in mouse and in human melanoma cells, suggesting that PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) might be involved in the regulation of melanogenesis. Objective The involvement of the mTOR pathway in regulating melanogenesis was examined using human MNT-1 melanoma cells, and the effects of the potent inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin, in the presence or absence of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) were evaluated. Methods In cells treated with rapamycin, cell viability, melanin content, and tyrosinase (TYR) activity were measured and compared with untreated controls. Protein levels of TYR, tyrosinase-related protein (TYRP)-1, TYRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were also analyzed by Western blot. Results In rapamycin-treated cells, the melanin content increased concomitantly with an elevation in TYR activity, which plays a major role in melanogenesis. There was also an up-regulation of TYR, TYRP-1, and MITF proteins. Combined treatment with rapamycin or wortmannin and α-MSH increased melanogenesis more strongly than α-MSH alone. Conclusion Rapamycin-induced melanin formation may be mediated through the up-regulation of TYR protein and activity. Furthermore, rapamycin and wortmannin, inhibitors of mTOR and PI3K, respectively, have co-stimulatory effects with α-MSH in enhancing melanogenesis in melanocyte cells. PMID:22577264

  16. Radiation Therapy and MK-3475 for Patients With Recurrent/Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer, Renal Cell Cancer, Melanoma, and Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-25

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Lung Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  17. Monoclonal Antibody and an Antibody-Toxin Conjugate to a Cell Surface Proteoglycan of Melanoma Cells Suppress in vivo Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumol, T. F.; Wang, Q. C.; Reisfeld, R. A.; Kaplan, N. O.

    1983-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody directed against a cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of human melanoma cells, 9.2.27, and its diphtheria toxin A chain (DTA) conjugate were investigated for their effects on in vitro protein synthesis and in vivo tumor growth of human melanoma cells. The 9.2.27 IgG and its DTA conjugate display similar serological activities against melanoma target cells but only the conjugate can induce consistent in vitro inhibition of protein synthesis and toxicity in M21 melanoma cells. However, both 9.2.27 IgG and its DTA conjugate effect significant suppression of M21 tumor growth in vivo in an immunotherapy model of a rapidly growing tumor in athymic nu/nu mice, suggesting that other host mechanisms may mediate monoclonal antibody-induced tumor suppression.

  18. Investigation of the phototoxic effect of ZnO nanorods on fibroblasts and melanoma human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishwar, S.; Siddique, M.; Israr-Qadir, M.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.; Öllinger, K.

    2014-11-01

    Photocytotoxic effects of as-grown and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods coated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) have been studied on human cells, i.e. melanoma and foreskin fibroblast, under dark and ultraviolet light exposures. Zinc oxide nanorods have been grown on the very sharp tip (diameter = 700 nm) of borosilicate glass pipettes and then were coated by the photosensitizer for targeted investigations inside human cells. The coated glass pipette’s tip with photosensitizer has been inserted inside the cells with the help of a micro-manipulator and irradiated through ultraviolet light (UVA), which reduces the membrane potential of the mitochondria leading to cell death. Cell viability loss has been detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay when exposed to the dissolved ZnO nanorods and the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been detected along with the enhanced cytotoxic effect under UVA irradiation. Additionally, the influence of the lipid soluble antioxidant vitamin E and water-soluble N-acetyl-cysteine toward the enhancement or reduction of the toxicity has been investigated. A comparative analysis of the toxic nature of ZnO nanorods has been drawn between normal human fibroblast and melanoma cells, which can be favorable for understanding the clinical setting for killing tumor cells.

  19. Photothermal sensitization of amelanotic melanoma cells by Ni(II)-octabutoxy-naphthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Busetti, A; Soncin, M; Reddi, E; Rodgers, M A; Kenney, M E; Jori, G

    1999-01-01

    Incubation of B78H1 amelanotic melanoma cells with a potential photothermal sensitizer, namely, liposome-incorporated Ni(II)-octabutoxy-naphthalocyanine (NiNc), induces an appreciable cellular accumulation of the naphthalocyanine, which is dependent on both the NiNc concentration and the incubation time. No detectable decrease in cell survival occurs upon red-light irradiation (corresponding to the longest-wavelength absorption bands of NiNc) in a continuous-wave (c.w.) regime of the naphthalocyanine-loaded cells. On the other hand, 850 nm irradiation with a Q-switched Ti:sapphire laser operating in a pulsed mode (30 ns pulses, 10 Hz, 200 mJ/pulse) induces an efficient cell death. Thus, ca. 98% decrease in cell survival is obtained upon 5 min irradiation of cells that have been incubated for 48 h with 5.1 microM NiNc. The efficiency of the photoprocess is strongly influenced by the NiNc cell incubation time prior to irradiation. Photothermal sensitization with NiNc appears to open new perspectives for therapeutic applications, as suggested by preliminary in vivo studies with C57/BL6 mice bearing a subcutaneously implanted amelanotic melanoma.

  20. Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenolic extract induces human melanoma cell death, apoptosis, and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is the least common but most fatal form of skin cancer. Previous studies have indicated that an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. In this study, we want to investigate the anticancer activity of Hibiscus leaf polyphenolic (HLP) extract in melanoma cells. First, HLP was exhibited to be rich in epicatechin gallate (ECG) and other polyphenols. Apoptotic and autophagic activities of HLP and ECG were further evaluated by DAPI stain, cell-cycle analysis, and acidic vascular organelle (AVO) stain. Our results revealed that both HLP and ECG induced the caspases cleavages, Bcl-2 family proteins regulation, and Fas/FasL activation in A375 cells. In addition, we also revealed that the cells presented AVO-positive after HLP treatments. HLP could increase the expressions of autophagy-related proteins autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5), Beclin1, and light chain 3-II (LC3-II), and induce autophagic cell death in A375 cells. These data indicated that the anticancer effect of HLP, partly contributed by ECG, in A375 cells. HLP potentially could be developed as an antimelanoma agent. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Geographic variation and risk of skin cancer in US women. Differences between melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Abrar A; Laden, Francine; Colditz, Graham A; Hunter, David J

    2008-03-10

    Occurrences of melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have been associated with varying geography. Our goal was to evaluate differences in risk of these skin cancers according to residence at varying UV indices at 3 time points. Prospective 1984-2002 study of 84 836 female nurses who lived in different UV index regions of the United States at birth and at 15 or 30 years of age. The outcome measure was diagnosis of melanoma, SCC, or BCC. During the 18-year study, 420 cases of melanoma, 863 cases of SCC, and 8215 cases of BCC occurred. At 30 years of age, age-adjusted risks for SCC were 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.76) and 1.90 (95% CI, 1.51-2.36) for women residing in states with a UV index of 6 (medium) and 7 or more (high), respectively. Although elevated, the age-adjusted risk of BCC at 30 years of age associated with residence in these states was substantially less. Although the risk of melanoma was not elevated for women living in these states at 30 years of age, it was significantly elevated among women living in states with UV indices of 6 at birth and at 15 years of age. There was no material change in risk estimates with multivariate adjustment. For women who reported living in states with UV indices of 7 or more at all 3 time points, the multivariate risk of SCC was highest. The risk of SCC is independently affected by residence in locations with medium and high UV indices; the gradient of risk is weaker for BCC; and the risk of melanoma does not change significantly across this gradient.

  2. Phosphodiesterase 4 regulates the migration of B16-F10 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Murata, Taku; Shimizu, Kasumi; Morita, Hiroshi; Inui, Madoka; Tagawa, Toshiro

    2012-08-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important regulators of signal transduction processes. Eleven PDE gene families (PDE1-11) have been identified and several PDE isoforms are selectively expressed in various cell types. PDE4 family members specifically hydrolyze cyclic AMP (cAMP). Four genes (PDE4A-D) are known to encode PDE4 enzymes, with additional diversity generated by the use of alternative mRNA splicing and the use of different promoters. While PDE4 selective inhibitors show therapeutic potential for treating major diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, little is known concerning the role of PDE4 in malignant melanoma. In this study, we examined the role of PDE4 in mouse B16-F10 melanoma cells. In these cells, PDE4 activity was found to be ∼60% of total PDE activity. RT-PCR detected only PDE4B and PDE4D mRNA. Cell growth was inhibited by the cAMP analog, 8-bromo-cAMP, but not by the specific PDE4 inhibitors, rolipram and denbufylline, which increased intracellular cAMP concentrations. Finally, migration of the B16-F10 cells was inhibited by the PDE4 inhibitors and 8-bromo-cAMP, while migration was increased by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, PKI(14-22), and was not affected by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, which is an analog of exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). The inhibitory effect of rolipram on migration was reversed by PKI(14-22). Based on these results, PDE4 appears to play an important role in the migration of B16-F10 cells, and therefore may be a novel target for the treatment of malignant melanoma.

  3. Detection of ABCB5 tumour antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in melanoma patients and implications for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Borchers, S; Maβlo, C; Müller, C A; Tahedl, A; Volkind, J; Nowak, Y; Umansky, V; Esterlechner, J; Frank, M H; Ganss, C; Kluth, M A; Utikal, J

    2018-01-01

    ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 5 (ABCB5) has been identified as a tumour-initiating cell marker and is expressed in various malignancies, including melanoma. Moreover, treatment with anti-ABCB5 monoclonal antibodies has been shown to inhibit tumour growth in xenotransplantation models. Therefore, ABCB5 represents a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. However, cellular immune responses against ABCB5 in humans have not been described so far. Here, we investigated whether ABCB5-reactive T cells are present in human melanoma patients and tested the applicability of ABCB5-derived peptides for experimental induction of human T cell responses. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) isolated from blood samples of melanoma patients (n = 40) were stimulated with ABCB5 peptides, followed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) for interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. To evaluate immunogenicity of ABCB5 peptides in naive healthy donors, CD8 T cells were co-cultured with ABCB5 antigen-loaded autologous dendritic cells (DC). ABCB5 reactivity in expanded T cells was assessed similarly by ICS. ABCB5-reactive CD8 + T cells were detected ex vivo in 19 of 29 patients, melanoma antigen recognised by T cells (MART-1)-reactive CD8 + T cells in six of 21 patients. In this small, heterogeneous cohort, reactivity against ABCB5 was significantly higher than against MART-1. It occurred significantly more often and independently of clinical characteristics. Reactivity against ABCB5 could be induced in 14 of 16 healthy donors in vitro by repeated stimulation with peptide-loaded autologous DC. As ABCB5-reactive CD8 T cells can be found in the peripheral blood of melanoma patients and an ABCB5-specific response can be induced in vitro in naive donors, ABCB5 could be a new target for immunotherapies in melanoma. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  4. In vivo label-free photoacoustic flow cytography and on-the-spot laser killing of single circulating melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yun; Wang, Lidai; Shi, Junhui; Yao, Junjie; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ruiying; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-12-01

    Metastasis causes as many as 90% of cancer-related deaths, especially for the deadliest skin cancer, melanoma. Since hematogenous dissemination of circulating tumor cells is the major route of metastasis, detection and destruction of circulating tumor cells are vital for impeding metastasis and improving patient prognosis. Exploiting the exquisite intrinsic optical absorption contrast of circulating melanoma cells, we developed dual-wavelength photoacoustic flow cytography coupled with a nanosecond-pulsed melanoma-specific laser therapy mechanism. We have successfully achieved in vivo label-free imaging of rare single circulating melanoma cells in both arteries and veins of mice. Further, the photoacoustic signal from a circulating melanoma cell immediately hardware-triggers a lethal pinpoint laser irradiation to kill it on the spot in a thermally confined manner without causing collateral damage. A pseudo-therapy study including both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated the performance and the potential clinical value of our method, which can facilitate early treatment of metastasis by clearing circulating tumor cells from vasculature.

