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Sample records for a253 human salivary

  1. Global diversity in the human salivary microbiome.

    PubMed

    Nasidze, Ivan; Li, Jing; Quinque, Dominique; Tang, Kun; Stoneking, Mark

    2009-04-01

    The human salivary microbiome may play a role in diseases of the oral cavity and interact with microbiomes from other parts of the human body (in particular, the intestinal tract), but little is known about normal variation in the salivary microbiome. We analyzed 14,115 partial ( approximately 500 bp) 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences from saliva samples from 120 healthy individuals (10 individuals from each of 12 worldwide locations). These sequences could be assigned to 101 known bacterial genera, of which 39 were not previously reported from the human oral cavity; phylogenetic analysis suggests that an additional 64 unknown genera are present. There is high diversity in the salivary microbiome within and between individuals, but little geographic structure. Overall, approximately 13.5% of the total variance in the composition of genera is due to differences among individuals, which is remarkably similar to the fraction of the total variance in neutral genetic markers that can be attributed to differences among human populations. Investigation of some environmental variables revealed a significant association between the genetic distances among locations and the distance of each location from the equator. Further characterization of the enormous diversity revealed here in the human salivary microbiome will aid in elucidating the role it plays in human health and disease, and in the identification of potentially informative species for studies of human population history.

  2. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  3. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    PubMed

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  4. Does human pancreas contain salivary-type isoamylase?

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, J; Fridhandler, L; Berk, J E

    1975-01-01

    Amylase isoenzyme analysis was made of extracts of normal human pancreatic tissue by first conducting ion exchange chromatography of the purified material. This gave evidence of only pancreatic type (P-type) isoamylase for all purposes. However, when effluent fractions in which salivary type isoamylase would ordinarily be expected to be present were harvested, pooled, concentrated, and rechromatographed, the pancreatic extracts were found to contain some salivary type (S-type) isoamylase. The latter accounted for approximately 0-8 to 1-7% of the total recovered amylase activity. This finding of S-type isoamylase in normal human pancreas potentially has important bearing on the interpretation of isamylase analysis. PMID:1218813

  5. Human salivary microRNAs in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rapado-González, Óscar; Majem, Blanca; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; Álvarez-Castro, Ana; Santamaría, Anna; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; López-López, Rafael; Suárez-Cunqueiro, María Mercedes

    2018-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as excellent candidates for cancer biomarkers. Several recent studies have highlighted the potential use of saliva for the identification of miRNAs as novel biomarkers, which represents a great opportunity to improve diagnosis and monitor general health and disease. This review summarises the mechanisms of miRNAs deregulation in cancer, the value of targeting them with a therapeutic intention and the evidence of the potential clinical use of miRNAs expressed in saliva for the detection of different cancer types. We also provide a comprehensive review of the different methods for normalising the levels of specific miRNAs present in saliva, as this is a critical step in their analysis, and the challenge to validate salivary miRNAs as a reality to manage cancer patients. PMID:29556321

  6. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2018-02-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  7. Effects and Mechanisms of Tastants on the Gustatory-Salivary Reflex in Human Minor Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Noriaki; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Chiyo; Sasano, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    The effects and mechanisms of tastes on labial minor salivary gland (LMSG) secretion were investigated in 59 healthy individuals. Stimulation with each of the five basic tastes (i.e., sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami) onto the tongue induced LMSG secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Umami and sour tastes evoked greater secretion than did the other tastes. A synergistic effect of umami on LMSG secretion was recognized: a much greater increase in secretion was observed by a mixed solution of monosodium glutamate and inosine 5′-monophosphate than by each separate stimulation. Blood flow (BF) in the nearby labial mucosa also increased following stimulation by each taste except bitter. The BF change and LMSG secretion in each participant showed a significant positive correlation with all tastes, including bitter. Administration of cevimeline hydrochloride hydrate to the labial mucosa evoked a significant increase in both LMSG secretion and BF, while adrenaline, atropine, and pirenzepine decreased LMSG secretion and BF. The change in LMSG secretion and BF induced by each autonomic agent was significantly correlated in each participant. These results indicate that basic tastes can induce the gustatory-salivary reflex in human LMSGs and that parasympathetic regulation is involved in this mechanism. PMID:29651428

  8. Effects and Mechanisms of Tastants on the Gustatory-Salivary Reflex in Human Minor Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Shoji, Noriaki; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Chiyo; Sasano, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    The effects and mechanisms of tastes on labial minor salivary gland (LMSG) secretion were investigated in 59 healthy individuals. Stimulation with each of the five basic tastes (i.e., sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami) onto the tongue induced LMSG secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Umami and sour tastes evoked greater secretion than did the other tastes. A synergistic effect of umami on LMSG secretion was recognized: a much greater increase in secretion was observed by a mixed solution of monosodium glutamate and inosine 5'-monophosphate than by each separate stimulation. Blood flow (BF) in the nearby labial mucosa also increased following stimulation by each taste except bitter. The BF change and LMSG secretion in each participant showed a significant positive correlation with all tastes, including bitter. Administration of cevimeline hydrochloride hydrate to the labial mucosa evoked a significant increase in both LMSG secretion and BF, while adrenaline, atropine, and pirenzepine decreased LMSG secretion and BF. The change in LMSG secretion and BF induced by each autonomic agent was significantly correlated in each participant. These results indicate that basic tastes can induce the gustatory-salivary reflex in human LMSGs and that parasympathetic regulation is involved in this mechanism.

  9. Impact of a vegan diet on the human salivary microbiota.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tue H; Kern, Timo; Bak, Emilie G; Kashani, Alireza; Allin, Kristine H; Nielsen, Trine; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2018-04-11

    Little is known about the effect of long-term diet patterns on the composition and functional potential of the human salivary microbiota. In the present study, we sought to contribute to the ongoing elucidation of dietary effects on the oral microbial community by examining the diversity, composition and functional potential of the salivary microbiota in 160 healthy vegans and omnivores using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We further sought to identify bacterial taxa in saliva associated with host inflammatory markers. We show that compositional differences in the salivary microbiota of vegans and omnivores is present at all taxonomic levels below phylum level and includes upper respiratory tract commensals (e.g. Neisseria subflava, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Rothia mucilaginosa) and species associated with periodontal disease (e.g. Campylobacter rectus and Porphyromonas endodontalis). Dietary intake of medium chain fatty acids, piscine mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and dietary fibre was associated with bacterial diversity, community structure, as well as relative abundance of several species-level operational taxonomic units. Analysis of imputed genomic potential revealed several metabolic pathways differentially abundant in vegans and omnivores indicating possible effects of macro- and micro-nutrient intake. We also show that certain oral bacteria are associated with the systemic inflammatory state of the host.

  10. New procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes by mass spectrometry. Effect of salivary protein profile, tannin concentration, and time stability.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gregorio, Maria Rosa; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor

    2014-10-15

    Several factors could influence the tannin-protein interaction such as the human salivary protein profile, the tannin tested, and the tannin/protein ratio. The goal of this study aims to study the effect of different salivas (A, B, and C) and different tannin concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg/mL) on the interaction process as well as the complex's stability over time. This study is focused on the identification of new procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes. Thus, 48 major B3-human salivary protein aggregates were identified regardless of the saliva and tannin concentration tested. A higher number of aggregates was found at lower tannin concentration. Moreover, the number of protein moieties involved in the aggregation process was higher when the tannin concentration was also higher. The selectivity of the different groups of proteins to bind tannin was also confirmed. It was also verified that the B3-human salivary protein complexes formed evolved over time.

  11. Significant increase in salivary substance p level after a single oral dose of cevimeline in humans.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yosuke; Itoh, Hiroki; Amada, Kohei; Yamamura, Ryota; Sato, Yuhki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Cevimeline is a novel muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist currently being developed as a therapeutic agent for xerostomia. We examined the effects of cevimeline on salivary and plasma levels of substance-P- (SP-), calcitonin-gene-related-peptide- (CGRP-), and vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide- (VIP-) like immunoreactive substances (ISs) in humans. An open-labeled crossover study was conducted on seven healthy volunteers. Saliva volume was measured, and saliva and venous blood samples were collected before and 30-240 min after a single oral dose of cevimeline or placebo. Salivary and plasma levels of SP-, CGRP-, and VIP-IS were measured using a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay. A single oral dose of cevimeline resulted in significant increases in salivary but not plasma SP-IS level compared to placebo. Cevimeline administration did not alter the salivary or plasma levels of CGRP-IS or VIP-IS compared to placebo. Significant increases in salivary volume were observed after cevimeline administration compared to placebo. A significant correlation was observed between the total release of SP-IS and that of salivary volume. These findings suggest an association of SP with the enhancement of salivary secretion by cevimeline.

  12. Significant Increase in Salivary Substance P Level after a Single Oral Dose of Cevimeline in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yosuke; Itoh, Hiroki; Amada, Kohei; Yamamura, Ryota; Sato, Yuhki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Cevimeline is a novel muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist currently being developed as a therapeutic agent for xerostomia. We examined the effects of cevimeline on salivary and plasma levels of substance-P- (SP-), calcitonin-gene-related-peptide- (CGRP-), and vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide- (VIP-) like immunoreactive substances (ISs) in humans. An open-labeled crossover study was conducted on seven healthy volunteers. Saliva volume was measured, and saliva and venous blood samples were collected before and 30–240 min after a single oral dose of cevimeline or placebo. Salivary and plasma levels of SP-, CGRP-, and VIP-IS were measured using a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay. A single oral dose of cevimeline resulted in significant increases in salivary but not plasma SP-IS level compared to placebo. Cevimeline administration did not alter the salivary or plasma levels of CGRP-IS or VIP-IS compared to placebo. Significant increases in salivary volume were observed after cevimeline administration compared to placebo. A significant correlation was observed between the total release of SP-IS and that of salivary volume. These findings suggest an association of SP with the enhancement of salivary secretion by cevimeline. PMID:23589717

  13. Cancer Secretome May Influence BSP and DSP Expression in Human Salivary Gland Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Samantha Lynn; Ferando, Blake; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Yu, Jennifer Chian; Joy, Anita Rose

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in managing head and neck cancers, especially salivary gland cancers, is the identification of secreted biomarkers of the disease that can be evaluated noninvasively. A relevant source of enriched tumor markers could potentially be found in the tumor secretome. Although numerous studies have evaluated secretomes from various cancers, the influence of the cancer secretome derived from salivary gland cancers on the behavior of normal cells has not yet been elucidated. Our data indicate that secretome derived from salivary gland cancer cells can influence the expression of two potential biomarkers of oral cancer—namely, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP)—in normal salivary gland cells. Using routine immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting techniques, we demonstrate an enrichment of BSP and DSP in human salivary gland (HSG) cancer tissue, unique localizations of BSP and DSP in HSG cancer cells, and enriched expression of BSP and DSP in normal salivary gland cells exposed to a cancer secretome. The secretome domain of the cancer microenvironment could alter signaling cascades responsible for normal cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, thus enhancing cancer cell survival and the potential for cancer progression. The cancer secretome may be critical in maintaining and stimulating “cancer-ness,” thus potentially promoting specific hallmarks of metastasis. PMID:27881474

  14. Cancer Secretome May Influence BSP and DSP Expression in Human Salivary Gland Cells.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Samantha Lynn; Ferando, Blake; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Yu, Jennifer Chian; Joy, Anita Rose

    2017-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges in managing head and neck cancers, especially salivary gland cancers, is the identification of secreted biomarkers of the disease that can be evaluated noninvasively. A relevant source of enriched tumor markers could potentially be found in the tumor secretome. Although numerous studies have evaluated secretomes from various cancers, the influence of the cancer secretome derived from salivary gland cancers on the behavior of normal cells has not yet been elucidated. Our data indicate that secretome derived from salivary gland cancer cells can influence the expression of two potential biomarkers of oral cancer-namely, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP)-in normal salivary gland cells. Using routine immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting techniques, we demonstrate an enrichment of BSP and DSP in human salivary gland (HSG) cancer tissue, unique localizations of BSP and DSP in HSG cancer cells, and enriched expression of BSP and DSP in normal salivary gland cells exposed to a cancer secretome. The secretome domain of the cancer microenvironment could alter signaling cascades responsible for normal cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, thus enhancing cancer cell survival and the potential for cancer progression. The cancer secretome may be critical in maintaining and stimulating "cancer-ness," thus potentially promoting specific hallmarks of metastasis.

  15. Active secretion and protective effect of salivary nitrate against stress in human volunteers and rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Luyuan; Qin, Lizheng; Xia, Dengsheng; Liu, Xibao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Gu, Liankun; He, Junqi; Ambudkar, Indu S.; Deng, Dajun; Wang, Songlin

    2014-01-01

    Up to 25% of the circulating nitrate in blood is actively taken up, concentrated, and secreted into saliva by the salivary glands. Salivary nitrate can be reduced to nitrite by the commensal bacteria in the oral cavity or stomach and then further converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo, which may play a role in gastric protection. However, whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings has not yet been determined. This study was designed to determine whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings as an acute stress response and what role salivary nitrate plays in stress-induced gastric injury. To observe salivary nitrate function under stress conditions, alteration of salivary nitrate and nitrite was analyzed among 22 healthy volunteers before and after a strong stress activity, jumping down from a platform at the height of 68m. A series of stress indexes was analyzed to monitor the stress situation. We found that both the concentration and the total amount of nitrate in mixed saliva were significantly increased in the human volunteers immediately after the jump, with an additional increase 1 h later (p < 0.01). Saliva nitrite reached a maximum immediately after the jump and was maintained 1 h later. To study the biological functions of salivary nitrate and nitrite in stress protection, we further carried out a water-immersion-restraint stress (WIRS) assay in male adult rats with bilateral parotid and submandibular duct ligature (BPSDL). Intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO; gastric mucosal blood flow; and gastric ulcer index (UI) were monitored and nitrate was administrated in drinking water to compensate for nitrate secretion in BPSDL animals. Significantly decreased levels of intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO and gastricmucosal blood flow were measured in BPSDL rats during the WIRS assay compared to sham control rats (p < 0.05). Recovery was observed in the BPSDL rats upon nitrate administration. The WIRS-induced UI was

  16. Establishment of Functional Acinar-like Cultures from Human Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Jang, S.I.; Ong, H.L.; Gallo, A.; Liu, X.; Illei, G.

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers—namely, α-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of α-amylase secretion after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients. PMID:25416669

  17. Establishment of functional acinar-like cultures from human salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Jang, S I; Ong, H L; Gallo, A; Liu, X; Illei, G; Alevizos, I

    2015-02-01

    Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers-namely, α-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of α-amylase secretion after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  18. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in salivary gland diseases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank Cheau-Feng; Chen, Pei-Liang; Tsao, Tang-Yi; Li, Chia-Ru; Jeng, Kee-Ching; Tsai, Stella Chin-Shaw

    2014-10-01

    The roles of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in head and neck neoplasms have been well reported, but little is known about their relationship with salivary gland tumours. This study investigated the presence of HPV and EBV in salivary gland diseases. The presence of HPV 16/18 and EBV was analysed in archival pathological specimens collected from patients who had undergone surgery for salivary gland diseases. HPV 16/18 DNA was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and further confirmed with immunohistochemistry. EBV DNA was detected using real-time PCR. A total of 61 pathological specimens were examined: 39.5% (15/38) of pleomorphic adenomas, 33.3% (3/9) of Warthin's tumours, 33.3% (one of 3) of mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and 25.0% (one of 4) of benign lymphoepithelial lesions were positive for high-risk HPV 16/18. Only two Warthin's tumours were positive for EBV. The infectious nature of salivary gland neoplasms was revealed by the high prevalence of HPV infection, and the specific presence of EBV in Warthin's tumours, suggesting a potential role for HPV and EBV in salivary gland diseases. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Pregnancy related changes in human salivary secretion and composition in a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Lasisi, T J; Ugwuadu, P N

    2014-12-01

    A variety of physiological changes occurring during pregnancy has been shown to affect the oral health. Saliva is critical for preserving and maintaining the health of oral tissues and has been used as a source of non-invasive investigation of different conditions in human and animal studies. This study was designed to evaluate changes in secretion and composition of saliva in pregnant women in a Nigerian population. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using purposive sampling technique. Saliva samples were collected from 50 pregnant and age matched 50 non-pregnant women. Salivary flow rate, pH, total protein and concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate and bicarbonate were determined and compared using paired independent sample t test. Salivary pH,mean concentrations of potassium and bicarbonate were significantly reduced while mean concentrations of salivary sodium and phosphate were significantly elevated in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the salivary flow rate, concentrations of total protein and calcium. Salivary pH, bicarbonate and potassium concentrations were reduced while sodium and phosphate concentrations were elevated in pregnant women. These findings suggest that pregnant women may be predisposed to higher caries incidence.

  20. Multiple forms of statherin in human salivary secretions.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J L; Lamkin, M S; Troxler, R F; Oppenheim, F G

    1991-01-01

    Sequential chromatography of hydroxyapatite-adsorbed salivary proteins from submandibular/sublingual secretions on Sephadex G-50 and reversed-phase HPLC resulted in the purification of statherin and several statherin variants. Amino acid analysis, Edman degradation and carboxypeptidase digestion of the obtained protein fractions led to the determination of the complete primary structures of statherin SV1, statherin SV2, and statherin SV3. SV1 is identical to statherin but lacks the carboxyl-terminal phenylalanine residue. SV2, lacking residues 6-15, is otherwise identical to statherin. SV3 is identical to SV2 but lacks the carboxyl-terminal phenylalanine. These results provide the first evidence for multiple forms of statherin which are probably derived both by post-translational modification and alternative splicing of the statherin gene.

  1. External apical root resorption diagnosis by using FII human dentine fraction and salivary IGg.

    PubMed

    Da-Costa, Tânia Maris Pedrini Soares; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Consolaro, Alberto; Lima, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Tanaka, Evelise Ono; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa

    2018-06-01

    External apical root resorption as a consequence of orthodontic treatment is an inflammatory pathological process that results in permanent loss of tooth structure from the root apex. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic potential of human dentine fractions and salivary IgG in external apical root resorption. Saliva samples were collected from 10 patients before (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6) and 12 (T12) months of orthodontic treatment. The total dentinal extract, obtained from human third molars, was fractioned by gel filtration chromatography in three fractions denominated FI, FII and FIII. The root resorption analysis of the upper central incisors was performed by digital image subtraction method. Reactivity of salivary IgG to antigenic fractions of dentine was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa). Regardless of treatment, FI dentin fraction with high MM (<300kDa) was the one that presented highest reactivity with salivary IgG. However, it was found higher salivary IgG reactivity for FII (69 to 45 kilodalton [kDa]) as compared to FIII (<45kDa) at (T6) and (T12), (P<0.05), the same periods in that the root resorptions were detected. Our results suggest that FII human dentine fraction and salivary IgG have potential to be used in diagnosis and monitoring of external apical root resorption. The development of a practical and accessible biochemical test using saliva and FII dentine fraction may help in the prevention of severe root resorption. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Physical Properties of Human Whole Salivary Mucin:A Dynamic Light Scattering Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Manish; Kumar, Vijay; Saraswat, Mayank; Yadav, Savita; Shukla, N. K.; Singh, T. P.

    2008-04-01

    Human salivary mucin, a primary mucous membrane coating glycoprotein forms the first line of defense against adverse environments, attributed to the complex formation between mucin subunits and non mucin species. Aim of the study was to emphasize the effect of pH, denaturants (guanidinum hydrochloride, urea) and detergents (CHAPS, TRITON X -100, SDS on human whole salivary mucin. Hydrodynamic size distribution was measured using DLS. It was observed that aggregation was due to increase in hydrophobic interactions, believed to be accomplished by unfolding of the protein core. Whereas, the detergents which solubilize the proteins by decreasing hydrophobicity lead to disaggregation of mucin into smaller fragments. Mucin subjected to tobacco extract and upon subsequent addition of nicotine was found to have a disaggregating effect on it, suggesting nicotine may be one of the factors responsible for the disaggregating effect of tobacco on mucin, an important carcinogenetic mechanism.

  3. Computational prediction of human salivary proteins from blood circulation and application to diagnostic biomarker identification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxin; Liang, Yanchun; Wang, Yan; Cui, Juan; Liu, Ming; Du, Wei; Xu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Proteins can move from blood circulation into salivary glands through active transportation, passive diffusion or ultrafiltration, some of which are then released into saliva and hence can potentially serve as biomarkers for diseases if accurately identified. We present a novel computational method for predicting salivary proteins that come from circulation. The basis for the prediction is a set of physiochemical and sequence features we found to be discerning between human proteins known to be movable from circulation to saliva and proteins deemed to be not in saliva. A classifier was trained based on these features using a support-vector machine to predict protein secretion into saliva. The classifier achieved 88.56% average recall and 90.76% average precision in 10-fold cross-validation on the training data, indicating that the selected features are informative. Considering the possibility that our negative training data may not be highly reliable (i.e., proteins predicted to be not in saliva), we have also trained a ranking method, aiming to rank the known salivary proteins from circulation as the highest among the proteins in the general background, based on the same features. This prediction capability can be used to predict potential biomarker proteins for specific human diseases when coupled with the information of differentially expressed proteins in diseased versus healthy control tissues and a prediction capability for blood-secretory proteins. Using such integrated information, we predicted 31 candidate biomarker proteins in saliva for breast cancer.

  4. Computational Prediction of Human Salivary Proteins from Blood Circulation and Application to Diagnostic Biomarker Identification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaxin; Liang, Yanchun; Wang, Yan; Cui, Juan; Liu, Ming; Du, Wei; Xu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Proteins can move from blood circulation into salivary glands through active transportation, passive diffusion or ultrafiltration, some of which are then released into saliva and hence can potentially serve as biomarkers for diseases if accurately identified. We present a novel computational method for predicting salivary proteins that come from circulation. The basis for the prediction is a set of physiochemical and sequence features we found to be discerning between human proteins known to be movable from circulation to saliva and proteins deemed to be not in saliva. A classifier was trained based on these features using a support-vector machine to predict protein secretion into saliva. The classifier achieved 88.56% average recall and 90.76% average precision in 10-fold cross-validation on the training data, indicating that the selected features are informative. Considering the possibility that our negative training data may not be highly reliable (i.e., proteins predicted to be not in saliva), we have also trained a ranking method, aiming to rank the known salivary proteins from circulation as the highest among the proteins in the general background, based on the same features. This prediction capability can be used to predict potential biomarker proteins for specific human diseases when coupled with the information of differentially expressed proteins in diseased versus healthy control tissues and a prediction capability for blood-secretory proteins. Using such integrated information, we predicted 31 candidate biomarker proteins in saliva for breast cancer. PMID:24324552

  5. Circadian oscillations of microbial and functional composition in the human salivary microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Takayasu, Lena; Suda, Wataru; Takanashi, Kageyasu; Iioka, Erica; Kurokawa, Rina; Shindo, Chie; Hattori, Yasue; Yamashita, Naoko; Nishijima, Suguru; Oshima, Kenshiro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The human microbiomes across the body evidently interact with various signals in response to biogeographical physiological conditions. To understand such interactions in detail, we investigated how the salivary microbiome in the oral cavity would be regulated by host-related signals. Here, we show that the microbial abundance and gene participating in keeping the human salivary microbiome exhibit global circadian rhythm. Analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of salivary microbial samples of six healthy adults collected at 4-h intervals for three days revealed that the microbial genera accounting for 68.4–89.6% of the total abundance were observed to significantly oscillate with the periodicity of ∼24 h. These oscillation patterns showed high variations amongst individuals, and the extent of circadian variations in individuals was generally lower than that of interindividual variations. Of the microbial categories oscillated, those classified by aerobic/anaerobic growth and Gram staining, Firmicutes including Streptococcus and Gemella, and Bacteroidetes including Prevotella showed high association with the circadian oscillation. The circadian oscillation was completely abolished by incubating the saliva in vitro, suggesting that host’s physiological changes mostly contributed to the microbial oscillation. Further metagenomic analysis showed that circadian oscillation enriched the functions of environmental responses such as various transporters and two-component regulatory systems in the evening, and those of metabolisms such as the biosynthesis of vitamins and fatty acids in the morning. PMID:28338745

  6. Evidence of a robust resident bacteriophage population revealed through analysis of the human salivary virome

    PubMed Central

    Pride, David T; Salzman, Julia; Haynes, Matthew; Rohwer, Forest; Davis-Long, Clara; White, Richard A; Loomer, Peter; Armitage, Gary C; Relman, David A

    2012-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant known infectious agents on the planet and are significant drivers of diversity in a variety of ecosystems. Although there have been numerous studies of viral communities, few have focused on viruses within the indigenous human microbiota. We analyzed 2 267 695 virome reads from viral particles and compared them with 263 516 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the saliva of five healthy human subjects over a 2- to 3-month period, in order to improve our understanding of the role viruses have in the complex oral ecosystem. Our data reveal viral communities in human saliva dominated by bacteriophages whose constituents are temporally distinct. The preponderance of shared homologs between the salivary viral communities in two unrelated subjects in the same household suggests that environmental factors are determinants of community membership. When comparing salivary viromes to those from human stool and the respiratory tract, each group was distinct, further indicating that habitat is of substantial importance in shaping human viromes. Compared with coexisting bacteria, there was concordance among certain predicted host–virus pairings such as Veillonella and Streptococcus, whereas there was discordance among others such as Actinomyces. We identified 122 728 virulence factor homologs, suggesting that salivary viruses may serve as reservoirs for pathogenic gene function in the oral environment. That the vast majority of human oral viruses are bacteriophages whose putative gene function signifies some have a prominent role in lysogeny, suggests these viruses may have an important role in helping shape the microbial diversity in the human oral cavity. PMID:22158393

  7. Salivary histatins in human deep posterior lingual glands (of von Ebner).

    PubMed

    Piludu, Marco; Lantini, Maria Serenella; Cossu, Margherita; Piras, Monica; Oppenheim, Frank G; Helmerhorst, Eva J; Siqueira, Walter; Hand, Arthur R

    2006-11-01

    Human saliva contains a family of low molecular weight histidine-rich proteins, named histatins, characterised by bactericidal and fungicidal activities in vitro against several microbial pathogens, such as Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. They represent a major component of an innate host non-immune defense system. In an earlier study we described the distribution of histatins in the glandular parenchyma of human major salivary glands, confirming that all human major salivary glands are involved in the secretion of histatins into saliva. In the present study we determined the expression and localisation of histatins in human posterior deep lingual glands (von Ebner's glands) by means of immunoelectron microscopy. Thin sections of normal human salivary glands, embedded in Epon resin, were incubated with rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific for human histatins and successively with a gold conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG used as secondary antibody. Sections incubated with medium devoid of primary antibody or containing non-immune serum were used as controls. The serous secreting cells represented the main source of histatins in the glandular parenchyma of von Ebner's glands. At the electron microscopic level, labeling was associated with rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex and secretory granules that represented the main cytoplasmic site of histatin localisation. However, variability in the intensity of labeling was observed among adjacent cells. The present results show for the first time that human von Ebner's glands produce and represent a significant source of histatins, supporting the hypothesis of their important role in preventing microbial assaults on the tissues in the posterior region of the tongue and in the circumvallate papillae.

  8. Profiling of Human Acquired Immunity Against the Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus papatasi Reveals Clusters of Differential Immunoreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Geraci, Nicholas S.; Mukbel, Rami M.; Kemp, Michael T.; Wadsworth, Mariha N.; Lesho, Emil; Stayback, Gwen M.; Champion, Matthew M.; Bernard, Megan A.; Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo; Hanafi, Hanafi A.; Fawaz, Emadeldin Y.; El-Hossary, Shabaan S.; Wortmann, Glenn; Hoel, David F.; McDowell, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies are among the primary vectors of Leishmania major parasites from Morocco to the Indian subcontinent and from southern Europe to central and eastern Africa. Antibody-based immunity to sand fly salivary gland proteins in human populations remains a complex contextual problem that is not yet fully understood. We profiled the immunoreactivities of plasma antibodies to sand fly salivary gland sonicates (SGSs) from 229 human blood donors residing in different regions of sand fly endemicity throughout Jordan and Egypt as well as 69 US military personnel, who were differentially exposed to P. papatasi bites and L. major infections in Iraq. Compared with plasma from control region donors, antibodies were significantly immunoreactive to five salivary proteins (12, 26, 30, 38, and 44 kDa) among Jordanian and Egyptian donors, with immunoglobulin G4 being the dominant anti-SGS isotype. US personnel were significantly immunoreactive to only two salivary proteins (38 and 14 kDa). Using k-means clustering, donors were segregated into four clusters distinguished by unique immunoreactivity profiles to varying combinations of the significantly immunogenic salivary proteins. SGS-induced cellular proliferation was diminished among donors residing in sand fly-endemic regions. These data provide a clearer picture of human immune responses to sand fly vector salivary constituents. PMID:24615125

  9. Profound differences between humans and rodents in the ability to concentrate salivary nitrate: Implications for translational research.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Marcelo F; Sundqvist, Michaela L; Nihlén, Carina; Hezel, Michael; Carlström, Mattias; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O

    2016-12-01

    In humans dietary circulating nitrate accumulates rapidly in saliva through active transport in the salivary glands. By this mechanism resulting salivary nitrate concentrations are 10-20 times higher than in plasma. In the oral cavity nitrate is reduced by commensal bacteria to nitrite, which is subsequently swallowed and further metabolized to nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides in blood and tissues. This entero-salivary circulation of nitrate is central in the various NO-like effects observed after ingestion of inorganic nitrate. The very same system has also been the focus of toxicologists studying potential carcinogenic effects of nitrite-dependent nitrosamine formation. Whether active transport of nitrate and accumulation in saliva occurs also in rodents is not entirely clear. Here we measured salivary and plasma levels of nitrate and nitrite in humans, rats and mice after administration of a standardized dose of nitrate. After oral (humans) or intraperitoneal (rodents) sodium nitrate administration (0.1mmol/kg), plasma nitrate levels increased markedly reaching ~300µM in all three species. In humans ingestion of nitrate was followed by a rapid increase in salivary nitrate to >6000µM, ie 20 times higher than those found in plasma. In contrast, in rats and mice salivary nitrate concentrations never exceeded the levels in plasma. Nitrite levels in saliva and plasma followed a similar pattern, ie marked increases in humans but modest elevations in rodents. In mice there was also no accumulation of nitrate in the salivary glands as measured directly in whole glands obtained after acute administration of nitrate. This study suggests that in contrast to humans, rats and mice do not actively concentrate circulating nitrate in saliva. These apparent species differences should be taken into consideration when studying the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in rodents, when calculating doses, exploring physiological, therapeutic and toxicological

  10. Intralobular ducts of human major salivary glands contain leptin and its receptor.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, R; Puxeddu, R; Riva, A; Cinti, S

    2002-11-01

    Leptin, a 16-kDa hormone, plays an important role in the control of food intake and in energy homeostasis both in rodents and in man. Leptin is mainly produced and secreted by adipocytes, but other tissues and gastric glands have also recently been shown to produce it in a dual (endocrine and exocrine) mode. In addition, a leptin receptor has been detected in taste cells of mouse circumvallate papillae and in rat intestinal epithelium. These data prompted us to carry out a detailed study of human salivary glands as potential leptin-producing organs. Biopsies of salivary glands (submandibular and parotid) obtained from male and female patients during surgery for different clinical indications were subjected to immunohistochemical study for the presence of leptin, its functional receptor, insulin and glucagon. The presence and cellular distribution of glucocorticoid receptor in leptin-secreting cells were also investigated. Double immunohistochemical staining (silver-gold intensification and avidin-biotin-peroxidase) was used for the visualization of glucocorticoid receptor and leptin labelling, respectively. The results show that intralobular duct cells of submandibular and parotid glands are immunoreactive for leptin, leptin receptor and glucagon but not for insulin. Leptin was also detected in some microglobules in whole saliva obtained from four healthy volunteers. Co-localization for leptin, leptin receptor and glucocorticoid receptor in the same cell type suggested a functional relationship between glucocorticoid hormone and leptin secretion also at the level of the salivary glands.

  11. Copy number polymorphism of the salivary amylase gene: implications in human nutrition research.

    PubMed

    Santos, J L; Saus, E; Smalley, S V; Cataldo, L R; Alberti, G; Parada, J; Gratacòs, M; Estivill, X

    2012-01-01

    The salivary α-amylase is a calcium-binding enzyme that initiates starch digestion in the oral cavity. The α-amylase genes are located in a cluster on the chromosome that includes salivary amylase genes (AMY1), two pancreatic α-amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B) and a related pseudogene. The AMY1 genes show extensive copy number variation which is directly proportional to the salivary α-amylase content in saliva. The α-amylase amount in saliva is also influenced by other factors, such as hydration status, psychosocial stress level, and short-term dietary habits. It has been shown that the average copy number of AMY1 gene is higher in populations that evolved under high-starch diets versus low-starch diets, reflecting an intense positive selection imposed by diet on amylase copy number during evolution. In this context, a number of different aspects can be considered in evaluating the possible impact of copy number variation of the AMY1 gene on nutrition research, such as issues related to human diet gene evolution, action on starch digestion, effect on glycemic response after starch consumption, modulation of the action of α-amylases inhibitors, effect on taste perception and satiety, influence on psychosocial stress and relation to oral health. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Salivary pH and buffering capacity in early and late human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Mithra N; Malhotra, Amit; Hegde, Nidarsh D

    2013-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes severe immunosuppression due to progressive decrease in the CD4 T lymphocyte cells during the course of the disease and this affects all the body systems including glandular secretions. A number of lesions affecting the salivary glands have been noted in HIV infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the salivary pH and the buffering capacity in HIV positive individuals and comparing it with the HIV negative healthy individuals. The study was carried out on 200 HIV positive subjects aged 20-40 years, divided into two groups on the basis of CD4 count and 100 HIV negative healthy individuals as control group. Both unstimulated and stimulated saliva were collected and the pH and buffering capacity ascertained using the saliva check kit. (GC Asia Dental Pvt. Ltd., Singapore, 508724). All the three groups were compared using the ANOVA and it was found there was highly significant decrease in pH and buffering capacity with increase in immunosuppression. The intergroup comparison was carried out using the Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) and the Chi square test. Group 1; CD4 count <200 and Group 2, CD4 count >200 showed a significant decrease in unstimulated salivary flow, stimulated salivary flow, and pH in comparison to HIV negative individuals; however, change in buffering capacity in Group 2 was not significant. There is a decrease in pH and buffering capacity in HIV infected patients. This decrease may be one of the factors responsible for increased caries in HIV infected population.

  13. Persistent oral human papillomavirus infection is associated with smoking and elevated salivary immunoglobulin G concentration.

    PubMed

    Haukioja, Anna; Asunta, Maribel; Söderling, Eva; Syrjänen, Stina

    2014-09-01

    Prevalence and risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence in oral mucosa are largely unknown. Furthermore, the antiviral effects of saliva in the outcome of oral HPV infections are unexplored. To compare the levels of selected salivary defence proteins in women with a persistent oral HPV infection and in those without any signs of oral HPV. Lifestyle factors including the use of oral contraceptives, oral sex, smoking and alcohol drinking habits were also assessed. This nested case-control study of the Finnish Family HPV Study included 60 women with a persistent oral HPV infection and 117 women who remained HPV DNA negative throughout a 6-year follow-up. Whole saliva samples and oral scrapings for HPV testing were collected at the same visit. The oral HPV status was related to salivary concentrations of lactoferrin, lysozyme, IgA, IgG, total protein and sodium as well as to the use of oral contraceptives, oral sex, smoking and alcohol drinking habits. Women with a persistent oral HPV infection had higher salivary levels of IgG (p=0.007) and lysozyme (p=0.002, when adjusted to the total protein concentration), than those without an HPV infection. Lactoferrin and IgA concentrations were not related to the HPV-status. Smoking increased the risk of a persistent oral HPV infection (p=0.020), but the oral HPV status was not related to other life-style factors studied. Smoking is a risk factor for a persistent oral HPV infection. Oral HPV infection may be associated with increased concentrations of salivary IgG and lysozyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Copy number variation of human AMY1 is a minor contributor to variation in salivary amylase expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Danielle; Mitchell, Laura M; Armour, John A L

    2017-02-20

    Salivary amylase in humans is encoded by the copy variable gene AMY1 in the amylase gene cluster on chromosome 1. Although the role of salivary amylase is well established, the consequences of the copy number variation (CNV) at AMY1 on salivary amylase protein production are less well understood. The amylase gene cluster is highly structured with a fundamental difference between odd and even AMY1 copy number haplotypes. In this study, we aimed to explore, in samples from 119 unrelated individuals, not only the effects of AMY1 CNV on salivary amylase protein expression and amylase enzyme activity but also whether there is any evidence for underlying difference between the common haplotypes containing odd numbers of AMY1 and even copy number haplotypes. AMY1 copy number was significantly correlated with the variation observed in salivary amylase production (11.7% of variance, P < 0.0005) and enzyme activity (13.6% of variance, P < 0.0005) but did not explain the majority of observed variation between individuals. AMY1-odd and AMY1-even haplotypes showed a different relationship between copy number and expression levels, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.052). Production of salivary amylase is correlated with AMY1 CNV, but the majority of interindividual variation comes from other sources. Long-range haplotype structure may affect expression, but this was not significant in our data.

  15. Salivary mucoceles.

    PubMed

    Waldron, D R; Smith, M M

    1991-06-01

    The overall incidence of salivary gland disease in dogs and cats is low. Salivary mucocele is the most frequently diagnosed disease of salivary glands. Mucoceles consist of collections of saliva in subcutaneous, sublingual, pharyngeal, or periorbital locations. Definitive therapy of salivary mucoceles consists of excision of the affected salivary gland and mucocele drainage.

  16. Response of Fatty Acid Synthesis Genes to the Binding of Human Salivary Amylase by Streptococcus gordonii

    PubMed Central

    Nikitkova, Anna E.; Haase, Elaine M.; Vickerman, M. Margaret; Gill, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii, an important primary colonizer of dental plaque biofilm, specifically binds to salivary amylase via the surface-associated amylase-binding protein A (AbpA). We hypothesized that a function of amylase binding to S. gordonii may be to modulate the expression of chromosomal genes, which could influence bacterial survival and persistence in the oral cavity. Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis was performed to detect genes in S. gordonii strain CH1 that were differentially expressed in response to the binding of purified human salivary amylase versus exposure to purified heat-denatured amylase. Selected genes found to be differentially expressed were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Five genes from the fatty acid synthesis (FAS) cluster were highly (10- to 35-fold) upregulated in S. gordonii CH1 cells treated with native amylase relative to those treated with denatured amylase. An abpA-deficient strain of S. gordonii exposed to amylase failed to show a response in FAS gene expression similar to that observed in the parental strain. Predicted phenotypic effects of amylase binding to S. gordonii strain CH1 (associated with increased expression of FAS genes, leading to changes in fatty acid synthesis) were noted; these included increased bacterial growth, survival at low pH, and resistance to triclosan. These changes were not observed in the amylase-exposed abpA-deficient strain, suggesting a role for AbpA in the amylase-induced phenotype. These results provide evidence that the binding of salivary amylase elicits a differential gene response in S. gordonii, resulting in a phenotypic adjustment that is potentially advantageous for bacterial survival in the oral environment. PMID:22247133

  17. Salivary human beta defensins affected by oral Candida status in Chinese HIV/AIDS patients undergoing ART.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenmin; Yong, Xiangzhi; Jiang, Lanlan; Zhang, Linlin; Lin, Xuefang; Liu, Wei; Peng, Yuanyuan; Tao, Renchuan

    2018-03-02

    To observe relationships between oral Candida status and salivary human beta defensin-2 and -3 (hBD-2 and hBD-3) levels in HIV/AIDS patients of Guangxi, China during the first year of antiretroviral therapy (ART) dynamically, and to understand the influence of ART on oral Candida status and salivary hBDs expressions. A prospective self-controlled study was carried to observe the dynamic changes of CD4 + T cell counts, oral Candida carriages and salivary hBD-2,3 expressions in HIV/AIDS patients during the first year of ART. A total of 90 HIV/AIDS patients were enrolled, and were examined at the baseline, 3rd, 6th, 12th month of ART. Thirty healthy individuals were enrolled as control. Peripheral blood, oral rinse sample and unstimulated whole saliva were collected to test CD4 + T cell counts, oral Candida carriages and hBD-2,3 expressions. In the first year of ART, CD4 + T cell counts increased significantly. However, oral Candida carriages and oral candidiasis decreased significantly, and salivary hBD-2 expressions in HIV/AIDS patients decreased gradually, salivary hBD-3 levels were highly variable. Salivary hBD-2 concentrations were positively related to oral Candida carriages. The incidence of oral candidiasis among HIV/AIDS patients gradually decreased due to the immune reconstruction of ART. Salivary defensins might play an important role in Candida-host interaction in HIV/AIDS patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of membrane-associated mucins MUC1 and MUC4 in major human salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Lague, Jessica R; Nunes, David P; Toselli, Paul; Oppenheim, Frank G; Soares, Rodrigo V; Troxler, Robert F; Offner, Gwynneth D

    2002-06-01

    Mucins are high molecular weight glycoproteins secreted by salivary glands and epithelial cells lining the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. These glycoproteins, encoded in at least 13 distinct human genes, can be subdivided into gel-forming and membrane-associated forms. The gel-forming mucin MUC5B is secreted by mucous acinar cells in major and minor salivary glands, but little is known about the expression pattern of membrane-associated mucins. In this study, RT-PCR and Northern blotting demonstrated the presence of transcripts for MUC1 and MUC4 in both parotid and submandibular glands, and in situ hybridization localized these transcripts to epithelial cells lining striated and excretory ducts and in some serous acinar cells. The same cellular distribution was observed by immunohistochemistry. Soluble forms of both mucins were detected in parotid secretion after immunoprecipitation with mucin-specific antibodies. These studies have shown that membrane-associated mucins are produced in both parotid and submandibular glands and that they are expressed in different cell types than gel-forming mucins. Although the function of these mucins in the oral cavity remains to be elucidated, it is possible that they both contribute to the epithelial protective mucin layer and act as receptors initiating one or more intracellular signal transduction pathways.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intactmore » N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.« less

  20. Characterization of Human Salivary Extracellular RNA by Next-generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Karolina Elżbieta; Sun, Jie; Majem, Blanca; Lo, Hsien-Chun; Kim, Yong; Koyano, Kikuye; Liu Rao, Shannon; Young Kang, So; Mi Kim, Su; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kim, Sung; Chia, David; Elashoff, David; Grogan, Tristan R; Xiao, Xinshu; Wong, David T W

    2018-04-23

    It was recently discovered that abundant and stable extracellular RNA (exRNA) species exist in bodily fluids. Saliva is an emerging biofluid for biomarker development for noninvasive detection and screening of local and systemic diseases. Use of RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to profile exRNA is rapidly growing; however, no single preparation and analysis protocol can be used for all biofluids. Specifically, RNA-Seq of saliva is particularly challenging owing to high abundance of bacterial contents and low abundance of salivary exRNA. Given the laborious procedures needed for RNA-Seq library construction, sequencing, data storage, and data analysis, saliva-specific and optimized protocols are essential. We compared different RNA isolation methods and library construction kits for long and small RNA sequencing. The role of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) depletion also was evaluated. The miRNeasy Micro Kit (Qiagen) showed the highest total RNA yield (70.8 ng/mL cell-free saliva) and best small RNA recovery, and the NEBNext library preparation kits resulted in the highest number of detected human genes [5649-6813 at 1 reads per kilobase RNA per million mapped (RPKM)] and small RNAs [482-696 microRNAs (miRNAs) and 190-214 other small RNAs]. The proportion of human RNA-Seq reads was much higher in rRNA-depleted saliva samples (41%) than in samples without rRNA depletion (14%). In addition, the transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived RNA fragments (tRFs), a novel class of small RNAs, were highly abundant in human saliva, specifically tRF-4 (4%) and tRF-5 (15.25%). Our results may help in selection of the best adapted methods of RNA isolation and small and long RNA library constructions for salivary exRNA studies. © 2018 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  1. Updating the salivary gland transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi (Tunisian strain): the search for sand fly-secreted immunogenic proteins for humans.

    PubMed

    Abdeladhim, Maha; Jochim, Ryan C; Ben Ahmed, Melika; Zhioua, Elyes; Chelbi, Ifhem; Cherni, Saifedine; Louzir, Hechmi; Ribeiro, José M C; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2012-01-01

    Sand fly saliva plays an important role in both blood feeding and outcome of Leishmania infection. A cellular immune response against a Phlebotomus papatasi salivary protein was shown to protect rodents against Leishmania major infection. In humans, P. papatasi salivary proteins induce a systemic cellular immune response as well as a specific antisaliva humoral immune response, making these salivary proteins attractive targets as markers of exposure for this Leishmania vector. Surprisingly, the repertoire of salivary proteins reported for P. papatasi-a model sand fly for Leishmania-vector-host molecular interactions-is very limited compared with other sand fly species. We hypothesize that a more comprehensive study of the transcripts present in the salivary glands of P. papatasi will provide better knowledge of the repertoire of proteins of this important vector and will aid in selection of potential immunogenic proteins for humans and of those proteins that are highly conserved between different sand fly strains. A cDNA library from P. papatasi (Tunisian strain) salivary glands was constructed, and randomly selected transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. The most abundant transcripts encoding secreted proteins were identified and compared with previously reported sequences. Importantly, we identified salivary proteins not described before in this sand fly species. Comparative analysis between the salivary proteins of P. papatasi from Tunisia and Israel strains shows a high level of identity, suggesting these proteins as potential common targets for markers of vector exposure or inducers of cellular immune responses in humans for different geographic areas.

  2. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: EIT Imaging to Monitor Human Salivary Gland Functionality: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, K; Karvat, A; Liu, J

    Purpose: Clinically, there exists a need to develop a non-invasive technique for monitoring salivary activity. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a using the electrical conductivity information from Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to monitor salivary flow activity. Methods: To acquire EIT data, eight Ag/AgCl ECG electrodes were placed around the mandible of the subject. An EIT scan was obtained by injecting current at 50 KHz, 0.4 mA through each pair of electrodes and recording voltage across other electrode pairs. The functional conductivity image was obtained through reconstruction of the voltage data, using Electrical Impedance Tomography and Diffuse Opticalmore » Tomography Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) in Matlab. In using EIDORS, forward solution was obtained using a user-defined finite element model shape and inverse solution was obtained using one-step Gaussian solver. EIT scans of volunteer research team members were acquired for three different physiological states: pre-stimulation, stimulation and post-stimulation. For pre-stimulation phase, data were collected in intervals of 5 minutes for 15 minutes. The salivary glands were then stimulated in the subject using lemon and the data were collected immediately. Post-stimulation data were collected at 4 different timings after stimulation. Results: Variations were observed in the electrical conductivity patterns near parotid regions between the pre- and post-stimulation stages. The three images acquired during the 15 minute pre-stimulation phase showed no major changes in the conductivity. Immediately after stimulation, electrical conductivity increased near parotid regions and 15 minutes later slowly returned to pre-stimulation level. Conclusion: In the present study involving human subjects, the change in electrical conductivity pattern shown in the EIT images, acquired at different times with and without stimulation of salivary glands, appeared to be consistent with the change in

  3. Salivary bacterial fingerprints of established oral disease revealed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique

    PubMed Central

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Paster, Bruce J.; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Bardow, Allan; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective The composition of the salivary microbiota, as determined using various molecular methods, has been reported to differentiate oral health from diseases. Thus, the purpose of this study was to utilize the newly developed molecular technique HOMINGS (Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing) for comparison of the salivary microbiota in patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that this method could add on to the existing knowledge on salivary bacterial profiles in oral health and disease. Design Stimulated saliva samples (n=30) were collected from 10 patients with untreated periodontitis, 10 patients with untreated dental caries, and 10 orally healthy individuals. Salivary microbiota was analyzed using HOMINGS and statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis test with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction. Results From a total of 30 saliva samples, a mean number of probe targets of 205 (range 120–353) were identified, and a statistically significant higher mean number of targets was registered in samples from patients with periodontitis (mean 220, range 143–306) and dental caries (mean 221, range 165–353) as compared to orally healthy individuals (mean 174, range 120–260) (p=0.04 and p=0.04). Nine probe targets were identified with a different relative abundance between groups (p<0.05). Conclusions Cross-sectional comparison of salivary bacterial profiles by means of HOMINGS analysis showed that different salivary bacterial profiles were associated with oral health and disease. Future large-scale prospective studies are needed to evaluate if saliva-based screening for disease-associated oral bacterial profiles may be used for identification of patients at risk of acquiring periodontitis and dental caries. PMID:26782357

  4. Contribution of Human Oral Cells to Astringency by Binding Salivary Protein/Tannin Complexes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Susana; Ferrer-Galego, Raúl; Brandão, Elsa; Silva, Mafalda; Mateus, Nuno; Freitas, Victor de

    2016-10-10

    The most widely accepted mechanism to explain astringency is the interaction and precipitation of salivary proteins by food tannins, in particular proline-rich proteins. However, other mechanisms have been arising to explain astringency, such as binding of tannins to oral cells. In this work, an experimental method was adapted to study the possible contribution of both salivary proteins and oral cells to astringency induced by grape seed procyanidin fractions. Overall, in the absence of salivary proteins, the extent of procyanidin complexation with oral cells increased with increasing procyanidin degree of polymerization (mDP). Procyanidin fractions rich in monomers were the ones with the lowest ability to bind to oral cells. In the presence of salivary proteins and for procyanidins with mDP 2 the highest concentrations (1.5 and 2.0 mM) resulted in an increased binding of procyanidins to oral cells. This was even more evident for fractions III and IV at 1.0 mM and upper concentrations. Regarding the salivary proteins affected, it was possible to observe a decrease of P-B peptide and aPRP proteins for fractions II and III. This decrease is greater as the procyanidins' mDP increases. In fact, for fraction IV an almost total depletion of all salivary proteins was observed. This decrease is due to the formation of insoluble salivary protein/procyanidin complexes. Altogether, these data suggest that some procyanidins are able to bind to oral cells and that the salivary proteins interact with procyanidins forming salivary protein/procyanidin complexes that are also able to link to oral cells. The procyanidins that remain unbound to oral cells are able to bind to salivary proteins forming a large network of salivary protein/procyanidin complexes. Overall, the results presented herein provide one more step to understand food oral astringency onset.

  5. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  6. Effect of acute dietary standardization on the urinary, plasma, and salivary metabolomic profiles of healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Marianne C; Brennan, Lorraine; Malthouse, J Paul G; Roche, Helen M; Gibney, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    Metabolomics in human nutrition research is faced with the challenge that changes in metabolic profiles resulting from diet may be difficult to differentiate from normal physiologic variation. We assessed the extent of intra- and interindividual variation in normal human metabolic profiles and investigated the effect of standardizing diet on reducing variation. Urine, plasma, and saliva were collected from 30 healthy volunteers (23 females, 7 males) on 4 separate mornings. For visits 1 and 2, free food choice was permitted on the day before biofluid collection. Food choice on the day before visit 3 was intended to mimic that for visit 2, and all foods were standardized on the day before visit 4. Samples were analyzed by using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy followed by multivariate data analysis. Intra- and interindividual variations were considerable for each biofluid. Visual inspection of the principal components analysis scores plots indicated a reduction in interindividual variation in urine, but not in plasma or saliva, after the standard diet. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis indicated time-dependent changes in urinary and salivary samples, mainly resulting from creatinine in urine and acetate in saliva. The predictive power of each model to classify the samples as either night or morning was 85% for urine and 75% for saliva. Urine represented a sensitive metabolic profile that reflected acute dietary intake, whereas plasma and saliva did not. Future metabolomics studies should consider recent dietary intake and time of sample collection as a means of reducing normal physiologic variation.

  7. Slug silencing inhibited perineural invasion through regulation of EMMPRIN expression in human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Baolei; Wei, Jianhua; Hu, Zhiqiang; Shan, Chun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Chenping; Yang, Xi; Yang, Xinjie; Lei, Delin

    2016-02-01

    Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is the most frequent salivary gland malignancy with a unique characteristic that has been named perineural invasion (PNI). EMMPRIN is a transmembrane glycoprotein that has been demonstrated to promote PNI in SACC. Slug, one of the most effective promoters of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), has been found to be associated with PNI in SACC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles and relationships of Slug, EMMPRIN, and E-cadherin in the PNI process of SACC. The expression levels of Slug, EMMPRIN, and E-cadherin in 115 primary SACC cases were statistically analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Simultaneously, the SACC cell line SACC-83 was transfected with recombinant plasmids of silencing Slug (si-Slug) and/or silencing EMMPRIN (si-EMMPRIN). The functions of Slug and EMMPRIN in the EMT and PNI process were assessed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), western blotting, morphological observation, scratch test, migration assay, and in vitro perineural invasion assay. The immunohistochemical statistics revealed that the high expression of Slug and EMMPRIN and the low expression of E-cadherin were significantly associated with the PNI of SACC (P < 0.05). Slug expression was significantly associated with EMMPRIN expression (P < 0.05), and Slug expression and EMMPRIN expression were both significantly negatively associated with E-cadherin expression (P < 0.05). Slug and EMMPRIN silencing both significantly inhibited EMMPRIN expression but promoted E-cadherin expression in SACC-83 cells (P < 0.01). The series of in vitro assays revealed that silencing of Slug, EMMPRIN, or both induced cell morphology changes and inhibited tumor cell motility and PNI ability in SACC-83 cells (P < 0.01). These results suggested that Slug silencing could inhibit the EMT process by downregulating EMMPRIN and then upregulating E-cadherin in the PNI process of SACC. The present study indicated that Slug

  8. Effect of salivary agglutination on oral streptococcal clearance by human polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Itzek, Andreas; Chen, Zhiyun; Merritt, Justin; Kreth, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Salivary agglutination is an important host defense mechanism to aggregate oral commensal bacteria as well as invading pathogens. Saliva flow and subsequent swallowing more easily clear aggregated bacteria compared to single cells. Phagocytic clearance of bacteria through polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes also seems to increase to a certain extent with the size of bacterial aggregates. To determine a connection between salivary agglutination and the host innate immune response by phagocytosis, an in vitro agglutination assay was developed reproducing the average size of salivary bacterial aggregates. Using the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii as a model organism, the effect of salivary agglutination to the phagocytic clearance through polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes was investigated. Here we describe that salivary aggregates of S. gordonii are readily cleared through phagocytosis, while single bacterial cells showed a significant delay in being phagocytosed and killed. Furthermore, prior to phagocytosis the polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes were able to induce a specific de-aggregation, which was dependent on serine protease activity. The herein presented data suggest that salivary agglutination of bacterial cells leads to an ideal size for recognition by polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes. As a first line of defense, these phagocytic cells are able to recognize the aggregates and de-aggregate them via serine proteases to a more manageable size for efficient phagocytosis and subsequent killing in the phagolysosome. This observed mechanism not only prevents the rapid spreading of oral bacterial cells while entering the bloodstream but would also avoid degranulation of involved polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes thus preventing collateral damage to nearby tissue. PMID:27194631

  9. HPLC method for measurement of human salivary α-amylase inhibition by aqueous plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Takács, István; Takács, Ákos; Pósa, Anikó; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi

    2017-06-01

    Control of hyperglycemia is an important treatment in metabolic disorders such as type II diabetes and obesity. α-Amylase, as the first enzyme of glucose release from dietary polysaccharides, is a potential target to identify new sources of novel anti-obesity and anti-diabetic drugs. In this work, different herbal extracts as α-amylase inhibitors were studied by measuring the rate of the cleavage of a maltooligomer substrate 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-β-D-maltoheptoside. Measurement of chromophore containing products after reversed phase HPLC separation was used for α-amylase activity measurement. Rates of hydrolysis catalysed by human salivary α-amylase were determined in the presence and absence of lyophilised water extracts of eleven herbs. Remarkable bioactivities were found for extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (bark), Camellia sinensis L. (leaf), Ribes nigrum L. (leaf), Laurus nobilis L. (leaf), Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton (fruit) and Syzygium aromaticum L. (bud). Determined IC 50 values were in 0.017-41 μg/ml range for these six selected plant extracts. Our results confirm the applicability of this HPLC-based method for the quick and reliable comparison of plants as α-amylase inhibitors.

  10. Expression analysis of human salivary glands by laser microdissection: differences between submandibular and labial glands.

    PubMed

    Kouznetsova, Irina; Gerlach, Klaus L; Zahl, Christian; Hoffmann, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Both the major and minor salivary glands are the sources of saliva, a fluid vital for the maintenance of a healthy oral cavity. Here, the expression profiles of human submandibular (SMG) and labial glands (LG) were compared by RT-PCR analysis of laser microdissected mucous and serous cells, respectively. The focus was on trefoil factor family (TFF) genes, but also other genes encoding secretory proteins (mucins, lysozyme, amylase, statherin, and histatins) or aquaporin 5 were included. Immunofluorescence studies concerning TFF1-3, FCGBP, amylase, and lysozyme are also presented. It was shown that LGs clearly contain serous cells and that these cells differ in their expression profiles from serous SMG cells. Furthermore, all three TFF peptides, together with MUC5B, MUC7, MUC19, and FCGBP, were clearly detectable in mucous acini of both LGs and SMGs. In contrast, lysozyme was differentially expressed in LGs and SMGs. It can be expected that labial saliva may play a particularly important role for protecting the teeth. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. ZnO nanoparticles and their acarbose-capped nanohybrids as inhibitors for human salivary amylase.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Firdoz; Kumar, Anil

    2017-04-01

    The authors report a controlled synthesis of biocompatible ZnO and acarbose-capped nanohybrids, and examined the inhibition activities of these nanosystems with human salivary α -amylase (HSA) activity. XRD measurements reveal ZnO present in wurtzite phase with hexagonal structure. The average size of ZnO particles for the two studied nanosystems was estimated to lie between 10 to 12 nm using Scherrer equation. These particles depict the onset of absorption at about 320 nm and the band-gap emission at about 370 nm, which are fairly blue shifted as compared with the bulk ZnO and have been understood due to the size quantisation effect. The inhibitory action of thioglycerol capped ZnO nanoparticles (SP1) and acarbose drug (used for diabetes type II) capped ZnO (SP2) for HSA was observed to 61 and72%, respectively. The inhibition activity of the SP1 alone was found to be very similar to that of acarbose and the coating of these particles with drug (SP2) demonstrated an enhancement in inhibition activity of the enzyme by about 30%. From the inhibition studies, it is confirmed that these nanosystems showed better inhibition activity at physiological temperature and pH. These nanosystems are projected to have potential applications in diabetes type II control.

  12. The effect on human salivary fluoride concentration of consuming fluoridated salt-containing baked food items.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, L M; Stephen, K W

    2001-10-01

    Salt fluoridation is recognised world-wide as a proven and viable alternative means of consumer choice-related, community-based fluoridation where water fluoridation is either technically or politically impossible. However, as most salt consumed is contained within cooked food products, rather than sprinkled over prepared food at the table, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on salivary fluoride concentration of consuming baked food products prepared with 250 and 350 ppm fluoridated salt (as KF). Six food items were baked with (a) normal non-fluoridated salt, (b) 250 mg F/kg salt and (c) 350 mg F/kg salt. Eleven adult volunteers consumed these foodstuffs on separate occasions and salivary samples were collected for fluoride analyses before and at various time points (1-30 min) after eating. For most foodstuffs, small but significant increases in salivary fluoride concentration occurred for at least 5 min after ingestion of the fluoridated salt-containing items. Salivary fluoride concentrations peaked 1 or 2 min after eating, with highest values for the six test foods ranging from 0.16 to 0.25 ppm F, and from 0.18 to 0.44 ppm F for the 250 and 350 mg F/kg salt products, respectively. In all cases, salivary fluoride concentrations had returned to baseline by 20 min. The clinical significance of such small, short-term increases in salivary fluoride is uncertain, but the findings suggest that a more frequent intake of foods with fluoridated salt substituted for normal salt could help sustain slightly elevated salivary fluoride concentrations for more prolonged periods of the day, and might thus potentiate the cariostatic effects of saliva on tooth mineral.

