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Sample records for a2780 human ovarian

  1. Inhibition of A2780 Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Proliferation by a Rubus Component, Sanguiin H-6.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dahae; Ko, Hyeonseok; Kim, Young-Joo; Kim, Su-Nam; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Hyun Young; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2016-02-01

    The effects of a red raspberry component, sanguiin H-6 (SH-6), on the induction of apoptosis and the related signaling pathways in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells were investigated. SH-6 caused an antiproliferative effect and a severe morphological change resembling that of apoptotic cell death but no effect on the cancer cell cycle arrest. In addition, SH-6 induced an early apoptotic effect and activation of caspases as well as the cleavage of PARP, which is a hallmark of apoptosis. The early apoptotic percentages of A2780 cells exposed to 20 and 40 μM SH-6 were 35.39 and 41.76, respectively. Also, SH-6 caused the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), especially p38, and the increase of truncated p15/BID. These results in the present study suggest that the apoptosis of A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells by SH-6 is mediated by the MAPK p38 and a caspase-8-dependent BID cleavage pathway. PMID:26725849

  2. Macranthoside B Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy Via Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Human Ovarian Cancer A2780 Cells.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yu; Guan, Fuqin; Zhao, Xingzeng; Wang, Ming; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qizhi; Feng, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Macranthoside B (MB), a saponin compound in Lonicera macranthoides, can block cell proliferation and induce cell death in several types of cancer cells; however, the precise mechanisms by which MB exerts its anticancer effects remain poorly understood. MB blocked A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cell proliferation both dose- and time-dependently. MB induced apoptosis, with increased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3/9 cleavage. MB also caused autophagy in A2780 cells, with light chain 3 (LC3)-II elevation. Inhibiting MB-induced autophagy with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly decreased apoptosis, with a reduction of growth inhibition; inhibiting MB-induced apoptosis with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK did not decrease autophagy but elevated LC3-II levels, indicating that MB-induced autophagy is cytotoxic and may be upstream of apoptosis. Furthermore, MB increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, with activated 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), decreased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and P70S6 kinase phosphorylation, and increased PARP and caspase-3/9 cleavage, and LC3-II elevation; treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine and the AMPK inhibitor Compound C diminished this effect. Therefore, the ROS/AMPK/mTOR pathway mediates the effect of MB on induction of apoptosis via autophagy in human ovarian carcinoma cells. PMID:26943028

  3. MiR-130a and MiR-374a Function as Novel Regulators of Cisplatin Resistance in Human Ovarian Cancer A2780 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjing; Yi, Tao; Jia, Xibiao; Chen, Cen; Xu, Pan

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance remains a major obstacle to effective treatment in patients with ovarian cancer, and recently increasing evidences suggest that miRNAs are involved in drug-resistance. In this study, we investigated the role of miRNAs in regulating cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cell line and analyzed their possible mechanisms. We profiled miRNAs differentially expressed in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line A2780/DDP compared with parental A2780 cells using microarray. Four abnormally expressed miRNAs were selected (miR-146a,-130a, -374a and miR-182) for further studies. Their expression were verified by qRT-PCR. MiRNA mimics or inhibitor were transfected into A2780 and A2780/DDP cells and then drug sensitivity was analyzed by MTS array. RT-PCR and Western blot were carried out to examine the alteration of MDR1, PTEN gene expression. A total of 32 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in A2780/DDP cells. Among them, miR-146a was down-regulated and miR-130a,-374a,-182 were upregulated in A2780/DDP cells, which was verified by RT-PCR. MiR-130a and miR-374a mimics decreased the sensitivity of A2780 cells to cisplatin, reversely, their inhibitors could resensitize A2780/DDP cells. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-130a could increase the MDR1 mRNA and P-gp levels in A2780 and A2780/DDP cells, whereas knockdown of miR-130a could inhibit MDR1 gene expression and upregulate the PTEN protein expression .In a conclusion, the deregulation of miR-374a and miR-130a may be involved in the development and regulation of cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells. This role of miR-130a may be achieved by regulating the MDR1 and PTEN gene expression. PMID:26043084

  4. Modulation of Multidrug Resistance Protein 2 Efflux in the Cisplatin Resistance Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cells A2780/RCIS by Sesquiterpene Coumarins.

    PubMed

    Kasaian, Jamal; Mosaffa, Fatemeh; Behravan, Javad; Masullo, Milena; Piacente, Sonia; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Recent in vitro studies showed that sesquiterpene coumarins (SCs) can be used as chemosensitizers. In this study, 14 SCs were isolated and purified from roots of four Ferula species and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The purified SCs were evaluated for multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal properties in A2780/RCIS cells (cisplatin-resistant derivatives of the human ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780P). Among the tested compounds, mogoltacin, mogoltadone, farnesiferol A, farnesiferol B, farnesiferol C, lehmferin, conferdione, and samarcandin showed significant MDR reversing effects. The combination of nontoxic concentrations of SCs (20 μM) with cisplatin enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity on A2780/RCIS cells significantly. Flow cytometric efflux assay confirmed that the intracellular accumulation of 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (5-CFDA) was significantly increased in A2780/RCIS cells when treated with SCs. Our findings revealed that conferdione and samarcandin possessed the highest inhibitory effects on multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 pump efflux, and therefore, these compounds could be considered as lead scaffolds for further structure modifications. PMID:26503061

  5. RNA Interference-Mediated Inhibition of Erythropoietin Receptor Expression Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasiveness in A2780 Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paragh, Gyorgy; Kumar, Suresh M.; Rakosy, Zsuzsa; Choi, Soek-Choel; Xu, Xiaowei; Acs, Geza

    2009-01-01

    Although recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) has revolutionized the treatment of anemia, recent clinical trials suggested that rHuEpo use may be associated with decreased survival in cancer patients. Although the expression of erythropoietin (Epo) receptor (EpoR) has been demonstrated in various human cancers, the effect of exogenous Epo on the growth and therapy resistance of EpoR-bearing tumor cells is unclear at present. In the current study, we examined the hypothesis that EpoR may contribute to tumor growth independent of Epo in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells. A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells showed high levels of EpoR expression, but lacked expression of Epo mRNA and biologically active Epo protein under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Exogenous Epo did not stimulate EpoR-mediated signaling, proliferation, invasiveness, or resistance to cytotoxic drugs in A2780 cells. In contrast, specific inhibition of EpoR expression using a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmid resulted in markedly reduced proliferation and invasiveness in vitro. In addition, inhibition of EpoR expression led to abrogated in vivo ovarian cancer cell growth in a tumor xenograft system and resulted in decreased EpoR signaling. Our findings suggest that EpoR may be constitutively active in some cancer cells in the absence of Epo and provide the first evidence for a potential role of an Epo-independent, EpoR-mediated pathway in the growth of some human cancers. PMID:19264915

  6. Effect of Amino Acids on the Generation of Ginsenoside Rg3 Epimers by Heat Processing and the Anticancer Activities of Epimers in A2780 Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Yeon; Choi, Pilju; Lee, Dahae; Kim, Taejung; Jung, Eun Bee; Hwang, Buyng-Su; Kang, Ki Sung; Ham, Jungyeob

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenosides are the active components of Panax ginseng. Many research studies indicate that these deglycosylated, less-polar ginsenosides have better bioactivity than the major ginsenosides. In the present study, we sought to verify the enhanced anticancer effect of P. ginseng extract after undergoing the Maillard reaction as well as elucidate the underlying mechanism of action. The effects of 9 amino acids were tested; among them, the content of 20(S)-Rg3 in the ginseng extract increased to more than 30, 20, and 20% when processed with valine, arginine, and alanine, respectively, compared with that after normal heat processing. The ginseng extract that was heat-processed with arginine exhibited the most potent inhibitory effect on A2780 ovarian cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, the generation of 20(S)-Rg3 was suggested to be involved in this effect. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of 20(S)-Rg3 on A2780 cell proliferation was significantly stronger than that of 20(R)-Rg3. Protein expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and PARP in the A2780 ovarian cancer cells markedly increased, whereas the expression of BID decreased after 20(S)-Rg3 treatment. Therefore, we confirmed that the anticancer effects of the products of ginseng that was heat-processed with arginine are mediated mainly via the generation of the less-polar ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3. PMID:27051448

  7. Effect of Amino Acids on the Generation of Ginsenoside Rg3 Epimers by Heat Processing and the Anticancer Activities of Epimers in A2780 Human Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Yeon; Choi, Pilju; Lee, Dahae; Kim, Taejung; Jung, Eun Bee; Hwang, Buyng-Su; Kang, Ki Sung; Ham, Jungyeob

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenosides are the active components of Panax ginseng. Many research studies indicate that these deglycosylated, less-polar ginsenosides have better bioactivity than the major ginsenosides. In the present study, we sought to verify the enhanced anticancer effect of P. ginseng extract after undergoing the Maillard reaction as well as elucidate the underlying mechanism of action. The effects of 9 amino acids were tested; among them, the content of 20(S)-Rg3 in the ginseng extract increased to more than 30, 20, and 20% when processed with valine, arginine, and alanine, respectively, compared with that after normal heat processing. The ginseng extract that was heat-processed with arginine exhibited the most potent inhibitory effect on A2780 ovarian cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, the generation of 20(S)-Rg3 was suggested to be involved in this effect. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of 20(S)-Rg3 on A2780 cell proliferation was significantly stronger than that of 20(R)-Rg3. Protein expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and PARP in the A2780 ovarian cancer cells markedly increased, whereas the expression of BID decreased after 20(S)-Rg3 treatment. Therefore, we confirmed that the anticancer effects of the products of ginseng that was heat-processed with arginine are mediated mainly via the generation of the less-polar ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3. PMID:27051448

  8. The potassium ion channel opener NS1619 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in A2780 ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Han Xiaobing; Xi Ling; Wang Hui; Huang Xiaoyuan; Ma Xiangyi; Han Zhiqiang; Wu Peng; Ma Xiaoli; Lu Yunping; Wang, Gang Zhou Jianfeng; Ma Ding

    2008-10-17

    Diverse types of voltage-gated potassium (K{sup +}) channels have been shown to be involved in regulation of cell proliferation. The maxi-conductance Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channels (BK channels) may play an important role in the progression of human cancer. To explore the role of BK channels in regulation of apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells, the effects of the specific BK channel activator NS1619 on induction of apoptosis in A2780 cells were observed. Following treatment with NS1619, cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis of A2780 cells pretreated with NS1619 was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis of cellular DNA and flow cytometry. Our data demonstrate that NS1619 inhibits the proliferation of A2780 cells in a dosage and time dependent manner IC{sub 50} = 31.1 {mu}M, for 48 h pretreatment and induces apoptosis. Western blot analyses showed that the anti-proliferation effect of NS1619 was associated with increased expression of p53, p21, and Bax. These results indicate that BK channels play an important role in regulating proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells and may induce apoptosis through induction of p21{sup Cip1} expression in a p53-dependent manner.

  9. Extracellular matrix proteins expression profiling in chemoresistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Januchowski, Radosław; Zawierucha, Piotr; Ruciński, Marcin; Nowicki, Michał; Zabel, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological malignancies. Extracellular matrix (ECM) can affect drug resistance by preventing the penetration of the drug into cancer cells and increased resistance to apoptosis. This study demonstrates alterations in the expression levels of ECM components and related genes in cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, topotecan-, and paclitaxel-resistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. Affymetrix Gene Chip Human Genome Array Strips were used for hybridisations. The genes that had altered expression levels in drug-resistant sublines were selected and filtered by scatter plots. The genes that were up- or downregulated more than fivefold were selected and listed. Among the investigated genes, 28 genes were upregulated, 10 genes were downregulated, and two genes were down- or upregulated depending on the cell line. Between upregulated genes 12 were upregulated very significantly--over 20-fold. These genes included COL1A2, COL12A1, COL21A1, LOX, TGFBI, LAMB1, EFEMP1, GPC3, SDC2, MGP, MMP3, and TIMP3. Four genes were very significantly downregulated: COL11A1, LAMA2, GPC6, and LUM. The expression profiles of investigated genes provide a preliminary insight into the relationship between drug resistance and the expression of ECM components. Identifying correlations between investigated genes and drug resistance will require further analysis. PMID:24804215

  10. Extracellular Matrix Proteins Expression Profiling in Chemoresistant Variants of the A2780 Ovarian Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Januchowski, Radosław; Zawierucha, Piotr; Ruciński, Marcin; Nowicki, Michał; Zabel, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological malignancies. Extracellular matrix (ECM) can affect drug resistance by preventing the penetration of the drug into cancer cells and increased resistance to apoptosis. This study demonstrates alterations in the expression levels of ECM components and related genes in cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, topotecan-, and paclitaxel-resistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. Affymetrix Gene Chip Human Genome Array Strips were used for hybridisations. The genes that had altered expression levels in drug-resistant sublines were selected and filtered by scatter plots. The genes that were up- or downregulated more than fivefold were selected and listed. Among the investigated genes, 28 genes were upregulated, 10 genes were downregulated, and two genes were down- or upregulated depending on the cell line. Between upregulated genes 12 were upregulated very significantly—over 20-fold. These genes included COL1A2, COL12A1, COL21A1, LOX, TGFBI, LAMB1, EFEMP1, GPC3, SDC2, MGP, MMP3, and TIMP3. Four genes were very significantly downregulated: COL11A1, LAMA2, GPC6, and LUM. The expression profiles of investigated genes provide a preliminary insight into the relationship between drug resistance and the expression of ECM components. Identifying correlations between investigated genes and drug resistance will require further analysis. PMID:24804215

  11. Knockdown of platinum-induced growth differentiation factor 15 abrogates p27-mediated tumor growth delay in the chemoresistant ovarian cancer model A2780cis

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Julia C; Haendler, Bernard; Seidel, Henrik; Groth, Philip; Adams, Robert; Ziegelbauer, Karl; Kreft, Bertolt; Beckmann, Georg; Sommer, Anette; Kopitz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to platinum-based treatment in patients with ovarian cancer remain poorly understood. This is mainly due to the lack of appropriate in vivo models allowing the identification of resistance-related factors. In this study, we used human whole-genome microarrays and linear model analysis to identify potential resistance-related genes by comparing the expression profiles of the parental human ovarian cancer model A2780 and its platinum-resistant variant A2780cis before and after carboplatin treatment in vivo. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was identified as one of five potential resistance-related genes in the A2780cis tumor model. Although A2780-bearing mice showed a strong carboplatin-induced increase of GDF15 plasma levels, the basal higher GDF15 plasma levels of A2780cis-bearing mice showed no further increase after short-term or long-term carboplatin treatment. This correlated with a decreased DNA damage response, enhanced AKT survival signaling and abrogated cell cycle arrest in the carboplatin-treated A2780cis tumors. Furthermore, knockdown of GDF15 in A2780cis cells did not alter cell proliferation but enhanced cell migration and colony size in vitro. Interestingly, in vivo knockdown of GDF15 in the A2780cis model led to a basal-enhanced tumor growth, but increased sensitivity to carboplatin treatment as compared to the control-transduced A2780cis tumors. This was associated with larger necrotic areas, a lobular tumor structure and increased p53 and p16 expression of the carboplatin-treated shGDF15-A2780cis tumors. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated GDF15 knockdown abrogated p27 expression as compared to control-transduced A2780cis tumors. In conclusion, these data show that GDF15 may contribute to carboplatin resistance by suppressing tumor growth through p27. These data show that GDF15 might serve as a novel treatment target in women with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:25490861

  12. Drug transporter expression profiling in chemoresistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Januchowski, Radosław; Zawierucha, Piotr; Ruciński, Marcin; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Wojtowicz, Karolina; Nowicki, Michał; Zabel, Maciej

    2014-05-01

    Ovarian cancer is characterized by the higher mortality among gynecological cancers. In results of MDR development during chemotherapy cancer cells become resistant to further treatment. Microarray techniques can provide information about MDR development at gene expression level. ABC and SLC transporters are most important proteins responsible for this phenomenon. In this study changes of ABC and SLC genes expression pattern in drugs resistant sublines of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line were demonstrated. The cytostatic resistant sublines were generated by culture of A2780 cell line with an increasing concentration of the indicated drugs. As screening methods, we used Affymetrix U219 Human Genome microarrays. Independent t-tests were used to determinate statistical significances of results. Genes that expression levels were higher than assumed threshold (upregulated above threefold and downregulated under -3 fold) were visualized using scatter plot method, selected and listed in table. Between the ABC genes increased expression of seven genes and decreased expression of three genes were observed. Expression of two genes was increased or decreased depending on the cell line. We observed significant (more than tenfold) increase in expression of four ABC genes: ABCA8, ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCG2 and decreased expression of ABCA3 gene. We also observed changes in expression of 32 SLC genes. Between them we observe increased expression of 17 genes and decreased expression of 15 genes. Expression of four genes was increased or decreased dependent on cell line. The expression of nine SLC genes increased or decreased very significantly (more than tenfold). Five genes were significantly upregulated: SLC2A9, SLC16A3, SLC16A14, SLC38A4 and SLC39A8. Four additional genes were significantly downregulated: SLC2A14, SLC6A15, SLC8A1 and SLC27A2. Expression profiles of these genes give strong arguments for assumption of correlation between expression of ABC and SLC genes and drug

  13. Ellagic Acid and Resveratrol Prevent the Development of Cisplatin Resistance in the Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cell Line A2780

    PubMed Central

    Engelke, Laura H.; Hamacher, Alexandra; Proksch, Peter; Kassack, Matthias U.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Several studies have shown that natural compounds like resveratrol or ellagic acid have anticancer and antioxidant properties and can stimulate apoptosis in many cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to elucidate if resveratrol or ellagic acid, respectively, could improve the efficacy of cisplatin in ovarian cancer. Methods. As a cellular resistance model, the epithelial ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and its cisplatin-resistant subclone A2780CisR were used. A2780CisR was obtained by intermittent treatment of A2780 with cisplatin for 26 weekly cycles and showed a 4-6-fold increased resistance towards cisplatin compared to A2780. Results. Pretreatment with resveratrol or ellagic acid 48 h prior to treatment with cisplatin showed a moderate enhancement of cisplatin cytotoxicity in A2780CisR cells (shift factors were 1.6 for ellagic acid and 2.5 for resveratrol). However, intermittent treatment of A2780 with cisplatin for 26 weekly cycles in permanent presence of resveratrol or ellagic acid, respectively, completely prevented the development of cisplatin resistance. The generated cell lines named A2780Resv and A2780Ellag displayed functional characteristics (migration, proliferation, apoptosis, activation of ErbB3, ROS generation) similar to the parental cell line A2780. Conclusion. In conclusion, weekly intermittent treatment cycles of cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cells with cisplatin retain cisplatin chemosensitivity in permanent presence of ellagic acid or resveratrol, respectively, whereas clinically relevant cisplatin chemoresistance develops in the absence of ellagic acid or resveratrol. Use of natural phenolic compounds may thus be a promising approach to prevent cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer. PMID:26918049

  14. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester activates pro-apoptotic and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes in ovarian cancer cells A2780 and A2780cis.

    PubMed

    Gherman, Claudia; Braicu, Ovidiu Leonard; Zanoaga, Oana; Jurj, Anca; Pileczki, Valentina; Maralani, Mahafarin; Drigla, Flaviu; Braicu, Cornelia; Budisan, Liviuta; Achimas-Cadariu, Patriciu; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2016-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is a highly aggressive pathology, displaying a poor prognosis and chemoresistance to classical therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on survival of ovarian cancer cell lines, A2780 (sensitive to cisplatin) and A2780cis (resistant to cisplatin). MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability, while the apoptotic processes were examined by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. A reduction of cell proliferation and activation of the apoptosis was observed in both cell lines. qRT-PCR evaluation demonstrated the activation of the pro-apoptotic genes (BAD, CASP8, FAS, FADD, p53) in both cell lines. The limited therapeutic effect in A2780 cells is explained by the activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes (ZEB1, ZEB2, or TGFBB1) as displayed by Ingenuity Network analysis. Overall data suggest that CAPE can be used as an alternative in sensitizing cells to chemotherapy. PMID:26838168

  15. Resveratrol analogue 3,4,4′,5-tetramethoxystilbene inhibits growth, arrests cell cycle and induces apoptosis in ovarian SKOV‐3 and A-2780 cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Piotrowska, Hanna; Myszkowski, Krzysztof; Ziółkowska, Alicja; Kulcenty, Katarzyna; Wierzchowski, Marcin; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Murias, Marek; Kwiatkowska-Borowczyk, Eliza; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2012-08-15

    In the screening studies, cytotoxicity of 12 methylated resveratrol analogues on 11 human cancer cell lines was examined. The most active compound 3,4,4′5-tetramethoxystilbene (DMU-212) and two ovarian cancer cell lines A-2780 (IC{sub 50} = 0.71 μM) and SKOV-3 (IC{sub 50} = 11.51 μM) were selected for further investigation. To determine the mechanism of DMU-212 cytotoxicity, its ability to induce apoptosis was examined. DMU-212 arrested cell cycle in the G2/M or G0/G1 phase which resulted in apoptosis of both cell lines. The expression level of 84 apoptosis-related genes was investigated. In SKOV-3 cells DMU-212 caused up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax, Apaf-1 and p53 genes, specific to intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, and a decrease in Bcl-2 and Bcl 2110 mRNA expressions. Conversely, in A-2780 cells an increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes Fas, FasL, TNF, TNFRSF10A, TNFRSF21, TNFRSF16 specific to extracellular mechanism of apoptosis was observed. There are no data published so far regarding the receptor mediated apoptosis induced by DMU-212. The activation of caspase-3/7 was correlated with decreased TRAF-1 and BIRC-2 expression level in A-2780 cells exposed to DMU-212. DMU-212 caused a decrease in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA levels in A-2780 by 50% and 75%, and in SKOV-3 cells by 15% and 45%, respectively. The protein expression was also reduced in both cell lines. It is noteworthy that the expression of CYP1B1 protein was entirely inhibited in A-2780 cells treated with DMU-212. It can be suggested that different CYP1B1 expression patterns in either ovarian cell line may affect their sensitivity to cytotoxic activity of DMU-212. -- Highlights: ► DMU-212 was the most cytotoxic among 12 O-methylated resveratrol analogues. ► DMU-212 arrested cell cycle at G2/M and G0/G1phase ► DMU-212 triggered mitochondria- and receptor‐mediated apoptosis. ► DMU-212 entirely inhibited CYP1B1 protein expression in A-2780 cells.

  16. Effect of IL-6 and IL-8 on the expression of the complement activation inhibitors MAC-inhibitory protein and decay-accelerating factor in ovarian cancer A2780 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Popek, Sylwia; Sawicki, Krzysztof; Wolińska, Ewa; Czajka, Magdalena; Skrzypczak, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 on the expression of the membrane-bound complement inhibitors membrane attack complex-inhibitory protein (CD59) and decay-accelerating factor (CD55), in the human ovarian carcinoma A2780 cell line, which is a non-producing IL-6 cell line that does exhibit IL-6 responsiveness, due to the presence of IL-6 receptors. Extracellular levels of complement system inhibitors were evaluated by western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cellular localization of CD55 and CD59 in the ovarian cancer cells was assessed by immunofluorescence. The detection of a soluble form of CD55 and CD59 released by the A2780 cells following stimulation with IL-6 and IL-8 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The present data revealed that A2780 cells express CD55 and CD59 at the mRNA and protein level, but do not secrete these proteins to the culture medium. Results of western blotting demonstrated that the protein level of CD59 was regulated by IL-6 and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the ovarian cancer A2780 cell line expresses the membrane bound form of CD55 protein. The present results indicate that CD55 and CD59 may affect the efficiency of complement-mediated immunotherapies. PMID:27446461

  17. Theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate induces apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest through the Akt/MDM2/p53 pathway in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer A2780/CP70 cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Youying; Kim, Eunhye; Gao, Ying; Rankin, Gary O; Li, Bo; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer among women worldwide. Adverse side effects and acquired resistance to conventional platinum based chemotherapy are major impediments in ovarian cancer treatment, and drive the development of more selective anticancer drugs that target cancer-specific defects. In this study, theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate (TF3), the major theaflavin monomer in black tea, exhibited a potent growth inhibitory effect on the cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer A2780/CP70 cells (IC50, 23.81 µM), and was less cytotoxic to a normal ovarian IOSE‑364 cells (IC50, 59.58 µM) than to the cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that TF3 induced preferential apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest in A2780/CP70 cells with respect to IOSE‑364 cells. TF3 induced apoptosis through both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, and caused G2 cell cycle arrest via cyclin B1 in A2780/CP70 cells. The p53 protein played an important role in TF3-induced apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest. TF3 might upregulate the p53 expression via the Akt/MDM2 pathway. Our findings help elucidate the mechanisms by which TF3 may contribute to the prevention and treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:27082635

  18. Theaflavin-3, 3′-digallate induces apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest through the Akt/MDM2/p53 pathway in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer A2780/CP70 cells

    PubMed Central

    TU, YOUYING; KIM, EUNHYE; GAO, YING; RANKIN, GARY O.; LI, BO; CHEN, YI CHARLIE

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer among women worldwide. Adverse side effects and acquired resistance to conventional platinum based chemotherapy are major impediments in ovarian cancer treatment, and drive the development of more selective anticancer drugs that target cancer-specific defects. In this study, theaflavin-3, 3′-digallate (TF3), the major theaflavin monomer in black tea, exhibited a potent growth inhibitory effect on the cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer A2780/CP70 cells (IC50, 23.81 μM), and was less cytotoxic to a normal ovarian IOSE-364 cells (IC50, 59.58 μM) than to the cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that TF3 induced preferential apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest in A2780/CP70 cells with respect to IOSE-364 cells. TF3 induced apoptosis through both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, and caused G2 cell cycle arrest via cyclin B1 in A2780/CP70 cells. The p53 protein played an important role in TF3-induced apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest. TF3 might upregulate the p53 expression via the Akt/MDM2 pathway. Our findings help elucidate the mechanisms by which TF3 may contribute to the prevention and treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:27082635

  19. The anti-tumor effect of cross-reacting material 197, an inhibitor of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, in human resistant ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiao-han; Deng, Suo; Li, Meng; Lu, Mei-song

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HB-EGF over-expression in A2780/Taxol, A2780/CDDP cells and the matched xenografts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 induces enhanced apoptosis in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 arrests A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells at G0/G1 phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 suppressed the A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP growth of xenografts. -- Abstract: Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a promising target for ovarian cancer therapy. Cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197), a specific HB-EGF inhibitor, has been proven to represent possible chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer. However, the effect of CRM197 on the resistant ovarian carcinoma cells has not been sufficiently elucidated. Here, we found that HB-EGF was over-expressed in a paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cell line (A2780/Taxol) and a cisplatin-resistant cell line (A2780/CDDP), as well as the xenograft mouse tissue samples with these cells. To investigate the possible significance of the HB-EGF over-expression in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells, we inhibited HB-EGF expression by CRM197 to investigate the effect of CRM197 treatment on these cells. We observed that CRM197 significantly induced anti-proliferative activity in a dose-dependent manner with the cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and enhanced apoptosis in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells. The sensitive ovarian carcinoma parental cell line (A2780), A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells formed tumors in nude mice, and enhanced tumorigenicity was observed in drug-resistant tumors. Furthermore, we observed that CRM197 significantly suppressed the growth of drug-resistant ovarian cancer xenografts in vivo (p < 0.001). These results suggest that CRM197 as an HB-EGF-targeted agent has potent anti-tumor activity in paclitaxel- and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer which over-express HB-EGF.

  20. Cellular Uptake, DNA Binding and Apoptosis Induction of Cytotoxic Trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(Isopropylamine)] in A2780cisR Ovarian Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, José M.; Montero, Eva I.; Quiroga, Adoración G.; Fuertes, Miguel A; Alonso, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(isopropylamine)] is a novel trans-platinum compound that shows cytotoxic activity in several cisplatin resistant cell lines. The aim of this paper was to analyse, by means of molecular cell biology techniques and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), the cytotoxic activity, the induction of apoptosis, the cellular uptake and the DNA binding of trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(isopropylamine)] in the cisplatin resistant cell line A2780cisR. The results show that this drug is more cytotoxic and induces a higher amount of apoptotic cells than cisplatin in A2780cisR cells. However, the intracellular accumulation and extent of binding to DNA of trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)( isopropylamine)] is lower than that of cis-DDP. Moreover, trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(isopropylaminae)] is partially inactivated by intracellular levels of glulathione. The result suggest that circumvention of ciplatin resistance by trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(isopropylamine)] in A2780cisR cells might be related with the ability of this drug to induce apoptosis. PMID:18475973

  1. NMDA receptors are expressed in human ovarian cancer tissues and human ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    North, William G; Liu, Fuli; Tian, Ruiyang; Abbasi, Hamza; Akerman, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    We have earlier demonstrated that breast cancer and small-cell lung cancer express functional NMDA receptors that can be targeted to promote cancer cell death. Human ovarian cancer tissues and human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3, A2008, and A2780) have now been shown to also express NMDA-receptor subunit 1 (GluN1) and subunit 2B (GluN2B). Seventeen ovarian cancers in two arrays were screened by immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies that recognize an extracellular moiety on GluN1 and on GluN2B. These specimens comprised malignant tissue with pathology diagnoses of serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma, endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and clear-cell carcinoma. Additionally, archival tissues defined as ovarian adenocarcinoma from ten patients treated at this institute were also evaluated. All of the cancerous tissues demonstrated positive staining patterns with the NMDA-receptor antibodies, while no staining was found for tumor-adjacent normal tissues or sections of normal ovarian tissue. Human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines (A2008, A2780, SKOV3) were demonstrated to express GluN1 by Western blotting, but displayed different levels of expression. Through immunocytochemistry utilizing GluN1 antibodies and imaging using a confocal microscope, we were able to demonstrate that GluN1 protein is expressed on the surface of these cells. In addition to these findings, GluN2B protein was demonstrated to be expressed using polyclonal antibodies against this protein. Treatment of all ovarian cell lines with antibodies against GluN1 was found to result in decreased cell viability (P<0.001), with decreases to 10%-25% that of untreated cells. Treatment of control HEK293 cells with various dilutions of GluN1 antibodies had no effect on cell viability. The GluN1 antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate) and the GluN2B antagonist ifenprodil, like antibodies, dramatically decreased the viability of A2780 ovarian tumor cells (P<0.01). Treatment of A2780 tumor xenografts with

  2. NMDA receptors are expressed in human ovarian cancer tissues and human ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    North, William G; Liu, Fuli; Tian, Ruiyang; Abbasi, Hamza; Akerman, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    We have earlier demonstrated that breast cancer and small-cell lung cancer express functional NMDA receptors that can be targeted to promote cancer cell death. Human ovarian cancer tissues and human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3, A2008, and A2780) have now been shown to also express NMDA-receptor subunit 1 (GluN1) and subunit 2B (GluN2B). Seventeen ovarian cancers in two arrays were screened by immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies that recognize an extracellular moiety on GluN1 and on GluN2B. These specimens comprised malignant tissue with pathology diagnoses of serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma, endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and clear-cell carcinoma. Additionally, archival tissues defined as ovarian adenocarcinoma from ten patients treated at this institute were also evaluated. All of the cancerous tissues demonstrated positive staining patterns with the NMDA-receptor antibodies, while no staining was found for tumor-adjacent normal tissues or sections of normal ovarian tissue. Human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines (A2008, A2780, SKOV3) were demonstrated to express GluN1 by Western blotting, but displayed different levels of expression. Through immunocytochemistry utilizing GluN1 antibodies and imaging using a confocal microscope, we were able to demonstrate that GluN1 protein is expressed on the surface of these cells. In addition to these findings, GluN2B protein was demonstrated to be expressed using polyclonal antibodies against this protein. Treatment of all ovarian cell lines with antibodies against GluN1 was found to result in decreased cell viability (P<0.001), with decreases to 10%–25% that of untreated cells. Treatment of control HEK293 cells with various dilutions of GluN1 antibodies had no effect on cell viability. The GluN1 antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate) and the GluN2B antagonist ifenprodil, like antibodies, dramatically decreased the viability of A2780 ovarian tumor cells (P<0.01). Treatment of A2780 tumor xenografts with

  3. Antiproliferation effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on human ovarian cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tai, Joseph; Cheung, Susan; Wu, Matthew; Hasman, David

    2012-03-15

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular culinary/medicinal herb. Recent studies have shown it has pharmacologic activities for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. This study evaluated the antiproliferation activity of rosemary extract (RE) against human ovarian cancer cells, and whether the extract and its three main active ingredients carnosol (CS), carnosic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) can enhance the antiproliferation activity of cisplatin (CDDP). Our study showed that RE has significant antiproliferation activity on human ovarian cancer A2780 and its CDDP resistant daughter cell line A2780CP70, with IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration) estimated at 1/1000 and 1/400 dilutions respectively. RE enhanced the antiproliferation effect with CDDP on both A2780 and A2780CP70 cells. A2780 cells were consistently more sensitive to CS, CA, and RA than A2780CP70 cells between 2.5 and 20μg/ml. CS and RA also showed synergistic antiproliferation effect with CDDP on A2780 cells at some concentrations. RE treated by ultrafiltration, dialysis, and removal of phenolics lost the antiproliferation activity suggested that the activity resides in phenolics with MW<1000Da. Apoptosis array study of A2780 cells treated with RE showed that the expression of a number of genes regulating apoptosis were modulated by the treatment. This study showed that RE inhibited the proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines by affecting the cell cycle at multiple phases. It induced apoptosis by modifying the expression of multiple genes regulating apoptosis, and holds potential as an adjunct to cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22325591

  4. Down-regulation of telomerase activity by anticancer drugs in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kunifuji, Yasumasa; Gotoh, Sadao; Abe, Tetsuya; Miura, Masayoshi; Karasaki, Yuji

    2002-07-01

    Maintenance of telomere length is crucial for survival of cells. Telomerase, an enzyme that is responsible for elongation of shortened telomeres, is active in human germ cells as well as most tumor tissues and experimentally immortalized cells. In contrast, most mature somatic cells in human tissues express undetectable or low telomerase activity, implying the existence of a stringent and negative regulatory mechanism. In this study we report the effects of anticancer drugs on telomerase activity in human cancer cells. In assaying for telomerase activity, we basically followed the original TRAP assay system, but with some modifications. A down-regulation of telomerase activity was found when cells of a human ovarian cancer cell line, A2780, were treated with;cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP; cisplatin). However, down-regulation of telomerase activity was not found in cells of a cisplatin-resistant cell line, A2780CP, treated with cisplatin. On the other hand, telomerase activity in both the cell lines A2780 and A2780CP was reduced when A2780 or A2780CP was treated with adriamycin, an anthracycline antibiotic having a broad spectrum of antineoplastic activity. The different effects on the telomerase activity of the two types of anticancer drugs may be due the distinct chemical functions of these drugs. The present results may indicate a positive relationship between anticancer effects and down-regulation of telomerase activity by anticancer drugs. PMID:12172504

  5. Combination of Genistein and Cisplatin with Two Designed Monofunctional Platinum Agents in Human Ovarian Tumour Models.

    PubMed

    Arzuman, Laila; Beale, Philip; Proschogo, Nick; Yu, Jun Q; Huq, Fazlul

    2015-11-01

    A great amount of research effort has been directed at platinum compounds that bind with DNA differently from cisplatin with the idea that the difference may translate into an altered spectrum of activity. Recently research has also been directed at applying combinations of platinum agents with tumour-active phytochemicals with the aim of providing a means of overcoming platinum resistance in ovarian cancer. Herein we report the synthesis of monofunctional platinum tris(3-hydroxypyridine)chloroplatinum(II) chloride (coded as LH1) and tris(imidazole)chloroplatinum(II) chloride (coded as LH2), and their activity alone and in combination with genistein and cisplatin against human ovarian A2780, cisplatin-resistant A2780(cisR) and picoplatin-resistant A2780(ZD0473R) cancer cell lines. Although both LH1 and LH2 were found to be less active than cisplatin against the tumour models, they produced synergistic outcomes in combination with genistein. Both the level of cellular accumulation of Pt and of Pt-DNA binding resulting from the combination were greater in the A2780(cisR) cell line than in the parental A2780 cell line, irrespective of the sequence of administration. Absence of association between activity of LH1 and LH2 and the level of Pt-DNA binding indicates that the cell death induced by LH1 and LH2 may not be limited to the effect of their binding with DNA. PMID:26504026

  6. Anti-proliferative activity and cell cycle arrest induced by evodiamine on paclitaxel-sensitive and -resistant human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhang-Feng; Tan, Wen; Wang, Sheng-Peng; Qiang, Wen-An; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Chemo-resistance is the main factor for poor prognosis in human ovarian epithelial cancer. Active constituents derived from Chinese medicine with anti-cancer potential might circumvent this obstacle. In our present study, evodiamine (EVO) derived from Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth suppressed the proliferation of human epithelial ovarian cancer, A2780 and the related paclitaxel-resistant cell lines and did not cause cytotoxicity, as confirmed by the significant decline of clone formation and the representative alterations of CFDA-SE fluorescence. Meanwhile, EVO induced cell cycle arrest in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This disturbance might be mediated by the cooperation of Cyclin B1 and Cdc2, including the up-regulation of Cyclin B1, p27, and p21, and activation failure of Cdc2 and pRb. MAPK signaling pathway regulation also assisted in this process. Furthermore, chemo-sensitivity potential was enhanced as indicated in A2780/PTXR cells by the down-regulation of MDR-1 expression, accompanied by MDR-1 function suppression. Taken together, we confirmed initially that EVO exerted an anti-proliferative effect on human epithelial ovarian cancer cells, A2780/WT and A2780/PTXR, induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, and improved chemo-resistance. Overall, we found that EVO significantly suppressed malignant proliferation in human epithelial ovarian cancer, thus proving to be a potential anti-cancer agent in the future. PMID:26553648

  7. Synthesis of tris(quinoline)monochloroplatinum(II) Chloride and its Activity Alone and in Combination with Capsaicin and Curcumin in Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Arzuman, Laila; Beale, Philip; Yu, Jun Q; Huq, Fazlul

    2016-06-01

    Currently used platinum drugs fail to provide long-term cure for ovarian cancer mainly because of acquired drug resistance. With the idea that the difference may translate into an altered spectrum of activity, monofunctional planaramineplatinum(II) complex tris(quinoline)monochloro-platinum chloride (coded as LH5) was synthesized and investigated for its activity against human ovarian A2780, cisplatin-resistant A2780 (A2780(cisR)) and ZD0473-resistnat A2780 (A2780(ZD0473R)) cancer cell lines alone and in combination with the phytochemicals capsaicin (Caps) and curcumin (Cur) as a function of concentration and sequence of administration. Cell viability was quantified using the MTT reduction assay, while combination was used as a quantitative measure of the combined drug action. LH5 is found to be more active than cisplatin (CS) against both resistant cell lines. Combination of LH5 with capsaicin showed synergism in all three cell lines, with the bolus being most synergistic. Lack of association between the levels of platinum accumulation and platinum-DNA with cytotoxicity can be seen to indicate that binding with DNA may not be the main determinant of activity of LH5. Greater activity of LH5 compared to cisplatin, especially against the resistant cell lines, indicates that the compound may have the potential for development as a novel anticancer drug and that its combination with phytochemicals can serve to further enhance drug efficacy. PMID:27272792

  8. Synthesis of a monofunctional platinum compound and its activity alone and in combination with phytochemicals in ovarian tumor models.

    PubMed

    Arzuman, Laila; Beale, Philip; Yu, Jun Qing; Proschogo, Nick; Huq, Fazlul

    2014-12-01

    Currently used platinum drugs fail to provide long-term cure for ovarian cancer mainly because of acquired drug resistance. In this study, a new monofunctional planaramineplatinum(II) complex, namely tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)monochloroplatinum(II) chloride (coded as LH3), was synthesised and investigated for its activity against human ovarian A2780, cisplatin-resistant A2780 (A2780(cisR)) and ZD0473-resistant A2780 (A2780(ZD0473R)) cancer cell lines, alone and in combination with the phytochemicals curcumin, genistein and resveratrol. Cellular levels of glutathione in A2780 and A2780(cisR) cell lines before and after treatment with LH3 and its combinations with genistein and curcumin were also determined. Interaction of the compounds with salmon sperm DNA, pBR322 plasmid DNA and damage to DNA in A2780 and A2780(cisR) cells due to interaction with LH3-alone and in combination with phytochemicals were also investigated. LH3 was found to be much more active than cisplatin against the resistant tumor models and greatest synergism in activity was observed when combinations of LH3 with genistein and curcumin were administered as a bolus. For combinations of LH3 with the phytochemicals, platinum accumulation and the level of Pt-DNA binding were found to be greater in the resistant A2780(cisR) cell line than in the parental A2780 cell line. Greater activity of LH3 than cisplatin against the resistant ovarian cell lines indicates that it may have the potential for development as a novel anticancer drug and that its combination with phytochemicals can serve to further enhance drug efficacy. PMID:25503135

  9. Kaempferol inhibits angiogenesis and VEGF expression through both HIF dependent and independent pathways in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haitao; Rankin, Gary O; Liu, Lingzhi; Daddysman, Matthew K; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is 1 of the most significant malignancies in the Western world, and the antiangiogenesis strategy has been postulated for prevention and treatment of ovarian cancers. Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid present in many fruits and vegetables. The antiangiogenesis potential of kaempferol and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in two ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR-3 and A2780/CP70. Kaempferol mildly inhibits cell viability but significantly reduces VEGF gene expression at mRNA and protein levels in both ovarian cancer cell lines. In chorioallantoic membranes of chicken embryos, kaempferol significantly inhibits OVCAR-3-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth. HIF-1alpha, a regulator of VEGF, is downregulated by kaempferol treatment in both ovarian cancer cell lines. Kaempferol also represses AKT phosphorylation dose dependently at 5 to 20 muM concentrations. ESRRA is a HIF-independent VEGF regulator, and it is also downregulated by kaempferol in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, this study demonstrated that kaempferol is low in cytotoxicity but inhibits angiogenesis and VEGF expression in human ovarian cancer cells through both HIF-dependent (Akt/HIF) and HIF-independent (ESRRA) pathways and deserves further studies for possible application in angio prevention and treatment of ovarian cancers. PMID:19838928

  10. Nilotinib reduced the viability of human ovarian cancer cells via mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, independent of JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tze-Chien; Yu, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Wu, Ming-Shun; Lee, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2016-03-01

    Nilotinib (AMN) induces apoptosis in various cancer cells; however the effect of AMN on human ovarian cancer cells is still unclear. A reduction in cell viability associated with the occurrence of apoptotic characteristics was observed in human SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells under AMN but not sorafenib (SORA) or imatinib (STI) stimulation. Activation of apoptotic pathway including increased caspase (Casp)-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) protein cleavage by AMN was detected with disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) accompanied by decreased Bcl-2 protein and increased cytosolic cytochrome (Cyt) c/cleaved Casp-9 protein expressions was found, and AMN-induced cell death was inhibited by peptidyl Casp inhibitors, VAD, DEVD and LEHD. Increased phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein expression was detected in AMN- but not SORA- or STI-treated SKOV-3 cells, and the JNK inhibitors, SP600125 and JNKI, showed slight but significant enhancement of AMN-induced cell death in SKOV-3 cells. The intracellular peroxide level was elevated by AMN and H2O2, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prevented H2O2- but not AMN-induced peroxide production and apoptosis in SKOV-3 cells. AMN induction of apoptosis with increased intracellular peroxide production and JNK protein phosphorylation was also identified in human A2780 ovarian cancer cells, cisplatin-resistant A2780CP cells, and clear ES-2 cells. The evidence supporting AMN effectively reducing the viability of human ovarian cancer cells via mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis is provided. PMID:26549707

  11. trans-thionate derivatives of Pt(II) and Pd(II) with water-soluble phosphane PTA and DAPTA ligands: antiproliferative activity against human ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Elena; Miranda, Susana; Lüttenberg, Sebastian; Fröhlich, Nils; Koenen, Jan-Moritz; Mohr, Fabian; Cerrada, Elena; Laguna, Mariano; Mendía, Aránzazu

    2013-06-01

    A series of PTA and DAPTA platinum(II) and palladium(II) thionate complexes of the type trans-[M(SN)2P2] were prepared from the reaction of cis-[MCl2P2] [M = Pt, Pd; P = PTA (1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane), DAPTA (3,7-diacetyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane)] with the in situ generated sodium salts of the heterocyclic thiones S-m-methylpyrimidine-2-thione, S-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine-2-thione, S-4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine-2-thione, benzothiazole-2-thione, benzoxazole-2-thione, S-1,3,4,-thiadiazole-2-thione, S-4,5-H-thiazolan-2-thione, and S-pyrimidine-4(1H)-one-2-thione. The X-ray structures of six of the compounds confirm the trans disposition and, only in the case of [Pd2Cl2(S-pyrimidine-4(1H)-one-2-thionate)2(PTA)2], a dinuclear structure with a Pd-Pd distance of 3.0265(14)Å was observed. In vitro cytotoxicities against human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and A2780cisR were evaluated for ten complexes showing a high inhibition of cellular growth with a comparable inhibitory potency (IC50) against A2780 cells to that of cisplatin. Notably, the compounds also show significant (up to 7-fold higher) activity in cisplatin-resistant A2780cisR cell lines. PMID:23692403

  12. Grifolin induces autophagic cell death by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR/S6K pathway in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Che, Xiaoxia; Yan, Hong; Sun, Hengzi; Dongol, Samina; Wang, Yilin; Lv, Qingtao; Jiang, Jie

    2016-08-01

    Grifolin, a secondary metabolic product isolated from the mushroom Albatrellus confluence, has been reported to possess antitumor activities in various tumors. To date, no report exists on the role of autophagy in grifolin-treated human ovarian cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect and the mechanism of autophagy in ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and SKOV3 were treated with grifolin. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay and the autophagic effect was determined using flow cytometry, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining and GFP-LC3 puncta formation assay. The expression of autophagy markers and the main autophagy-associated Akt/mTOR/S6K pathway proteins were measured by western blot analysis. MTT assay indicated that grifolin inhibits the proliferation of human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and SKOV3. Flow cytometry, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and GFP-LC3 puncta formation assay proved that grifolin induces autophagic cell death in human ovarian cancer. The results of the western blot analysis suggested that grifolin treatment leads to upregulation of autophagy markers LC3B, Atg7, Beclin-1 along with downregulation of P62. In addition, the proteins of the pathways p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-p70S6K and p-4E-BP1 were downregulated while the total of these proteins remained unaffected. The present study indicated that grifolin could induce autophagic cell death in human ovarian cancer by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR/S6K pathway. PMID:27277722

  13. EphA2 overexpression promotes ovarian cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chunhua; Shahzad, Mian M.K.; Wang, Hua; Landen, Charles N.; Kim, Seung W.; Allen, Julie; Nick, Alpa M.; Jennings, Nicholas; Kinch, Michael S.; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Sood, Anil K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Silencing EphA2 has been shown to result in anti-tumor efficacy. However, it is not known whether increasing EphA2 expression specifically results in increased tumor growth and progression. We examined the effects of stable EphA2 transfection into poorly invasive ovarian cancer cells with regard to in vitro invasive and in vivo metastatic potential. Results In low cell density, EphA2-overexpressing A2780 cells (A2780-EphA2) displayed less cell-cell contact, increased cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) attachment and anchorage-independent cell growth compared to empty vector controls. There was no significant effect on anchorage-dependent cell proliferation, migration or invasion. Increased expression of EphA2 promoted tumor growth and enhanced the metastatic potential in A2780-EphA2 human ovarian cancer xenografts. The overexpression of EphA2 resulted in enhanced microvessel density (MVD), but had no effect on tumor cell proliferation. Methods EphA2 gene was introduced into A2780 cells by retroviral infection. The effects of increased EphA2 expression were examined on cellular morphology, and anchorage-dependent and independent cell growth. Furthermore, the effect of EphA2 overexpression on metastatic ability was determined using an orthotopic nude mouse model of ovarian carcinoma. Conclusions EphA2 promotes tumor growth by enhancing cell-ECM adhesion, increasing anchorage-independent growth and promoting angiogenesis. PMID:18443431

  14. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the CLN3 gene inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    MAO, DONGWEI; CHE, JIANHUA; HAN, SHIYU; ZHAO, HONGHUI; ZHU, YUMEI; ZHU, HONG

    2015-01-01

    CLN3 is a recently identified anti-apoptotic gene, which has been demonstrated to be highly expressed in a diverse range of cancer cell lines, including ovarian cancer. In the present study, RNA interference, mediated by a lentivirus expressing CLN3 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was utilized to knockdown the expression of CLN3 in the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line, and its cisplatin-resistant and carboplatin-resistant sublines, A2780/DDP and A2780/CBP cells. It was revealed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of CLN3 were significantly reduced in the CLN3-specific shRNA-transduced cells, compared with the untransduced and control shRNA-transduced cells. In addition, specific knockdown of CLN3 in these cells inhibited cell proliferation and led to cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, with eventual apoptosis. CLN3 knockdown caused increases in the levels of Bax, FAX, cleaved-caspase 3, cleaved-caspase 8 and cleaved-RARP, but decreased the level of Bcl-2. Finally, it was observed that CLN3 depletion markedly reduced the half maximum inhibitory concentration in the A2780/DDP and A2780/CBP cells. Taken together, these data suggested that CLN3 is involved in tumorigenesis and drug resistance in ovarian cancer, and may serve as a promising therapeutic target for its treatment. PMID:26299671

  15. Human Leukocyte Antigen-Presented Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Is a Surface Biomarker and Potential Therapeutic Target for Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrea M; Kaabinejadian, Saghar; McMurtrey, Curtis P; Bardet, Wilfried; Jackson, Ken W; Zuna, Rosemary E; Husain, Sanam; Adams, Gregory P; MacDonald, Glen; Dillon, Rachelle L; Ames, Harold; Buchli, Rico; Hawkins, Oriana E; Weidanz, Jon A; Hildebrand, William H

    2016-02-01

    T cells recognize cancer cells via HLA/peptide complexes, and when disease overtakes these immune mechanisms, immunotherapy can exogenously target these same HLA/peptide surface markers. We previously identified an HLA-A2-presented peptide derived from macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and generated antibody RL21A against this HLA-A2/MIF complex. The objective of the current study was to assess the potential for targeting the HLA-A2/MIF complex in ovarian cancer. First, MIF peptide FLSELTQQL was eluted from the HLA-A2 of the human cancerous ovarian cell lines SKOV3, A2780, OV90, and FHIOSE118hi and detected by mass spectrometry. By flow cytometry, RL21A was shown to specifically stain these four cell lines in the context of HLA-A2. Next, partially matched HLA-A*02:01+ ovarian cancer (n = 27) and normal fallopian tube (n = 24) tissues were stained with RL21A by immunohistochemistry to assess differential HLA-A2/MIF complex expression. Ovarian tumor tissues revealed significantly increased RL21A staining compared with normal fallopian tube epithelium (P < 0.0001), with minimal staining of normal stroma and blood vessels (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001 compared with tumor cells) suggesting a therapeutic window. We then demonstrated the anticancer activity of toxin-bound RL21A via the dose-dependent killing of ovarian cancer cells. In summary, MIF-derived peptide FLSELTQQL is HLA-A2-presented and recognized by RL21A on ovarian cancer cell lines and patient tumor tissues, and targeting of this HLA-A2/MIF complex with toxin-bound RL21A can induce ovarian cancer cell death. These results suggest that the HLA-A2/MIF complex should be further explored as a cell-surface target for ovarian cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26719579

  16. Dual role of LRRC8A-containing transporters on cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Dam, Celina Støving; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-07-01

    Acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer cells can reflect an ability to limit cellular drug availability, to repair drug induced DNA damage, and to limit initiation/progression of cell death (apoptosis). The leucine-rich-repeat-containing 8A (LRRC8A) protein is an essential component of volume sensitive channels for organic osmolytes (VSOAC) and volume regulated anion channels (VRAC), which are activated during the apoptotic process. Here we illustrate that cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancer cells (A2780) correlates with a reduced expression of LRRC8A and copper transporter receptor 1 (CTR1), as well as a concomitant increased expression of copper-transporting P-type ATPases (ATP7A/ATP7B). We also find that cisplatin (Pt) accumulation correlates with LRRC8A protein expression and channel activity, i.e., the cellular Pt content is high when VSOAC is activated by depolarization of the plasma membrane or hypoosmotic cell swelling, and reduced when channel activity/LRRC8A expression is reduced by genetically silencing/pharmacological inhibition, or the cells have acquired a resistant phenotype with low LRRC8A protein expression. It is suggested that reduced LRRC8A expression in cisplatin-resistant A2780 cells ensures cell survival through limitation in cisplatin accumulation and a concomitant reduction in osmolytes loss via VSOAC/VRAC and hence instigation of the apoptotic process. PMID:27112899

  17. Downregulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression Contributes to α-TEA's Proapoptotic Effects in Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Shun, Ming-Chieh; Yu, Weiping; Park, Sook-Kyung; Sanders, Bob G.; Kline, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    RRR-α-tocopherol derivative α-TEA (RRR-α-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid analog) has been shown to be a potent antitumor agent both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effects of α-TEA on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members, ErbB1, 2 and 3, and the role of ErbB 2 and 3 in α-TEA-induced apoptosis and suppression of Akt, FLIP and survivin in the cisplatin-sensitive (A2780S) and -resistant (A2780/CP70R) human ovarian cancer cell lines. Data show that α-TEA's ability to induced apoptosis was associated with reduced expression of ErbB1 (cisplatin-resistant cells), 2 and 3 (both cell types) and reduced levels of the phosphorylated (active) form of Akt; as well as, reduced levels of FLIP and survivin proteins in both cell types. Ectopic overexpression and siRNA knockdown studies showed that ErbB2, ErbB3, Akt, FLIP and survivin are involved in α-TEA-induce apoptosis and that α-TEA downregulates FLIP and survivin via suppression of pAkt, which is mediated by ErbB2 and ErB3. Thus, α-TEA is a potent pro-apoptotic agent for both cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian cancer cell lines in cell culture and it produces cell death, at least in part, by downregulation of members of the EGFR family. PMID:20224651

  18. Nrf2 induces cisplatin resistance through activation of autophagy in ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ling-Jie; Jaramillo, Melba C; Zhang, Zhen-Bo; Zheng, Yun-Xi; Yao, Ming; Zhang, Donna D; Yi, Xiao-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin resistance is a major problem affecting ovarian carcinoma treatment. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a nuclear transcription factor, plays an important role in chemotherapy resistance. However, the underlying mechanism by which Nrf2 mediates cisplatin chemoresistance is unclear. Methods: The human ovarian carcinoma cell line, A2780, and its cisplatin-resistant variant, A2780cp were cultivated. Cell viability was determined with WST-8 assay. Western blot was applied to detect the expression of Nrf2, Nrf2 target genes, and autophagy-related proteins. RNA interference was used to knock down target genes. Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining was utilized to quantify apoptosis. The ultrastructural analysis of autophagosomes was performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: Nrf2 and its targeting genes, NQO1 and HO-1, are overexpressed in A2780cp cells compared with A2780 cells. Knocking down Nrf2 sensitized A2780cp cells to cisplatin treatment and decreased autophagy-related genes, Atg3, Atg6, Atg12 and p62 in both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, we demonstrated that in both cell lines cisplatin could induce the formation of autophagosomes and upregulate the expression of autophagy-related genes Atg3, Atg6 and Atg12. Treatment with an autophagy inhibitor, 3-Methyladenine (3-MA), or beclin 1 siRNA enhanced cisplatin-induced cell death in A2780cp cells, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy renders resistant cells to be more sensitive to cisplatin. Taken together, Nrf2 signaling may regulate cisplatin resistance by activating autophagy. Conclusions: Nrf2-activated autophagy may function as a novel mechanism causing cisplatin-resistance. PMID:24817946