  5. Enhanced expression of PD-1 and other activation markers by CD4+ T cells of young but not old patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    van den Brom, Rob R H; van der Geest, Kornelis S M; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Hospers, Geke A P; Boots, Annemieke M H

    2018-06-01

    The biological behavior of melanoma is unfavorable in the elderly when compared to young subjects. We hypothesized that differences in T-cell responses might underlie the distinct behavior of melanoma in young and old melanoma patients. Therefore, we investigated the circulating T-cell compartment of 34 patients with metastatic melanoma and 42 controls, which were classified as either young or old. Absolute numbers of CD4+ T cells were decreased in young and old melanoma patients when compared to the age-matched control groups. Percentages of naive and memory CD4+ T cells were not different when comparing old melanoma patients to age-matched controls. Percentages of memory CD4+ T cells tended to be increased in young melanoma patients compared to young controls. Proportions of naive CD4+ T cells were lower in young patients than in age-matched controls, and actually comparable to those in old patients and controls. This was accompanied with increased percentages of memory CD4+ T cells expressing HLA-DR, Ki-67, and PD-1 in young melanoma patients in comparison to the age-matched controls, but not in old patients. Proportions of CD45RA-FOXP3 high memory regulatory T cells were increased in young and old melanoma patients when compared to their age-matched controls, whereas those of CD45RA+FOXP3 low naive regulatory T cells were similar. We observed no clear modulation of the circulating CD8+ T-cell repertoire in melanoma patients. In conclusion, we show that CD4+ T cells of young melanoma patients show signs of activation, whereas these signs are less clear in CD4+ T cells of old patients.

  6. Engagement of αIIbβ3 (GPIIb/IIIa) with ανβ3 Integrin Mediates Interaction of Melanoma Cells with Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Lonsdorf, Anke S.; Krämer, Björn F.; Fahrleitner, Manuela; Schönberger, Tanja; Gnerlich, Stephan; Ring, Sabine; Gehring, Sarah; Schneider, Stefan W.; Kruhlak, Michael J.; Meuth, Sven G.; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Gawaz, Meinrad; Enk, Alexander H.; Langer, Harald F.

    2012-01-01

    A mutual relationship exists between metastasizing tumor cells and components of the coagulation cascade. The exact mechanisms as to how platelets influence blood-borne metastasis, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we used murine B16 melanoma cells to observe functional aspects of how platelets contribute to the process of hematogenous metastasis. We found that platelets interfere with a distinct step of the metastasis cascade, as they promote adhesion of melanoma cells to the endothelium in vitro under shear conditions. Constitutively active platelet receptor GPIIb/IIIa (integrin αIIbβ3) expressed on Chinese hamster ovary cells promoted melanoma cell adhesion in the presence of fibrinogen, whereas blocking antibodies to aνβ3 integrin on melanoma cells or to GPIIb/IIIa significantly reduced melanoma cell adhesion to platelets. Furthermore, using intravital microscopy, we observed functional platelet-melanoma cell interactions, as platelet depletion resulted in significantly reduced melanoma cell adhesion to the injured vascular wall in vivo. Using a mouse model of hematogenous metastasis to the lung, we observed decreased metastasis of B16 melanoma cells to the lung by treatment with a mAb blocking the aν subunit of aνβ3 integrin. This effect was significantly reduced when platelets were depleted in vivo. Thus, the engagement of GPIIb/IIIa with aνβ3 integrin interaction mediates tumor cell-platelet interactions and highlights how this interaction is involved in hematogenous tumor metastasis. PMID:22102277

  7. Simultaneous knockdown of BRAF and expression of INK4A in melanoma cells leads to potent growth inhibition and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yanhua; Zhang Yan; Yang Zhen

    2008-06-06

    Abnormal BRAF and p16INK4A co-exist in 60% of melanomas. BRAF mutation also occurs in 80% of benign nevi where it turns-on p16INK4A resulting in proliferative senescence; loss of p16INK4A removes the inhibitory block leading to melanoma development. Since only melanomas with wild-type BRAF have amplified CDK4 and cyclin D1 genes, p16INK4A-CDK4/6-cyclin D pathway is viewed as linearly downstream of BRAF. Thus, co-occurrence of aberrant BRAF and INK4A may be remnant of changes during melanoma formation without functional significance. To explore this notion, we simultaneously knocked down BRAF (via siRNA) and expressed INK4A cDNA in melanoma cells and observed enhanced growthmore » inhibition. Notably, although each alone had no statistically significant effect on apoptosis, co-expression of BRAF siRNA and INK4A cDNA caused potent apoptosis, which was associated with up-regulation of BIM and down-regulation of BCL2. Our results suggest that aberrant BRAF and INK4A cooperate to promote proliferation and survival of melanoma cells.« less

  8. Assessment of biological effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy in primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Andrés E; Dagrosa, Maria A; Portu, Agustina; Saint Martin, Giselle; Thorp, Silvia; Casal, Mariana; Navarro, Aimé; Juvenal, Guillermo J; Pisarev, Mario A

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize the effectiveness of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) and Compound Biological Effectiveness (CBE) were determined in two human melanoma cell lines, M8 and Mel-J cells, using the amino acid p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) as boron carrier. The effects of BNCT on the primary amelanotic cell line M8 and on the metastatic pigmented melanoma cell line Mel-J were studied using colony formation assay. The RBE values were determined using both a gamma ray source, and the neutron beam from the Nuclear Reactor of the National Atomic Energy Commission (RA-3). For the determination of the RBE, cells were irradiated with increasing doses of both sources, between 1 and 8 Gy; and for the determination of CBE factors, the cells were pre-incubated with BPA before irradiation. Afterwards, the cell surviving fraction (SF) was determined for each treatment. Marked differences were observed between both cell lines. Mel-J cells were more radioresistant than the M8 cell line. The clonogenic assays showed that for a SF of 1%, the RBE values were 1.3 for M8 cells and 1.5 for Mel-J cells. Similarly, the CBE values for a 1% SF were 2.1 for M8 and 3 for Mel-J cell lines. For the endpoint of 0.1% of SF the RBE values obtained were 1.2 for M8 and 1.4 for Mel-J cells. Finally, CBE values calculated for a 0.1% were 2 and 2.6 for M8 and Mel-J cell lines respectively. In order to estimate the uptake of the non-radioactive isotope Boron 10 ((10)B), a neutron induced autoradiographic technique was performed showing discrepancies in (10)B uptake between both cell lines. These obtained in vitro results are the first effectiveness factors determined for human melanoma at the RA-3 nuclear reactor and show that BNCT dosimetry planning for patients could be successfully performed using these new factors.

  9. [6]-Shogaol inhibits melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells through activation of the ERK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Cheng; Oh, Jang-hee; Oh, Inn Gyung; Park, Chi-hyun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of [6]-shogaol, an active ingredient in ginger, on melanogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: B16F10 mouse melanoma cells were tested. Cell viability was determined with the MTT assay. Melanin content and tyrosinase activity were analyzed with a spectrophotometer. The protein expression of tyrosinase and microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF), as well as phosphorylated or total ERK1/2 and Akt were measured using Western blot. Results: Treatment of the cells with [6]-shogaol (1, 5, 10 μmol/L) reduced the melanin content in a concentration-dependent manner. [6]-Shogaol (5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly decreased the intracellular tyrosinase activity, and markedly suppressed the expression levels of tyrosinase and MITF proteins in the cells. Furthermore, [6]-shogaol (10 μmol/L) activated ERK, which was known to negatively regulate melanin synthesis in these cells. Pretreatment with the specific ERK pathway inhibitor PD98059 (20 μmol/L) greatly attenuated the inhibition of melanin synthesis by [6]-shogaol (10 μmol/L). Conclusion: The results demonstrate that [6]-shogaol inhibits melanogenesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells via activating the ERK pathway. PMID:23123645

  10. [6]-Shogaol inhibits melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells through activation of the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cheng; Oh, Jang-hee; Oh, Inn Gyung; Park, Chi-hyun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the effect of [6]-shogaol, an active ingredient in ginger, on melanogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. B16F10 mouse melanoma cells were tested. Cell viability was determined with the MTT assay. Melanin content and tyrosinase activity were analyzed with a spectrophotometer. The protein expression of tyrosinase and microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF), as well as phosphorylated or total ERK1/2 and Akt were measured using Western blot. Treatment of the cells with [6]-shogaol (1, 5, 10 μmol/L) reduced the melanin content in a concentration-dependent manner. [6]-Shogaol (5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly decreased the intracellular tyrosinase activity, and markedly suppressed the expression levels of tyrosinase and MITF proteins in the cells. Furthermore, [6]-shogaol (10 μmol/L) activated ERK, which was known to negatively regulate melanin synthesis in these cells. Pretreatment with the specific ERK pathway inhibitor PD98059 (20 μmol/L) greatly attenuated the inhibition of melanin synthesis by [6]-shogaol (10 μmol/L). The results demonstrate that [6]-shogaol inhibits melanogenesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells via activating the ERK pathway.

  11. Apolar and polar transitions drive the conversion between amoeboid and mesenchymal shapes in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Sam; Sadok, Amine; Bousgouni, Vicky; Bakal, Chris

    2015-11-05

    Melanoma cells can adopt two functionally distinct forms, amoeboid and mesenchymal, which facilitates their ability to invade and colonize diverse environments during the metastatic process. Using quantitative imaging of single living tumor cells invading three-dimensional collagen matrices, in tandem with unsupervised computational analysis, we found that melanoma cells can switch between amoeboid and mesenchymal forms via two different routes in shape space--an apolar and polar route. We show that whereas particular Rho-family GTPases are required for the morphogenesis of amoeboid and mesenchymal forms, others are required for transitions via the apolar or polar route and not amoeboid or mesenchymal morphogenesis per se. Altering the transition rates between particular routes by depleting Rho-family GTPases can change the morphological heterogeneity of cell populations. The apolar and polar routes may have evolved in order to facilitate conversion between amoeboid and mesenchymal forms, as cells are either searching for, or attracted to, particular migratory cues, respectively. © 2015 Cooper et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Higher cell stiffness indicating lower metastatic potential in B16 melanoma cell variants and in (-)-epigallocatechin gallate-treated cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tatsuro; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Imai, Kazue; Katsuta, Naoko; Nakayama, Tomonobu; Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami

    2012-05-01

    To understand how nanomechanical stiffness affects metastatic potential, we studied the relationship between cell migration, a characteristic of metastasis, and cell stiffness using atomic force microscopy (AFM), which can measure stiffness (elasticity) of individual living cells. Migration and cell stiffness of three metastatic B16 melanoma variants (B16-F10, B16-BL6, and B16-F1 cells), and also effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), were studied using Transwell assay and AFM. Migration of B16-F10 and B16-BL6 cells was 3 and 2 times higher than that of B16-F1 cells in Transwell assay, and cell stiffness determined by AFM was also different among the three variants, although they have similar morphologies and the same growth rates: Means of Young's modulus were 350.8 ± 4.8 Pa for B16-F10 cells, 661.9 ± 16.5 Pa for B16-BL6 cells, and 727.2 ± 13.0 Pa for B16-F1 cells. AFM measurements revealed that highly motile B16-F10 cells have low cell stiffness, and low motile and metastatic B16-F1 cells have high cell stiffness: Nanomechanical stiffness is inversely correlated with migration potential. Treatment of highly motile B16-F10 cells with EGCG increased cell stiffness 2-fold and inhibited migration of the cells. Our study with AFM clearly demonstrates that cell stiffness is a reliable quantitative indicator of migration potential, and very likely metastatic potential, even in morphologically similar cells. And increased cell stiffness may be a key nanomechanical feature in inhibition of metastasis.

