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Sample records for a27 protein synergizes

  1. Clostridium perfringens iota toxin: synergism between two proteins.

    PubMed

    Stiles, B G; Wilkins, T D

    1986-01-01

    The iota toxin of Clostridium perfringens type E is a guinea pig dermonecrotic, mouse lethal toxin which cross-reacts with the iota-like toxin of Clostridium spiroforme. Antiserum raised against C. spiroforme or C. perfringens type E neutralizes the toxin from both species. By using C. spiroforme antiserum and crossed immunoelectrophoresis, we have found that there are two cross-reacting proteins, designated iota a (ia) and iota b (ib) in the culture filtrate of C. perfringens type E. Both proteins of C. perfringens were separated by preparative isoelectric focusing and had very little toxic activity when tested alone. However, when they were recombined there were 8- and 25-fold increases in bioactivity as determined by mouse lethal and guinea pig dermonecrotic assays, respectively. These results demonstrate that the iota toxin of C. perfringens requires two immunologically and biochemically different proteins for maximum activity.

  2. Protective effect of surfactant protein d in pulmonary vaccinia virus infection: implication of A27 viral protein.

    PubMed

    Perino, Julien; Thielens, Nicole M; Crouch, Erika; Spehner, Danièle; Crance, Jean-Marc; Favier, Anne-Laure

    2013-03-21

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) was used as a surrogate of variola virus (VARV) (genus Orthopoxvirus), the causative agent of smallpox, to study Orthopoxvirus infection. VARV is principally transmitted between humans by aerosol droplets. Once inhaled, VARV first infects the respiratory tract where it could encounter surfactant components, such as soluble pattern recognition receptors. Surfactant protein D (SP-D), constitutively present in the lining fluids of the respiratory tract, plays important roles in innate host defense against virus infection. We investigated the role of SP-D in VACV infection and studied the A27 viral protein involvement in the interaction with SP-D. Interaction between SP-D and VACV caused viral inhibition in a lung cell model. Interaction of SP-D with VACV was mediated by the A27 viral protein. Binding required Ca2+ and interactions were blocked in the presence of excess of SP-D saccharide ligands. A27, which lacks glycosylation, directly interacted with SP-D. The interaction between SP-D and the viral particle was also observed using electron microscopy. Infection of mice lacking SP-D (SP-D-/-) resulted in increased mortality compared to SP-D+/+ mice. Altogether, our data show that SP-D participates in host defense against the vaccinia virus infection and that the interaction occurs with the viral surface protein A27.

  3. Postjunctional synergism of norepinephrine with ATP and diadenosine tetraphosphate in Guinea pig vas deferens. Role of protein kinase C and Myosin light chain phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Mahmoud M; Al-Rawi, Mahmood B; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M

    2007-01-01

    In isolated guinea pig vas deferens, prior addition of norepinephrine (NE) significantly potentiated the contractile responses to adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) in a dose-dependent manner up to 240% of the control purine dose. The myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) inhibitor cantharidin at a dose of 10 micromol/l caused significant enhancement of ATP at concentrations of 1 and 3 mmol/l by 91 and 95% respectively. Similarly, cantharidin enhanced the contraction to AP4A, 30 and 100 micromol/l by 92 and 100% respectively. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by the use of chelerythrine (10 micromol/l), incubated at the vas deferens for 60 min, inhibited the NE-induced enhancement of purine-induced contraction. Chelerythrine reversed the NE-ATP and NE-AP4A synergism back close to control ATP and AP4A contraction values respectively. It can be concluded that postjunctional synergism becomes evident not only for adenine mononucleotides and NE but also for diadenosine polyphosphates presented here by AP4A in the guinea pig vas deferens. This synergism involves receptor-mediated activation of PKC and possibly PKC-induced inhibition of MLCP. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Isolation and initial structural characterization of a 27 kDa protein from Zingiber officinale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, Saima; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Falke, Sven; Arslan, Ali; Fazel, Ramin; Schlüter, Hartmut; Betzel, Christian; Choudhary, M. Iqbal

    2018-03-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger) is a widely used traditional medicinal plant (for different ailments such as arthritis, constipation, and hypertension). This article describes the isolation and characterization of a so far unknown protein from ginger rhizomes applying ion exchange, affinity, size-exclusion chromatography, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and mass spectrometry techniques. One-dimensional Coomassie-stained SDS-PAGE was performed under non-reducing conditions, showing one band corresponding to approx. 27 kDa. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis of the protein solution revealed monodispersity and a monomeric state of the purified protein. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy strongly indicated a β-sheet-rich protein, and disordered regions. MALDI-TOF-MS, and LC-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 27.29 kDa protein, having 32.13% and 25.34% sequence coverage with Zingipain-1 and 2, respectively. The monomeric state and molecular weight were verified by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies. An elongated ab-initio model was calculated based on the scattering intensity distribution.

  5. Antibodies to the A27 protein of vaccinia virus neutralize and protect against infection but represent a minor component of Dryvax vaccine--induced immunity.

    PubMed

    He, Yong; Manischewitz, Jody; Meseda, Clement A; Merchlinsky, Michael; Vassell, Russell A; Sirota, Lev; Berkower, Ira; Golding, Hana; Weiss, Carol D

    2007-10-01

    The smallpox vaccine Dryvax, which consists of replication-competent vaccinia virus, elicits antibodies that play a major role in protection. Several vaccinia proteins generate neutralizing antibodies, but their importance for protection is unknown. We investigated the potency of antibodies to the A27 protein of the mature virion in neutralization and protection experiments and the contributions of A27 antibodies to Dryvax-induced immunity. Using a recombinant A27 protein (rA27), we confirmed that A27 contains neutralizing determinants and that vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) derived from Dryvax recipients contains reactivity to A27. However, VIG neutralization was not significantly reduced when A27 antibodies were removed, and antibodies elicited by an rA27 enhanced the protection conferred by VIG in passive transfer experiments. These findings demonstrate that A27 antibodies do not represent the major fraction of neutralizing activity in VIG and suggest that immunity may be augmented by vaccines and immune globulins that include strong antibody responses to A27.

  6. Small molecule inhibitors of ERCC1-XPF protein-protein interaction synergize alkylating agents in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jordheim, Lars Petter; Barakat, Khaled H; Heinrich-Balard, Laurence; Matera, Eva-Laure; Cros-Perrial, Emeline; Bouledrak, Karima; El Sabeh, Rana; Perez-Pineiro, Rolando; Wishart, David S; Cohen, Richard; Tuszynski, Jack; Dumontet, Charles

    2013-07-01

    The benefit of cancer chemotherapy based on alkylating agents is limited because of the action of DNA repair enzymes, which mitigate the damage induced by these agents. The interaction between the proteins ERCC1 and XPF involves two major components of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Here, novel inhibitors of this interaction were identified by virtual screening based on available structures with use of the National Cancer Institute diversity set and a panel of DrugBank small molecules. Subsequently, experimental validation of the in silico screening was undertaken. Top hits were evaluated on A549 and HCT116 cancer cells. In particular, the compound labeled NSC 130813 [4-[(6-chloro-2-methoxy-9-acridinyl)amino]-2-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl

  7. A Chimeric HIV-1 gp120 Fused with Vaccinia Virus 14K (A27) Protein as an HIV Immunogen

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Aneesh; García-Arriaza, Juan; C. Raman, Suresh; Conesa, José Javier; Chichón, Francisco Javier; Santiago, César; Sorzano, Carlos Óscar S.; Carrascosa, José L.; Esteban, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    In the HIV vaccine field, there is a need to produce highly immunogenic forms of the Env protein with the capacity to trigger broad B and T-cell responses. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a chimeric HIV-1 gp120 protein (termed gp120-14K) by fusing gp120 from clade B with the vaccinia virus (VACV) 14K oligomeric protein (derived from A27L gene). Stable CHO cell lines expressing HIV-1 gp120-14K protein were generated and the protein purified was characterized by size exclusion chromatography, electron microscopy and binding to anti-Env antibodies. These approaches indicate that gp120-14K protein is oligomeric and reacts with a wide spectrum of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), gp120-14K protein upregulates the levels of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with Th1 innate immune responses (IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, RANTES). Moreover, we showed in a murine model, that a heterologous prime/boost immunization protocol consisting of a DNA prime with a plasmid expressing gp120-14K protein followed by a boost with MVA-B [a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing HIV-1 gp120, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B], generates stronger, more polyfunctional, and greater effector memory HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune responses, than immunization with DNA-gp120/MVA-B. The DNA/MVA protocol was superior to immunization with the combination of protein/MVA and the latter was superior to a prime/boost of MVA/MVA or protein/protein. In addition, these immunization protocols enhanced antibody responses against gp120 of the class IgG2a and IgG3, together favoring a Th1 humoral immune response. These results demonstrate that fusing HIV-1 gp120 with VACV 14K forms an oligomeric protein which is highly antigenic as it activates a Th1 innate immune response in human moDCs, and in vaccinated mice triggers polyfunctional HIV-1-specific adaptive

  8. Synergism and Antagonism between Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1 Proteins in Heliothis virescens, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda

    PubMed Central

    Lemes, Ana Rita Nunes; Davolos, Camila Chiaradia; Legori, Paula Cristina Brunini Crialesi; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido; Ferré, Juan; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco; Desiderio, Janete Apparecida

    2014-01-01

    Second generation Bt crops (insect resistant crops carrying Bacillus thuringiensis genes) combine more than one gene that codes for insecticidal proteins in the same plant to provide better control of agricultural pests. Some of the new combinations involve co-expression of cry and vip genes. Because Cry and Vip proteins have different midgut targets and possibly different mechanisms of toxicity, it is important to evaluate possible synergistic or antagonistic interactions between these two classes of toxins. Three members of the Cry1 class of proteins and three from the Vip3A class were tested against Heliothis virescens for possible interactions. At the level of LC50, Cry1Ac was the most active protein, whereas the rest of proteins tested were similarly active. However, at the level of LC90, Cry1Aa and Cry1Ca were the least active proteins, and Cry1Ac and Vip3A proteins were not significantly different. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, we found an antagonistic effect of Cry1Ca with the three Vip3A proteins. The interaction between Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa was also tested on two other species of Lepidoptera. Whereas antagonism was observed in Spodoptera frugiperda, synergism was found in Diatraea saccharalis. In all cases, the interaction between Vip3A and Cry1 proteins was more evident at the LC90 level than at the LC50 level. The fact that the same combination of proteins may result in a synergistic or an antagonistic interaction may be an indication that there are different types of interactions within the host, depending on the insect species tested. PMID:25275646

  9. The flavonoid tangeretin activates the unfolded protein response and synergizes with imatinib in the erythroleukemia cell line K562.

    PubMed

    Lust, Sofie; Vanhoecke, Barbara; Van Gele, Mireille; Philippé, Jan; Bracke, Marc; Offner, Fritz

    2010-06-01

    We explored the mechanism of cell death of the polymethoxyflavone tangeretin (TAN) in K562 breakpoint cluster region-abelson murine leukemia (Bcr-Abl+) cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that TAN arrested the cells in the G(2)/M phase and stimulated an accumulation of the cells in the sub-G(0) phase. TAN-induced cell death was evidenced by poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase cleavage, DNA laddering fragmentation, activation of the caspase cascade and downregulation of the antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L). Pretreatment with the pancaspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK_blocked caspase activation and cell cycle arrest but did not inhibit apoptosis which suggest that other cell killing mechanisms like endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated cell death pathways could be involved. We demonstrated that TAN-induced apoptosis was preceded by a rapid activation of the proapoptotic arm of the unfolded protein response, namely PKR-like ER kinase. This was accompanied by enhanced levels of glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa and of spliced X-box binding protein 1. Furthermore, TAN sensitized K562 cells to the cell killing effects of imatinib via an apoptotic mechanism. In conclusion, our results suggest that TAN is able to induce apoptosis in Bcr-Abl+ cells via cell cycle arrest and the induction of the unfolded protein response, and has synergistic cytotoxicity with imatinib.

  10. Hepatitis C virus inhibitor synergism suggests multistep interactions between heat-shock protein 90 and hepatitis C virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Naoko; Nomoto, Masataka; Hwang, Gi-Wook; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Kohara, Michinori; Wakita, Takaji; Naganuma, Akira; Kuge, Shusuke

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To address the effect of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors on the release of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a cell culture-derived HCV (JFH1/HCVcc) from Huh-7 cells was examined. METHODS: We quantified both the intracellular and extracellular (culture medium) levels of the components (RNA and core) of JFH-1/HCVcc. The intracellular HCV RNA and core levels were determined after the JFH1/HCVcc-infected Huh-7 cells were treated with radicicol for 36 h. The extracellular HCV RNA and core protein levels were determined from the medium of the last 24 h of radicicol treatment. To determine the possible role of the HSP90 inhibitor in HCV release, we examined the effect of a combined application of low doses of the HSP90 inhibitor radicicol and the RNA replication inhibitors cyclosporin A (CsA) or interferon. Finally, we statistically examined the combined effect of radicicol and CsA using the combination index (CI) and graphical representation proposed by Chou and Talalay. RESULTS: We found that the HSP90 inhibitors had greater inhibitory effects on the HCV RNA and core protein levels measured in the medium than inside the cells. This inhibitory effect was observed in the presence of a low level of a known RNA replication inhibitor (CsA or interferon-α). Treating the cells with a combination of radicicol and cyclosporin A for 24 h resulted in significant synergy (CI < 1) that affected the release of both the viral RNA and the core protein. CONCLUSION: In addition to having an inhibitory effect on RNA replication, HSP90 inhibitors may interfere with an HCV replication step that occurs after the synthesis of viral RNA, such as assembly and release. PMID:26925202

  11. Next-generation proteasome inhibitor oprozomib synergizes with modulators of the unfolded protein response to suppress hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vandewynckel, Yves-Paul; Coucke, Céline; Laukens, Debby; Devisscher, Lindsey; Paridaens, Annelies; Bogaerts, Eliene; Vandierendonck, Astrid; Raevens, Sarah; Verhelst, Xavier; Van Steenkiste, Christophe; Libbrecht, Louis; Geerts, Anja; Van Vlierberghe, Hans

    2016-06-07

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) responds poorly to conventional systemic therapies. The first-in-class proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has been approved in clinical use for hematologic malignancies and has shown modest activity in solid tumors, including HCC. However, a considerable proportion of patients fail to respond and experience important adverse events. Recently, the next-generation orally bioavailable irreversible proteasome inhibitor oprozomib was developed. Here, we assessed the efficacy of oprozomib and its effects on the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signaling cascade activated through the ATF6, PERK and IRE1 pathways by accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, in HCC. The effects of oprozomib and the role of the UPR were evaluated in HCC cell lines and in diethylnitrosamine-induced and xenograft mouse models for HCC. Oprozomib dose-dependently reduced the viability and proliferation of human HCC cells. Unexpectedly, oprozomib-treated cells displayed diminished cytoprotective ATF6-mediated signal transduction as well as unaltered PERK and IRE1 signaling. However, oprozomib increased pro-apoptotic UPR-mediated protein levels by prolonging their half-life, implying that the proteasome acts as a negative UPR regulator. Supplementary boosting of UPR activity synergistically improved the sensitivity to oprozomib via the PERK pathway. Oral oprozomib displayed significant antitumor effects in the orthotopic and xenograft models for HCC, and importantly, combining oprozomib with different UPR activators enhanced the antitumor efficacy by stimulating UPR-induced apoptosis without cumulative toxicity. In conclusion, next-generation proteasome inhibition by oprozomib results in dysregulated UPR activation in HCC. This finding can be exploited to enhance the antitumor efficacy by combining oprozomib with clinically applicable UPR activators.

  12. Alteration of the Tumor Stroma Using a Consensus DNA Vaccine Targeting Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) Synergizes with Antitumor Vaccine Therapy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Duperret, Elizabeth K; Trautz, Aspen; Ammons, Dylan; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Wise, Megan C; Yan, Jian; Reed, Charles; Weiner, David B

    2018-03-01

    Purpose: Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is overexpressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts and is an interesting target for cancer immune therapy, with prior studies indicating a potential to affect the tumor stroma. Our aim was to extend this earlier work through the development of a novel FAP immunogen with improved capacity to break tolerance for use in combination with tumor antigen vaccines. Experimental Design: We used a synthetic consensus (SynCon) sequence approach to provide MHC class II help to support breaking of tolerance. We evaluated immune responses and antitumor activity of this novel FAP vaccine in preclinical studies, and correlated these findings to patient data. Results: This SynCon FAP DNA vaccine was capable of breaking tolerance and inducing both CD8 + and CD4 + immune responses. In genetically diverse, outbred mice, the SynCon FAP DNA vaccine was superior at breaking tolerance compared with a native mouse FAP immunogen. In several tumor models, the SynCon FAP DNA vaccine synergized with other tumor antigen-specific DNA vaccines to enhance antitumor immunity. Evaluation of the tumor microenvironment showed increased CD8 + T-cell infiltration and a decreased macrophage infiltration driven by FAP immunization. We extended this to patient data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, where we find high FAP expression correlates with high macrophage and low CD8 + T-cell infiltration. Conclusions: These results suggest that immune therapy targeting tumor antigens in combination with a microconsensus FAP vaccine provides two-fisted punch-inducing responses that target both the tumor microenvironment and tumor cells directly. Clin Cancer Res; 24(5); 1190-201. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Development of Eco-friendly Soy Protein Isolate Films with High Mechanical Properties through HNTs, PVA, and PTGE Synergism Effect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaorong; Song, Ruyuan; Zhang, Wei; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng; Li, Jianzhang

    2017-01-01

    This study was to develop novel soy protein isolate-based films for packaging using halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), and 1,2,3-propanetriol-diglycidyl-ether (PTGE). The structural, crystallinity, opacity, micromorphology, and thermal stability of the resultant SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film were analyzed by the Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film illustrated that HNTs were uniformly dispersed in the SPI matrix and the thermal stability of the film was enhanced. Furthermore, the tensile strength (TS) of the SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film was increased by 329.3% and the elongation at the break (EB) remained unchanged. The water absorption (WA) and the moisture content (MC) were decreased by 5.1% and 10.4%, respectively, compared to the unmodified film. The results highlighted the synergistic effects of SPI, HNTs, PVA, and PTGE on the mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal stability of SPI films, which showed excellent strength and flexibility. In short, SPI films prepared from HNTs, PVA, and PTGE showed considerable potential as packaging materials. PMID:28281634

  14. Development of Eco-friendly Soy Protein Isolate Films with High Mechanical Properties through HNTs, PVA, and PTGE Synergism Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaorong; Song, Ruyuan; Zhang, Wei; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng; Li, Jianzhang

    2017-03-01

    This study was to develop novel soy protein isolate-based films for packaging using halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), and 1,2,3-propanetriol-diglycidyl-ether (PTGE). The structural, crystallinity, opacity, micromorphology, and thermal stability of the resultant SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film were analyzed by the Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film illustrated that HNTs were uniformly dispersed in the SPI matrix and the thermal stability of the film was enhanced. Furthermore, the tensile strength (TS) of the SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film was increased by 329.3% and the elongation at the break (EB) remained unchanged. The water absorption (WA) and the moisture content (MC) were decreased by 5.1% and 10.4%, respectively, compared to the unmodified film. The results highlighted the synergistic effects of SPI, HNTs, PVA, and PTGE on the mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal stability of SPI films, which showed excellent strength and flexibility. In short, SPI films prepared from HNTs, PVA, and PTGE showed considerable potential as packaging materials.

  15. BNGR-A25L and -A27 are two functional G protein-coupled receptors for CAPA periviscerokinin neuropeptides in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhangfei; Chen, Yu; Hong, Lingjuan; Cui, Zhenteng; Yang, Huipeng; He, Xiaobai; Shi, Ying; Shi, Liangen; Han, Feng; Zhou, Naiming

    2017-10-06

    CAPA peptides, such as periviscerokinin (PVK), are insect neuropeptides involved in many signaling pathways controlling, for example, metabolism, behavior, and reproduction. They are present in a large number of insects and, together with their cognate receptors, are important for research into approaches for improving insect control. However, the CAPA receptors in the silkworm ( Bombyx mori ) insect model are unknown. Here, we cloned cDNAs of two putative CAPA peptide receptor genes, BNGR-A27 and -A25, from the brain of B. mori larvae. We found that the predicted BNGR-A27 ORF encodes 450 amino acids and that one BNGR-A25 splice variant encodes a full-length isoform (BNGR-A25L) of 418 amino acid residues and another a short isoform (BNGR-A25S) of 341 amino acids with a truncated C-terminal tail. Functional assays indicated that both BNGR-A25L and -A27 are activated by the PVK neuropeptides Bom -CAPA-PVK-1 and -PVK-2, leading to a significant increase in cAMP-response element-controlled luciferase activity and Ca 2+ mobilization in a G q inhibitor-sensitive manner. In contrast, BNGR-A25S was not significantly activated in response to the PVK peptides. Moreover, Bom -CAPA-PVK-1 directly bound to BNGR-A25L and -A27, but not BNGR-A25S. Of note, CAPA-PVK-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and receptor internalization confirmed that BNGR-A25L and -A27 are two canonical receptors for Bombyx CAPA-PVKs. However, BNGR-A25S alone is a nonfunctional receptor but serves as a dominant-negative protein for BNGR-A25L. These results provide evidence that BNGR-A25L and -A27 are two functional G q -coupled receptors for Bombyx CAPA-PVKs, enabling the further elucidation of the endocrinological roles of Bom -CAPA-PVKs and their receptors in insect biology. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Identification of a 27.8 kDa protein from flounder gill cells involved in lymphocystis disease virus binding and infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mu; Sheng, Xiu-Zhen; Xing, Jing; Tang, Xiao-Qian; Zhan, Wen-Bin

    2011-03-16

    In vitro, lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infection of flounder gill (FG) cell cultures causes obvious cytopathic effect (CPE). We describe attempts to isolate and characterize the LCDV-binding molecule(s) on the plasma membrane of FG cells that were responsible for virus entry. The results showed that the co-immunoprecipitation assay detected a 27.8 kDa molecule from FG cells that bound to LCDV. In a blocking ELISA, pre-incubation of FG cell membrane proteins with the specific antiserum developed against the 27.8 kDa protein could block LCDV binding. Similarly, antiserum against 27.8 kDa protein could also inhibit LCDV infection of FG cells in vitro. Mass spectrometric analysis established that the 27.8 kDa protein and beta-actin had a strong association. These results strongly supported the possibility that the 27.8 kDa protein was the putative receptor specific for LCDV infection of FG cells.

  17. Localization and dynamic expression of a 27.8 kDa receptor protein for lymphocystis disease virus infection in sea bass ( Lateolabrax japonicus) tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ronghua; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Tang, Xiaoqian; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2017-10-01

    Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infects target cells by attaching to a 27.8 kDa receptor (27.8R) protein in flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, and anti-27.8R monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been developed. However, the 27.8R existence in tissues of sea bass ( Lateolabrax japonicus) and its role in LCDV infection have remained unclear. In this study, the results of western blotting demonstrated that the same 27.8R was shared by flounder and sea bass. LCDV-free sea bass individuals were intramuscularly injected with LCDV, and viral copies were detected in tissues from 3 h post infection and showed a time-dependent increase during 9 days infection. Distribution and synthesis of 27.8R in sea bass tissues were investigated by using anti-27.8R MAbs as probes. It was found that 27.8R was distributed in all the tested tissues. The levels of 27.8R protein were highest in gill and skin, then a bit lowly in stomach, head kidney and heart, followed by spleen, intestine, blood cells, gonad and liver, and least in kidney and brain in healthy sea bass. Upon LCDV infection, 27.8R synthesis was up-regulated in each tissue, and higher in the tissues with higher LCDV copies. The 27.8R and LCDV were detected in some peripheral blood leukocytes but not in red blood cells. These results suggested that 27.8R was widely distributed in sea bass tissues, and it served as a receptor and correlated with tissue tropism of LCDV infection. Furthermore, leukocytes had the potential of being a LCDV carrier and were responsible for a systemic infection of LCDV in sea bass.

  18. Chronic Inflammatory Microenvironment in Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Skin Lesions: Role of the Synergism Between HPV8 E2 and C/EBPβ to Induce Pro-Inflammatory S100A8/A9 Proteins.

    PubMed

    Podgórska, Marta; Ołdak, Monika; Marthaler, Anna; Fingerle, Alina; Walch-Rückheim, Barbara; Lohse, Stefan; Müller, Cornelia S L; Vogt, Thomas; Ustav, Mart; Wnorowski, Artur; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Majewski, Sławomir; Smola, Sigrun

    2018-01-01

    synergizes with the HPV8 E2 protein in differentiation-dependent gene expression. Potent synergistic up-regulation of S100A8/A9 was seen at transcriptional and protein levels. S100A8/A9 containing supernatants from keratinocytes co-expressing HPV8 E2 and C/EBPβ significantly induced chemotaxis of granulocytes in migration assays supporting the relevance of our finding. In conclusion, our data suggest that the HPV8 E2 protein actively contributes to the recruitment of myeloid cells into EV skin lesions, which may support chronic inflammation and progression to skin cancer.

  19. Co-administration of recombinant major envelope proteins (rA27L and rH3L) of buffalopox virus provides enhanced immunogenicity and protective efficacy in animal models.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Yogisharadhya, Revanaiah; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Pandey, Awadh Bihari; Shivachandra, Sathish Bhadravati

    2017-05-01

    Buffalopox virus (BPXV) and other vaccinia-like viruses (VLVs) are causing an emerging/re-emerging zoonosis affecting buffaloes, cattle and humans in India and other countries. A27L and H3L are immuno-dominant major envelope proteins of intracellular mature virion (IMV) of orthopoxviruses (OPVs) and are highly conserved with an ability to elicit neutralizing antibodies. In the present study, two recombinant proteins namely; rA27L ( 21 S to E 110 ; ∼30 kDa) and rH3L( 1 M to I 280 ; ∼50 kDa) of BPXV-Vij/96 produced from Escherichia coli were used in vaccine formulation. A combined recombinant subunit vaccine comprising rA27L and rH3L antigens (10 μg of each) was used for active immunization of adult mice (20μg/dose/mice) with or without adjuvant (FCA/FIA) by intramuscular route. Immune responses revealed a gradual increase in antigen specific serum IgG as well as neutralizing antibody titers measured by using indirect-ELISA and serum neutralization test (SNT) respectively, which were higher as compared to that elicited by individual antigens. Suckling mice passively administered with combined anti-A27L and anti-H3L sera showed a complete (100%) pre-exposure protection upon challenge with virulent BPXV. Conclusively, this study highlights the potential utility of rA27L and rH3L proteins as safer candidate prophylactic antigens in combined recombinant subunit vaccine for buffalopox as well as passive protective efficacy of combined sera in employing better pre-exposure protection against virulent BPXV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in a Murine T- Cell Hybridoma: A Transmembrane Protein Tyrosine Kinase Can Synergize with the T-Cell Antigen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    protein kirases suchmembrane P17K. nln T ts ebaepoenkr sssc as the EGFR or platelet-derived growth factor re,,,ptor. For instance, the EGFR and TCR...stimulated with EGF (100 ng/mi, in PBS containing phosphatase inhibitors , lysed, and immunoprecip. 5 min, B) anti Thy- I antibody (07 1:50 dilution or...washed in PBS containing phosphatase inhibitors and lysed. Total cellular MX1- lysate was subjected to SDS.PAGE. Western-transferred, and im- Mxi

  1. Regulation of CCL2 expression by an upstream TALE homeodomain protein-binding site that synergizes with the site created by the A-2578G SNP.

    PubMed

    Page, Stephen H; Wright, Edward K; Gama, Lucio; Clements, Janice E

    2011-01-01

    CC Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL2) is a potent chemoattractant produced by macrophages and activated astrocytes during periods of inflammation within the central nervous system. Increased CCL2 expression is correlated with disease progression and severity, as observed in pulmonary tuberculosis, HCV-related liver disease, and HIV-associated dementia. The CCL2 distal promoter contains an A/G polymorphism at position -2578 and the homozygous -2578 G/G genotype is associated with increased CCL2 production and inflammation. However, the mechanisms that contribute to the phenotypic differences in CCL2 expression are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that the -2578 G polymorphism creates a TALE homeodomain protein binding site (TALE binding site) for PREP1/PBX2 transcription factors. In this study, we identified the presence of an additional TALE binding site 22 bp upstream of the site created by the -2578 G polymorphism and demonstrated the synergistic effects of the two sites on the activation of the CCL2 promoter. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we demonstrated increased binding of the TALE proteins PREP1 and PBX2 to the -2578 G allele, and binding of IRF1 to both the A and G alleles. The presence of TALE binding sites that form inverted repeats within the -2578 G allele results in increased transcriptional activation of the CCL2 distal promoter while the presence of only the upstream TALE binding site within the -2578 A allele exerts repression of promoter activity.

  2. PDK1 inhibitor GSK2334470 synergizes with proteasome inhibitor MG‑132 in multiple myeloma cells by inhibiting full AKT activity and increasing nuclear accumulation of the PTEN protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Yang, Chunmei; Zhou, Fengping; Chen, Xiaohui

    2018-06-01

    Phosphoinositide‑dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is generally active in multiple myeloma (MM) and higher expression than other hematopoietic cells, which is associated with the drug resistance and the disease progression. Previous studies have demonstrated that PDK1 can be targeted therapeutically in MM. In the present study, we examined the combination effect of GSK2334470 (GSK‑470), a novel and highly specific inhibitor of PDK1, with proteasome inhibitor MG‑132 in MM cell lines. GSK‑470 monotherapy significantly inhibited growth of MM cell lines and induced apoptosis that was associated with the activation of both the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and the extrinsic death receptor pathway. Moreover, GSK‑470 demonstrated synergistic growth inhibitory effects with MG‑132. Notably, treatment with these inhibitors resulted in an almost complete inhibition of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin on Ser2448 and Ser2481 and full activation of AKT. The combination therapy also caused an upregulation of PTEN and an increased nuclear accumulation of PTEN protein. Collectively, our results provide the rationale for novel combination treatment with PDK1 inhibitor and proteasome inhibitors to improve outcomes in patients with MM.

  3. Reconceptualizing synergism and antagonism among multiple stressors.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Jeremy J; Townsend, Colin R; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2015-04-01

    The potential for complex synergistic or antagonistic interactions between multiple stressors presents one of the largest uncertainties when predicting ecological change but, despite common use of the terms in the scientific literature, a consensus on their operational definition is still lacking. The identification of synergism or antagonism is generally straightforward when stressors operate in the same direction, but if individual stressor effects oppose each other, the definition of synergism is paradoxical because what is synergistic to one stressor's effect direction is antagonistic to the others. In their highly cited meta-analysis, Crain et al. (Ecology Letters, 11, 2008: 1304) assumed in situations with opposing individual effects that synergy only occurs when the cumulative effect is more negative than the additive sum of the opposing individual effects. We argue against this and propose a new systematic classification based on an additive effects model that combines the magnitude and response direction of the cumulative effect and the interaction effect. A new class of "mitigating synergism" is identified, where cumulative effects are reversed and enhanced. We applied our directional classification to the dataset compiled by Crain et al. (Ecology Letters, 11, 2008: 1304) to determine the prevalence of synergistic, antagonistic, and additive interactions. Compared to their original analysis, we report differences in the representation of interaction classes by interaction type and we document examples of mitigating synergism, highlighting the importance of incorporating individual stressor effect directions in the determination of synergisms and antagonisms. This is particularly pertinent given a general bias in ecology toward investigating and reporting adverse multiple stressor effects (double negative). We emphasize the need for reconsideration by the ecological community of the interpretation of synergism and antagonism in situations where

  4. Selective affinity labeling of a 27-kDa integral membrane protein in rat liver and kidney with N-bromoacetyl derivatives of L-thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine.

    PubMed

    Köhrle, J; Rasmussen, U B; Rokos, H; Leonard, J L; Hesch, R D

    1990-04-15

    125I-Labeled N-bromoacetyl derivatives of L-thyroxine and L-triiodothyronine were used as alkylating affinity labels to identify rat liver and kidney microsomal membrane proteins which specifically bind thyroid hormones. Affinity label incorporation was analyzed by ethanol precipitation and individual affinity labeled proteins were identified by autoradiography after separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. Six to eight membrane proteins ranging in size from 17 to 84 kDa were affinity labeled by both bromoacetyl-L-thyroxine (BrAcT4) and bromoacetyl-L-triiodothyronine (BrAcT3). Affinity labeling was time- and temperature-dependent, and both reduced dithiols and detergents increased affinity labeling, predominantly in a 27-kDa protein(s). Up to 80% of the affinity label was associated with a 27-kDa protein (p27) under optimal conditions. Affinity labeling of p27 by 0.4 nM BrAc[125I]L-T4 was blocked by 0.1 microM of the alkylating ligands BrAcT4, BrAcT3, or 100 microM iodoacetate, by 10 microM concentrations of the non-alkylating, reversible ligands N-acetyl-L-thyroxine, 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine, 3,5-diiodosalicylate, and EMD 21388, a T4-antagonistic flavonoid. Neither 10 microM L-T4, nor 10 microM N-acetyltriiodothyronine or 10 microM L-triiodothyronine blocked affinity labeling of p27 or other affinity labeled bands. Affinity labeling of a 17-kDa band was partially inhibited by excess of the alkylating ligands BrAcT4, BrAcT3, and iodoacetate, but labeling of other minor bands was not blocked by excess of the competitors. BrAc[125I]T4 yielded higher affinity label incorporation than BrAc[125I]T3, although similar banding patterns were observed, except that BrAcT3 affinity labeled more intensely a 58,000-Da band in liver and a 53,000-55,000-Da band in kidney. The pattern of other affinity labeled proteins with p27 as the predominant band was similar in liver and kidney. Peptide mapping of affinity labeled p27

  5. A synergic approach to terraforming Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, Martyn J.

    1992-08-01

    A two-stage terraforming scenario is outlined for Mars. The approach adopted differs from past methodology in two ways. It adopts a more conservative and plausible Martian volatile inventory. Possible planetary engineering solutions, including possible synergic use of terraforming techniques, are examined in detail. In the first stage, the Martian environment is modified to a state where it can support microbial and hardy plant life in approximately 200 years. While this step is conceptually similar to past scenarios, it differs greatly in detail. The second stage deals with the creation of conditions tolerable for human beings over a period of approximately 21,000 years. It is concluded that terraforming Mars is possible but not by the passive, or near-spontaneous, methods favored by some workers. A powerful industrial effort is required both on the planet's surface and in space as will be continuing technological intervention to stabilize the postterraformed regime.

  6. Synergizing vaccinations with therapeutics for measles eradication.

    PubMed

    Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L

    2014-02-01

    The measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible, in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence, combined with public anxiety over the vaccination's safety, has led to increased vaccine refusal, especially in Europe. This has led to the resurgence of measles in some areas. This article discusses whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with the measles vaccination could contribute to finally eradicating measles. The authors identify key elements in a desirable drug profile and review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates. The authors also evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics in the management of persistent central nervous system (CNS) viral infection. Finally, the authors contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics in controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles. Efficacious therapeutics used for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps; this is due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent population, dictates the drug profile. It also has to be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature and amenable to cost-effective manufacturing.

  7. A 32 kDa viral attachment protein of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) specifically interacts with a 27.8 kDa cellular receptor from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ying; Fei, Chenjie; Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhan, Wenbin; Sheng, Xiuzhen

    2017-06-01

    The 27.8 kDa protein in flounder gill (FG) cells was previously proved to be a receptor specific for lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) entry and infection. In this paper, a 32 kDa viral attachment protein (VAP) of LCDV specifically binding to the 27.8 kDa receptor (27.8R) was found by far-Western blotting coupled with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against 27.8R. The 32 kDa protein was confirmed to be encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) 038 gene in LCDV-C, and predicted to contain a putative transmembrane region, multiple N-myristoylation and glycosylation sites and phosphorylation motifs. The expression plasmid of pET-32a-ORF038 was constructed and the recombinant VAP (rVAP) was obtained. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the rVAP were prepared and could recognize the rVAP and 32 kDa protein in LCDV. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the 32 kDa protein was located on the surface of LCDV particles. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that the rVAP could bind to the 27.8R on the cell membrane of the FG monolayer and the anti-27.8R MAbs could block the rVAP binding. Pre-incubation of the rVAP with FG cells before LCDV infection, or pre-incubation of LCDV with the antibodies against the rVAP, could significantly decrease the LCDV copy numbers (P<0.05) and delay the emergence of cytopathic effects in FG cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated for the first time that the 32 kDa protein functioned as an attachment protein for the initial attachment and entry of LCDV, and the interaction of the 32 kDa VAP with the 27.8R-initiated LCDV infection.

  8. Computational Analyses of Synergism in Small Molecular Network Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yili; Smolen, Paul; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular functions and responses to stimuli are controlled by complex regulatory networks that comprise a large diversity of molecular components and their interactions. However, achieving an intuitive understanding of the dynamical properties and responses to stimuli of these networks is hampered by their large scale and complexity. To address this issue, analyses of regulatory networks often focus on reduced models that depict distinct, reoccurring connectivity patterns referred to as motifs. Previous modeling studies have begun to characterize the dynamics of small motifs, and to describe ways in which variations in parameters affect their responses to stimuli. The present study investigates how variations in pairs of parameters affect responses in a series of ten common network motifs, identifying concurrent variations that act synergistically (or antagonistically) to alter the responses of the motifs to stimuli. Synergism (or antagonism) was quantified using degrees of nonlinear blending and additive synergism. Simulations identified concurrent variations that maximized synergism, and examined the ways in which it was affected by stimulus protocols and the architecture of a motif. Only a subset of architectures exhibited synergism following paired changes in parameters. The approach was then applied to a model describing interlocked feedback loops governing the synthesis of the CREB1 and CREB2 transcription factors. The effects of motifs on synergism for this biologically realistic model were consistent with those for the abstract models of single motifs. These results have implications for the rational design of combination drug therapies with the potential for synergistic interactions. PMID:24651495

  9. HL-A27 and anterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, J C; Mapstone, R; Anderson, J; Usher, N

    1975-09-01

    HL-A types were determined in 90 successive patients with non-granulomatous uveitis. Fifty-one were HL-A27 positive (55.7%) compared to 8.2% of controls. Of 16 patients with ankylosing spondylitis, 13 were HL-A27 positive, as were two patients with a history of Reiter's syndrome. Twenty-eight patients were HL-A27 positive but had no evidence of rheumatic disease. The findings are discussed in relation to the possible pathogenesis of uveitis.

  10. Membrane Curvature and Lipid Composition Synergize To Regulate N-Ras Anchor Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jannik B; Kennard, Celeste; Pedersen, Søren L; Jensen, Knud J; Uline, Mark J; Hatzakis, Nikos S; Stamou, Dimitrios

    2017-09-19

    Proteins anchored to membranes through covalently linked fatty acids and/or isoprenoid groups play crucial roles in all forms of life. Sorting and trafficking of lipidated proteins has traditionally been discussed in the context of partitioning to membrane domains of different lipid composition. We recently showed that membrane shape/curvature can in itself mediate the recruitment of lipidated proteins. However, exactly how membrane curvature and composition synergize remains largely unexplored. Here we investigated how three critical structural parameters of lipids, namely acyl chain saturation, headgroup size, and acyl chain length, modulate the capacity of membrane curvature to recruit lipidated proteins. As a model system we used the lipidated minimal membrane anchor of the GTPase, N-Ras (tN-Ras). Our data revealed complex synergistic effects, whereby tN-Ras binding was higher on planar DOPC than POPC membranes, but inversely higher on curved POPC than DOPC membranes. This variation in the binding to both planar and curved membranes leads to a net increase in the recruitment by membrane curvature of tN-Ras when reducing the acyl chain saturation state. Additionally, we found increased recruitment by membrane curvature of tN-Ras when substituting PC for PE, and when decreasing acyl chain length from 14 to 12 carbons (DMPC versus DLPC). However, these variations in recruitment ability had different origins, with the headgroup size primarily influencing tN-Ras binding to planar membranes whereas the change in acyl chain length primarily affected binding to curved membranes. Molecular field theory calculations recapitulated these findings and revealed lateral pressure as an underlying biophysical mechanism dictating how curvature and composition synergize to modulate recruitment of lipidated proteins. Our findings suggest that the different compositions of cellular compartments could modulate the potency of membrane curvature to recruit lipidated proteins and

  11. Enhance-Synergism and Suppression Effects in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, Stan; Conklin, W. Michael

    2004-01-01

    Relations between pairwise correlations and the coefficient of multiple determination in regression analysis are considered. The conditions for the occurrence of enhance-synergism and suppression effects when multiple determination becomes bigger than the total of squared correlations of the dependent variable with the regressors are discussed. It…

  12. Differential Roles of AC2 and AC4 of Cassava Geminiviruses in Mediating Synergism and Suppression of Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Vanitharani, Ramachandran; Chellappan, Padmanabhan; Pita, Justin S.; Fauquet, Claude M.

    2004-01-01

    Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants is a natural defense mechanism against virus infection. In mixed infections, virus synergism is proposed to result from suppression of the host defense mechanism by the viruses. Synergistic severe mosaic disease caused by simultaneous infection with isolates of the Cameroon strain of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV-[CM]) and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV) in cassava and tobacco is characterized by a dramatic increase in symptom severity and a severalfold increase in viral-DNA accumulation by both viruses compared to that in singly infected plants. Here, we report that synergism between ACMV-[CM] and EACMCV is a two-way process, as the presence of the DNA-A component of ACMV-[CM] or EACMCV in trans enhanced the accumulation of viral DNA of EACMCV and ACMV-[CM], respectively, in tobacco BY-2 protoplasts. Furthermore, transient expression of ACMV-[CM] AC4 driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (p35S-AC4) enhanced EACMCV DNA accumulation by ∼8-fold in protoplasts, while p35S-AC2 of EACMCV enhanced ACMV-[CM] DNA accumulation, also by ∼8-fold. An Agrobacterium-based leaf infiltration assay determined that ACMV-[CM] AC4 and EACMCV AC2, the putative synergistic genes, were able to suppress PTGS induced by green fluorescent protein (GFP) and eliminated the short interfering RNAs associated with PTGS, with a correlated increase in GFP mRNA accumulation. In addition, we have identified AC4 of Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus and AC2 of Indian cassava mosaic virus as suppressors of PTGS, indicating that geminiviruses evolved differently in regard to interaction with the host. The specific and different roles played by these AC2 and AC4 proteins of cassava geminiviruses in regulating anti-PTGS activity and their relation to synergism are discussed. PMID:15308741

  13. Synergism between permethrin and propoxur against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Corbel, V; Chandre, F; Darriet, F; Lardeux, F; Hougard, J-M

    2003-06-01

    To see if synergism occurs between carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides, we tested permethrin and propoxur as representatives of these two classes of compounds used for mosquito control. Larvicidal activity of both insecticides was assessed separately and together on a susceptible strain of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) by two methods. When mixed at a constant ratio (permethrin : propoxur 1 : 60 based on LC50) and tested at serial concentrations to plot dose/mortality regression, significant synergy occurred between them (co-toxicity coefficient = 2.2), not just an additive effect. For example, when the mixture gave 50% mortality, the same concentrations of permethrin and propoxur alone would have given merely 2 x 1% mortality. When a sublethal dose (LC0) of permethrin or propoxur was added to the other (range LC10-LC95), synergism occurred up to the LC80 level. Synergistic effects were attributed to the complementary modes of action by these two insecticide classes acting on different components of nerve impulse transmission. Apart from raising new possibilities for Culex control, it seems appropriate to consider using such mixtures or combinations for insecticide-treated mosquito nets in situations with insecticide-resistant Anopheles malaria vectors.

  14. Synergism in education: An innovative approach to practice teaching supervision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereni, Joseph Ibewuike

    1985-12-01

    The problem of effective teacher education is central to the pressing needs of Nigerian education at all levels. Scholars have identified many of them, including the general problems relating to the supervision, guidance, and evaluation of student-practice teaching. The purpose of this essay is briefly to describe an innovative approach undertaken by the Imo State School Board (Nigeria), in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, to resolve some of the problems identified. The underlying assumption is that the student teachers' internship is best conducted with closer collaboration, supervision, and guidance of the teachers. The study employed a theoretical framework synergism in education which integrated earlier studies by both American and Nigerian scholars. The concept of synergism has been defined as the combined healthy action of all `elements' of a system. Application of the theory showed how the State Ministry of Education, the State School Board, the Teacher Training Colleges and the Nigeria Union of Teachers of Imo State collectively resolved in 1980 the problems of inadequate supervisory personnel, high cost of student-teaching internship, and poor student assessment and evaluation. With the synergetic supervisory process, the functions of planning, changing, and decision-making about instructional improvement are shared, with a certain degree of power equalization, among the student teachers, supervisors, co-operating teachers, and the school executives.

  15. In vitro synergism of trifluorothymidine and ganciclovir against HSV-1.

    PubMed

    Hobden, Jeffery A; Kumar, Manish; Kaufman, Herbert E; Clement, Christian; Varnell, Emily D; Bhattacharjee, Partha S; Hill, James M

    2011-02-01

    To determine whether trifluorothymidine (TFT) and ganciclovir (GCV) are synergistic against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). TFT and GCV activity against 12 strains of HSV-1 (including an acyclovir-resistant strain) was measured by plaque-forming unit (PFU) inhibition. Cellular toxicity was assessed with an MTT dye reduction assay. Synergism was determined by calculating fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC indices) based on PFU reduction. Concentrations of TFT resulting in 50% inhibition of PFUs (IC(50)) of acyclovir-susceptible HSV-1 strains ranged from 3.07 ± 0.36 to 12.52 ± 0.61 μM. GCV IC(50) values ranged from 0.40 ± 0.02 to 1.59 ± 0.14 μM. IC(50) values of TFT and GCV against the acyclovir-resistant strain were 15.40 ± 3.17 and 93.00 ± 9.64 μM, respectively. Concentrations of TFT or GCV resulting in 50% cell cytotoxicity (CC(50)) were 0.99 ± 0.01 and 92.91 ± 8.92 μM, respectively. TFT and GCV combined (10:1) were 10 times more potent against all acyclovir-susceptible HSV-1 strains. For 8 of 12 HSV-1 strains, the IC(50) of TFT and GCV combined was lower than the CC(50) of either drug. For acyclovir-susceptible HSV-1 strains, TFT and GCV combined generated a FIC index of <0.5, suggesting strong synergism between the two drugs. The FIC value for TFT and GCV combined against the acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 strain was 0.84, indicating nonantagonism. TFT and GCV are synergistic against acyclovir-susceptible HSV-1 at concentrations significantly less toxic than if each antiviral were used as a sole agent.

  16. In Vitro Synergism of Trifluorothymidine and Ganciclovir against HSV-1

    PubMed Central

    Hobden, Jeffery A.; Kumar, Manish; Kaufman, Herbert E.; Clement, Christian; Varnell, Emily D.; Bhattacharjee, Partha S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether trifluorothymidine (TFT) and ganciclovir (GCV) are synergistic against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Methods. TFT and GCV activity against 12 strains of HSV-1 (including an acyclovir-resistant strain) was measured by plaque-forming unit (PFU) inhibition. Cellular toxicity was assessed with an MTT dye reduction assay. Synergism was determined by calculating fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC indices) based on PFU reduction. Results. Concentrations of TFT resulting in 50% inhibition of PFUs (IC50) of acyclovir-susceptible HSV-1 strains ranged from 3.07 ± 0.36 to 12.52 ± 0.61 μM. GCV IC50 values ranged from 0.40 ± 0.02 to 1.59 ± 0.14 μM. IC50 values of TFT and GCV against the acyclovir-resistant strain were 15.40 ± 3.17 and 93.00 ± 9.64 μM, respectively. Concentrations of TFT or GCV resulting in 50% cell cytotoxicity (CC50) were 0.99 ± 0.01 and 92.91 ± 8.92 μM, respectively. TFT and GCV combined (10:1) were 10 times more potent against all acyclovir-susceptible HSV-1 strains. For 8 of 12 HSV-1 strains, the IC50 of TFT and GCV combined was lower than the CC50 of either drug. For acyclovir-susceptible HSV-1 strains, TFT and GCV combined generated a FIC index of <0.5, suggesting strong synergism between the two drugs. The FIC value for TFT and GCV combined against the acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 strain was 0.84, indicating nonantagonism. Conclusions. TFT and GCV are synergistic against acyclovir-susceptible HSV-1 at concentrations significantly less toxic than if each antiviral were used as a sole agent. PMID:20861476

  17. Chloroquine synergizes with FTS to enhance cell growth inhibition and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Schmukler, Eran; Wolfson, Eya; Haklai, Roni; Elad-Sfadia, Galit; Kloog, Yoel; Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    The Ras family of small GTPases transmits extracellular signals that regulate cell growth, differentiation, motility and death. Ras signaling is constitutively active in a large number of human cancers. Ras can also regulate autophagy by affecting several signaling pathways including the mTOR pathway. Autophagy is a process that regulates the balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. It is important for normal growth control, but may be defective in diseases. Previously, we have shown that Ras inhibition by FTS induces autophagy, which partially protects cancer cells and may limit the use of FTS as an anti-cancer drug. Since FTS is a non toxic drug we hypothesized that FTS and chloroquine (an autophagy inhibitor) will synergize in cell growth inhibition and cell death. Thus, in the present study, we explored the mechanism of each individual drug and their combined action. Our results demonstrate that in HCT-116 and in Panc-1 cells, FTS induces autophagy, which can be inhibited by chloroquine. Furthermore, the combined treatment synergistically decreased the number of viable cells. Interestingly, the combined treatment enhanced apoptotic cell death as indicated by increased sub-G1 cell population, increased Hoechst staining, activation of caspase 3, decrease in survivin expression and release of cytochrome c. Thus, chloroquine treatment may promote FTS-mediated inhibition of tumor cell growth and may stimulate apoptotic cell death. PMID:24368422

  18. Localization of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) in synergic infection with potyviruses in sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Nome, Claudia Fernanda; Nome, Sergio Fernando; Guzmán, Fabiana; Conci, Luis; Laguna, Irma Graciela

    2007-01-01

    Among diseases reported worldwidely for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam) crop, one of the most frequent is the Sweet potato virus disease (SPVD), caused by sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) and sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) co-infection. In Argentina, there exists the sweet potato chlorotic dwarf (SPCD), a sweet potato disease caused by triple co-infection with SPCSV, SPFMV and sweet potato mild speckling virus (SPMSV). Both diseases cause a synergism between the potyviruses (SPFMV and SPMSV) and the crinivirus (SPCSV). Up to date, studies carried out on the interaction among these three viruses have not described their localization in the infected tissues. In single infections, virions of the crinivirus genus are limited to the phloem while potyviral virions are found in most tissues of the infected plant. The purpose of this work was to localize the heat shock protein 70 homolog (HSP70h), a movement protein for genus crinivirus, of an Argentinean SPCSV isolate in its single infection and in its double and triple co-infection with SPFMV and SPMSV. The localization was made by in situ hybridization (ISH) for electron microscopy (EM) on ultrathin sections of sweet potato cv. Morada INTA infected tissues. The results demonstrated that viral RNA coding HSP70h is restricted to phloem cells during crinivirus single infection, while it was detected outside the phloem in infections combined with the potyviruses involved in chlorotic dwarf disease.

  19. Apatinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suppresses tumor growth in cervical cancer and synergizes with Paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Haifeng; Li, Jing; Liu, Qiuli; Tang, Mei; Wang, Yuan

    2018-06-09

    Apatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets VEGFR2 signal and exhibits potent anti-tumor effects in human cancers. In this study, we aim to investigate the efficacy of Apatinib in cervical cancer. The protein expression of VEGFR2 and its relationships with clinical parameters were investigated in a panel of cervical cancer patients. In vitro, a series of experiments were performed to detect the effects of Apatinib on the proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle in cervical cancer cells. Both the immortalized cell lines and primary cultured tissues were used to investigate the synergy between Apatinib and chemotherapeutic drugs. The in vivo effects of Apatinib were validated in a nude mouse model. Compared to that in normal cervix, VEGFR2 protein was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues (P<0.001); this was positively correlated with advanced tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, and a poor prognosis. In vitro, Apatinib markedly induced apoptosis and G1-phase arrest, suppressed cell growth, and decreased colony formation ability. We also found that primary cancer tissues with higher level of VEGFR2 were much more sensitive to Apatinib. Further, we proved that Apatinib significantly increased the sensitivity to Paclitaxel in cervical cancer cells and the mouse model. Collectively, we firstly report the anti-tumor efficacy of Apatinib in cervical cancer. Moreover, Apatinib synergized with Paclitaxel to achieve more significant suppression on tumor growth, proposing that Apatinib might be a potent drug for cervical cancer.

  20. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Sadat-Hosseini, Sara; Fallah, Marjan; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO) on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent), diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica , pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg/kg body wt, IP) diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6). After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl) in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment. Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN.

  1. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Sadat-hosseini, Sara; Fallah, Marjan; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO) on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent), diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica, pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg/kg body wt, IP) diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6). After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Results: Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl) in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment. Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN. PMID:28656084

  2. Synergism and antagonism in extracting local anesthetics from aqueous media with mixtures of solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanov, P. T.; Chibisova, T. V.; Korenman, Ya. I.

    2014-12-01

    The extraction of local anesthetics from aqueous media with mixtures of solvent is examined and its synergistic and antagonistic effects are determined. Synergism parameters, separation factors, constants for the formation of anesthetic complexes, and solvate numbers are calculated.

  3. The Society of Surgical Oncology and the Commission on Cancer: progress through synergism.

    PubMed

    Winchester, D P

    1998-09-01

    The 1998 Presidential Address highlights the history of The Society of Surgical Oncology and the Commission on Cancer of the American College of Surgeons, cites specific examples of progress through synergism, and discusses some of the many challenges facing surgical oncologists in the future. These include the necessity to synergize in clinical trials, to accelerate the diffusion of knowledge into the practicing community, and to redefine surgical oncology and its relation to general surgery and the American Board of Surgery.

  4. Synergic effects of tactolimus and azole antifungal agents against azole-resistant Candida albican strains.

    PubMed

    Maesaki, S; Marichal, P; Hossain, M A; Sanglard, D; Vanden Bossche, H; Kohno, S

    1998-12-01

    We investigated the effects of combining tacrolimus and azole antifungal agents in azole-resistant strains of Candida albicans by comparing the accumulation of [3H]itraconazole. The CDR1-expressing resistant strain C26 accumulated less itraconazole than the CaMDR-expressing resistant strain C40 or the azole-sensitive strain B2630. A CDR1-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant, DSY415, showed a marked reduction in the accumulation of both fluconazole and itraconazole. A CaMDR-expressing S. cerevisiae mutant, DSY416, also showed lower accumulation of fluconazole, but not of itraconazole. The addition of sodium azide, an electron-transport chain inhibitor, increased the intracellular accumulation of itraconazole only in the C26 strain, and not in the C40 or B2630 strains. Addition of tacrolimus, an inhibitor of multidrug resistance proteins, resulted in the highest increase in itraconazole accumulation in the C26 strain. The combination of itraconazole and tacrolimus was synergic in azole-resistant C. albicans strains. In the C26 strain, the MIC of itraconazole decreased from >8 to 0.5 mg/L when combined with tacrolimus. Our results showed that two multidrug resistance phenotypes (encoded by the CDR1 and CaMDR genes) in C. albicans have different substrate specificity for azole antifungal agents and that a combination of tacrolimus and azole antifungal agents is effective against azole-resistant strains of C. albicans.

  5. A PARP1-ERK2 synergism is required for the induction of LTP

    PubMed Central

    Visochek, L.; Grigoryan, G.; Kalal, A.; Milshtein-Parush, H.; Gazit, N.; Slutsky, I.; Yeheskel, A.; Shainberg, A.; Castiel, A.; Seger, R.; Langelier, M. F.; Dantzer, F.; Pascal, J. M.; Segal, M.; Cohen-Armon, M.

    2016-01-01

    Unexpectedly, a post-translational modification of DNA-binding proteins, initiating the cell response to single-strand DNA damage, was also required for long-term memory acquisition in a variety of learning paradigms. Our findings disclose a molecular mechanism based on PARP1-Erk synergism, which may underlie this phenomenon. A stimulation induced PARP1 binding to phosphorylated Erk2 in the chromatin of cerebral neurons caused Erk-induced PARP1 activation, rendering transcription factors and promoters of immediate early genes (IEG) accessible to PARP1-bound phosphorylated Erk2. Thus, Erk-induced PARP1 activation mediated IEG expression implicated in long-term memory. PARP1 inhibition, silencing, or genetic deletion abrogated stimulation-induced Erk-recruitment to IEG promoters, gene expression and LTP generation in hippocampal CA3-CA1-connections. Moreover, a predominant binding of PARP1 to single-strand DNA breaks, occluding its Erk binding sites, suppressed IEG expression and prevented the generation of LTP. These findings outline a PARP1-dependent mechanism required for LTP generation, which may be implicated in long-term memory acquisition and in its deterioration in senescence. PMID:27121568

  6. A PARP1-ERK2 synergism is required for the induction of LTP.

    PubMed

    Visochek, L; Grigoryan, G; Kalal, A; Milshtein-Parush, H; Gazit, N; Slutsky, I; Yeheskel, A; Shainberg, A; Castiel, A; Seger, R; Langelier, M F; Dantzer, F; Pascal, J M; Segal, M; Cohen-Armon, M

    2016-04-28

    Unexpectedly, a post-translational modification of DNA-binding proteins, initiating the cell response to single-strand DNA damage, was also required for long-term memory acquisition in a variety of learning paradigms. Our findings disclose a molecular mechanism based on PARP1-Erk synergism, which may underlie this phenomenon. A stimulation induced PARP1 binding to phosphorylated Erk2 in the chromatin of cerebral neurons caused Erk-induced PARP1 activation, rendering transcription factors and promoters of immediate early genes (IEG) accessible to PARP1-bound phosphorylated Erk2. Thus, Erk-induced PARP1 activation mediated IEG expression implicated in long-term memory. PARP1 inhibition, silencing, or genetic deletion abrogated stimulation-induced Erk-recruitment to IEG promoters, gene expression and LTP generation in hippocampal CA3-CA1-connections. Moreover, a predominant binding of PARP1 to single-strand DNA breaks, occluding its Erk binding sites, suppressed IEG expression and prevented the generation of LTP. These findings outline a PARP1-dependent mechanism required for LTP generation, which may be implicated in long-term memory acquisition and in its deterioration in senescence.

  7. Vemurafenib Synergizes with Nutlin-3 to Deplete Survivin and Suppress Melanoma Viability and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zhenyu; Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Rajadurai, Anpuchchelvi; Marzuka-Alcalá, Alexander; Chen, Y. Erin; Njauw, Ching-Ni Jenny; Flaherty, Keith; Jönsson, Goran; Tsao, Hensin

    2013-01-01

    Background For patients with advanced melanoma, primary and secondary resistance to selective BRAF inhibition remains one of the most critically compelling challenges. One rationale argues that novel biologically-informed strategies are needed to maximally cripple melanoma cells up front before compensatory mechanisms emerge. Since p53 is uncommonly mutated in melanoma, restoration of its function represents an attractive adjunct to selective BRAF inhibition. Experimental Design Thirty-seven BRAF(V600E)-mutated melanoma lines were subjected to synergy studies in vitro using a combination of vemurafenib and nutlin-3 (Nt-3). In addition, cellular responses and in vivo efficacy were also determined. We also analyzed changes in the levels of canonical apoptotic/survival factors in response to vemurafenib. Results Dual targeting of BRAF(V600E) and HDM2 with vemurafenib and Nt-3, respectively, synergistically induced apoptosis and suppressed melanoma viability in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Suppression of p53 in melanoma cells abrogated Nt-3′s effects fully and vemurafenib’s effects partially. A survey of canonical survival factors revealed that both vemurafenib and Nt-3 independently attenuated levels of the anti-apoptotic protein, survivin. Genetic depletion of survivin reproduces the cytotoxic effects of the combination strategy. Conclusion These results demonstrate preclinical feasibility for overcoming primary vemurafenib resistance by restoring p53 function. Moreover, it identifies survivin as one downstream mediator of the observed synergism and a potential secondary target. PMID:23812671

  8. Novel synergic antidiabetic effects of Astragalus polysaccharides combined with Crataegus flavonoids via improvement of islet function and liver metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Zhang, Shaobo; Jiang, Xin; Xie, Weidong

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the synergic effects and potential mechanisms of action of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) combined with Crataegus flavonoids (CF) in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg streptozotocin in mice. Normal and untreated diabetic control mice were used, and CF‑treated (200 mg/kg/day), APS‑treated (200 mg/kg/day), APS + CF (AC)‑treated (200 mg/kg/day of each) and metformin‑treated (200 mg/kg/day) diabetic mice were orally administrated the appropriate therapeutic agent for 4 weeks. The results demonstrated that AC treatment significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose, food and water intake in the diabetic mice. The AC group demonstrated increased serum insulin levels and islet cell function was restored. Furthermore, the AC‑treated mice demonstrated significant increases in the protein expression levels of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox‑1 and phosphorylated adenosine 5'‑monophosphate‑activated protein kinase in the pancreatic and liver tissue samples, respectively. In addition, AC significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of neurogenin 3, v‑maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein A and insulin, and simultaneously decreased the expressions of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor‑α and chemokine (C‑C motif) ligand 2 in the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic mice. The anti‑inflammatory activity of APS and the islet‑restoring effect of CF may contribute to the improvement of islet function. AC exerted greater antidiabetic effects compared with APS or CF treatments alone. These results indicated that AC treatment had a synergic antidiabetic effect, which may involve improvements in islet function and liver metabolism. These effects of AC may facilitate the treatment of type 1 or 2 diabetes, as these patients frequently experience impaired islet function and disordered extrapancreatic metabolism.

  9. Curcumin synergizes with resveratrol to inhibit colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Adhip P N; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Nautiyal, Jyoti; Patel, Bhaumik B; Patel, Vaishali; Du, Jianhua; Yu, Yingjie; Elliott, Althea A; Levi, Edi; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2009-01-01

    Development and progression of many malignancies, including colorectal cancer, are associated with activation of multiple signaling pathways. Therefore, inhibition of these signaling pathways with noncytotoxic natural products represents a logical preventive and/or therapeutic approach for colon cancer. Curcumin and resveratrol, both of which inhibit the growth of transformed cells and colon carcinogenesis, were selected to examine whether combining them would be an effective preventive and/or therapeutic strategy for colon cancer. Indeed, the combination of curcumin and resveratrol was found to be more effective in inhibiting growth of p53-positive (wt) and p53-negative colon cancer HCT-116 cells in vitro and in vivo in SCID xenografts of colon cancer HCT-116 (wt) cells than either agent alone. Analysis by Calcusyn software showed synergism between curcumin and resveratrol. The inhibition of tumors in response to curcumin and/or resveratrol was associated with the reduction in proliferation and stimulation of apoptosis accompanied by attenuation of NF-kappaB activity. In vitro studies have further demonstrated that the combinatorial treatment caused a greater inhibition of constitutive activation of EGFR and its family members as well as IGF-1R. Our current data suggest that the combination of curcumin and resveratrol could be an effective preventive/therapeutic strategy for colon cancer.

  10. Evidence of cue synergism in termite corpse response behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Shelton, Thomas G.

    2012-02-01

    Subterranean termites of the genus Reticulitermes are known to build walls and tubes and move considerable amounts of soil into wood but the causes of this behavior remain largely unexplored. In laboratory assays, we tested the hypothesis that Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) would carry more sand into wooden blocks containing corpses compared to corpse-free controls. We further predicted that the corpses of predatory ants would elicit a stronger response than those of a benign beetle species or nestmates. As hypothesized, significantly more sand was carried into blocks containing corpses and this material was typically used to build partitions separating the dead from the rest of the colony. Contrary to expectations, however, this behavior did not vary among corpse types. We then tested the hypothesis that oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid released during arthropod decay and used by ants and other arthropod taxa in corpse recognition, would induce a similar building response in R. virginicus. To additionally determine the role of foreign objects in giving rise to this behavior, the experiment was carried out with and without imitation corpses (i.e., small glass beads). As predicted, oleic acid induced building (a tenfold increase) but only when applied to beads, suggesting strong synergism between tactile and chemical cues. Oleic acid also significantly reduced the amount of wood consumed by R. virginicus and may possess useful repellent properties.

  11. Conifer flavonoid compounds inhibit detoxification enzymes and synergize insecticides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiling; Zhao, Zhong; Cheng, Xiaofei; Liu, Suqi; Wei, Qin; Scott, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    Detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and esterases are important mechanisms associated with insecticide resistance. Discovery of novel GST and esterase inhibitors from phytochemicals could provide potential new insecticide synergists. Conifer tree species contain flavonoids, such as taxifolin, that inhibit in vitro GST activity. The objectives were to test the relative effectiveness of taxifolin as an enzyme inhibitor and as an insecticide synergist in combination with the organophosphorous insecticide, Guthion (50% azinphos-methyl), and the botanical insecticide, pyrethrum, using an insecticide-resistant Colorado potato beetle (CPB) Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) strain. Both taxifolin and its isomer, quercetin, increased the mortality of 1(st) instar CPB larvae after 48h when combined with Guthion, but not pyrethrum. Taxifolin had greater in vitro esterase inhibition compared with the commonly used esterase inhibitor, S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF). An in vivo esterase and GST inhibition effect after ingestion of taxifolin was measured, however DEF caused a greater suppression of esterase activity. This study demonstrated that flavonoid compounds have both in vitro and in vivo esterase inhibition, which is likely responsible for the insecticide synergism observed in insecticide-resistant CPB. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bifurcation-based approach reveals synergism and optimal combinatorial perturbation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanwei; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Zengrong; Wang, Ruiqi

    2016-06-01

    Cells accomplish the process of fate decisions and form terminal lineages through a series of binary choices in which cells switch stable states from one branch to another as the interacting strengths of regulatory factors continuously vary. Various combinatorial effects may occur because almost all regulatory processes are managed in a combinatorial fashion. Combinatorial regulation is crucial for cell fate decisions because it may effectively integrate many different signaling pathways to meet the higher regulation demand during cell development. However, whether the contribution of combinatorial regulation to the state transition is better than that of a single one and if so, what the optimal combination strategy is, seem to be significant issue from the point of view of both biology and mathematics. Using the approaches of combinatorial perturbations and bifurcation analysis, we provide a general framework for the quantitative analysis of synergism in molecular networks. Different from the known methods, the bifurcation-based approach depends only on stable state responses to stimuli because the state transition induced by combinatorial perturbations occurs between stable states. More importantly, an optimal combinatorial perturbation strategy can be determined by investigating the relationship between the bifurcation curve of a synergistic perturbation pair and the level set of a specific objective function. The approach is applied to two models, i.e., a theoretical multistable decision model and a biologically realistic CREB model, to show its validity, although the approach holds for a general class of biological systems.

  13. Synergism between tramadol and parecoxib in the orofacial formalin test.

    PubMed

    Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario Alberto; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Castañeda-Santana, Demian Ismael; de la Rosa-Coronado, Maximiliano; Aragon-Martinez, Othoniel Hugo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between tramadol and parecoxib in the orofacial formalin test. Tramadol (10, 31.6, 56, and 100 mg/kg ip) or parecoxib (31.6, 56, 100, and 178 mg/kg ip) were administered 10 min before formalin (2.5%) injection into the upper lip to characterize the dose-response curve of each individual drug in the orofacial pain test in mice. Once the dose-response curve of each drug was obtained, an experimental effective dose 50 (ED50 ) value was determined for each drug. The tramadol-parecoxib combination was evaluated in four different groups of animals. The isobolographic analysis and the interaction index were used to evaluate the nature of interaction between both drugs. The isobologram and the interaction index showed increased in the antinociceptive effect of the combination. The tramadol-parecoxib combination produces a synergism in the second phase of the orofacial formalin test. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Will Synergizing Vaccination with Therapeutics Boost Measles Virus Eradication?

    PubMed Central

    Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 measles deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence combined with public anxieties about vaccination safety has increased vaccine refusal especially in the European region, which has resulted in measles resurgence in some areas. Areas covered Here, we discuss whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with vaccination could contribute to solving an endgame conundrum of measles elimination by accelerating the eradication effort. Based on an anticipated use for protection of high-risk contacts of confirmed measles cases through post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify key elements of the desirable drug profile, review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates, evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics for the management of persistent viral infection of the CNS. Assuming a post-measles world with waning measles immunity, we contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics on controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles virus. Expert opinion Efficacious therapeutics given for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent patient population dictates the drug profile; the article must be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature, and amenable to cost-effective manufacture

  15. Potent In Vitro Synergism of Fluconazole and Osthole against Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Li, De-Dong; Chai, Dong; Huang, Xiao-Wen; Guan, Shao-Xing; Du, Jiang; Zhang, Hao-Yu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Osthole is a natural coumarin that exhibits wide biological and pharmacological activities such as neuroprotective, osteogenic, immunomodulation, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the antifungal effects of osthole in vitro. A checkerboard microdilution assay showed that osthole has significant synergistic effect with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans. Similar results were obtained from a growth curve assay. Meanwhile, XTT reduction assay demonstrated the synergism of fluconazole and osthole against C. albicans biofilm formation. Microarray results showed that the expression of genes involved in the oxidation-reduction process, energy metabolism, and transportation changed significantly after the combined treatment with fluconazole and osthole, and further results showed that endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly increased in the combination group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the synergism of fluconazole and osthole against fluconazole-resistant C. albicans and indicate that endogenous ROS augmentation might contribute to the synergism of fluconazole and osthole. PMID:28607012

  16. A synergic simulation-optimization approach for analyzing biomolecular dynamics in living organisms.

    PubMed

    Sadegh Zadeh, Kouroush

    2011-01-01

    A synergic duo simulation-optimization approach was developed and implemented to study protein-substrate dynamics and binding kinetics in living organisms. The forward problem is a system of several coupled nonlinear partial differential equations which, with a given set of kinetics and diffusion parameters, can provide not only the commonly used bleached area-averaged time series in fluorescence microscopy experiments but more informative full biomolecular/drug space-time series and can be successfully used to study dynamics of both Dirac and Gaussian fluorescence-labeled biomacromolecules in vivo. The incomplete Cholesky preconditioner was coupled with the finite difference discretization scheme and an adaptive time-stepping strategy to solve the forward problem. The proposed approach was validated with analytical as well as reference solutions and used to simulate dynamics of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor (GFP-GR) in mouse cancer cell during a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiment. Model analysis indicates that the commonly practiced bleach spot-averaged time series is not an efficient approach to extract physiological information from the fluorescence microscopy protocols. It was recommended that experimental biophysicists should use full space-time series, resulting from experimental protocols, to study dynamics of biomacromolecules and drugs in living organisms. It was also concluded that in parameterization of biological mass transfer processes, setting the norm of the gradient of the penalty function at the solution to zero is not an efficient stopping rule to end the inverse algorithm. Theoreticians should use multi-criteria stopping rules to quantify model parameters by optimization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Doxil Synergizes with Cancer Immunotherapies to Enhance Antitumor Responses in Syngeneic Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Rios-Doria, Jonathan; Durham, Nicholas; Wetzel, Leslie; Rothstein, Raymond; Chesebrough, Jon; Holoweckyj, Nicholas; Zhao, Wei; Leow, Ching Ching; Hollingsworth, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Based on the previously described roles of doxorubicin in immunogenic cell death, both doxorubicin and liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) were evaluated for their ability to boost the antitumor response of different cancer immunotherapies including checkpoint blockers (anti–PD-L1, PD-1, and CTLA-4 mAbs) and TNF receptor agonists (OX40 and GITR ligand fusion proteins) in syngeneic mouse models. In a preventative CT26 mouse tumor model, both doxorubicin and Doxil synergized with anti–PD-1 and CTLA-4 mAbs. Doxil was active when CT26 tumors were grown in immunocompetent mice but not immunocompromised mice, demonstrating that Doxil activity is increased in the presence of a functional immune system. Using established tumors and maximally efficacious doses of Doxil and cancer immunotherapies in either CT26 or MCA205 tumor models, combination groups produced strong synergistic antitumor effects, a larger percentage of complete responders, and increased survival. In vivo pharmacodynamic studies showed that Doxil treatment decreased the percentage of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells and, in combination with anti–PD-L1, increased the percentage of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells. In the tumor, Doxil administration increased CD80 expression on mature dendritic cells. CD80 expression was also increased on both monocytic and granulocytic myeloid cells, suggesting that Doxil may induce these tumor-infiltrating cells to elicit a costimulatory phenotype capable of activating an antitumor T-cell response. These results uncover a novel role for Doxil in immunomodulation and support the use of Doxil in combination with checkpoint blockade or TNFR agonists to increase response rates and antitumor activity. PMID:26408258

  18. Ibrutinib synergizes with MDM-2 inhibitors in promoting cytotoxicity in B chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Voltan, Rebecca; Rimondi, Erika; Melloni, Elisabetta; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Casciano, Fabio; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Celeghini, Claudio; Cuneo, Antonio; Zauli, Giorgio; Secchiero, Paola

    2016-10-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-leukemic activity of the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor Ibrutinib in combination with the small molecule MDM-2 inhibitor Nutlin-3 in preclinical models. The potential efficacy of the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination was evaluated in vitro in a panel of B leukemic cell lines (EHEB, JVM-2, JVM-3, MEC-1, MEC-2) and in primary B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patient samples, by assessing cell viability, cell cycle profile, apoptosis and intracellular pathway modulations. Validation of the combination therapy was assessed in a B leukemic xenograft mouse model. Ibrutinib exhibited variable anti-leukemic activity in vitro and the combination with Nutlin-3 synergistically enhanced the induction of apoptosis independently from the p53 status. Indeed, the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination was effective in promoting cytotoxicity also in primary B-CLL samples carrying 17p13 deletion and/or TP53 mutations, already in therapy with Ibrutinib. Molecular analyses performed on both B-leukemic cell lines as well as on primary B-CLL samples, while confirming the switch-off of the MAPK and PI3K pro-survival pathways by Ibrutinib, indicated that the synergism of action with Nutlin-3 was independent by p53 pathway and was accompanied by the activation of the DNA damage cascade signaling through the phosphorylation of the histone protein H2A.X. This observation was confirmed also in the JVM-2 B leukemic xenograft mouse model. Taken together, our data emphasize that the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination merits to be further evaluated as a therapeutic option for B-CLL.