  13. Oral Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum binds to human salivary α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Zulfiqar, M; Yamaguchi, T; Sato, S; Oho, T

    2013-12-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum acts as an intermediate between early and late colonizers in the oral cavity. In this study, we showed that F. nucleatum subsp. polymorphum can bind to a salivary component with a molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa and identified the protein and another major factor of 55 kDa, as salivary α-amylase by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and immuno-reactions. Salivary α-amylase is present in both monomeric and dimeric forms and we found that formation of the dimer depends on copper ions. The F. nucleatum adhered to both monomeric and dimeric salivary α-amylases, but the numbers of bacteria bound to the dimeric form were more than those bound to the monomeric form. The degree of adherence of F. nucleatum to four α-amylases from different sources was almost the same, however its binding to β-amylase was considerably decreased. Among four α-amylase inhibitors tested, acarbose and type 1 and 3 inhibitors derived from wheat flour showed significant activity against the adhesion of F.nucleatum to monomeric and dimeric amylases, however voglibose had little effect. Moreover F. nucleatum cells inhibited the enzymatic activity of salivary α-amylase in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that F. nucleatum plays more important and positive role as an early colonizer for maturation of oral microbial colonization. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Updating the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi (Tunisian Strain): The Search for Sand Fly-Secreted Immunogenic Proteins for Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ahmed, Melika; Zhioua, Elyes; Chelbi, Ifhem; Cherni, Saifedine; Louzir, Hechmi; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sand fly saliva plays an important role in both blood feeding and outcome of Leishmania infection. A cellular immune response against a Phlebotomus papatasi salivary protein was shown to protect rodents against Leishmania major infection. In humans, P. papatasi salivary proteins induce a systemic cellular immune response as well as a specific antisaliva humoral immune response, making these salivary proteins attractive targets as markers of exposure for this Leishmania vector. Surprisingly, the repertoire of salivary proteins reported for P. papatasi–a model sand fly for Leishmania-vector-host molecular interactions–is very limited compared with other sand fly species. We hypothesize that a more comprehensive study of the transcripts present in the salivary glands of P. papatasi will provide better knowledge of the repertoire of proteins of this important vector and will aid in selection of potential immunogenic proteins for humans and of those proteins that are highly conserved between different sand fly strains. Methods and Findings A cDNA library from P. papatasi (Tunisian strain) salivary glands was constructed, and randomly selected transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. The most abundant transcripts encoding secreted proteins were identified and compared with previously reported sequences. Importantly, we identified salivary proteins not described before in this sand fly species. Conclusions Comparative analysis between the salivary proteins of P. papatasi from Tunisia and Israel strains shows a high level of identity, suggesting these proteins as potential common targets for markers of vector exposure or inducers of cellular immune responses in humans for different geographic areas. PMID:23139741

  15. Effect of salivary agglutination on oral streptococcal clearance by human polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Itzek, A; Chen, Z; Merritt, J; Kreth, J

    2017-06-01

    Salivary agglutination is an important host defense mechanism to aggregate oral commensal bacteria as well as invading pathogens. Saliva flow and subsequent swallowing more easily clear aggregated bacteria compared with single cells. Phagocytic clearance of bacteria through polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes also seems to increase to a certain extent with the size of bacterial aggregates. To determine a connection between salivary agglutination and the host innate immune response by phagocytosis, an in vitro agglutination assay was developed reproducing the average size of salivary bacterial aggregates. Using the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii as a model organism, the effect of salivary agglutination on phagocytic clearance through polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes was investigated. Here we describe how salivary aggregates of S. gordonii are readily cleared through phagocytosis, whereas single bacterial cells showed a significant delay in being phagocytosed and killed. Furthermore, before phagocytosis the polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes were able to induce a specific de-aggregation, which was dependent on serine protease activity. The data presented suggest that salivary agglutination of bacterial cells leads to an ideal size for recognition by polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes. As a first line of defense, these phagocytic cells are able to recognize the aggregates and de-aggregate them via serine proteases to a more manageable size for efficient phagocytosis and subsequent killing in the phagolysosome. This observed mechanism not only prevents the rapid spreading of oral bacterial cells while entering the bloodstream but would also avoid degranulation of involved polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes, so preventing collateral damage to nearby tissue. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Human Salivary Protein Histatin 5 Has Potent Bactericidal Activity against ESKAPE Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Du, Han; Puri, Sumant; McCall, Andrew; Norris, Hannah L.; Russo, Thomas; Edgerton, Mira

    2017-01-01

    ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens have characteristic multiple-drug resistance and cause an increasing number of nosocomial infections worldwide. Peptide-based therapeutics to treat ESKAPE infections might be an alternative to conventional antibiotics. Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary cationic histidine-rich peptide produced only in humans and higher primates. It has high antifungal activity against Candida albicans through an energy-dependent, non-lytic process; but its bactericidal effects are less known. We found Hst 5 has bactericidal activity against S. aureus (60–70% killing) and A. baumannii (85–90% killing) in 10 and 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer (NaPB), while killing of >99% of P. aeruginosa, 60–80% E. cloacae and 20–60% of E. faecium was found in 10 mM NaPB. Hst 5 killed 60% of biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa, but had reduced activity against biofilms of S. aureus and A. baumannii. Hst 5 killed 20% of K. pneumonia biofilm cells but not planktonic cells. Binding and uptake studies using FITC-labeled Hst 5 showed E. faecium and E. cloacae killing required Hst 5 internalization and was energy dependent, while bactericidal activity was rapid against P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii suggesting membrane disruption. Hst 5-mediated killing of S. aureus was both non-lytic and energy independent. Additionally, we found that spermidine conjugated Hst 5 (Hst5-Spd) had improved killing activity against E. faecium, E. cloacae, and A. baumannii. Hst 5 or its derivative has antibacterial activity against five out of six ESKAPE pathogens and may be an alternative treatment for these infections. PMID:28261570

  17. Human Salivary Protein Histatin 5 Has Potent Bactericidal Activity against ESKAPE Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Du, Han; Puri, Sumant; McCall, Andrew; Norris, Hannah L; Russo, Thomas; Edgerton, Mira

    2017-01-01

    ESKAPE ( Enterococcus faecium , Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Acinetobacter baumanni , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterobacter species) pathogens have characteristic multiple-drug resistance and cause an increasing number of nosocomial infections worldwide. Peptide-based therapeutics to treat ESKAPE infections might be an alternative to conventional antibiotics. Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary cationic histidine-rich peptide produced only in humans and higher primates. It has high antifungal activity against Candida albicans through an energy-dependent, non-lytic process; but its bactericidal effects are less known. We found Hst 5 has bactericidal activity against S. aureus (60-70% killing) and A. baumannii (85-90% killing) in 10 and 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer (NaPB), while killing of >99% of P. aeruginosa , 60-80% E. cloacae and 20-60% of E. faecium was found in 10 mM NaPB. Hst 5 killed 60% of biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa , but had reduced activity against biofilms of S. aureus and A. baumannii . Hst 5 killed 20% of K. pneumonia biofilm cells but not planktonic cells. Binding and uptake studies using FITC-labeled Hst 5 showed E. faecium and E. cloacae killing required Hst 5 internalization and was energy dependent, while bactericidal activity was rapid against P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii suggesting membrane disruption. Hst 5-mediated killing of S. aureus was both non-lytic and energy independent. Additionally, we found that spermidine conjugated Hst 5 (Hst5-Spd) had improved killing activity against E. faecium, E. cloacae , and A. baumannii . Hst 5 or its derivative has antibacterial activity against five out of six ESKAPE pathogens and may be an alternative treatment for these infections.

  18. Suppression of white light generation (supercontinuum) in biological media: a pilot study using human salivary proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Alti, K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Mathur, D.

    2007-02-01

    Propagation of ultrashort pulses of intense, infrared light through transparent medium gives rise to a visually spectacular phenomenon known as supercontinuum (white light) generation wherein the spectrum of transmitted light is very considerably broader than that of the incident light. We have studied the propagation of ultrafast (<45 fs) pulses of intense infrared light through biological media (water, and water doped with salivary proteins) which reveal that white light generation is severely suppressed in the presence of a major salivary protein, α-amylase.

  19. Comparisons of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and viromes in human saliva reveal bacterial adaptations to salivary viruses.

    PubMed

    Pride, David T; Salzman, Julia; Relman, David A

    2012-09-01

    Explorations of human microbiota have provided substantial insight into microbial community composition; however, little is known about interactions between various microbial components in human ecosystems. In response to the powerful impact of viral predation, bacteria have acquired potent defences, including an adaptive immune response based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)/Cas system. To improve our understanding of the interactions between bacteria and their viruses in humans, we analysed 13 977 streptococcal CRISPR sequences and compared them with 2 588 172 virome reads in the saliva of four human subjects over 17 months. We found a diverse array of viruses and CRISPR spacers, many of which were specific to each subject and time point. There were numerous viral sequences matching CRISPR spacers; these matches were highly specific for salivary viruses. We determined that spacers and viruses coexist at the same time, which suggests that streptococcal CRISPR/Cas systems are under constant pressure from salivary viruses. CRISPRs in some subjects were just as likely to match viral sequences from other subjects as they were to match viruses from the same subject. Because interactions between bacteria and viruses help to determine the structure of bacterial communities, CRISPR-virus analyses are likely to provide insight into the forces shaping the human microbiome. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Salivary lipids: A review.

    PubMed

    Matczuk, Jan; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Saliva is produced by both large and small salivary glands and may be considered one of the most important factors influencing the behavior of oral cavity homeostasis. Secretion of saliva plays an important role in numerous significant biological processes. Saliva facilitates chewing and bolus formation as well as performs protective functions and determines the buffering and antibacterial prosperities of the oral environment. Salivary lipids appear to be a very important component of saliva, as their qualitative and quantitative composition can be changed in various pathological states and human diseases. It has been shown that disturbances in salivary lipid homeostasis are involved in periodontal diseases as well as various systemic disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, diabetes and Sjögren's syndrome). However, little is known about the role and composition of salivary lipids and their interaction with other important ingredients of human saliva, including proteins, glycoproteins and salivary mucins. The purpose of this review paper is to present the latest knowledge on salivary lipids in healthy conditions and in oral and systemic diseases.

  1. Salivary and Urinary Total Antioxidant Capacity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) is a biomarker often used in order to investigate oxidative stress in many pathological conditions. Saliva and urine can be collected noninvasively and represent attractive diagnostic fluids for detecting biomarkers of various pathological conditions. The reviewed case-control and intervention studies that measured salivary or urinary TAC revealed that diseases, antioxidant foods, or supplements and age, gender, and lifestyle factors influenced salivary or urinary TAC. Salivary and urinary TAC were particularly affected by oral or renal status, respectively, as well as by infection; therefore these factors must be taken into account in both case-control and intervention studies. Furthermore, some considerations on sample collection and normalization strategies could be made. In particular, unstimulated saliva could be the better approach to measure salivary TAC, whereas 24 h or spontaneous urine collection should be chosen on the basis of the study outcome and of the creatinine clearance. Finally, the uric acid-independent TAC could be the better approach to evaluate red-ox status of body, in particular after nutritional interventions and in diseases associated with hyperuricaemia. PMID:26966611

  2. Human Common Salivary Protein 1 (CSP-1) Promotes Binding of Streptococcus mutans to Experimental Salivary Pellicle and Glucans Formed on Hydroxyapatite Surface

    PubMed Central

    Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Hagen, Fred K.; Delahunty, Claire M.; Han, Xuemei; Shafi, Rubina; Hryhorenko, Jennifer; Gregoire, Stacy; Marquis, Robert E.; Melvin, James E.; Koo, Hyun; Yates, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The saliva proteome includes host defense factors and specific bacterial-binding proteins that modulate microbial growth and colonization of tooth surface in the oral cavity. A multidimensional mass spectrometry approach identified the major host-derived salivary proteins which interacted with Streptococcus mutans (strain UA159), the primary microorganism associated with the pathogenesis of dental caries. Two abundant host proteins were found to tightly bind to S. mutans cells, common salivary protein-1 (CSP-1) and deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1, also known as salivary agglutinin or gp340). In contrast to gp340, limited functional information is available on CSP-1. The sequence of CSP-1 shares 38.1% similarity with rat CSP-1. Recombinant CSP-1 (rCSP-1) protein did not cause aggregation of S. mutans cells and was devoid of any significant biocidal activity (2.5 to 10 μg/ml). However, S. mutans cells exposed to rCSP-1 (10 μg/ml) in saliva displayed enhanced adherence to experimental salivary pellicle and to glucans in the pellicle formed on hydroxyapatite surfaces. Thus, our data demonstrate that the host salivary protein CSP-1 binds to S. mutans cells and may influence the initial colonization of this pathogenic bacterium onto tooth surface. PMID:20858015

  3. Inactivation of Human Salivary Glutathione Transferase P1-1 by Hypothiocyanite: A Post-Translational Control System in Search of a Role

    PubMed Central

    Camerini, Serena; Fusetti, Marco; Ottaviani, Fabrizio; Passali, Francesco M.; Topazio, Davide; Iavarone, Federica; Francia, Irene; Castagnola, Massimo; Ricci, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a superfamily of detoxifying enzymes over-expressed in tumor tissues and tentatively proposed as biomarkers for localizing and monitoring injury of specific tissues. Only scarce and contradictory reports exist about the presence and the level of these enzymes in human saliva. This study shows that GSTP1-1 is the most abundant salivary GST isoenzyme, mainly coming from salivary glands. Surprisingly, its activity is completely obscured by the presence of a strong oxidizing agent in saliva that causes a fast and complete, but reversible, inactivation. Although salivary α-defensins are also able to inhibit the enzyme causing a peculiar half-site inactivation, a number of approaches (mass spectrometry, site directed mutagenesis, chromatographic and spectrophotometric data) indicated that hypothiocyanite is the main salivary inhibitor of GSTP1-1. Cys47 and Cys101, the most reactive sulfhydryls of GSTP1-1, are mainly involved in a redox interaction which leads to the formation of an intra-chain disulfide bridge. A reactivation procedure has been optimized and used to quantify GSTP1-1 in saliva of 30 healthy subjects with results of 42±4 mU/mg-protein. The present study represents a first indication that salivary GSTP1-1 may have a different and hitherto unknown function. In addition it fulfills the basis for future investigations finalized to check the salivary GSTP1-1 as a diagnostic biomarker for diseases. PMID:25393952

  4. Phosphoglycerate kinase and fructose bisphosphate aldolase of Candida albicans as new antigens recognized by human salivary IgA.

    PubMed

    Calcedo, Roberto; Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Abad, Ana; Rementeria, Aitor; Pontón, José; Hernando, Fernando Luis

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus commonly present in the human oral cavity that causes infections in immunocompromised patients. The antigen variability, influenced by growth conditions, is a pathogenicity factor. To determine the effect of nutritional and heat stress on the antigen expression of C. albicans, and to identify major antigens recognized by human salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Under various different nutritional conditions, heat shock was induced in C. albicans cells in stationary and exponential growth phases. The expression of protein determinants of C. albicans was assessed by Western blot analysis against human saliva. The antigens were purified and characterized by two-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by protein microsequencing. Five antigens recognized by salivary IgA were characterized as mannoproteins due to their reactivity with concanavalin A. They did not show reactivity with anti-heat shock protein monoclonal antibodies. Two of them (42 and 36 kDa) were found to be regulated by heat shock and by nutritional stress and they were identified as phosphoglycerate kinase and fructose bisphosphate aldolase, respectively. These glycolytic enzymes are major antigens of C. albicans, and their differential expression and recognition by the mucosal immune response system could be involved in protection against oral infection. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Purification and high-resolution top-down mass spectrometric characterization of human salivary α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying; Chen, Xin; Sato, Takuya; Rankin, Scott A; Tsuji, Ryohei F; Ge, Ying

    2012-04-03

    Human salivary α-amylase (HSAMY) is a major component of salivary secretions, possessing multiple important biological functions. Here we have established three methods to purify HSAMY in human saliva for comprehensive characterization of HSAMY by high-resolution top-down mass spectrometry (MS). Among the three purification methods, the affinity method based on the enzyme-substrate specific interaction between amylase and glycogen is preferred, providing the highest purity HSAMY with high reproducibility. Subsequently, we employed Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS to analyze the purified HSAMY. The predominant form of α-amylase purified from saliva of various races and genders is nonglycosylated with the same molecular weight of 55,881.2, which is 1885.8 lower than the calculated value based on the DNA-predicted sequence. High-resolution MS revealed the truncation of the first 15 N-terminal amino acids (-1858.96) and the subsequent formation of pyroglutamic acid at the new N-terminus Gln (-17.03). More importantly, five disulfide bonds in HSAMY were identified (-10.08) and effectively localized by tandem MS in conjunction with complete and partial reduction by tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine. Overall, this study demonstrates that top-down MS combined with affinity purification and partial reduction is a powerful method for rapid purification and complete characterization of large proteins with complex and overlapping disulfide bond patterns.

  6. Changes in human parotid salivary protein and sialic acid levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, S; Curbelo, H M; Tumilasci, O R; Tessler, J A; Houssay, A B

    1989-01-01

    Saliva was collected with a Carlson-Crittenden device, under citric acid stimulation, in 107 pregnant women, 9 puerperal and 7 non-pregnant controls. No significant changes were found in salivary flow rate, pH and amylase levels. The total protein levels were decreased during pregnancy and the puerperium. The sialic acid levels decreased gradually but markedly during pregnancy, returning to normal levels in the puerperium. These changes in parotid saliva may be related to the hormonal changes of pregnancy.

  7. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  8. BK virus has tropism for human salivary gland cells in vitro: Implications for transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, Liesl K.; Madden, Vicki; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer@med.unc.ed

    Background: In this study, it was determined that BKV is shed in saliva and an in vitro model system was developed whereby BKV can productively infect both submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) salivary gland cell lines. Results: BKV was detected in oral fluids using quantitative real-time PCR (QRTPCR). BKV infection was determined using quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. The infectivity of BKV was inhibited by pre-incubation of the virus with gangliosides that saturated the major capsid protein, VP1, halting receptor mediated BKV entry into salivary gland cells. Examination of infected cultures by transmission electron microscopy revealed 45-50 nm BKmore » virions clearly visible within the cells. Subsequent to infection, encapsidated BK virus was detected in the supernatant. Conclusion: We thus demonstrated that BKV was detected in oral fluids and that BK infection and replication occur in vitro in salivary gland cells. These data collectively suggest the potential for BKV oral route of transmission and oral pathogenesis.« less

  9. Distinct pathways of ERK activation by the muscarinic agonists pilocarpine and carbachol in a human salivary cell line.

    PubMed

    Lin, Alan L; Zhu, Bing; Zhang, WanKe; Dang, Howard; Zhang, Bin-Xian; Katz, Michael S; Yeh, Chih-Ko

    2008-06-01

    Cholinergic-muscarinic receptor agonists are used to alleviate mouth dryness, although the cellular signals mediating the actions of these agents on salivary glands have not been identified. We examined the activation of ERK1/2 by two muscarinic agonists, pilocarpine and carbachol, in a human salivary cell line (HSY). Immunoblot analysis revealed that both agonists induced transient activation of ERK1/2. Whereas pilocarpine induced phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, carbachol did not. Moreover, ERK activation by pilocarpine, but not carbachol, was abolished by the EGF receptor inhibitor AG-1478. Downregulation of PKC by prolonged treatment of cells with the phorbol ester PMA diminished carbachol-induced ERK phosphorylation but had no effect on pilocarpine responsiveness. Depletion of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i by EGTA did not affect ERK activation by either agent. In contrast to carbachol, pilocarpine did not elicit [Ca2+]i mobilization in HSY cells. Treatment of cells with the muscarinic receptor subtype 3 (M3) antagonist N-(3-chloropropyl)-4-piperidnyl diphenylacetate decreased ERK responsiveness to both agents, whereas the subtype 1 (M1) antagonist pirenzepine reduced only the carbachol response. Stimulation of ERKs by pilocarpine was also decreased by M3, but not M1, receptor small interfering RNA. The Src inhibitor PP2 blocked pilocarpine-induced ERK activation and EGF receptor phosphorylation, without affecting ERK activation by carbachol. Our results demonstrate that the actions of pilocarpine and carbachol in salivary cells are mediated through two distinct signaling mechanisms-pilocarpine acting via M3 receptors and Src-dependent transactivation of EGF receptors, and carbachol via M1/M3 receptors and PKC-converging on the ERK pathway.

  10. First Attempt To Validate Human IgG Antibody Response to Nterm-34kDa Salivary Peptide as Biomarker for Evaluating Exposure to Aedes aegypti Bites

    PubMed Central

    Elanga Ndille, Emmanuel; Doucoure, Souleymane; Damien, Georgia; Mouchet, François; Drame, Papa Makhtar; Cornelie, Sylvie; Noukpo, Herbert; Yamadjako, Sandra; Djenontin, Armel; Moiroux, Nicolas; Misse, Dorothee; Akogbeto, Martin; Corbel, Vincent; Henry, Marie-Claire; Chandre, Fabrice; Baldet, Thierry; Remoue, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Background Much effort is being devoted for developing new indicators to evaluate the human exposure to Aedes mosquito bites and the risk of arbovirus transmission. Human antibody (Ab) responses to mosquito salivary components could represent a promising tool for evaluating the human-vector contact. Methodology/Principal findings To develop a specific biomarker of human exposure to Aedes aegypti bites, we measured IgG Ab response to Ae. aegypti Nterm-34 kDa salivary peptide in exposed children in 7 villages of Southern Benin (West Africa). Results showed that specific IgG response presented high inter-individual heterogeneity between villages. IgG response was associated with rainfall and IgG level increased from dry (low exposure) to rainy (high exposure) seasons. These findings indicate that IgG Ab to Nterm-34 kDa salivary peptide may represent a reliable biomarker to detect variation in human exposure to Ae. aegypti bites. Conclusion/Significance This preliminary study highlights the potential use of Ab response to this salivary peptide for evaluating human exposure to Ae. aegypti. This biomarker could represent a new promising tool for assessing the risk of arbovirus transmission and for evaluating the efficacy of vector control interventions. PMID:23166852

  11. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... in autoimmune diseases such as HIV and Sjögren's syndrome where the body's immune system attacks the salivary glands causing significant inflammation. Dry mouth or dry eyes are common. This may occur with other systemic ...

  12. Effect of age, gender and exercise on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone circadian rhythm profile in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Al-Turk, Walid; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S

    2016-02-01

    There has been a lot of effort by scientists to elucidate the multi functions of the naturally occurring hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). However, to plan research experiments optimally, it is important first to characterize the diurnal rhythm in healthy individuals. The aim of this research was to investigate the daily circadian rhythms of DHEA among the 2 genders, and the effect of age and exercise on salivary DHEA circadian rhythms. Volunteers (20-39 and 40-60 years) were recruited for 2 studies investigating the salivary DHEA circadian rhythm. The first study looked at the effect of gender and age on DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days, and the second study explored the effect of exercise on DHEA circadian rhythm in males. DHEA levels were estimated by a sensitive and specific ELISA method. The results showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants groups, however the profile was flatter in the older female group. There was a significant difference between age and gender groups particularly at 8.00 h. In young males DHEA reduced from 541.1 ± 101.3 (mean ± sd) at 8.00 h to 198.9 ± 90.7 pg/mL at 18.00 h; p<0.0001, and young females from 401.6 ± 149.5 to 215.4 ± 95.3 pg/mL; p<0.001. In older males DHEA reduced from 267.5 ± 32.4 to 132.5 ± 46.7 pg/mL; p<0.001, and older females from 147.7 ± 78.1 to 89.5 ± 29.1 pg/mL; p=0.05. DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days showed some variations but this was not significant. Aerobic exercise has significantly increased DHEA levels at 2 time points of the day (p=0.05) in male subjects. In conclusion, our study showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants was observed, but the profile was flatter in the older groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Testosterone in human studies: Modest associations between plasma and salivary measurements.

    PubMed

    de Wit, A E; Bosker, F J; Giltay, E J; de Kloet, C S; Roelofs, K; van Pelt, J; Penninx, B W J H; Schoevers, R A

    2018-02-01

    Testosterone is involved in many processes like aggression and mood disorders. As it may easily diffuse from blood into saliva, salivary testosterone is thought to reflect plasma free testosterone level. If so, it would provide a welcome noninvasive and less stressful alternative to blood sampling. Past research did not reveal consensus regarding the strength of the association, but sample sizes were small. This study aimed to analyse the association in a large cohort. In total, 2,048 participants (age range 18-65 years; 696 males and 1,352 females) were included and saliva (using cotton Salivettes) and plasma were collected for testosterone measurements. Levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay respectively. Free testosterone was calculated by the Vermeulen algorithm. Associations were determined using linear regression analyses. Plasma total and free testosterone showed a significant association with salivary testosterone in men (adjusted β = .09, p = .01; and β = .15, p < .001, respectively) and in women (adjusted β = .08, p = .004; and crude β = .09, p = .002 respectively). The modest associations indicate that there are many influencing factors of both technical and biological origin. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Human Antibody Responses to the Anopheles Salivary gSG6-P1 Peptide: A Novel Tool for Evaluating the Efficacy of ITNs in Malaria Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Drame, Papa Makhtar; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Cornelie, Sylvie; Le Mire, Jacques; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Dos-Santos, Maria Adelaide; Sembène, Mbacké; Fortes, Filomeno; Simondon, Francois; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2010-01-01

    To optimize malaria control, WHO has prioritised the need for new indicators to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector control strategies. The gSG6-P1 peptide from gSG6 protein of Anopheles gambiae salivary glands was previously designed as a specific salivary sequence of malaria vector species. It was shown that the quantification of human antibody (Ab) responses to Anopheles salivary proteins in general and especially to the gSG6-P1 peptide was a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles. The present objective was to validate this indicator in the evaluation of the efficacy of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs). A longitudinal evaluation, including parasitological, entomological and immunological assessments, was conducted on children and adults from a malaria-endemic area before and after the introduction of ITNs. Significant decrease of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response was observed just after the efficient ITNs use. Interestingly, specific IgG Ab level was especially pertinent to evaluate a short-time period of ITNs efficacy and at individual level. However, specific IgG rose back up within four months as correct ITN use waned. IgG responses to one salivary peptide could constitute a reliable biomarker for the evaluation of ITN efficacy, at short- and long-term use, and provide a valuable tool in malaria vector control based on a real measurement of human-vector contact. PMID:21179476

  15. Human antibody responses to the Anopheles salivary gSG6-P1 peptide: a novel tool for evaluating the efficacy of ITNs in malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Drame, Papa Makhtar; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Cornelie, Sylvie; Le Mire, Jacques; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Dos-Santos, Maria Adelaide; Sembène, Mbacké; Fortes, Filomeno; Simondon, Francois; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2010-12-14

    To optimize malaria control, WHO has prioritised the need for new indicators to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector control strategies. The gSG6-P1 peptide from gSG6 protein of Anopheles gambiae salivary glands was previously designed as a specific salivary sequence of malaria vector species. It was shown that the quantification of human antibody (Ab) responses to Anopheles salivary proteins in general and especially to the gSG6-P1 peptide was a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles. The present objective was to validate this indicator in the evaluation of the efficacy of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs). A longitudinal evaluation, including parasitological, entomological and immunological assessments, was conducted on children and adults from a malaria-endemic area before and after the introduction of ITNs. Significant decrease of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response was observed just after the efficient ITNs use. Interestingly, specific IgG Ab level was especially pertinent to evaluate a short-time period of ITNs efficacy and at individual level. However, specific IgG rose back up within four months as correct ITN use waned. IgG responses to one salivary peptide could constitute a reliable biomarker for the evaluation of ITN efficacy, at short- and long-term use, and provide a valuable tool in malaria vector control based on a real measurement of human-vector contact.

  16. Effect of pilocarpine on substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide releases correlate with salivary secretion in human saliva and plasma.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Itoh, H; Suzuki, Y; Tatsuta, R; Takeyama, M

    2013-02-01

    Pilocarpine, a muscarinic receptor agonist, has been used for the treatment of dry mouth. Salivary glands are supplied with nerve fibres that contain neuropeptides, such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), which are important modulators of salivation. It is known that measurement of salivary and plasma levels of neuropeptides is useful for assessing the dose-pharmacological effect relationship of drugs. The relationship between the action of pilocarpine and neuropeptides in humans has not been studied. Moreover, studies evaluate the usefulness of drug salivary levels in the pharmacological evaluation of drugs are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of pilocarpine on the levels of substance P-, CGRP- and VIP-like immunoreactive substances (IS) in saliva and plasma taken in healthy humans. Five healthy male subjects participated in this study. Pilocarpine tablet (10 mg) or placebo tablet was orally administered with 100 mL of water. Each subject was administered placebo and drug with an interval of 4 weeks in between. Saliva was sampled before and at 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min after administration of the test substances. Venous blood samples (10 mL) were also taken from a forearm vein at each time interval. The samples were then enzyme immunoassayed using a highly sensitive system for substance P-, CGRP- and VIP-IS. The amount of saliva was measured by the Saxon test. A single oral administration of pilocarpine increased the release of salivary substance P-IS (the area under the concentration-time curve: AUC(0→240 min)) compared with the placebo. Pilocarpine also significantly increased the release of salivary CGRP-IS (AUC(0→240 min)). Pilocarpine significantly increased the release of plasma CGRP-IS. The salivary volume correlated with the salivary level of substance P and CGRP-IS (r = 0·84, P < 0·05 and r = 0·59, P < 0·05, respectively). AUC(0→240 min) for

  17. Chemometric analysis of the consumption of oral rinse chlorite (ClO2-) by human salivary biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hubert; Blackburn, John; Grootveld, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Oral rinse formulations containing chlorite anion (ClO(2)(-)) as an active agent exert a range of valuable oral healthcare activities. However, salivary biomolecules which chemically react with this oxidant can, at least in principle, serve as potentially significant barriers to these therapeutic properties in the oral environment. Therefore, in this investigation, we have explored the extent of ClO(2)(-) consumption by biomolecules which scavenge this agent in human salivary supernatants (HSSs) in vitro. HSS samples were equilibrated with oral rinse formulations containing this active agent (30 s at 35 °C in order to mimic oral rinsing episodes). Differential spectrophotometric and ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses were employed to determine residual ClO(2)(-) in these admixtures. Bioanalytical data acquired revealed the rapid consumption of ClO(2)(-) by biomolecular electron donors and/or antioxidants present in HSS samples. Mean ± 95 % confidence interval (CI) consumption levels of 7.14 ± 0.69 and 5.34 ± 0.69 % of the total ClO(2)(-) available were found for oral rinse products containing 0.10 and 0.40 % (w/v) ClO(2)(-), respectively. A mixed model analysis-of-variance performed on experimental data acquired demonstrated highly-significant differences between oral rinse ClO(2)(-) contents (p < 0.0001), trial participants (p < 0.001) and sampling days-within-participants (p < 0.001), and also revealed non-additive ClO(2)(-)-scavenging responses of participants' HSSs to increases in the oral rinse content of this oxidant (p < 0.0001). A slower, second phase of the reaction process (t (1/2) = 1.7-2.8 h) involved the oxidative consumption of salivary urate. These data clearly demonstrate that for recommended 30 s oral rinsing episodes performed at physiological temperature, <10 % of the total oral rinse ClO(2)(-) available is chemically and/or reductively consumed by HSS biomolecules for both

  18. [Inhibitory effect of VEGF antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides on the growth of human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-guang; Wang, Xu-xia; Li, Teng-yu; Wang, Yan-xiu; Gao, Jing; Ni, Chun-xiao

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of VEGF antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleoiides on the growth of human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) xenografts in nude mice. The VEGF-ASODN was synthesised artificially. After the model of human SACC xenografts in nude mice was established, they were random1y divided into three groups: antisense group, scrambled group and normal saline group. A control group without cancer was also established. Antisense(66 μg), scrambled sequence(66 μg) and normal saline(once every 3 days and 7 times in all) were injected in three experimental groups, respectively. Two days after therapy, the mice were sacrificed. Serums were used for detection of VEGF protein. All tumors were measured and weighted. The quantity of VEGF mRNA and protein and PLI, MVD was detected by hybridization in situ and immunohistochemistry. SPSS13.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The VEGF-ASODN could suppress the expression of VEGF in human SACC xenografts in nude mice and reduce VEGF protein in serum of nude mice significantly. It cou1d also reduce the volume and weight of xenografts and could reduce the expression of VEGF mRNA and its protein, PCNA and CD34. By inhibiting the expression of VEGF, VEGF-ASODN can inhabit proliferation of human SACC xenografts in nude mice.

  19. Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38). However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P < 0.01). No trial × period interaction was identified for the saliva flow rates. Although the SIgA secretion rate was not affected by placebo ingestion (P = 0.36), it significantly increased after 4-week chlorella ingestion than before intake (P < 0.01). Conclusions These results suggest 4-week ingestion of a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans. PMID:21906314

  20. Biodegradation of composite resin with ester linkages: identifying human salivary enzyme activity with a potential role in the esterolytic process.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kuihua; Delaviz, Yasaman; Banh, Michael; Guo, Yi; Santerre, J Paul

    2014-08-01

    The ester linkages contained within dental resin monomers (such as Bisphenol A-glycidylmethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)) are susceptible to hydrolytic degradation by salivary esterases, however very little is known about the specific esterase activities implicated in this process. The objective of this work was to isolate and identify the dominant proteins from saliva that are associated with the esterase activities shown to be involved in the degradation of BisGMA. Human whole saliva was collected and processed prior to separation in a HiPrep 16/60 Sephacryl S-200 HR column. The fraction with the highest esterase activity was further separated by an anion exchange column (Mono-Q (10/100G)). Isolated fractions were then separated by gel electrophoresis, and compared to a common bench marker esterase, cholesterol esterase (CE), and commercial albumin which has been reported to express esterase activity. Proteins suspected of containing esterase activity were analyzed by Mass Spectroscopy (MS). Commercially available proteins, similar to the salivary esterase proteins identified by MS, were used to replicate the enzymatic complexes and confirm their degradation activity with respect to BisGMA. MS data suggested that the enzyme fraction with the highest esterase activity was contained among a group of proteins consisting of albumin, Zn-α2-glycoprotein, α-amylase, TALDO1 protein, transferrin, lipocalin2, and prolactin-induced protein. Studies concluded that the main esterase bands on the gels in each fraction did not overlap with CE activity, and that albumin activity emerged as a lead candidate with significant esterase activity relative to BisGMA degradation, particularly when it formed a complex with Zn-α2-glycoprotein, under slightly basic conditions. These enzyme complexes can be used as a physiologically relevant formulation to test the biostability of composite resins. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials

  1. High frequency of loss of PTEN expression in human solid salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma and its implication for targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Du, Li; Wang, Ru; Wei, Chao; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Pixu; Liu, Qiang; Li, Jiang; Lu, Shi-Long; Xiao, Jing

    2015-05-10

    Salivary gland tumor (SGT) is one of the least studied cancers due to its rarity and heterogeneous histological types. Here, we reported that loss of PTEN expression was most frequently found in the poorly differentiated, high grade solid adenoid cystic carcinomas. Loss of PTEN expression correlated with activation of mTOR by increased phosphorylated S6 ribosome protein. We further functionally studied the role of PTEN in a pair of human SACC cell lines, SACC-83 and SACC-LM. Reduced PTEN level was correlated with the metastasis potential. When we knocked down PTEN in the SACC-83 cell line, we observed increased proliferation and enhanced migration/invasion in vitro, and increased tumor size in vivo. We further tested the therapeutical effect by applying a PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 to both SACC cell lines. Decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, as well as reduced cell migration/invasion were observed in both cell lines upon the NVP-BEZ235 treatment. Moreover, the NVP-BEZ235 treatment in a SGT xenograft mouse model significantly reduced primary tumor size and lung metastasis. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PTEN is a potent tumor suppressor in human SGTs, and targeting PI3K/mTOR pathway may be effective in the targeted therapy for human SGT patients with loss of PTEN expression.

  2. Human salivary glucose analysis by high-performance ion-exchange chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Gough, H; Luke, G A; Beeley, J A; Geddes, D A

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this project was to develop an analytical procedure with the required level of sensitivity for the determination of glucose concentrations in small volumes of unstimulated fasting whole saliva. The technique involves high-performance ion-exchange chromatography at high pH and pulsed amperometric detection. It has a high level of reproducibility, a sensitivity as low as 0.1 mumol/l and requires only 50 microliters samples (sensitivity = 0.002 pmol). Inhibition of glucose metabolism, by procedures such as collection into 0.1% (w/v) sodium fluoride, was shown to be essential if accurate results are to be obtained. Collection on to ice followed by storage at -20 degrees C was shown to be unsuitable and resulted in glucose loss by degradation. There were inter- and intraindividual variations in the glucose concentration in unstimulated mixed saliva (range; 0.02-0.4 mmol/l). The procedure can be used for the analysis of other salivary carbohydrates and for monitoring the clearance of dietary carbohydrates from the mouth.

  3. EMMPRIN contributes to the in vitro invasion of human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    YANG, XINJIE; ZHANG, PU; MA, QIN; KONG, LIANG; LI, YUAN; LIU, BAOLIN; LEI, DELIN

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is involved in tumor invasion by stimulating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. Our previous immunohistochemical study found that the expression of EMMPRIN in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) was positively correlated with tumor perineural and perivascular invasion. The present study was designed to further investigate the role of EMMPRIN in the invasion of SACC. Western blot results showed that EMMPRIN was upregulated in the highly metastatic SACC cell line SACC-LM, compared to SACC-83, a SACC cell line with low metastatic ability. Blocking of EMMPRIN by its antibody significantly decreased the adhesion, secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and invasion activity of SACC-LM cells in vitro (P<0.01). Co-cultures of SACC-LM cells with fibroblasts significantly produced elevated levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and promoted the in vitro invasion activity of SACC-LM cells, compared with cultures of SACC-LM cells alone (P<0.01). These results indicate that EMMPRIN may play an important role in the invasion of SACC by stimulating the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in tumor and stromal cells. PMID:22200897

  4. Estrogen Enhances Malignant Phenotypes in Human Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Tomoki; Ishikawa, Akiko; Kamata, Y U; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Tomohiro; Mori, Yoshihide

    2016-06-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (SGC) is a common type of salivary gland cancer (SGC). Surgery is the first treatment choice because chemoradiotherapy is usually not effective. Therefore, new treatment modalities are urgently needed. In this study, it was investigated whether the estrogen axis could be a treatment target or not. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) ACCM cells, were used. The specific cell line lacks estrogen receptor (ER). ER was introduced in ACCM cells, and the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) was investigated on cell proliferation, cell-cycle distribution, and cell motility. E2 induced cell proliferation, and the S-phase fraction increased in a dose-dependent manner. Cell motility was also up-regulated compared to control cells. The estrogen/ER system up-regulated malignant phenotypes in ER-positive ACC, and hormone therapy may have a potential as effective treatment for this malignancy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Study of human salivary proline-rich proteins interaction with food tannins.

    PubMed

    Soares, Susana; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Ferrer-Galego, Raúl; Brás, Natércia F; Brandão, Elsa; Silva, Mafalda; Teixeira, Natércia; Fonseca, Fátima; Sousa, Sérgio F; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2018-03-15

    In this work, saturation transfer difference-NMR, isothermal microcalorimetry and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study the individual interactions between basic, glycosylated and acidic proline-rich proteins (bPRPS, gPRPs, aPRPs) and P-B peptide with some representative food tannins [procyanidin B2, procyanidin B2 3'-O-gallate (B2g) and procyanidin trimer (catechin-4-8-catechin-4-8-catechin)]. Results showed that P-B peptide was in general the salivary protein (SP) with higher affinity whereas aPRPs showed lower affinity to the studied procyanidins. Moreover, B2g was the procyanidin with higher affinity for all SP. Hydrophobic and hydrogen bonds were present in all interactions but the major driving force depended on the procyanidin-SP pair. Furthermore, proline clusters or residues in their vicinity were identified as the probable sites of proteins for interaction with procyanidins. For bPRP and aPRP a significant change to less extended conformations was observed, while P-B peptide did not display any structural rearrangement upon procyanidins binding. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Correlation between salivary secretion and salivary AQP5 levels in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Iwata, Fusako; Muraguchi, Masahiro; Ooga, Keiko; Ohmoto, Yasukazu; Takai, Masaaki; Mori, Toyoki; Ishikawa, Yasuko

    2009-01-01

    Saliva samples are useful for noninvasive diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. The water channel protein aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is released into human saliva. Salivary AQP5 levels show a diurnal variation with the secretion of high levels during the waking hours. An age-related decrease in salivary AQP5 levels parallels a decrease in the volume of saliva. Cevimeline, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist, induces the release of AQP5. Changes in salivary AQP5 levels after cevimeline administration occur simultaneously with changes in saliva flow rate. AQP5 and lipid rafts are released separately from human salivary glands upon M(3) mAChR stimulation. In patients with diabetes mellitus or Sjögren's syndrome, a decrease in salivary secretion occurs concomitantly with low salivary AQP5 levels. Salivary AQP5 levels correlate with salivary secretion in both healthy and disease states, suggesting that changes in salivary AQP5 levels can be used as an indicator of salivary flow rate and the effect of M(3) mAChR agonists on human salivary glands.

  7. BPI-fold (BPIF) containing/plunc protein expression in human fetal major and minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Alves, Daniel Berretta Moreira; Bingle, Lynne; Bingle, Colin David; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa; Silva, Andréia Aparecida; Pereira, Débora Lima; Vargas, Pablo Agustin

    2017-01-16

    The aim of this study was to determine expression, not previously described, of PLUNC (palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone) (BPI-fold containing) proteins in major and minor salivary glands from very early fetal tissue to the end of the second trimester and thus gain further insight into the function of these proteins. Early fetal heads, and major and minor salivary glands were collected retrospectively and glands were classified according to morphodifferentiation stage. Expression of BPI-fold containing proteins was localized through immunohistochemistry. BPIFA2, the major BPI-fold containing protein in adult salivary glands, was detected only in the laryngeal pharynx; the lack of staining in salivary glands suggested salivary expression is either very late in development or is only in adult tissues. Early expression of BPIFA1 was seen in the trachea and nasal cavity with salivary gland expression only seen in late morphodifferentiation stages. BPIFB1 was seen in early neural tissue and at later stages in submandibular and sublingual glands. BPIFA1 is significantly expressed in early fetal oral tissue but BPIFB1 has extremely limited expression and the major salivary BPIF protein (BPIFA2) is not produced in fetal development. Further studies, with more sensitive techniques, will confirm the expression pattern and enable a better understanding of embryonic BPIF protein function.

  8. High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of human bronchial and salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Alain; Toujani, Saloua; Saulnier, Patrick; Robert, Thomas; Casiraghi, Odile; Validire, Pierre; Temam, Stéphane; Menard, Philippe; Dessen, Philippe; Fouret, Pierre

    2008-05-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare but distinctive tumor. Oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization has been applied for cataloging genomic copy number alterations (CNAs) in 17 frozen salivary or bronchial tumors. Only four whole chromosome CNAs were found, and most cases had 2-4 segmental CNAs. No high level amplification was observed. There were recurrent gains at 7p15.2, 17q21-25, and 22q11-13, and recurrent losses at 1p35, 6q22-25, 8q12-13, 9p21, 12q12-13, and 17p11-13. The minimal region of gain at 7p15.2 contained the HOXA cluster. The minimal common regions of deletions contained the CDKN2A/CDKN2B, TP53, and LIMA1 tumor suppressor genes. The recurrent deletion at 8q12.3-13.1 contained no straightforward tumor suppressor gene, but the MIRN124A2 microRNA gene, whose product regulates MMP2 and CDK6. Among unique CNAs, gains harbored CCND1, KIT/PDGFRA/KDR, MDM2, and JAK2. The CNAs involving CCND1, MDM2, KIT, CDKN2A/2B, and TP53 were validated by FISH and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Although most tumors overexpressed cyclin D1 compared with surrounding glands, the only case to overexpress MDM2 had the corresponding CNA. In conclusion, our report suggests that ACC is characterized by a relatively low level of structural complexity. Array CGH and immunohistochemical data implicate MDM2 as the oncogene targeted at 12q15. The gain at 4q12 warrants further exploration as it contains a cluster of receptor kinase genes (KIT/PDGFRA/KDR), whose products can be responsive to specific therapies.

  9. The roles of AMY1 copies and protein expression in human salivary α-amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ze-Min; Lin, Jing; Chen, Long-Hui; Zhang, Min; Chen, Wei-Wen; Yang, Xiao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Salivary α-amylase (sAA) activity has been extensively investigated in nutrition and psychology. But few studies were performed to assess the role played by sAA gene (AMY1) copies and protein expression in basal and stimulus-induced sAA activity. The sAA activity, amount and AMY1 copy number were determined from 184 saliva samples pre- and post-citric acid stimulation. Our findings showed that citric acid could induce significant increase in sAA activity, total sAA amount, and glycosylated sAA amount, among which the glycosylated sAA amount had the largest response. The correlation analysis showed that AMY1 copy number, total sAA amount and AMY1 copy number×total sAA amount had significantly positive and successively increasing correlations with sAA activity in unstimulated and stimulated saliva, respectively, and furthermore, we observed higher correlations in unstimulated saliva when compared with the corresponding correlations in stimulated saliva. We also observed significant correlations between glycosylated sAA amount and sAA activity in unstimulated and stimulated saliva, respectively. Interestingly, the correlations were higher in stimulated saliva than in unstimulated saliva, and the correlations between glycosylated sAA amount and sAA activity were higher than that of between total sAA amount and sAA activity in stimulated saliva. Moreover, total sAA amount ratio and glycosylated sAA amount ratio showed significantly positive correlation with sAA activity ratio. AMY1 copy number had no correlation with sAA activity ratio. These findings suggested that AMY1 copy number and sAA amount played crucial roles in sAA activity; however, the roles were attenuated after stimulation due to fortified release of glycosylated sAA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunohistochemical localisation of keratin and luminal epithelial antigen in myoepithelial and luminal epithelial cells of human mammary and salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Nathrath, W B; Wilson, P D; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    1982-01-01

    Rabbit antisera to human 40-63 000 MW epidermal keratin, one batch with restricted distribution of reactivity from an initial (aK1) and one with "broad spectrum" distribution of reactivity from a late bleeding (aK), and to "luminal epithelial antigen" (aLEA) were applied to formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections of human normal and neoplastic mammary and salivary glands using an indirect immunoperoxidase method. aK1 reacted with myoepithelial cells, aLEA with luminal epithelial cells and aK with both cell types in normal mammary and salivary gland. In breast carcinomas the majority of intraluminal and infiltrating carcinoma cells reacted with aLEA but not with aK1 which reacted only with surrounding myoepithelial cells. aK reacted with both myoepithelial cells and with intraluminal and infiltrating tumour cells. In the salivary gland adenomas the majority of cells reacted with aK, and those cells arranged in a tubular fashion reacted with aLEA.

  11. Validation of Recombinant Salivary Protein PpSP32 as a Suitable Marker of Human Exposure to Phlebotomus papatasi, the Vector of Leishmania major in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Bettaieb, Jihene; Abdeladhim, Maha; Hadj Kacem, Saoussen; Abdelkader, Rania; Gritli, Sami; Chemkhi, Jomaa; Aslan, Hamide; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ben Salah, Afif; Louzir, Hechmi; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Ben Ahmed, Melika

    2015-01-01

    Background During a blood meal, female sand flies, vectors of Leishmania parasites, inject saliva into the host skin. Sand fly saliva is composed of a large variety of components that exert different pharmacological activities facilitating the acquisition of blood by the insect. Importantly, proteins present in saliva are able to elicit the production of specific anti-saliva antibodies, which can be used as markers for exposure to vector bites. Serological tests using total sand fly salivary gland extracts are challenging due to the difficulty of obtaining reproducible salivary gland preparations. Previously, we demonstrated that PpSP32 is the immunodominant salivary antigen in humans exposed to Phlebotomus papatasi bites and established that humans exposed to P. perniciosus bites do not recognize it. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, we have validated, in a large cohort of 522 individuals, the use of the Phlebotomus papatasi recombinant salivary protein PpSP32 (rPpSP32) as an alternative method for testing exposure to the bite of this sand fly. We also demonstrated that screening for total anti-rPpSP32 IgG antibodies is sufficient, being comparable in efficacy to the screening for IgG2, IgG4 and IgE antibodies against rPpSP32. Additionally, sera obtained from dogs immunized with saliva of P. perniciosus, a sympatric and widely distributed sand fly in Tunisia, did not recognize rPpSP32 demonstrating its suitability as a marker of exposure to P. papatasi saliva. Conclusions/Significance Our data indicate that rPpSP32 constitutes a useful epidemiological tool to monitor the spatial distribution of P. papatasi in a particular region, to direct control measures against zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, to assess the efficiency of vector control interventions and perhaps to assess the risk of contracting the disease. PMID:26368935

  12. Assessment of adrenal function by measurement of salivary steroids in response to corticotrophin in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Estela; Persi, Gabriel; González, Natalia; Tumilasci, Omar; Arregger, Alejandro; Burgos, Myriam; Rodríguez, Viviana; Molina, Ana; Contreras, Liliana N

    2007-04-01

    Adrenal insufficiency has been reported among critically ill HIV-infected patients. This is the first study that attempts to detect subclinical hypoadrenal states in non-critical HIV patients through salivary steroids in response to intramuscular low-dose ACTH injection. We studied 21 ambulatory adult HIV-infected patients without specific clinical signs or symptoms of adrenal insufficiency. Normal salivary flow-rate and salivary alpha-amylase activity confirmed adequate salivary gland function. Salivary cortisol (SAF) and salivary aldosterone (SAL) were obtained at baseline and 30 min after the injection of 25 microg of ACTH in the deltoid muscle (LDT(s)). Assessment of salivary steroids after stimulation with 250 microg of intramuscular ACTH (HDT(s)) was performed on those who hyporesponded to LDT(s). Basal blood samples were drawn for steroids, renin and ACTH measurements. At baseline SAF and SAL correlated significantly (p=0.0001) with basal serum cortisol and aldosterone (r=0.70 and 0.91, respectively). Plasma ACTH and renin concentrations were within the normal range in all patients. Eight of the twenty-one HIV(+) patients were LDT(s) hyporesponders in either SAF (n:1) or SAL (n:7). LDT(s) repeated in six cases after a year reconfirmed the impairment of aldosterone secretion. LDT(s) hyporesponders had normal steroid responses to HDT(s). LDT(s) is a simple, safe, well-accepted and non-invasive approach to assess adrenal function in HIV-infected ambulatory patients. It revealed subnormal cortisol (5%) and aldosterone responses (33%) when HDT(s) results were normal.

  13. The Human Salivary Microbiome Is Shaped by Shared Environment Rather than Genetics: Evidence from a Large Family of Closely Related Individuals.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Liam; Ribeiro, Andre L R; Levine, Adam P; Pontikos, Nikolas; Balloux, Francois; Segal, Anthony W; Roberts, Adam P; Smith, Andrew M

    2017-09-12

    The human microbiome is affected by multiple factors, including the environment and host genetics. In this study, we analyzed the salivary microbiomes of an extended family of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals living in several cities and investigated associations with both shared household and host genetic similarities. We found that environmental effects dominated over genetic effects. While there was weak evidence of geographical structuring at the level of cities, we observed a large and significant effect of shared household on microbiome composition, supporting the role of the immediate shared environment in dictating the presence or absence of taxa. This effect was also seen when including adults who had grown up in the same household but moved out prior to the time of sampling, suggesting that the establishment of the salivary microbiome earlier in life may affect its long-term composition. We found weak associations between host genetic relatedness and microbiome dissimilarity when using family pedigrees as proxies for genetic similarity. However, this association disappeared when using more-accurate measures of kinship based on genome-wide genetic markers, indicating that the environment rather than host genetics is the dominant factor affecting the composition of the salivary microbiome in closely related individuals. Our results support the concept that there is a consistent core microbiome conserved across global scales but that small-scale effects due to a shared living environment significantly affect microbial community composition. IMPORTANCE Previous research shows that the salivary microbiomes of relatives are more similar than those of nonrelatives, but it remains difficult to distinguish the effects of relatedness and shared household environment. Furthermore, pedigree measures may not accurately measure host genetic similarity. In this study, we include genetic relatedness based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rather than

  14. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  15. Janus kinase 1 inhibition suppresses interferon-induced B cell activating factor production in human salivary gland: potential therapeutic strategy for primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeseon; Lee, Jennifer; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Baek, SeungYe; Jang, Se Gwang; Hong, Seung-Min; Min, Jae-Woong; Choi, Sun Shim; Lee, Juhyun; Cho, Mi-La; Park, Sung-Hwan

    2018-06-21

    To examine whether a JAK inhibitor regulates functional responses of human salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC) and disease parameters in a Sjögren's syndrome animal model. Common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed among peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and other datasets, using blood and salivary gland (SG) tissue. Validation of expression in SG was analyzed by focus score. Inhibition of mRNA expression of DEGs and BAFF by filgotinib was analyzed using real-time PCR in primary SGECs. SG organoid cultures were used to determine the association between DEGs and B cell activating factor (BAFF) via knockdown using siRNAs or regulation of BAFF by JAK inhibitor. Filgotinib (1.5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into 8-week-old NOD/ShiLtJ mice three times per week to analyze manifestations of disease. Finally, STAT signaling was assessed in human and mouse SGECs. Expression of DEGs IFNG and BAFF increased in pSS patient SGs, as assessed by focus score. There was significant correlation between IFIT2 and BAFF expression. JAK inhibitor suppressed IFN-induced transcription of DEGs and BAFF in human pSGECs. Knockdown of DEGs, or inhibition of JAK caused reduced secretion of BAFF in human SG organoid cultures. In addition, filgotinib-treated mice exhibited increased salivary flow rates and marked reductions in lymphocytic infiltration of the SG. JAK inhibitor regulated pSTAT1 Y701 , pSTAT3 Y705 , and PIAS3 in IFN-induced human SGECs, and pSTAT1 Y701 , pSTAT3 S727 , PIAS1 in IFNγ-induced mouse SGECs. JAK inhibition controls aberrant activation of SGECs and may be a novel therapeutic approach for pSS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of a protein-rich meal on urinary and salivary free amino acid concentrations in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Brand, H S; Jörning, G G; Chamuleau, R A; Abraham-Inpijn, L

    1997-08-08

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether in healthy volunteers acute changes in plasma free amino acid composition after a protein-rich test meal are reflected in the urinary and salivary concentrations of the corresponding amino acids. The ingestion of a protein-rich meal elicited a significant increase of plasma and urine amino acid concentrations. The postprandial salivary amino acid excretion showed only minor changes. For several amino acids (alanine, arginine, asparagine, glycine, threonine and valine) significant relations were observed between the increase in concentration of these amino acids in venous plasma and urine. In whole saliva, only threonine and valine showed a significant relationship with the corresponding plasma concentration. Our data suggest that the urinary amino acid excretion of several amino acids has the potential for estimating short-term changes in plasma concentrations. Determination of salivary amino acid concentrations seems less appropriate for this purpose.

  17. Developing a Salivary Antibody Multiplex Immunoassay to Measure Human Exposure to Environmental Pathogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    The etiology and impacts of human exposure to environmental pathogens are of major concern worldwide and, thus, the ability to assess exposure and infections using cost effective, high-throughput approaches would be indispensable. The principal objective of this work is to devel...

  18. Persistence of hAQP1 expression in human salivary gland cells following AdhAQP1 transduction is associated with a lack of methylation of hCMV promoter

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, C; Baum, BJ; Liu, X; Goldsmith, CM; Perez, P; Jang, S-I; Cotrim, AP; McCullagh, L; Ambudkar, IS; Alevizos, I

    2017-01-01

    In 2012, we reported that 5 out of 11 subjects in a clinical trial (NCT00372320) administering AdhAQP1 to radiation-damaged parotid glands showed increased saliva flow rates and decreased symptoms over the initial 42 days. AdhAQP1 is a first-generation, E1-deleted, replication-defective, serotype 5 adenoviral vector encoding human aquaporin-1 (hAQP1). This vector uses the human cytomegalovirus enhancer/promoter (hCMVp). As subject peak responses were at times much longer (7–42 days) than expected, we hypothesized that the hCMVp may not be methylated in human salivary gland cells to the extent previously observed in rodent salivary gland cells. This hypothesis was supported in human salivary gland primary cultures and human salivary gland cell lines after transduction with AdhAQP1. Importantly, hAQP1 maintained its function in those cells. Conversely, when we transduced mouse and rat cell lines in vitro and submandibular glands in vivo with AdhAQP1, the hCMVp was gradually methylated over time and associated with decreased hAQP1 expression and function in vitro and decreased hAQP1 expression in vivo. These data suggest that the hCMVp in AdhAQP1was probably not methylated in transduced human salivary gland cells of responding subjects, resulting in an unexpectedly longer functional expression of hAQP1. PMID:26177970

  19. Structural studies and SH3 domain binding properties of a human antiviral salivary proline-rich peptide.

    PubMed

    Righino, Benedetta; Pirolli, Davide; Radicioni, Giorgia; Marzano, Valeria; Longhi, Renato; Arcovito, Alessandro; Sanna, Maria Teresa; De Rosa, Maria Cristina; Paoluzi, Serena; Cesareni, Gianni; Messana, Irene; Castagnola, Massimo; Vitali, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    Human saliva contains hundreds of small proline-rich peptides originated by the proteolytic cleavage of the salivary basic Proline-Rich Proteins. Nevertheless only for few of them a specific biological activity has been assigned to date. Among them, the 1932 Da peptide (p1932) has been patented as an anti-HIV agent. In order to shed light on the possible mechanism of action of this peptide, we assessed in this study, by means of molecular dynamics calculations, circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopic techniques, that p1932 has an intrinsic propensity to adopt a polyproline-II helix arrangement. This structural feature combined with the presence of PxxP motifs in its primary structure, represents an essential property for the exploitation of several biological activities. Next to these findings, we recently demonstrated the ability of this peptide to be internalized within cells of the oral mucosa, thus we focused onto a possible intracellular target, represented by the SH3 domains family. Its ability to interact with selected SH3 domains was finally assayed by Surface Plasmon Resonance spectroscopy. As a result, only Fyn, Hck, and c-Src SH3 domains gave positive results in terms of interaction, showing dissociation constants ranging from nanomolar to micromolar values having the best performer a KD of 148 nM. It is noteworthy that all the interacting domains belong to the Src kinases family, suggesting a role for p1932 as a modulator of the signal transduction pathways mediated by these kinases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 714-725, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Surprising Composition of the Salivary Proteome of Preterm Human Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Castagnola, Massimo; Inzitari, Rosanna; Fanali, Chiara; Iavarone, Federica; Vitali, Alberto; Desiderio, Claudia; Vento, Giovanni; Tirone, Chiara; Romagnoli, Costantino; Cabras, Tiziana; Manconi, Barbara; Teresa Sanna, Maria; Boi, Roberto; Pisano, Elisabetta; Olianas, Alessandra; Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Nemolato, Sonia; Wilhelm Heizmann, Claus; Faa, Gavino; Messana, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Saliva is a body fluid of a unique composition devoted to protect the mouth cavity and the digestive tract. Our high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS analysis of the acidic soluble fraction of saliva from preterm human newborn surprisingly revealed more than 40 protein masses often undetected in adult saliva. We were able to identify the following proteins: stefin A and stefin B, S100A7 (two isoforms), S100A8, S100A9 (four isoforms), S100A11, S100A12, small proline-rich protein 3 (two isoforms), lysozyme C, thymosins β4 and β10, antileukoproteinase, histone H1c, and α and γ globins. The average mass value reported in international data banks was often incongruent with our experimental results mostly because of post-translational modifications of the proteins, e.g. acetylation of the N-terminal residue. A quantitative label-free MS analysis showed protein levels altered in relation to the postconceptional age and suggested coordinate and hierarchical functions for these proteins during development. In summary, this study shows for the first time that analysis of these proteins in saliva of preterm newborns might represent a noninvasive way to obtain precious information of the molecular mechanisms of development of human fetal oral structures. PMID:20943598

  1. Label-free determination of lipid composition and secondary protein structure of human salivary noncancerous and cancerous tissues by Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brozek-Pluska, Beata; Kopec, Monika; Niedzwiecka, Izabela; Morawiec-Sztandera, Alina

    2015-04-07

    The applications of optical spectroscopic methods in cancer detection open new possibilities in oncological diagnostics. Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging represent noninvasive, label-free, and rapidly developing tools in cancer diagnosis. In the study described in this paper Raman microspectroscopy has been employed to examine noncancerous and cancerous human salivary gland tissues of the same patient. The most significant differences between noncancerous and cancerous tissues were found in regions typical for the vibrations of lipids and proteins. The detailed analysis of secondary structures of proteins contained in the cancerous and the noncancerous tissues is also presented.

  2. Evaluation of Salivary Uric Acid and pH in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients: A Historical Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Amjad, Samaneh Vaziri; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants protect the body against cellular damage. Saliva has immunological, enzymatic and antioxidant defense systems. Uric acid is the main and predominant salivary antioxidant. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary uric acid levels and pH in HIV-infected patients in the west of Iran. HIV-infected patients were selected from behavioral advisory centers of Hamadan and Kermanshah Provinces, west of Iran. Saliva was collected between 8 and10 in the morning. Five mL of whole unstimulated saliva was collected in 5 minutes by spitting into sterilized Falcon tubes based on Navazesh method; pH was measured with a pH meter and uric acid was assessed with spectrophotometric method. Data were analyzed with STATA 12. Salivary pH in the HIV-positive group was lower (6.99±0.46) than the healthy controls (7.14±1.03) but the difference was not statistically significant (P=380). Uric acid concentrations in HIV-infected patients (2.94±2.14) were significantly lower in comparison to the healthy controls (5.21±2.30). The results showed a statistically significant decrease in the case group (P=0.001). Mean age and DMFT index of the case group were higher than the control group. Uric acid, the main antioxidant of saliva, was significantly lower in HIVinfected individuals; pH also was lower in these patients. HIV can alter salivary antioxidant status, which can influence patients' oral health status. Diet with antioxidant properties might be helpful in these patients. More research is necessary to discover true antioxidant and salivary changes and their relation with HIV consequences in future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Activation of histamine H4 receptor inhibits TNFα/IMD-0354-induced apoptosis in human salivary NS-SV-AC cells.