  13. Differential Effects of Methoxylated p-Coumaric Acids on Melanoma in B16/F10 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hoon Seok; Lee, Nam-Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu; Shin, Dong-Bum

    2015-01-01

    As an approach to search for chemopreventive agents, we tested p-coumaric acid, 3-methoxy-p-coumaric acid (ferulic acid), and 3,5-dimethoxy-p-coumaric acid (sinapic acid) in B16/F10 melanoma cells. Intracellular melanin contents were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and cytotoxicity of the compounds were examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. p-Coumaric acid showed inhibitory effect on melanogenesis, but ferulic acid increased melanin content, and sinapic acid had almost no effect on melanogenesis. Treatment with ferulic acid resulted in a 2 to 3 fold elevation in the production of melanin. Correlatively, cell viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner when treated with ferulic acid. However, ferulic acid did not affect the LDH release from the cells. Treatment with sinapic acid resulted in a 50~60% elevation in the release of LDH when treated with a 200 μg/mL concentration and showed neither cytostasis nor increase of melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, p-coumaric acid inhibits melanogenesis, ferulic acid induces melanogenesis, and sinapic acid exerts cytotoxic effects in B16/F10 murine melanoma cells. The results indicate that the addition of methoxy groups to p-coumaric acid shows the melanogenic or cytotoxic effects in melanoma cells compared to the original compound. Therefore, this study suggests the possibility that methoxylated p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid can be used as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:25866753

  14. Authentication of M14 melanoma cell line proves misidentification of MDA‐MB‐435 breast cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Korch, Christopher; Hall, Erin M.; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Ewing, Margaret; Faries, Mark; Varella‐Garcia, Marileila; Robinson, Steven; Storts, Douglas; Turner, Jacqueline A.; Wang, Ying; Burnett, Edward C.; Healy, Lyn; Kniss, Douglas; Neve, Richard M.; Nims, Raymond W.; Reid, Yvonne A.; Robinson, William A.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of analytical approaches have indicated that melanoma cell line UCLA‐SO‐M14 (M14) and breast carcinoma cell line MDA‐MB‐435 originate from a common donor. This indicates that at some point in the past, one of these cell lines became misidentified, meaning that it ceased to correspond to the reported donor and instead became falsely identified (through cross‐contamination or other means) as a cell line from a different donor. Initial studies concluded that MDA‐MB‐435 was the misidentified cell line and M14 was the authentic cell line, although contradictory evidence has been published, resulting in further confusion. To address this question, we obtained early samples of the melanoma cell line (M14), a lymphoblastoid cell line from the same donor (ML14), and donor serum preserved at the originator's institution. M14 samples were cryopreserved in December 1975, before MDA‐MB‐435 cells were established in culture. Through a series of molecular characterizations, including short tandem repeat (STR) profiling and cytogenetic analysis, we demonstrated that later samples of M14 and MDA‐MB‐435 correspond to samples of M14 frozen in 1975, to the lymphoblastoid cell line ML14, and to the melanoma donor's STR profile, sex and blood type. This work demonstrates conclusively that M14 is the authentic cell line and MDA‐MB‐435 is misidentified. With clear provenance information and authentication testing of early samples, it is possible to resolve debates regarding the origins of problematic cell lines that are widely used in cancer research. PMID:28940260

  15. Receptor-mediated cytotoxicity of alpha-MSH fragments containing melphalan in a human melanoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Morandini, R; Süli-Vargha, H; Libert, A; Loir, B; Botyánszki, J; Medzihradszky, K; Ghanem, G

    1994-01-02

    Four alpha-MSH drug conjugates have been synthesized, 2 C-terminal (Pep 3 and 4) and 2 central fragments (Pep 1 and 2), the latter being the 4-10 sequence known to be the main alpha-MSH-receptor-recognition site. Melphalan was introduced into each sequence at different locations. Their ability to recognize alpha-MSH receptors as well as their cytotoxic effects were compared in 3 cell lines: melanoma, carcinoma and fibroblast cells. Pep 1 and 2 were able to specifically bind to MSH receptors on melanoma cells by displacing labelled alpha-MSH from its binding sites at concentrations similar to the 4-10 heptapeptide sequence known to contain the main receptor-recognition site. They subsequently penetrate the cell, most probably by a receptor internalization mechanism, since about half of their effect could be inhibited by competition at the receptor level. Significant and selective cytotoxic effects to melanoma cells could be observed after only 2 hr exposure to the drug conjugates. Interestingly, these 2 conjugates, differing only in melphalan position, showed completely different cytotoxicity in terms of IC50 values, Pep 1 being 24 times more toxic to all cells; but the 2 were equally specific to melanoma cells. However, they both were less toxic to all cells than melphalan itself. Furthermore, Pep 1 and 2 were able to block the receptor and, unlike Pep 3 and 4, their cytotoxic effect could be significantly inhibited by an alpha-MSH agonist. Pep 3 and 4 were 5 to 10 times less toxic than melphalan to melanoma and carcinoma cells and 50 times less to fibroblast cells, and did not show any cell-type selectivity. They were less toxic than Pep 1 to melanoma and carcinoma cells by a factor of 2, but equally toxic to fibroblasts. In contrast, they were more toxic than Pep 2 to fibroblasts, melanoma and carcinoma by a factor of 3, 10 and 24 respectively. Our data strongly suggest a receptor-mediated cytotoxicity mechanism occurring with alpha-MSH central fragments in human

  16. Extracellular acidification by lactic acid suppresses glucose deprivation-induced cell death and autophagy in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Taisuke; Sadzuka, Yasuyuki

    2018-02-19

    In solid tumors, cancer cells survive and proliferate under conditions of microenvironment stress such as poor nutrients and hypoxia due to inadequate vascularization. These stress conditions in turn activate autophagy, which is important for cancer cell survival. However, autophagy has a contrary effect of inducing cell death in cancer cells cultured in vitro under conditions of glucose deprivation. In this study, we hypothesized that supplementation of lactic acid serves as a means of cell survival under glucose-deprived conditions. At neutral pH, cell death of B16 murine melanoma cells by autophagy under glucose-deprived conditions was observed. However, supplementation of lactic acid suppressed cell death and autophagy in B16 melanoma cells when cultured in glucose-deprived conditions. Sodium lactate, which does not change extracellular pH, did not inhibit cell death, while HCl-adjusted acidic pH suppressed cell death under glucose-deprived conditions. These results suggested that an acidic pH is crucial for cell survival under glucose-deprived conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acquired IFNγ resistance impairs anti-tumor immunity and gives rise to T-cell-resistant melanoma lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sucker, Antje; Zhao, Fang; Pieper, Natalia; Heeke, Christina; Maltaner, Raffaela; Stadtler, Nadine; Real, Birgit; Bielefeld, Nicola; Howe, Sebastian; Weide, Benjamin; Gutzmer, Ralf; Utikal, Jochen; Loquai, Carmen; Gogas, Helen; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Zeschnigk, Michael; Westendorf, Astrid M.; Trilling, Mirko; Horn, Susanne; Schilling, Bastian; Schadendorf, Dirk; Griewank, Klaus G.; Paschen, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma treatment has been revolutionized by antibody-based immunotherapies. IFNγ secretion by CD8+ T cells is critical for therapy efficacy having anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on tumour cells. Our study demonstrates a genetic evolution of IFNγ resistance in different melanoma patient models. Chromosomal alterations and subsequent inactivating mutations in genes of the IFNγ signalling cascade, most often JAK1 or JAK2, protect melanoma cells from anti-tumour IFNγ activity. JAK1/2 mutants further evolve into T-cell-resistant HLA class I-negative lesions with genes involved in antigen presentation silenced and no longer inducible by IFNγ. Allelic JAK1/2 losses predisposing to IFNγ resistance development are frequent in melanoma. Subclones harbouring inactivating mutations emerge under various immunotherapies but are also detectable in pre-treatment biopsies. Our data demonstrate that JAK1/2 deficiency protects melanoma from anti-tumour IFNγ activity and results in T-cell-resistant HLA class I-negative lesions. Screening for mechanisms of IFNγ resistance should be considered in therapeutic decision-making. PMID:28561041

  18. Induction of arginosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression affects the antiproliferative activity of arginine deiminase (ADI) in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Manca, Antonella; Sini, Maria Cristina; Izzo, Francesco; Ascierto, Paolo A; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Botti, Gerardo; Gentilcore, Giusy; Capone, Marilena; Mozzillo, Nicola; Rozzo, Carla; Cossu, Antonio; Tanda, Francesco; Palmieri, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Arginine deiminase (ADI), an arginine-degrading enzyme, has been used in the treatment of tumours sensitive to arginine deprivation, such as malignant melanoma (MM) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Endogenous production of arginine is mainly dependent on activity of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) and argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) enzymes. We evaluated the effect of ADI treatment on OTC and ASS expression in a series of melanoma cell lines. Twenty-five primary melanoma cell lines and normal fibroblasts as controls underwent cell proliferation assays and Western blot analyses in the presence or absence of ADI. Tissue sections from primary MMs (N = 20) and HCCs (N = 20) were investigated by immunohistochemistry for ASS expression. Overall, 21/25 (84%) MM cell lines presented a cell growth inhibition by ADI treatment; none of them presented constitutive detectable levels of the ASS protein. However, 7/21 (33%) ADI-sensitive melanoma cell lines presented markedly increased expression levels of the ASS protein following ADI treatment, with a significantly higher IC50 median value. Growth was not inhibited and the IC50 was not reached among the remaining 4/25 (16%) MM cell lines; all of them showed constitutive ASS expression. The OTC protein was found expressed in all melanoma cell lines before and after the ADI treatment. Lack of ASS immunostaining was observed in all analyzed in vivo specimens. Our findings suggest that response to ADI treatment in melanoma is significantly correlated with the ability of cells to express ASS either constitutively at basal level (inducing drug resistance) or after the treatment (reducing sensitivity to ADI).