  19. Ibrutinib synergizes with MDM-2 inhibitors in promoting cytotoxicity in B chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Melloni, Elisabetta; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Casciano, Fabio; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Celeghini, Claudio; Cuneo, Antonio; Zauli, Giorgio; Secchiero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-leukemic activity of the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor Ibrutinib in combination with the small molecule MDM-2 inhibitor Nutlin-3 in preclinical models. Methods The potential efficacy of the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination was evaluated in vitro in a panel of B leukemic cell lines (EHEB, JVM-2, JVM-3, MEC-1, MEC-2) and in primary B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patient samples, by assessing cell viability, cell cycle profile, apoptosis and intracellular pathway modulations. Validation of the combination therapy was assessed in a B leukemic xenograft mouse model. Results Ibrutinib exhibited variable anti-leukemic activity in vitro and the combination with Nutlin-3 synergistically enhanced the induction of apoptosis independently from the p53 status. Indeed, the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination was effective in promoting cytotoxicity also in primary B-CLL samples carrying 17p13 deletion and/or TP53 mutations, already in therapy with Ibrutinib. Molecular analyses performed on both B-leukemic cell lines as well as on primary B-CLL samples, while confirming the switch-off of the MAPK and PI3K pro-survival pathways by Ibrutinib, indicated that the synergism of action with Nutlin-3 was independent by p53 pathway and was accompanied by the activation of the DNA damage cascade signaling through the phosphorylation of the histone protein H2A.X. This observation was confirmed also in the JVM-2 B leukemic xenograft mouse model. Conclusions Taken together, our data emphasize that the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination merits to be further evaluated as a therapeutic option for B-CLL. PMID:27661115

  20. 75 FR 42743 - Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1673-000] Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC's application for market- based rate...

  1. 75 FR 42744 - Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1637-000] Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  2. Crk synergizes with epidermal growth factor for epithelial invasion and morphogenesis and is required for the met morphogenic program.

    PubMed

    Lamorte, Louie; Rodrigues, Sonia; Naujokas, Monica; Park, Morag

    2002-10-04

    Activation of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase through its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor, stimulates cell spreading, cell dispersal, and the inherent morphogenic program of various epithelial cell lines. Although both hepatocyte growth factor and epidermal growth factor (EGF) can activate downstream signaling pathways in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells, EGF fails to promote the breakdown of cell-cell junctional complexes and initiate an invasive morphogenic program. We have undertaken a strategy to identify signals that synergize with EGF in this process. We provide evidence that the overexpression of the CrkII adapter protein complements EGF-stimulated pathways to induce cell dispersal in two-dimensional cultures and cell invasion and branching morphogenesis in three-dimensional collagen gels. This finding correlates with the ability of CrkII to promote the breakdown of adherens junctions in stable cell lines and the ability of EGF to stimulate enhanced Rac activity in cells overexpressing CrkII. We have previously shown that the Gab1-docking protein is required for branching morphogenesis downstream of the Met receptor. Consistent with a role for CrkII in promoting EGF-dependent branching morphogenesis, the binding of Gab1 to CrkII is required for the branching morphogenic program downstream of Met. Together, our data support a role for the CrkII adapter protein in epithelial invasion and morphogenesis and underscores the importance of considering the synergistic actions of signaling pathways in cancer progression.

  3. Loss of C9ORF72 impairs autophagy and synergizes with polyQ Ataxin-2 to induce motor neuron dysfunction and cell death.

    PubMed

    Sellier, Chantal; Campanari, Maria-Letizia; Julie Corbier, Camille; Gaucherot, Angeline; Kolb-Cheynel, Isabelle; Oulad-Abdelghani, Mustapha; Ruffenach, Frank; Page, Adeline; Ciura, Sorana; Kabashi, Edor; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas

    2016-06-15

    An intronic expansion of GGGGCC repeats within the C9ORF72 gene is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD). Ataxin-2 with intermediate length of polyglutamine expansions (Ataxin-2 Q30x) is a genetic modifier of the disease. Here, we found that C9ORF72 forms a complex with the WDR41 and SMCR8 proteins to act as a GDP/GTP exchange factor for RAB8a and RAB39b and to thereby control autophagic flux. Depletion of C9orf72 in neurons partly impairs autophagy and leads to accumulation of aggregates of TDP-43 and P62 proteins, which are histopathological hallmarks of ALS-FTD SMCR8 is phosphorylated by TBK1 and depletion of TBK1 can be rescued by phosphomimetic mutants of SMCR8 or by constitutively active RAB39b, suggesting that TBK1, SMCR8, C9ORF72, and RAB39b belong to a common pathway regulating autophagy. While depletion of C9ORF72 only has a partial deleterious effect on neuron survival, it synergizes with Ataxin-2 Q30x toxicity to induce motor neuron dysfunction and neuronal cell death. These results indicate that partial loss of function of C9ORF72 is not deleterious by itself but synergizes with Ataxin-2 toxicity, suggesting a double-hit pathological mechanism in ALS-FTD. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. Anti-vRE and anti-MRSA activities of new quinolones and their synergism with commercial antibiotics. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Yoshikazu; Komemushi, Sadao; Tsukamoto, Goro; Kondo, Hirosato; Yoshikawa, Akiko; Muraoka, Osamu

    2008-09-01

    Anti-VRE and anti-MRSA activities of new quinolone derivatives [The two quinolone derivatives are 8- [3-[(ethylamino) methyl]-1-pyrrodinyl] -7-fluoro-9, 1-[(N-methylimino)methano]-5-oxo-5H-thiazolo[3,2-a]quinolone-4-carboxylic acid (compound A) and 7-fluoro-8-morpholino-9,1-[(N-methylimino) methanol-5-oxo-5H-thiazolo [3,2-a] quinolone-4-carboxylic acid (compound B)] and their synergism with commercial antibiotics were investigated. Compound A exhibited potent antibacterial activity against VRE and MRSA among the five new quinolone compounds tested, and showed superior activity to pefloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin, which are clinically in use these days. With respect to the anti-VRE activity, compound A showed synergism with fosfomycin (FOM), and partial synergism with ampicillin (ABPC), gentaicin (GM), minocycline (MINO) and vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM). Partial synergism in anti-VRE activity was also observed between compound B and GM, MINO, FOM and VCM. Compound A also showed synergism with MINO and FOM in anti-MASA activity. Partial synergism was observed with ABPC, GM and VCM. Synergism with ABPC was not detected in anti-MRSA activity. On the other hand, the synergism of compound B with FOM, and the partial synergisms with ABPC, GM and MINO were also found against MRSA. No synergism with ABPC was found against MRSA. These results suggested that compound A and B could possibly reduce the daily administration dose of these antibiotics in the treatment of nosocomial infections, and also reduce the possibility of the occurrence of nosocomial infections caused by VRE and/or MRSA.

  5. Synergism of cellulase, xylanase, and pectinase on hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse resulting from different pretreatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingbo; Zhou, Pengfei; Liu, Hongmei; Xiong, Chunjiang; Lin, Jianghai; Xiao, Wenjuan; Gong, Yingxue; Liu, Zehuan

    2014-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) resulting from different pretreatments was hydrolyzed by enzyme cocktails based on replacement of cellulase (Celluclast 1.5 L:Novozym 188=1FPU:4pNPGU) by xylanase or pectinase at different proportions. Lignin content of NaOH pretreated SCB and hemicellulose content of H2SO4 pretreated SCB were the lowest. NaOH pretreatment showed the best for monosaccharide production among the four pretreatments. Synergism was apparently observed between cellulase and xylanase for monosaccharide production from steam exploded SCB (SESB), NaOH, and H2O2 pretreated SCB. No synergism was observed between cellulase and pectinase for producing glucose. Additionally, no synergism was present when H2SO4 pretreated SCB was used. Replacement of 20% of the cellulase by xylanase enhanced the glucose yield by 6.6%, 8.8%, and 9.5% from SESB, NaOH, and H2O2 pretreated SCB, respectively. Degree of synergism between cellulase and xylanase had positive relationship with xylan content and was affected by hydrolysis time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A General Bioinspired, Metals-Based Synergic Cross-Linking Strategy toward Mechanically Enhanced Materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Ding, Jin; Zhang, Shuhao; Tang, Xuke; Yue, Yonghai; Guo, Lin

    2017-03-28

    Creating lightweight engineering materials combining high strength and great toughness remains a significant challenge. Despite possessing-enhanced strength and stiffness, bioinspired/polymeric materials usually suffer from clearly reduced extensibility and toughness when compared to corresponding bulk polymer materials. Herein, inspired by tiny amounts of various inorganic impurities for mechanical improvement in natural materials, we present a versatile and effective metal ion (M n+ )-based synergic cross-linking (MSC) strategy incorporating eight types of metal ions into material bulks that can drastically enhance the tensile strength (∼24.1-70.8%), toughness (∼18.6-110.1%), modulus (∼21.6-66.7%), and hardness (∼6.4-176.5%) of multiple types of pristine materials (from hydrophilic to hydrophobic and from unary to binary). More importantly, we also explore the primarily elastic-plastic deformation mechanism and brittle fracture behavior (indentation strain of >5%) of the synergic cross-linked graphene oxide (Syn-GO) paper by means of in situ nanoindentation SEM. The MSC strategy for mechanically enhanced integration can be readily attributed to the formation of the complicated metals-based cross-linking/complex networks in the interfaces and intermolecules between functional groups of materials and various metal ions that give rise to efficient energy dissipation. This work suggests a promising MSC strategy for designing advanced materials with outstanding mechanical properties by adding low amounts (<1.0 wt %) of synergic metal ions serving as synergic ion-bonding cross-linkers.

  7. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  8. 78 FR 43889 - Synergizing Efforts in Standards Development for Cellular Therapies and Regenerative Medicine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Synergizing Efforts in Standards Development for Cellular Therapies and Regenerative Medicine Products; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for...

  9. Efficacy of aerosol applications of methoprene and synergized pyrethrin against Tribolium castaneum adults and eggs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of a single aerosol application of the insecticides methoprene and piperonyl butoxide-synergized pyrethrin, alone or in combination, and the insecticide carrier, Isopar M, against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. The initial tes...

  10. C/EBPβ LIP and c-Jun synergize to regulate expression of the murine progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weizhong; Do, Han Ngoc; Aupperlee, Mark D; Durairaj, Srinivasan; Flynn, Emily E; Miksicek, Richard J; Haslam, Sandra Z; Schwartz, Richard C

    2018-06-02

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is required for murine mammary ductal morphogenesis and alveologenesis. Progesterone is critical for proliferation and alveologenesis in adult mammary glands, and there is a similar requirement for progesterone receptor isoform B (PRB) in alveologenesis. We examined C/EBPβ regulation of PR expression. All three C/EBPβ isoforms, including typically inhibitory LIP, transactivated the PR promoter. LIP, particularly, strongly synergized with c-Jun to drive PR transcription. Endogenous C/EBPβ and c-Jun stimulated a PR promoter-reporter and these two factors showed promoter occupancy on the endogenous PR gene. Additionally, LIP overexpression elevated endogenous PR protein expression. In pregnancy, both PRB and the relative abundance of LIP among C/EBPβ isoforms increase. Consistent with a role in PRB expression, in vivo C/EBPβ and PR isoform A expression showed mutually exclusive localization in mammary epithelium, while C/EBPβ and PRB largely co-localized. We suggest a critical role for C/EBPβ, particularly LIP, in PRB expression. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Integromics network meta-analysis on cardiac aging offers robust multi-layer modular signatures and reveals micronome synergism.

    PubMed

    Dimitrakopoulou, Konstantina; Vrahatis, Aristidis G; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2015-03-04

    The avalanche of integromics and panomics approaches shifted the deciphering of aging mechanisms from single molecular entities to communities of them. In this orientation, we explore the cardiac aging mechanisms - risk factor for multiple cardiovascular diseases - by capturing the micronome synergism and detecting longevity signatures in the form of communities (modules). For this, we developed a meta-analysis scheme that integrates transcriptome expression data from multiple cardiac-specific independent studies in mouse and human along with proteome and micronome interaction data in the form of multiple independent weighted networks. Modularization of each weighted network produced modules, which in turn were further analyzed so as to define consensus modules across datasets that change substantially during lifespan. Also, we established a metric that determines - from the modular perspective - the synergism of microRNA-microRNA interactions as defined by significantly functionally associated targets. The meta-analysis provided 40 consensus integromics modules across mouse datasets and revealed microRNA relations with substantial collective action during aging. Three modules were reproducible, based on homology, when mapped against human-derived modules. The respective homologs mainly represent NADH dehydrogenases, ATP synthases, cytochrome oxidases, Ras GTPases and ribosomal proteins. Among various observations, we corroborate to the involvement of miR-34a (included in consensus modules) as proposed recently; yet we report that has no synergistic effect. Moving forward, we determined its age-related neighborhood in which HCN3, a known heart pacemaker channel, was included. Also, miR-125a-5p/-351, miR-200c/-429, miR-106b/-17, miR-363/-92b, miR-181b/-181d, miR-19a/-19b, let-7d/-7f, miR-18a/-18b, miR-128/-27b and miR-106a/-291a-3p pairs exhibited significant synergy and their association to aging and/or cardiovascular diseases is supported in many cases by a

  12. Novel cell-penetrating peptide-loaded nanobubbles synergized with ultrasound irradiation enhance EGFR siRNA delivery for triple negative Breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hui; Cheng, Wen; Li, Shouqiang; Wu, Bolin; Leng, Xiaoping; Xu, Shouping; Tian, Jiawei

    2016-10-01

    The lack of safe and effective gene delivery strategies remains a bottleneck for cancer gene therapy. Here, we describe the synthesis, characterization, and application of cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-loaded nanobubbles (NBs), which are characterized by their safety, strong penetrating power and high gene loading capability for gene delivery. An epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted small interfering RNA (siEGFR) was transfected into triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells via prepared CPP-NBs synergized with ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technology. Fluorescence microscopy showed that siEGFR and CPP were loaded on the shells of the NBs. The transfection efficiency and cell proliferation levels were evaluated by FACS and MTT assays, respectively. In addition, in vivo experiments showed that the expression of EGFR mRNA and protein could be efficiently downregulated and that the growth of a xenograft tumor derived from TNBC cells could be inhibited. Our results indicate that CPP-NBs carrying siEGFR could potentially be used as a promising non-viral gene vector that can be synergized with UTMD technology for efficient TNBC therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Endogenous Noxa Determines the Strong Proapoptotic Synergism of the BH3-Mimetic ABT-737 with Chemotherapeutic Agents in Human Melanoma Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Arnim; Kirejczyk, Zofia; Potthoff, Stephanie; Ploner, Christian; Häcker, Georg

    2009-01-01

    Human melanoma cells are very resistant to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, and melanoma shows poor response to chemotherapeutic therapy. We describe a strong synergistic proapoptotic effect of the Bcl-2 family inhibitor ABT-737 and the standard antimelanoma drugs, namely, dacarbazine and fotemustine, and the experimental agent, imiquimod. Experiments with human melanoma cells, keratinocytes, and embryonic fibroblasts showed that all three agents activated the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. ABT-737 on its own was ineffective in melanoma cells unless Mcl-1 was experimentally downregulated. However, ABT-737 strongly enhanced the proapoptotic activity of the chemotherapeutic drugs. Whereas cell death induction by all three agents involved the activity of both BH3-only proteins, Bim and Noxa, the combination with ABT-737 overcame the requirement for Bim. However, the synergism between ABT-737 and imiquimod or dacarbazine required endogenous Noxa, as demonstrated by experiments with Noxa-specific RNAi. Surprisingly, although Bim was activated, it was unable to replace Noxa. Studies of mitochondrial cytochrome c release using BH3 peptides confirmed that a main effect of dacarbazine, fotemustine, and imiquimod was to neutralize Mcl-1, thereby sensitizing mitochondria to the inhibition of other Bcl-2 family members through ABT-737. ABT-737 is thus a promising agent for combination therapy for human melanoma. Importantly, the efficacy of this therapy depends on endogenous Noxa, and the ability of chemotherapeutic drugs to activate Noxa may be a valuable predictor of their synergism with Bcl-2-targeting drugs. PMID:19412422

  14. How cellulose stretches: synergism between covalent and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Altaner, Clemens M; Thomas, Lynne H; Fernandes, Anwesha N; Jarvis, Michael C

    2014-03-10

    Cellulose is the most familiar and most abundant strong biopolymer, but the reasons for its outstanding mechanical performance are not well understood. Each glucose unit in a cellulose chain is joined to the next by a covalent C-O-C linkage flanked by two hydrogen bonds. This geometry suggests some form of cooperativity between covalent and hydrogen bonding. Using infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, we show that mechanical tension straightens out the zigzag conformation of the cellulose chain, with each glucose unit pivoting around a fulcrum at either end. Straightening the chain leads to a small increase in its length and is resisted by one of the flanking hydrogen bonds. This constitutes a simple form of molecular leverage with the covalent structure providing the fulcrum and gives the hydrogen bond an unexpectedly amplified effect on the tensile stiffness of the chain. The principle of molecular leverage can be directly applied to certain other carbohydrate polymers, including the animal polysaccharide chitin. Related but more complex effects are possible in some proteins and nucleic acids. The stiffening of cellulose by this mechanism is, however, in complete contrast to the way in which hydrogen bonding provides toughness combined with extensibility in protein materials like spider silk.

  15. Assessment of the synergic effect of immunomodulation on nerve repair using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chu-Shan; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Yue-Yao; Zhang, Fang; Duan, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Mei-Wei; Lu, Lie-Jing; Shen, Jun

    2018-01-01

    The immune system plays a pivotal role in nerve injury. The aim of this study was to determine the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of the synergic effect of immunomodulation on nerve regeneration in neurotmesis. Rats with sciatic nerve neurotmesis and surgical repair underwent serial multiparametric MR examinations over an 8-week period after subepineurial microinjection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequent subcutaneous injection of FK506 or subepineurial microinjection of LPS or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) alone. Nerves treated with immunomodulation showed more prominent regeneration than those treated with LPS or PBS alone and more rapid restoration toward normal T2, fractional anisotropy (FA), and radial diffusivity (RD) values than nerves injected with LPS or PBS. Nerves treated with immunomodulation exert synergic beneficial effects on nerve regeneration that can be predicted by T2 measurements and FA and RD values. Muscle Nerve 57: E38-E45, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A comparison of the toxicity of synergized and technical formulations of permethrin, sumithrin, and resmethrin to trout.

    PubMed

    Paul, E A; Simonin, H A; Tomajer, T M

    2005-02-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids often have synergists added to improve effectiveness, yet decisions regarding the use of these pesticides are often based upon toxicity tests using technical material without the synergist, piperonyl butoxide. We conducted toxicity tests with brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) to compare the toxicity of synergized and technical formulations of permethrin, sumithrin, and resmethrin. We found a significant increase in toxicity in the synergized permethrin formulation using traditional 24, 48, and 96-h tests, relative to tests with the technical formulation. However, there was little difference in toxicity between synergized and technical sumithrin until 48 h had elapsed. Many test fish were strongly intoxicated by either formulation of permethrin or sumithrin, but the synergized formulations of both chemicals affected fish at lower concentrations. Intoxication was potentially severe enough to reduce the survival of these fish in the wild. Following short (6-h) exposures, we also found a larger difference in the number of fish that died or became intoxicated between the synergized and technical formulations of permethrin and sumithrin. Finally, we tested the ability of exposed fish to swim against a current. Fish exposed for 6 h to synergized permethrin and resmethrin had far less swimming stamina than those exposed to technical formulations. We found no difference in the effect on swimming between the synergized and technical formulation of sumithrin. In general, the synergized formulations of these chemicals appeared to cause a faster response than the technical formulations. This response increases the lethal and sublethal impacts of the insecticides. We also found that sumithrin was the least toxic of the three pyrethroids. Since the maximum application rate of sumithrin is half that of the other two pyrethroids, the potential risk to wild trout in streams may be reduced.

  17. Synergism between PKCδ regulators hypericin and rottlerin enhances apoptosis in U87 MG glioma cells after light stimulation.

    PubMed

    Misuth, Matus; Horvath, Denis; Miskovsky, Pavol; Huntosova, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    Gliomas belong to the most infiltrative types of tumors. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be applied to regulate glioma cell proliferation. The inhibitors of PKCs (Protein Kinase C) are very promising drugs that can mediate glioma cells apoptosis in PDT. Hypericin is one of PKCs regulators, and thanks to its physicochemical properties it can be used in PDT. Rottlerin is also considered to be the PKCδ inhibitor. Its implementation in PDT may significantly influence glioma cells response to PDT. The viability of U87 MG glioma cells in the presence of rottlerin and hypericin was assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry in the absence and presence of light. The flow cytometric data were analyzed through Shannon entropy. The oxidative stress and immunocytochemistry of PKCδ and phosphorylated Bcl-2 (the regulators of apoptosis) were observed using fluorescence microscopy. A pretreatment of glioma cells with rottlerin before hypericin induced PDT led to significant increase in apoptosis accompanied by the decrease of intracellular oxidative stress and increase of phosphorylated Bcl-2 in the cytoplasm of U87 MG cells. In conclusion, we assume that the synergism between rottlerin and hypericin leads firstly to activation of rescue mechanisms in the glioma cells, but finally this cooperation triggers apoptosis rather than necrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Meis3 synergizes with Pbx4 and Hoxb1b in promoting hindbrain fates in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Vlachakis, N; Choe, S K; Sagerström, C G

    2001-04-01

    Many Hox proteins are thought to require Pbx and Meis co-factors to specify cell identity during embryogenesis. Here we demonstrate that Meis3 synergizes with Pbx4 and Hoxb1b in promoting hindbrain fates in the zebrafish. We find that Hoxb1b and Pbx4 act together to induce ectopic hoxb1a expression in rhombomere 2 of the hindbrain. In contrast, Hoxb1b and Pbx4 acting together with Meis3 induce hoxb1a, hoxb2, krox20 and valentino expression rostrally and cause extensive transformation of forebrain and midbrain fates to hindbrain fates, including differentiation of excess rhombomere 4-specific Mauthner neurons. This synergistic effect requires that Hoxb1b and Meis3 have intact Pbx-interaction domains, suggesting that their in vivo activity is dependent on binding to Pbx4. In the case of Meis3, binding to Pbx4 is also required for nuclear access. Our results are consistent with Hoxb1b and Meis3 interacting with Pbx4 to form complexes that regulate hindbrain development during zebrafish embryogenesis.

  19. Differential Protection of Cry1Fa Toxin against Spodoptera frugiperda Larval Gut Proteases by Cadherin Orthologs Correlates with Increased Synergism

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Khalidur; Abdullah, Mohd Amir F.; Ambati, Suresh; Taylor, Milton D.

    2012-01-01

    The Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are the most widely used biopesticides effective against a range of crop pests and disease vectors. Like chemical pesticides, development of resistance is the primary threat to the long-term efficacy of Bt toxins. Recently discovered cadherin-based Bt Cry synergists showed the potential to augment resistance management by improving efficacy of Cry toxins. However, the mode of action of Bt Cry synergists is thus far unclear. Here we elucidate the mechanism of cadherin-based Cry toxin synergism utilizing two cadherin peptides, Spodoptera frugiperda Cad (SfCad) and Manduca sexta Cad (MsCad), which differentially enhance Cry1Fa toxicity to Spodoptera frugiperda neonates. We show that differential SfCad- and MsCad-mediated protection of Cry1Fa toxin in the Spodoptera frugiperda midgut correlates with differential Cry1Fa toxicity enhancement. Both peptides exhibited high affinity for Cry1Fa toxin and an increased rate of Cry1Fa-induced pore formation in S. frugiperda. However, only SfCad bound the S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicle and more effectively prolonged the stability of Cry1Fa toxin in the gut, explaining higher Cry1Fa enhancement by this peptide. This study shows that cadherin fragments may enhance B. thuringiensis toxicity by at least two different mechanisms or a combination thereof: (i) protection of Cry toxin from protease degradation in the insect midgut and (ii) enhancement of pore-forming ability of Cry toxin. PMID:22081566

  20. Differential protection of Cry1Fa toxin against Spodoptera frugiperda larval gut proteases by cadherin orthologs correlates with increased synergism.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Khalidur; Abdullah, Mohd Amir F; Ambati, Suresh; Taylor, Milton D; Adang, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are the most widely used biopesticides effective against a range of crop pests and disease vectors. Like chemical pesticides, development of resistance is the primary threat to the long-term efficacy of Bt toxins. Recently discovered cadherin-based Bt Cry synergists showed the potential to augment resistance management by improving efficacy of Cry toxins. However, the mode of action of Bt Cry synergists is thus far unclear. Here we elucidate the mechanism of cadherin-based Cry toxin synergism utilizing two cadherin peptides, Spodoptera frugiperda Cad (SfCad) and Manduca sexta Cad (MsCad), which differentially enhance Cry1Fa toxicity to Spodoptera frugiperda neonates. We show that differential SfCad- and MsCad-mediated protection of Cry1Fa toxin in the Spodoptera frugiperda midgut correlates with differential Cry1Fa toxicity enhancement. Both peptides exhibited high affinity for Cry1Fa toxin and an increased rate of Cry1Fa-induced pore formation in S. frugiperda. However, only SfCad bound the S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicle and more effectively prolonged the stability of Cry1Fa toxin in the gut, explaining higher Cry1Fa enhancement by this peptide. This study shows that cadherin fragments may enhance B. thuringiensis toxicity by at least two different mechanisms or a combination thereof: (i) protection of Cry toxin from protease degradation in the insect midgut and (ii) enhancement of pore-forming ability of Cry toxin.

  1. Inhibitory effect of Campomanesia xanthocarpa in platelet aggregation: Comparison and synergism with acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Otero, Juliana Soares; Hirsch, Gabriela Elisa; Klafke, Jonatas Zeni; Porto, Fernando Garcez; de Almeida, Amanda Spring; Nascimento, Sabrina; Schmidt, Aline; da Silva, Brenda; Pereira, Roberta Lelis Dias; Jaskulski, Mônica; Parisi, Mariana Migliorini; Dos Santos Guarda, Naiara; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Aita, Carlos Alberto Mayora; Viecili, Paulo Ricardo Nazário

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases of thrombotic origin are related to high mortality and standard therapeutic agent used in this case is acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), but serious adverse events may occur. However, recent data has suggested the plant Campomanesia xanthocarpa has antiplatelet activity and could be a viable alternative. In this study we investigated the effects of the encapsulated powder of this plant in human platelet aggregation. 23 healthy subjects were randomly divided into three groups: (1) ASA (100mg), (2) C. xanthocarpa (1000mg) or (3) synergism (500mg of C. xanthocarpa plush 50mg of ASA); daily for five days. Antiplatelet activity was determined by turbidimetric method using ADP or arachidonic acid (AA) agonists before, 5 and 8days after treatments. Treatment with C. xanthocarpa and synergism caused a reduction of 8±13.5% and 12.5±5% in platelet aggregation induced by ADP after 5days of treatment, respectively, returning to basal levels after 8days. For AA agonist, 5days of treatment with C. xanthocarpa, ASA or synergism caused a reduction of 46±15%, 36±12% and 69.3±6% in platelet aggregation, respectively, and first two groups returned to baseline values 8days after treatment ended. Synergism group prolonged antiplatelet effect maintaining aggregation reduction after 8days the end of treatment. C. xanthocarpa showed antiplatelet action when stimulated by agonist AA, and contributed to the antiplatelet effect when associated with ASA for both agonists, allowing dose reduction to 50mg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synergism between polyurethane and polydopamine in the synthesis of Ni-Fe alloy monoliths.

    PubMed

    Naresh Kumar, Thangavel; Sivabalan, Santhana; Chandrasekaran, Naveen; Phani, Kanala Lakshminarasimha

    2015-02-04

    Herein, we report the first synthesis of a light-weight macroporous 3-D alloy monolith of Ni-Fe/C using synergism between polydopamine (pDA) and polyurethane (pU); in situ formed polyurethane (pU) enables efficient mixing of pDA (carbon source) and Ni-FeOx resulting in Ni-Fe alloy monoliths at a temperature as low as ∼600 °C. The monolithic Ni-Fe/C exhibits enhanced oxygen evolution activity.

  3. Potent In Vitro Synergism of Fluconazole and Osthole against Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Dong; Chai, Dong; Huang, Xiao-Wen; Guan, Shao-Xing; Du, Jiang; Zhang, Hao-Yu; Sun, Yan; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2017-08-01

    Osthole is a natural coumarin that exhibits wide biological and pharmacological activities such as neuroprotective, osteogenic, immunomodulation, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the antifungal effects of osthole in vitro A checkerboard microdilution assay showed that osthole has significant synergistic effect with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans Similar results were obtained from a growth curve assay. Meanwhile, XTT reduction assay demonstrated the synergism of fluconazole and osthole against C. albicans biofilm formation. Microarray results showed that the expression of genes involved in the oxidation-reduction process, energy metabolism, and transportation changed significantly after the combined treatment with fluconazole and osthole, and further results showed that endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly increased in the combination group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the synergism of fluconazole and osthole against fluconazole-resistant C. albicans and indicate that endogenous ROS augmentation might contribute to the synergism of fluconazole and osthole. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Levamisole and cocaine synergism: a prevalent adulterant enhances cocaine's action in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Egan, Erin; Alejo, Gissel D; Raffa, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J; Rawls, Scott M

    2014-04-01

    Levamisole is estimated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to be present in about 80% of cocaine seized in the United States and linked to debilitating, and sometimes fatal, immunologic effects in cocaine abusers. One explanation for the addition of levamisole to cocaine is that it increases the amount of product and enhances profits. An alternative possibility, and one investigated here, is that levamisole alters cocaine's action in vivo. We specifically investigated effects of levamisole on cocaine's stereotypical and place-conditioning effects in an established invertebrate (planarian) assay. Acute exposure to levamisole or cocaine produced concentration-dependent increases in stereotyped movements. For combined administration of the two agents, isobolographic analysis revealed that the observed stereotypical response was enhanced relative to the predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. In conditioned place preference (CPP) experiments, cocaine produced a significant preference shift; in contrast, levamisole was ineffective at all concentrations tested. For combination experiments, a submaximal concentration of cocaine produced CPP that was enhanced by inactive concentrations of levamisole, indicating synergism. The present results provide the first experimental evidence that levamisole enhances cocaine's action in vivo. Most important is the identification of synergism for the levamisole/cocaine interaction, which now requires further study in mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synergic co-activation of muscles in elbow flexion via fractional Brownian motion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shyang; Hsyu, Ming-Chun; Cheng, Hsiu-Yao; Hsieh, Sheng-Hwu

    2008-12-31

    In reflex and volitional actions, co-activations of agonist and antagonist muscles are believed to be present. Recent studies indicate that such co-activations can be either synergic or dyssynergic. The aim of this paper is to investigate if the co-activations of biceps brachii, brachialis, and triceps brachii during volitional elbow flexion are in the synergic or dyssynergic state. In this study, two groups with each containing six healthy male volunteers participated. Each person of the first group performed 30 trials of volitional elbow flexion while each of the second group performed 30 trials of passive elbow flexion as control experiments. Based on the model of fractional Brownian motion, the intensity and frequency information of the surface electromyograms (EMGs) could be extracted simultaneously. No statistically significant changes were found in the control group. As to the other group, results indicated that the surface EMGs of all five muscle groups were temporally synchronized in frequencies with persistent intensities during each elbow flexion. In addition, the mean values of fractal dimensions for rest and volitional flexion states revealed significant differences with P < 0.01. The obtained positive results suggest that these muscle groups work together synergically to facilitate elbow flexion during the co-activations.

  6. Naturally occurring antifungal agents against Zygosaccharomyces bailii and their synergism.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Kubo, Isao

    2005-06-29

    Polygodial was found to exhibit a fungicidal activity against a food spoilage yeast, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, with the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 50 microg/mL (0.17 mM). The time-kill curve study showed that polygodial was fungicidal at any growth stage. The primary action of polygodial comes from its ability to disrupt the native membrane-associated function of integral proteins as nonionic surface active agents (surfactants) followed by a decrease in plasma membrane fluidity. The fungicidal activity of polygodial was increased 128-fold in combination with a sublethal amount (equivalent of 1/2 MFC) of anethole and vice versa relative to the fungicidal activity of anethole. The fungicidal activity of sorbic acid was enhanced 512-fold in combination with 1/2 MFC of polygodial. Conversely, the fungicidal activity of polygodial was enhanced 128-fold in combination with 1/2 MFC of sorbic acid.

  7. Nucks1 synergizes with Trp53 to promote radiation lymphomagenesis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yangbo; Leung, Stanley G.; Liu, Yueyong

    NUCKS1 is a 27 kD vertebrate-specific protein, with a role in the DNA damage response. Here, we show that after 4 Gy total-body X-irradiation, Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice more rapidly developed tumors, particularly thymic lymphoma (TL), than Trp53+/- mice. TLs in both cohorts showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the Trp53+ allele in essentially all cases. In contrast, LOH of the Nucks1+ allele was rare. Nucks1 expression correlated well with Nucks1 gene dosage in normal thymi, but was increased in the majority of TLs from Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice, suggesting that elevated Nucks1 message may be associated with progression towards malignancy inmore » vivo. Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice frequently succumbed to CD4- CD8- TLs harboring translocations involving Igh but not Tcra/d, indicating TLs in Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice mostly originated prior to the double positive stage and at earlier lineage than TLs in Trp53+/- mice. Monoclonal rearrangements at Tcrb were more prevalent in TLs from Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice, as was infiltration of primary TL cells to distant organs (liver, kidney and spleen). We propose that, in the context of Trp53 deficiency, wild type levels of Nucks1 are required to suppress radiation-induced TL, likely through the role of the NUCKS1 protein in the DNA damage response.« less

  8. Nucks1 synergizes with Trp53 to promote radiation lymphomagenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yangbo; Leung, Stanley G.; Liu, Yueyong; Huang, Yurong; Grundt, Kirsten; Østvold, Anne-Carine; Jen, Kuang-Yu; Schild, David; Mao, Jian-Hua; Wiese, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    NUCKS1 is a 27 kD vertebrate-specific protein, with a role in the DNA damage response. Here, we show that after 4 Gy total-body X-irradiation, Trp53+/− Nucks1+/− mice more rapidly developed tumors, particularly thymic lymphoma (TL), than Trp53+/− mice. TLs in both cohorts showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the Trp53+ allele in essentially all cases. In contrast, LOH of the Nucks1+ allele was rare. Nucks1 expression correlated well with Nucks1 gene dosage in normal thymi, but was increased in the majority of TLs from Trp53+/− Nucks1+/− mice, suggesting that elevated Nucks1 message may be associated with progression towards malignancy in vivo. Trp53+/− Nucks1+/− mice frequently succumbed to CD4- CD8- TLs harboring translocations involving Igh but not Tcra/d, indicating TLs in Trp53+/− Nucks1+/− mice mostly originated prior to the double positive stage and at earlier lineage than TLs in Trp53+/- mice. Monoclonal rearrangements at Tcrb were more prevalent in TLs from Trp53+/− Nucks1+/− mice, as was infiltration of primary TL cells to distant organs (liver, kidney and spleen). We propose that, in the context of Trp53 deficiency, wild type levels of Nucks1 are required to suppress radiation-induced TL, likely through the role of the NUCKS1 protein in the DNA damage response. PMID:27542204

  9. Nucks1 synergizes with Trp53 to promote radiation lymphomagenesis in mice

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Yangbo; Leung, Stanley G.; Liu, Yueyong; ...

    2016-08-16

    NUCKS1 is a 27 kD vertebrate-specific protein, with a role in the DNA damage response. Here, we show that after 4 Gy total-body X-irradiation, Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice more rapidly developed tumors, particularly thymic lymphoma (TL), than Trp53+/- mice. TLs in both cohorts showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the Trp53+ allele in essentially all cases. In contrast, LOH of the Nucks1+ allele was rare. Nucks1 expression correlated well with Nucks1 gene dosage in normal thymi, but was increased in the majority of TLs from Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice, suggesting that elevated Nucks1 message may be associated with progression towards malignancy inmore » vivo. Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice frequently succumbed to CD4- CD8- TLs harboring translocations involving Igh but not Tcra/d, indicating TLs in Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice mostly originated prior to the double positive stage and at earlier lineage than TLs in Trp53+/- mice. Monoclonal rearrangements at Tcrb were more prevalent in TLs from Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice, as was infiltration of primary TL cells to distant organs (liver, kidney and spleen). We propose that, in the context of Trp53 deficiency, wild type levels of Nucks1 are required to suppress radiation-induced TL, likely through the role of the NUCKS1 protein in the DNA damage response.« less

  10. Dexamethasone and interleukin-1 potently synergize to stimulate the production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in differentiated THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Zhang, J J; Lei, K Y; Pike, J W

    1997-10-29

    The human monocytic leukemic cell line, THP-1, which differentiates toward macrophages in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was investigated for its ability to produce granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). G-CSF protein was neither produced during PMA-induced differentiation nor in response to dexamethasone (Dex) alone. However, when combined, PMA and Dex synergistically stimulated THP-1 cells to produce G-CSF. The synergistic interaction between PMA and Dex on G-CSF production appeared to be mediated through the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) since neutralization of IL-1 activity completely inhibited G-CSF production. Further experiments demonstrated that in THP-1 cells pretreated with PMA, Dex potently synergized with IL-1 to stimulate G-CSF production.

  11. Characterization of a Viral Synergism in the Monocot Brachypodium distachyon Reveals Distinctly Altered Host Molecular Processes Associated with Disease1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mandadi, Kranthi K.; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

    2012-01-01

    Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) and its satellite virus (SPMV) together infect several small grain crops, biofuel, and forage and turf grasses. Here, we establish the emerging monocot model Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as an alternate host to study PMV- and SPMV-host interactions and viral synergism. Infection of Brachypodium with PMV+SPMV induced chlorosis and necrosis of leaves, reduced seed set, caused stunting, and lowered biomass, more than PMV alone. Toward gaining a molecular understanding of PMV- and SPMV-affected host processes, we used a custom-designed microarray and analyzed global changes in gene expression of PMV- and PMV+SPMV-infected plants. PMV infection by itself modulated expression of putative genes functioning in carbon metabolism, photosynthesis, metabolite transport, protein modification, cell wall remodeling, and cell death. Many of these genes were additively altered in a coinfection with PMV+SPMV and correlated to the exacerbated symptoms of PMV+SPMV coinfected plants. PMV+SPMV coinfection also uniquely altered expression of certain genes, including transcription and splicing factors. Among the host defenses commonly affected in PMV and PMV+SPMV coinfections, expression of an antiviral RNA silencing component, SILENCING DEFECTIVE3, was suppressed. Several salicylic acid signaling components, such as pathogenesis-related genes and WRKY transcription factors, were up-regulated. By contrast, several genes in jasmonic acid and ethylene responses were down-regulated. Strikingly, numerous protein kinases, including several classes of receptor-like kinases, were misexpressed. Taken together, our results identified distinctly altered immune responses in monocot antiviral defenses and provide insights into monocot viral synergism. PMID:22961132

  12. IFN-gamma synergizes with LPS to induce nitric oxide biosynthesis through glycogen synthase kinase-3-inhibited IL-10.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Wei-Ching; Wang, Chi-Yun; Tseng, Hsiang-Chi; Wang, Yi; Kai, Jui-In; Wang, Szu-Wen; Cheng, Yi-Lin

    2008-10-15

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) plays a crucial role in innate immunity and inflammation. It causes the synergistic effect on endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/NO biosynthesis; however, the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)-mediated inhibition of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10). We found, in LPS-stimulated macrophages, that IFN-gamma increased iNOS expression and NO production in a time-dependent manner. In addition, ELISA analysis showed the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted, and the downregulation of IL-10. RT-PCR further showed changes in the IL-10 mRNA level as well. Treating cells with recombinant IL-10 showed a decrease in IFN-gamma/LPS-induced iNOS/NO biosynthesis, whereas anti-IL-10 neutralizing antibodies enhanced this effect, suggesting that IL-10 acts in an anti-inflammatory role. GSK-3-inhibitor treatment blocked IFN-gamma/LPS-induced iNOS/NO biosynthesis but upregulated IL-10 production. Inhibiting GSK-3 using short-interference RNA showed similar results. Additionally, treating cells with anti-IL-10 neutralizing antibodies blocked these effects. We further showed that inhibiting GSK-3 increased phosphorylation of transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein. Inhibiting protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2, an upstream regulator of GSK-3beta, caused inhibition on IFN-gamma/LPS-induced GSK-3beta phosphorylation at tyrosine 216 and iNOS/NO biosynthesis. Taken together, these findings reveal the involvement of GSK-3-inhibited IL-10 on the induction of iNOS/NO biosynthesis by IFN-gamma synergized with LPS. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Synergism between rocuronium and cisatracurium: comparison of the Minto and Greco interaction models.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Soeun; Kwon, Jae Young; Kim, Hae-Kyu; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the pharmacodynamic interaction between rocuronium and cisatracurium using the response surface model, which is not subject to the limitations of traditional isobolographic analysis. One hundred and twenty patients were randomly allocated to receive one of the fifteen predefined combinations of rocuronium and cisatracurium. To study single drugs, cisatracurium 0.2, 0.15, or 0.1 mg/kg or rocuronium 0.8, 0.6 or 0.4 mg/kg doses were administered alone. To study the pharmacodynamic interaction, drugs were applied in three types of combination ratio, i.e., half dose of each drug alone, 75% of each single dose of rocuronium and 25% of each single dose of cisatracurium, and vice versa. Train-of-four (TOF) ratio and T1% (first twitch of the TOF presented as percentage compared to the initial T1) were used as pharmacodynamic endpoints, and the Greco and Minto models were used as surface interaction models. The interaction term α of the Greco model for TOF ratio and T1% measurements showed synergism with values of 0.977 and 1.12, respectively. Application of the Minto model resulted in U50 (θ) values (normalized unit of concentration that produces 50% of the maximal effect in the 0 < θ < 1 region) less than 1 for both TOF ratio and T1% measurements, indicating that rocuronium and cisatracurium exhibit synergism. Response surface modeling of the interaction between rocuronium and cisatracurium, based on considerations of their effects on muscle relaxation as measured by TOF ratio and T1%, indicated that the two drugs show considerable synergism.

  14. SYNERGIC TRIAL (SYNchronizing Exercises, Remedies in Gait and Cognition) a multi-Centre randomized controlled double blind trial to improve gait and cognition in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Almeida, Quincy J; Burhan, Amer M; Camicioli, Richard; Doyon, Julien; Fraser, Sarah; Li, Karen; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Middleton, Laura; Muir-Hunter, Susan; McIlroy, William; Morais, José A; Pieruccini-Faria, Frederico; Shoemaker, Kevin; Speechley, Mark; Vasudev, Akshya; Zou, G Y; Berryman, Nicolas; Lussier, Maxime; Vanderhaeghe, Leanne; Bherer, Louis

    2018-04-16

    Physical exercise, cognitive training, and vitamin D are low cost interventions that have the potential to enhance cognitive function and mobility in older adults, especially in pre-dementia states such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Aerobic and progressive resistance exercises have benefits to cognitive performance, though evidence is somewhat inconsistent. We postulate that combined aerobic exercise (AE) and progressive resistance training (RT) (combined exercise) will have a better effect on cognition than a balance and toning control (BAT) intervention in older adults with MCI. We also expect that adding cognitive training and vitamin D supplementation to the combined exercise, as a multimodal intervention, will have synergistic efficacy. The SYNERGIC trial (SYNchronizing Exercises, Remedies in GaIt and Cognition) is a multi-site, double-blinded, five-arm, controlled trial that assesses the potential synergic effect of combined AE and RT on cognition and mobility, with and without cognitive training and vitamin D supplementation in older adults with MCI. Two-hundred participants with MCI aged 60 to 85 years old will be randomized to one of five arms, four of which include combined exercise plus combinations of dual-task cognitive training (real vs. sham) and vitamin D supplementation (3 × 10,000 IU/wk. vs. placebo) in a quasi-factorial design, and one arm which receives all control interventions. The primary outcome measure is the ADAS-Cog (13 and plus modalities) measured at baseline and at 6 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes include neuroimaging, neuro-cognitive performance, gait and mobility performance, and serum biomarkers of inflammation (C reactive protein and interleukin 6), neuroplasticity (brain-derived neurotropic factor), endothelial markers (vascular endothelial growth factor 1), and vitamin D serum levels. The SYNERGIC Trial will establish the efficacy and feasibility of a multimodal intervention to improve cognitive performance

  15. Synergic treatment for monosodium glutamate wastewater by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Jia, Cuiying; Kang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhui; Cong, Wei; Cai, Zhaoling

    2007-03-01

    Biodegradation and decolorization of monosodium glutamate wastewater were carried out by using an acidophilus yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Coriolus versicolor. For the yeast treatment, the highest COD removal and reducing sugar removal efficiency were 76.6% and 80.2%, respectively. The color removal was only 2%. For C. versicolor treatment, the highest COD removal, color removal and reducing sugar removal efficiencies were 78.7%, 56.5% and 90.9%, respectively. The synergic treatment process, in which the yeast and C. versicolor were successively applied,exhibited great advantage over the individual process.

  16. In Vitro Synergism between Azithromycin or Terbinafine and Topical Antimicrobial Agents against Pythium insidiosum

    PubMed Central

    Itaqui, Sabrina R.; Verdi, Camila M.; Tondolo, Juliana S. M.; da Luz, Thaisa S.; Alves, Sydney H.; Santurio, Janio M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe here in vitro activity for the combination of azithromycin or terbinafine and benzalkonium, cetrimide, cetylpyridinium, mupirocin, triclosan, or potassium permanganate. With the exception of potassium permanganate, the remaining antimicrobial drugs were active and had an MIC90 between 2 and 32 μg∕ml. The greatest synergism was observed for the combination of terbinafine and cetrimide (71.4%). In vivo experimental evaluations will clarify the potential of these drugs for the topical treatment of lesions caused by Pythium insidiosum. PMID:27216049

  17. Evidence of the neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) interaction with Sp3 and its synergic repression to the mu opioid receptor (MOR) gene

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chun Sung; Choi, Hack Sun; Hwang, Cheol Kyu; Song, Kyu Young; Lee, Byung-Kwon; Law, Ping-Yee; Wei, Li-Na; Loh, Horace H.

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we reported that the neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE) of mu opioid receptor (MOR) functions as a critical regulator to repress the MOR transcription in specific neuronal cells, depending on neuron-restriction silence factor (NRSF) expression levels [C.S.Kim, C.K.Hwang, H.S.Choi, K.Y.Song, P.Y.Law, L.N.Wei and H.H.Loh (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 46464–46473]. Herein, we identify a conserved GC sequence next to NRSE region in the mouse MOR gene. The inhibition of Sp family factors binding to this GC box by mithramycin A led to a significant increase in the endogenous MOR transcription. In the co-immunoprecipitation experiment, NRSF interacted with the full-length Sp3 factor, but not with Sp1 or two short Sp3 isoforms. The sequence specific and functional binding by Sp3 at this GC box was confirmed by in vitro gel-shift assays using either in vitro translated proteins or nuclear extract, and by in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Transient transfection assays showed that Sp3-binding site of the MOR gene is a functionally synergic repressor element with NRSE in NS20Y cells, but not in the NRSF negative PC12 cells. The results suggest that the synergic interaction between NRSF and Sp3 is required to negatively regulate MOR gene transcription and that transcription of MOR gene would be governed by the context of available transcription factors rather than by a master regulator. PMID:17130167

  18. Enhancing the pH sensitivity by laterally synergic modulation in dual-gate electric-double-layer transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ning; Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201; Hui Liu, Yang

    2015-02-16

    The sensitivity of a standard ion-sensitive field-effect transistor is limited to be 59.2 mV/pH (Nernst limit) at room temperature. Here, a concept based on laterally synergic electric-double-layer (EDL) modulation is proposed in order to overcome the Nernst limit. Indium-zinc-oxide EDL transistors with two laterally coupled gates are fabricated, and the synergic modulation behaviors of the two asymmetric gates are investigated. A high sensitivity of ∼168 mV/pH is realized in the dual-gate operation mode. Laterally synergic modulation in oxide-based EDL transistors is interesting for high-performance bio-chemical sensors.

  19. Relevance of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of exemestane and synergism with sulforaphane for disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Talalay, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Exemestane (6-methyleneandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) is a synthetic steroidal inhibitor of the aromatase reaction that catalyzes the terminal and rate-limiting step of the biosynthesis of estrogens. It is active clinically in preventing, delaying progression of, and treating mammary cancers, many of which are estrogen receptor-positive. A striking feature of the structure of exemestane is an extended system of conjugated Michael reaction functions, which is also characteristic of inducers of a broad network of chemoprotective genes regulated by the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECA-associated protein)/Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2)/ARE (antioxidant response element) signaling system. These genes are largely involved in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidative and anti-inflammatory protection, as well as the synthesis and reduction of glutathione. We show here that exemestane transcriptionally activates NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), typical chemoprotective gene products, in a wide variety of mouse, rat, and human cells. It protects several cell lines against oxidative toxicity of tert-butyl hydroperoxide and 4-hydroxynonenal, against free radical damage arising from hypoxia–reoxygenation, and against UVA radiation damage. Exemestane also inhibits the inflammatory increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in mouse macrophages exposed to LPS (lipopolysaccharide), thereby resembling the isothiocyanate sulforaphane derived from broccoli. Remarkably, combinations of exemestane and sulforaphane act highly synergistically, and this property is also displayed by several other phytochemicals. Thus, exemestane has a wide range of previously unrecognized protective activities, probably unrelated to aromatase inhibition. Its potential for reducing the risk, not only of breast cancer, but also of other chronic diseases that arise from inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA-damaging electrophiles, requires exploration

  20. Relevance of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of exemestane and synergism with sulforaphane for disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Talalay, Paul

    2013-11-19

    Exemestane (6-methyleneandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) is a synthetic steroidal inhibitor of the aromatase reaction that catalyzes the terminal and rate-limiting step of the biosynthesis of estrogens. It is active clinically in preventing, delaying progression of, and treating mammary cancers, many of which are estrogen receptor-positive. A striking feature of the structure of exemestane is an extended system of conjugated Michael reaction functions, which is also characteristic of inducers of a broad network of chemoprotective genes regulated by the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECA-associated protein)/Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2)/ARE (antioxidant response element) signaling system. These genes are largely involved in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidative and anti-inflammatory protection, as well as the synthesis and reduction of glutathione. We show here that exemestane transcriptionally activates NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), typical chemoprotective gene products, in a wide variety of mouse, rat, and human cells. It protects several cell lines against oxidative toxicity of tert-butyl hydroperoxide and 4-hydroxynonenal, against free radical damage arising from hypoxia-reoxygenation, and against UVA radiation damage. Exemestane also inhibits the inflammatory increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in mouse macrophages exposed to LPS (lipopolysaccharide), thereby resembling the isothiocyanate sulforaphane derived from broccoli. Remarkably, combinations of exemestane and sulforaphane act highly synergistically, and this property is also displayed by several other phytochemicals. Thus, exemestane has a wide range of previously unrecognized protective activities, probably unrelated to aromatase inhibition. Its potential for reducing the risk, not only of breast cancer, but also of other chronic diseases that arise from inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA-damaging electrophiles, requires exploration, particularly

  1. Enhanced synergism of antibiotics with zinc oxide nanoparticles against extended spectrum β-lactamase producers implicated in urinary tract infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhande, Rashmi M.; Khobragade, C. N.; Mane, R. S.; Bhande, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, enhanced synergistic bioactivity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with β-lactam antibiotics were evaluated against a panel of clinically isolated extended spectrum β-lactamase producers implicated in urinary tract infections. Chemically synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (15 nm) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmittance electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selective area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-Visible spectrophotometry techniques. The antimicrobial potency (10 ± 0.66, 12, 11.33 ± 1.10, and 0.7 ± 0.66 mm inhibiting zone) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (80, 60, 30, 50 μg/ml) of ZnO NPs were tested separately whereas time-kill and membrane leakage assays were evaluated in combination with ZnO NPs+ cefotaxime, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, cefepime against the β-lactamase producer strains of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. paucimobilis, and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Time-kill curve dynamics of ZnO NPs with β-lactam antibiotics revealed enhanced bactericidal activity (50, 85, 58, 50 % fold inhibition) by delaying the exponential and stationary phases of all isolates when tested separately. Posttime-kill effect was studied on cell membrane by assaying leakage of reducing sugars (130.2, 124.7, 137, and 115.8 μg/bacterial dry weight of 1 mg (μg/mg) and proteins (15, 10, 16, 18 μg/mg). These assays revealed that membrane leakage was due to synergism of ZnO NPs+ β-lactam antibiotics which successfully damage cell membrane thereby leading to death of all ESBL producers. The results demonstrate the utilization of ZnO NPs as a potentiator of β-lactam antibiotics and suggest the possibility to use nanoparticles in a combination therapy to treat UTI.

  2. Antioxidant synergism between tocopherols and ascorbyl palmitate in cooked, minced turkey.

    PubMed

    Bruun-Jensen, L; Skovgaard, I M; Skibsted, L H; Bertelsen, G

    1994-09-01

    In an attempt to reduce oxidative deterioration, including the development of warmed-over flavour (WOF), in cooked, minced turkey meat, a combined strategy using natural antioxidants and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was adapted. Tocopherols (200 ppm) each significantly reduced lipid oxidation during 9 days of cold storage (5 degrees C), measured as 2-thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Synergism between the two antioxidants was demonstrated as an increasing relative reduction in TBARS values over time when both antioxidants were added, as opposed to the almost constant relative reduction when only one antioxidant was added. Notably, this synergism depended on the availability of O2, and was found to be most significant for atmospheric packaging (21% O2, 79% N2) and most significant towards the end of the storage period. A reduced O2 content in the packages (mixture of O2 and N2, initially: 1.0% O2 or 0.03% O2) had a more pronouced effect on oxidative deterioration than addition of antioxidants. However, during the 9 days of storage, meat balls with the synergistic mixture added, and packed in 1% O2, had TBARS values of 50 compared to 270 mumol malondialdehyde/kg for meat balls without antioxidants packed in 21% O2. This level of reduction in lipid oxidation is comparable with that of meat balls without antioxidants packed in a virtually O2-free atmosphere.

  3. Synergism studies with binary mixtures of pyrethroid, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides on Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    PubMed

    Bielza, Pablo; Espinosa, Pedro J; Quinto, Vicente; Abellán, Jaime; Contreras, Josefina

    2007-01-01

    The major mechanism of resistance to most insecticides in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is metabolic, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) suppressible, mediated by cytochrome-P450 monooxygenases and conferring cross-resistance among insecticide classes. The efficacy of insecticide mixtures of acrinathrin, methiocarb, formetanate and chlorpyrifos was studied by topical exposure in strains of F. occidentalis selected for resistance to each insecticide. The method consisted in combining increasing concentrations of one insecticide with a constant low rate of the second one as synergist. Acrinathrin activity against F. occidentalis was enhanced by carbamate insecticides, methiocarb being a much better synergist than formetanate. Monooxygenase action on the carbamates would prevent degradation of the pyrethroid, hence providing a level of synergism by competitive substrate inhibition. However, the number of insecticides registered for control of F. occidentalis is very limited, and they are needed for antiresistance strategies such as mosaics and rotations. Therefore, a study was made of the synergist effect of other carbamates not used against thrips, such as carbofuran and carbosulfan, against a susceptible strain and a field strain. Neither carbamate showed synergism to acrinathrin in the susceptible strain, but both did in the field strain, carbosulfan being a better synergist than carbofuran. The data obtained indicate that low rates of carbamates could be used as synergists to restore some pyrethroid susceptibility in F. occidentalis. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Denitrification synergized with ANAMMOX for the anaerobic degradation of benzene: performance and microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shuchan; Zhang, Lilan; Zhang, DaiJun; Lu, Peili; Zhang, Xiaoting; He, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) on benzene degradation under denitrification, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) under denitrification synergized with ANAMMOX (SBR-DenAna) for benzene degradation was established by inoculating anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) into a SBR under denitrification reactor (SBR-Den) for benzene degradation. The average rate of benzene degradation and the maximum first-order kinetic constant in SBR-DenAna were 2.34- and 1.41-fold those in SBR-Den, respectively, indicating that ANAMMOX improved the degradation of benzene under denitrification synergized with ANAMMOX. However, the average rate of benzene degradation decreased by 35% in the denitrification-ANAMMOX synergistic reactor when 10 mg N L -1 NO 2 - was added; the rate recovered once NO 2 - was depleted, indicating that ANAMMOX might detoxify NO 2 - . Results from high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that Azoarcus within the family Rhodocyclaceae might be associated with benzene degradation in the two SBRs. AnAOB affiliated with the family Candidatus Brocadiaceae were just detected in SBR-DenAna.

  5. Synergism between fentanyl and tramadol in tonic inflammatory pain: the orofacial formalin test.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Hugo F; Noriega, Viviana; Zepeda, Ramiro J; Sierralta, Fernando; Prieto, Juan C

    2012-06-01

    Opioids have been used for long time to management of pain, the coadministration of two opioids may induce synergism. The present study was conducted to determine the antinociceptive interaction between the dual mechanism of action of tramadol compared to the main of fentanyl antinociception in the orofacial formalin which represents a model of persistent cutaneous nociception in the region innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The i.p. administration of tramadol and fentanyl induced a dose-dependent antinociception with an ED(50) of 2.97 ± 0.32 mg/kg for phase I and 1.79 ± 0.30 mg/kg for phase II and 0.062 ± 0.0040 mg/kg in phase I and 0.041 ± 0.0039 mg/kg in phase II, respectively. The coadministration of fentanyl with tramadol induced synergism in both phases of the test with an interaction index of 0.343 and 0.163 for phase I and phase II, respectively. This finding could be explained by the more complex pharmacology of tramadol compared to fentanyl.

  6. MDM2 antagonists synergize broadly and robustly with compounds targeting fundamental oncogenic signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dongyin; Lofgren, Julie A.; Osgood, Tao; Robertson, Rebecca; Canon, Jude; Su, Cheng; Jones, Adrie; Zhao, Xiaoning; Deshpande, Chetan; Payton, Marc; Ledell, Jebediah; Hughes, Paul E.; Oliner, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    While MDM2 inhibitors hold great promise as cancer therapeutics, drug resistance will likely limit their efficacy as single agents. To identify drug combinations that might circumvent resistance, we screened for agents that could synergize with MDM2 inhibition in the suppression of cell viability. We observed broad and robust synergy when combining MDM2 antagonists with either MEK or PI3K inhibitors. Synergy was not limited to cell lines harboring MAPK or PI3K pathway mutations, nor did it depend on which node of the PI3K axis was targeted. MDM2 inhibitors also synergized strongly with BH3 mimetics, BCR-ABL antagonists, and HDAC inhibitors. MDM2 inhibitor-mediated synergy with agents targeting these mechanisms was much more prevalent than previously appreciated, implying that clinical translation of these combinations could have far-reaching implications for public health. These findings highlight the importance of combinatorial drug targeting and provide a framework for the rational design of MDM2 inhibitor clinical trials. PMID:24810962

  7. Evidence of significant synergism between antibiotics and the antipsychotic, antimicrobial drug flupenthixol.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseeli, L; Dasgupta, A; Dastidar, S G; Molnar, J; Amaral, L

    2012-06-01

    Previously, the antipsychotic, non-antibiotic compound flupenthixol dihydrochloride (Fp) was shown to exhibit distinct in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and to significantly protect Swiss albino mice challenged with a known mouse virulent salmonella. The present study was designed to ascertain whether this drug could efficiently augment the action of an antibiotic or a non-antibiotic when tested in combination. A total of 12 bacterial strains belonging to various genera were selected for this study and were sensitive to the antibiotics penicillin (Pc), ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and to the non-antibiotics methdilazine, triflupromazine, promethazine, and Fp. Pronounced and statistically significant synergism (p < 0.01) was observed when Fp was combined with Pc following the disc diffusion assay system. With the help of the checkerboard method, the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index of this pair was found to be 0.375, confirming synergism. This pair of Fp+ Pc was then subjected to in vivo experiments in mice challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium NCTC 74. Statistical analysis of the mouse protection test suggested that this combination was highly synergistic (p < 0.001, Chi-squared analysis). Fp also revealed augmentation of its antimicrobial property when combined with streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and the non-antibiotic methdilazine. The results of this study may provide alternatives for the therapy of problematic infections such as those associated with Salmonella spp.

  8. The synergic effects of mirror therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation for hand function in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yun, Gi Jeong; Chun, Min Ho; Park, Ji Young; Kim, Bo Ryun

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the synergic effects of mirror therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for hand function in stroke patients. Sixty patients with hemiparesis after stroke were included (41 males and 19 females, average age 63.3 years). Twenty patients had NMES applied and simultaneously underwent mirror therapy. Twenty patients had NMES applied only, and twenty patients underwent mirror therapy only. Each treatment was done five days per week, 30 minutes per day, for three weeks. NMES was applied on the surface of the extensor digitorum communis and extensor pollicis brevis for open-hand motion. Muscle tone, Fugl-Meyer assessment, and power of wrist and hand were evaluated before and after treatment. There were significant improvements in the Fugl-Meyer assessment score in the wrist, hand and coordination, as well as power of wrist and hand in all groups after treatment. The mirror and NMES group showed significant improvements in the Fugl-Meyer scores of hand, wrist, coordination and power of hand extension compared to the other groups. However, the power of hand flexion, wrist flexion, and wrist extension showed no significant differences among the three groups. Muscle tone also showed no significant differences in the three groups. Our results showed that there is a synergic effect of mirror therapy and NMES on hand function. Therefore, a hand rehabilitation strategy combined with NMES and mirror therapy may be more helpful for improving hand function in stroke patients than NMES or mirror therapy only.

  9. Desiccant dusts synergize the effect of Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycetes: Moniliales) on stored-grain beetles.

    PubMed

    Lord, J C

    2001-04-01

    Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a desiccant insecticide and most efficacious in low humidity. It acts on insect cuticle by absorbing lipids, and perhaps by cuticular abrasion. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, an entomopathogenic fungus, is most efficacious in high humidity and has a complex interaction with cuticular lipids. Interaction between these materials may enhance insect control performance. Assays with stored-grain beetles were conducted with B. bassiana at rates of 11, 33, 100, and 300 mg of conidia per kilogram of grain with and without single rates of DE that killed 10% or less of the target beetles. The assays revealed synergism in effects on adult Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) at all doses. There was statistically significant synergism for adult Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) and larval R. dominica but at only one B. bassiana rate for each target. Both amorphous silicon dioxide, a sorptive dust, and diamond dust, an abrasive, showed synergistic interaction with B. bassiana on adult R. dominica. These results may provide a basis for a least-toxic approach to control of stored-product beetles and for efficacy-enhancing formulation of entomopathogenic fungi.

  10. A combination of additives can synergically decrease acrylamide content in gingerbread without compromising sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Komprda, Tomáš; Pridal, Antonin; Mikulíková, Renata; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Cwiková, Olga; Nedomová, Šárka; Sýkora, Vladimír

    2017-02-01

    The present study tested whether replacement of the leavening agent ammonium carbonate by sodium hydrogen carbonate in combination with calcium cation and acidifying agent will synergically decrease acrylamide (AA) content in gingerbread. The type of leavening agent and the presence of Ca 2+ and citric acid accounted for 33.6%, 13.2% and 53.2% of the explained variability of the AA content, respectively (P < 0.01). The AA content in gingerbread produced with (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 alone was 186.5 µg kg -1 . Irrespective of other tested additives, NaHCO 3 decreased (P < 0.05) AA content to 42% compared to (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 . Combination of NaHCO 3 + CaCl 2 + citric acid in dough reduced (P < 0.05) AA content below the limit of detection (25 µg kg -1 ). The AA content in gingerbread (y; µg kg -1 ) decreased with an increasing number of additives used (x) according to the equation y = 158.8 - 47.94x (r 2 = 0.42; P < 0.0001). A comprehensive sensory analysis did not indicate any significant deterioration (P > 0.05) in the organoleptic quality of gingerbread produced using calcium cation and citric acid. The present study demonstrates that the combination of additives NaHCO 3 /Ca 2+ /citric acid synergically decreases AA content in gingerbread without compromising the sensory quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Type-1-cytokines synergize with oncogene inhibition to induce tumor growth arrest

    PubMed Central

    Acquavella, Nicolas; Clever, David; Yu, Zhiya; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Palmer, Douglas C.; Xi, Liqiang; Pflicke, Holger; Ji, Yun; Gros, Alena; Hanada, Ken-ichi; Goldlust, Ian S.; Mehta, Gautam U.; Klebanoff, Christopher A.; Crompton, Joseph G.; Sukumar, Madhusudhanan; Morrow, James J.; Franco, Zulmarie; Gattinoni, Luca; Liu, Hui; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco; Stroncek, David F.; Lee, Chyi-Chia R.; Raffeld, Mark; Bosenberg, Marcus W.; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Both targeted inhibition of oncogenic driver mutations and immune-based therapies show efficacy in treatment of patients with metastatic cancer but responses can be either short-lived or incompletely effective. Oncogene inhibition can augment the efficacy of immune-based therapy but mechanisms by which these two interventions might cooperate are incompletely resolved. Using a novel transplantable BRAFV600E-mutant murine melanoma model (SB-3123), we explore potential mechanisms of synergy between the selective BRAFV600E inhibitor vemurafenib and adoptive cell transfer (ACT)-based immunotherapy. We found that vemurafenib cooperated with ACT to delay melanoma progression without significantly affecting tumor infiltration or effector function of endogenous or adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells as previously observed. Instead, we found that the T-cell cytokines IFNγ and TNFα synergized with vemurafenib to induce cell-cycle arrest of tumor cells in vitro. This combinatorial effect was recapitulated in human melanoma-derived cell lines and was restricted to cancers bearing a BRAFV600E-mutation. Molecular profiling of treated SB-3123 indicated that the provision of vemurafenib promoted the sensitization of SB-3123 to the anti-proliferative effects of T-cell effector cytokines. The unexpected finding that immune cytokines synergize with oncogene inhibitors to induce growth arrest have major implications for understanding cancer biology at the intersection of oncogenic and immune signaling and provides a basis for design of combinatorial therapeutic approaches for patients with metastatic cancer. PMID:25358764

  12. Synergism between NF-kappa B inhibitor, celastrol, and XIAP inhibitor, embelin, in an acute myeloid leukemia cell line, HL-60.

    PubMed

    Pazhang, Yaghub; Jaliani, Hossein Zarei; Imani, Mehdi; Dariushnejad, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Embelin and celastrol, inhibitors of XIAP and NF-κB proteins respectively, have been derived from natural sources and shown anti-tumor activities against different cancer cell lines. Some interactions have recently been discovered between XIAP and NF-κB pathways, but the effects of these inhibitors in combination have not been investigated yet. We have studied possible synergistic effects of embelin in combination with celastrol, in an acute myeloid leukemia model, HL-60 cell line. Cytotoxicity of embelin and celastrol, separately and in combination, was determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Chou-Talalay's method was used to assess the synergistic effect of two components. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis of the two tumor marker proteins. (survivin and COX-2) was also performed to investigate downstream effects of two components. Analysis of MTT assay and flow cytometry showed that there is a substantial synergistic effect in some affected fractions of drug-treated HL-60. cells, while in other affected fractions a mild synergism or additive effect was observed. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis revealed that the expression of survivin and COX-2 proteins was reduced in treated cells. Embelin and celastrol showed potent antitumor activity and synergistic effects in combination. Therefore targeting XIAP and NF-κB pathways simultaneously can be investigated in more detail to make use of embelin and celastrol as a combination therapy of cancer.

  13. Protection and synergism by recombinant fowl pox vaccines expressing multiple genes from Marek's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucy E; Witter, R L; Reddy, S M; Wu, P; Yanagida, N; Yoshida, S

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant fowl poxviruses (rFPVs) were constructed to express genes from serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) coding for glycoproteins B, E, I, H, and UL32 (gB1, gE, gI, gH, and UL32). An additional rFPV was constructed to contain four MDV genes (gB1, gE, gI, and UL32). These rFPVs were evaluated for their ability to protect maternal antibody-positive chickens against challenge with highly virulent MDV isolates. The protection induced by a single rFPV/gB1 (42%) confirmed our previous finding. The protection induced by rFPV/gI (43%), rFPV/gB1UL32 (46%), rFPV/gB1gEgI (72%), and rFPV/gB1gEgIUL32 (70%) contributed to additional knowledge on MDV genes involved in protective immunity. In contrast, the rFPV containing gE, gH, or UL32 did not induce significant protection compared with turkey herpesvirus (HVT). Levels of protection by rFPV/gB1 and rFPV/gl were comparable with that of HVT. Only gB1 and gI conferred synergism in rFPV containing these two genes. Protection by both rFPV/gB1gEgI (72%) and rFPV/gB1gEgIUL32(70%) against Marek's disease was significantly enhanced compared with a single gB1 or gI gene (40%). This protective synergism between gB1 and gI in rFPVs may be the basis for better protection when bivalent vaccines between serotypes 2 and 3 were used. When rFPV/gB1gIgEUL32 + HVT were used as vaccine against Md5 challenge, the protection was significantly enhanced (94%). This synergism between rFPV/gB1gIgEUL32 and HVT indicates additional genes yet to be discovered in HVT may be responsible for the enhancement.