    PubMed

    Stegajev, Vasili; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Salem, Abdelhakim; Rozov, Stanislav; Stark, Holger; Nordström, Dan C E; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2014-12-01

    Apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease affecting exocrine glands. Our recent studies revealed diminished histamine H4 receptor (H₄R) expression and impaired histamine transport in the salivary gland epithelial cells in SS. The aim was now to test if nanomolar histamine and high-affinity H₄R signaling affect apoptosis of human salivary gland epithelial cell. Simian virus 40-immortalized acinar NS-SV-AC cells were cultured in serum-free keratinocyte medium ± histamine H₄R agonist HST-10. Expression and internalization of H₄R were studied by immunofluorescence staining ± clathrin inhibitor methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Apoptosis induced using tumor necrosis factor-α with nuclear factor-κB inhibitor IMD-0354 was studied using phase contrast microscopy, Western blot, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). HST-10-stimulated H₄R internalization was inhibited by MβCD. Western blotting revealed diminished phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase JNK, but unchanged levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase pERK1/2 in H₄R-stimulated samples compared to controls. qRT-PCR showed up-regulated expression of anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-extra large/Bcl-xL mRNAs and proteins, whereas pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein/BAX remained unchanged in H4R-stimulated samples. H₄R stimulation diminished cleavage of PARP and flow cytometry showed significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect of H₄R stimulation on apoptosis. As far as we know this is the first study showing inhibitory effect of H₄R activation on apoptosis of human salivary gland cells. Diminished H₄R-mediated activation may contribute to loss of immune tolerance in autoimmune diseases and in SS in particular.

  4. Salivary gland disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bethan L; Brown, Jackie E; McGurk, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Salivary gland disease covers a wide range of pathological entities, including salivary gland-specific disease, as well as manifestations of systemic diseases. This chapter discusses the recent advances in managing obstructive salivary gland disease, the move from gland excision to gland preservation, the dilemmas in diagnosing and managing tumours of the salivary glands, and the international data collection to understand the aetiology and progression of Sjögren's disease. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Detection and simultaneous quantification of three smoking-related ethylthymidine adducts in human salivary DNA by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hauh-Jyun Candy; Lee, Chin-Ron

    2014-01-03

    Smoking cigarette increases levels of certain ethylated DNA adducts in certain tissues and urine. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor of various cancers and DNA ethylation is involved in smoking-related carcinogenesis. Among the ethylated DNA adducts, O(2)-ethylthymidine (O(2)-edT) and the promutagenic O(4)-ethylthymidine (O(4)-edT) are poorly repaired and they can accumulate in vivo. Using an accurate, highly sensitive, and quantitative assay based on stable isotope dilution nanoflow liquid chromatography-nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS), O(2)-edT, N(3)-edT (N(3)-ethylthymidine), and O(4)-edT adducts in human salivary DNA were simultaneous detected and quantified. Saliva is easily accessible and available and it can be a potential target in searching for noninvasive biomarkers. Under the highly selected reaction monitoring (H-SRM) mode, salivary samples from 20 smokers and 13 nonsmokers were analyzed. Starting with 50 μg of DNA isolated from about 3.5 mL of saliva, levels of O(2)-edT, N(3)-edT, and O(4)-edT in 20 smokers' salivary DNA samples were 5.3±6.2, 4.5±5.7, 4.2±8.0 in 10(8) normal nucleotides, respectively, while those in 13 nonsmokers were non-detectable. In addition, statistically significant correlations (p<0.0001) were observed between levels of O(2)-edT and N(3)-edT (γ=0.7388), between levels of O(2)-edT and O(4)-edT (γ=0.8839), and between levels of N(3)-edT, and O(4)-edT (γ=0.7835). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of detection and quantification of these three ethylthymidine adducts in human salivary DNA, which might be potential biomarkers for exposure to ethylating agents and possibly for cancer risk assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influences of pH and Iron Concentration on the Salivary Microbiome in Individual Humans with and without Caries

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jianye; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Longqing; Zhang, Jumei; Ma, Rui; Nie, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the differences in the oral microbial communities in saliva from patients with and without caries by performing sequencing with the Illumina MiSeq platform, as well as to further assess their relationships with environmental factors (salivary pH and iron concentration). Forty-three volunteers were selected, including 21 subjects with and 22 without caries, from one village in Gansu, China. Based on 966,255 trimmed sequences and clustering at the 97% similarity level, 1,303 species-level operational taxonomic units were generated. The sequencing data for the two groups revealed that (i) particular distribution patterns (synergistic effects or competition) existed in the subjects with and without caries at both the genus and species levels and (ii) both the salivary pH and iron concentration had significant influences on the microbial community structure. IMPORTANCE The significant influences of the oral environment observed in this study increase the current understanding of the salivary microbiome in caries. These results will be useful for expanding research directions and for improving disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. PMID:27940544

  7. Influences of pH and Iron Concentration on the Salivary Microbiome in Individual Humans with and without Caries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianye; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Longqing; Zhang, Jumei; Ma, Rui; Nie, Hongbing; Li, Zhiqiang

    2017-02-15

    This study aimed to identify the differences in the oral microbial communities in saliva from patients with and without caries by performing sequencing with the Illumina MiSeq platform, as well as to further assess their relationships with environmental factors (salivary pH and iron concentration). Forty-three volunteers were selected, including 21 subjects with and 22 without caries, from one village in Gansu, China. Based on 966,255 trimmed sequences and clustering at the 97% similarity level, 1,303 species-level operational taxonomic units were generated. The sequencing data for the two groups revealed that (i) particular distribution patterns (synergistic effects or competition) existed in the subjects with and without caries at both the genus and species levels and (ii) both the salivary pH and iron concentration had significant influences on the microbial community structure. The significant influences of the oral environment observed in this study increase the current understanding of the salivary microbiome in caries. These results will be useful for expanding research directions and for improving disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Zhou et al.

  8. Up-regulation of Store-operated Ca2+ Entry and Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Promote the Acinar Phenotype of the Primary Human Salivary Gland Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Shyh-Ing; Ong, Hwei Ling; Liu, Xibao; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu S.

    2016-01-01

    The signaling pathways involved in the generation and maintenance of exocrine gland acinar cells have not yet been established. Primary human salivary gland epithelial cells, derived from salivary gland biopsies, acquired an acinar-like phenotype when the [Ca2+] in the serum-free medium (keratinocyte growth medium, KGM) was increased from 0.05 mm (KGM-L) to 1.2 mm (KGM-H). Here we examined the mechanism underlying this Ca2+-dependent generation of the acinar cell phenotype. Compared with cells in KGM-L, those in KGM-H display enhancement of Orai1, STIM1, STIM2, and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1) expression together with an increase in store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), SOCE-dependent nuclear translocation of pGFP-NFAT1, and NFAT-dependent but not NFκB-dependent gene expression. Importantly, AQP5, an acinar-specific protein critical for function, is up-regulated in KGM-H via SOCE/NFAT-dependent gene expression. We identified critical NFAT binding motifs in the AQP5 promoter that are involved in Ca2+-dependent up-regulation of AQP5. These important findings reveal that the Ca2+-induced switch of salivary epithelial cells to an acinar-like phenotype involves remodeling of SOCE and NFAT signaling, which together control the expression of proteins critically relevant for acinar cell function. Our data provide a novel strategy for generating and maintaining acinar cells in culture. PMID:26903518

  9. Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes Nterm-34kDa Salivary Peptide, an Epidemiological Tool to Assess Vector Control in Chikungunya and Dengue Transmission Area

    PubMed Central

    Elanga Ndille, Emmanuel; Doucoure, Souleymane; Poinsignon, Anne; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; D’Ortenzio, Eric; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Remoue, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Background Arboviral diseases are an important public health concerns. Vector control remains the sole strategy to fight against these diseases. Because of the important limits of methods currently used to assess human exposure to Aedes mosquito bites, much effort is being devoted to develop new indicators. Recent studies have reported that human antibody (Ab) responses to Aedes aegypti Nterm-34kDa salivary peptide represent a promising biomarker tool to evaluate the human-Aedes contact. The present study aims investigate whether such biomarker could be used for assessing the efficacy of vector control against Aedes. Methodology/Principal findings Specific human IgG response to the Nterm-34kDa peptide was assessed from 102 individuals living in urban area of Saint-Denis at La Reunion Island, Indian Ocean, before and after the implementation of vector control against Aedes mosquitoes. IgG response decreased after 2 weeks (P < 0.0001), and remained low for 4 weeks post-intervention (P = 0.0002). The specific IgG decrease was associated with the decline of Aedes mosquito density, as estimated by entomological parameters and closely correlated to vector control implementation and was not associated with the use of individual protection, daily commuting outside of the house, sex and age. Our findings indicate a probable short-term decrease of human exposure to Aedes bites just after vector control implementation. Conclusion/Significance Results provided in the present study indicate that IgG Ab response to Aedes aegypti Nterm-34kDa salivary peptide could be a relevant short-time indicator for evaluating the efficacy of vector control interventions against Aedes species. PMID:27906987

  10. Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes Nterm-34kDa Salivary Peptide, an Epidemiological Tool to Assess Vector Control in Chikungunya and Dengue Transmission Area.

    PubMed

    Elanga Ndille, Emmanuel; Doucoure, Souleymane; Poinsignon, Anne; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; D'Ortenzio, Eric; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Remoue, Franck

    2016-12-01

    Arboviral diseases are an important public health concerns. Vector control remains the sole strategy to fight against these diseases. Because of the important limits of methods currently used to assess human exposure to Aedes mosquito bites, much effort is being devoted to develop new indicators. Recent studies have reported that human antibody (Ab) responses to Aedes aegypti Nterm-34kDa salivary peptide represent a promising biomarker tool to evaluate the human-Aedes contact. The present study aims investigate whether such biomarker could be used for assessing the efficacy of vector control against Aedes. Specific human IgG response to the Nterm-34kDa peptide was assessed from 102 individuals living in urban area of Saint-Denis at La Reunion Island, Indian Ocean, before and after the implementation of vector control against Aedes mosquitoes. IgG response decreased after 2 weeks (P < 0.0001), and remained low for 4 weeks post-intervention (P = 0.0002). The specific IgG decrease was associated with the decline of Aedes mosquito density, as estimated by entomological parameters and closely correlated to vector control implementation and was not associated with the use of individual protection, daily commuting outside of the house, sex and age. Our findings indicate a probable short-term decrease of human exposure to Aedes bites just after vector control implementation. Results provided in the present study indicate that IgG Ab response to Aedes aegypti Nterm-34kDa salivary peptide could be a relevant short-time indicator for evaluating the efficacy of vector control interventions against Aedes species.

  11. Salivary antimicrobial defensins in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi K; Liukkonen, Anna; Kauko, Tommi; Penkkala, Saara; Könönen, Eija

    2016-10-01

    Susceptibility to and severity of gingival inflammation are enhanced during pregnancy; however, regulation of oral innate immune response, including antimicrobial peptides, during pregnancy is still unknown. We analysed salivary levels of human beta-defensin (hBD)-1, -2, -3, and human neutrophil peptide (HNP)-1 in pregnant women, and related those to their periodontal status. In this cohort study, 30 generally healthy, non-smoking Caucasian women without periodontitis were followed at three time points during pregnancy and twice post-partum. The non-pregnant group consisted of 24 women, who were examined three times at the following months. At each visit, periodontal status was recorded and stimulated saliva samples were collected. Salivary estradiol, progesterone, and defensin concentrations were measured by ELISA assays. After adjusting for visible plaque and gingival bleeding, reduced salivary concentrations of hBD-1, hBD-2, and HNP-1 were found especially during the third trimester, whereas hBD-3 concentrations did not change during pregnancy and post-partum visits. Weak associations were observed between salivary defensin and hormone concentrations and clinical parameters. There seems to be an independent regulation cascade for each antimicrobial defensin in the oral cavity during pregnancy, despite of the similarities between these antimicrobial peptides. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Measurement of salivary adiponectin concentrations in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Carrillo-Sanchez, Juana D; García-Martinez, Juan D; Tecles, Fernando; Martinez-Subiela, Silvia; German, Alexander J; Ceron, Jose J

    2014-09-01

    Measurement of salivary adiponectin could improve understanding of this adipokine's physiology, and its role in various clinical conditions. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the utility of a human adiponectin ELISA kit for measurement of salivary adiponectin in dogs, to compare serum and salivary adiponectin concentrations in a healthy dog population, and to evaluate possible effects of tooth-cleaning on serum and salivary adiponectin concentrations in dogs. For analytical validation, precision, accuracy, and lower limit of quantification of the assay were determined with saliva samples. In addition, adiponectin concentrations were quantified in serum and saliva samples from 24 healthy dogs, and from 7 dogs with mild gingivitis before and after a tooth-cleaning procedure. The validation assays for salivary adiponectin had all coefficients of variation <15%, and recovery ranged from 85% to 120%. In the linearity test, interference was observed when measuring adiponectin in saliva, but this was solved by diluting samples 1:4. In healthy dogs, salivary and serum adiponectin concentrations were positively correlated (r = .650; P = .009). After the tooth-cleaning procedure, salivary adiponectin concentration increased on day 0 (P = .004), but by day 14, concentrations were less than prior to the procedure (P = .041). The human adiponectin ELISA kit can be used for precise and accurate salivary adiponectin measurement in dogs. Salivary adiponectin increased 24 hours after tooth-cleaning, possibly due to acute inflammation or adiponectin leakage from the blood after gingival trauma. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Impact of a modified carbonated beverage on human dental plaque and salivary pH: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Sardana, V; Balappanavar, A Y; Patil, G B; Kulkarni, N; Sagari, S G; Gupta, K D

    2012-01-01

    To assess the plaque and salivary pH changes at different time intervals in vivo after consumption of a carbonated beverage modified with sodium fluoride and calcium phosphate. Twenty-four subjects aged 18-25 years were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups (group A, original drink Sprite; group B, Sprite with sodium fluoride; group C, Sprite with calcium phosphate). Collection of pooled plaque and unstimulated saliva was done before and after the drinks were consumed by the subjects at 5-, 10-, 20- and 30-minute intervals. The pH rise was higher with group C for plaque and group B for saliva. Modification of the test carbonated beverage with calcium phosphate and fluoride may exert some protective potential, especially in high caries risk candidates.

  14. Kinetic and biophysical investigation of the inhibitory effect of caffeine on human salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase: Implications in oral health and chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, Amaj Ahmed; Alam, Md Fazle; Ahmad, Mohammad; Younus, Hina

    2018-04-01

    Human salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (hsALDH) is primarily a class 3 ALDH (ALDH3A1), and is an important antioxidant enzyme present in the saliva which maintains healthy oral cavity. It detoxifies toxic aldehydes into non-toxic carboxylic acids in the oral cavity. Reduced level of hsALDH activity is a risk factor for oral cancer development. It is involved in the resistance of certain chemotherapeutic drugs. Coffee has been reported to affect the activity of salivary ALDH. In this study, the effect of caffeine on the activity (dehydrogenase and esterase) of hsALDH was investigated. The binding of caffeine to hsALDH was studied using different biophysical methods and molecular docking analysis. Caffeine was found to inhibit both crude and purified hsALDH. The Km increased and the Vmax decreased showing a mixed type of inhibition. Caffeine decreased the nucleophilicity of the catalytic cysteine residue. It binds to the active site of ALDH3A1 by forming a complex through non-covalent interactions with some highly conserved amino acid residues. It partially alters the secondary structure of the enzyme. Therefore, it is very likely that caffeine binds and inhibits the activity of hsALDH by decreasing substrate binding affinity and the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. The study indicates that oral intake of caffeine may have a harmful effect on the oral health and may increase the risk of carcinogenesis through the inhibition of this important enzyme. Further, the inactivation of oxazaphosphorine based chemotherapeutic drugs by ALDH3A1 may be prevented by using caffeine as an adjuvant during medication which is expected to increase the sensitivity of these drugs through its inhibitory effect on the enzyme.

  15. Exploration of Human Salivary Microbiomes—Insights into the Novel Characteristics of Microbial Community Structure in Caries and Caries-Free Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaoguo; Hu, Xiaopan; Jiao, Kangli; He, Xiangyi; Li, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jizeng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, high-throughput sequencing has improved the understanding of the microbiological etiology of caries, but the characteristics of the microbial community structure in the human oral cavity with and without caries are not completely clear. To better understand these characteristics, Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing was utilized to analyze 20 salivary samples (10 caries-free and 10 caries) from subjects from the same town in Dongxiang, Gansu, China. A total of 5,113 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units, 97% cutoff) were characterized in all of the salivary samples obtained from the 20 subjects. A comparison of the two groups revealed that (i) the predominant phyla were constant between the two groups; (ii) the relative abundance of the genera Veillonella, Bifidobacterium, Selenomonas, Olsenella, Parascardovia, Scardovia, Chryseobacterium, Terrimonas, Burkholderia and Sporobacter was significantly higher in the group with caries (P < 0.05); and (iii) four genera with low relative abundance (< 0.01% on average), including two characteristic genera in caries (Chryseobacterium and Scardovia), significantly influenced the microbial community structure at the genus and OTU levels. Moreover, via co-occurrence and principal component analyses, the co-prevalence of the pathogenic genera was detected in the caries samples, but in the caries-free samples, the function of clustered genera was more random. This result suggests that a synergistic effect may be influencing the assembly of the caries microbial community, whereas competition may play a more dominant role in governing the microbial community in the caries-free group. Our findings regarding the characteristics of the microbial communities of the groups with and without caries might improve the understanding of the microbiological etiology of caries and might improve the prevention and cure of caries in the future. PMID:26784334

  16. Modifications of the acidic soluble salivary proteome in human children from birth to the age of 48months investigated by a top-down HPLC-ESI-MS platform.

    PubMed

    Manconi, B; Cabras, T; Pisano, E; Sanna, M T; Olianas, A; Fanos, V; Faa, G; Nemolato, S; Iavarone, F; Castagnola, M; Messana, I

    2013-10-08

    During the first year of life the infant oral environment undergoes dramatic changes. To investigate how the salivary proteome of human children evolves during infant development we have analyzed whole saliva of 88 children aged between 0 and 48months by a top-down platform based on RP-HPLC-ESI-MS. Children were divided according to their age into five groups (A, 0-6months, N=17; B, 7-12months, N=14; C, 13-24months, N=32; D, 25-36months, N=16; E, 37-48months, N=9). The proteins and peptides analyzed were histatins (histatin-1, histatin-3 1/24), acidic proline-rich proteins, statherin, P-B peptide, and salivary cystatins. Protein and peptide quantification based on the area of the RP-HPLC-ESI-MS extracted ion current peak evidenced that: (i) concentrations of the major salivary proteins/peptides showed a minimum in the 0-6-month-old group and increased with age; (ii) the level of histatin-1 reached a maximum in the 7-12-month-old group, a minimum in the 13-24-month-aged babies and it increased again in the 25-36-month-old group; (iii) S-type cystatins were almost undetectable in the 0-6-month-old group; (iv) P-B peptide concentration greatly increased with age; (v) histatin-3 1/24 and statherin concentrations did not show any age-related variation. The top-down proteomic approach undertaken in this work reveals that the salivary proteome of human children from birth to 48months of age shows important quantitative modifications. The concentrations of the major salivary proteins, with the exception of statherin and histatin-3 1/24, showed a minimum in the 0-6-month-old group when the expression in salivary glands is probably not fully activated. Concentrations of the salivary proteins slowly increased with age, with different trends. Only histatin-1 showed the highest concentration in the 7-12-month-old group, followed by a decrease in the 13-24-month-aged children. This particular trend could be related to the phenomenon of eruption of primary dentition. This study

  17. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  18. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  19. Salivary Exosomes: Emerging Roles in Systemic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yineng; Jia, Lingfei; Zheng, Yunfei; Li, Weiran

    2018-01-01

    Saliva, which contains biological information, is considered a valuable diagnostic tool for local and systemic diseases and conditions because, similar to blood, it contains important molecules like DNA, RNA, and proteins. Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles 30-100 nm in diameter with substantial biological functions, including intracellular communication and signalling. These vesicles, which are present in bodily fluids, including saliva, are released upon fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the cellular plasma membrane. Salivary diagnosis has notable advantages, which include noninvasiveness, ease of collection, absence of coagulation, and a similar content as plasma, as well as increased patient compliance compared to other diagnostic approaches. However, investigation of the roles of salivary exosomes is still in its early years. In this review, we first describe the characteristics of endocytosis and secretion of salivary exosomes, as well as database and bioinformatics analysis of exosomes. Then, we describe strategies for the isolation of exosomes from human saliva and the emerging role of salivary exosomes as potential biomarkers of oral and other systemic diseases. Given the ever-growing role of salivary exosomes, defining their functions and understanding their specific mechanisms will provide novel insights into possible applications of salivary exosomes in the diagnosis and treatment of systemic diseases. PMID:29904278

  20. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ... PDQ) - health professional version. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/adult/salivary-gland-treatment-pdq . Updated January ...

  2. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy References Miloro M, Kolokythas A. Diagnosis and management of salivary gland disorders. In: Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR, eds. Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery . 6th ed. St Louis, ...

  3. Long-Term Quality of Life After Swallowing and Salivary-Sparing Chemo–Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Survivors of Human Papillomavirus–Related Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vainshtein, Jeffrey M.; Moon, Dominic H.; Feng, Felix Y.

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in 2 prospective studies of chemo–intensity modulated radiation therapy (chemo-IMRT) for oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods and Materials: Of 93 patients with stage III/IV OPC treated on prospective studies of swallowing and salivary organ-sparing chemo-IMRT, 69 were eligible for long-term HRQOL assessment. Three validated patient-reported instruments, the Head and Neck QOL (HNQOL) questionnaire, the University of Washington quality of life (UWQOL) questionnaire, and the Xerostomia Questionnaire (XQ), previously administered from baseline through 2 years in the parent studies, were readministered at long-term follow-up, along with the Short-Form 36. Long-term changes in HRQOL frommore » before treatment and 2 years were evaluated. Results: Forty patients (58%) with a median follow-up of 6.5 years participated, 39 of whom (97.5%) had confirmed human papillomavirus–positive OPC. Long term, no clinically significant worsening was detected in mean HRQOL scores compared with 2 years, with stable or improved HRQOL from before treatment in nearly all domains. “Moderate” or greater severity problems were uncommon, reported by 5% of patients for eating, 5% for swallowing, and 2.5% and 5% by HNQOL and UWQOL summary scores, respectively. Freedom from percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube dependence and stricture dilation beyond 2 years was 97.5% and 95%, respectively. Eleven percent and 14% of patients reported “moderate” or “severe” long-term worsening in HNQOL Pain and Overall Bother domains, respectively, which were associated with mean dose to the cervical esophagus, larynx, and pharyngeal constrictors. Conclusions: At more than 6 years' median follow-up, OPC patients treated with swallowing and salivary organ-sparing chemo-IMRT reported stable or improved HRQOL in nearly all domains compared with both before treatment and 2-year follow-up. New late toxicity after 2 years was

  4. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxidative stress resulting from exposure of a human salivary gland cells to paraoxon: an in vitro model for organophosphate oral exposure.

    PubMed

    Prins, John M; Chao, Chih-Kai; Jacobson, Saskia M; Thompson, Charles M; George, Kathleen M

    2014-08-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are used as insecticides, acaricides, and chemical agents and share a common neurotoxic mechanism of action. The biochemical alterations leading to many of the deleterious effects have been studied in neuronal cell lines, however, non-neuronal toxic effects of OPs are far less well characterized in vitro, and specifically in cell lines representing oral routes of exposure. To address this void, the human salivary gland (HSG) cell line, representing likely interactions in the oral cavity, was exposed to the representative OP paraoxon (PX; O,O-diethyl-p-nitrophenoxy phosphate) over a range of concentrations (0.01-100 μM) and analyzed for cytotoxicity. PX induced cytotoxicity in HSG cells at most of the exposure concentrations as revealed by MTT assay, however, the release of LDH only occurred at the highest concentration of PX tested (100 μM) at 48 h. Slight increases in cellular ATP levels were measured in PX-exposed (10 μM) HSG cells at 24 h. Exposing HSG cells to 10 μM PX also led to an increase in DNA fragmentation prior to loss of cellular membrane integrity implicating reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a trigger of toxicity. The ROS genes gss, gstm2, gstt2 and sod2 were upregulated, and the presence of superoxide following 10 μM PX exposure was determined via dihydroethidium fluorescence studies further implicating PX-induced oxidative stress in HSG cells. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Human Salivary Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: Purification, Kinetic Characterization and Effect of Ethanol, Hydrogen Peroxide and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on the Activity of the Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Fazle; Laskar, Amaj Ahmed; Choudhary, Hadi Hasan; Younus, Hina

    2016-09-01

    Human salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (hsALDH) enzyme appears to be the first line of defense in the body against exogenous toxic aldehydes. However till date much work has not been done on this important member of the ALDH family. In this study, we have purified hsALDH to homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose (DEAE-cellulose) ion-exchange chromatography in a single step. The molecular mass of the homodimeric enzyme was determined to be approximately 108 kDa. Four aromatic substrates; benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, 2-naphthaldehyde and 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde were used for determining the activity of pure hsALDH. K m values for these substrates were calculated to be 147.7, 5.31, 0.71 and 3.31 μM, respectively. The best substrates were found to be cinnamaldehyde and 2-naphthaldehyde since they exhibited high V max /K m values. 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde substrate was used for further kinetic characterization of pure hsALDH. The pH and temperature optima of hsALDH were measured to be pH 8 and 45 °C, respectively. The pure enzyme is highly unstable at high temperatures. Ethanol, hydrogen peroxide and SDS activate hsALDH, therefore it is safe and beneficial to include them in mouthwashes and toothpastes in low concentrations.

  7. Obesity, starch digestion and amylase: association between copy number variants at human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic (AMY2) amylase genes

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Danielle; Dhar, Sugandha; Mitchell, Laura M.; Fu, Beiyuan; Tyson, Jess; Shwan, Nzar A.A.; Yang, Fengtang; Thomas, Mark G.; Armour, John A.L.

    2015-01-01

    The human salivary amylase genes display extensive copy number variation (CNV), and recent work has implicated this variation in adaptation to starch-rich diets, and in association with body mass index. In this work, we use paralogue ratio tests, microsatellite analysis, read depth and fibre-FISH to demonstrate that human amylase CNV is not a smooth continuum, but is instead partitioned into distinct haplotype classes. There is a fundamental structural distinction between haplotypes containing odd or even numbers of AMY1 gene units, in turn coupled to CNV in pancreatic amylase genes AMY2A and AMY2B. Most haplotypes have one copy each of AMY2A and AMY2B and contain an odd number of copies of AMY1; consequently, most individuals have an even total number of AMY1. In contrast, haplotypes carrying an even number of AMY1 genes have rearrangements leading to CNVs of AMY2A/AMY2B. Read-depth and experimental data show that different populations harbour different proportions of these basic haplotype classes. In Europeans, the copy numbers of AMY1 and AMY2A are correlated, so that phenotypic associations caused by variation in pancreatic amylase copy number could be detected indirectly as weak association with AMY1 copy number. We show that the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay previously applied to the high-throughput measurement of AMY1 copy number is less accurate than the measures we use and that qPCR data in other studies have been further compromised by systematic miscalibration. Our results uncover new patterns in human amylase variation and imply a potential role for AMY2 CNV in functional associations. PMID:25788522

  8. Obesity, starch digestion and amylase: association between copy number variants at human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic (AMY2) amylase genes.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Danielle; Dhar, Sugandha; Mitchell, Laura M; Fu, Beiyuan; Tyson, Jess; Shwan, Nzar A A; Yang, Fengtang; Thomas, Mark G; Armour, John A L

    2015-06-15

    The human salivary amylase genes display extensive copy number variation (CNV), and recent work has implicated this variation in adaptation to starch-rich diets, and in association with body mass index. In this work, we use paralogue ratio tests, microsatellite analysis, read depth and fibre-FISH to demonstrate that human amylase CNV is not a smooth continuum, but is instead partitioned into distinct haplotype classes. There is a fundamental structural distinction between haplotypes containing odd or even numbers of AMY1 gene units, in turn coupled to CNV in pancreatic amylase genes AMY2A and AMY2B. Most haplotypes have one copy each of AMY2A and AMY2B and contain an odd number of copies of AMY1; consequently, most individuals have an even total number of AMY1. In contrast, haplotypes carrying an even number of AMY1 genes have rearrangements leading to CNVs of AMY2A/AMY2B. Read-depth and experimental data show that different populations harbour different proportions of these basic haplotype classes. In Europeans, the copy numbers of AMY1 and AMY2A are correlated, so that phenotypic associations caused by variation in pancreatic amylase copy number could be detected indirectly as weak association with AMY1 copy number. We show that the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay previously applied to the high-throughput measurement of AMY1 copy number is less accurate than the measures we use and that qPCR data in other studies have been further compromised by systematic miscalibration. Our results uncover new patterns in human amylase variation and imply a potential role for AMY2 CNV in functional associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Stem cell properties of human clonal salivary gland stem cells are enhanced by three-dimensional priming culture in nanofibrous microwells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Songyi; Hong, Hye Jin; Lim, Young Chang; Koh, Won-Gun; Lim, Jae-Yol

    2018-03-22

    Three-dimensional (3D) cultures recapitulate the microenvironment of tissue-resident stem cells and enable them to modulate their properties. We determined whether salivary gland-resident stem cells (SGSCs) are primed by a 3D spheroid culture prior to treating irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction using in-vitro coculture and in-vivo transplant models. 3D spheroid-derived SGSCs (SGSCs 3D ) were obtained from 3D culture in microwells consisting of a nanofiber bottom and cell-repellent hydrogel walls, and were examined for salivary stem or epithelial gene/protein expression, differentiation potential, and paracrine secretory function compared with monolayer-cultured SGSCs (SGSCs 2D ) in vitro and in vivo. SGSCs 3D expressed increased salivary stem cell markers (LGR5 and THY1) and pluripotency markers (POU5F1 and NANOG) compared with SGSCs 2D . Also, SGSCs 3D exhibited enhanced potential to differentiate into salivary epithelial cells upon differentiation induction and increased paracrine secretion as compared to SGSCs 2D . Wnt signaling was activated by 3D spheroid formation in the microwells and suppression of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway led to reduced stemness of SGSCs 3D . Enhanced radioprotective properties of SGSCs 3D against radiation-induced salivary hypofunction was confirmed by an organotypic 3D coculture and in-vivo transplantation experiments. The 3D spheroid culture of SGSCs in nanofibrous microwells promotes stem cell properties via activation of Wnt signaling. This may contribute to SGSC priming prior to regenerative therapy to restore salivary hypofunction after radiotherapy.

  10. Evaluation of Human FcγRIIA (CD32) and FcγRIIIB (CD16) Polymorphisms in Caucasians and African-Americans Using Salivary DNA

    PubMed Central

    van Schie, Rob C. A. A.; Wilson, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Two classes of low-affinity receptors for the Fc region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) (FcγR) are constitutively expressed on resting human neutrophils. These receptors, termed FcγRIIa (CD32) and FcγRIIIb (CD16), display biallelic polymorphisms which have functional consequences with respect to binding and/or ingestion of targets opsonized by human IgG subclass antibodies. The H131-R131 polymorphism of CD32 influences binding of human IgG2 and, to a lesser extent, human IgG3 to neutrophils. The neutrophil antigen (NA1-NA2) polymorphism of CD16 influences the efficiency of phagocytosis of bacteria opsonized by human IgG1 and IgG3. These polymorphisms may influence host susceptibility to certain infectious and/or autoimmune diseases, prompting interest in the development of facile methods for determination of CD32 and CD16 genotype in various clinical settings. We previously reported that genomic DNA from saliva is a suitable alternative to DNA from blood in PCR-based analyses of CD32 and CD16 polymorphisms. In the present study, we utilized for the first time this salivary DNA-based methodology to define CD32 and CD16 genotypes in 271 Caucasian and 118 African-American subjects and to investigate possible linkage disequilibrium between certain CD32 and CD16 genotypes in these two ethnic groups. H131 and R131 gene frequencies were 0.45 and 0.55, respectively, among Caucasians and 0.59 among African-Americans. NA1 and NA2 gene frequencies were 0.38 and 0.62 among Caucasians and 0.39 and 0.61 among African-Americans. Since FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIb synergize in triggering neutrophils, we also assessed the frequency of different CD32 and CD16 genotype combinations in these two groups. In both groups, the R/R131-NA2/NA2 genotype combination was more common than the H/H131-NA1/NA1 combination (threefold for Caucasians versus sevenfold for African-Americans). Whether individuals with the combined R/R131-NA2/NA2 genotype are at greater risk for development of infectious and

  11. Development of isotope labeling LC-MS for human salivary metabolomics and application to profiling metabolome changes associated with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiamin; Dixon, Roger A; Li, Liang

    2012-12-18

    Saliva is a readily available biofluid that may contain metabolites of interest for diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. In this work, a differential (13)C/(12)C isotope dansylation labeling method, combined with liquid chromatography Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-FTICR-MS), is described for quantitative profiling of the human salivary metabolome. New strategies are presented to optimize the sample preparation and LC-MS detection processes. The strategies allow the use of as little of 5 μL of saliva sample as a starting material to determine the concentration changes of an average of 1058 ion pairs or putative metabolites in comparative saliva samples. The overall workflow consists of several steps including acetone-induced protein precipitation, (12)C-dansylation labeling of the metabolites, and LC-UV measurement of the total concentration of the labeled metabolites in individual saliva samples. A pooled sample was prepared from all the individual samples and labeled with (13)C-dansylation to serve as a reference. Using this metabolome profiling method, it was found that compatible metabolome results could be obtained after saliva samples were stored in tubes normally used for genetic material collection at room temperature, -20 °C freezer, and -80 °C freezer over a period of 1 month, suggesting that many saliva samples already collected in genomic studies could become a valuable resource for metabolomics studies, although the effect of much longer term of storage remains to be determined. Finally, the developed method was applied for analyzing the metabolome changes of two different groups: normal healthy older adults and comparable older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Top-ranked 18 metabolites successfully distinguished the two groups, among which seven metabolites were putatively identified while one metabolite, taurine, was definitively identified.

  12. First attempt to validate the gSG6-P1 salivary peptide as an immuno-epidemiological tool for evaluating human exposure to Anopheles funestus bites.

    PubMed

    Poinsignon, Anne; Samb, Badara; Doucoure, Souleymane; Drame, Papa-Makhtar; Sarr, Jean Biram; Sow, Cheikh; Cornelie, Sylvie; Maiga, Sophie; Thiam, Cheikh; Rogerie, François; Guindo, Sohidou; Hermann, Emmanuel; Simondon, François; Dia, Ibrahima; Riveau, Gilles; Konate, Lassana; Remoue, Franck

    2010-10-01

    The development of a biomarker of exposure based on the evaluation of the human antibody response specific to Anopheles salivary proteins seems promising in improving malaria control. The IgG response specific to the gSG6-P1 peptide has already been validated as a biomarker of An. gambiae exposure. This study represents a first attempt to validate the gSG6-P1 peptide as an epidemiological tool evaluating exposure to An. funestus bites, the second main malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa. A multi-disciplinary survey was performed in a Senegalese village where An. funestus represents the principal anopheline species. The IgG antibody level specific to gSG6-P1 was evaluated and compared in the same children before, at the peak and after the rainy season. Two-thirds of the children developed a specific IgG response to gSG6-P1 during the study period and--more interestingly--before the rainy season, when An. funestus was the only anopheline species reported. The specific IgG response increased during the An. funestus exposure season, and a positive association between the IgG level and the level of exposure to An. funestus bites was observed. The results suggest that the evaluation of the IgG response specific to gSG6-P1 in children could also represent a biomarker of exposure to An. funestus bites. The availability of such a biomarker evaluating the exposure to both main Plasmodium falciparum vectors in Africa could be particularly relevant as a direct criterion for the evaluation of the efficacy of vector control strategies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Characteristic hydrolyzing of megalosaccharide by human salivary α-amylase and small intestinal enzymes, and its bioavailability in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sadako; Takami, Masayuki; Tanabe, Kenichi; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2014-09-01

    The digestibility of Megalosaccharide® (newly developed carbohydrate comprising α-1,4-glucosaccharide) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Isomaltosyl-megalosaccharide® (IMS) and nigerosyl-megalosaccharide® (NMS) contain 20% and 50% of the megalosaccharide fraction (degree of polymerization (DP) 10-35), respectively. IMS was hydrolyzed readily by α-amylase to oligosaccharides (DP ≤ 7), and a small amount of glucose was produced from oligosaccharides by small intestinal enzymes (SIEs). NMS was partially hydrolyzed by α-amylase to oligosaccharides, and a small amount of glucose produced by SIEs. When IMS and NMS were treated by SIEs after treatment with human saliva α-amylase for a few minutes, IMS and NMS were hydrolyzed readily to glucose. Plasma levels of glucose and insulin upon ingestion of 50 g of IMS or NMS were elevated the same as those for 50 g of glucose, and breath hydrogen was not excreted. These results suggest that IMS and NMS are digestible carbohydrates.

  14. [The pathology of salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Mahy, P; Reychler, H

    2006-01-01

    The management of benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands requires precise knowledge of tumor histogenesis and classification as well as surgical skills. Pleomorphic adenoma and Whartin's tumor are the most frequent tumors in parotid glands while the probability for malignant tumors is higher in other glands, especially in sublingual and minor salivary glands. Those malignant salivary glands tumors are rare and necessitate multidisciplinar staging and management in close collaboration with the pathologist and the radiation oncologist.

  15. The "trouble" with salivary testosterone.

    PubMed

    Granger, Douglas A; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Booth, Alan; Kivlighan, Katie T; Schwartz, Eve B

    2004-11-01

    In a series of studies, we identify several specific issues that can limit the value of integrating salivary testosterone in biosocial research. Salivary testosterone measurements can be substantially influenced during the process of sample collection, are susceptible to interference effects caused by the leakage of blood (plasma) into saliva, and are sensitive to storage conditions when samples have been archived. There are gender differences in salivary testosterone levels and variance, the serum-saliva association, the relationship of salivary testosterone to age and pubertal development, and the stability of individual differences in salivary testosterone levels over time. The findings have important implications at several levels of analysis for research that aims to test biosocial models of testosterone--behavior relationships. Recommendations are provided to steer investigators around these "troubles" with salivary testosterone.

  16. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  17. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  18. Responsiveness to 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) Is Associated with Salivary Levels of Two Specific Basic Proline-Rich Proteins in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cabras, Tiziana; Melis, Melania; Castagnola, Massimo; Padiglia, Alessandra; Tepper, Beverly J.; Messana, Irene; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole

    2012-01-01

    Thiourea tasting can be predictive of individual differences in bitter taste responses, general food preferences and eating behavior, and could be correlated with saliva chemical composition. We investigated the possible relationship between PROP bitter taste responsiveness and the salivary proteome in subjects genotyped for TAS2R38 and gustin gene polymorphisms. Taste perception intensity evoked by PROP and NaCl solutions was measured in sixty-three volunteers (21 males, 42 females, age 25±3 y) to establish their PROP taster status, and 24 PROP super-tasters and 21 nontasters were selected to participate in the study. TAS2R38 and gustin gene molecular analysis were performed using PCR techniques. Qualitative and quantitative determination of salivary proteins was performed by HPLC-ESI-MS before and after PROP taste stimulation. PROP super-tastings was strongly associated with the ‘taster’ variant (PAV haplotype) of TAS2R38 and the A allele of rs2274333 polymorphism in the gustin gene and nontasting was associated with the minor alleles at both loci. ANOVA revealed that basal levels of II-2 and Ps-1 proteins, belonging to the basic proline-rich protein (bPRPs) family, were significantly higher in PROP super-taster than in nontaster un-stimulated saliva, and that PROP stimulation elicited a rapid increase in the levels of these same proteins only in PROP super-taster saliva. These data show for the first time that responsiveness to PROP is associated with salivary levels of II-2 peptide and Ps-1 protein, which are products of the PRB1 gene. These findings suggest that PRB1, in addition to TAS2R38 and gustin, could contribute to individual differences in thiourea sensitivity, and the expression of the PROP phenotype as a complex genetic trait. PMID:22312435

  19. Responsiveness to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is associated with salivary levels of two specific basic proline-rich proteins in humans.

    PubMed

    Cabras, Tiziana; Melis, Melania; Castagnola, Massimo; Padiglia, Alessandra; Tepper, Beverly J; Messana, Irene; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole

    2012-01-01

    Thiourea tasting can be predictive of individual differences in bitter taste responses, general food preferences and eating behavior, and could be correlated with saliva chemical composition. We investigated the possible relationship between PROP bitter taste responsiveness and the salivary proteome in subjects genotyped for TAS2R38 and gustin gene polymorphisms. Taste perception intensity evoked by PROP and NaCl solutions was measured in sixty-three volunteers (21 males, 42 females, age 25±3 y) to establish their PROP taster status, and 24 PROP super-tasters and 21 nontasters were selected to participate in the study. TAS2R38 and gustin gene molecular analysis were performed using PCR techniques. Qualitative and quantitative determination of salivary proteins was performed by HPLC-ESI-MS before and after PROP taste stimulation. PROP super-tastings was strongly associated with the 'taster' variant (PAV haplotype) of TAS2R38 and the A allele of rs2274333 polymorphism in the gustin gene and nontasting was associated with the minor alleles at both loci. ANOVA revealed that basal levels of II-2 and Ps-1 proteins, belonging to the basic proline-rich protein (bPRPs) family, were significantly higher in PROP super-taster than in nontaster un-stimulated saliva, and that PROP stimulation elicited a rapid increase in the levels of these same proteins only in PROP super-taster saliva. These data show for the first time that responsiveness to PROP is associated with salivary levels of II-2 peptide and Ps-1 protein, which are products of the PRB1 gene. These findings suggest that PRB1, in addition to TAS2R38 and gustin, could contribute to individual differences in thiourea sensitivity, and the expression of the PROP phenotype as a complex genetic trait.

  20. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants’ happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers’ attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels. PMID:28683075

  1. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  2. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments.

  3. Dengue virus replicates and accumulates in Aedes aegypti salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Raquin, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.raquin@univ-lyon1

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an RNA virus transmitted among humans by mosquito vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti. DENV transmission requires viral dissemination from the mosquito midgut to the salivary glands. During this process the virus undergoes several population bottlenecks, which are stochastic reductions in population size that restrict intra-host viral genetic diversity and limit the efficiency of natural selection. Despite the implications for virus transmission and evolution, DENV replication in salivary glands has not been directly demonstrated. Here, we used a strand-specific quantitative RT-PCR assay to demonstrate that negative-strand DENV RNA is produced in Ae. aegypti salivary glands, providing conclusive evidencemore » that viral replication occurs in this tissue. Furthermore, we showed that the concentration of DENV genomic RNA in salivary glands increases significantly over time, indicating that active replication likely replenishes DENV genetic diversity prior to transmission. These findings improve our understanding of the biological determinants of DENV fitness and evolution. - Highlights: •Strand-specific RT-qPCR allows accurate quantification of DENV (-) RNA in mosquito tissues. •Detection of DENV (-) RNA in salivary glands provides evidence of viral replication in this tissue. •Viral replication in salivary glands likely replenishes DENV genetic diversity prior to transmission.« less

  4. In Vitro Identification of Histatin 5 Salivary Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Moffa, Eduardo B.; Machado, Maria A. A. M.; Mussi, Maria C. M.; Xiao, Yizhi; Garrido, Saulo S.; Giampaolo, Eunice T.; Siqueira, Walter L.

    2015-01-01

    With recent progress in the analysis of the salivary proteome, the number of salivary proteins identified has increased dramatically. However, the physiological functions of many of the newly discovered proteins remain unclear. Closely related to the study of a protein’s function is the identification of its interaction partners. Although in saliva some proteins may act primarily as single monomeric units, a significant percentage of all salivary proteins, if not the majority, appear to act in complexes with partners to execute their diverse functions. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and pull-down assays were used to identify the heterotypic complexes between histatin 5, a potent natural antifungal protein, and other salivary proteins in saliva. Classical protein–protein interaction methods in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometric techniques were carried out. Co-IP using protein G magnetic Sepharose TM beads suspension was able to capture salivary complexes formed between histatin 5 and its salivary protein partners. Pull-down assay was used to confirm histatin 5 protein partners. A total of 52 different proteins were identified to interact with histatin 5. The present study used proteomic approaches in conjunction with classical biochemical methods to investigate protein–protein interaction in human saliva. Our study demonstrated that when histatin 5 is complexed with salivary amylase, one of the 52 proteins identified as a histatin 5 partner, the antifungal activity of histatin 5 is reduced. We expected that our proteomic approach could serve as a basis for future studies on the mechanism and structural-characterization of those salivary protein interactions to understand their clinical significance. PMID:26544073

  5. Noninvasive measurement of smoking-associated N(3)-ethyladenine and N(7)-ethylguanine in human salivary DNA by stable isotope dilution nanoflow liquid chromatography-nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hauh-Jyun Candy; Lin, Chao-Ray

    2014-02-10

    Evidence showed that ethylating agents are contained in cigarette smoke, which damage DNA producing ethylated DNA adducts, including N(3)-ethyladenine (3-EtAde) and N(7)-ethylguanine (7-EtGua). These two ethylpurines can be depurinated spontaneously and be repaired by enzymes and they have been detected in human urine. In this study, a highly specific and sensitive assay based on stable isotope dilution nanoflow liquid chromatography nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS) was used to measure 3-EtAde and 7-EtGua in human salivary DNA. These ethylpurines were released from DNA by neutral thermal hydrolysis and then enriched by a solid-phase extraction column before nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS analysis. The detection limits (S/N≥3) of 3-EtA and 7-EtG were 15 fg (92 amol) and 10 fg (56 amol), respectively, injected on-column. The lower quantification limits of 3-EtAde and 7-EtGua were both 100 fg, i.e. 620 and 560 amol, respectively, corresponding to 9.4 and 8.6 adducts in 10(9) normal nucleotides, respectively, starting with as little as 20 μg of DNA isolated from an average of 3 mL of saliva. The mean (±SD) levels of 3-EtAde in 15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers were 12.6±7.0 and 9.7±5.3 in 10(8) normal nucleotides, respectively, while those of 7-EtGua were 14.1±8.2 and 3.8±2.8 in 10(8) normal nucleotides in smokers and nonsmokers, respectively. Levels of 7-EtGua, but not 3-EtAde, were statistically significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (p<0.0001). Furthermore, salivary 7-EtGua levels are significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day as well as with the smoking index. This highly specific and sensitive stable isotope dilution nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS assay might be feasible in measuring 7-EtGua in human salivary DNA as a noninvasive biomarker for DNA damage induced by cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical approach to the salivary pellicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jae Ho; Krasieva, Tatiana; Tang, Shuo; Ahn, Yehchan; Kim, Chang Soo; Vu, Diana; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2009-07-01

    The salivary pellicle plays an important role in oral physiology, yet noninvasive in situ characterization and mapping of this layer remains elusive. The goal of this study is to develop an optical approach for the real-time, noninvasive mapping and characterization of salivary pellicles using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM). The long-term goals are to improve diagnostic capabilities in the oral cavity, gain a better understanding of physiological and pathological processes related to the oral hard tissues, and monitor treatment responses. A salivary pellicle is incubated on small enamel cubes using human whole saliva. OCT and OCM imaging occurs at 0, 10, 30, 60 min, and 24 h. For some imaging, spherical gold nanoparticles (15 nm) are added to determine whether this would increase the optical signal from the pellicle. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides the baseline information. In the saliva-incubated samples, a surface signal from the developing pellicle is visible in OCT images. Pellicle ``islands'' form, which increase in complexity over time until they merge to form a continuous layer over the enamel surface. Noninvasive, in situ time-based pellicle formation on the enamel surface is visualized and characterized using optical imaging.

  7. Epidemiology of salivary gland infections.

    PubMed

    Cascarini, Luke; McGurk, Mark

    2009-08-01

    This article approaches sialadenitis from a personal perspective based on 15 years of clinical practice limited mainly to salivary gland diseases. Disorders of the salivary glands are uncommon. When they occur, experience in managing the process is diluted over a range of disciplines. The result is that traditional views go unchallenged and are recast unchanged from one textbook to another. Sialadenitis of bacterial origin is a relatively uncommon occurrence today and is normally associated with sialoliths. The most common viral infection of the salivary glands is mumps.

  8. Salivary flow and composition in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Lasisi, T J; Fasanmade, A A

    2012-06-07

    The study investigated the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on salivary flow and composition in humans compared to healthy sex and age matched controls. Forty adult human subjects divided into 20 diabetic and 20 non-diabetic healthy subjects were included. Saliva samples were collected and analysed for glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate. Salivary flow rate was also determined. The results showed that salivary glucose and potassium levels were significantly higher (p = 0.01 and 0.002 respectively) in diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic participants. It was also found that the diabetic patients had significant reduction in salivary flow rate when compared with non-diabetic individuals. In contrast, there was no significant difference in levels of total protein, Na+, Ca++, Cl- and HCO3- between the two groups. These results suggest that some oral diseases associated with diabetes mellitus may be due to altered levels of salivary glucose, potassium and flow.

  9. Salivary DNA and markers of oxidative stress in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Baňasová, Lenka; Kamodyová, Natália; Janšáková, Katarína; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Stanko, Peter; Turňa, Ján; Celec, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Previous observational studies have shown that periodontal status is associated with salivary markers of oxidative damage. A direct comparison of periodontitis patients and controls using a wide palette of salivary markers of oxidative stress is lacking. Characteristics of salivary DNA in periodontitis are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the salivary markers of oxidative stress and characteristics of salivary DNA between patients with chronic periodontitis and periodontitis-free controls. Saliva was collected from 23 patients with chronic periodontitis and 19 periodontitis-free controls. All participants underwent a clinical periodontal examination. Markers of oxidative and carbonyl stress were measured in saliva. Human and bacterial DNA was quantified, and human DNA integrity was assessed. Salivary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances were higher in patients than in controls; at least in men, the difference was significant (p < 0.01). In women, patients had significantly lower salivary antioxidant status (p < 0.001). No quantitative differences were found regarding salivary DNA. Tendencies towards reduced DNA integrity were found in periodontitis patients. The results confirmed the association of salivary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances with periodontitis. Lipid peroxidation in periodontitis seems to be caused by increased production of reactive oxygen species in men and by decreased antioxidant status in women. Whether lower salivary DNA integrity is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis remains to be elucidated. Salivary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances are associated with periodontitis at least on a population level. Sex-specific causes of lipid peroxidation might point towards different pathogenic mechanisms.

  10. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer: Risk Factors Request Permissions Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... To see other pages, use the menu. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance ...

  11. Salivary pH, calcium, phosphorus and selected enzymes in healthy dogs: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iacopetti, Ilaria; Perazzi, Anna; Badon, Tamara; Bedin, Silvia; Contiero, Barbara; Ricci, Rebecca

    2017-11-10

    Saliva in dogs, as in humans, is a complex fluid secreted by different salivary glands in the oral cavity to protect the oral mucosa and teeth. The use of saliva as a substitute for blood in diagnosing and prognosticating disease in humans is widely accepted. Salivary biochemistry has also been used as a marker for periodontal disease in humans. No studies have as yet investigated the relation between salivary biochemistry and periodontal disease in dogs, however; neither has the salivary composition of healthy dogs with no oral disease been assessed. The purpose of this study was to obtain an overview on pH distribution and a set of salivary biochemical analytes (calcium, phosphorus, lactate dehydrogenase, lysozyme and amylase) commonly related to oral health in humans in a subset population of healthy young dogs with no periodontal disease or previous oral disease. Data were analyzed to gather salivary reference ranges for pH and each parameter and to assess a possible correlation between salivary and serum analytes. Twenty-nine adult client-owned dogs were recruited for the study. Lactate dehydrogenase and lysozyme showed higher concentrations in saliva than in serum, whereas amylase showed the contrary. Salivary biochemistry values did not differ between males and females or between non-neutered and neutered individuals. No significant correlations between salivary and serum calcium, phosphorus, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase and lysozyme were identified in this study. Data allowed intervals for the salivary pH and other analytes investigated to be obtained from healthy dogs with healthy oral conditions. These preliminary data can contribute to enlarge our understanding of the functional role of saliva and its relation to oral health in dogs.

  12. Fragmentation of salivary stones with a 980nm diode laser.

    PubMed

    Luers, Jan Christoffer; Petry-Schmelzer, Jan Niklas; Hein, Wolfgang G; Gostian, Antoniu-Oreste; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Beutner, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Intraductal laser lithotripsy is a preferred method to fragment large, immobile intraglandular salivary stones. A number of different laser systems has been investigated for this purpose. It was our aim to study the effectiveness of a 980nm diode laser when fragmenting salivary stones in an experimental set up. In an experimental set up we used a 980nm diode laser for the lithotripsy of 9 salivary stones. The temperature circle around the laser fibre tip was measured and stone remnants were chemically analysed for their composition. The salivary stones had a mean diameter of 6.7mm×5.6mm×3.0mm. Laser fragmentation with the diode laser was successful at all stones. The temperature next to the salivary stone increased to around 30°C during the active lithotripsy with continuous rinsing (fluid temperature 21°C). At a distance of 2mm the temperature around the laser fibre's tip is reduced by already about 50%. The salivary stones mainly consisted of carbonate apatite, followed by β-calcium phosphate and other calcium phosphates. The fragmentation of salivary stones with a 980nm diode laser is possible in principle. Under a continuous irrigation with a positioning of the laser fibre's tip at the centre of the stone, no relevant temperature increase in the vicinity of the stone occurs. However, before the laser is used in humans, in vivo experiments on animal material seem to be advisable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India.

    PubMed

    Panchbhai, Arati S; Degwekar, Shirish S; Bhowte, Rahul R

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is known to influence salivary composition and function, eventually affecting the oral cavity. We thus evaluated saliva samples for levels of glucose, amylase and total protein, and assessed salivary flow rate in diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. We also analyzed these parameters with regard to duration and type of diabetes mellitus and gender, and aimed to assess the interrelationships among the variables included in the study. A total of 120 age- and sex-matched participants were divided into 3 groups of 40 each; the uncontrolled diabetic group, the controlled diabetic group and the healthy non-diabetic group. Salivary investigations were performed using unstimulated whole saliva. Mean salivary glucose levels were found to be significantly elevated in both uncontrolled and controlled diabetics, as compared to healthy non-diabetics. There were significant decreases in mean salivary amylase levels in controlled diabetics when compared to healthy non-diabetics. Other than salivary glucose, no other parameters were found to be markedly affected in diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to explore the clinical implications of these study results.

  14. Expression of resolvin D1 biosynthetic pathways in salivary epithelium.

    PubMed

    Leigh, N J; Nelson, J W; Mellas, R E; Aguirre, A; Baker, O J

    2014-03-01

    Resolvins are potent anti-inflammatory mediators derived from ω-3 fatty acids. Results from our previous studies indicated that resolvin D1 (RvD1) blocks pro-inflammatory responses in salivary glands. Furthermore, RvD1 enhances salivary epithelial integrity, demonstrating its potential use for the restoration of salivary gland function in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We investigated whether the RvD1 biosynthetic machinery (e.g., cytosolic phospholipase A2, calcium-independent phospholipase A2, 12/15 and 5-lipoxygenase) is expressed in mouse submandibular glands (mSMG), using qPCR and Western blot analyses. Additionally, we determined the localization of RvD1 biosynthetic machinery in mSMG and human minor salivary glands (hMSG), with and without SS, using confocal microscopy. Finally, we measured RvD1 levels in cell supernatants from mSMG cell cultures and freshly isolated mSMG cells, with and without SS, using ELISA. Our results indicate that: (1) RvD1 machinery is expressed in mouse and human salivary glands; (2) polar distribution of RvD1 biosynthetic machinery is lost in hMSG with SS; (3) RvD1 levels in mSMG cell culture supernatants increased with time; and (4) RvD1 levels in mSMG cell supernatants, with and without SS, were similar. These studies demonstrate that the RvD1 biosynthesis machinery is expressed and functional in salivary glands with and without SS.

  15. Sensitivity of Salivary Glands to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Grundmann, O.; Mitchell, G.C.; Limesand, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer causes significant secondary side-effects in normal salivary glands, resulting in diminished quality of life for these individuals. Salivary glands are exquisitely sensitive to radiation and display acute and chronic responses to radiotherapy. This review will discuss clinical implications of radiosensitivity in normal salivary glands, compare animal models used to investigate radiation-induced salivary gland damage, address therapeutic advances, and project future directions in the field. PMID:19783796

  16. Detection of human T lymphotropic virus type-I bZIP factor and tax in the salivary glands of Sjögren's syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideki; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Sasaki, Daisuke; Takatani, Ayuko; Shimizu, Toshimasa; Kurushima, Shota; Horai, Yoshiro; Nakashima, Yoshikazu; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Fukuoka, Junya; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2018-03-20

    To detect HTLV-I bZIP factor (HBZ), tax and relevant molecules in labial salivary glands (LSGs) from patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The expressions of HBZ and tax in T cell lines and LSGs were analysed by in situ hybridization (ISH) or real time PCR. The expressions of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) and p65 in immunohistochemistry were quantified. After specificity of ISH probes was determined in 5 T cell lines, in LSGs from an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patient and 3 HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM)-SS patients, both HBZ and tax signals were detected in infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNCs) and ducts, and HBZ and tax were dominantly expressed in MNCs of ATL and HAM-SS, respectively. HBZ was dominantly observed in LSGs from 8 HTLV-I asymptomatic carrier (AC)-SS patients; faint expression of HBZ was observed in LSGs from 5 HTLV-I-seronegative SS patients. No cell adhesion molecule 1(CADM1) expressed in LSGs from the ATL patient. Although Foxp3 expression was observed in LSG MNCs of all of the SS patients, the ATL patient's expression was significantly greater than that of the AC-SS (p<0.01) and HTLV-I-seronegative SS (p<0.01) patients. The Foxp3 expression was similar in ATL and HAMSS, but significantly higher in HAM-SS than AC-SS (p<0.05). p65 was expressed in LSG MNC nuclei from all SS patients and co-expressed with Foxp3. The expressions of Foxp3 in ducts differed according to HTLV-I infection. These results suggest that HBZ-mediated Foxp3 expression is partly associated with the pathogenesis of HTLV-I-seropositive SS.

  17. Salivary Biomarkers in Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Karolina Elżbieta; Wong, David T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the United States. Its symptoms are often not specific and absent, until the tumors have already metastasized. Therefore, there is an urgent demand for developing rapid, highly accurate and non-invasive tools for cancer screening, early detection, diagnostics, staging and prognostics. Saliva as a multi-constituent oral fluid, comprises secretions from the major and minor salivary glands, extensively supplied by blood. Molecules such as DNAs, RNAs, proteins, metabolites, and microbiota, present in blood, could be also found in saliva. Recently, salivary diagnostics has drawn significant attention for the detection of specific biomarkers, since the sample collection and processing are simple, cost-effective, precise and do not cause patient discomfort. Here, we review recent salivary candidate biomarkers for systemic cancers by dividing them according to their origin into: genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and microbial types. PMID:27943101

  18. Estimation of Salivary Parameters among Autoimmune Thyroiditis Patients.

    PubMed

    Syed, Yasmeen Amthul; Reddy, Bh Satheesh; Ramamurthy, T K; Rajendra, Kavitha; Nerella, Narendra Kumar; Krishnan, Meenakshi; Ramesh, M V; Mohammed, Rezwana Begum

    2017-07-01

    Saliva is a complex secretion that protects and lubricates the oral cavity. Various systemic diseases and their treatment alter the salivary gland function; one such disease is Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD). AITD has been postulated to exert its hormonal influence on the salivary glands, leading to reduced salivary output. There's a paucity of literature, verifying the stated conjunction in human subjects. The aim was to investigate the salivary profile in AITD patients and its comparison with controls. Descriptive cross-sectional comparative study was conducted using convenience sampling method for screening the presence of thyroid disorders. Two groups comprising of 30 patients in each group diagnosed with autoimmune hypothyroiditis (n=30) and hyperthyroiditis (n=30) respectively and thirty healthy volunteers who were age and sex matched were included as controls. Saliva was collected and evaluated for Unstimulated Salivary Flow Rate (USSFR), pH and buffer capacity. ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test was performed to find the statistical significance and for pairwise comparison. Statistically significant difference was observed between autoimmune hypothyroiditis, autoimmune hyperthyroiditis and control group with respect to USSFR (p<0.007), pH (p<0.001) and buffer capacity (p<0.001). On pairwise comparisons statistically significant difference was observed between autoimmune hypothyroiditis and autoimmune hyperthyroiditis with respect to controls. We conclude that significant involvement of salivary glands may occur in cases of AITD. Our study showed significant reduction of sialometric values in AITD patients when compared to controls. A strong clinical suspicion of thyroid diseases should be considered when there is chronic hyposalivation; hence thyroid profile must also be done, if the known causes have been excluded.