  19. MiR181c inhibits ovarian cancer metastasis and progression by targeting PRKCD expression

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lijuan; Wang, Li; Li, Fengxia; Gao, Xihai; Wei, Xuegong; Liu, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate many important cancer related gene expression in the posttranscriptional process. Dysregulated expression of miRNAs has been observed in numerous human cancers including ovarian cancer. In this study, we found that the expression of the miR-181c was significantly decreased in ovarian cancer tissue and in tissues with lymph node metastasis when compared with their control samples, respectively. Moreover, among pathological stages, the expression of miR-181c was significantly decreased in the tissues with IV stage compared with other stages. In vitro, miR-181c significantly inhibited the proliferation, metastasis of A2780 cell line, and induced G1 phase arrest. Through bioinformatics prediction, protein kinase C delta (PRKCD) was identified as a target gene of miR-181c. Western blot results showed that PRKCD was increased in ovarian cancer tissue, in tissues with lymph node metastasis and IV stage of ovarian cancer pathological samples. After knocking down PRKCD, the cell cycle of A2780 cells was also arrested in G1 phase. The proliferation and the metastasis of A2780 cells were reduced. The dual luciferase reporter experiments showed that miR-181c regulated the expression of PRKCD by combining with its 3’UTR. These results indicate that miR-181c inhibits ovarian cancer metastasis and progression by targeting PRKCD expression. PMID:26629004

  20. Organometallic Half-Sandwich Dichloridoruthenium(II) Complexes with 7-Azaindoles: Synthesis, Characterization and Elucidation of Their Anticancer Inactivity against A2780 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Štarha, Pavel; Hanousková, Lucie; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    A series of organometallic half-sandwich dichloridoruthenium(II) complexes of the general formula [Ru(η6-p-cym)(naza)Cl2] (1–8; p-cym = p-cymene; naza = 7-azaindole or its derivatives) was synthesised and fully characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and infrared and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. A single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of [Ru(η6-p-cym)(2Me4Claza)Cl2] (6) revealed a typical piano-stool geometry with an N7-coordination mode of 2-methyl-4-chloro-7-azaindole (2Me4Claza). The complexes have been found to be inactive against human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 up to the highest applied concentration (IC50 > 50.0 μM). An inactivity of the complexes is caused by their instability in water-containing solvents connected with a release of the naza N-donor ligand, as proved by the detailed 1H NMR, mass spectrometry and fluorescence experiments. PMID:26606245

  1. Organometallic Half-Sandwich Dichloridoruthenium(II) Complexes with 7-Azaindoles: Synthesis, Characterization and Elucidation of Their Anticancer Inactivity against A2780 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Štarha, Pavel; Hanousková, Lucie; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    A series of organometallic half-sandwich dichloridoruthenium(II) complexes of the general formula [Ru(η6-p-cym)(naza)Cl2] (1-8; p-cym = p-cymene; naza = 7-azaindole or its derivatives) was synthesised and fully characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and infrared and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. A single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of [Ru(η6-p-cym)(2Me4Claza)Cl2] (6) revealed a typical piano-stool geometry with an N7-coordination mode of 2-methyl-4-chloro-7-azaindole (2Me4Claza). The complexes have been found to be inactive against human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 up to the highest applied concentration (IC50 > 50.0 μM). An inactivity of the complexes is caused by their instability in water-containing solvents connected with a release of the naza N-donor ligand, as proved by the detailed 1H NMR, mass spectrometry and fluorescence experiments. PMID:26606245

  2. Identification of genes associated with platinum drug sensitivity and resistance in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, D; Schick, J; Conway, S; Biade, S; Laub, P B; Stevenson, J P; Hamilton, T C; O'Dwyer, P J; Johnson, S W

    2005-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapeutic regimens are ultimately unsuccessful due to intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. Understanding the molecular basis for platinum drug sensitivity/resistance is necessary for the development of new drugs and therapeutic regimens. In an effort to identify such determinants, we evaluated the expression of approximately 4000 genes using cDNA microarray screening in a panel of 14 unrelated human ovarian cancer cell lines derived from patients who were either untreated or treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. These data were analysed relative to the sensitivities of the cells to four platinum drugs (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin), carboplatin, DACH-(oxalato)platinum (II) (oxaliplatin) and cis-diamminedichloro (2-methylpyridine) platinum (II) (AMD473)) as well as the proliferation rate of the cells. Correlation analysis of the microarray data with respect to drug sensitivity and resistance revealed a significant association of Stat1 expression with decreased sensitivity to cisplatin (r=0.65) and AMD473 (r=0.76). These results were confirmed by quantitative RT–PCR and Western blot analyses. To study the functional significance of these findings, the full-length Stat1 cDNA was transfected into drug-sensitive A2780 human ovarian cancer cells. The resulting clones that exhibited increased Stat1 expression were three- to five-fold resistant to cisplatin and AMD473 as compared to the parental cells. The effect of inhibiting Jak/Stat signalling on platinum drug sensitivity was investigated using the Janus kinase inhibitor, AG490. Pretreatment of platinum-resistant cells with AG490 resulted in significant increased sensitivity to AMD473, but not to cisplatin or oxaliplatin. Overall, the results indicate that cDNA microarray analysis may be used successfully to identify determinants of drug sensitivity/resistance and future functional studies of other candidate genes from this database may lead to an increased understanding of the

  3. Aberrant DNA Damage Response Pathways May Predict the Outcome of Platinum Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stefanou, Dimitra T.; Bamias, Aristotelis; Episkopou, Hara; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Likka, Maria; Kalampokas, Theodore; Photiou, Stylianos; Gavalas, Nikos; Sfikakis, Petros P.; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Souliotis, Vassilis L.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Despite the advances in the treatment of OC with combinatorial regimens, including surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, patients generally exhibit poor prognosis due to high chemotherapy resistance. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are involved in resistance of OC patients to platinum chemotherapy. Selected DDR signals were evaluated in two human ovarian carcinoma cell lines, one sensitive (A2780) and one resistant (A2780/C30) to platinum treatment as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from OC patients, sensitive (n = 7) or resistant (n = 4) to subsequent chemotherapy. PBMCs from healthy volunteers (n = 9) were studied in parallel. DNA damage was evaluated by immunofluorescence γH2AX staining and comet assay. Higher levels of intrinsic DNA damage were found in A2780 than in A2780/C30 cells. Moreover, the intrinsic DNA damage levels were significantly higher in OC patients relative to healthy volunteers, as well as in platinum-sensitive patients relative to platinum-resistant ones (all P<0.05). Following carboplatin treatment, A2780 cells showed lower DNA repair efficiency than A2780/C30 cells. Also, following carboplatin treatment of PBMCs ex vivo, the DNA repair efficiency was significantly higher in healthy volunteers than in platinum-resistant patients and lowest in platinum-sensitive ones (t1/2 for loss of γH2AX foci: 2.7±0.5h, 8.8±1.9h and 15.4±3.2h, respectively; using comet assay, t1/2 of platinum-induced damage repair: 4.8±1.4h, 12.9±1.9h and 21.4±2.6h, respectively; all P<0.03). Additionally, the carboplatin-induced apoptosis rate was higher in A2780 than in A2780/C30 cells. In PBMCs, apoptosis rates were inversely correlated with DNA repair efficiencies of these cells, being significantly higher in platinum-sensitive than in platinum-resistant patients and lowest in healthy volunteers (all P<0.05). We conclude that

  4. Influence of reducing agents on the cytotoxic activity of platinum(IV) complexes: induction of G2/M arrest, apoptosis and oxidative stress in A2780 and cisplatin resistant A2780cis cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Verena; Göschl, Simone; Schreiber-Brynzak, Ekaterina; Jakupec, Michael A; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-07-01

    The concept of Pt(IV) prodrug design is one advanced strategy to increase the selectivity for cancer cells and to reduce systemic toxicity in comparison to established platinum-based chemotherapy. Pt(IV) complexes are thought to be activated by reduction via physiological reductants, such as ascorbic acid or glutathione. Nevertheless, only few investigations on the link between the reduction rate, which is influenced by the reductant, and the ligand sphere of the Pt(IV) metal centre have been performed so far. Herein, we investigated a set of Pt(IV) compounds with varying rates of reduction with respect to their cytotoxicity and drug accumulation in A2780 and A2780cis ovarian cancer cell lines, their influence on the cell cycle, efficiency of triggering apoptosis, and ability to interfere with plasmid DNA (pUC19). The effects caused by Pt(IV) compounds were compared without or with extracellularly added ascorbic acid and glutathione (or its precursor N-acetylcysteine) to gain understanding of the impact of increased levels of the reductant on the activity of such complexes. Our results demonstrate that reduction is required prior to plasmid interaction. Furthermore, the rate of reduction is crucial for the efficiency of this set of Pt(IV) compounds. The substances that are reduced least likely showed similar performances, whereas the fastest reducing substance was negatively affected by an increased extracellular level of reducing agents, with reduced cytotoxicity and lower efficiency in inducing apoptosis and G2/M arrest. These results confirm the connection between reduction and activity, and prove the strong impact of the reduction site on the activity of Pt(IV) complexes. PMID:26073554

  5. Human splicing factor SPF45 (RBM17) confers broad multidrug resistance to anticancer drugs when overexpressed--a phenotype partially reversed by selective estrogen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Perry, William L; Shepard, Robert L; Sampath, Janardhan; Yaden, Benjamin; Chin, William W; Iversen, Philip W; Jin, Shengfang; Lesoon, Andrea; O'Brien, Kathryn A; Peek, Victoria L; Rolfe, Mark; Shyjan, Andrew; Tighe, Michelle; Williamson, Mark; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Moore, Robert E; Dantzig, Anne H

    2005-08-01

    The splicing factor SPF45 (RBM17) is frequently overexpressed in many solid tumors, and stable expression in HeLa cells confers resistance to doxorubicin and vincristine. In this study, we characterized stable transfectants of A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells. In a 3-day cytotoxicity assay, human SPF45 overexpression conferred 3- to 21-fold resistance to carboplatin, vinorelbine, doxorubicin, etoposide, mitoxantrone, and vincristine. In addition, resistance to gemcitabine and pemetrexed was observed at the highest drug concentrations tested. Knockdown of SPF45 in parental A2780 cells using a hammerhead ribozyme sensitized A2780 cells to etoposide by approximately 5-fold relative to a catalytically inactive ribozyme control and untransfected cells, suggesting a role for SPF45 in intrinsic resistance to some drugs. A2780-SPF45 cells accumulated similar levels of doxorubicin as vector-transfected and parental A2780 cells, indicating that drug resistance is not due to differences in drug accumulation. Efforts to identify small molecules that could block SPF45-mediated drug resistance revealed that the selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulators tamoxifen and LY117018 (a raloxifene analogue) partially reversed SPF45-mediated drug resistance to mitoxantrone in A2780-SPF45 cells from 21-fold to 8- and 5-fold, respectively, but did not significantly affect the mitoxantrone sensitivity of vector control cells. Quantitative PCR showed that ERbeta but not ERalpha was expressed in A2780 transfectants. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments suggest that SPF45 and ERbeta physically interact in vivo. Thus, SPF45-mediated drug resistance in A2780 cells may result in part from effects of SPF45 on the transcription or alternate splicing of ERbeta-regulated genes. PMID:16061639

  6. Phosphonooxymethyl Prodrug of Triptolide: Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization, and Efficacy in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma and Ovarian Cancer Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Patil, Satish; Lis, Lev G; Schumacher, Robert J; Norris, Beverly J; Morgan, Monique L; Cuellar, Rebecca A D; Blazar, Bruce R; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Gurvich, Vadim J; Georg, Gunda I

    2015-12-10

    A disodium phosphonooxymethyl prodrug of the antitumor agent triptolide was prepared from the natural product in three steps (39% yield) and displayed excellent aqueous solubility at pH 7.4 (61 mg/mL) compared to the natural product (17 μg/mL). The estimated shelf life (t90) for hydrolysis of the prodrug at 4 °C and pH 7.4 was found to be two years. In a mouse model of human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), the prodrug administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing or eliminating xenograft tumors at dose levels as low as 0.3 mg/kg when given daily and at 0.9 mg/kg when given less frequently. When given via intraperitoneal and oral routes at daily doses of 0.6 and 0.9 mg/kg, the prodrug was also effective and well tolerated in a mouse model of human ovarian cancer (A2780). PMID:26596892

  7. Phosphonooxymethyl Prodrug of Triptolide: Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization, and Efficacy in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma and Ovarian Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A disodium phosphonooxymethyl prodrug of the antitumor agent triptolide was prepared from the natural product in three steps (39% yield) and displayed excellent aqueous solubility at pH 7.4 (61 mg/mL) compared to the natural product (17 μg/mL). The estimated shelf life (t90) for hydrolysis of the prodrug at 4 °C and pH 7.4 was found to be two years. In a mouse model of human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), the prodrug administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing or eliminating xenograft tumors at dose levels as low as 0.3 mg/kg when given daily and at 0.9 mg/kg when given less frequently. When given via intraperitoneal and oral routes at daily doses of 0.6 and 0.9 mg/kg, the prodrug was also effective and well tolerated in a mouse model of human ovarian cancer (A2780). PMID:26596892

  8. eIF3a improve cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer by regulating XPC and p27Kip1 translation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Jing-Jing; Tian, Yan; Li, Zheng-Zheng; Zhang, Cai-Yi; Zhang, Shu-Fen; Cao, Lan-Qin; Zhang, Yi; Qian, Chen-Yue; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Yin, Ji-Ye; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3a (eIF3a) is one of the core subunits of the translation initiation complex eIF3, responsible for ribosomal subunit joining and mRNA recruitment to the ribosome. Our previous study identified that it was correlated with platinum response in lung cancer. The current study aims to test the hypothesis that eIF3a may affect the drug response and prognosis of ovarian cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy by regulating xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) and p27Kip1. Immunohistochemistry and western blot was used to determine the expression of eIF3a in 126 human ovarian cancer tissues followed by association analysis of eIF3a expression with patient's response and survival. Ectopic over-expression and RNA interference knockdown of eIF3a were carried out in A2780/cisplatin (DDP) and its parental A2780 cells, respectively, to determine the effect of altered eIF3a expression on cellular response to cisplatin by employing MTT assay. Western Blot analyses were also carried out to determine the regulation of eIF3a on XPC and p27Kip1. eIF3a expression was associated with response of ovarian cancer patients to DDP-based chemotherapy and their survival. Overexpression and knockdown of eIF3a increased and decreased the cellular response to cisplatin in A2780/DDP and A2780 cells, respectively. In addition, XPC and p27Kip1 were down regulated by eIF3a. eIF3a improves ovarian cancer patients' response to DDP-based chemotherapy via down regulating XPC and p27Kip1. PMID:26213845

  9. Vitamin A Metabolism is Impaired in Human Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Stephen J.; Cvetkovic, Dusica; Hamilton, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We have previously reported that loss in expression of a protein considered critical for vitamin A homeostasis, cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP1), is an early event in ovarian carcinogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine if loss of vitamin A metabolism also occurs early in ovarian oncogenesis. Methods We assessed CRBP1 expression by immunohistochemistry in ovaries prophylactically removed from women with a genetic risk for ovarian cancer. Furthermore, we investigated the ability of normal, immortalized but nontumorigenic, and tumorigenic human ovarian epithelial cells to synthesize retinoic acid and retinaldehyde when challenged with a physiological dose of retinol, and determined expression levels of the retinoid-related genes, RARα, RXRα, CRABP1, CRABP2, RALDH1 and RALDH2 in these cells. Results Immunohistochemistry revealed loss of CRBP1 expression in potentially preneoplastic lesions in prophylactic oophorectomies. HPLC analysis of vitamin A metabolism showed production of retinoic acid in four independent, normal human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell culture upon exposure to retinol. However, only one of two SV40-immortalized HOSE cell lines made RA, while none of the ovarian carcinoma cell lines produced detectable RA due to complete loss of RALDH2. Conclusions The impaired conversion of retinol to RA in ovarian cancer cells, and decreased CRBP1 protein expression in prophylactic oophorectomies support our hypothesis that concomitant losses of vitamin A metabolism and CRBP1 expression contribute to ovarian oncogenesis. PMID:19110304

  10. An Introduction to The Royan Human Ovarian Tissue Bank

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Naeimeh Sadat; Ebrahimi, Bita; Fathi, Rouhollah; Khodaverdi, Sepideh; Mehdizadeh Kashi, Abolfazl; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh

    2016-01-01

    From December 2000 until 2010, the researchers at Royan Institute conducted a wide range of investigations on ovarian tissue cryopreservation with the intent to provide fertility pres- ervation to cancer patients that were considered to be candidates for these services. In 2010, Royan Institute established the Royan Human Ovarian Tissue Bank as a subgroup of the Embryology Department. Since its inception, approximately 180 patients between the ages of 747 years have undergone consultations. Ovarian samples were cryopreserved from 47 patients (age: 7-35 years) diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma (n=9); breast carcinoma (n=7), Ewing’s sarcoma (n=7), opposite side ovarian tumor (n=7), endometrial adenocarci- noma (n=4), malignant colon tumors (n=3), as well as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, major thalas- semia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=1-2 patients for each disease). Additionally, two patients requested ovarian tissue transplantation after completion of their treatments.

  11. Gain-of-function microRNA screens identify miR-193a regulating proliferation and apoptosis in epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    NAKANO, HARUO; YAMADA, YOJI; MIYAZAWA, TATSUYA; YOSHIDA, TETSUO

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a small class of non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, and are considered as new therapeutic targets for treating cancer. In this study, we performed a gain-of-function screen using miRNA mimic library (319 miRNA species) to identify those affecting cell proliferation in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (A2780). We discovered a number of miRNAs that increased or decreased the cell viability of A2780 cells. Pro-proliferative and anti-proliferative miRNAs include oncogenic miR-372 and miR-373, and tumor suppressive miR-124a, miR-7, miR-192 and miR-193a, respectively. We found that overexpression of miR-124a, miR-192, miR-193a and miR-193b inhibited BrdU incorporation in A2780 cells, indicating that these miRNAs affected the cell cycle. Overexpression of miR-193a and miR-193b induced an activation of caspase 3/7, and resulted in apoptotic cell death in A2780 cells. A genome-wide gene expression analysis with miR-193a-transfected A2780 cells led to identification of ARHGAP19, CCND1, ERBB4, KRAS and MCL1 as potential miR-193a targets. We demonstrated that miR-193a decreased the amount of MCL1 protein by binding 3′UTR of its mRNA. Our study suggests the potential of miRNA screens to discover miRNAs as therapeutic tools to treat ovarian cancer. PMID:23588298

  12. Overexpression of the β Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Promotes the Transformation of Human Ovarian Epithelial Cells and Ovarian Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Liu, Guangzhi; Schauer, Isaiah G.; Yang, Gong; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shiwu; He, Yuanli; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, however underlying molecular events remain elusive. Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin β subunit (β-hCG) is clinically significant for both trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic cancers; however, whether β-hCG facilitates ovarian epithelial cell tumorigenic potential remains uncharacterized. Immortalized nontumorigenic ovarian epithelial T29 and T80 cells stably overexpressing β-hCG were examined for alterations in cell cycle and apoptotic status by flow cytometry, expression of proteins regulating cell cycle and apoptosis by Western blot, proliferation status by MTT assay, anchorage-independent colony formation, and mouse tumor formation. Immunoreactivity for β-hCG was evaluated using mouse xenografts and on human normal ovarian, fallopian tube, endometrium, and ovarian carcinoma tissues. T29 and T80 cells overexpressing β-hCG demonstrated significantly increased proliferation, anchorage-independent colony formation, prosurvival Bcl-XL protein expression, G2-checkpoint progression, elevated cyclins E/D1 and Cdk 2/4/6, and decreased apoptosis. Collectively, these transformational alterations in phenotype facilitated increased xenograft tumorigenesis (P < 0.05). Furthermore, β-hCG immunoreactivity was elevated in malignant ovarian tumors, compared with normal epithelial expression in ovaries, fallopian tube, and endometrium (P < 0.001). Our data indicate that elevated β-hCG transforms ovarian surface epithelial cells, facilitating proliferation, cell cycle progression, and attenuated apoptosis to promote tumorigenesis. Our results further decipher the functional role and molecular mechanism of β-hCG in ovarian carcinoma. β-hCG may contribute to ovarian cancer etiology, which introduces a new therapeutic intervention target for ovarian cancer. PMID:21763678

  13. Docosahexaenoic Acid Modulates Invasion and Metastasis of Human Ovarian Cancer via Multiple Molecular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Chun; Wu, Yi-Nan; Wang, Su-Li; Lin, Qing-Hua; He, Ming-Fang; Liu, Qiao-lin; Wang, Jin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells (A2780, HO8910, and SKOV-3). Methods Cytotoxicity assay was performed to determine the optimal doses of DHA in this experiment. The effects of DHA on invasion ability were assessed by invasion assay. The expressions of messenger RNA and/or proteins associated with invasion or metastasis were detected by quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction or Western blot. The effect of DHA on cell metastasis was assessed in xenograft model of zebrafish. Results Docosahexaenoic acid and α-linolenic acid could reduce the cell vitalities in dose-dependent manner. However, DHA inhibited the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells, but α-linolenic acid did not (**P < 0.01). Docosahexaenoic acid could downregulate the expressions of WAVE3, vascular endothelial cell growth factor, and MMP-9, and upregulate KISS-1, TIMP-1, and PPAR-γ, which negatively correlated with cell invasion and metastasis (*P < 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid restrained the development of subintestinal vessels and cancer cell metastasis in xenograft model of zebrafish (**P < 0.01). Conclusions Docosahexaenoic acid inhibited the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo through the modulation of NF-κB signaling pathway, suggesting that DHA is a promising candidate for ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:27258728

  14. Genetic instability in human ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Orth, K; Hung, J; Gazdar, A; Bowcock, A; Mathis, J M; Sambrook, J

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed the stability of microsatellites in cell lines derived from human ovarian cancers and found that 5 out of 10 of the ovarian tumor cell lines are genetically unstable at the majority of the loci analyzed. In clones and subclones derived serially from one of these cell lines (2774; serous cystadenocarcinoma), a very high proportion of microsatellites distributed in many different regions of the genome change their size in a mercurial fashion. We conclude that genomic instability in ovarian tumors is a dynamic and ongoing process whose high frequency may have been previously underestimated by PCR-based allelotyping of bulk tumor tissue. We have identified the source of the genetic instability in one ovarian tumor as a point mutation (R524P) in the human mismatch-repair gene MSH2 (Salmonella MutS homologue), which has recently been shown to be involved in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Patient 2774 was a 38-year-old heterozygote, and her normal tissue carried both mutant and wild-type alleles of the human MSH2 gene. However the wild-type allele was lost at some point early during tumorigenesis so that DNA isolated either from the patient's ovarian tumor or from the 2774 cell line carries only the mutant allele of the human MSH2 gene. The genetic instability observed in the tumor and cell line DNA, together with the germ-line mutation in a mismatch-repair gene, suggest that the MSH2 gene is involved in the onset and/or progression in a subset of ovarian cancer. Images PMID:7937795

  15. Combinations of platinums and selected phytochemicals as a means of overcoming resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Huq, Fazlul; Yu, Jun Q; Beale, Philip; Chan, Charles; Arzuman, Lalia; Nessa, Meher U; Mazumder, Mohammed E H

    2014-01-01

    Cancer sufferers are often found to use herbal products along with targeted therapy although not much information (whether beneficial or harmful) is available about the effects of such combinations. In this study, we investigated synergism from the combination of platinum drugs and a number of tumour-active phytochemicals including curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, thymoquinone, genistein, resveratrol, betulinic acid and ursolic acid in three human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780, A2780(cisR) and A2780(ZD0473R), as a function of concentration and the sequence of administration. Both the dose-effect curves and combination indices show that the binary combinations of platinum drugs with the phytochemicals exert concentration- and sequence-dependent synergism in the cell lines. Generally the degree of synergism is found to be greater in sequenced administration such as 0/2 h, 2/0 h, 0/4 h and 4/0 h than the bolus. The variation in the nature of the combined drug action from being highly synergistic to antagonistic with the change in sequence of administration clearly indicates that the action of one drug modulates that of the other (towards the induction or inhibition of apoptosis). We have also used sequenced combinations of platinum drugs and bortezomib (a proteasome inhibitor that prevents cisplatin-induced proteasomal degration of copper transporter CTR1) to enhance cellular platinum accumulation and the level of platinum-DNA binding especially in the resistant human ovarian tumour models. Proteomic studies to identify the key proteins associated with platinum resistance are ongoing. We have identified 59 proteins associated with platinum resistance in ovarian tumor models. PMID:24403514

  16. 8‑bromo‑7‑methoxychrysin induces apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO3a pathway in cisplatin‑sensitive and resistant ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qing; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Qing; Guo, Yanling; Huang, Zhi; Dai, Liqing; Cao, Sudan

    2015-10-01

    8‑bromo‑7‑methoxychrysin (BrMC), a novel chrysin analog, was reported to have anti‑cancer activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of 8‑bromo‑7‑methoxychrysin (BrMC)‑induced apoptosis via the Akt/forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a) pathway in cisplatin (DDP)‑sensitive and ‑resistant ovarian cancer cells. The human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and A2780/DDP were cultured in vitro. Various molecular techniques were used to assess the expression of FOXO3a and B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) in cisplatin‑sensitive and ‑resistant ovarian cancer cells. Different concentrations of BrMC induced apoptosis in cisplatin‑sensitive and ‑resistant ovarian cancer cells. BrMC‑induced apoptotic cell death occurred mainly by the activation of Akt, which was accompanied by the overexpression of transcription factor FOXO3a, with a concomitant increase in the expression levels of Bim. Silencing Bim expression by using small interfering RNA, attenuated the induction of apoptosis by BrMC treatment. The results indicated that BrMC‑induced apoptosis in cisplatin‑sensitive and ‑resistant ovarian cancer cells may occur via the regulation of Akt/FOXO3a, leading to Bim transcription. PMID:26151347

  17. Expression of serum amyloid a in human ovarian epithelial tumors: implication for a role in ovarian tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Urieli-Shoval, Simcha; Finci-Yeheskel, Zvezdana; Dishon, Shira; Galinsky, Daliah; Linke, Reinhold P; Ariel, Ilana; Levin, Mark; Ben-Shachar, Inbar; Prus, Diana

    2010-11-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein which is expressed primarily in the liver as a part of the systemic response to various injuries and inflammatory stimuli; its expression in ovarian tumors has not been described. Here, we investigated the expression of SAA in human benign and malignant ovarian epithelial tumors. Non-radioactive in situ hybridization applied on ovarian paraffin tissue sections revealed mostly negative SAA mRNA expression in normal surface epithelium. Expression was increased gradually as epithelial cells progressed through benign and borderline adenomas to primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas. Similar expression pattern of the SAA protein was observed by immunohistochemical staining. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the overexpression of the SAA1 and SAA4 genes in ovarian carcinomas compared with normal ovarian tissues. In addition, strong expression of SAA mRNA and protein was found in the ovarian carcinoma cell line OVCAR-3. Finally, patients with ovarian carcinoma had high SAA serum levels, which strongly correlated with high levels of CA-125 and C-reactive protein. Enhanced expression of SAA in ovarian carcinomas may play a role in ovarian tumorigenesis and may have therapeutic application. PMID:20713982

  18. MT-4 Suppresses Resistant Ovarian Cancer Growth through Targeting Tubulin and HSP27

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Hui Chen; Kumar, Sunil; Shen, Chien-Chang; Liou, Jing Ping; Pan, Shiow Lin; Teng, Che Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, the anticancer mechanisms of MT-4 were examined in A2780 and multidrug-resistant NCI-ADR/res human ovarian cancer cell lines. Methods To evaluate the activity of MT-4, we performed in vitro cell viability and cell cycle assays and in vivo xenograft assays. Immunoblotting analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of MT-4 on ovarian cancer. Tubulin polymerization was determined using a tubulin binding assay. Results MT-4 (2-Methoxy-5-[2-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-phenol), a derivative of moscatilin, can inhibit both sensitive A2780 and multidrug-resistant NCI-ADR/res cell growth and viability. MT-4 inhibited tubulin polymerization to induce G2/M arrest followed by caspase-mediated apoptosis. Further studies indicated that MT-4 is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein (p-gp). MT-4 also caused G2/M cell cycle arrest, accompanied by the upregulation of cyclin B, p-Thr161 Cdc2/p34, polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), Aurora kinase B, and phospho-Ser10-histone H3 protein levels. In addition, we found that p38 MAPK pathway activation was involved in MT-4-induced apoptosis. Most importantly, MT-4 also decreased heat shock protein 27 expression and reduced its interaction with caspase-3, which inured cancer cells to chemotherapy resistance. Treatment of cells with SB203580 or overexpression of dominant negative (DN)-p38 or wild-type HSP27 reduced PARP cleavage caused by MT-4. MT-4 induced apoptosis through regulation of p38 and HSP27. Our xenograft models also show the in vivo efficacy of MT-4. MT-4 inhibited both A2780 and NCI-ADR/res cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion These findings indicate that MT-4 could be a potential lead compound for the treatment of multidrug-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:25874627

  19. Gene expression in human ovarian tissue after xenografting.

    PubMed

    Van Langendonckt, A; Romeu, L; Ambroise, J; Amorim, C; Bearzatto, B; Gala, J L; Donnez, J; Dolmans, M M

    2014-06-01

    Cryobanking and transplantation of ovarian tissue is a promising approach to restore fertility in cancer patients. However, ischemic stress following avascular ovarian cortex grafting is known to induce stromal tissue fibrosis and alterations in follicular development. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of freeze-thawing and grafting procedures on gene expression in human ovarian tissue. Frozen-thawed ovarian tissue from 14 patients was xenografted for 7 days to nude mice and one ungrafted fragment was used as a control. Immediately after recovery, grafts were processed for RNA extraction and histological analysis. Their expression profile was screened by whole-genome oligonucleotide array (n = 4) and validated by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain analysis (n = 10). After data filtering, the Limma package was used to build a linear regression model for each gene and to compute its fold change between tissues on Days 0 and 7. After adjusting the P-value by the Sidak method, 84 of the transcripts were significantly altered after 7 days of grafting, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -14 and angiogenic factors such as placental growth factor and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). Major biological processes were related to tissue remodeling, including secretory processes, cellular adhesion and response to chemical and hormonal stimuli. Angiopoietin signaling, the interleukin-8 pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activation were shown to be differentially regulated. On Day 7, overexpression was confirmed by PCR for interleukin-8, transforming growth factor-beta 1, matrix metalloproteinase-14 and CXCR4, compared with ungrafted controls. In conclusion, new as well as known genes involved in tissue restructuring and angiogenesis were identified and found to play a key role during the first days after human ovarian tissue transplantation. This will facilitate the development of strategies to optimize grafting techniques. PMID

  20. Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Harvey Rodrick Grenville

    2014-01-01

    Three young women who developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination presented to a general practitioner in rural New South Wales, Australia. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline. Vaccinations had been administered in different regions of the state of New South Wales and the 3 girls lived in different towns in that state. Each had been prescribed the oral contraceptive pill to treat menstrual cycle abnormalities prior to investigation and diagnosis. Vaccine research does not present an ovary histology report of tested rats but does present a testicular histology report. Enduring ovarian capacity and duration of function following vaccination is unresearched in preclinical studies, clinical and postlicensure studies. Postmarketing surveillance does not accurately represent diagnoses in adverse event notifications and can neither represent unnotified cases nor compare incident statistics with vaccine course administration rates. The potential significance of a case series of adolescents with idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency following HPV vaccination presenting to a general practice warrants further research. Preservation of reproductive health is a primary concern in the recipient target group. Since this group includes all prepubertal and pubertal young women, demonstration of ongoing, uncompromised safety for the ovary is urgently required. This matter needs to be resolved for the purposes of population health and public vaccine confidence. PMID:26425627

  1. Telomerase Activity in Human Ovarian Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counter, Christopher M.; Hirte, Hal W.; Bacchetti, Silvia; Harley, Calvin B.

    1994-04-01

    Telomeres fulfill the dual function of protecting eukaryotic chromosomes from illegitimate recombination and degradation and may aid in chromosome attachment to the nuclear membrane. We have previously shown that telomerase, the enzyme which synthesizes telomeric DNA, is not detected in normal somatic cells and that telomeres shorten with replicative age. In cells immortalized in vitro, activation of telomerase apparently stabilizes telomere length, preventing a critical destabilization of chromosomes, and cell proliferation continues even when telomeres are short. In vivo, telomeres of most tumors are shorter than telomeres of control tissues, suggesting an analogous role for the enzyme. To assess the relevance of telomerase and telomere stability in the development and progression of tumors, we have measured enzyme activity and telomere length in metastatic cells of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We report that extremely short telomeres are maintained in these cells and that tumor cells, but not isogenic nonmalignant cells, express telomerase. Our findings suggest that progression of malignancy is ultimately dependent upon activation of telomerase and that telomerase inhibitors may be effective antitumor drugs.

  2. Detection of Human Papillomavirus-16 E6-Oncoprotein in Epithelial Ovarian Tumors Samples of Iraqi Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Fahem Mohsin; Kadhim, Haider Sabah; Mousa Al Khuzaee, Liqaa Riadh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causal factor for cervical cancer. However, the role of HPV infection in ovarian cancer is unclear. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the presence of human papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) in ovarian tumor tissues. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study, which included 61 Archived human ovarian tumor tissues embedded in paraffin blocks. The ovarian tumor tissues were divided into four groups. The first group was the malignant ovarian epithelial tumor group; it included 31 cases with invasive surface epithelial ovarian tumors. The second group was the borderline epithelial ovarian tumor group: it included four cases with borderline intermediate malignancy. The third group was the benign epithelial ovarian tumors group: it included 18 cases with benign epithelial ovarian tumors. The fourth group had functional ovarian cystic lesions: it included eight cases with non-neoplastic functional ovarian cysts. Sections were made from each of the paraffin embedded blocks and examined using immunohistochemistry to detect HPV 16-E6-oncoprotein in ovarian tumor tissues. Results: Out of the eight cases with functional cysts only one case (12.5%) expressed HPV. No HPV expression was seen in cases with benign and borderline tumors. Out of the 31 cases with one malignant surface epithelial ovarian tumor only three (9.67%) cases expressed HPV. There was no significant statistical difference in HPV expression among neoplastic and non-neoplastic ovarian tumors included in the present study (P= 0.476). Conclusions: HPV type 16 was detected in only 9.67% of malignant epithelial tumors. It appears that HPV infection plays a relatively minor role in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinomas. PMID:25485061

  3. Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Lida P.; Bonnema, Garret T.; Schmidt, Kathy; Winkler, Amy M.; Korde, Vrushali; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Davis, John R.; Brewer, Molly A.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the US largely due to late detection secondary to unreliable symptomology and screening tools without adequate resolution. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a recently emerging imaging modality with promise in ovarian cancer diagnostics, providing non-destructive subsurface imaging at imaging depths up to 2 mm with near-histological grade resolution (10–20 μm). In this study, we developed the first ever laparoscopic OCT (LOCT) device, evaluated the safety and feasibility of LOCT, and characterized the microstructural features of human ovaries in vivo. Methods A custom LOCT device was fabricated specifically for laparoscopic imaging of the ovaries in patients undergoing oophorectomy. OCT images were compared with histopathology to identify preliminary architectural imaging features of normal and pathologic ovarian tissue. Results Thirty ovaries in 17 primarily peri or post-menopausal women were successfully imaged with LOCT: 16 normal, 5 endometriosis, 3 serous cystadenoma, and 4 adenocarcinoma. Preliminary imaging features developed for each category reveal qualitative differences in the homogeneous character of normal post-menopausal ovary, the ability to image small subsurface inclusion cysts, and distinguishable features for endometriosis, cystadenoma, and adenocarcinoma. Conclusions We present the development and successful implementation of the first laparoscopic OCT probe. Comparison of OCT images and corresponding histopathology allowed for the description of preliminary microstructural features for normal ovary, endometriosis, and benign and malignant surface epithelial neoplasms. These results support the potential of OCT both as a diagnostic tool and imaging modality for further evaluation of ovarian cancer pathogenesis. PMID:19481241

  4. Pentamethylpyrromethene boron difluoride complexes in human ovarian cancer photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Lee R.; Chaudhuri, Aulena; Gillen, Laura E.; Boyer, Joseph H.; Wolford, Lionel T.

    1990-07-01

    Quasiaromatic heterocycles (QAM) such as substituted 1 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 8-pentamethylpyrromethene boron difluorides (PMP-BF2) and - (dimethoxyphosphinylmethyl, methyl) bimane have been evaluated for their abilities to produce cellular toxicities when used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for ovarian cancer. The most active QAH tested to date has been the disodiuxn salt of PMP-2,6-disulfonate--BF2 (PMPDS-BF2). Human ovarian cancer cells from fifteen different patients have been grown in culture. Cells were obtained from biopsy material and grown in RPMI medium with 10% FBA plus penicillin and streptomycin. Cells were harvested and as single cell suspensions exposed to PMP-BF2 complexes or bimanes in concentrations of 0.004-0.4 ug/106 cells/ml of medium. Initially the cells were exposed to the chemicals for 30 minutes in a 5% CO2 incubator (37°C) with gentle shaking. The cells were washed with plain RPMI medium, then resuspended in the enriched RPMI medium and exposed to a sunlamp for 10-20 minutes. Cells were then allowed to grow in an soft agar culture media at 37°C (5% C02) for 14 days. When compared to controls (only light or only chemicals) there was 100% inhibition of all cellular growth for PMPDSBF2 at the 0.4 ug/mi concentrations. There was variations in concentrations of the chemical needed to produce 100% inhibition when the 15 different ovarian cancer cell specimens were compared at all concentrations. PMP-BF2 complexes are characterized by extremely high extinction coefficients, superior laser activity and little if any triplet-triplet absorption. The biamanes share these properties however are less active in ovarian cancer cell The lasing properties of PMP-BF2, and bimanes will be compared to their PDT effectiveness.

  5. Preparation of humanized ovarian carcinoma anti-idiotypic minibody.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaohong; Cui, Heng; Feng, Jie; Li, Yi; Liu, Bei; Cao, Shanjin; Cheng, Yexia; Qian, Henian

    2003-04-01

    Murine anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody (MAb) 6B11 mimicking the tumor-associated antigen OC166-9 is used as a vaccine for the induction of an anti-tumoral immunity in experiments of in vitro and in vivo animal model with ovarian carcinoma. In this article, we have humanized 6B11 anti-idiotypic minibody using overlap polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA recombinant technique, prokaryotic expression vector was produced by genetic fusion of 6B11V(L)-V(H) to human IgG1 hinge and CH3 region. Transformed E. coli BL21(DE3) were propagated and induced by isopropyl-beta D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that a protein band with molecular weight of 50kD appeared as the expected size after transformation. Molecular weight of 100 kDa may be examined by electrophoresis in nondenaturing systems. The fusion protein was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), inhibition ELISA tests and Western blot, respectively. The humanized anti-idiotype minibody showed capacity of bivalent binding to ovarian cancer MAb COC166-9 and goat anti-human immunoglobulin IgG1. It is useful reagents for clinical use. PMID:12831536

  6. Low molecular weight heparin tinzaparin antagonizes cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pfankuchen, Daniel Bastian; Stölting, Daniel Philipp; Schlesinger, Martin; Royer, Hans-Dieter; Bendas, Gerd

    2015-09-15

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is routinely used for antithrombotic treatment of cancer patients. Preclinical- and clinical data suggest that LMWH has beneficial effects for cancer patients beyond the prevention of thrombosis, i.e. by inhibiting metastasis. It is, however, unclear whether heparin has an impact on the efficiency of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Here we show that a therapeutic dosage of LMWH tinzaparin reverses cisplatin resistance of A2780cis human ovarian cancer cells to the level of sensitive cells. This novel activity of tinzaparin is associated with intense transcriptional reprogramming. Our gene expression profiling experiments revealed that 3776 genes responded to tinzaparin treatment. For this reason tinzaparin has a complex impact on diverse biological processes. We discovered that tinzaparin inhibits the expression of genes that mediate cisplatin resistance of A2780cis cells. In contrast tinzaparin induced the expression of genes that antagonize drug resistance. This activity of tinzaparin is mediated by cell surface proteoglycans, since enzymatic cleavage of heparan sulfates prevented the reversal of cisplatin resistance. These data indicate that cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans play an important role for chemotherapy resistance. The results of this study shed a new light on LMWH application in cancer therapy and suggest tinzaparin as promising treatment option of ovarian cancer patients in combination with anticancer drugs. Future clinical trials are needed to validate these findings. PMID:26239805

  7. Expression of IL-10 in human normal and cancerous ovarian tissues and cells.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Alex; Medina, Liat; Piura, Benjamin; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2010-06-01

    IL-10 is an 18-kd polypeptide that has been shown to be secreted by multiple cell types, including T and B cells, monocytes and some human tumors. However, which cell population is responsible for the elevated IL-10 levels in the serum and ascites of ovarian cancer patients, whether ovarian carcinoma cells produce IL-10, and how IL-10 influences the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma are issues that remain unclear. The aim of our study was to examine IL-10 production and secretion by ovarian carcinoma tissues and cells, and to determine its possible role in the cell and tumor micro-environment. The mean IL-10 protein levels expressed in normal ovarian tissue homogenates were significantly higher compared to cancerous ovarian tissue (p = 0.002). Yet, the IL-10 mRNA expression was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues as compared to normal tissues (p = 0.021). The IL-10 receptor mRNA expression levels of the cancerous ovarian tissue homogenates were slightly, but not significantly, higher than the normal tissues. IL-10 immunostaining revealed that in both normal and cancerous ovarian tissues, IL-10 expression could be detected mainly in epithelial cells. In normal ovarian tissues, similar levels of IL-10R were demonstrated in epithelial and stromal cells. However, in cancerous ovarian tissues, epithelial cells expressed higher levels of IL-10R than the stroma. Primary normal and cancerous ovarian cell cultures and SKOV-3 cells secreted similar amounts of IL-10 after 24 hours of incubation. Our results suggest that epithelial cells are the main source of IL-10 in the ovary. Nevertheless, the target cells for IL-10 are different in normal and cancerous ovarian cells. Thus, IL-10 and its receptor could be involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:20430716

  8. Dasatinib Induces Autophagic Cell Death in Human Ovarian Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Le, Xiao-Feng; Mao, Weiqun; Lu, Zhen; Carter, Bing Z.; Bast, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dasatinib, an inhibitor of Src/Abl family kinases, can inhibit tumor growth of a number of solid tumors. However, the effect and mechanism of action of dasatinib in human ovarian cancer cells remains unknown. METHODS Dasatinib-induced autophagy was determined by acridine orange staining, punctate localization of GFP-LC3, LC3 protein blotting and electron microscopy. Significance of Beclin-1, AKT and Bcl-2 in dasatinib-induced autophagy and growth inhibition was assayed by small interfering RNA silencing and/or overexpression of gene of interest. RESULTS Dasatinib inhibited cell growth by inducing little apoptosis, but substantial autophagy in SKOv3 and HEY ovarian cancer cells. In vivo studies showed dasatinib inhibited tumor growth and induced both autophagy and apoptosis in a HEY xenograft model. Knockdown of Beclin 1 and Atg12 expression with their respective siRNAs diminished dasatinib-induced autophagy, whereas knockdown of p27Kip1 with specific siRNAs did not. shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 expression reduced dasatinib-induced autophagy and growth inhibition. Dasatinib reduced the phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, p70S6K and S6 kinase expression. Constitutive expression of AKT1 and AKT2 inhibited dasatinib-induced autophagy in both HEY and SKOv3 cells. Dasatinib also reduced Bcl-2 expression and activity. Overexpression of Bcl-2 partially prevented dasatinib-induced autophagy. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that dasatinib induces autophagic cell death in ovarian cancer that partially depends on Beclin-1, AKT and Bcl-2. These results may have implications for clinical use of dasatinib. PMID:20629079

  9. Downregulation of LRRC8A protects human ovarian and alveolar carcinoma cells against Cisplatin-induced expression of p53, MDM2, p21Waf1/Cip1, and Caspase-9/-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Nielsen, Dorthe; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Hoffmann, Else Kay; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-06-01

    The leucine-rich repeat containing 8A (LRRC8A) protein is an essential component of the volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC), and using pharmacological anion channel inhibitors (NS3728, DIDS) and LRRC8A siRNA we have investigated its role in development of Cisplatin resistance in human ovarian (A2780) and alveolar (A549) carcinoma cells. In Cisplatin-sensitive cells Cisplatin treatment increases p53-protein level as well as downstream signaling, e.g., expression of p21(Waf1/Cip1), Bax, Noxa, MDM2, and activation of Caspase-9/-3. In contrast, Cisplatin-resistant cells do not enter apoptosis, i.e., their p53 and downstream signaling are reduced and caspase activity unaltered following Cisplatin exposure. Reduced LRRC8A expression and VSOAC activity are previously shown to correlate with Cisplatin resistance, and here we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition and transient knockdown of LRRC8A reduce the protein level of p53, MDM2, and p21(Waf1/Cip1) as well as Caspase-9/-3 activation in Cisplatin-sensitive cells. Cisplatin resistance is accompanied by reduction in total LRRC8A expression (A2780) or LRRC8A expression in the plasma membrane (A549). Activation of Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis by TNFα-exposure or hyperosmotic cell shrinkage is almost unaffected by pharmacological anion channel inhibition. Our data indicate 1) that expression/activity of LRRC8A is essential for Cisplatin-induced increase in p53 protein level and its downstream signaling, i.e., Caspase-9/-3 activation, expression of p21(Waf1/Cip1) and MDM2; and 2) that downregulation of LRRC8A-dependent osmolyte transporters contributes to acquirement of Cisplatin resistance in ovarian and lung carcinoma cells. Activation of LRRC8A-containing channels is upstream to apoptotic volume decrease as hypertonic cell shrinkage induces apoptosis independent of the presence of LRRC8A. PMID:26984736

  10. Downregulation of LRRC8A protects human ovarian and alveolar carcinoma cells against Cisplatin-induced expression of p53, MDM2, p21Waf1/Cip1, and Caspase-9/-3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Nielsen, Dorthe; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    The leucine-rich repeat containing 8A (LRRC8A) protein is an essential component of the volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC), and using pharmacological anion channel inhibitors (NS3728, DIDS) and LRRC8A siRNA we have investigated its role in development of Cisplatin resistance in human ovarian (A2780) and alveolar (A549) carcinoma cells. In Cisplatin-sensitive cells Cisplatin treatment increases p53-protein level as well as downstream signaling, e.g., expression of p21Waf1/Cip1, Bax, Noxa, MDM2, and activation of Caspase-9/-3. In contrast, Cisplatin-resistant cells do not enter apoptosis, i.e., their p53 and downstream signaling are reduced and caspase activity unaltered following Cisplatin exposure. Reduced LRRC8A expression and VSOAC activity are previously shown to correlate with Cisplatin resistance, and here we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition and transient knockdown of LRRC8A reduce the protein level of p53, MDM2, and p21Waf1/Cip1 as well as Caspase-9/-3 activation in Cisplatin-sensitive cells. Cisplatin resistance is accompanied by reduction in total LRRC8A expression (A2780) or LRRC8A expression in the plasma membrane (A549). Activation of Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis by TNFα-exposure or hyperosmotic cell shrinkage is almost unaffected by pharmacological anion channel inhibition. Our data indicate 1) that expression/activity of LRRC8A is essential for Cisplatin-induced increase in p53 protein level and its downstream signaling, i.e., Caspase-9/-3 activation, expression of p21Waf1/Cip1 and MDM2; and 2) that downregulation of LRRC8A-dependent osmolyte transporters contributes to acquirement of Cisplatin resistance in ovarian and lung carcinoma cells. Activation of LRRC8A-containing channels is upstream to apoptotic volume decrease as hypertonic cell shrinkage induces apoptosis independent of the presence of LRRC8A. PMID:26984736

  11. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... new cysts. A health problem that may involve ovarian cysts is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with ... male hormones, irregular or no periods and small ovarian cysts. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office ...

  12. Sprouty 1 predicts prognosis in human epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Amini, Afshin; Wei, Ai-Qun; Robertson, Gregory; Morris, David L

    2015-01-01

    Sprouty proteins are evolutionary-conserved modulators of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. We have previously reported inverse correlation of the Sprouty 1 (Spry1) protein expression with ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and survival. In the present study, the expression status of Spry1 protein and its clinical relevance in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer were explored. Matched tumor and normal tissue samples from 100 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer were immunohistochemically stained for Spry1. Expression of ERK, p-ERK, Ki67, FGF-2, VEGF and IL-6 and their correlation with Spry1 were also evaluated. In addition, correlation between Spry1 and clinicopathological characteristics and predictive significance of Spry1 for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analysed. Our data indicated that Spry1 was significantly downregulated in tumor tissues (p=0.004). Spry1 showed significant inverse correlation with p-ERK/ERK (p=0.045), Ki67 (p=0.010), disease stage (p=0.029), tumor grade (p=0.037), recurrence (p=0.001) and lymphovascular invasion (p=0.042). It was revealed that Spry1 low-expressing patients had significantly poorer OS (p=0.010) and DFS (p=0.012) than those with high expression of Spry1. Multivariate analysis showed that high Spry1 (p=0.030), low stage (p=0.048) and no residual tumor (p=0.007) were independent prognostic factors for a better OS, among which high Spry1 (p=0.035) and low stage (p=0.035) remained as independent predictors of DFS, too. We also found that the expression of Spry1 significantly correlates with the expression of Spry2 (p<0.001), but not that of Spry4. In conclusion, we report for the first time to our knowledge that Spry1 protein is downregulated in human epithelial ovarian cancer. Spry1 expression significantly impacts tumor behavior and shows predictive value as an independent prognostic factor for survival and recurrence. PMID:26101716

  13. Migration and invasion is inhibited by silencing ROR1 and ROR2 in chemoresistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Henry, C E; Llamosas, E; Djordjevic, A; Hacker, N F; Ford, C E

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer survival remains poor despite recent advances in our understanding of genetic profiles. Unfortunately, the majority of ovarian cancer patients have recurrent disease after chemotherapy and lack other treatment options. Wnt signalling has been extensively implicated in cancer progression and chemoresistance. Therefore, we investigated the previously described Wnt receptors ROR1 and ROR2 as regulators of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a clinically relevant cell line model. The parental A2780- and cisplatin-resistant A2780-cis cell lines were used as a model of ovarian cancer chemoresistance. Proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion were measured after transient overexpression of ROR1 and ROR2 in the parental A2780 cell line, and silencing of ROR1 and ROR2 in the A2780-cis cell line. Here we show that ROR1 and ROR2 expression is increased in A2780-cis cells, alongside β-catenin-independent Wnt targets. Knockdown of ROR1 and ROR2 significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion and simultaneous knockdown of ROR1 and ROR2 significantly sensitised cells to cisplatin, whilereas ROR overexpression in the parental cell line increased cell invasion. Therefore, ROR1 and ROR2 have the potential as novel drug targets in metastatic and recurrent ovarian cancer patients. PMID:27239958

  14. Human ovarian reserve from conception to the menopause.

    PubMed

    Wallace, W Hamish B; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2010-01-01

    The human ovary contains a fixed number of non-growing follicles (NGFs) established before birth that decline with increasing age culminating in the menopause at 50-51 years. The objective of this study is to model the age-related population of NGFs in the human ovary from conception to menopause. Data were taken from eight separate quantitative histological studies (n = 325) in which NGF populations at known ages from seven weeks post conception to 51 years (median 32 years) were calculated. The data set was fitted to 20 peak function models, with the results ranked by obtained r2 correlation coefficient. The highest ranked model was chosen. Our model matches the log-adjusted NGF population from conception to menopause to a five-parameter asymmetric double Gaussian cumulative (ADC) curve (r2 = 0.81). When restricted to ages up to 25 years, the ADC curve has r2 = 0.95. We estimate that for 95% of women by the age of 30 years only 12% of their maximum pre-birth NGF population is present and by the age of 40 years only 3% remains. Furthermore, we found that the rate of NGF recruitment towards maturation for most women increases from birth until approximately age 14 years then decreases towards the menopause. To our knowledge, this is the first model of ovarian reserve from conception to menopause. This model allows us to estimate the number of NGFs present in the ovary at any given age, suggests that 81% of the variance in NGF populations is due to age alone, and shows for the first time, to our knowledge, that the rate of NGF recruitment increases from birth to age 14 years then declines with age until menopause. An increased understanding of the dynamics of human ovarian reserve will provide a more scientific basis for fertility counselling for both healthy women and those who have survived gonadotoxic cancer treatments. PMID:20111701

  15. Induction of ovarian function by using short-term human menopausal gonadotrophin in patients with ovarian failure following cytotoxic chemotherapy for haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, R; Mills, W; Katz, M; McGarrigle, H H; Goldstone, A H

    1993-07-01

    Currently no treatment has proved successful in inducing ovarian steroidogenic and/or gametogenic recovery in patients with haematological malignancies treated by cytotoxic chemotherapy once biochemical failure becomes manifest i.e., when FSH levels exceed 40 IU/L. This paper reports two such cases with classical biochemical ovarian failure in which ovarian function was induced by brief stimulation with Human Menopausal Gonadotrophin (HMG). PMID:7693105

  16. Cryobanking of human ovarian tissue for anti-cancer treatment: comparison of vitrification and conventional freezing.

    PubMed

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Isachenko, Evgenia; Weiss, Juergen M; Todorov, Plamen; Kreienberg, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The first case of cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue with good survival of follicles after warming was described in 1996. Childbirth after cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is now a reality. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue can be performed using one of two methods: conventional ("slow") freezing and cryopreservation by direct plunging into liquid nitrogen (so called vitrification or "rapid" freezing). Comparative investigations of vitrification and conventional freezing performed on mammalian ovarian tissue are limited, and authors present different conclusions. The higher effectiveness of vitrification in comparison with conventional freezing for human oocytes and embryos was shown, whereas data on human ovarian tissue are limited. The aim of different studies was to compare the safety and effectiveness of conventional freezing and vitrification of human ovarian tissue. Below we shortly summarize the results of some investigations with different conclusions. The discussion on the post-warming quality of follicles as well as on the problems of microbial contamination of cells in liquid nitrogen at vitrification is presented. In our opinion, for cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue, conventional freezing is more promising than vitrification. PMID:20309501

  17. Down-regulation of Ras-related Protein Rab 5C-dependent Endocytosis and Glycolysis in Cisplatin-resistant Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lixu; Huo, Yi; Zheng, Zhiguo; Jiang, Xiaoyong; Deng, Haiyun; Chen, Yuling; Lian, Qingquan; Ge, Renshan; Deng, Haiteng

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance poses a major challenge to ovarian cancer treatment. Understanding mechanisms of drug resistance is important for finding new therapeutic targets. In the present work, a cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line A2780-DR was established with a resistance index of 6.64. The cellular accumulation of cisplatin was significantly reduced in A2780-DR cells as compared with A2780 cells consistent with the general character of drug resistance. Quantitative proteomic analysis identified 340 differentially expressed proteins between A2780 and A2780-DR cells, which involve in diverse cellular processes, including metabolic process, cellular component biogenesis, cellular processes, and stress responses. Expression levels of Ras-related proteins Rab 5C and Rab 11B in A2780-DR cells were lower than those in A2780 cells as confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. The short hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated knockdown of Rab 5C in A2780 cells resulted in markedly increased resistance to cisplatin whereas overexpression of Rab 5C in A2780-DR cells increases sensitivity to cisplatin, demonstrating that Rab 5C-dependent endocytosis plays an important role in cisplatin resistance. Our results also showed that expressions of glycolytic enzymes pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1 were down-regulated in drug resistant cells, indicating drug resistance in ovarian cancer is directly associated with a decrease in glycolysis. Furthermore, it was found that glutathione reductase were up-regulated in A2780-DR, whereas vimentin, HSP90, and Annexin A1 and A2 were down-regulated. Taken together, our results suggest that drug resistance in ovarian cancer cell line A2780 is caused by multifactorial traits, including the down-regulation of Rab 5C-dependent endocytosis of cisplatin, glycolytic enzymes, and vimentin, and up-regulation of antioxidant proteins, suggesting Rab 5

  18. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field sensitizes cisplatin-resistant human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells via P53 activation.