  14. Antibacterial activity of three newly-synthesized chalcones & synergism with antibiotics against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Božić, Dragana D.; Milenković, Marina; Ivković, Branka; Cirković, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Multidrug-resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious therapeutical problem. Chalcones belong to a group of naturally occurring flavonoids, usually found in various plant species, and have potent antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of three newly-synthesized chalcones against clinical isolates of MRSA, and their synergism with β-lactam and non- β-lactam antibiotics. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the three newly-synthesized chalcones was tested against 19 clinical isolates of MRSA and a laboratory control strain of MRSA (ATCC 43300). The synergism with β-lactams: cefotaxime (CFX), ceftriaxone (CTX), and non-β-lactam antibiotics: ciprofloxacin (CIP), gentamicin (GEN) and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was investigated by checkerboard method. Results: All evaluated compounds showed significant anti-MRSA activity with MIC values from 25-200 μg/ml. Observed synergism with antibiotics demonstrated that chalcones significantly enhanced the efficacy of CIP, GEN and TMP-SMX. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study demonstrated that three newly-synthesized chalcones exhibited significant anti-MRSA effect and synergism with non-β-lactam antibiotics. The most effective compound was 1,3-Bis-(2-hydroxy-phenyl)-propenone. Our results provide useful information for future research of possible application of chalcones in combination with conventional anti-MRSA therapy as promising new antimicrobial agents. PMID:25222788

  15. Synergic chemoprevention with dietary carbohydrate restriction and supplementation of AMPK-activating phytochemicals: the role of SIRT1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Ah; Ro, Simon Weonsang; Yang, Woo Ick; Cho, Arthur E.H.; Ju, Hye-Lim; Baek, Sinhwa; Chung, Sook In; Kang, Won Jun; Yun, Mijin; Park, Jeon Han

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) can increase life span in normal cells while inhibiting carcinogenesis. Various phytochemicals also have calorie restriction-mimetic anticancer properties. We investigated whether an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-activating phytochemicals induce synergic tumor suppression. We used a mixture of AMPK-activating phytochemical extracts including curcumin, quercetin, catechins, and resveratrol. Survival analysis was carried out in a B16F10 melanoma model fed a control diet (62.14% kcal carbohydrate, 24.65% kcal protein and 13.2% kcal fat), a control diet with multiple phytochemicals (MP), LCD (16.5, 55.2, and 28.3% kcal, respectively), LCD with multiple phytochemicals (LCDmp), a moderate-carbohydrate diet (MCD, 31.9, 62.4, and 5.7% kcal, respectively), or MCD with phytochemicals (MCDmp). Compared with the control group, MP, LCD, or MCD intervention did not produce survival benefit, but LCDmp (22.80±1.58 vs. 28.00±1.64 days, P=0.040) and MCDmp (23.80±1.08 vs. 30.13±2.29 days, P=0.008) increased the median survival time significantly. Suppression of the IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, activation of the AMPK/SIRT1/LKB1pathway, and NF-κB suppression were the critical tumor-suppression mechanisms. In addition, SIRT1 suppressed proliferation of the B16F10 and A375SM cells under a low-glucose condition. Alterations in histone methylation within Pten and FoxO3a were observed after the MCDmp intervention. In the transgenic liver cancer model developed by hydrodynamic transfection of the HrasG12V and shp53, MCDmp and LCDmp interventions induced significant cancer-prevention effects. Microarray analysis showed that PPARα increased with decreased IL-6 and NF-κB within the hepatocytes after an MCDmp intervention. In conclusion, an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and natural AMPK-activating agents induce synergistic anticancer effects. SIRT1 acts as a

  16. Synergic chemoprevention with dietary carbohydrate restriction and supplementation of AMPK-activating phytochemicals: the role of SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Doo; Choi, Min-Ah; Ro, Simon Weonsang; Yang, Woo Ick; Cho, Arthur E H; Ju, Hye-Lim; Baek, Sinhwa; Chung, Sook In; Kang, Won Jun; Yun, Mijin; Park, Jeon Han

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) can increase life span in normal cells while inhibiting carcinogenesis. Various phytochemicals also have calorie restriction-mimetic anticancer properties. We investigated whether an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-activating phytochemicals induce synergic tumor suppression. We used a mixture of AMPK-activating phytochemical extracts including curcumin, quercetin, catechins, and resveratrol. Survival analysis was carried out in a B16F10 melanoma model fed a control diet (62.14% kcal carbohydrate, 24.65% kcal protein and 13.2% kcal fat), a control diet with multiple phytochemicals (MP), LCD (16.5, 55.2, and 28.3% kcal, respectively), LCD with multiple phytochemicals (LCDmp), a moderate-carbohydrate diet (MCD, 31.9, 62.4, and 5.7% kcal, respectively), or MCD with phytochemicals (MCDmp). Compared with the control group, MP, LCD, or MCD intervention did not produce survival benefit, but LCDmp (22.80±1.58 vs. 28.00±1.64 days, P=0.040) and MCDmp (23.80±1.08 vs. 30.13±2.29 days, P=0.008) increased the median survival time significantly. Suppression of the IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, activation of the AMPK/SIRT1/LKB1pathway, and NF-κB suppression were the critical tumor-suppression mechanisms. In addition, SIRT1 suppressed proliferation of the B16F10 and A375SM cells under a low-glucose condition. Alterations in histone methylation within Pten and FoxO3a were observed after the MCDmp intervention. In the transgenic liver cancer model developed by hydrodynamic transfection of the HrasG12V and shp53, MCDmp and LCDmp interventions induced significant cancer-prevention effects. Microarray analysis showed that PPARα increased with decreased IL-6 and NF-κB within the hepatocytes after an MCDmp intervention. In conclusion, an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and natural AMPK-activating agents induce synergistic anticancer effects. SIRT1 acts as a

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production

    PubMed Central

    Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6°GL) with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains. PMID:25506606

  18. LMO1 Synergizes with MYCN to Promote Neuroblastoma Initiation and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shizhen; Zhang, Xiaoling; Weichert-Leahey, Nina; Dong, Zhiwei; Zhang, Cheng; Lopez, Gonzalo; Tao, Ting; He, Shuning; Wood, Andrew C; Oldridge, Derek; Ung, Choong Yong; van Ree, Janine H; Khan, Amish; Salazar, Brittany M; Lummertz da Rocha, Edroaldo; Zimmerman, Mark W; Guo, Feng; Cao, Hong; Hou, Xiaonan; Weroha, S John; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R; Neuberg, Donna S; Meves, Alexander; McNiven, Mark A; van Deursen, Jan M; Li, Hu; Maris, John M; Look, A Thomas

    2017-09-11

    A genome-wide association study identified LMO1, which encodes an LIM-domain-only transcriptional cofactor, as a neuroblastoma susceptibility gene that functions as an oncogene in high-risk neuroblastoma. Here we show that dβh promoter-mediated expression of LMO1 in zebrafish synergizes with MYCN to increase the proliferation of hyperplastic sympathoadrenal precursor cells, leading to a reduced latency and increased penetrance of neuroblastomagenesis. The transgenic expression of LMO1 also promoted hematogenous dissemination and distant metastasis, which was linked to neuroblastoma cell invasion and migration, and elevated expression levels of genes affecting tumor cell-extracellular matrix interaction, including loxl3, itga2b, itga3, and itga5. Our results provide in vivo validation of LMO1 as an important oncogene that promotes neuroblastoma initiation, progression, and widespread metastatic dissemination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synergism of herpes simplex virus and tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines in cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, N.H.; Dokko, H.; Li, S.L.

    1991-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that herpes simplex virus (HSV) enhances the carcinogenic activity of smokeless tobacco and tobacco-related chemical carcinogens in animals. Since tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines (TSNAs) such as N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-methyl-N'-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) are major chemical carcinogens of smokeless tobacco and are known to be responsible for the development of oral cancers in smokeless tobacco users, the combined effects of TSNAs and HSV in cell transformation were investigated. Exposure of cells to NNN or NNK followed by virus infection resulted in a significant enhancement of transformation frequency when compared with that observed with chemical carcinogens or virus alone. This study suggestsmore » that TSNAs and HSV can interact together and show synergism in cell transformation.« less

  20. Antinociceptive synergism of MD-354 and clonidine. Part II. The alpha-adrenoceptor component.

    PubMed

    Young, Shawquia; Vainio, Minna; Scheinin, Mika; Dukat, Małgorzata

    2010-08-01

    Previously, we reported that antinociceptive synergism of a 5-HT(3)/alpha(2)-adrenoceptor ligand MD-354 (m-chlorophenylguanidine) and clonidine combination occurs, in part, through a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist mechanism. In the present investigation, a possible role for alpha(2)-adrenoceptors was examined. Mechanistic studies using yohimbine (a subtype non-selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), BRL 44408 (a preferential alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor antagonist) and imiloxan (a preferential alpha(2B/C)-adrenoceptor antagonist) on the antinociceptive actions of a MD-354/clonidine combination were conducted. Subcutaneous pre-treatment with all three antagonists inhibited the antinociceptive synergism of MD-354 and clonidine in the mouse tail-flick assay in a dose-dependent manner (AD(50) = 0.33, 2.1, and 0.17 mg/kg, respectively). Enhancement of clonidine antinociception by MD-354 did not potentiate clonidine's locomotor suppressant activity in a mouse locomotor assay. When [ethyl-3H]RS-79948-197 was used as radioligand, MD-354 displayed almost equal affinity to alpha(2A)- and alpha(2B)-adrenoceptors (K(i) = 110 and 220 nM) and showed lower affinity at alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors (K(i) = 4,700 nM). MD-354 had no subtype-selectivity for the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes as an antagonist in functional [35S]GTPgammaS binding assays. MD-354 was a weak partial agonist at alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors. Overall, in addition to the 5-HT(3) receptor component, the present investigation found MD-354 to be a weak partial alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor agonist that enhances clonidine's thermal antinociceptive actions through an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated mechanism without augmenting sedation.

  1. Spinosad resistance, esterase isoenzymes and temporal synergism in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Herron, Grant A; Gunning, Robin V; Cottage, Emma L A; Borzatta, Valerio; Gobbi, Carlotta

    2014-09-01

    Spinosad has been widely used in Australia to control western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) but spinosad usefulness is now compromised by resistance. Here we studied a highly spinosad resistant strain of F. occidentalis to explore if esterases had a role in spinosad resistance. Enhanced esterase activity in pressured spinosad-resistant F. occidentalis was confirmed via PAGE electrophoresis and estimated to be approximately three times higher than that in a susceptible strain. Spinosad-esterase inhibition data in the resistant strain, showed a concentration effect with significant esterase-spinosad binding occurring at spinosad concentrations from 6.2× 10(-7) to 1.5× 10(-5) M. Similarly, a spinosad-piperonyl butoxide (PBO) inhibition curve showed a concentration effect, with significant esterase-PBO binding occurring in the resistant strain at PBO concentrations between 3.3× 10(-5) M and 8.4× 10(-4) M. No binding of esterase to spinosad or PBO occurred in the susceptible strain. Results of bioassays in which spinosad resistant F. occidentalis were sprayed with a 4h delayed release formulation of cyclodextrin-complexed spinosad with immediately available PBO demonstrated that spinosad resistance was significantly reduced from 577 to 72-fold. With further development the PBO synergism of spinosad using a delayed release formulation, similar to that used here, may provide effective control for spinosad resistant F. occidentalis. Temporal synergism of spinosad may prove to be effective tactic for the control of spinosad resistant F. occidentalis where the main resistance mechanism involved has been confirmed to be esterase based. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mixture toxicity in the marine environment: Model development and evidence for synergism at environmental concentrations.

    PubMed

    Deruytter, David; Baert, Jan M; Nevejan, Nancy; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Janssen, Colin R

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the effect of metal mixtures on marine organisms, especially after exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations. This information is, however, required to evaluate the need to include mixtures in future environmental risk assessment procedures. We assessed the effect of copper (Cu)-Nickel (Ni) binary mixtures on Mytilus edulis larval development using a full factorial design that included environmentally relevant metal concentrations and ratios. The reproducibility of the results was assessed by repeating this experiment 5 times. The observed mixture effects were compared with the effects predicted with the concentration addition model. Deviations from the concentration addition model were estimated using a Markov chain Monte-Carlo algorithm. This enabled the accurate estimation of the deviations and their uncertainty. The results demonstrated reproducibly that the type of interaction-synergism or antagonism-mainly depended on the Ni concentration. Antagonism was observed at high Ni concentrations, whereas synergism occurred at Ni concentrations as low as 4.9 μg Ni/L. This low (and realistic) Ni concentration was 1% of the median effective concentration (EC50) of Ni or 57% of the Ni predicted-no-effect concentration (PNEC) in the European Union environmental risk assessment. It is concluded that results from mixture studies should not be extrapolated to concentrations or ratios other than those investigated and that significant mixture interactions can occur at environmentally realistic concentrations. This should be accounted for in (marine) environmental risk assessment of metals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3471-3479. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. Phene Synergism between Root Hair Length and Basal Root Growth Angle for Phosphorus Acquisition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade

    2015-01-01

    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here. PMID:25699587

  4. Theoretical basis, experimental design, and computerized simulation of synergism and antagonism in drug combination studies.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Chao

    2006-09-01

    The median-effect equation derived from the mass-action law principle at equilibrium-steady state via mathematical induction and deduction for different reaction sequences and mechanisms and different types of inhibition has been shown to be the unified theory for the Michaelis-Menten equation, Hill equation, Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, and Scatchard equation. It is shown that dose and effect are interchangeable via defined parameters. This general equation for the single drug effect has been extended to the multiple drug effect equation for n drugs. These equations provide the theoretical basis for the combination index (CI)-isobologram equation that allows quantitative determination of drug interactions, where CI < 1, = 1, and > 1 indicate synergism, additive effect, and antagonism, respectively. Based on these algorithms, computer software has been developed to allow automated simulation of synergism and antagonism at all dose or effect levels. It displays the dose-effect curve, median-effect plot, combination index plot, isobologram, dose-reduction index plot, and polygonogram for in vitro or in vivo studies. This theoretical development, experimental design, and computerized data analysis have facilitated dose-effect analysis for single drug evaluation or carcinogen and radiation risk assessment, as well as for drug or other entity combinations in a vast field of disciplines of biomedical sciences. In this review, selected examples of applications are given, and step-by-step examples of experimental designs and real data analysis are also illustrated. The merging of the mass-action law principle with mathematical induction-deduction has been proven to be a unique and effective scientific method for general theory development. The median-effect principle and its mass-action law based computer software are gaining increased applications in biomedical sciences, from how to effectively evaluate a single compound or entity to how to beneficially use multiple

  5. Previous administration of naltrexone did not change synergism between paracetamol and tramadol in mice.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Hugo F; Noriega, Viviana; Prieto, Juan Carlos

    2012-07-01

    In the treatment of acute and chronic pain the most frequently used drugs are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), e.g., paracetamol; opioids, e.g., tramadol, and a group of drugs called coanalgesics or adjuvants (e.g., antidepressants, anticonvulsants). The aim of this work was to determine the nature of the interaction induced by intraperitoneal or intrathecal coadministration of paracetamol and tramadol. The type of interaction was evaluated by means of isobolographic analysis, using the acetic acid writhing test as an algesiometer in mice. In addition, the involvement of opioid receptors in the interaction was studied using naltrexone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. The administration of paracetamol or tramadol induced a dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in the assay. The dose-response curves were characterized by equal efficacy but different potencies, being i.t. paracetamol 11.84 times more potent than i.p. paracetamol, and i.t. tramadol 3.54 times more potent than the i.p. tramadol. The isobolographic analysis indicates a synergistic interaction between the coadministration of i.p. or i.t. paracetamol with tramadol. The interaction index values were similar for the i.p. and i.t. coadministration with values of 0.414 and 0.364, respectively. The different mechanisms of action of paracetamol and tramadol strongly explain the analgesic synergism between them, in agreement with the general theory of drug interaction. This synergic interaction was not modified by the non selective opioid antagonist, naltrexone. This association could be of clinical significance in the treatment of pain with a reduction of doses and adverse effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trait synergisms and the rarity, extirpation, and extinction risk of desert fishes.

    PubMed

    Olden, Julian D; Poff, N LeRoy; Bestgen, Kevin R

    2008-03-01

    Understanding the causes and consequences of species extinctions is a central goal in ecology. Faced with the difficult task of identifying those species with the greatest need for conservation, ecologists have turned to using predictive suites of ecological and life-history traits to provide reasonable estimates of species extinction risk. Previous studies have linked individual traits to extinction risk, yet the nonadditive contribution of multiple traits to the entire extinction process, from species rarity to local extirpation to global extinction, has not been examined. This study asks whether trait synergisms predispose native fishes of the Lower Colorado River Basin (USA) to risk of extinction through their effects on rarity and local extirpation and their vulnerability to different sources of threat. Fish species with "slow" life histories (e.g., large body size, long life, and delayed maturity), minimal parental care to offspring, and specialized feeding behaviors are associated with smaller geographic distribution, greater frequency of local extirpation, and higher perceived extinction risk than that expected by simple additive effects of traits in combination. This supports the notion that trait synergisms increase the susceptibility of native fishes to multiple stages of the extinction process, thus making them prone to the multiple jeopardies resulting from a combination of fewer individuals, narrow environmental tolerances, and long recovery times following environmental change. Given that particular traits, some acting in concert, may differentially predispose native fishes to rarity, extirpation, and extinction, we suggest that management efforts in the Lower Colorado River Basin should be congruent with the life-history requirements of multiple species over large spatial and temporal scales.

  7. The Candidate Antimalarial Drug MMV665909 Causes Oxygen-Dependent mRNA Mistranslation and Synergizes with Quinoline-Derived Antimalarials

    PubMed Central

    Vallières, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT To cope with growing resistance to current antimalarials, new drugs with novel modes of action are urgently needed. Molecules targeting protein synthesis appear to be promising candidates. We identified a compound (MMV665909) from the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Malaria Box of candidate antimalarials that could produce synergistic growth inhibition with the aminoglycoside antibiotic paromomycin, suggesting a possible action of the compound in mRNA mistranslation. This mechanism of action was substantiated with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model using available reporters of mistranslation and other genetic tools. Mistranslation induced by MMV665909 was oxygen dependent, suggesting a role for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Overexpression of Rli1 (a ROS-sensitive, conserved FeS protein essential in mRNA translation) rescued inhibition by MMV665909, consistent with the drug's action on translation fidelity being mediated through Rli1. The MMV drug also synergized with major quinoline-derived antimalarials which can perturb amino acid availability or promote ROS stress: chloroquine, amodiaquine, and primaquine. The data collectively suggest translation fidelity as a novel target of antimalarial action and support MMV665909 as a promising drug candidate. PMID:28652237

  8. Modulation of DNA damage response and induction of apoptosis mediates synergism between doxorubicin and a new imidazopyridine derivative in breast and lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    El-Awady, Raafat A; Semreen, Mohammad H; Saber-Ayad, Maha M; Cyprian, Farhan; Menon, Varsha; Al-Tel, Taleb H

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage response machinery (DDR) is an attractive target of cancer therapy. Modulation of DDR network may alter the response of cancer cells to DNA damaging anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of a newly developed imidazopyridine (IAZP) derivative on the DDR after induction of DNA damage in cancer cells by doxorubicin. Cytotoxicity sulphrhodamine-B assay showed a weak anti-proliferative effect of IAZP alone on six cancer cell lines (MCF7, A549, A549DOX11, HepG2, HeLa and M8) and a normal fibroblast strain. Combination of IAZP with doxorubicin resulted in synergism in lung (A549) and breast (MCF7) cancer cells but neither in the other cancer cell lines nor in normal fibroblasts. Molecular studies revealed that synergism is mediated by modulation of DNA damage response and induction of apoptosis. Using constant-field gel electrophoresis and immunofluorescence detection of γ-H2AX foci, IAZP was shown to inhibit the repair of doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in A549 and MCF7 cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that IAZP suppresses the phosphorylation of the ataxia lelangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) protein, which is an important player in the response of cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced DNA damage. Moreover, IAZP augmented the doxorubicin-induced degradation of p21, activation of p53, CDK2, caspase 3/7 and phosphorylation of Rb protein. These effects enhanced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. Our results indicate that IAZP is a promising agent that may enhance the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin on some cancer cells through targeting the DDR. It is a preliminary step toward the clinical application of IAZP in combination with anticancer drugs and opens the avenue for the development of compounds targeting the DDR pathway that might improve the therapeutic index of anticancer drugs and enhance their cure rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dual pharmacological inhibition of glutathione and thioredoxin systems synergizes to kill colorectal carcinoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Genki; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Shimizu, Takayuki; Akimoto, Kazumi; Kubota, Keiichi

    2016-09-01

    NRF2 stabilizes redox potential through genes for glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant systems. Whether blockade of glutathione and thioredoxin is useful in eliminating cancer stem cells remain unknown. We used xenografts derived from colorectal carcinoma patients to investigate the pharmacological inhibition of glutathione and thioredoxin systems. Higher expression of five glutathione S-transferase isoforms (GSTA1, A2, M4, O2, and P1) was observed in xenograft-derived spheroids than in fibroblasts. Piperlongumine (2.5-10 μmol/L) and auranofin (0.25-4 μmol/L) were used to inhibit glutathione S-transferase π and thioredoxin reductase, respectively. Piperlongumine or auranofin alone up-regulated the expression of NRF2 target genes, but not TP53 targets. While piperlongumine showed modest cancer-specific cell killing (IC50 difference between cancer spheroids and fibroblasts: P = 0.052), auranofin appeared more toxic to fibroblasts (IC50 difference between cancer spheroids and fibroblasts: P = 0.002). The synergism of dual inhibition was evaluated by determining the Combination Index, based on the number of surviving cells with combination treatments. Molar ratios indicated synergism in cancer spheroids, but not in fibroblasts: (auranofin:piperlongumine) = 2:5, 1:5, 1:10, and 1:20. Cancer-specific cell killing was achieved at the following drug concentrations (auranofin:piperlongumine): 0.25:2.5 μmol/L, 0.5:2.5 μmol/L, or 0.25:5 μmol/L. The dual inhibition successfully decreased CD44v9 surface presentation and delayed tumor emergence in nude mouse. However, a small subpopulation persistently survived and accumulated phosphorylated histone H2A. Such "persisters" still retained lesser but significant tumorigenicity. Thus, dual inhibition of glutathione S-transferase π and thioredoxin reductase could be a feasible option for decreasing the tumor mass and CD44v9-positive fraction by disrupting redox regulation. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine

  10. Lovastatin induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells and synergizes with doxorubicin: potential therapeutic relevance.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Anna; Clendening, James W; Goard, Carolyn A; Penn, Linda Z

    2010-03-18

    Ovarian carcinoma is a rarely curable disease, for which new treatment options are required. As agents that block HMG-CoA reductase and the mevalonate pathway, the statin family of drugs are used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and have been shown to trigger apoptosis in a tumor-specific manner. Recent clinical trials show that the addition of statins to traditional chemotherapeutic strategies can increase efficacy of targeting statin-sensitive tumors. Our goal was to assess statin-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutics, and then determine these mechanisms of action. The effect of lovastatin on ovarian cancer cell lines was evaluated alone and in combination with cisplatin and doxorubicin using several assays (MTT, TUNEL, fixed PI, PARP cleavage) and synergy determined by evaluating the combination index. The mechanisms of action were evaluated using functional, molecular, and pharmacologic approaches. We demonstrate that lovastatin induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells in a p53-independent manner and synergizes with doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat recurrent cases of ovarian cancer. Lovastatin drives ovarian tumor cell death by two mechanisms: first, by blocking HMG-CoA reductase activity, and second, by sensitizing multi-drug resistant cells to doxorubicin by a novel mevalonate-independent mechanism. This inhibition of drug transport, likely through inhibition of P-glycoprotein, potentiates both DNA damage and tumor cell apoptosis. The results of this research provide pre-clinical data to warrant further evaluation of statins as potential anti-cancer agents to treat ovarian carcinoma. Many statins are inexpensive, off-patent generic drugs that are immediately available for use as anti-cancer agents. We provide evidence that lovastatin triggers apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells as a single agent by a mevalonate-dependent mechanism. Moreover, we also show lovastatin synergizes

  11. Synergic effect studies of the bi-enzymatic system laccase-peroxidase in a voltammetric biosensor for catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Leite, Oldair D; Lupetti, Karina O; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Vieira, Iolanda C; Barbosa, Aneli de M

    2003-04-10

    Several bi-enzymatic carbon paste biosensors modified with enzymes laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus fungi and peroxidase from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) were constructed for evaluating the synergic effect of the two enzymes on the voltammetric biosensor response for various catecholamines. Initially was investigated the effect of pH from 5.0 to 7.5, temperature from 25 to 50 degrees C, initial stirring time from 30 to 150 s, scan rate from 10 to 60 mVs(-1) and potential pulse amplitude from 10 to 60 mV on the biosensor response for several catecholamines such as dopamine, adrenaline, isoprenaline and l-dopa. It was observed a biosensor signal increase employing both enzymes, indicating thus there is a synergic effect between laccase and peroxidase, verified also in spectrophotometric studies, in the determination of these catecholamines.

  12. Temozolomide, sirolimus and chloroquine is a new therapeutic combination that synergizes to disrupt lysosomal function and cholesterol homeostasis in GBM cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Hsin-Chien; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Wang, Yu-Shan; Huang, Cheng-Chung; Huang, Yi-Chun; Chi, Mau-Shin; Mehta, Minesh P.; Chi, Kwan-Hwa

    2018-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) cells are characterized by high phagocytosis, lipogenesis, exocytosis activities, low autophagy capacity and high lysosomal demand are necessary for survival and invasion. The lysosome stands at the cross roads of lipid biosynthesis, transporting, sorting between exogenous and endogenous cholesterol. We hypothesized that three already approved drugs, the autophagy inducer, sirolimus (rapamycin, Rapa), the autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ), and DNA alkylating chemotherapy, temozolomide (TMZ) could synergize against GBM. This repurposed triple therapy combination induced GBM apoptosis in vitro and inhibited GBM xenograft growth in vivo. Cytotoxicity is caused by induction of lysosomal membrane permeabilization and release of hydrolases, and may be rescued by cholesterol supplementation. Triple treatment inhibits lysosomal function, prevents cholesterol extraction from low density lipoprotein (LDL), and causes clumping of lysosome associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) and lipid droplets (LD) accumulation. Co-treatment of the cell lines with inhibitor of caspases and cathepsin B only partially reverse of cytotoxicities, while N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) can be more effective. A combination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from cholesterol depletion are the early event of underling mechanism. Cholesterol repletion abolished the ROS production and reversed the cytotoxicity from QRT treatment. The shortage of free cholesterol destabilizes lysosomal membranes converting aborted autophagy to apoptosis through either direct mitochondria damage or cathepsin B release. This promising anti-GBM triple therapy combination severely decreases mitochondrial function, induces lysosome-dependent apoptotic cell death, and is now poised for further clinical testing and validation. PMID:29467937

  13. Temozolomide, sirolimus and chloroquine is a new therapeutic combination that synergizes to disrupt lysosomal function and cholesterol homeostasis in GBM cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sanford P C; Kuo, John S; Chiang, Hsin-Chien; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Wang, Yu-Shan; Huang, Cheng-Chung; Huang, Yi-Chun; Chi, Mau-Shin; Mehta, Minesh P; Chi, Kwan-Hwa

    2018-01-23

    Glioblastoma (GBM) cells are characterized by high phagocytosis, lipogenesis, exocytosis activities, low autophagy capacity and high lysosomal demand are necessary for survival and invasion. The lysosome stands at the cross roads of lipid biosynthesis, transporting, sorting between exogenous and endogenous cholesterol. We hypothesized that three already approved drugs, the autophagy inducer, sirolimus (rapamycin, Rapa), the autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ), and DNA alkylating chemotherapy, temozolomide (TMZ) could synergize against GBM. This repurposed triple therapy combination induced GBM apoptosis in vitro and inhibited GBM xenograft growth in vivo . Cytotoxicity is caused by induction of lysosomal membrane permeabilization and release of hydrolases, and may be rescued by cholesterol supplementation. Triple treatment inhibits lysosomal function, prevents cholesterol extraction from low density lipoprotein (LDL), and causes clumping of lysosome associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) and lipid droplets (LD) accumulation. Co-treatment of the cell lines with inhibitor of caspases and cathepsin B only partially reverse of cytotoxicities, while N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) can be more effective. A combination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from cholesterol depletion are the early event of underling mechanism. Cholesterol repletion abolished the ROS production and reversed the cytotoxicity from QRT treatment. The shortage of free cholesterol destabilizes lysosomal membranes converting aborted autophagy to apoptosis through either direct mitochondria damage or cathepsin B release. This promising anti-GBM triple therapy combination severely decreases mitochondrial function, induces lysosome-dependent apoptotic cell death, and is now poised for further clinical testing and validation.

  14. Endogenous molecules released by haemocytes receiving Sargassum oligocystum extract lead to downstream activation and synergize innate immunity in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yin-Ze; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Li, Hui-Fang

    2018-05-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei haemocytes receiving immunostimulating Sargassum oligocystum extract (SE) caused necrosis in haemocyte cells, which released endogenous EM-SE molecules. This study examined the immune response of white shrimp L. vannamei receiving SE and EM-SE in vitro and in vivo. Shrimp haemocytes receiving SE exhibited degranulation, changes in cell size and cell viability, necrosis and a release of EM-SE. Shrimp haemocytes receiving SE, EM-SE, and the SE + EM-SE mixture (SE + EM-SE) increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity which was significantly higher in shrimp haemocytes receiving the SE + EM-SE mixture. Furthermore, shrimp haemocytes receiving EM-SE showed degranulation and changes in cell size and cell viability. Shrimp receiving SE, EM-SE, and SE + EM-SE all increased their immune parameters, phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus, being significantly higher in shrimp receiving SE + EM-SE. Meanwhile, the recombinant lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan binding protein of L. vannamei (rLvLGBP) was bound to SE, EM-SE, and SE + EM-SE. We conclude that in shrimp haemocytes receiving a non-self molecule, SE in dying cells released EM-SE which led to downstream activation and synergization of the immune response. This study demonstrated that the innate immunity of shrimp was elicited and enhanced by a mixture of endogenous molecules and exogenous substances (or immunostimulants). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synergism and foaming properties in binary mixtures of a biosurfactant derived from Camellia oleifera Abel and synthetic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Jian, Hong-lei; Liao, Xiao-xia; Zhu, Li-wei; Zhang, Wei-ming; Jiang, Jian-xin

    2011-07-15

    A biosurfactant, named tea saponin (TS), was isolated and purified from the defatted seed of Camellia oleifera Abel. The characterization of TS including molecular weight, glycosyl composition, and thermal behavior as well as the surface and foaming properties was conducted. The synergistic interactions of binary systems of CTAB-TS, SDS-TS, and Brij35-TS were investigated. The results show that TS had a weight-average molecular weight of 809.12 g mol(-1) and contained four aglycones of L-rhamnose, D-galactose, D-glucose, and D-glucuronic acid. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of 2.242 mmol L(-1) and the minimum surface tension (γ(cmc)) of 43.5 mN m(-1) were determined for TS. Synergisms in surface tension reduction efficiency, in mixed micelle formation, and in surface tension reduction effectiveness were observed in CTAB-TS and SDS-TS systems, whereas that was not shown in Brij35-TS mixtures. The mixtures of TS with CTAB and SDS showed synergism in foaming efficiency, but this synergism did not exist in Brij35-TS system with respect to the surface properties. Nevertheless, there appears to be no significant correlation between foam stability and the surface properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microfluidic liquid-air dual-gradient chip for synergic effect bio-evaluation of air pollutant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xian-Jun; Hu, Shan-Wen; Xu, Bi-Yi; Zhao, Ge; Li, Xiang; Xie, Fu-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-05-15

    In this paper, a novel prototype liquid-air dual gradient chip is introduced, which has paved the way for effective synergic effect bio-evaluation of air pollutant. The chip is composed of an array of the agarose liquid-air interfaces, top air gradient layer and bottom liquid gradient layer. The novel agarose liquid-air interface allows for non-biased exposure of cells to all the substances in the air and diffusive interactions with the liquid phase; while the dual liquid-air gradient provides powerful screening abilities, which well reduced errors, saved time and cost from repeated experiment. Coupling the two functions, the chip subsequently facilitates synergic effect evaluation of both liquid and air factors on cells. Here cigarette smoke was taken as the model air pollutant, and its strong synergic effects with inflammatory level of A549 lung cancer cells on their fate were successfully quantified for the first time. These results well testified that the proposed dual-gradient chip is powerful and indispensable for bio-evaluation of air pollutant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. North American Invasion of the Tawny Crazy Ant (Nylanderia fulva) Is Enabled by Pheromonal Synergism from Two Separate Glands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-He; McDonald, Danny L; Hoover, Doreen R; Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Schneidmiller, Rodney G

    2015-09-01

    A new invader, the "tawny crazy ant", Nylanderia fulva (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Formicinae), is displacing the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Formicidae: Myrmicinae), in the southern U.S., likely through its superior chemical arsenal and communication. Alone, formic acid is unattractive, but this venom (= poison) acid powerfully synergizes attraction of tawny crazy ants to volatiles from the Dufour's gland secretion of N. fulva workers, including the two major components, undecane and 2-tridecanone. The unexpected pheromonal synergism between the Dufour's gland and the venom gland appears to be another key factor, in addition to previously known defensive and detoxification semiochemical features, for the successful invasion and domination of N. fulva in the southern U.S. This synergism is an efficient mechanism enabling N. fulva workers to outcompete Solenopsis and other ant species for food and territory. From a practical standpoint, judicious point-source release formulation of tawny crazy ant volatiles may be pivotal for enhanced attract-and-kill management of this pest.

  18. Tramadol and Tramadol+Caffeine Synergism in the Rat Formalin Test Are Mediated by Central Opioid and Serotonergic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Munguía, Norma; González-Trujano, Ma. Eva; Huerta, Miguel; Trujillo, Xochitl; Díaz-Reval, M. Irene

    2015-01-01

    Different analgesic combinations with caffeine have shown this drug to be capable of increasing the analgesic effect. Many combinations with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been carried out, but, in regard to opioids, only combinations with morphine and tramadol have been reported. The antinociceptive synergism mechanism of these combinations is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine the participation of spinal and supraspinal opioidergic and serotonergic systems in the synergic effect of the tramadol+caffeine combination in the rat formalin test. At the supraspinal level, the opioid antagonist, naloxone, completely reversed the effect of the drug combination, whereas ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, inhibited the effect by 60%; however, ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, did not alter the combination effect. When the antagonists were intrathecally administered, there was a significant reduction in all tramadol-caffeine combination effects. With respect to tramadol alone, there was significant participation of the opioid system at the supraspinal level, whereas it was the serotonergic system that participated at the spinal level by means of the two receptors studied. In conclusion, the tramadol+caffeine combination synergically activated the opioid and serotonergic systems at the supraspinal level, as well as at the spinal level, to produce the antinociception. PMID:26146627

  19. [Synergism inhibition of curcumin combined with cisplatin on T24 bladder carcinoma cells and its related mechanism].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-nan; Yong, Qun; Wu, Xin-li; Liu, Xiao-ping

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the synergism inhibition of curcumin combined with cisplatin on T24 bladder carcinoma cells and the down-regulating effect of curcumin on the Keapl-Nrf2 pathway, a well recognized anti-drug pathway in almost drugged tumor cells. T24 cells were cultured and treated with increasing concentrations of curcumin(5 ,10 and 20 µmol/mL) combined with cisplatin(30 µg/mL) for 24 hours. The inhibitory effects on T24 cells were tested with MTI colorimetric assay. Nuclear Nrf2 and Keapl , cytoplasmic Keapl and two typical phase II enzymes (GSTP1 and NQOl) were checked with Western blotting. The proliferation of T24 cells was significantly inhibited by different concentrations of curcumin combined with cisplatin. After the treatment with different concentrations of curcumin, Nuclear Nrf2 was decreased but Keapl was increased, and GSTP1 and NQO1 were decreased. Synergism inhibition of curcumin combined with cisplatin on T24 bladder carcinoma cells is observed in this research. The Keapl-Nrf2 pathway in T24 cells is down-regulated by curcumin. The expression of typical phase I enzymes (GSTP1 and NQO1) mediated by Nrf2 are decreased by curcumin. The sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs is then enhanced. These may be the mechanism of synergism effect of curcumin combined with cisplatin.

  20. Synergism between ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and anti-tuberculosis drugs on growth of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Scheller, S; Dworniczak, S; Waldemar-Klimmek, K; Rajca, M; Tomczyk, A; Shani, J

    1999-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of propolis exerts a strong anti-bacterial activity, in addition to antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal properties. In previous studies from these laboratories we have demonstrated that the intensity of the bactericidal activity of EEP is correlated with the virulence of the mycobacteria tested, and that EEP has a synergistic effect with antibiotics on growth of staphylococcus aureus. In the present study we investigated whether the same synergism and correlation exists between EEP and some anti-tuberculosis drugs on tuberculosis mycobacteria with different degrees of virulence. Six standard strains and 11 wild strains of mycobacteria were exposed for 30 days to EEP, with or without streptomycin, rifamycin, isoniazid or ethambutol. Out of the 17 strains, 8 were resistant to at least two standard antibiotics, and were considered "multi-resistant strains". The rest were either susceptible or resistant to only one of the antimycobacterial drugs. Antagonism was recorded only in one case, when Staphylococcus aureus were treated with a mixture of EEP and ethambutol, suggesting that a chemical bond could have been formed between this anti-tuberculosis antibiotic and one of the active components of the ethanol extract of propolis.

  1. Synergism between ammonia and phenols for Hybomitra tabanids in northern and temperate Canada.

    PubMed

    Mihok, S; Lange, K

    2012-09-01

    Baits for tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae) were tested in the Northwest Territories (60 °N) and Ontario (45 °N) using Nzi traps. Tests targeted ammonia, phenols/cow urine and octenol. About 200 000 tabanids were captured in 15 experiments with a maximum capture of 4182 in one trap in 1 day. In the Northwest Territories, phenols, urine and octenol were effective single baits for only some species. At both locations, adding ammonia to an unbaited or an octenol-baited trap had no effect on catches. By contrast, catches were increased for several species when ammonia was combined with phenols or urine. In Ontario, including ammonia in various baits increased catches by 1.5- to 3.4-fold relative to octenol alone for three Hybomitra and one Tabanus species. Synergism between ammonia and phenols was clearly demonstrated for the dominant Hybomitra species in Ontario (Hybomitra lasiophthalma), but not for the dominant species in the Northwest Territories (Hybomitra epistates). In five other northern Hybomitra species, baits of ammonia and/or octenol in combination with phenols resulted in a 1.7- to 4.1-fold increase in catch relative to an unbaited trap. Further tests of ammonia as a synergist for biting flies may prove useful in, for example, tsetse, which respond strongly to phenols. © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Parenteral glutamine supplement has synergic effects in minimally invasive surgery of subtotal gastrectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chia; Chang, Tung-Cheng; Wang, Ming-Yang; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Lin, Ming-Tsan

    2012-09-01

    Exogenous glutamine supplement is known to improve morbidity and mortality of critically-ill patients. This study was conducted to elucidate the role of glutamine in minimally invasive surgery. We retrospectively reviewed subtotal gastrectomy patients in National Taiwan University Hospital from Dec 2005 to Dec 2008. The patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 underwent subtotal gastrectomy by laparotomy without glutamine supplement, group 2 underwent subtotal gastrectomy by laparotomy with glutamine supplement and group 3 underwent gasless laparoscopy-assisted subtotal gastrectomy with parenteral glutamine supplement. There were 155 patients in total; 85 patients in group 1, 17 in group 2 and 53 in group 3. The mean flatus days after operation are 3.6, 3.1 and 2.8 for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p=0.001). Oral intake after operation was commenced after 6.7, 5.0 and 4.7 days (p=0.006). The body temperature had borderline differences between groups 3 and 1. There were significant differences in postoperative systemic responses including heart rates (p<0.001) and tenderness (p=0.011) 5 days after operation for group 3 vs. group 1. Minimally invasive surgery was a negative factor for postoperative body temperature change. Glutamine was a significant factor for postoperative heart rate change and reduction of tenderness. Glutamine supplement may have synergic effects of rapid recovery in minimal invasive surgery for subtotal gastrectomy patients by minimizing the postoperative systemic response and accelerating recovery.

  3. Multistage Targeting Strategy Using Magnetic Composite Nanoparticles for Synergism of Photothermal Therapy and Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wei, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiaobin; Huang, Xuehui; Zhao, Jingya; Guo, Xing; Zhou, Shaobing

    2018-03-01

    Mitochondrial-targeting therapy is an emerging strategy for enhanced cancer treatment. In the present study, a multistage targeting strategy using doxorubicin-loaded magnetic composite nanoparticles is developed for enhanced efficacy of photothermal and chemical therapy. The nanoparticles with a core-shell-SS-shell architecture are composed of a core of Fe 3 O 4 colloidal nanocrystal clusters, an inner shell of polydopamine (PDA) functionalized with triphenylphosphonium (TPP), and an outer shell of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) linked to the PDA by disulfide bonds. The magnetic core can increase the accumulation of nanoparticles at the tumor site for the first stage of tumor tissue targeting. After the nanoparticles enter the tumor cells, the second stage of mitochondrial targeting is realized as the mPEG shell is detached from the nanoparticles by redox responsiveness to expose the TPP. Using near-infrared light irradiation at the tumor site, a photothermal effect is generated from the PDA photosensitizer, leading to a dramatic decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Simultaneously, the loaded doxorubicin can rapidly enter the mitochondria and subsequently damage the mitochondrial DNA, resulting in cell apoptosis. Thus, the synergism of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy targeting the mitochondria significantly enhances the cancer treatment. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Relaxin receptor antagonist AT-001 synergizes with docetaxel in androgen-independent prostate xenografts.

    PubMed

    Neschadim, Anton; Pritzker, Laura B; Pritzker, Kenneth P H; Branch, Donald R; Summerlee, Alastair J S; Trachtenberg, John; Silvertown, Joshua D

    2014-06-01

    Androgen hormones and the androgen receptor (AR) pathway are the main targets of anti-hormonal therapies for prostate cancer. However, resistance inevitably develops to treatments aimed at the AR pathway resulting in androgen-independent or hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Therefore, there is a significant unmet need for new, non-androgen anti-hormonal strategies for the management of prostate cancer. We demonstrate that a relaxin hormone receptor antagonist, AT-001, an analog of human H2 relaxin, represents a first-in-class anti-hormonal candidate treatment designed to significantly curtail the growth of androgen-independent human prostate tumor xenografts. Chemically synthesized AT-001, administered subcutaneously, suppressed PC3 xenograft growth by up to 60%. AT-001 also synergized with docetaxel, standard first-line chemotherapy for HRPC, to suppress tumor growth by more than 98% in PC3 xenografts via a mechanism involving the downregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and the hypoxia-induced response. Our data support developing AT-001 for clinical use as an anti-relaxin hormonal therapy for advanced prostate cancer.

  5. The iron chelator deferasirox synergizes with chemotherapy to treat triple negative breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Tury, Sandrine; Assayag, Franck; Bonin, Florian; Chateau-Joubert, Sophie; Servely, Jean-Luc; Vacher, Sophie; Becette, Véronique; Caly, Martial; Rapinat, Audrey; Gentien, David; de la Grange, Pierre; Schnitzler, Anne; Lallemand, François; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Bièche, Ivan; Callens, Céline

    2018-06-07

    To ensure their high proliferation rate, tumor cells display an iron metabolic disorder with increased iron needs, making them more susceptible to iron deprivation. This vulnerability could be a therapeutic target. In breast cancers, the development of new therapeutic approaches is urgently needed for patients with triple negative tumors which frequently relapse after chemotherapy and suffer from a lack of targeted therapies. In this work, we demonstrated that deferasirox (DFX) synergizes with standard chemotherapeutic agents such as with doxorubicin, cisplatin and carboplatin to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis and autophagy in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. Moreover, the combination of DFX with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide delayed recurrences in breast cancer patient-derived xenografts without increasing the side-effects of chemotherapies alone or altering global iron storage of mice. Antitumor synergy of DFX and doxorubicin seems to involve down-regulation of the PI3K and NF-κB pathways. Iron deprivation in combination with chemotherapy could thus help to improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy in TNBC patients without increasing toxicities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Biochemical basis of synergism between pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and insecticide chlorantraniliprole in Locusta migratoria (Meyen)

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Miao; Cao, Guangchun; Li, Yibo; Tu, Xiongbing; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Whitman, Douglas W.; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    We challenged Locusta migratoria (Meyen) grasshoppers with simultaneous doses of both the insecticide chlorantraniliprole and the fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae. Our results showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on host mortality and enzyme activities. To elucidate the biochemical mechanisms that underlie detoxification and pathogen-immune responses in insects, we monitored the activities of 10 enzymes. After administration of insecticide and fungus, activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), general esterases (ESTs) and phenol oxidase (PO) decreased in the insect during the initial time period, whereas those of aryl acylamidase (AA) and chitinase (CHI) increased during the initial period and that of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) increased during a later time period. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) decreased at a later time period post treatment. Interestingly, treatment with chlorantraniliprole and M. anisopliae relieved the convulsions that normally accompany M. anisopliae infection. We speculate that locust mortality increased as a result of synergism via a mechanism related to Ca2+ disruption in the host. Our study illuminates the biochemical mechanisms involved in insect immunity to xenobiotics and pathogens as well as the mechanisms by which these factors disrupt host homeostasis and induce death. We expect this knowledge to lead to more effective pest control. PMID:27328936

  7. Strong Delayed Interactive Effects of Metal Exposure and Warming: Latitude-Dependent Synergisms Persist Across Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong V; Stoks, Robby

    2017-02-21

    As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species' ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and low-latitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms into a single study, we could identify two novel patterns. First, during exposure zinc did not affect survival, whereas it induced mild to moderate postexposure mortality in the larval stage and at metamorphosis, and very strongly reduced adult lifespan. This severe delayed effect across metamorphosis was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies. These results highlight that a more complete life-cycle approach that incorporates the possibility of delayed interactions between contaminants and warming in a geographical context is crucial for a more realistic risk assessment in a warming world.

  8. Total ginsenosides synergize with ulinastatin against septic acute lung injury and acute respir atory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rongju; Li, Yana; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Fei; Li, Tanshi

    2015-01-01

    Total ginsenosides synergize with ulinastatin (UTI) against septic acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We randomly divided 80 cases of severe sepsis-induced ALI and ARDS into a UTI group and a ginsenosides (GS)+UTI group. Continuous electrocardiac monitoring of pulse, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and heart rate; invasive hemodynamic monitoring; ventilator-assisted breathing and circulation support; and anti-infection as well as UTI treatment were given in the UTI group with GS treatment added for 7 consecutive days in the GS+UTI group. The indicators of pulmonary vascular permeability, pulmonary circulation, blood gases, and hemodynamics as well as APACHE II and ALI scores were detected on days 1, 3, and 7. The ALI score in the GS+UTI group was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared with that of the UTI group, and the indicators of pulmonary capillary permeability such as pulmonary vascular permeability index, extravascular lung water index, and oxygenation index, in the GS+UTI group improved significantly more than that of the UTI group. The indicators of hemodynamics and pulmonary circulation such as cardiac index, intrathoracic blood volume index, and central venous pressure improved significantly (P < 0.05), and the APACHE II score in the GS+UTI group was lower than that of the UTI group. GS can effectively collaborate with UTI against ALI and/or ARDS. PMID:26261640

  9. Synergism between endotoxin priming and exotoxin challenge in provoking severe vascular leakage in rabbit lungs.

    PubMed

    Schütte, H; Rosseau, S; Czymek, R; Ermert, L; Walmrath, D; Krämer, H J; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F

    1997-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria prime rabbit lungs for enhanced thromboxane-mediated vasoconstriction upon subsequent challenge with the exotoxin Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) (Walmrath et al. J. Exp. Med. 1994;180:1437-1443). We investigated the impact of endotoxin priming and subsequent HlyA challenge on lung vascular permeability while maintaining constancy of capillary pressure. Rabbit lungs were perfused in a pressure-controlled mode in the presence of the thromboxane receptor antagonist BM 13.505, with continuous monitoring of flow. Perfusion for 180 min with 10 ng/ml LPS did not provoke vasoconstriction or alteration of capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) values. HlyA (0.021 hemolytic units/ml) induced thromboxane release and a transient decrease in perfusion flow in the absence of significant changes in Kfc. Similar results were obtained when LPS and HlyA were coapplied simultaneously. However, when the HlyA challenge was undertaken after 180 min of LPS priming, a manifold increase in Kfc values was noted, with concomitant severe lung edema formation, although capillary pressure remained unchanged. Thus, endotoxin primes the lung vasculature to respond with a severe increase in vascular permeability to a subsequent low-dose application of HlyA. Such synergism between endotoxin priming and exotoxin challenge in provoking lung vascular leakage may contribute to the pathogenesis of respiratory failure in sepsis and severe lung infection.

  10. Systematic chemical-genetic and chemical-chemical interaction datasets for prediction of compound synergism

    PubMed Central

    Wildenhain, Jan; Spitzer, Michaela; Dolma, Sonam; Jarvik, Nick; White, Rachel; Roy, Marcia; Griffiths, Emma; Bellows, David S.; Wright, Gerard D.; Tyers, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The network structure of biological systems suggests that effective therapeutic intervention may require combinations of agents that act synergistically. However, a dearth of systematic chemical combination datasets have limited the development of predictive algorithms for chemical synergism. Here, we report two large datasets of linked chemical-genetic and chemical-chemical interactions in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We screened 5,518 unique compounds against 242 diverse yeast gene deletion strains to generate an extended chemical-genetic matrix (CGM) of 492,126 chemical-gene interaction measurements. This CGM dataset contained 1,434 genotype-specific inhibitors, termed cryptagens. We selected 128 structurally diverse cryptagens and tested all pairwise combinations to generate a benchmark dataset of 8,128 pairwise chemical-chemical interaction tests for synergy prediction, termed the cryptagen matrix (CM). An accompanying database resource called ChemGRID was developed to enable analysis, visualisation and downloads of all data. The CGM and CM datasets will facilitate the benchmarking of computational approaches for synergy prediction, as well as chemical structure-activity relationship models for anti-fungal drug discovery. PMID:27874849

  11. Synergisms between microbial pathogens in plant disease complexes: a growing trend

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Venturi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Plant diseases are often thought to be caused by one species or even by a specific strain. Microbes in nature, however, mostly occur as part of complex communities and this has been noted since the time of van Leeuwenhoek. Interestingly, most laboratory studies focus on single microbial strains grown in pure culture; we were therefore unaware of possible interspecies and/or inter-kingdom interactions of pathogenic microbes in the wild. In human and animal infections, it is now being recognized that many diseases are the result of multispecies synergistic interactions. This increases the complexity of the disease and has to be taken into consideration in the development of more effective control measures. On the other hand, there are only a few reports of synergistic pathogen–pathogen interactions in plant diseases and the mechanisms of interactions are currently unknown. Here we review some of these reports of synergism between different plant pathogens and their possible implications in crop health. Finally, we briefly highlight the recent technological advances in diagnostics as these are beginning to provide important insights into the microbial communities associated with complex plant diseases. These examples of synergistic interactions of plant pathogens that lead to disease complexes might prove to be more common than expected and understanding the underlying mechanisms might have important implications in plant disease epidemiology and management. PMID:26074945

  12. Synergizing 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis and Metabolic Engineering for Biochemical Production.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weihua; Sheng, Jiayuan; Feng, Xueyang

    Metabolic engineering of industrial microorganisms to produce chemicals, fuels, and drugs has attracted increasing interest as it provides an environment-friendly and renewable route that does not depend on depleting petroleum sources. However, the microbial metabolism is so complex that metabolic engineering efforts often have difficulty in achieving a satisfactory yield, titer, or productivity of the target chemical. To overcome this challenge, 13 C Metabolic Flux Analysis ( 13 C-MFA) has been developed to investigate rigorously the cell metabolism and quantify the carbon flux distribution in central metabolic pathways. In the past decade, 13 C-MFA has been widely used in academic labs and the biotechnology industry to pinpoint the key issues related to microbial-based chemical production and to guide the development of the appropriate metabolic engineering strategies for improving the biochemical production. In this chapter we introduce the basics of 13 C-MFA and illustrate how 13 C-MFA has been applied to synergize with metabolic engineering to identify and tackle the rate-limiting steps in biochemical production.

  13. Anti-GD2 mAb and Vorinostat synergize in the treatment of neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kroesen, Michiel; Büll, Christian; Gielen, Paul R.; Brok, Ingrid C.; Armandari, Inna; Wassink, Melissa; Looman, Maaike W. G.; Boon, Louis; den Brok, Martijn H.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Adema, Gosse J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neuroblastoma (NBL) is a childhood malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system. For high-risk NBL patients, the mortality rate is still over 50%, despite intensive multimodal treatment. Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAB) in combination with systemic cytokine immunotherapy has shown clinical efficacy in high-risk NBL patients. Targeted therapy using histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is currently being explored in cancer treatment and already shows promising results. Using our recently developed transplantable TH-MYCN NBL model, we here report that the HDAC inhibitor Vorinostat synergizes with anti-GD2 mAb therapy in reducing NBL tumor growth. Further mechanistic studies uncovered multiple mechanisms for the observed synergy, including Vorinostat-induced specific NBL cell death and upregulation of the tumor antigen GD2 on the cell surface of surviving NBL cells. Moreover, Vorinostat created a permissive tumor microenvironment (TME) for tumor-directed mAb therapy by increasing macrophage effector cells expressing high levels of Fc-receptors (FcR) and decreasing the number and function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Collectively, these data imply further testing of other epigenetic modulators with immunotherapy and provide a strong basis for clinical testing of anti-GD2 plus Vorinostat combination therapy in NBL patients. PMID:27471639

  14. Anti-GD2 mAb and Vorinostat synergize in the treatment of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kroesen, Michiel; Büll, Christian; Gielen, Paul R; Brok, Ingrid C; Armandari, Inna; Wassink, Melissa; Looman, Maaike W G; Boon, Louis; den Brok, Martijn H; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Adema, Gosse J

    2016-06-01

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is a childhood malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system. For high-risk NBL patients, the mortality rate is still over 50%, despite intensive multimodal treatment. Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAB) in combination with systemic cytokine immunotherapy has shown clinical efficacy in high-risk NBL patients. Targeted therapy using histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is currently being explored in cancer treatment and already shows promising results. Using our recently developed transplantable TH-MYCN NBL model, we here report that the HDAC inhibitor Vorinostat synergizes with anti-GD2 mAb therapy in reducing NBL tumor growth. Further mechanistic studies uncovered multiple mechanisms for the observed synergy, including Vorinostat-induced specific NBL cell death and upregulation of the tumor antigen GD2 on the cell surface of surviving NBL cells. Moreover, Vorinostat created a permissive tumor microenvironment (TME) for tumor-directed mAb therapy by increasing macrophage effector cells expressing high levels of Fc-receptors (FcR) and decreasing the number and function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Collectively, these data imply further testing of other epigenetic modulators with immunotherapy and provide a strong basis for clinical testing of anti-GD2 plus Vorinostat combination therapy in NBL patients.

  15. A Newly Isolated Penicillium oxalicum 16 Cellulase with High Efficient Synergism and High Tolerance of Monosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi-Hua; Wang, Wei; Tong, Bin; Zhang, Su-Ping; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Compared to Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 cellulase (Trcel), Penicillium oxalicum 16 cellulase (P16cel) from the fermentation supernatant produced a 2-fold higher glucose yield when degrading microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), possessed a 10-fold higher β-glucosidase (BGL) activity, but obtained somewhat lower other cellulase component activities. The optimal temperature and pH of β-1,4-endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and filter paperase from P16cel were 50-60 °C and 4-5, respectively, but those of BGL reached 70 °C and 5. The cellulase cocktail of P16cel and Trcel had a high synergism when solubilizing MCC and generated 1.7-fold and 6.2-fold higher glucose yields than P16cel and Trcel at the same filter paperase loading, respectively. Additional low concentration of fructose enhanced the glucose yield during enzymatic hydrolysis of MCC; however, additional high concentration of monosaccharide (especially glucose) reduced cellulase activities and gave a stronger monosaccharide inhibition on Trcel. These results indicate that P16cel is a more excellent cellulase than Trcel.

  16. Indirect cooperative effects leading to synergism in bimetallic homogeneous catalysts containing azolates as bridging ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Esteruelas, M.A.; Garcia, M.P.; Lopez, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The binuclear compounds (H(CO)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}Ru({mu}-bim)Ir(COD)) (1) (bim = 2,2{prime}-biimidazolate, COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) and (H(CO)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}Ru({mu}-pz){sub 2}Ir(TFB)) (2) (pz = pyrazolate, TFB = tetrafluorobenzobarrelene) are more active catalysts for the hydrogenation of cyclohexene than the mononuclear parent compounds (RuH(Hbim)(CO)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}), (Ir(Hbim)(COD)), (RuH(pa)(CO)(Hpz)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}), and (Ir(TFB)(Hpz){sub 2})BF{sub 4}. In the presence of 1, the reaction rate is first order with respect to the concentration of 1 and cyclohexene, second order with respect to hydrogen pressure, and inversely proportional to the concentration of added phosphine. For the reaction catalyzed by 2, the experimental data are in accordance with amore » rate expression of the form {minus}d(cyclohexene)/dt = k(2)(cyclohexene)P(H{sub 2}) (P(H{sub 2}) = hydrogen pressure). On the basis of the kinetic results and experimental evidence, the origin of the catalytic synergism is assigned to indirect cooperative effects between the metallic centers of the binuclear complexes. The kinetic investigation of the hydrogenation of cyclohexene catalyzed by (Ir({mu}-pz)(TFB)){sub 2} (3) is also reported, suggesting that the full catalytic cycle involves binuclear species.« less

  17. Activity of semisynthetic penicillins and synergism with mecillinam against Bacteroides species.

    PubMed Central

    Trestman, I; Kaye, D; Levison, M E

    1979-01-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of six penicillins (ampicillin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin, piperacillin, mezlocillin, and Bay k 4999) against 29 clinical isolates of Bacteriodes spp. (including Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and Bacteroides vulgatus) were determined by an agar dilution method. Bay k 4999 was most active, followed in descending order by ampicillin, piperacillin, mezlocillin, ticarcillin, and carbenicillin. Mecillinam, a 6 beta-amidino-penicillanic acid, inhibited no strains at 50 micrograms/ml, but when compared with ampicillin, a fourfold or greater increase in MIC for ampicillin (antagonism) was noted in 3 of 29 strains, with no effect on MIC for 26 strains, whereas when combined with carbenicillin, a fourfold or greater decrease in MIC for both antibiotics (synergism) was noted in 12 strains, 4 of which had an MIC of greater than or equal to 250 micrograms/ml for carbenicillin alone. These studies demonstrate the increased activity of some newer semisynthetic penicillins and the potential synergy obtained with mecillinam and carbenicillin against Bacteroides sp. PMID:228593

  18. The MOF+ Technique: A Significant Synergic Effect Enables High Performance Chromate Removal.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming Biao; Xiong, Yang Yang; Wu, Hui Qiong; Feng, Xue Feng; Li, Jian Qiang; Luo, Feng

    2017-12-18

    A significant synergic effect between a metal-organic framework (MOF) and Fe 2 SO 4 , the so-called MOF + technique, is exploited for the first time to remove toxic chromate from aqueous solutions. The results show that relative to the pristine MOF samples (no detectable chromate removal), the MOF + method enables super performance, giving a 796 Cr mg g -1 adsorption capacity. The value is almost eight-fold higher than the best value of established MOF adsorbents, and the highest value of all reported porous adsorbents for such use. The adsorption mechanism, unlike the anion-exchange process that dominates chromate removal in all other MOF adsorbents, as unveiled by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), is due to the surface formation of Fe 0.75 Cr 0.25 (OH) 3 nanospheres on the MOF samples. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Home cooking and ingredient synergism improve lycopene isomer production in Sofrito.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi de Alvarenga, José Fernando; Tran, Camilla; Hurtado-Barroso, Sara; Martinez-Huélamo, Miriam; Illan, Montserrat; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2017-09-01

    There has been increasing interest in tomato products rich in lycopene Z-isomers since these carotenoids present greater bioavailability and antioxidant capacity than the all-E lycopene form. Intrinsic food properties as well as processing and the interaction between dietary components can all influence the content, type and bioavailability of carotenoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether carotenoid content and isomerization in tomato-based Mediterranean sofrito is affected by the process of home cooking and the presence of other ingredients such as extra virgin olive oil, onion and garlic. We used a full factorial design to clarify the contribution of each ingredient to the carotenoid composition of sofrito and to determine whether this can be improved by the cooking time and ingredient synergism. Cooking time and onion content were associated with a higher production of 5-Z-lycopene, 9-Z-lycopene and 13-Z-lycopene in sofrito. Onion proved to be the most interesting ingredient in the sofrito formulation due to their enhancing effect on lycopene isomerization. The use of onion combined with an adequate processing time may improve the bioavailability of lycopene in tomato products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The prohibitin-binding compound fluorizoline induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells through the upregulation of NOXA and synergizes with ibrutinib, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or venetoclax.

    PubMed

    Cosialls, Ana M; Pomares, Helena; Iglesias-Serret, Daniel; Saura-Esteller, José; Núñez-Vázquez, Sonia; González-Gironès, Diana M; de la Banda, Esmeralda; Preciado, Sara; Albericio, Fernando; Lavilla, Rodolfo; Pons, Gabriel; González-Barca, Eva M; Gil, Joan

    2017-09-01

    Fluorizoline is a new synthetic molecule that induces apoptosis by selectively targeting prohibitins. In the study herein, the pro-apoptotic effect of fluorizoline was assessed in 34 primary samples from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Fluorizoline induced apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells at concentrations in the low micromolar range. All primary samples were sensitive to fluorizoline irrespective of patients' clinical or genetic features, whereas normal T lymphocytes were less sensitive. Fluorizoline increased the protein levels of the pro-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 family member NOXA in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Furthermore, fluorizoline synergized with ibrutinib, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or venetoclax to induce apoptosis. These results suggest that targeting prohibitins could be a new therapeutic strategy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  1. The prohibitin-binding compound fluorizoline induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells through the upregulation of NOXA and synergizes with ibrutinib, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or venetoclax

    PubMed Central

    Cosialls, Ana M.; Pomares, Helena; Iglesias-Serret, Daniel; Saura-Esteller, José; Núñez-Vázquez, Sonia; González-Gironès, Diana M.; de la Banda, Esmeralda; Preciado, Sara; Albericio, Fernando; Lavilla, Rodolfo; Pons, Gabriel; González-Barca, Eva M.; Gil, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Fluorizoline is a new synthetic molecule that induces apoptosis by selectively targeting prohibitins. In the study herein, the pro-apoptotic effect of fluorizoline was assessed in 34 primary samples from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Fluorizoline induced apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells at concentrations in the low micromolar range. All primary samples were sensitive to fluorizoline irrespective of patients’ clinical or genetic features, whereas normal T lymphocytes were less sensitive. Fluorizoline increased the protein levels of the pro-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 family member NOXA in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Furthermore, fluorizoline synergized with ibrutinib, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or venetoclax to induce apoptosis. These results suggest that targeting prohibitins could be a new therapeutic strategy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:28619845

  2. Natural synergism of acid and lactone type mixed sophorolipids in interfacial activities and cytotoxicities.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yoshihiko; Ryu, Mizuyuki; Igarashi, Keisuke; Nagatsuka, Asami; Furuta, Taro; Kanaya, Shigenori; Sugiura, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) naturally produced from Candida bombicola are a mixture of lactonic (SL-lactone) and acidic (SL-acid) sophorosides of 17-L-hydroxydecanoic acid with an SL-lactone:SL-acid ratio of 72:28. SLs are biodegradable low-foaming surfactants with high detergency and hardness-tolerance properties. To analyze the effect of the SL-lactone:SL-acid ratio on these properties, SL-LXs containing X% SL-lactone, in which X varied from 0 to 100, were prepared and their interfacial activities and cytotoxicities examined. The minimum surface tension values for all SLs examined were comparable. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was 680 mg/L for SL-L0 and 62-110 mg/L for the other SLs. Interestingly, natural SL (SL-L72) had the lowest surface tension and CMC among all of the SLs examined. The foaming ability and stability of the SLs were dependent on the SL-L content. SL-L0 and L17 had higher foaming values than the other SLs examined in 0-ppm hardness water. These values greatly reduced and became constant when the SL-L content increased over 55%. The detergencies of all of the SLs examined were comparable, except for those of SL-L0 and SL-L100, which were slightly lower than those of the other SLs. These results suggest that natural synergism between SLs creates a better balance for many interfacial activities. The cytotoxicity of SL-L72 was higher than that of SL-L0, but was comparable to that of surfactin, which is commercially available for cosmetic use. The low cytotoxicities and high interfacial properties of SLs increase their usefulness as biocompatible surface active agents for many applications.

  3. 21st Century extravehicular activities: Synergizing past and present training methods for future spacewalking success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-10-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind" were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the true spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first spacewalk in the June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill set and subsequently the training methods changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the SkyLab, Space Shuttle, and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA's success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  4. In vitro synergism between berberine and miconazole against planktonic and biofilm Candida cultures.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo-Xian; Xu, Xin; Wu, Christine D

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the antimycotic activity of the plant alkaloid berberine (BBR), alone and in combination with antifungal azoles, against planktonic and biofilm Candida cultures. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of BBR, miconazole (MCZ), and fluconazole (FLC) towards Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis were determined by a microdilution method. For C. albicans, the synergistic effects of BBR combined with MCZ or FLC were examined in a paper disc agar diffusion assay and checkerboard microdilution assay. The effect of the BBR/MCZ combination was further investigated in a C. albicans biofilm formation model with a dual-chamber flow cell. The effect on metabolic activity of biofilm cells was established using 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT)/menadione. Berberine inhibited the growth of various Candida species (MICs 0.98-31.25mg/L) in the following order of susceptibility: C. krusei > C. kefyr > C. glabrata > C. tropicalis > C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. Synergism between BBR and MCZ or FLC was observed in the disc diffusion assay as well as in suspension showing an FIC index <0.5 (∑FIC=0.19). Whilst neither BBR (16 mg/L) nor MCZ (0.8 mg/L) alone significantly inhibited biofilm formation of C. albicans, their combination reduced biofilm formation by >91% after 24 h, as established from the reduction in surface area coverage (P<0.01). The BBR/MCZ combination also exhibited synergy against the metabolic activity of pre-formed C. albicans biofilms in polystyrene microtiter plates (∑FIC=0.25). Berberine exhibits synergistic effects with commonly used antimycotic drugs against C. albicans, either in planktonic or in biofilm growth phases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Synergism between exposure to mercury and use of iodine supplements on thyroid hormones in pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose

    Objective: To evaluate the association between mercury exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels during pregnancy as well as to explore if there is any synergic action between mercury and intake of iodine from different sources. Methods: The study population was 1407 pregnant women participating in the Spanish INMA birth cohort study. Total mercury concentrations were analyzed in cord blood. Thyroid hormones (THs) were measured in serum samples collected at 13.2±1.5 weeks of gestation. The association between mercury and TH levels was evaluated with multivariate linear regression models. Effect modification caused by iodine intakemore » from supplements and diet was also evaluated. Results: The geometric means of TSH, TT3, FT4 and mercury were 1.1 μU/L, 2.4 nmol/L, 10.5 pmol/L and 7.7 μg/L, respectively. Mercury levels were marginally significantly associated with TT3 (β: −0.05; 95%CI: −0.10, 0.01), but were neither associated with TSH nor FT4. The inverse association between mercury and TT3 levels was stronger among the iodine supplement consumers (−0.08; 95%CI: −0.15, −0.02, interaction p-value=0.07). The association with FT4 followed the same pattern, albeit not significant. Conclusion: Prenatal mercury exposure was inversely associated with TT3 levels among women who took iodine supplements during pregnancy. These results could be of public health concern, although further research is needed. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between mercury and thyroid hormones among pregnant. • Mercury was marginally significantly associated with TT3, but not with TSH or FT4. • This association was stronger among the iodine supplement. • These results could be of public health concern, but further research is needed.« less

  6. Comparative Toxicities and Synergism of Apple Orchard Pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski)

    PubMed Central

    Biddinger, David J.; Robertson, Jacqueline L.; Mullin, Chris; Frazier, James; Ashcraft, Sara A.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Joshi, Neelendra K.; Vaughn, Mace

    2013-01-01

    The topical toxicities of five commercial grade pesticides commonly sprayed in apple orchards were estimated on adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Japanese orchard bees, Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). The pesticides were acetamiprid (Assail 30SG), λ-cyhalothrin (Warrior II), dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC), phosmet (Imidan 70W), and imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F). At least 5 doses of each chemical, diluted in distilled water, were applied to freshly-eclosed adult bees. Mortality was assessed after 48 hr. Dose-mortality regressions were analyzed by probit analysis to test the hypotheses of parallelism and equality by likelihood ratio tests. For A. mellifera, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD50 was imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, dimethoate, phosmet, and acetamiprid. For O. cornifrons, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD50 was dimethoate, λ-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and phosmet. Interaction of imidacloprid or acetamiprid with the fungicide fenbuconazole (Indar 2F) was also tested in a 1∶1 proportion for each species. Estimates of response parameters for each mixture component applied to each species were compared with dose-response data for each mixture in statistical tests of the hypothesis of independent joint action. For each mixture, the interaction of fenbuconazole (a material non-toxic to both species) was significant and positive along the entire line for the pesticide. Our results clearly show that responses of A. mellifera cannot be extrapolated to responses of O.cornifrons, and that synergism of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides occurs using formulated product in mixtures as they are commonly applied in apple orchards. PMID:24039783

  7. Comparative toxicities and synergism of apple orchard pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski).

    PubMed

    Biddinger, David J; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Mullin, Chris; Frazier, James; Ashcraft, Sara A; Rajotte, Edwin G; Joshi, Neelendra K; Vaughn, Mace

    2013-01-01

    The topical toxicities of five commercial grade pesticides commonly sprayed in apple orchards were estimated on adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Japanese orchard bees, Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). The pesticides were acetamiprid (Assail 30SG), λ-cyhalothrin (Warrior II), dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC), phosmet (Imidan 70W), and imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F). At least 5 doses of each chemical, diluted in distilled water, were applied to freshly-eclosed adult bees. Mortality was assessed after 48 hr. Dose-mortality regressions were analyzed by probit analysis to test the hypotheses of parallelism and equality by likelihood ratio tests. For A. mellifera, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD₅₀ was imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, dimethoate, phosmet, and acetamiprid. For O. cornifrons, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD₅₀ was dimethoate, λ-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and phosmet. Interaction of imidacloprid or acetamiprid with the fungicide fenbuconazole (Indar 2F) was also tested in a 1∶1 proportion for each species. Estimates of response parameters for each mixture component applied to each species were compared with dose-response data for each mixture in statistical tests of the hypothesis of independent joint action. For each mixture, the interaction of fenbuconazole (a material non-toxic to both species) was significant and positive along the entire line for the pesticide. Our results clearly show that responses of A. mellifera cannot be extrapolated to responses of O.cornifrons, and that synergism of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides occurs using formulated product in mixtures as they are commonly applied in apple orchards.

  8. Biochemical characterization and synergism of cellulolytic enzyme system from Chaetomium globosum on rice straw saccharification.

    PubMed

    Wanmolee, Wanwitoo; Sornlake, Warasirin; Rattanaphan, Nakul; Suwannarangsee, Surisa; Laosiripojana, Navadol; Champreda, Verawat

    2016-11-21

    Efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials to sugars for conversion to biofuels and chemicals is a key step in biorefinery. Designing an active saccharifying enzyme system with synergy among their components is considered a promising approach. In this study, a lignocellulose-degrading enzyme system of Chaetomium globosum BCC5776 (CG-Cel) was characterized for its activity and proteomic profiles, and synergism with accessory enzymes. The highest cellulase productivity of 0.40 FPU/mL was found for CG-Cel under the optimized submerged fermentation conditions on 1% (w/v) EPFB (empty palm fruit bunch), 2% microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel®) and 1% soybean meal (SBM) at 30 °C, pH 5.8 for 6 d. CG-Cel worked optimally at 50-60 °C in an acidic pH range. Proteomics analysis by LC/MS/MS revealed a complex enzyme system composed of core cellulases and accessory hydrolytic/non-hydrolytic enzymes attacking plant biopolymers. A synergistic enzyme system comprising the CG-Cel, a β-glucosidase (Novozyme® 188) and a hemicellulase Accellerase® XY was optimized on saccharification of alkaline-pretreated rice straw by a mixture design approach. Applying a full cubic model, the optimal ratio of ternary enzyme mixture containing CG-Cel: Novozyme® 188: Accellerase® XY of 44.4:20.6:35.0 showed synergistic enhancement on reducing sugar yield with a glucose releasing efficiency of 256.4 mg/FPU, equivalent to a 2.9 times compared with that from CG-Cel alone. The work showed an approach for developing an active synergistic enzyme system based on the newly characterized C. globosum for lignocellulose saccharification and modification in bio-industries.