  19. Systems analysis of apoptosis protein expression allows the case-specific prediction of cell death responsiveness of melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Passante, E; Würstle, M L; Hellwig, C T; Leverkus, M; Rehm, M

    2013-01-01

    Many cancer entities and their associated cell line models are highly heterogeneous in their responsiveness to apoptosis inducers and, despite a detailed understanding of the underlying signaling networks, cell death susceptibility currently cannot be predicted reliably from protein expression profiles. Here, we demonstrate that an integration of quantitative apoptosis protein expression data with pathway knowledge can predict the cell death responsiveness of melanoma cell lines. By a total of 612 measurements, we determined the absolute expression (nM) of 17 core apoptosis regulators in a panel of 11 melanoma cell lines, and enriched these data with systems-level information on apoptosis pathway topology. By applying multivariate statistical analysis and multi-dimensional pattern recognition algorithms, the responsiveness of individual cell lines to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or dacarbazine (DTIC) could be predicted with very high accuracy (91 and 82% correct predictions), and the most effective treatment option for individual cell lines could be pre-determined in silico. In contrast, cell death responsiveness was poorly predicted when not taking knowledge on protein–protein interactions into account (55 and 36% correct predictions). We also generated mathematical predictions on whether anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members or x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) can be targeted to enhance TRAIL responsiveness in individual cell lines. Subsequent experiments, making use of pharmacological Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibition or siRNA-based XIAP depletion, confirmed the accuracy of these predictions. We therefore demonstrate that cell death responsiveness to TRAIL or DTIC can be predicted reliably in a large number of melanoma cell lines when investigating expression patterns of apoptosis regulators in the context of their network-level interplay. The capacity to predict responsiveness at the cellular level may contribute to

  20. Electroporation transiently decreases GJB2 (connexin 26) expression in B16/BL6 melanoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Marcelo Monte Mór; Chaible, Lucas Martins; Nagamine, Marcia Kazumi; Mennecier, Gregory; Cogliati, Bruno; de Oliveira, Krishna Duro; Fukumasu, Heidge; Sinhorini, Idércio Luiz; Mir, Lluis Maria; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan

    2015-02-01

    Connexins are proteins that form gap junctions. Perturbations in the cell membrane reportedly promote changes in the expression profile of connexins. Electroporation promotes destabilization by applying electrical pulses, and this procedure is used in electrochemotherapy and gene therapy, among others. This in vitro work aimed to study the interference of electroporation on the expression profile of GJB2 (Cx26 gene) and Connexin 26 in melanoma cell line B16/BL6. The techniques of immunocytochemistry, Western blot, and real-time PCR were used. After electroporation, cells showed a transient decrease in GJB2 mRNA. The immunostaining of Cx26 showed no noticeable change after electroporation at different time points. However, Western blot showed a significant reduction in Cx26 30 min after electroporation. Our results showed that electroporation interferes transiently in the expression of Connexin 26 in melanoma and are consistent with the idea that electroporation is a process of intense stress that promotes cell homeostatic imbalance and results in disruption of cell physiological processes such as transcription and translation.

  1. Differentiation- and apoptosis-inducing activities by pentacyclic triterpenes on a mouse melanoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Hata, Keishi; Hori, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Saori

    2002-05-01

    In a study to investigate the relationship between the chemical structure and the differentiation-inducing activity of pentacyclic triterpenes, several lupane, oleanane, and ursane triterpenes were prepared and their effects on B16 2F2 melanoma cell differentiation and growth were examined. Eleven lupane triterpenes used in this study acted on the melanoma cells as a melanogen, but no induction of melanogenesis of B16 2F2 cells by oleanane and ursane was detected. The differences at C-17 of the lupane series and acetylation of the OH group at C-3 did not markedly influence their activities. However, the ED(50) value for up-regulation of melanin biosynthesis was markedly decreased by the oxidation of the OH group at C-3 of lupeol (1). Betulinic acid (11), its methyl ester (12), lup-28-al-20(29)-ene-3beta-ol (9), and lup-28-al-20(29)-en-3-one (10) inhibited B16 2F2 cell proliferation by induction of apoptosis. These findings suggested that the carbonyl group at C-17 might be essential for the apoptotic effects of these compounds on B16 2F2 cells.

  2. Improving label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huan; Wang, Qiyan; Pang, Kai; Zhou, Quanyu; Yang, Ping; He, Hao; Wei, Xunbin

    2018-02-01

    Melanoma is a kind of a malignant tumor of melanocytes with the properties of high mortality and high metastasis rate. The circulating melanoma cells with the high content of melanin can be detected by light absorption to diagnose and treat cancer at an early stage. Compared with conventional detection methods such as in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) based on fluorescence, the in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) utilizes melanin cells as biomarkers to collect the photoacoustic (PA) signals without toxic fluorescent dyes labeling in a non-invasive way. The information of target tumor cells is helpful for data analysis and cell counting. However, the raw signals in PAFC system contain numerous noises such as environmental noise, device noise and in vivo motion noise. Conventional denoising algorithms such as wavelet denoising (WD) method and means filter (MF) method are based on the local information to extract the data of clinical interest, which remove the subtle feature and leave many noises. To address the above questions, the nonlocal means (NLM) method based on nonlocal data has been proposed to suppress the noise in PA signals. Extensive experiments on in vivo PA signals from the mice with the injection of B16F10 cells in caudal vein have been conducted. All the results indicate that the NLM method has superior noise reduction performance and subtle information reservation.

  3. Effects of SASH1 on melanoma cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheyu; Zhang, Junyu; Xu, Jiawei; Wang, Honglian; Sang, Qing; Xing, Qinghe; He, Lin

    2012-12-01

    The SAM and SH3 domain containing 1 (SASH1) gene was originally identified as a potential tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer, mapped on chromosome 6q24.3. The expression of SASH1 plays a prognostic role in human colon cancer. Its expression is frequently downregulated in several human malignancies. However, the biological function of SASH1 in melanoma cells is yet to be determined. In this study, in order to investigate the tumor suppressive effects of the SASH1 gene, an A-375 stable melanoma cell line was established, overexpressing the SASH1 gene. The stable cell line was examined using proliferation assay, apoptosis assay, cell cycle analysis and real-time PCR. The results indicated that the tumor suppressive activity of SASH1 derived from G2/M arrest in A-375 cells, and that the phosphorylation of Cdc2 or the disruption of cyclin B-Cdc2 binding may be responsible for the G2/M arrest.

  4. EMMPRIN regulates β1 integrin-mediated adhesion through Kindlin-3 in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Delyon, Julie; Khayati, Farah; Djaafri, Ibtissem; Podgorniak, Marie-Pierre; Sadoux, Aurélie; Setterblad, Niclas; Boutalbi, Zineb; Maouche, Kamel; Maskos, Uwe; Menashi, Suzanne; Lebbé, Céleste; Mourah, Samia

    2015-06-01

    EMMPRIN is known to promote tumor invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Here we report that EMMPRIN can regulate melanoma cell adhesion to the ECM through an interaction with β1 integrin involving kindlin-3. In this study, EMMPRIN knockdown in the human melanoma cell line M10 using siRNA decreased cell invasion and significantly increased cell adhesion and spreading. A morphological change from a round to a spread shape was observed associated with enhanced phalloidin-labelled actin staining. In situ proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation revealed that EMMPRIN silencing increased the interaction of β1 integrin with kindlin-3, a focal adhesion protein. This was associated with an increase in β1 integrin activation and a decrease in the phosphorylation of the downstream integrin kinase FAK. Moreover, the expression at both the transcript and protein level of kindlin-3 and of β1 integrin was inversely regulated by EMMPRIN. EMMPRIN did not regulate either talin expression or its interaction with β1 integrin. These results are consistent with our in vivo demonstration that EMMPRIN inhibition increased β1 integrin activation and its interaction with kindlin-3. To conclude, these findings reveal a new role of EMMPRIN in tumor cell migration through ß1 integrin/kindlin-3-mediated adhesion pathway. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Loss of T-cadherin (CDH-13) regulates AKT signaling and desensitizes cells to apoptosis in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bosserhoff, Anja K; Ellmann, Lisa; Quast, Annika S; Eberle, Juergen; Boyle, Glen M; Kuphal, Silke

    2014-08-01

    An understanding of signaling pathways is a basic requirement for the treatment of melanoma. Currently, kinases are at the center of melanoma therapies. According to our research, additional alternative molecules are equally important for development of melanoma. In this regard, cancer progression is, among other factors, driven by an altered adhesion via cadherins. For instance, the de-regulated expression of the adhesion molecule T-cadherin is found in various cancer types, including melanoma, and influences migration and invasion. T-cadherin is thought to affect cellular function largely through its signaling and not its adhesion properties because the molecule is anchored into the cell membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety. However, detailed knowledge about the consequences of the loss of T-cadherin in melanoma is currently lacking. For this reason, we were interested in assessing which signaling pathways are initiated by T-cadherin. The tumor growth of subcutaneously injected T-cadherin-positive melanoma cells was diminished compared with T-cadherin-negative cells in nude mice. The difference in tumor volume was not due to decreased proliferation but rather due to increased apoptosis. After the expression of T-cadherin was induced, we detected V-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) and FoxO3a hypophosphorylation accompanied by the downregulation of the antiapoptotic molecules BCL-2, BCL-x and Clusterin. Furthermore, we detected a diminished transcriptional activity of CREB and AP-1. We demonstrated that T-cadherin functions as a pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor that antagonizes AKT/CREB/AP-1/FoxO3a signaling, whereas NFκB, TCF/LEF and mTOR are not part of the T-cadherin signaling pathway. Notably, we found that the restoration of T-cadherin in melanoma cells causes sensitization to apoptosis induced by CD95/Fas antibody CH-11. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Automated wavelet denoising of photoacoustic signals for circulating melanoma cell detection and burn image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Holan, Scott H; Viator, John A

    2008-06-21

    Photoacoustic image reconstruction may involve hundreds of point measurements, each of which contributes unique information about the subsurface absorbing structures under study. For backprojection imaging, two or more point measurements of photoacoustic waves induced by irradiating a biological sample with laser light are used to produce an image of the acoustic source. Each of these measurements must undergo some signal processing, such as denoising or system deconvolution. In order to process the numerous signals, we have developed an automated wavelet algorithm for denoising signals. We appeal to the discrete wavelet transform for denoising photoacoustic signals generated in a dilute melanoma cell suspension and in thermally coagulated blood. We used 5, 9, 45 and 270 melanoma cells in the laser beam path as test concentrations. For the burn phantom, we used coagulated blood in 1.6 mm silicon tube submerged in Intralipid. Although these two targets were chosen as typical applications for photoacoustic detection and imaging, they are of independent interest. The denoising employs level-independent universal thresholding. In order to accommodate nonradix-2 signals, we considered a maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT). For the lower melanoma cell concentrations, as the signal-to-noise ratio approached 1, denoising allowed better peak finding. For coagulated blood, the signals were denoised to yield a clean photoacoustic resulting in an improvement of 22% in the reconstructed image. The entire signal processing technique was automated so that minimal user intervention was needed to reconstruct the images. Such an algorithm may be used for image reconstruction and signal extraction for applications such as burn depth imaging, depth profiling of vascular lesions in skin and the detection of single cancer cells in blood samples.