    PubMed

    Baharara, Javad; Hosseini, Nasrin; Farzin, Tayebe Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    In the following study, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EL-EMF) radiation was used to restore sensitivity in the cisplatin-resistant A2780 ovarian cancer cells. For this purpose A2780 cells were treated with different doses of cisplatin and EL-EMF (50 Hz, 200 gauss, and 2 h) alone. Cytotoxicity was the measurement using MTT assay. After calculating IC50 for cisplatin (90 µg/ml) a lower concentration from IC50 (30 and 60 µg/ml) was used to be combined with EL-EMF. We compare the effects of each cisplatin, EL-EMF and combination groups using acridine orange-propidium iodide (AO/PI) and DAPI staining, caspase 3/9 activation assay and Annexin/PI assay. We also assessed changes in P53 and Matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMPs) gene expression with semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results indicated an EL-EMF-dependent proliferative decrease which was found <10 %, and occurred independently of cisplatin. The decreased proliferation rate for 30 and 60 µg/ml cisplatin was about 20 and 40 %, respectively, while for synergistic groups 30 and 60 µg/ml cisplatin with 2 h EL-EMF exposer, showed 47 and 71 % decrease in viability in rats. DAPI staining indicated that chromatin break down significantly increased in synergistic groups. Acridine orange staining also confirmed MTT assay results. Caspase activity significantly increased in the combined groups. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that in synergistic groups of cisplatin and EL-EMF, expression of P53 was increased but the expression level of MPP-2 gene decreased. Results from this study showed that changes generated by the non-invasive EL-EMF can make resistant cells sensitive to cisplatin. PMID:26370097

  19. BRCA1 as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent metabolic switch in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Da; Chen, Na-Na; Cao, Ji-Min; Sun, Wu-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Li, Chun-Yan; Wang, Xiu-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Both hereditary factors (e.g., BRCA1) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent metabolic pathways are implicated in the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer. However, whether crosstalk exists between BRCA1 and NAD metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that: (i) BRCA1 inactivation events (mutation and promoter methylation) were accompanied by elevated levels of NAD; (ii) the knockdown or overexpression of BRCA1 was an effective way to induce an increase or decrease of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt)-related NAD synthesis, respectively; and (iii) BRCA1 expression patterns were inversely correlated with NAD levels in human ovarian cancer specimens. In addition, it is worth noting that: (i) NAD incubation induced increased levels of BRCA1 in a concentration-dependent manner; (ii) Nampt knockdown-mediated reduction in NAD levels was effective at inhibiting BRCA1 expression; and (iii) the overexpression of Nampt led to higher NAD levels and a subsequent increase in BRCA1 levels in primary ovarian cancer cells and A2780, HO-8910 and ES2 ovarian cancer cell lines. These results highlight a novel link between BRCA1 and NAD. Our findings imply that genetic (e.g., BRCA1 inactivation) and NAD-dependent metabolic pathways are jointly involved in the malignant progression of ovarian cancer. PMID:25486197

  20. Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapy in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Premature Ovarian Failure Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dan; Zhong, Yun; Qian, Chunfeng; Zou, Qinyan; Ou, Jian; Shi, Yichao; Gao, Liang; Wang, Gaigai; Liu, Zhenxing; Li, Haibo; Ding, Hailei; Wu, Huihua; Wang, Fuxin; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. In our present study, we established cyclophosphamide- (CTX-) induced POF rat model and elucidated its effect on ovarian function. We detected the serum estrogen, follicle stimulating hormone, and anti-Müllerian hormone of mice models by ELISA and evaluated their folliculogenesis by histopathology examination. Our study revealed that CTX administration could severely disturb hormone secretion and influence folliculogenesis in rat. This study also detected ovarian cells apoptosis by deoxy-UTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and demonstrated marked ovarian cells apoptosis in rat models following CTX administration. In order to explore the potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) in POF treatment, the above indexes were used to evaluate ovarian function. We found that human UCMSCs transplantation recovered disturbed hormone secretion and folliculogenesis in POF rat, in addition to reduced ovarian cell apoptosis. We also tracked transplanted UCMSCs in ovaries by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The results manifested that the transplanted human UCMSCs could reside in ovarian tissues and could survive for a comparatively long time without obvious proliferation. Our present study provides new insights into the great clinical potential of human UCMSCs in POF treatment. PMID:27047962

  1. Overexpression of DDB2 enhances the sensitivity of human ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin by augmenting cellular apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Bassant M.; Wang, Qi-En; Han, Chunhua; Milum, Keisha; Yin, De-Tao; Zhao, Qun; Wani, Gulzar; Arafa, El-Shaimaa A.; El-Mahdy, Mohamed A.; Wani, Altaf A.

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most widely used anticancer agents, displaying activity against a wide variety of tumors. However, development of drug resistance presents a challenging barrier to successful cancer treatment by cisplatin. To understand the mechanism of cisplatin resistance, we investigated the role of damaged DNA binding protein complex subunit 2 (DDB2) in cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. We show that DDB2 is not required for the repair of cisplatin-induced DNA damage, but can be induced by cisplatin treatment. DDB2-deficient noncancer cells exhibit enhanced resistance to cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by cisplatin than cells with fully restored DDB2 function. Moreover, DDB2 expression in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line CP70 and MCP2 was lower than their cisplatin-sensitive parental A2780 cells. Overexpression of DDB2 sensitized CP70 cells to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis via activation of the caspase pathway and downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. Further analysis indicates that the overexpression of DDB2 in CP70 cells downregulates Bcl-2 expression through decreasing Bcl-2 mRNA level. These results suggest that ovarian cancer cells containing high level of DDB2 become susceptible to cisplatin by undergoing enhanced apoptosis. PMID:20013802

  2. Human Omental-Derived Adipose Stem Cells Increase Ovarian Cancer Proliferation, Migration, and Chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Nowicka, Aleksandra; Marini, Frank C.; Solley, Travis N.; Elizondo, Paula B.; Zhang, Yan; Sharp, Hadley J.; Broaddus, Russell; Kolonin, Mikhail; Mok, Samuel C.; Thompson, Melissa S.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Lu, Karen; Salimian, Bahar; Nagrath, Deepak; Klopp, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Adipose tissue contains a population of multipotent adipose stem cells (ASCs) that form tumor stroma and can promote tumor progression. Given the high rate of ovarian cancer metastasis to the omental adipose, we hypothesized that omental-derived ASC may contribute to ovarian cancer growth and dissemination. Materials and Methods We isolated ASCs from the omentum of three patients with ovarian cancer, with (O-ASC4, O-ASC5) and without (O-ASC1) omental metastasis. BM-MSCs, SQ-ASCs, O-ASCs were characterized with gene expression arrays and metabolic analysis. Stromal cells effects on ovarian cancer cells proliferation, chemoresistance and radiation resistance was evaluated using co-culture assays with luciferase-labeled human ovarian cancer cell lines. Transwell migration assays were performed with conditioned media from O-ASCs and control cell lines. SKOV3 cells were intraperitionally injected with or without O-ASC1 to track in-vivo engraftment. Results O-ASCs significantly promoted in vitro proliferation, migration chemotherapy and radiation response of ovarian cancer cell lines. O-ASC4 had more marked effects on migration and chemotherapy response on OVCA 429 and OVCA 433 cells than O-ASC1. Analysis of microarray data revealed that O-ASC4 and O-ASC5 have similar gene expression profiles, in contrast to O-ASC1, which was more similar to BM-MSCs and subcutaneous ASCs in hierarchical clustering. Human O-ASCs were detected in the stroma of human ovarian cancer murine xenografts but not uninvolved ovaries. Conclusions ASCs derived from the human omentum can promote ovarian cancer proliferation, migration, chemoresistance and radiation resistance in-vitro. Furthermore, clinical O-ASCs isolates demonstrate heterogenous effects on ovarian cancer in-vitro. PMID:24312594

  3. Piperlongumine induces apoptosis and synergizes with cisplatin or paclitaxel in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Li-Hua; Chen, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Huan; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Pan, Shi-Shi; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Mei, Xiao-Long; Xue, You-Qiu; Qin, Wu-Ming; Zheng, Fei-Yun; Shi, Zhi; Yan, Xiao-Jian

    2014-01-01

    Piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid from Piper longum L., possesses the highly selective and effective anticancer property. However, the effect of PL on ovarian cancer cells is still unknown. In this study, we firstly demonstrate that PL selectively inhibited cell growth of human ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, PL notably induced cell apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest, and accumulation of the intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acety-L-cysteine could totally reverse the PL-induced ROS accumulation and cell apoptosis. In addition, low dose of PL/cisplatin or paclitaxel combination therapies had a synergistic antigrowth effect on human ovarian cancer cells. Collectively, our study provides new therapeutic potential of PL on human ovarian cancer. PMID:24895529

  4. Piperlongumine Induces Apoptosis and Synergizes with Cisplatin or Paclitaxel in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Huan; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Pan, Shi-Shi; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Mei, Xiao-Long; Xue, You-Qiu; Qin, Wu-Ming; Zheng, Fei-Yun; Yan, Xiao-Jian

    2014-01-01

    Piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid from Piper longum L., possesses the highly selective and effective anticancer property. However, the effect of PL on ovarian cancer cells is still unknown. In this study, we firstly demonstrate that PL selectively inhibited cell growth of human ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, PL notably induced cell apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest, and accumulation of the intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acety-L-cysteine could totally reverse the PL-induced ROS accumulation and cell apoptosis. In addition, low dose of PL/cisplatin or paclitaxel combination therapies had a synergistic antigrowth effect on human ovarian cancer cells. Collectively, our study provides new therapeutic potential of PL on human ovarian cancer. PMID:24895529

  5. CASZ1 is a novel promoter of metastasis in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Ying; Chang, Chia-Lin; Chuang, Yuan-Jhe; Wu, Jia-En; Tung, Chia-Hao; Chen, Yeong-Chang; Chen, Yuh-Ling; Hong, Tse-Ming; Hsu, Keng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) carries the highest mortality rate of all gynecologic malignancies. This high mortality rate is attributed to the fact that most cases of ovarian cancer are detected at late stages when metastases are already present. Through microarray analysis, we previously demonstrated that castor zinc finger 1 (CASZ1) is up-regulated in EOC cells. In contrast to its role in EOC, CASZ1 functions a tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma. Human CASZ1 is predominantly expressed in 2 alternatively spliced isoforms: CASZ1a and CASZ1b. In the present study, we investigated the role of CASZ1 in ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion and assessed the value of CASZ1 expression as a prognostic indicator of metastasis in human ovarian cancer. We used a lentivirus expressing CASZ1-shRNA and a plasmid expressing CASZ1 from a CMV promoter to knockdown and overexpress CASZ1, respectively, in the MCAS, RMUG-S, TOV21G, and A2780CP70 ovarian cancer cell lines. mRNA expression levels in tumor tissues and cell lines were measured using quantitative real-time PCR, and CASZ1 protein expression in EOC and paired metastatic tumor tissues was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. We found that CASZ1 was highly expressed in EOC tissues and ovarian cancer cell lines and that CASZ1 knockdown suppressed cell migration and invasion in EOC cells. CASZ1a and CASZ1b exerted similar effects on cell migration and invasion in EOC cells. In addition, CASZ1 promoted the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in EOC cells, and CASZ1 knockdown suppressed cancer metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, CASZ1 protein levels were elevated in human metastatic ovarian tumor tissues. Together, these results indicate that CASZ1 is a novel promoter of EOC metastasis and is highly up-regulated in metastatic EOC tumors. PMID:27429842

  6. PTN signaling: Components and mechanistic insights in human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Geetika; Kwon, Youngjoo; Burkhalter, Rebecca J; Pathak, Harsh B; Madan, Rashna; McHugh, Sarah; Atay, Safinur; Murthy, Smruthi; Tawfik, Ossama W; Godwin, Andrew K

    2015-12-01

    Molecular vulnerabilities represent promising candidates for the development of targeted therapies that hold the promise to overcome the challenges encountered with non-targeted chemotherapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Through a synthetic lethality screen, we previously identified pleiotrophin (PTN) as a molecular vulnerability in ovarian cancer and showed that siRNA-mediated PTN knockdown induced apoptotic cell death in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells. Although, it is well known that PTN elicits its pro-tumorigenic effects through its receptor, protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor Z1 (PTPRZ1), little is known about the potential importance of this pathway in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. In this study, we show that PTN is expressed, produced, and secreted in a panel of EOC cell lines. PTN levels in serous ovarian tumor tissues are on average 3.5-fold higher relative to normal tissue and PTN is detectable in serum samples of patients with EOC. PTPRZ1 is also expressed and produced by EOC cells and is found to be up-regulated in serous ovarian tumor tissue relative to normal ovarian surface epithelial tissue (P < 0.05). Gene silencing of PTPRZ1 in EOC cell lines using siRNA-mediated knockdown shows that PTPRZ1 is essential for viability and results in significant apoptosis with no effect on the cell cycle phase distribution. In order to determine how PTN mediates survival, we silenced the gene using siRNA mediated knockdown and performed expression profiling of 36 survival-related genes. Through computational mapping of the differentially expressed genes, members of the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) family were found to be likely effectors of PTN signaling in EOC cells. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that PTN and its signaling components may be of significance in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer and provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of MAPK inhibitors in PTN and/or PTPRZ1 expressing ovarian

  7. Grape Seed Procyanidin Reversal of P-glycoprotein Associated Multi-Drug Resistance via Down-regulation of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK Mediated YB-1 Activity in A2780/T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-qi; Duan, Lian; Huo, Qi-lu; Ren, Fei; Li, Guo-feng

    2013-01-01

    The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multi-drug resistance (MDR), leading chemotherapy failure of patients suffered with cancer. Grape seed procyanidin(GSP) is a natural polyphenol supplement with anti-inflammatory effect. Present study assessed a new use of GSP on the MDR reversal activity and its possible molecular mechanisms in MDR1-overpressing paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed GSP significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and adriamycin in paclitaxel resistant A2780/T cells but its parental A2780 cells. Furthermore, GSP strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription, as well as, increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate rhodamine-123 in A2780/T cells. Nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) activity, IκB degradation level and NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) were markedly inhibited by pre-treatment with GSP. Meanwhile, GSP inhibited MAPK/ERK pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, resulting in reduced the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) activation with blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, the up-regulation of P-gp expression, the activation of AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway induced by LPS was attenuated by GSP administration. Compared with PDTC and U1026, inhibitor of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK respectively, GSP showed the same tendency of down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activities. Thus, GSP reverses P-gp associated MDR by inhibiting the function and expression of P-gp through down-regulation of NF-κB activity and MAPK/ERK pathway mediated YB-1 nuclear translocation, offering insight into the mechanism of reversing MDR by natural polyphenol supplement compounds. GSP could be a new potential MDR reversal agent used for combination therapy with chemotherapeutics in clinic. PMID:23967153

  8. Overexpression of HE4 (human epididymis protein 4) enhances proliferation, invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huimin; Tan, Mingzi; Schwab, Carlton L.; Deng, Lu; Gao, Jian; Hao, Yingying; Li, Xiao; Gao, Song; Liu, Juanjuan; Lin, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) related with a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis while little is known about the molecular mechanism alteration by HE4 up regulation. Here we reported that overexpressed HE4 promoted ovarian cancer cells proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, human whole genome gene expression profile microarrays revealed that 231 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were altered in response to HE4, in which MAPK signaling, ECM receptor, cell cycle, steroid biosynthesis pathways were involved. The findings suggested that overexpressed HE4 played an important role in ovarian cancer progression and metastasis and that HE4 has the potential to serve as a novel therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. PMID:26575020

  9. Effect of Previous Chemotherapy on the Quality of Cryopreserved Human Ovarian Tissue In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Asadi Azarbaijani, Babak; Sheikhi, Mona; Oskam, Irma C.; Nurmio, Mirja; Laine, Tiina; Tinkanen, Helena; Mäkinen, Sirpa; Tanbo, Tom G.; Hovatta, Outi; Jahnukainen, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been widely accepted as an option for fertility preservation among cancer patients. Some patients are exposed to chemotherapy prior to ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Consequently, assessment of the developmental capacity of human ovarian tissue after chemotherapy is of primary importance. Materials In order to study the impact of previous chemotherapy on in vitro development and viability of ovarian follicles, quality control samples from 34 female cancer patients at median age of 15 years (range 1‒35), cryopreserved for fertility preservation before (n = 14) or after (n = 20) initiation of chemotherapy, were thawed and cultured for 7 days. The morphology and developmental stages of ovarian follicles were studied by light microscopy before and after culture. Possible associations between follicular densities, age and exposure to alkylating agents, expressed as cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED) were tested. Results Exposure to chemotherapy significantly impaired the survival and development of ovarian follicles in culture. After seven days, significantly higher densities of intermediary, primary and secondary follicles and lower densities of atretic follicles was detected in the samples collected before chemotherapy. Increasing dose of alkylating agents was identified by multivariate linear regression analysis as an independent predictor of a higher density of atretic follicles, whereas increasing age of the patient predicted a better outcome with less follicle atresia and a higher density of maturing follicles. Conclusion This study provides quantitative in vitro evidence of the impact of chemotherapy on developmental capacity of cryopreserved human ovarian tissue. The results indicate that fertility preservation should be carried out, if possible, before initiation of alkylating agents in order to guarantee better in vitro survival of ovarian follicles. In addition, ovarian samples from younger girls show

  10. Simultaneous multiplane imaging of human ovarian cancer by volume holographic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Orsinger, Gabriel V.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Gordon, Michael; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; de Leon, Erich E.; Brownlee, Johnathan W.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Barton, Jennifer K.; Kostuk, Raymond K.; Romanowski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecologic cancer, a fact which is attributable to poor early detection and survival once the disease has reached advanced stages. Intraoperative laparoscopic volume holographic imaging has the potential to provide simultaneous visualization of surface and subsurface structures in ovarian tissues for improved assessment of developing ovarian cancer. In this ex vivo ovarian tissue study, we assembled a benchtop volume holographic imaging system (VHIS) to characterize the microarchitecture of 78 normal and 40 abnormal tissue specimens derived from ovarian, fallopian tube, uterine, and peritoneal tissues, collected from 26 patients aged 22 to 73 undergoing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, or abdominal cytoreductive surgery. All tissues were successfully imaged with the VHIS in both reflectance- and fluorescence-modes revealing morphological features which can be used to distinguish between normal, benign abnormalities, and cancerous tissues. We present the development and successful application of VHIS for imaging human ovarian tissue. Comparison of VHIS images with corresponding histopathology allowed for qualitatively distinguishing microstructural features unique to the studied tissue type and disease state. These results motivate the development of a laparoscopic VHIS for evaluating the surface and subsurface morphological alterations in ovarian cancer pathogenesis. PMID:24676382

  11. Effect of Human Ovarian Tissue Vitrification/Warming on the Expression of Genes Related to Folliculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shams Mofarahe, Zahra; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Jafarabadi, Mina; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Noroozian, Mohsen; Ghorbanmehr, Nassim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is an alternative strategy to preserve the fertility of women predicted to undergo premature ovarian failure. This study was designed to evaluate the expression of folliculogenesis-related genes, including factor in the germline alpha (FIGLA), growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), and KIT LIGAND after vitrification/warming of human ovarian tissue. Methods: Human ovarian tissue samples were collected from five transsexual women. In the laboratory, the ovarian medullary part was removed by a surgical blade, and the cortical tissue was cut into small pieces. Some pieces were vitrified and warmed and the others were considered as non-vitrified group (control). Follicular normality was assessed with morphological observation by a light microscope, and the expression of FIGLA, KIT LIGAND, GDF-9,, and FSHR genes was examined using real-time RT-PCR in both the vitrified and non-vitrified groups. Results: Overall, 85% of the follicles preserved their normal morphologic feature after warming. The percentage of normal follicles and the expression of FIGLA, KIT LIGAND, GDF-9, and FSHR genes were similar in both vitrified and non-vitrified groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Vitrification/warming of human ovarian tissue had no remarkable effect on the expression of folliculogenesis-related genes. PMID:26175108

  12. Casticin induces ovarian cancer cell apoptosis by repressing FoxM1 through the activation of FOXO3a

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, LING; CAO, XIAO-CHENG; CAO, JIAN-GUO; LIU, FEI; QUAN, MEI-FANG; SHENG, XI-FENG; REN, KAI-QUN

    2013-01-01

    Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, is reported to have anticancer activities. The aim of the present study was to examine the molecular mechanisms by which casticin induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. The human ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and A2780 were cultured in vitro. Various molecular techniques, including histone/DNA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis and gene transfection, were used to assess the expression of FOXO3a and forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1) in casticin-treated ovarian cancer cell lines. Casticin-induced apoptotic cell death was accompanied by the activation of transcription factor FOXO3a, with a concomitant decrease in the expression levels of FoxM1 and its downstream target factors, namely survivin and polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), and an increase in p27KIP1. A small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) knockout of FoxM1 potentiated casticin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Silencing FOXO3a expression using siRNA increased FoxM1 expression levels and clearly attenuated the induction of apoptosis by casticin treatment. These results show that casticin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer may be caused by the activation of FOXO3a, leading to FoxM1 inhibition. PMID:23761826

  13. Human chorionic gonadotropin and its relation to grade, stage and patient survival in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An influence of gonadotropins (hCG) on the development of ovarian cancer has been discussed. Therefore, we quantified serum hCG levels in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors and the hCG expression in ovarian cancer tissue in order to analyze its relation to grade, stage, gonadotropin receptor (LH-R, FSH-R) expression and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Methods Patients diagnosed and treated for ovarian tumors from 1990 to 2002 were included. Patient characteristics, histology including histological subtype, tumor stage, grading and follow-up data were available. Serum hCG concentration measurement was performed with ELISA technology, hCG tissue expression determined by immunohistochemistry. Results HCG-positive sera were found in 26.7% of patients with benign and 67% of patients with malignant ovarian tumors. In addition, significantly higher hCG serum concentrations were observed in patients with malignant compared to benign ovarian tumors (p = 0.000). Ovarian cancer tissue was positive for hCG expression in 68%. We identified significant differences in hCG tissue expression related to tumor grade (p = 0.022) but no differences with regard to the histological subtype. In addition, mucinous ovarian carcinomas showed a significantly increased hCG expression at FIGO stage III compared to stage I (p = 0.018). We also found a positive correlation of hCG expression to LH-R expression, but not to FSH-R expression. There was no significant correlation between tissue hCG expression and overall ovarian cancer patient survival, but subgroup analysis revealed an increased 5-year survival in LH-R positive/FSH-R negative and hCG positive tumors (hCG positive 75.0% vs. hCG negative 50.5%). Conclusions Serum human gonadotropin levels differ in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors. HCG is often expressed in ovarian cancer tissue with a certain variable relation to grade and stage. HCG expression correlates with LH-R expression in ovarian

  14. Biodegradable multiblock poly(N-2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide gemcitabine and paclitaxel conjugates for ovarian cancer cell combination treatment

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nate; Yang, Jiyuan; Ray, Abhijit; Cheney, Darwin L.; Ghandehari, Hamidreza; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of a combination delivery of multiblock poly(N-2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA), gemcitabine (GEM) and paclitaxel (PTX) conjugates is described in this study. Multiblock copolymer conjugates of a large molecular weight (Mw > 200 kDa) were studied and compared to traditional, small molecular weight (Mw < 45 kDa) conjugates. Stability of the conjugates in different pH was assessed, and their cytotoxicity in combination toward A2780 human ovarian cancer cells was evaluated by combination index analysis. Treatment duration (4 and 72 h) and sequence of addition were explored. In addition, an HPMA copolymer conjugate with both GEM and PTX in the side chains was evaluated in a similar manner and compared to a physical mixture of individual conjugates. Conjugates with narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn < 1.1) were obtained via RAFT polymerization, and drug loadings of between 5.5 and 9.2 wt% were achieved. Conjugates demonstrated moderate stability with less than 65% release over 24 h at pH 7.4, and near complete drug release in the presence of the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B in 3 h. In combination, the cytotoxic effects of a mixture of the conjugates were primarily additive. Synergistic effects were observed when A2780 human ovarian cancer cells were treated simultaneously for 4 h with multiblock conjugates (CI < 0.7). When both GEM and PTX were conjugated to the same copolymer backbone, moderate antagonism (CI 1.3–1.6) was observed. These results demonstrate that multiblock HPMA copolymer–GEM and –PTX conjugates, when delivered as a mixture of individual agents, are promising for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:23827653

  15. Oridonin Suppresses Proliferation of Human Ovarian Cancer Cells via Blockage of mTOR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Xia, Rong; Chen, Sun-Xiao; Qin, Qin; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Rong-Rong; Deng, An-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Oridonin, an ent-kaurane diterpenoid compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens, has shown various pharmacological and physiological effects such as anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of oridonin on human ovarian cancer cell lines has not been determined. In this study, we demonstrated that oridonin inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed oridonin inhibited tumor growth of ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3) in vivo. We then assessed mechanisms and found that oridonin specifically abrogated the phosphorylation/activation of mTOR signaling. In summary, our results indicate that oridonin is a potential inhibitor of ovarian cancer by blocking the mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:26925661

  16. Histologic evaluation of fresh human ovarian tissue before cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Azem, Foad; Hasson, Joseph; Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Kossoy, Nadia; Cohen, Tanya; Almog, Beni; Amit, Ami; Lessing, Joseph B; Lifschitz-Mercer, Batriz

    2010-01-01

    Transplantation of cryopreserved tissue from patients with cancer may carry the risk of reactivation or redissemination of micrometastases. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the potential involvement of micrometastases in ovarian tissue in cancer patients. Ovarian biopsies were collected from patients who underwent ovarian tissue cryopreservation, in our IVF unit before chemotherapy between 2000 and 2008. Indications for cryopreservation included breast cancer (n=13), osteosarcoma (n=13), hematologic malignancies (n=13), uterine cervix carcinoma (n=2), endometrial carcinoma (n=1), colon cancer (n=1), and brain medulloblastoma (n=1). The samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined histologically. Immunoperoxidase broad-spectrum cytokeratin staining was also performed on specimens from breast cancer patients. There were 44 patients (age range 5-40 yr) who yielded 40 specimens. No gross pathologic involvement was observed, and the histologic examination revealed normal histology with no evidence of metastases. Our findings showed that for the purpose of considering ovarian tissue cryopreservation in cancer patients, the likelihood of microscopic metastases within ovaries of normal appearance is apparently very low. Clarification of the actual risk of ovarian involvement and any subsequent risk of micrometastases and tumor reimplantation requires further investigation. PMID:19952943

  17. Characterization of a human ovarian teratocarcinoma-derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Zeuthen, J; Nørgaard, J O; Avner, P; Fellous, M; Wartiovaara, J; Vaheri, A; Rosén, A; Giovanella, B C

    1980-01-15

    A cell line (PA I), derived from human ovarian teratocarcinoma cells, was obtained by culturing ascitic fluid cells from a patient with recurrence of malignant ovarian teratoma. During early passages the cultured cells showed a variable morphology, a long doubling time, and a low plating efficiency (2%). After about 50 passages in vitro, a cell population which was more homogeneous and resembled embryonal carcinoma cells were obtained. These cells had a shorter doubling time (26 h), and increased plating efficiency (77%). The early-passage cells were aneuploid (P 24) whereas the late-passage cells had a normal diploid karyotype with one balanced translocation between chromosomes No. 15 and No. 20 (P 224). Details of the karyotype suggest that the cells are heterozygous, i.e. derived from a stage before the first meiotic division. One of the two X chromosomes were inactive, and the cells expressed HLA antigens (A28 and B12), and beta 2-microglobulin. Expression of F9 antigen, characteristic of two-cell and later preimplantation embryos, was absent, while expression of PCC4 antigen, expressed also by blastocysts, was present. This finding suggests that the line might express some embryonic characteristics. The PA I cell line maintained in monolayer cultures showed several characteristics of malignant cells. The proportion of malignant cells increased with successive passages in vitro. The late-passage cells represented a fairly homogenous population of malignant cells similar to embryonal carcinoma cells. Late-passage PA I cells, when seeded under conditions that prevented attachment of cells to the substratum, formed embryoid bodies consisting of an inner core of cells similar to embryonal carcinoma cells, surrounded by a rind of endoderm-like cells. These two cell layers were separated by a basement membrane-like structure containing fibronectin. The core embryonal carcinoma cells expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity whereas the endoderm-like cells had low

  18. Laparoscopic optical coherence tomographic imaging of human ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Bonnema, Garret T.; Schmidt, Kathy; Hatch, Kenneth; Brewer, Molly; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2008-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States. If diagnosed at an early stage, the 5-year survival rate is 94%, but drops to 68% for regional disease and 29% for distant metastasis; only 19% of all cases are diagnosed at the early, localized stage. Optical coherence tomography is a recently emerging non-destructive imaging technology, achieving high axial resolutions (10-20 microns) at imaging depths up to 2 mm. Previously, we studied OCT imaging in normal and diseased human ovary ex vivo to determine the features OCT is capable of resolving. Changes in collagen were suggested with several of the images that correlated with changes in collagen seen in malignancy. Areas of necrosis and blood vessels were also visualized using OCT, indicative of an underlying tissue abnormality. We recently developed a custom side-firing laparoscopic OCT (LOCT) probe fabricated specifically for in vivo laparoscopic imaging. The LOCT probe consists of a 38 mm diameter handpiece terminated in an 280 mm long, 4.6 mm diameter tip for insertion into the laparoscopic trocar and is capable of obtaining up to 9.5 mm image lengths at 10 micron axial resolution. In this study, we utilize the LOCT probe to image one or both ovaries of 20 patients undergoing laparotomy or transabdominal endoscopy and oophorectomy to determine if OCT is capable of identifying and/or differentiating normal and neoplastic ovary. To date, we have laparoscopically imaged the ovaries of ten patients successfully with no known complications.

  19. Laparoscopic optical coherence tomographic imaging of human ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Bonnema, Garret T.; Schmidt, Kathy; Korde, Vrushali; Winkler, Amy M.; Hatch, Kenneth; Brewer, Molly; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2009-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women. If diagnosed at early stages, 5-year survival rate is 94%, but drops to 68% for regional disease and 29% for distant metastasis; only 19% of cases are diagnosed at early, localized stages. Optical coherence tomography is a recently emerging non-destructive imaging technology, achieving high axial resolutions (10-20 µm) at imaging depths up to 2 mm. Previously, we studied OCT in normal and diseased human ovary ex vivo. Changes in collagen were suggested with several images that correlated with changes in collagen seen in malignancy. Areas of necrosis and blood vessels were also visualized using OCT, indicative of an underlying tissue abnormality. We recently developed a custom side-firing laparoscopic OCT (LOCT) probe fabricated for in vivo imaging. The LOCT probe, consisting of a 38 mm diameter handpiece terminated in a 280 mm long, 4.6 mm diameter tip for insertion into the laparoscopic trocar, is capable of obtaining up to 9.5 mm image lengths at 10 µm axial resolution. In this pilot study, we utilize the LOCT probe to image one or both ovaries of 17 patients undergoing laparotomy or transabdominal endoscopy and oophorectomy to determine if OCT is capable of differentiating normal and neoplastic ovary. We have laparoscopically imaged the ovaries of seventeen patients with no known complications. Initial data evaluation reveals qualitative distinguishability between the features of undiseased post-menopausal ovary and the cystic, non-homogenous appearance of neoplastic ovary such as serous cystadenoma and endometroid adenocarcinoma.

  20. MPT0G066, a novel anti-mitotic drug, induces JNK-independent mitotic arrest, JNK-mediated apoptosis, and potentiates antineoplastic effect of cisplatin in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Han-Li; Chao, Min-Wu; Li, Ya-Chi; Chang, Li-Hsun; Chen, Chun-Han; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Liou, Jing-Ping; Teng, Che-Ming; Pan, Shiow-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Developing new anticancer agents against ovarian cancer is an urgent medical need. MPT0G066, a novel synthetic arylsulfonamide compound, was shown to inhibit cell growth and decrease viability in human ovarian cancer cells. MPT0G066 induced arrest of the cell cycle at the multipolyploidy (MP) phase in SKOV3 and at the G2/M phase in A2780 cells, while increasing the proportion of cells in the subG1. Additionally, MPT0G066 induced c-Jun-NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) activation, influenced cell cycle regulatory and Bcl-2 family proteins, which triggered intrinsic apoptotic pathways through cleavage of caspase-3, -7, -9, and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Flow cytometry analysis of p-glycoprotein (p-gp) function showed that MPT0G066 was not a substrate of p-gp. Additionally, it was shown that MPT0G066 could decrease cell viability in multiple-drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination of MPT0G066 and cisplatin presented a synergistic cytotoxic effect against ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro. MPT0G066 also significantly suppressed the growth of ovarian carcinoma and potentiated the antineoplastic effects of cisplatin in vivo. In conclusion, these findings indicate that MPT0G066 can be a potential anticancer agent against ovarian cancer that worthy of further development. PMID:27526962

  1. MPT0G066, a novel anti-mitotic drug, induces JNK-independent mitotic arrest, JNK-mediated apoptosis, and potentiates antineoplastic effect of cisplatin in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-Li; Chao, Min-Wu; Li, Ya-Chi; Chang, Li-Hsun; Chen, Chun-Han; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Liou, Jing-Ping; Teng, Che-Ming; Pan, Shiow-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Developing new anticancer agents against ovarian cancer is an urgent medical need. MPT0G066, a novel synthetic arylsulfonamide compound, was shown to inhibit cell growth and decrease viability in human ovarian cancer cells. MPT0G066 induced arrest of the cell cycle at the multipolyploidy (MP) phase in SKOV3 and at the G2/M phase in A2780 cells, while increasing the proportion of cells in the subG1. Additionally, MPT0G066 induced c-Jun-NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) activation, influenced cell cycle regulatory and Bcl-2 family proteins, which triggered intrinsic apoptotic pathways through cleavage of caspase-3, -7, -9, and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Flow cytometry analysis of p-glycoprotein (p-gp) function showed that MPT0G066 was not a substrate of p-gp. Additionally, it was shown that MPT0G066 could decrease cell viability in multiple-drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination of MPT0G066 and cisplatin presented a synergistic cytotoxic effect against ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro. MPT0G066 also significantly suppressed the growth of ovarian carcinoma and potentiated the antineoplastic effects of cisplatin in vivo. In conclusion, these findings indicate that MPT0G066 can be a potential anticancer agent against ovarian cancer that worthy of further development. PMID:27526962

  2. The neuroendocrine regulation of the human ovarian cycle.

    PubMed

    Buffet, N C; Bouchard, P

    2001-11-01

    The menstrual cycle is now thought to be mainly determined by the ovary itself, which sends various signals to the pituitary and the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is an autonomous pacemaker, with a pulse frequency that is modulated by ovarian signals; in turn, it is indispensable to ovarian function. In women, the ovarian cycle produces a single mature oocyte each month from puberty to menopause. This follicle is rescued from atresia, the genetically controlled ovarian apoptosis (or "programmed cell death"), involving 99.9% of the follicles. Follicular growth and maturation are mostly independent of gonadotropins from the stage of primordial to antral follicles. A complete intraovarian paracrine system is implied in this gonadotropin-independent follicular growth and in the modulation of the action of gonadotropins in the ovary. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) allows the rescue of a minority of follicles from atresia and is indispensable only for the final maturation of the preovulatory follicle during the follicular phase of the cycle. Luteinizing hormone (LH) is responsible for the final growth of the dominant follicle in the late follicular phase. the induction of ovulation during the LH peak, and the survival of the corpus luteum during the luteal phase. The cyclical variations of gonadotropins are under the control of ovarian steroids (estradiol and progesterone) and peptides (inhibins). The cycle length is determined by the duration of terminal follicular growth and by the fixed life span of the corpus luteum. The ovarian cycle can be monitored as well at the level of target tissues of steroids, such as the endometrium. In fact, the endometrial maturation is synchronized to follicular development, and this synchronization is indispensable for successful implantation of the embryo. The improving knowledge of follicular and endometrial physiology will allow the development of new treatments of infertility, the design of new contraceptive techniques, and a

  3. Dll4 Inhibition plus Aflibercept Markedly Reduces Ovarian Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jie; Hu, Wei; Hu, Limin; Previs, Rebecca A; Dalton, Heather J; Yang, Xiao-Yun; Sun, Yunjie; McGuire, Michael; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Nagaraja, Archana S; Kang, Yu; Liu, Tao; Nick, Alpa M; Jennings, Nicholas B; Coleman, Robert L; Jaffe, Robert B; Sood, Anil K

    2016-06-01

    Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4), one of the Notch ligands, is overexpressed in ovarian cancer, especially in tumors resistant to anti-VEGF therapy. Here, we examined the biologic effects of dual anti-Dll4 and anti-VEGF therapy in ovarian cancer models. Using Dll4-Fc blockade and anti-Dll4 antibodies (murine REGN1035 and human REGN421), we evaluated the biologic effects of Dll4 inhibition combined with aflibercept or chemotherapy in orthotopic mouse models of ovarian cancer. We also examined potential mechanisms by which dual Dll4 and VEGF targeting inhibit tumor growth using immunohistochemical staining for apoptosis and proliferation markers. Reverse-phase protein arrays were used to identify potential downstream targets of Dll4 blockade. Dual targeting of VEGF and Dll4 with murine REGN1035 showed superior antitumor effects in ovarian cancer models compared with either monotherapy. In the A2780 model, REGN1035 (targets murine Dll4) or REGN421 (targets human Dll4) reduced tumor weights by 62% and 82%, respectively; aflibercept alone reduced tumor weights by 90%. Greater therapeutic effects were observed for Dll4 blockade (REGN1035) combined with either aflibercept or docetaxel (P < 0.05 for the combination vs. aflibercept). The superior antitumor effects of REGN1035 and aflibercept were related to increased apoptosis in tumor cells compared with the monotherapy. We also found that GATA3 expression was significantly increased in tumor stroma from the mice treated with REGN1035 combined with docetaxel or aflibercept, suggesting an indirect effect of these combination treatments on the tumor stroma. These findings identify that dual targeting of Dll4 and VEGF is an attractive therapeutic approach. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1344-52. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27009216

  4. Nanoceria: A Rare-Earth Nanoparticle as a Novel Anti-Angiogenic Therapeutic Agent in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Shailendra; Karakoti, Ajay; Graham, Rondell P.; Maguire, Jacie L.; Reilly, Christopher M.; Seal, Sudipta; Rattan, Ramandeep; Shridhar, Viji

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is the fifth most common cause of death from all cancers among women in United Sates and the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. While most OvCa patients initially respond to surgical debulking and chemotherapy, 75% of patients later succumb to the disease. Thus, there is an urgent need to test novel therapeutic agents to counteract the high mortality rate associated with OvCa. In this context, we have developed and engineered Nanoceria (NCe), nanoparticles of cerium oxide, possessing anti-oxidant properties, to be used as a therapeutic agent in OvCa. We show for the first time that NCe significantly inhibited production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A2780 cells, attenuated growth factor (SDF1, HB-EGF, VEGF165 and HGF) mediated cell migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells, without affecting the cell proliferation. NCe treatment also inhibited VEGF165 induced proliferation, capillary tube formation, activation of VEGFR2 and MMP2 in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). NCe (0.1 mg/kg body weigh) treatment of A2780 ovarian cancer cells injected intra-peritoneally in nude mice showed significant reduction (p<0.002) in tumor growth accompanied by decreased tumor cell proliferation as evident from reduced tumor size and Ki67 staining. Accumulation of NCe was found in tumors isolated from treated group using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Reduction of the tumor mass was accompanied by attenuation of angiogenesis, as observed by reduced CD31 staining and specific apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. Collectively, these results indicate that cerium oxide based NCe is a novel nanoparticle that can potentially be used as an anti-angiogenic therapeutic agent in ovarian cancer. PMID:23382918

  5. The marine-derived fungal metabolite, terrein, inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Fei; Wang, Shu-Ying; Shen, Hong; Yao, Xiao-Fen; Zhang, Feng-Li; Lai, Dongmei

    2014-12-01

    The difficulties faced in the effective treatment of ovarian cancer are multifactorial, but are mainly associated with relapse and drug resistance. Cancer stem-like cells have been reported to be an important contributor to these hindering factors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anticancer activities of a bioactive fungal metabolite, namely terrein, against the human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3, primary human ovarian cancer cells and ovarian cancer stem-like cells. Terrein was separated and purified from the fermentation metabolites of the marine sponge-derived fungus, Aspergillus terreus strain PF26. Its anticancer activities against ovarian cancer cells were investigated by cell proliferation assay, cell migration assay, cell apoptosis and cell cycle assays. The ovarian cancer stem-like cells were enriched and cultured in a serum-free in vitro suspension system. Terrein inhibited the proliferation of the ovarian cancer cells by inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. The underlying mechanisms involved the suppression of the expression of LIN28, an important marker gene of stemness in ovarian cancer stem cells. Of note, our study also demonstrated the ability of terrein to inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer stem-like cells, in which the expression of LIN28 was also downregulated. Our findings reveal that terrein (produced by fermention) may prove to be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer by inhibiting the proliferation of cancer stem-like cells. PMID:25318762

  6. Human Ovarian Cancer Stroma Contains Luteinized Theca Cells Harboring Tumor Suppressor Gene GT198 Mutations*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Min; Zhang, Hao; Jaafar, Lahcen; Risinger, John I.; Huang, Shuang; Mivechi, Nahid F.; Ko, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal gynecological cancer, and its causes remain to be understood. Using a recently identified tumor suppressor gene, GT198 (PSMC3IP), as a unique marker, we searched for the identity of GT198 mutant cells in ovarian cancer. GT198 has germ line mutations in familial and early onset breast and ovarian cancers and recurrent somatic mutations in sporadic fallopian tube cancers. GT198 protein has been shown as a steroid hormone receptor coregulator and also as a crucial factor in DNA repair. In this study, using GT198 as a marker for microdissection, we find that ovarian tumor stromal cells harboring GT198 mutations are present in various types of ovarian cancer including high and low grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, and granulosa cell carcinomas and in precursor lesions such as inclusion cysts. The mutant stromal cells consist of a luteinized theca cell lineage at various differentiation stages including CD133+, CD44+, and CD34+ cells, although the vast majority of them are differentiated overexpressing steroidogenic enzyme CYP17, a theca cell-specific marker. In addition, wild type GT198 suppresses whereas mutant GT198 protein stimulates CYP17 expression. The chromatin-bound GT198 on the human CYP17 promoter is decreased by overexpressing mutant GT198 protein, implicating the loss of wild type suppression in mutant cells. Together, our results suggest that GT198 mutant luteinized theca cells overexpressing CYP17 are common in ovarian cancer stroma. Because first hit cancer gene mutations would specifically mark cancer-inducing cells, the identification of mutant luteinized theca cells may add crucial evidence in understanding the cause of human ovarian cancer. PMID:24097974

  7. ARHGAP10, downregulated in ovarian cancer, suppresses tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, N; Guo, J; Chen, L; Yang, W; Qu, X; Cheng, Z

    2016-01-01

    Rho GTPase-activating proteins (RhoGAPs) are implicated in the development and progression of ovarian cancer. ARHGAP10 is a member of RhoGAP proteins and inactivates Cdc42 by converting GTP-bound form to GDP-bound form. Here, we aimed to evaluate ARHGAP10 expression profile and functions in ovarian cancer. The decreased expression of ARHGAP10 was found in 77.3% (58/75) of ovarian cancer tissues, compared with their non-tumorous counterparts. Furthermore, overall survival in ovarian cancer patients with higher expression of ARHGAP10 was longer than those with lower expression. Ectopic expression of ARHGAP10 in two ovarian cancer cell lines with lower expression of ARHGAP10 (A2780 and HO-8910) dramatically suppressed cell proliferation in vitro. In nude mice, its stable overexpression significantly inhibited the tumorigenicity of A2780 cells. We further demonstrated that overexpression of ARHGAP10 significantly inhibited cell adhesion, migration and invasion, resulted in cell arrest in G1 phase of cell cycle and a significant increase of apoptosis. Moreover, ARHGAP10 interacted with Cdc42 and overexpression of ARHGAP10 inhibited the activity of Cdc42 in A2780 cells. Gene set enrichment analysis on The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset showed that KEGG cell cycle, replication and base excision repair (BER) pathways were correlatively with the ARHGAP10 expression, which was further confirmed in ovarian cancer cells by western blotting. Hence, ARHGAP10 may serve as a tumor suppressor through inactivating Cdc42, as well as inhibiting cell cycle, replication and BER pathways. Our data suggest an important role of ARHGAP10 in the molecular etiology of cancer and implicate the potential application of ARHGAP10 in cancer therapy. PMID:27010858

  8. Expression of GBGT1 is epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The GBGT1 gene encodes the globoside alpha-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1. This enzyme catalyzes the last step in the multi-step biosynthesis of the Forssman (Fs) antigen, a pentaglycosyl ceramide of the globo series glycosphingolipids. While differential GBGT1 mRNA expression has been observed in a variety of human tissues being highest in placenta and ovary, the expression of GBGT1 and the genes encoding the glycosyltransferases and glycosidases involved in the biosynthesis of Fs as well as the possible involvement of DNA methylation in transcriptional regulation of GBGT1 expression have not yet been investigated. Results RT-qPCR profiling showed high GBGT1 expression in normal ovary surface epithelial (HOSE) cell lines and low GBGT1 expression in all (e.g. A2780, SKOV3) except one (OVCAR3) investigated ovarian cancer cell lines, a finding that was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that GBGT1 was even the most variably expressed gene of Fs biosynthesis-relevant glycogenes and among the investigated cell lines, whereas NAGA which encodes the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase hydrolyzing Fs was not differentially expressed. Bisulfite- and COBRA-analysis of the CpG island methylation status in the GBGT1 promoter region demonstrated high or intermediate levels of GBGT1 DNA methylation in all ovarian cancer cell lines (except for OVCAR3) but marginal levels of DNA methylation in the two HOSE cell lines. The extent of DNA methylation inversely correlated with GBGT1 mRNA and protein expression. Bioinformatic analysis of GBGT1 in The Cancer Genome Atlas ovarian cancer dataset demonstrated that this inverse correlation was also found in primary ovarian cancer tissue samples confirming our cell line-based findings. Restoration of GBGT1 mRNA and protein expression in low GBGT1-expressing A2780 cells was achieved by 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine treatment and these treated cells exhibited increased helix pomatia agglutinin

  9. Characterizing optical properties and spatial heterogeneity of human ovarian tissue using spatial frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Sreyankar; Mostafa, Atahar; Kumavor, Patrick D; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2016-10-01

    A spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) system was developed for characterizing ex vivo human ovarian tissue using wide-field absorption and scattering properties and their spatial heterogeneities. Based on the observed differences between absorption and scattering images of different ovarian tissue groups, six parameters were quantitatively extracted. These are the mean absorption and scattering, spatial heterogeneities of both absorption and scattering maps measured by a standard deviation, and a fitting error of a Gaussian model fitted to normalized mean Radon transform of the absorption and scattering maps. A logistic regression model was used for classification of malignant and normal ovarian tissues. A sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 100%, and area under the curve of 0.98 were obtained using six parameters extracted from the SFDI images. The preliminary results demonstrate the diagnostic potential of the SFDI method for quantitative characterization of wide-field optical properties and the spatial distribution heterogeneity of human ovarian tissue. SFDI could be an extremely robust and valuable tool for evaluation of the ovary and detection of neoplastic changes of ovarian cancer. PMID:26822943

  10. Anticancer effect and mechanism of polymer micelle-encapsulated quercetin on ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Bilan; Wei, Xiawei; Men, Ke; Zheng, Fengjin; Zhou, Yingfeng; Zheng, Yu; Gou, Maling; Huang, Meijuan; Guo, Gang; Huang, Ning; Qian, Zhiyong; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-10-01

    Encapsulation of hydrophobic agents in polymer micelles can improve the water solubility of cargos, contributing to develop novel drugs. Quercetin (QU) is a hydrophobic agent with potential anticancer activity. In this work, we encapsulated QU into biodegradable monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles and tried to provide proof-of-principle for treating ovarian cancer with this nano-formulation of quercetin. These QU loaded MPEG-PCL (QU/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 6.9% had a mean particle size of 36 nm, rendering the complete dispersion of quercetin in water. QU inhibited the growth of A2780S ovarian cancer cells on a dose dependent manner in vitro. Intravenous administration of QU/MPEG-PCL micelles significantly suppressed the growth of established xenograft A2780S ovarian tumors through causing cancer cell apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, the anticancer activity of quercetin on ovarian cancer cells was studied in vitro. Quercetin treatment induced the apoptosis of A2780S cells associated with activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. MCL-1 downregulation, Bcl-2 downregulation, Bax upregulation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential change were observed, suggesting that quercetin may induce apoptosis of A2780S cells through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Otherwise, quercetin treatment decreased phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylated Akt, contributing to inhibition of A2780S cell proliferation. Our data suggested that QU/MPEG-PCL micelles were a novel nano-formulation of quercetin with a potential clinical application in ovarian cancer therapy.