  9. 21st Century Extravehicular Activities: Synergizing Past and Present Training Methods for Future Spacewalking Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the the spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first space walk in June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill-set and subsequently the training methods, changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the Skylab, Space Shuttle; and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  10. Silver nanoparticles: Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity, and synergism with N-acetyl cysteine.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Selwan; Emara, Mohamed; Shawky, Riham M; El-Domany, Ramadan A; Youssef, Tareq

    2017-08-01

    The fast progression of nanotechnology has led to novel therapeutic interventions. Antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were tested against standard ATCC strains of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 9144), Escherichia coli (O157:H7), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), and Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) in addition to 60 clinical isolates collected from cancer patients. Antimicrobial activity was tested by disk diffusion method and MIC values for Ag NPs alone and in combination with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against tested pathogens were determined by broth microdilution method. Ag NPs showed a robust antimicrobial activity against all tested pathogens and NAC substantially enhanced the antimicrobial activity of Ag NPs against all tested pathogens. Synergism between Ag NPs and NAC has been confirmed by checkerboard assay. The effect of Ag NPs on tested pathogens was further scrutinized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) which showed disruption of cell wall in both bacteria and fungi. Ag NPs abrogated the activity of respiratory chain dehydrogenase of all tested pathogens and released muramic acid content from S. aureus in culture. The cytotoxic effect of Ag NPs alone and in combination with NAC was examined using human HepG2 cells and this revealed no cytotoxicity at MIC values of Ag NPs and interestingly, NAC reduced the cytotoxic effect of Ag NPs at concentrations higher than their MIC values. Taken together, Ag NPs have robust antimicrobial activity and NAC substantially enhances their antimicrobial activities against MDR pathogens which would provide a novel safe, effective, and inexpensive therapeutic approach to control the prevalence of MDR pathogens. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The synergism of natural compounds in the pursuit of safe and healthier food.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, S; Polanska, M; Van Assche, A; Moloney, R; Willems, K A

    2011-01-01

    Food producers apply modern processing techniques and use a variety of preservative additives to guarantee safe food and a longer shelflife. Regrettably many of these impact the sensory characteristics of the foodstuffs, such as colour, texture, and flavour, which can result in low consumer acceptance. Additionally, strategies used to reduce growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria are not selective enough and may inactivate also desired microbiota. Food is usually overdosed with antimicrobials that are supplemented 'just in case.' Consequently, food producers are searching for natural preservation methods that are not harmful to humans. Nature offers a wide spectrum of biologically active (phyto) chemicals that can be used as potential natural preservatives. Compounds with bacterial growth-limiting properties are detected in all parts of plants, including their leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, etc. These are mostly acids, alcohols, medium and long-chain organic acids, terpenic compounds, and their derivatives. This study focused on the effectiveness of plant extracts, i.e., synergism between terpenoids and medium chain fatty acids in cured cooked meat. Bacterial strains that were tested include typical members of the spoilage microflora in vacuum (Lactobacillus curvatus) and MA-packed meats (Brochothrix thermosphacta). These were isolated and identified in a separate study. L. curvatus was observed to be very resistant against either terpenoids or fatty acids when used separately, whereas its growth was strongly inhibited when both chemicals were combined. Growth of B. thermosphacta was significantly inhibited when antimicrobial compounds were solely applied, whereas a blend of terpenoids and fatty acids showed an almost bactericidal effect.

  12. Synergism between thrombin and adrenaline (epinephrine) in human platelets. Marked potentiation of inositol phospholipid metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Steen, V M; Tysnes, O B; Holmsen, H

    1988-01-01

    We have studied synergism between adrenaline (epinephrine) and low concentrations of thrombin in gel-filtered human platelets prelabelled with [32P]Pi. Suspensions of platelets, which did not contain added fibrinogen, were incubated at 37 degrees C to measure changes in the levels of 32P-labelled phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidate (PA), aggregation and dense-granule secretion after stimulation. Adrenaline alone (3.5-4.0 microM) did not cause a change in any parameter (phosphoinositide metabolism, aggregation and dense-granule secretion), but markedly enhanced the thrombin-induced responses over a narrow range of thrombin concentrations (0.03-0.08 units/ml). The thrombin-induced hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids by phospholipase C, which was measured as the formation of [32P]PA, was potentiated by adrenaline, as was the increase in the levels of [32P]PIP2 and [32P]PIP. The presence of adrenaline caused a shift to the left for the thrombin-induced changes in the phosphoinositide metabolism, without affecting the maximal levels of 32P-labelled compounds obtained. A similar shift by adrenaline in the dose-response relationship was previously demonstrated for thrombin-induced aggregation and dense-granule secretion. Also, the narrow range of concentrations of thrombin over which adrenaline potentiates thrombin-induced platelet responses is the same for changes in phosphoinositide metabolism and physiological responses (aggregation and dense-granule secretion). Our observations clearly indicate that adrenaline directly or indirectly influences thrombin-induced changes in phosphoinositide metabolism. PMID:2845924

  13. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues.

    PubMed

    Wasana, Hewa M S; Perera, Gamage D R K; Gunawardena, Panduka De S; Fernando, Palika S; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-02-14

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined "consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer". As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels.

  14. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasana, Hewa M. S.; Perera, Gamage D. R. K.; Gunawardena, Panduka De S.; Fernando, Palika S.; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-02-01

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined “consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer”. As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels.

  15. Inter-domain Synergism Is Required for Efficient Feeding of Cellulose Chain into Active Site of Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A*

    PubMed Central

    Kont, Riin; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter; Väljamäe, Priit

    2016-01-01

    Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme systems. TrCel7A consists of a catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel-shaped active site rests in the CD and contains 10 glucose unit binding sites. The active site of TrCel7A is lined with four Trp residues with two of them, Trp-40 and Trp-38, in the substrate binding sites near the tunnel entrance. Although addressed in numerous studies the elucidation of the role of CBM and active site aromatics has been obscured by a complex multistep mechanism of processive GHs. Here we studied the role of the CBM-linker and Trp-38 of TrCel7A with respect to binding affinity, on- and off-rates, processivity, and synergism with endoglucanase. The CBM-linker increased the on-rate and substrate affinity of the enzyme. The Trp-38 to Ala substitution resulted in increased off-rates and decreased processivity. The effect of the Trp-38 to Ala substitution on on-rates was strongly dependent on the presence of the CBM-linker. This compensation between CBM-linker and Trp-38 indicates synergism between CBM-linker and CD in feeding the cellulose chain into the active site. The inter-domain synergism was pre-requisite for the efficient degradation of cellulose in the presence of endoglucanase. PMID:27780868

  16. Inter-domain Synergism Is Required for Efficient Feeding of Cellulose Chain into Active Site of Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A.

    PubMed

    Kont, Riin; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter; Väljamäe, Priit

    2016-12-09

    Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme systems. TrCel7A consists of a catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel-shaped active site rests in the CD and contains 10 glucose unit binding sites. The active site of TrCel7A is lined with four Trp residues with two of them, Trp-40 and Trp-38, in the substrate binding sites near the tunnel entrance. Although addressed in numerous studies the elucidation of the role of CBM and active site aromatics has been obscured by a complex multistep mechanism of processive GHs. Here we studied the role of the CBM-linker and Trp-38 of TrCel7A with respect to binding affinity, on- and off-rates, processivity, and synergism with endoglucanase. The CBM-linker increased the on-rate and substrate affinity of the enzyme. The Trp-38 to Ala substitution resulted in increased off-rates and decreased processivity. The effect of the Trp-38 to Ala substitution on on-rates was strongly dependent on the presence of the CBM-linker. This compensation between CBM-linker and Trp-38 indicates synergism between CBM-linker and CD in feeding the cellulose chain into the active site. The inter-domain synergism was pre-requisite for the efficient degradation of cellulose in the presence of endoglucanase. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Synergized resmethrin and corticosterone alter the chicken's response to west nile virus

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, Mark David; Franson, J Christian; Mostl, Erich

    2009-01-01

    Debate concerning arbovirus control strategies remains contentious because concern regarding the relative risk of viral infection and environmental toxicant exposure is high but inadequately characterized. Taking this into account, mosquito control agencies employ aerial insecticides only after arbovirus surveillance data indicate high local mosquito-infection-rates. Successfully mitigating the risk of adult-mosquito-control insecticides ('adulticides') to non-target species such as humans, domestic animals, fish, beneficial insects and wildlife, while increasing their efficacy to reduce arbovirus outbreak intensity requires targeted scientific data from animal toxicity studies and environmental monitoring activities. Wild birds are an important reservoir host for WNv and are potentially exposed tomore » insecticides used for mosquito control. However, no risk assessments have evaluated whether insecticides augment or extend the potential transmissibility of West Nile virus (WNv) in birds. In order to augment existing resmethrin risk assessments, we aimed to determine whether synergized resmethrin (SR) may cause chickens to develop an elevated or extended WN viremia and if subacute stress may affect its immunotoxicity. We distributed 40 chickens into four groups then exposed them prior to and during WNv infection with SR (50 {mu}g/l resmethrin + 150 {mu}g/l piperonyl butoxide) and/or 20 mg/I corticosterone (CORT) in their drinking-water. Corticosterone was given for 10 continuous days and SR was given for 3 alternate days starting the 3rd day of CORT exposure, then chickens were subcutaneously inoculated with WNv on the 5th day of CORT treatment. Compared to controls, CORT treatment extended and elevated viremia, enhanced WNv-specific antibody and increased the percentage of birds that shed oral virus, whereas SR treatment extended viremia, depressed WNv-specific IgG, and increased the percentage of CORT-treated birds that shed oral virus. Corticosterone and SR

  18. Synergism between carvacrol or thymol increases the antimicrobial efficacy of soy sauce with no sensory impact.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyeree; Rhee, Min Suk

    2016-01-18

    Here, we examined the antimicrobial effects of soy sauce containing essential oils (EOs) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes at 22°C and 4°C. To screen a variety of combined effects, soy sauce was mixed with six different EOs (carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, trans-cinnamaldehyde, β-resorcylic acid, and vanillin), each at a concentration of 1mM for 10 min. None of the oils showed bactericidal activity when used alone. Soy sauce combined with carvacrol and thymol induced the greatest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria; therefore, these oils were further tested at 0.25, 0.5, and 1mM (0.0039%, 0.0078%, and 0.0157%) for 1, 5, and 10 min at 4°C and 22°C. In addition, sensory evaluation of soy sauce containing each EO at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2mM was performed using the nine point hedonic test. Carvacrol or thymol (1mM) eliminated all the test bacteria (initial population, 7.0-7.5logCFU/ml) in 1-5 min at 22°C and within 10 min at 4°C. L. monocytogenes was slightly more tolerant at 4°C, which may be attributable to the ability of the cell membrane to adapt to low temperatures. The sensory scores for soy sauce containing EOs were not significantly different from that of soy sauce without EOs (P>0.05). The stability of EO efficacy in soy sauce was also verified. These results suggest that carvacrol and thymol act synergistically with other factors present in soy sauce to increase antimicrobial activity against major foodborne pathogens at both 4°C and 22°C. The synergism may be attributable to the combination of factors (mainly high salt concentration and low pH imparted by organic acids) present in soy sauce and the membrane attacking properties of carvacrol and thymol. This method will facilitate the production of microbiologically safe soy sauce, soy sauce-based marinades, and various marinated foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. DSCOVR: A New Perspective for Earth Observations from Space. Synergism and Complementarity with Existing Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, F. P.

    2011-12-01

    The Sun-Earth Lagrange points L-1 and L-2 mark positions where the gravitational pull of the Earth and Sun precisely equals the centripetal force required to rotate with the Earth about the Sun with the same orbital period as the Earth. Therefore, a satellite maintained at one of these Lagrange points would keep the same relative position to the Sun and the Earth and be able to observe most points on the planet as the Earth rotates during the day. L-1 and L-2 are of particular interest because a satellite at either location can easily be maintained near the Sun-Earth line and views the entire daytime hemisphere from L-1 and the entire nighttime hemisphere from L-2. Since L-1 and L-2 are in the ecliptic plane, synoptic, high temporal-resolution observations would be obtained as every point on the planet, including both polar regions, transits from sunrise to sunset (L-1) or from sunset to sunrise (L-2). In summary, a pair of deep-space observatories, one at L-1 (daytime) and one at L-2 (nighttime), could acquire minute by minute climate quality data for essentially every point on Earth, all observations simultaneously for the whole planet. Such unique attributes are incorporated in the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) that will systematically observe climate drivers (radiation, aerosols, ozone, clouds, oxygen A-band) from L-1 in ways not possible but synergistically complementary with platforms in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) or Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). The combination of Solar Lagrange Points (located in the ecliptic plane) GEO (located in the equatorial plane) and LEO platforms would certainly provide a powerful observational tool as well as enriched data sets for Earth sciences. Such synergism is greatly enhanced when one considers the potential of utilizing LEO, GEO, and Lagrange point satellites as components of an integrated observational system. For example, satellites at L-1 and L-2 will view the Earth plus the Moon while simultaneously having in

  20. All-trans retinoic acid synergizes with FLT3 inhibition to eliminate FLT3/ITD+ leukemia stem cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hayley S; Greenblatt, Sarah M; Shirley, Courtney M; Duffield, Amy S; Bruner, J Kyle; Li, Li; Nguyen, Bao; Jung, Eric; Aplan, Peter D; Ghiaur, Gabriel; Jones, Richard J; Small, Donald

    2016-06-09

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-mutant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) portends a poor prognosis, and ineffective targeting of the leukemic stem cell (LSC) population remains one of several obstacles in treating this disease. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been used in several clinical trials for the treatment of nonpromyelocytic AML with limited clinical activity observed. FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used as monotherapy also achieve limited clinical responses and are thus far unable to affect cure rates in AML patients. We explored the efficacy of combining ATRA and FLT3 TKIs to eliminate FLT3/internal tandem duplication (ITD)(+) LSCs. Our studies reveal highly synergistic drug activity, preferentially inducing apoptosis in FLT3/ITD(+) cell lines and patient samples. Colony-forming unit assays further demonstrate decreased clonogenicity of FLT3/ITD(+) cells upon treatment with ATRA and TKI. Most importantly, the drug combination depletes FLT3/ITD(+) LSCs in a genetic mouse model of AML, and prolongs survival of leukemic mice. Furthermore, engraftment of primary FLT3/ITD(+) patient samples is reduced in mice following treatment with FLT3 TKI and ATRA in combination, with evidence of cellular differentiation occurring in vivo. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that the synergism of ATRA and FLT3 TKIs is at least in part due to the observation that FLT3 TKI treatment upregulates the antiapoptotic protein Bcl6, limiting the drug's apoptotic effect. However, cotreatment with ATRA reduces Bcl6 expression to baseline levels through suppression of interleukin-6 receptor signaling. These studies provide evidence of the potential of this drug combination to eliminate FLT3/ITD(+) LSCs and reduce the rate of relapse in AML patients with FLT3 mutations.

  1. Staurosporine, but not Ro 31-8220, induces interleukin 2 production and synergizes with interleukin 1alpha in EL4 thymoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mahon, T M; Matthews, J S; O'Neill, L A

    1997-07-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in interleukin 1 (IL1) signal transduction in a number of cellular systems, either as a key event in IL1 action or as a negative regulator. Here we have examined the effects of two PKC inhibitors, staurosporine and the more selective agent Ro 31-8220, on IL1 responses in the murine thymoma line EL4.NOB-1. A 1 h pulse of staurosporine was found to strongly potentiate the induction of IL2 by IL1alpha in these cells. In contrast, neither a pulse nor prolonged incubation with Ro 31-8220 affected the response to IL1alpha. Both agents blocked the response to PMA, however. A 1 h pulse of staurosporine was also found to induce IL2 production on its own, activate the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and increase the expression of a NFkappaB-linked reporter gene. It synergized with IL1alpha in all of these responses. Ro 31-8220 was again without effect, although both staurosporine and Ro 31-8220 blocked the activation of NFkappaB by PMA. Finally, staurosporine caused the translocation of PKC-alpha and -epsilon, and to a lesser extent PKC-beta, but not PKC-θ or -zeta, from the cytosol to the membrane, although a similar effect was observed with Ro 31-8220. The results suggest that PKC is not involved in IL1alpha signalling in EL4 cells. Furthermore, the potentiating effect of staurosporine on IL1alpha action does not involve PKC inhibition, and is likely to be at the level of NFkappaB activation.

  2. The novel Akt inhibitor API-1 induces c-FLIP degradation and synergizes with TRAIL to augment apoptosis independent of Akt inhibition.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Ren, Hui; Yue, Ping; Chen, Mingwei; Khuri, Fadlo R; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2012-04-01

    API-1 (pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines) is a novel small-molecule inhibitor of Akt, which acts by binding to Akt and preventing its membrane translocation and has promising preclinical antitumor activity. In this study, we reveal a novel function of API-1 in regulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) levels and TRAIL-induced apoptosis, independent of Akt inhibition. API-1 effectively induced apoptosis in tested cancer cell lines including activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9. It reduced the levels of c-FLIP without increasing the expression of death receptor 4 (DR4) or DR5. Accordingly, it synergized with TRAIL to induce apoptosis. Enforced expression of ectopic c-FLIP did not attenuate API-1-induced apoptosis but inhibited its ability to enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that downregulation of c-FLIP mediates enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by API-1 but is not sufficient for API-1-induced apoptosis. API-1-induced reduction of c-FLIP could be blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Moreover, API-1 increased c-FLIP ubiquitination and decreased c-FLIP stability. These data together suggest that API-1 downregulates c-FLIP by facilitating its ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Because other Akt inhibitors including API-2 and MK2206 had minimal effects on reducing c-FLIP and enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis, it is likely that API-1 reduces c-FLIP and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis independent of its Akt-inhibitory activity. 2012 AACR

  3. Prehension Synergies in the Grasps With Complex Friction Patterns: Local Versus Synergic Effects and the Template Control

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xun; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    We studied adjustments of digit forces to changes in the friction. The subjects held a handle statically in a three-digit grasp. The friction under each digit was either high or low, resulting in eight three-element friction sets (such grasps were coined the grasps with complex friction pattern). The total load was also manipulated. It was found that digit forces were adjusted not only to the supported load and local friction, but also to friction at other digits (synergic effects). When friction under a digit was low, its tangential force decreased and the normal force increased (local effects). The synergic effects were directed to maintain the equilibrium of the handle. The relation between the individual digit forces and loads agreed with the triple-product model: fin=ki(2)ki(1)L, where fin is normal force of digit i, L is the load (newtons), ki(1) is a dimensionless coefficient representing sharing the total tangential force among the digits (Σki(1)=1.0), and ki(2) is a coefficient representing the relation between the tangential and normal forces of digit i (the overall friction equivalent, OFE). At each friction set, the central controller selected the grasping template—a three-element array of ki(2)ki(1) products—and then scaled the template with the load magnitude. PMID:17493928

  4. Synergism between Enantiomers Creates Species-Specific Pheromone Blends and Minimizes Cross-Attraction for Two Species of Cerambycid Beetles.

    PubMed

    Meier, Linnea R; Zou, Yunfan; Millar, Jocelyn G; Mongold-Diers, Judith A; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-11-01

    Research over the last decade has revealed extensive parsimony among pheromones within the large insect family Cerambycidae, with males of many species producing the same, or very similar aggregation pheromones. Among some species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, interspecific attraction is minimized by temporal segregation, and/or by minor pheromone components that synergize attraction of conspecifics or inhibit attraction of heterospecifics. Less is known about pheromone-based mechanisms of reproductive isolation among species in the largest subfamily, the Lamiinae. Here, we present evidence that the pheromone systems of two sympatric lamiine species consist of synergistic blends of enantiomers of (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-ol (fuscumol) and the structurally related (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate (fuscumol acetate), as a mechanism by which species-specific blends of pheromone components can minimize interspecific attraction. Male Astylidius parvus (LeConte) were found to produce (R)- and (S)-fuscumol + (R)-fuscumol acetate + geranylacetone, whereas males of Lepturges angulatus (LeConte) produced (R)- and (S)-fuscumol acetate + geranylacetone. Field experiments confirmed that adult beetles were attracted only by their species-specific blend of the enantiomers of fuscumol and fuscumol acetate, respectively, and not to the individual enantiomers. Because other lamiine species are known to produce single enantiomers or blends of enantiomers of fuscumol and/or fuscumol acetate, synergism between enantiomers, or inhibition by enantiomers, may be a widespread mechanism for forming species-specific pheromone blends in this subfamily.

  5. Synergism between hydrogen peroxide and seventeen acids against five agri-food-borne fungi and one yeast strain.

    PubMed

    Martin, H; Maris, P

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fungicidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide administered in combination with 17 mineral and organic acids authorized for use in the food industry. The assays were performed on a 96-well microplate using a microdilution technique based on the checkerboard titration method. The six selected strains (one yeast and five fungi) were reference strains and strains representative of contaminating fungi found in the food industry. Each synergistic hydrogen peroxide/acid combination found after fifteen minutes contact time at 20 °C in distilled water was then tested in conditions simulating four different use conditions. Twelve combinations were synergistic in distilled water, eleven of these remained synergistic with one or more of the four mineral and organic interfering substances selected. Hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination remained effective against four strains and was never antagonistic against the other two fungi. Combinations with propionic acid and acetic acid stayed synergistic against two strains. Those with oxalic acid and lactic acid kept their synergism only against Candida albicans. No synergism was detected against Penicillium cyclopium. Synergistic combinations of disinfectants were revealed, among them the promising hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination. A rapid screening method developed in our laboratory for bacteria was adapted to fungi and used to reveal the synergistic potential of disinfectants and/or sanitizers combinations. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Thionin-like peptide from Capsicum annuum fruits: mechanism of action and synergism with fluconazole against Candida species.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Gabriel B; Carvalho, André O; Rodrigues, Rosana; Trindade, Fernanda G; Da Cunha, Maura; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2016-01-27

    Thionins are a family of plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which participate in plant defense system against pathogens. Here we describe some aspects of the CaThi thionin-like action mechanism, previously isolated from Capsicum annuum fruits. Thionin-like peptide was submitted to antimicrobial activity assays against Candida species for IC50 determination and synergism with fluconazole evaluation. Viability and plasma membrane permeabilization assays, induction of intracellular ROS production analysis and CaThi localization in yeast cells were also investigated. CaThi had strong antimicrobial activity against six tested pathogenic Candida species, with IC50 ranging from 10 to 40 μg.mL(-1). CaThi antimicrobial activity on Candida species was candidacidal. Moreover, CaThi caused plasma membrane permeabilization in all yeasts tested and induces oxidative stresses only in Candida tropicalis. CaThi was intracellularly localized in C. albicans and C. tropicalis, however localized in nuclei in C. tropicalis, suggesting a possible nuclear target. CaThi performed synergistically with fluconazole inhibiting all tested yeasts, reaching 100% inhibition in C. parapsilosis. The inhibiting concentrations for the synergic pair ranged from 1.3 to 4.0 times below CaThi IC50 and from zero to 2.0 times below fluconazole IC50. The results reported herein may ultimately contribute to future efforts aiming to employ this plant-derived AMP as a new therapeutic substance against yeasts.

  7. Synergic effects of 10°/s constant rotation and rotating background on visual cognitive processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Siyang; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Tan, Cheng; Niu, Dongbin

    accelerated the early process of visual cognition. There is a synergic effect between the effects of constant low-speed rotation and rotating speed of the background. Under certain conditions, they both served to facilitate the visual cognitive processing, and it had been started at the stage when extrastriate cortex perceiving the visual signal. Under the condition of constant low-speed rotation in higher cognitive load tasks, the rapid rotation of the background enhanced the magnitude of the signal transmission in the visual path, making signal to noise ratio increased and a higher signal to noise ratio is clearly in favor of target perception and recognition. This gave rise to the hypothesis that higher cognitive load tasks with higher top-down control had more power in counteracting the inhibition effect of higher velocity rotation background. Acknowledgements: This project was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30670715) and National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No.2007AA04Z254).

  8. Western spruce budworm outbreaks did not increase fire risk over the last three centuries: A dendrochronological analysis of inter-disturbance synergism

    Treesearch

    Aquila Flower; Daniel G. Gavin; Emily K. Heyerdahl; Russell A. Parsons; Gregory M. Cohn

    2014-01-01

    Insect outbreaks are often assumed to increase the severity or probability of fire occurrence through increased fuel availability, while fires may in turn alter susceptibility of forests to subsequent insect outbreaks through changes in the spatial distribution of suitable host trees. However, little is actually known about the potential synergisms between these...

  9. Central cavity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and the evolution of AMP/fructose 2,6-bisphosphate synergism in eukaryotic organisms.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Shen, Lu; Honzatko, Richard B

    2014-03-21

    The effects of AMP and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) on porcine fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (pFBPase) and Escherichia coli FBPase (eFBPase) differ in three respects. AMP/Fru-2,6-P2 synergism in pFBPase is absent in eFBPase. Fru-2,6-P2 induces a 13° subunit pair rotation in pFBPase but no rotation in eFBPase. Hydrophilic side chains in eFBPase occupy what otherwise would be a central aqueous cavity observed in pFBPase. Explored here is the linkage of AMP/Fru-2,6-P2 synergism to the central cavity and the evolution of synergism in FBPases. The single mutation Ser(45) → His substantially fills the central cavity of pFBPase, and the triple mutation Ser(45) → His, Thr(46) → Arg, and Leu(186) → Tyr replaces porcine with E. coli type side chains. Both single and triple mutations significantly reduce synergism while retaining other wild-type kinetic properties. Similar to the effect of Fru-2,6-P2 on eFBPase, the triple mutant of pFBPase with bound Fru-2,6-P2 exhibits only a 2° subunit pair rotation as opposed to the 13° rotation exhibited by the Fru-2,6-P2 complex of wild-type pFBPase. The side chain at position 45 is small in all available eukaryotic FBPases but large and hydrophilic in bacterial FBPases, similar to eFBPase. Sequence information indicates the likelihood of synergism in the FBPase from Leptospira interrogans (lFBPase), and indeed recombinant lFBPase exhibits AMP/Fru-2,6-P2 synergism. Unexpectedly, however, AMP also enhances Fru-6-P binding to lFBPase. Taken together, these observations suggest the evolution of AMP/Fru-2,6-P2 synergism in eukaryotic FBPases from an ancestral FBPase having a central aqueous cavity and exhibiting synergistic feedback inhibition by AMP and Fru-6-P.

  10. Central Cavity of Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and the Evolution of AMP/Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate Synergism in Eukaryotic Organisms*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Shen, Lu; Honzatko, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of AMP and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) on porcine fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (pFBPase) and Escherichia coli FBPase (eFBPase) differ in three respects. AMP/Fru-2,6-P2 synergism in pFBPase is absent in eFBPase. Fru-2,6-P2 induces a 13° subunit pair rotation in pFBPase but no rotation in eFBPase. Hydrophilic side chains in eFBPase occupy what otherwise would be a central aqueous cavity observed in pFBPase. Explored here is the linkage of AMP/Fru-2,6-P2 synergism to the central cavity and the evolution of synergism in FBPases. The single mutation Ser45 → His substantially fills the central cavity of pFBPase, and the triple mutation Ser45 → His, Thr46 → Arg, and Leu186 → Tyr replaces porcine with E. coli type side chains. Both single and triple mutations significantly reduce synergism while retaining other wild-type kinetic properties. Similar to the effect of Fru-2,6-P2 on eFBPase, the triple mutant of pFBPase with bound Fru-2,6-P2 exhibits only a 2° subunit pair rotation as opposed to the 13° rotation exhibited by the Fru-2,6-P2 complex of wild-type pFBPase. The side chain at position 45 is small in all available eukaryotic FBPases but large and hydrophilic in bacterial FBPases, similar to eFBPase. Sequence information indicates the likelihood of synergism in the FBPase from Leptospira interrogans (lFBPase), and indeed recombinant lFBPase exhibits AMP/Fru-2,6-P2 synergism. Unexpectedly, however, AMP also enhances Fru-6-P binding to lFBPase. Taken together, these observations suggest the evolution of AMP/Fru-2,6-P2 synergism in eukaryotic FBPases from an ancestral FBPase having a central aqueous cavity and exhibiting synergistic feedback inhibition by AMP and Fru-6-P. PMID:24436333

  11. Fully utilizing high power diode lasers by synergizing diode laser light sources and beam shaping micro-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yingmin; Wang, Jingwei; Cai, Lei; Mitra, Thomas; Hauschild, Dirk; Zah, Chung-En; Liu, Xingsheng

    2018-02-01

    High power diode lasers (HPDLs) offer the highest wall-plug efficiency, highest specific power (power-to-weight ratio), arguably the lowest cost and highest reliability among all laser types. However, the poor beam quality of commercially HPDLs is the main bottleneck limiting their direct applications requiring high brightness at least in one dimension. In order to expand the applications of HPDLs, beam shaping and optical design are essential. In this work, we report the recent progresses on maximizing applications of HPDLs by synergizing diode laser light source and beam shaping micro-optics. Successful examples of matching of diode laser light sources and beam shaping micro-optics driving new applications are presented.

  12. Synthesis, antifungal activity of caffeic acid derivative esters, and their synergism with fluconazole and nystatin against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Janaína de Cássia Orlandi; Gullo, Fernanda Patrícia; Freires, Irlan Almeida; Pitangui, Nayla de Souza; Segalla, Maicon Petrônio; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Regasini, Luís Octávio; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-12-01

    We tested the antifungal potential of caffeic acid and 8 of its derivative esters against Candidaalbicans ATCC 90028 and 9 clinical isolatesand carried out a synergism assay with fluconazole and nystatin. Propyl caffeate (C3) showed the best antifungal activity against the tested strains. When in combination, C3 markedly reduced the MIC of fluconazole and nystatin with synergistic effect up to 64-fold. Finally, C3 showed a high IC 50 value and selective indexagainst oral keratinocytes, demonstrating low toxicity against this cell type and selectivity for yeast cells. Further research should confirm its antifungal potential for development of combined therapy to treat C. albicans infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synergism between microwave irradiation and enzyme catalysis in transesterification of ethyl-3-phenylpropanoate with n-butanol.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ganapati D; Pawar, Sandip V

    2012-04-01

    Lipase catalyzed transesterification was investigated to study the synergistic effect of microwave irradiation and enzyme catalysis. Transesterification of ethyl-3-phenylpropanoate with n-butanol was chosen as the model reaction using immobilized enzymes such as Novozyme 435, Lipozyme RMIM and Lipozyme TL IM with microwave irradiation. Novozyme 435 was the best catalyst. The effect of various parameters affecting the conversion and initial rates of transesterification were studied to establish kinetics and mechanism. There is synergism between enzyme catalysis and microwave irradiation. The analysis of initial rate data and progress curve data showed that the reaction obeys the Ping-Pong bi-bi mechanism with inhibition by n-butanol. The theoretical predictions and experimental data match very well. These studies were also extended to other alcohols such as 2-phenyl-1-propanol, n-octanol, benzyl alcohol, iso-amyl alcohol, 2-hexanol and 2-pentanol under otherwise similar conditions. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Synergic nitrogen source route to inorganic fullerene-like boron nitride with vessel, hollow sphere, onion, and peanut nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fen; Xie, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Shuyuan; Liu, Xianming; Tian, Xiaobo

    2004-01-26

    In this paper we describe the large-scale synthesis of inorganic fullerene-like (IF-like) hexagonal boron nitride with vessel, hollow sphere, peanut, and onion structures by reacting BBr(3) with the synergic nitrogen sources NaNH(2) and NH(4)Cl at 400-450 degrees C for 6-12 h. The composition of products could be confirmed to be pure boron nitride with hexagonal structures by the XRD patterns and FT-IR, XPS, and EDXA spectra. The representative HRTEM images clearly reveal the layerlike features of the products. Here, the peanut-like structure of the IF-like BN is reported for the first time, and added to the list as one kind of new morphology of BN nanomaterials. The similarity in the structure between h-BN and graphite is responsible for the formation of IF-like BN with nanostructures of vessels, hollow spheres, peanuts, and onions.

  15. A UBI 31-38 Peptide-coumarin Conjugate: Photophysical Features, Imaging Tracking and Synergism with Amphotericin B Against Cryptococcus.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Soraya M Z M D; Carneiro, Hellem C; Alves, Rosemeire B; Batista, Ana Carolina S; da Silva Junior, Eufranio N; Dias, Gleiston G; Resende, Jarbas M; Santos, Daniel A; Oliveira, Debora L; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Freitas, Rossimiriam P

    2018-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease of global significance for which new effective treatments are needed. The conjugation of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide fragment UBI 31-38 to a coumarin derivative showed to be an effective approach for the design of a novel anticryptococcal agent. In addition to antifungal activity, the conjugate exhibited intense fluorescence, which could be valuable for mechanistic investigations of this molecule. In this work, we studied the photophysical properties of the conjugate and confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to inspect the distribution of the peptide-coumarin conjugate in Cryptococcus cell. The synergism of this compound with amphotericin B or fluconazole against C. gattii and C. neoformans strains was also investigated. The results indicated that the fluorescent conjugate alone as well as its combination with amphotericin B are promising tools against cryptococcosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Phenobarbital Induction and Chemical Synergism Demonstrate the Role of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases in Detoxification of Naphthalophos by Haemonchus contortus Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ruffell, Angela P.; Ingham, Aaron B.

    2014-01-01

    We used an enzyme induction approach to study the role of detoxification enzymes in the interaction of the anthelmintic compound naphthalophos with Haemonchus contortus larvae. Larvae were treated with the barbiturate phenobarbital, which is known to induce the activity of a number of detoxification enzymes in mammals and insects, including cytochromes P450 (CYPs), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UDPGTs), and glutathione (GSH) S-transferases (GSTs). Cotreatment of larvae with phenobarbital and naphthalophos resulted in a significant increase in the naphthalophos 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) compared to treatment of larvae with the anthelmintic alone (up to a 28-fold increase). The phenobarbital-induced drug tolerance was reversed by cotreatment with the UDPGT inhibitors 5-nitrouracil, 4,6-dihydroxy-5-nitropyrimidine, probenecid, and sulfinpyrazone. Isobologram analysis of the interaction of 5-nitrouracil with naphthalophos in phenobarbital-treated larvae clearly showed the presence of strong synergism. The UDPGT inhibitors 5-nitrouracil, 4,6-dihydroxy-5-nitropyrimidine, and probenecid also showed synergistic effects with non-phenobarbital-treated worms (synergism ratio up to 3.2-fold). This study indicates that H. contortus larvae possess one or more UDPGT enzymes able to detoxify naphthalophos. In highlighting the protective role of this enzyme group, this study reveals the potential for UDPGT enzymes to act as a resistance mechanism that may develop under drug selection pressure in field isolates of this species. In addition, the data indicate the potential for a chemotherapeutic approach utilizing inhibitors of UDPGT enzymes as synergists to increase the activity of naphthalophos against parasitic worms and to combat detoxification-mediated drug resistance if it arises in the field. PMID:25288079

  17. Phenobarbital induction and chemical synergism demonstrate the role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in detoxification of naphthalophos by Haemonchus contortus larvae.

    PubMed

    Kotze, Andrew C; Ruffell, Angela P; Ingham, Aaron B

    2014-12-01

    We used an enzyme induction approach to study the role of detoxification enzymes in the interaction of the anthelmintic compound naphthalophos with Haemonchus contortus larvae. Larvae were treated with the barbiturate phenobarbital, which is known to induce the activity of a number of detoxification enzymes in mammals and insects, including cytochromes P450 (CYPs), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UDPGTs), and glutathione (GSH) S-transferases (GSTs). Cotreatment of larvae with phenobarbital and naphthalophos resulted in a significant increase in the naphthalophos 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) compared to treatment of larvae with the anthelmintic alone (up to a 28-fold increase). The phenobarbital-induced drug tolerance was reversed by cotreatment with the UDPGT inhibitors 5-nitrouracil, 4,6-dihydroxy-5-nitropyrimidine, probenecid, and sulfinpyrazone. Isobologram analysis of the interaction of 5-nitrouracil with naphthalophos in phenobarbital-treated larvae clearly showed the presence of strong synergism. The UDPGT inhibitors 5-nitrouracil, 4,6-dihydroxy-5-nitropyrimidine, and probenecid also showed synergistic effects with non-phenobarbital-treated worms (synergism ratio up to 3.2-fold). This study indicates that H. contortus larvae possess one or more UDPGT enzymes able to detoxify naphthalophos. In highlighting the protective role of this enzyme group, this study reveals the potential for UDPGT enzymes to act as a resistance mechanism that may develop under drug selection pressure in field isolates of this species. In addition, the data indicate the potential for a chemotherapeutic approach utilizing inhibitors of UDPGT enzymes as synergists to increase the activity of naphthalophos against parasitic worms and to combat detoxification-mediated drug resistance if it arises in the field. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Plant viral synergism: the potyviral genome encodes a broad-range pathogenicity enhancer that transactivates replication of heterologous viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Pruss, G; Ge, X; Shi, X M; Carrington, J C; Bowman Vance, V

    1997-01-01

    Synergistic viral diseases of higher plants are caused by the interaction of two independent viruses in the same host and are characterized by dramatic increases in symptoms and in accumulation of one of the coinfecting viruses. In potato virus X (PVX)/potyviral synergism, increased pathogenicity and accumulation of PVX are mediated by the expression of potyviral 5' proximal sequences encoding P1, the helper component proteinase (HC-Pro), and a fraction of P3. Here, we report that the same potyviral sequence (termed P1/HC-Pro) enhances the pathogenicity and accumulation of two other heterologous viruses: cucumber mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus. In the case of PVX-potyviral synergism, we show that the expression of the HC-Pro gene product, but not the RNA sequence itself, is sufficient to induce the increase in PVX pathogenicity and that both P1 and P3 coding sequences are dispensable for this aspect of the synergistic interaction. In protoplasts, expression of the potyviral P1/HC-Pro region prolongs the accumulation of PVX (-) strand RNA and transactivates expression of a reporter gene from a PVX subgenomic promoter. Unlike the synergistic enhancement of PVX pathogenicity, which requires only expression of HC-Pro, the enhancement of PVX (-) strand RNA accumulation in protoplasts is significantly greater when the entire P1/HC-Pro sequence is expressed. These results indicate that the potyviral P1/HC-Pro region affects a step in disease development that is common to a broad range of virus infections and suggest a mechanism involving transactivation of viral replication. PMID:9212462

  19. Caffeine synergizes with another coffee component to increase plasma GCSF: linkage to cognitive benefits in Alzheimer's mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuanhai; Wang, Li; Lin, Xiaoyang; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Bai, Ge; Nong, Jasson; Sussman, Sam; Arendash, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies suggest that enhanced coffee/caffeine intake during aging reduces risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Underscoring this premise, our studies in AD transgenic mice show that long-term caffeine administration protects against cognitive impairment and reduces brain amyloid-β levels/deposition through suppression of both β- and γ-secretase. Because coffee contains many constituents in addition to caffeine that may provide cognitive benefits against AD, we examined effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on plasma cytokines, comparing their effects to caffeine alone. In both AβPPsw+PS1 transgenic mice and non-transgenic littermates, acute i.p. treatment with caffeinated coffee greatly and specifically increased plasma levels of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF), IL-10, and IL-6. Neither caffeine solution alone (which provided high plasma caffeine levels) or decaffeinated coffee provided this effect, indicating that caffeine synergized with some as yet unidentified component of coffee to selectively elevate these three plasma cytokines. The increase in GCSF is particularly important because long-term treatment with coffee (but not decaffeinated coffee) enhanced working memory in a fashion that was associated only with increased plasma GCSF levels among all cytokines. Since we have previously reported that long-term GCSF treatment enhances cognitive performance in AD mice through three possible mechanisms (e.g., recruitment of microglia from bone marrow, synaptogenesis, and neurogenesis), the same mechanisms could be complimentary to caffeine's established ability to suppress Aβ production. We conclude that coffee may be the best source of caffeine to protect against AD because of a component in coffee that synergizes with caffeine to enhance plasma GCSF levels, resulting in multiple therapeutic actions against AD.

  20. Extracellular acidification synergizes with PDGF to stimulate migration of mouse embryo fibroblasts through activation of p38MAPK with a PTX-sensitive manner

    SciTech Connect

    An, Caiyan; Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi; Clinical Medicine Research Center of the Affiliated Hospital, Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia

    The elucidation of the functional mechanisms of extracellular acidification stimulating intracellular signaling pathway is of great importance for developing new targets of treatment for solid tumors, and inflammatory disorders characterized by extracellular acidification. In the present study, we focus on the regulation of extracellular acidification on intracellular signaling pathways in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). We found extracellular acidification was at least partly involved in stimulating p38MAPK pathway through PTX-sensitive behavior to enhance cell migration in the presence or absence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Statistical analysis showed that the actions of extracellular acidic pH and PDGF on inducing enhancement ofmore » cell migration were not an additive effect. However, we also found extracellular acidic pH did inhibit the viability and proliferation of MEFs, suggesting that extracellular acidification stimulates cell migration probably through proton-sensing mechanisms within MEFs. Using OGR1-, GPR4-, and TDAG8-gene knock out technology, and real-time qPCR, we found known proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) were unlikely to be involved in the regulation of acidification on cell migration. In conclusion, our present study validates that extracellular acidification stimulates chemotactic migration of MEFs through activation of p38MAPK with a PTX-sensitive mechanism either by itself, or synergistically with PDGF, which was not regulated by the known proton-sensing GPCRs, TRPV1, or ASICs. Our results suggested that others proton-sensing GPCRs or ion channels might exist in MEFs, which mediates cell migration induced by extracellular acidification in the presence or absence of PDGF. - Highlights: • Acidic pH and PDGF synergize to stimulate MEFs migration via Gi/p38MAPK pathway. • Extracellular acidification inhibits

  1. FKBP5/FKBP51 enhances autophagy to synergize with antidepressant action

    PubMed Central

    Gassen, Nils C; Hartmann, Jakob; Schmidt, Mathias V; Rein, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Levels of autophagy markers rise upon treatment of cells with antidepressants. However, it was not known whether this phenomenon might be linked to other antidepressant pathways or to any physiological effect. In this punctum, we summarize and discuss our recent findings that provide evidence for a role of the cochaperone FKBP5/FKBP51 (FK506 binding protein 5) in autophagy as a prerequisite for antidepressant action in cells, mice, and humans. FKBP5 associates with BECN1, changes its phosphorylation and protein levels and enhances markers of autophagy and autophagic flux. The effects of antidepressants on autophagy as well as their physiological effects in mice and human depend on FKBP5. PMID:25714272

  2. Synergism between arsenite and proteasome inhibitor MG132 over cell death in myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and the induction of low levels of intracellular superoxide anion

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Tomás; Cavaliere, Victoria; Costantino, Susana N.

    Increased oxygen species production has often been cited as a mechanism determining synergism on cell death and growth inhibition effects of arsenic-combined drugs. However the net effect of drug combination may not be easily anticipated solely from available knowledge of drug-induced death mechanisms. We evaluated the combined effect of sodium arsenite with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, and the anti-leukaemic agent CAPE, on growth-inhibition and cell death effect in acute myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and Burkitt's lymphoma-derived Raji cells, by the Chou–Talalay method. In addition we explored the association of cytotoxic effect of drugs with changes in intracellular superoxide anion (O{submore » 2}{sup −}) levels. Our results showed that combined arsenite + MG132 produced low levels of O{sub 2}{sup −} at 6 h and 24 h after exposure and were synergic on cell death induction in U937 cells over the whole dose range, although the combination was antagonistic on growth inhibition effect. Exposure to a constant non-cytotoxic dose of 80 μM hydrogen peroxide together with arsenite + MG132 changed synergism on cell death to antagonism at all effect levels while increasing O{sub 2}{sup −} levels. Arsenite + hydrogen peroxide also resulted in antagonism with increased O{sub 2}{sup −} levels in U937 cells. In Raji cells, arsenite + MG132 also produced low levels of O{sub 2}{sup −} at 6 h and 24 h but resulted in antagonism on cell death and growth inhibition. By contrast, the combination arsenite + CAPE showed high levels of O{sub 2}{sup −} production at 6 h and 24 h post exposure but resulted in antagonism over cell death and growth inhibition effects in U937 and Raji cells. We conclude that synergism between arsenite and MG132 in U937 cells is negatively associated to O{sub 2}{sup −} levels at early time points after exposure. -- Highlights: ► Arsenic combined cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects by Chou–Talalay method. ► Cytotoxic effect

  3. A 27-kg mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary presenting with deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tola, Esra Nur; Erdemoğlu, Evrim; Yalçın, Yakup; Alkaya Solmaz, Filiz; Erdemoğlu, Ebru

    2016-03-01

    Giant ovarian adenomas are rarely observed today because of early diagnosis and treatment. Mucinous cystadenomas is a kind of tumor that mostly causes the ovary to enlarge. Theu can present with various and non-specific clinical manifestations such as deep vein thrombosis. The primary symptoms of giant ovarian tumors are abdominal enlargement and distension. Therefore, making the correct preoperative diagnosis is sometimes difficult. The appropriate treatment must include oncologic procedures and a multidisciplinary approach to minimalize complications and save the patient's life. Herein, we report a woman aged 53 years with a 27-kg ovarian mucinous cystadenoma that presented as a left popliteal vein thrombosis.

  4. Investigation of surfactant/cosurfactant synergism impact on ibuprofen solubilization capacity and drug release characteristics of nonionic microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Djekic, Ljiljana; Primorac, Marija; Filipic, Slavica; Agbaba, Danica

    2012-08-20

    The current study investigates the performances of the multicomponent mixtures of nonionic surfactants regarding the microemulsion stabilisation, drug solubilization and in vitro drug release kinetic. The primary surfactant was PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides (Labrasol). The cosurfactants were commercially available mixtures of octoxynol-12 and polysorbate 20 without or with the addition of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil (Solubilisant gamma 2421 and Solubilisant gamma 2429, respectively). The oil phase of microemulsions was isopropyl myristate. Phase behaviour study of the pseudo-ternary systems Labrasol/cosurfactant/oil/water at surfactant-to-cosurfactant weight ratios (K(m)) 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40, revealed a strong synergism in the investigated tensides mixtures for stabilisation of microemulsions containing up to 80% (w/w) of water phase at surfactant +cosurfactant-to-oil weight ratio (SCoS/O) 90:10. Solubilization of a model drug ibuprofen in concentration common for topical application (5%, w/w) was achieved at the water contents below 50% (w/w). Drug free and ibuprofen-loaded microemulsions M1-M6, containing 45% (w/w) of water phase, were prepared and characterized by polarized light microscopy, conductivity, pH, rheological and droplet size measurements. In vitro ibuprofen release kinetics from the microemulsions was investigated using paddle-over-enhancer cell method and compared with the commercial 5% (w/w) ibuprofen hydrogel product (Deep Relief, Mentholatum Company Ltd., USA). The investigated microemulsions were isotropic, low viscous Bingham-type liquids with the pH value (4.70-6.61) suitable for topical application. The different efficiency of the tensides mixtures for microemulsion stabilisation was observed, depending on the cosurfactant type and K(m) value. Solubilisant gamma 2429 as well as higher K(m) (i.e., lower relative content of the cosurfactant) provided higher surfactant/cosurfactant synergism. The drug molecules were predominantly

  5. Synergism of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte–Associated Antigen 4 Blockade and Depletion of Cd25+ Regulatory T Cells in Antitumor Therapy Reveals Alternative Pathways for Suppression of Autoreactive Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sutmuller, Roger P.M.; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie M.; van Elsas, Andrea; Schumacher, Ton N.M.; Wildenberg, Manon E.; Allison, James P.; Toes, Rene E.M.; Offringa, Rienk; Melief, Cornelis J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of a tumor cell–based vaccine against experimental B16 melanoma requires the disruption of either of two immunoregulatory mechanisms that control autoreactive T cell responses: the cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen (CTLA)-4 pathway or the CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. Combination of CTLA-4 blockade and depletion of CD25+ Treg cells results in maximal tumor rejection. Efficacy of the antitumor therapy correlates with the extent of autoimmune skin depigmentation as well as with the frequency of tyrosinase-related protein 2180–188–specific CTLs detected in the periphery. Furthermore, tumor rejection is dependent on the CD8+ T cell subset. Our data demonstrate that the CTL response against melanoma antigens is an important component of the therapeutic antitumor response and that the reactivity of these CTLs can be augmented through interference with immunoregulatory mechanisms. The synergism in the effects of CTLA-4 blockade and depletion of CD25+ Treg cells indicates that CD25+ Treg cells and CTLA-4 signaling represent two alternative pathways for suppression of autoreactive T cell immunity. Simultaneous intervention with both regulatory mechanisms is therefore a promising concept for the induction of therapeutic antitumor immunity. PMID:11560997

  6. Interaction of prostanoid EP3 and TP receptors in guinea-pig isolated aorta: contractile self-synergism of 11-deoxy-16,16-dimethyl PGE2

    PubMed Central

    Jones, RL; Woodward, DF

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Surprisingly high contractile activity was reported for 11-deoxy-16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DX-DM PGE2) on pig cerebral artery when used as a selective EP3 receptor agonist. This study investigated the selectivity profile of DX-DM PGE2, focusing on the interaction between its EP3 and TP (thromboxane A2-like) agonist activities. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Contraction of guinea-pig trachea (EP1 system) and aorta (EP3 and TP systems) was measured in conventional organ baths. KEY RESULTS Strong contraction of guinea-pig aorta to sulprostone and 17-phenyl PGE2 (EP3 agonists) was only seen under priming with a second contractile agent such as phenylephrine, histamine or U-46619 (TP agonist). In contrast, DX-DM PGE2 induced strong contraction, which on the basis of treatment with (DG)-3ap (EP3 antagonist) and/or BMS-180291 (TP antagonist) was attributed to self-synergism arising from co-activation of EP3 and TP receptors. EP3/TP self-synergism also accounted for contraction induced by PGF2α and its analogues (+)-cloprostenol and latanoprost-FA. DX-DM PGE2 also showed significant EP1 agonism on guinea-pig trachea as defined by the EP1 antagonists SC-51322, (ONO)-5-methyl-1 and AH-6809, although AH-6809 exhibited poor specificity at concentrations ≥3 µM. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS EP3/TP self-synergism, as seen with PGE/PGF analogues in this study, may confound EP3 agonist potency comparisons and the characterization of prostanoid receptor systems. The competitive profile of a TP antagonist may be distorted by variation in the silent/overt contraction profile of the EP3 system in different studies. The relevance of self-synergism to in vivo actions of natural prostanoid receptor agonists is discussed. PMID:20955363

  7. Antibacterial activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and its synergism with β-lactam antibiotics sensitizing carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Lee, Spencer; Razqan, Ghaida Saleh Al; Kwon, Dong H

    2017-01-15

    Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii were responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy. However, recently, carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates have been reported worldwide and present a major therapeutic challenge. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea exhibits antibacterial activity. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of EGCG and possible synergism with antibiotics in carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant A. baumannii. A potential mechanism for synergism was also explored. Seventy clinical isolates of A. baumannii collected from geographically different areas were analyzed by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EGCG. Checkerboard and time-killing assays were performed to exam the synergism between EGCG and antibiotics. The effects of EGCG on a multidrug efflux pump inhibitor (1-[1-naphthylmethyl] piperazine; NMP) and β-lactamase production were also examined in A. baumannii. Sixty-three of 70 clinical isolates of A. baumannii carried carbapenemase-encoding genes with carbapenem-associated multidrug resistance. Levels of MIC and MBC of EGCG ranged from 64 to 512µg/ml and from 128 to ≥1024µg/ml, respectively among the clinical isolates. MIC 90 and MBC 86 levels were 256µg/ml and 512µg/ml of EGCG, respectively. Subinhibitory concentration of EGCG in combination with all antibiotics tested, including carbapenem, sensitized (MICs fall≤1.0µg/ml) all carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates. Checkerboard and time-killing assays showed synergism between EGCG and meropenem (or carbenicillin) counted as fractional inhibitory concentration of < 0.5 and cell numbers' decrease per ml of >2log10 within 12h, respectively. EGCG significantly increased the effect of NMP but was unrelated to β-lactamase production in A. baumannii, suggesting EGCG may be associated with inhibition of efflux pumps. Overall we suggest that EGCG-antibiotic combinations might

  8. Doxycycline synergizes with doxorubicin to inhibit the proliferation of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chao; Yan, Xueting; Yu, Ao; Wang, Yongjian

    2017-11-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is fatal and there is currently no effective clinical treatment. The antibiotic doxycycline has shown anti-cancer effect in several kinds of solid tumors including prostate cancer. In this study, a combination of doxycycline and doxorubicin was used to investigate the synergistic effect on CRPC cells. MTT assay was employed to determine the viability of cells in two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Apoptosis was determined by Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by PI staining, and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to determine the expressions of apoptosis-related genes at mRNA level. Western blot analysis was used to analyze the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase proteins. Cytotoxicity assay and morphological observation of PC3 cells in three-dimensional (3D) cultures were used to determine the effect of combination treatment. Results showed that doxycycline combined with doxorubicin significantly inhibited PC3 cells in both 2D and 3D cultures, enhanced apoptosis, and increased the accumulation of cells in G2/M phase. RT-PCR showed down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax mRNA after combination treatment. Meanwhile, western blot analysis showed that combination treatment resulted in down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein and up-regulation of Bax protein, and that PARP cleavage was obviously exhibited after combination treatment. Confocal imaging analysis indicated that doxorubicin penetrated deeply into the core of spheroids when combined with doxycycline. These data indicated that doxycycline in combination with doxorubicin had a synergistic effect on PC3 cells and may provide a potential novel strategy for the treatment of CRPC. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For

  9. Toward RNA nanoparticle vaccines: synergizing RNA and inorganic nanoparticles to achieve immunopotentiation.

    PubMed

    DeLong, Robert K; Curtis, Chandler B

    2017-03-01

    Traditionally, vaccines have been composed of live attenuated or killed microorganisms. Alternatively, individual protein subunits or other molecular components of the microorganism can serve as the antigen and trigger an antibody response by the immune system. The immune system is a coordinated molecular and cellular response that works in concert to check the spread of infection. In the past decade, there has been much progress on DNA vaccines. DNA vaccination includes using the coding segments of a viral or bacterial genome to generate an immune response. However, the potential advantage of combining an RNA molecule with inorganic nanoparticle delivery should be considered, with the goal to achieve immuno-synergy between the two and to overcome some of the current limitations of DNA vaccines and traditional vaccines. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1415. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1415 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Venetoclax Synergizes with Radiotherapy for Treatment of B-cell Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    O'Steen, Shyril; Green, Damian J; Gopal, Ajay K; Orozco, Johnnie J; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Lin, Yukang; Wilbur, D Scott; Hamlin, Donald K; Fisher, Darrell R; Hylarides, Mark D; Gooley, Theodore A; Waltman, Amelia; Till, Brian G; Press, Oliver W

    2017-07-15

    Constitutive B-cell receptor signaling leads to overexpression of the antiapoptotic BCL-2 protein and is implicated in the pathogenesis of many types of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). The BCL-2 small-molecule inhibitor venetoclax shows promising clinical response rates in several lymphomas, but is not curative as monotherapy. Radiotherapy is a rational candidate for combining with BCL-2 inhibition, as DNA damage caused by radiotherapy increases the activity of pro-apoptotic BCL-2 pathway proteins, and lymphomas are exquisitely sensitive to radiation. We tested B-NHL responses to venetoclax combined with either external beam radiotherapy or radioimmunotherapy (RIT), which joins the selectivity of antibody targeting with the effectiveness of irradiation. We first tested cytotoxicity of cesium-137 irradiation plus venetoclax in 14 B-NHL cell lines representing five lymphoma subtypes. Combination treatment synergistically increased cell death in 10 of 14 lines. Lack of synergy was predicted by resistance to single-agent venetoclax and high BCL-XL expression. We then assessed the efficacy of external beam radiotherapy plus venetoclax in murine xenograft models of mantle cell (MCL), germinal-center diffuse large B-cell (GCB-DLBCL), and activated B-cell (ABC-DLBCL) lymphomas. In each model, external beam radiotherapy plus venetoclax synergistically increased mouse survival time, curing up to 10%. We finally combined venetoclax treatment of MCL and ABC-DLBCL xenografts with a pretargeted RIT (PRIT) system directed against the CD20 antigen. Optimal dosing of PRIT plus venetoclax cured 100% of mice with no detectable toxicity. Venetoclax combined with radiotherapy may be a promising treatment for a wide range of lymphomas Cancer Res; 77(14); 3885-93. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Synergism between macrolide antibiotics and the azole fungicide ketoconazole in growth inhibition testing of the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Takahiro; Horie, Yoshifumi; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2017-05-01

    Macrolide antibiotics and azole fungicides are detected widely in the aquatic environment as a result of their increased use in humans and animal livestock disease and their incomplete removal by wastewater treatment plants. In most cases, ecotoxicological tests are performed by using individual chemical substances, but because of the coexistence of a number of chemicals in the environment, organisms are exposed to many chemicals simultaneously. Therefore, it is important to evaluate effects of chemical interactions, adding to potential hazards of individual chemical. Here, we investigated the synergetic effects of combined chemicals (the azole fungicide ketoconazole and either of two macrolide antibiotics, erythromycin and clarithromycin) in growth inhibition testing using Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata according to OECD Test guideline 201. Combination index plots, isobolograms, and curve-shift analyses revealed that the combination of macrolide antibiotic and ketoconazole at various ratios resulted in strong synergism that enhanced growth inhibition of P. subcapitata, suggesting the necessity of investigating potential hazard of combined chemicals for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Irs2 and Irs4 synergize in non-LepRb neurons to control energy balance and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sadagurski, Marianna; Dong, X Charlie; Myers, Martin G; White, Morris F

    2014-02-01

    Insulin receptor substrates (Irs1, 2, 3 and Irs4) mediate the actions of insulin/IGF1 signaling. They have similar structure, but distinctly regulate development, growth, and metabolic homeostasis. Irs2 contributes to central metabolic sensing, partially by acting in leptin receptor (LepRb)-expressing neurons. Although Irs4 is largely restricted to the hypothalamus, its contribution to metabolic regulation is unclear because Irs4-null mice barely distinguishable from controls. We postulated that Irs2 and Irs4 synergize and complement each other in the brain. To examine this possibility, we investigated the metabolism of whole body Irs4(-/y) mice that lacked Irs2 in the CNS (bIrs2(-/-)·Irs4(-/y)) or only in LepRb-neurons (Lepr (∆Irs2) ·Irs4 (-/y) ). bIrs2(-/-)·Irs4(-/y) mice developed severe obesity and decreased energy expenditure, along with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Unexpectedly, the body weight and fed blood glucose levels of Lepr (∆Irs2) ·Irs4 (-/y) mice were not different from Lepr (∆Irs2) mice, suggesting that the functions of Irs2 and Irs4 converge upon neurons that are distinct from those expressing LepRb.

  13. In vitro and in vivo synergism between amoxicillin and clavulanic acid against ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Yogev, R; Melick, C; Kabat, W J

    1981-01-01

    Eight strans of ampicillin-resistant beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae type b were studied in vitro for synergy between amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for amoxicillin alone were 6.25 to 12.5 microgram/ml, and for clavulanic acid alone they were 12.5 to 25 microgram/ml. However, seven of eight strains were inhibited by a combination of 0.36 microgram of amoxicillin and 0.36 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. Infant rat models of bacteremia and meningitis were used to test the efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid alone and in combination upon four strains of ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae. Neither amoxicillin alone (27 animals) nor clavulanic acid alone (20 animals) sterilized the blood or cerebrospinal fluid of the animals. In contrast, 30 of 33 blood cultures and 29 of 33 cerebrospinal fluid cultures were sterile when a combination of the two drugs in the same dosages was used. The observed in vitro and in vivo synergism between amoxicillin and clavulanic acid suggests that the combination may be effective therapy for invasive infections in humans caused by ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae type b. PMID:6973952

  14. Antioxidant activity of amino acids in soybean oil at frying temperature: Structural effects and synergism with tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Winkler-Moser, Jill K

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amino acids as natural antioxidants for frying. Twenty amino acids were added to soybean oil heated to 180°C, and the effects of amino acid structure on the antioxidant activity were investigated. Amino acids containing a thiol, a thioether, or an extra amine group such as arginine, cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan had the strongest antioxidant activities. At 5.5mM, these amino acids had stronger antioxidant activities than 0.02% (1.1mM) tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). A functional group such as an amide, carboxylic acid, imidazole, or phenol appeared to negatively affect amino acid antioxidant activity. Synergism between amino acids and tocopherols was demonstrated, and we found that this synergistic interaction may be mostly responsible for the antioxidant activity that was observed. In a frying study with potato cubes, 5.5mM l-methionine had significantly stronger antioxidant activity than 0.02% TBHQ. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Synergism of Dewetting and Self-Wrinkling To Create Two-Dimensional Ordered Arrays of Functional Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Hou, Jing; Xie, Jixun; Yin, Jian; Tong, Yi; Lu, Conghua; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-06-29

    Here we report a simple, novel, yet robust nonlithographic method for the controlled fabrication of two-dimensional (2-D) ordered arrays of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres. It is based on the synergistic combination of two bottom-up processes enabling periodic structure formation for the first time: dewetting and the mechanical wrinkle formation. The deterministic dewetting results from the hydrophilic polymer PEG on an incompatible polystyrene (PS) film bound to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, which is directed both by a wrinkled template and by the template-directed in-situ self-wrinkling PS/PDMS substrate. Two strategies have been introduced to achieve synergism to enhance the 2-D ordering, i.e., employing 2-D in-situ self-wrinkling substrates and boundary conditions. As a result, we achieve highly ordered 2-D arrays of PEG microspheres with desired self-organized microstructures, such as the array location (e.g., selectively on the crest/in the valley of the wrinkles), diameter, spacing of the microspheres, and array direction. Additionally, the coordination of PEG with HAuCl4 is utilized to fabricate 2-D ordered arrays of functional PEG-HAuCl4 composite microspheres, which are further converted into different Au nanoparticle arrays. This simple versatile combined strategy could be extended to fabricate highly ordered 2-D arrays of other functional materials and achieve desirable properties and functionalities.

  16. Anti-listerial synergism of leaf essential oil of Metasequoia glyptostroboides with nisin in whole, low and skim milks.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Yoon, Jung In; Bhardwaj, Monika; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-08-01

    To examine the individual and synergistic anti-listerial effect of nisin and leaf essential oil of Metasequoia glyptostroboides (M. glyptostroboides) against one of the leading foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) ATCC 19116 in milk samples. The whole (8%), low (1%) and skim (no fat content) milk samples were inoculated with L. monocytogenes ATCC 19116 along with leaf essential oil of M. glyptostroboides or nisin alone as well in combinations. In this study, the leaf essential oil at the concentrations of 2% and 5% revealed strong anti-listerial effect against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19116 in all categories of milk samples. Nisin at the concentrations of 250 and 500 IU/mL displayed a strong inhibitory effect against ATCC 19116 as compared to the control group. Additionally, synergistic combinations of leaf essential oil (1%) and nisin (62.5, 125, 250 and 500 IU/mL) also had a remarkable anti-listerial synergism in all the tested milk samples including whole, low and skim milk after 14 days. As a major finding, the leaf essential oil of M. glyptostroboides might be a useful candidate for using in food industry to control the growth of foodborne pathogenic bacteria as confirmed by its potent anti-listerial synergistic effect with nisin against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19116 in different milk samples. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on the synergic effect of natural compounds on the microbial quality decay of packed fish hamburger.

    PubMed

    Corbo, M R; Speranza, B; Filippone, A; Granatiero, S; Conte, A; Sinigaglia, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2008-10-31

    The effectiveness of natural compounds in slowing down the microbial quality decay of refrigerated fish hamburger is addressed in this study. In particular, the control of the microbiological spoilage by combined use of three antimicrobials, and the determination of their optimal composition to extend the fish hamburger Microbiological Stability Limit (MAL) are the main objectives of this work. Thymol, grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) and lemon extract were tested for monitoring the cell growth of the main fish spoilage microorganisms (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Photobacterium phosphoreum and Shewanella putrefaciens), inoculated in fish hamburgers, and the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed to highlight a possible synergic effect of the above natural compounds. Results showed an increase in the MAL value for hamburgers mixed with the antimicrobial compounds, compared to the control sample. The optimal antimicrobial compound composition, which corresponds to the maximal MAL value determined in this study, is: 110 mgL(-1) of thymol, 100 mgL(-1) of GFSE and 120 mgL(-1) of lemon extract. The presence of the natural compounds delay the sensorial quality decay without compromising the flavor of the fish hamburgers.

  18. Artemisone and artemiside - potent pan-reactive antimalarial agents that also synergize redox imbalance in P. falciparum transmissible gametocyte stages.

    PubMed

    Coertzen, Dina; Reader, Janette; van der Watt, Mariëtte; Nondaba, Sindisiwe H; Gibhard, Liezl; Wiesner, Lubbe; Smith, Peter; D'Alessandro, Sarah; Taramelli, Donatella; Ning Wong, Ho; du Preez, Jan L; Wu, Ronald Wai Keung; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Haynes, Richard K

    2018-06-04

    The emergence of resistance towards artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has the potential to severely compromise malaria control. Therefore, development of new artemisinins in combination with new drugs that impart activities towards both intraerythrocytic proliferative asexual and transmissible gametocyte stages, in particular those of resistant parasites, are urgently required. We define artemisinins as oxidant drugs through their ability to oxidize reduced flavin cofactors of flavin disulfide reductases critical for maintaining redox-homeostasis in the malaria parasite. Here we compare the activities of 10-amino artemisinin derivatives towards the asexual and gametocyte stages of P. falciparum parasites. Of these, artemisone and artemiside inhibited asexual and gametocyte stages, particularly stage V gametocytes in the low nM range. Further, treatment of both early and late gametocyte stages with artemisone or artemiside combined with the pro-oxidant redox partner methylene blue displays notable synergism. These data suggest that modulation of redox-homeostasis likely is an important druggable process, particularly in gametocytes, and thereby enhances the prospect of using combinations of oxidant and redox drugs for malaria control. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Synergic effects of sugar and caffeine on insulin-mediated metabolomic alterations after an acute consumption of soft drinks.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Raúl; Mateos, Rosa María; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso María; González-Cortés, José Joaquín; Corrales-Cuevas, Manuel; Rojas-Cots, Juan Alberto; Segundo, Carmen; Schwarz, Mónica

    2017-09-01

    High sugar consumption elicits numerous deleterious effects on health by inducing insulin resistance, which is closely associated with the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity or type-2 diabetes. Furthermore, there is also growing evidence that caffeine may play an important role in the regulation of insulin release and the appearance of related metabolic impairments. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the impact of acute sugar and caffeine intake on the metabolic health status by using a metabolomic multi-platform based on the combination of flow injection mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. To this end, we performed a randomized, crossover and double-blind intervention study with different soft drinks from the same brand. Numerous metabolomic changes were detected in serum samples over time after the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, including energy-related metabolites, amino acids and lipids, thus demonstrating the intense effects provoked by acute sugar consumption on the organism during 3 h of follow-up. However, the most significant findings were observed after the co-ingestion of caffeine, which could be indicative of a synergic effect of this psychostimulant on insulin-mediated perturbations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Salt and stress synergize H. pylori-induced gastric lesions, cell proliferation, and p21 expression in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Ubbelohde, Tom; Saqui-Salces, Milena; Romano-Mazzoti, Luis; Cervantes, Minerva; Domínguez-Fonseca, Claudia; de la Luz Estreber, Maria; Ruíz-Palacios, Guillermo M

    2007-06-01

    Our aim was to determine if salt and stress enhance Helicobacter pylori (Hp) lesions in Meriones unguiculatus. Two hundred seventy-eight pathogen-free gerbils were allocated to seven groups: Hp-Sydney strain (45), 8% higher-salt diet (38), stress (60% space reduction/water immersion; 36), Hp + salt (33), Hp + stress (34), N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (34), and sham (58). Gerbils were sacrificed at 1 week (67), 12 weeks (73), 52 weeks (65), and 68 weeks (73). Sydney, Padova, and Lauren classifications were blindly used. Proliferation, p53, p21, and apoptosis were assessed. Follicular active gastritis (grade 2/3) was observed in 10% of Hp gerbils, 38% of Hp + salt gerbils, and 29% of Hp + stress gerbils at 52 weeks and 67%, 83%, and 43% at 68 weeks (P < 0.05). Heterotopic proliferative glands were identified in synergy groups from 52 weeks, with increases in their number and size by 68 weeks. Higher proliferative rates were observed in Hp+salt gerbils (P < 0.0001), and p21 overexpression in Hp+salt and Hp+stress gerbils (both P's < 0.0001), by 68 weeks, without p53 increases. We conclude that salt and stress synergize Hp damage and increase pseudo-invasive gland foci.

  1. Hif-1α and Hif-2α synergize to suppress AML development but are dispensable for disease maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Vukovic, Milica; Guitart, Amelie V.; Sepulveda, Catarina; Villacreces, Arnaud; O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Panagopoulou, Theano I.; Ivens, Alasdair; Menendez-Gonzalez, Juan; Iglesias, Juan Manuel; Allen, Lewis; Glykofrydis, Fokion; Subramani, Chithra; Armesilla-Diaz, Alejandro; Post, Annemarie E.M.; Schaak, Katrin; Gezer, Deniz; So, Chi Wai Eric; Holyoake, Tessa L.; Wood, Andrew; O'Carroll, Dónal; Ratcliffe, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Leukemogenesis occurs under hypoxic conditions within the bone marrow (BM). Knockdown of key mediators of cellular responses to hypoxia with shRNA, namely hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) or HIF-2α, in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples results in their apoptosis and inability to engraft, implicating HIF-1α or HIF-2α as therapeutic targets. However, genetic deletion of Hif-1α has no effect on mouse AML maintenance and may accelerate disease development. Here, we report the impact of conditional genetic deletion of Hif-2α or both Hif-1α and Hif-2α at different stages of leukemogenesis in mice. Deletion of Hif-2α accelerates development of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) and shortens AML latency initiated by Mll-AF9 and its downstream effectors Meis1 and Hoxa9. Notably, the accelerated initiation of AML caused by Hif-2α deletion is further potentiated by Hif-1α codeletion. However, established LSCs lacking Hif-2α or both Hif-1α and Hif-2α propagate AML with the same latency as wild-type LSCs. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of the HIF pathway or HIF-2α knockout using the lentiviral CRISPR-Cas9 system in human established leukemic cells with MLL-AF9 translocation have no impact on their functions. We therefore conclude that although Hif-1α and Hif-2α synergize to suppress the development of AML, they are not required for LSC maintenance. PMID:26642852

  2. Albendazole and antibiotics synergize to deliver short-course anti-Wolbachia curative treatments in preclinical models of filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Raman; Al Jayoussi, Ghaith; Tyrer, Hayley E.; Gamble, Joanne; Hayward, Laura; Priestley, Richard S.; Murphy, Emma A.; Davies, Jill; Waterhouse, David; Cook, Darren A. N.; Clare, Rachel H.; Cassidy, Andrew; Steven, Andrew; Johnston, Kelly L.; McCall, John; Ford, Louise; Hemingway, Janet; Ward, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    Elimination of filariasis requires a macrofilaricide treatment that can be delivered within a 7-day period. Here we have identified a synergy between the anthelmintic albendazole (ABZ) and drugs depleting the filarial endosymbiont Wolbachia, a proven macrofilaricide target, which reduces treatment from several weeks to 7 days in preclinical models. ABZ had negligible effects on Wolbachia but synergized with minocycline or rifampicin (RIF) to deplete symbionts, block embryogenesis, and stop microfilariae production. Greater than 99% Wolbachia depletion following 7-day combination of RIF+ABZ also led to accelerated macrofilaricidal activity. Thus, we provide preclinical proof-of-concept of treatment shortening using antibiotic+ABZ combinations to deliver anti-Wolbachia sterilizing and macrofilaricidal effects. Our data are of immediate public health importance as RIF+ABZ are registered drugs and thus immediately implementable to deliver a 1-wk macrofilaricide. They also suggest that novel, more potent anti-Wolbachia drugs under development may be capable of delivering further treatment shortening, to days rather than weeks, if combined with benzimidazoles. PMID:29078351

  3. Serotonergic system antagonists target breast tumor initiating cells and synergize with chemotherapy to shrink human breast tumor xenografts.

    PubMed

    Gwynne, William D; Hallett, Robin M; Girgis-Gabardo, Adele; Bojovic, Bojana; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Aarts, Craig; Dias, Kay; Bane, Anita; Hassell, John A

    2017-05-09

    Breast tumors comprise an infrequent tumor cell population, termed breast tumor initiating cells (BTIC), which sustain tumor growth, seed metastases and resist cytotoxic therapies. Hence therapies are needed to target BTIC to provide more durable breast cancer remissions than are currently achieved. We previously reported that serotonergic system antagonists abrogated the activity of mouse BTIC resident in the mammary tumors of a HER2-overexpressing model of breast cancer. Here we report that antagonists of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) biosynthesis and activity, including US Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antidepressants, targeted BTIC resident in numerous breast tumor cell lines regardless of their clinical or molecular subtype. Notably, inhibitors of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), required for 5-HT biosynthesis in select non-neuronal cells, the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) and several 5-HT receptors compromised BTIC activity as assessed by functional sphere-forming assays. Consistent with these findings, human breast tumor cells express TPH1, 5-HT and SERT independent of their molecular or clinical subtype. Exposure of breast tumor cells ex vivo to sertraline (Zoloft), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), reduced BTIC frequency as determined by transplanting drug-treated tumor cells into immune-compromised mice. Moreover, another SSRI (vilazodone; Viibryd) synergized with chemotherapy to shrink breast tumor xenografts in immune-compromised mice by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and inducing their apoptosis. Collectively our data suggest that antidepressants in combination with cytotoxic anticancer therapies may be an appropriate treatment regimen for testing in clinical trials.