  7. Loss of retrovirus production in JB/RH melanoma cells transfected with H-2Kb and TAP-1 genes.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Xu, F; Muller, J; Huang, X; Hearing, V J; Gorelik, E

    1999-01-20

    JB/RH1 melanoma cells, as well as other melanomas of C57BL/6 mice (B16 and JB/MS), express a common melanoma-associated antigen (MAA) encoded by an ecotropic melanoma-associated retrovirus (MelARV). JB/RH1 cells do not express the H-2Kb molecules due to down-regulation of the H-2Kb and TAP-1 genes. When JB/RH1 cells were transfected with the H-2Kb and cotransfected with the TAP-1 gene, it resulted in the appearance of H-2Kb molecules and an increase in their immunogenicity, albeit they lost expression of retrovirus-encoded MAA recognized by MM2-9B6 mAb. Loss of MAA was found to result from a complete and stable elimination of ecotropic MelARV production in the H-2Kb/TAP-1-transfected JB/RH1 cells. Northern blot analysis showed no differences in ecotropic retroviral messages in MelARV-producing and -nonproducing melanoma cells, suggesting that loss of MelARV production was not due to down-regulation of MelARV transcription. Southern blot analysis revealed several rearrangements in the proviral DNA of H-2Kb-positive JB/RH1 melanoma cells. Sequence analysis of the ecotropic proviral DNA from these cells showed numerous nucleotide substitutions, some of which resulted in the appearance of a novel intraviral PstI restriction site and the loss of a HindIII restriction site in the pol region. PCR amplification of the proviral DNAs indicates that an ecotropic provirus found in the H-2Kb-positive cells is novel and does not preexist in the parental H-2Kb-negative melanoma cells. Conversely, the ecotropic provirus of the parental JB/RH1 cells was not amplifable from the H-2Kb-positive cells. Our data indicate that stable loss of retroviral production in the H-2Kb/TAP-1-transfected melanoma cells is probably due to the induction of recombination between a productive ecotropic MelARV and a defective nonecotropic provirus leading to the generation of a defective ecotropic provirus and the loss of MelARV production and expression of the retrovirus-encoded MAA. Copyright 1999

  8. IGF-1 contributes to the expansion of melanoma-initiating cells through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition process.

    PubMed

    Le Coz, Vincent; Zhu, Chaobin; Devocelle, Aurore; Vazquez, Aimé; Boucheix, Claude; Azzi, Sandy; Gallerne, Cindy; Eid, Pierre; Lecourt, Séverine; Giron-Michel, Julien

    2016-12-13

    Melanoma is a particularly virulent human cancer, due to its resistance to conventional treatments and high frequency of metastasis. Melanomas contain a fraction of cells, the melanoma-initiating cells (MICs), responsible for tumor propagation and relapse. Identification of the molecular pathways supporting MICs is, therefore, vital for the development of targeted treatments. One factor produced by melanoma cells and their microenvironment, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF- 1), is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness features in several cancers.We evaluated the effect of IGF-1 on the phenotype and chemoresistance of B16-F10 cells. IGF-1 inhibition in these cells prevented malignant cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and lung colony formation in immunodeficient mice. IGF-1 downregulation also markedly inhibited EMT, with low levels of ZEB1 and mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, CD44, CD29, CD105) associated with high levels of E-cadherin and MITF, the major regulator of melanocyte differentiation. IGF-1 inhibition greatly reduced stemness features, including the expression of key stem markers (SOX2, Oct-3/4, CD24 and CD133), and the functional characteristics of MICs (melanosphere formation, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, side population). These features were associated with a high degree of sensitivity to mitoxantrone treatment.In this study, we deciphered new connections between IGF-1 and stemness features and identified IGF-1 as instrumental for maintaining the MIC phenotype. The IGF1/IGF1-R nexus could be targeted for the development of more efficient anti-melanoma treatments. Blocking the IGF-1 pathway would improve the immune response, decrease the metastatic potential of tumor cells and sensitize melanoma cells to conventional treatments.

  9. The combination of MLN2238 (ixazomib) with interferon-alpha results in enhanced cell death in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kelly, Lorena P; Kemper, Gregory M; Duggan, Megan C; Stiff, Andrew; Noel, Tiffany C; Markowitz, Joseph; Luedke, Eric A; Yildiz, Vedat O; Yu, Lianbo; Jaime-Ramirez, Alena Cristina; Karpa, Volodymyr; Zhang, Xiaoli; Carson, William E

    2016-12-06

    The ubiquitin-proteasome signaling pathway is critical for cell cycle regulation and neoplastic growth. Proteasome inhibition can activate apoptotic pathways. Bortezomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, has anti-melanoma activity. MLN2238 (ixazomib), an oral proteasome inhibitor, has improved pharmacotherapeutic parameters compared to bortezomib. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α), an immune boosting agent, is FDA-approved for treatment of melanoma. In this study in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antitumor potential of ixazomib and combination treatments with ixazomib and IFN-α were performed. Apoptosis induced by ixazomib was first observed at 12 hours and was maximal at 48 hours with similar levels of cell death compared to bortezomib. IFN-α alone had little effect on cell viability in vitro. However, the combination of ixazomib with IFN-α significantly enhanced ixazomib's ability to induce apoptotic cell death in BRAF V600E mutant and BRAF wild-type human melanoma tumor cells. The combination of ixazomib and IFN-α also enhanced inhibition of cell proliferation in BRAF V600E mutant melanoma tumor cells; however, this was not seen in BRAF wild-type cells. Ixazomib-induced apoptosis was associated with processing of the pro-apoptotic proteins procaspase-3, -7, -8, and -9, and cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). In an in vivo xenograft model of human melanoma, combination treatment with IFN-α-2b and ixazomib demonstrated a significant reduction in tumor volume when compared to vehicle (p = 0.005) and single therapy ixazomib (p = 0.017) and IFN-α-2b (p = 0.036). These pre-clinical results support further evaluation of combination treatment with ixazomib and IFN-α for the treatment of advanced BRAF V600E mutant melanoma.

  10. Association of MITF and other melanosome-related proteins with chemoresistance in melanoma tumors and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hertzman Johansson, Carolina; Azimi, Alireza; Frostvik Stolt, Marianne; Shojaee, Seyedmehdi; Wiberg, Henning; Grafström, Eva; Hansson, Johan; Egyházi Brage, Suzanne

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies in cell lines have suggested a role for melanosomes and related protein trafficking pathways in melanoma drug response. We have investigated the expression of six proteins related to melanosomes and melanogenesis (MITF, GPR143, gp100/PMEL, MLANA, TYRP1, and RAB27A) in pretreatment metastases from melanoma patients (n = 52) with different response to dacarbazine/temozolomide. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and G-protein coupled receptor 143 (GPR143) showed significantly higher expression in nonresponders compared with responders. The premelanosome protein (gp100/PMEL) has been indicated previously in resistance to cisplatin in melanoma cells, but the expression levels of gp100/PMEL showed no association with response to dacarbazine/temozolomide in our clinical material. We also investigated the effects on chemosensitivity of siRNA inhibition of gp100/PMEL in the MNT-1 melanoma cell line. As expected from the study of the tumor material, no effect was detected with respect to response to temozolomide. However, knockdown of gp100/PMEL sensitized the cells to both paclitaxel and cisplatin. Overall, our results suggest that MITF, and several MITF-regulated factors, are associated with resistance to chemotherapy in melanoma and that different MITF targets can be of importance for different drugs.

  11. c-RET Molecule in Malignant Melanoma from Oncogenic RET-Carrying Transgenic Mice and Human Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kozue; Iida, Machiko; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Kato, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers and its incidence worldwide has been increasing at a greater rate than that of any other cancer. We previously reported that constitutively activated RFP-RET-carrying transgenic mice (RET-mice) spontaneously develop malignant melanoma. In this study, we showed that expression levels of intrinsic c-Ret, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf) and Gdnf receptor alpha 1 (Gfra1) transcripts in malignant melanomas from RET-transgenic mice were significantly upregulated compared with those in benign melanocytic tumors. These results suggest that not only introduced oncogenic RET but also intrinsic c-Ret/Gdnf are involved in murine melanomagenesis in RET-mice. We then showed that c-RET and GDNF transcript expression levels in human malignant melanoma cell lines (HM3KO and MNT-1) were higher than those in primary cultured normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM), while GFRa1 transcript expression levels were comparable among NHEM, HM3KO and MNT-1. We next showed c-RET and GFRa1 protein expression in HM3KO cells and GDNF-mediated increased levels of their phosphorylated c-RET tyrosine kinase and signal transduction molecules (ERK and AKT) sited potentially downstream of c-RET. Taken together with the finding of augmented proliferation of HM3KO cells after GDNF stimulation, our results suggest that GDNF-mediated c-RET kinase activation is associated with the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. PMID:20422010

  12. c-RET molecule in malignant melanoma from oncogenic RET-carrying transgenic mice and human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Yuichiro; Yajima, Ichiro; Takeda, Kozue; Iida, Machiko; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Kato, Masashi

    2010-04-21

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers and its incidence worldwide has been increasing at a greater rate than that of any other cancer. We previously reported that constitutively activated RFP-RET-carrying transgenic mice (RET-mice) spontaneously develop malignant melanoma. In this study, we showed that expression levels of intrinsic c-Ret, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf) and Gdnf receptor alpha 1 (Gfra1) transcripts in malignant melanomas from RET-transgenic mice were significantly upregulated compared with those in benign melanocytic tumors. These results suggest that not only introduced oncogenic RET but also intrinsic c-Ret/Gdnf are involved in murine melanomagenesis in RET-mice. We then showed that c-RET and GDNF transcript expression levels in human malignant melanoma cell lines (HM3KO and MNT-1) were higher than those in primary cultured normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM), while GFRa1 transcript expression levels were comparable among NHEM, HM3KO and MNT-1. We next showed c-RET and GFRa1 protein expression in HM3KO cells and GDNF-mediated increased levels of their phosphorylated c-RET tyrosine kinase and signal transduction molecules (ERK and AKT) sited potentially downstream of c-RET. Taken together with the finding of augmented proliferation of HM3KO cells after GDNF stimulation, our results suggest that GDNF-mediated c-RET kinase activation is associated with the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma.

  13. Mechanism of the melanogenesis stimulation activity of (-)-cubebin in murine B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Noriko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Ohguchi, Kenji; Akao, Yukihiro; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2007-07-15

    (-)-Cubebin showed a melanogenesis stimulation activity in a concentration-dependent manner in murine B16 melanoma cells without any significant effects on cell proliferation. Tyrosinase activity was increased at 24-72 h after addition of cubebin to B16 cells, and then intracellular melanin amount was increased at 48-96 h after the treatment. The expression levels of tyrosinase were time-dependently enhanced after the treatment with cubebin. At the same time, the expression levels of tyrosinase mRNA were also increased after addition of cubebin. Furthermore Western blot analysis revealed that cubebin elevated the level of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). SB203580, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, completely blocked cubebin-induced expression of tyrosinase mRNA in B16 cells. These results suggested that cubebin increased melanogenesis in B16 cells through the enhancement of tyrosinase expression mediated by activation of p38 MAPK.