  11. Targeting RNA transcription and translation in ovarian cancer cells with pharmacological inhibitor CDKI-73.

    PubMed

    Lam, Frankie; Abbas, Abdullahi Y; Shao, Hao; Teo, Theodosia; Adams, Julian; Li, Peng; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Fischer, Peter M; Walsby, Elisabeth; Pepper, Chris; Chen, Yi; Ding, Jian; Wang, Shudong

    2014-09-15

    Dysregulation of cellular transcription and translation is a fundamental hallmark of cancer. As CDK9 and Mnks play pivotal roles in the regulation of RNA transcription and protein synthesis, respectively, they are important targets for drug development. We herein report the cellular mechanism of a novel CDK9 inhibitor CDKI-73 in an ovarian cancer cell line (A2780). We also used shRNA-mediated CDK9 knockdown to investigate the importance of CDK9 in the maintenance of A2780 cells. This study revealed that CDKI-73 rapidly inhibited cellular CDK9 kinase activity and down-regulated the RNAPII phosphorylation. This subsequently caused a decrease in the eIF4E phosphorylation by blocking Mnk1 kinase activity. Consistently, CDK9 shRNA was also found to down-regulate the Mnk1 expression. Both CDKI-73 and CDK9 shRNA decreased anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 and induced apoptosis. The study confirmed that CDK9 is required for cell survival and that ovarian cancer may be susceptible to CDK9 inhibition strategy. The data also implied a role of CDK9 in eIF4E-mediated translational control, suggesting that CDK9 may have important implication in the Mnk-eIF4E axis, the key determinants of PI3K/Akt/mTOR- and Ras/Raf/MAPK-mediated tumorigenic activity. As such, CDK9 inhibitor drug candidate CDKI-73 should have a major impact on these pathways in human cancers. PMID:25277198

  12. Targeting RNA transcription and translation in ovarian cancer cells with pharmacological inhibitor CDKI-73

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Frankie; Abbas, Abdullahi Y.; Shao, Hao; Teo, Theodosia; Adams, Julian; Li, Peng; Bradshaw, Tracey D.; Fischer, Peter M.; Walsby, Elisabeth; Pepper, Chris; Chen, Yi; Ding, Jian; Wang, Shudong

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of cellular transcription and translation is a fundamental hallmark of cancer. As CDK9 and Mnks play pivotal roles in the regulation of RNA transcription and protein synthesis, respectively, they are important targets for drug development. We herein report the cellular mechanism of a novel CDK9 inhibitor CDKI-73 in an ovarian cancer cell line (A2780). We also used shRNA-mediated CDK9 knockdown to investigate the importance of CDK9 in the maintenance of A2780 cells. This study revealed that CDKI-73 rapidly inhibited cellular CDK9 kinase activity and down-regulated the RNAPII phosphorylation. This subsequently caused a decrease in the eIF4E phosphorylation by blocking Mnk1 kinase activity. Consistently, CDK9 shRNA was also found to down-regulate the Mnk1 expression. Both CDKI-73 and CDK9 shRNA decreased anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 and induced apoptosis. The study confirmed that CDK9 is required for cell survival and that ovarian cancer may be susceptible to CDK9 inhibition strategy. The data also implied a role of CDK9 in eIF4E-mediated translational control, suggesting that CDK9 may have important implication in the Mnk-eIF4E axis, the key determinants of PI3K/Akt/mTOR- and Ras/Raf/MAPK-mediated tumorigenic activity. As such, CDK9 inhibitor drug candidate CDKI-73 should have a major impact on these pathways in human cancers. PMID:25277198

  13. The effect of Setarud (IMODTM) on angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissue to nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Hormozi, Maryam; Talebi, Saeed; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Kamali, Koorosh; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Soltangoraee, Haleh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the promising methods in fertility preservation among women with cancer is cryopreservation of ovarian cortex but there are many drawbacks such as apoptosis and considerable reduction of follicular density in the transplanted ovary. One solution to reduce ischemic damage is enhancing angiogenesis after transplantation of ovarian cortex tissue. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Setarud, on angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissue. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, twenty four nude mice were implanted subcutaneously, with human ovarian tissues, from four women. The mice were randomly divided into two groups (n=12): the experimental group was treated with Setarud, while control group received only vehicle. Each group was divided into three subgroups (n=4) based on the graft recovery days post transplantation (PT). The transplanted fragments were removed on days 2, 7, and 30 PT and the expression of Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, and Vascular endothelial growth factor at both gene and protein levels and vascular density were studied in the grafted ovarian tissues. Results: On the 2nd and 7th day PT, the level of Angiopoietin-1 gene expression in case group was significantly lower than that in control group, while the opposite results were obtained for Angiopoietin-2 and Vascular endothelial growth factor. These results were also confirmed at the protein level. The density of vessels in Setarud group elevated significantly on day 7 PT compared to pre-treatment state. Conclusion: Our results showed that administration of Setarud may stimulates angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissues, although further researches are needed before a clear judgment is made. PMID:26644788

  14. Targeting JAK1/STAT3 signaling suppresses tumor progression and metastasis in a peritoneal model of human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wei; Liang, Wei; Wu, Jun; Kowolik, Claudia M.; Buettner, Ralf; Scuto, Anna; Hsieh, Meng-Yin; Hong, Hao; Brown, Christine E.; Forman, Stephen J.; Horne, David; Morgan, Robert; Wakabayashi, Mark; Dellinger, Thanh H.; Han, Ernest S.; Yim, John H.; Jove, Richard

    2015-01-01

    JAK/STAT3 is one of the major signaling pathways that is aberrantly activated in ovarian cancer and associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of targeting JAK/STAT3 signaling in ovarian cancer using a peritoneal dissemination mouse model. We developed this mouse model by injecting a metastatic human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3-M-Luc, into the peritoneal cavity of immunodeficient mice. This model displayed a phenotype similar to late stage ovarian cancer, including extensive peritoneal metastasis and ascites production. The constitutive activation of STAT3 in human ovarian cancer cells appeared to be mediated by an autocrine-cytokine loop involving the IL-6 family of cytokines and JAK1 kinase. shRNA-mediated knockdown of JAK1 or STAT3 in ovarian cancer cells led to reduced tumor growth, decreased peritoneal dissemination and diminished ascites production, suggesting a critical role of STAT3 in ovarian cancer progression. Similar results were obtained when a small-molecule inhibitor (JAKi) of the JAK1 kinase was used to treat ovarian cancer in this model. In addition, we found that the expression level of IL-6 was correlated with activation of STAT3 in ovarian cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential application of IL-6 as a biomarker. Altogether, our results demonstrate that targeting JAK1/STAT3, using shRNA knockdown or a small molecule inhibitor, effectively suppressed ovarian tumor progression and, therefore, could be a potential novel therapeutic approach for treating advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:25319391

  15. Andrographolide radiosensitizes human ovarian cancer SKOV3 xenografts due to an enhanced apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Qiu, Xingsheng

    2015-11-01

    Andrographolide (AND), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to have radiosensitivity in several types of cancer. Whether AND can radiosensitize ovarian cancer remains unknown. The present study investigated the radiosensitizing effects of AND in human ovarian SKOV3 xenografts and examined the molecular mechanisms of AND-mediated radiosensitization. Nude mice bearing human ovarian SKOV3 were treated with AND to investigate the effects of drug administration on tumor growth, radiosensitivity, apoptosis, and autophagy. Subsequent Western blot analysis and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining (autophagy analysis) were used to determine the role of AND. Finally, the pathway of apoptosis was characterized by caspase-3 activity assay as well as TUNEL analysis. AND potently sensitized SKOV3 xenografts to radiation. Moreover, apoptosis and autophagy in radiation combined with drug-treated xenografts increased significantly compared with the simple drug or single radiation treatment. This result was associated with an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio and p-p53 expression after exposure to combination treatment. Meanwhile, the level of Beclin 1 and Atg5 and the conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II, three important proteins involved in autophagy, were increased. AND acts as a strong radiosensitizer in human ovarian SKOV3 xenografts in vivo by increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio and promoting the activation of caspase-3, leading to enhanced apoptosis as well as autophagy. PMID:26014516

  16. Overexpression of Notch3 and pS6 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Human Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Rongna; Yu, Xiaolin; Huang, Genhua; Tan, Buzhen

    2016-01-01

    Notch3 and pS6 play important roles in tumor angiogenesis. To assess the expression of Notch3 and pS6 in Chinese ovarian epithelial cancer patients, a ten-year follow-up study was performed in ovarian epithelial cancer tissues from 120 specimens of human ovarian epithelial cancer, 30 specimens from benign ovarian tumors, and 30 samples from healthy ovaries by immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the expression of Notch3 and pS6 was higher in ovarian epithelial cancer than in normal ovary tissues and in benign ovarian tumor tissues (p < 0.01). In tumor tissues, Notch3 expression and pS6 expression were negatively associated with age (p > 0.05) but positively associated with clinical stage, pathological grading, histologic type, lymph node metastasis, and ascites (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). A follow-up survey of 64 patients with ovarian epithelial cancer showed that patients with high Notch3 and pS6 expression had a shorter survival time (p < 0.01), in which the clinical stage (p < 0.05) and Notch3 expression (p < 0.01) played important roles. In conclusion, Notch3 and pS6 are significantly related to ovarian epithelial cancer development and prognosis, and their combination represents a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in ovarian tumor angiogenesis. PMID:27445438

  17. Differential platelet levels affect response to taxane-based therapy in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Dalton, Heather J.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Cho, Min Soon; Haemmerle, Monika; Nick, Alpa M.; Pradeep, Sunila; Zand, Behrouz; Previs, Rebecca A.; Pecot, Chad V.; Crane, Erin King; Hu, Wei; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We hypothesized that platelet levels during therapy could serve as a biomarker for response to therapy and that manipulation of platelet levels could impact responsiveness to chemotherapy. Experimental Design The medical records of patients with recurrent or progressive ovarian cancer were retrospectively queried for changes in platelet and CA-125 levels during primary therapy. In vitro co-culture experiments and in vivo orthotopic models of human ovarian cancer in mice were used to test the effect of modulating platelet levels on tumor growth and responsiveness to docetaxel. Results Thrombocytosis at the diagnosis of ovarian cancer correlated with decreased interval to progression (p = 0.05) and median overall survival (p = 0.007). Mean platelet levels corrected during primary therapy and rose at recurrence. Contrary to treatment-responsive patients, in a cohort of patients refractory to primary therapy, platelet levels did not normalize during therapy. In A2780, HeyA8, and SKOV3-ip1 ovarian cancer cell lines, platelet co-culture protected against apoptosis (p < 0.05). In orthotopic models of human ovarian cancer, platelet depletion resulted in 70% reduced mean tumor weight (p < 0.05). Compared to mice treated with docetaxel, mice treated with both docetaxel and platelet-depleting antibody had a 62% decrease in mean tumor weight (p = 0.04). Platelet transfusion increased mean aggregate tumor weight 2.4-fold (p < 0.05), blocked the effect of docetaxel on tumor growth (p = 0.55) and decreased tumor cell apoptosis. Pre-transfusion aspirinization of the platelets blocked the growth-promoting effects of transfusion. Conclusions Platelet-driven effects of chemotherapy response may explain clinical observations. PMID:25473001

  18. The development of a novel immunotherapy model of human ovarian cancer in human PBL-severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, W; Gallagher, G

    1995-01-01

    The reported ability of SCID mice to accept xenografts of both human tumors and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) provides the potential for the development of novel immunotherapy models in these animals. This study describes the development of a novel small animal model of human ovarian cancer. This was achieved by engrafting a human ovarian cancer cell line (Ovan-4) into the peritoneal cavity of immunodeficient SCID and immune reconstituted human PBL-SCID mice. When transplanted to SCID mice this cell line exhibited growth characteristics similar to the clinical disease observed in patients with implantation of metastatic nodules onto the interior surface of the peritoneal wall. Reconstituted human PBL-SCID mice challenged with identical numbers of Ovan-4 cells exhibited a significant increase in survival time, suggesting a role for cells of the human immune system in preventing the development of this type of malignancy in vivo. Furthermore, vaccination of human PBL-SCID mice against Ovan-4 produced tumour-specific human antibodies in the serum of these animals. Animals reconstituted with CD8-depleted PBL exhibited increased serum immunoglobulin levels and produced enhanced anti-Ovan-4 activity after vaccination. Subsequent challenge of these animals with Ovan-4 revealed a further increase in survival time. These results suggest that human antibodies may have a role in immunity against ovarian cancer and could be of therapeutic value in this type of disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:7664496

  19. YAP induces cisplatin resistance through activation of autophagy in human ovarian carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lan; Shi, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Ying; Zhu, Lin; Tian, Wang; Zhu, Bing-Kun; Wei, Zhao-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the role of YAP in cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancer cells and in the regulation of autophagy in these cancer cells. Materials and methods The cisplatin-sensitive OV2008 parental cell line and its cisplatin-resistant variant C13K were cultured. RNA interference was used to knock down the YAP gene. Accumulation of GFP-LC3 puncta was performed by fluorescence microscopy. The formation of autophagosomes was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Drug sensitivity was examined using CCK-8 assay, while apoptosis, the level of intracellular rhodamine 123 and lysosomal acidification were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Acid phosphatase activity was measured using an acid phosphatase-assay kit. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence detection were used to detect the protein and messenger RNA expression of YAP, YAP target genes, CCND1, cleaved PARP, and caspase 3, Atg-3 and -5, and the LC3B protein. Results YAP signaling may regulate cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells by augmenting cellular autophagic flux. After knockdown of YAP-sensitized C13K cells to cisplatin by inducing a decrease in autophagy, YAP led to an increase in autophagy via enhancement of autolysosome degradation. Conclusion YAP-mediated autophagy may play a protective role in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells. Therefore, YAP-mediated autophagy should be explored as a new target for enhancing the efficacy of cisplatin against ovarian cancer and other types of malignancies. PMID:27073322

  20. Correlating optical coherence elastography based strain measurements with collagen content of the human ovarian tissue

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Sreyankar; Salehi, Hassan S.; Wang, Tianheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Kueck, Angela; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, the initial feasibility of a catheter based phase stabilized swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system was studied for characterization of the strain inside different human ovarian tissue groups. The ovarian tissue samples were periodically compressed with 500 Hz square wave signal along the axial direction between the surface of an unfocused transducer and a glass cover slide. The displacement and corresponding strain were calculated during loading from different locations for each tissue sample. A total of 27 ex vivo ovaries from 16 patients were investigated. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed between the average displacement and strain of the normal and malignant tissue groups. A sensitivity of 93.2% and a specificity of 83% were achieved using 25 microstrain (με) as the threshold. The collagen content of the tissues was quantified from the Sirius Red stained histological sections. The average collagen area fraction (CAF) obtained from the tissue groups were found to have a strong negative correlation (R = −0.75, p < 0.0001) with the amount of strain inside the tissue. This indicates much softer and degenerated tissue structure for the malignant ovaries as compared to the dense, collagen rich structure of the normal ovarian tissue. The initial results indicate that the swept source OCT system can be useful for estimating the elasticity of the human ovarian tissue. PMID:26504631

  1. Correlating optical coherence elastography based strain measurements with collagen content of the human ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Sreyankar; Salehi, Hassan S; Wang, Tianheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Kueck, Angela; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2015-10-01

    In this manuscript, the initial feasibility of a catheter based phase stabilized swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system was studied for characterization of the strain inside different human ovarian tissue groups. The ovarian tissue samples were periodically compressed with 500 Hz square wave signal along the axial direction between the surface of an unfocused transducer and a glass cover slide. The displacement and corresponding strain were calculated during loading from different locations for each tissue sample. A total of 27 ex vivo ovaries from 16 patients were investigated. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed between the average displacement and strain of the normal and malignant tissue groups. A sensitivity of 93.2% and a specificity of 83% were achieved using 25 microstrain (με) as the threshold. The collagen content of the tissues was quantified from the Sirius Red stained histological sections. The average collagen area fraction (CAF) obtained from the tissue groups were found to have a strong negative correlation (R = -0.75, p < 0.0001) with the amount of strain inside the tissue. This indicates much softer and degenerated tissue structure for the malignant ovaries as compared to the dense, collagen rich structure of the normal ovarian tissue. The initial results indicate that the swept source OCT system can be useful for estimating the elasticity of the human ovarian tissue. PMID:26504631

  2. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts express pro-inflammatory factors in human breast and ovarian tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Erez, Neta; Glanz, Sarah; Raz, Yael; Avivi, Camilla; Barshack, Iris

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express pro-inflammatory factors. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors correlates with tumor invasiveness. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors is associated with NF-κb activation in CAFs. -- Abstract: Inflammation has been established in recent years as a hallmark of cancer. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion. We previously demonstrated that CAFs also mediate tumor-enhancing inflammation in a mouse model of skin carcinoma. Breast and ovarian carcinomas are amongst the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in women and cancer-related inflammation is linked with both these tumor types. However, the role of CAFs in mediating inflammation in these malignancies remains obscure. Here we show that CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express high levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, COX-2 and CXCL1, previously identified to be part of a CAF pro-inflammatory gene signature. Moreover, we show that both pro-inflammatory signaling by CAFs and leukocyte infiltration of tumors are enhanced in invasive ductal carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma in situ. The pro-inflammatory genes expressed by CAFs are known NF-κB targets and we show that NF-κB is up-regulated in breast and ovarian CAFs. Our data imply that CAFs mediate tumor-promoting inflammation in human breast and ovarian tumors and thus may be an attractive target for stromal-directed therapeutics.

  3. A human monoclonal antibody specific to placental alkaline phosphatase, a marker of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ravenni, Niccolò; Weber, Marcel; Neri, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) is a promising ovarian cancer biomarker. Here, we describe the isolation, affinity-maturation and characterization of two fully human monoclonal antibodies (termed B10 and D9) able to bind to human PLAP with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 10 and 30 nM, respectively. The ability of B10 and D9 antibodies to recognize the native antigen was confirmed by Biacore analysis, FACS and immunofluorescence studies using ovarian cancer cell lines and freshly-frozen human tissues. A quantitative biodistribution study in nude mice revealed that the B10 antibody preferentially localizes to A431 tumors, following intravenous administration. Anti-PLAP antibodies may serve as a modular building blocks for the development of targeted therapeutic products, armed with cytotoxic drugs, radionuclides or cytokines as payloads. PMID:24247025

  4. Transplantation of ovarian granulosa‑like cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells for the treatment of murine premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Te; Li, Qiong; Wang, Suwei; Chen, Chuan; Zheng, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common cause of female infertility, for which there are currently no ideal treatments or medications. Furthermore, apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells (OGCs) is an important mechanism underlying the decline in ovarian reserve and function. In the present study, several cellular growth factors and hormones were used to induce the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into ovarian granulosa‑like cells (OGLCs) in vitro. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that OGLCs derived from iPSCs strongly expressed granulosa cell markers, including anti‑Müllerian hormone, inhibin α, inhibin β and follicle‑stimulating hormone receptor, but did not express stem cell markers, including octamer‑binding transcription factor 4, SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2, Nanog and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 12 days post‑induction. In addition, a mouse model of POF was generated by cyclophosphamide treatment. Subsequently, iPSC‑derived OGLCs were transplanted into the POF mice (OGLCs‑iPSCs‑POF group) in vivo. Results indicated that, compared with the control group (POF mice treated with phosphate‑buffered saline), the growth state of OGLCs was markedly improved, and mature follicles could be detected in the ovarian tissue of the OGLCs‑iPSCs‑POF group. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that iPSC‑derived OGLCs transplanted into POF mice not only exhibited substantial growth in murine ovarian tissues, but also strongly expressed OGC markers. Furthermore, enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays indicated that the levels of the hormone estradiol in peripheral blood samples were significantly enhanced following transplantation of iPSC‑derived OGLCs into POF mice. Furthermore, ovarian tissue weight was significantly higher in the OGLCs‑iPSCs‑POF group compared with in the control group, and the number of atretic follicles in OGLCs‑iPSCs‑POF mice was significantly reduced, as

  5. Transplantation of ovarian granulosa-like cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells for the treatment of murine premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    LIU, TE; LI, QIONG; WANG, SUWEI; CHEN, CHUAN; ZHENG, JIN

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common cause of female infertility, for which there are currently no ideal treatments or medications. Furthermore, apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells (OGCs) is an important mechanism underlying the decline in ovarian reserve and function. In the present study, several cellular growth factors and hormones were used to induce the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into ovarian granulosa-like cells (OGLCs) in vitro. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that OGLCs derived from iPSCs strongly expressed granulosa cell markers, including anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin α, inhibin β and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, but did not express stem cell markers, including octamer-binding transcription factor 4, SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2, Nanog and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 12 days post-induction. In addition, a mouse model of POF was generated by cyclophosphamide treatment. Subsequently, iPSC-derived OGLCs were transplanted into the POF mice (OGLCs-iPSCs-POF group) in vivo. Results indicated that, compared with the control group (POF mice treated with phosphate-buffered saline), the growth state of OGLCs was markedly improved, and mature follicles could be detected in the ovarian tissue of the OGLCs-iPSCs-POF group. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that iPSC-derived OGLCs transplanted into POF mice not only exhibited substantial growth in murine ovarian tissues, but also strongly expressed OGC markers. Furthermore, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays indicated that the levels of the hormone estradiol in peripheral blood samples were significantly enhanced following transplantation of iPSC-derived OGLCs into POF mice. Furthermore, ovarian tissue weight was significantly higher in the OGLCs-iPSCs-POF group compared with in the control group, and the number of atretic follicles in OGLCs-iPSCs-POF mice was significantly reduced, as compared with in the control mice. These

  6. The Paracrine Effect of Transplanted Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells on Ovarian Function Improvement in a Mouse Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiaofen; Guo, Yuna; Wang, Qian; Xu, Minhua; Zhang, Qiuwan; Li, Ting; Lai, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) transplantation via tail vein has been reported to rescue ovarian function in mice with chemotherapy-induced primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). To test whether intraperitoneally transplanted hAECs could induce therapeutic effect and to characterize the paracrine effect of transplanted hAECs, we utilized a chemotherapy induced mice model of POI and investigated the ability of hAECs and conditioned medium collected from cultured hAECs (hAECs-CM) to restore ovarian function. We found that transplantation of hAECs or hAECs-CM either 24 hours or 7 days after chemotherapy could increase follicle numbers and partly restore fertility. By PCR analysis of recipient mice ovaries, the presence of SRY gene was only detected in mice transplanted with male hAECs 24 hours following chemotherapy. Further, the gene expression level of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in the ovaries decreased, although VEGFA increased 2 weeks after chemotherapy. After treatment with hAECs or hAEC-CM, the expression of both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 increased, consistent with the immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, both hAECs and hAECs-CM treatment enhanced angiogenesis in the ovaries. The results suggested that hAECs-CM, like hAECs, could partly restore ovarian function, and the therapeutic function of intraperitoneally transplanted hAECs was mainly induced by paracrine-mediated ovarian protection and angiogenesis. PMID:26664408

  7. Butein Shows Cytotoxic Effects and Induces Apoptosis in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Yu; Hu, Dan-Ning; Lin, I-Ching; Liu, Fu-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Butein is a polyphenol, one of the compounds of chalcones, which are flavonoids that are widely biosynthesized in plants, and exhibits different pharmacological activities. Plants containing butein have been used in Chinese traditional medicine. Recently, it has been reported that butein suppresses proliferation and triggers apoptosis in various human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate its pro-apoptotic effect and mechanisms in two cultured human ovarian cancer cells (ES-2 and TOV-21G). The effects of butein on cell viability were assessed by a MTT assay at 3, 10, 30, and 100 μ/M. The apoptotic pathway related factors, including the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP), cytochrome c, caspase cascade, and Bcl-2 family proteins, were examined. MTT assay revealed that butein was cytotoxic to both ovarian cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. JC-1 flow cytometry, cytochrome c, and caspase activity assays revealed that butein damaged the MTP, increased the level of cytosol cytochrome c and the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in the two ovarian cancer cells. Western blot analysis revealed that butein down-regulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and increased the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad. These findings suggest that butein-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via the activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. In addition, butein also down-regulated the expressions of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, XIAP, survivin, CIAP-1, and CIAP-2. This indicates that the inhibition of IAP proteins was also involved in butein-induced apoptosis. The results of our study suggest that butein may be a promising anticancer agent in treating ovarian cancer. PMID:26119952

  8. Pathway-Specific Engineered Mouse Allograft Models Functionally Recapitulate Human Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szabova, Ludmila; Bupp, Sujata; Kamal, Muhaymin; Householder, Deborah B.; Hernandez, Lidia; Schlomer, Jerome J.; Baran, Maureen L.; Yi, Ming; Stephens, Robert M.; Annunziata, Christina M.; Martin, Philip L.; Van Dyke, Terry A.

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate from ovarian cancers can be attributed to late-stage diagnosis and lack of effective treatment. Despite enormous effort to develop better targeted therapies, platinum-based chemotherapy still remains the standard of care for ovarian cancer patients, and resistance occurs at a high rate. One of the rate limiting factors for translation of new drug discoveries into clinical treatments has been the lack of suitable preclinical cancer models with high predictive value. We previously generated genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models based on perturbation of Tp53 and Rb with or without Brca1 or Brca2 that develop serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC) closely resembling the human disease on histologic and molecular levels. Here, we describe an adaptation of these GEM models to orthotopic allografts that uniformly develop tumors with short latency and are ideally suited for routine preclinical studies. Ovarian tumors deficient in Brca1 respond to treatment with cisplatin and olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, whereas Brca1-wild type tumors are non-responsive to treatment, recapitulating the relative sensitivities observed in patients. These mouse models provide the opportunity for evaluation of effective therapeutics, including prediction of differential responses in Brca1-wild type and Brca1–deficient tumors and development of relevant biomarkers. PMID:24748377

  9. Good Preservation of Stromal Cells and No Apoptosis in Human Ovarian Tissue after Vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Vicenti, Rossella; Battaglia, Cesare; Venturoli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a vitrification procedure for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation in order to better preserve the ovarian tissue. Large size samples of ovarian tissue retrieved from 15 female-to-male transgender subjects (18–38 years) were vitrified using two solutions (containing propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and sucrose at different concentrations) in an open system. Light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and TUNEL assay were applied to evaluate the efficiency of the vitrification protocol. After vitrification/warming, light microscopy showed oocyte nucleus with slightly thickened chromatin and irregular shape, while granulosa and stromal cells appeared well preserved. Transmission electron microscopy showed oocytes with slightly irregular nuclear shape and finely dispersed chromatin. Clear vacuoles and alterations in cellular organelles were seen in the oocyte cytoplasm. Stromal cells had a moderately dispersed chromatin and homogeneous cytoplasm with slight vacuolization. TUNEL assay revealed the lack of apoptosis induction by vitrification in all ovarian cell types. In conclusion after vitrification/warming the stromal compartment maintained morphological and ultrastructural features similar to fresh tissue, while the oocyte cytoplasm was slightly damaged. Although these data are encouraging, further studies are necessary and essential to optimize vitrification procedure. PMID:24804230

  10. Good preservation of stromal cells and no apoptosis in human ovarian tissue after vitrification.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Raffaella; Vicenti, Rossella; Macciocca, Maria; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Paradisi, Roberto; Battaglia, Cesare; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Venturoli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a vitrification procedure for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation in order to better preserve the ovarian tissue. Large size samples of ovarian tissue retrieved from 15 female-to-male transgender subjects (18-38 years) were vitrified using two solutions (containing propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and sucrose at different concentrations) in an open system. Light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and TUNEL assay were applied to evaluate the efficiency of the vitrification protocol. After vitrification/warming, light microscopy showed oocyte nucleus with slightly thickened chromatin and irregular shape, while granulosa and stromal cells appeared well preserved. Transmission electron microscopy showed oocytes with slightly irregular nuclear shape and finely dispersed chromatin. Clear vacuoles and alterations in cellular organelles were seen in the oocyte cytoplasm. Stromal cells had a moderately dispersed chromatin and homogeneous cytoplasm with slight vacuolization. TUNEL assay revealed the lack of apoptosis induction by vitrification in all ovarian cell types. In conclusion after vitrification/warming the stromal compartment maintained morphological and ultrastructural features similar to fresh tissue, while the oocyte cytoplasm was slightly damaged. Although these data are encouraging, further studies are necessary and essential to optimize vitrification procedure. PMID:24804230

  11. Modeling the Early Steps of Ovarian Cancer Dissemination in an Organotypic Culture of the Human Peritoneal Cavity.

    PubMed

    Peters, Pamela N; Schryver, Elizabeth M; Lengyel, Ernst; Kenny, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of ovarian cancer metastasis is markedly different from that of most other epithelial tumors, because it rarely spreads hematogenously. Instead, ovarian cancer cells exfoliated from the primary tumor are carried by peritoneal fluid to metastatic sites within the peritoneal cavity. These sites, most notably the abdominal peritoneum and omentum, are organs covered by a mesothelium-lined surface. To investigate the processes of ovarian cancer dissemination, we assembled a complex three-dimensional culture system that reconstructs the lining of the peritoneal cavity in vitro. Primary human fibroblasts and mesothelial cells were isolated from human omentum. The fibroblasts were then mixed with extracellular matrix and covered with a layer of the primary human mesothelial cells to mimic the peritoneal and omental surfaces encountered by metastasizing ovarian cancer cells. The resulting organotypic model is, as shown, used to examine the early steps of ovarian cancer dissemination, including cancer cell adhesion, invasion, and proliferation. This model has been used in a number of studies to investigate the role of the microenvironment (cellular and acellular) in early ovarian cancer dissemination. It has also been successfully adapted to high throughput screening and used to identify and test inhibitors of ovarian cancer metastasis. PMID:26780294

  12. Ursolic acid inhibits the proliferation of human ovarian cancer stem-like cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Wenjing; Qian, Lin; Zhang, Qiuwan; Lai, Dongmei; Qi, Cong

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer-related death among all gynecological cancers. Increasing evidence suggests that human ovarian cancer stem-like cells could be enriched under serum-free culture conditions. In the present study, SKOV3 ovarian epithelial cancer cells were cultured for sphere cells. Ursolic acid (UA) with triterpenoid compounds exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. Evidence shows that UA has anticancer activities in human ovarian cancer cells, but he role of UA in ovarian cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects of UA in combination with cisplatin in ovarian CSCs (in vitro and in vivo), along with the molecular mechanism of action. Treatment with UA at various concentrations was examined in combination with cisplatin in human ovarian CSCs. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used for cell viability and apoptosis analysis, and qRT-PCR for stem cell markers and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers for mRNA expression. Transwell assay was employed to observe the migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells and SKOV3 sphere cells after treatment. Moreover, athymic BALB/c-nu nude mice were injected with SKOV3 sphere cells to obtain a xenograft model for in vivo studies. The results showed that CSCs possessed mesenchymal characteristics and EMT ability, and the growth of SKOV3 and sphere cells was significantly inhibited by UA. Transplanted tumors were significantly reduced after injection of UA and UA plus cisplatin. Furthermore, we found that UA could play a role in enhancing the sensitivity of CSCs to cisplatin resistance. Our findings suggested that UA is involved in EMT mechanism to affect the proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer stem-like cells and it is a potent anti-ovarian cancer agent. PMID:26323892

  13. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-08-01

    The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle.

  14. A stereological study of the human ovarian surface epithelium.

    PubMed

    Gillett, W R; Mitchell, A; Hurst, P R

    1992-04-01

    The surface of the ovary has been found to be composed of two types of epithelial cells called A and B cells which are found in their own respective zones, the A and B zones. A quantitative study was undertaken to determine the mean cell volumes and cell ultrastructure. Ovarian biopsies were taken from six women and A and B zones, having been identified by scanning electron microscopy, were re-embedded for transmission electron microscopy. Stereological measurements using point sampled intercepts were made on vertical sections and showed that B cells are significantly larger than A cells. The volume weighted mean cell volumes of the A and B cells were 237.3 microns 3 and 676.8 microns 3 respectively. The volume fractions of the nucleus and mitochondria were similar in the two cell types. Although the vesicle content of each type was similar, a large variation between cases made the interpretation difficult. The stereological tools used in this study proved to be easy and efficient estimators of surface cell ultrastructure and give an important direction for ultrastructural research. PMID:1522184

  15. Adenovirus‑mediated overexpression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator enhances invasiveness and motility of serous ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiao; Lin, Liangbo; Yong, Min; Dong, Xiaojing; Yu, Tinghe; Hu, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) belongs to the adenosine triphosphate‑binding cassette transporter family, members of which are involved in several types of cancer. Previous studies by our group reported that CFTR was highly expressed in serous ovarian cancer (SOC) tissues, and that knockdown of CFTR suppressed the proliferation of ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the aim of the present study was to construct a recombinant adenoviral vector for the expression of the human CFTR gene in order to study the role of CFTR overexpression in the malignant invasion and migration of SOC cells in vitro. The present study then focused on the mechanisms of the role of CFTR in the migratory and invasive malignant properties of SOC cells. The CFTR gene was inserted into an adenoviral vector by using the AdEasy system in order to obtain the Ad‑CFTR overexpression vector, which was used to transfect the A2780 SOC cell line. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence were performed to detect the expression and localization of CFTR. Cell invasion and motility of the transfected cells compared with those of control cells were observed using Transwell and wound healing assays. A ~4,700 bp fragment of the CFTR gene was confirmed to be correctly cloned in the adenoviral vector and amplification of Ad‑CFTR was observed in HEK293 cells during package. After 48 h of transfection with Ad‑CFTR, ~90% of A2780 cells were red fluorescence protein‑positive. Immunofluorescence showed that following transfection, CFTR expression was increased and CFTR was located in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. CFTR overexpression was shown to enhance the invasion and motility of A2780 cells in vitro. Furthermore, the effects of CFTR overexpression on the activation c‑Src signaling were observed by western blot analysis. CFTR overexpressing cells showed the lowest activity of phospho‑Src (Tyr530

  16. Targeting the opioid growth factor: opioid growth factor receptor axis for treatment of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zagon, Ian S; Donahue, Renee; McLaughlin, Patricia J

    2013-05-01

    The opioid growth factor (OGF) - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) axis is a biological pathway that is present in human ovarian cancer cells and tissues. OGF, chemically termed [Met(5)]-enkephalin, is an endogenous opioid peptide that interfaces with OGFr to delay cells moving through the cell cycle by upregulation of cyclin-dependent inhibitory kinase pathways. OGF inhibitory activity is dose dependent, receptor mediated, reversible, protein and RNA dependent, but not related to apoptosis or necrosis. The OGF-OGFr axis can be targeted for treatment of human ovarian cancer by (i) administration of exogenous OGF, (ii) genetic manipulation to over-express OGFr and (iii) use of low dosages of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, which stimulates production of OGF and OGFr for subsequent interaction following blockade of the receptor. The OGF-OGFr axis may be a feasible target for treatment of cancer of the ovary (i) in a prophylactic fashion, (ii) following cytoreduction or (iii) in conjunction with standard chemotherapy for additive effectiveness. In summary, preclinical data support the transition of these novel therapies for treatment of human ovarian cancer from the bench to bedside to provide additional targets for treatment of this devastating disease. PMID:23856908

  17. Development of synthetic of peptide-functionalized liposome for enhanced targeted ovarian carcinoma therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hong; Yao, Li; Mei, Jiazhuan; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report an active targeting liposomal formulation directed by a novel peptide (T7) that specifically binds to the transferrin receptor (TfR) overexpressed on ovarian carcinoma cells. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo tumor drug targeting delivery of T7-anchored liposomes on A2780 cells. T7 conjugated to the distal end of DSPE-PEG2000-maleimide was incorporated into the liposomes via a post-insertion method, the liposome could keep stability in 50% FBS for more than 24 h. The uptake efficiency of T7-LP was 3.7 times higher than that of LP on A2780 cells. The anti-proliferative activity of T7-LP-PTX against A2780 cells was much stronger compared to that of LP-PTX and free PTX, respectively. The homing specificity and anticancer efficacy of T7-LP-PTX were also evaluated on the tumor spheroids, which revealed that T7-LP-PTX was more efficaciously internalized into tumor cells than LP. Compared to LP, T7-LP-PTX showed the highest accumulation capability into tumor spheroids, and the greatest tumor growth inhibitory effect in vitro. In the in vivo study, the T7-LP-PTX showed the best inhibition effect of the tumor growth for the A2780-bearing mice and tumor accumulation. In brief, the T7-LP may be an efficient targeting drug delivery system for ovarian carcinoma. PMID:25755707

  18. Development of synthetic of peptide-functionalized liposome for enhanced targeted ovarian carcinoma therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hong; Yao, Li; Mei, Jiazhuan; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report an active targeting liposomal formulation directed by a novel peptide (T7) that specifically binds to the transferrin receptor (TfR) overexpressed on ovarian carcinoma cells. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo tumor drug targeting delivery of T7-anchored liposomes on A2780 cells. T7 conjugated to the distal end of DSPE-PEG2000-maleimide was incorporated into the liposomes via a post-insertion method, the liposome could keep stability in 50% FBS for more than 24 h. The uptake efficiency of T7-LP was 3.7 times higher than that of LP on A2780 cells. The anti-proliferative activity of T7-LP-PTX against A2780 cells was much stronger compared to that of LP-PTX and free PTX, respectively. The homing specificity and anticancer efficacy of T7-LP-PTX were also evaluated on the tumor spheroids, which revealed that T7-LP-PTX was more efficaciously internalized into tumor cells than LP. Compared to LP, T7-LP-PTX showed the highest accumulation capability into tumor spheroids, and the greatest tumor growth inhibitory effect in vitro. In the in vivo study, the T7-LP-PTX showed the best inhibition effect of the tumor growth for the A2780-bearing mice and tumor accumulation. In brief, the T7-LP may be an efficient targeting drug delivery system for ovarian carcinoma. PMID:25663977

  19. Inhibition of epithelial ovarian cancer by Minnelide, a water-soluble pro-drug☆

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Colleen; Geller, Melissa; Schnettler, Erica; Saluja, Manju; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Saluja, Ashok; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective Minnelide is a water-soluble pro-drug of triptolide, a natural product. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Minnelide on ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Methods The effect of Minnelide on ovarian cancer cell proliferation was determined by real time electrical impedance measurements. Multiple mouse models with C200 and A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines were used to assess the efficacy of Minnelide in inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. Results Minnelide decreased cell viability of both platinum sensitive and resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Minnelide with carboplatin showed additive effects in vitro. Minnelide monotherapy increased the survival of mice bearing established ovarian tumors. Minnelide, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, improved overall survival of mice. Conclusions Minnelide is a promising pro-drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer, especially when combined with standard chemotherapy. PMID:25172764

  20. Recognition of serous ovarian tumors in human samples by multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Costa, Leverson F. L.; Pietro, Luciana; de Thomaz, Andre A.; Almeida, Diogo B.; Bottcher-Luiz, Fatima; Andrade, Liliana A. L. A.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2011-09-01

    We used a multimodal nonlinear optics microscopy, specifically two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF), second and third harmonic generation (SHG/THG) microscopies, to observe pathological conditions of ovarian tissues obtained from human samples. We show that strong TPEF + SHG + THG signals can be obtained in fixed samples stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stored for a very long time, and that H&E staining enhanced the THG signal. We then used the multimodal TPEF-SHG-THG microscopies in a stored file of H&E stained samples of human ovarian cancer to obtain complementary information about the epithelium/stromal interface, such as the transformation of epithelium surface (THG) and the overall fibrillary tissue architecture (SHG). This multicontrast nonlinear optics microscopy is able to not only differentiate between cancerous and healthy tissue, but can also distinguish between normal, benign, borderline, and malignant specimens according to their collagen disposition and compression levels within the extracellular matrix. The dimensions of the layers of epithelia can also be measured precisely and automatically. Our data demonstrate that optical techniques can detect pathological changes associated with ovarian cancer.

  1. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced human ovarian aging: double strand DNA breaks and microvascular compromise.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Reza; Heytens, Elke; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Oktay, Kutluk

    2011-08-01

    The mechanism of chemotherapy-induced acceleration of ovarian aging is not fully understood. We used doxorubicin, a widely used cancer chemotherapeutic, in a variety of in vivo xenograft, and in vitro models to investigate the impact of chemotherapy-induced aging on the human ovary. Doxorubicin caused massive double-strand-DNA-breaks in primordial follicles, oocytes, and granulosa cells in a dose dependent fashion as revealed by accumulating γH2AX foci. This damage was associated with apoptotic oocyte death and resulted in the activation of ATM. It appeared that the repair response enabled a minor proportion of oocytes (34.7%) and granulosa cells (12.1%) to survive while the majority succumbed to apoptotic death. Paradoxically, inhibition of ATM by KU-55933 resulted in improved survival, probably via prevention of downstream activation of TAp63α. Furthermore, doxorubicin caused vascular and stromal damage in the human ovary, which might impair ovarian function both pre- and post-menopausally. Chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian aging appears to result from a complex process involving both the germ- and non-germ cell components of the ovary. These effects may have clinical implications in aging both for premenopausal and postmenopausal cancer survivors. PMID:21869459

  2. Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Induced by a Novel FSH Binding Inhibitory Peptide From Human Ovarian Follicular Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Chitnis, Swati S.; Navlakhe, Rajshri M.; Shinde, Gayatri C.; Barve, Sharmila J.; D'Souza, Serena; Mahale, Smita D.; Nandedkar, Tarala D.

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, are the key regulators of ovarian folliculogenesis; these are known to be directly or indirectly modulated by many intraovarian factors. Our group has identified and studied one such novel peptide from human ovarian follicular fluid. Its partial N-terminal eight amino acid sequence has been deduced, referred to as octapeptide (OP). OP induces follicular atresia in mice and interferes with normal ovarian function in non-human primates, this action being similar to the native peptide. Thus, in this study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the mechanism of action of the synthetic OP by studying the pathway of follicular atresia in mouse ovary. Changes in granulosa cells were studied using various apoptotic markers by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. An increase in apoptotic cell population in atretic- and peptide-treated groups was observed compared with normal controls. Interestingly, both these groups exhibited differences in the apoptotic pathway. Results showed that the mitochondrial pathway was predominant in the atretic group, whereas the Fas-FasL pathway was predominant in the peptide-treated groups. The ultrastructural study also showed apoptotic changes in the OP-treated and atretic groups; the pattern of apoptosis differed at the subcellular level. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:961–968, 2008) PMID:18645207

  3. Analytical Validation of AmpliChip p53 Research Test for Archival Human Ovarian FFPE Sections.

    PubMed

    Marton, Matthew J; McNamara, Andrew R; Nikoloff, D Michele; Nakao, Aki; Cheng, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene (TP53) is reported to be mutated in nearly half of all tumors and plays a central role in genome integrity. Detection of mutations in p53 can be accomplished by many assays, including the AmpliChip p53 Research Test. The AmpliChip p53 Research Test has been successfully used to determine p53 status in hematologic malignancies and fresh frozen solid tissues but there are few reports of using the assay with formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. The objective of this study was to describe analytical performance characterization of the AmpliChip p53 Research Test to detect p53 mutations in genomic DNA isolated from archival FFPE human ovarian tumor tissues. Method correlation with sequencing showed 96% mutation-wise agreement and 99% chip-wise agreement. We furthermore observed 100% agreement (113/113) of the most prevalent TP53 mutations. Workflow reproducibility was 96.8% across 8 samples, with 2 operators, 2 reagent lots and 2 instruments. Section-to-section reproducibility was 100% for each sample across a 60 μm region of the FFPE block from ovarian tumors. These data indicate that the AmpliChip p53 Research Test is an accurate and reproducible method for detecting mutations in TP53 from archival FFPE human ovarian specimens. PMID:26125596

  4. Synergistic action of tiazofurin and genistein in human ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Weber, G

    1998-01-01

    Tiazofurin, an oncolytic drug, reduces PI kinase activity and arrests chiefly in S phase. Genistein, an inhibitor of PIP kinase, tyrosine kinase, and topoisomerase-II, induces arrest in G2 and/or early M phase in most carcinoma cells. Both tiazofurin and genistein reduce second messenger IP3 concentration in ovarian carcinoma cells. Because genistein and tiazofurin attack different enzymic targets and arrest the cell cycle at different phases, we tested the hypothesis that tiazofurin might be synergistic with genistein. Human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR-5 cells were grown in flasks in monolayers. In growth inhibition assay for tiazofurin and genistein the IC50s were 26 and 18 microM, respectively, and in clonogenic assays the LC50s were 17 and 4 microM, respectively. Various combinations of the two drugs were tested. The best protocol took into consideration that tiazofurin decreased GTP concentration in cells by 50% at 12 h after administration. Tiazofurin (20 microM) and genistein (20 microM) as single agents reduced cell counts to 60% and 50%, respectively. The predicted value, as a sum of the effect of two drugs, would have been 30% of controls. However, genistein added 12 h after tiazofurin decreased cell counts to 8%, showing synergistic action of the two drugs for growth inhibition. Similar results were observed in the clonogenic assays, which also revealed synergistic cytotoxicity. The protocol yielding synergism might be of value in the clinical treatment of human ovarian carcinoma. PMID:9700722

  5. Quantitative human health risk assessment for 1,3-butadiene based upon ovarian effects in rodents.

    PubMed

    Kirman, C R; Grant, R L

    2012-03-01

    A case study was prepared for noncancer risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene (BD) based upon the ovarian atrophy effects in rodents with specific consideration of the guidelines described by NAS (2009). Ovarian toxicity has been identified in the past as a sensitive endpoint for BD, and serves as the basis for noncancer risk assessment by regulatory agencies. A meta-analysis was conducted in which the available dose-response data from rats and mice were normalized using an internal dose estimate (DEB in blood) that is causally related to ovarian toxicity. A time-to-response (multistage-Weibull) model was used to simultaneously fit the pooled rodent data sets with exposure durations ranging from 13 to 105weeks. Human variation in ovarian follicle count was assumed to reflect variation in sensitivity to the adverse effects associated with follicle depletion (i.e., premature menopause). Information on follicle count in women was used in two ways: (1) the window of susceptibility (from birth to menopause) was defined as 49.6years for women born with an average follicle count, 38.7years for women born with a low follicle count, and 60.0years for women born with a high follicle count; and (2) follicle count was assumed to reflect human susceptibility due to toxicodynamic factors. The multistage-Weibull model was used to predict dose-response curves for three scenarios (average, low, and high follicle counts at birth to generate reference concentration values ranging from 0.2 to 20ppm). This case study illustrates how information on mode of action can be used to guide key decisions in the dose-response assessment with respect to identifying a dose measure, low-dose extrapolation method, background exposure, and sensitive subpopulations. PMID:22100993

  6. MicroRNA Expression and Regulation in Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cells by Luteinizing Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Juan; Eldredge, Joanna B.; Xu, Ying; Puett, David

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs have been widely-studied with regard to their aberrant expression and high correlation with tumorigenesis and progression in various solid tumors. With the major goal of assessing gonadotropin (luteinizing hormone, LH) contributions to LH receptor (LHR)-positive ovarian cancer cells, we have conducted a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis on human epithelial ovarian cancer cells to identify the microRNA-associated cellular response to LH-mediated activation of LHR. Methods Human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3) were chosen as negative control (LHR−) and stably transfected to express functional LHR (LHR+), followed by incubation with LH (0–20 h). At different times of LH-mediated activation of LHR the cancer cells were analyzed by a high-density Ovarian Cancer Disease-Specific-Array (DSA, ALMAC™), which profiled ∼100,000 transcripts with ∼400 non-coding microRNAs. Findings In total, 65 microRNAs were identified to exhibit differential expression in either LHR expressing SKOV3 cells or LH-treated cells, a few of which have been found in the genomic fragile regions that are associated with abnormal deletion or amplification in cancer, such as miR-21, miR-101-1, miR-210 and miR-301a. By incorporating the dramatic expression changes observed in mRNAs, strong microRNA/mRNA regulatory pairs were predicted through statistical analyses coupled with collective computational prediction. The role of each microRNA was then determined through a functional analysis based on the highly-confident microRNA/mRNA pairs. Conclusion The overall impact on the transcriptome-level expression indicates that LH may regulate apoptosis and cell growth of LHR+ SKOV3 cells, particularly by reducing cancer cell proliferation, with some microRNAs involved in regulatory roles. PMID:21765906

  7. Antibiotic monensin synergizes with EGFR inhibitors and oxaliplatin to suppress the proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Youlin; Zhang, Junhui; Wang, Zhongliang; Yan, Zhengjian; Qiao, Min; Ye, Jixing; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Lianggong; Lu, Shun; Tang, Shengli; Mohammed, Maryam K; Liu, Hao; Fan, Jiaming; Zhang, Fugui; Zou, Yulong; Liao, Junyi; Qi, Hongbo; Haydon, Rex C; Luu, Hue H; He, Tong-Chuan; Tang, Liangdan

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy with an overall cure rate of merely 30%. Most patients experience recurrence within 12-24 months of cure and die of progressively chemotherapy-resistant disease. Thus, more effective anti-ovarian cancer therapies are needed. Here, we investigate the possibility of repurposing antibiotic monensin as an anti-ovarian cancer agent. We demonstrate that monensin effectively inhibits cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle progression, and induces apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cells. Monensin suppresses multiple cancer-related pathways including Elk1/SRF, AP1, NFκB and STAT, and reduces EGFR expression in ovarian cancer cells. Monensin acts synergistically with EGFR inhibitors and oxaliplatin to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Xenograft studies confirm that monensin effectively inhibits tumor growth by suppressing cell proliferation through targeting EGFR signaling. Our results suggest monensin may be repurposed as an anti-ovarian cancer agent although further preclinical and clinical studies are needed. PMID:26639992

  8. Antibiotic monensin synergizes with EGFR inhibitors and oxaliplatin to suppress the proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Youlin; Zhang, Junhui; Wang, Zhongliang; Yan, Zhengjian; Qiao, Min; Ye, Jixing; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Lianggong; Lu, Shun; Tang, Shengli; Mohammed, Maryam K.; Liu, Hao; Fan, Jiaming; Zhang, Fugui; Zou, Yulong; Liao, Junyi; Qi, Hongbo; Haydon, Rex C.; Luu, Hue H.; He, Tong-Chuan; Tang, Liangdan

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy with an overall cure rate of merely 30%. Most patients experience recurrence within 12–24 months of cure and die of progressively chemotherapy-resistant disease. Thus, more effective anti-ovarian cancer therapies are needed. Here, we investigate the possibility of repurposing antibiotic monensin as an anti-ovarian cancer agent. We demonstrate that monensin effectively inhibits cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle progression, and induces apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cells. Monensin suppresses multiple cancer-related pathways including Elk1/SRF, AP1, NFκB and STAT, and reduces EGFR expression in ovarian cancer cells. Monensin acts synergistically with EGFR inhibitors and oxaliplatin to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Xenograft studies confirm that monensin effectively inhibits tumor growth by suppressing cell proliferation through targeting EGFR signaling. Our results suggest monensin may be repurposed as an anti-ovarian cancer agent although further preclinical and clinical studies are needed. PMID:26639992

  9. Genetic modeling of ovarian phenotypes in mice for the study of human polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi; Li, Xin; Shao, Ruijin

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) presents with a range of clinical complications including hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, chronic oligo/anovulation, infertility, and metabolic alterations related to insulin resistance. Because the mechanism by which this disorder develops is poorly understood, information from experimental models of human disease phenotypes may help to define the mechanisms for the initiation and development of PCOS-related pathological events. The establishment of animal models compatible with human PCOS is challenging, and applying the lessons learned from these models to human PCOS is often complicated. In this mini-review we provide examples of currently available genetic mouse models, their ovarian phenotypes, and their possible relationship to different aspects of human PCOS. Because of the practical and ethical limitations of studying PCOS-related events in humans, our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of human PCOS may be enhanced through further study of these transgenic and knockout mouse models. PMID:23390562

  10. Lack of a correlation between micronucleus formation and radiosensitivity in established and primary cultures of human tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Villa, R.; Zaffaroni, N.; Gornati, D.; Costa, A.; Silvestrini, R.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation-induced genotoxic damage in three established cell lines and 15 primary cultures of human malignant melanoma and ovarian carcinoma showing different radiosensitivity was tested by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. A dose-related increase in micronucleus frequency was observed in all the cell systems. The mean number of micronuclei per Gy of ionising radiation per binucleated cell was respectively 0.44 +/- 0.0075 and 0.43 +/- 0.04 for M14 and JR8 malignant melanoma cell lines and 0.19 +/- 0.013 for the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. The number of micronuclei did not rank the cell lines in the same order of radiosensitivity as clonogenic cell survival, which showed a surviving fraction at 2 Gy of 0.38 +/- 0.02 for JR8, 0.34 +/- 0.05 for M14 and 0.22 +/- 0.007 for A2780. As regards primary tumour cultures, no correlation was observed between micronucleus induction and surviving fraction at 2 Gy. In conclusion, the discrepancy we observed between micronucleus formation and cell death raises doubts about the potential of the micronucleus assay as a preclinical means to predict radiosensitivity. Images Figure 1 PMID:7981062

  11. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ075 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Ovarian Cysts • What is an ovarian cyst? • What are the symptoms of ovarian cysts? • How are ovarian cysts diagnosed? • How are ovarian ...

  12. Toward in-vivo photoacoustic imaging of human ovarian tissue for cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Andres; Kumavor, Patrick; Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Sanders, Mary M.; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2011-03-01

    Currently, most of the cancers in the ovary are detected when they have already metastasized to other parts of the body. As a result, ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecological cancers with a 5-year survival rate of 30% or less [1]. The reason is the lack of reliable symptoms as well as the lack of efficacious screening techniques [2,3]. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve the current diagnostic techniques. We have investigated the potential role of co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging in ovarian cancer detection. In an effort to bring this technique closer to clinical application, we have developed a co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic transvaginal probe. A fiber coupling assembly has been developed to deliver the light from around the transducer for reflection geometry imaging. Co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images of swine ovaries through vagina wall muscle and human ovaries using the aforementioned probe, demonstrate the potential of photoacoustic imaging to non-invasively detect ovarian cancer in vivo.

  13. Expression of cyclin D1 correlates with malignancy in human ovarian tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, F.; Cagnoli, M.; Ragni, N.; Pedullà, F.; Foglia, G.; Alama, A.

    1997-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle regulator of G1 progression that has been suggested to play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of several human cancer types. In the current study, the expression of cyclin D1 has been investigated in a series of 33 patients, with benign (10 patients), borderline (five patients) and malignant (18 patients) ovarian disease. Cyclin D1 protein and mRNA content were analysed by Western blotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction respectively. The levels of cyclin D1 protein were undetectable in patients with benign disease, detectable in the majority of patients with borderline disease and elevated in those with ovarian carcinomas, being significantly related to the degree of malignancy (carcinoma vs benign, P = 0.0001; benign vs borderline, P = 0.0238). A significant relationship between cyclin D1 expression and tumour proliferative activity was also found (P = 0.000001). Moreover, eight benign lesions, two borderline tumours and 11 carcinomas proved to be suitable for the analysis of cyclin D1 transcript, and emerging data demonstrated significant agreement between protein abundance and mRNA expression. Results from the current study suggest that cyclin D1 expression is associated with the degree of transformation and most probably plays a role in the early development of ovarian malignancy. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9155044

  14. Effects of HCG on human epithelial ovarian cancer vasculogenic mimicry formation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    GAO, SAINAN; FAN, CHAO; HUANG, HUA; ZHU, CHANGLAI; SU, MIN; ZHANG, YUQUAN

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality due to gynecological malignancy, and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation is correlated with poor prognosis. In a previous study, the present authors observed that human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) could promote VM formation in three-dimensional OVCAR-3 cell cultures. In order to investigate whether HCG could promote VM formation in ovarian cancer in vivo, the role of OVCAR-3 cells overexpressing or depleted of chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide 5 (CGB5, which is the fifth subunit of β-HCG and was identified as the key part of HCG) were injected into nude mice in the present study, while BeWo cells were used as a positive control. The results demonstrated that overexpressed CGB5 promoted xenografts tumor formation in nude mice, and the results of hematoxylin and eosin and cluster of differentiation (CD)34-periodic acid-Schiff dual staining revealed that CGB5 promoted VM formation. Furthermore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunochemistry staining demonstrated that the expression of the vascular markers CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor and factor VIII was also upregulated in the CGB5-overexpressing xenografts tumors. In addition, the expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), the receptor of CGB5, was increased in CGB5-overexpressing cells. In conclusion, CGB5 may promote tumor growth and VM formation via activation of the LHR signal transduction pathway, which may support a novel strategy for ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:27347165

  15. Human cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation for the treatment of premature ovarian failure in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Jianhong; Jin, Zhijun; Liu, Xiaojun; Hu, Dian; Wang, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the potential of human cord blood mononuclear cell (HCMNC) transplantation as a treatment for premature ovarian failure (POF) in a nude mouse model. Methods: Female nude mice were randomly divided into three groups; a normal control group (n = 35), a POF group (POF plus vehicle, n = 35) and a POF plus cell transplantation group (HCMNCs were implanted into the ovaries, n = 35). HCMNCs were isolated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation and labeled with BrdU. Four weeks after transplantation, the nude mice were sacrificed to determine serum levels of E2, FSH and LH as indicators of ovarian function, and the ovaries were examined both histologically and immunochemically. Results: The transplanted HCMNCs survived in the transplantation group and were detected by BrdU. In the transplantation group, serum levels of E2 significantly increased while serum levels of FSH and LH significantly decreased compared to the POF control group. Additionally, the transplantation group had a recovery in follicle number. Conclusion: HCMNCs can be successfully transplanted into the ovaries of nude mice and can improve ovarian function in POF. PMID:26064319

  16. Sohlh2 inhibits human ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis by transcriptional inactivation of MMP9.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyu; Hao, Chunyan; Wang, Yang; Ji, Shufang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Wenfang; Zhao, Qinghao; Sun, Jinhao; Hao, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Identifying key mediators of cancer invasion and metastasis is crucial to the development of new and more effective therapies. We previously identified Sohlh2 as an important inhibitor of ovarian cancer cell proliferation. However, the function of Sohlh2 in cell migration and invasion remains unknown. In this paper, we report a novel Sohlh2 to MMP9 signaling pathway in the invasive ovarian cancer. Using immunohistochemistry staining, we revealed Sohlh2 expression was inversely correlated with the invasive human ovarian cancers. In vitro experiments, forced expression of Sohlh2 led to a significant reduction in cancer cell migration and invasion. Conversely, silencing of Sohlh2 enhanced ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion. Experiments using nude mice demonstrated that the ectopic Sohlh2 expression inhibited the HO8910 cell capability of the metastasis to the lungs and livers. Ectopic overexpression of Sohlh2 in the invasive HO8910 cells reduced the MMP9 expression, whereas Sohlh2 knockdown from the non-invasive, SKOV3 cells increased the MMP9 expression. Promoter activation and binding analyses indicated that Sohlh2 repressed the MMP9 expression by directly acting on the MMP9 gene promoter. Inhibition of MMP9 dramatically blocked the Sohlh2 knockdown-enhanced SKOV3 cell invasion, and ectopic expression of MMP9 compensated for the anti-invasive activity of Sohlh2 in HO8910 cells. Overall, these results demonstrate for the first time that Sohlh2 functions as a tumor metastasis suppressor. Modulation of Sohlh2 expression has the potential to be a target for cancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26153894

  17. Evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity of one-dimensional chain [Fe(salen)(L)](n) complexes against human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dvořák, Zdeněk; Starha, Pavel; Sindelář, Zdeněk; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2012-04-01

    The 1d-polymeric iron(III) complexes [Fe(salen)(μ-L)](n) (1-6), involving a deprotonated form of the N-donor heterocyclic compounds (L) imidazole (complex 1), 1,2,4-triazole (2), benztriazole (3), 5-methyltetrazole (4), 5-aminotetrazole (5) and 5-phenyltetrazole (6), were studied for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines including lung carcinoma (A549), cervix epithelial carcinoma (HeLa), osteosarcoma (HOS), malignant melanoma (G361), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), ovarian carcinoma (A2780) and cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma (A2780cis). Cytotoxicity in vitro (IC50=0.39-0.48 μM) was achieved for 2-6 against A2780 (IC50 of cisplatin equals 11.5 μM) as well as for 5 and 6 against all the tested cells, with IC50=2.5-37.7 μM. The Uv-Vis spectroscopic study showed that the complexes are unstable in organic solvents (e.g., dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide) containing even trace amounts of water (and thus also in the medium, i.e., 0.1% DMF, v/v, used in the MTT assay), where they partially or completely decompose to the mixtures involving, besides [Fe(salen)(μ-L)](n) itself, also the starting compounds [{Fe(salen)}2(μ-O)] and appropriate organic compound (HL). In efforts to find how the resulting cytotoxicity of the most active compounds 5 and 6 is influenced by this fact, the in vitro cytotoxicity testing of mixtures of reactants [{Fe(salen)}2(μ-O)] and HL, as well as the respective reactants, was also performed. It has been found that the cytotoxicity of 5 and 6 against all the tested cell lines is probably caused by a combined effect of the individual components presented within the corresponding mixture in the medium used. PMID:22274660

  18. ANTIESTROGENIC GLYCEOLLINS SUPPRESS HUMAN BREAST AND OVARIAN CARCINOMA TUMORIGENESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flavonoid family of phytochemicals, particularly those derived from soy, has received attention regarding their estrogenic activity as well as their effects on human health and disease. The aim of this study was to identify unique soy phytochemicals that had not been previously assessed for est...