  4. Checkpoint Antibodies but not T Cell-Recruiting Diabodies Effectively Synergize with TIL-Inducing γ-Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hettich, Michael; Lahoti, Jayashree; Prasad, Shruthi; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2016-08-15

    T cell-recruiting bispecific antibodies (bsAb) show promise in hematologic malignancies and are also being evaluated in solid tumors. In this study, we investigated whether T cell-recruiting bsAbs synergize with hypofractionated tumor radiotherapy (hRT) and/or blockade of the programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint, both of which can increase tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) numbers. Unexpectedly, large melanomas treated with hRT plus bsAb (AC133×CD3) relapsed faster than those treated with hRT alone, accompanied by massive TIL apoptosis. This fast relapse was delayed by the further addition of anti-PD-1. Mechanistic investigations revealed restimulation-induced cell death mediated by BIM and FAS as an additional cause of bsAb-mediated TIL depletion. In contrast, the double combination of hRT and anti-PD-1 strongly increased TIL numbers, and even very large tumors were completely eradicated. Our study reveals the risk that CD3-engaging bsAbs can induce apoptotic TIL depletion followed by rapid tumor regrowth, reminiscent of tolerance induction by CD3 mAb-mediated T-cell depletion, warranting caution in their use for the treatment of solid tumors. Our findings also argue that combining radiotherapy and anti-PD-1 can be quite potent, including against very large tumors. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4673-83. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Successful phytoremediation of crude-oil contaminated soil at an oil exploration and production company by plants-bacterial synergism.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Kaneez; Imran, Asma; Amin, Imran; Khan, Qaiser M; Afzal, Muhammad

    2018-06-07

    Phytoremediation is a promising approach for the cleanup of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. This study aimed to develop plant-bacterial synergism for the successful remediation of crude oil-contaminated soil. A consortia of three endophytic bacteria was augmented to two grasses, Leptochloa fusca and Brachiaria mutica, grown in oil-contaminated soil (46.8 g oil kg -1 soil) in the vicinity of an oil exploration and production company. Endophytes augmentation improved plant growth, crude oil degradation, and soil health. Maximum oil degradation (80%) was achieved with B. mutica plants augmented with the endophytes and it was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the use of plants or bacteria individually. Moreover, endophytes showed more persistence, the abundance and expression of alkB gene in the rhizosphere as well as in the endosphere of the tested plants than in unvegetated soil. A positive relationship (r = 0.70) observed between gene expression and crude oil reduction indicates that catabolic gene expression is important for hydrocarbon mineralization. This investigation showed that the use of endophytes with appropriate plant is an effective strategy for the cleanup of oil-contaminated soil under field conditions.

  6. Gingerol Synergizes the Cytotoxic Effects of Doxorubicin against Liver Cancer Cells and Protects from Its Vascular Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Alghamdi, Eman A; Baghdadi, Mohammed A; Alamoudi, Abdulmohsin J; El-Halawany, Ali M; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Aseeri, Ali H; Al-Abd, Ahmed M

    2016-07-08

    Hydroxyphenylalkanes and diarylheptanoids possess potential therapeutic value in different pathophysiological conditions, such as malignancy. In the current study, naturally isolated hydroxyphenylalkane and diarylheptanoid compounds were investigated for potential chemo-modulatory effects in addition to potential vascular protective roles with doxorubicin. Diarylheptanoids showed stronger antioxidant effects, in comparison to hydroxyphenylalkanes, as demonstrated by DPPH assay and amelioration of CCl₄-induced disturbed intracellular GSH/GSSG balance. Shogaol and 4'-methoxygingerol showed considerable cytotoxic effects against HCT116, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 3.1 to 19.4 µM. Gingerol significantly enhanced the cytotoxic profile of doxorubicin against HepG₂ and Huh7, cells decreasing its IC50s by 10- and 4-fold, respectively. Cell cycle distribution was studied using DNA cytometry. Doxorubicin alone induced cell accumulation at S-phase and G₂/M-phase, while in combination with gingerol it significantly induced cell cycle arrest at the G₂/M-phase. Additionally, the vascular protective effect of gingerol against doxorubicin (10 µM) was examined on isolated aortic rings. Co-incubation with 6-gingerol (30 µM) completely blocked the exaggerated vasoconstriction and impaired vascular relaxation induced by doxorubicin. In conclusion, despite its relatively weak antioxidant properties, gingerol protected from DOX-induced vascular damage, apparently not through a ROS scavenging mechanism. Besides, gingerol synergized the cytotoxic effects of DOX against liver cancer cells without influencing the cellular pharmacokinetics.

  7. Synergic Effect between Adsorption and Photocatalysis of Metal-Free g-C3N4 Derived from Different Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan-Yan; Wu, Li-Cheng; Zhao, Hang; Jin, Li-Guo; Qi, Shu-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) used in this work was obtained by heating dicyandiamide and melamine, respectively, at different temperatures. The differences of g-C3N4 derived from different precursors in phase composition, functional group, surface morphology, microstructure, surface property, band gap and specific surface area were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy and BET surface area analyzer, respectively. The photocatalytic discoloration of an active cationic dye, Methylene Blue (MB) under visible-light irradiation indicated that g-C3N4 derived from melamine at 500°C (CN-M500) had higher adsorption capacity and better photocatalytic activity than that from dicyandiamide at 500°C (CN-D500), which was attributed to the larger surface area of CN-M500. MB discoloration ratio over CN-M500 was affected by initial MB concentration and photocatalyst dosage. After 120 min reaction time, the blue color of MB solution disappeared completely. Subsequently, based on the measurement of the surface Zeta potentials of CN-M500 at different pHs, an active anionic dye, Methyl Orange (MO) was selected as the contrastive target pollutant with MB to reveal the synergic effect between adsorption and photocatalysis. Finally, the photocatalytic mechanism was discussed. PMID:26565712

  8. α-bisabolol Is an Effective Proapoptotic Agent against BCR-ABL+ Cells in Synergism with Imatinib and Nilotinib

    PubMed Central

    Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Rigo, Antonella; Guardalben, Emanuele; Bergamini, Christian; Cavalieri, Elisabetta; Fato, Romana; Pizzolo, Giovanni; Vinante, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We showed that α-bisabolol is active against primary acute leukemia cells, including BCR-ABL+ acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL). Here we studied the activity of α-bisabolol against BCR-ABL+ cells using 3 cell lines (K562, LAMA-84, CML-T1) and 10 primary BCR-ABL+ ALL samples. We found that: (a) α-bisabolol was effective in reducing BCR-ABL+ cell viabilty at concentrations ranging from 53 to 73 µM; (b) α-bisabolol concentrations in BCR-ABL+ cellular compartments were 4- to 12-fold higher than in normal cells, thus indicating a preferential intake in neoplastic cells; (c) α-bisabolol displayed a slight to strong synergism with the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI) imatinib and nilotinib: the combination of α-bisabolol+imatinib allowed a dose reduction of each compound up to 7.2 and 9.4-fold respectively, while the combination of α-bisabolol+nilotinib up to 6.7 and 5-fold respectively; (d) α-bisabolol-induced apoptosis was associated with loss of plasma membrane integrity, irreversible opening of mitochondrial transition pore, disruption of mitochondrial potential, inhibition of oxygen consumption and increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species. These data indicate α-bisabolol as a candidate for treatment of BCR-ABL+ leukemias to overcome resistance to TKI alone and to target leukemic cells through BCR-ABL-independent pathways. PMID:23056396

  9. A 27-year-old woman with a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Legro, Richard S

    2007-02-07

    Ms R, a 27-year-old woman with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosed after irregular menses, hirsutism, and polycystic ovaries, is concerned about weight gain despite regular exercise and watching her diet. Prescribed oral contraceptives to regulate her menses and help reduce her androgen levels, she wants to know the alternatives for treatment of PCOS. The varying definitions of PCOS and its heterogeneity confound the interpretation of studies on PCOS. Specific diagnostic criteria have been established based on expert opinion but have not been validated. Several commonly performed laboratory tests are generally unhelpful and the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Treatment options for Ms R, including those that may affect her weight gain, are reviewed and implications for future fertility are discussed.

  10. Preliminary Analysis of a 27.5 mm Period Undulator for the MBA Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Abliz, M.; Grimmer, J.

    2016-07-27

    The magnetic design of a 27.5 mm period undulator was performed for the APS MBA Lattice. One purpose of the magnetic design was to decrease the magnetic force in order to operate the undulator successfully at a smaller gap compared to the existing 27 mm undulator at the APS. As a result, the magnetic force is decreased by about 18% at a gap of 11 mm and the total volume of the magnet and the pole is decreased by approximately 22% with the new model. The calculated effective field with the new model was 172 G higher than the existingmore » 27-mm period undulator with a gap of 11 mm. The calculated field roll-off with the new optimized model is within the requirements of the MBA, in the range of ± 5 mm.« less

  11. Observation of a 27-day solar signature in noctilucent cloud altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhnke, Merlin C.; von Savigny, Christian; Robert, Charles E.

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have identified solar 27-day signatures in several parameters in the Mesosphere/Lower thermosphere region, including temperature and Noctilucent cloud (NLC) occurrence frequency. In this study we report on a solar 27-day signature in NLC altitude with peak-to-peak variations of about 400 m. We use SCIAMACHY limb-scatter observations from 2002 to 2012 to detect NLCs. The superposed epoch analysis method is applied to extract solar 27-day signatures. A 27-day signature in NLC altitude can be identified in both hemispheres in the SCIAMACHY dataset, but the signature is more pronounced in the northern hemisphere. The solar signature in NLC altitude is found to be in phase with solar activity and temperature for latitudes ≳ 70 ° N. We provide a qualitative explanation for the positive correlation between solar activity and NLC altitude based on published model simulations.

  12. The multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib enhances glycolysis and synergizes with glycolysis blockade for cancer cell killing.

    PubMed

    Tesori, Valentina; Piscaglia, Anna Chiara; Samengo, Daniela; Barba, Marta; Bernardini, Camilla; Scatena, Roberto; Pontoglio, Alessandro; Castellini, Laura; Spelbrink, Johannes N; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Pani, Giovambattista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2015-03-17

    Although the only effective drug against primary hepatocarcinoma, the multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib (SFB) usually fails to eradicate liver cancer. Since SFB targets mitochondria, cell metabolic reprogramming may underlie intrinsic tumor resistance. To characterize cancer cell metabolic response to SFB, we measured oxygen consumption, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP content in rat LCSC (Liver Cancer Stem Cells) -2 cells exposed to the drug. Genome wide analysis of gene expression was performed by Affymetrix technology. SFB cytotoxicity was evaluated by multiple assays in the presence or absence of metabolic inhibitors, or in cells genetically depleted of mitochondria. We found that low concentrations (2.5-5 μM) of SFB had a relatively modest effect on LCSC-2 or 293 T cell growth, but damaged mitochondria and increased intracellular ROS. Gene expression profiling of SFB-treated cells was consistent with a shift toward aerobic glycolysis and, accordingly, SFB cytotoxicity was dramatically increased by glucose withdrawal or the glycolytic inhibitor 2-DG. Under metabolic stress, activation of the AMP dependent Protein Kinase (AMPK), but not ROS blockade, protected cells from death. We conclude that mitochondrial damage and ROS drive cell killing by SFB, while glycolytic cell reprogramming may represent a resistance strategy potentially targetable by combination therapies.

  13. The natural compound forskolin synergizes with dexamethasone to induce cell death in myeloma cells via BIM.

    PubMed

    Follin-Arbelet, Virginie; Misund, Kristine; Naderi, Elin Hallan; Ugland, Hege; Sundan, Anders; Blomhoff, Heidi Kiil

    2015-08-26

    We have previously demonstrated that activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway kills multiple myeloma (MM) cells both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we have investigated the potential of enhancing the killing of MM cell lines and primary MM cells by combining the cAMP-elevating compound forskolin with the commonly used MM therapeutic drugs melphalan, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, bortezomib and dexamethasone. We observed that forskolin potentiated the killing induced by all the tested agents as compared to treatment with the single agents alone. In particular, forskolin had a synergistic effect on the dexamethasone-responsive cell lines H929 and OM-2. By knocking down the proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BIM, we proved this protein to be involved in the synergistic induction of apoptosis by dexamethasone and forskolin. The ability of forskolin to maintain the killing of MM cells even at lower concentrations of the conventional agents suggests that forskolin may be used to diminish treatment-associated side effects. Our findings support a potential role of forskolin in combination with current conventional agents in the treatment of MM.

  14. The natural compound forskolin synergizes with dexamethasone to induce cell death in myeloma cells via BIM

    PubMed Central

    Follin-Arbelet, Virginie; Misund, Kristine; Hallan Naderi, Elin; Ugland, Hege; Sundan, Anders; Kiil Blomhoff, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway kills multiple myeloma (MM) cells both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we have investigated the potential of enhancing the killing of MM cell lines and primary MM cells by combining the cAMP-elevating compound forskolin with the commonly used MM therapeutic drugs melphalan, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, bortezomib and dexamethasone. We observed that forskolin potentiated the killing induced by all the tested agents as compared to treatment with the single agents alone. In particular, forskolin had a synergistic effect on the dexamethasone-responsive cell lines H929 and OM-2. By knocking down the proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BIM, we proved this protein to be involved in the synergistic induction of apoptosis by dexamethasone and forskolin. The ability of forskolin to maintain the killing of MM cells even at lower concentrations of the conventional agents suggests that forskolin may be used to diminish treatment-associated side effects. Our findings support a potential role of forskolin in combination with current conventional agents in the treatment of MM. PMID:26306624

  15. Oncolytic reovirus preferentially induces apoptosis in KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cells, and synergizes with irinotecan

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Radhashree; Seetharam, Raviraja; Tesfa, Lydia; Augustine, Titto A.; Klampfer, Lidija; Coffey, Matthew C.; Mariadason, John M.; Goel, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Reovirus is a double stranded RNA virus, with an intrinsic preference for replication in KRAS mutant cells. As 45% of human colorectal cancers (CRC) harbor KRAS mutations, we sought to investigate its efficacy in KRAS mutant CRC cells, and examine its impact in combination with the topoisimerase-1 inhibitor, irinotecan. Reovirus efficacy was examined in the KRAS mutant HCT116, and the isogenic KRAS WT Hke3 cell line, and in the non-malignant rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Combination treatment with reovirus and irintoecan was investigated in 15 CRC cell lines, including the HCT116 p21 isogenic cell lines. Reovirus preferentially induced apoptosis in KRAS mutant HCT116 cells compared to its isogenic KRAS WT derivative, and in KRAS mutant IEC cells. Reovirus showed a greater degree of caspase 3 activation with PARP 1 cleavage, and preferential inhibition of p21 protein expression in KRAS mutant cells. Reovirus synergistically induced growth inhibition when combined with irinotecan. This synergy was lost upon p21 gene knock out. Reovirus preferentially induces apoptosis in KRAS mutant colon cancer cells. Reovirus and irinotecan combination therapy is synergistic, p21 mediated, and represents a novel potential treatment for patients with CRC. PMID:24798549

  16. p53 Loss synergizes with estrogen and papillomaviral oncogenes to induce cervical and breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Shai, Anny; Pitot, Henry C; Lambert, Paul F

    2008-04-15

    Whereas the tumor suppressor p53 gene is frequently mutated in most human cancers, this is not the case in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers, presumably because the viral E6 oncoprotein inactivates the p53 protein. The ability of E6 to transform cells in tissue culture and induce cancers in mice correlates in part with its ability to inactivate p53. In this study, we compared the expression of the HPV16 E6 oncogene to the conditional genetic disruption of p53 in the context of a mouse model for cervical cancer in which estrogen is a critical cofactor. Nearly all of the K14Crep53(f/f) mice treated with estrogen developed cervical cancer, a stark contrast to its complete absence in like-treated K14E6(WT)p53(f/f) mice, indicating that HPV16 E6 must only partially inactivate p53. p53-independent activities of E6 also contributed to carcinogenesis, but in the female reproductive tract, these activities were manifested only in the presence of the HPV16 E7 oncogene. Interestingly, treatment of K14Crep53(f/f) mice with estrogen also resulted in mammary tumors after only a short latency, many of which were positive for estrogen receptor alpha. The majority of these mammary tumors were of mixed cell types, suggestive of their originating from a multipotent progenitor. Furthermore, a subset of mammary tumors arising in the estrogen-treated, p53-deficient mammary glands exhibited evidence of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These data show the importance of the synergy between estrogen and p53 insufficiency in determining basic properties of carcinogenesis in hormone-responsive tissues, such as the breast and the reproductive tract.

  17. p53 Loss Synergizes with Estrogen and Papillomaviral Oncogenes to Induce Cervical and Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Shai, Anny; Pitot, Henry C.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the tumor suppressor p53 gene is frequently mutated in most human cancers, this is not the case in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers, presumably because the viral E6 oncoprotein inactivates the p53 protein. The ability of E6 to transform cells in tissue culture and induce cancers in mice correlates in part with its ability to inactivate p53. In this study, we compared the expression of the HPV16 E6 oncogene to the conditional genetic disruption of p53 in the context of a mouse model for cervical cancer in which estrogen is a critical cofactor. Nearly all of the K14Crep53f/f mice treated with estrogen developed cervical cancer, a stark contrast to its complete absence in like-treated K14E6WTp53f/f mice, indicating that HPV16 E6 must only partially inactivate p53. p53-independent activities of E6 also contributed to carcinogenesis, but in the female reproductive tract, these activities were manifested only in the presence of the HPV16 E7 oncogene. Interestingly, treatment of K14Crep53f/f mice with estrogen also resulted in mammary tumors after only a short latency, many of which were positive for estrogen receptor α. The majority of these mammary tumors were of mixed cell types, suggestive of their originating from a multipotent progenitor. Furthermore, a subset of mammary tumors arising in the estrogen-treated, p53-deficient mammary glands exhibited evidence of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These data show the importance of the synergy between estrogen and p53 insufficiency in determining basic properties of carcinogenesis in hormone-responsive tissues, such as the breast and the reproductive tract. PMID:18413729

  18. Intracellular co-delivery of Sr ion and phenamil drug through mesoporous bioglass nanocarriers synergizes BMP signaling and tissue mineralization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Mandakhbayar, Nandin; El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Kim, Hae-Won

    2017-09-15

    Inducing differentiation and maturation of resident multipotent stem cells (MSCs) is an important strategy to regenerate hard tissues in mal-calcification conditions. Here we explore a co-delivery approach of therapeutic molecules comprised of ion and drug through a mesoporous bioglass nanoparticle (MBN) for this purpose. Recently, MBN has offered unique potential as a nanocarrier for hard tissues, in terms of high mesoporosity, bone bioactivity (and possibly degradability), tunable delivery of biomolecules, and ionic modification. Herein Sr ion is structurally doped to MBN while drug Phenamil is externally loaded as a small molecule activator of BMP signaling, for the stimulation of osteo/odontogenesis and mineralization of human MSCs derived from dental pulp. The Sr-doped MBN (85Si:10Ca:5Sr) sol-gel processed presents a high mesoporosity with a pore size of ∼6nm. In particular, Sr ion is released slowly at a daily rate of ∼3ppm per mg nanoparticles for up to 7days, a level therapeutically effective for cellular stimulation. The Sr-MBN is internalized to most MSCs via an ATP dependent macropinocytosis within hours, increasing the intracellular levels of Sr, Ca and Si ions. Phenamil is loaded maximally ∼30% into Sr-MBN and then released slowly for up to 7days. The co-delivered molecules (Sr ion and Phenamil drug) have profound effects on the differentiation and maturation of cells, i.e., significantly enhancing expression of osteo/odontogenic genes, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization of cells. Of note, the stimulation is a result of a synergism of Sr and Phenamil, through a Trb3-dependent BMP signaling pathway. This biological synergism is further evidenced in vivo in a mal-calcification condition involving an extracted tooth implantation in dorsal subcutaneous tissues of rats. Six weeks post operation evidences the osseous-dentinal hard tissue formation, which is significantly stimulated by the Sr/Phenamil delivery, based on histomorphometric

  19. Crizotinib induces apoptosis and gene expression changes in ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell lines; brentuximab synergizes and doxorubicin antagonizes.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Sandra; Wang, Dongliang; Middleton, Frank; Nevaldine, Barbara H; Naous, Rana; Hutchison, Robert E

    2018-04-26

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) shows 60-70% event free survival with standard treatments. Targeted therapies are being tested for increased benefit and/or reduced toxicity, but interactions with standard agents are not well known. We exposed four ALCL cell lines to two targeted agents, crizotinib and brentuximab vedotin, and to two standard agents, doxorubicin and vinblastine. For each agent and combination, we measured apoptosis and expression of approximately 300 previously annotated genes of interest using targeted RNA-sequencing. An aurora kinase inhibitor, alisertib, was similarly tested for gene expression effects. Only crizotinib, alone or in combination, showed significant effects (adjusted P < 0.05) on expression and apoptosis. One hundred and nine of 277 gene expressions showed crizotinib-associated differential expression, mostly downregulation, 62 associated with apoptosis, and 28 associated with both crizotinib and apoptosis. Doxorubicin was antagonistic with crizotinib on gene expression and apoptosis. Brentuximab was synergistic with crizotinib in apoptosis, and not antagonistic in gene expression. Vinblastine also appeared synergistic with crizotinib but did not achieve statistical significance. Alisertib did not show significant expression changes. Our data suggest that crizotinib induces apoptosis through orderly changes in cell signaling associated with ALK inhibition. Expression effects of crizotinib and associated apoptosis are antagonized by doxorubicin, but apoptosis is synergized by brentuximab vedotin and possibly vinblastine. These findings suggest that concurrent use of crizotinib and doxorubicin may be counterproductive, while the pairing of crizotinib with brentuximab (or vinblastine) may increase efficacy. Alisertib did not induce expression changes at cytotoxic dosage. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Antinociceptive and anti-exudative synergism between dexketoprofen and tramadol in a model of inflammatory pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Hugo F; Romero, Maria Asunción; Puig, Margarita M

    2012-06-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated antinociceptive synergism between dexketoprofen (DEX) and tramadol (TRM) in acute animal models of nociception. The aim of the present study was to investigate the type of interaction between DEX and TRM in a chronic musculoskeletal pain model in mice, which fairly replicates the characteristics of chronic osteoarticular pain in humans. Inflammation was induced by a subplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in male CF1 mice. Nociceptive thresholds were evaluated using the hot plate, the nocifensive spontaneous behavior and the acetone tests, while plasma extravasation (PE) was assessed with Evan's blue. We used the following experimental groups: control (no inflammation), acute (1 day after CFA injection), and chronic inflammation (7 days after CFA). Dose-response curves for DEX and TRM, individually and combined in a 1 : 1 proportion based on their potency were obtained, and the doses that produced a 50% inhibition calculated. The isobolographic analysis revealed that in all groups of study (no inflammation, acute, and chronic inflammation), the combination of DEX : TRM was synergistic, for both the inhibition of nociception and the PE. The results suggest that the DEX : TRM (1 : 1) combination could be useful in the management of acute and chronic inflammatory musculoskeletal pains in humans; in addition, the synergistic interaction between the drugs observed both during acute and chronic inflammation suggests that less doses would be required of each drug to obtain effective analgesia. © 2011 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  1. Effector/memory CD8+ T cells synergize with co-stimulation competent macrophages to trigger autoimmune peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Shi, Xiang Qun; Peyret, Corentin; Oladiran, Oladayo; Wu, Sonia; Chambon, Julien; Fournier, Sylvie; Zhang, Ji

    2018-04-05

    Autoimmune peripheral neuropathy (APN) such as Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) is a debilitating illness and sometimes life threatening. The molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive but exposure to environmental factors including viral/bacterial infection and injury is highly associated with disease incidence. We demonstrated previously that both male and female B7.2 (CD86) transgenic L31 and L31/CD4KO mice develop spontaneous APN. Here we further reveal that CD8 + T cells in these mice exhibit an effector/memory phenotype, which bears a resemblance to the CD8 + T cell response following persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in humans and mice, whilst CMV has been considered as one of the most relevant pathogens in APN development. These activated, peripheral myelin Ag specific CD8 + T cells are required for the disease initiation. While an injury to a peripheral nerve results in Wallerian degeneration in control littermates, the same injury accelerates the development of APN in other non-injured nerves of L31 mice which have a predisposed inflammatory background consisting of effector/memory CD8 + T (CD8 + T EM ) cells. However, CD8 + T EM cells alone are not sufficient. A certain threshold of B7.2 expression on nerve macrophages is an additional requisite. Our findings reveal that indeed, the synergism between CD8 + T EM cells and co-stimulation competent macrophages is crucial in inducing autoimmune-mediated peripheral neuropathy. The identification of decisive molecular/cellular players connecting environmental triggers and the occurrence of APN provides opportunities to prevent disease onset, reduce relapses and develop new therapeutic strategies. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross-linked matrix rigidity and soluble retinoids synergize in nuclear lamina regulation of stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ivanovska, Irena L; Swift, Joe; Spinler, Kyle; Dingal, Dave; Cho, Sangkyun; Discher, Dennis E

    2017-07-07

    Synergistic cues from extracellular matrix and soluble factors are often obscure in differentiation. Here the rigidity of cross-linked collagen synergizes with retinoids in the osteogenesis of human marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Collagen nanofilms serve as a model matrix that MSCs can easily deform unless the film is enzymatically cross-linked, which promotes the spreading of cells and the stiffening of nuclei as both actomyosin assembly and nucleoskeletal lamin-A increase. Expression of lamin-A is known to be controlled by retinoic acid receptor (RAR) transcription factors, but soft matrix prevents any response to any retinoids. Rigid matrix is needed to induce rapid nuclear accumulation of the RARG isoform and for RARG-specific antagonist to increase or maintain expression of lamin-A as well as for RARG-agonist to repress expression. A progerin allele of lamin-A is regulated in the same manner in iPSC-derived MSCs. Rigid matrices are further required for eventual expression of osteogenic markers, and RARG-antagonist strongly drives lamin-A-dependent osteogenesis on rigid substrates, with pretreated xenografts calcifying in vivo to a similar extent as native bone. Proteomics-detected targets of mechanosensitive lamin-A and retinoids underscore the convergent synergy of insoluble and soluble cues in differentiation. © 2017 Ivanovska et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. In vitro studies of cutaneous retention of magnetic nanoemulsion loaded with zinc phthalocyanine for synergic use in skin cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primo, Fernando L.; Rodrigues, Marcilene M. A.; Simioni, Andreza R.; Bentley, Maria V. L. B.; Morais, Paulo C.; Tedesco, Antonio C.

    In this study was developed a new nano drug delivery system (NDDS) based on association of biodegradable surfactants with biocompatible magnetic fluid of maguemita citrate derivative. This formulation consists in a magnetic emulsion with nanostructured colloidal particles. Preliminary in vitro experiments showed that the formulation presents a great potential for synergic application in the topical release of photosensitizer drug (PS) and excellent target tissue properties in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined with hyperthermia (HPT) protocols. The physical chemistry characterization and in vitro assays were carried out by Zn(II) Phtalocyanine (ZnPc) photosensitizer incorporated into NDDS in the absence and the presence of magnetic fluid, showed good results and high biocompatibility. In vitro experiments were accomplished by tape-stripping protocols for quantification of drug association with different skin tissue layers. This technique is a classical method for analyses of drug release in stratum corneum and epidermis+ dermis skin layers. The NDDS formulations were applied directly in pig skin (tissue model) fixed in the cell's Franz device with receptor medium container with a PBS/EtOH 20% solution (10 mM, pH 7.4) at 37 °C. After 12 h of topical administration stratum corneum was removed from fifty tapes and the ZnPc retained was evaluated by solvent extraction in dimetil-sulphoxide under ultrasonic bath. These results indicated that magnetic nanoemulsion (MNE) increase the drug release on the deeper skin layers when compared with classical formulation in the absence of magnetic particles. This could be related with the increase of biocompatibility of NDDS due to the great affinity for the polar extracelullar matrix in the skin and also for the increase in the drug partition inside of corneocites wall.

  4. Nanomolar Oxytocin Synergizes with Weak Electrical Afferent Stimulation to Activate the Locomotor CPG of the Rat Spinal Cord In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dose, Francesco; Zanon, Patrizia; Coslovich, Tamara; Taccola, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Synergizing the effect of afferent fibre stimulation with pharmacological interventions is a desirable goal to trigger spinal locomotor activity, especially after injury. Thus, to better understand the mechanisms to optimize this process, we studied the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (previously shown to stimulate locomotor networks) on network and motoneuron properties using the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord. On motoneurons oxytocin (1 nM–1 μM) generated sporadic bursts with superimposed firing and dose-dependent depolarization. No desensitization was observed despite repeated applications. Tetrodotoxin completely blocked the effects of oxytocin, demonstrating the network origin of the responses. Recording motoneuron pool activity from lumbar ventral roots showed oxytocin mediated depolarization with synchronous bursts, and depression of reflex responses in a stimulus and peptide-concentration dependent fashion. Disinhibited bursting caused by strychnine and bicuculline was accelerated by oxytocin whose action was blocked by the oxytocin antagonist atosiban. Fictive locomotion appeared when subthreshold concentrations of NMDA plus 5HT were coapplied with oxytocin, an effect prevented after 24 h incubation with the inhibitor of 5HT synthesis, PCPA. When fictive locomotion was fully manifested, oxytocin did not change periodicity, although cycle amplitude became smaller. A novel protocol of electrical stimulation based on noisy waveforms and applied to one dorsal root evoked stereotypic fictive locomotion. Whenever the stimulus intensity was subthreshold, low doses of oxytocin triggered fictive locomotion although oxytocin per se did not affect primary afferent depolarization evoked by dorsal root pulses. Among the several functional targets for the action of oxytocin at lumbar spinal cord level, the present results highlight how small concentrations of this peptide could bring spinal networks to threshold for fictive locomotion in combination with other

  5. Cross-resistance and synergism bioassays suggest multiple mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in western corn rootworm populations

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Dariane; Zukoff, Sarah N.; Meinke, Lance J.; Siegfried, Blair D.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, resistance to the pyrethroid bifenthrin was detected and confirmed in field populations of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte from southwestern areas of Nebraska and Kansas. As a first step to understand potential mechanisms of resistance, the objectives of this study were i) to assess adult mortality at diagnostic concentration-LC99 to the pyrethroids bifenthrin and tefluthrin as well as DDT, ii) estimate adult and larval susceptibility to the same compounds as well as the organophosphate methyl-parathion, and iii) perform synergism experiments with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) (P450 inhibitor) and S,S,S-tributyl-phosphorotrithioate (DEF) (esterase inhibitor) in field populations. Most of the adult field populations exhibiting some level of bifenthrin resistance exhibited significantly lower mortality to both pyrethroids and DDT than susceptible control populations at the estimated LC99 of susceptible populations. Results of adult dose-mortality bioassays also revealed elevated LC50 values for bifenthrin resistant populations compared to the susceptible control population with resistance ratios ranging from 2.5 to 5.5-fold for bifenthrin, 28 to 54.8-fold for tefluthrin, and 16.3 to 33.0 for DDT. These bioassay results collectively suggest some level of cross-resistance between the pyrethroids and DDT. In addition, both PBO and DEF reduced the resistance ratios for resistant populations although there was a higher reduction in susceptibility of adults exposed to PBO versus DEF. Susceptibility in larvae varied among insecticides and did not correlate with adult susceptibility to tefluthrin and DDT, as most resistance ratios were < 5-fold when compared to the susceptible population. These results suggest that both detoxifying enzymes and target site insensitivity might be involved as resistance mechanisms. PMID:28628635

  6. Drinking water quality and chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu): synergic effects of fluoride, cadmium and hardness of water.

    PubMed

    Wasana, Hewa M S; Aluthpatabendi, Dharshani; Kularatne, W M T D; Wijekoon, Pushpa; Weerasooriya, Rohan; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2016-02-01

    High prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in some regions of the world is suspected mainly due to a toxin-mediated renal failure. We examined the incidence of CKDu and potable chemical water quality in a CKDu-affected region. This region has been identified as a high-risk zone for CKDu (location: latitude: 8.3500°-9.0000°, longitude: 80.3833°-81.3000°, North Central Province, NCP, Sri Lanka) by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, within this macro-region, small pockets of CKDu non-prevalence zones do exist; notably, the residents in those pockets consume spring water. Therefore, the drinking water quality of four areas, namely high-CKDu-prevalence areas (zone I), low-CKDu-prevalence area (zone II), the CKDu-free isolated pockets (zone III) and control areas (controls) were examined for F, Al, Cd, and As, and hardness and the statistical analysis were carried out to probe possible correlations among these parameters. The fluoride and hardness concentrations of water in zone III and control areas are much lower compared to zones I and II, and the water hardness is ~61 mg/L CaCO3. In zones I and II, the harness of drinking water is ~121-180 mg/L CaCO3; however, Al, Cd and As concentrations are almost comparable and below WHO recommendations. In most of the locations in zones I and II, the F concentration in drinking water is higher than the WHO recommendations. The peculiar distribution patterns of CKDu point to a synergic effect of trace elements in water for etiology of the disease.

  7. Shoot ionome to predict the synergism and antagonism between nutrients as affected by substrate and physiological status.

    PubMed

    Pii, Youry; Cesco, Stefano; Mimmo, Tanja

    2015-09-01

    The elemental composition of a tissue or organism is defined as ionome. However, the combined effects on the shoot ionome determined by the taxonomic character, the nutrient status and different substrates have not been investigated. This study tests the hypothesis that phylogenetic variation of monocots and dicots grown in iron deficiency can be distinguished by the shoot ionome. We analyzed 18 elements in barley, cucumber and tomato and in two substrates (hydroponic vs soil) with different nutritional regimes. Multivariate analysis evidenced a clear separation between the species. In hydroponic conditions the main drivers separating the species are non essential-nutrients as Ti, Al, Na and Li, which were positively correlated with macro- (P, K) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mo, B). The separation between species is confirmed when plants are grown on soil, but the distribution is determined especially by macronutrients (S, P, K, Ca, Mg) and micronutrients (B). A number of macro (Mg, Ca, S, P, K) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, B) contribute to plant growth and several other important physiological and metabolic plant activities. The results reported here confirmed that the synergism and antagonism between them and other non-essential elements (Ti, Al, Si, Na) define the plant taxonomic character. The ionome profile might thus be exploited as a tool for the diagnosis of plants physiological/nutritional status but also in defining biofortification strategies to optimize both mineral enrichment of staple food crops and the nutrient input as fertilizers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Hif-1α and Hif-2α synergize to suppress AML development but are dispensable for disease maintenance.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Milica; Guitart, Amelie V; Sepulveda, Catarina; Villacreces, Arnaud; O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Panagopoulou, Theano I; Ivens, Alasdair; Menendez-Gonzalez, Juan; Iglesias, Juan Manuel; Allen, Lewis; Glykofrydis, Fokion; Subramani, Chithra; Armesilla-Diaz, Alejandro; Post, Annemarie E M; Schaak, Katrin; Gezer, Deniz; So, Chi Wai Eric; Holyoake, Tessa L; Wood, Andrew; O'Carroll, Dónal; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Kranc, Kamil R

    2015-12-14

    Leukemogenesis occurs under hypoxic conditions within the bone marrow (BM). Knockdown of key mediators of cellular responses to hypoxia with shRNA, namely hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) or HIF-2α, in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples results in their apoptosis and inability to engraft, implicating HIF-1α or HIF-2α as therapeutic targets. However, genetic deletion of Hif-1α has no effect on mouse AML maintenance and may accelerate disease development. Here, we report the impact of conditional genetic deletion of Hif-2α or both Hif-1α and Hif-2α at different stages of leukemogenesis in mice. Deletion of Hif-2α accelerates development of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) and shortens AML latency initiated by Mll-AF9 and its downstream effectors Meis1 and Hoxa9. Notably, the accelerated initiation of AML caused by Hif-2α deletion is further potentiated by Hif-1α codeletion. However, established LSCs lacking Hif-2α or both Hif-1α and Hif-2α propagate AML with the same latency as wild-type LSCs. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of the HIF pathway or HIF-2α knockout using the lentiviral CRISPR-Cas9 system in human established leukemic cells with MLL-AF9 translocation have no impact on their functions. We therefore conclude that although Hif-1α and Hif-2α synergize to suppress the development of AML, they are not required for LSC maintenance. © 2015 Vukovic et al.

  9. Serotonergic system antagonists target breast tumor initiating cells and synergize with chemotherapy to shrink human breast tumor xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Gwynne, William D; Hallett, Robin M; Girgis-Gabardo, Adele; Bojovic, Bojana; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Aarts, Craig; Dias, Kay; Bane, Anita; Hassell, John A

    2017-01-01

    Breast tumors comprise an infrequent tumor cell population, termed breast tumor initiating cells (BTIC), which sustain tumor growth, seed metastases and resist cytotoxic therapies. Hence therapies are needed to target BTIC to provide more durable breast cancer remissions than are currently achieved. We previously reported that serotonergic system antagonists abrogated the activity of mouse BTIC resident in the mammary tumors of a HER2-overexpressing model of breast cancer. Here we report that antagonists of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) biosynthesis and activity, including US Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antidepressants, targeted BTIC resident in numerous breast tumor cell lines regardless of their clinical or molecular subtype. Notably, inhibitors of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), required for 5-HT biosynthesis in select non-neuronal cells, the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) and several 5-HT receptors compromised BTIC activity as assessed by functional sphere-forming assays. Consistent with these findings, human breast tumor cells express TPH1, 5-HT and SERT independent of their molecular or clinical subtype. Exposure of breast tumor cells ex vivo to sertraline (Zoloft), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), reduced BTIC frequency as determined by transplanting drug-treated tumor cells into immune-compromised mice. Moreover, another SSRI (vilazodone; Viibryd) synergized with chemotherapy to shrink breast tumor xenografts in immune-compromised mice by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and inducing their apoptosis. Collectively our data suggest that antidepressants in combination with cytotoxic anticancer therapies may be an appropriate treatment regimen for testing in clinical trials. PMID:28404880

  10. NIDO, AMOP and vWD domains of MUC4 play synergic role in MUC4 mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xian; Xie, Kun-Ling; Tang, Jie; Jiang, Kui-Rong; Gao, Wen-Tao; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Ze-Kuan; Miao, Yi

    2017-01-01

    MUC4 mucin is well known as an important potential target to overcome pancreatic cancer. Three unique domains (NIDO, AMOP, and vWD) with unclear roles only present in MUC4 but are not found in other membrane-bound mucins. Our previous studies first reported that its splice variant, MUC4/Y can be a model of MUC4 (MUC4 gene fragment is more than 30KB, too huge to clone and eukaryotic express) in pancreatic cancer. More importantly, based on MUC4/Y with the appropriate length of gene sequence, it is easy to construct the unique domain-lacking models of MUC4/Y (MUC4) for research. The present study focuses on investigation of the respective role of the unique NIDO, AMOP, and vWD domain or their synergistic effect on MUC4(MUC4/Y)-mediated functions and mechanisms by series of in vitro assays, sequence-based transcriptome analysis, validation of qRT-PCR & Western blot, and systematic comparative analysis. Our results demonstrate: 1) NIDO, AMOP, and vWD domain or their synergy play significant roles on MUC4/Y-mediated malignant function of pancreatic cancer, downstream of molecule mechanisms, particularly MUC4/Y-triggered malignancy-related positive feedback loops, respectively. 2) The synergistic roles of three unique domains on MUC4/Y-mediated functions and mechanisms are more prominent than the respective domain because the synergy of three domain plays the more remarkable effects on MUC4/Y-mediated signaling hub. Thus, to improve reversed effects of domain-lacking and break the synergism of domains will contribute to block MUC4/Y(MUC4) triggering various oncogenic signaling pathways. PMID:28060749

  11. NIDO, AMOP and vWD domains of MUC4 play synergic role in MUC4 mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Peng, Yun-Peng; Liu, Xian; Xie, Kun-Ling; Tang, Jie; Jiang, Kui-Rong; Gao, Wen-Tao; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Ze-Kuan; Miao, Yi

    2017-02-07

    MUC4 mucin is well known as an important potential target to overcome pancreatic cancer. Three unique domains (NIDO, AMOP, and vWD) with unclear roles only present in MUC4 but are not found in other membrane-bound mucins. Our previous studies first reported that its splice variant, MUC4/Y can be a model of MUC4 (MUC4 gene fragment is more than 30KB, too huge to clone and eukaryotic express) in pancreatic cancer. More importantly, based on MUC4/Y with the appropriate length of gene sequence, it is easy to construct the unique domain-lacking models of MUC4/Y (MUC4) for research. The present study focuses on investigation of the respective role of the unique NIDO, AMOP, and vWD domain or their synergistic effect on MUC4(MUC4/Y)-mediated functions and mechanisms by series of in vitro assays, sequence-based transcriptome analysis, validation of qRT-PCR & Western blot, and systematic comparative analysis. Our results demonstrate: 1) NIDO, AMOP, and vWD domain or their synergy play significant roles on MUC4/Y-mediated malignant function of pancreatic cancer, downstream of molecule mechanisms, particularly MUC4/Y-triggered malignancy-related positive feedback loops, respectively. 2) The synergistic roles of three unique domains on MUC4/Y-mediated functions and mechanisms are more prominent than the respective domain because the synergy of three domain plays the more remarkable effects on MUC4/Y-mediated signaling hub. Thus, to improve reversed effects of domain-lacking and break the synergism of domains will contribute to block MUC4/Y(MUC4) triggering various oncogenic signaling pathways.

  12. Carnosic acid inhibits the growth of ER-negative human breast cancer cells and synergizes with curcumin.

    PubMed

    Einbond, Linda Saxe; Wu, Hsan-Au; Kashiwazaki, Ryota; He, Kan; Roller, Marc; Su, Tao; Wang, Xiaomei; Goldsberry, Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Studies indicate that extracts and purified components, including carnosic acid, from the herb rosemary display significant growth inhibitory activity on a variety of cancers. This paper examines the ability of rosemary/carnosic acid to inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells and to synergize with curcumin. To do this, we treated human breast cancer cells with rosemary/carnosic acid and assessed effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, gene expression patterns, activity of the purified Na/K ATPase and combinations with curcumin. Rosemary/carnosic acid potently inhibits proliferation of ER-negative human breast cancer cells and induces G1 cell cycle arrest. Further, carnosic acid is selective for MCF7 cells transfected for Her2, indicating that Her2 may function in its action. To reveal primary effects, we treated ER-negative breast cancer cells with carnosic acid for 6h. At a low dose, 5 μg/ml (15 μM), carnosic acid activated the expression of 3 genes, induced through the presence of antioxidant response elements, including genes involved in glutathione biosynthesis (CYP4F3, GCLC) and transport (SLC7A11). At a higher dose, 20 μg/ml, carnosic acid activated the expression of antioxidant (AKR1C2, TNXRD1, HMOX1) and apoptosis (GDF15, PHLDA1, DDIT3) genes and suppressed the expression of inhibitor of transcription (ID3) and cell cycle (CDKN2C) genes. Carnosic acid exhibits synergy with turmeric/curcumin. These compounds inhibited the activity of the purified Na-K-ATPase which may contribute to this synergy. Rosemary/carnosic acid, alone or combined with curcumin, may be useful to prevent and treat ER-negative breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synergizing green and gray infrastructures to increase water supply resilience in the Brazos River basin in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Yamazaki, D.; Finley, T.; Bohn, T. J.; Low, G.; Sabo, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Water infrastructure lies at the heart of the challenges and opportunities of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). Green infrastructure (e.g., wetlands restoration) presents an alternative to its hard-path counterpart - gray infrastructure, which often has external, economic and unmeasured ecological costs. But the science framework to prioritize green infrastructure buildout is nascent. In this study, we addressed this gap in Brazos River basin in Texas, in the context of corporate decisions to secure water supplies for various water stewardship objectives. We developed a physically-based tool to quantify the potential for wetland restoration to restore desired flows (hydrology), and a financial framework for comparing its cost-benefit with heightening an existing dam (conservation finance). Our framework has three components. First, we harnessed a topographic index (HAND) to identify the potential wetlands sites. Second, we coupled a land surface model (VIC) with a hydrodynamic model (CaMa-Flood) to investigate the effects of wetland size, location, and vegetation on hydrology. Finally, we estimated the net present value, indirect rate of return and payback period for green (wetlands) vs. gray (reservoir expansion) infrastructure. We found wetlands have more substantial impact on peak flow than baseflow. Interestingly, wetlands can improve baseflow reliability but not directly except with the largest (>400 km2) projects. Peak flow reduction volumes of wetlands if used as credits towards reservoir flood-control storage provide adequate conservation storage to deliver guaranteed reliability of baseflow. Hence, the synergy of existing dams with newly created wetlands offers a promising natural solution to increase water supply resilience, while green projects also generate revenue compared to their gray counterparts. This study demonstrates the possibility of using innovative engineering design to synergize green and gray infrastructures to convert water

  14. Synergic effect of salinity and zinc stress on growth and photosynthetic responses of the cordgrass, Spartina densiflora

    PubMed Central

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Andrades-Moreno, Luis; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Parra, Raquel; Valera-Burgos, Javier; Aroca, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Spartina densiflora is a C4 halophytic species that has proved to have a high invasive potential which derives from its physiological plasticity to environmental factors, such as salinity. It is found in coastal marshes of south-west Spain, growing over sediments with between 1 mmol l−1 and 70 mmol l−1 zinc. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the synergic effect of zinc from 0 mmol l−1 to 60 mmol l−1 at 0, 1, and 3% NaCl on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of S. densiflora by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and gas exchange, and its recovery after removing zinc. Antioxidant enzyme activities and total zinc, sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen concentrations were also determined. Spartina densiflora showed the highest growth at 1 mmol l−1 zinc and 1% NaCl after 90 d of treatment; this enhanced growth was supported by the measurements of net photosynthetic rate (A). Furthermore, there was a stimulatory effect of salinity on accumulation of zinc in tillers of this species. Zinc concentrations >1 mmol l−1 reduced growth of S. densiflora, regardless of salinity treatments. This declining growth may be attributed to a decrease in A caused by diffusional limitation of photosynthesis, owing to the modification of the potassium/calcium ratio. Also, zinc and salinity had a marked overall effect on the photochemical (photosystem II) apparatus, partially mediated by the accumulation of H2O2 and subsequent oxidative damage. However, salinity favoured the recovery of the photosynthetic apparatus to the toxic action of zinc, and enhanced the nutrient uptake. PMID:21841175

  15. Synergic Adsorption-Biodegradation by an Advanced Carrier for Enhanced Removal of High-Strength Nitrogen and Refractory Organics.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Liu, Sitong; Mahmood, Nasir; Mahmood, Asif; Ali, Muhammad; Zheng, Maosheng; Ni, Jinren

    2017-04-19

    Coking wastewater contains not only high-strength nitrogen but also toxic biorefractory organics. This study presents simultaneous removal of high-strength quinoline, carbon, and ammonium in coking wastewater by immobilized bacterial communities composed of a heterotrophic strain Pseudomonas sp. QG6 (hereafter referred as QG6), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (anammox). The bacterial immobilization was implemented with the help of a self-designed porous cubic carrier that created structured microenvironments including an inner layer adapted for anaerobic bacteria, a middle layer suitable for coaggregation of certain aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and an outer layer for heterotrophic bacteria. By coating functional polyurethane foam (FPUF) with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), the biocarrier (IONPs-FPUF) could provide a good outer-layer barrier for absorption and selective treatment of aromatic compounds by QG6, offer a conducive environment for anammox in the inner layer, and provide a mutualistic environment for AOB in the middle layer. Consequently, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification were reached with the significant removal of up to 322 mg L -1 (98%) NH 4 , 311 mg L -1 (99%) NO 2 , and 633 mg L -1 (97%) total nitrogen (8 mg L -1 averaged NO 3 concentration was recorded in the effluent), accompanied by an efficient removal of chemical oxygen demand by 3286 mg L -1 (98%) and 350 mg L -1 (100%) quinoline. This study provides an alternative way to promote synergic adsorption and biodegradation with the help of a modified biocarrier that has great potential for treatment of wastewater containing high-strength carbon, toxic organic pollutants, and nitrogen.

  16. Antidepressant-like synergism of extracts from magnolia bark and ginger rhizome alone and in combination in mice.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li-Tao; Xu, Qun; Li, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Lei; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2009-06-15

    Magnolia bark and ginger rhizome is a drug pair in many prescriptions for treatment of mental disorders in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, compatibility and synergism mechanism of two herbs on antidepressant actions have not been reported. The aim of this study was to approach the rationale of the drug pair in TCM. We evaluated antidepressant-like effects of mixture of honokiol and magnolol (HMM), polysaccharides (PMB) from magnolia bark, essential oil (OGR) and polysaccharides (PGR) from ginger rhizome alone, and the possibility of synergistic interactions in their combinations in the mouse forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NE) levels in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum were also examined. 30 mg/kg HMM decreased immobility in the FST and TST in mice after one- and two-week treatment. OGR (19.5 or 39 mg/kg) alone was ineffective. The combination of an ineffective dose of 39 mg/kg OGR with 15 mg/kg HMM was the most effective and produced a synergistic action on behaviors after two-week treatment. Significant increase in 5-HT and synergistic increase in NE in prefrontal cortex were observed after co-administration of HMM with OGR. These results demonstrated that HMM was the principal component of this drug pair, whereas OGR served as adjuvant fraction. Compatibility of HMM with OGR was suggested to exert synergistic antidepressant actions by attenuating abnormalities in serotonergic and noradrenergic system functions. Therefore, we confirmed the rationality of drug pair in clinical application and provided a novel perspective in drug pair of TCM researches.

  17. Western Spruce Budworm Outbreaks Did Not Increase Fire Risk over the Last Three Centuries: A Dendrochronological Analysis of Inter-Disturbance Synergism

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Aquila; G. Gavin, Daniel; Heyerdahl, Emily K.; Parsons, Russell A.; Cohn, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Insect outbreaks are often assumed to increase the severity or probability of fire occurrence through increased fuel availability, while fires may in turn alter susceptibility of forests to subsequent insect outbreaks through changes in the spatial distribution of suitable host trees. However, little is actually known about the potential synergisms between these natural disturbances. Assessing inter-disturbance synergism is challenging due to the short length of historical records and the confounding influences of land use and climate changes on natural disturbance dynamics. We used dendrochronological methods to reconstruct defoliator outbreaks and fire occurrence at ten sites along a longitudinal transect running from central Oregon to western Montana. We assessed synergism between disturbance types, analyzed long-term changes in disturbance dynamics, and compared these disturbance histories with dendroclimatological moisture availability records to quantify the influence of moisture availability on disturbances. After approximately 1890, fires were largely absent and defoliator outbreaks became longer-lasting, more frequent, and more synchronous at our sites. Fires were more likely to occur during warm-dry years, while outbreaks were most likely to begin near the end of warm-dry periods. Our results show no discernible impact of defoliation events on subsequent fire risk. Any effect from the addition of fuels during defoliation events appears to be too small to detect given the overriding influence of climatic variability. We therefore propose that if there is any relationship between the two disturbances, it is a subtle synergistic relationship wherein climate determines the probability of occurrence of each disturbance type, and each disturbance type damps the severity, but does not alter the probability of occurrence, of the other disturbance type over long time scales. Although both disturbance types may increase in frequency or extent in response to future

  18. Western spruce budworm outbreaks did not increase fire risk over the last three centuries: a dendrochronological analysis of inter-disturbance synergism.

    PubMed

    Flower, Aquila; Gavin, Daniel G; Heyerdahl, Emily K; Parsons, Russell A; Cohn, Gregory M

    2014-01-01

    Insect outbreaks are often assumed to increase the severity or probability of fire occurrence through increased fuel availability, while fires may in turn alter susceptibility of forests to subsequent insect outbreaks through changes in the spatial distribution of suitable host trees. However, little is actually known about the potential synergisms between these natural disturbances. Assessing inter-disturbance synergism is challenging due to the short length of historical records and the confounding influences of land use and climate changes on natural disturbance dynamics. We used dendrochronological methods to reconstruct defoliator outbreaks and fire occurrence at ten sites along a longitudinal transect running from central Oregon to western Montana. We assessed synergism between disturbance types, analyzed long-term changes in disturbance dynamics, and compared these disturbance histories with dendroclimatological moisture availability records to quantify the influence of moisture availability on disturbances. After approximately 1890, fires were largely absent and defoliator outbreaks became longer-lasting, more frequent, and more synchronous at our sites. Fires were more likely to occur during warm-dry years, while outbreaks were most likely to begin near the end of warm-dry periods. Our results show no discernible impact of defoliation events on subsequent fire risk. Any effect from the addition of fuels during defoliation events appears to be too small to detect given the overriding influence of climatic variability. We therefore propose that if there is any relationship between the two disturbances, it is a subtle synergistic relationship wherein climate determines the probability of occurrence of each disturbance type, and each disturbance type damps the severity, but does not alter the probability of occurrence, of the other disturbance type over long time scales. Although both disturbance types may increase in frequency or extent in response to future

  19. Synergism of aspirin and heparin with a low-frequency non-invasive ultrasound system for augmentation of in-vitro clot lysis.

    PubMed

    Atar, Shaul; Neuman, Yoram; Miyamoto, Takashi; Chen, Ming; Birnbaum, Yochai; Luo, Huai; Kobal, Sergio; Siegel, Robert J

    2003-06-01

    Aspirin, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and heparin are routinely used in acute coronary syndromes. Previously we showed that there is synergism between ultrasound and heparin and tirofiban in augmenting blood clot disruption. However, there is a little data on a possible synergism of low-frequency ultrasound with aspirin for in-vitro clot dissolution, and especially on the combination of aspirin with heparin and/or glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Human blood clots (n = 320) were incubated for 10 or 20 minutes in saline containing aspirin alone or combined with heparin and/or tirofiban and/or eptifibatide. Clots were randomly treated with low-frequency ultrasound (27.3 kHz) or incubation only. The percent clot weight loss and the incremental effect of ultrasound were calculated. The most significant incremental effect of ultrasound on clot weight reduction was detected with aspirin alone (5.2 +/- 2.3% and 5.2 +/- 2.6% after 10' and 20', p = 0.04 and p = 0.06, respectively) and in combination with heparin (8.8 +/- 2.5% and 11.5 +/- 2.7% after 10' and 20', p = 0.01 and p = 0.0001, respectively). The greatest absolute magnitude of clot weight reduction was observed with ultrasound combined with aspirin and heparin (48.5 +/- 9.5% after 20'). The addition of tirofiban or eptifibatide to aspirin, heparin and ultrasound did not increase clot lysis. However, eptifibatide had significantly better synergism than tirofiban (p = 0.025 and p = 0.015, after 10 and 20 minutes, respectively). Aspirin alone or in combination with heparin results in significant augmentation of clot lysis and is synergistic with application of low-frequency ultrasound for 10 and 20 minutes only. These results may have important implications for a possible use of low-frequency ultrasound in treatment algorithms of acute coronary syndromes.

  20. Higher education and psychological distress: a 27-year prospective cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Brännlund, Annica; Hammarström, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Research identifies a positive link between education and a reduction of psychological distress, but few studies have analysed the long-term impact of education on psychological distress. This study followed the same cohort for 27 years, investigating the association between education and adult psychological distress. Further, it discuss whether the link can be understood through the mediating mechanisms of social and labour-market resources, furthermore, if the mechanisms operate differently for men and women. A 27-year prospective cohort study was performed at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 43. The cohort consisted of all students (n = 1083, of which 1001 are included in this study) in their final year of compulsory school in Sweden. Data were collected through comprehensive questionnaires (response rate 96.4%), and analysed with OLS regression, with psychological distress at age 21, 30 and 43 as dependent variable. Baseline psychological distress, measures of social and labour-market resources, and possible educational selection factors were used as independent variables. To compare the overall magnitude of educational differences, a kappa index was calculated. A positive relation between higher education and less psychological distress was found. When becoming older this relation weakens and a link between social and labour-market resources and psychological distress is observed, indicating that education in a long-term perspective operates through the suggested mechanisms. Additionally, the mechanisms work somewhat differently for men than for women: labour-market resources were significant for men and social resources were important for women. higher education is positively linked to less psychological distress, and the link can somewhat be understood through the mechanisms of social and labour-market resources.

  1. Synergic effects in the extraction of paracetamol from aqueous NaCl solution by the binary mixtures of diethyl ether and low molecular weight primary alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, G. M.; Živković, J. V.; Atanasković, D. S.; Nikolić, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of paracetamol from aqueous NaCl solutions was performed with diethyl ether, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 1-pentanol, and binary mixtures diethyl ether/1-propanol, diethyl ether/1-butanol, and diethyl ether/isobutanol. Among the pure solvents investigated in this study best extraction efficacy was obtained with 1-butanol. Synergic effects in the extraction with binary mixtures was investigated and compared with some other systems used for the extraction of poorly extractable compounds. Results obtained in this study may be of both fundamental and practical importance.

  2. 8 CFR 1245.8 - Adjustment of status as a special immigrant under section 101(a)(27)(K) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... under section 101(a)(27)(K) of the Act. 1245.8 Section 1245.8 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE... section 101(a)(27)(K) of the Act. (a) Application. Each person applying for adjustment of status as a special immigrant under section 101(a)(27)(K) of the Act must file a Form I-485, Application to Register...

  3. 8 CFR 245.8 - Adjustment of status as a special immigrant under section 101(a)(27)(K) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... under section 101(a)(27)(K) of the Act. 245.8 Section 245.8 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... RESIDENCE § 245.8 Adjustment of status as a special immigrant under section 101(a)(27)(K) of the Act. (a) Application. Each person applying for adjustment of status as a special immigrant under section 101(a)(27)(K...

  4. Linear Epitopes in Vaccinia Virus A27 Are Targets of Protective Antibodies Induced by Vaccination against Smallpox.

    PubMed

    Kaever, Thomas; Matho, Michael H; Meng, Xiangzhi; Crickard, Lindsay; Schlossman, Andrew; Xiang, Yan; Crotty, Shane; Peters, Bjoern; Zajonc, Dirk M

    2016-05-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) A27 is a target for viral neutralization and part of the Dryvax smallpox vaccine. A27 is one of the three glycosaminoglycan (GAG) adhesion molecules and binds to heparan sulfate. To understand the function of anti-A27 antibodies, especially their protective capacity and their interaction with A27, we generated and subsequently characterized 7 murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), which fell into 4 distinct epitope groups (groups I to IV). The MAbs in three groups (groups I, III, and IV) bound to linear peptides, while the MAbs in group II bound only to VACV lysate and recombinant A27, suggesting that they recognized a conformational and discontinuous epitope. Only group I antibodies neutralized the mature virion in a complement-dependent manner and protected against VACV challenge, while a group II MAb partially protected against VACV challenge but did not neutralize the mature virion. The epitope for group I MAbs was mapped to a region adjacent to the GAG binding site, a finding which suggests that group I MAbs could potentially interfere with the cellular adhesion of A27. We further determined the crystal structure of the neutralizing group I MAb 1G6, as well as the nonneutralizing group IV MAb 8E3, bound to the corresponding linear epitope-containing peptides. Both the light and the heavy chains of the antibodies are important in binding to their antigens. For both antibodies, the L1 loop seems to dominate the overall polar interactions with the antigen, while for MAb 8E3, the light chain generally appears to make more contacts with the antigen. Vaccinia virus is a powerful model to study antibody responses upon vaccination, since its use as the smallpox vaccine led to the eradication of one of the world's greatest killers. The immunodominant antigens that elicit the protective antibodies are known, yet for many of these antigens, little information about their precise interaction with antibodies is available. In an attempt to better

  5. Additive Synergism between Asbestos and Smoking in Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ngamwong, Yuwadee; Tangamornsuksan, Wimonchat; Lohitnavy, Ornrat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Scholfield, C. Norman; Reisfeld, Brad; Lohitnavy, Manupat

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction. Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, 2015 for observational studies on lung cancer. All case-control (N = 10) and cohort (N = 7) studies were included in the analysis. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model for the association of asbestos exposure and smoking with lung cancer. Lung cancer patients who were not exposed to asbestos and non-smoking (A-S-) were compared with; (i) asbestos-exposed and non-smoking (A+S-), (ii) non-exposure to asbestos and smoking (A-S+), and (iii) asbestos-exposed and smoking (A+S+). Our meta-analysis showed a significant difference in risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos exposed and/or smoking workers compared to controls (A-S-), odds ratios for the disease (95% CI) were (i) 1.70 (A+S-, 1.31–2.21), (ii) 5.65; (A-S+, 3.38–9.42), (iii) 8.70 (A+S+, 5.8–13.10). The additive interaction index of synergy was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.26–1.77) and the multiplicative index = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.63–1.30). Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.00–1.28) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31–0.85). Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and other airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits. PMID:26274395

  6. Pharmacological synergism of bee venom and melittin with antibiotics and plant secondary metabolites against multi-drug resistant microbial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Al-Ani, Issam; Zimmermann, Stefan; Reichling, Jürgen; Wink, Michael

    2015-02-15

    The goal of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of bee venom and its main component, melittin, alone or in two-drug and three-drug combinations with antibiotics (vancomycin, oxacillin, and amikacin) or antimicrobial plant secondary metabolites (carvacrol, benzyl isothiocyanate, the alkaloids sanguinarine and berberine) against drug-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant microbial pathogens. The secondary metabolites were selected corresponding to the molecular targets to which they are directed, being different from those of melittin and the antibiotics. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated by the standard broth microdilution method, while synergistic or additive interactions were assessed by checkerboard dilution and time-kill curve assays. Bee venom and melittin exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against 51 strains of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with strong anti-MRSA and anti-VRE activity (MIC values between 6 and 800 µg/ml). Moreover, bee venom and melittin showed significant antifungal activity (MIC values between 30 and 100 µg/ml). Carvacrol displayed bactericidal activity, while BITC exhibited bacteriostatic activity against all MRSA and VRE strains tested (reference strains and clinical isolates), both compounds showed a remarkable fungicidal activity with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values between 30 and 200 µg/ml. The DNA intercalating alkaloid sanguinarine showed bactericidal activity against MRSA NCTC 10442 (MBC 20 µg/ml), while berberine exhibited bacteriostatic activity against MRSA NCTC 10442 (MIC 40 µg/ml). Checkerboard dilution tests mostly revealed synergism of two-drug combinations against all the tested microorganisms with FIC indexes between 0.24 and 0.50, except for rapidly growing mycobacteria in which combinations exerted an additive effect (FICI = 0.75-1). In time-kill assays all three

  7. Interactive effect of light colours and temporal synergism of circadian neural oscillations in reproductive regulation of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Suneeta; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2016-09-01

    Avian literature reports the modulation of 'photoperiodic gonadal responses' by the temporal phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations in Japanese quail. But, the modulation of 'light colour responses' by the temporal synergism of neural oscillations is not yet known. Hence the present study was designed to investigate the interaction of the light colour (blue, red) and the phase relation of neural oscillations in the reproductive regulation of Japanese quail. Three week old male Japanese quail were divided into two groups and maintained under a long day length condition (16L:8D) and were exposed to a 30 lux intensity of blue LED (light emitting diode) (B LED) and a red LED light (R LED). At the age of 15.5weeks, quail of one subgroup of B LED were injected with serotonin precursor (5-HTP) and dopamine precursor (l-DOPA) 12hrs apart (B LED+12-hr) and those of the R LED group were injected with the same drugs (5mg/100g body weight over a period of thirteen days) but 8hrs apart (R LED+8-hr). The remaining subgroups of both the light colour groups (B LED & R LED) received normal saline twice daily and served as controls. Cloacal gland volume was recorded weekly until 35.5weeks of age when the study was terminated and reproductive parameters (testicular volume, GSI, seminiferous tubule diameter and plasma testosterone) were assessed. Results indicate that the 8-hr temporal phase relation of neural oscillations suppresses reproductive activity even during the photosensitive phase of the red light exposed quail (R LED+8-hr) compare to the R LED controls. On the other hand, the 12-hr temporal phase relation stimulates the gonadal development of the B LED+12-hr quail compared to the B LED controls which after completing one cycle entered into a regressive phase and remained sexually quiescent. These experiments suggest that the temporal phase relations of circadian neural oscillations, in addition to modulating the classical photoperiodic responses, may

  8. Anti-Invasive and Anti-Proliferative Synergism between Docetaxel and a Polynuclear Pd-Spermine Agent

    PubMed Central

    Batista de Carvalho, Ana L. M.; Medeiros, Paula S. C.; Costa, Francisco M.; Ribeiro, Vanessa P.; Sousa, Joana B.; Marques, Maria P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The present work is aimed at evaluating the antitumour properties of a Pd(II) dinuclear complex with the biogenic polyamine spermine, by investigating: i) the anti-angiogenic and anti-migration properties of a Pd(II) dinuclear complex with spermine (Pd2Spm); ii) the anti-proliferative activity of Pd2Spm against a triple negative human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231); and finally iii) the putative interaction mediated by combination of Pd2Spm with Docetaxel. Anti-invasive (anti-angiogenic and anti-migratory) as well as anti-proliferative capacities were assessed, for different combination schemes and drug exposure times, using the CAM assay and VEGFR2 activity measurement, the MatrigelTM method and the SRB proliferation test. The results thus obtained evidence the ability of Pd2Spm to restrict angiogenesis and cell migration: Pd2Spm induced a marked inhibition of migration (43.8±12.2%), and a higher inhibition of angiogenesis (81.8±4.4% for total length values, at 4 μM) as compared to DTX at the clinical dosage 4x10-2 μM (26.4±14.4%; n = 4 to 11). Combination of Pd2Spm/DTX was more effective as anti-invasive and anti-proliferative than DTX or Pd2Spm in sole administration, which is compatible with the occurrence of synergism: for the anti-angiogenic effect, IC50(Pd2Spm/DTX) = 0.5/0.5x10-2 μM vs IC50(DTX) = 1.7x10-2 μM and IC50(Pd2Spm) = 1.6 μM. In conclusion, the reported effects of Pd2Spm on angiogenesis, migration and proliferation showed that this compound is a promising therapeutic agent against this type of breast cancer. Moreover, combined administration of Pd2Spm and DTX was found to trigger a substantial synergetic effect regarding angiogenesis inhibition as well as anti-migratory and anti-proliferative activities reinforcing the putative use of Pd(II) complexes in chemotherapeutic regimens. This is a significant outcome, aiming at the application of these combined strategies towards metastatic breast cancer (or other type of resistant cancers

  9. Schedule-dependent cytotoxic synergism of pemetrexed and erlotinib in BXPC-3 and PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Zhu, Zhi-Xia; Zhang, Wen-Ying; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2011-09-01

    , but not by concomitant or sequential incubation with erlotinib followed by pemetrexed. In summary, our results demonstrated that the combined use of erlotinib and pemetrexed exhibited a strong synergism in BXPC-3 and PANC-1 cells. The inhibitory effects were strongest after sequential administration of pemetrexed followed by erlotinib. The synergistic effects may be related to activation of the EGFR/HER3/AKT pathway induced by pemetrexed.

  10. Awake craniotomy to maximize glioma resection: methods and technical nuances over a 27-year period.

    PubMed

    Hervey-Jumper, Shawn L; Li, Jing; Lau, Darryl; Molinaro, Annette M; Perry, David W; Meng, Lingzhong; Berger, Mitchel S

    2015-08-01

    procedure. Stimulation-induced seizures occurred in 3% of patients and were rapidly terminated with ice-cold Ringer's solution. Preoperative seizure history and tumor location were associated with an increased incidence of stimulation-induced seizures. Mapping was aborted in 3 cases (0.5%) due to intraoperative seizures (2 cases) and patient emotional intolerance (1 case). The overall perioperative complication rate was 10%. Based on the current best practice described here and developed from multiple regimens used over a 27-year period, it is concluded that awake brain tumor surgery can be safely performed with extremely low complication and failure rates regardless of ASA classification; body mass index; smoking status; psychiatric or emotional history; seizure frequency and duration; and tumor site, size, and pathology.

  11. Synergic effect of atomic oxygen and outgassing phenomena on Carbon/SiC composites for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, Marta

    so that sublimation and ablation easily can take place. The key role played by carbon composites in re-entry environment is due to their high stability at high temperature, preserving their mechanical properties. However, most of these applications involve extended time periods in oxidizing environments where carbon reacts rapidly with oxygen at temperatures as low as 770K and the composites are subjected to oxidation degradation. For these reasons coated C/C and C/SiC composites are the most promising materials for the exposed surface of a thermal protection system. The modern approaches to a design of such materials assume broad application of mathematical and physical simulation methods. But mathematical simulation is impossible if there is no true information available on the characteristics (properties) of objects analyzed. In the majority of cases in practice the direct measurement of materials thermo physical properties, especially of complex composition, is impossible. There is only one way which permits to overcome these complexities - the indirect measurement. Mathematically, such an approach is usually formulated as a solution of the inverse problem: through direct measurements of system's state (temperature, component concentration, etc.) define the properties of a system analyzed, for example, the materials thermophysical characteristics. Violation of cause-and-effect relations in the statement of these problems results in their correctness in mathematical sense (i.e., the absence of existence and/or uniqueness and/or stability of the solution). Hence to solve such problems special methods are developed usually called regularized. In order to guarantee the success of a space structure there is the necessity to study the synergic effects of all the challenges that the harsh space environment place to the structure. For this reason here is presented a joint experimental study on synergic effects on C/SiC composites. Outgassing and atomic oxygen corrosion

  12. Metformin synergizes 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) combination therapy through impairing intracellular ATP production and DNA repair in breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Soo, Jaslyn Sian-Siu; Ng, Char-Hong; Tan, Si Hoey; Malik, Rozita Abdul; Teh, Yew-Ching; Tan, Boon-Shing; Ho, Gwo-Fuang; See, Mee-Hoong; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Yip, Cheng-Har; Chung, Felicia Fei-Lei; Hii, Ling-Wei; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Leong, Chee-Onn

    2015-10-01

    Metformin, an AMPK activator, has been reported to improve pathological response to chemotherapy in diabetic breast cancer patients. To date, its mechanism of action in cancer, especially in cancer stem cells (CSCs) have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that metformin, but not other AMPK activators (e.g. AICAR and A-769662), synergizes 5-fluouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) combination chemotherapy in non-stem breast cancer cells and breast cancer stem cells. We show that this occurs through an AMPK-dependent mechanism in parental breast cancer cell lines. In contrast, the synergistic effects of metformin and FEC occurred in an AMPK-independent mechanism in breast CSCs. Further analyses revealed that metformin accelerated glucose consumption and lactate production more severely in the breast CSCs but the production of intracellular ATP was severely hampered, leading to a severe energy crisis and impairs the ability of CSCs to repair FEC-induced DNA damage. Indeed, addition of extracellular ATP completely abrogated the synergistic effects of metformin on FEC sensitivity in breast CSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest that metformin synergizes FEC sensitivity through distinct mechanism in parental breast cancer cell lines and CSCs, thus providing further evidence for the clinical relevance of metformin for the treatment of cancers.

  13. In silico synergism and antagonism of an anti-tumour system intervened by coupling immunotherapy and chemotherapy: a mathematical modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Yong; Zhong, Wei-Rong; Wang, Feng-Hua; Li, Li; Shao, Yuan-Zhi

    2012-02-01

    Based on the logistic growth law for a tumour derived from enzymatic dynamics, we address from a physical point of view the phenomena of synergism, additivity and antagonism in an avascular anti-tumour system regulated externally by dual coupling periodic interventions, and propose a theoretical model to simulate the combinational administration of chemotherapy and immunotherapy. The in silico results of our modelling approach reveal that the tumour population density of an anti-tumour system, which is subject to the combinational attack of chemotherapeutical as well as immune intervention, depends on four parameters as below: the therapy intensities D, the coupling intensity I, the coupling coherence R and the phase-shifts Φ between two combinational interventions. In relation to the intensity and nature (synergism, additivity and antagonism) of coupling as well as the phase-shift between two therapeutic interventions, the administration sequence of two periodic interventions makes a difference to the curative efficacy of an anti-tumour system. The isobologram established from our model maintains a considerable consistency with that of the well-established Loewe Additivity model (Tallarida, Pharmacology 319(1):1-7, 2006). Our study discloses the general dynamic feature of an anti-tumour system regulated by two periodic coupling interventions, and the results may serve as a supplement to previous models of drug administration in combination and provide a type of heuristic approach for preclinical pharmacokinetic investigation.