  14. Upregulation of miR-124 by physcion 8-O-β-glucopyranoside inhibits proliferation and invasion of malignant melanoma cells via repressing RLIP76.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Han, Yantao; Xu, Luo

    2016-12-01

    Melanoma is the most malignant type of skin cancer. In recent years, mounting studies have evidenced the involvement of miRNAs in melanoma. One of these miRNAs, miR-124 has been found aberrantly downregulated in a variety of human malignancies. In this study, our results showed that the expression of miR-124 was significantly lower in malignant melanoma tissues and cell lines and miR-124 functioned as a tumor suppressor in melanoma. Moreover, our findings showed that miR-124 exerted anti-tumor effect by directly targeting RLIP76, a stress-inducible non-ABC transporter that plays a crucial role in the development of melanoma. Furthermore, our study also showed that physcion 8-O-β-glucopyranoside, a natural compound from medicinal plant, could inhibit the proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells by targeting miR-124/RLIP76 signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear envelope-distributed CD147 interacts with and inhibits the transcriptional function of RING1 and promotes melanoma cell motility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junchen; Peng, Cong; Lei, Li; Zhang, Jianglin; Zeng, Weiqi; Chen, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma accounts for nearly 80% of all deaths associated with skin cancer.CD147 plays a very important role in melanoma progression and the expression level may correlate with tumor malignancy. RING1 can bind DNA and act as a transcriptional repressor, play an important role in the aggressive phenotype in melanoma. The interactions between CD147 and RING1 were identified with a yeast two-hybrid and RING1 interacted with CD147 through the transmembrane domain. RING1 inhibits CD147's capability promoting melanoma cell migration. In conclusion, the study identified novel interactions between CD147 and RING1, recovered CD147 nuclear envelope distribution in melanoma cells, and suggested a new mechanism underlying how cytoplasmic CD147 promotes melanoma development.

  16. Nuclear envelope-distributed CD147 interacts with and inhibits the transcriptional function of RING1 and promotes melanoma cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cong; Lei, Li; Zhang, Jianglin; Zeng, Weiqi; Chen, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma accounts for nearly 80% of all deaths associated with skin cancer.CD147 plays a very important role in melanoma progression and the expression level may correlate with tumor malignancy. RING1 can bind DNA and act as a transcriptional repressor, play an important role in the aggressive phenotype in melanoma. The interactions between CD147 and RING1 were identified with a yeast two-hybrid and RING1 interacted with CD147 through the transmembrane domain. RING1 inhibits CD147’s capability promoting melanoma cell migration. In conclusion, the study identified novel interactions between CD147 and RING1, recovered CD147 nuclear envelope distribution in melanoma cells, and suggested a new mechanism underlying how cytoplasmic CD147 promotes melanoma development. PMID:28832687

  17. Heat Shock Protein-90 Inhibitors Enhance Antigen Expression on Melanomas and Increase T Cell Recognition of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Timothy J.; Dunn, Ian S.; Rose, Lenora B.; Newton, Estelle E.; Pandolfi, Franco; Kurnick, James T.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to enhance antigen-specific T cell recognition of cancer cells, we have examined numerous modulators of antigen-expression. In this report we demonstrate that twelve different Hsp90 inhibitors (iHsp90) share the ability to increase the expression of differentiation antigens and MHC Class I antigens. These iHsp90 are active in several molecular and cellular assays on a series of tumor cell lines, including eleven human melanomas, a murine B16 melanoma, and two human glioma-derived cell lines. Intra-cytoplasmic antibody staining showed that all of the tested iHsp90 increased expression of the melanocyte differentiation antigens Melan-A/MART-1, gp100, and TRP-2, as well as MHC Class I. The gliomas showed enhanced gp100 and MHC staining. Quantitative analysis of mRNA levels showed a parallel increase in message transcription, and a reporter assay shows induction of promoter activity for Melan-A/MART-1 gene. In addition, iHsp90 increased recognition of tumor cells by T cells specific for Melan-A/MART-1. In contrast to direct Hsp90 client proteins, the increased levels of full-length differentiation antigens that result from iHsp90 treatment are most likely the result of transcriptional activation of their encoding genes. In combination, these results suggest that iHsp90 improve recognition of tumor cells by T cells specific for a melanoma-associated antigen as a result of increasing the expressed intracellular antigen pool available for processing and presentation by MHC Class I, along with increased levels of MHC Class I itself. As these Hsp90 inhibitors do not interfere with T cell function, they could have potential for use in immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:25503774

  18. Characterization and Inducing Melanoma Cell Apoptosis Activity of Mannosylerythritol Lipids-A Produced from Pseudozyma aphidis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Linlin; Li, Hongji; Niu, Yongwu; Chen, Qihe

    2016-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are natural glycolipid biosurfactants which have potential applications in the fields of food, cosmetic and medicine. In this study, MELs were produced from vegetable oil by Pseudozyma aphidis. Their structural data through LC/MS, GC/MS and NMR analysis revealed that MEL-A with two acetyls was the major compound and the identified homologs of MEL-A contained a length of C8 to C14 fatty acid chains. This glycolipid exhibited a surface tension of 27.69 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC), self-assembling into particles in the water solution. It was observed to induce cell growth-inhibition and apoptosis of B16 melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as cause cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Further quantitative RT-PCR analysis and western blotting revealed an increasing tendency of both mRNA and protein expressions of Caspase-12, CHOP, GRP78 and Caspase-3, and a down-regulation of protein Bcl-2. Combined with the up regulation of signaling IRE1 and ATF6, it can be speculated that MEL-A-induced B16 melanoma cell apoptosis was associated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). PMID:26828792

  19. Metastatic melanoma cells with BRAF G469A mutation: nab-paclitaxel better than vemurafenib?

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Letizia; Guida, Gabriella; Tommasi, Stefania; Guida, Michele; Azzariti, Amalia

    2015-08-01

    BRAF G469A is a missense mutation within exon 11 of the BRAF gene resulting in a constitutively activated enzyme frequently associated with MAP kinase cascade signaling activation. No evidence currently exists about its role in determining sensitivity/resistance to BRAF inhibitors, utilized in the treatment of patients carrying BRAF V600 mutations, and to chemotherapy. The newly established metastatic melanoma (MM) cell line MO-1 was characterized for its sensitivity to vemurafenib and nab-paclitaxel, both already utilized for the treatment of MM. All analyses were carried out by comparing results with those found in MM cells wild type for BRAF or mutated in V600. In addition, cellular effectors were investigated by ELISA kits, western blotting and flow cytometry. The exposure to vemurafenib inhibited MO-1 cell proliferation at concentrations similar to those obtained in vemurafenib-resistant melanoma models, and an explanation of this sensitivity is the strong activation of Erk1/2 and the low expression of MITF. Nab-paclitaxel strongly reduced proliferation of MO-1 cells perhaps for the very low expression level of PMEL17, transcriptionally regulated by MITF and negatively involved in determining sensitivity to taxanes. Thus, the mutation BRAF G469A in MM might be related to a weak effectiveness of therapy with BRAF inhibitors and a promising therapeutic approach may be with nab-paclitaxel.

  20. The human homologue of Dictyostelium discoideum phg1A is expressed by human metastatic melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lozupone, Francesco; Perdicchio, Maurizio; Brambilla, Daria; Borghi, Martina; Meschini, Stefania; Barca, Stefano; Marino, Maria Lucia; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Federici, Cristina; Iessi, Elisabetta; de Milito, Angelo; Fais, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Tumour cannibalism is a characteristic of malignancy and metastatic behaviour. This atypical phagocytic activity is a crucial survival option for tumours in conditions of low nutrient supply, and has some similarities to the phagocytic activity of unicellular microorganisms. In fact, Dictyostelium discoideum has been used widely as a model to study phagocytosis. Recently, phg1A has been described as a protein that is primarily involved in the phagocytic process of this microorganism. The closest human homologue to phg1A is transmembrane 9 superfamily protein member 4 (TM9SF4). Here, we report that TM9SF4 is highly expressed in human malignant melanoma cells deriving from metastatic lesions, whereas it is undetectable in healthy human tissues and cells. TM9SF4 is predominantly expressed in acidic vesicles of melanoma cells, in which it co-localizes with the early endosome antigens Rab5 and early endosome antigen 1. TM9SF4 silencing induced marked inhibition of cannibal activity, which is consistent with a derangement of intracellular pH gradients, with alkalinization of acidic vesicles and acidification of the cell cytosol. We propose TM9SF4 as a new marker of malignancy, representing a potential new target for anti-tumour strategies with a specific role in tumour cannibalism and in the establishment of a metastatic phenotype.

  1. Targeted Silencing of MART-1 Gene Expression by RNA Interference Enhances the Migration Ability of Uveal Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yidan; Jia, Renbing; Wang, Jing; Xu, Xiaofang; Yao, Yuting; Ge, Shengfan; Fan, Xianqun

    2013-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and the leading potentially fatal primary intraocular disease in adults. Melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells (MART-1) has been studied extensively as a clinically important diagnostic marker for melanoma, however, its biological function remains unclear. In the present study, the UM cell line SP6.5, which showed a high level of MART-1 expression, was subjected to small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of MART-1. Silencing of MART-1 expression increased the migration ability of SP6.5 cells and down-regulated the expression of the metastasis suppressor NM23. Our results suggest that MART-1 is a candidate target for the development of therapeutic strategies for UM and in particular for the suppression of metastasis associated with this malignancy. PMID:23877836

  2. Inhibitory components from the buds of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) on melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Matsubara, Eri; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Sukaton, Edi; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-03-01

    In the course to find a new whitening agent, we evaluated the methanol extract from bud of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) on melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells. Eugenol and eugenol acetate were isolated as the active compounds and showed melanin inhibition of 60% and 40% in B16 melanoma cell with less cytotoxicity at the concentration of 100 and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, an essential oil prepared from the bud of clove, which contain eugenol and eugenol acetate as dominant components, showed melanin inhibition of 50% and 80% in B16 melanoma cells at the concentration of 100 and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Low baseline levels of NK cells may predict a positive response to ipilimumab in melanoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Julia K; Angelova, Daniela; Heppt, Markus V; Ruzicka, Thomas; Berking, Carola

    2017-07-01

    The introduction of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has been a breakthrough in the therapy of metastatic melanoma. The influence of ICB on T-cell populations has been studied extensively, but little is known about the effect on NK cells. In this study, we analysed the relative and absolute amounts of NK cells and of the subpopulations of CD56 dim and CD56 bright NK cells among the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 32 patients with metastatic melanoma before and under treatment with ipilimumab or pembrolizumab by flow cytometry. In 15 (47%) patients, an abnormal low amount of NK cells was found at baseline. Analysis of the subpopulations showed also low or normal baseline levels for CD56 dim NK cells, whereas the baseline levels of CD56 bright NK cells were either normal or abnormally high. The relative and absolute amounts of NK cells and of CD56 dim and CD56 bright NK cell subpopulations in patients with a normal baseline did not change under treatment. However, patients with a low baseline of NK cells and CD56 dim NK cells showed a significant increase in these immune cell subsets, but the amounts remained to be lower than the normal baseline. The amount of CD56 bright NK cells was unaffected by treatment. The baseline levels of NK cells were correlated with the number of metastatic organs. Their proportion increased, whereas the expression of NKG2D decreased significantly when more than one organ was affected by metastases. Low baseline levels of NK cells and CD56 dim NK cells as well as normal baseline levels of CD56 bright NK cells correlated significantly with a positive response to ipilimumab but not to pembrolizumab. Survival curves of patients with low amounts of CD56 dim NK cells treated with ipilimumab showed a trend to longer survival. Normal baseline levels of CD56 bright NK cells were significantly correlated with longer survival as compared to patients with high baseline levels. In conclusion, analysis of the amounts of total NK cells

  4. Flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba fallen leaves induce apoptosis through modulation of p53 activation in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Jung; Kim, Moon-Moo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the apoptotic effect of flavonoids in methanol extracts of Ginkgo biloba fallen leaves (MEGFL) on melanoma cells. Ginkgo biloba is a deciduous castle chaplain and its leaves include various types of flavonoids such as flavonol-O-glycosides. Ginkgo biloba is known to have therapeutic properties against a number of diseases such as cerebrovascular diseases, blood circulation disease and hypertension. In the present study MEGFL exhibited a higher cytotoxic effect on melanoma cells than Ginkgo biloba leaves (MEGL). It was also found that MEGFL induced apoptotic cell death which was characterized by DNA fragmentation. During the cell death process following treatment with MEGFL, the expression of a variety of death-associated proteins including p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome c and Bax were analyzed in the cytosol of melanoma cells. MEGFL significantly increased the expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-9 and p53 in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that MEGFL induced apoptotic cell death by increasing the expression of cell death-associated proteins in melanoma cells.