  19. Estimation of Salivary Parameters among Autoimmune Thyroiditis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, BH Satheesh; Ramamurthy, TK; Rajendra, Kavitha; Nerella, Narendra Kumar; Krishnan, Meenakshi; Ramesh, MV; Mohammed, Rezwana Begum

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Saliva is a complex secretion that protects and lubricates the oral cavity. Various systemic diseases and their treatment alter the salivary gland function; one such disease is Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD). AITD has been postulated to exert its hormonal influence on the salivary glands, leading to reduced salivary output. There’s a paucity of literature, verifying the stated conjunction in human subjects. Aim The aim was to investigate the salivary profile in AITD patients and its comparison with controls. Materials and Methods Descriptive cross-sectional comparative study was conducted using convenience sampling method for screening the presence of thyroid disorders. Two groups comprising of 30 patients in each group diagnosed with autoimmune hypothyroiditis (n=30) and hyperthyroiditis (n=30) respectively and thirty healthy volunteers who were age and sex matched were included as controls. Saliva was collected and evaluated for Unstimulated Salivary Flow Rate (USSFR), pH and buffer capacity. ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test was performed to find the statistical significance and for pairwise comparison. Results Statistically significant difference was observed between autoimmune hypothyroiditis, autoimmune hyperthyroiditis and control group with respect to USSFR (p<0.007), pH (p<0.001) and buffer capacity (p<0.001). On pairwise comparisons statistically significant difference was observed between autoimmune hypothyroiditis and autoimmune hyperthyroiditis with respect to controls. Conclusion We conclude that significant involvement of salivary glands may occur in cases of AITD. Our study showed significant reduction of sialometric values in AITD patients when compared to controls. A strong clinical suspicion of thyroid diseases should be considered when there is chronic hyposalivation; hence thyroid profile must also be done, if the known causes have been excluded. PMID:28893031

  20. Salivary gland diseases: infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles.

    PubMed

    Delli, Konstantina; Spijkervet, Fred K L; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary duct, an autoimmmune disease or cancer therapy. Infections can occur in all types of salivary glands and are observed at all ages. Sialolithiasis is characterized by the development of calcified structures in the salivary glands, especially in the submandibular gland. Sialoliths are generally attributed to retention of saliva and are usually accompanied by swelling and pain when a salivary stimulus is applied. Mucoceles can be differentiated into mucus extravasation phenomenon or mucus escape reaction, mucus retention cysts and ranulas. They result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissues or from retention of saliva within the duct.

  1. IgG responses to the gSG6-P1 salivary peptide for evaluating human exposure to Anopheles bites in urban areas of Dakar region, Sénégal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urban malaria can be a serious public health problem in Africa. Human-landing catches of mosquitoes, a standard entomological method to assess human exposure to malaria vector bites, can lack sensitivity in areas where exposure is low. A simple and highly sensitive tool could be a complementary indicator for evaluating malaria exposure in such epidemiological contexts. The human antibody response to the specific Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary peptide have been described as an adequate tool biomarker for a reliable assessment of human exposure level to Anopheles bites. The aim of this study was to use this biomarker to evaluate the human exposure to Anopheles mosquito bites in urban settings of Dakar (Senegal), one of the largest cities in West Africa, where Anopheles biting rates and malaria transmission are supposed to be low. Methods One cross-sectional study concerning 1,010 (505 households) children (n = 505) and adults (n = 505) living in 16 districts of downtown Dakar and its suburbs was performed from October to December 2008. The IgG responses to gSG6-P1 peptide have been assessed and compared to entomological data obtained in or near the same district. Results Considerable individual variations in anti-gSG6-P1 IgG levels were observed between and within districts. In spite of this individual heterogeneity, the median level of specific IgG and the percentage of immune responders differed significantly between districts. A positive and significant association was observed between the exposure levels to Anopheles gambiae bites, estimated by classical entomological methods, and the median IgG levels or the percentage of immune responders measuring the contact between human populations and Anopheles mosquitoes. Interestingly, immunological parameters seemed to better discriminate the exposure level to Anopheles bites between different exposure groups of districts. Conclusions Specific human IgG responses to gSG6-P1 peptide biomarker represent, at the

  2. Modulation of Sodium/Iodide Symporter Expression in the Salivary Gland

    PubMed Central

    La Perle, Krista M.D.; Kim, Dong Chul; Hall, Nathan C.; Bobbey, Adam; Shen, Daniel H.; Nagy, Rebecca S.; Wakely, Paul E.; Lehman, Amy; Jarjoura, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Physiologic iodide-uptake, mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), in the salivary gland confers its susceptibility to radioactive iodine–induced damage following 131I treatment of thyroid cancer. Subsequent quality of life for thyroid cancer survivors can be decreased due to recurrent sialoadenitis and persistent xerostomia. NIS expression at the three principal salivary duct components in various pathological conditions was examined to better our understanding of NIS modulation in the salivary gland. Methods NIS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in human salivary gland tissue microarrays constructed of normal, inflamed, and neoplastic salivary tissue cores. Cumulative 123I radioactivity reflecting the combination of NIS activity with clearance of saliva secretion in submandibular and parotid salivary glands was evaluated by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging 24 hours after 123I administration in 50 thyroid cancer patients. Results NIS is highly expressed in the basolateral membranes of the majority of striated ducts, yet weakly expressed in few intercalated and excretory duct cells. The ratio of 123I accumulation between parotid and submandibular glands is 2.38±0.19. However, the corresponding ratio of 123I accumulation normalized by volume of interest is 1.19±0.06. The percentage of NIS-positive striated duct cells in submandibular salivary glands was statistically greater than in parotid salivary glands, suggesting a higher clearance rate of saliva secretion in submandibular salivary glands. NIS expression in striated ducts was heterogeneously decreased or absent in sialoadenitis. Most ductal salivary gland tumors did not express NIS. However, Warthin's tumors of striated duct origin exhibited consistent and intense NIS staining, corresponding with radioactive iodine uptake. Conclusions NIS expression is tightly modulated during the transition of intercalated to striated ducts and striated

  3. Cheilitis glandularis: immunohistochemical expression of protein water channels (aquaporins) in minor labial salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nico, M M S; Melo, J N; Lourenço, S V

    2014-03-01

    Cheilitis glandularis (CG) is a rare condition in which thick saliva is secreted from dilated ostia of swollen minor salivary glands from the lips. Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that exhibit channel activity specific for water and small solutes. AQPs are essential for corporal homeostasis, and are widely expressed through human tissues. Most AQPs studies are based on renal and nervous pathophysiology; few involve salivary glands. Some previous investigators hypothesized that minor salivary gland structure and function is normal on CG. To study possible salivary synthesis alterations in CG, we compared the expression of AQPs present in minor salivary glands in specimens with CG and controls by using immunohistochemistry.   Seven cases of CG and three normal controls were studied. Intensity and patterns of expression of AQP 1, 2 and 8 differed in CG compared with controls. AQP 4 and 5 (the most important AQP in salivary function) showed identical patterns in CG and controls. Our findings suggest that the expression and arguably, function of some of the AQPs may be altered in CG; consequently, water flow mechanism abnormalities with possible alteration in salivary composition seem to occur. External factors (mainly UV rays) seem to play an important role in CG; nonetheless, our findings suggest that there might be some degree of alteration on water transportation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Individual Differences in AMY1 Gene Copy Number, Salivary α-Amylase Levels, and the Perception of Oral Starch

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Abigail L.; Peyrot des Gachons, Catherine; Plank, Kimberly L.; Alarcon, Suzanne; Breslin, Paul A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The digestion of dietary starch in humans is initiated by salivary α-amylase, an endo-enzyme that hydrolyzes starch into maltose, maltotriose and larger oligosaccharides. Salivary amylase accounts for 40 to 50% of protein in human saliva and rapidly alters the physical properties of starch. Importantly, the quantity and enzymatic activity of salivary amylase show significant individual variation. However, linking variation in salivary amylase levels with the oral perception of starch has proven difficult. Furthermore, the relationship between copy number variations (CNVs) in the AMY1 gene, which influence salivary amylase levels, and starch viscosity perception has not been explored. Principal Findings Here we demonstrate that saliva containing high levels of amylase has sufficient activity to rapidly hydrolyze a viscous starch solution in vitro. Furthermore, we show with time-intensity ratings, which track the digestion of starch during oral manipulation, that individuals with high amylase levels report faster and more significant decreases in perceived starch viscosity than people with low salivary amylase levels. Finally, we demonstrate that AMY1 CNVs predict an individual's amount and activity of salivary amylase and thereby, ultimately determine their perceived rate of oral starch viscosity thinning. Conclusions By linking genetic variation and its consequent salivary enzymatic differences to the perceptual sequellae of these variations, we show that AMY1 copy number relates to salivary amylase concentration and enzymatic activity level, which, in turn, account for individual variation in the oral perception of starch viscosity. The profound individual differences in salivary amylase levels and salivary activity may contribute significantly to individual differences in dietary starch intake and, consequently, to overall nutritional status. PMID:20967220

  5. A Sand Fly Salivary Protein Vaccine Shows Efficacy Against Vector-Transmitted Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Nonhuman Primates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-03

    demonstrating its immunogenicity in humans. PdSP15 sequence and structure show no homol- ogy to mammalian proteins, further demonstrating its potential...sequence or structure homology to known human proteins The protective salivary antigen PdSP15 shares sequence homology only to the small odorant binding...salivary proteins PpSP15 and PsSP15, respectively (Fig. 4B). To exclude any structural similarities to human pro teins, the crystal structure of PdPS15

  6. Salivary Cortisol, Salivary Alpha Amylase, and the Dental Anxiety Scale

    PubMed Central

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels. PMID:23763559

  7. Salivary antimicrobial proteins associate with age-related changes in streptococcal composition in dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, J; Sherriff, A; Lappin, D F; Ramage, G; Conway, D I; Macpherson, L M D; Culshaw, S

    2014-12-01

    Secretion of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) and salivary antibodies can modify biofilm formation at host body surfaces. In adolescents, associations have been reported between dental caries and salivary AMPs. AMPs demonstrate direct antimicrobial effects at high concentrations, and at lower more physiological concentrations they mediate changes in host cell defenses, which may alter the local environment and indirectly shape local biofilm formation. The expression of salivary AMPs in preschool children, at an age when the oral bacteria are known to change, has not been investigated. We sought to investigate salivary AMP expression in the context of previously well-documented changes in the oral cavities of this age group including salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), oral bacteria and dental caries. Dental plaque and saliva were collected from 57 children aged 12-24 months at baseline, of whom 23 children were followed-up at 3 years of age. At each time, saliva was assessed for LL37, human neutrophil peptides 1-3, calprotectin, lactoferrin, salivary IgA, total plaque bacteria and Streptococcus mutans. Over time, concentrations of AMPs, S. mutans and bacteria-specific salivary IgA increased. Caries experience was also recorded when children were 3 years old. Concentrations of AMPs were highest in the saliva of 3-year-old children with the greatest burden of S. mutans. These data suggest that salivary AMPs are variable over time and between individuals, and are linked with bacterial colonization. At follow up, the majority of children remained caries free. Larger longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether salivary AMP levels are predictive of caries and whether their modulation offers therapeutic benefit. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Parotid salivary duct stenosis following caudal maxillectomy.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, Lisa A; Faísca, Pedro B; Niza, Maria M R E

    2014-01-01

    Parotid salivary duct dilation was diagnosed in a 9-year-old male dog. The dog had undergone caudal maxillectomy on the ipsilateral side 2-years prior to presentation. Treatment consisted of parotid salivary duct excision and superficial parotidectomy that lead to the resolution of clinical signs. Transient facial neuropraxia was observed immediately after surgery and resolved spontaneously after 2-weeks. Parotid salivary duct dilation should be considered as a chronic postoperative complication following caudal maxillectomy.

  9. Maternal and Paternal Plasma, Salivary, and Urinary Oxytocin and Parent-Infant Synchrony: Considering Stress and Affiliation Components of Human Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Gordon, Ilanit; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna

    2011-01-01

    Studies in mammals have implicated the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) in processes of bond formation and stress modulation, yet the involvement of OT in human bonding throughout life remains poorly understood. We assessed OT in the plasma, saliva, and urine of 112 mothers and fathers interacting with their 4-6-month-old infants. Parent-infant…

  10. Humoral Immunity to Commensal Oral Bacteria in Human Infants: Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Antibodies Reactive with Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis during the First Two Years of Life

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Michael F.; Bryan, Stacey; Evans, Mishell K.; Pearce, Cheryl L.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Sura, Patricia A.; Wientzen, Raoul L.; Bowden, George H. W.

    1999-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies reactive with the pioneer oral streptococci Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 and Streptococcus oralis, the late oral colonizer Streptococcus mutans, and the pioneer enteric bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in saliva samples from 10 human infants from birth to age 2 years were analyzed. Low levels of salivary SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of all four species were detected within the first month after birth, even though S. mutans and E. faecalis were not recovered from the mouths of the infants during the study period. Although there was a fivefold increase in the concentration of SIgA between birth and age 2 years, there were no differences between the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with the four species over this time period. When the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with all four species were normalized to the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 in saliva, SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with these bacteria showed a significant decrease from birth to 2 years of age. Adsorption of each infant’s saliva with cells of one species produced a dramatic reduction of antibodies recognizing the other three species. Sequential adsorption of saliva samples removed all SIgA antibody to the bacteria, indicating that the SIgA antibodies were directed to antigens shared by all four species. The induction by the host of a limited immune response to common antigens that are likely not involved in adherence may be among the mechanisms that commensal streptococci employ to persist in the oral cavity. PMID:10085031

  11. Modern management of salivary calculi.

    PubMed

    McGurk, M; Escudier, M P; Brown, J E

    2005-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the results of a minimally invasive approach to the management of salivary calculi. Four hundred and fifty-five salivary calculi (323 submandibular and 132 parotid) were treated using extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ECSWL), fluoroscopically guided basket retrieval or intraoral stone removal under general anaesthesia. The techniques were used either alone or in combination. ECSWL achieved complete success (stone and symptom free) in 87 (39.4 percent) of 221 patients (84 of 218 primary and all of three secondary procedures; 43 of 131 submandibular, 44 of 90 parotid). Basket retrieval cured 124 (74.7 percent) of 166 patients (103 of 136 primary and 21 of 30 secondary procedures; 80 of 109 submandibular, 44 of 57 parotid). Intraoral surgical removal was successful in a further 137 (95.8 percent) of 143 patients with submandibular stones (99 of 101 primary, 36 of 38 secondary and two of four tertiary procedures). The overall success rate for the three techniques was 348 (76.5 percent) of 455. A minimally invasive approach to the management of salivary calculi is to be encouraged. All three techniques described have low morbidity and afford the possibility of retaining a functional gland.

  12. Salivary hypofunction and xerostomia: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Jane C; Grisius, Margaret; Massey, Ward

    2005-04-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction and complaints of xerostomia are common in elderly patients, irrespective of their living situation. Medication use is frequently related to dry mouth symptoms and reductions in salivary flow rates. Patients with reduced salivary flow are at increased risk for caries, oral fungal infections, swallowing problems, and diminished or altered taste. Oral health care providers should institute aggressive preventive measures and recommend palliative care for patients with significant reduction in salivary gland function. The systemic agents pilocarpine and cevimeline may help selected patients. Selective use of fluoride-releasing restorative materials and conservative treatment plans are recommended for this patient group.

  13. Functional Transcriptomics of Wild-Caught Lutzomyia intermedia Salivary Glands: Identification of a Protective Salivary Protein against Leishmania braziliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Marcia W.; Miranda, José Carlos; Clarêncio, Jorge; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia; Barral, Aldina; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmania parasites are transmitted in the presence of sand fly saliva. Together with the parasite, the sand fly injects salivary components that change the environment at the feeding site. Mice immunized with Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland (SG) homogenate are protected against Leishmania major infection, while immunity to Lutzomyia intermedia SG homogenate exacerbated experimental Leishmania braziliensis infection. In humans, antibodies to Lu. intermedia saliva are associated with risk of acquiring L. braziliensis infection. Despite these important findings, there is no information regarding the repertoire of Lu. intermedia salivary proteins. Methods and Findings A cDNA library from the Salivary Glands (SGs) of wild-caught Lu. intermedia was constructed, sequenced, and complemented by a proteomic approach based on 1D SDS PAGE and mass/mass spectrometry to validate the transcripts present in this cDNA library. We identified the most abundant transcripts and proteins reported in other sand fly species as well as novel proteins such as neurotoxin-like proteins, peptides with ML domain, and three small peptides found so far only in this sand fly species. DNA plasmids coding for ten selected transcripts were constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice to study their immunogenicity. Plasmid Linb-11—coding for a 4.5-kDa protein—induced a cellular immune response and conferred protection against L. braziliensis infection. This protection correlated with a decreased parasite load and an increased frequency of IFN-γ-producing cells. Conclusions We identified the most abundant and novel proteins present in the SGs of Lu. intermedia, a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas. We also show for the first time that immunity to a single salivary protein from Lu. intermedia can protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis. PMID:23717705

  14. Functional transcriptomics of wild-caught Lutzomyia intermedia salivary glands: identification of a protective salivary protein against Leishmania braziliensis infection.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Tatiana R; Oliveira, Fabiano; Carneiro, Marcia W; Miranda, José Carlos; Clarêncio, Jorge; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia; Barral, Aldina; Ribeiro, José M C; Valenzuela, Jesus G; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are transmitted in the presence of sand fly saliva. Together with the parasite, the sand fly injects salivary components that change the environment at the feeding site. Mice immunized with Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland (SG) homogenate are protected against Leishmania major infection, while immunity to Lutzomyia intermedia SG homogenate exacerbated experimental Leishmania braziliensis infection. In humans, antibodies to Lu. intermedia saliva are associated with risk of acquiring L. braziliensis infection. Despite these important findings, there is no information regarding the repertoire of Lu. intermedia salivary proteins. A cDNA library from the Salivary Glands (SGs) of wild-caught Lu. intermedia was constructed, sequenced, and complemented by a proteomic approach based on 1D SDS PAGE and mass/mass spectrometry to validate the transcripts present in this cDNA library. We identified the most abundant transcripts and proteins reported in other sand fly species as well as novel proteins such as neurotoxin-like proteins, peptides with ML domain, and three small peptides found so far only in this sand fly species. DNA plasmids coding for ten selected transcripts were constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice to study their immunogenicity. Plasmid Linb-11--coding for a 4.5-kDa protein--induced a cellular immune response and conferred protection against L. braziliensis infection. This protection correlated with a decreased parasite load and an increased frequency of IFN-γ-producing cells. We identified the most abundant and novel proteins present in the SGs of Lu. intermedia, a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas. We also show for the first time that immunity to a single salivary protein from Lu. intermedia can protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis.

  15. The PBII gene of the human salivary proline-rich protein P-B produces another protein, Q504X8, with an opiorphin homolog, QRGPR.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Eiichi; Sega, Takuya; Imai, Akane; Isemura, Satoko; Kato, Tetsuo; Ochiai, Akihito; Taniguchi, Masayuki

    2018-04-01

    The NCBI gene database and human-transcriptome database for alternative splicing were used to determine the expression of mRNAs for P-B (SMR3B) and variant form of P-B. The translational product from the former mRNA was identified as the protein named P-B, whereas that from the latter has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the expression of P-B and its variant form at the protein level. To identify the variant protein of P-B, (1) cationic proteins with a higher isoelectric point in human pooled whole saliva were purified by a two dimensional liquid chromatography; (2) the peptide fragments generated from the in-solution of all proteins digested with trypsin separated and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS; and (3) the presence or absence of P-B in individual saliva was examined by 15% SDS-PAGE. The peptide sequences (I 37 PPPYSCTPNMNNCSR 52 , C 53 HHHHKRHHYPCNYCFCYPK 72 , R 59 HHYPCNYCFCYPK 72 and H 60 HYPCNYCFCYPK 72 ) present in the variant protein of P-B were identified. The peptide sequence (G 6 PYPPGPLAPPQPFGPGFVPPPPPPPYGPGR 36 ) in P-B (or the variant) and sequence (I 37 PPPPPAPYGPGIFPPPPPQP 57 ) in P-B were identified. The sum of the sequences identified indicated a 91.23% sequence identity for P-B and 79.76% for the variant. There were cases in which P-B existed in individual saliva, but there were cases in which it did not exist in individual saliva. The variant protein is produced by excising a non-canonical intron (CC-AC pair) from the 3'-noncoding sequence of the PBII gene. Both P-B and the variant are subject to proteolysis in the oral cavity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal and paternal plasma, salivary, and urinary oxytocin and parent-infant synchrony: considering stress and affiliation components of human bonding.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth; Gordon, Ilanit; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna

    2011-07-01

    Studies in mammals have implicated the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) in processes of bond formation and stress modulation, yet the involvement of OT in human bonding throughout life remains poorly understood. We assessed OT in the plasma, saliva, and urine of 112 mothers and fathers interacting with their 4-6-month-old infants. Parent-infant interactions were micro-coded for parent and child's social behaviors and for the temporal coordination of their socio-affective cues. Parents were interviewed regarding their attachment to the infant and reported on bonding to own parents, romantic attachment, and parenting stress. Results indicated that OT in plasma (pOT) and saliva (sOT) were inter-related and were unrelated to OT in urine (uOT). pOT and sOT in mothers and fathers were associated with parent and child's social engagement, affect synchrony, and positive communicative sequences between parent and child. uOT was related to moments of interactive stress among mothers only, indexed by the co-occurrence of infant negative engagement and mother re-engagement attempts. pOT and sOT were associated with mothers' and fathers' attachment relationships throughout life: to own parents, partner, and infant, whereas uOT correlated with relationship anxiety and parenting stress among mothers only. Similar to other mammals, OT is involved in human attachment and contingent parenting. The dual role of OT in stress and affiliation underscores its complex involvement in processes of social bonding throughout life. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    SciTech Connect

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a componentmore » with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.« less

  18. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-06

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  19. Evaluation of Salivary Vitamin C and Catalase in HIV Positive and Healthy HIV Negative Control Group.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Vaziri-Amjad, Samaneh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a complex oral biologic fluid secreted by major and minor salivary glands. Saliva has immunological, enzymatic and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a life-threatening disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary vitamin C and catalase levels in HIV-positive patients in comparison to a healthy control group. Forty-nine HIV-infected individuals and 49 healthy subjects were selected. Five mL of unstimulated saliva was collected in 5 minutes using a sterilized Falcon tube with Navazesh method. Catalase and vitamin C levels were assessed by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with STATA 12. Salivary catalase levels were 7.99±2.40 and 8.37±1.81 in the case and control groups, respectively. Catalase level was lower in the case group but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.380). Salivary vitamin C levels in the case and control groups were 3.76±1.92 and 4.87±2.20, respectively (P=0.009). HIV can alter salivary antioxidant capacity as well as vitamin C and catalase levels. Saliva may reflect serum antioxidative changes in these patients. Therefore, further research is necessary on salivary and serum oxidants and the antioxidant changes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic/Recurrent ACC of All Sites and Non-ACC Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-12

    Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Minor Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma

  1. Salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase - temporal and population variability, correlations with drinking and smoking habits and activity towards aldehydes contained in food.

    PubMed

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Dziadek, Marta; Wroczyński, Piotr; Woźnicka, Katarzyna; Wojno, Barbara; Pietrzak, Monika; Wierzchowski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Fluorimetric method based on oxidation of the fluorogenic 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde was applied to evaluate temporal and population variability of the specific activity of salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and the degree of its inactivation in healthy human population. Analyzed was also its dependence on drinking and smoking habits, coffee consumption, and its sensitivity to N-acetylcysteine. Both the specific activity of salivary ALDH and the degree of its inactivation were highly variable during the day, with the highest activities recorded in the morning hours. The activities were also highly variable both intra- and interpersonally, and negatively correlated with age, and this correlation was stronger for the subgroup of volunteers declaring abstinence from alcohol and tobacco. Moderately positive correlations of salivary ALDH specific activity with alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were also recorded (r(s) ~0.27; p=0.004 and r(s) =0.30; p=0.001, respectively). Moderate coffee consumption correlated positively with the inactivation of salivary ALDH, particularly in the subgroup of non-drinking and non-smoking volunteers. It was found that mechanical stimulation of the saliva flow increases the specific activity of salivary ALDH. The specific activity of the salivary ALDH was strongly and positively correlated with that of superoxide dismutase, and somewhat less with salivary peroxidase. The antioxidant-containing drug N-acetylcysteine increased activity of salivary ALDH presumably by preventing its inactivation in the oral cavity. Some food-related aldehydes, mainly cinnamic aldehyde and anisaldehyde, were excellent substrates of the salivary ALDH3A1 enzyme, while alkenals, particularly those with short chain, were characterized by lower affinity towards this enzyme but high catalytic constants. The protective role of salivary ALDH against aldehydes in food and those found in the cigarette smoke is discussed, as well as its participation in

  2. Management of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Andry, Guy; Hamoir, Marc; Locati, Laura D; Licitra, Lisa; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2012-09-01

    Surgery after proper imaging (MRI or CT scan) is the main stay of treatment for salivary gland tumors. Although excision margins should be ≥5 mm for malignant tumors in cases of parotid gland carcinoma, the facial nerve should be preserved whenever it is not infiltrated. Adjuvant external radiation is indicated for malignant tumors with high-risk features such as close (or invaded) margins, perineural speed, lymphatic and/or vascular invasion, lymph-node involvement and high-grade histology. A Phase II trial testing adjuvant concomitant cisplatin plus radiation therapy versus adjuvant radiation therapy alone after surgery is currently under investigation for high-risk salivary gland cancer. For inoperable cancers, photons combined with proton boost seem to be a valuable option. Even if protons or carbon ions are promising, access to the latter is limited for usual treatment. For recurrent and/or metastatic cancer, polychemotherapy (cisplatin based) gives a 25% response rate in adenoid cystic carcinoma and should be used when the disease is overtly in progression. Targeted therapies with anti-EGF receptor molecules, antiangiogenic agents and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are ongoing, but more trials are needed to establish their efficacy, as is the use of bortezomib followed by doxorubicin. The products of fusion oncogenes, which have a pathogenic role in some adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, are of interest as potential therapeutic targets.

  3. Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kraaij, S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I; Brand, H S

    2014-12-05

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones are more often located in the gland itself. Salivary stones consist of an amorphous mineralised nucleus, surrounded by concentric laminated layers of organic and inorganic substances. The organic components of salivary stones include collagen, glycoproteins, amino acids and carbohydrates. The major inorganic components are hydroxyapatite, carbonate apatite, whitlockite and brushite. The management of salivary stones is focused on removing the salivary stones and preservation of salivary gland function which depends on the size and location of the stone. Conservative management of salivary stones consists of salivary gland massage and the use of sialogogues. Other therapeutic options include removal of the stone or in some cases surgical removal of the whole salivary gland.

  4. Measurement and validation of the nature of salivary adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Akuailou, Eleonore-N; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Imrhan, Victorine; Prasad, Chandan

    2013-10-01

    Adiponectin (Ad) is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays an essential role in regulating insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Levels of some hormones in saliva change in a fashion similar to that in plasma in response to a disease or physiological condition. Since saliva is an easy to obtain biological fluid, measurements of salivary hormonal changes are preferred in diagnoses and treatments. Therefore, it was of interest to examine the nature of salivary Ad. While there have been two publications in the literature reporting presence of Ad in human saliva, the nature of salivary Ad has not been characterized. To this end, we investigated the effect of sample dilution on the measurement of Ad in saliva. To our surprise, we observed an increase in measurable level of Ad in saliva on sample dilution. One explanation for this paradoxical observation may be the presence of inhibitor(s) of Ad/anti-Ad binding in saliva that following dilution relieves the inhibitory effect. Working with this hypothesis, we were able to demonstrate the presence of an inhibitor in saliva that co-eluted with the dimeric form of Ad and was capable of inhibiting Ad assay. The presence of such inhibitor(s) may lead to underestimation of Ad in saliva.

  5. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Kamodyová, Natália; Červenka, Tomáš; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis, and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status, and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis. PMID:26539412

  6. Salivary proteins and early childhood caries: A gel electrophoretic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Sumati; Tandon, Shobha; Satyamoorthy, K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a common disease process that afflicts a large proportion of the child population worldwide. Extensive research in past indicates that it is the result of bacterial infection, also influenced by host and dietary factors. Current caries research seeks to identify risk factors as well as natural oral defenses that may protect against or prevent caries development. Saliva, in spite of being the strongest defense system, still has a wide array of properties and proteins whose role is yet not clearly known. Aim: To compare the resting human whole salivary characteristics in children with ECC and those who are caries free. Settings and Design: The study was conducted over a period of 9 months in 4- to 6-year-old 100 children comprising two groups – 50 with ECC and 50 caries free. Materials and Methods: The whole salivary flow rate, pH, mean protein concentration, and the electrophoretic profile of salivary proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) were compared among both groups. Statistical Analysis: The SPSS (version 11.0) software package was used to conduct the chi-square, Fisher's exact and Pearson's chi-square tests to compare the data. Results: On gel electrophoresis, there was a significant difference among both groups with caries-free subjects having a higher number of proline-rich protein bands, substantiating the protective role of this protein. A significantly higher number of glycoprotein bands were observed in the whole saliva of subjects with ECC. A significant inverse correlation between the mean protein concentration and the whole salivary flow rate was observed in both groups. PMID:22114372

  7. ADVANCES IN SALIVARY GLAND GENE THERAPY – ORAL AND SYSTEMIC IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Bruce J.; Alevizos, Ilias; Chiorini, John A.; Cotrim, Ana P.; Zheng, Changyu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Much research demonstrates the feasibility and efficacy of gene transfer to salivary glands. Recently, the first clinical trial targeting a salivary gland was completed, yielding positive safety and efficacy results. Areas covered There are two major disorders affecting salivary glands; radiation damage following treatment for head and neck cancers and Sjögren’s syndrome. Salivary gland gene transfer has also been employed in preclinical studies using transgenic secretory proteins for exocrine (upper gastrointestinal tract) and endocrine (systemic) applications. Expert opinion Salivary gland gene transfer is safe and can be beneficial in humans. Applications to treat and prevent radiation damage show considerable promise. A first-in-human clinical trial for the former was recently successfully completed. Studies on Sjögren’s syndrome suffer from an inadequate understanding of its etiology. Proof of concept in animal models has been shown for exocrine and endocrine disorders. Currently, the most promising exocrine application is for the management of obesity. Endocrine applications are limited, as it is currently impossible to predict if systemically required transgenic proteins will be efficiently secreted into the bloodstream. This results from not understanding of how secretory proteins are sorted. Future studies will likely employ ultrasound assisted and pseudotyped adenoassociated viral vector-mediated gene. PMID:26149284

  8. Ixeris dentata extract regulates salivary secretion through the activation of aquaporin-5 and prevents diabetes-induced xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ixeris dentata (IXD) extract to improve the salivation rate in dry mouth induced by diabetes. Both control and diabetic rats were treated with a sublingual spray of either water or IXD extract to determine the effects of IXD on salivation. During the study, we observed that IXD extract treatment increased the salivary flow rate in diabetic rats. The expression of α-amylase was increased significantly in both saliva and glandular tissue lysates of IXD-treated diabetic rats. Aquaporin-5 protein expression was abnormally low in the salivary glands of diabetic rats, which increased hyposalivation and led to salivary dysfunction. However, a single oral spray of IXD extract drastically increased the expression of aquaporin-5 in salivary gland acinar and ductal cells in diabetic rats. Moreover, IXD extract induced expression of Na+/H+ exchangers in the salivary gland, which suggests that Na+/H+ exchangers modulate salivary secretions and aid in the fluid-secretion mechanism. Furthermore, transient treatment with IXD extract increased the intracellular calcium in human salivary gland cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential value of an IXD extract for the treatment of diabetes-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia. PMID:28814903

  9. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Aki; Uchiyama, Shigeru; Kato, Yuya; Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki

    2009-06-01

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  10. Ixeris dentata extract regulates salivary secretion through the activation of aquaporin-5 and prevents diabetes-induced xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ixeris dentata (IXD) extract to improve the salivation rate in dry mouth induced by diabetes. Both control and diabetic rats were treated with a sublingual spray of either water or IXD extract to determine the effects of IXD on salivation. During the study, we observed that IXD extract treatment increased the salivary flow rate in diabetic rats. The expression of α-amylase was increased significantly in both saliva and glandular tissue lysates of IXD-treated diabetic rats. Aquaporin-5 protein expression was abnormally low in the salivary glands of diabetic rats, which increased hyposalivation and led to salivary dysfunction. However, a single oral spray of IXD extract drastically increased the expression of aquaporin-5 in salivary gland acinar and ductal cells in diabetic rats. Moreover, IXD extract induced expression of Na + /H + exchangers in the salivary gland, which suggests that Na + /H + exchangers modulate salivary secretions and aid in the fluid-secretion mechanism. Furthermore, transient treatment with IXD extract increased the intracellular calcium in human salivary gland cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential value of an IXD extract for the treatment of diabetes-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia.

  11. Predictors of salivary fistula after total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alexandre de Andrade; Porcaro-Salles, José Maria; Soares, João Marcos Arantes; de Moraes, Gustavo Meyer; Carvalho, Jomar Rezende; Silva, Guilherme Souza; Savassi-Rocha, Paulo Roberto

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula after total laryngectomy and try to identify its predictors. From May 2005 to April 2010, 93 patients underwent total laryngectomy. We evaluated complications during and after surgery and compared them with the following variables: gender, nutritional status, previous tracheotomy, tumor location, type of surgery, TNM staging, prior treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, use of flaps for reconstruction and surgical margin. All patients presented with advanced neoplastic disease according to TNM. 14 (15.1%) patients developed postoperative salivary fistula. The mean time to onset of salivary fistula was 3.5 days, with a standard deviation of 13.7 days. Comparing salivary fistula with TNM variables, type of operation and neck dissection, prior tracheotomy, use of flap, preoperative radio and chemotherapy and surgical margin, there was no statistically significant difference (p> 0,05). The incidence of salivary fistula was 15.1% and no predictive factor for its formation was found.

  12. Salivary enhancement: current status and future therapies.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, J C; Baum, B J

    2001-10-01

    Saliva provides the principal protective milieu for teeth by modulating oral microbial ecosystems and reversing the initial phases of caries development. Patients with inadequate salivary function are at increased risk for dental decay. Therefore, it is likely that therapies that increase overall fluid output of these individuals will reverse early carious lesions. The most common causes of salivary dysfunction are medication usage, Sjögren's syndrome, and damage of salivary parenchyma during therapeutic irradiation. For patients with remaining functional acinar tissue, treatment with the parasypathomimetic secretogogues pilocarpine and Cevimeline may provide relief. However, these medications do not benefit all patients. The possibilities of using gene therapy and tissue engineering to develop treatments for those with severe salivary dysfunction are discussed.

  13. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Cancer Treatment (Adult) (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  14. Salivary exoglycosidases in gestational diabetes .

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Anna; Knaś, Małgorzata; Gumiężny, Grzegorz; Niczyporuk, Marek; Waszkiel, Danuta; Przystupa, Adrian Wojciech; Zarzycki, Wiesław

    2013-04-19

    As exoglycosidases have been described as potential markers of salivary gland pathology, we decided to check the possibility of the use of these enzymes in the detection of salivary gland involvement in gestational diabetes. For this purpose diabetic pregnant women were compared to pregnant and non-pregnant healthy women. The activities of total HEX as well as GLU in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Marciniak et al. The activities of GAL, FUC, and MAN in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Zwierz et al. It was found that the specific activities of exoglycosidases in the saliva of diabetic pregnant women significantly increased in comparison to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women. Increased specific activity of exoglycosidases suggests that gestational diabetes provokes structural/functional alterations in salivary glands and changes in the salivary glycoconjugates metabolism.

  15. Management of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Ram, Saravanan; Kumar, Satish; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2011-09-01

    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are conditions that have been associated with increased prevalence of caries, periodontitis, and candidiasis. Oral health care providers must be aware of the etiologies and clinical manifestations of salivary gland hypofunction in order to identify patients with this condition and to prevent its potential complications. The various modalities available to manage this condition range from frequent sips of water to the intake of systemic medications like pilocarpine or cevimeline.

  16. Salivary exoglycosidases as markers of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Zalewska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szulc, Agata; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Some salivary markers of alcohol abuse/dependence have been proposed so far: aminotransferases, gamma-glutamyltransferase, ethanol, ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, sialic acid, β-hexosaminidase A, oral peroxidase, methanol, diethylene/ethylene glycol, α-amylase, clusterin, haptoglobin, heavy/light chains of immunoglobulins and transferrin. To investigate the effect of chronic alcohol drinking and smoking on the activity (pKat/ml) and output (pKat/min) of salivary lysosomal exoglycosidases: α-fucosidase (FUC), α-mannosidase (MAN), β-galactosidase (GAL), and β-glucuronidase (GLU), and their applicability as markers of alcohol dependence. The activity of FUC, MAN, GAL and GLU was measured colorimetrically in the saliva of healthy social drinkers, alcohol-dependent non-smokers and alcohol-dependent smokers. We observed an increased salivary activity of FUC, GAL, GLU and MAN, as well as an increased output of GAL and GLU, in comparison with controls. The highest increase in the activity/output was found in salivary GLU and MAN (GLU, even 7- to 18-fold), and the least in GAL. We found an excellent sensitivity and specificity and a high accuracy (measured by the area under the ROC curve) for salivary FUC, GLU and MAN activities. The salivary GLU activity positively correlated with the number of days of last alcohol intoxication. Salivary activity of FUC, GAL and MAN, but not GLU, positively correlated with the periodontal parameters such as gingival index and papilla bleeding index. Although we found an excellent sensitivity and specificity as well as a high accuracy for the salivary activity of FUC, GLU and MAN, the GLU activity seems to be mostly applicable as a marker of chronic alcohol drinking (alcohol dependence). © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of childhood malnutrition on salivary flow and pH.

    PubMed

    Psoter, Walter J; Spielman, Andrew L; Gebrian, Bette; St Jean, Rudolph; Katz, Ralph V

    2008-03-01

    While protein-energy malnutrition may have multiple effects on oral tissues and subsequent disease development, reports of the effect of malnutrition on the human salivary glands are sparse. A retrospective cohort study of the effect of early childhood protein-energy malnutrition (EC-PEM) and adolescent nutritional status on salivary flow and pH was conducted with rural Haitian children, ages 11-19 years (n=1017). Malnutrition strata exposure cohorts were based on 1988-1996 weight-for-age records which covered the birth through 5-year-old period for all subjects. Then, data on current anthropometrical defined nutritional status categories, stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rates, and salivary pH were collected for the same subjects of 11-19 years old during field examinations in the summer of 2005. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used for the analyses. Stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rates were reduced at statistically significant levels in subjects who had experienced severe malnutrition in their early childhood or who had continuing nutrition stress which resulted in delayed growth, as measured at ages 11-19 years. Salivary pH demonstrated little clinically meaningful variability between malnourished and nonmalnourished groups. This study is the first to report of a continuing effect on diminished salivary gland function into adolescence as a result of early childhood malnutrition (EC-PEM) and suggests that exocrine glandular systems may be compromised for extended periods following EC-PEM, which may have important implications for the body's systemic antimicrobial defences.

  18. TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction

    SciTech Connect

    Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan, E-mail: gsunav@lsuhsc.edu; Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect againstmore » IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.« less

  19. Correlation between salivary alpha-amylase and stress-related anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rashkova, Maya R; Ribagin, Lora S; Toneva, Nina G

    2012-01-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase is a useful biomarker that can be used in assessing human psychobiological and social behavioural processes. Studying it opens up possibilities for the creation of novel concepts concerning the interaction of biological and social processes and their impact on health and behaviour. The levels of salivary alpha-amylase and situation anxiety self-assessment using Spielberger test were measured twice in 30 individuals aged 21.37 +/- 0.96 yrs (18 females and 12 males): once during stressful situation (prior to examination) and, again a month later, in stress-free environment (during a training session). Salivary alpha-amylase was measured using kinetic reaction kit Salimetrics LLC--USA. The mean level of salivary alpha-amylase measured during the first measurement 156.0 +/- 93.33 U/ml. During the second measurement in the absence of intense stress, the levels were two times lower - 74.03 +/- 58.06 U/ml and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). We found a statistically significant correlation between the levels of salivary alpha-amylase in both measurements (P < 0.01). The correlation coefficient was r = 0.472 (P < 0.01). The adapted version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score (STAI) created by Spielberger is appropriate for assessment of stress-related anxiety in young individuals. Salivary alpha-amylase may be used as a biomarker for objective evaluation of the psychosomatic state of individuals in a stressful environment. The combination of psychological test and objective indicator such as salivary alpha-amylase is an excellent tool for objective evaluation of individual's state in stressful environment. Similar tests may be used in assessment of patients' behaviours at dental treatment that may be considered a stressor in most patients.

  20. Salivary amylase and stress during stressful environment: three Mars analog mission crews study.

    PubMed

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Foing, Bernard H

    2012-06-14

    After the establishment of the space age physicians, human factors engineers, neurologist and psychologists and their special attention to work on people's capability to meet up the physical, psychological, neuroscience and interpersonal strains of working in space, it has been regarded as an issue that seeks urgent consideration. Not study was conducted on effect of simulated Mars analog environment on stress and salivary amylase. So, this study aimed to confirm whether salivary amylase is act as stress biomarker in crew members who took part in Mars analog mission in an isolated and stressful environment. The 18 crew members were selected who took part in Mars Analog Research Station, Utah. Salivary amylase was measured using a biosensor of salivary amylase monitor and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score at pre-extravehicular activity, post-extravehicular activity and on before mission. The state and trait anxiety scores at pre-extravehicular activity for each commander were elevated as compared to after extravehicular activity. There were significant differences in the state and trait anxiety scores between before extravehicular activity and after extravehicular activity of Commander and other members, also there were significant differences in values of before-extravehicular activity between commanders and other members. There were significant differences in values of salivary amylase at before extravehicular activity and after extravehicular activity between commander group and other members. There was significant correlation between salivary amylase and state and trait anxiety scores in all groups. Measuring salivary amylase level could be useful for stress assessment of crew members and population working in a stressful and isolated environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Surgical management of minor salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Weiting; Li, Kelan; Zhang, Xiaotong; Wang, Wei

    2007-11-01

    To study the clinical features of minor salivary gland tumors and to discuss the treatment modalities for these tumors. Retrospective analysis of 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumor operated in our hospital from 1997 to 2004. Among 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumors in this series, 16 patients lost of follow up. Among the remaining 38 patients, 2 patients with nasal cavity adenoid cystic carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 2 and 3 years after the surgery respectively, one patient with laryngeal myoepithelial carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 3 years after the surgery and one patient with paranasal sinus mucoepidermoid carcinoma died of recurrence 17 months after the surgery. Two patients with paranasal sinus adenoid cystic carcinoma recurred after the primary surgery and were survived without tumor after salvage surgery. The other patients survived with no tumor recurrence. While different histopathology of minor salivary gland tumors were found in this group, malignant tumors were predominant, accounting for 81.4%. The choice of treatment for minor salivary gland tumors depends upon the location and the histopathology of the tumors. The treatment policy for benign tumors is simple tumor excision, while that for malignant tumors is surgery combined with pre- or post-operative radiation therapy. Complete surgical resection of tumor masses and tumor free margin is essential for successful treatment of malignant minor salivary gland tumors.

  2. Reduction of VSC and salivary bacteria by a multibenefit mouthrinse.

    PubMed

    Boyd, T; Vazquez, J; Williams, M

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multibenefit mouthrinse containing 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and 0.025% sodium fluoride in reducing volatile sulfur compound (VSC) levels and total cultivable salivary bacteria, at both 4 h and overnight. In vitro analysis of efficacy was performed using saliva-coated hydroxyapatite disc substrates first treated with the mouthrinse, then exposed to whole human saliva, followed by overnight incubation in air-tight vials. Headspace VSC was quantified by gas chromatography (GC). A clinical evaluation was conducted with 14 subjects using a crossover design. After a seven-day washout period, baseline clinical measurement of VSC was performed by GC analysis of mouth air sampled in the morning prior to eating, drinking or performing any oral hygiene. A 10 mL saline rinse was used to sample and enumerate cultivable salivary bacterial levels via serial dilution and plating. Subjects were instructed to use the treatment rinse twice daily in combination with a controlled brushing regimen. After one week the subjects returned in the morning prior to eating, drinking or performing oral hygiene to provide samples of overnight mouth air and salivary bacteria. The subjects were then immediately rinsed with the test product, and provided additional mouth air and saliva rinse samples 4 h later. A multibenefit rinse containing 0.05% CPC and 0.025% sodium fluoride was found to reduce VSC in vitro by 52%. The rinse also demonstrated a significant clinical reduction in breath VSC (p < 0.05) of 55.8% at 4 h and 23.4% overnight relative to baseline VSC levels. At both time points, the multibenefit rinse was more effective than the control; this difference was statistically significant at the overnight time point (p < 0.05). Total cultivable salivary bacteria levels were also reduced significantly (p < 0.05) at 4 h and overnight by this mouthrinse compared to baseline levels and the control. A multibenefit mouthrinse was shown to reduce in

  3. [Salivary microbiome in people with obesity: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y J; Chi, X P; Chen, F; Deng, X L

    2018-02-18

    human diseases were significantly enriched in the saliva samples of people with obesity (P < 0.01). Significant differences were seen in composition, gene function and metabolic pathways of salivary microbiome between people with obesity and normal weight people. We hope to go on further study with larger sample size in the near future.

  4. Salivary agglutinin, which binds Streptococcus mutans and Helicobacter pylori, is the lung scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein gp-340.

    PubMed

    Prakobphol, A; Xu, F; Hoang, V M; Larsson, T; Bergstrom, J; Johansson, I; Frängsmyr, L; Holmskov, U; Leffler, H; Nilsson, C; Borén, T; Wright, J R; Strömberg, N; Fisher, S J

    2000-12-22

    Salivary agglutinin is a high molecular mass component of human saliva that binds Streptococcus mutans, an oral bacterium implicated in dental caries. To study its protein sequence, we isolated the agglutinin from human parotid saliva. After trypsin digestion, a portion was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), which gave the molecular mass of 14 unique peptides. The remainder of the digest was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography, and the separated peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/post-source decay; the spectra gave the sequences of five peptides. The molecular mass and peptide sequence information showed that salivary agglutinin peptides were identical to sequences in lung (lavage) gp-340, a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein family. Immunoblotting with antibodies that specifically recognized either lung gp-340 or the agglutinin confirmed that the salivary agglutinin was gp-340. Immunoblotting with an antibody specific to the sialyl Le(x) carbohydrate epitope detected expression on the salivary but not the lung glycoprotein, possible evidence of different glycoforms. The salivary agglutinin also interacted with Helicobacter pylori, implicated in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, Streptococcus agalactiae, implicated in neonatal meningitis, and several oral commensal streptococci. These results identify the salivary agglutinin as gp-340 and suggest it binds bacteria that are important determinants of either the oral ecology or systemic diseases.

  5. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester , third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These

  6. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. Materials and Methods A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Results Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third

  7. Identification of a salivary vasodilator in the primary North American vector of bluetongue viruses, Culicoides variipennis.

    PubMed

    Perez de Leon, A A; Ribeiro, J M; Tabachnick, W J; Valenzuela, J G

    1997-09-01

    Several species of Culicoides biting midges are important pests and vectors of pathogens affecting humans and other animals. Bluetongue is the most economically important arthropod-borne animal disease in the United States. Culicoides variipennis is the primary North American vector of the bluetongue viruses. A reddish halo surrounding a petechial hemorrhage was noticed at the site of C. variipennis blood feeding in previously unexposed sheep and rabbits. Salivary gland extracts of nonblood-fed C. variipennis injected intradermally into sheep and rabbits induced cutaneous vasodilation in the form of erythema. A local, dose-dependent erythema, without edema or pruritus, was noted 30 min after injection. Erythema was inapparent with salivary gland extracts obtained after blood feeding. This observation suggested that the vasodilatory activity was inoculated into the host skin at the feeding site. The vasodilatory activity was insoluble in ethanol and destroyed by trypsin or chymotrypsin, which indicated that vasodilation was due to a protein. The association of cutaneous vasodilation with a salivary protein was corroborated by reversed-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fractionation of salivary gland extracts by molecular sieving HPLC resulted in maximal vasodilatory activity that coeluted with a protein having a relative molecular weight (MWr) of 22.45 kD. The C. variipennis vasodilator appears to be biologically active at the nanogram level. This vasodilator likely assists C. variipennis during feeding by increasing blood flow from host superficial blood vessels surrounding the bite site. The identification of a salivary vasodilator in C. variipennis may have implications for the transmission of Culicoides-borne pathogens and in the development of dermatitis resulting from the sensitization of humans and animals to Culicoides salivary antigens.

  8. Characterization of the myoepithelial cells in the major salivary glands of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Hernández, Julio; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2016-08-01

    Bats constitute one of the most numerous mammalian species. Bats have a wide range of dietary habits and include carnivorous, haematophagous, insectivorous, frugivorous and nectivorous species. The salivary glands of these species have been of particular research interest due to their structural variability among chiropterans with different types of diets. Myoepithelial cells (MECs), which support and facilitate the expulsion of saliva from the secretory portions of salivary glands, are very important for their function; however, this cell type has not been extensively studied in the salivary glands of bats. In this study, we characterized the MECs in the major salivary glands of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis. Herein, we describe the morphology of the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands of A. jamaicensis at the light- and electro-microscopic level and the distribution of MECs in these glands, as defined by their expression of smooth-muscle markers such as α-smooth muscle actin (SMAα) and desmin, and of epithelial cell markers, such as KRT14. We found that the anatomical locations of the major salivary glands in this bat species are similar to those of humans, except that the bat sublingual gland appears to be unique, extending to join the contralateral homologous gland. Morphologically, the parotid gland has the characteristics of a mixed-secretory gland, whereas the submandibular and sublingual glands were identified as mucous-secretory glands. MECs positive for SMAα, KRT14 and desmin were found in all of the structural components of the three glands, except in their excretory ducts. Desmin is expressed at a lower level in the parotid gland than in the other glands. Our results suggest that the major salivary glands of A. jamaicensis, although anatomically and structurally similar to those of humans, play different physiological roles that can be attributed to the dietary habits of this species. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  9. The influence of salivary contamination on shear bond strength of dentin adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-won; Lee, Kyung Chae

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of salivary contamination during dentin bonding procedures on shear bond strength and investigated the effect of contaminant-removing treatments on the recovery of bond strength for two dentin bonding agents. One hundred and ten human molars were embedded in cylindrical molds with self-curing acrylic resin. The occlusal dentin surface was exposed by wet grinding with #800 silicon carbide abrasive paper. The teeth were divided into five groups for One-step (OS) (BISCO, Inc) and six groups for Clearfil SE Bond (SE) (Kuraray Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan). For One-step, the grinding surface was treated with 32% phosphoric acid; BAC (BISCO Inc) and divided into five groups: OS control group (uncontaminated), OS I (salivary contamination, blot dried), OS II (salivary contamination, completely dried), OS III (salivary contamination, wash and blot dried) and OS IV (salivary contamination, re-etching for 10 seconds, wash and blot dried). For SE bond, the following surface treatments were done: SE control group (primer applied to the fresh dentin surface), SE I (after salivary contamination, primer applied), SE II (primer, salivary contamination, dried), SE III (primer, salivary contamination, wash and dried), SE IV (after procedure of SE II, re-application of primer) and SE V (after procedure of SE III, re-application of primer). Each bonding agent was applied and light cured for 10 seconds. Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray Co, Ltd) composite was packed into the Ultradent mount jig mold and light cured for 40 seconds. The bonded specimens were stored for 24 hours in a 37 degrees C waterbath. The shear bond strengths were measured using an Instron testing machine (Model 4202, Instron Corp). The data for each group were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by the Newman-Keuls test to make comparisons among the groups. The results were as follows: In the One-step groups, the OS II group showed statistically significant lower shear bond strength than the OS

  10. The salivary glands of two sand fly vectors of Leishmania: Lutzomyia migonei (França) and Lutzomyia ovallesi (Ortiz)(Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Elsa; Buelvas, Neudo; Rondón, Maritza; González, Néstor

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the intradermal inoculation of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) promastigotes together with saliva during the bite of an infected sand fly. The salivary glands were compared from two vector species, Lutzomyia ovallesi (Ortiz,1952) and Lutzomyia migonei (França,1920) (Diptera: Psychodidae). Protein profiles by SDS PAGE of salivary glands were compared among species as well as their development at several times post feeding. First, mice were immunized to salivary proteins by exposure to biting by L. ovallesi and of L. migonei. Antibodies in these mice against salivary gland-specific proteins were evaluated by immunoblotting. No apparent change was revealed in the kinetic expression of salivary proteins induced by the different physiological states post feeding. Qualitative and quantitative variations were detected in16-18 polypeptides with molecular weights ranging from 6 to 180 kDa. Species-specific proteins were demonstrated for L. migonei and L. ovallesi. In addition, antibodies against salivary gland specific proteins were found in mice immunized by the saliva of both species. Basic information was obtained concerning the nature of salivary gland proteins of L. migonei and L. ovallesi. This information helps to elucidate the role of salivary proteins and their potential as effective tools in screening risk factors in human and other vertebrate hosts.

  11. Childhood Salivary Gland Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Childhood salivary gland tumor treatment usually includes surgery and radiation therapy. Learn more about the risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent salivary gland tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  12. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Salivary gland cancer treatment options include surgery with or without postoperative radiation therapy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Get detailed information about the treatment for newly diagnosed and recurrent salivary gland cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  13. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Giovanna; Modica, Maria Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies.

  14. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ponte, Giovanna; Modica, Maria Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies. PMID:28848453

  15. Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Sharmila; Muglikar, Sangeeta; Kale, Rahul

    2013-07-01

    Saliva contains a variety of host defense factors. It influences calculus formation and periodontal disease. Different studies have been done to find exact correlation of salivary biomarkers with periodontal disease. With a multitude of biomarkers and complexities in their determination, the salivary pH may be tried to be used as a quick chairside test. The aim of this study was to analyze the pH of saliva and determine its relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. The study population consisted of 300 patients. They were divided into three groups of 100 patients each: Group A had clinically healthy gingiva, Group B who had generalized chronic gingivitis and Group C who had generalized chronic periodontitis. The randomized unstimulated saliva from each patient was collected and pH was tested. Data was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance technique. The salivary pH was more alkaline for patients with generalized chronic gingivitis as compared with the control group (P = 0.001) whereas patients with generalized chronic periodontitis had more acidic pH as compared with the control group (P = 0.001). These results indicate a significant change in the pH depending on the severity of the periodontal condition. The salivary pH shows significant changes and thus relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Salivary pH may thus be used as a quick chairside diagnostic biomarker.

  16. Dengue subgenomic flaviviral RNA disrupts immunity in mosquito salivary glands to increase virus transmission

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Menchie; Shan, Chao; Manokaran, Gayathri; Bradrick, Shelton S.; Missé, Dorothée; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Globally re-emerging dengue viruses are transmitted from human-to-human by Aedes mosquitoes. While viral determinants of human pathogenicity have been defined, there is a lack of knowledge of how dengue viruses influence mosquito transmission. Identification of viral determinants of transmission can help identify isolates with high epidemiological potential. Additionally, mechanistic understanding of transmission will lead to better understanding of how dengue viruses harness evolution to cycle between the two hosts. Here, we identified viral determinants of transmission and characterized mechanisms that enhance production of infectious saliva by inhibiting immunity specifically in salivary glands. Combining oral infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and reverse genetics, we identified two 3’ UTR substitutions in epidemic isolates that increased subgenomic flaviviral RNA (sfRNA) quantity, infectious particles in salivary glands and infection rate of saliva, which represents a measure of transmission. We also demonstrated that various 3’UTR modifications similarly affect sfRNA quantity in both whole mosquitoes and human cells, suggesting a shared determinism of sfRNA quantity. Furthermore, higher relative quantity of sfRNA in salivary glands compared to midgut and carcass pointed to sfRNA function in salivary glands. We showed that the Toll innate immune response was preferentially inhibited in salivary glands by viruses with the 3’UTR substitutions associated to high epidemiological fitness and high sfRNA quantity, pointing to a mechanism for higher saliva infection rate. By determining that sfRNA is an immune suppressor in a tissue relevant to mosquito transmission, we propose that 3’UTR/sfRNA sequence evolution shapes dengue epidemiology not only by influencing human pathogenicity but also by increasing mosquito transmission, thereby revealing a viral determinant of epidemiological fitness that is shared between the two hosts. PMID:28753642

  17. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Hedge, R; Dixit, U

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on salivary pH, following sucrose clearance. Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A Digital MHOS pH meter estimated the salivary pH. Presence of plaque increased the salivary sucrose clearance time and decreased the salivary pH at various time intervals. The microbial etiology of dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and pH lowering, and the cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  18. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose - A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Mahesh R; Dodamani, Arun S; Karibasappa, G N; Naik, Rahul G; Deshmukh, Manjiri A

    Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19-21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group) and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after brushing and salivary glucose and pH levels were assessed at an interval of one week each for a period of 4 weeks starting from day 1. All the three toothpastes were effective in reducing the overall (p < 0.05) levels as well as levels of salivary glucose from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval (p < 0.05) and in increasing the overall levels as well as levels of salivary pH (p < 0.05) from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval. Herbal toothpastes were effective in reducing salivary levels of glucose and improving pH of the saliva. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Establishment of immortal multipotent rat salivary progenitor cell line toward salivary gland regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Adi; Neumann, Yoav; David, Ran; Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; Orbach, Yoav; Lang, Stephan; Rotter, Nicole; Dvir-Ginzberg, Mona; Aframian, Doron J; Palmon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Adult salivary gland stem cells are promising candidates for cell therapy and tissue regeneration in cases of irreversible damage to salivary glands in head and neck cancer patients undergoing irradiation therapy. At present, the major restriction in handling such cells is their relatively limited life span during in vitro cultivation, resulting in an inadequate experimental platform to explore the salivary gland-originated stem cells as candidates for future clinical application in therapy. We established a spontaneous immortal integrin α6β1-expressing cell line of adult salivary progenitor cells from rats (rat salivary clone [RSC]) and investigated their ability to sustain cellular properties. This line was able to propagate for more than 400 doublings without loss of differentiation potential. RSC could differentiate in vitro to both acinar- and ductal-like structures and could be further manipulated upon culturing on a 3D scaffolds with different media supplements. Moreover, RSC expressed salivary-specific mRNAs and proteins as well as epithelial stem cell markers, and upon differentiation process their expression was changed. These results suggest RSC as a good model for further studies exploring cellular senescence, differentiation, and in vitro tissue engineering features as a crucial step toward reengineering irradiation-impaired salivary glands.

  20. Salivary cortisol and cortisone in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Blair, Joanne; Adaway, Jo; Keevil, Brian; Ross, Richard

    2017-06-01

    A resurgence of interest in salivary biomarkers has generated evidence for their value in assessing adrenal function. The advantages of salivary measurements include only free hormone is detected, samples can be collected during normal daily routines and stress-induced cortisol release is less likely to occur than during venepuncture. We review the use of salivary biomarkers to diagnose and monitor patients for conditions of cortisol excess and deficiency and discuss the value of measuring salivary cortisone versus salivary cortisol. Developments in laboratory techniques have enabled the measurement of salivary hormones with a high level of sensitivity and specificity. In states of altered cortisol binding, salivary biomarkers are more accurate measures of adrenal reserve than serum cortisol. Salivary cortisone is a superior marker of serum cortisol compared with salivary cortisol, specifically when serum cortisol is low and during hydrocortisone therapy when contamination of saliva may result in misleading salivary cortisol concentrations. Salivary cortisol and cortisone can be used to assess cortisol excess, deficiency and hydrocortisone replacement, with salivary cortisone having the advantage of detection when serum cortisol levels are low and there is no interference from oral hydrocortisone.