  19. Human kallikrein 14: a new potential biomarker for ovarian and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Borgoño, Carla A; Grass, Linda; Soosaipillai, Antoninus; Yousef, George M; Petraki, Constantina D; Howarth, David H C; Fracchioli, Stefano; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2003-12-15

    Human kallikrein gene 14 (KLK14) is a recently discovered member of the tissue kallikrein family of secreted serine proteases, which includes hK3/prostate-specific antigen, the best cancer biomarker to date. Given that KLK14 is hormonally regulated, differentially expressed in endocrine-related cancers, and a prognostic marker for breast and ovarian cancer at the mRNA level, we hypothesize that its encoded protein, hK14, like hK3/prostate-specific antigen, may constitute a new biomarker for endocrine-related malignancies. The objective of this study was to generate immunological reagents for hK14, to develop an ELISA and immunohistochemical techniques to study its expression in normal and cancerous tissues and biological fluids. Recombinant hK14 was produced in Pichia pastoris, purified by affinity chromatography, and injected into mice and rabbits for polyclonal antibody generation. Using the mouse and rabbit antisera, a sandwich-type immunofluorometric ELISA and immunohistochemical methodologies were developed for hK14. The ELISA was sensitive (detection limit of 0.1 micro g/liter), specific for hK14, linear from 0 to 20 micro g/liter with between-run and within-run coefficients of variation of <10%. hK14 was quantified in human tissue extracts and biological fluids. Highest levels were observed in the breast, skin, prostate, seminal plasma, and amniotic fluid, with almost undetectable levels in normal serum. hK14 concentration was higher in 40% of ovarian cancer tissues compared with normal ovarian tissues. Serum hK14 levels were elevated in a proportion of patients with ovarian (65%) and breast (40%) cancers. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated strong cytoplasmic staining of hK14 by the epithelial cells of normal and malignant skin, ovary, breast, and testis. In conclusion, we report the first ELISA and immunohistochemical assays for hK14 and describe its distribution in tissues and biological fluids. Our preliminary data indicate that hK14 is a potential

  20. Dietary compounds galangin and myricetin suppress ovarian cancer cell angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haizhi; Chen, Allen Y.; Rojanasakul, Yon; Ye, Xingqian; Rankin, Gary O.; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Galangin and myricetin are flavonoids isolated from vegetables and fruits which exhibit anti-proliferative activity in human cancer cells. In this study, their anti-angiogenic effects were investigated with in vitro (HUVEC) and in vivo (CAM) models, which showed that galangin and myricetin inhibited angiogenesis induced by OVCAR-3 cells. The molecular mechanisms through which galangin and myricetin suppress angiogenesis were also studied. It was observed that galangin and myricetin inhibited secretion of the key angiogenesis mediator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and decreased levels of p-Akt, p-70S6K and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) proteins in A2780/CP70 and OVCAR-3 cells. Transient transfection experiments showed that galangin and myricetin inhibited secretion of VEGF by the Akt/p70S6K/ HIF-1α pathway. Moreover, a novel pathway, p21/HIF-1α/VEGF, was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of myricetin on angiogenesis in OVCAR-3 cells. These data suggest that galangin and myricetin might serve as potential anti-angiogenic agents in the prevention of ovarian cancers dependent on new blood vessel networks. PMID:26113875

  1. Gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Shima, K.; Kitayama, S.; Nakano, R.

    1987-05-01

    Gonadotropin binding sites were localized by autoradiography after incubation of human ovarian sections with /sup 125/I-labeled gonadotropins. The binding sites for /sup 125/I-labeled human follicle-stimulating hormone (/sup 125/I-hFSH) were identified in the granulosa cells and in the newly formed corpora lutea. The /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (/sup 125/I-hLH) binding to the thecal cells increased during follicular maturation, and a dramatic increase was preferentially observed in the granulosa cells of the large preovulatory follicle. In the corpora lutea, the binding of /sup 125/I-hLH increased from the early luteal phase and decreased toward the late luteal phase. The changes in 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the corpora lutea corresponded to the /sup 125/I-hLH binding. Thus, the changes in gonadotropin binding sites in the follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle may help in some important way to regulate human ovarian function.

  2. Overexpression of long non-coding RNA PVT1 in ovarian cancer cells promotes cisplatin resistance by regulating apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enling; Liu, Zheng; Zhou, Yuxiu; Mi, Ruoran; Wang, Dehua

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Cisplatin is a very effective cancer chemotherapy drug, but cisplatin resistance is a crucial problem of therapy failure. Overexpression of PVT1 has been demonstrated in ovarian cancer. The mRNA level of PVT1 in ovarian cancer tissues of cisplatin-resistant patients and cisplatin-sensitive patients, cisplatin-resistant cells SKOV-3/DDP and A2780/DDP, cisplatin-sensitive cells SKOV-3 and A2780 were determined by qRT-PCR. The influence of the knockdown or overexpression of PVT1 on cisplatin resistance was measured by measuring the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and the apoptotic rate of ovarian cancer cells was detected by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The mRNA levels and protein expression of TGF-β1, Smad4, p-Smad4 and Caspase-3 in apoptotic pathways were determined. The mRNA level of PVT1 was significantly higher in ovarian cancer tissues of cisplatin-resistant patients and cisplatin-resistant cells. SKOV-3/DDP and A2780/DDP cell viability and the percentage of apoptotic cells after transfection with PVT-1 siRNA and treated with cisplatin was markedly lower and higher than the control, respectively. Moreover, the overexpression of PVT1 exhibited the anti-apoptotic property in SKOV-3 and A2780 cells after transfection with LV-PVT1-GFP and treated with cisplatin. The mRNA levels and protein expression of TGF-β1, p-Smad4 and Caspase-3 were much higher in cisplatin-resistant cells transfected with siPVT1. Overexpression of LncRNA PVT1 in ovarian cancer promotes cisplatin resistance by regulating apoptotic pathways. PMID:26884974

  3. Complement, complement activation and anaphylatoxins in human ovarian follicular fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Perricone, R; de Carolis, C; Moretti, C; Santuari, E; de Sanctis, G; Fontana, L

    1990-01-01

    Functionally active complement was sought and detected in human follicular fluids obtained during the pre-ovulatory period. All the functional complement activities tested, including total haemolytic complement, classical pathway activity and alternative pathway activity were present in nine fluids from four different donors with values within the normal serum range. The immunochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of complement factors from C1 to C9, of B and of C1 INH, H, I. Complement anaphylatoxins were found employing RIA techniques in amounts significantly higher than in human plasma, thus demonstrating that follicular fluid complement, at least during the pre-ovulatory period, is partially activated. A possible role for urokinase-like substances in such an activation was indicated by further in vitro experiments. The presence of active complement in follicular fluid can be relevant for the function of the enzymatic multi-factorial mechanism of ovulation. PMID:2242616

  4. A genetically engineered ovarian cancer mouse model based on fallopian tube transformation mimics human high-grade serous carcinoma development.

    PubMed

    Sherman-Baust, Cheryl A; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Valle, Blanca L; Shih, Ie-Ming; Kurman, Robert J; Wang, Tian-Li; Amano, Tomokazu; Ko, Minoru S H; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Araki, Yoshihiko; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Morin, Patrice J

    2014-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) originates from the epithelium of the fallopian tube. However, most mouse models are based on the previous prevailing view that ovarian cancer develops from the transformation of the ovarian surface epithelium. Here, we report the extensive histological and molecular characterization of the mogp-TAg transgenic mouse, which expresses the SV40 large T-antigen (TAg) under the control of the mouse müllerian-specific Ovgp-1 promoter. Histological analysis of the fallopian tubes of mogp-TAg mice identified a variety of neoplastic lesions analogous to those described as precursors to ovarian HGSC. We identified areas of normal-appearing p53-positive epithelium that are similar to 'p53 signatures' in the human fallopian tube. More advanced proliferative lesions with nuclear atypia and epithelial stratification were also identified that were morphologically and immunohistochemically reminiscent of human serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), a potential precursor of ovarian HGSC. Beside these non-invasive precursor lesions, we also identified invasive adenocarcinoma in the ovaries of 56% of the mice. Microarray analysis revealed several genes differentially expressed between the fallopian tube of mogp-TAg and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6. One of these genes, Top2a, which encodes topoisomerase IIα, was shown by immunohistochemistry to be concurrently expressed with elevated p53 and was specifically elevated in mouse STICs but not in the surrounding tissues. TOP2A protein was also found elevated in human STICs, low-grade and high-grade serous carcinoma. The mouse model reported here displays a progression from normal tubal epithelium to invasive HGSC in the ovary, and therefore closely simulates the current emerging model of human ovarian HGSC pathogenesis. This mouse therefore has the potential to be a very useful new model for elucidating the mechanisms of serous ovarian tumourigenesis, as well as

  5. Proteomic dataset for altered glycoprotein expression upon GALNT3 knockdown in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sheta, Razan; Roux-Dalvai, Florence; Woo, Christina M; Fournier, Frédéric; Bourassa, Sylvie; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Droit, Arnaud; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2016-09-01

    This article contains raw and processed data related to research published in "Role of the polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 in ovarian cancer progression: possible implications in abnormal mucin O-glycosylation" [1]. The data presented here was obtained with the application of a bioorthogonal chemical reporter strategy analyzing differential glycoprotein expression following the knock-down (KD) of the GALNT3 gene in the epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell line A2780s. LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry analysis was then performed and the processed data related to the identified glycoproteins show that several hundred proteins are differentially expressed between control and GALNT3 KD A2780s cells. The obtained data also uncover numerous novel glycoproteins; some of which could represent new potential EOC biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets. PMID:27331112

  6. Identification and evaluation of a potent novel ATR inhibitor, NU6027, in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Peasland, A; Wang, L-Z; Rowling, E; Kyle, S; Chen, T; Hopkins, A; Cliby, W A; Sarkaria, J; Beale, G; Edmondson, R J; Curtin, N J

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) has a key role in the signalling of stalled replication forks and DNA damage to cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. It has long been recognised as an important target for cancer therapy but inhibitors have proved elusive. As NU6027, originally developed as a CDK2 inhibitor, potentiated cisplatin in a CDK2-independent manner we postulated that it may inhibit ATR. Methods: Cellular ATR kinase activity was determined by CHK1 phosphorylation in human fibroblasts with inducible dominant-negative ATR-kinase dead expression and human breast cancer MCF7 cells. Cell cycle effects and chemo- and radiopotentiation by NU6027 were determined in MCF7 cells and the role of mismatch repair and p53 was determined in isogenically matched ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Results: NU6027 is a potent inhibitor of cellular ATR activity (IC50=6.7 μ) and enhanced hydroxyurea and cisplatin cytotoxicity in an ATR-dependent manner. NU6027 attenuated G2/M arrest following DNA damage, inhibited RAD51 focus formation and increased the cytotoxicity of the major classes of DNA-damaging anticancer cytotoxic therapy but not the antimitotic, paclitaxel. In A2780 cells sensitisation to cisplatin was greatest in cells with functional p53 and mismatch repair (MMR) and sensitisation to temozolomide was greatest in p53 mutant cells with functional MMR. Importantly, NU6027 was synthetically lethal when DNA single-strand break repair is impaired either through poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition or defects in XRCC1. Conclusion: NU6027 inhibits ATR, impairing G2/M arrest and homologous recombination thus increasing sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and PARP inhibitors. It provides proof of concept data for clinical development of ATR inhibitors. PMID:21730979

  7. Analysis of the gene expression profile in response to human epididymis protein 4 in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liancheng; Guo, Qian; Jin, Shan; Feng, Huilin; Zhuang, Huiyu; Liu, Cong; Tan, Mingzi; Liu, Juanjuan; Li, Xiao; Lin, Bei

    2016-09-01

    Currently, there are emerging multiple studies on human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in ovarian cancer. HE4 possesses higher sensitivity and specificity than CA125 in the confirmative early diagnosis for ovarian cancer. Although much attention has been given to explore its clinical application, research of the basic mechanisms of HE4 in ovarian cancer are still unclear. In the present study, we provide fundamental data to identify full-scale differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to HE4 by use of human whole-genome microarrays in human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line ES-2 following overexpression and silencing of HE4. We found that a total of 717 genes were upregulated and 898 genes were downregulated in the HE4-overexpressing cells vs. the HE4-Mock cells, and 166 genes were upregulated and 285 were downregulated in the HE4-silenced cells vs. the HE4-Mock cells. An overlap of 16 genes consistently upregulated and 8 genes downregulated in response to HE4 were noted. These DEGs were involved in MAPK, steroid biosynthesis, cell cycle, the p53 hypoxia pathway, and focal adhesion pathways. Interaction network analysis predicted that the genes participated in the regulatory connection. Highly differential expression of the FOXA2, SERPIND1, BDKRD1 and IL1A genes was verified by quantitative real-time PCR in 4 cell line samples. Finally, SERPIND1 (HCII) was validated at the protein level by immunohistochemistry in 107 paraffin-embedded ovarian tissues. We found that SERPIND1 may act as a potential oncogene in the development of ovarian cancer. The present study displayed the most fundamental and full-scale data to show DEGs in response to HE4. These identified genes may provide a theoretical basis for investigations of the underlying molecular mechanism of HE4 in ovarian cancer. PMID:27430660

  8. Candidate DNA methylation drivers of acquired cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer identified by methylome and expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Zeller, C; Dai, W; Steele, N L; Siddiq, A; Walley, A J; Wilhelm-Benartzi, C S M; Rizzo, S; van der Zee, A; Plumb, J A; Brown, R

    2012-10-18

    Multiple DNA methylation changes in the cancer methylome are associated with the acquisition of drug resistance; however it remains uncertain how many represent critical DNA methylation drivers of chemoresistance. Using isogenic, cisplatin-sensitive/resistant ovarian cancer cell lines and inducing resensitizaton with demethylating agents, we aimed to identify consistent methylation and expression changes associated with chemoresistance. Using genome-wide DNA methylation profiling across 27 578 CpG sites, we identified loci at 4092 genes becoming hypermethylated in chemoresistant A2780/cp70 compared with the parental-sensitive A2780 cell line. Hypermethylation at gene promoter regions is often associated with transcriptional silencing; however, expression of only 245 of these hypermethylated genes becomes downregulated in A2780/cp70 as measured by microarray expression profiling. Treatment of A2780/cp70 with the demethylating agent 2-deoxy-5'-azacytidine induces resensitization to cisplatin and re-expression of 41 of the downregulated genes. A total of 13/41 genes were consistently hypermethylated in further independent cisplatin-resistant A2780 cell derivatives. CpG sites at 9 of the 13 genes (ARHGDIB, ARMCX2, COL1A, FLNA, FLNC, MEST, MLH1, NTS and PSMB9) acquired methylation in ovarian tumours at relapse following chemotherapy or chemoresistant cell lines derived at the time of patient relapse. Furthermore, 5/13 genes (ARMCX2, COL1A1, MDK, MEST and MLH1) acquired methylation in drug-resistant ovarian cancer-sustaining (side population) cells. MLH1 has a direct role in conferring cisplatin sensitivity when reintroduced into cells in vitro. This combined genomics approach has identified further potential key drivers of chemoresistance whose expression is silenced by DNA methylation that should be further evaluated as clinical biomarkers of drug resistance. PMID:22249249

  9. Squalamine and cisplatin block angiogenesis and growth of human ovarian cancer cells with or without HER-2 gene overexpression.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Williams, Jon I; Pietras, Richard J

    2002-04-25

    Angiogenesis is important for growth and progression of ovarian cancers. Squalamine is a natural antiangiogenic sterol, and its potential role in treatment of ovarian cancers with or without standard cisplatin chemotherapy was assessed. Since HER-2 gene overexpression is associated with cisplatin resistance in vitro and promotion of tumor angiogenesis in vivo, the response of ovarian cancer cells with or without HER-2 gene overexpression to squalamine and cisplatin was evaluated both in tumor xenograft models and in tissue culture. Ovarian cancer cells with or without HER-2 overexpression were grown as subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice. Animals were treated by intraperitoneal injection with control vehicle, cisplatin, squalamine or cisplatin combined with squalamine. At the end of the experiment, tumors were assessed for tumor growth inhibition and for changes in microvessel density and apoptosis. Additional in vitro studies evaluated effects of squalamine on tumor and endothelial cell growth and on signaling pathways in human endothelial cells. Profound growth inhibition was elicited by squalamine alone and by combined treatment with squalamine and cisplatin for both parental and HER-2-overexpressing ovarian tumor xenografts. Immunohistochemical evaluation of tumors revealed decreased microvessel density and increased apoptosis. Although HER-2-overexpressing tumors had more angiogenic and less apoptotic activity than parental cancers, growth of both tumor types was similarly suppressed by treatment with squalamine combined with cisplatin. In in vitro studies, we found that squalamine does not directly affect proliferation of ovarian cells. However, squalamine significantly blocked VEGF-induced activation of MAP kinase and cell proliferation in human vascular endothelial cells. The results suggest that squalamine is anti-angiogenic for ovarian cancer xenografts and appears to enhance cytotoxic effects of cisplatin chemotherapy independent of HER-2 tumor status

  10. Antiangiogenic Therapy with Human Apolipoprotein(a) Kringle V and Paclitaxel in a Human Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model12

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Ho-Jeong; Yun, Seok-Joong; Lee, Sun-Joo; Langley, Robert R.; Yoon, Yeup; Yi, Lee S.H.; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Jang-Seong; Kim, Sun Jin

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study compared the effect of combination therapy using human apolipoprotein(a) kringle V (rhLK8) to conventional chemotherapy with paclitaxel for human ovarian carcinoma producing high or low levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human ovarian carcinoma cells producing high (SKOV3ip1) or low (HeyA8) levels of VEGF were implanted into the peritoneal cavity of female nude mice. Seven days later, mice were randomized into four groups: control (vehicle), paclitaxel [5 mg/kg, weekly intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection], rhLK8 (50 mg/kg, daily i.p. injection), or the combination of paclitaxel and rhLK8. Mice were treated for 4 weeks and examined by necropsy. RESULTS: In mice implanted with SKOV3ip1 cells, rhLK8 treatment had no significant effect on tumor incidence or the volume of ascites but induced a significant decrease in tumor weight compared with control mice. Paclitaxel significantly reduced tumor weight and ascites volume, and combination treatment with paclitaxel and rhLK8 had an additive therapeutic effect. Similarly, in HeyA8 mice, the effect of combination treatment on tumor weight and tumor incidence was statistically significantly greater than that of paclitaxel or rhLK8 alone. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant decrease in microvessel density and a marked increase of apoptosis in tumor and tumor-associated endothelial cells in response to combination treatment with paclitaxel and rhLK8. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these results suggest that antiangiogenic therapy with rhLK8 in combination with taxane-based conventional chemotherapy could be effective for the treatment of ovarian carcinomas, regardless of VEGF status. PMID:25180060

  11. Immunohistochemical expression of MMP-14 and MMP-2, and MMP-2 activity during human ovarian follicular development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of MMP-14 and MMP-2 during human ovarian follicular development using immunohistochemistry, and the activity of MMP-2 in follicular fluid using zymography. Methods Ovarian tissue collected from the archives of the Department of Pathology was examined and medical records and histopathology were reviewed. Follicular fluids were collected at the IVF-department and analyzed using zymography. Results MMP-14 and MMP-2 were increasingly found in the growing follicles and MMP-2 was highly expressed in the corpus luteum. Pro-MMP-2 was present in follicular fluid of IVF-patients. Conclusions The presence of MMP-14 and MMP-2 during human ovarian follicular development from the primordial follicle to the tertiary follicle and corpus luteum is confirmed, as was indicated by earlier animal studies following stimulation with gonadotrophins. PMID:24485069

  12. Human carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells promote ovarian cancer chemotherapy resistance via a BMP4/HH signaling loop

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, Lan G.; Choi, Yun-Jung; McLean, Karen; Allen, Benjamin L.; di Magliano, Marina Pasca; Buckanovich, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is critical to cancer growth and therapy resistance. We previously characterized human ovarian carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells (CA-MSCs). CA-MSCs are multi-potent cells that can differentiate into tumor microenvironment components including fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and adipocytes. We previously reported CA-MSCs, compared to normal MSCs, express high levels of BMP proteins and promote tumor growth by increasing numbers of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). We demonstrate here that ovarian tumor cell-secreted Hedgehog (HH) induces CA-MSC BMP4 expression. CA-MSC-derived BMP4 reciprocally increases ovarian tumor cell HH expression indicating a positive feedback loop. Interruption of this loop with a HH pathway inhibitor or BMP4 blocking antibody decreases CA-MSC-derived BMP4 and tumor-derived HH preventing enrichment of CSCs and reversing chemotherapy resistance. The impact of HH inhibition was only seen in CA-MSC-containing tumors, indicating the importance of a humanized stroma. These results are reciprocal to findings in pancreatic and bladder cancer, suggesting HH signaling effects are tumor tissue specific warranting careful investigation in each tumor type. Collectively, we define a critical positive feedback loop between CA-MSC-derived BMP4 and ovarian tumor cell-secreted HH and present evidence for the further investigation of HH as a clinical target in ovarian cancer. PMID:26755648

  13. shRNA Depletion of cIAP1 Sensitizes Human Ovarian Cancer Cells to Anticancer Agent-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong; Dong, You-Yuan; Zhang, Hong; Cui, Ying; Xie, Kai; Lou, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a potential role of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) in the development of human ovarian cancer. However, its function in the progression of ovarian cancer has not been clearly determined. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of cIAP1 gene depletion on the chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer cells. We developed a novel short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid specifically targeting cIAP1. Cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of the shRNA-transfected cells were evaluated using MTT, Transwell chamber, and flow cytometric assays, respectively. The concentration of MMP-9 in the supernatant was detected by ELISA. Targeted depletion of cIAP1 by shRNA significantly reduced expression levels of cIAP1 mRNA and protein, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion capability in SKOV3 cells. At the same time, cIAP1 downregulation decreased the secretion of MMP-9. shRNA depletion of cIAP1 enhanced chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to Taxol and carboplatin-induced apoptosis. cIAP1 is associated with tumor progression in human ovarian cancer. Therefore, cIAP1 might be a potential target for therapeutic anticancer drugs. PMID:26168135

  14. Orthotopic xenografts of human melanoma and colonic and ovarian carcinoma in sheep to evaluate radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, J. H.; Rose, A. H.; Glancy, R. J.; Penhale, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    Extrapolation to humans from experimental radioimmunotherapy in nude mouse xenograft models is confounded by large relative tumour size and small volume of distribution in mice allowing tumour uptake of radiolabelled antibodies unattainable in patients. Our large animal model of human tumours in cyclosporin-immunosuppressed sheep demonstrated tumour uptake of targeted radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies comparable with uptakes reported in clinical trials. Sheep immunosuppression with daily intravenous cyclosporin augmented by oral ketoconazole maintained trough blood levels of cyclosporin within the range 1000-1500 ng ml(-1). Human tumour cells were transplanted orthotopically by inoculation of 10(7) cells: SKMEL melanoma subcutaneously; LS174T and HT29 colon carcinoma into bowel, peritoneum and liver; and JAM ovarian carcinoma into ovary and peritoneum. Tumour xenografts grew at all sites within 3 weeks of inoculation, preserving characteristic morphology without evidence of necrosis or host rejection. Lymphatic metastasis was demonstrated in regional nodes draining xenografts of melanoma and ovarian carcinoma. Colonic LS1 74T xenografts produced mucin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The anti-CEA IgG1 monoclonal antibody A5B7 was radiolabelled with iodine-131 and administered intravenously to sheep. Peak uptake at 5 days in orthotopic human tumour transplants in gut was 0.027% DI g(-1) (percentage of injected dose per gram) and 0.034% DI g(-1) in hepatic metastases with tumour to blood ratios of 2-2.5. Non-specific tumour uptake in melanoma was 0.003% DI g(-1). Uptake of radiolabelled monoclonal antibody in human tumours in our large animal model is comparable with that observed in patients and may be more realistic than nude mice xenografts for prediction of clinical efficacy of radioimmunotherapy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9716032

  15. Crucial role of HMGA1 in the self-renewal and drug resistance of ovarian cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Kyoung; Seo, Eun Jin; Choi, Eun J; Lee, Su In; Kwon, Yang Woo; Jang, Il Ho; Kim, Seung-Chul; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Suh, Dong-Soo; Seong-Jang, Kim; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Jae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are a subpopulation of cancer cells characterized by self-renewal ability, tumorigenesis and drug resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HMGA1, a chromatin remodeling factor abundantly expressed in many different cancers, in the regulation of cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer. Spheroid-forming cancer stem cells were isolated from A2780, SKOV3 and PA1 ovarian cancer cells by three-dimensional spheroid culture. Elevated expression of HMGA1 was observed in spheroid cells along with increased expression of stemness-related genes, such as SOX2, KLF4, ALDH, ABCB1 and ABCG2. Furthermore, spheroid A2780 cells, compared with adherent cells, showed higher resistance to chemotherapeutic agents such as paclitaxel and doxorubicin. HMGA1 knockdown in spheroid cells reduced the proliferative advantage and spheroid-forming efficiency of the cells and the expression of stemness-related genes. HMGA1 overexpression in adherent A2780 cells increased cancer stem cell properties, including proliferation, spheroid-forming efficiency and the expression of stemness-related genes. In addition, HMGA1 regulated ABCG2 promoter activity through HMGA1-binding sites. Knockdown of HMGA1 in spheroid cells reduced resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, whereas the overexpression of HMGA1 in adherent ovarian cancer cells increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro. Furthermore, HMGA1-overexpressing A2780 cells showed a significant survival advantage after chemotherapeutic agent treatment in a xenograft tumorigenicity assay. Together, our results provide novel insights regarding the critical role of HMGA1 in the regulation of the cancer stem cell characteristics of ovarian cancer cells, thus suggesting that HMGA1 may be an important target in the development of therapeutics for ovarian cancer patients. PMID:27561949

  16. Crucial role of HMGA1 in the self-renewal and drug resistance of ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Kyoung; Seo, Eun Jin; Choi, Eun J; Lee, Su In; Kwon, Yang Woo; Jang, Il Ho; Kim, Seung-Chul; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Suh, Dong-Soo; Seong-Jang, Kim; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Jae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are a subpopulation of cancer cells characterized by self-renewal ability, tumorigenesis and drug resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HMGA1, a chromatin remodeling factor abundantly expressed in many different cancers, in the regulation of cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer. Spheroid-forming cancer stem cells were isolated from A2780, SKOV3 and PA1 ovarian cancer cells by three-dimensional spheroid culture. Elevated expression of HMGA1 was observed in spheroid cells along with increased expression of stemness-related genes, such as SOX2, KLF4, ALDH, ABCB1 and ABCG2. Furthermore, spheroid A2780 cells, compared with adherent cells, showed higher resistance to chemotherapeutic agents such as paclitaxel and doxorubicin. HMGA1 knockdown in spheroid cells reduced the proliferative advantage and spheroid-forming efficiency of the cells and the expression of stemness-related genes. HMGA1 overexpression in adherent A2780 cells increased cancer stem cell properties, including proliferation, spheroid-forming efficiency and the expression of stemness-related genes. In addition, HMGA1 regulated ABCG2 promoter activity through HMGA1-binding sites. Knockdown of HMGA1 in spheroid cells reduced resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, whereas the overexpression of HMGA1 in adherent ovarian cancer cells increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro. Furthermore, HMGA1-overexpressing A2780 cells showed a significant survival advantage after chemotherapeutic agent treatment in a xenograft tumorigenicity assay. Together, our results provide novel insights regarding the critical role of HMGA1 in the regulation of the cancer stem cell characteristics of ovarian cancer cells, thus suggesting that HMGA1 may be an important target in the development of therapeutics for ovarian cancer patients. PMID:27561949

  17. A three-step strategy for targeting drug carriers to human ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z; McQuarrie, S A; Suresh, M R; Mercer, J R; Gupta, S; Miller, G G

    2002-03-28

    To improve tumor-to-tissue ratios of anticancer agents in radioimmunotherapy, a three-step targeting approach was used to deliver biotinylated liposomes to human ovarian cancer cells (NIH:OVCAR-3, SK-OV-3) in vitro. Targeting was based upon the use of two antibodies specific for the CA-125 antigen that is highly expressed on NIH:OVCAR-3 cells but not expressed on SK-OV-3 cells. Briefly, the approach consists of prelabeling target cells with biotinylated anti-CA-125 antibody and FITC-labeled streptavidin (SAv) prior to administration of biotinylated liposomes containing a marker dye for visualization by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In addition, the two anti-CA-125 antibodies (B27.1 and B43.13) were labeled with FITC and incubated with ovarian cancer cells at 37 degrees C from 30 min to 24 h to study binding and uptake kinetics. Shedding kinetics of bound antibody from tumor cells was performed using radiolabeled B27.1. Results demonstrated that both B27.1 and B43.13 specifically bound to the cell surface of OVCAR-3 cells but not to SK-OV-3 cells. Biotinylation, FITC-labeling and radiolabeling of the antibodies did not compromise immunoreactivity. Less than 6% of the bound B27.1 was shed from tumor cells by 4 h following incubation, and the antibody-antigen complex resided predominantly on the cell surface by 4 h at 37 degrees C with slow internalization by 12-24 h. Biotinylated, conventional liposomes were specifically and effectively delivered to OVCAR-3 cells prelabeled with biotinylated B27.1 and SAv. The slow internalization and shedding properties of these antibodies are useful for multistep pretargeting methods. Thus, a modified targeting strategy, utilizing a bispecific antibody and liposomes, may be feasible for radioimmunoliposomal therapy of ovarian cancer. PMID:11796170

  18. The pro-adhesive and pro-survival effects of glucocorticoid in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lijuan; Fang, Fang; Song, Xinglei; Wang, Yan; Huang, Gaoxiang; Su, Jie; Hui, Ning; Lu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) is controlled by multiple signaling molecules and intracellular pathways, and is pivotal for survival and growth of cells from most solid tumors. Our previous works demonstrated that dexamethasone (DEX) significantly enhances cell adhesion and cell resistance to chemotherapeutics by increasing the levels of integrin β1, α4, and α5 in human ovarian cancer cells. However, it is unclear whether the components of ECM or other membrane molecules are also involved in the pro-adhesive effect of DEX in ovarian cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the treatment of cells with DEX did not change the expression of collagens (I, III, and IV), laminin, CD44, and its principal ligand hyaluronan (HA), but significantly increased the levels of intracellular and secreted fibronectin (FN). Inhibiting the expression of FN with FN1 siRNA or blocking CD44, another FN receptor, with CD44 blocking antibody significantly attenuated the pro-adhesion of DEX, indicating that upregulation of FN mediates the pro-adhesive effect of DEX by its interaction with CD44 besides integrin β1. Moreover, DEX significantly enhanced cell resistance to the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX) by activating PI-3K-Akt pathway. Finally, we found that DEX also significantly upregulated the expression of MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein. Inhibiting the expression of MUC1 with MUC1 siRNA significantly attenuated the DEX-induced effects of pro-adhesion, Akt-activation, and pro-survival. In conclusion, these results provide new data that upregulation of FN and MUC1 by DEX contributes to DEX-induced pro-adhesion and protects ovarian cancer cells from chemotherapy. PMID:27151574

  19. Ovarian senescence increases liver fibrosis in humans and zebrafish with steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Turola, Elena; Petta, Salvatore; Vanni, Ester; Milosa, Fabiola; Valenti, Luca; Critelli, Rosina; Miele, Luca; Maccio, Livia; Calvaruso, Vincenza; Fracanzani, Anna L.; Bianchini, Marcello; Raos, Nazarena; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Mercorella, Serena; Di Giovanni, Marisa; Craxì, Antonio; Fargion, Silvia; Grieco, Antonio; Cammà, Calogero; Cotelli, Franco; Villa, Erica

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Contrasting data exist on the effect of gender and menopause on the susceptibility, development and liver damage progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to assess whether menopause is associated with the severity of liver fibrosis in individuals with NAFLD and to explore the issue of ovarian senescence in experimental liver steatosis in zebrafish. In 244 females and age-matched males with biopsy-proven NAFLD, we assessed anthropometric, biochemical and metabolic features, including menopausal status (self-reported); liver biopsy was scored according to ‘The Pathology Committee of the NASH Clinical Research Network’. Young and old male and female zebrafish were fed for 24 weeks with a high-calorie diet. Weekly body mass index (BMI), histopathological examination and quantitative real-time PCR analysis on genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation and fibrosis were performed. In the entire cohort, at multivariate logistic regression, male gender [odds ratio (OR): 1.408, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.779-2.542, P=0.25] vs women at reproductive age was not associated with F2-F4 fibrosis, whereas a trend was observed for menopause (OR: 1.752, 95% CI: 0.956-3.208, P=0.06). In women, menopause (OR: 2.717, 95% CI: 1.020-7.237, P=0.04) was independently associated with F2-F4 fibrosis. Similarly, in overfed zebrafish, old female fish with failing ovarian function [as demonstrated by extremely low circulating estradiol levels (1.4±0.1 pg/µl) and prevailing presence of atretic follicles in the ovaries] developed massive steatosis and substantial fibrosis (comparable with that occurring in males), whereas young female fish developed less steatosis and were totally protected from the development of fibrosis. Ovarian senescence significantly increases the risk of fibrosis severity both in humans with NAFLD and in zebrafish with experimental steatosis. PMID:26183212

  20. TLR4 activates NF-{kappa}B in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Dori C.; Johnson, A.L.

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} TLR4 is expressed in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. {yields} Acting through TLR4, LPS and HSP60 induce a NF{kappa}B signaling cascade in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B activation or inhibition did not alter chemosensitivity to TRAIL or cisplatin. -- Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the surface epithelium of normal ovaries (OSE) and in epithelial ovarian tumors. Most notably, OSE-derived cancers express TLR4, which activates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) signaling cascade as a mediator of inflammatory response. Currently, there is considerable interest in elucidating the role of TLR-mediated signaling in cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of TLRs in granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary, and the extent to which GCT expression of TLRs may influence cell-signaling pathways and/or modulate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, has yet to be determined. In the present study, human GCT lines (COV434 and KGN) were utilized to evaluate expression of functional TLR4. TLR4 is expressed in GCT cell lines and ligation of TLR4 with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to I{kappa}B degradation and activation of NF-{kappa}B. NF-{kappa}B activation was confirmed by nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B p65 following treatment with LPS and the naturally occurring ligand, HSP60. Notably, immunoneutralization of TLR4 blocked nuclear localization, and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B signaling attenuated LPS-induced TNF{alpha} plus increased doubling time in both cell lines. Contradictory to reports using human OSE cell lines, inhibition of NF-{kappa}B signaling failed to sensitize GCT lines to TRAIL or cisplatin. In summary, findings herein are the first to demonstrate a functional TLR-signaling pathway specifically in GCTs, and indicate that in contrast to OSE-derived cancers, inhibition of NF-{kappa}B does not sensitize GCTs to TRAIL or cisplatin.

  1. Upregulation of miR-572 transcriptionally suppresses SOCS1 and p21 and contributes to human ovarian cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Junling; Zang, Dan; Wu, Shu; Liu, Aibin; Zhu, Jinrong; Wu, Geyan; Li, Jun; Jiang, Lili

    2015-06-20

    Ovarian cancer is a gynecological malignancy with high mortality rates worldwide and novel diagnostic and prognostic markers and therapeutic targets are urgently required. The suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21(KIP)) are known to regulate tumor cell proliferation. However, the mechanisms that regulate these genes have not yet been completely elucidated. In the present study, analysis of a published microarray-based high-throughput assessment (NCBI/E-MTAB-1067) and real-time PCR demonstrated that miR-572 was upregulated in human ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. Kaplan-Meir analysis indicated that high level expression of miR-572 was associated with poorer overall survival. Ectopic miR-572 promoted ovarian cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. SOCS1 and p21 were identified as direct targets of miR-572 and suppression of SOCS1 or p21 reversed the inhibiting-function of miR-572-silenced cell on proliferation and tumorigenicity in ovarian cancer cells. Additionally, the expression of miR-572 correlated inversely with the protein expression levels of SOCS1, p21 and positively with Cyclin D1 in ovarian carcinoma specimens. This study demonstrates that miR-572 post-transcriptionally regulates SOCS1 and p21 and may play an important role in ovarian cancer progression; miR-572 may represent a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:25893382

  2. Downregulation of BC200 in ovarian cancer contributes to cancer cell proliferation and chemoresistance to carboplatin

    PubMed Central

    WU, DI; WANG, TIANZHEN; REN, CHENGCHENG; LIU, LEI; KONG, DAN; JIN, XIAOMING; LI, XIAOBO; ZHANG, GUANGMEI

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve an important role in carcinogenesis. BC200 is a lncRNA that is reportedly associated with ovarian cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate this potential association between BC200 and ovarian cancer, and to subsequently analyze the biological function of BC200 in the disease. BC200 expression was compared in ovarian cancer tissue and normal ovarian tissue samples through the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To allow the biological function of BC200 in ovarian cancer to be analyzed, small interfering RNA was used to knock down the expression of BC200 in SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells. The proliferative, invasive and migratory abilities of the cells were identified by means of cell counting kits and Transwell assays. Carboplatin was also used to treat the ovarian cancer cells, and a luminescent cell viability assay was subsequently used to detect the sensitivity of the cells to the carboplatin. The results demonstrated that BC200 expression was reduced in ovarian cancer compared with normal ovarian tissue samples. In the SKOV3 and A2780 cells, BC200 exerted no effect on invasive or migratory ability, however, the inhibition of BC200 was demonstrated to promote cell proliferation. Additionally, it was observed that carboplatin induced BC200 expression in the cell lines, and that the inhibition of BC200 decreased the sensitivity of the cells to the drug. BC200 is therefore likely to have a tumor suppressive function in ovarian cancer by affecting cell proliferation. Furthermore, BC200 appears to serve a role in the mediation of carboplatin-induced ovarian cancer cell death. PMID:26893717

  3. [Development of ultrastructural changes in human cervix mucus during the ovarian cycle. Scanning electron microscope study].

    PubMed

    Chrétien, F C; Cohen, J; Psychoyos, A

    1976-01-01

    The use of the Scanning Electron Microscope has made it possible through observation to study the human cervical mucus through the various stages of the ovarian cycle, as well as to describe the significant variations of the meshed woof making up the ultrastructure during the ovarian cycle. While the slackening of the woof and the dimension of the meshes are minimal at both the beginning and end of the cycle, they reach a maximum on forteenth day. In the ovulatory period, lateral expansions from the filaments are numerous. On the other hand, median and terminal thicknesses are almost inexistant during the same period : their frequency decreases during the first part of the cycle, then increases during the luteal phase. During both the preceding and following days of ovulation, one can observe numerous twistings at the level of the filaments which probably express the relaxation and then contraction of the latter. The preparatory technique as well as the method of observation used appear reliable enough to allow a comparison of the cervical mucus ultrastructure in varied physiological, pathological and experimental situations. PMID:956619

  4. Ultrasound image attributes of human ovarian dominant follicles during natural and oral contraceptive cycles

    PubMed Central

    Birtch, Rebecca L; Baerwald, Angela R; Olatunbosun, Olufemi A; Pierson, Roger A

    2005-01-01

    Background Computer-assisted analyses were used to examine ultrasound image attributes of human dominant ovarian follicles that developed during natural and oral contraceptive (OC) cycles. We hypothesized that image attributes of natural cycle follicles would quantitatively differ from those in OC cycles and that OC cycle follicles would possess image attributes indicative of atresia. Methods Dominant ovarian follicles of 18 clinically normal women were compared using transvaginal ultrasonography for the 7 days before ovulation during a natural cycle (n = 9) or the 7 days before peak estradiol in women using OC (n = 11). Follicles were analyzed using region and line techniques designed to compare the image attributes numerical pixel value (NPV), pixel heterogeneity (PH) and area under the curve (AUC). Results NPV was higher in OC cycle follicles with region analysis and tended to be higher with line analysis (p = 0.005 and p = 0.06, respectively). No differences were observed in two other image attributes (AUC and PH), measured with either technique, between natural and OC cycle follicles. Conclusion The increased NPV value of OC cycle follicles and lack of differences in PH and AUC values between natural cycle and OC cycle follicles did not support the hypothesis that OC cycle follicles would show ultrasonographically detectable signs of atresia. Image attributes observed in OC cycle follicles were not clearly indicative of atresia nor were they large enough to preclude preovulatory physiologic status in OC cycle follicles. PMID:15829004

  5. CAP1 is overexpressed in human epithelial ovarian cancer and promotes cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hua, Minhui; Yan, Sujuan; Deng, Yan; Xi, Qinghua; Liu, Rong; Yang, Shuyun; Liu, Jian; Tang, Chunhui; Wang, Yingying; Zhong, Jianxin

    2015-04-01

    Adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) regulates both actin filaments and the Ras/cAMP pathway in yeast, and has been found play a role in cell motility and in the development of certain types of cancer. In the present study, we investigated CAP1 gene expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed using EOC tissue samples and the results revealed that CAP1 expression increased with the increasing grade of EOC. In the normal ovarian tissue samples however, CAP1 expression was barely detected. Using Pearson's χ2 test, it was demonstrated that CAP1 expression was associated with the histological grade and Ki-67 expression. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that a higher CAP1 expression in patients with EOC was associated with a poorer prognosis. In in vitro experiments using HO-8910 EOC cells, the expression of CAP1 was knocked down using siRNA. The proliferation of the HO-8910 cells was then determined by cell cycle analysis and cell proliferation assay using the cell counting kit-8 and flow cytometry. The results revealed that the loss of CAP1 expression inhibited cell cycle progression. These findings suggest that a high expression of CAP1 is involved in the pathogenesis of EOC, and that the downregulation of CAP1 in tumor cells may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with EOC. PMID:25652936

  6. Differential in vitro effects of chemotherapeutic agents on primary cultures of human ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kornblith, P; Ochs, R L; Wells, A; Gabrin, M J; Piwowar, J; Chattopadhyay, A; George, L D; Burholt, D

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of ovarian cancer principally relies on the use of platinum and taxane chemotherapeutic agents. Short-term clinical results have been encouraging, but long-term responses remain limited. In this report, an in vitro assay system that utilizes cells grown from human tumor explants has been used to quantitatively evaluate responses to relevant concentrations of alternative chemotherapeutic agents. The results suggest that there are significant differences in the responses of explant-derived cultured cells to the different agents tested. In an evaluation of 276 primary ovarian cancer specimens, five nonstandard drugs were tested in 51 cases. Of these 51 cases, cyclophosphamide had the highest rate of response at 67%, followed by doxorubicin at 61%, gemcitabine at 49%, etoposide at 48%, and topotecan at 14%. Venn diagrams, representing the in vitro responses to the platins and taxanes, as well as the responses to the nonstandard drugs, illustrate that there clearly are distinct differences among patients in a given population. These data underscore the potential importance of evaluating each patient's response to a number of different drugs to optimize the therapeutic decision-making process. PMID:15304154

  7. FOXP1 functions as an oncogene in promoting cancer stem cell-like characteristics in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Jung; Seo, Eun Jin; Kim, Dae Kyoung; Lee, Su In; Kwon, Yang Woo; Jang, Il Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Suh, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jae Ho

    2016-01-19

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of all gynecological cancers with a high recurrence rate. It is important to understand the nature of recurring cancer cells to terminally eliminate ovarian cancer. The winged helix transcription factor Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) has been reported to function as either oncogene or tumor-suppressor in various cancers. In the current study, we show that FOXP1 promotes cancer stem cell-like characteristics in ovarian cancer cells. Knockdown of FOXP1 expression in A2780 or SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells decreased spheroid formation, expression of stemness-related genes and epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related genes, cell migration, and resistance to Paclitaxel or Cisplatin treatment, whereas overexpression of FOXP1 in A2780 or SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells increased spheroid formation, expression of stemness-related genes and epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related genes, cell migration, and resistance to Paclitaxel or Cisplatin treatment. In addition, overexpression of FOXP1 increased promoter activity of ABCG2, OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2, among which the increases in ABCG2, OCT4, and SOX2 promoter activity were dependent on the presence of FOXP1-binding site. In xenotransplantation of A2780 ovarian cancer cells into nude mice, knockdown of FOXP1 expression significantly decreased tumor size. These results strongly suggest FOXP1 functions as an oncogene by promoting cancer stem cell-like characteristics in ovarian cancer cells. Targeting FOXP1 may provide a novel therapeutic opportunity for developing a relapse-free treatment for ovarian cancer patients. PMID:26654944

  8. DDB2 modulates TGF-β signal transduction in human ovarian cancer cells by downregulating NEDD4L

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ran; Cui, Tiantian; Han, Chunhua; Zhang, Xiaoli; He, Jinshan; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Yu, Jianhua; Wani, Altaf A.; Wang, Qi-En

    2015-01-01

    The expression of DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2) has been linked to the prognosis of ovarian cancer and its underlying transcription regulatory function was proposed to contribute to the favorable treatment outcome. By applying gene microarray analysis, we discovered neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-Like (NEDD4L) as a previously unidentified downstream gene regulated by DDB2. Mechanistic investigation demonstrated that DDB2 can bind to the promoter region of NEDD4L and recruit enhancer of zeste homolog 2 histone methyltransferase to repress NEDD4L transcription by enhancing histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) at the NEDD4L promoter. Given that NEDD4L plays an important role in constraining transforming growth factor β signaling by targeting activated Smad2/Smad3 for degradation, we investigated the role of DDB2 in the regulation of TGF-β signaling in ovarian cancer cells. Our data indicate that DDB2 enhances TGF-β signal transduction and increases the responsiveness of ovarian cancer cells to TGF-β-induced growth inhibition. The study has uncovered an unappreciated regulatory mode that hinges on the interaction between DDB2 and NEDD4L in human ovarian cancer cells. The novel mechanism proposes the DDB2-mediated fine-tuning of TGF-β signaling and its downstream effects that impinge upon tumor growth in ovarian cancers. PMID:26130719

  9. The human ovarian cancer cell line CABA I: A peculiar genetic evolution

    PubMed Central

    GIUSTI, ILARIA; CERVELLI, CARLA; D'ASCENZO, SANDRA; DI FRANCESCO, MARIANNA; LIGAS, CLAUDIO; D'ALESSANDRO, ELVIRA; PAPOLA, FRANCO; DOLO, VINCENZA

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study the human ovarian cancer cell line CABA I by means of short tandem repeats (STR) profiling and cytogenetic analysis in order to prevent future misidentification or cross-contamination and verify its stability during in vitro cultivation. To this end, cells at passages 18 and 38 were analyzed using cytogenetic techniques in order to verify possible chromosomal aberrations and the karyotypic evolution of this cell line; GTG-banding and FISH were also performed. For STR analysis, DNA was extracted using the automated extractor MagNA pure and analyzed by means of PowerPlex 16 HS. STR profiles were analyzed by GeneMapper 3.2.1 software. Whereas comparative cytogenetic analysis of CABA I cells at passage 18 and 38 has demonstrated considerable genetic instability, we found that STR profiles were essentially unaltered in both analyzed passages, suggesting that the STR profile is reliable and could be used for the regular authentication of CABA I over time. It should be emphasized, however, that of the 16 loci generally used in human STR profiles, only 3 were properly detectable in CABA I. The data highlight that the CABA I cell line demonstrates an anomalous STR profile that does not fully adjust the criteria currently used for the identification of human cells; in spite of this, it remains stable during the in vitro maintainance. Moreover, the genetic instability of the CABA I cell line overlaps with those observed in vivo in tumor cells, making it a suitable candidate to analyze, in vitro, the peculiar genetic evolution of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26934856

  10. L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Redirected Human T Cells Exhibit Specific and Efficient Antitumor Activity against Human Ovarian Cancer in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hao; Brown, Christine E; Ostberg, Julie R; Priceman, Saul J; Chang, Wen-Chung; Weng, Lihong; Lin, Paul; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Jensen, Michael C; Forman, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    New therapeutic modalities are needed for ovarian cancer, the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the impressive therapeutic potential of adoptive therapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T cells to target hematological cancers, and emerging studies suggest a similar impact may be achieved for solid cancers. We sought determine whether genetically-modified T cells targeting the CE7-epitope of L1-CAM, a cell adhesion molecule aberrantly expressed in several cancers, have promise as an immunotherapy for ovarian cancer, first demonstrating that L1-CAM was highly over-expressed on a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines, primary ovarian tumor tissue specimens, and ascites-derived primary cancer cells. Human central memory derived T cells (TCM) were then genetically modified to express an anti-L1-CAM CAR (CE7R), which directed effector function upon tumor antigen stimulation as assessed by in vitro cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity assays. We also found that CE7R+ T cells were able to target primary ovarian cancer cells. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of CE7R+ TCM induced a significant regression of i.p. established SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors in mice, inhibited ascites formation, and conferred a significant survival advantage compared with control-treated animals. Taken together, these studies indicate that adoptive transfer of L1-CAM-specific CE7R+ T cells may offer a novel and effective immunotherapy strategy for advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:26761817

  11. PPAR{gamma} ligands induce growth inhibition and apoptosis through p63 and p73 in human ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Jae-Jung; Heo, Dae Seog

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{gamma} ligands increased the rate of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in ovarian cancer cells. {yields} PPAR{gamma} ligands induced p63 and p73 expression, but not p53. {yields} p63 and p73 leads to an increase in p21 expression and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells with treatment PPAR{gamma} ligands. {yields} These findings suggest that PPAR{gamma} ligands suppressed growth of ovarian cancer cells through upregulation of p63 and p73. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonists, including thiazolidinediones (TZDs), can induce anti-proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in various cancer cell types. This study investigated the mechanism of the anticancer effect of TZDs on human ovarian cancer. Six human ovarian cancer cell lines (NIH:OVCAR3, SKOV3, SNU-251, SNU-8, SNU-840, and 2774) were treated with the TZD, which induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Additionally, these cell lines exhibited various expression levels of PPAR{gamma} protein as revealed by Western blotting. Flow cytometry showed that the cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase, as demonstrated by the appearance of a sub-G1 peak. This observation was corroborated by the finding of increased levels of Bax, p21, PARP, and cleaved caspase 3 in TGZ-treated cells. Interestingly, when we determined the effect of p53-induced growth inhibition in these three human ovarian cancer cells, we found that they either lacked p53 or contained a mutant form of p53. Furthermore, TGZ induced the expression of endogenous or exogenous p63 and p73 proteins and p63- or p73-directed short hairpin (si) RNAs inhibited the ability of TGZ to regulate expression of p21 in these cells. Thus, our results suggest that PPAR{gamma} ligands can induce growth suppression of ovarian cancer cells and mediate p63 and p73 expression, leading to enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis. The tumor suppressive effects of PPAR{gamma} ligands

  12. MicroRNAs control transcription factor NF-kB (p65) expression in human ovarian cells.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Alexa, Richard; Kišová, Gabriela; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh; Ovcharenko, Dmitriy; Mlynček, Miloš

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to influence ovarian cell proliferation, apoptosis and hormone release, but it remains unknown whether miRNAs affect ovarian functions via transcription factors. We examined the effect of miRNAs on nuclear factor-κappaB (NF-kB) (p65) expression in human ovarian luteinized granulosa cells. We transfected cultured primary human ovarian luteinized granulosa cells with 80 different constructs encoding human pre-miRNAs and then evaluated NF-kB (p65) expression (percentage of cells containing p65) by immunocytochemistry. We found that 21 of the constructs stimulated NF-kB (p65) expression and 18 of the constructs inhibited NF-kB (p65) expression. This is the first direct demonstration that miRNAs affect NF-kB (p65) expression and the first genome-scale miRNA screen to identify upregulation and downregulation of NF-kB accumulation by miRNAs in the ovary. Novel miRNAs that affect the NF-kB signalling pathway could be useful for the control of NF-kB-dependent reproductive processes and the treatment of NF-kB-dependent reproductive disorders. PMID:25403593

  13. A new expert system for histopathological diagnosis of human ovarian epithelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Protopapa, E; Miaoulis, G; Ferreiro, M; Panayiotides, J; Katsikas, S K; Delides, G

    1993-01-01

    A new rule-based expert system designed to assist pathologists in the histological diagnosis of human ovarian epithelial cancer has been developed. The system was implemented using the INSIGHT II+ EXPERT System Shell and runs on IBM compatible microcomputers. It operates using knowledge acquired through the literature, research and experience, formulated into a total of 195 IF-THEN rules. The WHO International Histological Classification of Tumours is being used throughout. The system can quickly focus on a differential problem, thereby reducing the time necessary to reach a conclusion. It has been tested on a set of 34 cases, previously examined by pathologists of the Metaxas Memorial Cancer Institute, and has been found to reach good agreement with the pathologists' diagnoses. PMID:8218981

  14. Reversing drug resistance of cisplatin by hsp90 inhibitors in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhengmao; Xie, Zhen; Sun, Guangyu; Yang, Pingfang; Li, Jia; Yang, Hongfang; Xiao, Shuang; Liu, Yang; Qiu, Hongbing; Qin, Lijun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Fenghua; Shan, Baoen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanisms for reversing drug resistance of cisplatin (DDP) by Hsp90 inhibitors (geldanamycin (GA), 17-AAG, 17-DMAG) in human ovarian cancer. Methods: Cell proliferation rate in DDP resistant human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3/DDP and its parent cell line SKOV3 after treatment with Hsp90 inhibitors and/or DDP were tested by MTT assay, and the reversing fold (RF) of DDP by Hsp90 inhibitors was calculated. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis status after treatment were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of multiple drug resistance related genes was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western-blot. Results: All three tested Hsp90 inhibitors synergistically inhibited the cell proliferation of SKOV3 with DDP and enhanced the sensitivity of SKOV3/DDP cells to DDP. The RF of DDP by Hsp90 inhibitors were all more than two fold. GA caused cell cycle arrest in G2/M phasein SKOV3 cells. 17-AAG increased cell apoptosis but did not change cell cycle in SKOV3/DDP cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of various drug resistant related genes including LRP, GST-π, p53, bcl-2, survivin, ERCC1, XRCC1, BRCA1 and BRCA2 were more dramatically altered by Hsp90 inhibitors and DDP in combination compared to Hsp90 inhibitors or DDP treatment alone. Conclusions: Exposure of SKOV3/DDP cells to Hsp90 inhibitors and DDP in combination results in synergistic cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects. Hsp90 inhibitors reverse the drug resistance of SKOV3/DDP cells to DDP by modifying the expression of multiple drug resistance related genes. PMID:26221207

  15. 3'-hydroxy-3,4,5,4'-tetramethoxystilbene, the metabolite of resveratrol analogue DMU-212, inhibits ovarian cancer cell growth in vitro and in a mice xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Kempisty, Hanna; Ruciński, Marcin; Borys, Sylwia; Kucińska, Małgorzata; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Zawierucha, Piotr; Wierzchowski, Marcin; Łażewski, Dawid; Murias, Marek; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    In screening studies, the cytotoxic activity of four metabolites of resveratrol analogue 3,4,5,4'-tetramethoxystilbene (DMU-212) against A-2780 and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells was investigated. The most active metabolite, 3'-hydroxy-3,4,5,4'-tetramethoxystilbene (DMU-214), was chosen for further studies. The cytotoxicity of DMU-214 was shown to be higher than that of the parent compound, DMU-212, in both cell lines tested. Since DMU-212 was supposed to undergo metabolic activation through its conversion to DMU-214, an attempt was made to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-proliferative activity. We found that in SKOV-3 cells lacking p53, DMU-214 induced receptor-mediated apoptosis. In A-2780 cell line with expression of wild-type p53, DMU-214 modulated the expression pattern of p53-target genes driving intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways, as well as DNA repair and damage prevention. Regardless of the up-regulation of p48, p53R2, sestrins and Gaad45 genes involved in cancer cell DNA repair, we demonstrated the stronger anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of DMU-214 in A-2780 cells when compared to those in SKOV-3. Hence we verified DMU-214 activity in the xenograft model using SCID mice injected with A-2780 cells. The strong anti-proliferative activity of DMU-214 in the in vivo model allowed to suggest the tested compound as a potential therapeutic in ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27585955