  5. Protective CD8 Memory T Cell Responses to Mouse Melanoma Are Generated in the Absence of CD4 T Cell Help

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Shannon M.; Zhang, Peisheng; Turk, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that temporary depletion of CD4 T cells in mice with progressive B16 melanoma, followed by surgical tumor excision, induces protective memory CD8 T cell responses to melanoma/melanocyte antigens. We also showed that persistence of these CD8 T cells is supported, in an antigen-dependent fashion, by concurrent autoimmune melanocyte destruction. Herein we explore the requirement of CD4 T cell help in priming and maintaining this protective CD8 T cell response to melanoma. Methodology and Principal Findings To induce melanoma/melanocyte antigen-specific CD8 T cells, B16 tumor bearing mice were depleted of regulatory T cells (Treg) by either temporary, or long-term continuous treatment with anti-CD4 (mAb clone GK1.5). Total depletion of CD4 T cells led to significant priming of IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cell responses to TRP-2 and gp100. Surprisingly, treatment with anti-CD25 (mAb clone PC61), to specifically deplete Treg cells while leaving help intact, was ineffective at priming CD8 T cells. Thirty to sixty days after primary tumors were surgically excised, mice completely lacking CD4 T cell help developed autoimmune vitiligo, and maintained antigen-specific memory CD8 T cell responses that were highly effective at producing cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2). Mice lacking total CD4 T cell help also mounted protection against re-challenge with B16 melanoma sixty days after primary tumor excision. Conclusions and Significance This work establishes that CD4 T cell help is dispensable for the generation of protective memory T cell responses to melanoma. Our findings support further use of CD4 T cell depletion therapy for inducing long-lived immunity to cancer. PMID:22046294

  6. CXCR6, a newly defined biomarker of tissue-specific stem cell asymmetric self-renewal, identifies more aggressive human melanoma cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Rouzbeh; Noh, Minsoo; Huh, Yang Hoon; Ciusani, Emilio; Sigalotti, Luca; Maio, Michele; Arosio, Beatrice; Nicotra, Maria R; Natali, PierGiorgio; Sherley, James L; La Porta, Caterina A M

    2010-12-22

    A fundamental problem in cancer research is identifying the cell type that is capable of sustaining neoplastic growth and its origin from normal tissue cells. Recent investigations of a variety of tumor types have shown that phenotypically identifiable and isolable subfractions of cells possess the tumor-forming ability. In the present paper, using two lineage-related human melanoma cell lines, primary melanoma line IGR39 and its metastatic derivative line IGR37, two main observations are reported. The first one is the first phenotypic evidence to support the origin of melanoma cancer stem cells (CSCs) from mutated tissue-specific stem cells; and the second one is the identification of a more aggressive subpopulation of CSCs in melanoma that are CXCR6+. We defined CXCR6 as a new biomarker for tissue-specific stem cell asymmetric self-renewal. Thus, the relationship between melanoma formation and ABCG2 and CXCR6 expression was investigated. Consistent with their non-metastatic character, unsorted IGR39 cells formed significantly smaller tumors than unsorted IGR37 cells. In addition, ABCG2+ cells produced tumors that had a 2-fold greater mass than tumors produced by unsorted cells or ABCG2- cells. CXCR6+ cells produced more aggressive tumors. CXCR6 identifies a more discrete subpopulation of cultured human melanoma cells with a more aggressive MCSC phenotype than cells selected on the basis of the ABCG2+ phenotype alone. The association of a more aggressive tumor phenotype with asymmetric self-renewal phenotype reveals a previously unrecognized aspect of tumor cell physiology. Namely, the retention of some tissue-specific stem cell attributes, like the ability to asymmetrically self-renew, impacts the natural history of human tumor development. Knowledge of this new aspect of tumor development and progression may provide new targets for cancer prevention and treatment.

  7. Efficient TGF-β/SMAD signaling in human melanoma cells associated with high c-SKI/SnoN expression

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background SKI and SnoN proteins have been shown to inhibit TGF-β signaling, acting both as transcriptional co-repressors in the cell nucleus, and as sequestrators of SMAD proteins in the cytoplasm. TGF-β, on the other hand, induces rapid, proteasome-mediated, degradation of both proteins. How elevated SKI and SnoN protein levels co-exist with active autocrine TGF-β signaling in cancer cells is yet to be understood. Results In this study, we found elevated SKI and SnoN protein levels in a panel of melanoma cell lines, as compared to normal melanocytes. There was no correlation between SKI protein content and the capacity of melanoma cells to invade Matrigel™, to form subcutaneous tumors, or to metastasize to bone after intracardiac inoculation into nude mice. Nor did we find a correlation between SKI expression and histopathological staging of human melanoma. TGF-β induced a rapid and dose-dependent degradation of SKI protein, associated with SMAD3/4 specific transcriptional response and induction of pro-metastatic target genes, partially prevented by pharmacologic blockade of proteasome activity. SKI knockdown in 1205Lu melanoma cells did not alter their invasive capacity or transcriptional responses to TGF-β, and did not allow p21 expression in response to TGF-β or reveal any growth inhibitory activity of TGF-β. Conclusions Despite high expression in melanoma cells, the role of SKI in melanoma remains elusive: SKI does not efficiently interfere with the pro-oncogenic activities of TGF-β, unless stabilized by proteasome blockade. Its highly labile nature makes it an unlikely target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21211030

  8. Anticancer effects of morin-7-sulphate sodium, a flavonoid derivative, in mouse melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Wen; Zou, Tang-Bin; Jia, Qing; Xia, En-Qin; Cao, Wen-Jun; Liu, Wen; He, Tai-Ping; Wang, Qin

    2016-12-01

    Increasing evidence supports the anticancer effects of morin in vitro and in vivo. However, the role of morin-7-sulphate sodium (NaMoS), a water-soluble flavonoid derivative synthesized from morin remains unclear. The present study investigated the tumor suppression by NaMoS in mouse melanoma cells. We synthesized the flavonoid derivative morin-7-sulphate sodium according to the method described for quercetin-sulphate derivative, and further isolated, purified and identified the compound. Cell proliferation in vitro was assessed using a CCK-8 assay. The wound healing assay was performed to evaluate cell motility, and flow cytometry was used to detect cellular apoptosis. Protein levels of vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), phosphorylation of Akt1/2/3 (p-Akt1/2/3), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and Caspase3 in B16F10 cells were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The results suggest that cell proliferation was markedly decreased in NaMoS-treated groups (1, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000μM) in a dose-dependent manner compared with the Control group and the IC 50 was 221.67μM at 48h. NaMoS at 200μM concentration significantly inhibited the invasion and promoted apoptosis of B16F10 cells. Moreover, protein level of Caspase3 increased significantly in B16F10 cells treated by NaMoS. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot further confirmed that NaMoS decreased the expression of vimentin, MMP9, p-Akt1/2/3 and p-ERK1/2 in B16F10 cells. This study provides robust evidence that NaMoS, a water-soluble flavonoid, manifests anticancer properties and may act as a signal transduction inhibitor in melanoma cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. ABCB5 maintains melanoma-initiating cells through a pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling circuit

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Brian J.; Saab, Karim R.; Ma, Jie; Schatton, Tobias; Pütz, Pablo; Zhan, Qian; Murphy, George F.; Gasser, Martin; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Frank, Natasha Y.; Frank, Markus H.

    2014-01-01

    The drug efflux transporter ABCB5 identifies cancer stem-like cells (CSC) in diverse human malignancies, where its expression is associated with clinical disease progression and tumor recurrence. ABCB5 confers therapeutic resistance but other functions in tumorigenesis independent of drug efflux have not been described that might help explain why it is so broadly overexpressed in human cancer. Here we show that in melanoma-initiating cells ABCB5 controls IL-1β secretion which serves to maintain slow-cycling, chemoresistant cells through an IL-1β/IL8/CXCR1 cytokine signaling circuit. This CSC maintenance circuit involved reciprocal paracrine interactions with ABCB5-negative cancer cell populations. ABCB5 blockade induced cellular differentiation, reversed resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents, and impaired tumor growth in vivo. Together, our results defined a novel function for ABCB5 in CSC maintenance and tumor growth. PMID:24934811

  10. Concomitant BCORL1 and BRAF Mutations in Vemurafenib-Resistant Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Mologni, Luca; Costanza, Mariantonia; Sharma, Geeta Geeta; Viltadi, Michela; Massimino, Luca; Citterio, Stefania; Purgante, Stefania; Raman, Hima; Pirola, Alessandra; Zucchetti, Massimo; Piazza, Rocco; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2018-05-01

    BRAF is the most frequently mutated gene in melanoma. Constitutive activation of mutant BRAF V600E leads to aberrant Ras-independent MAPK signaling and cell transformation. Inhibition of mutant BRAF is a current frontline therapy for such cases, with improved survival compared with chemotherapy. Unfortunately, reactivation of MAPK signaling by several mechanisms has been shown to cause drug resistance and disease recurrence. In this work, we describe the co-occurrence of an in-frame deletion within an amplified BRAF V600E locus and a missense point mutation of the transcriptional repressor BCORL1 in vemurafenib-resistant A375 melanoma cells. Functional data confirmed that truncated p47BRAF V600E and mutant BCORL1 Q1076H both contribute to resistance. Interestingly, either endogenous BCORL1 silencing or ectopic BCORL1 Q1076H expression mimicked the effects of a CRISPR/Cas9-edited BCORL1 Q1076H locus, suggesting a complex mixture of loss- and gain-of-function effects caused by the mutation. Transcriptomic data confirmed this hypothesis. Finally, we show that the pan-RAF inhibitor sorafenib is not affected by expression of BRAF deletion variant and effectively synergizes with vemurafenib to block resistant cells, suggesting a possible intervention for this class of mutants. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Potential of Cyanidin-Based Anthocyanins on Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Rugină, Dumitriţa; Hanganu, Daniela; Diaconeasa, Zoriţa; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Coman, Cristina; Leopold, Loredana; Bunea, Andrea; Pintea, Adela

    2017-04-30

    Elderberries are known for their high anthocyanins content, which have been shown to possess anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects. Anthocyanins enriched extract (AEE) was obtained from elderberries and was characterized by LC/DAD/ESI-MS analysis. Five cyanidin-based anthocyanins were identified, among which Cy-3- O -samb was the major compound (51%). The total anthocyanins content of AEE was 495 mg Cy-3- O -samb/100 g FW. AEE inhibited proliferation of metastatic B16-F10 murine melanoma cells, in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 264.3 μg/mL. LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), as a marker of membrane integrity, increased 74% in B16-F10 cells treated with 250 μg/mL AEE, compared to control. It was observed that apoptosis is the mechanism of melanoma cell death after AEE treatment, confirmed morphologically by acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining and TUNEL analysis. These results indicate that elderberry-derived anthocyanins might be utilized in future applications as topical adjuvant in skin cancer therapy.