  14. [SYNERGISM OF PRECONCEPTIVE RADIATION EXPOSURE AND PARENTS' ONCO-PATHOLOGY IN THE RISE OF CARCINOGENIC RISK IN THE OFFSPRINGS OF PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYEES].

    PubMed

    Telnov, V I; Kabirova, N R; Okatenko, P V

    2015-01-01

    The problem of carcinogenic risk in offsprings of individuals exposed to radiation is challenging and insufficiently studied. In that there are no evaluations of the interaction between radiation and non-radiation factors. The aim of the study was the analysis of interaction of preconceptive radiation exposure and parents' onco-pathology in cancer mortality in offsprings (F1) of workers (fathers) of the Mayak Production Association exposed to a wide range of doses of radiation over a year prior conception. The number of offspring is 8191 individuals (4180 men and 4011 women). The analysis was performed with the use of fourfold table and eightfold tables. The interaction offactors was estimated on the base of the additive and multiplicative models. The studied factors were independent. The odds ratio (OR) of cancer mortality in the offspring with parents' oncopathology (1.43) was insignificant. OR of cancer mortality in preconceptive radiation exposure in a dose over 110 mGy and without parents' onco-pathology was 2.61 (1.52-4.49), and in their combination--3.86 (1.93-7.71). Index of synergism of preconceptive radiation exposure and parents' onco-patholog in the rise of carcinogenic risk in the offspring was 1.34 and the character of their interaction was multiplicative. Thus, for the first time there was established the interaction between radiation and non-radiation factors in the synergism sort in the increase of carcinogenic risk in the offspring of people exposed to radiation.

  15. Development and validation of a general approach to predict and quantify the synergism of anti-cancer drugs using experimental design and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Pivetta, Tiziana; Isaia, Francesco; Trudu, Federica; Pani, Alessandra; Manca, Matteo; Perra, Daniela; Amato, Filippo; Havel, Josef

    2013-10-15

    The combination of two or more drugs using multidrug mixtures is a trend in the treatment of cancer. The goal is to search for a synergistic effect and thereby reduce the required dose and inhibit the development of resistance. An advanced model-free approach for data exploration and analysis, based on artificial neural networks (ANN) and experimental design is proposed to predict and quantify the synergism of drugs. The proposed method non-linearly correlates the concentrations of drugs with the cytotoxicity of the mixture, providing the possibility of choosing the optimal drug combination that gives the maximum synergism. The use of ANN allows for the prediction of the cytotoxicity of each combination of drugs in the chosen concentration interval. The method was validated by preparing and experimentally testing the combinations with the predicted highest synergistic effect. In all cases, the data predicted by the network were experimentally confirmed. The method was applied to several binary mixtures of cisplatin and [Cu(1,10-orthophenanthroline)2(H2O)](ClO4)2, Cu(1,10-orthophenanthroline)(H2O)2(ClO4)2 or [Cu(1,10-orthophenanthroline)2(imidazolidine-2-thione)](ClO4)2. The cytotoxicity of the two drugs, alone and in combination, was determined against human acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM). For all systems, a synergistic effect was found for selected combinations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 22 CFR 41.82 - Certain parents and children of section 101(a)(27)(I) special immigrants. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain parents and children of section 101(a)(27)(I) special immigrants. [Reserved] 41.82 Section 41.82 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s...

  17. 22 CFR 41.82 - Certain parents and children of section 101(a)(27)(I) special immigrants. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain parents and children of section 101(a)(27)(I) special immigrants. [Reserved] 41.82 Section 41.82 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s...

  18. 22 CFR 41.82 - Certain parents and children of section 101(a)(27)(I) special immigrants. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain parents and children of section 101(a)(27)(I) special immigrants. [Reserved] 41.82 Section 41.82 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s...

  19. 22 CFR 41.82 - Certain parents and children of section 101(a)(27)(I) special immigrants. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain parents and children of section 101(a)(27)(I) special immigrants. [Reserved] 41.82 Section 41.82 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s...

  20. 22 CFR 41.82 - Certain parents and children of section 101(a)(27)(I) special immigrants. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain parents and children of section 101(a)(27)(I) special immigrants. [Reserved] 41.82 Section 41.82 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS... immigrants. [Reserved] ...

  1. Synergism of coumarins from the Chinese drug Zanthoxylum nitidum with antibacterial agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    PubMed

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; Wang, Chun-Juan; Han, Jun; Li, Yu-Qing; Wang, Gen-Chun

    2016-12-15

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic challenge in current clinic and new drug development. Natural coumarins have diverse bioactivities and the potential of resistance modifying effects. This study is to present in-depth evaluations of in vitro antimicrobial activities of four natural coumarins 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Gm, 1), (5,7-dimethoxy-8-prenyloxycoumarin (artanin, Ar, 2)), isopimpinellin (Is, 3) and phellopterin (Ph, 4) from Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC. (Rutaceae) extracts, focusing on their potential restoration the activity of conventional antibacterial agents against clinical MRSA strains. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and spectral analyses were used to isolate the coumarins and identify the structures, respectively. The double broth microdilution method was used to assay the coumarins' alone activity. The classic checkerboard microdilution and dynamic time-killing methods were used to evaluate combinatory effects. The four plant coumarins Gm (1), Ar (2), Is (3) and Ph (4) were isolated and identified from Z. nitidum extracts. Coumarins 1-4 displayed promising inhibition against both MSSA and MRSA with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8-64µg/ml, but very weak against Gram-negative pathogen and yeast with MICs of 256 to ≥1024µg/ml. The geranyloxy and prenyloxy substitutions showed to be more active than the methoxy substitution on the coumarin skeletons. 1-4 also showing different extent of synergism with a total of eight conventional antibacterial agents, i.e. chloramphenicol (CL), gentamicin (CN), fosfomycin (FF), levofloxacin (LE), minocycline (MI), piperacillin/tazobactam (P/T), teicoplanin (TE) and vancomycin (VA) against ten clinical MRSA strains. Four to ten of the tested MRSA strains showed bacteriostatic synergy in the eleven combinations. The anti-MRSA modifying effects were related to different arrangement in the combinations with fractional inhibitory concentration indices

  2. Synergic Investigation Of The Self-Assembly Structure And Mechanism Of Retroviral Capsid Proteins By Solid State NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy And Multiscale simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-29

    310 helix. Green: this work. Cyans: solution NMR RSV CA structure in PDB entry 1D1D.[18] Magentas: X-ray crystallography structure of flat hexameric...to combine cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography , Methods, 49 (2009) 174-180. [8] K.Y. Chan, J. Gumbart, R. McGreevy, J.M. Watermeyer

  3. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2016-01-01

    Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential amino acids. We determined fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) at different time points following exercise. Mixed protein and collagen protein FSRs in skeletal muscle were determined by measuring protein-bound enrichments of hydroxyproline and proline, and by measuring the intracellular enrichment of proline, using injections of flooding d3-proline doses. A leucine-enriched mixture of essential amino acids (or distilled water as a control) was administrated 30 min or 1 day post-exercise. The collagen protein synthesis in the vastus lateralis was elevated for 2 days after exercise. Although amino acid administration did not increase muscle collagen protein synthesis, it did lead to augmented mixed muscle protein synthesis 1 day following exercise. Thus, contrary to the regulation of mixed muscle protein synthesis, muscle collagen protein synthesis is not affected by amino acid availability after damage-inducing exercise. PMID:27367725

  4. Ball-in-ball ZrO2 nanostructure for simultaneous CT imaging and highly efficient synergic microwave ablation and tri-stimuli-responsive chemotherapy of tumors.

    PubMed

    Long, Dan; Niu, Meng; Tan, Longfei; Fu, Changhui; Ren, Xiangling; Xu, Ke; Zhong, Hongshan; Wang, Jingzhuo; Li, Laifeng; Meng, Xianwei

    2017-06-29

    Combined thermo-chemotherapy displays outstanding synergically therapeutic efficiency when compared with standalone thermotherapy and chemotherapy. Herein, we developed a smart tri-stimuli-responsive drug delivery system involving X@BB-ZrO 2 NPs (X represents loaded IL, DOX, keratin and tetradecanol) based on novel ball-in-ball-structured ZrO 2 nanoparticles (BB-ZrO 2 NPs). The microwave energy conversion efficiency of BB-ZrO 2 NPs was 41.2% higher than that of traditional single-layer NPs due to the cooperative action of self-reflection and spatial confinement effect of the special two-layer hollow nanostructure. The tri-stimuli-responsive controlled release strategy indicate that integrated pH, redox and microwaves in single NPs based on keratin and tetradecanol could effectively enhance the specific controlled release of DOX. The release of DOX was only 8.1% in PBS with pH = 7.2 and GSH = 20 μM. However, the release could reach about 50% at the tumor site (pH = 5.5, GSH = 13 mM) under microwave ablation. The as-made X@BB-ZrO 2 NPs exhibited perfect synergic therapy effect of chemotherapy and microwave ablation both in subcutaneous tumors (H22 tumor-bearing mice) and deep tumors (liver transplantation VX2 tumor-bearing rabbit model). There was no recurrence and death in the X@BB-ZrO 2 + MW group during the therapy of subcutaneous tumors even on the 42 nd day. The growth rates in the deep tumor of the control, MW and X@BB-ZrO 2 + MW groups were 290.1%, 14.1% and -42% 6 days after ablation, respectively. Dual-source CT was used to monitor the metabolism behavior of the as-made BB-ZrO 2 NPs and traditional CT was utilized to monitor the tumor growth in rabbits. Frozen section examination and ICP results indicated the precise control of drug delivery and enhanced cytotoxicity by the tri-stimuli-responsive controlled release strategy. The ball-in-ball ZrO 2 NPs with high microwave energy conversion efficiency were first developed for synergic microwave ablation and

  5. Recombinant expression of thermostable processive MtEG5 endoglucanase and its synergism with MtLPMO from Myceliophthora thermophila during the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates.

    PubMed

    Karnaouri, Anthi; Muraleedharan, Madhu Nair; Dimarogona, Maria; Topakas, Evangelos; Rova, Ulrika; Sandgren, Mats; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are among the most powerful cellulolytic organisms in terrestrial ecosystems. To perform the degradation of lignocellulosic substrates, these microorganisms employ both hydrolytic and oxidative mechanisms that involve the secretion and synergism of a wide variety of enzymes. Interactions between these enzymes occur on the level of saccharification, i.e., the release of neutral and oxidized products, but sometimes also reflected in the substrate liquefaction. Although the synergism regarding the yield of neutral sugars has been extensively studied, further studies should focus on the oxidized sugars, as well as the effect of enzyme combinations on the viscosity properties of the substrates. In the present study, the heterologous expression of an endoglucanase (EG) and its combined activity together with a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO), both from the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila , are described. The EG gene, belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 5, was functionally expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris . The produced Mt EG5A (75 kDa) featured remarkable thermal stability and showed high specific activity on microcrystalline cellulose compared to CMC, which is indicative of its processivity properties. The enzyme was capable of releasing high amounts of cellobiose from wheat straw, birch, and spruce biomass. Addition of Mt LPMO9 together with Mt EG5A showed enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis yields against regenerated amorphous cellulose (PASC) by improving the release not only of the neutral but also of the oxidized sugars. Assessment of activity of Mt EG5A on the reduction of viscosity of PASC and pretreated wheat straw using dynamic viscosity measurements revealed that the enzyme is able to perform liquefaction of the model substrate and the natural lignocellulosic material, while when added together with Mt LPMO9, no further synergistic effect was observed. The endoglucanase Mt EG5A from the

  6. Mutagenic synergism detected between dimethyl sulfate and X-rays but not found between N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and X-rays in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone BNL 4430.

    PubMed

    Shima, N; Ichikawa, S

    1995-09-01

    Mutagenic interactions with X-rays of two monofunctional alkylating agents, dimethyl sulfate (DMS) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), were studied in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone BNL 4430, a blue/pink heterozygote. The young inflorescence-bearing shoots with roots cultivated in the nutrient solution circulating growth chamber were used as tester plants. Synergism between two different mutagens was judged to have occurred when the mutation frequency observed after applying the two mutagens concurrently was statistically significantly higher than the mutation frequency expected from the additive effects of the two mutagens. Clear synergistic effects in inducing somatic pink mutations were detected with all combinations of doses of DMS and X-rays examined, even in a relatively low X-ray dose range (down to 299 mGy), resembling those confirmed earlier between ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and X-rays, but somewhat differing from the synergisms observed earlier between methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and X-rays. On the other hand, no mutagenic synergism was detected between MNU and X-rays, even in a relatively high X-ray dose range (up to 862 mGy). The presence or absence of mutagenic synergisms of these alkylating agents with X-rays could be related to the action mechanism of each alkylating agent.

  7. A homologous series of regioselectively tetradeprotonated group 8 metallocenes: new inverse crown ring compounds synthesized via a mixed sodium-magnesium tris(diisopropylamide) synergic base.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, Prokopis C; Armstrong, David R; Clegg, William; Gilfillan, Carly J; Hevia, Eva; Kennedy, Alan R; Mulvey, Robert E; O'Hara, Charles T; Parkinson, John A; Tooke, Duncan M

    2004-09-22

    Subjecting ferrocene, ruthenocene, or osmocene to the synergic amide base sodium-magnesium tris(diisopropylamido) affords a unique homologous series of metallocene derivatives of general formula [(M(C(5)H(3))(2))Na(4)Mg(4)(i-Pr(2)N)(8)] (where M = Fe (1), Ru (2), or Os (3)). X-ray crystallographic studies of 1-3 reveal a common molecular "inverse crown" structure comprising a 16-membered [(NaNMgN)(4)](4+) "host" ring and a metallocenetetraide [M(C(5)H(3))(2)](4-) "guest" core, the cleaved protons of which are lost selectively from the 1, 1', 3, and 3'-positions. Variable-temperature NMR spectroscopic studies indicate that 1, 2, and 3 each exist as two distinct interconverting conformers in arene solution, the rates of exchange of which have been calculated using coalescence and EXSY NMR measurements.

  8. Enhanced vitamin B12 production in an innovative lupin tempeh is due to synergic effects of Rhizopus and Propionibacterium in cofermentation.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Camilla; Carpen, Aristodemo; Coletto, Luigi; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Galanti, Elisabetta; Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Abate, Ambra; Johnson, Stuart K; Duranti, Marcello; Scarafoni, Alessio

    2018-06-01

    Fermentation represents a valuable and cost-effective approach for food stabilisation and nutritional improvement. Tempeh is an example of soybean solid-state fermentation. In this work, we investigated the possibility of producing a tempeh analogue containing high amounts of vitamin B12 using seeds of three different species of the legume lupin, namely Lupinus albus, L. angustifolius and L. mutabilis, with Rhizopus oligosporus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii cofermentation. Synergic effects of Rhizopus and Propionibacterium in increasing vitamin B12 up to 1230 ng/g dw was observed. These findings indicate that this cofermentation can improve lupin nutritional quality and safety to provide a tempeh analogue with added value for vegan and vegetarian communities and low-income populations. The level of potentially toxic lupin alkaloids was also monitored during the tempeh preparation.

  9. Lurbinectedin induces depletion of tumor-associated macrophages, an essential component of its in vivo synergism with gemcitabine, in pancreatic adenocarcinoma mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Céspedes, María Virtudes; Guillén, María José; López-Casas, Pedro Pablo; Sarno, Francesca; Gallardo, Alberto; Álamo, Patricia; Cuevas, Carmen; Hidalgo, Manuel; Galmarini, Carlos María; Allavena, Paola; Avilés, Pablo; Mangues, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We explored whether the combination of lurbinectedin (PM01183) with the antimetabolite gemcitabine could result in a synergistic antitumor effect in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) mouse models. We also studied the contribution of lurbinectedin to this synergism. This drug presents a dual pharmacological effect that contributes to its in vivo antitumor activity: (i) specific binding to DNA minor grooves, inhibiting active transcription and DNA repair; and (ii) specific depletion of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). We evaluated the in vivo antitumor activity of lurbinectedin and gemcitabine as single agents and in combination in SW-1990 and MIA PaCa-2 cell-line xenografts and in patient-derived PDA models (AVATAR). Lurbinectedin-gemcitabine combination induced a synergistic effect on both MIA PaCa-2 [combination index (CI)=0.66] and SW-1990 (CI=0.80) tumor xenografts. It also induced complete tumor remissions in four out of six patient-derived PDA xenografts. This synergism was associated with enhanced DNA damage (anti-γ-H2AX), cell cycle blockage, caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. In addition to the enhanced DNA damage, which is a consequence of the interaction of the two drugs with the DNA, lurbinectedin induced TAM depletion leading to cytidine deaminase (CDA) downregulation in PDA tumors. This effect could, in turn, induce an increase of gemcitabine-mediated DNA damage that was especially relevant in high-density TAM tumors. These results show that lurbinectedin can be used to develop ‘molecularly targeted’ combination strategies. PMID:27780828

  10. A Physical Mechanism to Explain the Delivery of Chemical Penetration Enhancers into Skin during Transdermal Sonophoresis - Insight into the Observed Synergism

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Baris E.; Deen, William M.; Langer, Robert; Blankschtein, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The synergism between low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs), especially surfactants, in transdermal enhancement has been investigated extensively since this phenomenon was first observed over a decade ago. In spite of the identifying that the origin of this synergism is the increased penetration and subsequent dispersion of CPEs in the skin in response to LFS treatment, to date, no mechanism has been directly proposed to explain how LFS induces the observed increased transport of CPEs. In this study, we propose a plausible physical mechanism by which the transport of all CPEs is expected to have significantly increased flux into the localized-transport regions (LTRs) of LFS-treated skin. Specifically, the collapse of acoustic cavitation microjets within LTRs induces a convective flux. In addition, because amphiphilic molecules preferentially adsorb onto the gas/water interface of cavitation bubbles, amphiphiles have an additional adsorptive flux. In this sense, the cavitation bubbles effectively act as carriers for amphiphilic molecules, delivering surfactants directly into the skin when they collapse at the skin surface as cavitation microjets. The flux equations derived for CPE delivery into the LTRs and non-LTRs during LFS treatment, compared to that for untreated skin, explain why the transport of all CPEs, and to an even greater extent amphiphilic CPEs, is increased during LFS treatment. The flux model is tested with a non-amphiphilic CPE (propylene glycol) and both nonionic and ionic amphiphilic CPEs (octyl glucoside and sodium lauryl sulfate, respectively), by measuring the flux of each CPE into untreated skin and the LTRs and non-LTRs of LFS-treated skin. The resulting data shows very good agreement with the proposed flux model. PMID:22100440

  11. 8 CFR 245.8 - Adjustment of status as a special immigrant under section 101(a)(27)(K) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status as a special immigrant... RESIDENCE § 245.8 Adjustment of status as a special immigrant under section 101(a)(27)(K) of the Act. (a) Application. Each person applying for adjustment of status as a special immigrant under section 101(a)(27)(K...

  12. Protein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunton, James D.; Shiryayev, Andrey; Pagan, Daniel L.

    2007-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Globular protein structure; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; 5. Protein-protein interactions; 6. Theoretical studies of equilibrium; 7. Nucleation theory; 8. Experimental studies of nucleation; 9. Lysozyme; 10. Some other globular proteins; 11. Membrane proteins; 12. Crystallins and cataracts; 13. Sickle hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia; 14, Alzheimer's disease; Index.

  13. Protein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunton, James D.; Shiryayev, Andrey; Pagan, Daniel L.

    2014-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Globular protein structure; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; 5. Protein-protein interactions; 6. Theoretical studies of equilibrium; 7. Nucleation theory; 8. Experimental studies of nucleation; 9. Lysozyme; 10. Some other globular proteins; 11. Membrane proteins; 12. Crystallins and cataracts; 13. Sickle hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia; 14, Alzheimer's disease; Index.

  14. Synergism by individual macronutrients explains the marked early GLP-1 and islet hormone responses to mixed meal challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Ahlkvist, L; Vikman, J; Pacini, G; Ahrén, B

    2012-10-10

    Apart from glucose, proteins and lipids also stimulate incretin and islet hormone secretion. However, the glucoregulatory effect of macronutrients in combination is poorly understood. We therefore developed an oral mixed meal model in mice to 1) explore the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and islet hormone responses to mixed meal versus isocaloric glucose, and 2) characterize the relative contribution of individual macronutrients to these responses. Anesthetized C57BL/6J female mice were orally gavaged with 1) a mixed meal (0.285 kcal; glucose, whey protein and peanut oil; 60/20/20% kcal) versus an isocaloric glucose load (0.285 kcal), and 2) a mixed meal (0.285 kcal) versus glucose, whey protein or peanut oil administered individually in their mixed meal caloric quantity, i.e., 0.171, 0.055 and 0.055 kcal, respectively. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin and intact GLP-1 before and during oral challenges. Plasma glucose was lower after mixed meal versus after isocaloric glucose ingestion. In spite of this, the peak insulin response (P=0.02), the peak intact GLP-1 levels (P=0.006) and the estimated β-cell function (P=0.005) were higher. Furthermore, the peak insulin (P=0.004) and intact GLP-1 (P=0.006) levels were higher after mixed meal ingestion than the sum of responses to individual macronutrients. Compared to glucose alone, we conclude that there is a marked early insulin response to mixed meal ingestion, which emanates from a synergistic, rather than an additive, effect of the individual macronutrients in the mixed meal and is in part likely caused by increased levels of GLP-1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Crucial HSP70 co–chaperone complex unlocks metazoan protein disaggregation

    PubMed Central

    Nillegoda, Nadinath B.; Kirstein, Janine; Szlachcic, Anna; Berynskyy, Mykhaylo; Stank, Antonia; Stengel, Florian; Arnsburg, Kristin; Gao, Xuechao; Scior, Annika; Aebersold, Ruedi; Guilbride, D. Lys; Wade, Rebecca C.; Morimoto, Richard I.; Mayer, Matthias P.; Bukau, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregates are the hallmark of stressed and ageing cells, and characterize several pathophysiological states1,2. Healthy metazoan cells effectively eliminate intracellular protein aggregates3,4, indicating that efficient disaggregation and/or degradation mechanisms exist. However, metazoans lack the key heat-shock protein disaggregase HSP100 of non-metazoan HSP70-dependent protein disaggregation systems5,6, and the human HSP70 system alone, even with the crucial HSP110 nucleotide exchange factor, has poor disaggregation activity in vitro4,7. This unresolved conundrum is central to protein quality control biology. Here we show that synergic cooperation between complexed J-protein co-chaperones of classes A and B unleashes highly efficient protein disaggregation activity in human and nematode HSP70 systems. Metazoan mixed-class J-protein complexes are transient, involve complementary charged regions conserved in the J-domains and carboxy-terminal domains of each J-protein class, and are flexible with respect to subunit composition. Complex formation allows J-proteins to initiate transient higher order chaperone structures involving HSP70 and interacting nucleotide exchange factors. A network of cooperative class A and B J-protein interactions therefore provides the metazoan HSP70 machinery with powerful, flexible, and finely regulatable disaggregase activity and a further level of regulation crucial for cellular protein quality control. PMID:26245380

  16. Potential of the multispectral synergism for observing ozone pollution combining measurements of IASI-NG and UVNS onboard EPS-SG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantino, Lorenzo; Cuesta, Juan; Emili, Emanuele; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Chailleux, Yohann; Beekmann, Matthias; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Current and future satellite observations offer a great potential for monitoring air quality on daily and global basis. However, measurements from currently in orbit sensors offer a limited capacity to probe surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as tropospheric ozone. Using single-band approaches based on IASI spaceborne thermal infrared measurements, only ozone down to the lower troposphere (3-4 km of altitude at lowest) may be observed (Eremenko et al., 2008). A recent multispectral method combining IASI and GOME-2 (both onboard MetOp satellites) spectra, respectively from the IR and UV, has shown enhanced sensitivity for probing ozone at the lowermost troposphere, but with maximum sensitivity around 2 km at lowest (Cuesta et al., 2013). Future spatial missions will be launched in the upcoming years, such as EPS-SG, carrying new generation sensors like IASI-NG and UVNS that will enhance the capacity to observe ozone pollution, and particularly when combining them through a multispectral synergism. This work presents an analysis of the potential of the multispectral synergism of IASI-NG and UVNS future spaceborne measurements for observing ozone pollution, performed in the framework of SURVEYOZON project (funded by the French Space Agency, CNES). For this, we develop a simulator of synthetic multispectral retrievals or pseudo-observations (referred as OSSE, Observing System Simulation Experiment) derived from IASI-NG+UVNS that will be compared to those from IASI+GOME2. In the first step of the OSSE, we create a pseudo-reality with simulations from the chemical-transport model MOCAGE (provided by CERFACS laboratory), where real O3 data from IASI and surface network stations have been assimilated for a realistic representation of ozone variability at the surface and the free troposphere. We focus on the high pollution event occurred in Europe on 10 July 2010. We use the coupled algorithms KOPRA+VLIDORT to simulate the spectra emitted, scattered and

  17. The Arf GEF GBF1 and Arf4 synergize with the sensory receptor cargo, rhodopsin, to regulate ciliary membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Fresquez, Theresa; Kandachar, Vasundhara; Deretic, Dusanka

    2017-12-01

    The small GTPase Arf4 and the Arf GTPase-activating protein (GAP) ASAP1 cooperatively sequester sensory receptor cargo into transport carriers targeted to primary cilia, but the input that drives Arf4 activation in this process remains unknown. Here, we show, by using frog retinas and recombinant human proteins, that during the carrier biogenesis from the photoreceptor Golgi/ trans -Golgi network (TGN) a functional complex is formed between Arf4, the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) GBF1 and the light-sensing receptor, rhodopsin. Rhodopsin and Arf4 bind the regulatory N-terminal dimerization and cyclophillin-binding (DCB)-homology upstream of Sec7 (HUS) domain of GBF1. The complex is sensitive to Golgicide A (GCA), a selective inhibitor of GBF1 that accordingly blocks rhodopsin delivery to the cilia, without disrupting the photoreceptor Golgi. The emergence of newly synthesized rhodopsin in the endomembrane system is essential for GBF1-Arf4 complex formation in vivo Notably, GBF1 interacts with the Arf GAP ASAP1 in a GCA-resistant manner. Our findings indicate that converging signals on GBF1 from the influx of cargo into the Golgi/TGN and the feedback from Arf4, combined with input from ASAP1, control Arf4 activation during sensory membrane trafficking to primary cilia. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor CEP-8983 synergizes with bendamustine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dilley, Robert L.; Poh, Weijie; Gladstone, Douglas E.; Herman, James G.; Showel, Margaret M.; Karp, Judith E.; McDevitt, Michael A.; Pratz, Keith W.

    2014-01-01

    DNA repair aberrations and associated chromosomal instability is a feature of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate if DNA repair insufficiencies are related to methylation changes, we examined the methylation of nine promoter regions of DNA repair proteins by bisulfide sequencing in 26 CLL primary samples and performed quantitative PCR on a subset of samples to examine BRCA1 expression. We also investigated if changes in cytogenetic or expression level of DNA repair proteins led to changes in sensitivity to a novel PARP inhibitor, CEP-8983, alone and in combination with bendamustine. No changes in promoter methylation were identified in BRCA1, BRCA2, FANC-C, FANC-F, FANC-L, ATM, MGMT, hMLH1 and H2AX except for two cases of minor BRCA1 hypermethylation. CLL samples appeared to have reduced BRCA1 mRNA expression uniformly in comparison to non-malignant lymphocytes irrespective of promoter hypermethylation. CEP-8983 displayed single agent cytotoxicity and the combination with bendamustine demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity in the majority of CLL samples. These results were consistent across cytogenetic subgroups, including 17p deleted and previously treated patients. Our results provide rationale for further exploration of the combination of a PARP inhibitor and DNA damaging agents as a novel therapeutic strategy in CLL. PMID:24439051

  19. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor CEP-8983 synergizes with bendamustine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dilley, Robert L; Poh, Weijie; Gladstone, Douglas E; Herman, James G; Showel, Margaret M; Karp, Judith E; McDevitt, Michael A; Pratz, Keith W

    2014-03-01

    DNA repair aberrations and associated chromosomal instability is a feature of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate if DNA repair insufficiencies are related to methylation changes, we examined the methylation of nine promoter regions of DNA repair proteins by bisulfide sequencing in 26 CLL primary samples and performed quantitative PCR on a subset of samples to examine BRCA1 expression. We also investigated if changes in cytogenetic or expression level of DNA repair proteins led to changes in sensitivity to a novel PARP inhibitor, CEP-8983, alone and in combination with bendamustine. No changes in promoter methylation were identified in BRCA1, BRCA2, FANC-C, FANC-F, FANC-L, ATM, MGMT, hMLH1 and H2AX except for two cases of minor BRCA1 hypermethylation. CLL samples appeared to have reduced BRCA1 mRNA expression uniformly in comparison to non-malignant lymphocytes irrespective of promoter hypermethylation. CEP-8983 displayed single agent cytotoxicity and the combination with bendamustine demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity in the majority of CLL samples. These results were consistent across cytogenetic subgroups, including 17p deleted and previously treated patients. Our results provide rationale for further exploration of the combination of a PARP inhibitor and DNA damaging agents as a novel therapeutic strategy in CLL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bozepinib, a novel small antitumor agent, induces PKR-mediated apoptosis and synergizes with IFNα triggering apoptosis, autophagy and senescence

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, Juan Antonio; Carrasco, Esther; Ramirez, Alberto; Jiménez, Gema; Olmedo, Carmen; Peran, Macarena; Agil, Ahmad; Conejo-García, Ana; Cruz-López, Olga; Campos, Joaquin María; García, María Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Bozepinib [(RS)-2,6-dichloro-9-[1-(p-nitrobenzenesulfonyl)-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-4,1-benzoxazepin-3-yl]-9H-purine] is a potent antitumor compound that is able to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. In the present study, we show that bozepinib also has antitumor activity in colon cancer cells, showing 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values lower than those described for breast cancer cells and suggesting great potential of this synthetic drug in the treatment of cancer. We identified that the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a target of bozepinib, being upregulated and activated by the drug. However, p53 was not affected by bozepinib, and was not necessary for induction of apoptosis in either breast or colon cancer cells. In addition, the efficacy of bozepinib was improved when combined with the interferon-alpha (IFNα) cytokine, which enhanced bozepinib-induced apoptosis with involvement of protein kinase PKR. Moreover, we report here, for the first time, that in combined therapy, IFNα induces a clear process of autophagosome formation, and prior treatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, is able to significantly reduce IFNα/bozepinib-induced cell death. Finally, we observed that a minor population of caspase 3-deficient MCF-7 cells persisted during long-term treatment with lower doses of bozepinib and the bozepinib/IFNα combination. Curiously, this population showed β-galactosidase activity and a percentage of cells arrested in S phase, that was more evident in cells treated with the bozepinib/IFNα combination than in cells treated with bozepinib or IFNα alone. Considering the resistance of some cancer cells to conventional chemotherapy, combinations enhancing the diversity of the cell death outcome might succeed in delivering more effective and less toxic chemotherapy. PMID:24194639

  1. Antibody-based targeted delivery of interleukin-4 synergizes with dexamethasone for the reduction of inflammation in arthritis.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Anja Sophie; Hemmerle, Teresa; Pretto, Francesca; Kipar, Anja; Neri, Dario

    2018-04-01

    We have previously reported that F8-IL4, a fusion protein consisting of the F8 antibody specific to the alternatively-spliced extra domain A of fibronectin and of murine IL-4, cures mice with established arthritis, when used in combination with dexamethasone (DXM). The goal of this study was to assess whether other therapeutic agents, besides DXM, could induce cures in combination with F8-IL4 and to elucidate which leucocytes are most affected by the pharmacological treatment. We performed therapy experiments in mice with CIA, using intravenous administrations of F8-IL4 in combination with DXM, MTX, murine cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 fused to the fragment crystallizable portion of murine IgG2a, as well as mAbs to murine IL17A or the p40 subunit of murine IL12/IL23. Histology and immunohistochemistry for the identification of the various leucocytes were performed on the paws of mice euthanized at different therapy time points. Only the use of F8-IL4 in combination with DXM induced complete remissions, while all other combinations did not lead to cures. The light microscopical evaluation of paws with arthritis revealed a predominant infiltration of neutrophils, which substantially decreased 24 h after treatment with F8-IL4 and DXM. The combination of F8-IL4 with DXM promotes a rapid anti-arthritic action by potently inhibiting neutrophil activity. A fully human analogue of F8-IL4 may find clinical utility for the treatment of neutrophil-driven chronic inflammatory conditions.

  2. Hierarchical Ti-Nb oxide microspheres with synergic multiphase structure as ultra-long-life anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanqin; Wen, Zhongsheng; Du, Lulu; Yang, Yan-E.; Li, Song; Sun, Juncai; Ji, Shijun

    2017-11-01

    Titanium/niobium oxides have drawn wide attention due to their attractive high lithium-intercalation voltage avoiding the formation of solid electrochemical interface. However, their poor electronic conductivity hinders the commercial applications because of the low electrochemical kinetics in lithiating and de-lithiating process. In the study, new approach to improving the low conductivity of the conventional oxides in micrometers are tactically proposed via the synergic effect of highly mixed multiphase oxide nanocrystals. Ti-Nb oxide composite microspheres with hierarchical microstructure are fabricated successfully via a very facile method combined solvothermal process and calcination. Interconnected crystalline nanoparticles of TiO2, Nb2O5 and TiNb2O7 nanocrystals are involved in the obtained Ti-Nb oxides, demonstrating high structure stability during electrochemical reaction. Meanwhile, the ionic/electronic conductivity is remarkably enhanced by the defects of O2- vacancies and Ti3+/Nb4+ ions. The remained specific capacity of the multiphase Ti-Nb oxides is up to 185.3 mAh g-1 at 5 C with very weak capacity fade of 5.3% after 1800 cycles, showing a very long cycling stability.

  3. Ibrutinib synergizes with poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors to induce cell death in AML cells via a BTK-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rotin, Lianne E; Gronda, Marcela; MacLean, Neil; Hurren, Rose; Wang, XiaoMing; Lin, Feng-Hsu; Wrana, Jeff; Datti, Alessandro; Barber, Dwayne L; Minden, Mark D; Slassi, Malik; Schimmer, Aaron D

    2016-01-19

    Targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) with the small molecule BTK inhibitor ibrutinib has significantly improved patient outcomes in several B-cell malignancies, with minimal toxicity. Given the reported expression and constitutive activation of BTK in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, there has been recent interest in investigating the anti-AML activity of ibrutinib. We noted that ibrutinib had limited single-agent toxicity in a panel of AML cell lines and primary AML samples, and therefore sought to identify ibrutinib-sensitizing drugs. Using a high-throughput combination chemical screen, we identified that the poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) inhibitor ethacridine lactate synergized with ibrutinib in TEX and OCI-AML2 leukemia cell lines. The combination of ibrutinib and ethacridine induced a synergistic increase in reactive oxygen species that was functionally important to explain the observed cell death. Interestingly, synergistic cytotoxicity of ibrutinib and ethacridine was independent of the inhibitory effect of ibrutinib against BTK, as knockdown of BTK did not sensitize TEX and OCI-AML2 cells to ethacridine treatment. Thus, our findings indicate that ibrutinib may have a BTK-independent role in AML and that PARG inhibitors may have utility as part of a combination therapy for this disease.

  4. Intratumoral Infection with Murine Cytomegalovirus Synergizes with PD-L1 Blockade to Clear Melanoma Lesions and Induce Long-term Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Erkes, Dan A; Xu, Guangwu; Daskalakis, Constantine; Zurbach, Katherine A; Wilski, Nicole A; Moghbeli, Toktam; Hill, Ann B; Snyder, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is an attractive cancer vaccine platform because it induces strong, functional CD8+ T-cell responses that accumulate over time and migrate into most tissues. To explore this, we used murine cytomegalovirus expressing a modified gp100 melanoma antigen. Therapeutic vaccination by the intraperitoneal and intradermal routes induced tumor infiltrating gp100-specific CD8+ T-cells, but provided minimal benefit for subcutaneous lesions. In contrast, intratumoral infection of established tumor nodules greatly inhibited tumor growth and improved overall survival in a CD8+ T-cell-dependent manner, even in mice previously infected with murine cytomegalovirus. Although murine cytomegalovirus could infect and kill B16F0s in vitro, infection was restricted to tumor-associated macrophages in vivo. Surprisingly, the presence of a tumor antigen in the virus only slightly increased the efficacy of intratumoral infection and tumor-specific CD8+ T-cells in the tumor remained dysfunctional. Importantly, combining intratumoral murine cytomegalovirus infection with anti-PD-L1 therapy was synergistic, resulting in tumor clearance from over half of the mice and subsequent protection against tumor challenge. Thus, while a murine cytomegalovirus-based vaccine was poorly effective against established subcutaneous tumors, direct infection of tumor nodules unexpectedly delayed tumor growth and synergized with immune checkpoint blockade to promote tumor clearance and long-term protection. PMID:27434584

  5. Ibrutinib synergizes with poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors to induce cell death in AML cells via a BTK-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Rotin, Lianne E.; Gronda, Marcela; MacLean, Neil; Hurren, Rose; Wang, XiaoMing; Lin, Feng-Hsu; Wrana, Jeff; Datti, Alessandro; Barber, Dwayne L.; Minden, Mark D.; Slassi, Malik; Schimmer, Aaron D.

    2016-01-01

    Targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) with the small molecule BTK inhibitor ibrutinib has significantly improved patient outcomes in several B-cell malignancies, with minimal toxicity. Given the reported expression and constitutive activation of BTK in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, there has been recent interest in investigating the anti-AML activity of ibrutinib. We noted that ibrutinib had limited single-agent toxicity in a panel of AML cell lines and primary AML samples, and therefore sought to identify ibrutinib-sensitizing drugs. Using a high-throughput combination chemical screen, we identified that the poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) inhibitor ethacridine lactate synergized with ibrutinib in TEX and OCI-AML2 leukemia cell lines. The combination of ibrutinib and ethacridine induced a synergistic increase in reactive oxygen species that was functionally important to explain the observed cell death. Interestingly, synergistic cytotoxicity of ibrutinib and ethacridine was independent of the inhibitory effect of ibrutinib against BTK, as knockdown of BTK did not sensitize TEX and OCI-AML2 cells to ethacridine treatment. Thus, our findings indicate that ibrutinib may have a BTK-independent role in AML and that PARG inhibitors may have utility as part of a combination therapy for this disease. PMID:26624983

  6. Toll-like Receptors and B-cell Receptors Synergize to Induce Immunoglobulin Class Switch DNA Recombination: Relevance to Microbial Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Pone, Egest J.; Zan, Hong; Zhang, Jinsong; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation of naïve B cells, including immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch DNA recombination (CSR), is critical for the immune response and depends on the extensive integration of signals from the B cell receptor (BCR), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family members, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokine receptors. TLRs and BCR synergize to induce CSR in T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses to microbial pathogens. BCR triggering together with simultaneous endosomal TLR engagement leads to enhanced B cell differentiation and antibody responses. The requirement of both BCR and TLR engagement would ensure appropriate antigen-specific activation in an infection. Co-stimulation of TLRs and BCR likely plays a significant role in anti-microbial antibody responses to contain pathogen loads until the T cell-dependent antibody responses peak. Furthermore, the temporal sequence of different signals is also critical for optimal B cell responses, as exemplified by the activation of B cells by initial TLR engagement, leading to the upregulation of co-stimulatory CD80 and MHC-II receptors, which, in turn, result in more efficient interactions with T cells, thereby enhancing the germinal center (GC) reaction and antibody affinity maturation. Overall, BCR and TLR stimulation and the integration with signals from the pathogen or immune cells and their products, determine the ensuing B cell antibody response. PMID:20370617

  7. Pneumococcal Neuraminidase A (NanA) Promotes Biofilm Formation and Synergizes with Influenza A Virus in Nasal Colonization and Middle Ear Infection.

    PubMed

    Wren, John T; Blevins, Lance K; Pang, Bing; Basu Roy, Ankita; Oliver, Melissa B; Reimche, Jennifer L; Wozniak, Jessie E; Alexander-Miller, Martha A; Swords, W Edward

    2017-04-01

    Even in the vaccine era, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains a leading cause of otitis media, a significant public health burden, in large part because of the high prevalence of nasal colonization with the pneumococcus in children. The primary pneumococcal neuraminidase, NanA, which is a sialidase that catalyzes the cleavage of terminal sialic acids from host glycoconjugates, is involved in both of these processes. Coinfection with influenza A virus, which also expresses a neuraminidase, exacerbates nasal colonization and disease by S. pneumoniae , in part via the synergistic contributions of the viral neuraminidase. The specific role of its pneumococcal counterpart, NanA, in this interaction, however, is less well understood. We demonstrate in a mouse model that NanA-deficient pneumococci are impaired in their ability to cause both nasal colonization and middle ear infection. Coinfection with neuraminidase-expressing influenza virus and S. pneumoniae potentiates both colonization and infection but not to wild-type levels, suggesting an intrinsic role of NanA. Using in vitro models, we show that while NanA contributes to both epithelial adherence and biofilm viability, its effect on the latter is actually independent of its sialidase activity. These data indicate that NanA contributes both enzymatically and nonenzymatically to pneumococcal pathogenesis and, as such, suggest that it is not a redundant bystander during coinfection with influenza A virus. Rather, its expression is required for the full synergism between these two pathogens. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Pneumococcal Neuraminidase A (NanA) Promotes Biofilm Formation and Synergizes with Influenza A Virus in Nasal Colonization and Middle Ear Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wren, John T.; Blevins, Lance K.; Pang, Bing; Basu Roy, Ankita; Oliver, Melissa B.; Reimche, Jennifer L.; Wozniak, Jessie E.; Alexander-Miller, Martha A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Even in the vaccine era, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains a leading cause of otitis media, a significant public health burden, in large part because of the high prevalence of nasal colonization with the pneumococcus in children. The primary pneumococcal neuraminidase, NanA, which is a sialidase that catalyzes the cleavage of terminal sialic acids from host glycoconjugates, is involved in both of these processes. Coinfection with influenza A virus, which also expresses a neuraminidase, exacerbates nasal colonization and disease by S. pneumoniae, in part via the synergistic contributions of the viral neuraminidase. The specific role of its pneumococcal counterpart, NanA, in this interaction, however, is less well understood. We demonstrate in a mouse model that NanA-deficient pneumococci are impaired in their ability to cause both nasal colonization and middle ear infection. Coinfection with neuraminidase-expressing influenza virus and S. pneumoniae potentiates both colonization and infection but not to wild-type levels, suggesting an intrinsic role of NanA. Using in vitro models, we show that while NanA contributes to both epithelial adherence and biofilm viability, its effect on the latter is actually independent of its sialidase activity. These data indicate that NanA contributes both enzymatically and nonenzymatically to pneumococcal pathogenesis and, as such, suggest that it is not a redundant bystander during coinfection with influenza A virus. Rather, its expression is required for the full synergism between these two pathogens. PMID:28096183

  9. Chimeric Cellulase Matrix for Investigating Intramolecular Synergism between Non-hydrolytic Disruptive Functions of Carbohydrate-binding Modules and Catalytic Hydrolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuguo; Tang, Rentao; Tao, Jin; Wang, Xiaonan; Zheng, Baisong; Feng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of renewable cellulosic biomass is of considerable interest for the production of biofuels and materials. The bottleneck in the efficient conversion is the compactness and resistance of crystalline cellulose. Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), which disrupt crystalline cellulose via non-hydrolytic mechanisms, are expected to overcome this bottleneck. However, the lack of convenient methods for quantitative analysis of the disruptive functions of CBMs have hindered systematic studies and molecular modifications. Here we established a practical and systematic platform for quantifying and comparing the non-hydrolytic disruptive activities of CBMs via the synergism of CBMs and a catalytic module within designed chimeric cellulase molecules. Bioinformatics and computational biology were also used to provide a deeper understanding. A convenient vector was constructed to serve as a cellulase matrix into which heterologous CBM sequences can be easily inserted. The resulting chimeric cellulases were suitable for studying disruptive functions, and their activities quantitatively reflected the disruptive functions of CBMs on crystalline cellulose. In addition, this cellulase matrix can be used to construct novel chimeric cellulases with high hydrolytic activities toward crystalline cellulose. PMID:22778256

  10. Chimeric cellulase matrix for investigating intramolecular synergism between non-hydrolytic disruptive functions of carbohydrate-binding modules and catalytic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuguo; Tang, Rentao; Tao, Jin; Wang, Xiaonan; Zheng, Baisong; Feng, Yan

    2012-08-24

    The conversion of renewable cellulosic biomass is of considerable interest for the production of biofuels and materials. The bottleneck in the efficient conversion is the compactness and resistance of crystalline cellulose. Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), which disrupt crystalline cellulose via non-hydrolytic mechanisms, are expected to overcome this bottleneck. However, the lack of convenient methods for quantitative analysis of the disruptive functions of CBMs have hindered systematic studies and molecular modifications. Here we established a practical and systematic platform for quantifying and comparing the non-hydrolytic disruptive activities of CBMs via the synergism of CBMs and a catalytic module within designed chimeric cellulase molecules. Bioinformatics and computational biology were also used to provide a deeper understanding. A convenient vector was constructed to serve as a cellulase matrix into which heterologous CBM sequences can be easily inserted. The resulting chimeric cellulases were suitable for studying disruptive functions, and their activities quantitatively reflected the disruptive functions of CBMs on crystalline cellulose. In addition, this cellulase matrix can be used to construct novel chimeric cellulases with high hydrolytic activities toward crystalline cellulose.

  11. Synergism and Antagonism of Proximate Mechanisms Enable and Constrain the Response to Simultaneous Selection on Body Size and Development Time: An Empirical Test Using Experimental Evolution.

    PubMed

    Davidowitz, Goggy; Roff, Derek; Nijhout, H Frederik

    2016-11-01

    Natural selection acts on multiple traits simultaneously. How mechanisms underlying such traits enable or constrain their response to simultaneous selection is poorly understood. We show how antagonism and synergism among three traits at the developmental level enable or constrain evolutionary change in response to simultaneous selection on two focal traits at the phenotypic level. After 10 generations of 25% simultaneous directional selection on all four combinations of body size and development time in Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), the changes in the three developmental traits predict 93% of the response of development time and 100% of the response of body size. When the two focal traits were under synergistic selection, the response to simultaneous selection was enabled by juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids and constrained by growth rate. When the two focal traits were under antagonistic selection, the response to selection was due primarily to change in growth rate and constrained by the two hormonal traits. The approach used here reduces the complexity of the developmental and endocrine mechanisms to three proxy traits. This generates explicit predictions for the evolutionary response to selection that are based on biologically informed mechanisms. This approach has broad applicability to a diverse range of taxa, including algae, plants, amphibians, mammals, and insects.

  12. Antimicrobial synergism and cytotoxic properties of Citrus limon L., Piper nigrum L. and Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden and Betche) Cheel essential oils.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Miloš M; Jovanović, Katarina K; Marković, Tatjana Lj; Marković, Dejan Lj; Gligorijević, Nevenka N; Radulović, Siniša S; Kostić, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina M; Soković, Marina D

    2017-11-01

    The chemical composition, antimicrobial and synergistic effect, and cytotoxic activity of Citrus limon (lemon), Piper nigrum (green pepper) and Melaleuca alternifoila (tea tree) essential oils (EOs) were investigated. Chemical analyses of essential oils were tested by GC-FID and GC-MS spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity assay was conducted using microdilution method against several oral bacteria and Candida spp. originating from the humans with oral disorders. The synergistic antimicrobial activity was evaluated using checkerboard method. The cytotoxicity evaluation of EOs was assessed using MTT test. Limonene (37.5%) and β-pinene (17.9%) were the major compounds in C. limon oil, β-pinene (34.4%), δ-3-carene (19.7%), limonene (18.7%) and α-pinene (10.4%) in P. nigrum oil and terpinen-4-ol (38.6%) and γ-terpinene (21.7%) in M. alternifolia oil. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was achieved by tested three EOs, with C. limon oil being the strongest against bacteria and M. alternifolia oil strongest against fungi. The EOs demonstrated synergism; their combined application revealed an increase in antimicrobial activity. All tested essential oils showed lower cytotoxic activity in comparison with the positive control, and the obtained results confirmed a dose-dependent activity. The results of this study encourage use of tested EOs in development of a novel agent intended for prevention or therapy of corresponding oral disorders. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Antagonism or synergism between papaya ringspot virus and papaya mosaic virus in Carica papaya is determined by their order of infection.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Contreras-Paredes, Carlos A; Mora-Macias, Javier; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Serrano-Rubio, Angélica A; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Silva-Rosales, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Antagonism between unrelated plant viruses has not been thoroughly described. Our studies show that two unrelated viruses, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce different symptomatic outcomes during mixed infection depending on the inoculation order. Synergism occurs in plants infected first with PRSV or in plants infected simultaneously with PRSV and PapMV, and antagonism occurs in plants infected first with PapMV and later inoculated with PRSV. During antagonism, elevated pathogenesis-related (PR-1) gene expression and increased reactive oxygen species production indicated the establishment of a host defense resulting in the reduction in PRSV titers. Polyribosomal fractioning showed that PRSV affects translation of cellular eEF1α, PR-1, β-tubulin, and PapMV RNAs in planta, suggesting that its infection could be related to an imbalance in the translation machinery. Our data suggest that primary PapMV infection activates a defense response against PRSV and establishes a protective relationship with the papaya host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergic Interaction of Rifaximin and Mutaflor (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917) in the Treatment of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dembiński, Artur; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Dembiński, Marcin; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Gałązka, Krystyna; Konturek, Peter Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inflammatory bowel disease results from the dysregulation of immune response to environmental and microbial agents in genetically susceptible individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of rifaximin and/or Mutaflor (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, EcN) administration on the healing of acetic acid-induced colitis. Methods. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Rifaximin (50 mg/kg/dose) and/or Mutaflor (10(9) CFU/dose) were given intragastrically once a day. The severity of colitis was assessed at the 8th day after induction of inflammation. Results. Treatment with rifaximin significantly accelerated the healing of colonic damage. This effect was associated with significant reversion of the acetic acid-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Moreover, administration of rifaximin significantly reduced concentration of proinflammatory TNF-α and activity of myeloperoxidase in colonic mucosa. Mutaflor given alone was without significant effect on activity of colitis. In contrast, Mutaflor given in combination with rifaximin significantly enhanced therapeutic effect of rifaximin. Moreover, Mutaflor led to settle of the colon by EcN and this effect was augmented by pretreatment with rifaximin. Conclusion. Rifaximin and Mutaflor exhibit synergic anti-inflammatory and therapeutic effect in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

  15. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts.

    PubMed

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-12-15

    Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent on concentration for grape rachis extracts and a concentration-dependent prooxidative activity for açaí seed extracts in bulk soybean oil. Both the extracts, however, protected liposome suspensions and oil/water emulsions against lipid oxidation. Synergism was demonstrated when extracts were combined with α-tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols, imparted high antioxidant activity especially when combined with α-tocopherol and are suggested for protection of food oil/water emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 3D printed scaffolds of calcium silicate-doped β-TCP synergize with co-cultured endothelial and stromal cells to promote vascularization and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuan; Jiang, Chuan; Li, Cuidi; Li, Tao; Peng, Mingzheng; Wang, Jinwu; Dai, Kerong

    2017-07-17

    Synthetic bone scaffolds have potential application in repairing large bone defects, however, inefficient vascularization after implantation remains the major issue of graft failure. Herein, porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds with calcium silicate (CS) were 3D printed, and pre-seeded with co-cultured human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) to construct tissue engineering scaffolds with accelerated vascularization and better bone formation. Results showed that in vitro β-TCP scaffolds doped with 5% CS (5%CS/β-TCP) were biocompatible, and stimulated angiogenesis and osteogenesis. The results also showed that 5%CS/β-TCP scaffolds not only stimulated co-cultured cells angiogenesis on Matrigel, but also stimulated co-cultured cells to form microcapillary-like structures on scaffolds, and promoted migration of BMSCs by stimulating co-cultured cells to secrete PDGF-BB and CXCL12 into the surrounding environment. Moreover, 5%CS/β-TCP scaffolds enhanced vascularization and osteoinduction in comparison with β-TCP, and synergized with co-cultured cells to further increase early vessel formation, which was accompanied by earlier and better ectopic bone formation when implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. Thus, our findings suggest that porous 5%CS/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with co-cultured cells provide new strategy for accelerating tissue engineering scaffolds vascularization and osteogenesis, and show potential as treatment for large bone defects.

  17. All-trans retinoic acid and rapamycin synergize with transforming growth factor-β1 to induce regulatory T cells but confer different migratory capacities.

    PubMed

    Jhunjhunwala, Siddharth; Chen, Leo C; Nichols, Erin E; Thomson, Angus W; Raimondi, Giorgio; Little, Steven R

    2013-11-01

    Tregs play important roles in maintaining immune homeostasis, and thus, therapies based on Treg are promising candidates for the treatment for a variety of immune-mediated disorders. These therapies, however, face the significant challenge of obtaining adequate numbers of Tregs from peripheral blood that maintains suppressive function following extensive expansion. Inducing Tregs from non-Tregs offers a viable alternative. Different methods to induce Tregs have been proposed and involve mainly treating cells with TGF-β-iTreg. However, use of TGF-β alone is not sufficient to induce stable Tregs. ATRA or rapa has been shown to synergize with TGF-β to induce stable Tregs. Whereas TGF-β plus RA-iTregs have been well-described in the literature, the phenotype, function, and migratory characteristics of TGF-β plus rapa-iTreg have yet to be elucidated. Herein, we describe the phenotype and function of mouse rapa-iTreg and reveal that these cells differ in their in vivo homing capacity when compared with mouse RA-iTreg and mouse TGF-β-iTreg. This difference in migratory activity significantly affects the therapeutic capacity of each subset in a mouse model of colitis. We also describe the characteristics of iTreg generated in the presence of TGF-β, RA, and rapa.

  18. Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot) concentrate inhibits NF-κB and synergizes with selenium to inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Appel, Kurt; Meiser, Peter; Millán, Estrella; Collado, Juan Antonio; Rose, Thorsten; Gras, Claudia C; Carle, Reinhold; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Black chokeberry has been known to play a protective role in human health due to its high polyphenolic content including anthocyanins and caffeic acid derivatives. In the present study, we first characterized the polyphenolic content of a commercial chokeberry concentrate and investigated its effect on LPS-induced NF-κB activation and release of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages in the presence or the absence of sodium selenite. Examination of the phytochemical profile of the juice concentrate revealed high content of polyphenols (3.3%), including anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Among them, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and caffeoylquinic acids were identified as the major compounds. Data indicated that chokeberry concentrate inhibited both the release of TNFα, IL-6 and IL-8 in human peripheral monocytes and the activation of the NF-κB pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Furthermore, chokeberry synergizes with sodium selenite to inhibit NF-κB activation, cytokine release and PGE2 synthesis. These findings suggest that selenium added to chokeberry juice enhances significantly its anti-inflammatory activity, thus revealing a sound approach in order to tune the use of traditional herbals by combining them with micronutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synergic adsorption in the simultaneous removal of acid blue 25 and heavy metals from water using a Ca(PO3)2-modified carbon.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Gómez, R; Rivera-Ramírez, D A; Hernández-Montoya, V; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A; Durán-Valle, C J; Montes-Morán, M A

    2012-01-15

    We report the simultaneous adsorption of acid blue 25 dye (AB25) and heavy metals (Zn(2+), Ni(2+) and Cd(2+)) on a low-cost activated carbon, whose adsorption properties have been improved via a surface chemistry modification using a calcium solution extracted from egg shell wastes. Specifically, we have studied the removal performance of this adsorbent using the binary aqueous systems: AB25-Cd(2+), AB25-Ni(2+) and AB25-Zn(2+). Multi-component kinetic and equilibrium experiments have been performed and used to identify and characterize the synergic adsorption in the simultaneous removal of these pollutants. Our results show that the presence of AB25 significantly favors the removal of heavy metals and may increase the adsorption capacities up to six times with respect to the results obtained using the mono-cationic metallic systems, while the adsorption capacities of AB25 are not affected by the presence of metallic ions. It appears that this anionic dye favors the electrostatic interactions with heavy metals or may create new specific sites for adsorption process. In particular, heavy metals may interact with the -SO(3)(-) group of AB25 and to the hydroxyl and phosphoric groups of this adsorbent. A response surface methodology model has been successfully used for fitting multi-component adsorption data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells synergize osteo/odontogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells in 3D cell sheets.

    PubMed

    Pandula, P K C Prgeeth; Samaranayake, L P; Jin, L J; Zhang, C F

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the expression of osteo/odontogenic differentiation markers and vascular network formation in a 3D cell sheet with varying cell ratios of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Human PDLSCs were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry, and co-cultured with HUVECs for the construction of cell sheets. Both types of cells were seeded on temperature-responsive culture dishes with PDLSCs alone, HUVECs alone and various ratios of the latter cells (1 : 1, 2 : 1, 5 : 1 and 1 : 5) to obtain confluent cell sheets. The expressions of osteo/odontogenic pathway markers, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), were analyzed at 3 and 7 d using RT-PCR. Further ALP protein quantification was performed at 7 and 14 d using ALP assay. The calcium nodule formation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by alizarin red assay. Histological evaluations of three cell sheet constructs treated with different combinations (PDLSC-PDLSC-PDLSC/PDLSC-HUVEC-PDLSC/co-culture-co-culture-co-culture) were performed with hematoxylin and eosin and immunofluorescence staining. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test (p < 0.05). Significantly higher ALP gene expression was observed at 3 d in 1 : 1 (PDLSC-HUVEC) (2.52 ± 0.67) and 5 : 1 (4.05 ± 1.07) co-culture groups compared with other groups (p < 0.05); this was consistent with ALP protein quantification. However, the expression of BSP and RUNX2 genes was higher at 7 d compared to 3 d. Significant calcium mineralization was detected as quantified by alizarin red assay at 14 d in 1 : 1 (1323.55 ± 6.54 μm) and 5 : 1 (994.67 ± 4.15 μm) co-cultures as compared with monoculture cell sheets (p < 0.05). Hematoxylin and eosin and CD31 immunostaining clearly exemplified the development of a layered cell sheet structure with endothelial cell islands within the constructed PDLSC-HUVEC-PDLSC and co

  1. Retinoic Acid and Arsenic Synergize to Eradicate Leukemic Cells in a Mouse Model of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie; Guillemin, Marie-Claude; Janin, Anne; Daniel, Marie-Thérèse; Degos, Laurent; Kogan, Scott C.; Michael Bishop, J.; de Thé, Hugues

    1999-01-01

    In acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients, retinoic acid (RA) triggers differentiation while arsenic trioxide (arsenic) induces both a partial differentiation and apoptosis. Although their mechanisms of action are believed to be distinct, these two drugs both induce the catabolism of the oncogenic promyelocytic leukemia (PML)/RARα fusion protein. While APL cell lines resistant to one agent are sensitive to the other, the benefit of combining RA and arsenic in cell culture is controversial, and thus far, no data are available in patients. Using syngenic grafts of leukemic blasts from PML/RARα transgenic mice as a model for APL, we demonstrate that arsenic induces apoptosis and modest differentiation, and prolongs mouse survival. Furthermore, combining arsenic with RA accelerates tumor regression through enhanced differentiation and apoptosis. Although RA or arsenic alone only prolongs survival two- to threefold, associating the two drugs leads to tumor clearance after a 9-mo relapse-free period. These studies establishing RA/arsenic synergy in vivo prompt the use of combined arsenic/RA treatments in APL patients and exemplify how mouse models of human leukemia can be used to design or optimize therapies. PMID:10190895

  2. Correlation between melanogenic and catalase activity in in vitro human melanocytes: a synergic strategy against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Maresca, Vittoria; Flori, Enrica; Briganti, Stefania; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna; Fabbri, Claudia; Mileo, Anna M; Paggi, Marco G; Picardo, Mauro

    2008-04-01

    UV-induced DNA damage can lead to melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer. Understanding the mechanisms employed by melanocytes to protect against UV is therefore a key issue. In melanocytes, catalase is the main enzyme responsible for degrading hydrogen peroxide and we have previously shown that that low basal levels of catalase activity are associated with the light phototype in in vitro and ex vivo models. Here we investigate the possible correlation between its activity and melanogenesis in primary cultures of human melanocytes. We show that while the total melanin concentration is directly correlated to the level of pigmentation, the more the degree of pigmentation increased, the lower the proportion of pheomelanin present. Moreover, in human melanocytes in vitro, catalase-specific mRNA, protein and enzymatic activity were all directly correlated with total cellular melanin content. We also observed that immediately after a peroxidative treatment, the increase in reactive oxygen species was inversely associated with pigmentation level. Darkly pigmented melanocytes therefore possess two protective strategies represented by melanins and catalase activity that are likely to act synergistically to counteract the deleterious effects of UV radiation. By contrast, lightly pigmented melanocytes possess lower levels of melanogenic and catalase activity and are therefore more susceptible to accumulate damage after UV exposition.

  3. Spire and Formin 2 synergize and antagonize in regulating actin assembly in meiosis by a ping-pong mechanism.

    PubMed

    Montaville, Pierre; Jégou, Antoine; Pernier, Julien; Compper, Christel; Guichard, Bérengère; Mogessie, Binyam; Schuh, Melina; Romet-Lemonne, Guillaume; Carlier, Marie-France

    2014-02-01

    In mammalian oocytes, three actin binding proteins, Formin 2 (Fmn2), Spire, and profilin, synergistically organize a dynamic cytoplasmic actin meshwork that mediates translocation of the spindle toward the cortex and is required for successful fertilization. Here we characterize Fmn2 and elucidate the molecular mechanism for this synergy, using bulk solution and individual filament kinetic measurements of actin assembly dynamics. We show that by capping filament barbed ends, Spire recruits Fmn2 and facilitates its association with barbed ends, followed by rapid processive assembly and release of Spire. In the presence of actin, profilin, Spire, and Fmn2, filaments display alternating phases of rapid processive assembly and arrested growth, driven by a "ping-pong" mechanism, in which Spire and Fmn2 alternately kick off each other from the barbed ends. The results are validated by the effects of injection of Spire, Fmn2, and their interacting moieties in mouse oocytes. This original mechanism of regulation of a Rho-GTPase-independent formin, recruited by Spire at Rab11a-positive vesicles, supports a model for modulation of a dynamic actin-vesicle meshwork in the oocyte at the origin of asymmetric positioning of the meiotic spindle.

  4. Spire and Formin 2 Synergize and Antagonize in Regulating Actin Assembly in Meiosis by a Ping-Pong Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Montaville, Pierre; Jégou, Antoine; Pernier, Julien; Compper, Christel; Guichard, Bérengère; Mogessie, Binyam; Schuh, Melina; Romet-Lemonne, Guillaume; Carlier, Marie-France

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian oocytes, three actin binding proteins, Formin 2 (Fmn2), Spire, and profilin, synergistically organize a dynamic cytoplasmic actin meshwork that mediates translocation of the spindle toward the cortex and is required for successful fertilization. Here we characterize Fmn2 and elucidate the molecular mechanism for this synergy, using bulk solution and individual filament kinetic measurements of actin assembly dynamics. We show that by capping filament barbed ends, Spire recruits Fmn2 and facilitates its association with barbed ends, followed by rapid processive assembly and release of Spire. In the presence of actin, profilin, Spire, and Fmn2, filaments display alternating phases of rapid processive assembly and arrested growth, driven by a “ping-pong” mechanism, in which Spire and Fmn2 alternately kick off each other from the barbed ends. The results are validated by the effects of injection of Spire, Fmn2, and their interacting moieties in mouse oocytes. This original mechanism of regulation of a Rho-GTPase–independent formin, recruited by Spire at Rab11a-positive vesicles, supports a model for modulation of a dynamic actin-vesicle meshwork in the oocyte at the origin of asymmetric positioning of the meiotic spindle. PMID:24586110

  5. Rb-Raf-1 interaction disruptor RRD-251 induces apoptosis in metastatic melanoma cells and synergizes with dacarbazine

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sandeep; Davis, Rebecca; Alamanda, Vignesh; Pireddu, Roberta; Pernazza, Daniel; Sebti, Said; Lawrence, Nicholas; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2010-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive cancer with very low response rate against conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as dacarbazine (DTIC). Inhibitor of Rb-Raf-1 interaction (RRD-251) was tested against the melanoma cell lines SK-MEL-28, SK-MEL-5 and SK-MEL-2. RRD-251 was found to be a potent inhibitor of melanoma cell proliferation, irrespective of V600E B-Raf mutation status of the cell lines. In a SK-MEL-28 xenograft experiment, RRD-251 exerted a significant suppression of tumor growth compared to vehicle (p=0.003). Similar to in vitro effects, tumors from RRD-251 treated animals showed decreased Rb-Raf-1 interaction in vivo. Growth suppressive effects of RRD-251 were associated with induction of apoptosis as well as a G1 arrest, with an accompanying decrease in S-phase cells. RRD-251 inhibited Rb phosphorylation, and downregulated E2F1 protein levels in these cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that RRD-251 caused downregulation of cell cycle regulatory genes thymidylate synthase (TS) and cdc6 as well as anti-apoptotic gene Mcl-1. Combinatorial treatment of RRD-251 and DTIC resulted in a significantly higher apoptosis in DTIC resistant cell lines SK-MEL-28 and SK-MEL-5, as revealed by increased Caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage. Since aberrant Rb/E2F pathway is associated with melanoma progression and resistance to apoptosis, these results suggest that the Rb-Raf-1 inhibitor could be an effective agent for melanoma treatment, either alone or in combination with DTIC. PMID:21139044

  6. Rb-Raf-1 interaction disruptor RRD-251 induces apoptosis in metastatic melanoma cells and synergizes with dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sandeep; Davis, Rebecca; Alamanda, Vignesh; Pireddu, Roberta; Pernazza, Daniel; Sebti, Said; Lawrence, Nicholas; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2010-12-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive cancer with very low response rate against conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as dacarbazine (DTIC). Inhibitor of Rb-Raf-1 interaction RRD-251 was tested against the melanoma cell lines SK-MEL-28, SK-MEL-5, and SK-MEL-2. RRD-251 was found to be a potent inhibitor of melanoma cell proliferation, irrespective of V600E B-Raf mutation status of the cell lines. In a SK-MEL-28 xenograft experiment, RRD-251 exerted a significant suppression of tumor growth compared with vehicle (P = 0.003). Similar to in vitro effects, tumors from RRD-251-treated animals showed decreased Rb-Raf-1 interaction in vivo. Growth suppressive effects of RRD-251 were associated with induction of apoptosis as well as a G(1) arrest, with an accompanying decrease in S-phase cells. RRD-251 inhibited Rb phosphorylation and downregulated E2F1 protein levels in these cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that RRD-251 caused downregulation of cell-cycle regulatory genes thymidylate synthase (TS) and cdc6 as well as the antiapoptotic gene Mcl-1. Combinatorial treatment of RRD-251 and DTIC resulted in a significantly higher apoptosis in DTIC resistant cell lines SK-MEL-28 and SK-MEL-5, as revealed by increased caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage. Because aberrant Rb/E2F pathway is associated with melanoma progression and resistance to apoptosis, these results suggest that the Rb-Raf-1 inhibitor could be an effective agent for melanoma treatment, either alone or in combination with DTIC. ©2010 AACR.

  7. Antitumor Synergism and Enhanced Survival with a Tumor Vasculature-Targeted Enzyme Prodrug System, Rapamycin, and Cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Krais, John J; Virani, Needa; McKernan, Patrick H; Nguyen, Quang; Fung, Kar-Ming; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I; Kurkjian, Carla; Harrison, Roger G

    2017-09-01

    Mutant cystathionine gamma-lyase was targeted to phosphatidylserine exposed on tumor vasculature through fusion with Annexin A1 or Annexin A5. Cystathionine gamma-lyase E58N, R118L, and E338N mutations impart nonnative methionine gamma-lyase activity, resulting in tumor-localized generation of highly toxic methylselenol upon systemic administration of nontoxic selenomethionine. The described therapeutic system circumvents systemic toxicity issues using a novel drug delivery/generation approach and avoids the administration of nonnative proteins and/or DNA required with other enzyme prodrug systems. The enzyme fusion exhibits strong and stable in vitro binding with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range for both human and mouse breast cancer cells and in a cell model of tumor vascular endothelium. Daily administration of the therapy suppressed growth of highly aggressive triple-negative murine 4T1 mammary tumors in immunocompetent BALB/cJ mice and MDA-MB-231 tumors in SCID mice. Treatment did not result in the occurrence of negative side effects or the elicitation of neutralizing antibodies. On the basis of the vasculature-targeted nature of the therapy, combinations with rapamycin and cyclophosphamide were evaluated. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, reduces the prosurvival signaling of cells in a hypoxic environment potentially exacerbated by a vasculature-targeted therapy. IHC revealed, unsurprisingly, a significant hypoxic response (increase in hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α subunit, HIF1A) in the enzyme prodrug-treated tumors and a dramatic reduction of HIF1A upon rapamycin treatment. Cyclophosphamide, an immunomodulator at low doses, was combined with the enzyme prodrug therapy and rapamycin; this combination synergistically reduced tumor volumes, inhibited metastatic progression, and enhanced survival. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(9); 1855-65. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Ginsenoside G-Rh2 synergizes with SMI-4a in anti-melanoma activity through autophagic cell death.

    PubMed

    Lv, Da-Lun; Chen, Lei; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, He-Li; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Wen-Bei

    2018-01-01

    Melanoma is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and SMI-4a and G-Rh2 exert anti-tumor activity in multiple cancer. However, SMI-4a as well as a synergistic relationship between SMI-4a and G-Rh2 in anti-melanoma capacity are still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SMI-4a and combined SMI-4a with G-Rh2 on the viability, apoptosis and autophagy of melanoma, and to preliminarily explore the underlying mechanism of SMI-4a and combined SMI-4a with G-Rh2 in inhibiting tumor growth. Cell viability was examined with cell counting Kit 8 assay and colony formation assay; Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and Caspase 3/7 activity assay; Western blotting was used to test proteins related to autophagy and the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway; Tumor xenograft model in BALB/c nude mice was performed to evaluate the effects of SMI-4a and combined SMI-4a with G-Rh2 in anti-melanoma in vivo. SMI-4a, a pharmacological inhibitor of PIM-1, could decrease cell viability, induce apoptosis, and promote Caspase 3/7 activity in both A375 and G361 melanoma cells, and SMI-4a inhibited tumor growth by inducing autophagy via down-regulating AKT/mTOR axis in melanoma cells. Furthermore, G-Rh2 amplified the anti-tumor activity of SMI-4a in melanoma cells via strengthening autophagy. Our results suggested that SMI-4a could enhance autophagy-inducing apoptosis by inhibiting AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in melanoma cells, and G-Rh2 could enhance the effects of SMI-4a against melanoma cancer via amplifying autophagy induction. This study demonstrates that combined SMI-4a and G-Rh2 might be a novel alternative strategy for melanoma treatment.

  9. N-Glycoform Diversity of Cellobiohydrolase I from Penicillium decumbens and Synergism of Nonhydrolytic Glycoform in Cellulose Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Le; Gao, Feng; Wang, Lushan; Geng, Cunliang; Chi, Lianli; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2012-01-01

    Four cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) glycoforms, namely, CBHI-A, CBHI-B, CBHI-C, and CBHI-D, were purified from the cultured broth of Penicillium decumbens JU-A10. All glycoforms had the same amino acid sequence but displayed different characteristics and biological functions. The effects of the N-glycans of the glycoforms on CBH activity were analyzed using mass spectrum data. Longer N-glycan chains at the Asn-137 of CBHI increased CBH activity. After the N-glycans were removed using site-directed mutagenesis and homologous expression in P. decumbens, the specific CBH activity of the recombinant CBHI without N-glycosylation increased by 65% compared with the wild-type CBHI with the highest specific activity. However, the activity was not stable. Only the N-glycosylation at Asn-137 can improve CBH activity by 40%. rCBHI with N-glycosylation only at Asn-470 exhibited no enzymatic activity. CBH activity was affected whether or not the protein was glycosylated, together with the N-glycosylation site and N-glycan structure. N-Glycosylation not only affects CBH activity but may also bring a new feature to a nonhydrolytic CBHI glycoform (CBHI-A). By supplementing CBHI-A to different commercial cellulase preparations, the glucose yield of lignocellulose hydrolysis increased by >20%. After treatment with a low dose (5 mg/g substrate) of CBHI-A at 50 °C for 7 days, the hydrogen-bond intensity and crystalline degree of cotton fibers decreased by 17 and 34%, respectively. These results may provide new guidelines for cellulase engineering. PMID:22427663

  10. NDR proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Alan M

    2010-01-01

    N-myc downregulated (NDR) genes were discovered more than fifteen years ago. Indirect evidence support a role in tumor progression and cellular differentiation, but their biochemical function is still unknown. Our detailed analyses on Arabidopsis NDR proteins (deisgnated NDR-like, NDL) show their involvement in altering auxin transport, local auxin gradients and expression level of auxin transport proteins. Animal NDL proteins may be involved in membrane recycling of E-cadherin and effector for the small GTPase. In light of these findings, we hypothesize that NDL proteins regulate vesicular trafficking of auxin transport facilitator PIN proteins by biochemically alterating the local lipid environment of PIN proteins. PMID:20724844

  11. A 27-month periodicity in the low latitude geomagnetic field and its connection to the stratospheric QBO

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, N.