  16. Comparison of In Vitro- and Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM)-Culture Systems for Cryopreserved Medulla-Contained Human Ovarian Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Mallmann, Peter; Petrunkina, Anna M.; Rahimi, Gohar; Nawroth, Frank; Hancke, Katharina; Felberbaum, Ricardo; Genze, Felicitas; Damjanoski, Ilija; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2012-01-01

    At present, there are three ways to determine effectively the quality of the cryopreservation procedure using ovarian tissue before the re-implantation treatment: evaluation of follicles after post-thawing xenotransplantation to SCID mouse, in-vitro culture in a large volume of culture medium under constant agitation and culture on embryonic chorio-allantoic membrane within a hen's eggs. The aim of this study was to compare the two methods, culture in vitro and culture on embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of cryopreserved human ovarian medulla-contained and medulla-free cortex. Ovarian fragments were divided into small pieces (1.5–2.0×1.0–1.2×0.8–1.5) of two types, cortex with medulla and medulla-free cortex, frozen, thawed and randomly divided into the following four groups. Group 1: medulla-free cortex cultured in vitro for 8 days in large volume of medium with mechanical agitation, Group 2: medulla-containing cortex cultured in vitro, Group 3: medulla-free cortex cultured in CAM-system for 5 days, Group 4: medulla-containing cortex cultured in CAM-system. The efficacy of the tissue culture was evaluated by the development of follicles and by intensiveness of angiogenesis in the tissue (von Willebrand factor and Desmin). For Group 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively 85%, 85%, 87% and 84% of the follicles were morphologically normal (P>0.1). The immunohistochemical analysis showed that angiogenesis detected by von Willebrand factor was lower in groups 1 and 3 (medulla-free cortex). Neo-vascularisation (by Desmin) was observed only in ovarian tissue of Group 4 (medulla-contained cortex after CAM-culture). It appears that the presence of medulla in ovarian pieces is beneficial for post-thaw development of cryopreserved human ovarian tissue. For medical practice it is recommended for evaluation of post-warming ovarian tissue to use the CAM-system as a valuable alternative to xenotransplantation and for cryopreservation of these tissues to prepare ovarian

  17. Minimal residual disease of leukemia and the quality of cryopreserved human ovarian tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Azarbaijani, Babak; Sheikhi, Mona; Nurmio, Mirja; Tinkanen, Helena; Juvonen, Vesa; Dunkel, Leo; Hovatta, Outi; Oskam, Irma C; Jahnukainen, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Auto-transplant of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in leukemia patients carries a risk to reintroduce malignant cells. Maturation of ovarian follicles in vitro is a promising strategy to overcome the leukemic cell contamination. The follicle development and survival in 14 cryopreserved ovarian tissues with leukemia-specific PCR marker was evaluated after 7 or 14 days culture. Minimal residual disease (MRD) quantification was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR in order to identify the MRD positive (n = 6) and negative (n = 8) samples and to monitor levels of MRD before and after culture. The morphology of ovarian follicles were studied by light microscopy. After culture, no statistical significant differences were detected in follicle densities between MRD positive- and negative samples. Ovarian MRD either decreased below undetectable or fluctuated near the baseline level after 7 and 14 days in culture. This study provides quantitative in vitro evidence that leukemia contamination does not affect the follicle survival in cryopreserved ovarian tissue. PMID:26122194

  18. The incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Razi, Saeid; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Aziznejhad, Hojjat; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and mortality estimates of ovarian cancer based on human development are essential for planning by policy makers. This study is aimed at investigating the standardised incidence rates (SIR) and standardised mortality rates (SMR) of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asian countries. Methods This study was an ecologic study in Asia for assessment of the correlation between SIR, age standardised rates (ASR), and HDI and their details, including life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and gross national income (GNI) per capita. We used the correlation bivariate method for assessment of the correlation between ASR and HDI, and its details. Statistical significance was assumed if P < 0.05. All reported P-values were two-sided. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 15.0, SPSS Inc.). Results The highest SIR of ovarian cancer was observed in Singapore, Kazakhstan, and Brunei respectively. Indonesia, Brunei, and Afghanistan had the highest SMR. There was a positive correlation between the HDI and SIR (r = 0.143, p = 0.006). Correlation between SMR of ovarian cancer and HDI was not significant (r = 0.005, p = 052.0). Conclusion According to the findings of this study, between the HDI and SIR, there was a positive correlation, but there was no correlation between the SMR and HDI. PMID:27110284

  19. Plasma prorenin response to human chorionic gonadotropin in ovarian-hyperstimulated women: correlation with the number of ovarian follicles and steroid hormone concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Itskovitz, J; Sealey, J E; Glorioso, N; Rosenwaks, Z

    1987-01-01

    Plasma prorenin and active renin were measured before and after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration in two groups of patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for 4-6 days with follicle-stimulating hormone alone or in combination with luteinizing hormone, for in vitro fertilization. Baseline total plasma renin (prorenin plus active renin; n = 12) averaged 25 +/- 8 ng/ml per hr (mean +/- SD). Total renin did not change during ovarian stimulation but it increased to 46 +/- 16 ng/ml per hr (P less than 0.05) 1 or 2 days later, just before hCG administration. Thirty-six hours after hCG administration, just before laparoscopy and egg retrieval, total renin was 123 +/- 97 ng/ml per hr; a peak of 182 +/- 143 ng/ml per hr occurred 2-6 days later--i.e., during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In eight of the patients who did not conceive, total renin returned to baseline 14 days after hCG administration. In four who conceived, a nadir was reached (57 +/- 13 ng/ml per hr) 8-12 days after hCG administration and then total renin increased again as the plasma beta hCG measurement began to rise. By day 16 it averaged 225 +/- 157 ng/ml per hr. In a second group of five patients active renin and prorenin were measured separately. Active renin comprised less than 20% of the total renin at all times. It was unchanged until day 4 after hCG administration and then increased significantly only when plasma progesterone was high. Thus, the initial response to hCG was entirely due to an increase in prorenin. A highly significant correlation was observed between the number of follicles and the total renin increases on the day of aspiration (r = 0.93, P less than 0.001) and at the peak (r = 0.89, P less than 0.001). After hCG administration, a temporal relationship was observed between the rise in total renin and plasma estradiol and progesterone levels. These results demonstrate that plasma prorenin increases markedly after administration of hCG and that the rise is

  20. Treatment with anticancer agents induces dysregulation of specific Wnt signaling pathways in human ovarian luteinized granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ana Maria; Giorgione, Veronica; Viganò, Paola; Papaleo, Enrico; Candiani, Massimo; Mangili, Giorgia; Panina-Bordignon, Paola

    2013-11-01

    Chemotherapy has been associated with premature ovarian failure and infertility in women with cancer. It is well known that anticancer drugs reduce the primordial follicle pool and harm the ovarian blood vascularization leading to ovarian atrophy. However, their mechanism of injury still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the cellular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of chemotherapy drugs belonging to different classes on human ovarian luteinized granulosa cells (LGCs). Treatment with doxorubicin (DXR), paclitaxel (PC), and cisplatin (CP) affected LGCs viability by inducing apoptosis and downregulating both estrogen receptor β and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor in a dose-dependent manner. Several members of the WNT signaling pathway are expressed in granulosa cells where they regulate follicle development, ovulation, and luteinization. Here we show that treatment with DXR, PC, and CP induced upregulation of WNT4 expression, whereas WNT3 expression was downregulated by DXR and PC and upregulated by CP. Analysis of the WNT3 downstream signaling pathway showed that total β-catenin protein levels were reduced upon treatment with DXR and PC. Additionally, restoration of β-catenin signaling by lithium chloride protected LGCs from the injury induced by chemotherapy. The in vitro LGC toxicity model described might represent a tool to identify components of specific signaling pathways, such as the Wnt pathway, that can be targeted in order to limit the follicular damage caused by chemotherapy. PMID:23956100

  1. Claudin and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Chinmoy K.; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2010-01-01

    Claudins are a family of proteins and the most important component of the tight junction. They constitute a paracellular barrier that controls the flow of molecules in the intercellular space of an epithelium. Although it seems that claudin should be down regulated in cancer cell, some claudins are, in fact highly elevated in various human cancers, including ovarian cancer. Whereas the functional significance of claudin overexpression in ovarian carcinoma is unclear, these proteins are important for migration, invasion, and survival of ovarian cancer cells. They clearly represent a general pathway in tumorigenesis, are a novel marker for ovarian cancer and may become a target for therapy or diagnosis of this disease. PMID:24591894

  2. Claudin and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bose, Chinmoy K; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2010-01-01

    Claudins are a family of proteins and the most important component of the tight junction. They constitute a paracellular barrier that controls the flow of molecules in the intercellular space of an epithelium. Although it seems that claudin should be down regulated in cancer cell, some claudins are, in fact highly elevated in various human cancers, including ovarian cancer. Whereas the functional significance of claudin overexpression in ovarian carcinoma is unclear, these proteins are important for migration, invasion, and survival of ovarian cancer cells. They clearly represent a general pathway in tumorigenesis, are a novel marker for ovarian cancer and may become a target for therapy or diagnosis of this disease. PMID:24591894

  3. Antiproliferative effect of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin in vitro and in human tumour xenografted athymic nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, P. Y.; Bressolle, F.; Pinguet, F.

    1998-01-01

    The anti-tumour activity of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MEBCD), a cyclic oligosaccharide known for its interaction with the plasma membrane, was investigated in vitro and in vivo and compared with that of doxorubicin (DOX) in the human tumour models MCF7 breast carcinoma and A2780 ovarian carcinoma. In vitro proliferation was assessed using the MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out using xenografted Swiss nude mice injected weekly i.p. with MEBCD at 300 or 800 mg kg(-1) or DOX at 2 mg kg(-1), during 2 months. Under these conditions, MEBCD was active against MCF7 and A2780 cell lines and tumour xenografts. For each tumour model, the tumoral volume of the xenografted mice treated with MEBCD was at least twofold reduced compared with the control group. In the MCF7 model, MEBCD (800 mg kg(-1)) was more active than DOX (2 mg kg(-1)). After 56 days of treatment with MEBCD, no toxicologically meaningful differences were observed in macroscopic and microscopic parameters compared with controls. The accumulation of MEBCD in normal and tumour tissues was also assessed using a chromatographic method. Results indicated that after a single injection of MEBCD, tumour, liver and kidneys accumulated the highest concentrations of MEBCD. These results provided a basis for the potential therapeutic application of MEBCD in cancer therapy. PMID:9820174

  4. Pinin interacts with C-terminal binding proteins for RNA alternative splicing and epithelial cell identity of human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanli; Kwok, Jamie Sui-Lam; Choi, Pui-Wah; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Junzheng; Singh, Margit; Ng, Shu-Kay; Welch, William R.; Muto, Michael G.; Tsui, Stephen KW; Sugrue, Stephen P.; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Ng, Shu-Wing

    2016-01-01

    Unlike many other human solid tumors, ovarian tumors express many epithelial markers at a high level for cell growth and local invasion. The phosphoprotein Pinin plays a key role in epithelial cell identity. We showed that clinical ovarian tumors and ovarian cancer cell lines express a high level of Pinin when compared with normal ovarian tissues and immortalized normal ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. Pinin co-localized and physically interacted with transcriptional corepressor C-terminal binding proteins, CtBP1 and CtBP2, in the nuclei of cancer cells. Knockdown of Pinin in ovarian cancer cells resulted in specific reduction of CtBP1 protein expression, cell adhesion, anchorage-independent growth, and increased drug sensitivity. Whole transcriptomic comparison of next-generation RNA sequencing data between control ovarian cancer cell lines and cancer cell lines with respective knockdown of Pinin, CtBP1, and CtBP2 expression also showed reduced expression of CtBP1 mRNA in the Pinin knockdown cell lines. The Pinin knockdown cell lines shared significant overlap of differentially expressed genes and RNA splicing aberrations with CtBP1 knockdown and in a lesser degree with CtBP2 knockdown cancer cells. Hence, Pinin and CtBP are oncotargets that closely interact with each other to regulate transcription and pre-mRNA alternative splicing and promote cell adhesion and other epithelial characteristics of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26871283

  5. Pinin interacts with C-terminal binding proteins for RNA alternative splicing and epithelial cell identity of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanli; Kwok, Jamie Sui-Lam; Choi, Pui-Wah; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Junzheng; Singh, Margit; Ng, Shu-Kay; Welch, William R; Muto, Michael G; Tsui, Stephen Kw; Sugrue, Stephen P; Berkowitz, Ross S; Ng, Shu-Wing

    2016-03-01

    Unlike many other human solid tumors, ovarian tumors express many epithelial markers at a high level for cell growth and local invasion. The phosphoprotein Pinin plays a key role in epithelial cell identity. We showed that clinical ovarian tumors and ovarian cancer cell lines express a high level of Pinin when compared with normal ovarian tissues and immortalized normal ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. Pinin co-localized and physically interacted with transcriptional corepressor C-terminal binding proteins, CtBP1 and CtBP2, in the nuclei of cancer cells. Knockdown of Pinin in ovarian cancer cells resulted in specific reduction of CtBP1 protein expression, cell adhesion, anchorage-independent growth, and increased drug sensitivity. Whole transcriptomic comparison of next-generation RNA sequencing data between control ovarian cancer cell lines and cancer cell lines with respective knockdown of Pinin, CtBP1, and CtBP2 expression also showed reduced expression of CtBP1 mRNA in the Pinin knockdown cell lines. The Pinin knockdown cell lines shared significant overlap of differentially expressed genes and RNA splicing aberrations with CtBP1 knockdown and in a lesser degree with CtBP2 knockdown cancer cells. Hence, Pinin and CtBP are oncotargets that closely interact with each other to regulate transcription and pre-mRNA alternative splicing and promote cell adhesion and other epithelial characteristics of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26871283

  6. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  7. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Ovarian Cancer There are five main types of cancer that affect a woman’s reproductive organs: cervical, ovarian, uterine, ... rare fallopian tube cancer.) This fact sheet about ovarian cancer is part of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  8. Ovarian cysts

    MedlinePlus

    Physiologic ovarian cysts; Functional ovarian cysts; Corpus luteum cysts; Follicular cysts ... cyst often contains a small amount of blood. Ovarian cysts are more common in the childbearing years between ...

  9. Cationic chlorophyl derivatives with SOD mimicking activity suppress the proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Maniki, M; Nakamura, K

    1996-06-01

    Derivatives of chlorophyl, e.g. Fe-chlorin e6-Na, alpha, beta, gamma, delta-Tetraphenylporphine-tetrasulfonic acid disulfonic acid salt tetrahydrate (Fe-TPPTS) and alpha, beta, gamma, delta-Tetrakis (4-N-trimethylaminophenyl) porphine, tetra (p-toluensulfonate (Fe-TTMAPP), express SOD mimicking activity. Examination was made of suppressive effects of human cancer cell lines by derivatives of chlorophyl. Fe-TPPTS and Fe-TTMAPP suppressed proliferation of the human ovarian cancer cell lines but Fe-chlorin e6-Na failed to suppress the proliferation. Lipid peroxide was increased by application of Fe-TPPTS and Fe-TTMAPP, but decreased by application of Fe-chlorin e6-Na. SOD activity of the cancer cells did not change by application of these drugs. TPPTS and TTMAPP have a cationic charge but Fe-chlorin e6-Na has an anionic charge. It is suggested that charge of these drugs relates to the suppressive effects of the cancer cell proliferation. PMID:10851538

  10. Permeation of human ovarian tissue with cryoprotective agents in preparation for cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Newton, H; Fisher, J; Arnold, J R; Pegg, D E; Faddy, M J; Gosden, R G

    1998-02-01

    The recent improvements in the treatment of cancer by chemo- and radiotherapy have led to a significant increase in the survival rates of patients with malignant disease, but at the expense of distressing side effects. One major problem, especially for younger patients, is that aggressive therapy destroys a significant proportion of the follicular population, which can result in either temporary or permanent infertility. Freeze-banking pieces of ovarian cortex prior to treatment is one strategy for preserving fecundity. When the patient is in remission, fertility could, theoretically, be restored by autografting the thawed tissue at the orthotopic site or by growing isolated follicles to maturity in vitro. Recent studies have found good follicular survival in frozen-thawed human ovarian tissue but to optimize the process an effective cryopreservation method needs to be developed. An essential part of such a technique is to permeate the tissue with a cryoprotectant to minimize ice formation and the extent of this equilibration is an important determinant of post-thaw cellular survival. In the current study, we have investigated the diffusion of four cryoprotective agents into human tissue at both 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C. We have also studied the effect of adding different concentrations of the non penetrating cryoprotective agent, sucrose, to the freezing media using the release of lactate dehydrogenase as a measure of its protective effect. At 4 degrees C propylene glycol and glycerol penetrated the tissue significantly slower than either ethylene glycol or dimethyl sulphoxide. At the higher temperature of 37 degrees C all four cryoprotectants penetrated at a faster rate, however concern about enhanced toxicity prevents the use of these conditions in practice. Thus, the results suggest that the best method of preparing tissue for freezing is exposure for 30 min to 1.5 M solutions of ethylene glycol or dimethyl sulphoxide at 4 degrees C; this achieved a mean

  11. Cell death pathway induced by resveratrol-bovine serum albumin nanoparticles in a human ovarian cell line

    PubMed Central

    GUO, LIYUAN; PENG, YAN; LI, YULIAN; YAO, JINGPING; ZHANG, GUANGMEI; CHEN, JIE; WANG, JING; SUI, LIHUA

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol-bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (RES-BSANP) exhibit chemotherapeutic properties, which trigger apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the caspase-independent cell death pathway induced by RES-BSANP in human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells and to analyze its mechanism. Morphological changes were observed by apoptotic body/cell nucleus DNA staining using inverted and fluorescence microscopy. The cell death pathway was determined by phosphatidylserine translocation. Western blot analysis was conducted to detect the activation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), cytochrome c (Cyto c) and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (Bax). Apoptotic body and nuclear condensation and fragmentation were observed simultaneously following treatment with RES-BSANP. RES-BSANP induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in the human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells. The translocation of AIF from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm occurred earlier than that of Cyto c. In addition, Bax binding to the mitochondria was required for the release of AIF and Cyto c from the mitochondria. The AIF apoptosis pathway may present an alternative caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway in human ovarian cell death induced by RES-BSANP. Elucidation of this pathway may be critical for the treatment of cancer using high doses of RES-BSANP. PMID:25663913

  12. Differential effects of rapalogues, dual kinase inhibitors on human ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    ROGERS-BROADWAY, KARLY-RAI; CHUDASAMA, DIMPLE; PADOS, GEORGE; TSOLAKIDIS, DIMITRIS; GOUMENOU, ANASTASIA; HALL, MARCIA; KARTERIS, EMMANOUIL

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynaecological malignancy and was diagnosed in over 7,000 women in 2011 in the UK. There are currently no reliable biomarkers available for use in a regular screening assay for ovarian cancer and due to characteristic late presentation (78% in stages III and IV) ovarian cancer has a low survival rate (35% after 10 years). The mTOR pathway is a central regulator of growth, proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis; providing balance between available resources such as amino acids and growth factors, and stresses such as hypoxia, to control cellular behaviour accordingly. Emerging data links mTOR with the aetiopathogenesis of ovarian cancer. We hypothesised that mTOR inhibitors could play a therapeutic role in ovarian cancer treatment. In this study we began by validating the expression of four main mTOR pathway components, mTOR, DEPTOR, rictor and raptor, at gene and protein level in in vitro models of endometrioid (MDAH-2774) and clear cell (SKOV3) ovarian cancer using qPCR and ImageStream technology. Using a wound healing assay we show that inhibition of the mTOR pathway using rapamycin, rapalogues, resveratrol and NVP BEZ-235 induces a cytostatic and not cytotoxic response up to 18 h in these cell lines. We extended these findings up to 72 h with a proliferation assay and show that the effects of inhibition of the mTOR pathway are primarily mediated by the dephosphorylation of p70S6 kinase. We show that mTOR inhibition does not involve alteration of mTOR pathway components or induce caspase 9 cleavage. Preclinical studies including ovarian tissue of ovarian cancer patients, unaffected controls and patients with unrelated gynaecological conditions show that DEPTOR is reliably upregulated in ovarian cancer. PMID:27211906

  13. Differential effects of rapalogues, dual kinase inhibitors on human ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rogers-Broadway, Karly-Rai; Chudasama, Dimple; Pados, George; Tsolakidis, Dimitris; Goumenou, Anastasia; Hall, Marcia; Karteris, Emmanouil

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynaecological malignancy and was diagnosed in over 7,000 women in 2011 in the UK. There are currently no reliable biomarkers available for use in a regular screening assay for ovarian cancer and due to characteristic late presentation (78% in stages III and IV) ovarian cancer has a low survival rate (35% after 10 years). The mTOR pathway is a central regulator of growth, proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis; providing balance between available resources such as amino acids and growth factors, and stresses such as hypoxia, to control cellular behaviour accordingly. Emerging data links mTOR with the aetiopathogenesis of ovarian cancer. We hypothesised that mTOR inhibitors could play a therapeutic role in ovarian cancer treatment. In this study we began by validating the expression of four main mTOR pathway components, mTOR, DEPTOR, rictor and raptor, at gene and protein level in in vitro models of endometrioid (MDAH‑2774) and clear cell (SKOV3) ovarian cancer using qPCR and ImageStream technology. Using a wound healing assay we show that inhibition of the mTOR pathway using rapamycin, rapalogues, resveratrol and NVP BEZ-235 induces a cytostatic and not cytotoxic response up to 18 h in these cell lines. We extended these findings up to 72 h with a proliferation assay and show that the effects of inhibition of the mTOR pathway are primarily mediated by the dephosphorylation of p70S6 kinase. We show that mTOR inhibition does not involve alteration of mTOR pathway components or induce caspase 9 cleavage. Preclinical studies including ovarian tissue of ovarian cancer patients, unaffected controls and patients with unrelated gynaecological conditions show that DEPTOR is reliably upregulated in ovarian cancer. PMID:27211906

  14. DUSP1 induces paclitaxel resistance through the regulation of p-glycoprotein expression in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu-Seon; Seok, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Yuna; Yun, Seok-Joong; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Sun Jin; Kim, Jang-Seong

    2016-09-01

    The heterogeneity and genetic instability of ovarian cancer cells often lead to the development of drug resistance, closely related with the increased cancer-related mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) in the development of the resistance in human ovarian cancer cells against paclitaxel. Overexpression of DUSP1 in HeyA8 human ovarian cancer cells (HeyA8-DUSP1) up-regulated the expression of the drug efflux pump, p-glycoprotein. Consequently, HeyA8-DUSP1 cells are highly resistant to paclitaxel, with the resistance comparable to that of a multi-drug resistance cell line (HeyA8-MDR). Moreover, over expression of DUSP1 significantly increased the activation of p38 MAPK, leaving the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 unaffected. Pharmacological suppression of p38 MAPK activity prevents the up-regulation of p-glycoprotein expression and the consequent resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8-DUSP1 cells. By contrast, HeyA8-MDR cells expressed a significantly higher level of DUSP1, but treatment with small interference RNA against DUSP1 significantly suppressed the expression of p-glycoprotein and the resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8-MDR cells. Ectopic expression of MKK3, an upstream activator of p38 MAPK, significantly up-regulated the expression of p-glycoprotein and increased the consequent resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8 cells. Collectively, these data indicated that DUSP1 may induce the resistance against paclitaxel through the p38 MAPK-mediated overexpression of p-glycoprotein in human ovarian cancer cells. PMID:27422607

  15. Oxygen consumption rate of early pre-antral follicles from vitrified human ovarian cortical tissue.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takayuki; Kyoya, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Sato, Eimei; Tomiyama, Tatsuhiro; Kyono, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The study of human ovarian tissue transplantation and cryopreservation has advanced significantly. Autotransplantation of human pre-antral follicles isolated from cryopreserved cortical tissue is a promising option for the preservation of fertility in young cancer patients. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the effect of vitrification after low-temperature transportation of human pre-antral follicles by using the oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Cortical tissues from 9 ovaries of female-to-male transsexuals were vitrified after transportation (6 or 18 h). The follicles were enzymatically isolated from nonvitrified tissue (group I, 18 h of transportation), vitrified-warmed tissue (group II, 6 and 18 h of transportation) and vitrified-warmed tissue that had been incubated for 24 h (group III, 6 and 18 h of transportation). OCR measurement and the LIVE/DEAD viability assay were performed. Despite the ischemic condition, the isolated pre-antral follicles in group I consumed oxygen, and the mean OCRs increased with developmental stage. Neither the transportation time nor patient age seemed to affect the OCR in this group. Meanwhile, the mean OCR was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group II but was comparable to that of group I after 24 h of incubation. The integrity of vitrified-warmed primordial and primary follicles was clearly corroborated by the LIVE/DEAD viability assay. These results demonstrate that the OCR can be used to directly estimate the effect of vitrification on the viability of primordial and primary follicles and to select the viable primordial and primary follicles from vitrified-warmed follicles. PMID:25262776

  16. Oxygen consumption rate of early pre-antral follicles from vitrified human ovarian cortical tissue

    PubMed Central

    ISHIKAWA, Takayuki; KYOYA, Toshihiko; NAKAMURA, Yusuke; SATO, Eimei; TOMIYAMA, Tatsuhiro; KYONO, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The study of human ovarian tissue transplantation and cryopreservation has advanced significantly. Autotransplantation of human pre-antral follicles isolated from cryopreserved cortical tissue is a promising option for the preservation of fertility in young cancer patients. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the effect of vitrification after low-temperature transportation of human pre-antral follicles by using the oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Cortical tissues from 9 ovaries of female-to-male transsexuals were vitrified after transportation (6 or 18 h). The follicles were enzymatically isolated from nonvitrified tissue (group I, 18 h of transportation), vitrified-warmed tissue (group II, 6 and 18 h of transportation) and vitrified-warmed tissue that had been incubated for 24 h (group III, 6 and 18 h of transportation). OCR measurement and the LIVE/DEAD viability assay were performed. Despite the ischemic condition, the isolated pre-antral follicles in group I consumed oxygen, and the mean OCRs increased with developmental stage. Neither the transportation time nor patient age seemed to affect the OCR in this group. Meanwhile, the mean OCR was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group II but was comparable to that of group I after 24 h of incubation. The integrity of vitrified-warmed primordial and primary follicles was clearly corroborated by the LIVE/DEAD viability assay. These results demonstrate that the OCR can be used to directly estimate the effect of vitrification on the viability of primordial and primary follicles and to select the viable primordial and primary follicles from vitrified-warmed follicles. PMID:25262776

  17. Interfering EZH2 Expression Reverses the Cisplatin Resistance in Human Ovarian Cancer by Inhibiting Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Jin, Long; Liu, Jia-Hua; Sui, Yu-Xia; Han, Li-Li; Shen, Xiao-Li

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of the inhibition of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) gene expression on the cisplatin resistance of the human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3/DDP, and to identify the underlying mechanisms. SKOV3/DDP cells were stably transfected with pSUPER-EZH2 (EZH2 RNA interference plasmid) or pcDNA3.1-EZH2 (EZH2 gene overexpression plasmid) using the lipofection method. Real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting confirmed that EZH2 expression was downregulated in pSUPER-EZH2-transfected cells. Flow cytometry revealed that EZH2 inhibition did not induce apoptosis, but significantly inhibited autophagy. In addition, it significantly increased the expression of the cellular senescence-signaling proteins p14(ARF), p16(INK4a), p53, pRb, and p21, and significantly decreased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1, CDK2, and H3K27me3. Cellular senescence was characterized by a significant increase in the G0/G1 ratio and the restoration of sensitivity to cisplatin in the drug-resistant cells. These findings suggest that interfering with EZH2 expression can inhibit SKOV3/DDP cell autophagy and reverse resistance to cisplatin. The underlying mechanisms could be associated with the regulation of the cellular senescence-signaling pathway. PMID:27610467

  18. HOTAIR Interacting with MAPK1 Regulates Ovarian Cancer skov3 Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Yiwei, Tang; Hua, Huang; Hui, Guo; Mao, Meng; Xiang, Long

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of when silencing HOTAIR in ovarian cancer skov3 cells on proliferation, migration, and invasion, and to elucidate the mechanism by which this occurs. Material/Methods We detected the mRNA level of HOTAIR (HOX antisense intergenic RNA) and MAPK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 1) in ovarian cancer SKOV3, ES-2, OVCAR3, A2780, and COC1 cell lines. We detected the mRNA level of HOTAIR and MAPK1 in ovarian SKOV3 when transected with miR-1, miR-214-3p, or miR-330-5p. We detected the mRNA and protein level of MAPK1 when silencing HOTAIR. We detected the expression of HOTAIR when silencing MAPK1. Then we detected the proliferation, migration, and invasion in ovarian cancer skov3 after silencing HOTAIR or MAPK1. Results The expression of HOTAIR and MAPK1 in ovarian SKOV3, ES-2, and OVCAR3 increased compared with A2780 and COC1 cells (P<0.05). The mRNA level of HOTAIR and MAPK1 in ovarian SKOV3 decreased when transected with miR-1, miR-214-3p, or miR-330-5p compared to negative control (p<0.05). The mRNA and protein level of MAPK1 was decreased when silencing HOTAIR and the mRNA level of HOTAIR was decreased when silencing MAPK1 (p<0.05). The proliferation, migration, and invasion was inhibited in ovarian SKOV3 after silencing HOTAIR or MAPK1 (p<0.05). Conclusions HOTAIR can promote proliferation, migration, and invasion in ovarian SKOV3 cells as a competing endogenous RNA. PMID:26117268

  19. Calycosin induces apoptosis in human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells by activating caspases and Bcl-2 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Qing-Hua; Liu, Chun-Lei; Lin, Li

    2015-07-01

    Calycosin is widely used as a natural active compound for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammation activity. Recently, several studies have shown that calycosin can inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in human cancer cell lines; however, the mechanisms are not completely clarified yet. In this study, we investigated the effects of calycosin on human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells, as well as the mechanisms. SKOV3 cells were treated with calycosin at a series of concentrations for different times. In vitro, the MTT assay showed that calycosin had obvious anti-proliferation effects on SKOV3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell morphological changes which expressed by Hoechst 33258 staining were compared with apoptotic changes detected by fluorescence microscope. Compared with control group, the group treated with calycosin showed a significant increase in apoptosis rate. Expression of apoptosis related Bax/Bcl-2 and caspases proteins were detected by Western blotting. The results demonstrated that calycosin up-regulated the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, calycosin might exert anti-growth and induce-apoptosis activity against ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells through activating caspases and Bcl-2 family proteins, therefore presenting as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25672608

  20. In-vivo delivery of FTY720 prevents radiation-induced ovarian failure and infertility in adult female non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Zelinski, Mary B.; Murphy, Mark K.; Lawson, Maralee S.; Jurisicova, Andrea; Pau, K. Y. Francis; Toscano, Natalia P.; Jacob, Darla S.; Fanton, John K.; Casper, Robert F.; Dertinger, Stephen D.; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), or the S1P mimetic FTY720 shields ovaries of adult female rhesus monkeys from damage caused by 15 Gy of targeted radiotherapy, allowing for retention of long-term fertility; and, to evaluate if S1P protects human ovarian tissue xenografted into mice from radiation-induced damage. Design Research animal study. Setting Research laboratory and teaching hospital. Animal(s) Adult female rhesus macaques (8–14 years of age). Patient(s) Two women (24 and 27 years of age) undergoing gynecologic surgery for benign reasons, after informed consent and approval. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Ovarian histology, ovarian reserve measurements and fertility in mating trials. Result(s) Rapid ovarian failure was induced in female macaques by ovarian application of 15 Gy of radiation. Females given S1P or FTY720 by direct intraovarian cannulation for 1 week prior to ovarian irradiation rapidly resumed menstrual cycles due to maintenance of follicles, with greater beneficial effects achieved using FTY720. Monkeys given the S1P mimetic prior to ovarian irradiation also became pregnant in mating trials. Offspring conceived and delivered by radioprotected females developed normally, and showed no evidence of genomic instability as measured by micronucleus frequency in reticulocytes. Adult human ovarian cortical tissue xenografted into mice also exhibited a reduction in radiation-induced primordial oocyte depletion when pre-exposed to S1P. Conclusion(s) S1P and its analogs hold clinical promise as therapeutic agents to preserve both ovarian function and fertility in female cancer patients exposed to cytotoxic treatments. PMID:21316047

  1. Sulforaphane reduces molecular response to hypoxia in ovarian tumor cells independently of their resistance to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    PASTOREK, MICHAL; SIMKO, VERONIKA; TAKACOVA, MARTINA; BARATHOVA, MONIKA; BARTOSOVA, MARIA; HUNAKOVA, LUBA; SEDLAKOVA, OLGA; HUDECOVA, SONA; KRIZANOVA, OLGA; DEQUIEDT, FRANCK; PASTOREKOVA, SILVIA; SEDLAK, JAN

    2015-01-01

    One of the recently emerging anticancer strategies is the use of natural dietary compounds, such as sulforaphane, a cancer-chemopreventive isothiocyanate found in broccoli. Based on the growing evidence, sulforaphane acts through molecular mechanisms that interfere with multiple oncogenic pathways in diverse tumor cell types. Herein, we investigated the anticancer effects of bioavailable concentrations of sulforaphane in ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and its two derivatives, adriamycin-resistant A2780/ADR and cisplatin-resistant A2780/CP cell lines. Since tumor microenvironment is characterized by reduced oxygenation that induces aggressive tumor phenotype (such as increased invasiveness and resistance to chemotherapy), we evaluated the effects of sulforaphane in ovarian cancer cells exposed to hypoxia (2% O2). Using the cell-based reporter assay, we identified several oncogenic pathways modulated by sulforaphane in hypoxia by activating anticancer responses (p53, ARE, IRF-1, Pax-6 and XRE) and suppressing responses supporting tumor progression (AP-1 and HIF-1). We further showed that sulforaphane decreases the level of HIF-1α protein without affecting its transcription and stability. It can also diminish transcription and protein level of the HIF-1 target, CA IX, which protects tumor cells from hypoxia-induced pH imbalance and facilitates their migration/invasion. Accordingly, sulforaphane treatment leads to diminished pH regulation and reduced migration of ovarian carcinoma cells. These effects occur in all three ovarian cell lines suggesting that sulforaphane can overcome the chemoresistance of cancer cells. This offers a path potentially exploitable in sensitizing resistant cancer cells to therapy, and opens a window for the combined treatments of sulforaphane either with conventional chemotherapy, natural compounds, or with other small molecules. PMID:25955133

  2. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on human ovarian tissue preservation undergoing cryopreservation procedure.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Raffaella; Sapone, Andrea; Paolini, Moreno; Vivarelli, Fabio; Franchi, Paola; Lucarini, Marco; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Vicenti, Rossella; Macciocca, Maria; Venturoli, Stefano; Canistro, Donatella

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), added in freezing/thawing solutions, on reactive oxygen species (RRS) levels and on ovarian tissue preservation after cryopreservation. Ovarian samples from 10 subjects suffering from cancer diseases were cryopreserved using the slow freezing/rapid thawing standard protocol without or with NAC supplementation. RRS levels produced during cryopreservation were monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The preservation of fresh ovarian tissue (t0), thawed tissue (t1 and t1 NAC) and thawed tissue maintained at 4°C for 2 hrs (t2 and t2 NAC) was analysed by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Ki67 immunohistochemical and TUNEL analysis. It was possible to design a maximum peak for RRS production at t1, which slightly decreased at t2. NAC reduced the extent of RRS levels in cryopreserved ovarian tissues if compared with non-supplemented ones, although not restoring RRS production to baseline values. Comparative analysis between the two cryopreservation protocols showed that a better preservation of morphological characteristics, proliferation index and DNA integrity of ovarian tissue was obtained using NAC and no differences between t1NAC and t2NAC were observed. The employment of NAC during cryopreservation procedure could be an useful strategy for preserving the function of endogenous cellular systems. Nevertheless, further studies on the viability of thawed ovarian tissue are needed to support the feasibility of this approach in clinical settings. PMID:25541725

  3. Müllerian inhibiting substance preferentially inhibits stem/progenitors in human ovarian cancer cell lines compared with chemotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaolong; Dombkowski, David; Meirelles, Katia; Pieretti-Vanmarcke, Rafael; Szotek, Paul P.; Chang, Henry L.; Preffer, Frederic I.; Mueller, Peter R.; Teixeira, Jose; MacLaughlin, David T.; Donahoe, Patricia K.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are proposed to be tumor-initiating cells capable of tumorigenesis, recurrence, metastasis, and drug resistance, and, like somatic stem cells, are thought to be capable of unlimited self-renewal and, when stimulated, proliferation and differentiation. Here we select cells by expression of a panel of markers to enrich for a population with stem cell-like characteristics. A panel of eight was initially selected from 95 human cell surface antigens as each was shared among human ovarian primary cancers, ovarian cancer cell lines, and normal fimbria. A total of 150 combinations of markers were reduced to a panel of three—CD44, CD24, and Epcam—which selected, in three ovarian cancer cell lines, those cells which best formed colonies. Cells expressing CD44, CD24, and Epcam exhibited stem cell characteristics of shorter tumor-free intervals in vivo after limiting dilution, and enhanced migration in invasion assays in vitro. Also, doxorubicin, cisplatin, and paclitaxel increased this enriched population which, conversely, was significantly inhibited by Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) or the MIS mimetic SP600125. These findings demonstrate that flow cytometry can be used to detect a population which shows differential drug sensitivity, and imply that treatment of patients can be individualized to target both stem/progenitor cell enriched and nonenriched subpopulations. The findings also suggest that this population, amenable to isolation by flow cytometry, can be used to screen for novel treatment paradigms, including biologic agents such as MIS, which will improve outcomes for patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:20952655

  4. Molecular blockade of VEGFR2 in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Adham, Sirin A. I.; Sher, Ifat; Coomber, Brenda L.

    2010-01-01

    Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) is the most lethal neoplasm affecting the female genital tract, characterized by overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and growth as ascites. Anti-VEGF strategies are currently used in EOC therapy with promising results; however, molecular targeting of specific VEGF receptors on the cancer cells themselves has not been explored to date. We previously demonstrated activation of a VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling loop in EOC cells supports their survival in suspension, and short-term pharmacological inhibition of this loop increased EOC cell apoptosis in vitro. Here, we stably knocked down VEGFR2 in OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 EOC cells using short hairpin RNA, an RNA interference strategy that could potentially overcome chemoresistance arising with angiogenic inhibitors. Unexpectedly, we observed an induction of more aggressive cellular behavior in transfected cells, leading to increased growth in mouse xenografts, enhanced accumulation of ascites, increased VEGF and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) expression and decreased expression of adhesion proteins, notably cadherins and integrins. Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathways do not appear to be involved in the upregulation of NRP-1 message in VEGFR2 knockdown cells. Supporting our mouse model, we also found a significant increase in the ratio between NRP-1 and VEGFR2 with increasing tumor grade in 80 cases of human EOC. The change in EOC behavior we report here occurred independent of the angiogenic response and speaks to the direct impact of VEGF blockade on the cancer cells themselves. Our findings highlight the possible confounding events that may impact the usefulness of RNAi in a therapeutic setting for disrupting EOC cell survival in ascites. PMID:20195243

  5. TLR4 activates NFkB in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Dori C.; White, Yvonne A. R.; Dau, Caroline; Johnson, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the surface epithelium of normal ovaries (OSE) and in epithelial ovarian tumors. Most notably, OSE-derived cancers express TLR4, which activates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling cascade as a mediator of inflammatory response. Currently, there is considerable interest in elucidating the role of TLR-mediated signaling in cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of TLRs in granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary, and the extent to which GCT expression of TLRs may influence cell-signaling pathways and/or modulate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, has yet to be determined. In the present study, human GCT lines (COV434 and KGN) were utilized to evaluate expression of functional TLR4. TLR4 is expressed in GCT cell lines and ligation of TLR4 with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to IκB degradation and activation of NF-κB. NF-κB activation was confirmed by nuclear localization of NF-κB p65 following treatment with LPS and the naturally occurring ligand, HSP60. Notably, immunoneutralization of TLR4 blocked nuclear localization, and inhibition of NF-κB signaling attenuated LPS-induced TNFαplus increased doubling time in both cell lines. Contradictory to reports using human OSE cell lines, inhibition of NF-κB signaling failed to sensitize GCT lines to TRAIL or cisplatin. In summary, findings herein are the first to demonstrate a functional TLR-signaling pathway specifically in GCTs, and indicate that in contrast to OSE-derived cancers, inhibition of NF-κB does not sensitize GCTs to TRAIL or cisplatin. PMID:21616060

  6. Pre-Treatment of platinum resistant ovarian cancer cells with an MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor prior to cisplatin enhances cytotoxicity as determined by high content screening.

    PubMed

    Laios, Alexandros; Mohamed, Bashir M; Kelly, Lynn; Flavin, Richard; Finn, Stephen; McEvoy, Lynda; Gallagher, Michael; Martin, Cara; Sheils, Orla; Ring, Martina; Davies, Anthony; Lawson, Margaret; Gleeson, Noreen; D'Arcy, Tom; d'Adhemar, Charles; Norris, Lucy; Langhe, Ream; Saadeh, Feras Abu; O'Leary, John J; O'Toole, Sharon A

    2013-01-01

    Platinum resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in ovarian cancer. We previously identified matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) as a potential therapeutic target of chemoresistant disease. A2780cis (cisplatin-resistant) and A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive) ovarian carcinoma cell lines were used. The cytotoxic effect of MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor, (2R)-2-[(4-Biphenylsulfonyl) amino]-3 phenylpropionic acid (C21H19NO4S) alone or in combination with cisplatin was determined using high content screening. Protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Co-incubation of cisplatin and an MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor, (2R)-2-[(4-Biphenylsulfonyl) amino]-3 phenylpropionic acid (C21H19NO4S) resulted in significantly greater cytotoxicity as compared to either treatment alone in a cisplatin resistant MMP-9 overexpressing cell line; A2780cis. In addition, pre-incubating with MMP-9i prior to cisplatin further enhances the cytotoxic effect. No significant difference was observed in MMP-9 protein in tissue but a trend towards increased MMP-9 was observed in recurrent serum. We propose that MMP-9/MMP-2i may be utilized in the treatment of recurrent/chemoresistant ovarian cancers that overexpress MMP-9 mRNA but its role in vivo remains to be evaluated. PMID:23340649

  7. FRET-trackable biodegradable HPMA copolymer-epirubicin conjugates for ovarian carcinoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiyuan; Zhang, Rui; Radford, D Christopher; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2015-11-28

    To develop a biodegradable polymeric drug delivery system for the treatment of ovarian cancer with the capacity for non-invasive fate monitoring, we designed and synthesized N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-epirubicin (EPI) conjugates. The polymer backbone was labeled with acceptor fluorophore Cy5, while donor fluorophores (Cy3 or EPI) were attached to HPMA copolymer side chains via an enzyme-cleavable GFLG linker. This design allows elucidating separately the fate of the drug and of the polymer backbone using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The degradable diblock conjugate (2P-EPI) was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using a bifunctional chain transfer agent (Peptide2CTA). The pharmacokinetics (PK) and therapeutic effect of 2P-EPI (Mw ~100 kDa) were determined in mice bearing human ovarian carcinoma A2780 xenografts. Compared to 1st generation conjugate (P-EPI, Mw <50 kDa), 2P-EPI demonstrated remarkably improved PK such as fourfold terminal half-life (33.22 ± 3.18 h for 2P-EPI vs. 7.55 ± 3.18 h for P-EPI), which is primarily attributed to the increased molecular weight of the polymer carrier. Notably, complete tumor remission and long-term inhibition of tumorigenesis (100 days) were achieved in mice (n=5) treated with 2P-EPI. Moreover, in vitro cell uptake and intracellular drug release were determined via FRET intensity changes. The results establish a solid foundation for future in vivo tracking of drug delivery and chain scission of polymeric conjugates by FRET imaging. PMID:26410808

  8. The effect of the alpha-emitting radionuclide lead-212 on human ovarian carcinoma: a potential new form of therapy.

    PubMed

    Rotmensch, J; Atcher, R W; Schlenker, R; Hines, J; Grdina, D; Block, B S; Press, M F; Herbst, A L; Weichselbaum, R R

    1989-02-01

    To improve response and survival of patients with ovarian carcinoma noncross-resistant forms of therapy must be developed. alpha-emitting radionuclides may be therapeutically useful since they can directly ionize with energies of 5 to 9 MeV, penetrate only a few cell diameters, and transfer a high amount of energy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the alpha-emitter, lead-212 (212Pb), complexed to sulfur in a nude athymic mouse model (NIH:OVCAR-3) containing human ascites and solid epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Thirty-six nude mice 28 to 32 days old were injected with 10(7) to 10(8) carcinoma cells from donor mice. After 4 weeks, six groups of six nu/nu athymic BALB-C mice were intraperitoneally injected with 70, 50, 20, 5 microCi of 212Pb sulfur colloid, sulfur colloid, or saline. Tumor necrosis with a decrease in ascites and a dose-related survival were noted with doses of 50, 20, and 5 microCi. With 70 microCi acute gastrointestinal toxicity developed. These experiments form the basis for further investigations and the development of alpha-emitting radiocolloids which may be of therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of intraperitoneal ovarian carcinoma. PMID:2910786

  9. An RNA interference lethality screen of the human druggable genome to identify molecular vulnerabilities in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Geetika; Pathak, Harsh B; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Yan; Einarson, Margret B; Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Birrer, Michael J; Godwin, Andrew K

    2012-01-01

    Targeted therapies have been used to combat many tumor types; however, few have effectively improved the overall survival in women with epithelial ovarian cancer, begging for a better understanding of this deadly disease and identification of essential drivers of tumorigenesis that can be targeted effectively. Therefore, we used a loss-of-function screening approach to help identify molecular vulnerabilities that may represent key points of therapeutic intervention. We employed an unbiased high-throughput lethality screen using a 24,088 siRNA library targeting over 6,000 druggable genes and studied their effects on growth and/or survival of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines. The top 300 "hits" affecting the viability of A1847 cells were rescreened across additional EOC cell lines and non-tumorigenic, human immortalized ovarian epithelial cell lines. Fifty-three gene candidates were found to exhibit effects in all tumorigenic cell lines tested. Extensive validation of these hits refined the list to four high quality candidates (HSPA5, NDC80, NUF2, and PTN). Mechanistic studies show that silencing of three genes leads to increased apoptosis, while HSPA5 silencing appears to alter cell growth through G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, two independent gene expression studies show that NDC80, NUF2 and PTN were significantly aberrantly overexpressed in serous adenocarcinomas. Overall, our functional genomics results integrated with the genomics data provide an important unbiased avenue towards the identification of prospective therapeutic targets for drug discovery, which is an urgent and unmet clinical need for ovarian cancer. PMID:23056589

  10. Assessment of the effect of different vitrification solutions on human ovarian tissue after short-term xenotransplantation onto the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu-Cui; Tang, Hui-Ru; Zeng, Li-Ping; Chen, Yun; Wang, Guo-Ping; Wu, Rui-Fang

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy can lead to the loss of fertility and premature ovarian failure in young women who suffer from malignant diseases. Freezing ovarian tissue by vitrification allows for the preservation of a large number of follicles prior to treatment, yet no established protocols have been optimized with respect to the vitrification solution. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early stage of human ovarian tissue xenotransplantated onto the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane after vitrification, and to determine the effect of different vitrification solutions on ovarian tissue quality-as defined by morphology and viability of follicles, neovascularization, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Each vitrification protocol had a different impact on ovarian tissue at the early transplantation stage; one process using the lowest concentrations of ethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide, plus sucrose, demonstrated a moderate advantage compared to the other protocols. We also demonstrated that the chorioallantoic membrane model can be a useful alternative for short-term xenotransplantation studies of angiogenesis into human ovarian cortical tissue. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 359-369, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26924442

  11. Oxidative metabolism drives inflammation-induced platinum resistance in human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Matassa, D S; Amoroso, M R; Lu, H; Avolio, R; Arzeni, D; Procaccini, C; Faicchia, D; Maddalena, F; Simeon, V; Agliarulo, I; Zanini, E; Mazzoccoli, C; Recchi, C; Stronach, E; Marone, G; Gabra, H; Matarese, G; Landriscina, M; Esposito, F

    2016-09-01

    Tumour cells have long been considered defective in mitochondrial respiration and mostly dependent on glycolytic metabolism. However, this assumption is currently challenged by several lines of evidence in a growing number of tumours. Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide, but it continues to be a poorly understood disease and its metabolic features are far to be elucidated. In this context, we investigated the role of tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), which is found upregulated in several cancer types and is a key modulator of tumour cell metabolism. Surprisingly, we found that TRAP1 expression inversely correlated with grade, stage and lower survival in a large cohort of OC patients. Accordingly, TRAP1 silencing induced resistance to cisplatin, resistant cells showed increased oxidative metabolism compared with their sensitive counterpart, and the bioenergetics cellular index of higher grade tumours indicated increased mitochondrial respiration. Strikingly, cisplatin resistance was reversible upon pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by metformin/oligomycin. At molecular level, increased oxidative metabolism in low TRAP1-expressing OC cells and tissues enhanced production of inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Mechanistically, we identified members of the multidrug resistance complex (MDR) as key mediators of such metabolism-driven, inflammation-induced process. Indeed, treatment of OC cell lines with TNFα and IL6 induced a selective increase in the expression of TAP1 and multidrug resistance protein 1, whereas TAP1 silencing sensitized cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Our results unveil a novel role for TRAP1 and oxidative metabolism in cancer progression and suggest the targeting of mitochondrial bioenergetics to increase cisplatin efficacy in human OC. PMID:27206315

  12. Proteasome Inhibitor YSY01A Enhances Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Cisplatin-Resistant Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Zhou, Quan; Yuan, Xia; Ge, Ze-mei; Ran, Fu-xiang; Yang, Hua-yu; Qiang, Guang-liang; Li, Run-tao; Cui, Jing-rong

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most common drugs used for treatment of solid tumors such as ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, the development of resistance against this cytotoxic agent limits its clinical use. Here we report that YSY01A, a novel proteasome inhibitor, is capable of suppressing survival of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. And YSY01A treatment enhances the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Specifically, YSY01A abrogates regulatory proteins important for cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis including NF-κB p65 and STAT3, resulting in down-regulation of Bcl-2. A dramatic increase in cisplatin uptake was also observed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following exposure to YSY01A. Taken together, YSY01A serves as a potential candidate for further development as anticancer therapeutics targeting the proteasome. PMID:27326257

  13. Effect of the WWOX gene on the regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis in human ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongchao; Tong, Jianye; Lin, Xiaoman; Han, Qiuyu; Huang, Hongxiang

    2015-08-01

    In order to examine new ideas for gene therapy in ovarian cancer, the specific mechanism underlying the effects of the WW domain containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene on cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in human ovarian cancer stem cells was investigated. Ovarian cancer stem cells were transfected with a eukaryotic expression vector carrying the WWOX gene in vitro (recombinant plasmid) and cells transfected with the empty plasmid (empty plasmid) or untransfected cells were used as controls. Stably transfected cells were screened and amplified in culture and the WWOX protein was detected by western blot analysis in the three groups of cells. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, cyclin D1, CDK4 and apoptosis-related protein Wnt-5α and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), while polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect alterations in the mRNA expression levels of caspase-3. The results demonstrated that the WWOX protein was stably expressed in cells of the recombinant plasmid group, but was not detected in cells of the empty plasmid group and the control group. Cell proliferation at each time point decreased significantly in the recombinant plasmid group compared with the empty plasmid group and the control group. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase in the recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher than that of cells in the empty plasmid group and the control group. The rate of apoptosis in the recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher than that of cells in the empty plasmid group and the control group. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of cyclin E, CDK2, cyclin D1 and CDK4 in the recombinant plasmid group were significantly lower than those in the empty plasmid group and the control group; however, the expression levels of Wnt-5α and JNK were significantly higher

  14. Expressions of lysophosphatidic acid receptors in the development of human ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jinge; Su, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yifeng; Yan, You-Liang; Tang, Ya-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the associations between the expressions of three lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors (LPA1-3) and the development of ovarian carcinoma (OC). Method: Ovarian tissue specimens, including normal ovarian epithelium tissues, benign ovarian tumor tissues and OC tissues were collected from patients who underwent surgical resections between March 2012 and December 2014. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect LPA receptor expressions in ovarian tissues. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to detect mRNA and protein expression of LPA receptors, respectively. Association analysis between LPA receptors protein expression and clinical pathological characteristics was conducted. The value of LPA2 and LPA3 in discriminating OC was confirmed by receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves analysis. Results: The positive expression rates of LPA2 and LPA3 in OC group was obviously higher than normal control and benign groups. The LPA2 and LPA3 mRNA and protein levels in OC group were higher than in normal control and benign groups. LPA2 and LPA3 mRNA expression levels were positively correlated with LPA2 and LPA3 protein expression in OC group. ROC curve analysis revealed that LPA2 yield a specificity of 96.3% and a sensitivity of 97.9%, and LPA3 yield a specificity of 98.5% and a sensitivity of 97.9% for the detection of OC. Conclusion: LPA2 and LPA3 were highly expressed in OC tissues, which may be involved in the development of OC. Further, LPA2 and LPA3 had higher sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing the OC from benign ovarian tumors, which could be potential diagnostic indictors in OC. PMID:26770382

  15. PTEN overexpression improves cisplatin-resistance of human ovarian cancer cells through upregulating KRT10 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huijuan; Wang, Ke; Liu, Wenxin; Hao, Quan

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Overexpression of PTEN enhanced the sensitivity of C13K cells to cisplatin. • KRT10 is a downstream molecule of PTEN involved in the resistance-reversing effect. • Overexpression of KRT10 enhanced the chemosensitivity of C13K cells to cisplatin. - Abstract: Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a common cause of the failure of chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene, has been demonstrated to be able to reverse cisplatin-resistance in ovarian cancer cell line C13K. However, the downstream molecules of PTEN involved in the resistance-reversing effect have not been completely clarified. Therefore, we screened the downstream molecules of PTEN and studied their interactions in C13K ovarian cancer cells using a 3D culture model. Firstly, we constructed an ovarian cancer cell line stably expressing PTEN, C13K/PTEN. MTT assay showed that overexpression of PTEN enhanced the sensitivity of C13K cells to cisplatin, but not to paclitaxel. Then we examined the differently expressed proteins that interacted with PTEN in C13K/PTEN cells with or without cisplatin treatment by co-immunoprecipitation. KRT10 was identified as a differently expressed protein in cisplatin-treated C13K/PTEN cells. Further study confirmed that cisplatin could induce upregulation of KRT10 mRNA and protein in C13K/PTEN cells and there was a directly interaction between KRT10 and PTEN. Forced expression of KRT10 in C13K cells also enhanced cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of C13K cells. In addition, KRT10 siRNA blocked cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition of C13K/PTEN cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that KRT10 is a downstream molecule of PTEN which improves cisplatin-resistance of ovarian cancer and forced KRT10 overexpression may also act as a therapeutic method for overcoming MDR in ovarian cancer.