  12. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Potential of Cyanidin-Based Anthocyanins on Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rugină, Dumitriţa; Hanganu, Daniela; Diaconeasa, Zoriţa; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Coman, Cristina; Leopold, Loredana; Bunea, Andrea; Pintea, Adela

    2017-01-01

    Elderberries are known for their high anthocyanins content, which have been shown to possess anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects. Anthocyanins enriched extract (AEE) was obtained from elderberries and was characterized by LC/DAD/ESI-MS analysis. Five cyanidin-based anthocyanins were identified, among which Cy-3-O-samb was the major compound (51%). The total anthocyanins content of AEE was 495 mg Cy-3-O-samb/100 g FW. AEE inhibited proliferation of metastatic B16-F10 murine melanoma cells, in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 264.3 μg/mL. LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), as a marker of membrane integrity, increased 74% in B16-F10 cells treated with 250 μg/mL AEE, compared to control. It was observed that apoptosis is the mechanism of melanoma cell death after AEE treatment, confirmed morphologically by acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining and TUNEL analysis. These results indicate that elderberry-derived anthocyanins might be utilized in future applications as topical adjuvant in skin cancer therapy. PMID:28468289

  13. [Phase II clinical trial of autologous dendritic cell vaccine with immunologic adjuvant in cutaneous melanoma patients].

    PubMed

    Baldueva, I A; Novik, A V; Moiseenko, V M; Nekhaeva, T L; Danilova, A B; Danilov, A O; Protsenko, S A; Petrova, T Iu; Uleĭskaia, G I; Shchekina, L A; Semenova, A I; Mikhaĭlichenko, T D; Teletaeva, G M; Zhabina, A S; Volkov, N V; Komarov, Iu I

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the clinical results and immunologic changes in cutaneous melanoma patients receiving active specific immunotherapy with autologous dendritic cell vaccine (DCV) in combination with cyclophosphamide used as immunologic adjuvant. Twenty eight patients with morphologically verified stage III-IV cutaneous melanoma receiving therapy in N. N. Petrov Research Institute of Oncology between 2008 and 2011 were included in the study. All patients signed an informed consent form. Nineteen patients (67,9%) received DCV in therapeutic setting, 9 (32,1%) received it in adjuvant setting. DCV therapy was well tolerated. No serious adverse events were registered. Frequent adverse events included Grade 1-2 unspecific symptoms (fever, fatigue, flu-like symptoms) observed in 22% patients after 3,5% of vaccinations. In therapeutic settings the use DCV lead to clinical effect (PR+SD) in 36,6% of patients. PR was observed in 5% of (95% CI 0-15%) patients, SD in 31,6% (95% CI 13-56%). Duration of the objective responses was 168-965+days. Addition of immunologic adjuvant (cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m2 IV 2 hours) 3 days before vaccination increased its efficacy. In this patients group (n=12) the therapy lead to clinical benefit in 42% (95% CI 17-69%) of cases, median time to progression was 91 (95% CI 55-126) days. This regimen was selected for adjuvant therapy. In the adjuvant therapy group (n=9) the median time to progression was 112 (95% CI 58-166) days. Immunologic monitoring showed correlation ofT- and B-cell immune response with DCV clinical efficacy (p<0,05), no correlation with delayed hypersensivity reaction was observed (p>0,1). DCV is well tolerated and shows immunological and clinical response in stage III-IV skin melanoma patients.

  14. Viwithan, a Standardized Withania somnifera Root Extract Induces Apoptosis in Murine Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sudeep, H.V.; Gouthamchandra, K.; Venkatesh, B. J.; Prasad, K. Shyam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Withania somnifera is an Indian medicinal herb known for the multipotential ability to cure various therapeutic ailments as described in the ayurvedic system of medicine. Objective: In the present study, we have evaluated the antiproliferative activity of a standardized W. somnifera root extract (Viwithan) against different human and murine cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxicity of Viwithan was determined using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue assay and crystal violet staining. The apoptotic changes in B16F1 cells following treatment with Viwithan were observed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and DNA fragmentation assay. The binding affinity of withanolides in Viwithan with antiapoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma 2, B-cell lymphoma-extra large, and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1) were studied using in silico approach. Results: The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Viwithan against liver hepatocellular carcinoma, Henrietta Lacks cervical carcinoma cells, human colorectal carcinoma cell line, and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were 1830, 968, 2715, and 633 μg/ml, respectively. Interestingly, Viwithan was highly effective against B16F1 cells with an IC50 value of 220 μg/ml after 24 h treatment. The morphological alterations of apoptotic cell death were clearly observed in the AO/EB-stained cells after treatment with Viwithan. Viwithan induced late apoptotic changes in treated B16F1 cells as evident by the ladder formation of fragmented DNA in a time-dependent manner. The findings of molecular docking showed that withanolides present in Viwithan have a more binding affinity with the antiapoptotic proteins, particularly MCL-1. Conclusion: We have reported for the first time that Viwithan with 5% withanolides has a potent cytotoxic effect, particularly against B16F1 murine melanoma cells among the different cancer cell lines tested. SUMMARY The present study reports for the first time that

  15. Viwithan, a Standardized Withania somnifera Root Extract Induces Apoptosis in Murine Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Sudeep, H V; Gouthamchandra, K; Venkatesh, B J; Prasad, K Shyam

    2018-01-01

    Withania somnifera is an Indian medicinal herb known for the multipotential ability to cure various therapeutic ailments as described in the ayurvedic system of medicine. In the present study, we have evaluated the antiproliferative activity of a standardized W. somnifera root extract (Viwithan) against different human and murine cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity of Viwithan was determined using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue assay and crystal violet staining. The apoptotic changes in B16F1 cells following treatment with Viwithan were observed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and DNA fragmentation assay. The binding affinity of withanolides in Viwithan with antiapoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma 2, B-cell lymphoma-extra large, and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1) were studied using in silico approach. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Viwithan against liver hepatocellular carcinoma, Henrietta Lacks cervical carcinoma cells, human colorectal carcinoma cell line, and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were 1830, 968, 2715, and 633 μg/ml, respectively. Interestingly, Viwithan was highly effective against B16F1 cells with an IC50 value of 220 μg/ml after 24 h treatment. The morphological alterations of apoptotic cell death were clearly observed in the AO/EB-stained cells after treatment with Viwithan. Viwithan induced late apoptotic changes in treated B16F1 cells as evident by the ladder formation of fragmented DNA in a time-dependent manner. The findings of molecular docking showed that withanolides present in Viwithan have a more binding affinity with the antiapoptotic proteins, particularly MCL-1. We have reported for the first time that Viwithan with 5% withanolides has a potent cytotoxic effect, particularly against B16F1 murine melanoma cells among the different cancer cell lines tested. The present study reports for the first time that Viwithan, a standardized 5% Withania somnifera root extract, has potent

  16. Silymarin inhibits melanoma cell growth both in vitro and in vivo by targeting cell cycle regulators, angiogenic biomarkers and induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin diseases and is often associated with activating mutations of the proto-oncogene BRAF. To develop more effective strategies for the prevention or treatment of melanoma, we have examined the inhibitory effects of silymarin, a flavanoid from Silybum marianum, on melanoma cells. Using A375 (BRAF-mutated) and Hs294t (non BRAF-mutated but highly metastatic) human melanoma cell lines, we found that in vitro treatment with silymarin resulted in a dose-dependent: (i) reduction in cell viability; (ii) enhancement of either Go/G1 (A375) or G2-M (Hs294t) phase cell cycle arrest with corresponding alterations in cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases; and (iii) induction of apoptosis. The silymarin-induced apoptosis of human melanoma cells was associated with a reduction in the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl), an increase in the levels of pro-apoptotic protein (Bax), and activation of caspases. Further, oral administration of silymarin (500 mg/kg body weight/2× a week) significantly inhibited (60%, P < 0.01) the growth of BRAF-mutated A375 melanoma tumor xenografts, and this was associated with: (i) inhibition of cell proliferation; (ii) induction of apoptosis of tumor cells; (iii) alterations in cell cycle regulatory proteins; and (iv) reduced expression of tumor angiogenic biomarkers in tumor xenograft tissues. These results indicate that silymarin may have a chemotherapeutic effect on human melanoma cell growth and warrant its further evaluation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. microRNA-216b inhibits cell proliferation and migration in human melanoma by targeting FOXM1 in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengyao; Wang, Xiaopeng; Tu, Chen; Wang, Shuang; Qu, Jianqiang; Xiao, Shengxiang

    2017-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an increasingly important role in cancer growth by coordinately suppressing genes that control cell migration, proliferation, and invasion. The above results can be achieved through the regulation of gene expression by miRNAs by suppressing translation or the direct sequence-specific degradation of the targeted mRNA. In the present study, we indicate that the expression of miR-216b could be effectively repressed both in human melanoma tissues through a comparison with primary melanoma and in human melanoma cell lines through a comparison with a normal human keratinocyte line. Moreover, miR-216b induced a clear decrease in melanoma cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) was confirmed as a target gene of miR-216b, and the overexpression of miR-216b markedly repressed the luciferase activity of reporter plasmids containing the FOXM1 3'-UTR (untranslated region). Furthermore, miR-216b suppressed melanoma cell growth in nude mice in vivo, with the effects of miR-216b overexpression on melanoma cell growth and proliferation reversed by FOXM1 overexpression. The results demonstrated that miR-216b is a tumor suppressor in melanoma, identified the FOXM1 signaling pathway as a target of miR-216b action, and suggested a potential therapeutic role for miR-216b in melanoma. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  18. Efficient glycoengineering of GM3 on melanoma cell and monoclonal antibody-mediated selective killing of the glycoengineered cancer cell

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianli; Zhang, Junping; Guo, Zhongwu

    2007-01-01

    To verify the principal of a new immunotherapeutic strategy for cancer, a monoclonal antibody 2H3 against N-phenylacetyl GM3, an unnatural form of the tumor-associated antigen GM3, was prepared and employed to demonstrate that murine melanoma cell B16F0 could be effectively glycoengineered by N-phenylacetyl-d-mannosamine to express N-phenylacetyl GM3 and that 2H3 was highly cytotoxic to the glycoengineered B16F0 cell in the presence of complements. It was further demonstrated that B16F0 cell could be glycoengineered 4-5 times more effectively than 3T3 A31 cell, a normal murine embryo fibroblast cell, and that the antibody and complement mediated cytotoxicity was at least 200 times more potent to the glycoengineered B16F0 cell than to the N-phenylacetyl-d-mannosamine-treated 3T3 A31 cell. These results show the promise for developing useful melanoma immunotherapies based on vaccination against N-phenylacetyl GM3 followed by treatment with N-phenylacetyl-d-mannosamine. PMID:17892942

  19. Efficient glycoengin