  1. Sparing the region of the salivary gland containing stem cells preserves saliva production after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    van Luijk, Peter; Pringle, Sarah; Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali V.; Faber, Hette; Hovan, Allan; Baanstra, Mirjam; van der Laan, Hans P.; Kierkels, Roel G. J.; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Witjes, Max J.; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wu, Jonn; Coppes, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Each year, 500,000 patients are treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, resulting in relatively high survival rates. However, in 40% of patients, quality of life is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequent xerostomia (dry mouth). New radiation treatment technologies enable sparing of parts of the salivary glands. We have determined the parts of the major salivary gland, the parotid gland, that need to be spared to ensure that the gland continues to produce saliva after irradiation treatment. In mice, rats, and humans, we showed that stem and progenitor cells reside in the region of the parotid gland containing the major ducts. We demonstrated in rats that inclusion of the ducts in the radiation field led to loss of regenerative capacity, resulting in long-term gland dysfunction with reduced saliva production. Then we showed in a cohort of patients with head and neck cancer that the radiation dose to the region of the salivary gland containing the stem/progenitor cells predicted the function of the salivary glands one year after radiotherapy. Finally, we showed that this region of the salivary gland could be spared during radiotherapy, thus reducing the risk of post-radiotherapy xerostomia. PMID:26378247

  2. Radiation-Induced Loss of Salivary Gland Function Is Driven by Cellular Senescence and Prevented by IL6 Modulation.

    PubMed

    Marmary, Yitzhak; Adar, Revital; Gaska, Svetlana; Wygoda, Annette; Maly, Alexander; Cohen, Jonathan; Eliashar, Ron; Mizrachi, Lina; Orfaig-Geva, Carmit; Baum, Bruce J; Rose-John, Stefan; Galun, Eithan; Axelrod, Jonathan H

    2016-03-01

    Head and neck cancer patients treated by radiation commonly suffer from a devastating side effect known as dry-mouth syndrome, which results from the irreversible loss of salivary gland function via mechanisms that are not completely understood. In this study, we used a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary hypofunction to investigate the outcomes of DNA damage in the head and neck region. We demonstrate that the loss of salivary function was closely accompanied by cellular senescence, as evidenced by a persistent DNA damage response (γH2AX and 53BP1) and the expression of senescence-associated markers (SA-βgal, p19ARF, and DcR2) and secretory phenotype (SASP) factors (PAI-1 and IL6). Notably, profound apoptosis or necrosis was not observed in irradiated regions. Signs of cellular senescence were also apparent in irradiated salivary glands surgically resected from human patients who underwent radiotherapy. Importantly, using IL6 knockout mice, we found that sustained expression of IL6 in the salivary gland long after initiation of radiation-induced DNA damage was required for both senescence and hypofunction. Additionally, we demonstrate that IL6 pretreatment prevented both senescence and salivary gland hypofunction via a mechanism involving enhanced DNA damage repair. Collectively, these results indicate that cellular senescence is a fundamental mechanism driving radiation-induced damage in the salivary gland and suggest that IL6 pretreatment may represent a promising therapeutic strategy to preserve salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Relationship between exposure to vector bites and antibody responses to mosquito salivary gland extracts.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Albin; Pascual, Aurélie; Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Diouf, Ibrahima; Remoué, Franck; Pagès, Frédéric; Fusaï, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study of antibody levels against several mosquito salivary gland extracts from southeastern French individuals living in three areas with distinct ecological environments and, by implication, distinct Aedes caspius mosquito densities were compared using ELISA. A positive association was observed between the average levels of IgG responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts and spatial Ae. caspius densities. Additionally, the average level of IgG responses increased significantly during the peak exposure to Ae. caspius at each site and returned to baseline four months later, suggesting short-lived IgG responses. The species-specificity of IgG antibody responses was determined by testing antibody responses to salivary gland extracts from Cx. pipiens, a mosquito that is present at these three sites at different density levels, and from two other Aedes species not present in the study area (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The IgG responses observed against these mosquito salivary gland extracts contrasted with those observed against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts, supporting the existence of species-specific serological responses. By considering different populations and densities of mosquitoes linked to environmental factors, this study shows, for the first time, that specific IgG antibody responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts may be related to the seasonal and geographical variations in Ae. caspius density. Characterisation of such immunological

  4. Functional differences in the acinar cells of the murine major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Jaramillo, Y; Choi, S; Catalan, M A; Melvin, J E

    2015-05-01

    In humans, approximately 90% of saliva is secreted by the 3 major salivary glands: the parotid (PG), the submandibular (SMG), and the sublingual glands (SLG). Even though it is known that all 3 major salivary glands secrete saliva by a Cl(-)-dependent mechanism, salivary secretion rates differ greatly among these glands. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the properties of the ion-transporting pathways in acinar cells that might account for the differences among the major salivary glands. Pilocarpine-induced saliva was simultaneously collected in vivo from the 3 major salivary glands of mice. When normalized by gland weight, the amount of saliva secreted by the PG was more than 2-fold larger than that obtained from the SMG and SLG. At the cellular level, carbachol induced an increase in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] that was more than 2-fold larger in PG and SMG than in SLG acinar cells. Carbachol-stimulated Cl(-) efflux and the protein levels of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A, the major apical Cl(-) efflux pathway in salivary acinar cells, were significantly greater in PG compared with SMG and SLG. In addition, we evaluated the transporter activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) and anion exchangers (AE), the 2 primary basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in acinar cells. The SMG NKCC1 activity was about twice that of the PG and more than 12-fold greater than that of the SLG. AE activity was similar in PG and SLG, and both PG and SLG AE activity was about 2-fold larger than that of SMG. In summary, the salivation kinetics of the 3 major glands are distinct, and these differences can be explained by the unique functional properties of each gland related to Cl(-) movement, including the transporter activities of the Cl(-) uptake and efflux pathways, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  5. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 μg/min), whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 μg/min). Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport. PMID:23227811

  6. [Electrohydraulic intracorporeal lithotripsy of salivary calculi. In vitro and animal experiment studies].

    PubMed

    Iro, H; Zenk, J; Hosemann, W G; Benzel, W

    1993-08-01

    Extracorporeal lithotripsy is now used routinely for the treatment of salivary duct stones. The question arose whether electrohydraulic intracorporeal lithotripsy, which is applied in urology and gastroenterology, might also be useful in the treatment of this disease. Before its possible clinical application the influence of electrohydraulic intracorporeal shock waves on salivary stones in vitro and any influence on the tissue in the head and neck region (in vivo) had to be investigated. In vitro experiments. Fifty-eight salivary stones and 11 extirpated human submandibular glands were treated by three different electrohydraulic devices. Animal experiments. Electrohydraulic shock waves were applied to the dilated Stensen's duct and other tissues (muscle, parotid gland, facial nerve) of six rabbits. Of 58 salivary stones, 53 (91%) were fragmented, 39 (67%) with a remaining size of less than 1.5 mm and 14 (24%) more than 1.5 mm. In 5 cases (9%) no effects were seen at all. Fragmentation occurred independent of the mineralogical components of the stone and independent of the different lithotriptors used. The smaller the probe diameter and the larger the stone, the more shock waves were needed to achieve fragmentation. With the smaller probes the stones could not be fragmented completely. In human submandibular glands, extensive tissue lesions could be evidenced macroscopically and histologically after application of electrohydraulic shock waves in vitro. Application of electrohydraulic shock waves to the dilated parotid gland duct of rabbits led to perforations of the duct after 1-5 single pulses. Lesions of nerves and blood vessels could also be observed within the duct environment. This occurred with all of the different electrohydraulic devices, probe diameters and intensities used. In our opinion the damage produced is probably the result of both the direct effect of the plasma as well as the resultant stress wave. In view of the severe damage caused to different

  7. Molecular cues for development and regeneration of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    The hypofunction of salivary glands caused by Sjögren’s Syndrome or radiotherapy for head and neck cancer significantly compromises the quality of life of millions patients. Currently no curative treatment is available for the irreversible hyposalivation, whereas regenerative strategies targeting salivary stem/progenitor cells are promising. However, the success of these strategies is constrained by the lack of insights on the molecular cues of salivary gland regeneration. Recent advances in the molecular controls of salivary gland morphogenesis provided valuable clues for identifying potential regenerative cues. A complicated network of signaling molecules between epithelia, mesenchyme, endothelia, extracellular matrix and innervating nerves orchestrate the salivary gland organogenesis. Here we discuss the roles of several cross-talking intercellular signaling pathways, i.e., FGF, Wnt, Hedgehog, Eda, Notch, Chrm1/HB-EGF and Laminin/Integrin pathways, in the development of salivary glands and their potentials to promote salivary regeneration. PMID:24189993

  8. Polygalacturonase isozymes in Lygus hesperus Salivary Glands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The feeding strategy of mirids has been referred to as “lacerate or macerate and flush feeding” which supports high rates of food intake. In other words, plant bugs digest the plant tissue extra-orally, producing a liquefied brew rich in simple nutrient molecules. The insect's salivary polygalacturo...

  9. Histopathology of malignant salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Seifert, G

    1992-07-01

    This report is based upon the Salivary Gland Register in Hamburg and on the second revised edition of the WHO Histological Typing of Salivary Gland Tumours. The group of malignant salivary gland tumours contains carcinomas, malignant non-epithelial tumours, malignant lymphomas and secondary tumours. The various carcinomas are classified in a continuous separate listing because the different types are distinguished not only by histopathology, but also by differences in prognosis and treatment. The term "tumour" is replaced by "carcinoma" in two entities: acinic cell carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. New entities are: polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, salivary duct carcinoma and malignant myoepithelioma. Carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma can be distinguished as non-invasive and invasive carcinoma, and carcinosarcoma. Malignant non-epithelial tumours are mostly malignant fibrous histiocytoma, malignant schwannoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. The large majority of malignant lymphomas are non-Hodgkin-lymphomas with high differentiation. Many lymphomas are associated with chronic immunosialadenitis (Sjögren's syndrome). Secondary tumours are mostly metastases from primary squamous cell carcinomas or from melanomas of the skin (head and neck area). Haematogeneous metastases are very rare (mainly from lung, kidney or breast).

  10. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7393809

  11. Tick salivary secretion as a source of antihemostatics

    PubMed Central

    Chmelar, Jindrich; Calvo, Eric; Pedra, Joao H.F.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are mostly obligatory blood feeding ectoparasites that have an impact on human and animal health. In addition to direct damage due to feeding, some tick species serve as the vectors for the causative agents of several diseases, such as the spirochetes of the genus Borrelia causing Lyme disease, the virus of tick-borne encephalitis, various Rickettsial pathogens or even protozoan parasites like Babesia spp. Hard ticks are unique among bloodfeeders because of their prolonged feeding period that may last up to two weeks. During such a long period of blood uptake, the host develops a wide range of mechanisms to prevent blood loss. The arthropod ectoparasite, in turn, secretes saliva in the sites of bite that assists blood feeding. Indeed, tick saliva represents a rich source of proteins with potent pharmacologic action that target different mechanisms of coagulation, platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. Tick adaptation to their vertebrate hosts led to the inclusion of a powerful protein armamentarium in their salivary secretion that has been investigated by high throughput methods. The resulting knowledge can be exploited for the isolation of novel antihemostatic agents. Here we review the tick salivary antihemostatics and their characterized functions at the molecular and cellular levels. PMID:22564820

  12. Maternal trait anxiety, emotional distress, and salivary cortisol in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pluess, Michael; Bolten, Margarete; Pirke, Karl-Martin; Hellhammer, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    Animal models suggest that stress-induced hormonal changes in the mother during pregnancy lead to enduring changes in the fetus and empirical links between prenatal maternal stress and negative child development have been discerned repeatedly in human studies. But the role of heritable personality traits has received little attention in the latter work. The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between maternal personality, psychological measures of maternal distress and maternal salivary cortisol during pregnancy. Maternal reports of personality (16 PF) and stress-related psychological measures (depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived stress, negative life events) as well as salivary cortisol samples of 66 healthy pregnant women were collected in early and late pregnancy. Maternal trait anxiety proved related to all stress-related psychological measures and high anxiety predicted low baseline cortisol awakening levels in early pregnancy. Maternal trait anxiety is related to both psychological and biological stress measures during pregnancy. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between salivary histatin levels and oral yeast carriage.

    PubMed

    Jainkittivong, A; Johnson, D A; Yeh, C K

    1998-06-01

    Candida species are common commensal inhabitants of the oral cavity. Human saliva contains antifungal proteins called histatins. We tested the hypothesis that oral yeast status is related to salivary histatin levels. Thirty subjects were divided into two groups based on the presence (n = 15) or absence (n = 15) of yeast on oral mucosa surfaces. Unstimulated and stimulated submandibular and sublingual and parotid saliva was collected from each subject. Salivary flow rates were measured and histatin concentrations were determined in the stimulated saliva samples. The yeast colony positive group showed lower median unstimulated parotid saliva flow rates as well as lower median concentrations of total histatins in submandibular and sublingual saliva. There was a negative correlation between yeast colony-forming units and unstimulated parotid saliva flow rates and between yeast colony-forming units and submandibular and sublingual saliva histatin concentration and secretion. The results suggest that oral yeast status may be influenced by unstimulated parotid saliva flow rates and by submandibular and sublingual histatin concentration and secretion.

  14. Modern management of obstructive salivary diseases

    PubMed Central

    Capaccio, P; Torretta, S; Ottaviani, F; Sambataro, G; Pignataro, L

    2007-01-01

    Summary Over the last fifteen years, increasing public demand for minimally-invasive surgery and recent technological advances have led to the development of a number of conservative options for the therapeutic management of obstructive salivary disorders such as calculi and duct stenosis. These include extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, sialoendoscopy, laser intra-corporeal lithotripsy, interventional radiology, the video-assisted conservative surgical removal of parotid and sub-mandibular calculi and botulinum toxin therapy. Each of these techniques may be used as a single therapeutic modality or in combination with one or more of the above-mentioned options, usually in day case or one-day case under local or general anaesthesia. The multi-modal approach is completely successful in about 80% of patients and reduces the need for gland removal in 3%, thus justifying the combination of, albeit, time-consuming and relatively expensive techniques as part of the modern and functional management of salivary calculi. With regard to the management of salivary duct anomalies, such as strictures and kinkings, interventional radiology with fluoroscopically controlled balloon ductoplasty seems to be the most suitable technique despite the use of radiation. Operative sialoendoscopy alone is the best therapeutic option for all mobile intra-luminal causes of obstruction, such as microliths, mucous plugs or foreign bodies, or for the local treatment of inflammatory conditions such as recurrent chronic parotitis or autoimmune salivary disorders. Finally, in the case of failure of one of the above techniques and regardless of the cause of obstruction, botulinum toxin injection into the parenchyma of the salivary glands using colour Doppler ultrasonographic monitoring should be considered before deciding on surgical gland removal. PMID:17957846

  15. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  16. From Nitrate to Nitric Oxide: The Role of Salivary Glands and Oral Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Qu, X M; Wu, Z F; Pang, B X; Jin, L Y; Qin, L Z; Wang, S L

    2016-12-01

    The salivary glands and oral bacteria play an essential role in the conversion process from nitrate (NO 3 - ) and nitrite (NO 2 - ) to nitric oxide (NO) in the human body. NO is, at present, recognized as a multifarious messenger molecule with important vascular and metabolic functions. Besides the endogenous L-arginine pathway, which is catalyzed by complex NO synthases, nitrate in food contributes to the main extrinsic generation of NO through a series of sequential steps (NO 3 - -NO 2 - -NO pathway). Up to 25% of nitrate in circulation is actively taken up by the salivary glands, and as a result, its concentration in saliva can increase 10- to 20-fold. However, the mechanism has not been clearly illustrated until recently, when sialin was identified as an electrogenic 2NO 3 - /H + transporter in the plasma membrane of salivary acinar cells. Subsequently, the oral bacterial species located at the posterior part of the tongue reduce nitrate to nitrite, as catalyzed by nitrate reductase enzymes. These bacteria use nitrate and nitrite as final electron acceptors in their respiration and meanwhile help the host to convert nitrate to NO as the first step. This review describes the role of salivary glands and oral bacteria in the metabolism of nitrate and in the maintenance of NO homeostasis. The potential therapeutic applications of oral inorganic nitrate and nitrite are also discussed. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  17. Comparison of salivary antioxidants in healthy smoking and non-smoking men.

    PubMed

    Abdolsamadi, Hamid-reza; Goodarzi, Mohammad-taghi; Mortazavi, Hamed; Robati, Maryam; Ahmadi-Motemaye, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco use is known as a serious global public health problem, and is also an important risk factor for oral diseases. Saliva is the first biological medium encountered during inhalation of cigarette smoke. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to compare the levels of salivary antioxidants between healthy smoking and non-smoking men. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from 80 men. Forty subjects were smokers with a daily consumption of 20 cigarettes for at least 10 years and 40 subjects were non-smokers. The salivary levels of uric acid, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and peroxidase were measured and compared between studied groups. The mean levels of salivary superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and peroxidase were significantly lower in smokers than non-smokers. There was no statistically significant difference in the salivary uric acid level between smokers and non-smokers. Measurement of antioxidant agents in human saliva might be useful for estimating the level of oxidative stress caused by cigarette smoke.

  18. Salivary proline-rich proteins and gluten: Do structural similarities suggest a role in celiac disease?

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Messana, Irene; Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciaran P; Hansen, Joshua; Cabras, Tiziana; D'Alessandro, Alfredo; Schuppan, Detlef; Castagnola, Massimo; Helmerhorst, Eva J

    2015-10-01

    Gluten proteins, the culprits in celiac disease (CD), show striking similarities in primary structure with human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs). Both are enriched in proline and glutamine residues that often occur consecutively in their sequences. We investigated potential differences in the spectrum of salivary PRPs in health and CD. Stimulated salivary secretions were collected from CD patients, patients with refractory CD, patients with gastrointestinal complaints but no CD, and healthy controls. PRP isoforms/peptides were characterized by anionic and SDS-PAGE, PCR, and LC-ESI-MS. The gene frequencies of the acidic PRP isoforms PIF, Db, Pa, PRP1, and PRP2 did not differ between groups. At the protein level, PRPs peptides showed minor group differences, but these could not differentiate the CD and/or refractory CDs groups from the controls. This extensive study established that salivary PRPs, despite similarity to gluten proteins, show no apparent correlation with CD and thus will not serve as diagnostic markers for the disease. The structural basis for the tolerance to the gluten-like PRP proteins in CD is worthy of further exploration and may lead to the development of gluten-like analogs lacking immunogenicity that could be used therapeutically. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Copy number increase of ACTN4 is a prognostic indicator in salivary gland carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Watabe, Yukio; Mori, Taisuke; Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Nomura, Takeshi; Shibahara, Takahiko; Yamada, Tesshi; Honda, Kazufumi

    2014-01-01

    Copy number increase (CNI) of ACTN4 has been associated with poor prognosis and metastatic phenotypes in various human carcinomas. To identify a novel prognostic factor for salivary gland carcinoma, we investigated the copy number of ACTN4. We evaluated DNA copy number of ACTN4 in 58 patients with salivary gland carcinoma by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). CNI of ACTN4 was recognized in 14 of 58 patients (24.1%) with salivary gland carcinoma. The cases with CNI of ACTN4 were closely associated with histological grade (P = 0.047) and vascular invasion (P = 0.033). The patients with CNI of ACTN4 had a significantly worse prognosis than the patients with normal copy number of ACTN4 (P = 0.0005 log-rank test). Univariate analysis by the Cox proportional hazards model showed that histological grade, vascular invasion, and CNI of ACTN4 were independent risk factors for cancer death. Vascular invasion (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.98–28.06) and CNI of ACTN4 (HR: 3.23; 95% CI: 1.08–9.68) remained as risk factors for cancer death in multivariate analysis. Thus, CNI of ACTN4 is a novel indicator for an unfavorable outcome in patients with salivary gland carcinoma. PMID:24574362

  20. Bioprospection of immature salivary glands of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Caleffe, Ronaldo Roberto Tait; de Oliveira, Stefany Rodrigues; Gigliolli, Adriana Aparecida Sinópolis; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia Colla; Conte, Helio

    2018-06-08

    Larval therapy (LT) comprises the application of sterile Calliphoridae larvae for wound debridement, disinfection, and healing in humans and animals. Larval digestion plays a key role in LT, where the salivary glands and gut produce and secrete proteolytic and antimicrobial substances. The objective of this work was to bioprospect the salivary glands of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) larvae, using ultrastructural, morphological, and histological observations, and the total protein electrophoretic profile. The salivary glands present a deferent duct, originating from the buccal cavity, which bifurcates into efferent ducts that insert through a slight dilatation to a pair of tubular-shaped tissues, united in the region of fat cells. Histologically, the secretion had protein characteristics. Cell cytoplasm presented numerous free ribosomes, autophagic vacuoles, spherical and elongated mitochondria, atypical Golgi complexes, and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. In the apical cytoplasm, secretory granules and microvilli secretions demonstrated intense protein synthesis, basal cytoplasm with trachea insertions, and numerous mitochondria. The present work described the ultrastructure and morphology of C. megacephala third instar salivary glands, confirming intense protein synthesis and the molecular weight of soluble proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dental caries and salivary alterations in Type I Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rai, K; Hegde, A M; Kamath, A; Shetty, S

    2011-01-01

    Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is a severe disease that raises blood glucose levels because of hyperglycemia and insulinopenia. Fluctuations in water and electrolyte levels may result in xerostomia and other changes in the salivary composition. Since diabetes has an influence on oral health, it is important for the dentist to be aware of newer advances in the field of diabetes and to recognize specific oral problems related to diabetes. Thus, the dentist becomes an important part of the health care team for the patients with diabetes. The present study correlated salivary flow rate, salivary pH and total salivary antioxidant levels and dental caries in type I diabetic patients. A total of 200 children that included 100 known diabetic children (study group) and 100 healthy children (controls) of both the sexes and from similar socioeconomic backgrounds formed the part of this study. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT index. The salivary total anti-oxidant level was estimated using phospho molybdic acid using spectrophotometric method. The salivary flow rate was recorded using the Zunt method and the salivary pH using the pH indicating paper. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test. The analyzed parameters showed increase in salivary anti-oxidant levels, reduced salivary flow rate, increase incidence of dental caries, salivary pH was decreased when compared to the control group.

  2. Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density) and qualitative (mosquito species) immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes) from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. Results In silico analysis of secreted salivary gland protein sequences retrieved from an NCBInr database of six Anopheles species belonging to the Cellia subgenus (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus) and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi) displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. albimanus) indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance. Conclusion This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their common pharmacological

  3. Development of salivary cortisol circadian rhythm in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Ivars, Katrin; Nelson, Nina; Theodorsson, Annette; Theodorsson, Elvar; Ström, Jakob O; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2017-01-01

    To investigate at what age preterm infants develop a salivary cortisol circadian rhythm and identify whether it is dependent on gestational age and/or postnatal age. To evaluate whether salivary cortisol circadian rhythm development is related to behavioral regularity. To elucidate salivary cortisol levels in preterm infants during the first year of life. This prospective, longitudinal study included 51 preterm infants. 130 healthy full-term infants served as controls. Monthly salivary cortisol levels were obtained in the morning (07:30-09:30), at noon (10:00-12:00), and in the evening (19:30-21:30), beginning at gestational age week 28-32 and continuing until twelve months corrected age. Behavioral regularity was studied using the Baby Behavior Questionnaire. A salivary cortisol circadian rhythm was established by one month corrected age and persisted throughout the first year. The preterm infants showed a cortisol pattern increasingly more alike the full-term infants as the first year progressed. The preterm infants increase in behavioral regularity with age but no correlation was found between the development of salivary cortisol circadian rhythm and the development of behavior regularity. The time to establish salivary cortisol circadian rhythm differed between preterm and full-term infants according to postnatal age (p = 0.001) and was dependent on gestational age. Monthly salivary cortisol levels for preterm infants from birth until twelve months are presented. Additional findings were that topical corticosteroid medication was associated with higher concentrations of salivary cortisol (p = 0.02) and establishment of salivary cortisol circadian rhythm occurred later in infants treated with topical corticosteroid medication (p = 0.02). Salivary cortisol circadian rhythm is established by one month corrected age in preterm infants. Establishment of salivary cortisol circadian rhythm is related to gestational age rather than to postnatal age. Salivary cortisol

  4. Associations between xerostomia, histopathological alterations, and autonomic innervation of labial salivary glands in men in late midlife.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Reibel, Jesper; Lauritzen, Martin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Osler, Merete; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2014-09-01

    One aim of the present study was to investigate whether symptoms of oral dryness (xerostomia) during daytime, assessed in a study group of middle-aged male positive and negative outliers in cognition scores, were associated with age-related degenerative changes in human labial salivary glands and with quantitative measures of the glandular autonomic innervation. Another aim was to study the relation between the autonomic innervation and loss of secretory acinar cells in these glands. Labial salivary gland biopsies were taken from the lower lip from 190 men, born in 1953 and members of the Danish Metropolit birth cohort, who were examined for age-related changes in cognitive function and dental health as part of the Copenhagen University Center for Healthy Aging clinical neuroscience project. The glands were routinely processed and semi-quantitatively analyzed for inflammation, acinar atrophy, fibrosis, and adipocyte infiltration. Sections of labial salivary gland tissue were stained with the panneuronal marker PGP 9.5. In a subsample of 51 participants, the autonomic innervation of the glands was analyzed quantitatively by use of stereology. Labial salivary gland tissue samples from 33% of all participants displayed moderate to severe acinar atrophy and fibrosis (31%). Xerostomia was not significantly associated with structural changes of labial salivary glands, but in the subsample it was inversely related to the total nerve length in the glandular connective tissue. Acinar atrophy and fibrosis were negatively correlated with the parenchymal innervation and positively related to diffuse inflammation. The results from the present study indicate that aspects of the autonomic innervation of labial salivary glands may play a role in the occurrence of xerostomia which in the present study group was not significantly associated with degenerative changes in these glands. The findings further indicate that the integrity of labial salivary gland acini is related to the

  5. Salivary Cortisone Reflects Cortisol Exposure Under Physiological Conditions and After Hydrocortisone.

    PubMed

    Debono, Miguel; Harrison, Robert F; Whitaker, Martin J; Eckland, David; Arlt, Wiebke; Keevil, Brian G; Ross, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    In this study we tested the use of salivary cortisol and cortisone as alternatives to serum cortisol. Salivary cortisol is often undetectable and contaminated by hydrocortisone. Salivary cortisone strongly reflects serum cortisol.

  6. Hair and Salivary Testosterone, Hair Cortisol, and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grotzinger, Andrew D; Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2018-05-01

    Although testosterone is associated with aggression in the popular imagination, previous research on the links between testosterone and human aggression has been inconsistent. This inconsistency might be because testosterone's effects on aggression depend on other moderators. In a large adolescent sample ( N = 984, of whom 460 provided hair samples), we examined associations between aggression and salivary testosterone, hair testosterone, and hair cortisol. Callous-unemotional traits, parental monitoring, and peer environment were examined as potential moderators of hormone-behavior associations. Salivary testosterone was not associated with aggression. Hair testosterone significantly predicted increased aggression, particularly at low levels of hair cortisol (i.e., Testosterone × Cortisol interaction). This study is the first to examine the relationship between hair hormones and externalizing behaviors and adds to the growing literature that indicates that androgenic effects on human behavior are contingent on aspects of the broader endocrine environment-in particular, levels of cortisol.

  7. Salivary lysozyme in smoking alcohol dependent persons.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Zalewska, Anna; Waszkiewicz, Magdalena; Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Repka, Bernadeta; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Minarowska, Alina; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the concentration and output of salivary lysozyme. Thirty seven men participated in the study, including 17 male smoking alcohol-dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS), and 20 control non-smoking male social drinkers (CNS) with no history of alcohol abuse or smoking. The level of lysozyme was assessed by the radial immunodiffusion method. Significantly lower lysozyme output in the AS group compared to the CNS group was found. Moreover, gingival index was significantly higher in AS than in the CNS group. It appeared that the reduced salivary lysozyme output was more likely the result of ethanol action than smoking. In conclusion, persons addicted to alcohol and nicotine have a poorer periodontal status than non-smoking social drinkers, which may partially be due to the diminished protective effects of lysozyme present in the saliva.

  8. Minimally invasive options for salivary calculi.

    PubMed

    Witt, Robert L; Iro, Heinrich; Koch, Michael; McGurk, Mark; Nahlieli, Oded; Zenk, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review the advantages, limitations, and international interdisciplinary expert perspectives and contrasts of salivary gland endoscopy and transoral techniques in the diagnosis and management of salivary gland calculi and their adaptation in North America. The transition from transcervical approaches to strictly sialendoscopic approaches is a broad chasm and often not feasible. Sialendoscopy, sialendoscopy-assisted, intraoral, and transcervical approaches all have surgical value. Diagnostic sialendoscopy, interventional sialendoscopy, sialendoscopy-assisted, and transoral techniques have been a major step forward, not only in providing an accurate means of diagnosing and locating intraductal obstructions, but also in permitting minimally invasive surgical treatment that can successfully manage blockages precluding sialoadenectomy in most cases. A flexible methodology is required. Multiple or combined measured may prove effective. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Salivary defense system alters in vegetarian

    PubMed Central

    Amirmozafari, Nour; Pourghafar, Houra; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this research was investigating antimicrobial and enzymatic antioxidant activities in salivary fluids of vegetarians as compared to normal subjects. Material & Methods Antimicrobial activity of the saliva samples was evaluated against four clinically important bacteria. The biological activities of three of the main antioxidant enzymes of saliva were measured using appropriate methods of enzyme assay in both groups. Results According to the results, saliva obtained from vegetarians showed a reduced inhibitory effect on growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli as compared to those obtained from the non-vegetarian subjects. The activity of salivary peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase showed a statistically marked decrease in vegetarian group. Conclusions According to our literature survey, this is the first report on the antibacterial and antioxidant capacity in saliva of vegetarians. Results obtained from the present study have opened a new line of research with the basis of saliva as a research tool. PMID:25737889

  10. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, Paola A; Morelatto, Rosana A; Benavidez, Tomás E; Baruzzi, Ana M; López de Blanc, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacter R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva.

  11. A review of research on salivary biomarkers for oral cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Using saliva for disease diagnostics and health surveillance is a promising approach as collecting saliva is relatively easy and non-invasive. Over the past two decades, using salivary biomarkers specifically for early cancer detection has attracted much research interest, especially for cancers occurring in the oral cavity and oropharynx, for which the five-year survival rate (62%) is still one of the lowest among all major human cancers. More than 90% of oral cancers are oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the standard method for detection is through a comprehensive clinical examination by oral healthcare professionals. Despite the fact that the oral cavity is easily accessible, most OSCCs are not diagnosed until an advanced stage, which is believed to be the major reason for the low survival rate, and points to the urgent need for clinical diagnostic aids for early detection of OSCC. Thus, much research effort has been dedicated to investigating potential salivary biomarkers for OSCC, and more than 100 such biomarkers have been reported in the literature. However, some important issues and challenges have emerged that require solutions and further research in order to find reliable OSCC salivary biomarkers for clinical use. This review article provides an up-to-date list of potential OSCC salivary biomarkers reported as of the fall of 2013, and discusses those emerging issues. By raising the awareness of these issues on the part of both researchers and clinicians, it is hoped that reliable, specific and sensitive salivary biomarkers may be found soon—and not only biomarkers for early OSCC detection but also for detecting other types of cancers or even for monitoring non-cancerous disease activity. PMID:24564868

  12. Titanium Surface Roughing Treatments contribute to Higher Interaction with Salivary Proteins MG2 and Lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Soare, Rodrigo Villamarim; Leite Assis, Marina Araújo; Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Girundi, Francisco Mauro da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Some surface treatments performed on titanium can alter the composition of salivary pellicle formed on this abiotic surface. Such treatments modify the titanium's surface properties and can promote higher adsorption of proteins, which allow better integration of titanium to the biotic system. This study aimed to evaluate the interactions between salivary proteins and titanium disks with different surface treatments. Machined titanium disks (n = 48) were divided into four experimental groups (n = 12), according to their surface treatments: surface polishing (SP); acid etching (A); spot-blasting plus acid etching (SB-A); spot-blasting followed by acid etching and nano-functionalization (SB-A-NF). Titanium surfaces were characterized by surface roughness and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Specimens were incubated with human saliva extracted from submandibular and sublingual glands. Total salivary protein adsorbed to titanium was quantified and samples were submitted to western blotting for mucin glycoprotein 2 (MG2) and lactoferrin identification. Surface roughness was statistically higher for SB-A and SB-A-NF groups. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed that titanium surface treatments increased surface roughness with higher number of porous and scratches for SB-A and SB-A-NF groups. Total protein adsorption was significantly higher for SB-A and SB-A-NF groups (p < 0.05), which also presented higher interactions with MG2 and lactoferrin proteins. The roughing of titanium surface by spot-blasting plus acid etching treatments contribute to higher interaction with salivary proteins, such as MG2 and lactoferrin. Titanium surface roughing increases the interactions of the substratum with salivary proteins, which can influence the integration of dental implants and their components to the oral environment. However, those treatments should be used carefully intraorally, avoiding increase biofilm formation.

  13. Comparative analysis of salivary glucose and electrolytes in diabetic individuals with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Lasisi, T J; Fasanmade, A A

    2012-06-01

    A high incidence of periodontal disease has been reported among diabetics, however the role of saliva in the occurrence of this oral disease in these patients is yet to be understood. To determine the effects of type-2 diabetes and periodontal disease on salivary flow rate and biochemical composition. A prospective study involving 40 adult human subjects divided equally into four groups of diabetics with periodontitis (group 1), diabetics without periodontitis (group 2), non diabetics with periodontitis (group 3) and non diabetics without periodontitis (group 4). Saliva samples were collected and analyzed for salivary glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate. Salivary flow rates were also determined. Salivary glucose and potassium levels were significantly higher (P = 0.002 and 0.04 respectively) in diabetic patients regardless of periodontal disease (mean = 100.7 ± 9.33 mg/dl; 111.5 ± 32.85 mg/dl and 23.79 ± 5.19 mg/dl; 22.9 ± 6.25 mg/dl respectively) compared with non diabetic participants (mean = 80.5 ± 30.85 mg/ dl; 62.5 ± 31.89 mg/dl and 19.23 ± 5.04 mg/dl; 17.74 ± 4.68 mg/dl respectively). In contrast, there was no significant difference in saliva flow rates and levels of total protein, Na(+), Ca(++), Cl(-) and HCO3 (-)between the groups. Salivary glucose and potassium levels were significantly higher among diabetics with or without periodontitis compared with non-diabetics with or without periodontitis. However, biochemical composition of saliva in diabetic individuals has probably little role in their susceptibility to periodontitis.

  14. Ixeris dentata Extract Increases Salivary Secretion through the Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in a Diabetes-Induced Xerostomia Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Lee, Hwa-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2018-04-02

    This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced dry mouth and an application of natural products from Ixeris dentata (IXD), a recently suggested regulator of amylase secretion in salivary cells. Vehicle-treated or diabetic rats were orally treated with either water or an IXD extract for 10 days to observe the effect on salivary flow. We found that the IXD extract increased aquaporin 5 (AQP5) and alpha-amylase protein expression in the submandibular gland along with salivary flow rate. Similarly, the IXD extract and its purified compound increased amylase secretion in high glucose-exposed human salivary gland cells. Furthermore, increased endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the submandibular gland of diabetic rats was inhibited by treatment with the IXD extract, suggesting that IXD extract treatment improves the ER environment by increasing the protein folding capacity. Thus, pharmacological treatment with the IXD extract is suggested to relieve DM-induced dry mouth symptoms.

  15. Absence of Capsule Reveals Glycan-Mediated Binding and Recognition of Salivary Mucin MUC7 by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Thamadilok, Supaporn; Roche-Håkansson, Hazeline; Håkansson, Anders P.; Ruhl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Salivary proteins modulate bacterial colonization in the oral cavity and interact with systemic pathogens that pass through the oropharynx. An interesting example is the opportunistic respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae that normally resides in the nasopharynx, but belongs to the greater Mitis group of streptococci, most of which colonize the oral cavity. S. pneumoniae also expresses a serine-rich repeat (SRR) adhesin, PsrP, that is a homologue to oral Mitis group SRR adhesins, such as Hsa of S. gordonii and SrpA of S. sanguinis. Since the latter bind to salivary glycoproteins through recognition of terminal sialic acids, we wanted to determine whether S. pneumoniae also binds to salivary proteins through possibly the same mechanism. We found that only a capsule-free mutant of S. pneumoniae TIGR4 binds to salivary proteins, most prominently to mucin MUC7, but that this binding was not mediated through PsrP or recognition of sialic acid. We also found, however, that PsrP is involved in agglutination of human red blood cells (RBCs). After removal of PsrP, an additional previously masked lectin-like adhesin activity mediating agglutination of sialidase-treated RBCs becomes revealed. Using a custom-spotted glycoprotein and neoglycoprotein dot blot array, we identify candidate glycan motifs recognized by PsrP and by the putative S. pneumoniae adhesin that could perhaps be responsible for pneumococcal binding to salivary MUC7 and glycoproteins on RBCs. PMID:26172471

  16. Carcinoma Ex Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Palate Composed of Invasive Micropapillary Salivary Duct Carcinoma and Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Components

    PubMed Central

    Sedassari, Bruno T.; da Silva Lascane, Nelise A.; Tobouti, Priscila L.; Pigatti, Fernanda M.; Franco, Maria I.F.; de Sousa, Suzana C.O.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is an unusual epithelial malignancy that develops from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA), the most common tumor of salivary glands, and constitutes about 11.5% of all carcinomas that affect these glands. Intraoral minor salivary glands and seromucous glands of the oropharynx are uncommon locations of CXPA. On histopathological examination, the tumor comprises a wide morphological spectrum with a variable proportion between the benign and malignant components with the latter often predominating and overlapping the PA, which may cause misdiagnosis. Here, we report a case of palatal minor salivary gland CXPA composed of invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma components with multiple nodal metastases in a 74-year-old woman. Neoplastic cells showed heterogeneous immunohistochemical profile with both luminal and myoepithelial differentiation. The invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma component demonstrated overexpression of the oncoprotein human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. This feature should be considered and evaluated as a possible target for adjuvant therapy in case of metastatic disease. PMID:25501054

  17. Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary α-amylase during Incremental Exercise.

    PubMed

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary α-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary α-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary α-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload.

  18. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Shi, Ping; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Song, Xiaoqing; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Background Type II diabetes (T2D) has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects. Methods We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years) using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175) and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration < 0.1 mg/dL n = 2,537). Results HSG was associated with dental caries and gingivitis in the study population. The overall salivary bacterial load in saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83%) of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64%) were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness. Conclusions HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence

  19. Effects of gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion on salivary pH and flow: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    da Mata, A D S P; da Silva Marques, D N; Silveira, J M L; Marques, J R O F; de Melo Campos Felino, E T; Guilherme, N F R P M

    2009-04-01

    To compare salivary pH changes and stimulation efficacy of two different gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion (GSSS). Portuguese Dental Faculty Clinic. Double blind randomized controlled trial. One hundred and twenty volunteers were randomized to two intervention groups. Sample sized was calculated using an alpha error of 0.05 and a beta of 0.20. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a new gustatory stimulant of secretory secretion containing a weaker malic acid, fluoride and xylitol or a traditionally citric acid-based one. Saliva collection was obtained by established methods at different times. The salivary pH of the samples was determined with a pH meter and a microelectrode. Salivary pH variations and counts of subjects with pH below 5.5 for over 1 min and stimulated salivary flow were the main outcome measures. Both GSSS significantly stimulated salivary output without significant differences between the two groups. The new gustatory stimulant of salivary secretion presented a risk reduction of 80 +/- 10.6% (95% CI) when compared with the traditional one. Gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion with fluoride, xylitol and lower acid content maintain similar salivary stimulation capacity while reducing significantly the dental erosion predictive potential.

  20. Salivary detection of human Papilloma virus 16 & 18 in pre-malignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity: Is it feasible in Pakistani context of Socio-Cultural Taboos?

    PubMed

    Khyani, Iqbal A Muhammad; Qureshi, Masood A; Mirza, Talat; Farooq, M Umar

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate salivary detection of HPV-16 & 18 would be feasible and informative biomarker for oral pre-malignant and malignant lesion in our population. This non-interventional, case control study was carried out at department of E.N.T, Head and Neck Surgery, Dow University of Health Sciences, Dow Medical College and Civil Hospital Karachi, Pakistan between July 2011 to December 2012. Total of 105 cases were recruited. These were divided in three groups 'A', 'B' & 'C' having 35 subjects each. Group'A' constitutes patients having strong clinical evidence of oral pre-malignant lesions (PML). Group 'B' includes histologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Group 'C' comprised disease free subjects as controls. After taking informed consent, relevant clinical history was recorded on institutional approved performa. Saliva from all subjects was procured by standard 'drooling method'. Samples were stored at +4°C and later transferred to Laboratory to store at-20°C before further process. Samples were centrifuged at 4500 rpm for 15 minutes at 4°C. Cell pellets sediments were used for identification of HPV-16 & 18 by real-time PCR method. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 16. P-value of 0.05 was taken as standard. In group 'A', HPV-16 was detected in 3 (8.6%) cases while HPV-18 was not detected in any of the subject. In group 'B', HPV-16 was detected in 07 (20%) while HPV-18 was found in 06 (17.1%) cases. Mixed HPV-16 and HPV-18 were found in 02 (5.7%) cases. In group 'C', HPV-16 was detected in 03(8.6%) while HPV-18 was not detected in any of the subjects. Significant relationship was observed between the groups for HPV-18 detection (P= 0.002) while for HPV-16, no significant association was found (P= 0.245). HPV infection for the causation of oral cancer cannot be fully established possibly due to small sample size. More over differences in genetic makeup, environment, indulgence in peculiar risk factor habits, sexual practices and

  1. Effect of cigarette smoke on salivary proteins and enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Nagler, R; Lischinsky, S; Diamond, E; Drigues, N; Klein, I; Reznick, A Z

    2000-07-15

    Exposure of human plasma in vitro to gas-phase cigarette smoke (CS) causes a marked modification of plasma proteins as measured by protein carbonyl assay. Aldehydes present in CS may cause this elevation of protein carbonyls by reacting with sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Saliva is the first body fluid to confront the inhaled CS. Thus, in vitro exposure of saliva to nine "puffs" of CS also showed a distinct increase in protein carbonyls. Ascorbate and desferrioxamine mesylate had little effect on protein carbonyl formation, while GSH and N-acetylcysteine considerably inhibited the accumulation of protein carbonyls due to CS exposure. Following the exposure to CS, the activities of several salivary enzymes-amylase, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and acid phosphatase-were found to be significantly reduced (34, 57, and 77%, respectively). However, CS had no effect on the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. Addition of 1 mM of GSH and N-acetylcysteine considerably protected LDH and amylase activities, suggesting that sulfhydryl groups are affected in LDH and amylase. On the other hand, addition of 1 mM ascorbate caused a further loss of LDH and amylase activities, which could be partially prevented by the addition of desferrioxamine mesylate, implicating metal-catalyzed oxidation processes. Finally, loss of acid phosphatase activity was completely unaffected by any of the above antioxidants. It is concluded that the loss of salivary enzyme activities may be due to various agents in the CS that affect the enzyme activities via different mechanisms. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Salivary mucins protect surfaces from colonization by cariogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Erica Shapiro; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the body's natural defenses function to protect the oral cavity from the myriad of bacteria that colonize its surfaces is an ongoing topic of research that can lead to breakthroughs in treatment and prevention. One key defense mechanism on all moist epithelial linings, such as the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs, is a layer of thick, well-hydrated mucus. The main gel-forming components of mucus are mucins, large glycoproteins that play a key role in host defense. This study focuses on elucidating the connection between MUC5B salivary mucins and dental caries, one of the most common oral diseases. Dental caries is predominantly caused by Streptococcus mutans attachment and biofilm formation on the tooth surface. Once S. mutans attaches to the tooth, it produces organic acids as metabolic by-products that dissolve tooth enamel, leading to cavity formation. We utilize CFU counts and fluorescence microscopy to quantitatively show that S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation are most robust in the presence of sucrose and that aqueous solutions of purified human MUC5B protect surfaces by acting as an antibiofouling agent in the presence of sucrose. In addition, we find that MUC5B does not alter S. mutans growth and decreases surface attachment and biofilm formation by maintaining S. mutans in the planktonic form. These insights point to the importance of salivary mucins in oral health and lead to a better understanding of how MUC5B could play a role in cavity prevention or diagnosis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. The salivary microbiome for differentiating individuals: proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Leake, Sarah L; Pagni, Marco; Falquet, Laurent; Taroni, Franco; Greub, Gilbert

    2016-06-01

    Human identification has played a prominent role in forensic science for the past two decades. Identification based on unique genetic traits is driving the field. However, this may have limitations, for instance, for twins. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing techniques are now available and may provide a high amount of data likely useful in forensic science. This study investigates the potential for bacteria found in the salivary microbiome to be used to differentiate individuals. Two different targets (16S rRNA and rpoB) were chosen to maximise coverage of the salivary microbiome and when combined, they increase the power of differentiation (identification). Paired-end Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to analyse the bacterial composition of saliva from two different people at four different time points (t = 0 and t = 28 days and then one year later at t = 0 and t = 28 days). Five major phyla dominate the samples: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria. Streptococcus, a Firmicutes, is one of the most abundant aerobic genera found in saliva and targeting Streptococcus rpoB has enabled a deeper characterisation of the different streptococci species, which cannot be differentiated using 16S rRNA alone. We have observed that samples from the same person group together regardless of time of sampling. The results indicate that it is possible to distinguish two people using the bacterial microbiota present in their saliva. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Smoking influences salivary histamine levels in periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Bertl, K; Haririan, H; Laky, M; Matejka, M; Andrukhov, O; Rausch-Fan, X

    2012-05-01

    Histamine, a potent vasoactive amine, is increased in saliva of periodontitis patients. The present study aimed to further investigate the diagnostic potential of histamine for periodontal disease and assessed smoking, a major risk factor of periodontitis, as a possible influencing factor. Salivary and serum samples of 106 participants (60 periodontitis patients, 46 controls) were collected. Salivary histamine was determined by a commercially available ELISA kit, and serum C-reactive protein was measured by a routine laboratory test. Cigarettes per day and packyears were assessed as smoking exposure parameters. Statistically significantly increased levels of salivary histamine and serum C-reactive protein were detected between the patient and control group (P = 0.022 and P = 0.001). Salivary histamine levels were significantly higher in smoking compared with non-smoking patients (P < 0.001), and salivary histamine as well as serum C-reactive protein correlated significantly positively with smoking exposure parameters (P < 0.05). Smoking, an established and common risk factor of periodontitis, was assessed as a possible influencing factor for salivary histamine. Most interestingly, salivary histamine differed highly significantly between smoking and non-smoking periodontitis patients. Our results suggest a possible involvement of histamine in tobacco-exacerbated periodontal disease, but do not suggest salivary histamine as a reliable diagnostic marker for periodontitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Evaluation of salivary function in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y C; Hong, I K; Na, S Y; Eun, Y G

    2015-04-01

    To investigate salivary function in patients with primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) compared with control and to evaluate salivary hypofunction using salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS). A total of 33 patients with primary BMS and 30 control subjects were enrolled in our study. The severity of the pain and the burning sensation on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) were assessed. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates (SFRs) were measured. (99m) Tc pertechnetate SGS was used to evaluate salivary gland function. Unstimulated SFR in patients with BMS was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.11 ± 0.15 vs 0.21 ± 0.16 ml min(-1) , P = 0.014). There was no significant difference in stimulated SFR between the two groups. The VAS scores for oral pain and burning sensation, the total OHIP-14 score, and salivary gland function by salivary scintigraphy were not significantly different between BMS patients with normal flow rate and hyposalivation. Patients with primary BMS exhibited a significant decrease in unstimulated SFR compared with control group. In addition, we could not find any difference in salivary gland function between BMS patients with or without hyposalivation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  7. Effect of chewing betel nut (Areca catechu) on salivary cortisol measurement.

    PubMed

    Konečná, Martina; Urlacher, Samuel S

    2015-09-01

    Cultural practices may compromise the accuracy of salivary hormone measurements and must be considered when designing human biology research protocols. This study aims to evaluate the acute effect of one common human practice-chewing betel nut-on the measurement of salivary cortisol levels under field conditions. Data were collected from 17 adult habitual betel nut users (males = 11; females = 6; mean age = 32.8 years) from a small rural community in Papua New Guinea. Saliva was collected in time series from each participant before and at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 min after chewing betel nut. Samples were analyzed by radioimmunoassay and cortisol levels were compared across time using linear mixed effects modeling. Measured mean cortisol concentration fell nearly 40% immediately following betel nut use and remained significantly below baseline levels for the following 45 min (all P < 0.05). Cortisol concentrations measured at 60 min and 75 min were indistinguishable from baseline levels (all P > 0.16). Chewing betel nut is associated with a transient but significant reduction in measured levels of salivary cortisol. Future research must take this into account in populations where betel nut use is prevalent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. SALIVARY GLAND EXTRACTS OF CULICOIDES SONORENSIS INHIBIT MURINE LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION AND NO PRODUCTION BY MACROPHAGES

    PubMed Central

    BISHOP, JEANETTE V.; MEJIA, J. SANTIAGO; PÉREZ DE LEÓN, ADALBERTO A.; TABACHNICK, WALTER J.; TITUS, RICHARD G.

    2006-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges serve as vectors of pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. Culicoides sonorensis is a vector of several arboviruses in North American that cause substantial economic losses to the US livestock industry. Previous studies showed that C. sonorensis saliva, like the saliva of many hematophagous arthropods, contains numerous pharmacological agents that affect hemostasis and early events in the inflammatory response, which may enhance the infectivity of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This paper reports on the immunomodulatory properties of C. sonorensis salivary gland extracts on murine immune cells and discusses the possible immunomodulatory role of C. sonorensis saliva in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of vertebrate hosts. Splenocytes treated with C. sonorensis mitogens were significantly affected in their proliferative response, and peritoneal macrophages secreted significantly less NO. A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate. PMID:16968936

  9. Salivary gland extracts of Culicoides sonorensis inhibit murine lymphocyte proliferation and no production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jeanette V; Mejia, J Santiago; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Tabachnick, Walter J; Titus, Richard G

    2006-09-01

    Culicoides biting midges serve as vectors of pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. Culicoides sonorensis is a vector of several arboviruses in North American that cause substantial economic losses to the US livestock industry. Previous studies showed that C. sonorensis saliva, like the saliva of many hematophagous arthropods, contains numerous pharmacological agents that affect hemostasis and early events in the inflammatory response, which may enhance the infectivity of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This paper reports on the immunomodulatory properties of C. sonorensis salivary gland extracts on murine immune cells and discusses the possible immunomodulatory role of C. sonorensis saliva in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of vertebrate hosts. Splenocytes treated with C. sonorensis mitogens were significantly affected in their proliferative response, and peritoneal macrophages secreted significantly less NO. A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate.

  10. Effect of Leflunomide, Cidofovir and Ciprofloxacin on replication of BKPyV in a salivary gland in vitro culture system.

    PubMed

    Jeffers-Francis, Liesl K; Burger-Calderon, Raquel; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a known kidney tropic virus that has been detected at high levels in HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD), one of the most important AIDS associated oral lesions. BKPyV has been detected in HIV-SGD patient saliva and replicates in salivary gland cells in vitro. BKPyV antivirals are currently in wide use to guard against BKPyV mediated organ rejection in kidney transplant recipients. The goal of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of three such antiviral agents, Ciprofloxacin, Cidofovir, and Leflunomide in BKPyV infected salivary gland cells. Human salivary gland cells, and Vero cells, were infected with BKPyV, treated with antiviral drugs and assessed for BKPyV gene expression and viral replication for up to 5 days post infection. The kinetics of BKPyV replication were different in salivary gland cells compared to kidney cells. Ciprofloxacin and Cidofovir had minimal effect on metabolic activity and host cell DNA replication, however, cell toxicity was detected at the protein level with Leflunomide treatment. Ciprofloxacin decreased BKV T Ag and VP1 mRNA expression by at least 50% in both cell types, and decreased T Ag protein expression at days 3 and 4 post infection. A 2.5-4 log decrease in intracellular DNA replication and a 2-3 log decrease in progeny release were detected with Ciprofloxacin treatment. Cidofovir and Leflunomide also inhibited BKPyV gene expression and DNA replication. The three drugs diminished progeny release by 30-90% and 2- to 6-fold decreases in infectious virus were detected post drug treatment by fluorescence focus assay. Additionally, three clinical BKPyV isolates were assessed for their responses to these agents in vitro. Cidofovir and Leflunomide, but not Ciprofloxacin treatment resulted in statistically significant inhibition of BKPyV progeny release from salivary gland cells infected with HIVSGD BKPyV isolates. All three drugs decreased progeny release from cells infected with a

  11. Warthin tumor arising from the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Toshinori; Baba, Junichi; Murata, Shogo; Mitsudo, Kenji; Maegawa, Jiro; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Tohnai, Iwai

    2012-09-01

    Warthin tumor (WT) accounts for 4% to 13% of all salivary gland tumors. This benign tumor, which commonly arises in the parotid gland, is the second most common tumor of the salivary gland. WT is multicentric in 12% to 20% of patients and is bilateral in 5% to 14%. The mean age at diagnosis is 62 years (range, 12-92 years), and it rarely presents (<6%) before age 40 years. Extraparotid WT, arising from the submandibular gland or cervical lymph node for example, is very infrequent, with corresponding incidences of 0.4% to 6.9% and 8%, respectively. Moreover, WT arising from the minor salivary gland is extremely rare, with a reported incidence of merely 0.1% to 1.2%. We report here WT arising from the minor salivary gland in the buccal mucosa in a 66-year-old woman and review cases of WT of the minor salivary gland reported in the English literature.

  12. Annotated Differentially Expressed Salivary Proteins of Susceptible and Insecticide-Resistant Mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Sonam; Rawal, Ritu; Kadian, Kavita; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Vector control is one of the major global strategies for control of malaria. However, the major obstacle for vector control is the development of multiple resistances to organochlorine, organophosphorus insecticides and pyrethroids that are currently being used in public health for spraying and in bednets. Salivary glands of vectors are the first target organ for human-vector contact during biting and parasite-vector contact prior to parasite development in the mosquito midguts. The salivary glands secrete anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory biologically active molecules to facilitate blood feeding from the host and also inadvertently inject malaria parasites into the vertebrate host. The Anopheles stephensi mosquito, an urban vector of malaria to both human and rodent species has been identified as a reference laboratory model to study mosquito—parasite interactions. In this study, we adopted a conventional proteomic approach of 2D-electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and bioinformatics to identify putative differentially expressed annotated functional salivary proteins between An. stephensi susceptible and multiresistant strains with same genetic background. Our results show 2D gel profile and MALDI-TOF comparisons that identified 31 differentially expressed putative modulated proteins in deltamethrin/DDT resistant strains of An. stephensi. Among these 15 proteins were found to be upregulated and 16 proteins were downregulated. Our studies interpret that An. stephensi (multiresistant) caused an upregulated expression of proteins and enzymes like cytochrome 450, short chain dehyrdogenase reductase, phosphodiesterase etc that may have an impact in insecticide resistance and xenobiotic detoxification. Our study elucidates a proteomic response of salivary glands differentially regulated proteins in response to insecticide resistance development which include structural, redox and regulatory enzymes of several pathways. These identified proteins

  13. Annotated differentially expressed salivary proteins of susceptible and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Sonam; Rawal, Ritu; Kadian, Kavita; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Vector control is one of the major global strategies for control of malaria. However, the major obstacle for vector control is the development of multiple resistances to organochlorine, organophosphorus insecticides and pyrethroids that are currently being used in public health for spraying and in bednets. Salivary glands of vectors are the first target organ for human-vector contact during biting and parasite-vector contact prior to parasite development in the mosquito midguts. The salivary glands secrete anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory biologically active molecules to facilitate blood feeding from the host and also inadvertently inject malaria parasites into the vertebrate host. The Anopheles stephensi mosquito, an urban vector of malaria to both human and rodent species has been identified as a reference laboratory model to study mosquito-parasite interactions. In this study, we adopted a conventional proteomic approach of 2D-electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and bioinformatics to identify putative differentially expressed annotated functional salivary proteins between An. stephensi susceptible and multiresistant strains with same genetic background. Our results show 2D gel profile and MALDI-TOF comparisons that identified 31 differentially expressed putative modulated proteins in deltamethrin/DDT resistant strains of An. stephensi. Among these 15 proteins were found to be upregulated and 16 proteins were downregulated. Our studies interpret that An. stephensi (multiresistant) caused an upregulated expression of proteins and enzymes like cytochrome 450, short chain dehyrdogenase reductase, phosphodiesterase etc that may have an impact in insecticide resistance and xenobiotic detoxification. Our study elucidates a proteomic response of salivary glands differentially regulated proteins in response to insecticide resistance development which include structural, redox and regulatory enzymes of several pathways. These identified proteins

  14. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harris, Zoey I; Arnett, Deborah G; Klein, Rob R; Burd, Randy; Ann, David K; Limesand, Kirsten H

    2014-01-01

    The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate the chronic side

  15. Gingivitis and salivary osmolality in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Ferreira, Maria Cristina Duarte; Guaré, Renata Oliveira; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Duarte, Danilo Antonio

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A total of 82 children with spastic CP were included in this cross-sectional study. Oral motor performance and gingival conditions were evaluated. Unstimulated saliva was collected using cotton swabs, and salivary osmolality was measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. Spearman's coefficient, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Strong correlation (r > 0.7) was determined among salivary osmolality, salivary flow rate, visible plaque, dental calculus, and the occurrence of gingivitis. The area under the ROC to predict the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis was 0.88 (95% CI 0.81-0.96; P < 0.001). The cutoff value of 84.5 for salivary osmolality presented good sensitivity and specificity, both higher than 77%. The proportion of children presenting salivary osmolality ≤84.5 mOsm/kgH 2 O and gingivitis was 22.5%, whereas for the group presenting osmolality >84.5 mOsm/kgH 2 O, the proportion of children with gingivitis was 77.5%. Salivary osmolality above 84.5 increased the likelihood of gingivitis fivefold, whereas each additional 0.1 mL of salivary flow reduced the likelihood of gingivitis by 97%. Gingivitis occurs more frequently in children with CP showing increased values of salivary osmolality. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Relationship between Exposure to Vector Bites and Antibody Responses to Mosquito Salivary Gland Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Diouf, Ibrahima; Remoué, Franck; Pagès, Frédéric; Fusaï, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study of antibody levels against several mosquito salivary gland extracts from southeastern French individuals living in three areas with distinct ecological environments and, by implication, distinct Aedes caspius mosquito densities were compared using ELISA. A positive association was observed between the average levels of IgG responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts and spatial Ae. caspius densities. Additionally, the average level of IgG responses increased significantly during the peak exposure to Ae. caspius at each site and returned to baseline four months later, suggesting short-lived IgG responses. The species-specificity of IgG antibody responses was determined by testing antibody responses to salivary gland extracts from Cx. pipiens, a mosquito that is present at these three sites at different density levels, and from two other Aedes species not present in the study area (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The IgG responses observed against these mosquito salivary gland extracts contrasted with those observed against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts, supporting the existence of species-specific serological responses. By considering different populations and densities of mosquitoes linked to environmental factors, this study shows, for the first time, that specific IgG antibody responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts may be related to the seasonal and geographical variations in Ae. caspius density. Characterisation of such immunological

  17. Zonula occludens-1, occludin and E-cadherin expression and organization in salivary glands with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mellas, Rachel E; Leigh, Noel J; Nelson, Joel W; McCall, Andrew D; Baker, Olga J

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes secretory dysfunction of the salivary glands leading to dry mouth. Previous studies reported that tight junction (TJ) proteins are down-regulated and lose polarity in human minor salivary glands with SS, suggesting that TJ structure is compromised in SS patients. In this paper, we utilized the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse with the main goal of evaluating this model for future TJ research. We found that the organization of apical proteins in areas proximal and distal to lymphocytic infiltration remained intact in mouse and human salivary glands with SS. These areas looked comparable to control glands (i.e., with no lymphocytic infiltration). TJ staining was absent in areas of lymphocytic infiltration coinciding with the loss of salivary epithelium. Gene expression studies show that most TJs are not significantly altered in 20-week-old NOD/ShiLtJ mice as compared with age-matched C57BL/6 controls. Protein expression studies revealed that the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-12, as well as E-cadherin, do not significantly change in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Our results suggest that ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin are not altered in areas without lymphocytic infiltration. However, future studies will be necessary to test the functional aspect of these results. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Promising Gene Therapeutics for Salivary Gland Radiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Renjith Parameswaran; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan

    2017-01-01

    More than 0.5 million new cases of head and neck cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, and approximately 75% of them are treated with radiation alone or in combination with other cancer treatments. A majority of patients treated with radiotherapy develop significant oral off-target effects because of the unavoidable irradiation of normal tissues. Salivary glands that lie within treatment fields are often irreparably damaged and a decline in function manifests as dry mouth or xerostomia. Limited ability of the salivary glands to regenerate lost acinar cells makes radiation-induced loss of function a chronic problem that affects the quality of life of the patients well beyond the completion of radiotherapy. The restoration of saliva production after irradiation has been a daunting challenge, and this review provides an overview of promising gene therapeutics that either improve the gland’s ability to survive radiation insult, or alternately, restore fluid flow after radiation. The salient features and shortcomings of each approach are discussed. PMID:28286865

  19. Adenovirus-mediated hAQP1 expression in irradiated mouse salivary glands causes recovery of saliva secretion by enhancing acinar cell volume decrease

    PubMed Central

    Teos, LY; Zheng, C-Y; Liu, X; Swaim, WD; Goldsmith, CM; Cotrim, AP; Baum, BJ; Ambudkar, IS

    2017-01-01

    Head and neck irradiation (IR) during cancer treatment causes by-stander effects on the salivary glands leading to irreversible loss of saliva secretion. The mechanism underlying loss of fluid secretion is not understood and no adequate therapy is currently available. Delivery of an adenoviral vector encoding human aquaporin-1 (hAQP1) into the salivary glands of human subjects and animal models with radiation-induced salivary hypofunction leads to significant recovery of saliva secretion and symptomatic relief in subjects. To elucidate the mechanism underlying loss of salivary secretion and the basis for AdhAQP1-dependent recovery of salivary gland function we assessed submandibular gland function in control mice and mice 2 and 8 months after treatment with a single 15-Gy dose of IR (delivered to the salivary gland region). Salivary secretion and neurotransmitter-stimulated changes in acinar cell volume, an in vitro read-out for fluid secretion, were monitored. Consistent with the sustained 60% loss of fluid secretion following IR, a carbachol (CCh)-induced decrease in acinar cell volume from the glands of mice post IR was transient and attenuated as compared with that in cells from non-IR age-matched mice. The hAQP1 expression in non-IR mice induced no significant effect on salivary fluid secretion or CCh-stimulated cell volume changes, except in acinar cells from 8-month group where the initial rate of cell shrinkage was increased. Importantly, the expression of hAQP1 in the glands of mice post IR induced recovery of salivary fluid secretion and a volume decrease in acinar cells to levels similar to those in cells from non-IR mice. The initial rates of CCh-stimulated cell volume reduction in acinar cells from hAQP1-expressing glands post IR were similar to those from control cells. Altogether, the data suggest that expression of hAQP1 increases the water permeability of acinar cells, which underlies the recovery of fluid secretion in the salivary glands

  20. Measurement of salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels.

    PubMed

    Mamali, Irene; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia K; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Markou, Kostas B; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal determination in saliva offers several advantages. Peptides enter the salivary glands either by active transport mechanisms or are expressed and secreted by the salivary glands themselves. The collection of saliva is a noninvasive, easily repeatable and less stressful technique than blood withdrawal. The purpose of the present study was to introduce a method for measuring salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels and to evaluate their associations with serum levels. Resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels were measured in serum and saliva of 50 healthy adult volunteers (17 male and 33 female) using commercial enzyme immunoassay kits for serum with minor modifications. The present study documented the determination of resistin and adiponectin levels in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary levels with serum levels (r=0.441, p<0.01 and r=0.347, p<0.05, respectively). Moreover, the identification of visfatin in saliva was achieved, but no significant correlation with serum visfatin levels was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the determination of resistin and visfatin in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary resistin with serum levels, while it confirmed the significant association between salivary and serum adiponectin. The introduction of salivary determinations of adipokines could contribute to the elucidation of the physiology and the role of the specific adipokines in various clinical conditions (obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, reproduction, energy imbalance and stress response). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Daily rhythm of salivary and serum urea concentration in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Piccione, Giuseppe; Foà, Augusto; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Caola, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Background In domestic animals many biochemical and physiological processes exhibit daily rhythmicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rhythmic pattern of salivary and serum urea concentrations in sheep. Methods Six 3-year-old female sheep kept in the same environmental conditions were used. Sheep were sampled at 4 hour intervals for 48 consecutive hours starting at 08:00 of the first day and finishing at 04:00 of the second day. Blood samples were collected via intravenous cannulae inserted into the jugular vein; saliva samples were collected through a specific tube, the "Salivette". Salivary and serum urea concentrations were assayed by means of UV spectrophotometer. ANOVA was used to determine significant differences. The single Cosinor procedure was applied to the results showing significant differences over time. Results ANOVA showed a significant effect of time on salivary and serum urea concentrations. Serum and salivary urea peaked during the light phase. In the dark phase serum and salivary urea concentrations decreased, and the diurnal trough occurred at midnight. Cosinor analysis showed diurnal acrophases for salivary and serum urea concentrations. Daily mean levels were significantly higher in the serum than in the saliva. Conclusion In sheep both salivary and serum urea concentrations showed daily fluctuations. Urea is synthesized in the liver and its production is strongly influenced by food intake. Future investigation should clarify whether daily urea rhythms in sheep are endogenous or are simply the result of the temporal administration of food. PMID:17123442

  2. Salivary Gland NK Cells Are Phenotypically and Functionally Unique

    PubMed Central

    Brossay, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV). However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or Treg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells. PMID:21249177

  3. The Role of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Uncontrolled Type II Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, B; Sathasivasubramanian, S

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy and then to compare these ratios with quantitative whole salivary secretion rates. Using a gamma camera (siemens-diacam) equipped with a low energy all-purpose collimator, 32 uncontrolled type II diabetic patients and 30 normal healthy patients were studied by injecting a radio isotope (technetium 99m pertechnetate) about 5 mCi was injected intravenously in to anticubital vein and the activity was measured for the 1(st), 20(th) and 40(th) min. At 20 min after injection, vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and continued until the end of the study period (40 min). Before scintigraphy, salivary sampling was carried out in both diabetic and normal individuals in a quiet room, saliva was allowed to accumulate and was expectorated into the collecting vessel approximately once a minute for 15 min and the volume was recorded as Unstimulated salivary flow rate and after 5 min break vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and the patient was asked to expectorate the saliva in the collecting vessel for 5 min. The expectorated volume was recorded as stimulated salivary flow rate. The mean of the measurements of scintigraphic ratio and salivary secretion rates were compared using the paired Student's t-test. The scintigraphic mean uptake and excretory ratio (ER) and the salivary flow rates were correlated. The result shows that there was a significant correlation between salivary flow rate and scintigraphic uptake and ER. However, statistically significant result could not be derived as it may be due to smaller sample size and marginal difference in the scintigraphic values between the groups. Salivary gland scintigraphy plays a significant role in the evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction. However, its role as an independent investigative procedure in the evaluation of

  4. Effect of cevimeline on salivary components in patients with Sjögren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kimihiro; Matsumoto, Mitsuyo; Nakashima, Masahiro; Takada, Kunio; Nakanishi, Takashi; Okada, Makoto; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of cevimeline on various components in human saliva, such as immunoglobulin A (IgA), lysozyme, alpha-amylase and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen. Twelve female patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) and 14 healthy women were enrolled. After the first saliva collection, one capsule (30 mg) of cevimeline was administered to each subject. Saliva was collected again after 90 min. The salivary flow rate and concentration of each component were measured. In both groups the salivary flow rate and amylase concentration were significantly increased by cevimeline. The lysozyme and IgA concentrations did not change significantly in both groups. The SCC antigen concentration did not change significantly in the SS group, but it decreased significantly in the control group. The secretion rates of amylase and IgA showed significant increases in both groups. The secretion rate of lysozyme significantly increased only in the control group, while the secretion rate of SCC significantly increased only in the SS group. Cevimeline augments not only the salivary flow rate but also the secretion rate of some digestive and/or defense factors from infections. It may be beneficial for SS patients to continue taking cevimeline to prevent oral infections, and other serious sequelae. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Function of the Membrane Water Channel Aquaporin-5 in the Salivary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Susa, Taketo; Shimizu, Kinue; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Takeshi; Aoki, Takeo; Yokoo, Satoshi; Takata, Kuniaki

    2012-01-01

    The process of saliva production in the salivary glands requires transepithelial water transfer from the interstitium to the acinar lumen. There are two transepithelial pathways: the transcellular and paracellular. In the transcellular pathway, the aquaporin water channels induce passive water diffusion across the membrane lipid bilayer. It is well known that aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is expressed in the salivary glands, in which it is mainly localized at the apical membrane of the acinar cells. This suggests the physiological importance of AQP5 in transcellular water transfer. Reduced saliva secretion under pilocarpine stimulation in AQP5-null mice compared with normal mice further indicates the importance of AQP5 in this process, at least in stimulated saliva secretion. Questions remain therefore regarding the role and importance of AQP5 in basal saliva secretion. It has been speculated that there would be some short-term regulation of AQP5 such as a trafficking mechanism to regulate saliva secretion. However, no histochemical evidence of AQP5-trafficking has been found, although some of biochemical analyses suggested that it may occur. There are no reports of human disease caused by AQP5 mutations, but some studies have revealed an abnormal subcellular distribution of AQP5 in patients or animals with xerostomia caused by Sjögren’s syndrome and X-irradiation. These findings suggest the possible pathophysiological importance of AQP5 in the salivary glands. PMID:23209334

  6. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P < 0.01) as compared to the control subjects. The effects of prolonged exposure to EMRs from mobile phone base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  7. Small bite, large impact-saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Lemke, Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes.