  16. F3-targeted cisplatin-hydrogel nanoparticles as an effective therapeutic that targets both murine and human ovarian tumor endothelial cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Winer, I.; Wang, S.; Lee, Y-E K.; Fan, W.; Gong, Y.; Burgos-Ojeda, D.; Spahlinger, G.; Kopelman, R.; Buckanovich, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that ovarian cancer may be highly responsive to anti-vascular therapeutics. We have developed an anti-vascular tumor therapeutic using the F3 peptide to target cisplatin loaded nanoparticles (F3-Cis-Np) to tumor vessels. We demonstrate that while F3-Cis-Np bind with high specificity to both human ovarian tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells in vitro, they only demonstrate cytotoxic activity against the tumor endothelial cells. In vivo these nanoparticles bind primarily to tumor endothelial cells. Therapeutic studies in both flank and orthotopic intraperitoneal murine ovarian tumor models, as well as human tumor xenograft models, demonstrate rapid tumor regression with treatment. Treatment was associated with significant vascular necrosis consistent with an anti-vascular effect. Furthermore treatment was active in both platinum sensitive and platinum resistant cell lines. Importantly we demonstrate that F3-Cis-Np bind to human tumor endothelial cells in vitro and to human tumor vessels in vivo. Therapy targeting human vasculature in vivo with F3-Cis-Np led to near complete loss of all human tumor vessels in a murine model of human tumor vasculature. Our studies indicate that F3-targeted vascular therapeutics may be an effective treatment modality in human ovarian cancer. PMID:20959470

  17. Minocycline attenuates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression correlated with modulation of p53 and AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathway in ovarian cancer: in vitro and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Ataie-Kachoie, Parvin; Pourgholami, Mohammad H; Bahrami-B, Farnaz; Badar, Samina; Morris, David L

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is the key cellular survival protein under hypoxia, and is associated with tumor progression and angiogenesis. We have recently shown the inhibitory effects of minocycline on ovarian tumor growth correlated with attenuation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and herein report a companion laboratory study to test if these effects were the result of HIF-1α inhibition. In vitro, human ovarian carcinoma cell lines (A2780, OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3) were utilized to examine the effect of minocycline on HIF-1 and its upstream pathway components to elucidate the underlying mechanism of action of minocycline. Mice harboring OVCAR-3 xenografts were treated with minocycline to assess the in vivo efficacy of minocycline in the context of HIF-1. Minocycline negatively regulated HIF-1α protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner and induced its degradation by a mechanism that is independent of prolyl-hydroxylation. The inhibition of HIF-1α was found to be associated with up-regulation of endogenous p53, a tumor suppressor with confirmed role in HIF-1α degradation. Further studies demonstrated that the effect of minocycline was not restricted to proteasomal degradation and that it also caused down-regulation of HIF-1α translation by suppressing the AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling pathway. Minocycline treatment of mice bearing established ovarian tumors, led to suppression of HIF-1α accompanied by up-regulation of p53 protein levels and inactivation of AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathway. These data reveal the therapeutic potential of minocycline in ovarian cancer as an agent that targets the pro-oncogenic factor HIF-1α through multiple mechanisms. PMID:25973298

  18. Combination of salinomycin and silver nanoparticles enhances apoptosis and autophagy in human ovarian cancer cells: an effective anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most important malignancies, and the origin, detection, and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer remain elusive. Although many cancer drugs have been developed to dramatically reduce the size of tumors, most cancers eventually relapse, posing a critical problem to overcome. Hence, it is necessary to identify possible alternative therapeutic approaches to reduce the mortality rate of this devastating disease. To identify alternative approaches, we first synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using a novel bacterium called Bacillus clausii. The synthesized AgNPs were homogenous and spherical in shape, with an average size of 16-20 nm, which are known to cause cytotoxicity in various types of human cancer cells, whereas salinomycin (Sal) is able to kill cancer stem cells. Therefore, we selected both Sal and AgNPs to study their combined effect on apoptosis and autophagy in ovarian cancer cells. The cells treated with either Sal or AgNPs showed a dose-dependent effect with inhibitory concentration (IC)-50 values of 6.0 µM and 8 µg/mL for Sal and AgNPs, respectively. To determine the combination effect, we measured the IC25 values of both Sal and AgNPs (3.0 µM and 4 µg/mL), which showed a more dramatic inhibitory effect on cell viability and cell morphology than either Sal or AgNPs alone. The combination of Sal and AgNPs had more pronounced effect on cytotoxicity and expression of apoptotic genes and also significantly induced the accumulation of autophagolysosomes, which was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of cell viability. Our data show a strong synergistic interaction between Sal and AgNPs in tested cancer cells. The combination treatment increased the therapeutic potential and demonstrated the relevant targeted therapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, a mode of action for Sal and AgNPs in ovarian cancer cells: enhanced apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:27536105

  19. Combination of salinomycin and silver nanoparticles enhances apoptosis and autophagy in human ovarian cancer cells: an effective anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most important malignancies, and the origin, detection, and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer remain elusive. Although many cancer drugs have been developed to dramatically reduce the size of tumors, most cancers eventually relapse, posing a critical problem to overcome. Hence, it is necessary to identify possible alternative therapeutic approaches to reduce the mortality rate of this devastating disease. To identify alternative approaches, we first synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using a novel bacterium called Bacillus clausii. The synthesized AgNPs were homogenous and spherical in shape, with an average size of 16–20 nm, which are known to cause cytotoxicity in various types of human cancer cells, whereas salinomycin (Sal) is able to kill cancer stem cells. Therefore, we selected both Sal and AgNPs to study their combined effect on apoptosis and autophagy in ovarian cancer cells. The cells treated with either Sal or AgNPs showed a dose-dependent effect with inhibitory concentration (IC)-50 values of 6.0 µM and 8 µg/mL for Sal and AgNPs, respectively. To determine the combination effect, we measured the IC25 values of both Sal and AgNPs (3.0 µM and 4 µg/mL), which showed a more dramatic inhibitory effect on cell viability and cell morphology than either Sal or AgNPs alone. The combination of Sal and AgNPs had more pronounced effect on cytotoxicity and expression of apoptotic genes and also significantly induced the accumulation of autophagolysosomes, which was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of cell viability. Our data show a strong synergistic interaction between Sal and AgNPs in tested cancer cells. The combination treatment increased the therapeutic potential and demonstrated the relevant targeted therapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, a mode of action for Sal and AgNPs in ovarian cancer cells: enhanced apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:27536105

  20. Ovarian cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - ovaries ... Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer among women. It causes more deaths than any other type of female reproductive organ cancer. The cause of ovarian cancer is unknown. Risk ...

  1. Ovarian cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of ovarian cancer Already been diagnosed with ovarian cancer to determine how well treatment is working Other tests that may be done include: Complete blood count and blood chemistry Pregnancy test (serum HCG) CT or MRI of ...

  2. Biological characteristics of side population cells in a self-established human ovarian cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    WEI, ZHENTONG; LV, SHUANG; WANG, YISHU; SUN, MEIYU; CHI, GUANGFAN; GUO, JUN; SONG, PEIYE; FU, XIAOYU; ZHANG, SONGLING; LI, YULIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish an ovarian cancer (OC) cell line from ascites of an ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma patient and investigate the biological characteristics of its side population (SP) cells. The OC cell line was established by isolating, purifying and subculturing primary cells from ascites of an ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma patient (stage IIIc; grade 3). SP and non-SP (NSP) cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and cultured in serum-free medium and soft agar to compare the tumorsphere and colony formation capacities. Furthermore, SP and NSP cell tumorigenesis was examined by subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injection of the cells to non-obese diabetic/severe combined immune deficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. Drug resistance to cisplatin was examined by cell counting kit-8. The OC cell line was successfully established from ascites of an ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma patient, which exhibited properties similar to primary tumors subsequent to >50 passages and >2 years of culture. The SP cell ratio was 0.38% in the OC cell line, and a similar SP cell ratio (0.39%) was observed when sorted SP cells were cultured for 3 weeks. Compared with NSP cells, SP cells exhibited increased abilities in differentiation and tumorsphere and colony formation, in addition to the formation of xenografted tumors and ascites and metastasis of the tumors in NOD/SCID mice, even at low cell numbers (3.0×103 cells). The xenografted tumors demonstrated histological features similar to primary tumors and expressed the ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma marker CA125. In addition, SP cells demonstrated a significantly stronger drug resistance to cisplatin compared with NSP and unsorted cells, while treatment with verapamil, an inhibitor of ATP-binding cassette transporters, potently abrogated SP cell drug resistance. In conclusion, the present study verified SP cells from an established OC cell line and characterized the cells with self

  3. HOTAIR Promotes Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Ovarian Cancer SKOV3 Cells Through Regulating PIK3R3

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lijun; Hu, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the effect on proliferation, migration, and invasion after silencing HOTAIR in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells, and to elucidate the potential mechanism. Material/Methods We analyzed the mRNA expression level of HOTAIR and PIK3R3 in ovarian cancer SKOV3, OVCAR3, and A2780 cell lines. We analyzed the mRNA expression level of HOTAIR and PIK3R3 in ovarian SKOV3 after transection with miR-214 or miR-217. We analyzed the mRNA and protein expression level of PIK3R3 when silencing HOTAIR. We analyzed the expression of HOTAIR when silencing PIK3R3. We analyzed the proliferation, migration and invasion in ovarian cancer SKOV3 after silencing HOTAIR or PIK3R3. Results The expression of HOTAIR and PIK3R3 in ovarian SKOV3 and OVCAR3 was increased compared with A2780 cells (P<0.05). The mRNA level of HOTAIR and PIK3R3 in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells was decreased when transected with miR-214 or miR-217 compared to negative control (p<0.05). The mRNA and protein level of PIK3R3 was decreased when HOTAIR was silenced and the mRNA level of HOTAIR was decreased when PIK3R3 was silenced (p<0.05). The proliferation, migration and invasion was decreased in ovarian SKOV3 when HOTAIR or PIK3R3 was silenced (p<0.05). Conclusions HOTAIR can promote proliferation, migration, and invasion in ovarian SKOV3 cells as a competing endogenous RNA. PMID:26826873

  4. Ovarian Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... accurate way to tell if a woman has ovarian cancer. For example, some women who do have ovarian cancer have a normal CA-125 level. Also, this ... for women who show signs or symptoms of ovarian cancer or who have genetic mutations that increase the ...

  5. Tumor suppressor role of miR-217 in human epithelial ovarian cancer by targeting IGF1R.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieyan; Li, Dongmei; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that microRNA-217 (miR-217) is frequently dysregulated in various cancers, and plays crucial roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis; however, the role and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-217 in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. Here, we report that miR-217 expression was downregulated in EOC tissue and inversely correlated with advanced FIGO stage, high histological grading and lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). Function analysis revealed that the ectopic expression of miR-217 in EOC cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro, as well as suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase assays identified insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) as a direct target of miR-217 in EOC cells. Western blot assay showed that overexpression of miR-217 in EOC cells inhibited IGF1R expression. In addition, downregulation of IGF1R mimicked the tumor-suppressive effects of miR-217 in EOC cells, whereas the reintroduction of IGF1R partially abrogated the suppression effect induced by miR-217 on EOC cells. Collectively, these results demonstrated that miR-217 plays a tumor suppressor role in human epithelial ovarian cancer by directly targeting IGF1R gene, suggesting a new potential therapeutic target in EOC. PMID:26708715

  6. Increased γ-H2AX and Rad51 DNA Repair Biomarker Expression in Human Cell Lines Resistant to the Chemotherapeutic Agents Nitrogen Mustard and Cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Adam-Zahir, Sheba; Plowman, Piers N; Bourton, Emma C; Sharif, Fariha; Parris, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic anticancer drugs mediate cytotoxicity by a number of mechanisms. However, alkylating agents which induce DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICL) are amongst the most effective anticancer agents and often form the mainstay of many anticancer therapies. The effectiveness of these drugs can be limited by the development of drug resistance in cancer cells and many studies have demonstrated that alterations in DNA repair kinetics are responsible for drug resistance. In this study we developed two cell lines resistant to the alkylating agents nitrogen mustard (HN2) and cisplatin (Pt). To determine if drug resistance was associated with enhanced ICL DNA repair we used immunocytochemistry and imaging flow cytometry to quantitate the number of γ-H2AX and Rad51 foci in the nuclei of cells after drug exposure. γ-H2AX was used to evaluate DNA strand breaks caused by repair incision nucleases and Rad51 was used to measure the activity of homologous recombination in the repair of ICL. In the drug-resistant derivative cell lines there was overall a significant increase in the number and persistence of both γ-H2AX and Rad51 foci in the nuclei of cells over a 72-hour period, when compared to the non-resistant parental cell lines (ANOVA p < 0.0001). In a Pt-resistant ovarian cancer cell line (A2780cis(R)) a similar enhancement of DNA repair was observed when compared to the non-drug-resistant wild-type ovarian cancer cells (A2780) following exposure to HN2. Our data suggest that using DNA repair biomarkers to evaluate mechanisms of resistance in cancer cell lines and human tumours may be of experimental and clinical benefit. We concede, however, that examination of a larger population of cell lines and tumours is required to fully evaluate the validity of this approach. PMID:26138778

  7. The milk-derived hexapeptide PGPIPN inhibits the invasion and migration of human ovarian cancer cells by regulating the expression of MTA1 and NM23H1 genes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengjing; Wei, Cai; Yang, Xue; Zhou, Juan; Wang, Jing; Gu, Fang; Lei, Ting; Qin, Yide

    2016-04-01

    Some bioactive peptides derived from natural resources or synthesized by rational design have been proved to have very good anticancer effect. We studied the inhibition of PGPIPN, a hexapeptide derived from bovine β-casein, on the invasion and metastasis of human ovarian cancer cells in vitro and its molecular mechanism. The human ovarian cancer cells studied include the cell line SKOV3 as well as the primary ovarian cancer cells from ovarian tumor tissues of 37 patients at initial debulking surgery, diagnosed as serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. We showed that PGPIPN inhibited the invasion of ovarian cancer cells with Transwell chamber assay, the migration of ovarian cancer cells with cell scratch assay and colony formation of ovarian cancer cells. The expression (mRNAs and proteins) of genes relevant to invasion and metastasis, MTA1, and NM23H1 were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blotting. PGPIPN repressed the expression of MTA1, and promoted NM23H1. The effects of PGPIPN were dose-dependent. Thus, our study suggests that PGPIPN is a potential therapeutic agent for adjuvant therapy of human malignant ovarian tumors. PMID:26893013

  8. Positive Selection in Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 Targets a Natural Mutation Associated with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency in Human

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Camille; Monestier, Olivier; Di Pasquale, Elisa; Pascal, Géraldine; Persani, Luca; Fabre, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15) is a TGFβ-like oocyte-derived growth factor involved in ovarian folliculogenesis as a critical regulator of many granulosa cell processes. Alterations of the BMP15 gene have been found associated with different ovarian phenotypic effects depending on the species, from sterility to increased prolificacy in sheep, slight subfertility in mouse or associated with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in women. To investigate the evolving role of BMP15, a phylogenetic analysis of this particular TGFβ family member was performed. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of several TGFβ/BMP family members expressed by the ovary showed that BMP15 has a very strong divergence and a rapid evolution compared to others. Moreover, among 24 mammalian species, we detected signals of positive selection in the hominidae clade corresponding to F146, L189 and Y235 residues in human BMP15. The biological importance of these residues was tested functionally after site directed-mutagenesis in a COV434 cells luciferase assay. By replacing the positively selected amino acid either by alanine or the most represented residue in other studied species, only L189A, Y235A and Y235C mutants showed a significant increase of BMP15 signaling when compared to wild type. Additionally, the Y235C mutant was more potent than wild type in inhibiting progesterone secretion of ovine granulosa cells in primary culture. Interestingly, the Y235C mutation was previously identified in association with POI in women. In conclusion, this study evidences that the BMP15 gene has evolved faster than other members of the TGFß family and was submitted to a positive selection pressure in the hominidae clade. Some residues under positive selection are of great importance for the normal function of the protein and thus for female fertility. Y235 represents a critical residue in the determination of BMP15 biological activity, thus indirectly confirming its role in the onset of POI in

  9. Cranberry Proanthocyanidins are Cytotoxic to Human Cancer Cells and Sensitize Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells to Paraplatin

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay P.; Singh, Rakesh K.; Kim, Kyu Kwang; Satyan, K. S.; Nussbaum, Roger; Torres, Monica; Brard, Laurent; Vorsa, Nicholi

    2010-01-01

    Polyphenolic extracts of the principal flavonoid classes present in cranberry were screened in vitro for cytotoxicity against solid tumor cells lines, identifying two fractions composed principally of proanthocyanidins (PACs) with potential anticancer activity. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of the proanthocyanidins (PACs) fractions indicated the presence of A-type PACs with 1–4 linkages containing between 2–8 epicatechin units with a maximum of 1 epigallocatechin unit. PACs exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against platinum-resistant human ovarian, neuroblastoma and prostate cancer cell lines (IC50 = 79–479 μg/mL) but were non-cytotoxic to lung fibroblast cells (IC50 > 1000 μg/ml). SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells treated with PACs exhibited classic apoptotic changes. PACs acted synergistically with paraplatin in SKOV-3 cells. Pretreatment of SKOV-3 cells with PACs (106 μg/ ml) resulted in a significant reduction of the paraplatin IC50 value. Similarly, in a BrdU incorporation assay, co-treatment of SKOV-3 cells with PACs and paraplatin revealed reduced cell proliferation at lower concentrations than with either individually. In SKOV-3 cell cultures co-treated with PAC-1 and paraplatin, an HPLC analysis indicated differential quantitative presence of various PAC oligomers such as DP-8, -9, -11 and -14 indicating either selective binding or uptake. Cranberry proanthocyanidins exhibit cell-line specific cytotoxicity, induce apoptotic markers and augment cytotoxicity of paraplatin in platinum-resistant SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. PMID:19172579

  10. Positive selection in bone morphogenetic protein 15 targets a natural mutation associated with primary ovarian insufficiency in human.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Sylvain; Rossetti, Raffaella; Meslin, Camille; Monestier, Olivier; Di Pasquale, Elisa; Pascal, Géraldine; Persani, Luca; Fabre, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15) is a TGFβ-like oocyte-derived growth factor involved in ovarian folliculogenesis as a critical regulator of many granulosa cell processes. Alterations of the BMP15 gene have been found associated with different ovarian phenotypic effects depending on the species, from sterility to increased prolificacy in sheep, slight subfertility in mouse or associated with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in women. To investigate the evolving role of BMP15, a phylogenetic analysis of this particular TGFβ family member was performed. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of several TGFβ/BMP family members expressed by the ovary showed that BMP15 has a very strong divergence and a rapid evolution compared to others. Moreover, among 24 mammalian species, we detected signals of positive selection in the hominidae clade corresponding to F146, L189 and Y235 residues in human BMP15. The biological importance of these residues was tested functionally after site directed-mutagenesis in a COV434 cells luciferase assay. By replacing the positively selected amino acid either by alanine or the most represented residue in other studied species, only L189A, Y235A and Y235C mutants showed a significant increase of BMP15 signaling when compared to wild type. Additionally, the Y235C mutant was more potent than wild type in inhibiting progesterone secretion of ovine granulosa cells in primary culture. Interestingly, the Y235C mutation was previously identified in association with POI in women. In conclusion, this study evidences that the BMP15 gene has evolved faster than other members of the TGFß family and was submitted to a positive selection pressure in the hominidae clade. Some residues under positive selection are of great importance for the normal function of the protein and thus for female fertility. Y235 represents a critical residue in the determination of BMP15 biological activity, thus indirectly confirming its role in the onset of POI in

  11. A novel uPAg-KPI fusion protein inhibits the growth and invasion of human ovarian cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LI-PING; XU, TIAN-MIN; KAN, MU-JIE; XIAO, YE-CHEN; CUI, MAN-HUA

    2016-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) acts by breaking down the basement membrane and is involved in cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These actions are mediated by binding to the uPA receptor (uPAR) via its growth factor domain (GFD). The present study evaluated the effects of uPAg-KPI, a fusion protein of uPA-GFD and a kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain that is present in the amyloid β-protein precursor. Using SKOV-3 cells, an ovarian cancer cell line, we examined cell viability, migration, invasion and also protein expression. Furthermore, we examined wound healing, and migration and invasion using a Transwell assay. Our data showed that uPAg-KPI treatment reduced the viability of ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in both a concentration and time-dependent manner by arresting tumor cells at G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. The IC50 of uPAg-KPI was 0.5 µg/µl after 48 h treatment. At this concentration, uPAg-KPI also inhibited tumor cell colony formation, wound closure, as well as cell migration and invasion capacity. At the protein level, western blot analysis demonstrated that uPAg-KPI exerted no significant effect on the expression of total extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/ERK2 and AKT, whereas it suppressed levels of phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 and AKT. Thus, we suggest that this novel uPAg-KPI fusion protein reduced cell viability, colony formation, wound healing and the invasive ability of human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in vitro by regulating ERK and AKT signaling. Further studies using other cell lines will confirm these findings. PMID:27035617

  12. A novel uPAg-KPI fusion protein inhibits the growth and invasion of human ovarian cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Ping; Xu, Tian-Min; Kan, Mu-Jie; Xiao, Ye-Chen; Cui, Man-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) acts by breaking down the basement membrane and is involved in cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These actions are mediated by binding to the uPA receptor (uPAR) via its growth factor domain (GFD). The present study evaluated the effects of uPAg-KPI, a fusion protein of uPA-GFD and a kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain that is present in the amyloid β-protein precursor. Using SKOV-3 cells, an ovarian cancer cell line, we examined cell viability, migration, invasion and also protein expression. Furthermore, we examined wound healing, and migration and invasion using a Transwell assay. Our data showed that uPAg-KPI treatment reduced the viability of ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in both a concentration and time-dependent manner by arresting tumor cells at G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. The IC50 of uPAg-KPI was 0.5 µg/µl after 48 h treatment. At this concentration, uPAg-KPI also inhibited tumor cell colony formation, wound closure, as well as cell migration and invasion capacity. At the protein level, western blot analysis demonstrated that uPAg-KPI exerted no significant effect on the expression of total extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/ERK2 and AKT, whereas it suppressed levels of phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 and AKT. Thus, we suggest that this novel uPAg-KPI fusion protein reduced cell viability, colony formation, wound healing and the invasive ability of human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in vitro by regulating ERK and AKT signaling. Further studies using other cell lines will confirm these findings. PMID:27035617

  13. Endothelin-1/Endothelin A receptor-mediated biased signaling is a new player in modulating human ovarian cancer cell tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Jian-peng; Park, Kyoung-mi; Wang, Yongchao; Hu, Qiuping; Kim, Sangmi; Wu, Guangyu; Huang, Shuang; Maihle, Nita; Kim, Il-man

    2014-01-01

    The endothelin-1 (ET-1)/endothelin A receptor (ETAR, a G protein-coupled receptor) axis confers pleiotropic effects on both tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment, modulating chemo-resistance and other tumor-associated processes by activating Gαq- and β-arrestin-mediated pathways. While the precise mechanisms by which these effects occur remain to be elucidated, interference with ETAR signaling has emerged as a promising antitumor strategy in many cancers including ovarian cancer (OC). However, current clinical approaches using ETAR antagonists in the absence of a detailed knowledge of downstream signaling have resulted in multiple adverse side effects and limited therapeutic efficacy. To maximize the safety and efficacy of ETAR-targeted OC therapy, we investigated the role of other G protein subunits such as Gαs in the ETAR-mediated ovarian oncogenic signaling. In HEY (human metastatic OC) cells where the ET-1/ETAR axis is well-characterized, Gαs signaling inhibits ETAR-mediated OC cell migration, wound healing, proliferation and colony formation on soft agar while inducing OC cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, ET-1/ETAR is coupled to Gαs/cAMP signaling in the same ovarian carcinoma-derived cell line. Gαs/cAMP/PKA activation inhibits ETAR-mediated β-arrestin activation of angiogenic/metastatic Calcrl and Icam2 expression. Consistent with our findings, Gαs overexpression is associated with improved survival in OC patients in the analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas data. In conclusion, our results indicate a novel function for Gαs signaling in ET-1/ETAR-mediated OC oncogenesis and may provide a rationale for a biased signaling mechanism, which selectively activates Gαs-coupled tumor suppressive pathways while blocking Gαq-/β-arrestin-mediated oncogenic pathways, to improve the targeting of the ETAR axis in OC. PMID:25194819

  14. Immunity of human epithelial ovarian carcinoma: the paradigm of immune suppression in cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a significant cause of cancer-related mortality in women, and there has been no substantial decrease in the death rates due to EOC in the last three decades. Thus, basic knowledge regarding ovarian tumor cell biology is urgently needed to allow the development of innovative treatments for EOC. Traditionally, EOC has not been considered an immunogenic tumor, but there is evidence of an immune response to EOC in patients. Clinical data demonstrate that an antitumor immune response and immune evasion mechanisms are correlated with a better and lower survival, respectively, providing evidence for the immunoediting hypothesis in EOC. This review focuses on the immune response and immune suppression in EOC. The immunological roles of chemotherapy and surgery in EOC are also described. Finally, we detail pilot data supporting the efficiency of immunotherapy in the treatment of EOC and the emerging concept that immunomodulation aimed at counteracting the immunosuppressive microenvironment must be associated with immunotherapy strategies. PMID:23763830

  15. Integrated Proteogenomic Characterization of Human High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Zhen; Payne, Samuel H; Zhang, Bai; McDermott, Jason E; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Chen, Li; Ray, Debjit; Sun, Shisheng; Yang, Feng; Chen, Lijun; Wang, Jing; Shah, Punit; Cha, Seong Won; Aiyetan, Paul; Woo, Sunghee; Tian, Yuan; Gritsenko, Marina A; Clauss, Therese R; Choi, Caitlin; Monroe, Matthew E; Thomas, Stefani; Nie, Song; Wu, Chaochao; Moore, Ronald J; Yu, Kun-Hsing; Tabb, David L; Fenyö, David; Bafna, Vineet; Wang, Yue; Rodriguez, Henry; Boja, Emily S; Hiltke, Tara; Rivers, Robert C; Sokoll, Lori; Zhu, Heng; Shih, Ie-Ming; Cope, Leslie; Pandey, Akhilesh; Zhang, Bing; Snyder, Michael P; Levine, Douglas A; Smith, Richard D; Chan, Daniel W; Rodland, Karin D

    2016-07-28

    To provide a detailed analysis of the molecular components and underlying mechanisms associated with ovarian cancer, we performed a comprehensive mass-spectrometry-based proteomic characterization of 174 ovarian tumors previously analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), of which 169 were high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs). Integrating our proteomic measurements with the genomic data yielded a number of insights into disease, such as how different copy-number alternations influence the proteome, the proteins associated with chromosomal instability, the sets of signaling pathways that diverse genome rearrangements converge on, and the ones most associated with short overall survival. Specific protein acetylations associated with homologous recombination deficiency suggest a potential means for stratifying patients for therapy. In addition to providing a valuable resource, these findings provide a view of how the somatic genome drives the cancer proteome and associations between protein and post-translational modification levels and clinical outcomes in HGSC. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27372738

  16. Dasatinib enhances antitumor activity of paclitaxel in ovarian cancer through Src signaling

    PubMed Central

    XIAO, JUAN; XU, MANMAN; HOU, TENG; HUANG, YONGWEN; YANG, CHENLU; LI, JUNDONG

    2015-01-01

    Src family tyrosine kinase (SFK) activation is associated with ovarian cancer progression. Therefore, SFKs are targets for the development of potential treatments of ovarian cancer. Dasatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets SFK activity, and is used for the treatment of B cell and Abelson lymphomas. At the present time, the potential effect of dasatinib on ovarian cancer is not clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor activity of dasatinib, alone and in combination with paclitaxel, in ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the expression of Src and phospho-Src-Y416 (p-Src) was measured in six ovarian cancer cell lines using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In addition, cell viability and apoptosis were measured using an MTT assay and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining. An ovarian cancer murine xenograft model was established, in order to evaluate the antitumor effect of dasatinib alone and in combination with paclitaxel in ovarian cancer. High levels of p-Src protein expression were observed in all cell lines, as compared with healthy cells, which indicated activation of the Src signaling pathway. p-Src expression increased in ovarian cancer cells following paclitaxel treatment. Dasatinib treatment demonstrated anti-ovarian cancer properties, by downregulating p-Src expression and by inducing cancer cell apoptosis. Combined treatment with dasatinib and paclitaxel markedly inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, compared with control cells. Combined dasatinib and paclitaxel treatment exhibited antitumor activities in vivo and in vitro (combination indices, 0.25–0.93 and 0.31–0.75; and tumor growth inhibitory rates, 76.7% and 58.5%, in A2780 and HO8910 cell lines, respectively), compared with paclitaxel treatment alone. Dasatinib monotherapy demonstrated anti-ovarian cancer activities. The effects of dasatinib and paclitaxel treatments on ovarian

  17. Prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, G H; Ghazizadeh, M; Kawanami, O; Shimizu, H; Jin, E; Araki, T; Sugisaki, Y

    2000-01-01

    The influence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and microvessel density (MVD) on prognosis and the relationship between VEGF expression and MVD in ovarian carcinoma are not well defined. We studied VEGF expression in parallel with MVD by immunohistochemistry in 94 ovarian tumours (64 malignant, 13 borderline, and 17 benign) and correlated the results with the clinicopathologic prognostic factors of the disease to clarify their significance in this disease. Assessment of VEGF mRNA isoforms by RT-PCR was also performed. Of the malignant, borderline, and benign ovarian tumours respectively, two (3%), four (31%) and 16 (94%) were negative, 31 (48%), seven (54%) and one (6%) had low expressions, and 31 (48%), two (15%) and none (0%) had high expressions of VEGF. There were significant associations between the VEGF expression and disease stage (P = 0.002), histologic grade (P = 0.0004), and patient outcome (P = 0.0002). MVD did not correlate significantly with the clinicopathologic parameters. Likewise, no correlation was found between MVD and VEGF expression. The survival of patients with high VEGF expression was significantly worse than that of patients with low and negative VEGF expression (P = 0.0004). Multivariate analysis revealed that disease stage and VEGF expression were significant and independent prognostic indicators of overall survival time (P = 0.008 and P = 0.006 respectively). These findings suggest that in conjunction with the established clinicopathologic prognostic parameters of ovarian carcinoma, VEGF expression may enhance the predictability of patients at high risk for tumour progression who are potential candidates for further aggressive therapy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901370

  18. Cryobanking of human ovarian tissue: Do women still want their tissue stored beyond 5 years?

    PubMed

    Macklon, Kirsten Tryde; Ernst, Erik; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2014-10-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is one way of preserving fertility in young women with a malignant disease or other disorders that require gonadotoxic treatment. The purpose of the study was to explore how many women remained interested in continued cryostorage of their ovarian tissue beyond an initial 5-year period. Between 1999 and 2006, a total of 201 girls and young women had one ovary cryopreserved for fertility preservation in Denmark. One hundred of these met our inclusion criteria, which included a follow-up period of at least 5 years, and were mailed a questionnaire. The response rate was 95%. Sixteen of the patients (17%) stated that they wanted disposal of their tissue; the main reason was completion of family (63%). The mean age of those requesting disposal was 36.6 years, whereas those still wanting their tissue stored were significantly younger, with a mean age of 33.0 years (P < 0.008). In conclusion, most women with ovarian tissue cryobanked requested continued cryostorage after an initial period of at least 5 years. The main reason for requesting disposal was successful completion of a family. PMID:25129692

  19. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and Fallopian tube tissue for early stage cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini; Watson, Jennifer; Orsinger, Gabe; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Keenan, Molly; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth; Chambers, Setsuko; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    With early detection, five year survival rates for ovarian cancer are over 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests that perhaps over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease, high grade serous ovarian cancer, originates in the Fallopian tube. Cancer changes molecular concentrations of various endogenous fluorophores. Using specific excitation wavelengths and emissions bands on a Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) system, spatial and spectral data over a wide field of view can be collected from endogenous fluorophores. Wavelength specific reflectance images provide additional information to normalize for tissue geometry and blood absorption. Ratiometric combination of the images may create high contrast between neighboring normal and abnormal tissue. Twenty-six women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery consented the use of surgical discard tissue samples for MFI imaging. Forty-nine pieces of ovarian tissue and thirty-two pieces of Fallopian tube tissue were collected and imaged with excitation wavelengths between 280 nm and 550 nm. After imaging, each tissue sample was fixed, sectioned and HE stained for pathological evaluation. Comparison of mean intensity values between normal, benign, and cancerous tissue demonstrate a general trend of increased fluorescence of benign tissue and decreased fluorescence of cancerous tissue when compared to normal tissue. The predictive capabilities of the mean intensity measurements are tested using multinomial logistic regression and quadratic discriminant analysis. Adaption of the system for in vivo Fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible and is briefly described.

  20. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue for early-stage cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler H.; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini F. S.; Koevary, Jennifer Watson; Orsinger, Gabriel V.; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer Kehlet

    2016-05-01

    With early detection, 5-year survival rates for ovarian cancer exceed 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease originates in the fallopian tube. Twenty-eight women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery provided informed consent for the use of surgical discard tissue samples for multispectral fluorescence imaging. Using multiple ultraviolet and visible excitation wavelengths and emissions bands, 12 fluorescence and 6 reflectance images of 47 ovarian and 31 fallopian tube tissue samples were recorded. After imaging, each sample was fixed, sectioned, and stained for pathological evaluation. Univariate logistic regression showed cancerous tissue samples had significantly lower intensity than noncancerous tissue for 17 image types. The predictive power of multiple image types was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression (MLR) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). Two MLR models each using two image types had receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve exceeding 0.9. QDA determined 56 image type combinations with perfect resubstituting using as few as five image types. Adaption of the system for future in vivo fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible, which may enable sensitive detection of ovarian cancer with no exogenous contrast agents.

  1. Preparation of human ovarian cancer ascites-derived exosomes for a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Navabi, H; Croston, D; Hobot, J; Clayton, A; Zitvogel, L; Jasani, B; Bailey-Wood, R; Wilson, K; Tabi, Z; Mason, M D; Adams, M

    2005-01-01

    Despite initial response to chemotherapy, at least 50% of ovarian cancer patients will relapse within 18 months. Progression-free survival is related to tumour infiltration with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). We recently demonstrated that CD8+ T cell responses to recall antigens improve following tumour response to chemotherapy. Vaccination designed to expand CTL, specific for tumour-associated antigens, may be a means of improving outcome. We are planning a clinical trial in advanced ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy using a combination of a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist and tumour-associated ascites-derived exosomes. Tumour-derived exosomes are a potential source of tumour antigens able to induce CD8+ T cell responses when loaded on mature dendritic cells (DC). DC maturation can be achieved with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, such as the GMP-grade synthetic double stranded RNA, poly[I]:poly[C12U] (Ampligen) which is a TLR-3 agonist. Here, we describe the development of a method suitable for the preparation of GMP-grade exosomes from the ascites fluid of ovarian cancer patients, and the methods used for the molecular and immunological characterisation of these exosomes preceding their use in a clinical trial. PMID:16061407

  2. Metastatic dissemination of human ovarian epithelial carcinoma is promoted by alpha2beta1-integrin-mediated interaction with type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Fishman, D A; Kearns, A; Chilukuri, K; Bafetti, L M; O'Toole, E A; Georgacopoulos, J; Ravosa, M J; Stack, M S

    1998-01-01

    Metastatic dissemination of epithelial ovarian carcinoma is thought to be mediated via tumor cell exfoliation into the peritoneal cavity, followed by adhesion to and invasion through the mesothelium which overlies the contents of the peritoneal cavity. In this study, we have utilized short-term primary cultures to analyze the effect of specific extracellular matrix proteins on properties of human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells which contribute to the invasive phenotype. Analysis of cell:matrix adhesive profiles indicated that ovarian carcinoma cells adhere preferentially to type I collagen. Immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated the presence of the collagen-binding alpha2beta1 integrin in biotin-labeled ovarian carcinoma cell membranes, and cellular adhesion was inhibited by blocking antibodies directed against the alpha2 and beta1 integrin subunits. The alpha2beta1-binding peptide Asp-Gly-Glu-Ala (DGEA) was also moderately effective at blocking adhesion to collagen relative to the control peptide Ala-Gly-Glu-Ala (AGEA). Analysis of cell motility on protein-coated colloidal gold coverslips demonstrated that ovarian carcinoma cells migrate preferentially on type I collagen coated surfaces. Type I collagen promoted migration in a concentration-dependent, saturable manner, with maximal migration observed at a collagen-coating concentration of 50 microg/ml. Migration on collagen was inhibited by antibodies directed against the alpha2 and beta1 integrin subunits and by DGEA peptide, providing evidence for the role of the alpha2beta1 integrin in ovarian carcinoma cell motility. Culturing ovarian carcinoma cells on type I collagen gels led to a significant increase in conversion of the matrix metalloproteinase 2 zymogen to the 66-kD form, suggesting that adhesion to collagen also influences matrix-degrading proteinases. These data suggest that alpha2beta1-integrin-mediated interaction of ovarian carcinoma cells with type I collagen, a protein prevalent both in the

  3. Profiling follicle stimulating hormone-induced gene expression changes in normal and malignant human ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shuk-Mei; Lau, Kin-Mang; Mok, Samuel Chi-Ho; Syed, Viqar

    2003-07-01

    Epidemiological data have implicated the pituitary gonadotropin follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) as both a risk factor for and a protective agent against epithelial ovarian cancer. Yet, little is known about how this hormone could play such opposing roles in ovarian carcinogenesis. Complementary DNA microarrays containing 2400 named genes were used to examine FSH-induced gene expression changes in ovarian cancer (OC) and immortalized normal human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell lines. Two-way t-statistics analyses of array data identified two distinct sets of FSH-regulated genes in HOSE and in established OC cell lines established from patients (OVCA cell lines). Among the HOSE cell lines, FSH increased expression of 57% of the 312 genes and downregulated 43%. In contrast, FSH diminished expression of 92% of the 177 genes in the OVCA cell lines. All but 18 of the genes affected by FSH in HOSE cell lines were different from those altered in OVCA cell lines. Among the 18 overlapping genes, nine genes exhibited the same direction of change following FSH challenge, while the other nine showed discordance in response between HOSE and OVCA cell lines. The FSH-induced differential expression of seven out of nine genes was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Gene-specific antisense oligonuleotides (ODNs) were used to inhibit the expression of genes encoding GTPase activating protein (rap1GAP), neogenin, and restin in HOSE and OVCA cells. Antisense ODNs to neogenin and restin, but not an antisense ODN to rap1GAP, were effective in inhibiting OVCA cell growth, diminishing proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression, and increasing caspase 3 activities. Furthermore, the ODN to rap1GAP was further shown to be ineffective in altering migration properties of OVCA cell lines. HOSE cell proliferation was not affected by treatment with any of the antisense ODNs. In summary, gene profiling data reveal for the first time that FSH may exert different biological actions on OVCA

  4. Anticancer properties of novel aminoacetonitrile derivative monepantel (ADD 1566) in pre-clinical models of human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Farnaz; Morris, David L; Rufener, Lucien; Pourgholami, Mohammad H

    2014-01-01

    Monepantel (MPL) is a new anthelmintic agent approved for the treatment of nematode infections in farm animals. As a nematicide, it acts through a nematode-specific nicotinic receptor subtype which explains its exceptional safety in rodents and mammals. In the present study, we evaluated its potential as an anticancer agent. In vitro treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer cells with MPL resulted in reduced cell viability, inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression of colony formation. Proliferation of human ovarian surface epithelial cells and other non-malignant cells were however minimally affected. MPL-induced inhibition was found to be independent of the acetylcholine nicotinic receptor (nAChR) indicating that, its target in cancer cells is probably different from that in nematodes. Analysis of MPL treated cells by flow cytometry revealed G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Accordingly, MPL treated cells expressed reduced levels of cyclins D1 and A whereas cyclin E2 expression was enhanced. Consistent with a G1 phase arrest, cellular levels of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) 2 and 4 were lower, whereas expression of CDK inhibitor p27kip was increased. In cells expressing the wild-type p53, MPL treatment led to increased p53 expression. In line with these results, MPL suppressed cellular thymidine incorporation thus impairing DNA synthesis and inducing cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1). Combined these pre-clinical findings reveal for the first time the anticancer potential of monepantel. PMID:25232496

  5. Metabolites from invasive pests inhibit mitochondrial complex II: A potential strategy for the treatment of human ovarian carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Guerra, Flora; Felline, Serena; Rimoli, Maria Grazia; Mollo, Ernesto; Zara, Vincenzo; Terlizzi, Antonio

    2016-05-13

    The red pigment caulerpin, a secondary metabolite from the marine invasive green algae Caulerpa cylindracea can be accumulated and transferred along the trophic chain, with detrimental consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Despite increasing research efforts to understand how caulerpin modifies fish physiology, little is known on the effects of algal metabolites on mammalian cells. Here we report for the first time the mitochondrial targeting activity of both caulerpin, and its closely related derivative caulerpinic acid, by using as experimental model rat liver mitochondria, a system in which bioenergetics mechanisms are not altered. Mitochondrial function was tested by polarographic and spectrophotometric methods. Both compounds were found to selectively inhibit respiratory complex II activity, while complexes I, III, and IV remained functional. These results led us to hypothesize that both algal metabolites could be used as antitumor agents in cell lines with defects in mitochondrial complex I. Ovarian cancer cisplatin-resistant cells are a good example of cell lines with a defective complex I function on which these molecules seem to have a toxic effect on proliferation. This provided novel insight toward the potential use of metabolites from invasive Caulerpa species for the treatment of human ovarian carcinoma cisplatin-resistant cells. PMID:27091429

  6. Isolation and characterization of side population cells from the human ovarian cancer cell line SK-OV-3

    PubMed Central

    RUAN, ZHENGYI; LIU, JIANHUA; KUANG, YANPING

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most malignant type of gynecological tumor due to its high recurrence rate following initial treatment. Previous studies have indicated that cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be a potential cause underlying the high proportion of recurrence. Side population (SP) cells isolated from cancer cell lines have been shown to exhibit characteristics associated with CSCs, but studies on SP cells in human ovarian SK-OV-3 cell line are limited. In the present study, the SP cell fraction (4.83% of the total cell population) was isolated using flow cytometry, and analyzed by immunocytochemical analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that SP cells exhibited a high mean fluorescence intensity for CD44, a CSC marker, in addition to elevated expression of the CSCs-associated genes, ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 and Nestin. These findings indicated the stem cell-like features of the SP cells. Furthermore, a colony formation test showed that the isolated SP cells possessed a marked capacity for self-regeneration and proliferation. In addition, a cell cycle assay involving cisplatin indicated that the SP cells were strongly resistant to chemotherapy. In conclusion, the present results suggested that SP cells isolated from the SK-OV-3 cell line exhibited properties typically associated with CSCs. Therefore, the isolated SP cells may be used to provide novel insight into potential therapies against OC. PMID:26668597

  7. Application of microwave-assisted micro-solid-phase extraction for determination of parabens in human ovarian cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha; Narasimhan, Kothandaraman; Choolani, Mahesh; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-09-01

    Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are widely used as preservatives in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. However, weak estrogenicity of some parabens has been reported in several studies, which provided the impetus for this work. Here, a simple and efficient analytical method for quantifying parabens in cancer tissues has been developed. This technique involves the simultaneous use of microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) and micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), in tandem with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) analysis for the determination of parabens. The pollutants studied included four parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl parabens). Optimization of the experimental parameters for MASE and μ-SPE was performed. Good relative standard deviation (%RSD) ranged from 0.09 to 2.81% and high enrichment factors (27-314) were obtained. Coefficients of determination (r(2)) up to 0.9962 were obtained across a concentration range of 5.0-200ngg(-1). The method detection limits for parabens ranged from 0.005 to 0.0244ngg(-1). The procedure was initially tested on prawn samples to demonstrate its feasibility on a complex biological matrix. Preliminary studies on human ovarian cancer (OC) tissues showed presence of parabens. Higher levels of parabens were detected in malignant ovarian tumor tissues compared to benign tumor tissue samples. PMID:26245364

  8. A xenograft mouse model coupled with in-depth plasma proteome analysis facilitates identification of novel serum biomarkers for human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hsin-Yao; Beer, Lynn A; Chang-Wong, Tony; Hammond, Rachel; Gimotty, Phyllis; Coukos, George; Speicher, David W

    2012-02-01

    Proteomics discovery of novel cancer serum biomarkers is hindered by the great complexity of serum, patient-to-patient variability, and triggering by the tumor of an acute-phase inflammatory reaction. This host response alters many serum protein levels in cancer patients, but these changes have low specificity as they can be triggered by diverse causes. We addressed these hurdles by utilizing a xenograft mouse model coupled with an in-depth 4-D protein profiling method to identify human proteins in the mouse serum. This strategy ensures that identified putative biomarkers are shed by the tumor, and detection of low-abundance proteins shed by the tumor is enhanced because the mouse blood volume is more than a thousand times smaller than that of a human. Using TOV-112D ovarian tumors, more than 200 human proteins were identified in the mouse serum, including novel candidate biomarkers and proteins previously reported to be elevated in either ovarian tumors or the blood of ovarian cancer patients. Subsequent quantitation of selected putative biomarkers in human sera using label-free multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS) showed that chloride intracellular channel 1, the mature form of cathepsin D, and peroxiredoxin 6 were elevated significantly in sera from ovarian carcinoma patients. PMID:22032327

  9. Psammoma bodies in two types of human ovarian tumours: a mineralogical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanlu, Meng; Changqiu, Wang; Yan, Li; Anhuai, Lu; Fang, Mei; Jianying, Liu; Jingyun, Du; Yan, Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Psammoma body (PB) is a common form of calcification in pathological diagnosis and closely relevant to tumours. This paper focuses on the mineralogical characteristics of PBs in ovarian serous cancer and teratoma by using polarization microscope (POM), environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), micro-area synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (μ-SRXRD) and fluorescence (μ-SRXRF). Both the PBs in tissues and separated from eight typical cases were investigated. POM and ESEM observation revealed the inside-out growth pattern of PBs. μ-SRXRD and micro-FT-IR results demonstrated the dominant mineral phase of PBs in ovarian serous cancer and teratoma was AB-type carbonate hydroxyapatite (Ca10[(PO4)6-x-y(CO3)x(HPO4 2-)y][(OH)2-u(CO3)u] with 0 ≤ x,y,u ≤ 2). As observed by ESEM and TEM, the layer-rich PBs in teratoma were up to 70 μm and mainly consisted of 5 nm-wide, 5-12 nm-long columnar crystals; the PBs in ovarian serous cancer with a maximum diameter of 35 μm were composed of slightly longer columnar crystals and granulates with 20-100 nm in diameter. The selected area electron diffraction patterns showed dispersed polycrystalline diffraction rings with arching behavior of (002) diffraction, indicating the aggregated nanocrystals grew in the preferred orientation of (002) face. The EDX and μ-SRXRF results together indicated the existence of Na, Mg, Zn and Sr in PBs. These detailed mineralogical characteristics may help uncover the nature of the pathological PBs in ovary.

  10. Erratum to: Psammoma bodies in two types of human ovarian tumours: a mineralogical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanlu; Wang, Changqiu; Li, Yan; Lu, Anhuai; Mei, Fang; Liu, Jianying; Du, Jingyun; Zhang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    Psammoma body (PB) is a common form of calcification in pathological diagnosis and closely relevant to tumours. This paper focuses on the mineralogical characteristics of PBs in ovarian serous cancer and teratoma by using polarization microscope (POM), environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), micro-area synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (μ-SRXRD) and fluorescence (μ-SRXRF). Both the PBs in tissues and separated from eight typical cases were investigated. POM and ESEM observation revealed the inside-out growth pattern of PBs. μ-SRXRD and micro-FT-IR results demonstrated the dominant mineral phase of PBs in ovarian serous cancer and teratoma was AB-type carbonate hydroxyapatite (Ca10[(PO4)6-x-y(CO3)x(HPO4)y][(OH)2-u(CO3)u] with 0 ≤ x,y,u ≤ 2). As observed by ESEM and TEM, the layer-rich PBs in teratoma were up to 70 μm and mainly consisted of 5 nm-wide, 5-12 nm-long columnar crystals; the PBs in ovarian serous cancer with a maximum diameter of 35 μm were composed of slightly longer columnar crystals and granulates with 20-100 nm in diameter. The selected area electron diffraction patterns showed dispersed polycrystalline diffraction rings with arching behavior of (002) diffraction, indicating the aggregated nanocrystals grew in the preferred orientation of (002) face. The EDX and μ-SRXRF results together indicated the existence of Na, Mg, Zn and Sr in PBs. These detailed mineralogical characteristics may help uncover the nature of the pathological PBs in ovary.

  11. OVARIAN CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kathleen R.; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms traditionally sub-classified based on type and degree of differentiation. Although current clinical management of ovarian carcinoma largely fails to take this heterogeneity into account, it is becoming evident that each major histological type has characteristic genetic defects that deregulate specific signaling pathways in the tumor cells. Moreover, within the most common histological types, the molecular pathogenesis of low-grade versus high-grade tumors appears to be largely distinct. Mouse models of ovarian carcinoma have been developed that recapitulate many of the morphological features, biological behavior, and gene expression patterns of selected subtypes of ovarian cancer. Such models will likely prove useful for studying ovarian cancer biology and for pre-clinical testing of molecularly targeted therapeutics, which may ultimately lead to better clinical outcomes for women with ovarian cancer. PMID:18842102

  12. Establishment of human ovarian serous carcinomas cell lines in serum free media.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhuangyu; Hooley, Jeffrey; Smith, Douglas H; Young, Peter; Roberts, Penelope E; Mather, Jennie P

    2012-03-01

    Ovarian cancers are the fifth leading cause of cancer death among US woman. The majority of ovarian cancers belong to a category of serous adenocarcinomas. This type of cancer is often diagnosed at a late stage of the disease. Surgical debulking, followed by chemotherapy is the current treatment. Half of all patients will die within 5 years of diagnosis of the disease. Poor survival may be due to disease progression as a consequence of development of drug resistance, cancer cell heterogeneity within the tumor, or the persistence of cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells (CSC) are defined as a minority cell type in the tumor, which retains the capacity, through asymmetric division, for self-renewal as well as differentiation into multiple cell types. Through this process, CSC can regenerate the entire tumor phenotype and subsequent metastases. Initial in vitro work in the area of solid tumor CSC biology has focused on the isolation and propagation of cells with CSC-like properties from breast and colon tumors. Breast and colon cell lines with CSC-like properties have been isolated and maintained in vitro for extended periods of time. The in vitro maintenance of these CSC requires growth in hormone-supplemented serum-free media and the use of matrix or growth as tumor spheres (Roberts, Ricci-Vitiani et al., Cammareri et al.). Based on the pioneering work generating breast and colon CSC, our lab has begun to develop methods for the establishment cell lines with CSC-like properties from additional solid tumors. In this article, we describe methods, using defined medium, which allow for the successful establishment of continuous cell cultures from a minority cell type within serous ovarian cancers. The cell lines established using these methods grow in serum-free hormone-supplemented medium either as a monolayer on a matrix, or as tumor spheres in suspension. These cells express markers previously reported for tumor stem cells, including CD44 and CD133, and form tumors

  13. Conversion of murine antibodies to human antibodies and their optimization for ovarian cancer therapy targeted to the folate receptor.

    PubMed

    Figini, Mariangela; Martin, Franck; Ferri, Renata; Luison, Elena; Ripamonti, Elena; Zacchetti, Alberto; Mortarino, Mimosa; Di Cioccio, Vito; Maurizi, Giovanni; Allegretti, Marcello; Canevari, Silvana

    2009-04-01

    We previously developed murine and chimeric antibodies against a specific epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) marker, named folate receptor (FR), and promising results were obtained in phase II trials. More recently, we successfully generated a completely human Fab fragment, C4, by conversion of one of the murine anti-FR antibodies to human antibody using phage display and guided selection. However, subsequent efforts to obtain C4 in a dimer format, which seems especially desirable for EOC locoregional treatment, resulted in a highly heterogeneous product upon natural dimerization and in a very poor production yield upon chemical dimerization by a non-hydrolyzable linker to a di-Fab-maleimide (DFM). We therefore designed, constructed and characterized a large Fab dual combinatorial human antibody phage display library obtained from EOC patients and potentially biased toward an anti-tumor response in an effort to obtain new anti-FR human antibodies suitable for therapy. Using this library and guiding the selection on FR-expressing cells with murine/human antibody chains, we generated four new human anti-FR antibody (AFRA) Fab fragments, one of which was genetically and chemically manipulated to obtain a chemical dimer, designated AFRA-DFM5.3, with high yield production and the capability for purification scaled-up to clinical grade. Overall affinity of AFRA-DFM5.3 was in the 2-digit nanomolar range, and immunohistochemistry indicated that the reagent recognized the FR expressed on EOC samples. (131)I-AFRA-DFM5.3 showed high immunoreactivity, in vitro stability and integrity, and specifically accumulated only in FR-expressing tumors in subcutaneous preclinical in vivo models. Overall, our studies demonstrate the successful conversion of murine to completely human anti-FR antibodies through the combined use of antibody phage display libraries biased toward an anti-tumor response, guided selection and chain shuffling, and point to the suitability of AFRA5.3 for future

  14. The influence of nanotexturing of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) films upon human ovarian cancer cell attachment.

    PubMed

    Yaşayan, Gökçen; Xue, Xuan; Collier, Pamela; Clarke, Philip; Alexander, Morgan R; Marlow, Maria

    2016-06-24

    In this study, we have produced nanotextured poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films by using polystyrene (PS) particles as a template to make a polydimethylsiloxane mould against which PLGA is solvent cast. Biocompatible, biodegradable and nanotextured PLGA films were prepared with PS particles of diameter of 57, 99, 210, and 280 nm that produced domes of the same dimension in the PLGA surface. The effect of the particulate monolayer templating method was investigated to enable preparation of the films with uniformly ordered surface nanodomes. Cell attachment of a human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR3) alone and co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated on flat and topographically nano-patterned surfaces. Cell numbers were observed to increase on the nanotextured surfaces compared to non-textured surfaces both with OVCAR3 cultures and OVCAR3-MSC co-cultures at 24 and 48 h time points. PMID:27184195

  15. The influence of nanotexturing of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) films upon human ovarian cancer cell attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaşayan, Gökçen; Xue, Xuan; Collier, Pamela; Clarke, Philip; Alexander, Morgan R.; Marlow, Maria

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we have produced nanotextured poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films by using polystyrene (PS) particles as a template to make a polydimethylsiloxane mould against which PLGA is solvent cast. Biocompatible, biodegradable and nanotextured PLGA films were prepared with PS particles of diameter of 57, 99, 210, and 280 nm that produced domes of the same dimension in the PLGA surface. The effect of the particulate monolayer templating method was investigated to enable preparation of the films with uniformly ordered surface nanodomes. Cell attachment of a human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR3) alone and co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated on flat and topographically nano-patterned surfaces. Cell numbers were observed to increase on the nanotextured surfaces compared to non-textured surfaces both with OVCAR3 cultures and OVCAR3-MSC co-cultures at 24 and 48 h time points.