    1994-06-01

    Geomagnetic daily variations are produced at a height of about 100 to 130 km due to dynamo action of thermospheric winds in combination with the ionospheric conductivity. They are influenced by longterm variability of thermospheric dynamics and are used as tool for investigating a QBO (Quasi-Biennial-Oscillation) in thermospheric winds. Power spectrum analysis has been applied to monthly means of the daily range of the geomagnetic field. In addition to an annual modulation (and subharmonics) there is clear evidence for a sharp peak at about 27 months in the H-component at low-latitude observatories (delta H approximately equal to 0.5 nT). Atmore » single observatories, statistical significance is at the 99% confidence level, squared coherency between distant observatories is highly significant, too. However, there is no global modulation of the S(sub q) current system because: (1) the D-component contain no 27-month periodicity; and (2) the oscillation is not present at mid-latitude observatories. In order to explain the observations, a 27-month oscillation in the low-latitude prevailing zonal winds with an amplitude of few m/s at a height of about 100-130 km is postulated. Squared Coherency between geomagnetic variations and prevailing winds in the equatorial stratosphere is significant at the 95%-level.« less

  12. Theoretical analysis, design and development of a 27-MHz folded loop antenna as a potential applicator in hyperthermia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kouloulias, Vassilis; Karanasiou, Irene; Giamalaki, Melina; Matsopoulos, George; Kouvaris, John; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos

    2015-02-01

    A hyperthermia system using a folded loop antenna applicator at 27 MHz for soft tissue treatment was investigated both theoretically and experimentally to evaluate its clinical value. The electromagnetic analysis of a 27-MHz folded loop antenna for use in human tissue was based on a customised software tool and led to the design and development of the proposed hyperthermia system. The system was experimentally validated using specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution estimations through temperature distribution measurements of a muscle tissue phantom after electromagnetic exposure. Various scenarios for optimal antenna positioning were also performed. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental analysis results shows satisfactory agreement. The SAR level of 50% reaches 8 cm depth in the tissue phantom. Thus, based on the maximum observed SAR values that were of the order of 100 W/kg, the antenna specified is suitable for deep tumour heating. Theoretical and experimental SAR distribution results as derived from this study are in agreement. The proposed folded loop antenna seems appropriate for use in hyperthermia treatment, achieving proper planning and local treatment of deeply seated affected areas and lesions.

  13. Sageone, a diterpene from Rosmarinus officinalis, synergizes with cisplatin cytotoxicity in SNU-1 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sabina; Song, Yeon Woo; Kim, Hyeonji; Lee, Dong Sun; Cho, Somi Kim

    2016-12-01

    Chemotherapy resistance is a major obstacle for the effective treatment of cancers. Although several studies have described the anticancer properties of rosemary extract and its components, the detailed mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Activity-guided fractionation and repeated chromatographic separation of the n-hexane fraction of the aqueous methanol extract over silica gel, RP C18, and Sephadex LH-20 led to the isolation of three compounds. The structures of the compounds were determined using 1 H, 13 C, and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Cell cycle, apoptotic cell populations, and mitochondrial membrane potential were analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was conducted to detect apoptosis-related proteins. An abietane diterpenoid, sageone (1), an icetexane diterpenoid, (-)-barbatusol (2), and a monoterpene, (+)-verbenone (3), were identified. Of these compounds, sageone (1) showed cytotoxicity against SNU-1 cells with an IC 50 of 9.45 ± 1.33 µM. Sageone reduced the expression of Akt dramatically, as opposed to cisplatin, which increased phosphorylated Akt. Sageone combined with a subtoxic dose of cisplatin had synergistic effects on apoptosis induction in SNU-1 cells, as confirmed by calculating the combination index. Co-treatment was significantly more effective than monotherapy at reducing cell viability and inducing apoptosis, as determined by analyzing DNA fragmentation. The combined treatment of sageone and cisplatin markedly reduced Akt expression and phosphorylation, accompanied by increases in cleaved caspase-3, -9 and PARP. This is the first time compounds 1 and 2 have been isolated from R. officinalis. Sageone induced apoptosis in SNU-1 human gastric cancer cells and notably enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in SNU-1

  14. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  15. Role for malonyl coenzyme A:acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT) in the growth-inhibitory effect of the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine in Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Indrajit; Dick, Thomas

    2004-06-01

    To determine whether the fatty acid synthesis enzyme malonyl coenzyme A:acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT) is involved in the growth-inhibitory effect of trifluoperazine in the tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium bovis BCG. BCG was grown in liquid culture with various concentrations of trifluoperazine and growth was monitored by OD measurement. To determine the effect of trifluoperazine on MCAT protein level, total protein was extracted from BCG cultures and was analysed by 2D gel electrophoresis and western blot. To confirm trifluoperazine-dependent reduction in the MCAT protein level, two BCG strains overexpressing MCAT at a low and high constitutive level were similarly tested. The synergic effect of trifluoperazine and isoniazid was tested at sub-MIC levels in liquid cultures. Trifluoperazine inhibition of growth correlates with reduction in the steady-state level of MCAT protein. Overexpression of MCAT confers resistance to trifluoperazine. Trifluoperazine acts synergically (albeit weakly) with isoniazid and no resistance towards isoniazid alone was observed due to overexpression of MCAT. This suggests MCAT to be a specific target of trifluoperazine. These results indicate MCAT as a target of trifluoperazine and provide an explanation for the inhibitory effect of trifluoperazine on mycobacterial lipid synthesis observed earlier. This makes MCAT a potential target for new antimycobacterials.

  16. Synergic effect of salivary pH baselines and low pH intakes on the force relaxation of orthodontic latex elastics

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Shabnam; Farjood, Amin; Zare, Mahbubeh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Latex elastics are still in common use due to their low cost and high flexibility to improve sagittal discrepancies or interdigitation of teeth. Mechanical properties of elastics are influenced by several environmental factors such as pH changes. This study evaluated similar latex elastics to define the influence of synergic effect of intermittent low pH and various baselines pH of saliva. Materials and Methods: Four groups of latex elastics (3-M Unitek, 3/16 inch) were tested (n = 15 in each group). Two groups of elastics were immersed in two tanks of artificial saliva with different pH levels of 7 and 5, and two groups were immersed in two tanks of artificial saliva with intermittent drop of pH to 4. The force was measured when the elastics were stretched to 25 mm. These measurements were taken in 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h for each group. Repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey's test were used to assess the findings. The level of significance was 0.05%. Results: The interaction between pH and time analyzed with RMANOVA showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) except in 36 h (P = 0.014). The Tukey's analysis showed that each comparison between any two groups did not indicate significant differences (P > 0.05) except between Groups 1 and 3 and between Groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: No significant correlation was seen between fluctuation of pH and force degradation in latex elastic band except in 36 h. PMID:28348621

  17. Parallel formation and synergism of hydrolytic enzymes and peptaibol antibiotics, molecular mechanisms involved in the antagonistic action of Trichoderma harzianum against phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Schirmböck, M; Lorito, M; Wang, Y L; Hayes, C K; Arisan-Atac, I; Scala, F; Harman, G E; Kubicek, C P

    1994-01-01

    Chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase, and protease activities were formed when Trichoderma harzianum mycelia, grown on glucose as the sole carbon source, were transferred to fresh medium containing cell walls of Botrytis cinerea. Chitobiohydrolase, endochitinase, and beta-1,3-glucanase activities were immunologically detected in culture supernatants by Western blotting (immunoblotting), and the first two were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Under the same conditions, exogenously added [U-14C]valine was incorporated in acetone-soluble compounds with an apparent M(r) of < 2,000. These compounds comigrated with the peptaibols trichorzianines A1 and B1 in thin-layer chromatography and released [U-14C]valine after incubation in 6N HCl. Incorporation of radioactive valine into this material was stimulated by the exogenous supply of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, a rare amino acid which is a major constituent of peptaibols. The obtained culture supernatants inhibited spore germination as well as hyphal elongation of B. cinerea. Culture supernatants from mycelia placed in fresh medium without cell walls of B. cinerea did not show hydrolase activities, incorporation of [U-14C]valine into peptaibol-like compounds, and inhibition of fungal growth. Purified trichorzianines A1 and B1 as well as purified chitobiohydrolase, endochitinase, or beta-1,3-glucanase inhibited spore germination and hyphal elongation, but at concentrations higher than those observed in the culture supernatants. However, when the enzymes and the peptaibols were tested together, an antifungal synergistic interaction was observed and the 50% effective dose values obtained were in the range of those determined in the culture supernatants. Therefore, the parallel formation and synergism of hydrolytic enzymes and antibiotics may have an important role in the antagonistic action of T. harzianum against fungal phytopathogens. Images PMID:7811076

  18. Cefotaxime and Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Synergism against Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in a Murine Model of Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, B.; Soubirou, J. F.; Chau, F.; Massias, L.; Dion, S.; Lepeule, R.; Fantin, B.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the efficacies of cefotaxime (CTX) and amoxicillin (AMX)-clavulanate (CLA) (AMC) against extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in vitro and in a murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI). MICs, the checkerboard dilution method, and time-kill curves were used to explore the in vitro synergism between cefotaxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate against two isogenic E. coli strains—CFT073-RR and its transconjugant, CFT073-RR Tc blaCTX-M-15—harboring a blaCTX-M-15 plasmid and a blaOXA-1 plasmid. For in vivo experiments, mice were separately infected with each strain and treated with cefotaxime, amoxicillin, and clavulanate, alone or in combination, or imipenem, using therapeutic regimens reproducing time of free-drug concentrations above the MIC (fT≥MIC) values close to that obtained in humans. MICs of amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and imipenem were 4/>1,024, 0.125/1,024, and 0.5/0.5 mg/liter, for CFT073-RR and CFT073-RR Tc blaCTX-M-15, respectively. The addition of 2 mg/liter of clavulanate (CLA) restored the susceptibility of CFT073-RR Tc blaCTX-M-15 to CTX (MICs of the CTX-CLA combination, 0.125 mg/liter). The checkerboard dilution method and time-kill curves confirmed an in vitro synergy between amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime against CFT073-RR Tc blaCTX-M-15. In vivo, this antibiotic combination was similarly active against both strains and as effective as imipenem. In conclusion, the cefotaxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate combination appear to be an effective, easy, and already available alternative to carbapenems for the treatment of UTI due to CTX-M-producing E. coli strains. PMID:26525800

  19. The dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 and chloroquine synergize to trigger apoptosis via mitochondrial-lysosomal cross-talk.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Christian; Hugle, Manuela; Cristofanon, Silvia; Tchoghandjian, Aurélie; Fulda, Simone

    2013-06-01

    On the basis of our previous identification of aberrant phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling as a novel poor prognostic factor in neuroblastoma, we evaluated the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 in the present study. Here, BEZ235 acts in concert with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine (CQ) to trigger apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells in a synergistic manner, as calculated by combination index (CI < 0.5). Surprisingly, inhibition of BEZ235-induced autophagy is unlikely the primary mechanism of this synergism as reported in other cancers, since neither inhibition of autophagosome formation by knockdown of Atg7 or Atg5 nor disruption of the autophagic flux by Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) enhance BEZ235-induced apoptosis. BEZ235 stimulates enlargement of the lysosomal compartment and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while CQ promotes lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). In combination, BEZ235 and CQ cooperate to trigger LMP, Bax activation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Lysosome-mediated apoptosis occurs in a ROS-dependent manner, as ROS scavengers significantly reduce BEZ235/CQ-induced loss of MMP, LMP and apoptosis. There is a mitochondrial-lysosomal cross-talk, since lysosomal enzyme inhibitors significantly decrease BEZ235- and CQ-induced drop of MMP and apoptosis. In conclusion, BEZ235 and CQ act in concert to trigger LMP and lysosome-mediated apoptosis via a mitochondrial-lysosomal cross-talk. These findings have important implications for the rational development of PI3K/mTOR inhibitor-based combination therapies. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  20. Antibacterial activity of exogenous glutathione and its synergism on antibiotics sensitize carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Alharbe, Roaa; Almansour, Ayidh; Kwon, Dong H

    2017-10-01

    A major clinical impact of A. baumannii is hospital-acquired infections including ventilator-associated pneumonia. The treatment of this pathogen is often difficult due to its innate and acquired resistance to almost all commercially available antibiotics. Infections with carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant A. baumannii is the most problematic. Glutathione is a tripeptide thiol-antioxidant and antibacterial activity of exogenous glutathione was reported in some bacteria. However, clinical relevance and molecular details of the antibacterial activity of glutathione are currently unclear. Seventy clinical isolates of A. baumannii including 63 carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates and a type strain A. baumannii ATCC 19606 were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) and time-killing activity with meropenem and/or glutathione were also determined in the carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates. In addition, the roles of exogenous glutathione in multidrug efflux pumps and β-lactamase production were examined. Levels of MIC and MBC were ranged from 10 to 15mM of exogenous glutathione. All tested carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates were sensitized by all tested antibiotics in combination with subinhibitory concentrations of glutathione. FIC levels of glutathione with carbapenem (meropenem) were all<0.5 and the carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates were killed by subinhibitory concentrations of both glutathione and meropenem at>2log10 within 12h, suggesting glutathione synergistically interacts with meropenem. The roles of multidrug efflux pumps and β-lactamase production were excluded for the glutathione-mediated antibiotic susceptibility. Overall results demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of glutathione is clinically relevant and its synergism on antibiotics sensitizes clinical isolates of A

  1. Apoptotic cell infusion treats ongoing collagen-induced arthritis, even in the presence of methotrexate, and is synergic with anti-TNF therapy.

    PubMed

    Bonnefoy, Francis; Daoui, Anna; Valmary-Degano, Séverine; Toussirot, Eric; Saas, Philippe; Perruche, Sylvain

    2016-08-11

    Apoptotic cell-based therapies have been proposed to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intravenous (i.v.) apoptotic cell infusion in ongoing collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and the interaction of this therapy with other treatments used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including methotrexate (MTX) or anti-TNF therapy. The effects of i.v. apoptotic cell infusion were evaluated in a CIA mouse model in DBA/1 mice immunized with bovine type II collagen. The number and functions of antigen-presenting cells (APC), regulatory CD4(+) T cells (Treg), and circulating anti-collagen auto-antibodies were analyzed in CIA mice. Treatment of arthritic mice with i.v. apoptotic cell infusion significantly reduced the arthritis clinical score. This therapeutic approach modified T cell responses against the collagen auto-antigen with selective induction of collagen-specific Treg. In addition, we observed that APC from apoptotic-cell-treated animals were resistant to toll-like receptor ligand activation and favored ex vivo Treg induction, indicating APC reprogramming. Apoptotic cell injection-induced arthritis modulation was dependent on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, as neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody prevented the effects of apoptotic cells. Methotrexate did not interfere, while anti-TNF therapy was synergic with apoptotic-cell-based therapy. Overall, our data demonstrate that apoptotic-cell-based therapy is efficient in treating ongoing CIA, compatible with current RA treatments, and needs to be evaluated in humans in the treatment of RA.

  2. Synergic effect of salivary pH baselines and low pH intakes on the force relaxation of orthodontic latex elastics.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Shabnam; Farjood, Amin; Zare, Mahbubeh

    2017-01-01

    Latex elastics are still in common use due to their low cost and high flexibility to improve sagittal discrepancies or interdigitation of teeth. Mechanical properties of elastics are influenced by several environmental factors such as pH changes. This study evaluated similar latex elastics to define the influence of synergic effect of intermittent low pH and various baselines pH of saliva. Four groups of latex elastics (3-M Unitek, 3/16 inch) were tested ( n = 15 in each group). Two groups of elastics were immersed in two tanks of artificial saliva with different pH levels of 7 and 5, and two groups were immersed in two tanks of artificial saliva with intermittent drop of pH to 4. The force was measured when the elastics were stretched to 25 mm. These measurements were taken in 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h for each group. Repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey's test were used to assess the findings. The level of significance was 0.05%. The interaction between pH and time analyzed with RMANOVA showed no significant differences ( P > 0.05) except in 36 h ( P = 0.014). The Tukey's analysis showed that each comparison between any two groups did not indicate significant differences ( P > 0.05) except between Groups 1 and 3 and between Groups 2 and 3 ( P < 0.05). No significant correlation was seen between fluctuation of pH and force degradation in latex elastic band except in 36 h.

  3. A Novel Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus that Synergizes with Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway Inhibitors to Target Glioblastoma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Ryuichi; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Martuza, Robert L.; Rabkin, Samuel D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To develop a new oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) for glioblastoma therapy that will be effective in glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), an important and untargeted component of glioblastoma. One approach to enhance oHSV efficacy is by combination with other therapeutic modalities. Experimental design MG18L, containing a US3 deletion and an inactivating LacZ insertion in UL39, was constructed for the treatment of brain tumors. Safety was evaluated after intracerebral injection in HSV-susceptible mice. The efficacy of MG18L in human GSCs and glioma cell lines in vitro was compared to other oHSVs, alone or in combination with PI3K/Akt inhibitors (LY294002, triciribine, GDC-0941, BEZ235). Cytotoxic interactions between MG18L and PI3K/Akt inhibitors were determined using Chou-Talalay analysis. In vivo efficacy studies were performed using a clinically relevant mouse model of GSC-derived glioblastoma. Results MG18L was severely neuroattenuated in mice, replicated well in GSCs, and had anti-glioblastoma activity in vivo. PI3K/Akt inhibitors displayed significant but variable anti-proliferative activities in GSCs, while their combination with MG18L synergized in killing GSCs and glioma lines, but not human astrocytes, through enhanced induction of apoptosis. Importantly, synergy was independent of inhibitor sensitivity. In vivo, the combination of MG18L and LY294002 significantly prolonged survival of mice, as compared to either agent alone, achieving 50% long-term survival in glioblastoma-bearing mice. Conclusions This study establishes a novel therapeutic strategy: oHSV manipulation of critical oncogenic pathways to sensitize cancer cells to molecularly-targeted drugs. MG18L is a promising agent for the treatment of glioblastoma, being especially effective when combined with PI3K/Akt pathway-targeted agents. PMID:21505062

  4. Cefotaxime and Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Synergism against Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in a Murine Model of Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Rossi, B; Soubirou, J F; Chau, F; Massias, L; Dion, S; Lepeule, R; Fantin, B; Lefort, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the efficacies of cefotaxime (CTX) and amoxicillin (AMX)-clavulanate (CLA) (AMC) against extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in vitro and in a murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI). MICs, the checkerboard dilution method, and time-kill curves were used to explore the in vitro synergism between cefotaxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate against two isogenic E. coli strains-CFT073-RR and its transconjugant, CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15)-harboring a bla(CTX-M-15) plasmid and a bla(OXA-1) plasmid. For in vivo experiments, mice were separately infected with each strain and treated with cefotaxime, amoxicillin, and clavulanate, alone or in combination, or imipenem, using therapeutic regimens reproducing time of free-drug concentrations above the MIC (fT≥MIC) values close to that obtained in humans. MICs of amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and imipenem were 4/>1,024, 0.125/1,024, and 0.5/0.5 mg/liter, for CFT073-RR and CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15), respectively. The addition of 2 mg/liter of clavulanate (CLA) restored the susceptibility of CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15) to CTX (MICs of the CTX-CLA combination, 0.125 mg/liter). The checkerboard dilution method and time-kill curves confirmed an in vitro synergy between amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime against CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15). In vivo, this antibiotic combination was similarly active against both strains and as effective as imipenem. In conclusion, the cefotaxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate combination appear to be an effective, easy, and already available alternative to carbapenems for the treatment of UTI due to CTX-M-producing E. coli strains. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. 6SLN-lipo PGA specifically catches (coats) human influenza virus and synergizes neuraminidase-targeting drugs for human influenza therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Sriwilaijaroen, Nongluk; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Takashita, Emi; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Kanie, Osamu; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new compound to overcome influenza epidemics and pandemics as well as drug resistance. We synthesized a new compound carrying: (i) Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc (6SLN) for targeting immutable haemagglutinins (HAs) unless switched from human-type receptor preference; (ii) an acyl chain (lipo) for locking the compound with the viral HA via hydrophobic interactions; and (iii) a flexible poly-α-L-glutamic acid (PGA) for enhancing the compound solubility and for coating the viral surface, precluding accessibility of the PGA-coated virus to the negatively charged sialic acid on the host cell surface. 6SLN-lipo PGA appears to subvert binding of pandemic H1 and seasonal H3 HAs to receptors, as assessed by using guinea pig erythrocytes, which is critical for virus entry into host cells for multiplication. It shows high potency with IC50 values in the range of 300-500 nM against multiplication of both influenza pandemic H1N1/2009 and seasonal H3N2/2004 viruses in cell culture. It acts in synergism with either of the two FDA-approved neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) clinical drugs, zanamivir (Relenza(®)) and oseltamivir carboxylate (active form of Tamiflu(®)), and it has the potential to aid NAI drugs to achieve complete clearance of the virus from the culture. 6SLN-lipo PGA is a new potential candidate drug for influenza control and is an attractive candidate for use in combination with an NAI drug for minimized toxicity, delayed development of resistance, prevention and treatment with the potential for eradication of human influenza. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. p53−/− synergizes with enhanced NrasG12D signaling to transform megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Guangyao; Rajagopalan, Adhithi; Lu, Li; Song, Jingming; Hussaini, Mohamed; Zhang, Xinmin; Ranheim, Erik A.; Liu, Yangang; Wang, Jinyong; Gao, Xin; Chang, Yuan-I; Johnson, Kirby D.; Zhou, Yun; Yang, David; Bhatnagar, Bhavana; Lucas, David M.; Bresnick, Emery H.; Zhong, Xuehua; Padron, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Somatic mutations in TP53 and NRAS are associated with transformation of human chronic myeloid diseases to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we report that concurrent RAS pathway and TP53 mutations are identified in a subset of AML patients and confer an inferior overall survival. To further investigate the genetic interaction between p53 loss and endogenous NrasG12D/+ in AML, we generated conditional NrasG12D/+p53−/− mice. Consistent with the clinical data, recipient mice transplanted with NrasG12D/+p53−/− bone marrow cells rapidly develop a highly penetrant AML. We find that p53−/− cooperates with NrasG12D/+ to promote increased quiescence in megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors (MEPs). NrasG12D/+p53−/− MEPs are transformed to self-renewing AML-initiating cells and are capable of inducing AML in serially transplanted recipients. RNA sequencing analysis revealed that transformed MEPs gain a partial hematopoietic stem cell signature and largely retain an MEP signature. Their distinct transcriptomes suggests a potential regulation by p53 loss. In addition, we show that during AML development, transformed MEPs acquire overexpression of oncogenic Nras, leading to hyperactivation of ERK1/2 signaling. Our results demonstrate that p53−/− synergizes with enhanced oncogenic Nras signaling to transform MEPs and drive AML development. This model may serve as a platform to test candidate therapeutics in this aggressive subset of AML. PMID:27815262

  7. Co-synergism of endophyte Penicillium resedanum LK6 with salicylic acid helped Capsicum annuum in biomass recovery and osmotic stress mitigation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Water-deficiency adversely affects crop growth by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) at cellular level. To mitigate such stressful events, it was aimed to investigate the co-synergism of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and symbiosis of endophytic fungus with Capsicum annuum L. (pepper). Results The findings of the study showed that exogenous SA (10-6 M) application to endophyte (Penicillium resedanum LK6) infected plants not only increased the shoot length and chlorophyll content but also improved the biomass recovery of pepper plants under polyethylene glycol (15%) induced osmotic stress (2, 4 and 8 days). Endophyte-infected plants had low cellular injury and high photosynthesis rate. SA also enhanced the colonization rate of endophyte in the host-plant roots. Endophyte and SA, in combination, reduced the production of ROS by increasing the total polyphenol, reduce glutathione, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase as compared to control plants. Osmotic stress pronounced the lipid peroxidation and superoxide anions formation in control plants as compared to endophyte and SA-treated plants. The endogenous SA contents were significantly higher in pepper plants treated with endophyte and SA under osmotic stress as compared to control. Conclusion Endophytic fungal symbiosis and exogenous SA application can help the plants to relieve the adverse effects of osmotic stress by decreasing losses in biomass as compared to non-inoculated plants. These findings suggest that SA application positively impact microbial colonization while in combination, it reprograms the plant growth under various intervals of drought stress. Such symbiotic strategy can be useful for expanding agriculture production in drought prone lands. PMID:23452409

  8. The novel Akt inhibitor API-1 induces c-FLIP degradation and synergizes with TRAIL to augment apoptosis independent of Akt inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Ren, Hui; Yue, Ping; Chen, Mingwei; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2012-01-01

    API-1 is a novel small molecule inhibitor of Akt, which acts by binding to Akt and preventing its membrane translocation, and has promising preclinical antitumor activity. In this study, we reveal a novel function of API-1 in regulation of c-FLIP levels and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis, independent of Akt inhibition. API-1 effectively induced apoptosis in tested cancer cell lines including activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9. It reduced the levels of c-FLIP without increasing the expression of DR4 or DR5. Accordingly, it synergized with TRAIL to induce apoptosis. Enforced expression of ectopic c-FLIP did not attenuate API-1-induced apoptosis, but inhibited its ability to enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that downregulation of c-FLIP mediates enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by API-1, but is not sufficient for API-1-induced apoptosis. API-1-induced reduction of c-FLIP could be blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Moreover, API-1 increased c-FLIP ubiquitination and decreased c-FLIP stability. These data together suggest that API-1 downregulates c-FLIP by facilitating its ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Since other Akt inhibitors including API-2 and MK2206 had minimal effects on reducing c-FLIP and enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis, it is likely that API-1 reduces c-FLIP and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis independent of its Akt-inhibitory activity. PMID:22345097

  9. Marked synergism between mutant SOD1 and glutamate transport inhibition in the induction of motor neuronal degeneration in spinal cord slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong Z; Weiss, John H

    2012-04-11

    Loss of astrocytic glutamate transport capacity in ALS spinal cord supports an excitotoxic contribution to motor neuron (MN) damage in the disease, and dominant gain of function mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause certain familial forms of ALS. We have used organotypic slice cultures from wild type and G93A SOD1 mutant rat spinal cords to examine interactions between excitotoxicity and the presence of mutant SOD1 in the induction of MN degeneration. Slice cultures were prepared from 1 week old pups, and after an additional week in vitro, some were exposed to either a low level (30 μM) of the glutamate uptake inhibitor, trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) for 3 weeks, or a higher level (50 μM) for 48 h, followed by histochemical labeling to assess MN injury. In wild type animals these exposures caused relatively little MN degeneration. Similarly, little MN degeneration was seen in slices from SOD1 mutant animals that were not exposed to PDC. However, addition of PDC to SOD1 mutant slices resulted in substantial MN injury, which was markedly attenuated by a Ca2+ permeable AMPA-type (Ca-AMPA) glutamate channel blocker, or by a nitric oxide synthase antagonist. These observations illustrate the utility of the organotypic culture model for the investigation of intracellular interactions underlying MN degeneration in ALS, and support the hypothesis that activation of Ca-AMPA channels on MNs provides a metabolic burden that synergizes with deleterious effects of mutant SOD1 in the induction of MN injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Circadian Disruption and Diet-Induced Obesity Synergize to Promote Development of β-Cell Failure and Diabetes in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jingyi; Yeh, Bonnie; Rakshit, Kuntol; Colwell, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    There are clear epidemiological associations between circadian disruption, obesity, and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms driving these associations are unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that continuous exposure to constant light (LL) compromises pancreatic β-cell functional and morphological adaption to diet-induced obesity leading to development of type 2 diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we studied wild type Sprague Dawley as well as Period-1 luciferase reporter transgenic rats (Per1-Luc) for 10 weeks under standard light-dark cycle (LD) or LL with concomitant ad libitum access to either standard chow or 60% high-fat diet (HFD). Exposure to HFD led to a comparable increase in food intake, body weight, and adiposity in both LD- and LL-treated rats. However, LL rats displayed profound loss of behavioral circadian rhythms as well as disrupted pancreatic islet clock function characterized by the impairment in the amplitude and the phase islet clock oscillations. Under LD cycle, HFD did not adversely alter diurnal glycemia, diurnal insulinemia, β-cell secretory function as well as β-cell survival, indicating successful adaptation to increased metabolic demand. In contrast, concomitant exposure to LL and HFD resulted in development of hyperglycemia characterized by loss of diurnal changes in insulin secretion, compromised β-cell function, and induction of β-cell apoptosis. This study suggests that circadian disruption and diet-induced obesity synergize to promote development of β-cell failure, likely mediated as a consequence of impaired islet clock function. PMID:26348474

  11. Protein Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  12. Detecting Selection on Protein Stability through Statistical Mechanical Models of Folding and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bastolla, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    The properties of biomolecules depend both on physics and on the evolutionary process that formed them. These two points of view produce a powerful synergism. Physics sets the stage and the constraints that molecular evolution has to obey, and evolutionary theory helps in rationalizing the physical properties of biomolecules, including protein folding thermodynamics. To complete the parallelism, protein thermodynamics is founded on the statistical mechanics in the space of protein structures, and molecular evolution can be viewed as statistical mechanics in the space of protein sequences. In this review, we will integrate both points of view, applying them to detecting selection on the stability of the folded state of proteins. We will start discussing positive design, which strengthens the stability of the folded against the unfolded state of proteins. Positive design justifies why statistical potentials for protein folding can be obtained from the frequencies of structural motifs. Stability against unfolding is easier to achieve for longer proteins. On the contrary, negative design, which consists in destabilizing frequently formed misfolded conformations, is more difficult to achieve for longer proteins. The folding rate can be enhanced by strengthening short-range native interactions, but this requirement contrasts with negative design, and evolution has to trade-off between them. Finally, selection can accelerate functional movements by favoring low frequency normal modes of the dynamics of the native state that strongly correlate with the functional conformation change. PMID:24970217

  13. Community-based lifestyle modification of cardiovascular disease risks in middle-aged Japanese: a 27-month update.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiroko; Muto, Takashi; Haruyama, Yasuo; Nakade, Makiko; Kobayashi, Emiko; Ishisaki, Kaori; Yamasaki, Akiko

    2010-04-01

    Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of preventive management for people with cardiovascular disease risks, such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. This study investigated the effect of a 27-month community-based lifestyle intervention on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risks in middle-aged Japanese. Of 549 participants with cardiovascular disease risk factors of overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes enrolled in this non-randomized controlled study, 397 participants aged 39-71 years old completed all 3 serial surveys at baseline, 15 months and 27 months. For the intervention group (39 males and 174 females), 31 specific interventions including individual counselling and group sessions were conducted. The control group (64 males and 120 females) only received 7 newsletters providing health information and results of health checkups. Multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex, each baseline risk category and age category showed that the proportion of those who were overweight or showed dyslipidemia risk were significantly lower in the intervention group only at 27 months [Odds ratio (OR): 0.43 (95% CI 0.20-0.94), OR: 0.43 (95% CI 0.21-0.87), respectively] and the proportion of those showing diabetes risk was significantly lower in the intervention group at both 15 months [OR: 0.42 (95% CI 0.18-0.97)] and 27 months [OR: 0.56 (95% CI 0.32-0.99)]. In conclusion, the 27-month community-based lifestyle modification of cardiovascular disease risks shows significant reductions in risks of diabetes, overweight and dyslipidemia in middle-aged Japanese.

  14. A long baseline RICH with a 27-kiloton water target and radiator for detection of neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Ypsilantis, T.; Seguinot, J.; Zichichi, A.

    1997-01-01

    A 27 kt water volume is investigated as a target for a long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso. Charged secondaries from the neutrino interactions produce Cherenkov photons in water which are imaged as rings by a spherical mirror. The photon detector elements are 14 400 photomultipliers (PM`s) of 127 mm diameter or 3600 HPD`s of 250 mm diameter with single photon sensitivity. A coincidence signal of about 300 pixel elements in time with the SPS beam starts readout in bins of 1 ns over a period of 128 ns. Momentum, direction, and velocity of hadrons and muconsmore » are determined from the width, center, and radius of the rings, respectively. Momentum is measured if multiple scattering dominates the ring width, as is the case for most of the particles of interest. Momentum, direction, and velocity of hadrons and muons are determined from the width, center, and radius of the rings, respectively. Momentum is measured if multiple scattering dominates the ring width, as is the case for most of the particles of interest. Momentum resolutions of 1-10%, mass resolutions of 5-50 MeV, and direction resolutions of < 1 mrad are achievable. Thresholds in water for muons, pions, kaons, and protons are 0.12, 0.16, 0.55, and 1.05 GeV/c, respectively. Electrons and gammas can be measured with energy resolution {sigma}{sub E}/E{approx}8.5%/{radical}E(GeV) and with direction resolution {approx} 1 mrad. The detector can be sited either inside a Gran Sasso tunnel or above ground because it is directional and the SPS beam is pulsed; thus the rejection of cosmic ray background is excellent.« less

  15. Vaccination with a codon-optimized A27L-containing plasmid decreases virus replication and dissemination after vaccinia virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Osmarie; Bravo Cruz, Ariana; Santos, Saritza; Ramírez, Maite; Miranda, Eric; Shisler, Joanna; Otero, Miguel

    2017-10-20

    Smallpox is a disease caused by Variola virus (VARV). Although eradicated by WHO in 1980, the threat of using VARV on a bioterror attack has increased. The current smallpox vaccine ACAM2000, which consists of live vaccinia virus (VACV), causes complications in individuals with a compromised immune system or with previously reported skin diseases. Thus, a safer and efficacious vaccine needs to be developed. Previously, we reported that our virus-free DNA vaccine formulation, a pVAX1 plasmid encoding codon-optimized VACV A27L gene (pA27LOPT) with and without Imiquimod adjuvant, stimulates A27L-specific production of IFN-γ and increases humoral immunity 7days post-vaccination. Here, we investigated the immune response of our novel vaccine by measuring the frequency of splenocytes producing IFN-γ by ELISPOT, the TH1 and TH2 cytokine profiles, and humoral immune responses two weeks post-vaccination, when animals were challenged with VACV. In all assays, the A27-based DNA vaccine conferred protective immune responses. Specifically, two weeks after vaccination, mice were challenged intranasally with vaccinia virus, and viral titers in mouse lungs and ovaries were significantly lower in groups immunized with pA27LOPT and pA27LOPT+Imiquimod. These results demonstrate that our vaccine formulation decreases viral replication and dissemination in a virus-free DNA vaccine platform, and provides an alternative towards a safer an efficacious vaccine. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The metazoan protein disaggregase and amyloid depolymerase system: Hsp110, Hsp70, Hsp40, and small heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Torrente, Mariana P; Shorter, James

    2013-01-01

    A baffling aspect of metazoan proteostasis is the lack of an Hsp104 ortholog that rapidly disaggregates and reactivates misfolded polypeptides trapped in stress induced disordered aggregates, preamyloid oligomers, or amyloid fibrils. By contrast, in bacteria, protozoa, chromista, fungi, and plants, Hsp104 orthologs are highly conserved and confer huge selective advantages in stress tolerance. Moreover, in fungi, the amyloid remodeling activity of Hsp104 has enabled deployment of prions for various beneficial modalities. Thus, a longstanding conundrum has remained unanswered: how do metazoan cells renature aggregated proteins or resolve amyloid fibrils without Hsp104? Here, we highlight recent advances that unveil the metazoan protein-disaggregase machinery, comprising Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, which synergize to dissolve disordered aggregates, but are unable to rapidly solubilize stable amyloid fibrils. However, Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40 exploit the slow monomer exchange dynamics of amyloid, and can slowly depolymerize amyloid fibrils from their ends in a manner that is stimulated by small heat shock proteins. Upregulation of this system could have key therapeutic applications in various protein-misfolding disorders. Intriguingly, yeast Hsp104 can interface with metazoan Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40 to rapidly eliminate disease associated amyloid. Thus, metazoan proteostasis is receptive to augmentation with exogenous disaggregases, which opens a number of therapeutic opportunities.

  17. Soil Degradation Evaluated by a 27 years Landsat image (Vis-Nir-Swir-Tir), climate and digital elevation derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dematte, J. A., Sr.; Santos, N. V.; de Almeida Malzoni, M. M.; Poppiel, R. R.; Fongaro, C. T.; Rizzo, R.; Safanelli, J. L.; Sayão, V. M.; Mendes, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    According to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 30% of the global soils are degraded. Therefore, novel researches on soil degradation process are imperative to prevent damages on social and environmental dynamics. Since we have a wide world dimension, and few manpower, we have to focus on high dimensional evaluation techniques such as remote sensing. The main goal of this work was to develop a method, based on a 27 years time-series of satellite images (Landsat), from which determine the most important factors on soil degradation. The area is located in south Brazil with a 1400 km2 area. The steps of the method are as follows: a) we collected images from the area and based on a novel technique determined the areas with exposed soils; b) we quantified soil properties such as clay and capacity of ionic exchange based on pixel spectra signature; c) the technique also indicated how many times a single pixel was with bare soil during the period; d) we also determined the surface temperature based on band 6; e) using elevation model we created the layers LS factor, drainage density, topographic wetness index, solar radiation; f) we also determined climate information (water balance); g) organic matter (OM) was also estimated. All factors from item a to f were balanced and overlapped (GIS) to generate an index of soil degradation, SD (fig 1a) - values from 1 (low risk) to 5 (high risk). We concluded that 30% of the area is degraded. SD presented coherent values with OM and validate the method. We observed that areas with higher SD (5) contain 43.6% less OM than the ones with low risk (1). In addition, the soil spectral reflectance curve was analyzed concluding that degraded soils shows higher intensity. The current land use (fig 1b) was correlated demonstrating that a higher risk of SD happens mainly in sugar cane (41.6%) in contrast to pasture (16.9%) and forestry (11.7%). Therefore, this approach allows land uses decision-making and public policies.

  18. Astemizole Synergizes Calcitriol Antiproliferative Activity by Inhibiting CYP24A1 and Upregulating VDR: A Novel Approach for Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, David; Santos, Nancy; Avila, Euclides; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Rivas-Suárez, Mariana; Halhali, Ali; Rodríguez, Pamela; Gamboa-Domínguez, Armando; Medina-Franco, Heriberto; Camacho, Javier; Larrea, Fernando; Díaz, Lorenza

    2012-01-01

    Background Calcitriol antiproliferative effects include inhibition of the oncogenic ether-à-go-go-1 potassium channel (Eag1) expression, which is necessary for cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. Astemizole, a new promising antineoplastic drug, targets Eag1 by blocking ion currents. Herein, we characterized the interaction between calcitriol and astemizole as well as their conjoint antiproliferative action in SUM-229PE, T-47D and primary tumor-derived breast cancer cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Molecular markers were studied by immunocytochemistry, Western blot and real time PCR. Inhibitory concentrations were determined by dose-response curves and metabolic activity assays. At clinically achievable drug concentrations, synergistic antiproliferative interaction was observed between calcitriol and astemizole, as calculated by combination index analysis (CI <1). Astemizole significantly enhanced calcitriol’s growth-inhibitory effects (3–11 folds, P<0.01). Mean IC20 values were 1.82±2.41 nM and 1.62±0.75 µM; for calcitriol (in estrogen receptor negative cells) and astemizole, respectively. Real time PCR showed that both drugs alone downregulated, while simultaneous treatment further reduced Ki-67 and Eag1 gene expression (P<0.05). Astemizole inhibited basal and calcitriol-induced CYP24A1 and CYP3A4 mRNA expression (cytochromes involved in calcitriol and astemizole degradation) in breast and hepatoma cancer cells, respectively, while upregulated vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression. Conclusions/Significance Astemizole synergized calcitriol antiproliferative effects by downregulating CYP24A1, upregulating VDR and targeting Eag1. This study provides insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in astemizole-calcitriol combined antineoplastic effect, offering scientific support to test both compounds in combination in further preclinical and clinical studies of neoplasms expressing VDR and Eag1. VDR-negative tumors might also be sensitized to

  19. Concurrent synergism and inhibition in bimetallic catalysis: catalytic binuclear elimination, solute-solute interactions and a hetero-bimetallic hydrogen-bonded complex in rh-mo hydroformylations.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanzhao; Cheng, Shuying; Tjahjono, Martin; Schreyer, Martin; Garland, Marc

    2010-04-07

    Hydroformylations of cyclopentene and 3,3-dimethylbut-1-ene were performed using both Rh(4)(CO)(12) and (eta(5)-C(5)H(5))Mo(CO)(3)H as precursors in n-hexane at 298 K. Both stoichiometric and catalytic hydroformylations were conducted as well as isotopic labeling experiments. Six organometallic pure component spectra were recovered from the high-pressure FTIR experiments, namely the known species Rh(4)(CO)(12), (eta(5)-C(5)H(5))Mo(CO)(3)H, RCORh(CO)(4), and the new heterobimetallic complexes RhMo(CO)(7)(eta(5)-C(5)H(5)), a weak hydrogen bonded species (eta(5)-C(5)H(5))Mo(CO)(3)H-C(5)H(9)CORh(CO)(4), and a substituted RhMo(CO)(7-y)(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))L(y), where y = 1 or 2 and L = (pi-C(5)H(8)). The main findings were (1) catalytic binuclear elimination (CBER) occurs between (eta(5)-C(5)H(5))Mo(CO)(3)H and RCORh(CO)(4) resulting in aldehyde and RhMo(CO)(7)(eta(5)-C(5)H(5)), and this mechanism is responsible for ca. 10% of the product formation; (2) molecular hydrogen is readily activated by the new heterobimetallic complex(es); (3) FTIR and DFT spectroscopic evidence suggests that the weak hydrogen bonded species (eta(5)-C(5)H(5))Mo(CO)(3)H-C(5)H(9)CORh(CO)(4) has an interaction of the type eta(5)-C(5)H(4)-H...O=C; and (4) independent physicochemical experiments for volumes of interaction confirm that significant solute-solute interactions are present. With respect to the efficiency of the catalytic cycle, the formation of a weak (eta(5)-C(5)H(5))Mo(CO)(3)H-C(5)H(9)CORh(CO)(4) complex results in a significant decrease in the measured turnover frequency (TOF) and is the primary reason for the inhibition observed in the bimetallic catalytic hydroformylation. Such hydrogen bonding through the eta(5)-C(5)H(5) ring might have relevance to inhibition observed in other catalytic metallocene systems. The present catalytic system is an example of concurrent synergism and inhibition in bimetallic homogeneous catalysis.

  20. 8 CFR 1245.8 - Adjustment of status as a special immigrant under section 101(a)(27)(K) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status as a special immigrant... PERSON ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 1245.8 Adjustment of status as a special immigrant under... special immigrant under section 101(a)(27)(K) of the Act must file a Form I-485, Application to Register...

  1. Protein adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    Nature uses a wide variety of chemicals for providing adhesion internally (e.g., cell to cell) and externally (e.g., mussels to ships and piers). This adhesive bonding is chemically and mechanically complex, involving a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and other compounds.Consequently,the effect of protein structures on adhesive properties is only partially...

  2. RIPK4 phosphorylates Dishevelled proteins to regulate canonical Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, XiaoDong; McGann, James C.; Liu, Bob Y.; Hannoush, Rami N.; Lill, Jennie R.; Pham, Victoria; Newton, Kim; Kakunda, Michael; Liu, Jinfeng; Yu, Christine; Hymowitz, Sarah G.; Hongo, Jo-Anne; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Polakis, Paul; Harland, Richard M.; Dixit, Vishva M.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor interacting protein kinase 4 (RIPK4) is required for epidermal differentiation (1–4) and is mutated in Bartsocas-Papas syndrome (5, 6). While RIPK4 binds protein kinase C (5, 6), RIPK4 signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. We show that ectopic RIPK4 induces cytosolic β-catenin accumulation and a transcriptional program similar to Wnt3a, whereas kinase-defective or Bartsocas-Papas syndrome RIPK4 mutants do not. Ectopic ripk4 synergized with Wnt family member xwnt8 in Xenopus, whereas ripk4 morpholinos or kinase-defective RIPK4 antagonized Wnt signaling. Mechanistically, RIKP4 interacted constitutively with the Wnt adaptor protein DVL2 and, after Wnt3a stimulation, with the co-receptor LRP6. Phosphorylation of DVL2 at Ser298 and Ser480 by RIPK4 favored canonical Wnt signaling. Growth of a Wnt-dependent N-Tera2 xenograft tumor model was suppressed by RIPK4 knockdown, suggesting that RIPK4 overexpression may contribute to the growth of certain tumor types. PMID:23371553

  3. ATM protein is deficient in over 40% of lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Villaruz, Liza C; Jones, Helen; Dacic, Sanja; Abberbock, Shira; Kurland, Brenda F; Stabile, Laura P; Siegfried, Jill M; Conrads, Thomas P; Smith, Neil R; O'Connor, Mark J; Pierce, Andrew J; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2016-09-06

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the USA and worldwide, and of the estimated 1.2 million new cases of lung cancer diagnosed every year, over 30% are lung adenocarcinomas. The backbone of 1st-line systemic therapy in the metastatic setting, in the absence of an actionable oncogenic driver, is platinum-based chemotherapy. ATM and ATR are DNA damage signaling kinases activated at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and stalled and collapsed replication forks, respectively. ATM protein is lost in a number of cancer cell lines and ATR kinase inhibitors synergize with cisplatin to resolve xenograft models of ATM-deficient lung cancer. We therefore sought to determine the frequency of ATM loss in a tissue microarray (TMA) of lung adenocarcinoma. Here we report the validation of a commercial antibody (ab32420) for the identification of ATM by immunohistochemistry and estimate that 61 of 147 (41%, 95% CI 34%-50%) cases of lung adenocarcinoma are negative for ATM protein expression. As a positive control for ATM staining, nuclear ATM protein was identified in stroma and immune infiltrate in all evaluable cases. ATM loss in lung adenocarcinoma was not associated with overall survival. However, our preclinical findings in ATM-deficient cell lines suggest that ATM could be a predictive biomarker for synergy of an ATR kinase inhibitor with standard-of-care cisplatin. This could improve clinical outcome in 100,000's of patients with ATM-deficient lung adenocarcinoma every year.

  4. Proteomic identification and purification of seed proteins from native Amazonian species displaying antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Márcio V; Brito, Daniel; Freitas, Cléverson D T; Gonçalves, José Francisco C; Porfirio, Camila T M N; Lobo, Marina D P; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Souza, Luiz A C; Fernandes, Andreia V

    2018-04-19

    Seeds of native species from the rain forest (Amazon) are source of chitinases and their protein extracts exhibited strong and broad antifungal activity. Numerous plant species native to the Amazon have not yet been chemically studied. Studies of seeds are scarcer, since adversities in accessing study areas and seasonality pose constant hurdles to systematic research. In this study, proteins were extracted from seeds belonging to endemic Amazon species and were investigated for the first time. Proteolytic activity, peptidase inhibitors, and chitinases were identified, but chitinolytic activity predominated. Four proteins were purified through chromatography and identified as lectin and chitinases by MS/MS analyses. The proteins were examined for inhibition of a phytopathogen (Fusarium oxysporum). Analyses by fluorescence microscopy suggested binding of propidium iodide to DNA of fungal spores, revealing that spore integrity was lost when accessed by the proteins. Further structural and functional analyses of defensive proteins belonging to species facing highly complex ecosystems such as Amazonia should be conducted, since these could provide new insights into specificity and synergism involving defense proteins of plants submitted to a very complex ecosystem.

  5. New Co–Pd–Zn γ-Brasses with Dilute Ferrimagnetism and Co 2Zn 11 Revisited: Establishing the Synergism between Theory and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Weiwei; Miller, Gordon J

    2014-04-22

    A synergism between electronic structure theory and the targeted synthesis of new ternary γ-brass compounds is demonstrated in the Co–Zn system. Co 2Zn 11, which adopts a cubic γ-brass structure, is shown to be at the Zn-rich end of a homogeneity range that varies from 15.4 to 22.1 atom % Co. Four samples were examined by single-crystal diffraction, all of which crystallize in space group I43¯m with the lattice parameter ranging from 8.9851(1) to 8.8809(1) Å as the Co content increases. In the 26-atom γ-brass clusters, Co atoms preferentially occupy the outer tetrahedron (OT) sites and then replace Zn atomsmore » at the octahedron (OH) sites at higher Co concentrations. In addition, a small fraction of vacancies occurs on the inner tetrahedron (IT) sites. The electronic structure of Co 2Zn 11 shows two distinct pseudogaps near the Fermi level: one at 292 valence electrons per primitive unit cell and the other at 302–304 valence electrons per primitive unit cell. Using molecular orbital arguments applied to the body-centered cubic packing of the 26-atom Co 4Zn 22 γ-brass cluster, these pseudogaps arise from (i) splitting among the valence s and p orbitals, which gives rise to the Hume–Rothery electron counting rule, and (ii) splitting within the manifold of Co 3d orbitals via Co–Zn orbital interactions. Co 2Zn 11 is Pauli paramagnetic, although the density of states at the Fermi level is large, whereas Curie–Weiss behavior emerges for higher Co concentrations. Because Pd has a size and an electronegativity similar to those of Zn, and inspired by the pseudogaps in the electronic density of states curve of Co 2Zn 11, Pd-doped γ-brass compounds were designed and two new γ-brass compounds were obtained: Co 0.92(2)Pd 1.08Zn 11 and Co 2.50(1)Pd 2.50Zn 8. In these, the site preferences for Co and Pd can be rationalized by electronic structure calculations. The densities of states indicate that Co 3d states are the major contributors near their Fermi

  6. Potential of multispectral synergism for observing tropospheric ozone by combining IR and UV measurements from incoming LEO (EPS-SG) and GEO (MTG) satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantino, Lorenzo; Cuesta, Juan; Emili, Emanuele; Coman, Adriana; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Chailleux, Yohann; Beekmann, Matthias; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2017-04-01

    Satellite observations offer a great potential for monitoring air quality on daily and global basis. However, measurements from currently in orbit sensors do not allow to probe surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as tropospheric ozone (Liu et al., 2010). Using single-band approaches based on spaceborne measurements of either thermal infrared radiance (TIR, Eremenko et al., 2008) or ultraviolet reflectance (UV, Liu et al., 2010) only ozone down to the lower troposphere (3 km) may be observed. A recent multispectral method (referred to as IASI+GOME-2) combining the information of IASI and GOME-2 (both onboard MetOp satellites) spectra, respectively from the TIR and UV, has shown enhanced sensitivity for probing ozone at the lowermost troposphere (LMT, below 3 km of altitude) with maximum sensitivity down to 2.20 km a.s.l. over land, while sensitivity for IASI or GOME-2 only peaks at 3 to 4 km at lowest (Cuesta et al., 2013). Future spatial missions will be launched in the upcoming years on both low and geostationary orbits, such as EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System Second Generation) and MTG (Meteosat Third Generation), carrying respectively IASI-NG (for IR) and UVNS (for UV), and IRS (for IR) and UVN (Sentinel 4, for UV). This new-generation sensors will enhance the capacity to observe ozone pollution and particularly by synergism of multispectral measurements. In this work we develop a pseudo-observation simulator and evaluate the potential of future EPS-SG and MTG satellite observations, through IASI-NG+UVNS and IRS+UVN multispectral methods to observe near-surface O3. The pseudo-real state of atmosphere (nature run) is provided by MOCAGE (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Échelle) chemical transport model. Simulations are calibrated by careful comparisons with real data, to ensure the best coherence between pseudo-reality and reality, as well as between the pseudo-observation simulator and existing satellite products. We perform full and

  7. A 27-Year-Old Man With Acute Severe Low Back Pain and Bilateral Leg Swelling That Prompted Renting a Wheelchair for Mobility.

    PubMed

    Williams, John G; Phan, Huy; Winston, Helena R; Fugit, Randolph V; Graney, Bridget; Jamroz, Brant; English, Benjamin; Chan, Edward D

    2017-02-01

    A 27-year-old man with OSA, posttraumatic stress disorder, and chronic mechanical back pain presented with a 3-day history of acute atraumatic worsening of his low back pain as well as right groin numbness that was exacerbated by walking. He also complained of bilateral leg "heaviness," pain, and swelling, all becoming so severe that he rented a wheelchair for mobility. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Protein Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  9. Proteins (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... fat and calories. The best protein choices are fish or shellfish, skinless chicken or turkey, low-fat or fat-free dairy (skim milk, low-fat cheese). The best red meats are the leanest cuts (loin and tenderloin). Other healthy options are plant- ...

  10. ESCRT proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chun; Ahmad, Gulzar; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Bhattacharyya, Sohinee; Ortega-Cava, Cesar F; Chung, Byung Min; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Raja, Srikumar M; Naramura, Mayumi; Band, Vimla

    2011-01-01

    ESCRT pathway proteins play a key role in sorting ubiquitinated membrane receptors towards lysosomes providing an important mechanism for attenuating cell surface receptor signaling. However, recent studies point to a positive role of ESCRT proteins in signal transduction in multiple species studied under physiological and pathological conditions. ESCRT components such as Tsg101 and Hrs are overexpressed in human cancers and Tsg101 depletion is detrimental for cell proliferation, survival and transformed phenotype of tumor cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the positive contributions of ESCRT pathway to surface receptor signaling have remained unclear. In a recent study, we showed that Tsg101 and Vps4 are essential for translocation of active Src from endosomes to focal adhesion and invadopodia, thereby revealing a role of ESCRT pathway in promoting Src-mediated migration and invasion. We discuss the implications of these and other recent studies which together suggest a role for the ESCRT pathway in recycling of endocytic cargo proteins, aside from its role in lysosomal targeting, potentially explaining the positive roles of ESCRT proteins in signal transduction. PMID:21866262

  11. Effect of Protein Binding on the Activity of Penicillins in Combination with Gentamicin Against Enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Glew, Richard H.; Moellering, Robert C.

    1979-01-01

    To assess the effect of protein binding by human serum on the synergistic interaction of penicillins with gentamicin, time-kill curves were determined for four penicillins alone and in combination with gentamicin against 10 blood isolates of enterococci. Killing curves demonstrated synergism with penicillin G plus gentamicin against all 10 strains in either broth or 50% human serum. In broth the combinations of nafcillin plus gentamicin and oxacillin plus gentamicin were synergistic against 10 of 10 strains and 4 of 10 strains, respectively. However, in serum, nafcillin plus gentamicin was synergistically bactericidal against only two strains and oxacillin plus gentamicin against none. Methicillin plus gentamicin was synergistic against none of the enterococci in either medium. Thus, the semisynthetic, penicillinase-resistant penicillins are unlikely to be effective in the therapy of patients with enterococcal endocarditis. PMID:426508

  12. Determination of Protein by Fluorescence Enhancement of Curcumin in Lanthanum-Curcumin-Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate-Protein System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yunfeng

    2011-01-01

    We found that the fluorescence intensity of the lanthanum (La(3+))-curcumin (CU) complex can be highly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS). Based on this finding, a new fluorimetric method for the determination of protein was developed. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced intensities of fluorescence are quantitatively in proportion to the concentrations of proteins in the range 0.0080-20.0 g mL(-1) for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.00080-20.0 g mL(-1) for human serum albumin (HSA) with excitation of 425 nm, and 0.00020-20.0 g mL(-1) for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.00080-20.0 g mL(-1)for human serum albuminmore » (HSA) with excitation of 280 nm, while corresponding qualitative detection limits (S/N 3) are as low as 5.368, 0.573, 0.049, 0.562 g mL(-1), respectively. Study on reaction mechanism reveals that proteins can bind with La(3+), CU and SDBS through self-assembling function with electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction and van der Waals forces, etc. The proteins form a supermolecular association with multilayer structure, in which La(3+)-CU is clamped between BSA and SDBS. The unique high fluorescence enhancement of CU is resulted through synergic effects of favorable hydrophobic microenvironment provided by BSA and SDBS, and efficient intermolecular energy transfer among BSA, SDBS and CU. In energy transfer process, La(3+) plays a crucial role because it not only shortens the distance between SDBS and CU, but also acts as a "bridge" for transferring the energy from BSA to CU.« less

  13. MMP-mediated collagen breakdown induced by activated protein C in equine cartilage is reduced by corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Garvican, Elaine R; Vaughan-Thomas, Anne; Redmond, Colette; Gabriel, Natalie; Clegg, Peter D

    2010-03-01

    The plasma serine protease activated protein C (APC) is synthesized by human chondrocytes at sites of pathological cartilage fibrillation. APC levels are increased in osteoarthritis (OA) synovial fluid, and in vitro APC has been shown to synergize with interleukin-1beta (IL-1) to promote degradation from ovine cartilage. A model of equine cartilage degradation was established and used to explore corticosteroid activities. Intraarticular corticosteroids are a commonly prescribed treatment for joint disease, however their role in disease modification remains unclear. APC synergized with IL-1 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), promoting significant collagen degradation from equine cartilage explants within 4 days, but did not augment glycoaminoglycan (GAG) release. APC activated pro-matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 but not pro-MMP-9, as assessed by gelatin zymography. APC did not directly activate pro-MMP-13. Dexamethasone, triamcinolone, and methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) were evaluated at concentrations between 10(- 5)M and 10(-10)M. High concentrations significantly increased GAG release from IL-1+APC-treated explants. With the exception of MPA at 10(-10)M, all concentrations of corticosteroids caused significant decreases in IL-1+APC-driven hydroxyproline loss. Treatment with corticosteroids suppressed expression of MMP-1, -3, and -13 mRNA. The collagenolysis associated with IL-1+APC synergy, and the inhibition of this effect by corticosteroids may involve gelatinase activation and downregulation of MMP expression, respectively.

  14. 14-3-3 Proteins Modulate the ETS Transcription Factor ETV1 in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sangphil; Shin, Sook; Lightfoot, Stan A.; Janknecht, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the ETS-related transcription factor ETV1 can initiate neoplastic transformation of the prostate. ETV1 activity is highly regulated by phosphorylation, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we report that all 14-3-3 proteins, with the exception of the tumor suppressor 14-3-3σ, can bind to ETV1 in a condition manner dictated by its prominent phosphorylation site S216. All non-σ 14-3-3 proteins synergized with ETV1 to activate transcription of its target genes MMP-1 and MMP-7, which regulate extracellular matrix in the prostate tumor microenvironment. S216 mutation or 14-3-3τ downregulation was sufficient to reduce ETV1 protein levels in prostate cancer cells, indicating that non-σ 14-3-3 proteins protect ETV1 from degradation. Notably, S216 mutation also decreased ETV1-dependent migration and invasion in benign prostate cells. Downregulation of 14-3-3τ reduced prostate cancer cell invasion and growth in the same manner as ETV1 attenuation. Lastly, we showed that 14-3-3τ and 14-3-3ε were overexpressed in human prostate tumors. Taken together, our results demonstrated that non-σ 14-3-3 proteins are important modulators of ETV1 function that promote prostate tumorigenesis. PMID:23774214

  15. Detecting protein-protein interactions using Renilla luciferase fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Burbelo, Peter D; Kisailus, Adam E; Peck, Jeremy W

    2002-11-01

    We have developed a novel system designated the luciferase assay for protein detection (LAPD) to study protein-protein interactions. This method involves two protein fusions, a soluble reporter fusion and a fusion for immobilizing the target protein. The soluble reporter is an N-terminal Renilla luciferase fusion protein that exhibits high Renilla luciferase activity. Crude cleared lysates from transfected Cos1 cells that express the Renilla luciferase fusion protein can be used in binding assays with immobilized target proteins. Following incubation and washing, target-bound Renilla luciferase fusion proteins produce light from the coelenterazine substrate, indicating an interaction between the two proteins of interest. As proof of the principle, we reproduced known, transient protein-protein interactions between the Cdc42 GTPase and its effector proteins. GTPase Renilla fusion proteins produced in Cos1 cells were tested with immobilized recombinant GST-N-WASP and CEP5 effector proteins. Using this assay, we could detect specific interactions of Cdc42 with these effector proteins in approximately 50 min. The specificity of these interactions was demonstrated by showing that they were GTPase-specific and GTP-dependent and not seen with other unrelated target proteins. These results suggest that the LAPD method, which is both rapid and sensitive, may have research and practical applications.

  16. Systems modeling accurately predicts responses to genotoxic agents and their synergism with BCL-2 inhibitors in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lucantoni, Federico; Lindner, Andreas U; O'Donovan, Norma; Düssmann, Heiko; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2018-01-19

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of breast cancer which accounts for 15-20% of this disease and is currently treated with genotoxic chemotherapy. The BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) family of proteins controls the process of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which is required for the activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in response to genotoxic agents. We previously developed a deterministic systems model of BCL2 protein interactions, DR_MOMP that calculates the sensitivity of cells to undergo mitochondrial apoptosis. Here we determined whether DR_MOMP predicts responses of TNBC cells to genotoxic agents and the re-sensitization of resistant cells by BCL2 inhibitors. Using absolute protein levels of BAX, BAK, BCL2, BCL(X)L and MCL1 as input for DR_MOMP, we found a strong correlation between model predictions and responses of a panel of TNBC cells to 24 and 48 h cisplatin (R 2  = 0.96 and 0.95, respectively) and paclitaxel treatments (R 2  = 0.94 and 0.95, respectively). This outperformed single protein correlations (best performer BCL(X)L with R 2 of 0.69 and 0.50 for cisplatin and paclitaxel treatments, respectively) and BCL2 proteins ratio (R 2 of 0.50 for cisplatin and 0.49 for paclitaxel). Next we performed synergy studies using the BCL2 selective antagonist Venetoclax /ABT199, the BCL(X)L selective antagonist WEHI-539, or the MCL1 selective antagonist A-1210477 in combination with cisplatin. In silico predictions by DR_MOMP revealed substantial differences in treatment responses of BCL(X)L, BCL2 or MCL1 inhibitors combinations with cisplatin that were successfully validated in cell lines. Our findings provide evidence that DR_MOMP predicts responses of TNBC cells to genotoxic therapy, and can aid in the choice of the optimal BCL2 protein antagonist for combination treatments of resistant cells.

  17. Interaction entropy for protein-protein binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhaoxi; Yan, Yu N.; Yang, Maoyou; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2017-03-01

    Protein-protein interactions are at the heart of signal transduction and are central to the function of protein machine in biology. The highly specific protein-protein binding is quantitatively characterized by the binding free energy whose accurate calculation from the first principle is a grand challenge in computational biology. In this paper, we show how the interaction entropy approach, which was recently proposed for protein-ligand binding free energy calculation, can be applied to computing the entropic contribution to the protein-protein binding free energy. Explicit theoretical derivation of the interaction entropy approach for protein-protein interaction system is given in detail from the basic definition. Extensive computational studies for a dozen realistic protein-protein interaction systems are carried out using the present approach and comparisons of the results for these protein-protein systems with those from the standard normal mode method are presented. Analysis of the present method for application in protein-protein binding as well as the limitation of the method in numerical computation is discussed. Our study and analysis of the results provided useful information for extracting correct entropic contribution in protein-protein binding from molecular dynamics simulations.

  18. Interaction entropy for protein-protein binding.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaoxi; Yan, Yu N; Yang, Maoyou; Zhang, John Z H

    2017-03-28

    Protein-protein interactions are at the heart of signal transduction and are central to the function of protein machine in biology. The highly specific protein-protein binding is quantitatively characterized by the binding free energy whose accurate calculation from the first principle is a grand challenge in computational biology. In this paper, we show how the interactionentropy approach, which was recently proposed for protein-ligand binding free energy calculation, can be applied to computing the entropic contribution to the protein-protein binding free energy. Explicit theoretical derivation of the interactionentropy approach for protein-protein interaction system is given in detail from the basic definition. Extensive computational studies for a dozen realistic protein-protein interaction systems are carried out using the present approach and comparisons of the results for these protein-protein systems with those from the standard normal mode method are presented. Analysis of the present method for application in protein-protein binding as well as the limitation of the method in numerical computation is discussed. Our study and analysis of the results provided useful information for extracting correct entropic contribution in protein-protein binding from molecular dynamics simulations.

  19. Protein Crystallization.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Protein crystallization was discovered by chance nearly 200 years ago and was developed in the late nineteenth century as a powerful purification tool, and a demonstration of chemical purity. The crystallization of proteins, nucleic acids, and large biological complexes, such as viruses, depends on the creation of a solution that is supersaturated in the macromolecule, but exhibits conditions that do not significantly perturb its natural state. Supersaturation is produced through the addition of mild precipitating agents such as neutral salts or polymers, and by manipulation of various parameters that include temperature, ionic strength, and pH. Also important in the crystallization process are factors that can affect the structural state of the macromolecule, such as metal ions, inhibitors, cofactors, or other conventional small molecules. A variety of approaches have been developed that combine the spectrum of factors that effect and promote crystallization, and among the most widely used are vapor diffusion, dialysis, batch, and liquid-liquid diffusion. Successes in macromolecular crystallization have multiplied rapidly in recent years due to the advent of practical, easy-to-use screening kits, and the application of laboratory robotics.

  20. Induction of anti-melanoma CTL response using DC transfected with mutated mRNA encoding full-length Melan-A/MART-1 antigen with an A27L amino acid substitution.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Zeinab; Kalady, Matthew F; Emani, Sirisha; Onaitis, Mark W; Abdel-Wahab, Omar I; Cisco, Robin; Wheless, Lee; Cheng, Tsung-Yen; Tyler, Douglas S; Pruitt, Scott K

    2003-08-01

    Modification of the parental immunodominant Melan-A/MART-1 peptide (MART-1(26-35)) by replacing the alanine with leucine (A27L) enhances its immunogenicity. Because of the reported advantages of RNA over peptides in DC vaccines, we sought to mutate the MART-1 gene to encode a full-length MART-1 antigen with an A27L amino acid substitution. Human DC were transfected with A27L-mutated MART-1 RNA (A27L RNA) or native MART-1 RNA, and then used to stimulate autologous T cells from a series of 8 HLA-A2+ volunteers. After three stimulations, all CTL induced with DC/A27L RNA exhibited more tetramer+ cells, and demonstrated stronger antigen-specific IFNgamma-secreting activity compared to CTL induced with DC/native RNA. A potent MART-1-specific, and predominantly class-I-restricted lysis was detected in most CTL induced with DC/A27L RNA, while native RNA-induced CTL showed minimal and non-specific lysis. HLA-A2+ DC and MART-1 negative/A2+ melanoma cells transfected with the A27L RNA were recognized and killed by MART-1-specific CTL, suggesting that these APC efficiently processed the A27L RNA and presented correct MART-1-specific epitope(s). In summary, introducing an A27L mutation into the MART-1 full-length mRNA sequence enhanced the immunogenicity of the encoded MART-1 Ag. The ease with which such a mutation can be made in RNA presents another potential advantage of using RNA for immunotherapy. Our results support considering this strategy for enhancing the immunogenicity of DC-based RNA vaccines.

  1. Long noncoding RNA H19 interacts with polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 to reprogram hepatic lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chune; Yang, Zhihong; Wu, Jianguo; Zhang, Li; Lee, Sangmin; Shin, Dong-Ju; Tran, Melanie; Wang, Li

    2018-05-01

    H19 is an imprinted long noncoding RNA abundantly expressed in embryonic liver and repressed after birth. We show that H19 serves as a lipid sensor by synergizing with the RNA-binding polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) to modulate hepatic metabolic homeostasis. H19 RNA interacts with PTBP1 to facilitate its association with sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c mRNA and protein, leading to increased stability and nuclear transcriptional activity. H19 and PTBP1 are up-regulated by fatty acids in hepatocytes and in diet-induced fatty liver, which further augments lipid accumulation. Ectopic expression of H19 induces steatosis and pushes the liver into a "pseudo-fed" state in response to fasting by promoting sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c protein cleavage and nuclear translocation. Deletion of H19 or knockdown of PTBP1 abolishes high-fat and high-sucrose diet-induced steatosis. Our study unveils an H19/PTBP1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 feedforward amplifying signaling pathway to exacerbate the development of fatty liver. (Hepatology 2018;67:1768-1783). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Targeting CXCL12 from FAP-expressing carcinoma-associated fibroblasts synergizes with anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Feig, Christine; Jones, James O; Kraman, Matthew; Wells, Richard J B; Deonarine, Andrew; Chan, Derek S; Connell, Claire M; Roberts, Edward W; Zhao, Qi; Caballero, Otavia L; Teichmann, Sarah A; Janowitz, Tobias; Jodrell, Duncan I; Tuveson, David A; Fearon, Douglas T

    2013-12-10

    An autochthonous model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) permitted the analysis of why immunotherapy is ineffective in this human disease. Despite finding that PDA-bearing mice had cancer cell-specific CD8(+) T cells, the mice, like human patients with PDA, did not respond to two immunological checkpoint antagonists that promote the function of T cells: anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (α-CTLA-4) and α-programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (α-PD-L1). Immune control of PDA growth was achieved, however, by depleting carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that express fibroblast activation protein (FAP). The depletion of the FAP(+) stromal cell also uncovered the antitumor effects of α-CTLA-4 and α-PD-L1, indicating that its immune suppressive activity accounts for the failure of these T-cell checkpoint antagonists. Three findings suggested that chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) explained the overriding immunosuppression by the FAP(+) cell: T cells were absent from regions of the tumor containing cancer cells, cancer cells were coated with the chemokine, CXCL12, and the FAP(+) CAF was the principal source of CXCL12 in the tumor. Administering AMD3100, a CXCL12 receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 inhibitor, induced rapid T-cell accumulation among cancer cells and acted synergistically with α-PD-L1 to greatly diminish cancer cells, which were identified by their loss of heterozygosity of Trp53 gene. The residual tumor was composed only of premalignant epithelial cells and inflammatory cells. Thus, a single protein, CXCL12, from a single stromal cell type, the FAP(+) CAF, may direct tumor immune evasion in a model of human PDA.

  3. [Conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy in a 27 years old patient with stage-Ia ovarian cancer after conservative surgical treatment and chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Andrzej; Augustyniak, Tomasz; Bartosiak, Ilona; Maciołek-Bleniewska, Grazyna; Ciesielski, Arkadiusz

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy in a 27 years old patient, previously treated for ovarian cancer. Two years before she had surgery because of tumour in the left ovary. Ovarian cancer in stage la according to FIGO was confirmed. Considering the patient s young age, future reproductive plans and the early stage of cancer, the patient qualified for conservative treatment. Left adnexectomy with consequent chemotherapy (6 courses) was performed. Two years later on the ground of clinical symptoms, gynaecologic examination, sonography and changes in HCG serum concentration, ectopic pregnancy was recognised in the right tube. We applied conservative management with intramuscularly administrated Methotrexate. The patient, in good condition, was discharged from hospital on day 12 after injection of Methotrexate.