  8. Mental and Physical Workload, Salivary Stress Biomarkers and Taste Perception: Mars Desert Research Station Expedition

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Very few studies have been conducted on the effects of simulation of Mars conditions on taste. Aims: This study was planned to find the effects of physical and mental workload on taste sensitivity and salivary stress biomarkers. Materials and Methods: Twelve crew members were selected. Taste reactions and intensity of the taste sensations to quinine sulfate, citric acid, and sucrose were tested before and after mental and physical tasks for one hour. Also, psychological mood states by profile of mood state, salivary, salivary alpha amylase and cortisol, and current stress test scores were measured before and after mental and physical tasks. Results: Average time intensity evaluation showed that after the mental and physical tasks, the perceived duration of bitter, sour, and sweet taste sensations was significantly shortened relative to control group. There were good correlations between average time intensity of sweetness, bitterness, sourness and cortisol levels. Conclusions: Taste alterations due to stress can have an effect on the health and confidence of astronauts in long- term space missions. Thus, this issue remains one of the important issues for future human explorations. PMID:23181230

  9. Salivary Distinctiveness and Modifications in Males with Diabetes and Behçet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alhaffar, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    Oral diseases associated with systematic diseases as metabolic and vasculitic have been included in this paper. This will enhance our understanding of the salivary function in promoting healthy oral condition. The study investigates the effects of type I and type II diabetes mellitus in well-controlled diabetic patients, in addition to Behçet disease (BD) on saliva flow rate (SFR), pH, the decay, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT) index, glucose, and major earth-alkaline ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) compared to healthy males and age-matched controls. Saliva samples were collected from 1403 male human subjects, distributed on 7 levels including 3 control groups, and analyzed. The symptoms and clinical observations were enrolled. A preprandial salivary glucose has illustrated statistically strong significant and positive correlations with HbA1c and blood glucose levels. TIDM saliva showed lower pH, SFR, and Ca2+ but higher Mg2+, caries risk, and poor metabolic control. These led to dysfunction of secretory capacity of salivary glands. TIIDM proved higher SFR, DMFT, and glucose than TIDM patients. DM oral calcium has decreased by age while magnesium sharply slopes at seniority. BD oral fluid is associated with lower glucose and minerals but noticeably with both higher pH and DMFT. PMID:28321337

  10. Salivary Distinctiveness and Modifications in Males with Diabetes and Behçet's Disease.

    PubMed

    Aljerf, Loai; Alhaffar, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    Oral diseases associated with systematic diseases as metabolic and vasculitic have been included in this paper. This will enhance our understanding of the salivary function in promoting healthy oral condition. The study investigates the effects of type I and type II diabetes mellitus in well-controlled diabetic patients, in addition to Behçet disease (BD) on saliva flow rate (SFR), pH, the decay, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT) index, glucose, and major earth-alkaline ions (Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ) compared to healthy males and age-matched controls. Saliva samples were collected from 1403 male human subjects, distributed on 7 levels including 3 control groups, and analyzed. The symptoms and clinical observations were enrolled. A preprandial salivary glucose has illustrated statistically strong significant and positive correlations with HbA 1c and blood glucose levels. TIDM saliva showed lower pH, SFR, and Ca 2+ but higher Mg 2+ , caries risk, and poor metabolic control. These led to dysfunction of secretory capacity of salivary glands. TIIDM proved higher SFR, DMFT, and glucose than TIDM patients. DM oral calcium has decreased by age while magnesium sharply slopes at seniority. BD oral fluid is associated with lower glucose and minerals but noticeably with both higher pH and DMFT.

  11. Despite sequence homologies to gluten, salivary proline-rich proteins do not elicit immune responses central to the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciaran P; Hansen, Joshua; Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A; Schuppan, Detlef; Helmerhorst, Eva J

    2015-12-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory disorder triggered by ingested gluten, causing immune-mediated damage to the small-intestinal mucosa. Gluten proteins are strikingly similar in amino acid composition and sequence to proline-rich proteins (PRPs) in human saliva. On the basis of this feature and their shared destination in the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesized that salivary PRPs may modulate gluten-mediated immune responses in CD. Parotid salivary secretions were collected from CD patients, refractory CD patients, non-CD patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints, and healthy controls. Structural similarities of PRPs with gluten were probed with anti-gliadin antibodies. Immune responses to PRPs were investigated toward CD patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in a humanized transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model for CD. Anti-gliadin antibodies weakly cross-reacted with the abundant salivary amylase but not with PRPs. Likewise, the R5 antibody, recognizing potential antigenic gluten epitopes, showed negligible reactivity to salivary proteins from all groups. Inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were provoked by gliadins whereas responses to PRPs were similar to control levels, and PRPs did not compete with gliadins in immune stimulation. In vivo, PRP peptides were well tolerated and nonimmunogenic in the transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model. Collectively, although structurally similar to dietary gluten, salivary PRPs were nonimmunogenic in CD patients and in a transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model for CD. It is possible that salivary PRPs play a role in tolerance induction to gluten early in life. Deciphering the structural basis for the lack of immunogenicity of salivary PRPs may further our understanding of the toxicity of gluten. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands

  13. Comparison of the serum and salivary antibodies to detect gastric Helicobacter pylori infection in Kashan (Iran).

    PubMed

    Piroozmand, Ahmad; Soltani, Babak; Razavizadeh, Mohsen; Matini, Amir Hasan; Gilasi, Hamid Reza; Zavareh, Abbas Nassaji; Soltani, Siamak

    2017-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is an important and common contagious human pathogen which may cause peptic ulcer and also gastric cancer. The definite diagnosis of it is made through invasive tests. Recently, non-invasive tests including serologic tests of serum and saliva have been conducted for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. In this research, the diagnostic values of serum and salivary serology were compared together to use salivary anti- H. pylori test as an alternative method in the future. During this prospective case-control study on patients who were candidates for endoscopy and gastric biopsy from March 2015 to April 2016 in Shahid Beheshti hospital, Kashan, Iran, serum and salivary samples were obtained for measurement of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels against H. pylori by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Histopathology was the gold standard test. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS software version 16. Statistical tests included Kolmogorov-Smirnov, independent-samples t-test, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, McNemar and correlation. Of 123 patients, sixty-one patients (49.6%) were H. pylori -positive according to histology. The median levels of anti- H. pylori antibodies in serum (p<0.001) and saliva (p<0.001) of H. pylori -positive cases were significantly higher than H. pylori -negative cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and accuracy of serologic tests in serum were 75%, 79%, 3.5, 0.3, 77% and for saliva were 85%, 82%, 4.7, 0.18, 84% respectively. Diagnostic values of salivary ELISA are comparable to serum ELISA and can be used as an alternative modality for diagnosis of H. pylori infection.

  14. Salivary Biomarkers of Chronic Psychosocial Stress and CVD Risks: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    An, Kyungeh; Salyer, Jeanne; Brown, Roy E; Kao, Hsueh-Fen Sabrina; Starkweather, Angela; Shim, Insop

    2016-05-01

    The use of salivary biomarkers in stress research is increasing, and the precision and accuracy with which researchers are able to measure these biomarkers have dramatically improved. Chronic psychosocial stress is often linked to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Salivary biomarkers represent a noninvasive biological method of characterizing the stress phenomenon that may help to more fully describe the mechanism by which stress contributes to the pathogenesis and outcomes of CVD. We conducted a systematic review of 40 research articles to identify the salivary biomarkers researchers have most commonly used to help describe the biological impact of chronic psychosocial stress and explore its associations with CVD risk. We address strengths and weaknesses of specimen collection and measurement. We used PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, BIOSIS Previews, Biological Sciences (ProQuest), and Dissertations/Theses (ProQuest) to retrieve 387 initial articles. Once we applied our inclusion/exclusion criteria to specifically target adult human studies dealing with chronic stress rather than acute/laboratory-induced stress, 40 studies remained, which we synthesized using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria. Cortisol was the biomarker used most frequently. Sources of psychosocial stress included job strain, low socioeconomic status, and environmental factors. Overall, psychosocial stress was associated with CVD risks such as vascular pathology (hypertension, blood pressure fluctuation, and carotid artery plaque) as well as metabolic factors such as abnormal blood glucose, dyslipidemia, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Diverse salivary biomarkers have been useful in stress research, particularly when linked to CVD risks. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Tick Salivary Cholinesterase: A Probable Immunomodulator of Host-parasite Interactions.

    PubMed

    Temeyer, Kevin B; Tuckow, Alexander P

    2016-05-01

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), is the most economically important cattle ectoparasite in the world. Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus (Say) continue to threaten U.S. cattle producers despite eradication and an importation barrier based on inspection, dipping of imported cattle in organophosphate (OP) acaricide, and quarantine of infested premises. OP acaricides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), essential to tick central nervous system function. Unlike vertebrates, ticks possess at least three genes encoding AChEs, differing in amino acid sequence and biochemical properties. Genomic analyses of R. microplus and the related tick, Ixodes scapularis, suggest that ticks contain many genes encoding different AChEs. This work is the first report of a salivary cholinesterase (ChE) activity in R. microplus, and discusses complexity of the cholinergic system in ticks and significance of tick salivary ChE at the tick-host interface. It further provides three hypotheses that the salivary ChE plausibly functions 1) to reduce presence of potentially toxic acetylcholine present in the large bloodmeal imbibed during rapid engorgement, 2) to modulate the immune response (innate and/or acquired) of the host to tick antigens, and 3) to influence transmission and establishment of pathogens within the host animal. Ticks are vectors for a greater number and variety of pathogens than any other parasite, and are second only to mosquitoes (owing to malaria) as vectors of serious human disease. Saliva-assisted transmission (SAT) of pathogens is well-known; however, the salivary components participating in the SAT process remain to be elucidated. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Evidence that a laminin-like insect protein mediates early events in the interaction of a Phytoparasite with its vector's salivary gland.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Dias, Felipe; Souza dos Santos, Andre Luis; Santos Lery, Letícia Miranda; Alves e Silva, Thiago Luiz; Oliveira, Mauricio Martins; Bisch, Paulo Mascarello; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs Cristina; Lopes, Angela Hampshire

    2012-01-01

    Phytomonas species are plant parasites of the family Trypanosomatidae, which are transmitted by phytophagous insects. Some Phytomonas species cause major agricultural damages. The hemipteran Oncopeltus fasciatus is natural and experimental host for several species of trypanosomatids, including Phytomonas spp. The invasion of the insect vectors' salivary glands is one of the most important events for the life cycle of Phytomonas species. In the present study, we show the binding of Phytomonas serpens at the external face of O. fasciatus salivary glands by means of scanning electron microscopy and the in vitro interaction of living parasites with total proteins from the salivary glands in ligand blotting assays. This binding occurs primarily through an interaction with a 130 kDa salivary gland protein. The mass spectrometry of the trypsin-digest of this protein matched 23% of human laminin-5 β3 chain precursor sequence by 16 digested peptides. A protein sequence search through the transcriptome of O. fasciatus embryo showed a partial sequence with 51% similarity to human laminin β3 subunit. Anti-human laminin-5 β3 chain polyclonal antibodies recognized the 130 kDa protein by immunoblotting. The association of parasites with the salivary glands was strongly inhibited by human laminin-5, by the purified 130 kDa insect protein, and by polyclonal antibodies raised against the human laminin-5 β3 chain. This is the first report demonstrating that a laminin-like molecule from the salivary gland of O. fasciatus acts as a receptor for Phytomonas binding. The results presented in this investigation are important findings that will support further studies that aim at developing new approaches to prevent the transmission of Phytomonas species from insects to plants and vice-versa.

  17. Evidence That a Laminin-Like Insect Protein Mediates Early Events in the Interaction of a Phytoparasite with Its Vector's Salivary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Felipe de Almeida; dos Santos, Andre Luis Souza; Lery, Letícia Miranda Santos; Alves e Silva, Thiago Luiz; Oliveira, Mauricio Martins; Bisch, Paulo Mascarello; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs Cristina; Lopes, Angela Hampshire

    2012-01-01

    Phytomonas species are plant parasites of the family Trypanosomatidae, which are transmitted by phytophagous insects. Some Phytomonas species cause major agricultural damages. The hemipteran Oncopeltus fasciatus is natural and experimental host for several species of trypanosomatids, including Phytomonas spp. The invasion of the insect vectors' salivary glands is one of the most important events for the life cycle of Phytomonas species. In the present study, we show the binding of Phytomonas serpens at the external face of O. fasciatus salivary glands by means of scanning electron microscopy and the in vitro interaction of living parasites with total proteins from the salivary glands in ligand blotting assays. This binding occurs primarily through an interaction with a 130 kDa salivary gland protein. The mass spectrometry of the trypsin-digest of this protein matched 23% of human laminin-5 β3 chain precursor sequence by 16 digested peptides. A protein sequence search through the transcriptome of O. fasciatus embryo showed a partial sequence with 51% similarity to human laminin β3 subunit. Anti-human laminin-5 β3 chain polyclonal antibodies recognized the 130 kDa protein by immunoblotting. The association of parasites with the salivary glands was strongly inhibited by human laminin-5, by the purified 130 kDa insect protein, and by polyclonal antibodies raised against the human laminin-5 β3 chain. This is the first report demonstrating that a laminin-like molecule from the salivary gland of O. fasciatus acts as a receptor for Phytomonas binding. The results presented in this investigation are important findings that will support further studies that aim at developing new approaches to prevent the transmission of Phytomonas species from insects to plants and vice-versa. PMID:23118944

  18. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  19. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  20. Oral Digestion and Perception of Starch: Effects of Cooking, Tasting Time, and Salivary α-Amylase Activity.

    PubMed

    Lapis, Trina J; Penner, Michael H; Balto, Amy S; Lim, Juyun

    2017-10-01

    Since starch is a significant part of human diet, its oral detection would be highly beneficial. This study was designed to determine whether starch or its degradation products can be tasted and what factors influence its perception. Subjects were asked 1) to taste 8% raw and cooked starch samples for 5, 15, and 35 s and rate perceived intensities of sweetness and "other" taste (i.e., other than sweet), 2) to donate saliva to obtain salivary flow rate (mg/s) and salivary α-amylase activity (per mg saliva), and 3) to fill out a carbohydrate consumption survey. Subsequently, in vitro hydrolysis of starch was performed; saliva was collected from 5 subjects with low and high amylase activities and reacted with 8% raw and cooked starch at 2, 15, and 30 s. Hydrolysis products were then quantified using a High performance liquid chromatography. The results showed cooking increased the digestibility of starch such that the amount of hydrolysis products increased with reaction time. However, cooking did not influence taste ratings, nor were they influenced by tasting time. Subjects' salivary amylase activities were associated with the efficacy of their saliva to degrade starch, in particular cooked starch, and thus the amount of maltooligosaccharide products generated. Effective α-amylase activity [i.e. α-amylase activity (per mg saliva) × salivary flow rate (mg/s)] and carbohydrate consumption score (i.e. consumption frequency × number of servings) were also independently associated with sensory taste ratings. Human perception of starch is undoubtedly complex as shown in this study; the data herein point to the potential roles of salivary α-amylase activity and carbohydrate consumption in the perception of cooked starch. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Chronic periodontitis can affect the levels of potential oral cancer salivary mRNA biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y-S L; Jordan, L; Chen, H-S; Kang, D; Oxford, L; Plemons, J; Parks, H; Rees, T

    2017-06-01

    More than 100 salivary constituents have been found to show levels significantly different in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) from those found in healthy controls, and therefore have been suggested to be potential salivary biomarkers for OSCC detection. However, many of these potential OSCC salivary biomarkers are also involved in chronic inflammation, and whether the levels of these biomarkers could be affected by the presence of chronic periodontitis was not known. The objective of this pilot study was therefore to measure the levels of seven previously reported potential OSCC salivary mRNA biomarkers in patients with chronic periodontitis and compare them to levels found in patients with OSCC and healthy controls. The seven salivary mRNAs were interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, dual specificity phosphatase 1, H3 histone family 3A, ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1, S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from a total of 105 human subjects from the following four study groups: OSCC; CPNS (chronic periodontitis, moderate to severe degree, non-smokers); CPS (chronic periodontitis, moderate to severe degree, smokers); and healthy controls. Levels of each mRNA in patient groups (OSCC or chronic periodontitis) relative to the healthy controls were determined by a pre-amplification reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction approach with nested gene-specific primers. Results were recorded and analyzed by the Bio-Rad CFX96 Real-Time System. Mean fold changes between each pair of patient vs. control groups were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni corrections. Only S100P showed significantly higher levels in patients with OSCC compared to both patients with CPNS (p = 0.003) and CPS (p = 0.007). The difference in S100P levels between patients with OSCC and healthy controls was also marginally significant (p = 0.009). There was no

  2. Re-engineering primary epithelial cells from rhesus monkey parotid glands for use in developing an artificial salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Tran, Simon D; Sugito, Takayuki; Dipasquale, Giovanni; Cotrim, Ana P; Bandyopadhyay, Bidhan C; Riddle, Kathryn; Mooney, David; Kok, Marc R; Chiorini, John A; Baum, Bruce J

    2006-10-01

    There is no satisfactory conventional treatment for patients who experience irreversible salivary gland damage after therapeutic radiation for head and neck cancer or because of Sjögren's syndrome. Additionally, if most parenchyma is lost, these patients also are not candidates for evolving gene transfer strategies. To help such patients, several years ago we began to develop an artificial salivary gland. In the present study, we used a non-human primate tissue source, parotid glands from rhesus monkeys, to obtain potential autologous graft cells for development of a prototype device for in situ testing. Herein, we present 3 major findings. First, we show that primary cultures of rhesus parotid gland (RPG) cells are capable of attaining a polarized orientation, with Na(+)/K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, zonula occludens-1, and claudin-1 distributed in specific domains appropriate for epithelial cells. Second, we show that RPG cells exhibit 2 essential epithelial functions required for graft cells in an artificial salivary gland device (i.e., an effective barrier to paracellular water flow and the generation of a moderate transepithelial electrical resistance). Third, we show that RPG cells can express functional water channels, capable of mediating directional fluid movement, after transduction by adenoviral and adeno-associated virus type 2 vectors. Together these results demonstrate that it is feasible to individually prepare RPG cells for eventual use in a prototype artificial salivary gland.

  3. Identification of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus actively infesting dogs.

    PubMed

    Viol, Milena Araúz; Guerrero, Felix D; de Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; Loiola, Saulo Hudson; de Melo, Guilherme Dias; de Souza Gomes, Aparecida Helena; Kanamura, Cristina Takami; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Andreotti, Renato; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2016-09-01

    Sand flies are recognized as the major vector of canine visceral leishmaniasis. However, in some areas of Brazil where sand flies do not occur, this disease is found in humans and dogs. There has been speculation that ticks might play a role in transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the DNA of Leishmania spp. has been reported in whole ticks. We investigated the presence of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from tick-infested dogs in two cities of Brazil. We used 66 dogs that tested positive and 33 that tested negative for Leishmania spp. according to direct cytological examination assays. Ten ticks were collected from each dog and dissected to collect the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands for immunohistochemistry (IHC) and diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IHC results showed Leishmania spp. in 98, 14, and 8 % of the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands, respectively. Real-time PCR showed that 89, 41, and 33 % of the tick intestine, ovary, and salivary glands, respectively, were positive for Leishmania spp. The verification of promastigotes of Leishmania spp. by two independent techniques in ticks collected from these urban region dogs showed that there is need for clarification of the role of ticks in the transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

  4. Transgene-mediated suppression of dengue viruses in the salivary glands of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mathur, G; Sanchez-Vargas, I; Alvarez, D; Olson, K E; Marinotti, O; James, A A

    2010-12-01

    Controlled sex-, stage- and tissue-specific expression of antipathogen effector molecules is important for genetic engineering strategies to control mosquito-borne diseases. Adult female salivary glands are involved in pathogen transmission to human hosts and are target sites for expression of antipathogen effector molecules. The Aedes aegypti 30K a and 30K b genes are expressed exclusively in adult female salivary glands and are transcribed divergently from start sites separated by 263 nucleotides. The intergenic, 5'- and 3'-end untranslated regions of both genes are sufficient to express simultaneously two different transgene products in the distal-lateral lobes of the female salivary glands. An antidengue effector gene, membranes no protein (Mnp), driven by the 30K b promoter, expresses an inverted-repeat RNA with sequences derived from the premembrane protein-encoding region of the dengue virus serotype 2 genome and reduces significantly the prevalence and mean intensities of viral infection in mosquito salivary glands and saliva. © 2010 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 activation prevents radiation-induced xerostomia by protecting salivary stem cells from toxic aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Saiki, Julie P.; Cao, Hongbin; Van Wassenhove, Lauren D.; Viswanathan, Vignesh; Bloomstein, Joshua; Nambiar, Dhanya K.; Mattingly, Aaron J.; Jiang, Dadi; Chen, Che-Hong; Simmons, Amanda L.; Park, Hyun Shin; von Eyben, Rie; Kool, Eric T.; Sirjani, Davud; Knox, Sarah M.; Le, Quynh Thu; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2018-01-01

    Xerostomia (dry mouth) is the most common side effect of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer and causes difficulty speaking and swallowing. Since aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) is highly expressed in mouse salivary stem/progenitor cells (SSPCs), we sought to determine the role of ALDH3A1 in SSPCs using genetic loss-of-function and pharmacologic gain-of-function studies. Using DarkZone dye to measure intracellular aldehydes, we observed higher aldehyde accumulation in irradiated Aldh3a1−/− adult murine salisphere cells and in situ in whole murine embryonic salivary glands enriched in SSPCs compared with wild-type glands. To identify a safe ALDH3A1 activator for potential clinical testing, we screened a traditional Chinese medicine library and isolated d-limonene, commonly used as a food-flavoring agent, as a single constituent activator. ALDH3A1 activation by d-limonene significantly reduced aldehyde accumulation in SSPCs and whole embryonic glands, increased sphere-forming ability, decreased apoptosis, and improved submandibular gland structure and function in vivo after radiation. A phase 0 study in patients with salivary gland tumors showed effective delivery of d-limonene into human salivary glands following daily oral dosing. Given its safety and bioavailability, d-limonene may be a good clinical candidate for mitigating xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer receiving radiation therapy. PMID:29794221

  6. Dry mouth: Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Frydrych, Agnieszka M

    2016-07-01

    Mouth dryness may present as salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), xerostomia or both. It is considered one of the most underappreciated, underdiagnosed and undermanaged oral health conditions. Despite its common presentation and adverse impact on life quality, it is also generally poorly understood. Increased awareness of the condition is important in addressing these problems. This article discusses SGH and xerostomia, and the associated intra-oral and extra-oral implications. It also summarises currently available management approaches and the evidence behind them. SGH and xerostomia are complex problems. None of the currently available management approaches are entirely satisfactory. Addressing the causative or contributing factors is therefore paramount. While oral health complaints are generally left up to the dental professional to manage, the nature of mouth dryness necessitates increased dialogue between the dental and 
medical professions to ensure optimal patient care.

  7. Preparation of Murine Submandibular Salivary Gland for Upright Intravital Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ficht, Xenia; Thelen, Flavian; Stolp, Bettina; Stein, Jens V

    2018-05-07

    The submandibular salivary gland (SMG) is one of the three major salivary glands, and is of interest for many different fields of biological research, including cell biology, oncology, dentistry, and immunology. The SMG is an exocrine gland comprised of secretory epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, nerves, and extracellular matrix. Dynamic cellular processes in the rat and mouse SMG have previously been imaged, mostly using inverted multi-photon microscope systems. Here, we describe a straightforward protocol for the surgical preparation and stabilization of the murine SMG in anesthetized mice for in vivo imaging with upright multi-photon microscope systems. We present representative intravital image sets of endogenous and adoptively transferred fluorescent cells, including the labeling of blood vessels or salivary ducts and second harmonic generation to visualize fibrillar collagen. In sum, our protocol allows for surgical preparation of mouse salivary glands in upright microscopy systems, which are commonly used for intravital imaging in the field of immunology.

  8. [Treatment of small and sublingual salivary glands cysts by laser].

    PubMed

    Bogatov, V V; Vybornov, V V; Malinovskiĭ, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    The differents variants of treatment of retention cysts of mucous membrane of oral cavity and sublingual salivary gland cysts were presented and analysed. Results of doppler examination as a method of research blood microcirculation in postoperation time were presented.

  9. Extracellular Ca2+ Sensing in Salivary Ductal Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Bidhan C.; Swaim, William D.; Sarkar, Ankana; Liu, Xibao; Ambudkar, Indu S.

    2012-01-01

    Ca2+ is secreted from the salivary acinar cells as an ionic constituent of primary saliva. Ions such as Na+ and Cl− get reabsorbed whereas primary saliva flows through the salivary ductal system. Although earlier studies have shown that salivary [Ca2+] decreases as it flows down the ductal tree into the oral cavity, ductal reabsorption of Ca2+ remains enigmatic. Here we report a potential role for the G protein-coupled receptor, calcium-sensing receptor (CSR), in the regulation of Ca2+ reabsorption by salivary gland ducts. Our data show that CSR is present in the apical region of ductal cells where it is co-localized with transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3). CSR is activated in isolated salivary gland ducts as well as a ductal cell line (SMIE) by altering extracellular [Ca2+] or by aromatic amino acid, l-phenylalanine (l-Phe, endogenous component of saliva), as well as neomycin. CSR activation leads to Ca2+ influx that, in polarized cells grown on a filter support, is initiated in the luminal region. We show that TRPC3 contributes to Ca2+ entry triggered by CSR activation. Further, stimulation of CSR in SMIE cells enhances the CSR-TRPC3 association as well as surface expression of TRPC3. Together our findings suggest that CSR could serve as a Ca2+ sensor in the luminal membrane of salivary gland ducts and regulate reabsorption of [Ca2+] from the saliva via TRPC3, thus contributing to maintenance of salivary [Ca2+]. CSR could therefore be a potentially important protective mechanism against formation of salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis) and infection (sialoadenitis). PMID:22778254

  10. Salivary Platelet Activating Factor Levels in Periodontal Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Factor Levels in Periodontal Disease 6. AUTHOR(S) Martha L. Garito, Major 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATO;N...ABSTRACT 98 0801 SALIVARY PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR LEVELS IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of The University of Texas Graduate...B.S., D.M.D. San Antonio, Texas May 1991 SALIVARY PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR LEVELS IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE Martha Laura Gar’to APPROVED: - Supervising

  11. Salivary glands abnormalities in oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Davide; Manara, Renzo; Vio, Stefania; Ghiselli, Sara; Cantone, Elena; Mardari, Rodica; Toldo, Irene; Stritoni, Valentina; Castiglione, Alessandro; Lovo, Elisa; Trevisi, Patrizia; Bovo, Roberto; Martini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Feeding and swallowing impairment are present in up to 80% of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) patients. Salivary gland abnormalities have been reported in OAVS patients but their rate, features, and relationship with phenotype severity have yet to be defined. Parotid and submandibular salivary gland hypo/aplasia was evaluated on head MRI of 25 OAVS patients (16 with severe phenotype, Goldenhar syndrome) and 11 controls. All controls disclosed normal salivary glands. Abnormal parotid glands were found exclusively ipsilateral to facial microsomia in 21/25 OAVS patients (84%, aplasia in six patients) and showed no association with phenotype severity (14/16 patients with Goldenhar phenotype vs 7/9 patients with milder phenotype, p = 0.6). Submandibular salivary gland hypoplasia was detected in six OAVS patients, all with concomitant ipsilateral severe involvement of the parotid gland (p < 0.001). Submandibular salivary gland hypoplasia was associated to Goldenhar phenotype (p < 0.05). Parotid gland abnormalities were associated with ipsilateral fifth (p < 0.001) and seventh cranial nerve (p = 0.001) abnormalities. No association was found between parotid gland anomaly and ipsilateral internal carotid artery, inner ear, brain, eye, or spine abnormalities (p > 0.6). Salivary gland abnormalities are strikingly common in OAVS. Their detection might help the management of OAVS-associated swallowing and feeding impairment.

  12. Association between crack cocaine use and reduced salivary flow.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, Raquel Pippi; Sari, Amanda Rodrigues; Casarin, Maísa; Moraes, Cristina Machado Bragança de; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2017-06-05

    Crack cocaine use appears to have an impact on oral conditions. However, changes in the salivary flow among crack users have not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to compare stimulated salivary flow and the occurrence of hyposalivation between crack users and non-users. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 40 crack users and 40 controls matched for sex, age, and smoking habits. Interviews were conducted to acquire data on the perception of dry mouth (xerostomia) and drug use. Stimulated salivary flow was determined using the spitting method. A significant reduction in stimulated salivary flow was found among crack users in comparison to non-users (1.02 vs. 1.59 ml/min). A total of 42.5% and 15% of crack users had very low and low stimulated salivary flow, respectively. Moreover, 65% of users reported xerostomia in comparison to 37.5% non-users (p < 0.012). No significant association was found between xerostomia and hyposalivation (p = 0.384). A multivariate analysis revealed that individuals older than 26 years of age, those with a low household income, and crack users (prevalence ratio: 2.59) had a significant association with the occurrence of hyposalivation. A significant association was found between the use of crack and reduced salivary flow. The use of crack was associated with the occurrence of hyposalivation in the multivariate analysis.

  13. Serial betamethasone administration: effect on maternal salivary estriol levels.

    PubMed

    Hendershott, C M; Dullien, V; Goodwin, T M

    1999-01-01

    Maternal salivary estriol levels are an indirect measure of fetal adrenal activity, which may be affected by administration of betamethasone. The objective was to compare sequential salivary estriol levels in patients receiving serial betamethasone therapy with those of healthy pregnant patients. Ten patients at high risk for preterm delivery were asked to obtain salivary specimens before and 1 to 2 days after each administration of weekly betamethasone treatments between 24 and 32 weeks' gestation. These values were compared with those of specimens obtained throughout gestation in healthy women who were not delivered preterm. Unconjugated salivary estriol was measured with a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoassay (Biex, Inc, Dublin, Calif). The effect of betamethasone on salivary estriol levels did not change with time, showing an average of 23.1% drop from pretreatment to posttreatment levels but rebounding to the same starting level before the next dose. When weekly pretreatment values were looked at across time, the geometric mean of the individual patients' slopes did not differ significantly from no change. The same was true of the posttreatment values. The rate of change with advancing gestation was compared between 182 control subjects and the 10 study subjects. The average change was +8.8% per week in the control subjects and -1.3% per week in the study patients (P =.003). Maternal administration of betamethasone significantly suppressed salivary estriol levels. These levels returned to pretreatment values each week before the next dose; however, the rise normally associated with advancing gestational age was not observed.

  14. Salivary biomarkers of neural hypervigilance in trauma-exposed women.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seungyeon A; Weierich, Mariann R

    2016-01-01

    More than half of all adults will be exposed to a traumatic event at some point in their lives, yet we do not yet have reliable biomarkers to help predict who experiences trauma-related symptoms in response to exposure. We tested the utility of salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase as markers of (1) neural reactivity to negative affective information and (2) neural hypervigilance in the absence of threat. 20 women (mean age 23.6 +/- 5.8 years) with a history of trauma exposure. Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase reactivity were measured in response to a trauma reminder during a clinical interview. Neural reactivity to novel and familiar affective scenes was measured in a later session using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Salivary alpha amylase, but not cortisol, increased in response to the trauma reminder. Salivary alpha amylase reactivity was associated with neural reactivity in the salience network in response to novel negative scenes and neural hypervigilance as indexed by reactivity to novel neutral scenes. Salivary alpha amylase might serve as a more reliable marker of trauma-related reactivity to negative affective information, and also as a marker of hypervigilance in the absence of threatening information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Salivary Secretory Disorders, Inducing Drugs, and Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Farré, Magí

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salivary secretory disorders can be the result of a wide range of factors. Their prevalence and negative effects on the patient's quality of life oblige the clinician to confront the issue. Aim: To review the salivary secretory disorders, inducing drugs and their clinical management. Methods: In this article, a literature search of these dysfunctions was conducted with the assistance of a research librarian in the MEDLINE/PubMed Database. Results: Xerostomia, or dry mouth syndrome, can be caused by medication, systemic diseases such as Sjögren's Syndrome, glandular pathologies, and radiotherapy of the head and neck. Treatment of dry mouth is aimed at both minimizing its symptoms and preventing oral complications with the employment of sialogogues and topical acting substances. Sialorrhea and drooling, are mainly due to medication or neurological systemic disease. There are various therapeutic, pharmacologic, and surgical alternatives for its management. The pharmacology of most of the substances employed for the treatment of salivary disorders is well-known. Nevertheless, in some cases a significant improvement in salivary function has not been observed after their administration. Conclusion: At present, there are numerous frequently prescribed drugs whose unwanted effects include some kind of salivary disorder. In addition, the differing pathologic mechanisms, and the great variety of existing treatments hinder the clinical management of these patients. The authors have designed an algorithm to facilitate the decision making process when physicians, oral surgeons, or dentists face these salivary dysfunctions. PMID:26516310

  16. Diseases of the salivary glands in infants and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diseases of the salivary glands are rare in infants and children (with the exception of diseases such as parotitis epidemica and cytomegaly) and the therapeutic regimen differs from that in adults. It is therefore all the more important to gain exact and extensive insight into general and special aspects of pathological changes of the salivary glands in these age groups. Etiology and pathogenesis of these entities is still not yet fully known for the age group in question so that general rules for treatment, based on clinical experience, cannot be given, particularly in view of the small number of cases of the different diseases. Swellings of the salivary glands may be caused by acute and chronic inflammatory processes, by autoimmune diseases, by duct translocation due to sialolithiasis, and by tumors of varying dignity. Clinical examination and diagnosis has also to differentiate between salivary gland cysts and inflammation or tumors. Conclusion Salivary gland diseases are rare in childhood and adolescence. Their pattern of incidence differs very much from that of adults. Acute and chronic sialadenitis not responding to conservative treatment requires an appropriate surgical approach. The rareness of salivary gland tumors is particularly true for the malignant parotid tumors which are more frequent in juvenile patients, a fact that has to be considered in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:20156335

  17. Evaluation of Xerostomia and salivary flow rate in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Shirzad, Nooshin; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common causes of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT). Early detection of dry mouth is critical in preserving and promoting systemic and oral health. In this study we have assessed, for the first time, salivary function and xerostomia in HT patients who have not been involved with Sjögren's syndrome. HT was diagnosed in 40 patients based on clinical findings and positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). Controls, matched by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), and with no history of thyroid disease, were selected. A questionnaire was used for diagnosis of xerostomia. Saliva samples were taken between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m., and at least 2 hours after the last intake of food or drink. The flow rate was calculated in milliliters per minute. Xerostomia was significantly higher in patients with HT. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the HT group. Stimulated salivary flow rate was lower in HT group, but the difference was not significant. The patients with HT experienced xerostomia, and their salivary flow rate was diminished. Spitting the saliva then assessing salivary flow rate based on milliliter per minute is non-invasive, fast, and simple for chair-side diagnosis of dry mouth. Autoimmune diseases can be accompanied by salivary gland dysfunction. This may be due to the effect of cytokines in the autoimmune process or because of thyroid hormone dysfunctions.

  18. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  19. [Structuro-functional units of the salivary and lacrimal glands].

    PubMed

    Kostilenko, Iu P; Mysliuk, I V; Deviatkin, E A

    1986-09-01

    By means of the multilayer graphic and plastic reconstruction methods using series of semithin sections, spatial tridimensional organization of the epithelial complexes and blood microcirculatory bed in the rat palatal salivary glands and the lacrimal gland of the human newborn have been studied. Since their ducts serve not only for discharging their secrete into the external medium, but also for accumulation (as collectors), the sublobular unit--adenomere should be referred to as a part of elementary level of organization of the epithelial complexes. The adenomere has in its composition a collecting centrally situating duct. However, while studying structure of the blood microcirculatory bed, it is found out that there is not any strict territorial correspondence between its functional units and structural units of the glandular epithelium. Nevertheless, giving a great importance to a tight syntopic connection of the collecting ducts of the adenomeres with the postcapillary venules (that belong to filtrating microvessels), these are sublobular units--adenomeres that are distinguished as structural-functional units in the glands.

  20. Molecular Interaction Between Salivary Proteins and Food Tannins.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mafalda Santos; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Brandão, Elsa; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor; Soares, Susana

    2017-08-09

    Polyphenols interaction with salivary proteins (SP) has been related with organoleptic features such as astringency. The aim of this work was to study the interaction between some human SP and tannins through two spectroscopic techniques, fluorescence quenching, and saturation transfer difference-nuclear magnetic resonance (STD-NMR). Generally, the results showed a significant interaction between SP and both condensed tannins and ellagitannins. Herein, STD-NMR proved to be a useful tool to map tannins' epitopes of binding, while fluorescence quenching allowed one to discriminate binding affinities. Ellagitannins showed the greatest binding constants values (K SV from 20.1 to 94.1 mM -1 ; K A from 0.7 to 8.3 mM -1 ) in comparison with procyanidins (K SV from 5.4 to 40.0 mM -1 ; K A from 1.1 to 2.7 mM -1 ). In fact, punicalagin was the tannin that demonstrated the highest affinity for all three SP. Regarding SP, P-B peptide was the one with higher affinity for ellagitannins. On the other hand, cystatins showed in general the lower K SV and K A values. In the case of condensed tannins, statherin was the SP with the highest affinity, contrasting with the other two SP. Altogether, these results are evidence that the distinct SP present in the oral cavity have different abilities to interact with food tannins class.

  1. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayoung; Imani, Somayeh; de Araujo, William R.; Warchall, Julian; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Paixão, Thiago R.L.C.; Mercier, Patrick P.; Wang, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to standard smartphones, laptops, and other consumer electronics for on-demand processing, diagnostics, or storage. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concentration ranges for both healthy people and hyperuricemia patients. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications. PMID:26276541

  2. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayoung; Imani, Somayeh; de Araujo, William R; Warchall, Julian; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Paixão, Thiago R L C; Mercier, Patrick P; Wang, Joseph

    2015-12-15

    This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to standard smartphones, laptops, and other consumer electronics for on-demand processing, diagnostics, or storage. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concentration ranges for both healthy people and hyperuricemia patients. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Facile preparation of salivary extracellular vesicles for cancer proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Xia, Zhijun; Shang, Zhi; Sun, Kaibo; Niu, Xiaomin; Qian, Liqiang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Xiao, Hua

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane surrounded structures released by cells, which have been increasingly recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Recent reports indicate that EVs participate in important biological processes and could serve as potential source for cancer biomarkers. As an attractive EVs source with merit of non-invasiveness, human saliva is a unique medium for clinical diagnostics. Thus, we proposed a facile approach to prepare salivary extracellular vesicles (SEVs). Affinity chromatography column combined with filter system (ACCF) was developed to efficiently remove the high abundant proteins and viscous interferences of saliva. Protein profiling in the SEVs obtained by this strategy was compared with conventional centrifugation method, which demonstrated that about 70% more SEVs proteins could be revealed. To explore its utility for cancer proteomics, we analyzed the proteome of SEVs in lung cancer patients and normal controls. Shotgun proteomic analysis illustrated that 113 and 95 proteins have been identified in cancer group and control group, respectively. Among those 63 proteins that have been consistently discovered only in cancer group, 12 proteins are lung cancer related. Our results demonstrated that SEVs prepared through the developed strategy are valuable samples for proteomics and could serve as a promising liquid biopsy for cancer.

  4. Salivary proteomics and biomarkers in neurology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wormwood, Kelly L; Aslebagh, Roshanak; Channaveerappa, Devika; Dupree, Emmalyn J; Borland, Megan M; Ryan, Jeanne P; Darie, Costel C; Woods, Alisa G

    2015-10-01

    Biomarkers are greatly needed in the fields of neurology and psychiatry, to provide objective and earlier diagnoses of CNS conditions. Proteomics and other omics MS-based technologies are tools currently being utilized in much recent CNS research. Saliva is an interesting alternative biomaterial for the proteomic study of CNS disorders, with several advantages. Collection is noninvasive and saliva has many proteins. It is easier to collect than blood and can be collected by professionals without formal medical training. For psychiatric and neurological patients, supplying a saliva sample is less anxiety-provoking than providing a blood sample, and is less embarrassing than producing a urine specimen. The use of saliva as a biomaterial has been researched for the diagnosis of and greater understanding of several CNS conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, autism, and depression. Salivary biomarkers could be used to rule out nonpsychiatric conditions that are often mistaken for psychiatric/neurological conditions, such as fibromyalgia, and potentially to assess cognitive ability in individuals with compromised brain function. As MS and omics technology advances, the sensitivity and utility of assessing CNS conditions using distal human biomaterials such as saliva is becoming increasingly possible. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Association of cadmium and arsenic exposure with salivary telomere length in adolescents in Terai, Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Fillman, Toki, E-mail: tokif@humeco.m.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana, E-mail: hana-shimizu@umin.ac.jp; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng, E-mail: chrisng-tky@umin.ac.jp

    Background: Cadmium and arsenic are ubiquitous metals commonly found in the environment which can harm human health. A growing body of research shows telomere length as a potential biomarker of future disease risk. Few studies have examined the effects of metals on telomere length and none have focused on adolescents. Objectives: In this study, the impact of cadmium and arsenic on salivary telomere length was studied in adolescents in Terai, Nepal. Methods: Adolescents aged 12–16 years old (n=351)were recruited where questionnaire interviews and both saliva and urine collection took place. Telomere length was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction usingmore » DNA extracted from saliva. Urinary cadmium and arsenic concentration were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations between urinary metals and salivary telomere length. Results: The geometric means and standard deviations of cadmium and arsenic were 0.33±0.33 μg/g creatinine and 196.0±301.1 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary cadmium concentration was negatively associated with salivary telomere length after adjustment for confounders (β=−0.24, 95% CI −0.42,−0.07). Arsenic showed positive associations with telomere length but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that cadmium may shorten adolescent telomeres, even at exposure levels that may be considered low. These results agree with prior experimental and adult epidemiological studies, and also help identify the mechanism of DNA damage by cadmium. This study expanded current evidence on the harmful effects of cadmium exposure on telomere length even to adolescents. - Highlights: • This is the first study examining metal exposure on telomere length in adolescents. • Urinary cadmium levels were similar to non-industrially polluted levels in Asia. • Urinary arsenic levels were as high as

  6. Correspondence between hair cortisol concentrations and 30-day integrated daily salivary and weekly urinary cortisol measures

    PubMed Central

    Short, Sarah J.; Stalder, Tobias; Marceau, Kristine P.; Entringer, Sonja; Moog, Nora K.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Buss, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of cortisol production, regulation and function is of considerable interest and relevance given its ubiquitous role in virtually all aspects of physiology, health and disease risk. The quantification of cortisol concentration in hair has been proposed as a promising approach for the retrospective assessment of integrated, long-term cortisol production. However, human research is still needed to directly test and validate current assumptions about which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are reflected in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Here, we report findings from a validation study in a sample of 17 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 34 ± 8.6 yrs). To determine the extent to which HCC captures cumulative cortisol production, we examined the correspondence of HCC, obtained from the first 1cm scalp-near hair segment, assumed to retrospectively reflect 1-month integrated cortisol secretion, with 30-day average salivary cortisol area-under-the curve (AUC) based on 3 samples collected per day (on awakening, +30 min, at bedtime) and the average of 4 weekly 24-hr urinary free cortisol (UFC) assessments. To further address which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are best reflected in the HCC measure, we also examined components of the salivary measures that represent: 1) production in response to the challenge of awakening (using the cortisol awakening response [CAR]), and 2) chronobiological regulation of cortisol production (using diurnal slope). Finally, we evaluated the test-retest stability of each cortisol measure. Results indicate that HCC was most strongly associated with the prior 30-day integrated cortisol production measure (average salivary cortisol AUC) (r = 0.61, p = 0.01). There were no significant associations between HCC and the 30-day summary measures using CAR or diurnal slope. The relationship between 1-month integrated 24-hr UFC and HCC did not reach statistical significance (r = 0.30, p = 0.28). Lastly, of

  7. Correspondence between hair cortisol concentrations and 30-day integrated daily salivary and weekly urinary cortisol measures.

    PubMed

    Short, Sarah J; Stalder, Tobias; Marceau, Kristine; Entringer, Sonja; Moog, Nora K; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of cortisol production, regulation and function is of considerable interest and relevance given its ubiquitous role in virtually all aspects of physiology, health and disease risk. The quantification of cortisol concentration in hair has been proposed as a promising approach for the retrospective assessment of integrated, long-term cortisol production. However, human research is still needed to directly test and validate current assumptions about which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are reflected in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Here, we report findings from a validation study in a sample of 17 healthy adults (mean±SD age: 34±8.6 yrs). To determine the extent to which HCC captures cumulative cortisol production, we examined the correspondence of HCC, obtained from the first 1cm scalp-near hair segment, assumed to retrospectively reflect 1-month integrated cortisol secretion, with 30-day average salivary cortisol area-under-the curve (AUC) based on 3 samples collected per day (on awakening, +30min, at bedtime) and the average of 4 weekly 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) assessments. To further address which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are best reflected in the HCC measure, we also examined components of the salivary measures that represent: (1) production in response to the challenge of awakening (using the cortisol awakening response [CAR]), and (2) chronobiological regulation of cortisol production (using diurnal slope). Finally, we evaluated the test-retest stability of each cortisol measure. Results indicate that HCC was most strongly associated with the prior 30-day integrated cortisol production measure (average salivary cortisol AUC) (r=0.61, p=0.01). There were no significant associations between HCC and the 30-day summary measures using CAR or diurnal slope. The relationship between 1-month integrated 24-h UFC and HCC did not reach statistical significance (r=0.30, p=0.28). Lastly, of all cortisol

  8. Folding of a salivary intrinsically disordered protein upon binding to tannins.

    PubMed

    Canon, Francis; Ballivian, Renaud; Chirot, Fabien; Antoine, Rodolphe; Sarni-Manchado, Pascale; Lemoine, Jérôme; Dugourd, Philippe

    2011-05-25

    We used ion mobility spectrometry to explore conformational adaptability of intrinsically disordered proteins bound to their targets in complex mixtures. We investigated the interactions between a human salivary proline-rich protein IB5 and a model of wine and tea tannin: epigallocatechin gallate (EgCG). Collisional cross sections of naked IB5 and IB5 complexed with N = 1-15 tannins were recorded. The data demonstrate that IB5 undergoes an unfolded to folded structural transition upon binding with EgCG.

  9. ALX/FPR2 receptor for RvD1 is expressed and functional in salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Joel W.; Leigh, Noel J.; Mellas, Rachel E.; McCall, Andrew D.; Aguirre, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and destruction of salivary and lacrimal glands, leading to dry mouth, dry eyes, and the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies. Despite modern advances, the current therapies for SS have no permanent benefit. A potential treatment could involve the use of resolvins, which are highly potent endogenous lipid mediators that are synthesized during the resolution of inflammation to restore tissue homeostasis. Our previous studies indicate that ALX/FPR2, the receptor for RvD1, is expressed and active in the rat parotid cell line Par-C10. Specifically, activation of ALX/FPR2 with RvD1 blocked inflammatory signals caused by TNF-α and enhanced salivary epithelial integrity. The goal of this study was to investigate RvD1 receptor expression and signaling pathways in primary salivary cells. Additionally, we determined the role of the aspirin-triggered 17R analog (AT-RvD1, a more chemically stable RvD1 epimeric form) in prevention of TNF-α-mediated salivary inflammation in mouse submandibular glands (mSMG). Our results indicate that ALX/FPR2 is expressed in mSMG and is able to elicit intracellular Ca2+ responses and phosphorylation of Erk1/2, as well as Akt. Given that these signaling pathways are linked to cell survival, we investigated whether AT-RvD1 was able to prevent programmed cell death in mSMG. Specifically, we determined that AT-RvD1 prevented TNF-α-mediated caspase-3 activation. Finally, we show that ALX/FPR2 is expressed in human minor salivary glands with and without SS, indicating the potential therapeutic use of AT-RvD1 for this condition. PMID:24259417

  10. ALX/FPR2 receptor for RvD1 is expressed and functional in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Joel W; Leigh, Noel J; Mellas, Rachel E; McCall, Andrew D; Aguirre, Alfredo; Baker, Olga J

    2014-01-15

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and destruction of salivary and lacrimal glands, leading to dry mouth, dry eyes, and the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies. Despite modern advances, the current therapies for SS have no permanent benefit. A potential treatment could involve the use of resolvins, which are highly potent endogenous lipid mediators that are synthesized during the resolution of inflammation to restore tissue homeostasis. Our previous studies indicate that ALX/FPR2, the receptor for RvD1, is expressed and active in the rat parotid cell line Par-C10. Specifically, activation of ALX/FPR2 with RvD1 blocked inflammatory signals caused by TNF-α and enhanced salivary epithelial integrity. The goal of this study was to investigate RvD1 receptor expression and signaling pathways in primary salivary cells. Additionally, we determined the role of the aspirin-triggered 17R analog (AT-RvD1, a more chemically stable RvD1 epimeric form) in prevention of TNF-α-mediated salivary inflammation in mouse submandibular glands (mSMG). Our results indicate that ALX/FPR2 is expressed in mSMG and is able to elicit intracellular Ca2+ responses and phosphorylation of Erk1/2, as well as Akt. Given that these signaling pathways are linked to cell survival, we investigated whether AT-RvD1 was able to prevent programmed cell death in mSMG. Specifically, we determined that AT-RvD1 prevented TNF-α-mediated caspase-3 activation. Finally, we show that ALX/FPR2 is expressed in human minor salivary glands with and without SS, indicating the potential therapeutic use of AT-RvD1 for this condition.

  11. Type 1 diabetes mellitus, xerostomia, and salivary flow rates.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Guggenheimer, J; Etzel, K R; Weyant, R J; Orchard, T

    2001-09-01

    The Oral Health Science Institute at the University of Pittsburgh has completed a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 406 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 268 control subjects without diabetes that assessed the associations between oral health and diabetes. This report describes the prevalence of dry-mouth symptoms (xerostomia), the prevalence of hyposalivation in this population, and the possible interrelationships between salivary dysfunction and diabetic complications. The subjects with diabetes were participants in the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study who were enrolled in an oral health substudy. Control subjects were spouses or best friends of participants or persons recruited from the community through advertisements in local newspapers. Assessments of salivary function included self-reported xerostomia measures and quantification of resting and stimulated whole saliva flow rates. Subjects with diabetes reported symptoms of dry mouth more frequently than did control subjects. Salivary flow rates were also impaired in the subjects with diabetes. Regression models of potential predictor variables were created for the 3 self-reported xerostomia measures and 4 salivary flow rate variables. Of the medical diabetic complications studied (ie, retinopathy, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, nephropathy, and peripheral vascular disease), only neuropathy was found to be associated with xerostomia and decreased salivary flow measures. A report of dry-mouth symptoms was associated with current use of cigarettes, dysgeusia (report of a bad taste), and more frequent snacking behavior. Xerogenic medications and elevated fasting blood glucose concentrations were significantly associated with decreased salivary flow. Resting salivary flow rates less than 0.01 mL/min were associated with a slightly higher prevalence of dental caries. Subjects who reported higher levels of alcohol consumption were less likely to have lower rates of stimulated

  12. Association between high expression of phosphorylated Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin and improved survival in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Dai-Qiao; Liang, Li-Zhong; Ke, Zun-Fu; Zheng, Guang-Sen; Weng, De-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Fa; Su, Yu-Xiong; Liao, Gui-Qing

    2017-06-01

    Previous genomic studies revealed phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway mutation in human salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). No validation of its prognostic value has been reported. P-Akt, pan-Akt, phosphorylated-mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), PI3K, and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor beta (IGF-1Rβ) were detected on 120 salivary gland ACC/adjacent salivary gland pairs immunohistochemically and were correlated with clinicopathological data. Expression of cytoplasmic and nuclear p-Akt, cytoplasmic p-mTOR, nuclear pan-Akt, and nuclear IGF-1Rβ were higher in ACC than in adjacent salivary glands. P-Akt, p-mTOR, PI3K, and IGF-1Rβ expression were correlated with one another in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Low p-mTOR expression in both subcellular compartments was associated with locoregional recurrence, poor disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Low nuclear p-Akt (Ser473) and p-mTOR expression were independent predictors for poor OS and DFS, respectively. High level of Akt/mTOR activation in ACC is correlated with a significantly improved survival. P-mTOR and nuclear p-Akt are prognostic biomarkers of salivary gland ACC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1145-1154, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Interactions between whey proteins and salivary proteins as related to astringency of whey protein beverages at low pH.

    PubMed

    Ye, A; Streicher, C; Singh, H

    2011-12-01

    Whey protein beverages have been shown to be astringent at low pH. In the present study, the interactions between model whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin and lactoferrin) and human saliva in the pH range from 7 to 2 were investigated using particle size, turbidity, and ζ-potential measurements and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The correlation between the sensory results of astringency and the physicochemical data was discussed. Strong interactions between β-lactoglobulin and salivary proteins led to an increase in the particle size and turbidity of mixtures of both unheated and heated β-lactoglobulin and human saliva at pH ∼3.4. However, the large particle size and high turbidity that occurred at pH 2.0 were the result of aggregation of human salivary proteins. The intense astringency in whey protein beverages may result from these increases in particle size and turbidity at these pH values and from the aggregation and precipitation of human salivary proteins alone at pH <3.0. The involvement of salivary proteins in the interaction is a key factor in the perception of astringency in whey protein beverages. At any pH, the increases in particle size and turbidity were much smaller in mixtures of lactoferrin and saliva, which suggests that aggregation and precipitation may not be the only mechanism linked to the perception of astringency in whey protein. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a salivary duct cyst of the parotid gland. Contribution to the development of tumours in salivary gland cysts.