  4. A Tick Antivirulence Protein Potentiates Antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Nabil M.; Liu, Lei; Jutras, Brandon L.; Murfin, Kristen; Acar, Ali; Yarovinsky, Timur O.; Sutton, Erica; Heisig, Martin; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT New strategies are needed to combat antibiotic resistance, especially against pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A tick antifreeze glycoprotein, IAFGP, possesses potent antibiofilm properties against a variety of clinical pathogens, including S. aureus. Synergy between IAFGP, or a peptide (P1) representative of a repeat region of the protein, with different antibiotics was assessed in vitro. Antibiotics that synergized with either IAFPG or P1 were further evaluated in vivo using vertebrate and invertebrate infection models. IAFGP readily enhanced the efficacy of antibiotics against S. aureus. Synergy with daptomycin, an antibiotic used to treat methicillin-resistant S. aureus, was observed in vitro and in vivo using iafgp-transgenic mice and flies. Furthermore, synergy with ciprofloxacin or gentamicin, antibiotics not generally used to treat S. aureus, was also perceived. The combined effect of the antibiotic and IAFGP was associated with improved permeation of the antibiotic into the cell. Our results highlight that synergy of IAFGP with antibiotics traditionally used to treat this pathogen, and enhancement of the potency of antibiotics not commonly used against this microbe, can provide novel alternative therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections. PMID:28438938

  5. ATM protein is deficient in over 40% of lung adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Villaruz, Liza C.; Jones, Helen; Dacic, Sanja; Abberbock, Shira; Kurland, Brenda F.; Stabile, Laura P.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Conrads, Thomas P.; Smith, Neil R.; O'Connor, Mark J.; Pierce, Andrew J.; Bakkenist, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the USA and worldwide, and of the estimated 1.2 million new cases of lung cancer diagnosed every year, over 30% are lung adenocarcinomas. The backbone of 1st-line systemic therapy in the metastatic setting, in the absence of an actionable oncogenic driver, is platinum-based chemotherapy. ATM and ATR are DNA damage signaling kinases activated at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and stalled and collapsed replication forks, respectively. ATM protein is lost in a number of cancer cell lines and ATR kinase inhibitors synergize with cisplatin to resolve xenograft models of ATM-deficient lung cancer. We therefore sought to determine the frequency of ATM loss in a tissue microarray (TMA) of lung adenocarcinoma. Here we report the validation of a commercial antibody (ab32420) for the identification of ATM by immunohistochemistry and estimate that 61 of 147 (41%, 95% CI 34%-50%) cases of lung adenocarcinoma are negative for ATM protein expression. As a positive control for ATM staining, nuclear ATM protein was identified in stroma and immune infiltrate in all evaluable cases. ATM loss in lung adenocarcinoma was not associated with overall survival. However, our preclinical findings in ATM-deficient cell lines suggest that ATM could be a predictive biomarker for synergy of an ATR kinase inhibitor with standard-of-care cisplatin. This could improve clinical outcome in 100,000's of patients with ATM-deficient lung adenocarcinoma every year. PMID:27259260

  6. Mutant JAK3 phosphoproteomic profiling predicts synergism between JAK3 inhibitors and MEK/BCL2 inhibitors for the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Degryse, S; de Bock, C E; Demeyer, S; Govaerts, I; Bornschein, S; Verbeke, D; Jacobs, K; Binos, S; Skerrett-Byrne, D A; Murray, H C; Verrills, N M; Van Vlierberghe, P; Cools, J; Dun, M D

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the interleukin-7 receptor (IL7R) or the Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) kinase occur frequently in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and both are able to drive cellular transformation and the development of T-ALL in mouse models. However, the signal transduction pathways downstream of JAK3 mutations remain poorly characterized. Here we describe the phosphoproteome downstream of the JAK3(L857Q)/(M511I) activating mutations in transformed Ba/F3 lymphocyte cells. Signaling pathways regulated by JAK3 mutants were assessed following acute inhibition of JAK1/JAK3 using the JAK kinase inhibitors ruxolitinib or tofacitinib. Comprehensive network interrogation using the phosphoproteomic signatures identified significant changes in pathways regulating cell cycle, translation initiation, mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling, RNA metabolism, as well as epigenetic and apoptotic processes. Key regulatory proteins within pathways that showed altered phosphorylation following JAK inhibition were targeted using selumetinib and trametinib (MEK), buparlisib (PI3K) and ABT-199 (BCL2), and found to be synergistic in combination with JAK kinase inhibitors in primary T-ALL samples harboring JAK3 mutations. These data provide the first detailed molecular characterization of the downstream signaling pathways regulated by JAK3 mutations and provide further understanding into the oncogenic processes regulated by constitutive kinase activation aiding in the development of improved combinatorial treatment regimens. PMID:28852199

  7. Interaction between Wine Phenolic Acids and Salivary Proteins by Saturation-Transfer Difference Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (STD-NMR) and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Brás, Natércia F; Vale, Nuno; Gomes, Paula; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor; Heredia, Francisco J; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2017-08-09

    The interaction between phenolic compounds and salivary proteins is highly related to the astringency perception. Recently, it has been proven the existence of synergisms on the perceived astringency when phenolic acids were tested as mixtures in comparison to individual compounds, maintaining constant the total amount of the stimulus. The interactions between wine phenolic acids and the peptide fragment IB7 12 have been studied by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. This technique provided the dissociation constants and the percentage of interaction between both individual and mixtures of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and the model peptide. It is noteworthy that hydroxybenzoic acids showed higher affinity for the peptide than hydroxycinnamic acids. To obtain further insights into the mechanisms of interaction, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed. Results obtained not only showed the ability of these compounds to interact with salivary proteins but also may justify the synergistic effect observed in previous sensory studies.

  8. A minimalist model protein with multiple folding funnels

    PubMed Central

    Locker, C. Rebecca; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic and structural studies of wild-type proteins such as prions and amyloidogenic proteins provide suggestive evidence that proteins may adopt multiple long-lived states in addition to the native state. All of these states differ structurally because they lie far apart in configuration space, but their stability is not necessarily caused by cooperative (nucleation) effects. In this study, a minimalist model protein is designed to exhibit multiple long-lived states to explore the dynamics of the corresponding wild-type proteins. The minimalist protein is modeled as a 27-monomer sequence confined to a cubic lattice with three different monomer types. An order parameter—the winding index—is introduced to characterize the extent of folding. The winding index has several advantages over other commonly used order parameters like the number of native contacts. It can distinguish between enantiomers, its calculation requires less computational time than the number of native contacts, and reduced-dimensional landscapes can be developed when the native state structure is not known a priori. The results for the designed model protein prove by existence that the rugged energy landscape picture of protein folding can be generalized to include protein “misfolding” into long-lived states. PMID:11470921

  9. Loss of Nucleolar Histone Chaperone NPM1 Triggers Rearrangement of Heterochromatin and Synergizes with a Deficiency in DNA Methyltransferase DNMT3A to Drive Ribosomal DNA Transcription*

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg Olausson, Karl; Nistér, Monica; Lindström, Mikael S.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoli are prominent nuclear structures assembled and organized around actively transcribed ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The nucleolus has emerged as a platform for the organization of chromatin enriched for repressive histone modifications associated with repetitive DNA. NPM1 is a nucleolar protein required for the maintenance of genome stability. However, the role of NPM1 in nucleolar chromatin dynamics and ribosome biogenesis remains unclear. We found that normal fibroblasts and cancer cells depleted of NPM1 displayed deformed nucleoli and a striking rearrangement of perinucleolar heterochromatin, as identified by immunofluorescence staining of trimethylated H3K9, trimethylated H3K27, and heterochromatin protein 1γ (HP1γ/CBX3). By co-immunoprecipitation we found NPM1 associated with HP1γ and core and linker histones. Moreover, NPM1 was required for efficient tethering of HP1γ-enriched chromatin to the nucleolus. We next tested whether the alterations in perinucleolar heterochromatin architecture correlated with a difference in the regulation of rDNA. U1242MG glioma cells depleted of NPM1 presented with altered silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions, coupled to a modest decrease in H3K9 di- and trimethylation at the rDNA promoter. rDNA transcription and cell proliferation were sustained in these cells, indicating that altered organization of heterochromatin was not secondary to inhibition of rDNA transcription. Furthermore, knockdown of DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A markedly enhanced rDNA transcription in NPM1-depleted U1242MG cells. In summary, this study highlights a function of NPM1 in the spatial organization of nucleolus-associated heterochromatin. PMID:25349213

  10. Computer-based identification of a novel LIMK1/2 inhibitor that synergizes with salirasib to destabilize the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Mashiach-Farkash, Efrat; Rak, Roni; Elad-Sfadia, Galit; Haklai, Roni; Carmeli, Shmuel; Kloog, Yoel; Wolfson, Haim J

    2012-06-01

    Neurofibromin regulates cell motility via three distinct GTPase pathways acting through two different domains, the Ras GTPase-activating protein-related domain (GRD) and the pre-GRD domain. First, the GRD domain inhibits Ras-dependent changes in cell motility through the mitogen activated protein cascade. Second, it also regulates Rho-dependent (Ras-independent) changes by activating LIM kinase 2 (LIMK2), an enzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates cofilin (an actin-depolymerizing factor). Third, the pre-GRD domain acts through the Rac1 GTPase, that activate the P21 activated kinase 1 (PAK1)-LIMK1-cofilin pathway. We employed molecular modeling to identify a novel inhibitor of LIMK1/2. The active sites of an ephrin-A receptor (EphA3) and LIMK2 showed marked similarity (60%). On testing a known inhibitor of EphA3, we found that it fits to the LIMK1/2-ATP binding site and to the latter's substrate-binding pockets. We identified a similar compound, T56-LIMKi, and found that it inhibits LIMK1/2 kinase activities. It blocked the phosphorylation of cofilin which led to actin severance and inhibition of tumor cell migration, tumor cell growth, and anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar. Because modulation of LIMK by neurofibromin is not affected by the Ras inhibitor Salirasib, we examined the combined effect of Salirasib and T56-LIMKi each of which can affect cell motility by a distinct pathway. We found that their combined action on cell proliferation and stress-fiber formation in neurofibromin-deficient cells was synergistic. We suggest that this drug combination may be developed for treatment of neurofibromatosis and cancer.

  11. Computer-Based Identification of a Novel LIMK1/2 Inhibitor that Synergizes with Salirasib to Destabilize the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Elad-Sfadia, Galit; Haklai, Roni; Carmeli, Shmuel; Kloog, Yoel; Wolfson, Haim J.

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibromin regulates cell motility via three distinct GTPase pathways acting through two different domains, the Ras GTPase-activating protein-related domain (GRD) and the pre-GRD domain. First, the GRD domain inhibits Ras-dependent changes in cell motility through the mitogen activated protein cascade. Second, it also regulates Rho-dependent (Ras-independent) changes by activating LIM kinase 2 (LIMK2), an enzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates cofilin (an actin-depolymerizing factor). Third, the pre-GRD domain acts through the Rac1 GTPase, that activate the P21 activated kinase 1 (PAK1)-LIMK1-cofilin pathway. We employed molecular modeling to identify a novel inhibitor of LIMK1/2. The active sites of an ephrin-A receptor (EphA3) and LIMK2 showed marked similarity (60%). On testing a known inhibitor of EphA3, we found that it fits to the LIMK1/2-ATP binding site and to the latter's substrate-binding pockets. We identified a similar compound, T56-LIMKi, and found that it inhibits LIMK1/2 kinase activities. It blocked the phosphorylation of cofilin which led to actin severance and inhibition of tumor cell migration, tumor cell growth, and anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar. Because modulation of LIMK by neurofibromin is not affected by the Ras inhibitor Salirasib, we examined the combined effect of Salirasib and T56-LIMKi each of which can affect cell motility by a distinct pathway. We found that their combined action on cell proliferation and stress-fiber formation in neurofibromin-deficient cells was synergistic. We suggest that this drug combination may be developed for treatment of neurofibromatosis and cancer. PMID:22776759

  12. XPO1 Inhibition Using Selinexor Synergizes With Chemotherapy in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) by Targeting DNA Repair and Restoring Topoisomerase IIα to the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Parvathi; Kashyap, Trinayan; Yu, Xueyan; Meng, Xiaomei; Lai, Tzung-Huei; McNeil, Betina; Bhatnagar, Bhavana; Shacham, Sharon; Kauffman, Michael; Dorrance, Adrienne M.; Blum, William; Sampath, Deepa; Landesman, Yosef; Garzon, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Selinexor, a selective inhibitor of XPO1, is currently being tested as single agent in clinical trials in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, considering the molecular complexity of AML, it is unlikely that AML can be cured with monotherapy. Therefore we asked whether adding already established effective drugs such as Topoisomerase (Topo) II inhibitors to selinexor will enhance its anti-leukemic effects in AML. Experimental Design The efficacy of combinatorial drug treatment using Topo II inhibitors (idarubicin, daunorubicin, mitoxantrone, etoposide) and selinexor was evaluated in established cellular and animal models of AML. Results Concomitant treatment with selinexor and Topo II inhibitors resulted in therapeutic synergy in AML cell lines and patient samples. Using a xenograft MV4-11 AML mouse model, we show that treatment with selinexor and idarubicin significantly prolongs survival of leukemic mice compared to each single therapy. Conclusions Aberrant nuclear export and cytoplasmic localization of Topo IIα has been identified as one of the mechanisms leading to drug resistance in cancer. Here, we show that in a subset of AML patients that express cytoplasmic Topo IIα, selinexor treatment results in nuclear retention of Topo IIα protein, resulting in increased sensitivity to idarubicin. Selinexor treatment of AML cells resulted in a c-MYC dependent reduction of DNA damage repair genes (Rad51 and Chk1) mRNA and protein expression, and subsequent inhibition of homologous recombination repair and increased sensitivity to Topo II inhibitors. The preclinical data reported here support further clinical studies using selinexor and Topo II inhibitors in combination to treat AML. PMID:27358488

  13. Cinnamic Acid Derivatives as Inhibitors of Oncogenic Protein Kinases--Structure, Mechanisms and Biomedical Effects.

    PubMed

    Mielecki, Marcin; Lesyng, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamic acid belongs to phenolic-acid class of polyphenols, one of the most abundant plant secondary metabolites. These substances are widely studied because of plethora of their biological activities. In particular, their inhibition of protein kinases contributes to the pleiotropic effects in the cell. Protein kinases are essential in controlling cell signaling networks. Selective targeting of oncogenic protein kinases increases clinical anticancer efficacy. Cinnamic acid and related compounds have inspired researchers in the design of numerous synthetic and semisynthetic inhibitors of oncogenic protein kinases for the past three decades. Interest in cinnamoyl-scaffold-containing compounds revived in recent years, which was stimulated by modern drug design and discovery methodologies such as in vitro and in silico HTS. This review presents cinnamic acid derivatives and analogs for which direct inhibition of protein kinases was identified. We also summarize significance of the above protein kinase families - validated or promising targets for anticancer therapies. The inhibition mode may vary from ATP-competitive, through bisubstrate-competitive and mixedcompetitive, to non-competitive one. Kinase selectivity is often correlated with subtle chemical modifications, and may also be steered by an additional non-cinnamoyl fragment of the inhibitor. Specific cinnamic acid congeners may synergize their effects in the cell by a wider range of activities, like suppression of additional enzymes, e.g. deubiquitinases, influencing the same signaling pathways (e.g. JAK2/STAT). Cinnamic acid, due to its biological and physicochemical properties, provides nature-inspired ideas leading to novel inhibitors of oncogenic protein kinases and related enzymes, capable to target a variety of cancer cells.

  14. Cytochrome c conjugated to ZnO-MAA nanoparticles: the study of interaction and influence on protein structure.

    PubMed

    Simšíková, Michaela; Antalík, Marián; Kaňuchová, Mária; Skvarla, Jiří

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticle-protein conjugates have potential for numerous applications due to the combination of the properties of both components. In this paper we studied the conjugation of horse heart cytochrome c with ZnO nanoparticles modified by mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) which may be a material with great potential in anticancer therapy as a consequence of synergic effect of both components. Cyt c adsorption to the ZnO-MAA NPs surface was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy and by a dynamic light scattering in various pH. The results indicate that the optimal pH for the association of protein with modified nanoparticles is in range 5.8-8.5 where 90-96% of cytochrome c was assembled on ZnO-MAA nanoparticles. The interaction of proteins with nanoparticles often results in denaturation or loss of protein function. Our observations from UV-vis spectroscopy and circular dichroism performed preserved protein structure after the interaction with modified nanoparticles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  16. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-10

    Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm), is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  17. SAR405, a PIK3C3/Vps34 inhibitor that prevents autophagy and synergizes with MTOR inhibition in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Benoit

    2015-04-03

    Autophagy plays an important role in cancer and it has been suggested that it functions not only as a tumor suppressor pathway to prevent tumor initiation, but also as a prosurvival pathway that helps tumor cells endure metabolic stress and resist death triggered by chemotherapeutic agents. We recently described the discovery of inhibitors of PIK3C3/Vps34 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 3), the lipid kinase component of the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K). This PtdIns3K isoform has attracted significant attention in recent years because of its role in autophagy. Following chemical optimization we identified SAR405, a low molecular mass kinase inhibitor of PIK3C3, highly potent and selective with regard to other lipid and protein kinases. We demonstrated that inhibiting the catalytic activity of PIK3C3 disrupts vesicle trafficking from late endosomes to lysosomes. SAR405 treatment also inhibits autophagy induced either by starvation or by MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibition. Finally our results show that combining SAR405 with everolimus, the FDA-approved MTOR inhibitor, results in a significant synergy on the reduction of cell proliferation using renal tumor cells. This result indicates a potential therapeutic application for PIK3C3 inhibitors in cancer.

  18. The novel dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor GDC-0941 synergizes with the MEK inhibitor U0126 in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zu-Quan; Zhang, Li-Na; Wang, Feng; Bellenger, Jérôme; Shen, Yin-Zhuo; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

    2012-02-01

    Lung cancer is a malignant disease with poor outcome, which has led to a search for new therapeutics. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Ras/raf/Erk pathways are key regulators of tumor growth and survival. In the present study, their roles were evaluated by MTT assay, flow cytometry and Western blotting in lung cancer cells. We found that a high efficacy of antitumor activity was shown with GDC-0941 treatment in two gefitinib-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, A549 and H460. In addition, H460 cells with activating mutations of PIK3CA were relatively more sensitive to GDC-0941 than A549 cells with wild-type PIK3CA. Furthermore, GDC-0941 was highly efficacious in combination with U0126 in inducing cell growth inhibition, G0-G1 arrest and cell apoptosis. These antitumor activities of combined treatment may be attributed to the alterations of G0-G1 phase regulators, apoptosis-related proteins and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B), induced by concomitant blockade of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Ras/raf/Erk pathways. In conclusion, this study suggests that multi‑targeted intervention is the most effective treatment for tumors. Additionally, the blockade of PI3K, mTOR and Erk with GDC-0941 and MEK inhibitors shows promise for treating gefitinib-resistant NSCLC.

  19. Synergism between urinary prothrombin fragment 1 and urine: a comparison of inhibitory activities in stone-prone and stone-free population groups.

    PubMed

    Webber, Dawn; Rodgers, Allen L; Sturrock, Edward D

    2002-09-01

    South African blacks rarely form kidney stones compared with whites. This study investigated whether purified urinary prothrombin fragment 1 (UPTF1) derived from blacks is a more potent inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystallisation than that from whites. UPTF1 was purified from the urine of both population groups and their inhibitory activities were compared in a cross-over design in which each protein was tested in ultrafiltered urine from both population groups. Coulter Multisizer, [14C]-oxalate deposition and scanning electron microscopy experiments were used to monitor crystallisation. The study has demonstrated for the first time that UPTF1 promotes nucleation and that inhibitory activity is synergistically dependent upon urine composition. The activity of the whites' UPTF1 was greater than that of the blacks in the whites' urine (e.g. particle size decrease: 31.7% vs. 25.2%), while the blacks' UPTF1 was superior to that of the whites in the blacks' urine (e.g. particle size decrease: 46.5% vs. 32.4%). In addition, when tested in their respective endogenous urines, the blacks' UPTF1 demonstrated superior inhibitory activity on an absolute scale (e.g. particle size decrease: 46.5% vs. 31.7%). Thus, the urine composition of black South Africans may influence their UPTF1 conformation, conferring greater efficacy for inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallisation.

  20. MYC and EGR1 synergize to trigger tumor cell death by controlling NOXA and BIM transcription upon treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Matthias; Stojanovic, Natasa; Christian, Jan; Paul, Mariel C.; Stauber, Roland H.; Schmid, Roland M.; Häcker, Georg; Krämer, Oliver H.; Saur, Dieter; Schneider, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The c-MYC (MYC afterward) oncogene is well known for driving numerous oncogenic programs. However, MYC can also induce apoptosis and this function of MYC warrants further clarification. We report here that a clinically relevant proteasome inhibitor significantly increases MYC protein levels and that endogenous MYC is necessary for the induction of apoptosis. This kind of MYC-induced cell death is mediated by enhanced expression of the pro-apoptotic BCL2 family members NOXA and BIM. Quantitative promoter-scanning chromatin immunoprecipitations (qChIP) further revealed binding of MYC to the promoters of NOXA and BIM upon proteasome inhibition, correlating with increased transcription. Both promoters are further characterized by the presence of tri-methylated lysine 4 of histone H3, marking active chromatin. We provide evidence that in our apoptosis models cell death occurs independently of p53 or ARF. Furthermore, we demonstrate that recruitment of MYC to the NOXA as well as to the BIM gene promoters depends on MYC's interaction with the zinc finger transcription factor EGR1 and an EGR1-binding site in both promoters. Our study uncovers a novel molecular mechanism by showing that the functional cooperation of MYC with EGR1 is required for bortezomib-induced cell death. This observation may be important for novel therapeutic strategies engaging the inherent pro-death function of MYC. PMID:25147211

  1. IFNβ/TNFα synergism induces a non-canonical STAT2/IRF9-dependent pathway triggering a novel DUOX2 NADPH Oxidase-mediated airway antiviral response

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Karin; Martin, Lydie; Mukawera, Esperance; Chartier, Stéfany; De Deken, Xavier; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Miot, Françoise; Grandvaux, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells are key initial innate immune responders in the fight against respiratory viruses, primarily via the secretion of antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines that act in an autocrine/paracrine fashion to trigger the establishment of an antiviral state. It is currently thought that the early antiviral state in airway epithelial cells primarily relies on IFNβ secretion and the subsequent activation of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) transcription factor complex, composed of STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9, which regulates the expression of a panoply of interferon-stimulated genes encoding proteins with antiviral activities. However, the specific pathways engaged by the synergistic action of different cytokines during viral infections, and the resulting physiological outcomes are still ill-defined. Here, we unveil a novel delayed antiviral response in the airways, which is initiated by the synergistic autocrine/paracrine action of IFNβ and TNFα, and signals through a non-canonical STAT2- and IRF9-dependent, but STAT1-independent cascade. This pathway ultimately leads to the late induction of the DUOX2 NADPH oxidase expression. Importantly, our study uncovers that the development of the antiviral state relies on DUOX2-dependent H2O2 production. Key antiviral pathways are often targeted by evasion strategies evolved by various pathogenic viruses. In this regard, the importance of the novel DUOX2-dependent antiviral pathway is further underlined by the observation that the human respiratory syncytial virus is able to subvert DUOX2 induction. PMID:23545780

  2. Depleting high-abundant and enriching low-abundant proteins in human serum: An evaluation of sample preparation methods using magnetic nanoparticle, chemical depletion and immunoaffinity techniques.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Jemmyson Romário; da Silva Fernandes, Rafael; de Souza Pessôa, Gustavo; Raimundo, Ivo Milton; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of three different depletion methods to remove the most abundant proteins, enriching those human serum proteins with low abundance is checked to make more efficient the search and discovery of biomarkers. These methods utilize magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), chemical reagents (sequential application of dithiothreitol and acetonitrile, DTT/ACN), and commercial apparatus based on immunoaffinity (ProteoMiner, PM). The comparison between methods shows significant removal of abundant protein, remaining in the supernatant at concentrations of 4.6±0.2, 3.6±0.1, and 3.3±0.2µgµL -1 (n=3) for MNPs, DTT/ACN and PM respectively, from a total protein content of 54µgµL -1 . Using GeLC-MS/MS analysis, MNPs depletion shows good efficiency in removing high molecular weight proteins (>80kDa). Due to the synergic effect between the reagents DTT and ACN, DTT/ACN-based depletion offers good performance in the depletion of thiol-rich proteins, such as albumin and transferrin (DTT action), as well as of high molecular weight proteins (ACN action). Furthermore, PM equalization confirms its efficiency in concentrating low-abundant proteins, decreasing the dynamic range of protein levels in human serum. Direct comparison between the treatments reveals 72 proteins identified when using MNP depletion (43 of them exclusively by this method), but only 20 proteins using DTT/ACN (seven exclusively by this method). Additionally, after PM treatment 30 proteins were identified, seven exclusively by this method. Thus, MNPs and DTT/ACN depletion can be simple, quick, cheap, and robust alternatives for immunochemistry-based protein depletion, providing a potential strategy in the search for disease biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Introduction to protein blotting.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    Protein blotting is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins following electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer.

  4. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  5. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Chervyakova, Olga V.; Zaitsev, Valentin L.; Iskakov, Bulat K.; Tailakova, Elmira T.; Strochkov, Vitaliy M.; Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T.; Sandybayev, Nurlan T.; Stanbekova, Gulshan E.; Beisenov, Daniyar K.; Abduraimov, Yergali O.; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay; Sansyzbay, Abylay R.; Kovalskaya, Natalia Y.; Nemchinov, Lev. G.; Hammond, Rosemarie W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae) structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122), orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. PMID:27338444

  6. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chervyakova, Olga V; Zaitsev, Valentin L; Iskakov, Bulat K; Tailakova, Elmira T; Strochkov, Vitaliy M; Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T; Sandybayev, Nurlan T; Stanbekova, Gulshan E; Beisenov, Daniyar K; Abduraimov, Yergali O; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay; Sansyzbay, Abylay R; Kovalskaya, Natalia Y; Nemchinov, Lev G; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2016-06-07

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae) structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122), orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins.

  7. Electrostatic complementarity at protein/protein interfaces.

    PubMed

    McCoy, A J; Chandana Epa, V; Colman, P M

    1997-05-02

    Calculation of the electrostatic potential of protein-protein complexes has led to the general assertion that protein-protein interfaces display "charge complementarity" and "electrostatic complementarity". In this study, quantitative measures for these two terms are developed and used to investigate protein-protein interfaces in a rigorous manner. Charge complementarity (CC) was defined using the correlation of charges on nearest neighbour atoms at the interface. All 12 protein-protein interfaces studied had insignificantly small CC values. Therefore, the term charge complementarity is not appropriate for the description of protein-protein interfaces when used in the sense measured by CC. Electrostatic complementarity (EC) was defined using the correlation of surface electrostatic potential at protein-protein interfaces. All twelve protein-protein interfaces studied had significant EC values, and thus the assertion that protein-protein association involves surfaces with complementary electrostatic potential was substantially confirmed. The term electrostatic complementarity can therefore be used to describe protein-protein interfaces when used in the sense measured by EC. Taken together, the results for CC and EC demonstrate the relevance of the long-range effects of charges, as described by the electrostatic potential at the binding interface. The EC value did not partition the complexes by type such as antigen-antibody and proteinase-inhibitor, as measures of the geometrical complementarity at protein-protein interfaces have done. The EC value was also not directly related to the number of salt bridges in the interface, and neutralisation of these salt bridges showed that other charges also contributed significantly to electrostatic complementarity and electrostatic interactions between the proteins. Electrostatic complementarity as defined by EC was extended to investigate the electrostatic similarity at the surface of influenza virus neuraminidase where the

  8. Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 exopolysaccharides synergizes with low level ionizing radiation to modulate signaling molecular targets in colorectal carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Walid E; Elsonbaty, Sawsan M; Moawed, Fatma S M

    2017-08-01

    Combination therapy that targets cellular signaling pathway represents an alternative therapy for the treatment of colon cancer (CRC). The present study was therefore aimed to investigate the probable interaction of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 exopolysaccharides (EPS) with low level ionizing γ radiation (γ-R) exposure against dimethylhydrazine (DMH)- induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. Colon cancer was induced with 20mg DMH/kg BW. Rats received daily by gastric gavage 100mg EPS/Kg BW concomitant with 1Gy γ-R over two months. Colonic oxidative and inflammatory stresses were assessed. The change in the expression of p-p38 MAPK, p-STAT3, β-catenin, NF-kB, COX-2 and iNOS was evaluated by western blotting and q-PCR. It was found that DMH treatment significantly induced colon oxidative injury accompanied by inflammatory disturbance along with increased protein expression of the targeted signaling factors p-p38 MAPK, p-STAT3 and β-catenin. The mRNA gene expression of NF-kB, COX-2 and iNOS was significantly higher in DMH-treated animals. It's worthy to note that colon tissues with DMH treatment showed significant dysplasia and anaplasia of the glandular mucosal lining epithelium with loses of goblet cells formation, pleomorphism in the cells and hyperchromachia in nuclei. Interestingly, EPS treatment with γ-R exposure showed statistically significant amelioration of the oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers with modulated signaling molecular factors accompanied by improved histological structure against DMH-induced CRC. In conclusion, our findings showed that Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 EPS with low level γ-R in synergistic interaction are efficacious control against CRC progression throughout the modulation of key signaling growth factors associated with inflammation via antioxidant mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Abscisic acid synergizes with rosiglitazone to improve glucose tolerance, down-modulate macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue: possible action of the cAMP/PKA/PPAR γ axis

    PubMed Central

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Abscisic acid (ABA) is effective in preventing insulin resistance and obesity-related inflammation through a PPAR γ-dependent mechanism. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy ABA in improving glucose homeostasis and suppress inflammation when administered in combination with rosiglitazone (Ros) and to determine whether PPAR γ activation by ABA is initiated via cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. Methods Obese db/db mice were fed high-fat diets containing 0, 10, or 70 mg/kg Ros with and without racemic ABA (100 mg/kg) for 60 days. Glucose tolerance and fasting insulin levels were assessed at 6 and 8 weeks, respectively, and adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration was examined by flow cytometry. Gene expression was examined on white adipose tissue (WAT) and stromal vascular cells (SVCs) cultured with ABA, Ros, or an ABA/Ros combination. Results Both Ros and ABA improved glucose tolerance, and ABA decreased plasma insulin levels while having no effect on Ros-induced weight gain. ABA in combination with low-dose Ros (10 mg/kg; Roslo) synergistically inhibited ATM infiltration. Treatment of SVCs with Ros, ABA or ABA/Ros suppressed expression of the M1 marker CCL17. ABA and Ros synergistically increased PPAR γ activity and pretreatment with a cAMP-inhibitor or a PKA-inhibitor abrogated ABA-induced PPAR γ activation. Conclusions ABA and Ros act synergistically to modulate PPAR γ activity and macrophage accumulation in WAT and ABA enhances PPAR γ activity through a membrane-initiated mechanism dependent on cAMP/PKA signaling. PMID:20207056

  10. Indirubin, a bis-indole alkaloid binds to tubulin and exhibits antimitotic activity against HeLa cells in synergism with vinblastine.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Lakshmi; Raghav, Darpan; Ashraf, Shabeeba M; Sebastian, Jomon; Rathinasamy, Krishnan

    2018-06-05

    Indirubin, a bis-indole alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine has shown remarkable anticancer activity against chronic myelocytic leukemia. The present work was aimed to decipher the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for its anticancer attributes. Our findings suggest that indirubin inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells with an IC 50 of 40 μM and induced a mitotic block. At concentrations higher than its IC 50 , indirubin exerted a moderate depolymerizing effect on the interphase microtubular network and spindle microtubules in HeLa cells. Studies with goat brain tubulin indicated that indirubin bound to tubulin at a single site with a dissociation constant of 26 ± 3 μM and inhibited the in vitro polymerization of tubulin into microtubules in the presence of glutamate as well as microtubule-associated proteins. Molecular docking analysis and molecular dynamics simulation studies indicate that indirubin stably binds to tubulin at the interface of the α-β tubulin heterodimer. Further, indirubin stabilized the binding of colchicine on tubulin and promoted the cysteine residue modification by 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid, indicating towards alteration of tubulin conformation upon binding. In addition, we found that indirubin synergistically enhanced the anti-mitotic and anti-proliferative activity of vinblastine, a known microtubule-targeted agent. Collectively our studies indicate that perturbation of microtubule polymerization dynamics could be one of the possible mechanisms behind the anti-cancer activities of indirubin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein-losing enteropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  12. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePlus

    ... digestive tract to absorb proteins ( protein-losing enteropathy ) Malnutrition Kidney disorder called nephrotic syndrome Scarring of the ... may indicate: Abnormally low level of LDL cholesterol Malnutrition Increased gamma globulin proteins may indicate: Bone marrow ...

  13. Functional Assembly of Soluble and Membrane Recombinant Proteins of Mammalian NADPH Oxidase Complex.

    PubMed

    Souabni, Hajer; Ezzine, Aymen; Bizouarn, Tania; Baciou, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Activation of phagocyte cells from an innate immune system is associated with a massive consumption of molecular oxygen to generate highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) as microbial weapons. This is achieved by a multiprotein complex, the so-called NADPH oxidase. The activity of phagocyte NADPH oxidase relies on an assembly of more than five proteins, among them the membrane heterodimer named flavocytochrome b 558 (Cytb 558 ), constituted by the tight association of the gp91 phox (also named Nox2) and p22 phox proteins. The Cytb 558 is the membrane catalytic core of the NADPH oxidase complex, through which the reducing equivalent provided by NADPH is transferred via the associated prosthetic groups (one flavin and two hemes) to reduce dioxygen into superoxide anion. The other major proteins (p47 phox , p67 phox , p40 phox , Rac) requisite for the complex activity are cytosolic proteins. Thus, the NADPH oxidase functioning relies on a synergic multi-partner assembly that in vivo can be hardly studied at the molecular level due to the cell complexity. Thus, a cell-free assay method has been developed to study the NADPH oxidase activity that allows measuring and eventually quantifying the ROS generation based on optical techniques following reduction of cytochrome c. This setup is a valuable tool for the identification of protein interactions, of crucial components and additives for a functional enzyme. Recently, this method was improved by the engineering and the production of a complete recombinant NADPH oxidase complex using the combination of purified proteins expressed in bacterial and yeast host cells. The reconstitution into artificial membrane leads to a fully controllable system that permits fine functional studies.

  14. Preparing the veterinary profession for corporate and trade issues in the Americas: proceedings of a conference on synergism and globalization, Santiago, Chile, May 6-8, 2001.

    PubMed

    Brown, C; Carbajal, I; Wagner, G

    2001-01-01

    , and international veterinary medicine. The major trade corridors of the future regarding animal-based protein flow between North and South America. It is absolutely essential that we find areas of consensus and deficiencies so that we can harmonize our trade agreements and ensure adequate flow of safe food products from one continent to the other.

  15. Combined PD-1 blockade and GITR triggering induce a potent antitumor immunity in murine cancer models and synergizes with chemotherapeutic drugs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The coinhibitory receptor Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) inhibits effector functions of activated T cells and prevents autoimmunity, however, cancer hijack this pathway to escape from immune attack. The costimulatory receptor glucocorticoid-induced TNFR related protein (GITR) is up-regulated on activated T cells and increases their proliferation, activation and cytokine production. We hypothesize that concomitant PD-1 blockade and GITR triggering would synergistically improve the effector functions of tumor-infiltrating T cells and increase the antitumor immunity. In present study, we evaluated the antitumor effects and mechanisms of combined PD-1 blockade and GITR triggering in a clinically highly relevant murine ID8 ovarian cancer model. Methods Mice with 7 days-established peritoneal ID8 ovarian cancer were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with either control, anti-PD-1, anti-GITR or anti-PD-1/GITR monoclonal antibody (mAb) and their survival was evaluated; the phenotype and function of tumor-associated immune cells in peritoneal cavity of treated mice was analyzed by flow cytometry, and systemic antigen-specific immune response was evaluated by ELISA and cytotoxicity assay. Results Combined anti-PD-1/GITR mAb treatment remarkably inhibited peritoneal ID8 tumor growth with 20% of mice tumor free 90 days after tumor challenge while treatment with either anti-PD-1 or anti-GITR mAb alone exhibited little antitumor effect. The durable antitumor effect was associated with a memory immune response and conferred by CD4+ cells and CD8+ T cells. The treatment of anti-PD-1/GITR mAb increased the frequencies of interferon-γ-producing effector T cells and decreased immunosuppressive regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, shifting an immunosuppressive tumor milieu to an immunostimulatory state in peritoneal cavity. In addition, combined treatment of anti-PD-1/GITR mAb mounted an antigen-specific immune response as evidenced by antigen-specific IFN

  16. Synergism of Cattle and Bison Inoculum on Ruminal Fermentation and Select Bacterial Communities in an Artificial Rumen (Rusitec) Fed a Barley Straw Based Diet.

    PubMed

    Oss, Daniela B; Ribeiro, Gabriel O; Marcondes, Marcos I; Yang, WenZhu; Beauchemin, Karen A; Forster, Robert J; McAllister, Tim A

    2016-01-01

    . Increasing bison inoculum had a quadratic effect ( P < 0.05) on Fibrobacter succinogenes , and tended to linearly ( P < 0.10) increase Ruminococcus flavefaciens and decrease ( P < 0.05) Ruminococcus albus copy numbers. In conclusion, bison inoculum increased the degradation of feed protein and fiber. A mixture of cattle and bison rumen inoculum acted synergistically, increasing the DM and aNDF disappearance of barley straw.

  17. Synergism of Cattle and Bison Inoculum on Ruminal Fermentation and Select Bacterial Communities in an Artificial Rumen (Rusitec) Fed a Barley Straw Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Oss, Daniela B.; Ribeiro, Gabriel O.; Marcondes, Marcos I.; Yang, WenZhu; Beauchemin, Karen A.; Forster, Robert J.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    inoculum had a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on Fibrobacter succinogenes, and tended to linearly (P < 0.10) increase Ruminococcus flavefaciens and decrease (P < 0.05) Ruminococcus albus copy numbers. In conclusion, bison inoculum increased the degradation of feed protein and fiber. A mixture of cattle and bison rumen inoculum acted synergistically, increasing the DM and aNDF disappearance of barley straw. PMID:28018336

  18. The proton pump inhibitor pantoprazole disrupts protein degradation systems and sensitizes cancer cells to death under various stresses.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Chen, Min; Tang, Dehua; Yan, Hongli; Ding, Xiwei; Zhou, Fan; Zhang, Mingming; Xu, Guifang; Zhang, Weijie; Zhang, Shu; Zhuge, Yuzheng; Wang, Lei; Zou, Xiaoping

    2018-05-22

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) play a role in antitumor activity, with studies showing specialized impacts of PPIs on cancer cell apoptosis, metastasis, and autophagy. In this study, we demonstrated that pantoprazole (PPI) increased autophagosomes formation and affected autophagic flux depending on the pH conditions. PPI specifically elevated SQSTM1 protein levels by increasing SQSTM1 transcription via NFE2L2 activation independent of the specific effect of PPI on autophagic flux. Via decreasing proteasome subunits expression, PPI significantly impaired the function of the proteasome, accompanied by the accumulation of undegraded poly-ubiquitinated proteins. Notably, PPI-induced autophagy functioned as a downstream response of proteasome inhibition by PPI, while suppressing protein synthesis abrogated autophagy. Blocking autophagic flux in neutral pH condition or further impairing proteasome function with proteasome inhibitors, significantly aggravated PPI cytotoxicity by worsening protein degradation ability. Interestingly, under conditions of mitochondrial stress, PPI showed significant synergism when combined with Bcl-2 inhibitors. Taken together, these findings provide a new understanding of the impact of PPIs on cancer cells' biological processes and highlight the potential to develop more efficient and effective combination therapies.

  19. PREFACE: Protein protein interactions: principles and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Tsai, Chung-Jung

    2005-06-01

    Proteins are the `workhorses' of the cell. Their roles span functions as diverse as being molecular machines and signalling. They carry out catalytic reactions, transport, form viral capsids, traverse membranes and form regulated channels, transmit information from DNA to RNA, making possible the synthesis of new proteins, and they are responsible for the degradation of unnecessary proteins and nucleic acids. They are the vehicles of the immune response and are responsible for viral entry into the cell. Given their importance, considerable effort has been centered on the prediction of protein function. A prime way to do this is through identification of binding partners. If the function of at least one of the components with which the protein interacts is known, that should let us assign its function(s) and the pathway(s) in which it plays a role. This holds since the vast majority of their chores in the living cell involve protein-protein interactions. Hence, through the intricate network of these interactions we can map cellular pathways, their interconnectivities and their dynamic regulation. Their identification is at the heart of functional genomics; their prediction is crucial for drug discovery. Knowledge of the pathway, its topology, length, and dynamics may provide useful information for forecasting side effects. The goal of predicting protein-protein interactions is daunting. Some associations are obligatory, others are continuously forming and dissociating. In principle, from the physical standpoint, any two proteins can interact, but under what conditions and at which strength? The principles of protein-protein interactions are general: the non-covalent interactions of two proteins are largely the outcome of the hydrophobic effect, which drives the interactions. In addition, hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions play important roles. Thus, many of the interactions observed in vitro are the outcome of experimental overexpression. Protein disorder

  20. Protein Structure Prediction by Protein Threading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Liu, Zhijie; Cai, Liming; Xu, Dong

    The seminal work of Bowie, Lüthy, and Eisenberg (Bowie et al., 1991) on "the inverse protein folding problem" laid the foundation of protein structure prediction by protein threading. By using simple measures for fitness of different amino acid types to local structural environments defined in terms of solvent accessibility and protein secondary structure, the authors derived a simple and yet profoundly novel approach to assessing if a protein sequence fits well with a given protein structural fold. Their follow-up work (Elofsson et al., 1996; Fischer and Eisenberg, 1996; Fischer et al., 1996a,b) and the work by Jones, Taylor, and Thornton (Jones et al., 1992) on protein fold recognition led to the development of a new brand of powerful tools for protein structure prediction, which we now term "protein threading." These computational tools have played a key role in extending the utility of all the experimentally solved structures by X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), providing structural models and functional predictions for many of the proteins encoded in the hundreds of genomes that have been sequenced up to now.

  1. Quantification of protein carbonylation.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Nancy B; Levine, Rodney L

    2013-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is the most commonly used measure of oxidative modification of proteins. It is most often measured spectrophotometrically or immunochemically by derivatizing proteins with the classical carbonyl reagent 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). We present protocols for the derivatization and quantification of protein carbonylation with these two methods, including a newly described dot blot with greatly increased sensitivity.

  2. Amino acids and proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A balanced, safe diet with proteins is important to meet nutritional requirements. Proteins occur in animal as well as vegetable products in important quantities. In some countries, many people obtain much of their protein from animal products. In other regions, the major portion of dietary protein ...

  3. Mirror Image Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Le; Lu, Wuyuan

    2017-01-01

    Proteins composed entirely of unnatural D-amino acids and the achiral amino acid glycine are mirror image forms of their native L-protein counterparts. Recent advances in chemical protein synthesis afford unique and facile synthetic access to domain-sized mirror image D-proteins, enabling protein research to be conducted through “the looking glass” and in a way previously unattainable. D-proteins can facilitate structure determination of their native L-forms that are difficult to crystallize (racemic X-ray crystallography); D-proteins can serve as the bait for library screening to ultimately yield pharmacologically superior D-peptide/D-protein therapeutics (mirror image phage display); D-proteins can also be used as a powerful mechanistic tool for probing molecular events in biology. This review examines recent progress in the application of mirror image proteins to structural biology, drug discovery, and immunology. PMID:25282524

  4. Systematic size study of an insect antifreeze protein and its interaction with ice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Jia, Zongchao; Chen, Guangju; Tung, Chenho; Liu, Ruozhuang

    2005-02-01

    Because of their remarkable ability to depress the freezing point of aqueous solutions, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) play a critical role in helping many organisms survive subzero temperatures. The beta-helical insect AFP structures solved to date, consisting of multiple repeating circular loops or coils, are perhaps the most regular protein structures discovered thus far. Taking an exceptional advantage of the unusually high structural regularity of insect AFPs, we have employed both semiempirical and quantum mechanics computational approaches to systematically investigate the relationship between the number of AFP coils and the AFP-ice interaction energy, an indicator of antifreeze activity. We generated a series of AFP models with varying numbers of 12-residue coils (sequence TCTxSxxCxxAx) and calculated their interaction energies with ice. Using several independent computational methods, we found that the AFP-ice interaction energy increased as the number of coils increased, until an upper bound was reached. The increase of interaction energy was significant for each of the first five coils, and there was a clear synergism that gradually diminished and even decreased with further increase of the number of coils. Our results are in excellent agreement with the recently reported experimental observations.

  5. Systematic Size Study of an Insect Antifreeze Protein and Its Interaction with Ice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Jia, Zongchao; Chen, Guangju; Tung, Chenho; Liu, Ruozhuang

    2005-01-01

    Because of their remarkable ability to depress the freezing point of aqueous solutions, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) play a critical role in helping many organisms survive subzero temperatures. The β-helical insect AFP structures solved to date, consisting of multiple repeating circular loops or coils, are perhaps the most regular protein structures discovered thus far. Taking an exceptional advantage of the unusually high structural regularity of insect AFPs, we have employed both semiempirical and quantum mechanics computational approaches to systematically investigate the relationship between the number of AFP coils and the AFP-ice interaction energy, an indicator of antifreeze activity. We generated a series of AFP models with varying numbers of 12-residue coils (sequence TCTxSxxCxxAx) and calculated their interaction energies with ice. Using several independent computational methods, we found that the AFP-ice interaction energy increased as the number of coils increased, until an upper bound was reached. The increase of interaction energy was significant for each of the first five coils, and there was a clear synergism that gradually diminished and even decreased with further increase of the number of coils. Our results are in excellent agreement with the recently reported experimental observations. PMID:15713600

  6. Computational Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenberger, Tobias; Cantley, Lewis C.; Yaffe, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of protein-protein interactions and kinase-specific phosphorylation sites on individual proteins is critical for correctly placing proteins within signaling pathways and networks. The importance of this type of annotation continues to increase with the continued explosion of genomic and proteomic data, particularly with emerging data categorizing posttranslational modifications on a large scale. A variety of computational tools are available for this purpose. In this chapter, we review the general methodologies for these types of computational predictions and present a detailed user-focused tutorial of one such method and computational tool, Scansite, which is freely available to the entire scientific community over the Internet. PMID:25859943

  7. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  8. Molecular modelling of protein-protein/protein-solvent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchko, Tyler

    The inner workings of individual cells are based on intricate networks of protein-protein interactions. However, each of these individual protein interactions requires a complex physical interaction between proteins and their aqueous environment at the atomic scale. In this thesis, molecular dynamics simulations are used in three theoretical studies to gain insight at the atomic scale about protein hydration, protein structure and tubulin-tubulin (protein-protein) interactions, as found in microtubules. Also presented, in a fourth project, is a molecular model of solvation coupled with the Amber molecular modelling package, to facilitate further studies without the need of explicitly modelled water. Basic properties of a minimally solvated protein were calculated through an extended study of myoglobin hydration with explicit solvent, directly investigating water and protein polarization. Results indicate a close correlation between polarization of both water and protein and the onset of protein function. The methodology of explicit solvent molecular dynamics was further used to study tubulin and microtubules. Extensive conformational sampling of the carboxy-terminal tails of 8-tubulin was performed via replica exchange molecular dynamics, allowing the characterisation of the flexibility, secondary structure and binding domains of the C-terminal tails through statistical analysis methods. Mechanical properties of tubulin and microtubules were calculated with adaptive biasing force molecular dynamics. The function of the M-loop in microtubule stability was demonstrated in these simulations. The flexibility of this loop allowed constant contacts between the protofilaments to be maintained during simulations while the smooth deformation provided a spring-like restoring force. Additionally, calculating the free energy profile between the straight and bent tubulin configurations was used to test the proposed conformational change in tubulin, thought to cause microtubule

  9. Comparing side chain packing in soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Gaines, J C; Acebes, S; Virrueta, A; Butler, M; Regan, L; O'Hern, C S

    2018-05-01

    We compare side chain prediction and packing of core and non-core regions of soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins. We first identified or created comparable databases of high-resolution crystal structures of these 3 protein classes. We show that the solvent-inaccessible cores of the 3 classes of proteins are equally densely packed. As a result, the side chains of core residues at protein-protein interfaces and in the membrane-exposed regions of transmembrane proteins can be predicted by the hard-sphere plus stereochemical constraint model with the same high prediction accuracies (>90%) as core residues in soluble proteins. We also find that for all 3 classes of proteins, as one moves away from the solvent-inaccessible core, the packing fraction decreases as the solvent accessibility increases. However, the side chain predictability remains high (80% within 30°) up to a relative solvent accessibility, rSASA≲0.3, for all 3 protein classes. Our results show that ≈40% of the interface regions in protein complexes are "core", that is, densely packed with side chain conformations that can be accurately predicted using the hard-sphere model. We propose packing fraction as a metric that can be used to distinguish real protein-protein interactions from designed, non-binding, decoys. Our results also show that cores of membrane proteins are the same as cores of soluble proteins. Thus, the computational methods we are developing for the analysis of the effect of hydrophobic core mutations in soluble proteins will be equally applicable to analyses of mutations in membrane proteins. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Surface Mediated Protein Disaggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2014-03-01

    Preventing protein aggregation is of both biological and industrial importance. Biologically these aggregates are known to cause amyloid type diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Protein aggregation leads to reduced activity of the enzymes in industrial applications. Inter-protein interactions between the hydrophobic residues of the protein are known to be the major driving force for protein aggregation. In the current paper we show how surface chemistry and curvature can be tuned to mitigate these inter-protein interactions. Our results calculated in the framework of the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) lattice model show that, inter-protein interactions can be drastically reduced by increasing the surface hydrophobicity to a critical value corresponding to the adsorption transition of the protein. At this value of surface hydrophobicity, proteins lose inter-protein contacts to gain surface contacts and thus the surface helps in reducing the inter-protein interactions. Further, we show that the adsorption of the proteins inside hydrophobic pores of optimal sizes are most efficient both in reducing inter-protein contacts and simultaneously retaining most of the native-contacts due to strong protein-surface interactions coupled with stabilization due to the confinement. Department of Energy (Grant No DE-FG02-11ER46811).

  11. Personalizing Protein Nourishment

    PubMed Central

    DALLAS, DAVID C.; SANCTUARY, MEGAN R.; QU, YUNYAO; KHAJAVI, SHABNAM HAGHIGHAT; VAN ZANDT, ALEXANDRIA E.; DYANDRA, MELISSA; FRESE, STEVEN A.; BARILE, DANIELA; GERMAN, J. BRUCE

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are not equally digestible—their proteolytic susceptibility varies by their source and processing method. Incomplete digestion increases colonic microbial protein fermentation (putrefaction), which produces toxic metabolites that can induce inflammation in vitro and have been associated with inflammation in vivo. Individual humans differ in protein digestive capacity based on phenotypes, particularly disease states. To avoid putrefaction-induced intestinal inflammation, protein sources and processing methods must be tailored to the consumer’s digestive capacity. This review explores how food processing techniques alter protein digestibility and examines how physiological conditions alter digestive capacity. Possible solutions to improving digestive function or matching low digestive capacity with more digestible protein sources are explored. Beyond the ileal digestibility measurements of protein digestibility, less invasive, quicker and cheaper techniques for monitoring the extent of protein digestion and fermentation are needed to personalize protein nourishment. Biomarkers of protein digestive capacity and efficiency can be identified with the toolsets of peptidomics, metabolomics, microbial sequencing and multiplexed protein analysis of fecal and urine samples. By monitoring individual protein digestive function, the protein component of diets can be tailored via protein source and processing selection to match individual needs to minimize colonic putrefaction and, thus, optimize gut health. PMID:26713355

  12. Prediction of physical protein protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilágyi, András; Grimm, Vera; Arakaki, Adrián K.; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2005-06-01

    Many essential cellular processes such as signal transduction, transport, cellular motion and most regulatory mechanisms are mediated by protein-protein interactions. In recent years, new experimental techniques have been developed to discover the protein-protein interaction networks of several organisms. However, the accuracy and coverage of these techniques have proven to be limited, and computational approaches remain essential both to assist in the design and validation of experimental studies and for the prediction of interaction partners and detailed structures of protein complexes. Here, we provide a critical overview of existing structure-independent and structure-based computational methods. Although these techniques have significantly advanced in the past few years, we find that most of them are still in their infancy. We also provide an overview of experimental techniques for the detection of protein-protein interactions. Although the developments are promising, false positive and false negative results are common, and reliable detection is possible only by taking a consensus of different experimental approaches. The shortcomings of experimental techniques affect both the further development and the fair evaluation of computational prediction methods. For an adequate comparative evaluation of prediction and high-throughput experimental methods, an appropriately large benchmark set of biophysically characterized protein complexes would be needed, but is sorely lacking.

  13. Noncovalent Protein and Peptide Functionalization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Biodelivery and Optical Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Alessandra; Kupis-Rozmysłowicz, Justyna; Boghossian, Ardemis A

    2017-04-05

    The exquisite structural and optical characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), combined with the tunable specificities of proteins and peptides, can be exploited to strongly benefit technologies with applications in fields ranging from biomedicine to industrial biocatalysis. The key to exploiting the synergism of these materials is designing protein/peptide-SWCNT conjugation schemes that preserve biomolecule activity while keeping the near-infrared optical and electronic properties of SWCNTs intact. Since sp 2 bond-breaking disrupts the optoelectronic properties of SWCNTs, noncovalent conjugation strategies are needed to interface biomolecules to the nanotube surface for optical biosensing and delivery applications. An underlying understanding of the forces contributing to protein and peptide interaction with the nanotube is thus necessary to identify the appropriate conjugation design rules for specific applications. This article explores the molecular interactions that govern the adsorption of peptides and proteins on SWCNT surfaces, elucidating contributions from individual amino acids as well as secondary and tertiary protein structure and conformation. Various noncovalent conjugation strategies for immobilizing peptides, homopolypeptides, and soluble and membrane proteins on SWCNT surfaces are presented, highlighting studies focused on developing near-infrared optical sensors and molecular scaffolds for self-assembly and biochemical analysis. The analysis presented herein suggests that though direct adsorption of proteins and peptides onto SWCNTs can be principally applied to drug and gene delivery, in vivo imaging and targeting, or cancer therapy, nondirect conjugation strategies using artificial or natural membranes, polymers, or linker molecules are often better suited for biosensing applications that require conservation of biomolecular functionality or precise control of the biomolecule's orientation. These design rules are intended to

  14. Efficacy and tolerability of a new synergized pyrethrins thermofobic foam in comparison with benzyl benzoate in the treatment of scabies in convicts: the ISAC study (Studio Della scabbia in ambiente carcerario).

    PubMed

    Biele, M; Campori, G; Colombo, R; De Giorgio, G; Frascione, P; Sali, R; Starnini, G; Milani, M

    2006-07-01

    Scabies is a very common skin infection in convicts. The SIMSPE Society (Società Italiana di Medicina e Sanità Penitenziaria) has organized and conducted a multicentre, randomized, comparative, parallel group, investigator-blinded trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of synergized pyrethrins foam (PF) in comparison with benzyl benzoate (BB) lotion. A total of 240 convicted patients, enrolled in eight National Jail Institutions, with a clinical diagnosis of scabies, were treated with PF (n = 120) for three consecutive days or BB (n = 120) for five consecutive days. Primary study endpoints were the clinical cure rate and the local tolerability. Secondary endpoints were clinical evolution of scabietic lesions and itching intensity. Study outcomes were assessed using appropriate semiquantitative scores at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks. A second treatment cycle was applied if after 2 weeks the patient was not judged clinically cured. At week 2, a total of 75% (95% CI: 66-82%) and 71% (95% CI: 62-78%) of patients showed a complete clinical cure rate in the PF and BB groups, respectively. At week 4, the percentage of totally cured patients increased up to 95% (95% CI: 89-97%) and 91% (95% CI: 83-94%) in the PF and BB groups, respectively (P = NS between groups). At week 4, 5% in the PF group and 9% in the BB group complained of itching. Burning and irritation after treatment applications were more common in the BB group in comparison with the PF group. The tolerability score was better in the PF group in comparison with to BB group (2.9 vs. 2.2; P = 0.0001). A total of 95% of patients in the PV group had a good tolerability score (i.e. = 3) in comparison with 41% in the BB group. Our results show that a 3-day treatment with pyrethrins thermofobic foam is at least as effective as a 5-day treatment with benzyl benzoate lotion in convicted subjects with scabies. The foam formulation is better tolerated than the benzyl benzoate lotion.

  15. PROTEINS IN NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC INTERACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, David; Goldstein, Lester

    1968-01-01

    The behavior of nuclear proteins in Amoeba proteus was studied by tritiated amino acid labeling, nuclear transplantation, and cytoplasmic amputation. During prophase at least 77% (but probably over 95%) of the nuclear proteins is released to the cytoplasm. These same proteins return to the nucleus within the first 3 hr of interphase. When cytoplasm is amputated from an ameba in mitosis (shen the nuclear proteins are in the cytoplasm), the resultant daughter nuclei are depleted in the labeled nuclear proteins. The degree of depletion is less than proportional to the amount of cytoplasm removed because a portion of rapidly migrating protein (a nuclear protein that is normally shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm and is thus also present in the cytoplasm) which would normally remain in the cytoplasm is taken up by the reconstituting daughter nuclei. Cytoplasmic fragments cut from mitotic cells are enriched in both major classes of nuclear proteins, i.e. rapidly migrating protein and slow turn-over protein. An interphase nucleus implanted into such an enucleated cell acquires from the cytoplasm essentially all of the excess nuclear proteins of both classes. The data indicate that there is a lack of binding sites in the cytoplasm for the rapidly migrating nuclear protein. The quantitative aspects of the distribution of rapidly migrating protein between the nucleus and the cytoplasm indicate that the distribution is governed primarily by factors within the nucleus. PMID:5677972

  16. Antitumor activity of a dual cytokine/single-chain antibody fusion protein for simultaneous delivery of GM-CSF and IL-2 to Ep-CAM expressing tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Schanzer, Juergen M; Fichtner, Iduna; Baeuerle, Patrick A; Kufer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Cytokine targeting to tumor-associated antigens via antibody cytokine fusion proteins has demonstrated potent antitumor activity in numerous animal models and has led to the clinical development of 2 antibody-interleukin-2 (IL-2) fusion proteins. We previously reported on the construction and in vitro properties of a "dual" cytokine fusion protein for simultaneous targeted delivery of human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-2 to human tumors. The fusion protein is based on a heterodimerized core structure formed by human CH1 and Ckappa domains (heterominibody) with C-terminally fused human cytokines and N-terminally fused single-chain antibody fragments specific for the tumor-associated surface antigen epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM). For testing the antitumor activity in syngeneic mouse xenograft models, we developed "dual cytokine heterominibodies" with murine cytokines (mDCH). mDCH fusion proteins and, as controls, "single cytokine heterominibodies" (SCH) carrying either murine GM-CSF (mGM-CSF) or murine IL-2 (mIL-2) were constructed, of which all retained the specific activities of cytokines and binding to the Ep-CAM antigen on human Ep-CAM transfected mouse colon carcinoma CT26-KSA cells. Over a 5-day treatment course, DCH fusion proteins induced significant inhibition of established pulmonary CT26-KSA metastases in immune-competent Balb/c mice at low daily doses of 1 mug of fusion protein per mouse. However, with the tested dosing schemes, antitumor activity of mDCH was largely independent of cytokine targeting to tumors as demonstrated by a control protein with mutated Ep-CAM binding sites. Single cytokine fusion proteins mSCH-GM-CSF and mSCH-IL-2 showed similar antitumor activity as the dual cytokine fusion protein mDCH, indicating that GM-CSF and IL-2 in one molecule did not significantly synergize in tumor rejection under our experimental conditions. Our results seem to contradict the notion that IL-2 and GM

  17. Protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Luc J C; Kies, Arie K; Saris, Wim H M

    2007-08-01

    With the increasing knowledge about the role of nutrition in increasing exercise performance, it has become clear over the last 2 decades that amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates can play an important role. Most of the attention has been focused on their effects at a muscular level. As these nutrients are ingested, however, it also means that gastrointestinal digestibility and absorption can modulate their efficacy significantly. Therefore, discussing the role of amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition entails holding a discussion on all levels of the metabolic route. On May 28-29, 2007, a small group of researchers active in the field of exercise science and protein metabolism presented an overview of the different aspects of the application of protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition. In addition, they were asked to share their opinions on the future progress in their fields of research. In this overview, an introduction to the workshop and a short summary of its outcome is provided.

  18. Urine protein electrophoresis test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine protein electrophoresis; UPEP; Multiple myeloma - UPEP; Waldenström macroglobulinemia - UPEP; Amyloidosis - UPEP ... special paper and apply an electric current. The proteins move and form visible bands. These reveal the ...

  19. Transient kinetic studies of pH-dependent hydrolyses by exo-type carboxypeptidase P on a 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Hiroyuki; Takano, Hiroki; Okahata, Yoshio

    2008-02-15

    pH-Dependent kinetic parameters (k(on), k(off), and k(cat)) of protein (myoglobin) hydrolyses catalyzed by exo-enzyme (carboxypeptidase P, CPP) were obtained by using a protein-immobilized quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in acidic aqueous solutions. The formation of the enzyme-substrate (ES) complex (k(on)), the decay of the ES complex (k(off)), and the formation of the product (k(cat)) could be analyzed by transient kinetics as mass changes on the QCM plate. The Kd (k(off)/k(on)) value was different from the Michaelis constant Km calculated from (k(off) + k(cat))/k(on) due to k(cat) > k(off). The rate-determining step was the binding step (k(on), and the catalytic rate k(cat) was faster than other k(on) and k(off) values. In the range of pH 2.5-5.0, values of k(on) gradually increased with decreasing pH showing a maximum at pH 3.7, values of k(off) were independent of pH, and k(cat) increased gradually with decreasing pH. As a result, the apparent rate constant (k(cat)/Km) showed a maximum at pH 3.7 and gradually increased with decreasing pH. The optimum pH at 3.7 of k(on) is explained by the optimum binding ability of CPP to the COOH terminus of the substrate with hydrogen bonds. The increase of k(cat) at the lower pH correlated with the decrease of alpha-helix contents of the myoglobin substrate on the QCM.

  20. Synergizing health and population in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania; Amjad, Saba; Sheikh, Sobia; Ahmad, Mahbub

    2009-09-01

    The delivery of health and family planning services in Pakistan is the respective mandate of the Ministry of Health/departments of health and the Ministry of Population Welfare. This institutional separation creates issues due to marginalization of family planning and reproductive health as core health issues. The government of Pakistan has made several attempts in the past to merge both the institutional hierarchal arrangements. This study was conducted to examine if merger is a viable option and to explore a way forward to bridge the current population-health disconnect in the country. Qualitative survey methods, inclusive of review of published and grey literature, archival analysis, informant interviews and focus group discussions were used for the analysis. Findings outline both the imperatives for merging the ministries and the challenges inherent in doing so. Recommendations recognize that although not a sufficient step to improve health and population outcomes, creating synergies between the health and population sectors is an imperative. The sustainable long-term solution to the existing population-health disconnect centres on deep-rooted reform at several levels in both the institutional hierarchies, with transformation of the role of stewardship agencies and reengineering of service delivery arrangements as its hallmarks. Restructured service delivery arrangements are meant to allow the delivery of a set of MDG+ services, where family planning and reproductive health are grouped alongside and together with essential health services. The latter are envisaged to be a yardstick for public delivery of services and the basis of contractual relationships in new management arrangements, which involve a role for the private sector. The short to medium term strategies proposed in this paper centre on a range of specific collaborative measures with a view to building capacity for the broader systems transformation. Sustained political and institutional commitment will be needed to implement these recommendations.

  1. Destabilized bioluminescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Michael S [Knoxville, TN; Rakesh, Gupta [New Delhi, IN; Gary, Sayler S [Blaine, TN

    2007-07-31

    Purified nucleic acids, vectors and cells containing a gene cassette encoding at least one modified bioluminescent protein, wherein the modification includes the addition of a peptide sequence. The duration of bioluminescence emitted by the modified bioluminescent protein is shorter than the duration of bioluminescence emitted by an unmodified form of the bioluminescent protein.

  2. Modeling Protein Domain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

  3. CSF total protein

    MedlinePlus

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  4. Modeling Protein Self Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck; Hull, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of proteins is an important part of the standards-based science curriculum. Proteins serve vital roles within the cell and malfunctions in protein self assembly are implicated in degenerative diseases. Experience indicates that this topic is a difficult one for many students. We have found that the concept…

  5. Evaluation of the synergistic effects of milk proteins in a rapid viscosity analyzer.

    PubMed

    Stephani, Rodrigo; Borges de Souza, Alisson; Leal de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; Fernandes de Carvalho, Antônio; Cappa de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-12-01

    Protein systems (PS) are routinely used by companies from Brazil and around the globe to improve the texture, yield, and palatability of processed foods. Understanding the synergistic behavior among the different protein structures of these systems during thermal treatment under the influence of pH can help to better define optimum conditions for products and processes. The interpretation of the reactions and interactions that occur simultaneously among the protein constituents of these systems as dispersions during thermal processing is still a major challenge. Here, using a rapid viscosity analyzer, we observed the rheological changes in the startup viscosities of 5 PS obtained by combining varying proportions of milk protein concentrate and whey protein concentrate under different conditions of pH (5.0, 6.5, and 7.0) and heat processing (85°C/15min and 95°C/5min). The solutions were standardized to 25% of total solids and 17% of protein. Ten analytical parameters were used to characterize each of the startup-viscosity ramps for 35 experiments conducted in a 2×3 × 5 mixed planning matrix, using principal component analysis to interpret behavioral similarities. The study showed the clear influence of pH 5.5 in the elevation of the initial temperature of the PS startup viscosity by at least 5°C, as well as the effect of different milk protein concentrate:whey protein concentrate ratios above 15:85 at pH 7.0 on the viscographic profile curves. These results suggested that the primary agent driving the changes was the synergism among the reactions and interactions of casein with whey proteins during processing. This study reinforces the importance of the rapid viscosity analyzer as an analytical tool for the simulation of industrial processes involving PS, and the use of the startup viscosity ramp as a means of interpreting the interactions of system components with respect to changes related to the treatment temperature. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  6. Protein - Which is Best?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Falvo, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed. Key PointsHigher protein needs are seen in athletic populations.Animal proteins is an important source of protein, however potential health concerns do exist from a diet of protein

  7. [Chromosomal proteins: histones and acid proteins].

    PubMed

    Salvini, M; Gabrielli, F

    1976-01-01

    Experimental data about the chemistry and the biology of chromosomal proteins are reviewed. Paragraphs include: aminoacid sequential data and post-translational covalent modications of histones, histone chemical differences in different tissues of the same species and in homologous organs of different species, histone synthesis subcellular localization and its association with DNA synthesis, histone synthesis transcriptional and translational control, histone synthesis during meiosis, oogenesis and early embryogenesis. The possible role of histones as controllers of gene expression is discussed and a model of primary structure of chromatine is proposed. The "acidic proteins" data concern the high tissue eterogenity of these proteins and their role in the steroid-hormon-controlled gene expression. The possible role of acidic proteins as general controllers of gene expression in eucariotic cells is discussed.

  8. Protein labelling: Playing tag with proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanini, Dante W.; Cornish, Virginia W.

    2012-04-01

    Fluorescent labels can now be attached to a specific protein on the surface of live cells using a two-step method that reacts a norbornene -- introduced using genetic encoding -- with a variety of dyes.

  9. Synergistic effects of citrulline supplementation and exercise on performance in male rats: evidence for implication of protein and energy metabolisms.

    PubMed

    Goron, Arthur; Lamarche, Frédéric; Cunin, Valérie; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Hourdé, Christophe; Noirez, Philippe; Corne, Christelle; Couturier, Karine; Sève, Michel; Fontaine, Eric; Moinard, Christophe

    2017-04-25

    Background: Exercise and citrulline (CIT) are both regulators of muscle protein metabolism. However, the combination of both has been under-studied yet may have synergistic effects on muscle metabolism and performance. Methods: Three-month-old healthy male rats were randomly assigned to be fed ad libitum for 4 weeks with either a citrulline-enriched diet (1 g·kg -1 ·day -1 ) ( CIT ) or an isonitrogenous standard diet (by addition of nonessential amino acid) ( Ctrl ) and trained (running on treadmill 5 days·week -1 ) ( ex ) or not. Maximal endurance activity and body composition were assessed, and muscle protein metabolism (protein synthesis, proteomic approach) and energy metabolism [energy expenditure, mitochondrial metabolism] were explored. Results: Body composition was affected by exercise but not by CIT supplementation. Endurance training was associated with a higher maximal endurance capacity than sedentary groups ( P <0.001), and running time was 14% higher in the CITex group than the Ctrlex group (139±4 min versus 122±6 min, P <0.05). Both endurance training and CIT supplementation alone increased muscle protein synthesis (by +27% and +33%, respectively, versus Ctrl , P <0.05) with an additive effect (+48% versus Ctrl , P <0.05). Mitochondrial metabolism was modulated by exercise but not directly by CIT supplementation. However, the proteomic approach demonstrated that CIT supplementation was able to affect energy metabolism, probably due to activation of pathways generating acetyl-CoA. Conclusion: CIT supplementation and endurance training in healthy male rats modulates both muscle protein and energy metabolisms, with synergic effects on an array of parameters, including performance and protein synthesis. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Texturized dairy proteins.

    PubMed

    Onwulata, Charles I; Phillips, John G; Tunick, Michael H; Qi, Phoebi X; Cooke, Peter H

    2010-03-01

    Dairy proteins are amenable to structural modifications induced by high temperature, shear, and moisture; in particular, whey proteins can change conformation to new unfolded states. The change in protein state is a basis for creating new foods. The dairy products, nonfat dried milk (NDM), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein isolate (WPI) were modified using a twin-screw extruder at melt temperatures of 50, 75, and 100 degrees C, and moistures ranging from 20 to 70 wt%. Viscoelasticity and solubility measurements showed that extrusion temperature was a more significant (P < 0.05) change factor than moisture content. The degree of texturization, or change in protein state, was characterized by solubility (R(2)= 0.98). The consistency of the extruded dairy protein ranged from rigid (2500 N) to soft (2.7 N). Extruding at or above 75 degrees C resulted in increased peak force for WPC (138 to 2500 N) and WPI (2.7 to 147.1 N). NDM was marginally texturized; the presence of lactose interfered with its texturization. WPI products extruded at 50 degrees C were not texturized; their solubility values ranged from 71.8% to 92.6%. A wide possibility exists for creating new foods with texturized dairy proteins due to the extensive range of states achievable. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To minimize the water binding property of dairy proteins, WPI, or WPC, or NDM were modified by extrusion processing. Extrusion temperature conditions were adjusted to 50, 75, or 100 degrees C, sufficient to change the structure of the dairy proteins, but not destroy them. Extrusion modified the structures of these dairy proteins for ease of use in starchy foods to boost nutrient levels. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To

  11. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-11-29

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  12. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  13. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-05-01

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  14. Predicting protein crystallization propensity from protein sequence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The high-throughput structure determination pipelines developed by structural genomics programs offer a unique opportunity for data mining. One important question is how protein properties derived from a primary sequence correlate with the protein’s propensity to yield X-ray quality crystals (crystallizability) and 3D X-ray structures. A set of protein properties were computed for over 1,300 proteins that expressed well but were insoluble, and for ~720 unique proteins that resulted in X-ray structures. The correlation of the protein’s iso-electric point and grand average hydropathy (GRAVY) with crystallizability was analyzed for full length and domain constructs of protein targets. In a second step, several additional properties that can be calculated from the protein sequence were added and evaluated. Using statistical analyses we have identified a set of the attributes correlating with a protein’s propensity to crystallize and implemented a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier based on these. We have created applications to analyze and provide optimal boundary information for query sequences and to visualize the data. These tools are available via the web site http://bioinformatics.anl.gov/cgi-bin/tools/pdpredictor. PMID:20177794

  15. Clinical protein mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scherl, Alexander

    2015-06-15

    Quantitative protein analysis is routinely performed in clinical chemistry laboratories for diagnosis, therapeutic monitoring, and prognosis. Today, protein assays are mostly performed either with non-specific detection methods or immunoassays. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a very specific analytical method potentially very well suited for clinical laboratories. Its unique advantage relies in the high specificity of the detection. Any protein sequence variant, the presence of a post-translational modification or degradation will differ in mass and structure, and these differences will appear in the mass spectrum of the protein. On the other hand, protein MS is a relatively young technique, demanding specialized personnel and expensive instrumentation. Many scientists and opinion leaders predict MS to replace immunoassays for routine protein analysis, but there are only few protein MS applications routinely used in clinical chemistry laboratories today. The present review consists of a didactical introduction summarizing the pros and cons of MS assays compared to immunoassays, the different instrumentations, and various MS protein assays that have been proposed and/or are used in clinical laboratories. An important distinction is made between full length protein analysis (top-down method) and peptide analysis after enzymatic digestion of the proteins (bottom-up method) and its implication for the protein assay. The document ends with an outlook on what type of analyses could be used in the future, and for what type of applications MS has a clear advantage compared to immunoassays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.