    PubMed

    Seifert, G

    1996-12-01

    Concerning the hypothesis that distinct types of salivary gland cysts may be the starting point of a salivary gland tumour, a histological examination of 1,661 salivary gland cysts was performed in order to analyse the cell types and their proliferative activity. Epithelial alterations were found especially in salivary duct cysts of parotid gland and in mucous retention cysts of minor salivary glands. Characteristic cellular changes were epithelial metaplasias (goblet cells, clear cells, squamous cells) and focal epithelial proliferations with plump or papillary plaques projecting into the cyst lumen. Only in one case had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma developed in the wall of a parotid duct cyst. The epithelial metaplasia and focal proliferative activity in salivary duct cysts is comparable to similar alterations in odontogenic cysts as possible early manifestation of a tumour, especially of an ameloblastoma or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The differential diagnosis of salivary duct cysts must take primarily cystadenomas and cystic mucoepidermoid carcinomas of well-differentiated type into account.

  15. Discovering an Accessible Enzyme: Salivary [alpha]-Amylase--"Prima Digestio Fit in Ore"--A Didactic Approach for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Isabella

    2005-01-01

    Human salivary [alpha]-amylase is used in this experimental approach to introduce biology high school students to the concept of enzyme activity in a dynamic way. Through a series of five easy, rapid, and inexpensive laboratory experiments students learn what the activity of an enzyme consists of: first in a qualitative then in a semi-quantitative…

  16. Correlation Between Body Movements and Salivary Secretion During Sedation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yoko; Kato, Seiichi; Miura, Masaaki; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2016-01-01

    During dental sedation, control of the cough reflex is crucial for a safe and smooth procedure. Accumulated saliva is one of the predisposing factors for coughing. Body movements during dental sedation appear to enhance salivation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the difference in salivary secretion between the with-movements state and the without-movements state during sedation. Salivary weight for 1 min was measured 3 times in 27 patients with intellectual disability during dental treatment under deep sedation with midazolam and propofol. The observed variables were body movements, bispectral index (BIS), and predicted propofol effect-site concentration. A total of 81 measurements were classified into the with-movements state (n = 39; ie, measurements during which body movements were observed) or the without-movements state (n = 42; ie, measurements during which no body movements were observed). The median salivary weight was significantly smaller in the without-movements state compared with the with-movements state (0.03 vs 0.11 g, P < .0001). The BIS was significantly lower in the without-movements state. There was no significant difference in the predicted propofol effect-site concentration between the 2 states. Significant correlation was observed between salivary weight and BIS in the with-movements state (r = 0.44, P = .004). The findings indicate that salivary secretion decreased according to deep sedation. Furthermore, immobility also reduced salivary secretion. We concluded that one reason that immobility is beneficial is because of the resulting decreased salivary secretion during dental treatment under deep sedation.

  17. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  18. Characterization of the salivary microbiome in people with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian

    2018-01-01

    Background The interactions between the gut microbiome and obesity have been extensively studied. Although the oral cavity is the gateway to the gut, and is extensively colonized with microbes, little is known about the oral microbiome in people with obesity. In the present study, we investigated the salivary microbiome in obese and normal weight healthy participants using metagenomic analysis. The subjects were categorized into two groups, obesity and normal weight, based on their BMIs. Methods We characterized the salivary microbiome of 33 adults with obesity and 29 normal weight controls using high-throughput sequencing of the V3–V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene (Illumina MiSeq). None of the selected participants had systemic, oral mucosal, or periodontal diseases. Results The salivary microbiome of the obesity group was distinct from that of the normal weight group. The salivary microbiome of periodontally healthy people with obesity had both significantly lower bacterial diversity and richness compared with the controls. The genus Prevotella, Granulicatella, Peptostreptococcus, Solobacterium, Catonella, and Mogibacterium were significantly more abundant in the obesity group; meanwhile the genus Haemophilus, Corynebacterium, Capnocytophaga, and Staphylococcus were less abundant in the obesity group. We also performed a functional analysis of the inferred metagenomes, and showed that the salivary community associated with obesity had a stronger signature of immune disease and a decreased functional signature related to environmental adaptation and Xenobiotics biodegradation compared with the normal weight controls. Discussion Our study demonstrates that the microbial diversity and structure of the salivary microbiome in people with obesity are significantly different from those of normal weight controls. These results suggested that changes in the structure and function of salivary microbiome in people with obesity might reflect their susceptibility to oral

  19. Salivary antioxidants and oral health in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Rai, Kavita; Hegde, Amitha M; Jose, Nijo

    2012-08-01

    Individuals with autism vary widely in abilities, intelligence, and behaviours. Autistic children have preferences for soft and sweetened food making them susceptible to caries. A wide spectrum of medical and behavioural symptoms is exhibited by children with autism, which makes routine dental care very difficult in them. Mental retardation is evident in approximately 70% of individuals with autism and most psychiatric disorders including autism are associated with increased oxidative stress. To evaluate the oral health status of children with autism and to determine the salivary pH and total salivary antioxidant concentration (TAC). 101 subjects with autism between age group of 6 and 12 year were part of the study and 50 normal healthy siblings of same age group were taken as control group. Oral health status was analysed using oral hygiene index-simplified and dentition status index. The salivary total anti-oxidant level was estimated using phosphomolybdic acid using spectrophotometric method and the salivary pH using the pH indicating paper. The results were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. A statistically very highly significant difference was seen in the mean oral hygiene index scores (autistic group--1.2 and control group--1, P<0.001) and the mean salivary total antioxidant concentration (autistic group--5.7 μg/ml and control group--38 μg/ml, P<0.001). No statistical significant difference was observed in the dental caries status and the salivary pH of autistic group and the control group. Similar dental caries status was observed in children with autism and their healthy normal siblings. Oral hygiene was poor in children with autism whereas the Salivary TAC was significantly reduced in autistic children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 5-Fluorouracil induces inflammation and oxidative stress in the major salivary glands affecting salivary flow and saliva composition.

    PubMed

    Bomfin, Luana E; Braga, Cíntia M; Oliveira, Thais A; Martins, Conceição S; Foschetti, Danielle A; Santos, Ana A Q A; Costa, Deiziane V S; Leitão, Renata F C; Brito, Gerly A C

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the histological aspects of the major salivary glands, salivary flow and saliva composition using an established oral mucositis model in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced by two intraperitoneal administrations of 5-FU in two consecutive days (60 and 40mg/kg), followed by cheek pouch mucosa scratch, on day 4. The Pilocarpine-stimulated salivary flow was measured 4 and 10days after the first 5-FU injection. Salivary glands were harvested for histopathological analysis, measurement of inflammatory cells, quantification of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), investigation of cell death and cell proliferation. Oxidative stress and oxidative defense system were also investigated in the salivary gland tissues using MDA (malondialdehyde), nitrite, non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase). In addition, the CAT and lysozyme activities and the IgA and SOD levels were evaluated in the saliva samples. 5-FU significantly reduced the pilocarpine-stimulated salivary flow rate on the 4th experimental day, associated with an increase in the SOD levels in saliva. Recovery of the salivary flow and SOD were observed on day 10, when an increase in the saliva lysozyme levels was detected. In addition, 5-FU promoted vacuolization in parotid (P) and periductal edema in submandibular (SM) gland, combined with an increase in the inflammatory cells influx, mostly observed on the 4th day in SM gland and on 4th and 10th days in P. Oxidative stress was found mostly on day 10 in SM, SL and P glands, associated with release of proinflammatory cytokines, observed in SM and SL glands, but not in P. 5-FU induces an inflammatory response in the major salivary glands, most observed ten days after its first injection, which may contribute to the major salivary glands hypofunction, leading to alterations in the salivary flow rate and composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  1. Reactivity of polymeric proanthocyanidins toward salivary proteins and their contribution to young red wine astringency.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baoshan; de Sá, Marta; Leandro, Conceição; Caldeira, Ilda; Duarte, Filomena L; Spranger, Isabel

    2013-01-30

    Recent studies have indicated the presence of significant amount of highly polymerized and soluble proanthocyanidins in red wine and such compounds interacted readily with proteins, suggesting that they might be particularly astringent. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify the astringency of polymeric proanthocyanidins and their contribution to red wine astringency. The precipitation reactions of the purified oligomeric procyanidins (degree of polymerization ranging from 2 to 12-15) and polymeric procyanidins (degree of polymerization ranging from 12-15 to 32-34) with human salivary proteins were studied; salivary proteins composition changes before and after the reaction was verified by SDS-PAGE and procyanidins composition changes by spectrometric, direct HPLC and thiolysis-HPLC methods. The astringency intensity of these two procyanidin fractions was evaluated by a sensory analysis panel. For verifying the correlation between polymeric proanthocyanidins and young red wine astringency, the levels of total oligomeric and total polymeric proanthocyanidins and other phenolic composition in various young red wines were quantified and the astringency intensities of these wines were evaluated by a sensory panel. The results showed that polymeric proanthocyanidins had much higher reactivity toward human salivary proteins and higher astringency intensity than the oligomeric ones. Furthermore, young red wine astringency intensities were highly correlated to levels of polymeric proanthocyanidins, particularly at low concentration range (correlation coefficient r = 0.9840) but not significant correlated to total polyphenols (r = 0.2343) or other individual phenolic compounds (generally r < 0.3). These results indicate the important contribution of polymeric proanthocyanidins to red wine astringency and the levels of polymeric polyphenols in red wines may be used as an indicator for its astringency.

  2. Estimation of salivary neopterin in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Mahendra, Little; Mahendra, Jaideep; Borra, Sai Krishna; Nagarajan, Aishwarya

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are the most common bacterial infection predominantly associated with Gram-negative microorganisms that exist in the subgingival biofilm. Analysis of saliva provides a noninvasive means of evaluating the role of the host response in periodontal disease. Though salivary enzymes can be used as the biomarkers, neopterin has been recently used as one of the important diagnostic tools in the field of periodontics. Hence, we aimed to identify the neopterin levels in unsimulated saliva from the chronic periodontitis patients and compare them with the periodontally healthy subjects. Twenty subjects participated in the study and were categorized as the experimental group (chronic periodontitis patients) and control groups (healthy subjects). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from both the groups for neopterin estimation. Neopterin in saliva was estimated using Shimadzu High Performance Liquid Chromatography with LC-20AD pump system, equipped with RF-10 AXL fluorescence detector. Data were expressed as mean±SD and analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 6.0 (California, USA). Statistical analysis was done by Student's t-test. The neopterin level in unstimulated saliva was found to be higher in the experimental group than the control group with P≤0.05. The chronic periodontitis patients showed higher neopterin level in unstimulated saliva as compared to control. Hence, neopterin can be used as a potential biomarker for identification of the periodontal disease in its initial stage can help in preventing the disease progression.

  3. Enhancement of both salivary protein-enological tannin interactions and astringency perception by ethanol.

    PubMed

    Obreque-Slíer, Elías; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; López-Solís, Remigio

    2010-03-24

    Red wine astringency has been associated with interactions of tannins with salivary proteins. Tannins are active protein precipitants. Not much evidence exists demonstrating contribution of other wine components to astringency. We aimed to investigate an eventual role of ethanol both in astringency and salivary protein-enological tannin interactions. A trained sensory panel scored perceived astringency. Salivary protein-tannin interactions were assessed by observing both tannin-dependent changes in salivary protein diffusion on cellulose membranes and tannin-induced salivary protein precipitation. Proanthocyanidins and gallotannins in aqueous and hydroalcoholic solutions were assayed. A biphasic mode of diffusion on cellulose membranes displayed by salivary proteins was unaffected after dilution with water or enological concentrations of ethanol. At those concentrations ethanol was not astringent. In aqueous solution, tannins provoked both restriction of salivary protein diffusion, protein precipitation, and astringency. Those effects were exacerbated by 13% ethanol. In summary, enological concentrations of ethanol exacerbate astringency and salivary protein-tannin interactions.

  4. Use of Salivary Cortisol Measurements in Young Infants: A Note of Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnano, Catherine L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Findings indicate that high cortisol levels and interfering substances in formula and breast milk could contaminate salivary cortisol measurements in young infants. To insure accurate results, appropriate controls should be taken for salivary cortisol measurements of young infants. (RH)

  5. Application of a salivary immunoassay to assess waterborne Cryptosporidium infections in a prospective community study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Salivary antibody is a promising non-invasive biomarker of specific infections. This exploratory study used an in-house salivary immunoassay to assess waterborne transmission of Cryptosporidium. Methods: Families with children were followed during summer-early wint...

  6. Salivary characteristics and dental caries: Evidence from general dental practices

    PubMed Central

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Scott, JoAnna; Rothen, Marilynn; Mancl, Lloyd; Lawhorn, Timothy; Brossel, Kenneth; Berg, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background Saliva is one of the intraoral host factors that influence caries development. The authors conducted a study to investigate whether salivary characteristics are associated with recent dental caries experience. Methods Dentist-investigators and dental staff members collected data pertaining to a two-year cumulative incidence of dental caries (previous 24 months) and salivary characteristics during baseline assessment in an ongoing longitudinal study. The systematic random sample consisted of patients (n = 1,763) visiting general dental practices (n = 63) within the Northwest Practice-based REsearch Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT). The authors estimated adjusted rate ratios (RRs) by using generalized estimating equations log-linear regression to relate salivary characteristics to coronal carious lesions into dentin. Results Low resting pH (≤ 6.0) in the overall sample and low stimulated salivary flow rate (≤ 0.6 milliliter/minute) in older adults (≥ 65 years old) were associated with increased dental caries (RR, 1.6; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.1–2.2; RR, 2.4; 95 percent CI, 1.5–3.8, respectively). Low buffering capacity was associated with decreased dental caries in children and adolescents (RR, 0.3; 95 percent CI, 0.1–1.0; RR, 0.2; 95 percent CI, 0.1–0.7, respectively). A thick, sticky or frothy salivary consistency also was associated with decreased dental caries in adults (RR, 0.6; 95 percent CI, 0.4–1.0). Associations between other salivary characteristics and dental caries for the overall sample and within each age group were not statistically significant. Conclusions Salivary characteristics were associated weakly with previous dental caries experience, but the authors did not find consistent trends among the three age groups. Different salivary characteristics were associated with an increased caries experience in older adults and a lowered caries experience in children and adolescents and adults

  7. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Correlates with Subjective Heat Pain Perception.

    PubMed

    Wittwer, Amrei; Krummenacher, Peter; La Marca, Roberto; Ehlert, Ulrike; Folkers, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    Self-reports of pain are important for an adequate therapy. This is a problem with patients and infants who are restricted in providing an accurate verbal estimation of their pain. Reliable, real-time, economical, and non-invasive physiological correlates might contribute to a more comprehensive description of pain. Salivary alpha-amylase constitutes one candidate biomarker, which reflects predominantly sympathetic nervous system alterations under stressful conditions and can be measured non-invasively. The current study investigated the effects of acute heat pain on salivary alpha-amylase activity. Heat pain tolerance was measured on the non-dominant forearm. Participants completed visual analog scales on pain intensity and unpleasantness. Saliva samples were collected directly after pain induction. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. While salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with intensity and unpleasantness ratings in response to acute heat pain stimuli, there was no corresponding association with pain tolerance. Salivary alpha-amylase is suggested to be an indirect physiologic correlate of subjective heat pain perception. Future studies should address the role of salivary alpha-amylase depending on the origin of pain, the concerned tissue, and other pain assessment methods. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Predictors of Salivary Fistulas in Patients Undergoing Salvage Total Laryngectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Salivary fistula is a common complication after salvage total laryngectomy. Previous studies have not considered the number of layers of pharyngeal closure and have not classified fistulas according to severity. Our objective was to analyze our institutional experience with salvage total laryngectomy, categorize salivary fistulas based on severity, and study the effect of various pharyngeal closure techniques on fistula incidence. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 48 patients who underwent salvage total laryngectomy, comparing pharyngeal closure technique and use of a pectoralis major flap with regard to salivary fistula rate. Fistulas were categorized into major and minor fistulas based on whether operative intervention was required. Results. The major fistula rate was 18.8% (9/48) and the minor fistula rate was 29.2% (14/48). The overall (major plus minor) fistula rate was 47.9%. The overall fistula and major fistula rates decreased with increasing the number of closure layers and with use of a pectoralis major flap; however, these correlations did not reach statistical significance. Other than age, there were no clinicopathologic variables associated with salivary fistulas. Conclusion. For salvage total laryngectomies, increasing the number of closure layers or use of a pectoralis major flap may reduce the risk of salivary fistula. PMID:27355065

  9. Limitations of salivary and blood cortisol determinations in pigs.

    PubMed

    Blackshaw, J K; Blackshaw, A W

    1989-01-01

    Blood and saliva samples were taken from groups of pigs maintained in intensive conditions. Multiple samples were taken from two unrestrained pregnant sows fitted with jugular cannulae. Single samples were taken from groups (mixed gilts and entire males; 70-90 kg) which were lightly exercised (7) or restrained (12). The rate of salivary secretion was low and collection of adequate samples took 5 min; in a number of pigs no saliva could be obtained. In order to stimulate salivary secretion, pigs (70-80 kg) were injected with pilocarpine nitrate (25 mg, subcutaneous) which produced a copious flow of saliva persisting for at least 15 min. Resting sows had higher mean levels of cortisol in plasma, ultrafiltrate and saliva than the other groups, which did not differ from each other. Within the pilocarpine group, males had a higher ultrafiltrate level of cortisol than females. In most instances salivary cortisol was significantly greater than ultrafiltrate cortisol. Ultrafiltrate and plasma cortisol were highly correlated (r = 0.883) but this correlation was low in the presence of pilocarpine (r = 0.260). Salivary cortisol was poorly correlated with either plasma (r = 0.167) or ultrafiltrate cortisol (r = 0.278) and the correlation with plasma was even lower following the administration of pilocarpine (r = 0.086). It was concluded that salivary estimates of cortisol in the pig were not usefully correlated with levels of ultrafiltrate (free) cortisol.

  10. Salivary osteocalcin levels are decreased in smoker chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Ozçaka, O; Nalbantsoy, A; Buduneli, N

    2011-03-01

     This study was planned to investigate whether smoker chronic periodontitis patients exhibit different salivary concentrations of C-telopeptide pyridinoline cross-links of type I collagen (ICTP) and osteocalcin (OC) compared to the non-smoker counterparts. Whole saliva samples, full-mouth clinical periodontal recordings were obtained from 33 otherwise healthy chronic periodontitis patients and 36 systemically, periodontally healthy control subjects. Chronic periodontitis patients and healthy control subjects were divided into smoker and non-smoker groups according to their self reports. Salivary ICTP, OC levels were determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoassays. Healthy control groups exhibited significantly lower values in all clinical periodontal measurements (P < 0.001). Smoker periodontitis patients revealed similar clinical periodontal index values with non-smoker counterparts (P > 0.05). Chronic periodontitis patients exhibited significantly higher salivary OC levels than healthy controls (P < 0.05). Smoker periodontitis patients revealed lower salivary OC levels than non-smoker counterparts (P < 0.001). Log ICTP levels in non-smoker chronic periodontitis patients were higher than non-smoker controls (P < 0.05). Smoker healthy control group revealed higher log ICTP levels than non-smoker counterparts (P < 0.001). Within the limits of this study, it may be suggested that suppression of salivary osteocalcin level by smoking may at least partly explain the deleterious effects of smoking on periodontal status. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Aitken-Saavedra, Juan; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar-Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes-Coloma, Andrea; Reyes-Rojas, Montserrat; Viera -Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca-Martínez, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and the level of metabolic control of type 2 diabetes patients. Material and Methods A convenience sample of 74 voluntary patients with type 2 DM was selected, each of whom donated a sample of unstimulated saliva. Salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate, protein concentration, pH, and xerostomia were studied. Results There is a positive relationship between the level of metabolic control measured with HbA1 and the protein concentration in saliva (Spearman rho = 0.329 and p = 0.004). The same assay showed an inverse correlation between HbA1 and pH (Spearman rho = -0.225 and p = 0.05). Conclusions The protein concentration in saliva and, to a lesser extent, the pH may be useful as glandular dysfunction indicators in DM2 patients. Key words:Saliva, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pH, protein concentration, xerostomia. PMID:26535097

  12. Salivary buffer effect in relation to late pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Laine, M; Pienihäkkinen, K

    2000-02-01

    We studied the salivary pH, buffer effect (BE), and flow rates of unstimulated and paraffin-stimulated saliva of 8 women in their late pregnancy and postpartum. Salivary samples were collected about 1 month prior to and about 2 months after delivery. In non-pregnant control women, two paraffin-stimulated salivary samples were collected 1 month apart. The salivary BE increased significantly from late pregnancy to postpartum without exception. The increase was 2.04 +/- 1.17 pH units (P < 0.001) on average. The BE increased from 4.79 +/- 1.64 (final pH) to 6.82 +/- 1.01 (final pH). This change was not due to variation in salivary flow rates, since both unstimulated and paraffin-stimulated flow rates remained unchanged. In control women the difference between the 2 BE measurements was only 0.13 +/- 0.47 pH units on average. We concluded that women with high postpartum BE values may have moderate or even low BE values in late pregnancy. In control women, individual variation was found to be low in all variables studied.

  13. Salivary Sialic Acid Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Users

    PubMed Central

    Farhad Mollashahi, Leila; Honarmand, Marieh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Mollashahi, Ghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokeless tobacco chewing is one of the known risk factors for oral cancer. It is consumed widely by residents of southeastern Iran. Objectives In this study, salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were compared in paan consumers and non-consumers. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva of 94 subjects (44 paan consumers and 50 non-consumers) who were referred to the oral medicine department of the dentistry school of Zahedan were collected. Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein concentration were measured by standard biochemical methods, and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 20 through the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results The concentration of salivary free sialic acid (23.21 ± 18.98 mg/L) was significantly increased in paan consumers. The concentration of salivary Total sialic acid (TSA) (39.57 ± 26.58 mg/L) and total protein (0.77 ± 0.81 mg/mL) showed increases in paan consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were higher in the paan consumers compared to non-consumers. Due to the carcinogenic effect of smokeless tobacco, measurement of these parameters in saliva may be useful in early detection of oral cancer. PMID:27622172

  14. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  15. Primary midgut, salivary gland, and ovary cultures from Boophilus microplus.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda, Juan; Cossío-Bayugar, Raquel; Rodríguez, Elba; Falcón, Alfonso; Ramos, Alberto; Figueroa, Julio V; Alvarez, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Primary cell cultures from different tick organs are a valuable tool for host parasite research in the study of the protozoan Babesia sp., which infects different organs of the tick. In this work we describe the generation of midgut, salivary gland, and ovary primary cell cultures from dissections of Boophilus microplus. Midguts, salivary glands, and ovaries were dissected from B. microplus ticks on different days after bovine infestation; different enzymatic disaggregating protocols were tested in the presence of proteolytic enzymes, such as trypsin and collagenase type I and II, for tissue disaggregation and primary cell culture generation. The dissected tick organs obtained 18-20 days after bovine infestation showed a major cellular differentiation and were easier to identify by cellular morphology. The enzymatic disaggregation results showed that each tissue required a different proteolytic enzyme for optimal disaggregation; collagenase type I produced the most complete disaggregation for ovaries but not for midgut or salivary glands. Collagenase type II was effective for salivary glands but performed poorly on ovaries and midgets, and typsin was effective for midguts only. The midgut and ovary primary cell cultures were maintained for 4 weeks in optimal conditions after the cells were no longer viable. The salivary gland cell cultures were viable for 8 months.

  16. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion in normal and diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and glucose excretion rate were observed under the same experimental conditions. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion were much higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. No significant correlation between glycemia and either glucose concentration or glucose excretion rate was found in the diabetic patients, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. In the latter patients, as compared to control subjects, the relative magnitude of the increase in saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  17. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Aitken-Saavedra, Juan; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar-Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes-Coloma, Andrea; Reyes-Rojas, Montserrat; Viera-Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca-Martínez, Claudia; Morales-Bozo, Irene

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and the level of metabolic control of type 2 diabetes patients. A convenience sample of 74 voluntary patients with type 2 DM was selected, each of whom donated a sample of unstimulated saliva. Salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate, protein concentration, pH, and xerostomia were studied. There is a positive relationship between the level of metabolic control measured with HbA1 and the protein concentration in saliva (Spearman rho = 0.329 and p = 0.004). The same assay showed an inverse correlation between HbA1 and pH (Spearman rho = -0.225 and p = 0.05). The protein concentration in saliva and, to a lesser extent, the pH may be useful as glandular dysfunction indicators in DM2 patients. Saliva, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pH, protein concentration, xerostomia.

  18. Warthin tumor of the upper lip: an unusual location of a benign salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Almeida, Aroldo; Costa Hanemann, João Adolfo; Tostes Oliveira, Denise

    2011-06-01

    Warthin tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum) is a benign salivary gland tumor involving almost exclusively the parotid gland. The lip is a very unusual location for this type of tumor, which develops only rarely in minor salivary glands. The case of 42-year-old woman with Warthin tumor arising in minor salivary glands of the upper lip is reported.

  19. Relationship between frequency of pilocarpine administration and salivary IgA level.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Taubman, M A; Ebersole, J L; King, W

    1982-12-01

    The effect of repetitive administration of pilocarpine nitrate on the salivary volume and salivary IgA concentration was studied in the NIH white hamster. One and one-half to three-fold increases in salivary volume, coupled with decreases of 1/3 to 2/3 in IgA concentration, occurred as the frequency of administration of pilocarpine increased.

  20. Childhood Salivary Gland Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Salivary gland tumors in children are very rare and prognosis is usually good. Salivary gland tumors may occur after radiation therapy and chemotherapy for treatment of primary leukemia or solid tumors. Get detailed information about the incidence, histology, clinical presentation and treatment of salivary gland tumors in this summary for clinicians.

  1. [Xerostomia, hyposialia, sicca syndrome--quantitative disturbances of the salivary flow rate].

    PubMed

    Slezák, R; Berglová, I; Krejsek, J

    2011-04-01

    Diseases of salivary glands may be associated with salivary flow rate disturbances. Production of the saliva is evaluated by sialometric tests. The stress is putted on salivary flow rate disturbances in Sjögren's syndrome, drug-induced and postirradiative sialopathy, and diabetes mellitus. The possibility of the stimulation and substitution of the saliva is discussed.

  2. Salivary Cystatins: Exploring New Post-Translational Modifications and Polymorphisms by Top-Down High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Manconi, Barbara; Liori, Barbara; Cabras, Tiziana; Vincenzoni, Federica; Iavarone, Federica; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene; Olianas, Alessandra

    2017-11-03

    Cystatins are a complex family of cysteine peptidase inhibitors. In the present study, various proteoforms of cystatin A, cystatin B, cystatin S, cystatin SN, and cystatin SA were detected in the acid-soluble fraction of human saliva and characterized by a top-down HPLC-ESI-MS approach. Proteoforms of cystatin D were also detected and characterized by an integrated top-down and bottom-up strategy. The proteoforms derive from coding sequence polymorphisms and post-translational modifications, in particular, phosphorylation, N-terminal processing, and oxidation. This study increases the current knowledge of salivary cystatin proteoforms and provides the basis to evaluate possible qualitative/quantitative variations of these proteoforms in different pathological states and reveal new potential salivary biomarkers of disease. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD007170.

  3. Maternal salivary testosterone in pregnancy and fetal neuromaturation.

    PubMed

    Voegtline, Kristin M; Costigan, Kathleen A; DiPietro, Janet A

    2017-11-01

    Testosterone exposure during pregnancy has been hypothesized as a mechanism for sex differences in brain and behavioral development observed in the postnatal period. The current study documents the natural history of maternal salivary testosterone from 18 weeks gestation of pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, and investigates associations with fetal heart rate, motor activity, and their integration. Findings indicate maternal salivary testosterone increases with advancing gestation though no differences by fetal sex were detected. High intra-individual stability in prenatal testosterone levels extend into the postnatal period, particularly for pregnancies with male fetuses. With respect to fetal development, by 36 weeks gestation higher maternal prenatal salivary testosterone was significantly associated with faster fetal heart rate and less optimal somatic-cardiac integration. Measurement of testosterone in saliva is a useful tool for repeated-measures studies of hormonal concomitants of pregnancy. Moreover, higher maternal testosterone levels are associated with modest interference to fetal neurobehavioral development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the management of salivary calculi.

    PubMed

    Escudier, M P; Brown, J E; Drage, N A; McGurk, M

    2003-04-01

    The aim was to investigate the results of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the management of salivary calculi using a dedicated sialolithotriptor. Some 122 salivary calculi (84 submandibular and 38 parotid) were treated in an experimental study using a sialolithotriptor. Complete success was achieved in 40 procedures (33 per cent), 27 of 84 submandibular and 13 of 38 parotid calculi. A further 43 patients (35 per cent) were rendered asymptomatic although some stone debris remained in the duct (26 submandibular and 17 parotid). Failure (retention of stone debris and continued symptoms) occurred in 39 patients (32 per cent), 30 submandibular and eight parotid glands. The chance of failure increased with the size of the calculus and increasing duration of symptoms. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy provides a useful option for the management of salivary calculi, particularly for stones less than 7 mm in diameter. Copyright 2003 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    SciTech Connect

    Deasy, Joseph O., E-mail: jdeasy@radonc.wustl.ed; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than {approx}20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than {approx}25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. Amore » lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk.« less

  6. [MALT lymphoma of the parotid salivary gland].

    PubMed

    Krasić, Dragan; Radović, Predrag; Burić, Nikola; Cosić, Andrija; Katić, Vuka

    2007-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma was described for the first time in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright. It was classified into extranodal non-Hodkin's lymphomas of B-cell lymphocytes of the marginal zone of reactive lymphe follicles. It is characterized by both hyperplasia and colonization of plasmocytic, centrocytoid and monocytoid cells, by the infiltration of interfollicular and parafollicular parts of interstitium, as well as by the invasion of clusters of neoplastic lymphoid cells of the glandular epithelium, forming the pathognomic lymphoepithelial MALT limphoma lesions. In this paper we presented the two female patients, 59 and 75 years of age, with MALT lymphomas, associated with Miculicz's and Sjögren's syndromes. The paper also underlined rather many-month-long, indolent clinical course, evalution of both tumors, massive in size, as well as two-sided localization in the case of the Miculicz's syndrome. After the subtotal parotidectomy, using conservation of nerve facialis, the tissue blocks were fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The paraffine sections were stained by routine histochemical and an immunohistochemical method by using monoclonal antibodies for both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, due to the verification of lymphoepithelial lesions. The MALT lymphoma diagnosis was based on the histological criteria and confirmed by an immunohistochemical method. After the surgical therapy accompanied by chemotherapy, the patients were controlled at regular intervals, and residual MALT lymphoma did not appear. MALT lymphoma is a rare tumor of the salivary glands, with the most frequent localization in the parotide gland. It had a slow clinical course, without metastases in both patients. The diagnosis was made pathohistologically and confirmed immunohistochemically. The surgical therapy was accompained by adjuvant chemotherapy.

  7. Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Obel, C; Hedegaard, M; Henriksen, T B; Secher, N J; Olsen, J; Levine, S

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening sample of saliva in early pregnancy (median 14th gestational week) and in late pregnancy (median and 30th gestational week). They were asked to report the number of life events experienced during first and second trimester, respectively, and were asked to rate the intensity of the experienced events. Complications related to the pregnancy such as vaginal bleeding and suspected growth retardation were registered and the women were asked about concerns about their pregnancy. The salivary samples were analyzed for cortisol and the levels were higher in late than in early pregnancy. In late pregnancy women exposed to more than one life event or were concerned about pregnancy complications during second trimester had a higher evening cortisol level, whereas morning values were unaffected. After adjustment for smoking women who experienced more than one very stressful life event had 27% higher evening cortisol concentrations (95% confidence intervals: 1-59%). Women with worries about pregnancy complications had 27% (95% confidence intervals: 2-57%) higher levels. In early pregnancy women reporting stressful life events did not have higher evening cortisol levels, but tended to have a blunted morning HPA response. In conclusion, we found differences in the associations between chronic stress in early and late pregnancy and cortisol levels indicating that the response to chronic stress is dependent on the stage of the pregnancy.

  8. Salivary Pharmacodynamics and Bioavailability of Promethazine in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Harm, Deborah L.; Nimmagudda, Ram; Berens, Kurt L.; Bourne, David W. A.

    1999-01-01

    The acute effects of exposure to microgravity include the development of space motion sickness which usually requires therapeutic intervention. The current drug of choice, promethazine (PMZ), has side effects which include nausea, drowsiness, dizziness, sedation and impaired psychomotor performance. In a ground-based study with commercial airline pilots and shuttle simulator trainers, we measured sleep and psychomotor performance variables, and physiological variables such as blood pressure and heart rate, as a function of circulating drug concentrations in the body. We evaluated a non-invasive sampling method (saliva) as a means of assessing pharmacodynamics following a single intramuscular (IM) dose of PMZ.

  9. Attenuated acute salivary α-amylase responses to gustatory stimulation with citric acid in thin children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long Hui; Yang, Ze Min; Chen, Wei Wen; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao Rong; Zhao, Ling Bo

    2015-04-14

    Salivary α-amylase (sAA) is responsible for the 'pre-digestion' of starch in the oral cavity and accounts for up to 50 % of salivary protein in human saliva. An accumulating body of literature suggests that sAA is of nutritional importance; however, it is still not clear how sAA is related to individual's nutritional status. Although copy number variations (CNV) of the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) are associated with variation in sAA levels, a significant amount of sAA variation is not explained by AMY1 CNV. To measure sAA responses to gustatory stimulation with citric acid, we used sAA ratio (the ratio of stimulated sAA levels to those of resting sAA) and investigated acute sAA responses to citric acid in children with normal (Normal-BMI, n 22) and low (Low-BMI, n 21) BMI. The AMY1 gene copy number was determined by quantitative PCR. We, for the first time, demonstrated attenuated acute sAA responses (decreased sAA ratio) to gustatory stimulation in Low-BMI (thinness grade 3) children compared with the Normal-BMI children, which suggest that sAA responses to gustatory stimulation may be of nutritional importance. However, child's nutritional status was not directly related to their resting or stimulated sAA levels, and it was not associated with AMY1 gene copy number. Finally, AMY1 CNV might influence, but did not eventually determine, sAA levels in children.

  10. Salivary cotinine levels in children with otolaryngological disorders.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christine M; Printz, Jillian N; Stahl, Lauren E; Phillips, Brett E; Carr, Michele M

    2017-11-01

    To determine if salivary cotinine, a biomarker for tobacco smoke exposure, is elevated more often or to a higher degree in children meeting criteria for tonsillectomy or tympanostomy tube insertion. Saliva samples were obtained from 3 groups of children for salivary cotinine measurement. Group 1 served as healthy controls. Group 2 consisted of subjects meeting tympanostomy tube criteria. Group 3 consisted of patients meeting tonsillectomy criteria. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was defined as a salivary cotinine concentration ≥1.0 ng/mL. Demographic data, smoke exposure history, and co-morbidities were also determined. 331 patients were included, with 112 in Group 1, 111 in Group 2, and 108 in Group 3. No differences were encountered for smoke exposure by history or smoker's identity, salivary cotinine level, or frequency of positive cotinine results. 42.6% of Group 1 had positive salivary cotinine compared to 51.8% of Group 2 and 47.7% of Group 3. Group 1 had a mean salivary cotinine level of 2.42 ng/mL compared to 2.54 ng/mL in Group 2 and 2.60 ng/mL in Group 3. The frequency of positive cotinine levels was higher than expected based on parental history. Among subjects with positive cotinine levels, 93 had no ETS exposure, and 64 had ETS exposure by history. Approximately 50% of children who undergo tonsillectomy and tympanostomy tube insertion have objective evidence of ETS exposure. Parental history underestimates passive smoke exposure, which can impact perioperative care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A.; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R.; Whitfield, Anna E.; Ullman, Diane E.

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E−6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses

  12. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R; Whitfield, Anna E; Ullman, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they

  13. Influence of chewing rate on salivary stress hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Tasaka, Akinori; Tahara, Yasuaki; Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of different chewing rates on salivary cortisol levels as a stress indicator. The subject group consisted of 16 healthy males. They were required to rest for 30 min, and then given arithmetic calculations to perform for 30 min as stress loading. Immediately after, the first set of saliva specimens (S1) was collected over a period of 1 min to measure cortisol levels. Next, they were asked to chew a tasteless gum base for 10 min, and the second set of saliva specimens (S2) was collected in the same manner. They were then required to rest for 10 min, after which the third set of saliva specimens (S3) was collected. Chewing rates were set to slow, habitual, and fast in time with a metronome. Salivary cortisol levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Changes in salivary cortisol levels comparing S1 with S2, and S1 with S3 were determined. Changes in salivary cortisol levels between S1 and S2 showed a reduction of 4.7%, 14.6%, and 16.2% with slow, habitual, and fast chewing, respectively. A significant difference was observed between slow and fast chewing. Changes in salivary cortisol levels between S1 and S3 showed a reduction of 14.4%, 22.2%, and 25.8% with slow, habitual, and fast chewing, respectively. A significant difference was observed between slow and fast chewing. This study showed that differences in chewing rate affected salivary cortisol levels as a stress indicator, and suggested that the effect on stress release with fast chewing is greater than that with slow chewing.

  14. What interactions drive the salivary mucosal pellicle formation?

    PubMed Central

    Gibbins, Hannah L.; Yakubov, Gleb E.; Proctor, Gordon B.; Wilson, Stephen; Carpenter, Guy H.

    2014-01-01

    The bound salivary pellicle is essential for protection of both the enamel and mucosa in the oral cavity. The enamel pellicle formation is well characterised, however the mucosal pellicle proteins have only recently been clarified and what drives their formation is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary pellicle on particles with different surface properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic with a positive or negative charge), to determine a suitable model to mimic the mucosal pellicle. A secondary aim was to use the model to test how transglutaminase may alter pellicle formation. Particles were incubated with resting whole mouth saliva, parotid saliva and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Following incubation and two PBS and water washes bound salivary proteins were eluted with two concentrations of SDS, which were later analysed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Experiments were repeated with purified transglutaminase to determine how this epithelial-derived enzyme may alter the bound pellicle. Protein pellicles varied according to the starting salivary composition and the particle chemistry. Amylase, the single most abundant protein in saliva, did not bind to any particle indicating specific protein binding. Most proteins bound through hydrophobic interactions and a few according to their charges. The hydrophobic surface most closely matched the known salivary mucosal pellicle by containing mucins, cystatin and statherin but an absence of amylase and proline-rich proteins. This surface was further used to examine the effect of added transglutaminase. At the concentrations used only statherin showed any evidence of crosslinking with itself or another saliva protein. In conclusion, the formation of the salivary mucosal pellicle is probably mediated, at least in part, by hydrophobic interactions to the epithelial cell surface. PMID:24921197

  15. Smoking increases salivary arginase activity in patients with dental implants.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, D A; Cortelli, J R; Holzhausen, M; Rodrigues, E; Aquino, D R; Saad, W A

    2009-09-01

    It is believed that an increased arginase activity may lead to less nitric oxide production, which consequently increases the susceptibility to bacterial infection. Considering the hypothesis that smoking may alter the arginase activity and that smoking is considered a risk factor to dental implant survival, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of smoking on the salivary arginase activity of patients with dental implants. Salivary samples of 41 subjects were collected: ten non-smoking and with no dental implants (group A), ten non-smoking subjects with dental implants (group B), ten smoking subjects with implants (group C), and 11 smoking subjects with no dental implants (group D). The levels of salivary arginase activity were determined by the measurement of L-ornithine and expressed as mIU/mg of protein. A significant increase in the salivary arginase activity was verified in groups C (64.26 +/- 16.95) and D (49.55 +/- 10.01) compared to groups A (10.04 +/- 1.95, p = 0.00001 and p = 0.0110, groups C and D, respectively) and B (11.77 +/- 1.45, p = 0.00001 and p = 0.0147, groups C and D, respectively). No significant difference was found between groups C and D (p = 0.32). Within the limits of the present study, it can be concluded that salivary arginase activity is increased in smoking subjects with dental implants in contrast to non-smoking subjects with dental implants, therefore suggesting a possible mechanism by which cigarette smoking may lead to implant failure. The analysis of salivary arginase activity may represent an important tool to prevent implant failure in the near future.

  16. ALDH2 genotype has no effect on salivary acetaldehyde without the presence of ethanol in the systemic circulation.

    PubMed

    Helminen, Andreas; Väkeväinen, Satu; Salaspuro, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Acetaldehyde associated with alcoholic beverages was recently classified as carcinogenic (Group 1) to humans based on uniform epidemiological and biochemical evidence. ALDH2 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2) deficient alcohol consumers are exposed to high concentrations of salivary acetaldehyde and have an increased risk of upper digestive tract cancer. However, this interaction is not seen among ALDH2 deficient non-drinkers or rare drinkers, regardless of their smoking status or consumption of edibles containing ethanol or acetaldehyde. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of the ALDH2 genotype on the exposure to locally formed acetaldehyde via the saliva without ethanol ingestion. The ALDH2 genotypes of 17 subjects were determined by PCR-RFLP. The subjects rinsed out their mouths with 5 ml of 40 vol% alcohol for 5 seconds. Salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels were measured by gas chromatography. Acetaldehyde reached mutagenic levels rapidly and the exposure continued for up to 20 minutes. The mean salivary acetaldehyde concentrations did not differ between ALDH2 genotypes. For ALDH2 deficient subjects, an elevated exposure to endogenously formed acetaldehyde requires the presence of ethanol in the systemic circulation. Our findings provide a logical explanation for how there is an increased incidence of upper digestive tract cancers among ALDH2 deficient alcohol drinkers, but not among those ALDH2 deficient subjects who are locally exposed to acetaldehyde without bloodborne ethanol being delivered to the saliva. Thus, ALDH2 deficient alcohol drinkers provide a human model for increased local exposure to acetaldehyde derived from the salivary glands.

  17. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Olayanju, Olatunde A; Rahamon, Sheu K; Joseph, Ijeboime O; Arinola, Olatunbosun G

    2012-10-26

    To determine the levels of salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis. Sixty-nine individuals were recruited into this study after obtaining informed consent. They were subdivided into three groups that consisted of 20 (aged 46 ± 11 years) cigarette smokers with periodontitis (S+P); 24 (40 ± 12 years) smokers without periodontitis (S-P); and 25 (53 ± 11 years) non-smokers with periodontitis (NS+P). An oral and maxillofacial surgeon used radiographs for periodontal probing for the diagnosis of periodontitis. The smokers included subjects who smoked at least six cigarettes per day and all the periodontitis patients were newly diagnosed. About 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was expectorated by each subject into plain sample bottles. Salivary immunoglobulin levels were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Student's t test was used to determine significant differences between the means. Values of P < 0.05 were regarded as significant. No significant differences were observed in the mean salivary levels of the immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE) when S+P was compared with S-P. Mean salivary levels of IgA (520.0 ± 155.1 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.000) and IgM (644.5 ± 160.0 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.000) were significantly lower in the S+P compared with NS+P group. Salivary IgA (570.4 ± 145.6 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.008) and IgM (703.1 ± 169.3 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.012) levels were significantly lower in the S-P compared with NS+P group. Only one (5%) periodontal patient had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.20 IU/mL). Similarly, only one smoker (4.17%) had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.04 IU/mL) and two non-smokers (9.52%) had detectable levels of IgE (0.24 IU/mL). Our study suggests that reduced salivary IgA and IgM levels in smokers with periodontitis could enhance increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

  18. Growth analysis of pulmonary metastases from salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Twardzik, F G; Sklaroff, D M

    1976-03-01

    Three cases of primary salivary gland tumors with lung metastasis are presented with extremely long survival (six, ten, and twelve years). The tumor doubling time was calculated and the growth rate of the pulmonary metastasis was found to be slow and erratic. A simplified table was devised, which permits rapid calculation of the tumor doubling time without the use of graphs. The presence of lung metastasis from some primary malignant salivary tumor is not necessarily an ominous sign: a long survival without symtoms is possible.

  19. [Utilisation of salivary markers in nephrology].

    PubMed

    Podracká, Ľudmila; Celec, Peter; Šebeková, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Saliva has a broad diagnostic potential which can be used for detection many pathological conditions including renal dysfunction. In saliva can be measured concentration of urea and creatinine as well as the other uremic markers. Saliva urea nitrogen and creatinine and blood urea and creatinine highly correlated therefore might be used for screening in patients with CKD. Saliva collection is truly non-invasive and is especially suitable for small children and elderly patients. Recently, semiquantitative saliva urea test strip is available. Saliva might become promising dia-gnostic biofluid in nephrological practice.Key words: chronic kidney disease - renal failure - salivary dipstick - salivary markers.

  20. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  1. Salivary cortisol levels, but not salivary α-amylase levels, are elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis irrespective of depression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Jeon, Ja-Young; Koh, Bo-Ram; Park, Sat-Byul; Suh, Chang-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Stress is recognized as an important factor in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, we explored multiple aspects of stress in RA patients. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase levels were measured as markers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and sympatho-adrenomedullary system activity, respectively. Depression was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and short-term analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV) was performed to evaluate the autonomic nervous system. The salivary cortisol levels of the RA patients were significantly higher than those of the normal controls (NC; 0.12 ± 0.162 μg/dL vs. 0.068 ± 0.052 μg/dL, P = 0.006). There was no difference in salivary α-amylase levels between the RA and the NC. The BDI levels of the RA patients were significantly higher than the NC (13.7 ± 8.9 vs. 6.4 ± 6.9, P < 0.001). Depression was more prevalent in RA patients than in the NC. The salivary cortisol levels were still significantly higher in the RA than the NC after controlling BDI by logistic regression analysis (P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in the HRV of RA patients and the NC. The evaluation of relationship between stress measures and disease activity markers of RA revealed that only BDI was positively correlated with the visual analogue pain scale. Salivary cortisol levels and the BDI of RA patients were higher than those of the NC, and elevated salivary cortisol levels were independent of depression. However, the level of stress may not be correlated with disease activity in RA. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Acute effects of black currant consumption on salivary flow rate and secretion rate of salivary immunoglobulin a in healthy smokers.

    PubMed

    Konić-Ristić, Aleksandra; Šavikin, Katarina; Zdunić, Gordana; Besu, Irina; Menković, Nebojša; Glibetić, Marija; Srdić-Rajić, Tatjana

    2015-04-01

    The role of saliva in maintaining oral health and homeostasis is based on its physicochemical properties and biological activities of its components, including salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA). Both salivary rates and immunological status of saliva are found to be compromised in smokers. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute time-dependent effect of smoking and black currant consumption on the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary IgA secretion rate (sIgA SR) in healthy smokers. SFR, sIgA levels in saliva, and sIgA SRs were determined in healthy smokers (n=8) at eight times of assessment within three consecutive interventions: at the baseline; 5, 30, and 60 min after smoking; 5, 30, and 60 min after black currant consumption (100 g), followed by smoking; and 5 min after black currant consumption. Smoking induced a significant delayed effect on SFR measured 60 min after smoking (P=.03), while black currant consumption preceding smoking prevented that effect. Salivary IgA concentrations and sIgA flow rates were not acutely influenced by smoking. Black currant consumption preceding smoking induced a significant decrease in sIgA concentrations 5 min after the intervention compared with the baseline (P=.046), with a further increasing trend, statistically significant, 60 min after the intervention (P=.025). Although smoking cessation is the most important strategy in the prevention of chronic diseases, the obtained results suggest that the influence of black currant consumption on negative effects of tobacco smoke on salivary flow and immunological status of saliva could partly reduce the smoking-associated risk on oral health.

  3. Zonula Occludens-1, Occludin and E-cadherin Expression and Organization in Salivary Glands with Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mellas, Rachel E.; Leigh, Noel J.; Nelson, Joel W.; McCall, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes secretory dysfunction of the salivary glands leading to dry mouth. Previous studies reported that tight junction (TJ) proteins are down-regulated and lose polarity in human minor salivary glands with SS, suggesting that TJ structure is compromised in SS patients. In this paper, we utilized the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse with the main goal of evaluating this model for future TJ research. We found that the organization of apical proteins in areas proximal and distal to lymphocytic infiltration remained intact in mouse and human salivary glands with SS. These areas looked comparable to control glands (i.e., with no lymphocytic infiltration). TJ staining was absent in areas of lymphocytic infiltration coinciding with the loss of salivary epithelium. Gene expression studies show that most TJs are not significantly altered in 20-week-old NOD/ShiLtJ mice as compared with age-matched C57BL/6 controls. Protein expression studies revealed that the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-12, as well as E-cadherin, do not significantly change in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Our results suggest that ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin are not altered in areas without lymphocytic infiltration. However, future studies will be necessary to test the functional aspect of these results. PMID:25248927

  4. Proteogenomic analysis of the total and surface-exposed proteomes of Plasmodium vivax salivary gland sporozoites

    PubMed Central

    Swearingen, Kristian E.; Lindner, Scott E.; Flannery, Erika L.; Vaughan, Ashley M.; Morrison, Robert D.; Patrapuvich, Rapatbhorn; Koepfli, Cristian; Muller, Ivo; Jex, Aaron; Moritz, Robert L.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax cause the majority of human malaria cases. Research efforts predominantly focus on P. falciparum because of the clinical severity of infection and associated mortality rates. However, P. vivax malaria affects more people in a wider global range. Furthermore, unlike P. falciparum, P. vivax can persist in the liver as dormant hypnozoites that can be activated weeks to years after primary infection, causing relapse of symptomatic blood stages. This feature makes P. vivax unique and difficult to eliminate with the standard tools of vector control and treatment of symptomatic blood stage infection with antimalarial drugs. Infection by Plasmodium is initiated by the mosquito-transmitted sporozoite stage, a highly motile invasive cell that targets hepatocytes in the liver. The most advanced malaria vaccine for P. falciparum (RTS,S, a subunit vaccine containing of a portion of the major sporozoite surface protein) conferred limited protection in Phase III trials, falling short of WHO-established vaccine efficacy goals. However, blocking the sporozoite stage of infection in P. vivax, before the establishment of the chronic liver infection, might be an effective malaria vaccine strategy to reduce the occurrence of relapsing blood stages. It is also thought that a multivalent vaccine comprising multiple sporozoite surface antigens will provide better protection, but a comprehensive analysis of proteins in P. vivax sporozoites is not available. To inform sporozoite-based vaccine development, we employed mass spectrometry-based proteomics to identify nearly 2,000 proteins present in P. vivax salivary gland sporozoites. Analysis of protein post-translational modifications revealed extensive phosphorylation of glideosome proteins as well as regulators of transcription and translation. Additionally, the sporozoite surface proteins CSP and TRAP, which were recently discovered to be glycosylated in P. falciparum salivary gland sporozoites

  5. Decreased salivary matrix metalloproteinase-8 reflecting a defensive potential in juvenile parotitis.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; Lauhio, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been associated with juvenile parotitis. However, the role of MMP-8 has not been addressed previously. This work focuses on salivary MMP-8 and -9 levels in juvenile parotitis. During a five-year period at Helsinki University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital, 41 patients aged 17 or under, were identified as having parotitis; from 36 of these patients, saliva samples were collected for MMP-8 IFMA (time-resolved immunofluorometric assay) analyses. Control saliva samples were collected from 34 age- and gender-matched children admitted for an elective surgery who had no history of parotitis. For comparison, salivary levels of MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP-1), MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio, human neutrophil elastase (HNE), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were analyzed by ELISA. Additionally, salivary MMP-8 levels were compared to historical saliva samples from 18 adult gingivitis patients as well as to 10 healthy adult controls. The median (25%, 75% percentile) MMP-8 concentration in saliva of parotitis patients was significantly lower than MMP-8 concentration in saliva of their controls [50.4ng/ml (37.5, 72.9) vs. 148.5ng/ml (101.2, 178.5) p<0.0001] and lower than in patients with gingivitis [347.9ng/ml (242.6, 383.2) p<0.0001] or healthy adult controls [257.2ng/ml (164.9, 320.7) p<0.0001]. The MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio was lower than in controls [0.13 (0.05-0.02) vs. 0.3 (0.17-0.46) p<0.0001]. The median MMP-9 concentration in saliva of parotitis patients was significantly higher than in controls [143.9ng/m (68.8-189.0) vs. 34.9ng/ml (16.3-87.6) p<0.0001]. Neither HNE, MPO, nor TIMP-1 alone separated the patients from the control groups. MMP-9 was up-regulated in juvenile parotitis saliva, suggesting that MMP-9 may play a destructive role in juvenile parotitis, as others have suggested. The present novel findings reveal a decreased salivary MMP-8 concentration, suggesting that MMP-8 may reflect in juvenile parotitis

  6. Sexual dimorphism and developmental change of the salivary glands in adult Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Perez de Leon, A A; Lloyd, J E; Tabachnick, W J

    1994-11-01

    Salivary glands of adult male and female Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were sexually dimorphic when examined by phase contrast light microscopy. Female salivary glands were larger and more complex than those in males. Each female gland consisted of a main gland, which was subdivided into a proximal neck and a distal body with reference to the salivary duct, and four accessory glands. Each male salivary gland consisted of a pear-shaped body with a constriction, or neck, that divided it into a proximal and a distal portion, with reference to the salivary duct. Salivary glands of both sexes increased in length from emergence to day 3, followed by a sex-specific pattern of decrease. Based on these morphological observations, we suggest that the salivary glands of female C. variipennis are specialized in the production of secretory materials for blood-feeding.

  7. Measurement of Salivary Cortisone to Assess the Adequacy of Hydrocortisone Replacement.

    PubMed

    Raff, Hershel

    2016-04-01

    This Commentary discusses the study of Debono et al (19) and focuses on the potential use of multiple salivary cortisone measurements to evaluate the adequacy of hydrocortisone replacement therapy. Salivary cortisone, typically measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, accurately reflects plasma free cortisol because of the expression of 11-β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the salivary gland. Debono et al showed that multiple, sequential salivary cortisone measurements obtained over a 12-hour period correlated with plasma free cortisol in subjects receiving intravenous or oral hydrocortisone (authentic cortisol). Hopefully, these studies will lead to a simplified protocol with fewer samples for the measurement of salivary cortisone that can reliably assess the adequacy of hydrocortisone replacement in patients with adrenal insufficiency. This protocol has to be cost-effective and be feasible to obtain timed salivary samples accurately at home. It would be a significant advance to be able to monitor hydrocortisone replacement therapy with as few as one or two salivary cortisone measurements.

  8. A comparison of salivary pH in sympatric wild lemurs (Lemur catta and Propithecus verreauxi) at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L; Yamashita, Nayuta; Lawler, Richard R; Brockman, Diane K; Godfrey, Laurie R; Gould, Lisa; Youssouf, Ibrahim Antho Jacky; Lent, Cheryl; Ratsirarson, Joelisoa; Richard, Alison F; Scott, Jessica R; Sussman, Robert W; Villers, Lynne M; Weber, Martha A; Willis, George

    2008-04-01

    Chemical deterioration of teeth is common among modern humans, and has been suggested for some extinct primates. Dental erosion caused by acidic foods may also obscure microwear signals of mechanical food properties. Ring-tailed lemurs at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar, display frequent severe tooth wear and subsequent tooth loss. In contrast, sympatric Verreaux's sifaka display far less tooth wear and infrequent tooth loss, despite both species regularly consuming acidic tamarind fruit. We investigated the potential impact of dietary acidity on tooth wear, collecting data on salivary pH from both species, as well as salivary pH from ring-tailed lemurs at Tsimanampesotse National Park, Madagascar. We also collected salivary pH data from ring-tailed lemurs at the Indianapolis Zoo, none of which had eaten for at least 12 hr before data collection. Mean salivary pH for the BMSR ring-tailed lemurs (8.098, n=41, SD=0.550) was significantly more alkaline than Verreaux's sifaka (7.481, n=26, SD=0.458). The mean salivary pH of BMSR (8.098) and Tsimanampesotse (8.080, n=25, SD=0.746) ring-tailed lemurs did not differ significantly. Salivary pH for the Indianapolis Zoo sample (8.125, n=16, SD=0.289) did not differ significantly from either the BMSR or Tsimanampesotse ring-tailed lemurs, but was significantly more alkaline than the BMSR Verreaux's sifaka sample. Regardless of the time between feeding and collection of pH data (from several minutes to nearly 1 hr), salivary pH for each wild lemur was above the "critical" pH of 5.5, below which enamel demineralization occurs. Thus, the high pH of lemur saliva suggests a strong buffering capacity, indicating the impact of acidic foods on dental wear is short-lived, likely having a limited effect. However, tannins in tamarind fruit may increase friction between teeth, thereby increasing attrition and wear in lemurs. These data also suggest that salivary pH varies between lemur species, corresponding to broad

  9. Turbidity as a measure of salivary protein reactions with astringent substances.

    PubMed

    Horne, John; Hayes, John; Lawless, Harry T

    2002-09-01

    Binding of tannins to proline-rich proteins has been proposed as an initial step in the development of astringent sensations. In beer and fruit juices, formation of tannin-protein complexes leads to the well-known effect of haze development or turbidity. Two experiments examined the development of turbidity in human saliva when mixed with tannins as a potential in vitro correlate of astringent sensations. In the first study, haze was measured in filtered human saliva mixed with a range of tannic acid concentrations known to produce supra-threshold psychophysical responses. The second study examined relationships among individual differences in haze development and the magnitude of astringency ratings. Mostly negative correlations were found, consistent with the notion that high levels of salivary proteins protect oral tissues from the drying effects of tannic acid.

  10. Lithiasis of salivary glands treated with a CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzesiak-Janas, Grazyna; Janas, Anna

    2003-10-01

    The study compares the results of classical surgical treatment with laserotherapy in lithiasis of submandibular salivary glands. The study included 48 patients, 26 of which were treated with application of a CO2 laser. The follow-up did not reveal any postoperative complications in the course of healing. No relapse of the disease was observed in patients.

  11. Quantitative Lateral Flow Assays for Salivary Biomarker Assessment: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Miočević, Olga; Cole, Craig R.; Laughlin, Mary J.; Buck, Robert L.; Slowey, Paul D.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is an emerging biofluid with a significant number of applications in use across research and clinical settings. The present paper explores the reasons why saliva has grown in popularity in recent years, balancing both the potential strengths and weaknesses of this biofluid. Focusing on reasons why saliva is different from other common biological fluids such as blood, urine, or tears, we review how saliva is easily obtained, with minimal risk to the donor, and reduced costs for collection, transportation, and analysis. We then move on to a brief review of the history and progress in rapid salivary testing, again reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of rapid immunoassays (e.g., lateral flow immunoassay) compared to more traditional immunoassays. We consider the potential for saliva as an alternative biofluid in a setting where rapid results are important. We focus the review on salivary tests for small molecule biomarkers using cortisol as an example. Such salivary tests can be applied readily in a variety of settings and for specific measurement purposes, providing researchers and clinicians with opportunities to assess biomarkers in real time with lower transportation, collection, and analysis costs, faster turnaround time, and minimal training requirements. We conclude with a note of cautious optimism that the field will soon gain the ability to collect and analyze salivary specimens at any location and return viable results within minutes. PMID:28660183

  12. Salivary proteomics of healthy dogs: An in depth catalog

    PubMed Central

    Furrow, Eva; Souza, Clarissa P.; Granick, Jennifer L.; de Jong, Ebbing P.; Griffin, Timothy J.; Wang, Xiong

    2018-01-01

    Objective To provide an in-depth catalog of the salivary proteome and endogenous peptidome of healthy dogs, evaluate proteins and peptides with antimicrobial properties, and compare the most common salivary proteins and peptides between different breed phylogeny groups. Methods 36 healthy dogs without evidence of periodontal disease representing four breed phylogeny groups, based upon single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes (ancient, herding/sighthound, and two miscellaneous groups). Saliva collected from dogs was pooled by phylogeny group and analyzed using nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Resulting tandem mass spectra were compared to databases for identification of endogenous peptides and inferred proteins. Results 2,491 proteins and endogenous peptides were found in the saliva of healthy dogs with no periodontal disease. All dog phylogeny groups’ saliva was rich in proteins and peptides with antimicrobial functions. The ancient breeds group was distinct in that it contained unique proteins and was missing many proteins and peptides present in the other groups. Conclusions and clinical relevance Using a sophisticated nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to identify 10-fold more salivary proteins than previously reported in dogs. Seven of the top 10 most abundant proteins or peptides serve immune functions and many more with various antimicrobial mechanisms were found. This is the most comprehensive analysis of healthy canine saliva to date, and will provide the groundwork for future studies analyzing salivary proteins and endogenous peptides in disease states. PMID:29329347

  13. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    PubMed

    Gurzu, S; Krause, M; Ember, I; Azamfirei, L; Gobel, G; Feher, K; Jung, I

    2012-02-07

    Mena (mammalian Ena) is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG) and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10) and also benign (n=20) and malignant (n=35) lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin's tumors) were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5), carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5), acinic cell carcinomas (n=5), squamous cell carcinomas (n=10) and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2) were positive. The lymphomas (n=5) and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1) were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  14. Effects of smoking and gingival inflammation on salivary antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Buduneli, Nurcan; Kardeşler, Levent; Işik, Hasan; Willis, C Steadman; Hawkins, Samuel I; Kinane, Denis F; Scott, David A

    2006-03-01

    This study evaluated possible effects of smoking and gingival inflammation on salivary antioxidants in gingivitis patients. Twenty otherwise healthy gingivitis patients (10 self-reported smokers) and 20 periodontally and systemically healthy volunteer subjects were enrolled in the study. Whole saliva samples and full-mouth clinical periodontal recordings were obtained at baseline and one month following initial phase of treatment in gingivitis patients. Salivary cotinine, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations, and total antioxidant capacity were determined, and the data generated were tested by non-parametric tests. Salivary cotinine measurements resulted in re-classification of three self-reported non-smokers as smokers. Smoker patients revealed significantly higher probing depths but lower bleeding values than non-smoker patients (p=0.044 and 0.001, respectively). Significant reductions in clinical recordings were obtained in non-smoker (all p<0.05) and smoker (all p<0.01) patients following periodontal treatment. Salivary total glutathione concentrations were reduced following therapy in gingivitis patients who smoke (p<0.01). Otherwise, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups in biochemical parameters at baseline or following treatment (p>0.05). Within the limits of this study, neither smoking nor gingival inflammation compromised the antioxidant capacity of saliva in systemically healthy gingivitis patients.

  15. Association between passive smoking and salivary markers related to periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Tanaka, Muneo; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Kataoka, Kosuke; Nakayama, Kunio; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Shizukuishi, Satoshi

    2006-10-01

    The mechanism of passive smoking in terms of development of periodontitis has not been investigated. This study examined the effect of passive smoking on salivary markers related to periodontitis. Periodontal status was evaluated on the basis of probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level in 273 workers. Salivary marker levels were determined by enzyme assay including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Six periodontal pathogens in saliva were assessed using real-time PCR methodology. Non-, passive and active smokers were defined as subjects exhibiting salivary cotinine levels of 0 (53 subjects), 1-7 (118) and > or = 8 ng/ml (102). Levels of salivary markers, including IL-1beta, lactoferrin, albumin and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), were elevated significantly in passive smokers relative to non-smokers. Additionally, these marker levels, with the exception of IL-1beta, decreased significantly in active smokers in comparison with passive smokers. However, no meaningful differences in percentages of periodontal pathogens were observed between non- and passive smokers. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed for each marker utilizing age, gender, cotinine level and periodontal status as independent variables. IL-1beta, albumin and AST were independently associated with cotinine level. Passive smoke exposure leads to elevation of IL-1beta, albumin and AST levels in saliva.

  16. Salivary proteomics of healthy dogs: An in depth catalog.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sheila M F; Furrow, Eva; Souza, Clarissa P; Granick, Jennifer L; de Jong, Ebbing P; Griffin, Timothy J; Wang, Xiong

    2018-01-01

    To provide an in-depth catalog of the salivary proteome and endogenous peptidome of healthy dogs, evaluate proteins and peptides with antimicrobial properties, and compare the most common salivary proteins and peptides between different breed phylogeny groups. 36 healthy dogs without evidence of periodontal disease representing four breed phylogeny groups, based upon single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes (ancient, herding/sighthound, and two miscellaneous groups). Saliva collected from dogs was pooled by phylogeny group and analyzed using nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Resulting tandem mass spectra were compared to databases for identification of endogenous peptides and inferred proteins. 2,491 proteins and endogenous peptides were found in the saliva of healthy dogs with no periodontal disease. All dog phylogeny groups' saliva was rich in proteins and peptides with antimicrobial functions. The ancient breeds group was distinct in that it contained unique proteins and was missing many proteins and peptides present in the other groups. Using a sophisticated nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to identify 10-fold more salivary proteins than previously reported in dogs. Seven of the top 10 most abundant proteins or peptides serve immune functions and many more with various antimicrobial mechanisms were found. This is the most comprehensive analysis of healthy canine saliva to date, and will provide the groundwork for future studies analyzing salivary proteins and endogenous peptides in disease states.

  17. Minor Salivary Gland Transplantation for Severe Dry Eyes.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; SantʼAnna, Ana Estela Besteti Pires Ponce; Cristovam, Priscila Cardoso; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Wakamatsu, Alda; Gomes, José Alvaro Pereira

    2017-11-01

    Dry eye is a multifactorial disease comprising a wide spectrum of ocular surface alterations and symptoms of discomfort. In most patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye, pharmaceutical tear substitutes are used to control symptoms and prevent ocular surface damage. However, in severe dry eye conditions caused by cicatricial disorders, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and ocular cicatricial mucous membrane pemphigoid, noninvasive treatments are insufficient, and patients are at risk of developing complications that can lead to blindness. The use of salivary glands as a source of lubrication to treat severe cases of dry eye has been proposed by different authors. The first reports proposed parotid or submandibular gland duct transplantation into the conjunctival fornix. However, complications limited the functional outcomes. Minor salivary gland autotransplantation together with labial mucosa has been used as a complex graft to the conjunctival fornix in severe dry eye with a good outcome. Our group demonstrated significant improvements in best-corrected visual acuity, Schirmer I test score, corneal transparency, and neovascularization after using this technique. A symptoms questionnaire applied to these patients revealed improvements in foreign body sensation, photophobia, and pain. Similar to tears, saliva has a complex final composition comprising electrolytes, immunoglobulins, proteins, enzymes, and mucins. We demonstrated the viability of minor salivary glands transplanted into the fornix of patients with dry eye by performing immunohistochemistry on graft biopsies with antibodies against lactoferrin, lysozyme, MUC1, and MUC16. The findings revealed the presence of functional salivary gland units, indicating local production of proteins, enzymes, and mucins.

  18. Investigating the Role of Salivary Cortisol on Vocal Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmqvist-Jämsén, Sofia; Johansson, Ada; Santtila, Pekka; Westberg, Lars; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Simberg, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether participants who reported more often occurring vocal symptoms showed higher salivary cortisol levels and if such possible associations were different for men and women. Method: The participants (N = 170; men n = 49, women n = 121) consisted of a population-based sample of Finnish twins born between 1961 and 1989.…

  19. Collection of salivary proteins of psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phloem-feeding insects discharge into the phloem of host plants copious amounts of enzymatically active saliva which prevents phloem occlusion and suppresses plant defenses. Although previous reports have documented the composition and roles of salivary proteins from aphids, there are no published ...

  20. Salivary function and glycemic control in older persons with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E M; Taylor, G W; Borrell, L N; Ship, J A

    2000-03-01

    There is no consensus on the possible association between diabetes and salivary dysfunction in older persons with diabetes. This study's purpose was to investigate the effect of diabetes and glycemic control on salivary function in an older population. Twenty nine persons with type 2 diabetes and 23 nondiabetic control subjects participated (age range, 54-90 years). Diabetic status was determined by a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) test and a 2-hour glucose tolerance test. Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA(1c) >9%. Unstimulated whole saliva, unstimulated parotid, and stimulated parotid flow rates were measured, and subjects completed a standardized xerostomia questionnaire. Persons with poorly controlled diabetes had lower (P =.01) stimulated parotid flow rates than persons with well-controlled diabetes and nondiabetic control subjects. There were no significant differences in xerostomic complaints based on diabetic or glycemic control status or salivary flow rates. These results provide some evidence that poorly controlled diabetes may be associated with salivary dysfunction in older adults who have no concomitant complaints of xerostomia.

  1. Salivary factors in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, K M; Knuuttila, M L; Käär, M L

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether hyperglycemia in IDDM (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) could interfere with salivary secretion rates, salivary glucose levels, and salivary microbial counts, we studied salivary factors in two groups of children and adolescents with IDDM. One study group included 14 children with newly diagnosed IDDM )mean age 11 years, SD +/- 2.4 years). Samples of saliva were collected on admission to hospital and after 2 weeks on insulin treatment. The other study group were 50 IDDM children (mean age 14.4 years, SD +/- 1.7 years, mean duration of diabetes 6.2 years, SD +/- 1.4 years) visiting the outpatient diabetic clinic. Samples of saliva were collected during two visits, approximately 3 months apart. In the newly diagnosed IDDM cases, mean salivary glucose level decreased from 54.1 +/- 31.7 mg/l to 35.2 +/- 29.5 mg/l (P = 0.096) after beginning insulin treatment. During hyperglycemia, salivary glucose levels correlated with mean blood glucose levels for the day concerned (r = 0.65, P < 0.05). The results suggest that high blood glucose levels can increase salivary glucose levels. Stimulated saliva secretion increased significantly from 5.4 +/- 3.3 ml/5 min to 7.3 +/- 2.6 ml/5 min (P < 0.01) while glucose balance improved. In the long-term IDDM cases, salivary flow rates and salivary glucose levels were not significantly related to the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1) values. Salivary glucose levels and salivary secretion rates were inversely correlated (P < 0.05). In conclusion, hyperglycemia was observed to be associated with decreased salivary secretion and high salivary glucose levels. As a consequence, salivary lactobacilli and yeast counts tended to increase.

  2. Effects of enamel abrasion, salivary pellicle, and measurement angle on the optical assessment of dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Lussi, Adrian; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Beyeler, Barbara; Megert, Brigitte; Meier, Christoph; Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina

    2012-09-01

    The present study assessed the effects of abrasion, salivary proteins, and measurement angle on the quantification of early dental erosion by the analysis of reflection intensities from enamel. Enamel from 184 caries-free human molars was used for in vitro erosion in citric acid (pH 3.6). Abrasion of the eroded enamel resulted in a 6% to 14% increase in the specular reflection intensity compared to only eroded enamel, and the reflection increase depended on the erosion degree. Nevertheless, monitoring of early erosion by reflection analysis was possible even in the abraded eroded teeth. The presence of the salivary pellicle induced up to 22% higher reflection intensities due to the smoothing of the eroded enamel by the adhered proteins. However, this measurement artifact could be significantly minimized (p<0.05) by removing the pellicle layer with 3% NaOCl solution. Change of the measurement angles from 45 to 60 deg did not improve the sensitivity of the analysis at late erosion stages. The applicability of the method for monitoring the remineralization of eroded enamel remained unclear in a demineralization/remineralization cycling model of early dental erosion in vitro.

  3. Effects of enamel abrasion, salivary pellicle, and measurement angle on the optical assessment of dental erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lussi, Adrian; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Beyeler, Barbara; Megert, Brigitte; Meier, Christoph; Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina

    2012-09-01

    The present study assessed the effects of abrasion, salivary proteins, and measurement angle on the quantification of early dental erosion by the analysis of reflection intensities from enamel. Enamel from 184 caries-free human molars was used for in vitro erosion in citric acid (pH 3.6). Abrasion of the eroded enamel resulted in a 6% to 14% increase in the specular reflection intensity compared to only eroded enamel, and the reflection increase depended on the erosion degree. Nevertheless, monitoring of early erosion by reflection analysis was possible even in the abraded eroded teeth. The presence of the salivary pellicle induced up to 22% higher reflection intensities due to the smoothing of the eroded enamel by the adhered proteins. However, this measurement artifact could be significantly minimized (p<0.05) by removing the pellicle layer with 3% NaOCl solution. Change of the measurement angles from 45 to 60 deg did not improve the sensitivity of the analysis at late erosion stages. The applicability of the method for monitoring the remineralization of eroded enamel remained unclear in a demineralization/remineralization cycling model of early dental erosion in vitro.

  4. Influence of wine pectic polysaccharides on the interactions between condensed tannins and salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Elisabete; Mateus, Nuno; Plet, Benoit; Pianet, Isabelle; Dufourc, Erick; De Freitas, Victor

    2006-11-15

    Alpha-amylase, a major human salivary protein, and IB8c, a representative of the proline-rich proteins, were obtained by isolation from saliva and by solid-phase synthesis, respectively. The interactions between these proteins and condensed tannins isolated from grape seeds were studied at different protein and tannin concentrations by measuring their aggregation. Pectic polysaccharides were isolated from wine, and their effect on protein tannin aggregation was assessed. The results presented in this study showed that the most acidic fractions of arabinogalactan proteins have the ability to inhibit the formation of aggregates between the grape seed tannins and the two different salivary proteins. Rhamnogalacturonan II has the same ability toward alpha-amylase but not IB8c under the conditions of the present study. Polysaccharides show effects at concentrations at which they are present in wine, which could mean an influence in wine astringency. The interaction between condensed tannins and alpha-amylase is differently affected by ionic strength when compared with IB8c.

  5. A paper strip based non-invasive glucose biosensor for salivary analysis.

    PubMed

    Soni, Anuradha; Jha, Sandeep Kumar

    2015-05-15

    In our present study, we developed an optical biosensor for direct determination of salivary glucose by using immobilized glucose oxidase enzyme on filter paper strip (specific activity 1.4 U/strip) and then reacting it with synthetic glucose samples in presence of co-immobilized color pH indicator. The filter paper changed color based on concentration of glucose in reaction media and hence, by scanning this color change (using RGB profiling) through an office scanner and open source image processing software (GIMP) the concentration of glucose in the reaction medium could be deduced. Once the biosensor was standardized, the synthetic glucose sample was replaced with human saliva from donors. The individual's blood glucose level at the time of obtaining saliva was also measured using an Accuchek(™) active glucometer (Roche Inc.). In this preliminary study, a correlation of nearly 0.64 was found between glucose levels in saliva and blood of healthy individuals and in diabetic patients it was nearly in the order of 0.95, thereby validating the importance of salivary analysis. The RGB profiling method obtained a detection range of 9-1350 mg/dL glucose at a response time of 45 s and LOD of 22.2 mg/dL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase and children's perceptions of their social networks.

    PubMed

    Ponzi, Davide; Muehlenbein, Michael P; Geary, David C; Flinn, Mark V

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of social network analysis in biobehavioral research. Despite the well-established importance of social relationships in influencing human behavior and health, little is known about how children's perception of their immediate social relationships correlates with biological parameters of stress. In this study we explore the association between two measures of children's personal social networks, perceived network size and perceived network density, with two biomarkers of stress, cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase. Forty children (mean age = 8.30, min age = 5, and max age = 12) were interviewed to collect information about their friendships and three samples of saliva were collected. Our results show that children characterized by a lower pre-interview cortisol concentration and a lower salivary alpha-amylase reactivity to the interview reported the highest density of friendships. We discuss this result in light of the multisystem approach to the study of children's behavioral outcomes, emphasizing that future work of this kind is needed in order to understand the cognitive and biological mechanisms underlying children's and adolescents' social perceptual biases.

  7. The salivary gland transcriptome of the eastern tree hole mosquito, Ochlerotatus triseriatus.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Eric; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Favreau, Amanda J; Barbian, Kent D; Pham, Van M; Olson, Kenneth E; Ribeiro, José M C

    2010-05-01

    Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains a complex mixture of peptides that affect their host's hemostasis, inflammation, and immunity. These activities can also modify the site of pathogen delivery and increase disease transmission. Saliva also induces hosts to mount an antisaliva immune response that can lead to skin allergies or even anaphylaxis. Accordingly, knowledge of the salivary repertoire, or sialome, of a mosquito is useful to provide a knowledge platform to mine for novel pharmacological activities, to develop novel vaccine targets for vector-borne diseases, and to develop epidemiological markers of vector exposure and candidate desensitization vaccines. The mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus is a vector of La Crosse virus and produces allergy in humans. In this work, a total of 1,575 clones randomly selected from an adult female O. triseriatus salivary gland cDNA library was sequenced and used to assemble a database that yielded 731 clusters of related sequences, 560 of which were singletons. Primer extension experiments were performed in selected clones to further extend sequence coverage, allowing for the identification of 159 protein sequences, 66 of which code for putative secreted proteins. Supplemental spreadsheets containing these data are available at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/Ochlerotatus_triseriatus/S1/Ot-S1.xls and http://exon.niaid. nih.gov/transcriptome/Ochlerotatus_triseriatus/S2/Ot-S2.xls.

  8. Salivary microbiota and caries occurrence in Mutans Streptococci-positive school children.

    PubMed

    ElSalhy, M; Söderling, E; Honkala, E; Fontana, M; Flannagan, S; Kokaras, A; Paster, B J; Varghese, A; Honkala, S

    2016-09-01

    To compare the composition of the salivary microbiota in caries-affected vs. caries-free mutans streptococci (MS)- positive children with mixed dentition. Twenty eight healthy, 11-12-year-old schoolchildren with high MS counts (>10⊃5 CFU/mL) were included in this study. The children were screened with the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test (Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland) and examined using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The microbial composition of the saliva was assessed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Microbial differences between caries-affected (n=18) and caries-free children (n=10) were compared by Mann-Whitney analysis. The microbiota of the caries-affected vs. caries-free children was rather similar. Abiotrophia defectiva and Actinomyces meyeri/A. odontolyticus were significantly higher in caries-affected than in caries-free children (p=0.006, 0.046, respectively). Shuttleworthia satelles was significantly higher in caries-free compared to caries-affected children (p=0.031). A. defectiva and A. meyeri/A. odontolyticus correlated positively with caries severity measured by ICDAS Caries Index (p = 0.494, 0.454, 0.400 respectively) while S. satelles was negatively correlated with caries severity (p= -0.489). Salivary A. defectiva and A. meyeri/A. odontolyticus and are associated with caries occurrence in MS-positive children with mixed dentition.

  9. No recent adaptive selection on the apyrase of Mediterranean Phlebotomus: implications for using salivary peptides to vaccinate against canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Ready, Paul D

    2012-04-01

    Vaccine development is informed by a knowledge of genetic variation among antigen alleles, especially the distribution of positive and balancing selection in populations and species. A combined approach using population genetic and phylogenetic methods to detect selective signatures can therefore be informative for identifying vaccine candidates. Parasitic Leishmania species cause the disease leishmaniasis in humans and mammalian reservoir hosts after inoculation by female phlebotomine sandflies. Like other arthropod vectors of disease agents, sandflies use salivary peptides to counteract host haemostatic and immunomodulatory responses during bloodfeeding, and these peptides are vaccine candidates because they can protect against Leishmania infection. We detected no contemporary adaptive selection on one salivary peptide, apyrase, in 20 populations of Phlebotomus ariasi, a European vector of Leishmania infantum. Maximum likelihood branch models on a gene phylogeny showed apyrase to be a single copy in P. ariasi but an ancient duplication event associated with temporary positive selection was observed in its sister group, which contains most Mediterranean vectors of L. infantum. The absence of contemporary adaptive selection on the apyrase of P. ariasi may result from this sandfly's opportunistic feeding behaviour. Our study illustrates how the molecular population genetics of arthropods can help investigate the potential of salivary peptides for disease control and for understanding geographical variation in vector competence.

  10. Salivary alkaline phosphatase and calcium in caries-active type II diabetes mellitus patients: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Mithra N.; Tahiliani, Divya; Shetty, Shilpa; Devadiga, Darshana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic syndrome, affecting the oral health in various ways with dental caries being one of the most common problems encountered. Saliva is one of the most abundant secretions in the human body with a variety of natural protective and defence molecules bathing the oral cavity maintaining equilibrium. Its collection is easy and non-invasive. Aims: To compare and evaluate salivary alkaline phosphatase levels and calcium ion levels between caries active type II diabetes mellitus patients and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on caries-active age and gender matched 60 non-diabetic and 60 patients with known Type II diabetes mellitus subjects of age group 25-50 years with DMFT index >10. Saliva sample was collected to analyse for alkaline phosphatase enzyme and concentration of calcium ions using Agappe kits. Statistical Analysis: Student ‘t’ test was used to correlate the salivary electrolyte concentration in non- diabetic and diabetic patients with dental caries. A ‘P’ value of 0.05 or less was considered significant. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation (X ± SD). Results: The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in saliva was higher in diabetic patients when compared to that of non-diabetic patients with salivary calcium ions were significantly higher in non-diabetic individuals. Conclusion: Diabetes Mellitus patients are more prone to dental caries, hence require intervention to improve the quality of saliva. PMID:25395756

  11. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4–5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and

  12. The Justy mutant mouse strain produces a spontaneous murine model of salivary gland cancer with myoepithelial and basal cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Andrean L.; Lu, Ping; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Robinson, Robert A.; Meyerholz, David K.; Colgan, John D.

    2013-01-01

    We previously identified a novel mutant mouse strain on the C3HeB/FeJ background named Justy. This strain bears a recessive mutation in the Gon4l gene that greatly reduces expression of the encoded protein, a nuclear factor implicated in transcriptional regulation. Here, we report that Justy mutant mice aged 6 months or older spontaneously developed carcinomas with myoepithelial and basaloid differentiation in salivary glands with an incidence of ~25%. Tumors developed proximate to submandibular glands and to a lesser extent in the sublingual and parotid glands. Histologically, tumors often had central cavitary lesions filled with necrotic debris that was lined by tumors cells and had spindle and epithelioid cell differentiation with lesser basaloid to clear cell features. Tumor tissue often had variable evidence of a high mitotic rate, pleomorphism and invasion into adjacent salivary glands. Neoplastic cells had diffuse immunoreactivity for pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and p63. While CK5/6 immunostaining was seen in the much of the tumor cells, it was often lacking in pleomorphic areas. Tumor cells lacked immunoreactivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin, S100, c-Kit and glial fibrillary acid protein. Additionally, tumors had immunoreactivity for phosphorylated and total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), suggesting that EGFR signaling may participate in growth regulation of these tumors. These findings indicate that the salivary gland carcinomas occur spontaneously in Justy mice and that these tumors may offer a valuable model for study of EGFR regulation. Combined, our data suggest that Justy mice warrant further investigation for use as a mouse model for human salivary gland neoplasia. PMID:23608756

  13. Salivary gland proteome analysis reveals modulation of anopheline unique proteins in insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistant Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Cornelie, Sylvie; Rossignol, Marie; Seveno, Martial; Demettre, Edith; Mouchet, François; Djègbè, Innocent; Marin, Philippe; Chandre, Fabrice; Corbel, Vincent; Remoué, Franck; Mathieu-Daudé, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistance due to a mutation in the acetylcholinesterase (ace) encoding ace-1 gene confers cross-resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in Anopheles gambiae populations from Central and West Africa. This mutation is associated with a strong genetic cost revealed through alterations of some life history traits but little is known about the physiological and behavioural changes in insects bearing the ace-1(R) allele. Comparative analysis of the salivary gland contents between An. gambiae susceptible and ace-1(R) resistant strains was carried out to charaterize factors that could be involved in modifications of blood meal process, trophic behaviour or pathogen interaction in the insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. Differential analysis of the salivary gland protein profiles revealed differences in abundance for several proteins, two of them showing major differences between the two strains. These two proteins identified as saglin and TRIO are salivary gland-1 related proteins, a family unique to anopheline mosquitoes, one of them playing a crucial role in salivary gland invasion by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Differential expression of two other proteins previously identified in the Anopheles sialome was also observed. The differentially regulated proteins are involved in pathogen invasion, blood feeding process, and protection against oxidation, relevant steps in the outcome of malaria infection. Further functional studies and insect behaviour experiments would confirm the impact of the modification of the sialome composition on blood feeding and pathogen transmission abilities of the resistant mosquitoes. The data supports the hypothesis of alterations linked to insecticide resistance in the biology of the primary vector of human malaria in Africa.

  14. Precipitation of salivary proteins after the interaction with wine: the effect of ethanol, pH, fructose, and mannoproteins.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Gambuti, Angelita; Moio, Luigi

    2012-04-01

    Astringency is a complex sensation mainly caused by the precipitation of salivary proteins with polyphenols. In wine it can be enhanced or reduced depending on the composition of the medium. In order to investigate the effect of ethanol, tartaric acid, fructose, and commercial mannoproteins (MPs) addition on the precipitation of salivary proteins, the saliva precipitation index (SPI) was determined by means of the sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of human saliva after the reaction with Merlot wines and model solutions. Gelatin index, ethanol index, and Folin-Ciocalteu index were also determined. As resulted by Pearson's correlation, data on SPI were well correlated with the sensory analysis performed on the same samples. In a second experiment, increasing the ethanol (11%-13%-17%), MPs (0-2-8 g/L), fructose (0-2-6 g/L) level, and pH values (2.9-3.0-3.6), a decrease in the precipitation of salivary proteins was observed. A difference in the SPI between model solution and red wine stated that an influence of wine matrix on the precipitation of salivary proteins occurred. Results provide interesting suggestions for enologists, which could modulate the astringency of red wine by: (i) leaving some residual reducing sugars (such as fructose) in red wine during winemaking of grapes rich in tannins; (ii) avoiding the lowering of pH; (iii) adding commercial mannoproteins or promoting a "sur lie" aging; and (iv) harvesting grapes at high technological maturity in order to obtain wines with a satisfactory alcoholic content when possible. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  16. Treatment of salivary gland neoplasms with fast neutron radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Douglas, James G; Koh, Wui-jin; Austin-Seymour, Mary; Laramore, George E

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of fast neutron radiotherapy for the treatment of salivary gland neoplasms. Retrospective analysis. University of Washington Cancer Center, Neutron Facility, Seattle. The medical records of 279 patients treated with curative intent using fast neutron radiotherapy at the University of Washington Cancer Center were reviewed. Of the 279 patients, 263 had evidence of gross residual disease at the time of treatment (16 had no evidence of gross residual disease), 141 had tumors of a major salivary gland, and 138 had tumors of minor salivary glands. The median follow-up period was 36 months (range, 1-142 months). Local-regional control, cause-specific survival, and freedom from metastasis. The 6-year actuarial cause-specific survival rate was 67%. Multivariate analysis revealed that low group stage (I-II) disease, minor salivary sites, lack of skull base invasion, and primary disease were associated with a statistically significant improvement in cause-specific survival. The 6-year actuarial local-regional control rate was 59%. Multivariate analysis revealed size 4 cm or smaller, lack of base of skull invasion, prior surgical resection, and no previous radiotherapy to have a statistically significant improved local-regional control. Sixteen patients without evidence of gross residual disease had a 100% 6-year actuarial local-regional control. The 6-year actuarial freedom from metastasis rate was 64%. Factors associated with decreased development of systemic metastases included negative lymph nodes at the time of treatment and lack of base of skull involvement. The 6-year actuarial rate of development of grade 3 or 4 long-term toxicity (using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and European Organization for Research on the Treatment of Cancer criteria) was 10%. No patient experienced grade 5 toxic effects. Neuron radiotherapy is an effective treatment for patients with salivary gland neoplasms who have gross residual disease and achieves excellent

  17. Longitudinal study of salivary proteinases during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, M; Könönen, E; Tervahartiala, T; Gürsoy, U K; Pajukanta, R; Sorsa, T

    2010-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their regulators are connected to periodontal inflammation and destruction. However, the presence and role of the salivary MMPs in pregnancy-related gingivitis are not well known. Our longitudinal study aimed to monitor salivary proteinase levels and possible changes, and relate them to periodontal status during pregnancy and postpartum. Salivary samples were collected from 30 periodontally healthy pregnant women five times (once during each trimester, 4-6 wk after delivery and after lactation) and, as their controls, from 24 non-pregnant women three times (during successive months). Periodontal examination included visible plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level measurements. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels were measured by immunofluorometric assay, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and molecular forms by gelatin zymography. Salivary elastase, myeloperoxidase and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 levels were measured by ELISA. Elastase concentrations maintained stable during the follow-up, while myeloperoxidase concentrations increased significantly after delivery. During pregnancy, MMP-8 concentrations were significantly lower than postpartum concentrations, being lowest during the second trimester and highest after delivery, and varying inversely to pregnancy gingivitis, observed as elevated percentages of bleeding on probing and probing pocket depth during the second and third trimester. In pregnant women, the highest MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were found in saliva after lactation. In the control group, both clinical and enzymological findings remained stable during the follow-up period. Our results suggest that hormonal changes during pregnancy induce or enhance susceptibility to gingivitis, while salivary proteinase and myeloperoxidase levels are reduced.

  18. Salivary and serum cortisol levels in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Forclaz, María V; Moratto, Eduardo; Pennisi, Alicia; Falco, Silvina; Olsen, Graciela; Rodríguez, Patricia; Papazian, Regina; Bergadá, Ignacio

    2017-06-01

    Given that serum cortisol level interpretation in newborn infants (NBIs) is hard, the objective of this study was to correlate baseline salivary and serum cortisol levels and to describe salivary cortisol levels in the first month of life. Descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, and correlational study. Term NBIs were selected from the Division of Neonatology of Hospital Nacional Profesor Alejandro Posadas in 2014. Cortisol was measured in saliva specimens while cortisol, cortisol-binding globulin, and albumin were measured in blood specimens. A linear correlation was performed to relate serum and salivary cortisol levels; Friedman test was conducted to compare cortisol levels during the first month of life, and the difference was used to analyze the performance of values equal to or lower than the first quartile. Fifty-five NBIs were studied. Serum cortisol: 7.65 (1.0-18.1 gg/dL); salivary cortisol: 35.88 (5.52-107.64 mmol/L); cortisol-binding globulin: 22.07 (16.5-33.0 gg/mL), expressed as median and range. The correlation coefficient between serum and salivary cortisol was 0.54, P = 0.001. Cortisol performance during the first month of life showed no statistically significant differences, and the difference between the second and the first specimen of values equal to or lower than the first quartile increased in 10 out of 12 patients. The measurement of cortisol in saliva reflects serum cortisol levels in normal NBIs. Some patients had low levels of cortisol at 36 hours of life and showed a trend towards a spontaneous increase during the first month of life.

  19. Salivary lactate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Malicka, Barbara; Skoskiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases resulting from impaired insulin secretion and/or action. DM is characterized by hyperglycemia that can lead to the dysfunction or damage of organs, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in diabetic patients. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (Poland). The study comprised 90 adults of both sexes, aged 21 to 57 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups: type 1 diabetics (D1), type 2 diabetics (D2), and a healthy control group (C). Each group consisted of 30 age- and sex-matched subjects. Total protein (P, by Lowry method), LDH, AST, ALT (with Alpha Diagnostics kits), and salivary flow rate were measured in unstimulated mixed saliva. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured with DCA 2000 Reagent Kit. The obtained data were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test and the Spearman rank at a significance level of P < 0.05 with the use of STATISTICA 9.0 software. In comparison with C, D1 presented a significantly higher activity of LDH (P < 0.001), AST (P < 0.001), and ALT (P < 0.01), whereas D2 indicated higher levels of LDH (P < 0.001) and ALT (P < 0.05) compared with C. Comparing D1 to D2, approximately 3-fold higher activity of AST (P < 0.01) and approximately 4.5-fold higher activity of ALT (P < 0.01) was observed. Higher levels of salivary LDH, AST, and ALT in D1 compared with D2 and C confirm that salivary glands of D1 might be attributed to autoimmunological damage associated with the pathomechanism of DM. PMID:27893660

  20. Salivary lactate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Malicka, Barbara; Skoskiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases resulting from impaired insulin secretion and/or action. DM is characterized by hyperglycemia that can lead to the dysfunction or damage of organs, including the salivary glands.The aim of this study was to compare the levels of salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in diabetic patients.The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (Poland). The study comprised 90 adults of both sexes, aged 21 to 57 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups: type 1 diabetics (D1), type 2 diabetics (D2), and a healthy control group (C). Each group consisted of 30 age- and sex-matched subjects. Total protein (P, by Lowry method), LDH, AST, ALT (with Alpha Diagnostics kits), and salivary flow rate were measured in unstimulated mixed saliva. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured with DCA 2000 Reagent Kit. The obtained data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman rank at a significance level of P < 0.05 with the use of STATISTICA 9.0 software.In comparison with C, D1 presented a significantly higher activity of LDH (P < 0.001), AST (P < 0.001), and ALT (P < 0.01), whereas D2 indicated higher levels of LDH (P < 0.001) and ALT (P < 0.05) compared with C. Comparing D1 to D2, approximately 3-fold higher activity of AST (P < 0.01) and approximately 4.5-fold higher activity of ALT (P < 0.01) was observed.Higher levels of salivary LDH, AST, and ALT in D1 compared with D2 and C confirm that salivary glands of D1 might be attributed to autoimmunological damage associated with the pathomechanism of DM.

  1. Salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, and anxiety during a youth taekwondo championship

    PubMed Central

    Capranica, Laura; Condello, Giancarlo; Tornello, Francesco; Iona, Teresa; Chiodo, Salvatore; Valenzano, Anna; De Rosas, Mario; Messina, Giovanni; Tessitore, Antonio; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the stress-related responses and the coach's capability to match perceived efforts of youth athletes during a taekwondo championship. Using a cross-sectional study design, salivary cortisol (sC) and alpha-amylase (sAA) were measured in 6 males and 3 females young (11.0 ± 0.9 years) athletes at awakening, 5 minutes before, and 1 minute and 30 minutes after official combats. State anxiety was recorded 60 minutes before the first competition, whereas coach's and athletes’ ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were obtained at the end of the combats. Time-matched (awakening and pre-competition) salivary samples and trait anxiety were collected 7-day postcompetition during a resting day. No effect for match outcome emerged. No difference emerged between athletes and coach RPEs. Higher (P = .03) state anxiety (41.6 ± 10.9 points) was shown than trait anxiety (34.8 ± 7.1 points). Time-matched sAA were similar. Peak sAA observed at the end of the combat (114.2 ± 108.1 U/mL) was higher (P < .01) than the other samples (range: 20.6–48.1 U/mL), whereas sC increased (P < .05) from awakening (8.0 ± 1.5 nmol/L), with peak levels observed at 30 minutes into the recovery phase (19.3 ± 4.3 nmol/L). Furthermore, pre-competition sC (16.5 ± 4.5 nmol/L) values were higher (P < .01) with respect to time-matched samples during the resting day (4.6 ± 1.0 nmol/L). The 3 athletes engaged in consecutive matches showed a tendency toward increasing sAA and sC. Taekwondo combats pose a high stress on young athletes, eliciting a fast reactivity of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary system relative to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system. Understanding the athlete's efforts during combats, coaches are recommended to apply effective recovery strategies between matches. PMID:28700470

  2. Salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, and anxiety during a youth taekwondo championship: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Capranica, Laura; Condello, Giancarlo; Tornello, Francesco; Iona, Teresa; Chiodo, Salvatore; Valenzano, Anna; De Rosas, Mario; Messina, Giovanni; Tessitore, Antonio; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the stress-related responses and the coach's capability to match perceived efforts of youth athletes during a taekwondo championship.Using a cross-sectional study design, salivary cortisol (sC) and alpha-amylase (sAA) were measured in 6 males and 3 females young (11.0 ± 0.9 years) athletes at awakening, 5 minutes before, and 1 minute and 30 minutes after official combats. State anxiety was recorded 60 minutes before the first competition, whereas coach's and athletes' ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were obtained at the end of the combats. Time-matched (awakening and pre-competition) salivary samples and trait anxiety were collected 7-day postcompetition during a resting day.No effect for match outcome emerged. No difference emerged between athletes and coach RPEs. Higher (P = .03) state anxiety (41.6 ± 10.9 points) was shown than trait anxiety (34.8 ± 7.1 points). Time-matched sAA were similar. Peak sAA observed at the end of the combat (114.2 ± 108.1 U/mL) was higher (P < .01) than the other samples (range: 20.6-48.1 U/mL), whereas sC increased (P < .05) from awakening (8.0 ± 1.5 nmol/L), with peak levels observed at 30 minutes into the recovery phase (19.3 ± 4.3 nmol/L). Furthermore, pre-competition sC (16.5 ± 4.5 nmol/L) values were higher (P < .01) with respect to time-matched samples during the resting day (4.6 ± 1.0 nmol/L). The 3 athletes engaged in consecutive matches showed a tendency toward increasing sAA and sC.Taekwondo combats pose a high stress on young athletes, eliciting a fast reactivity of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary system relative to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system. Understanding the athlete's efforts during combats, coaches are recommended to apply effective recovery strategies between matches.

  3. Feasibility of the salivary transcriptome as a novel biomarker in determining disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Hidayat, M F H; Milne, T; Cullinan, M P; Seymour, G J

    2018-06-01

    The salivary transcriptome may present as a readily available and non-invasive source of potential biomarkers. The development of chronic periodontitis is determined by individual patient susceptibility; hence, the aim of this study was to determine the potential of the salivary transcriptome as a biomarker of disease susceptibility using chronic periodontitis as an example. Using an Oragene ® RNA kit, the total RNA was purified from the saliva of 10 patients with chronic periodontitis and 10 patients without chronic periodontitis. The quantity and quality of the total RNA was determined, and a measure of gene expression via cDNA was undertaken using the Affymetrix microarray system. The microarray profiling result was further validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Spectrophotometric analysis showed the total RNA purified from each participant ranged from 0.92 μg/500 μL to 62.85 μg/500 μL. There was great variability in the quantity of total RNA obtained from the 2 groups in the study with a mean of 10.21 ± 12.71 μg/500 μL for the periodontitis group and 15.97 ± 23.47 μg/500 μL for the control group. Further the RNA purity (based on the A 260 /A 280 ratio) for the majority of participants (9 periodontitis and 6 controls) were within the acceptable limits for downstream analysis (2.0 ± 0.1). The study samples, showed 2 distinct bands at 23S (3800 bp) and 16S (1500 bp) characteristic of bacterial rRNA. Preliminary microarray analysis was performed for 4 samples (P2, P6, H5 and H9). The percentage of genes present in each of the 4 samples was not consistent with about 1.8%-18.7% of genes being detected. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the total RNA purified from each sample was mainly bacterial RNA (Uni 16S) with minimal human mRNA. This study showed that minimal amounts of human RNA were able to be isolated from the saliva of patients with periodontitis as well as controls. Further

  4. Comparing the efficacy of xylitol-containing and conventional chewing gums in reducing salivary counts of Streptococcus mutans: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Haghgoo, Rosa; Afshari, Elahe; Ghanaat, Tahere; Aghazadeh, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries is among the most common chronic diseases in humans. Streptococcus mutans is generally responsible for most cases of dental caries. The present study sought to compare the effects of xylitol-containing and conventional chewing gums on salivary levels of S. mutans. Materials and Methods: This study adopted a crossover design. Two type of chewing gums (one containing 70% xylitol and approved by the Iranian Dental Association, and another containing sucrose) were purchased. The participants were 32 individuals aged 18–35 years whose oral hygiene was categorized as moderate or poor based on a caries risk assessment table. Salivary levels of S. mutans were measured at baseline, after the first and second phases of chewing gums, and after the washout period. The measurements were performed on blood agar and mitis salivarius-bacitracin agar (MSBA). Pairwise comparisons were then used to analyze the collected data. Results: Salivary levels of S. mutans in both groups were significantly higher during the two stages of chewing gum than in the washout period or baseline. Moreover, comparisons between the two types of gums suggested that chewing xylitol-containing gums led to greater reductions in S. mutans counts. This effect was more apparent in subjects with poor oral hygiene than in those with moderate oral hygiene. Conclusions: Xylitol-containing chewing gums are more effective than conventional gums in reducing salivary levels of S. mutans in individuals with poor–moderate oral hygiene. PMID:26942114

  5. Mithramycin inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion by downregulating SP1 and SNAI1 in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiasu; Gao, Hongmei; Meng, Lingxu; Yin, Lin

    2017-06-01

    Mithramycin exhibits certain anticancer effects in glioma, metastatic cerebral carcinoma, malignant lymphoma, chorionic carcinoma and breast cancer. However, its effects on salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma remain unclear. Here, we report that mithramycin significantly inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion in human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cell lines. The underlying mechanism for this activity was further demonstrated to involve decreasing the expression of the transcription factors specificity protein 1 and SNAI1. Specificity protein 1 is a pro-tumourigenic transcription factor that is overexpressed in SACC-LM and SACC-83 cells, and its expression is inhibited by mithramycin. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that specificity protein 1 induced SNAI1 transcription through direct binding to the SNAI1 promoter. In summary, this study uncovered the mechanism through which mithramycin inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cell lines, namely, via downregulating specificity protein 1 and SNAI1 expression, which suggests mithramycin may be a promising therapeutic option for salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  6. Salivary Stress-Related Responses in Tinnitus: A Preliminary Study in Young Male Subjects with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Alsalman, Ola A.; Tucker, Denise; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This preliminary study examined if baseline measures of stress-related biomarkers as measured by salivary secretions of specific autonomic [measured by salivary α-amylase (sAA)], endocrine (measured by salivary cortisol), and immune (measured by salivary neopterin) responses are greater in male subjects with tinnitus in response to an induced-stress task. Method: Twenty male subjects with no significant hearing loss, 10 with tinnitus, and 10 without tinnitus were enrolled in this study.Salivary secretions were collected before and after the induced stress task at four different time intervals. Results: sAA levels were lower in the tinnitus group in comparison to subjects without tinnitus, suggesting impaired sympathetic activity in the subjects with tinnitus although these levels remained stable throughout the stress experiment.While no significant effects could be obtained for salivary cortisol or neopterin, salivary neopterin levels were trending toward significance over all measurements. Behavioral measures of stress were found to correlate negatively with measures of sAA and salivary neopterin. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest impaired stress-related sAA mechanisms in male subjects with tinnitus, as evidenced by the different stress reactions induced in the endocrine system (as measured by salivary cortisol) and the immune system (as measured by salivary neopterin). PMID:27489534

  7. Differential effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on salivary factors in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lasisi, Dr T J; Shittu, S T; Meludu, C C; Salami, A A

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on salivary factors in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 animals each as control, total sleep deprivation (TSD) and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) groups. The multiple platform method was used to induce partial and total sleep deprivation for 7days. On the 8th day, stimulated saliva samples were collected for the analysis of salivary lag time, flow rate, salivary amylase activity, immunoglobulin A secretion rate and corticosterone levels using ELISA and standard kinetic enzyme assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Dunnett T3 post hoc tests. Salivary flow rate reduced significantly in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as the control group (p=0.01). The secretion rate of salivary IgA was significantly reduced in the TSD group compared with the control group (p=0.04). Salivary amylase activity was significantly elevated in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as control group (p<0.001). However, there were no significant changes in the salivary lag time and levels of corticosterone among the groups. These findings suggest that total sleep deprivation is associated with reduced salivary flow rate and secretion rate of IgA as well as elevated levels of salivary amylase activity in rats. However, sleep recovery of four hours in the PSD group produced ameliorative effects on the impaired functions of salivary glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of saliva in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fenoll-Palomares, C; Muñoz Montagud, J V; Sanchiz, V; Herreros, B; Hernández, V; Mínguez, M; Benages, A

    2004-11-01

    To assess the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity of healthy volunteers, and their relationships with age, gender, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, and to establish the lower-end value of normal salivary flow (oligosialia). A prospective study was conducted in 159 healthy volunteers (age > 18 years, absence of medical conditions that could decrease salivary flow). Unstimulated whole saliva was collected during ten minutes, and salivary flow rate (ml/min), pH, and bicarbonate concentration (mmol/l) were measured using a Radiometer ABL 520. The 5 percentile of salivary flow rate and bicarbonate concentration was considered the lower limit of normality. Median salivary flow rate was 0.48 ml/min (range: 0.1-2 ml/min). Age younger than 44 years was associated with higher flow rates (OR 2.10). Compared with women, men presented a higher flow rate (OR 3.19) and buffer capacity (OR 2.81). Bicarbonate concentration correlated with salivary flow rate. The lower-end values of normal flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were 0.15 ml/min and 1.800 mmol/l, respectively. The presence of obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not influence salivary parameters. In healthy volunteers, salivary flow rate depends on age and gender, and correlates with buffer capacity. Obesity, smoking, and alcohol use do not influence salivary secretion.

  9. A salivary sheath protein essential for the interaction of the brown planthopper with rice plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-Jian; Liu, Cheng-Wen; Cai, Ye-Fang; Zhang, Min-Zhu; Bao, Yan-Yuan; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-11-01

    Salivary secretions, including gel saliva and watery saliva, play crucial roles in the interaction between the insect and plant during feeding. In this study, we identified a salivary gland-specific gene encoding a salivary sheath protein (NlShp) in Nilaparvata lugens. NlShp has two alternative splicing variants; both are expressed at high levels during the nymph and adult stages. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the NlShp were synthesized in the principal gland cells of the salivary gland. LC-MS/MS and western blot analysis confirmed that NlShp was one of the components of the salivary sheath. Simultaneously knocking down the two NlShp variants by RNA interference inhibited both salivary flange and salivary sheath formation and resulted in a lethal phenotype within four days for the brown planthopper (BPH) feeding on rice plants, indicating that the salivary sheath and salivary flanges were essential for plant-associated feeding. Despite the salivary sheath deficiency, no obvious phenotype was observed in the NlShp-knockdown BPHs fed on artificial diet. The electrical penetration graph (EPG) results showed that salivary sheath-deficient BPHs exhibited a prolonged nonpenetration period, scarce sap period, and increased stylet movement on rice plants and eventually starved to death. Our results provided evidence that the interaction between the salivary sheath and host plant might be a critical step in successful BPH feeding. According to present research, we propose a salivary sheath required feeding model for piercing-sucking insects and provide a potential target for rice planthopper management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase, total protein, salivary flow rate and pH value in Pi deficiency children].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Long-hui; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total protein (TP), salivary flow rate, and pH value between Pi deficiency (PD) children and healthy children, thereby providing evidence for Pi controlling saliva theory. Twenty PD children were recruited, and 29 healthy children were also recruited at the same time. Saliva samples from all subjects were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. The sAA activity and amount, TP contents, salivary flow rate, and pH value were determined and compared. (1) Citric acid stimulation was able to significantly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, sAA activities, sAA specific activity and sAA amount (including glycosylated and non-glycosylated sAA amount) in healthy children (P<0.05), while it could markedly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, and glycosylated sAA levels in PD children (P<0.05); (2) Although there was no statistical difference in determined salivary indices between the two groups (P>0.05), salivary indices except salivary flow rate and glycosylated sAA levels decreased more in PD children. There was statistical difference in sAA activity ratio, sAA specific activity ratio, and the ratio of glycosylated sAA levels between PD children and healthy children (P<0.05). PD children had decreased response to citric acid stimulation.

  11. Effects of gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion on salivary pH and flow in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    da Silva Marques, Duarte Nuno; da Mata, António Duarte Sola Pereira; Patto, José Maria Vaz; Barcelos, Filipe Alexandre Duarte; de Almeida Rato Amaral, João Pedro; de Oliveira, Miguel Constantino Mendes; Ferreira, Cristina Gutierrez Castanheira

    2011-11-01

    To compare salivary pH changes and stimulation efficacy of two different gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion (GSSS) in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. Portuguese Institute for Rheumatological Diseases. Double-blind randomized controlled trial. Eighty patients were randomized to two intervention groups. Sample size was calculated using an alpha error of 0.05 and a beta of 0.20. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a new GSSS containing a weaker malic acid, fluoride and xylitol or a traditionally citric acid-based one. Saliva collection was obtained by established methods at different times. The salivary pH of the samples was determined with a pH meter and a microelectrode. Salivary pH variations and counts of subjects with pH below 4.5 for over 1 min and stimulated salivary flow were the main outcome measures. Both GSSS significantly stimulated salivary output without significant differences between the two groups. The new gustatory stimulant of salivary secretion presented an absolute risk reduction of 52.78% [33.42-72.13 (95% CI)] when compared with the traditional one. In Xerostomic Primary Sjögren syndrome patients, gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion based on acid mail only with fluoride and xylitol present similar salivary stimulation capacity when compared to citric acid-based ones, besides significantly reducing the number of salivary pH drops below 4.5. This could be related to a diminished risk for dental erosion and should be confirmed with further studies. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Comparative evaluation and correlation of salivary total antioxidant capacity and salivary pH in caries-free and severe early childhood caries children.

    PubMed

    Muchandi, Sneha; Walimbe, Hrishikesh; Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Nankar, Meenakshi; Chaturvedi, Srishti; Karekar, Priyanka

    2015-03-01

    Dental caries is a major problem in preschool children. The contribution of saliva in providing defense during caries process is of primary importance. pH buffer capacity through bicarbonate, phosphate and protein buffer systems have universal acceptance as a caries defense mechanism. Antioxidant capacity of saliva can constitute a first line of defense against chronic degenerative diseases including dental caries. Till date, no study is presented with salivary antioxidant capacity of younger children affected with severe early childhood caries with its salivary pH correlation. Hence, this study was carried out to compare, evaluate and correlate the salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and salivary pH of children with caries-free and severe early childhood caries. Fifty children from ages 3 to 5 years divided into two study groups had undergone screening. Group I (n = 25) with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and group II (n = 25) who were caries free. Unstimulated whole saliva of subjects were in the collection during the study by draining method. Salivary pH determination of saliva samples was done using pH indicator paper strips. The TAC was done using an antioxidant assay with the help of a spectrophotometer at wavelength 532 nm. The means of salivary pH and TAC were subjected to analysis using unpaired student 't' test and correlation was determined using Pearsons correlation coefficient analysis. Mean salivary pH was higher in group II (7.46 ± 0.37). Mean TAC was greater in group I (1.82 ± 0.19). A statistically significant negative correlation as seen between TAC and salivary pH in S-ECC patients. The study concludes that salivary TAC increases in patients with S-ECC are by that showing a high indirect relationship with salivary pH.

  13. Cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase trajectories following a group social-evaluative stressor with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Katz, Deirdre A; Peckins, Melissa K

    2017-12-01

    Intraindividual variability in stress responsivity and the interrelationship of multiple neuroendocrine systems make a multisystem analytic approach to examining the human stress response challenging. The present study makes use of an efficient social-evaluative stress paradigm - the Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) - to examine the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis and Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) reactivity profiles of 54 adolescents with salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA). First, we account for individuals' time latency of hormone concentrations between individuals. Second, we use a two-piece multilevel growth curve model with landmark registration to examine the reactivity and recovery periods of the stress response separately. This analytic approach increases the models' sensitivity to detecting trajectory differences in the reactivity and recovery phases of the stress response and allows for interindividual variation in the timing of participants' peak response following a social-evaluative stressor. The GPST-A evoked typical cortisol and sAA responses in both males and females. Males' cortisol concentrations were significantly higher than females' during each phase of the response. We found no gender difference in the sAA response. However, the rate of increase in sAA as well as overall sAA secretion across the study were associated with steeper rates of cortisol reactivity and recovery. This study demonstrates a way to model the response trajectories of salivary biomarkers of the HPA-axis and ANS when taking a multisystem approach to neuroendocrine research that enables researchers to make conclusions about the reactivity and recovery phases of the HPA-axis and ANS responses. As the study of the human stress response progresses toward a multisystem analytic approach, it is critical that individual variability in peak latency be taken into consideration and that accurate modeling techniques capture

  14. Measurement of salivary cortisol by a chemiluminescent organic-based immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Pires, N M M; Dong, T

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) using a sensitive organic photodetector was developed to detect human cortisol, an important biomarker for stress-related diseases. The developed CLIA was performed onto gold-coated glass chips, on which anti-cortisol antibodies were immobilised and chemiluminescent horseradish peroxidase-luminol-peroxide reactions were generated. Using cortisol-spiked artificial saliva samples, the CLIA biosensor showed a linear range of detection between 0.1 ng/mL and 175 ng/mL and a detection limit of 80 pg/mL. The sensor response was highly specific to cortisol and did not vary significantly between assays. The results indicate the potential clinical application of the CLIA sensor. Furthermore, the simple layered structure of the organic photodetector may encourage the realisation of integrated optical biosensors for point-of-use measurement of salivary cortisol levels.

  15. Mycoplasma orale infection affects K+ and Cl- currents in the HSG salivary gland cell line.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, K T; Fatherazi, S; Belton, C M; Oda, D; Cartwright, F D; Kenny, G E

    1996-06-01

    The relations between K+ channel and Cl- channel currents and mycoplasma infection status were studied longitudinally in HSG cells, a human submandibular gland cell line. The K+ channel currents were disrupted by the occurrence of mycoplasma infection: muscarinic activation of K+ channels and K+ channel expression as estimated by ionomycin- or hypotonically induced K+ current responses were all decreased. Similar decreases in ionomycin- and hypotonically induced responses were observed for Cl- channels, but only the latter decrease was statistically significant. Also, Cl- currents could be elicited more frequently than K+ currents (63% of cases versus 0%) in infected cells when tested by exposure to hypotonic media, indicating that mycoplasma infection affects K+ channels relatively more than Cl- channels. These changes occurred in the originally infected cells, were ameliorated when the infection was cleared with sparfloxacin, and recurred when the cells were reinfected. Such changes would be expected to result in hyposecretion of salivary fluid if they occurred in vivo.

  16. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of laughter on salivary endocrinological stress marker chromogranin A.

    PubMed

    Toda, Masahiro; Kusakabe, Shinsuke; Nagasawa, Shingo; Kitamura, Kazuyuki; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the effect of laughter on salivary endocrinological stress marker chromogranin A (CgA). In saliva samples collected from 11 healthy males before and after watching a comic film or a non-humorous control film, salivary CgA levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples taken after watching the comic film showed increased levels of CgA. This tendency was more pronounced in individuals with lower initial levels of stress. The control samples showed no significant change in CgA levels. Stress score, subjectively evaluated using a visual analog scale, decreased significantly after watching the comic film. These findings suggest that, in addition to a stress relief effect, laughter can bring about feeling uplifted or fulfilled.

  18. The morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of Zoraptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Mashimo, Y; Machida, R; Beutel, R G

    2017-07-01

    The salivary glands of two species of Zoraptera, Zorotypus caudelli and Zorotypus hubbardi, were examined and documented mainly using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results obtained for males and females of the two species are compared and functional aspects related to ultrastructural features are discussed. The salivary glands are divided into two regions: the secretory cell region and the long efferent duct, the latter with its distal end opening in the salivarium below the hypopharyngeal base. The secretory region consists of a complex of secretory cells provided with microvillated cavities connected by short ectodermal ducts to large ones, which are connected with the long efferent duct. The secretory cell cytoplasm contains a large system of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus producing numerous dense secretions. The cells of the efferent duct, characterized by reduced cytoplasm and the presence of long membrane infoldings associated with mitochondria, are possibly involved in fluid uptaking from the duct lumen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunohistochemical Detection of Proliferative Marker Ki-67 in Benign and Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bussari, Smita; Ganvir, Sindhu M; Sarode, Manish; Jeergal, Prabhakar A; Deshmukh, Anjum; Srivastava, Himanshu

    2018-04-01

    Introduction: Salivary gland tumors are the most histologically heterogeneous group of tumors with the greatest diversity of morphologic features among their cells and tissues. The present study was aimed at assessing the validity of Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker, as a prognostic factor in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and to study whether it is related to age, sex, anatomical site, and size of the lesion in salivary gland tumors. Materials and methods: A retrospective study consisted of benign salivary gland tumors (BSGTs) (n = 15), malignant salivary gland tumors (n = 18), and normal salivary gland parenchyma (n = 15). Results: There was a significant difference of Ki-67 labeling index (LI, %) in normal salivary gland parenchyma, BSGTs, and malignant salivary gland tumors. The Ki-67 LI (%) in normal salivary gland parenchyma is negligible (0.27 ± 0.31%), whereas malignant salivary gland tumors showed very high Ki-67 LI (%) of 18.79 ± 18.06% compared with BSGTs being 0.76 ± 2.02%. There was a significant correlation statistically of mean ± standard deviation (SD) of Ki-67 LI (%) with the age of the patients being the maximum (32.68 ± 15.87%) in the 50 to 59 years age group, whereas sex, site of the lesion, and size of the lesion in salivary gland tumors had no significant correlation. Conclusion: The Ki-67 is a useful marker for assessing prolif-erative potential of tumors. Clinical significance: The Ki-67 LI% can be used as a reliable adjuvant diagnostic tool to differentiate between the subtypes and grading of certain malignant tumors, such as mucoepi-dermoid carcinoma (MEC), adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), and acinic cell carcinoma (AcCC), which are usually difficult to diagnose on histopathological criteria alone. Keywords: Immunohistochemistry, Ki-67, Salivary gland neoplasms.

  20. Salivary Gland Hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 Knockout Mice Is Due to Primary Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Westmuckett, Andrew D.; Siefert, Joseph C.; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Pinson, David M.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2). We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were ≈ 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine–induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s) extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight) and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes) were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism. PMID:23951251

  1. [Transplantation of labial salivary glands for severe dry eye treatment].

    PubMed

    Soares, Eduardo Jorge Carneiro; França, Valênio Perez

    2005-01-01

    To study the clinical effects of the secretion of transplanted labial glands used as ocular lubricant to treat severe dry-eye cases, to evaluate the duration of the results and to simplify the surgical technique. Thirty-seven surgeries were performed in twenty-one patients during the period of July 2000 to January 2004. The graft, consisting of labial mucosa and underlying salivary glands, was transplanted to the previously prepared area in the conjunctival fornix. All procedures were recommended in severe dry-eye cases, that is, eyes with total or nearly total xerophthalmia. The preoperative and postoperative protocols are presented emphasizing the items which were used in the comparative analysis of the results as well as the technical description of the surgical procedure. The graft survival and integration into the host tissues were observed in 97.2% of the cases. The clinical improvement, demonstrated by the disappearance of the symptoms, better biomicroscopic aspect of the ocular surface, better vision and disuse of lubricant drops, was observed in 91.9% of the cases. The follow-up showed not only persistence but also stability of the results. Infection represented one case and ptosis represented three cases of the only four observed complications. The improvement of severe dry-eye cases detected after the transplantation of labial salivary glands is significant. It demonstrates that the lubricant ocular surface produced by the salivary secretion is efficient and well-tolerated. The follow-up shows that the result persists in the long term from which it is concluded that the production of the secretion is permanent. The surgical technique of transplanting the labial salivary gland to the conjunctival fornix is very simple and easily accessible to any ophthalmic surgeon.

  2. Salivary flow and xerostomia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carramolino-Cuéllar, Esther; Lauritano, Dorina; Silvestre, Francisco-Javier; Carinci, Francesco; Lucchese, Alberta; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2018-05-01

    Saliva is secreted by the major and minor salivary glands. There are a number of physiological factors that can reduce this secretion such as age, sex, body weight, number of teeth present in the mouth or time of day. This decrease may also be caused by the use of certain drugs, radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, chronic rheumatic diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome and other systemic disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of type 2 DM on salivary secretion and its relation to the sensation of xerostomia. Forty-seven patients with type 2 DM and 46 healthy individuals, aged 40-80, participated in the study. Samples of saliva were collected, at rest and after stimulation, at baseline and after the administration of a meal. A questionnaire of 10 items was used to define the patients' sensations of xerostomia. For statistical analysis, the Mann-Whitney test was used to assess the difference in salivary flow between the two groups and the relationship between the response to each of the questions and salivary flow levels. The degree of the patients' sensation of xerostomia was analysed by the Fisher test. There was a significant decrease in total saliva levels at rest in patients with type 2 DM compared to the control group. The study group also experienced higher levels of dryness at night and on waking as well as a greater sensation of lingual burning compared to the control group. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Calcium signalling in salivary gland physiology and dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies over the past four decades have established that Ca2+ is a critical factor in control of salivary gland function and have led to identification of the critical components of this process. The major ion transport mechanisms and ion channels that are involved in fluid secretion have also been established. The key event in activation of fluid secretion is an increase in [Ca2+]i triggered by inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate (IP3)‐induced release of Ca2+ from ER via the IP3 receptor (IP3R). IP3Rs determine the site of initiation and the pattern of the [Ca2+]i signal in the cell. However, Ca2+ entry into the cell is required to sustain the elevation of [Ca2+]i and fluid secretion and is mediated by the store‐operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mechanism. Orai1, TRPC1, TRPC3 and STIM1 have been identified as critical components of SOCE in these cells. Cells finely tune the generation and amplification of [Ca2+]i signals for regulation of cell function. An important emerging area is the concept that unregulated [Ca2+]i signals in cells can directly cause cell damage, dysfunction and disease. Alternatively, aberrant [Ca2+]i signals can also amplify and increase the rates of cell damage. Such defects in Ca2+ signalling have been described in salivary glands in conjunction with radiation‐induced loss of salivary gland function as well as in the salivary defects associated with the autoimmune exocrinopathy Sjögren's syndrome. Such defects have been associated with altered function or expression of key Ca2+ signalling components, such as STIM proteins and TRP channels. These studies offer new avenues for examining the mechanisms underlying the disease and development of novel clinical targets and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26592972

  4. Calcium signalling in salivary gland physiology and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ambudkar, Indu S

    2016-06-01

    Studies over the past four decades have established that Ca(2+) is a critical factor in control of salivary gland function and have led to identification of the critical components of this process. The major ion transport mechanisms and ion channels that are involved in fluid secretion have also been established. The key event in activation of fluid secretion is an increase in [Ca(2+) ]i triggered by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 )-induced release of Ca(2+) from ER via the IP3 receptor (IP3 R). IP3 Rs determine the site of initiation and the pattern of the [Ca(2+) ]i signal in the cell. However, Ca(2+) entry into the cell is required to sustain the elevation of [Ca(2+) ]i and fluid secretion and is mediated by the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) mechanism. Orai1, TRPC1, TRPC3 and STIM1 have been identified as critical components of SOCE in these cells. Cells finely tune the generation and amplification of [Ca(2+) ]i signals for regulation of cell function. An important emerging area is the concept that unregulated [Ca(2+) ]i signals in cells can directly cause cell damage, dysfunction and disease. Alternatively, aberrant [Ca(2+) ]i signals can also amplify and increase the rates of cell damage. Such defects in Ca(2+) signalling have been described in salivary glands in conjunction with radiation-induced loss of salivary gland function as well as in the salivary defects associated with the autoimmune exocrinopathy S