  16. Novel methods of treating ovarian infertility in older and POF women, testicular infertility, and other human functional diseases.

    PubMed

    Bukovsky, Antonin

    2015-01-01

    In vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies are facing with growing demands of older women to conceive. Although ovarian stem cells (OSCs) of older women are capable of producing in vitro fresh oocyte-like cells (OLCs), such cells cannot respond to IVM and IVF due to the lack of granulosa cells required for their maturation. Follicular renewal is also dependent on support of circulating blood mononuclear cells. They induce intermediary stages of meiosis (metaphase I chromosomal duplication and crossover, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis) in newly emerging ovarian germ cells, as for the first time demonstrated here, induce formation of granulosa cells, and stimulate follicular growth and development. A pretreatment of OSC culture with mononuclear cells collected from blood of a young healthy fertile woman may cause differentiation of bipotential OSCs into both developing germ and granulosa cells. A small blood volume replacement may enable treatment of ovarian infertility in vivo. The transferred mononuclear cells may temporarily rejuvenate virtually all tissues, including improvement of the function of endocrine tissues. Formation of new follicles and their development may be sufficient for IVM and IVF. The novel proposed in vitro approaches may be used as a second possibility. Infertility of human males affects almost a half of the infertility cases worldwide. Small blood volume replacement from young healthy fertile men may also be easy approach for the improvement of sperm quality in older or other affected men. In addition, body rejuvenation by small blood volume replacement from young healthy individuals of the same sex could represent a decline of in vitro methodology in favor of in vivo treatment for human functional diseases. Here we propose for the first time that blood mononuclear cells are essential for rejuvenation of those tissues, where immune system components participate in an appropriate division and differentiation

  17. Silencing of integrin-linked kinase suppresses in vivo tumorigenesis of human ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Li, Chen; Zhang, Yun-Yan; Chen, Wei; Lv, Jun-Li; Sun, Jing; You, Qing-Shan

    2013-03-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) plays a role in the regulation of multiple cellular functions (e.g., promoting cell migration and proliferation, but inhibiting cell adhesion). This study investigated the inhibitory effects of ILK gene knockdown on the regulation of in vivo tumorigenesis of human ovarian carcinoma cells in nude mouse xenografts. HO-8910 cells were transfected with an ILK antisense oligonucleotide (ILK-ASO) to silence the ILK gene. Expression of ILK mRNA and protein was evaluated by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. The cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Cells with or without ILK-ASO transfection were subcutaneously injected into nude mice. The mouse body weight, tumor formation, tumor size and tumor weight were determined up to 30 days after inoculation. Tumor cells transfected with ILK-ASO had significantly decreased ILK mRNA and protein expression (P<0.01) when compared to the control cells. ILK gene silencing significantly increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase (67.61 vs. 43.29%, χ2=1197.15, P<0.01). After tumor cell inoculation, tumor cells transfected with ILK-ASO showed significantly delayed tumor formation when compared to control (9.10±0.74 vs. 5.30±0.67 days, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, tumor growth was suppressed in the 30 days following inoculation (P<0.01 compared with the controls). The average tumor weight in the ILK-ASO group was statistically lower than that of the control group (1.29±0.11 vs. 1.57±0.13 g, respectively; P<0.01). This study demonstrated that ILK-ASO transfection efficiently downregulated ILK expression in human ovarian carcinoma HO-8910 cells and that ILK gene silencing suppressed tumor growth in nude mice xenografts. PMID:23340803

  18. Ultrastructural and phenotypic characterization of CABA I, a new human ovarian cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Dolo, V; Ginestra, A; Violini, S; Miotti, S; Festuccia, C; Miceli, D; Migliavacca, M; Rinaudo, C; Romano, F M; Brisdelli, F; Canevari, S; Pavan, A; Vittorelli, M L

    1997-01-01

    We have established an ovarian cancer cell line (CABA I) from ascitic fluid obtained from a patient with papillary adenocarcinoma of the ovary prior to drug treatment. The epithelial origin of the cell line was confirmed by morphology and by immunofluorescence analysis using anticytokeratin antibodies. Ultrastructural analysis revealed a very irregular membrane surface and a clear cytoplasm rich in electron-lucent vesicles. CABA I cells grow rapidly in culture (doubling time 18 h) in an anchorage-independent manner. Exogenously added beta-estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatments did not influence cell growth rate. FACS analysis to determine the phenotypic profile of tumor-associated antigen, membrane receptor, and adhesion molecule expression indicated that the cell line was positive for different members of the c-erbB family, for alpha 6 and beta 1 integrin receptors, and intensively positive for HLA class I antigens and the folate receptor. Molecular characterization revealed no mutations for c-myc and c-k-ras genes, but did detect an exon 5 mutation in the p53 gene. CABA I cells grew poorly as heterotransplants in nude mice, and tumors showed long latency periods. Because early (15-20) and late (55-60) passage cells maintain the same growth and phenotypic characteristics, the CABA I cell line might provide a good in vitro model system to investigate the cellular and molecular events involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:9220498

  19. The thyroid hormone-αvβ3 integrin axis in ovarian cancer: regulation of gene transcription and MAPK-dependent proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shinderman-Maman, E; Cohen, K; Weingarten, C; Nabriski, D; Twito, O; Baraf, L; Hercbergs, A; Davis, P J; Werner, H; Ellis, M; Ashur-Fabian, O

    2016-04-14

    Ovarian carcinoma is the fifth common cause of cancer death in women, despite advanced therapeutic approaches. αvβ3 integrin, a plasma membrane receptor, binds thyroid hormones (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3) and is overexpressed in ovarian cancer. We have demonstrated selective binding of fluorescently labeled hormones to αvβ3-positive ovarian cancer cells but not to integrin-negative cells. Physiologically relevant T3 (1 nM) and T4 (100 nM) concentrations in OVCAR-3 (high αvβ3) and A2780 (low αvβ3) cells promoted αv and β3 transcription in association with basal integrin levels. This transcription was effectively blocked by RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptide and neutralizing αvβ3 antibodies, excluding T3-induced β3 messenger RNA, suggesting subspecialization of T3 and T4 binding to the integrin receptor pocket. We have provided support for extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)-mediated transcriptional regulation of the αv monomer by T3 and of β3 monomer by both hormones and documented a rapid (30-120 min) and dose-dependent (0.1-1000 nM) ERK activation. OVCAR-3 cells and αvβ3-deficient HEK293 cells treated with αvβ3 blockers confirmed the requirement for an intact thyroid hormone-integrin interaction in ERK activation. In addition, novel data indicated that T4, but not T3, controls integrin's outside-in signaling by phosphorylating tyrosine 759 in the β3 subunit. Both hormones induced cell proliferation (cell counts), survival (Annexin-PI), viability (WST-1) and significantly reduced the expression of genes that inhibit cell cycle (p21, p16), promote mitochondrial apoptosis (Nix, PUMA) and tumor suppression (GDF-15, IGFBP-6), particularly in cells with high integrin expression. At last, we have confirmed that hypothyroid environment attenuated ovarian cancer growth using a novel experimental platform that exploited paired euthyroid and severe hypothyroid serum samples from human subjects. To conclude, our data define a critical

  20. MiR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer and modulates cell growth and invasion by targeting p70S6K1 and MUC1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huijuan; Xiao, ZhengHua; Wang, Ke; Liu, Wenxin; Hao, Quan

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •MiR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer. •MiR-145 targets p70S6K1 and MUC1. •p70S6K1 and MUC1 are involved in miR-145 mediated tumor cell growth and cell invasion, respectively. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. Previous studies have shown that miR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer; however, the roles of miR-145 in ovarian cancer growth and invasion have not been fully demonstrated. In the present study, Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis indicate that miR-145 is downregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as in serum samples of ovarian cancer, compared to healthy ovarian tissues, cell lines and serum samples. Functional studies suggest that miR-145 overexpression leads to the inhibition of colony formation, cell proliferation, cell growth viability and invasion, and the induction of cell apoptosis. In accordance with the effect of miR-145 on cell growth, miR-145 suppresses tumor growth in vivo. MiR-145 is found to negatively regulate P70S6K1 and MUC1 protein levels by directly targeting their 3′UTRs. Importantly, the overexpression of p70S6K1 and MUC1 can restore the cell colony formation and invasion abilities that are reduced by miR-145, respectively. MiR-145 expression is increased after 5-aza-CdR treatment, and 5-aza-CdR treatment results in the same phenotype as the effect of miR-145 overexpression. Our study suggests that miR-145 modulates ovarian cancer growth and invasion by suppressing p70S6K1 and MUC1, functioning as a tumor suppressor. Moreover, our data imply that miR-145 has potential as a miRNA-based therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

  1. Cellular responses induced by Cu(II) quinolinonato complexes in human tumor and hepatic cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inspired by the unprecedented historical success of cisplatin, one of the most important research directions in bioinorganic and medicinal chemistry is dedicated to the development of new anticancer compounds with the potential to surpass it in antitumor activity, while having lower unwanted side-effects. Therefore, a series of copper(II) mixed-ligand complexes of the type [Cu(qui)(L)]Y · xH2O (1–6), where Hqui = 2-phenyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolinone, Y = NO3 (1, 3, 5) or BF4 (2, 4, 6), and L = 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (1, 2), 5-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (mphen) (3, 4) and bathophenanthroline (bphen) (5, 6), was studied for their in vitro cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines (A549 lung carcinoma, HeLa cervix epitheloid carcinoma, G361 melanoma cells, A2780 ovarian carcinoma, A2780cis cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma, LNCaP androgen-sensitive prostate adenocarcinoma and THP-1 monocytic leukemia). Results The tested complexes displayed a stronger cytotoxic effect against all the cancer cells as compared to cisplatin. The highest cytotoxicity was found for the complexes 4 (IC50 = 0.36 ± 0.05 μM and 0.56 ± 0.15 μM), 5 (IC50 = 0.66 ± 0.07 μM and 0.73 ± 0.08 μM) and 6 (IC50 = 0.57 ± 0.11 μM and 0.70 ± 0.20 μM) against A2780, and A2780cis respectively, as compared with the values of 12.0 ± 0.8 μM and 27.0 ± 4.6 μM determined for cisplatin. Moreover, the tested complexes were much less cytotoxic to primary human hepatocytes than to the cancer cells. The complexes 5 and 6 exhibited significantly high ability to modulate secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (2873 ± 238 pg/mL and 3284 ± 139 pg/mL for 5, and 6 respectively) and IL-1β (1177 ± 128 pg/mL and 1087 ± 101 pg/mL for 5, and 6 respectively) tested on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 cells as compared with the values of 1173 ± 85

  2. AAV9 delivering a modified human Mullerian inhibiting substance as a gene therapy in patient-derived xenografts of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pépin, David; Sosulski, Amanda; Zhang, Lihua; Wang, Dan; Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Hendren, Katherine; Coletti, Caroline M.; Yu, Aaron; Castro, Cesar M.; Birrer, Michael J.; Gao, Guangping; Donahoe, Patricia K.

    2015-01-01

    To improve ovarian cancer patient survival, effective treatments addressing chemoresistant recurrences are particularly needed. Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) has been shown to inhibit the growth of a stem-like population of ovarian cancer cells. We have recently engineered peptide modifications to human MIS [albumin leader Q425R MIS (LRMIS)] that increase production and potency in vitro and in vivo. To test this novel therapeutic peptide, serous malignant ascites from highly resistant recurrent ovarian cancer patients were isolated and amplified to create low-passage primary cell lines. Purified recombinant LRMIS protein successfully inhibited the growth of cancer spheroids in vitro in a panel of primary cell lines in four of six patients tested. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) -delivered gene therapy has undergone a clinical resurgence with a good safety profile and sustained gene expression. Therefore, AAV9 was used as a single i.p. injection to deliver LRMIS to test its efficacy in inhibiting growth of palpable tumors in patient-derived ovarian cancer xenografts from ascites (PDXa). AAV9-LRMIS monotherapy resulted in elevated and sustained blood concentrations of MIS, which significantly inhibited the growth of three of five lethal chemoresistant serous adenocarcinoma PDXa models without signs of measurable or overt toxicity. Finally, we tested the frequency of MIS type II receptor expression in a tissue microarray of serous ovarian tumors by immunohistochemistry and found that 88% of patients bear tumors that express the receptor. Taken together, these preclinical data suggest that AAV9-LRMIS provides a potentially well-tolerated and effective treatment strategy poised for testing in patients with chemoresistant serous ovarian cancer. PMID:26216943

  3. AAV9 delivering a modified human Mullerian inhibiting substance as a gene therapy in patient-derived xenografts of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Pépin, David; Sosulski, Amanda; Zhang, Lihua; Wang, Dan; Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Hendren, Katherine; Coletti, Caroline M; Yu, Aaron; Castro, Cesar M; Birrer, Michael J; Gao, Guangping; Donahoe, Patricia K

    2015-08-11

    To improve ovarian cancer patient survival, effective treatments addressing chemoresistant recurrences are particularly needed. Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) has been shown to inhibit the growth of a stem-like population of ovarian cancer cells. We have recently engineered peptide modifications to human MIS [albumin leader Q425R MIS (LRMIS)] that increase production and potency in vitro and in vivo. To test this novel therapeutic peptide, serous malignant ascites from highly resistant recurrent ovarian cancer patients were isolated and amplified to create low-passage primary cell lines. Purified recombinant LRMIS protein successfully inhibited the growth of cancer spheroids in vitro in a panel of primary cell lines in four of six patients tested. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) -delivered gene therapy has undergone a clinical resurgence with a good safety profile and sustained gene expression. Therefore, AAV9 was used as a single i.p. injection to deliver LRMIS to test its efficacy in inhibiting growth of palpable tumors in patient-derived ovarian cancer xenografts from ascites (PDXa). AAV9-LRMIS monotherapy resulted in elevated and sustained blood concentrations of MIS, which significantly inhibited the growth of three of five lethal chemoresistant serous adenocarcinoma PDXa models without signs of measurable or overt toxicity. Finally, we tested the frequency of MIS type II receptor expression in a tissue microarray of serous ovarian tumors by immunohistochemistry and found that 88% of patients bear tumors that express the receptor. Taken together, these preclinical data suggest that AAV9-LRMIS provides a potentially well-tolerated and effective treatment strategy poised for testing in patients with chemoresistant serous ovarian cancer. PMID:26216943

  4. Effect of targeted ovarian cancer therapy using amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein-human interleukin-2 in vivo.

    PubMed

    You, Qi; Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Yuanlong; Fu, Songbin; Du, Mei; Zhang, Guangmei

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of using amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) in targeted ovarian cancer therapy in vivo. AF-MSCs were isolated from human second trimester AF and a plasmid, enhanced green fluorescent protein‑human interleukin‑2 (pEGFP‑hIL‑2) was formed. The plasmid was stably transfected into the AF‑MSCs and the cells were intravenously injected into ovarian cancer nude mice models. Following stable transfection of the vector, tumor formation, and the expression and activity of hIL‑2 were investigated, and microscopic pathological examinations of the tumor were performed. It was found that AF‑MSCs exhibited high motility during migration in vivo, and the vector, pEGFP‑hIL‑2 can be stably transfected into AF‑MSCs. Following stable transfection, this type of stem cell is able to successfully transport the therapeutic gene, IL-2, migrate to the ovarian cancer tumor site to secrete the functional IL-2 and treat the tumor. Thus, AF-MSCs may serve as transporters for therapeutic genes targeting ovarian tumor sites and, therefore, be involved in the treatment of tumors. PMID:26179662

  5. Long-Time Cooling before Cryopreservation Decreased Translocation of Phosphatidylserine (Ptd-L-Ser) in Human Ovarian Tissue

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To translocation (externalization) of phosphatidylserine lead at least the five negative effects observed during cells cryopreservation: hypoxia, increasing of intracellular Ca2+, osmotic disruption of cellular membranes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to test the intensiveness of the phosphatidylserine translocation immediately after thawing and after 45 d xenografting of human ovarian tissue, which was either frozen just after operative removal from patient or cooled before cryopreservation to 5°C for 24 h and then frozen. Materials and Methods Ovarian fragments from twelve patients were divided into small pieces in form of cortex with medulla, and randomly divided into the following four groups. Pieces of Group 1 (n=30) were frozen immediately after operation, thawed and just after thawing their quality was analyzed. Group 2 pieces (n=30) after operation were cooled to 5°C for 24 h, then frozen after 24 h pre-cooling to 5°C, thawed and just after thawing their quality was analyzed. Group 3 pieces (n=30) were frozen immediately after operation without pre-cooling, thawed, transplanted to SCID mice and then, after 45 d of culture their quality was analyzed. Group 4 pieces (n=30) were frozen after 24 h pre-cooling to 5°C, thawed, transplanted to SCID mice and then, after 45 d their quality was analyzed. The effectiveness of the pre-freezing cooling of tissuewas evaluated by the development of follicles (histology) and by intensiveness of translocation of phosphatidylserine (FACS with FITC-Annexin V and Propidium Iodide). Results For groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 the mean densities of follicles per 1 mm3 was 19.0, 20.2, 12.9, and 12.2, respectively (P1-2, 3-4 >0.1). For these groups, 99%, 98%, 88% and 90% preantral follicles, respectively were morphologically normal (P1-2, 3-4 >0.1). The FACS analysis showed significantly decreased intensiveness of translocation of phosphatidylserine after pre

  6. Identification of high-risk patients by human epididymis protein 4 levels during follow-up of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    STEFFENSEN, KARINA DAHL; WALDSTRØM, MARIANNE; BRANDSLUND, IVAN; LUND, BENTE; SØRENSEN, SARAH MEJER; PETZOLD, MAX; JAKOBSEN, ANDERS

    2016-01-01

    The majority of ovarian cancer patients with advanced disease at diagnosis will relapse following primary treatment, with a dismal prognosis. Monitoring the levels of serum markers in patients under follow-up may be essential for the early detection of relapse, and for distinguishing high-risk patients from those with less aggressive disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible predictive value of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) in relation to recurrence of epithelial ovarian cancer by measuring the two markers during follow-up subsequent to surgery and adjuvant first-line carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy. Serum HE4 and CA125 were analyzed in 88 epithelial ovarian cancer patients at the end of treatment and consecutively during follow-up. The patients were divided into a high-risk and a low-risk group based on having an increase in HE4 and CA125 levels above or below 50% during follow-up, relative to the baseline (end-of-treatment) level. Disease recurrence was detected in 55 patients during follow-up. Patients with an increase in HE4 of >50% at 3- and 6-month follow-up compared to the end-of-treatment sample had significantly poorer progression-free survival (PFS) [hazard ratio (HR), 2.82 (95% CI, 0.91–8.79; P=0.0052) and HR, 7.71 (95% CI, 3.03–19.58; P<0.0001), respectively]. The corresponding 3- and 6-month biomarker assessments for increased CA125 levels (>50%) showed HRs of 1.86 (95% CI, 0.90–3.80; P=0.0512) and 2.55 (95% CI, 1.39–4.68; P=0.0011), respectively. Multivariate analysis confirmed HE4 as a predictor of short PFS, with an HR of 8.23 (95% CI, 3.28–20.9; P<0.0001) at 6-month follow-up. The increase of CA125 was not a significant prognostic factor in multivariate analysis for PFS. In conclusion, HE4 appears to be a sensitive marker of recurrence and instrumental in risk assessment during the first 6 months of follow-up. PMID:27313725

  7. Ovarian haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Gunes, H A; Egilmez, R; Dulger, M

    1990-12-01

    Although ovaries have a very rich vasculature, haemangiomas of the ovary are extremely rare. There are only another 39 cases of ovarian haemangioma recorded in the literature. We describe an 11-year-old girl with an ovarian haemangioma who presented clinically with an acute abdomen. The patient has been well without complications for a year. PMID:2102218

  8. Enhancement of triptolide-loaded micelles on tumorigenicity inhibition of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, You; Liu, Ting; Li, He

    2016-05-01

    Triptolide (TP), a diterpenoid obtained from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f, has shown its antitumor activities against a variety of cancers in vitro in recent years. Unfortunately, TP has a small margin between the therapeutic and toxic doses and shows serious toxicity which limits its uses in antitumor treatment. In our previous study, Triptolide-loaded micelles (TP micelles), a TP drug delivery system with a sustained release behavior, had been reported to decrease TP uptake in the liver to relieve its toxicity, and increase TP distribution in the ovary to enhance its effects. This work therefore aimed at evaluating the inhibitory ability of TP micelles in the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration, and compared with free TP in SKOV3 cells. Our results showed that TP micelles inhibited the proliferation of SKOV3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and exhibited enhanced inhibition following 48 and 72 h treatment compared to TP. Cell cycle analysis revealed that TP and TP micelles inhibited cell proliferation by blocking their progression from the G2/M phase to the S phase. Although TP induced a significant increase in cell apoptosis, TP micelles showed a superior effect following 48 and 72 h treatment. Induction of caspase-dependent way and inhibition of NF-κB activation were found to be involved in the mechanism of TP micelles-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the wound healing assay and transwell assay showed that both TP and TP micelles could obviously inhibit SKOV3 cells migration and invasion. Overall, TP micelles exhibited enhanced therapeutic efficacy in ovarian cancer in vitro due to its prolonged release and redistribution compared with the free TP. TP micelles might lead to an increase in tumorigenicity inhibition and a decrease in resistance and incidence simultaneously, indicating that it offers a new strategy with promising characteristics for TP chemotherapy application for ovarian cancer. PMID:26786618

  9. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer-Induced Angiogenic Phenotype of Human Omental Microvascular Endothelial Cells May Occur Independently of VEGF Signaling12

    PubMed Central

    Winiarski, Boleslaw K; Wolanska, Katarzyna I; Rai, Srijana; Ahmed, Tahanver; Acheson, Nigel; Gutowski, Nicholas J; Whatmore, Jacqueline L

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) metastasizes transcoelomically to the peritoneum and omentum, and despite surgery and chemotherapy, recurrent disease is likely. Metastasis requires the induction of proangiogenic changes in the omental microenvironment and EOC-induced omental angiogenesis is currently a key therapeutic target. In particular, antiangiogenic therapies targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) pathway are commonly used, although, with limited effects. Here, using human omental microvascular endothelial cells (HOMECs) and ovarian cancer cell lines as an in vitro model, we show that factors secreted from EOC cells increased proliferation, migration, and tube-like structure formation in HOMECs. However, EOC-induced angiogenic tube-like formation and migration were unaffected by inhibition of tyrosine kinase activity of VEGF receptors 1 and 2 (Semaxanib; SU5416) or neutralization of VEGFA (neutralizing anti-VEGFA antibody), although VEGFA165-induced HOMEC migration and tube-like structure formation were abolished. Proteomic investigation of the EOC secretome identified several alternative angiogenesis-related proteins. We screened these for their ability to induce an angiogenic phenotype in HOMECs, i.e., proliferation, migration, and tube-like structure formation. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7) increased all three parameters, and cathepsin L (CL) increased migration and tubule formation. Further investigation confirmed expression of the HGF receptor c-Met in HOMECs. HGF- and EOC-induced proliferation and angiogenic tube structure formation were blocked by the c-Met inhibitor PF04217903. Our results highlight key alternative angiogenic mediators for metastatic EOC, namely, HGF, CL, and IGFBP-7, suggesting that effective antiangiogenic therapeutic strategies for this disease require inhibition of multiple angiogenic pathways. PMID:24466373

  10. Synchronization of ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin in lactating dairy cows with ovarian cysts during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Navanukraw, Chainarong; Khanthusaeng, Vilaivan; Kraisoon, Aree; Suwannarit, Duangkamon; Jarassaeng, Chaiwat; Aiumlamai, Suneerat

    2015-06-01

    A study was conducted during hot season to determine the effect of synchronization of ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on fertility of lactating dairy cows with ovarian cysts. Non cyclic Holstein dairy cows (n = 80) were stratified by parity and diagnosed as having an ovarian cyst. The cows were further identified as follicular or luteal cysts according to the plasma progesterone (P4) concentration and the cystic image of ultrasonography. Cystic cows were randomly assigned to receive treatments (Ovsynch as the control or Ovsynch plus 3000 IU hCG). All cows were artificially inseminated at 16-18 h after the second gonadotropin releasing hormone injection. Cows supplemented with hCG had a greater number of corpus luteum (1.8 ± 0.2 and 0.8 ± 0.3; P < 0.05) and had greater P4 concentration on day 12 than those control cows (6.3 ± 0.3 and 3.9 ± 0.4 ng/ml; P < 0.05). Concentration of cortisol did not differ between groups of cystic cows. No significant differences were found in overall conception rates between the treatments; however, significantly greater conception rate (P = 0.03) was observed in cows with luteal cysts receiving Ovsynch plus hCG. This study highlights that administration of hCG following the Ovsynch-based timed artificial insemination (AI) is more effective than the control Ovsynch by which the hCG affects corpus luteum (CL) development, P4 concentration, and thus improves conception rate in dairy cows with luteal cysts. PMID:25863956

  11. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Cancer Stem Cells in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landen, Charles N.; Goodman, Blake; Katre, Ashwini A.; Steg, Adam D.; Nick, Alpa M.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Miller, Lance D.; Mejia, Pablo Vivas; Jennings, Nicolas B.; Gershenson, David M.; Bast, Robert C.; Coleman, Robert L.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1A1) expression characterizes a subpopulation of cells with tumor initiating or cancer stem cell properties in several malignancies. Our goal was to characterize the phenotype of ALDH1A1-positive ovarian cancer cells and examine the biological effects of ALDH1A1 gene silencing. In our analysis of multiple ovarian cancer cell lines, we found that ALDH1A1 expression and activity was significantly higher in taxane and platinum-resistant cell lines. In patient samples, 72.9% of ovarian cancers had ALDH1A1 expression, in whom the percent of ALDH1A1-positive cells correlated negatively with progression-free survival (6.05 v 13.81 months, p<0.035). Subpopulations of A2780cp20 cells with ALDH1A1 activity were isolated for orthotopic tumor initiating studies, where tumorigenicity was approximately 50-fold higher with ALDH1A1-positive cells. Interestingly, tumors derived from ALDH1A1-positive cells gave rise to both ALDH1A1-positive and ALDH1A1-negative populations, but ALDH1A1-negative cells could not generate ALDH1A1-positive cells. In an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of ovarian cancer, ALDH1A1 silencing using nanoliposomal siRNA sensitized both taxane- and platinum-resistant cell lines to chemotherapy, significantly reducing tumor growth in mice compared to chemotherapy alone (a 74–90% reduction, p<0.015). These data demonstrate that the ALDH1A1 subpopulation is associated with chemoresistance and outcome in ovarian cancer patients, and targeting ALDH1A1 sensitizes resistant cells to chemotherapy. ALDH1A1-positive cells have enhanced, but not absolute, tumorigenicity, but do have differentiation capacity lacking in ALDH1A1-negative cells. This enzyme may be important for identification and targeting of chemoresistant cell populations in ovarian cancer. PMID:20889728

  12. Oncolytic virotherapy for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shoudong; Tong, Jessica; Rahman, Masmudur M; Shepherd, Trevor G; McFadden, Grant

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, more than 20 viruses with selective tropism for tumor cells have been developed as oncolytic viruses (OVs) for treatments of a variety of malignancies. Of these viruses, eleven have been tested in human ovarian cancer models in preclinical studies. So far, nine phase I or II clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using four different types of OVs in patients with recurrent ovarian cancers. In this article, we summarize the different OVs that are being assessed as therapeutics for ovarian cancer. We also present an overview of recent advances in identification of key genetic or immune-response pathways involved in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, which provides a better understanding of the tumor specificities and oncolytic properties of OVs. In addition, we discuss how next-generation OVs could be genetically modified or integrated into multimodality regimens to improve clinical outcomes based on recent advances in ovarian cancer biology. PMID:25977900

  13. Modulating Intrafollicular Hormonal Milieu in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation: Insights From PPAR Expression in Human Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Tatone, Carla; Benedetti, Elisabetta; Vitti, Maurizio; Di Emidio, Giovanna; Ciriminna, Rosanna; Vento, Maria Elena; Cela, Vito; Borzì, Placido; Carta, Gaspare; Lispi, Monica; Cimini, Anna Maria; Artini, Paolo Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) leading to ovulation of multiple follicles is a crucial aspect of biomedical infertility care. Nevertheless, biomarkers useful for COS management are still lacking. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors relevant to steroid metabolism in granulosa cells (GCs). We investigated whether PPARs and their steroidogenic targets were differentially expressed in GCs differentiated under different recombinant or urinary gonadotropin preparations. GCs from women subjected to COS with r-hFSH, r-hFSH/r-hLH, or hMG-HP were processed to assess expression of PPARα, PPARβ/δ, PPARγ, and steroidogenic enzymes under PPAR modulation. As an evidence of their activation, all PPAR isotypes with their coactivators, the retinoic-X-receptors (RXRs), localized in the nucleus. When GCs from r-hFSH/r-hLH group were compared with r-hFSH, a significant reduction of PPARα protein was observed. By contrast, an increase of PPARβ/δ at both protein and mRNA levels along with that of PPARγ protein were detected. The steroidogenic enzymes 17βHSD IV, 3βHSD II, and HMG-CoA red were downregulated in the r-hFSH/r-hLH group in comparison to r-hFSH unlike CYP19A1 that remained unchanged. In GCs from urinary FSH-LH stimulation (hMG-HP), PPARα was more expressed in comparison with r-hFSH/r-hLH group. Likewise, 3βHSD II and 17βHSD IV were increased suggesting that hMG-HP partially mimicked r-hFSH/r-hLH effects. In summary, transcript analysis associated to protein investigation revealed differential effects of COS protocols on PPARs and their steroidogenic targets in relation to LH and gonadotropin source. These observations candidate PPARs as new biomarkers of follicle competence opening new hypotheses on COS effects on ovarian physiology. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 908-914, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26332656

  14. Systemic Inflammation Is Associated with Ovarian Follicular Dynamics during the Human Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Baerwald, Angela R.; Pierson, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian processes and the timing of ovulation are important predictors of both female fertility and reproductive pathology. Multiple waves of antral follicular development have been documented during the menstrual cycle in women. However, the mechanisms underlying the development of follicular waves and their clinical significance are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) and follicular waves in healthy women. We wanted to determine whether follicular wave dynamics influence systemic inflammation, as ovarian activity increases local inflammatory processes and blood flow. We tested the hypothesis that women with 3 follicular waves would have higher CRP concentrations than those with 2 waves. We further hypothesized that a greater number of major waves (those with a dominant follicle) would be positively associated with CRP. Methods/Principal Findings Thirty-nine healthy women underwent daily transvaginal ultrasound examinations for one interovulatory interval, as part of an earlier study. Serum was collected every 3 days during the interovulatory interval (IOI). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to quantify serum CRP concentrations. Women with 3 waves had higher average log CRP concentrations (n = 14, −0.43±0.35) over the IOI than those with 2 waves (n = 25, −0.82±0.47, p = 02). Average log CRP concentrations were greater in women with 3 (0.30±0.31) versus 1 (−0.71±0.55) or 2 (−0.91±0.47) major waves (p = 0.03). Greater average CRP over the IOI was attributed to greater CRP in the follicular, but not the luteal phase, of the IOI. Conclusions/Significance A greater number of total antral follicular waves, in particular major waves, corresponded to greater serum concentrations of CRP. These findings suggest that women with a greater number of follicular waves exhibit greater tissue remodeling and therefore greater local and systemic

  15. Role of JNK Activation and Mitochondrial Bax Translocation in Allicin-Induced Apoptosis in Human Ovarian Cancer SKOV3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ling; Yu, Jin; Zhai, Dongxia; Zhang, Danying; Shen, Wei; Bai, Lingling; Cai, Zailong; Yu, Chaoqin

    2014-01-01

    Background. Allicin, the major component of freshly crushed garlic, is one of the most biologically active compounds of garlic; it has been reported to induce apoptosis in cancer cells; however, the mechanism by which allicin exerts its apoptotic effects is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the apoptotic pathways induced by allicin in the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3. Methods. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by cell-counting assay and flow cytometry analysis. Activation of the signaling pathway was screened by human phospho-kinase array analysis, and the activated pathway and its related proteins were further confirmed by western blot analysis. Results. Allicin induced SKOV3 cell apoptosis and JNK phosphorylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, but these were significantly blocked by SP600125 (an inhibitor of JNK). The findings suggest that JNK phosphorylation is related to the action of allicin on SKOV3 cells. Furthermore, JNK activation induced Bcl-2 family activation, triggered mitochondria-mediated signaling pathways, and led to the translocation of a considerable amount of Bax and cytochrome c release. Conclusions. JNK activation and mitochondrial Bax translocation are involved in allicin-induced apoptosis in SKOV3 cells. Our data input new insights to the literature of allicin-induced apoptosis. PMID:25097657

  16. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ovarian Cancer Patient Education FAQs Ovarian Cancer Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Ovarian Cancer FAQ096, April 2015 PDF Format Ovarian ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  17. In vivo Magnetic Resonance Metabolic and Morphofunctional Fingerprints in Experimental Models of Human Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Canese, Rossella; Mezzanzanica, Delia; Bagnoli, Marina; Indraccolo, Stefano; Canevari, Silvana; Podo, Franca; Iorio, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the gynecological malignancy with the highest death rate, characterized by frequent relapse and onset of drug resistance. Disease diagnosis and therapeutic follow-up could benefit from application of molecular imaging approaches, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), able to monitor metabolic and functional alterations and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we overview the quantitative alterations that occur during either orthotopic or subcutaneous growth of preclinical EOC models. A common feature of 1H MR spectra is the presence of a prominent peak due to total choline-containing metabolites (tCho), together with other metabolic alterations and MRI-detected morphofunctional patterns specific for different phenotypes. The tCho signal, already present at early stages of tumor growth, and changes of diffusion-weighted MRI parameters could serve as markers of malignancy and/or tumor response to therapy. The identification by MRS and MRI of biochemical and physiopathological fingerprints of EOC disease in preclinical models can represent a basis for further developments of non-invasive MR approaches in the clinical setting. PMID:27446810

  18. P-glycoprotein antagonists confer synergistic sensitivity to short-chain ceramide in human multidrug resistant cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Jacqueline V.; Gouazé-Andersson, Valérie; Karimi, Ramin; Messner, Maria C; Cabot, Myles C.

    2011-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) antagonists inhibit ceramide metabolism at the juncture of glycosylation. The purpose of this study was to test whether targeting P-gp would be a viable alternative to targeting glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) for enhancing ceramide cytotoxicity. A2780 wild-type, and multidrug resistant 2780AD and NCI/ADR-RES human ovarian cancer cell lines and the cell-permeable ceramide analog, C6-ceramide (C6-cer), were employed. Compared to P-gp-poor A2780 cells, P-gp-rich 2780AD cells converted 3.7-fold more C6-cer to nontoxic C6-glucosylceramide (C6-GC), whereas cell-free GCS activities were equal. 2780AD cells displayed resistance to C6-cer (10 μM) that was reversed by inclusion of the P-gp antagonist tamoxifen (5 μM) but not by inclusion of a GCS inhibitor. Co-administration of C6-cer and P-gp antagonists was also effective in NCI/ADR-RES cells. For example, C6-cer, VX-710 (Biricodar), and cyclosporin A (cyc A) exposure resulted in viabilities of ~90% of control; however, C6-cer/VX-710 and C6-cer/cyc A additions were synergistic and resulted in viabilities of 22 and 17%, respectively. Further, whereas C6-ceramide and cyc A imparted 1.5- and zero-fold increases in caspase 3/7 activity, the combination produced a 3.5-fold increase. Although the upstream elements of cell death have not been elucidated, the novel C6-ceramide/P-gp antagonist combination merits further study and assessment of clinical translational potential. PMID:21396934

  19. Interleukin 6 Receptor Is an Independent Prognostic Factor and a Potential Therapeutic Target of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Isobe, Aki; Sawada, Kenjiro; Kinose, Yasuto; Ohyagi-Hara, Chifumi; Nakatsuka, Erika; Makino, Hiroshi; Ogura, Tomonori; Mizuno, Tomoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Morii, Eiichi; Nakamura, Koji; Sawada, Ikuko; Toda, Aska; Hashimoto, Kae; Mabuchi, Seiji; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Morishige, Ken-ichirou; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic cancer and new targeted molecular therapies against this miserable disease continue to be challenging. In this study, we analyzed the expressional patterns of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its receptor (IL-6R) expression in ovarian cancer tissues, evaluated the impact of these expressions on clinical outcomes of patients, and found that a high-level of IL-6R expression but not IL-6 expression in cancer cells is an independent prognostic factor. In in vitro analyses using ovarian cell lines, while six (RMUG-S, RMG-1, OVISE, A2780, SKOV3ip1 and OVCAR-3) of seven overexpressed IL-6R compared with a primary normal ovarian surface epithelium, only two (RMG-1, OVISE) of seven cell lines overexpressed IL-6, suggesting that IL-6/IL-6R signaling exerts in a paracrine manner in certain types of ovarian cancer cells. Ovarian cancer ascites were collected from patients, and we found that primary CD11b+CD14+ cells, which were predominantly M2-polarized macrophages, are the major source of IL-6 production in an ovarian cancer microenvironment. When CD11b+CD14+ cells were co-cultured with cancer cells, both the invasion and the proliferation of cancer cells were robustly promoted and these promotions were almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with anti-IL-6R antibody (tocilizumab). The data presented herein suggest a rationale for anti-IL-6/IL-6R therapy to suppress the peritoneal spread of ovarian cancer, and represent evidence of the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-6R therapy for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:25658637

  20. Ovarian hypofunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be caused by genetic factors such as chromosome abnormalities. It may also occur with certain autoimmune disorders that disrupt the normal function of the ovaries. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can also cause ovarian hypofunction.

  1. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Endometriosis fact sheet Ovarian cancer fact sheet Polycystic ovary syndrome fact sheet The javascript used in this widget ... ovaries make many small cysts. This is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS can cause problems with the ovaries ...

  2. Ovarian cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... cysts due to hormone-related conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome . Symptoms Ovarian cysts often cause no symptoms. An ... You may need other treatments if you have polycystic ovary syndrome or another disorder that can cause cysts. Outlook ( ...

  3. Taxol produced from endophytic fungi induces apoptosis in human breast, cervical and ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Chao; Sun, Yu-Ting; Sun, Chuan-Zhen; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Hua; Zhao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Currently, taxol is mainly extracted from the bark of yews; however, this method can not meet its increasing demand on the market because yews grow very slowly and are a rare and endangered species belonging to first- level conservation plants. Recently, increasing efforts have been made to develop alternative means of taxol production; microbe fermentation would be a very promising method to increase the production scale of taxol. To determine the activities of the taxol extracted from endophytic fungus N. sylviforme HDFS4-26 in inhibiting the growth and causing the apoptosis of cancer cells, on comparison with the taxol extracted from the bark of yew, we used cellular morphology, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay, staining (HO33258/PI and Giemsa), DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry (FCM) analyses to determine the apoptosis status of breast cancer MCF-7 cells, cervical cancer HeLa cells and ovarian cancer HO8910 cells. Our results showed that the fungal taxol inhibited the growth of MCF-7, HeLa and HO8910 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. IC50 values of fungal taxol for HeLa, MCF-7 and HO8910 cells were 0.1-1.0 μg/ml, 0.001-0.01 μg/ml and 0.01- 0.1 μg/ml, respectively. The fungal taxol induced these tumor cells to undergo apoptosis with typical apoptotic characteristics, including morphological changes for chromatin condensation, chromatin crescent formation, nucleus fragmentation, apoptotic body formation and G2/M cell cycle arrest. The fungal taxol at the 0.01-1.0 μg/ ml had significant effects of inducing apoptosis between 24-48 h, which was the same as that of taxol extracted from yews. This study offers important information and a new resource for the production of an important anticancer drug by endofungus fermentation. PMID:25640339

  4. p66Shc longevity protein regulates the proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; Chou, Yu-Wei; Tsai, Te-Jung; Thomes, Paul; Veeramani, Suresh; Benigno, Benedict B; Walker, L DeEtte; McDonald, John F; Khan, Shafiq A; Lin, Fen-Fen; Lele, Subodh M; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2015-08-01

    p66Shc functions as a longevity protein in murine and exhibits oxidase activity in regulating diverse biological activities. In this study, we investigated the role of p66Shc protein in regulating ovarian cancer (OCa) cell proliferation. Among three cell lines examined, the slowest growing OVCAR-3 cells have the lowest level of p66Shc protein. Transient transfection with p66Shc cDNA expression vector in OVCAR-3 cells increases cell proliferation. Conversely, knock-down of p66Shc by shRNA in rapidly growing SKOV-3 cells results in decreased cell growth. In estrogen (E2)-treated CaOV-3 cells, elevated p66Shc protein level correlates with ROS level, ErbB-2 and ERK/MAPK activation, and cell proliferation. Further, the E2-stimulated proliferation of CaOV-3 cells was blocked by antioxidants and ErbB-2 inhibitor. Additionally, in E2-stimulated cells, the tartrate-sensitive, but not the tartrate-resistant, phosphatase activity decreases; concurrently, the tyrosine phosphorylation of ErbB-2 increases. Conversely, inhibition of phosphatase activity by L(+)-tartrate treatment increases p66Shc protein level, ErbB-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, ERK/MAPK activation, and cell growth. Further, inhibition of the ERK/MAPK pathway by PD98059 blocks E2-induced ERK/MAPK activation and cell proliferation in CaOV-3 cells. Moreover, immunohistochemical analyses showed that the p66Shc protein level was significantly higher in cancerous cells than in noncancerous cells in archival OCa tissues (n = 76; P = 0.00037). These data collectively indicate that p66Shc protein plays a critical role in up-regulating OCa progression. PMID:24395385

  5. Transferrin facilitates the formation of DNA double-strand breaks via transferrin receptor 1: the possible involvement of transferrin in carcinogenesis of high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Shigeta, S; Toyoshima, M; Kitatani, K; Ishibashi, M; Usui, T; Yaegashi, N

    2016-07-01

    Fallopian tubal epithelium is a candidate for the origin of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Transferrin-containing follicular fluid and/or retrograde menstrual blood are possible risk factors for carcinogenesis. Accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) in the fallopian tubal epithelium is considered to play an important role in the development of cancer. However, the mechanisms by which DNA-DSBs accumulate have not yet been fully elucidated. The hydroxyl radical, which is produced in a Fenton reaction catalyzed by an iron ion, serves as a potent DNA-DSB-inducing molecule, raising the potential of an iron ion transporter of transferrin in the formation of DNA-DSBs. We studied the potential involvement of transferrin in DNA damage and the development of ovarian cancer. Treatment with transferrin facilitated the formation of histone 2AX phosphorylated at Serine 139 (γH2AX), which is known as a DNA-DSB marker, in human fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells and A2780 ovarian cancer cells. Knockdown of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), but not transferrin receptor 2, suppressed the transferrin uptake and consequent formation of γH2AX. As hydroxyl radicals in reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in DNA-DSBs, the formation of ROS was determined. Treatment with TfR1-specific small interference RNAs significantly diminished transferrin-induced formation of ROS. Moreover, TfR1-dependent uptake of transferrin was revealed to augment the formation of DNA-DSBs in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which served as a substrate for the Fenton reaction. An ex vivo study with murine fallopian tubes further demonstrated that transferrin treatment introduced DNA-DSBs in the fallopian tubal epithelium. Collectively, these data suggested that the transferrin-TfR1 axis accounts for the induction of DNA-DSBs that potentially lead to DNA damage/genome instability. These findings also suggested that exposure to transferrin initiates and promotes the development of

  6. 3′-hydroxy-3,4,5,4′-tetramethoxystilbene, the metabolite of resveratrol analogue DMU-212, inhibits ovarian cancer cell growth in vitro and in a mice xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowska-Kempisty, Hanna; Ruciński, Marcin; Borys, Sylwia; Kucińska, Małgorzata; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Zawierucha, Piotr; Wierzchowski, Marcin; Łażewski, Dawid; Murias, Marek; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    In screening studies, the cytotoxic activity of four metabolites of resveratrol analogue 3,4,5,4′-tetramethoxystilbene (DMU-212) against A-2780 and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells was investigated. The most active metabolite, 3′-hydroxy-3,4,5,4′-tetramethoxystilbene (DMU-214), was chosen for further studies. The cytotoxicity of DMU-214 was shown to be higher than that of the parent compound, DMU-212, in both cell lines tested. Since DMU-212 was supposed to undergo metabolic activation through its conversion to DMU-214, an attempt was made to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-proliferative activity. We found that in SKOV-3 cells lacking p53, DMU-214 induced receptor-mediated apoptosis. In A-2780 cell line with expression of wild-type p53, DMU-214 modulated the expression pattern of p53-target genes driving intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways, as well as DNA repair and damage prevention. Regardless of the up-regulation of p48, p53R2, sestrins and Gaad45 genes involved in cancer cell DNA repair, we demonstrated the stronger anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of DMU-214 in A-2780 cells when compared to those in SKOV-3. Hence we verified DMU-214 activity in the xenograft model using SCID mice injected with A-2780 cells. The strong anti-proliferative activity of DMU-214 in the in vivo model allowed to suggest the tested compound as a potential therapeutic in ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27585955

  7. Human testis cytosol and ovarian follicular fluid contain high amounts of interleukin-1-like factor(s).

    PubMed

    Khan, S A; Schmidt, K; Hallin, P; Di Pauli, R; De Geyter, C; Nieschlag, E

    1988-08-01

    Human testicular cytosol and ovarian follicular fluid were analyzed for the presence of interleukin-1 (IL-1)-like factors. Both the follicular fluid and testis cytosol preparations exhibited significant IL-1-like activity as determined by the murine thymocyte proliferation bioassay. The dose-response lines obtained with the gonadal preparations were parallel to each other and to those obtained with monocyte-derived IL-1 and the activity of the gonadal IL-1 could be neutralized by specific IL-1 antibodies. After gel chromatography of human follicular fluid (hFF) and human testis cytosol (hTC) proteins, IL-1 activity was found in the molecular weight region between 30 and 50 kilodaltons (kDa). Chromatofocusing of IL-1 from hFF and hTC revealed that the major part of IL-1 in both cases exhibited similar charge properties (pI less than 6.0). However, two extra peaks (pI 7.0 and greater than 9.0, respectively) were observed in hFF preparations. After isoelectrofocusing (IEF), IL-1 activity of hFF was also found in two different pH regions; a broad area of activity was localized between pH 5.5 and 7.0, while a sharp peak was observed with an approximate pI value of 9.5. Re-chromatofocusing or IEF of alkaline IL-1-like activity resulted in a heterogeneous profile of IL-1-like activity suggesting that the alkaline material may represent either a precursor or an aggregated form of the acidic IL-1. None of the IL-1 peaks obtained from hFF or hTC exhibited IL-2 activity as assessed in a specific IL-2 bioassay. The results of the present study indicate that both gonads may produce high amounts of IL-1-like factor(s) which might play a regulatory role in normal gonadal function. PMID:3264798

  8. Lack of a role for MRP1 in platinum drug resistance in human ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, S. Y.; Smith, V.; Hobbs, S.; Kelland, L. R.

    1998-01-01

    The level of expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) in a panel of human ovarian carcinoma cell lines and their variants with acquired cisplatin resistance was determined using Western blotting. No overexpression of MRP1 was detected in any of the cell lines. In addition, we have transfected the MRP1 gene into an intrinsically cisplatin-resistant cell line SKOV3, previously shown to have elevated levels of glutathione (GSH). The MRP1-transfected line SKOV3-S2 was shown to be cross-resistant to doxorubicin, vincristine and etoposide but not to paclitaxel, vinblastine and platinum agents, such as cisplatin, JM216 [bis-acetato-ammine-dichloro-cyclohexylamine platinum (IV)] and AMD473 [cis-ammine dichloro (2-methyl-pyridine) platinum (II)]. No cross-resistance to any of the platinum agents was observed in a MRP1-overexpressing human lung cancer cell line with acquired doxorubicin resistance. Reduction of GSH levels (80-90%) by buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) produced significant potentiation in cisplatin sensitivity in the parental SKOV3, the vector-alone control SKOV3-puro and the MRP1-transfected line SKOV3-S2. The degree of sensitization was similar in all cell lines (1.6-fold). However, selective sensitization by BSO to vincristine was observed in the MRP1-transfected line (4.1-fold) but not in the vector control. No significant differences were observed in cisplatin accumulation in the SKOV3-puro and the SKOV3-S2 cells, although both these transfected lines accumulated significantly more than the parental line. Our results suggest that MRP1 does not play a significant role in platinum resistance in the human tumour cell lines investigated in this study. Images Figure 2 PMID:9683290

  9. Alisertib, an Aurora kinase A inhibitor, induces apoptosis and autophagy but inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yong-Hui; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Ha, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Xue-Yu; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Edelman, Jeffrey L; Wang, Dong; Yang, Yin-Xue; Zhang, Xueji; Duan, Wei; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading killer of women, and no cure for advanced ovarian cancer is available. Alisertib (ALS), a selective Aurora kinase A (AURKA) inhibitor, has shown potent anticancer effects, and is under clinical investigation for the treatment of advanced solid tumor and hematologic malignancies. However, the role of ALS in the treatment of ovarian cancer remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of ALS on cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the underlying mechanisms in human epithelial ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Our docking study showed that ALS, MLN8054, and VX-680 preferentially bound to AURKA over AURKB via hydrogen bond formation, charge interaction, and π-π stacking. ALS had potent growth-inhibitory, proapoptotic, proautophagic, and EMT-inhibitory effects on SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. ALS arrested SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells in G2/M phase and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in both SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. ALS suppressed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways but activated 5′-AMP-dependent kinase, as indicated by their altered phosphorylation, contributing to the proautophagic activity of ALS. Modulation of autophagy altered basal and ALS-induced apoptosis in SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Further, ALS suppressed the EMT-like phenotype in both cell lines by restoring the balance between E-cadherin and N-cadherin. ALS downregulated sirtuin 1 and pre-B cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF/visfatin) expression levels and inhibited phosphorylation of AURKA in both cell lines. These findings indicate that ALS blocks the cell cycle by G2/M phase arrest and promotes cellular apoptosis and autophagy, but inhibits EMT via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR-mediated and sirtuin 1-mediated pathways in human epithelial ovarian cancer

  10. A New Method for Isolation of Interstitial Fluid from Human Solid Tumors Applied to Proteomic Analysis of Ovarian Carcinoma Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Oveland, Eystein; Berg, Kaja C.; Kolmannskog, Odd; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B.

    2011-01-01

    Major efforts have been invested in the identification of cancer biomarkers in plasma, but the extraordinary dynamic range in protein composition, and the dilution of disease specific proteins make discovery in plasma challenging. Focus is shifting towards using proximal fluids for biomarker discovery, but methods to verify the isolated sample's origin are missing. We therefore aimed to develop a technique to search for potential candidate proteins in the proximal proteome, i.e. in the tumor interstitial fluid, since the biomarkers are likely to be excreted or derive from the tumor microenvironment. Since tumor interstitial fluid is not readily accessible, we applied a centrifugation method developed in experimental animals and asked whether interstitial fluid from human tissue could be isolated, using ovarian carcinoma as a model. Exposure of extirpated tissue to 106 g enabled tumor fluid isolation. The fluid was verified as interstitial by an isolated fluid:plasma ratio not significantly different from 1.0 for both creatinine and Na+, two substances predominantly present in interstitial fluid. The isolated fluid had a colloid osmotic pressure 79% of that in plasma, suggesting that there was some sieving of proteins at the capillary wall. Using a proteomic approach we detected 769 proteins in the isolated interstitial fluid, sixfold higher than in patient plasma. We conclude that the isolated fluid represents undiluted interstitial fluid and thus a subproteome with high concentration of locally secreted proteins that may be detected in plasma for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic monitoring by targeted methods. PMID:21541282

  11. High resistance to cisplatin in human ovarian cancer cell lines is associated with marked increase of glutathione synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, A K; Meister, A; O'Dwyer, P J; Huang, C S; Hamilton, T C; Anderson, M E

    1992-01-01

    Exposure of human ovarian tumor cell lines to cisplatin led to development of cell lines that exhibited increasing degrees of drug resistance, which were closely correlated with increase of the levels of cellular glutathione. Cell lines were obtained that showed 30- to 1000-fold increases in resistance; these cells also had strikingly increased (13- to 50-fold) levels of glutathione as compared with the drug-sensitive cells of origin. These levels of resistance to cisplatin and the cellular glutathione levels are substantially greater than previously reported. Very high cisplatin resistance was associated with enhanced expression of mRNAs for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase; immunoblots showed increase of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase but not of glutathione synthetase. Glutathione S-transferase activity was unaffected, as determined with chlorodinitrobenzene as a substrate. These studies suggest the potential value of examining regulation of glutathione synthesis as an indicator of clinical prognosis. The highly resistant cell lines are proving useful for studying the multiple mechanisms by which tumor cells acquire drug- and radiation-resistance. Images PMID:1348364

  12. Usefulness of human epididymis protein 4 in predicting cytoreductive surgical outcomes for advanced ovarian tubal and peritoneal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhijian; Chang, Xiaohong; Ye, Xue; Li, Yi; Cheng, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a promising biomarker of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). But its role in assessing the primary optimal debulking (OD) of EOC remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the ability of preoperative HE4 in predicting the primary cytoreductive outcomes in advanced EOC, tubal or peritoneal carcinoma. Methods We reviewed the records of 90 patients with advanced ovarian, tubal or peritoneal carcinoma who underwent primary cytoreduction at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Peking University People’s Hospital between November 2005 and October 2010. Preoperative serum HE4 and CA125 levels were detected with EIA kit. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the most useful HE4 cut-off value. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant preoperative clinical characteristics to predict optimal primary cytoreduction. Results OD was achieved in 47.7% (43/48) of patients. The median preoperative HE4 level for patients with OD vs. suboptimal debulking was 423 and 820 pmol/L, respectively (P<0.001). The areas under the ROC curve for HE4 and CA125 were 0.716 and 0.599, respectively (P=0.080). The most useful HE4 cut-off value was 473 pmol/L. Suboptimal cytoreduction was obtained in 66.7% (38/57) of cases with HE4 ≥473 pmol/L compared with only 27.3% (9/33) of cases with HE4 <473 pmol/L. At this threshold, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for diagnosing suboptimal debulking were 81%, 56%, 67%, and 73%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the patients with HE4 ≥473 pmol/L were less likely to achieve OD (odds ratio =5.044, P=0.002). Conclusions Preoperative serum HE4 may be helpful to predict whether optimal cytoreductive surgery could be obtained or whether extended cytoreduction would be needed by an interdisciplinary team. PMID:26157328

  13. Steroid signalling in human ovarian surface epithelial cells: the response to interleukin-1alpha determined by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Rae, M T; Niven, D; Ross, A; Forster, T; Lathe, R; Critchley, H O D; Ghazal, P; Hillier, S G

    2004-10-01

    The human ovarian surface epithelium (HOSE) is a common site of gynaecological disease including endometriosis and ovarian cancer, probably due to serial injury-repair events associated with successive ovulations. To comprehend the importance of steroid signalling in the regulation of the HOSE, we used a custom microarray to catalogue the expression of over 250 genes involved in the synthesis and reception of steroid hormones, sterols and retinoids. The array included a subset of non-steroidogenic genes commonly involved in pro-/anti-inflammatory signalling. HOSE cells donated by five patients undergoing surgery for non-malignant gynaecological conditions were cultured for 48 h in the presence and absence of 500 pg/ml interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha). Total RNA was reverse-transcribed into biotin-labelled cDNA, which was hybridised to the array and visualised by gold-particle resonance light scattering and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera detection. Results for selected genes were verified by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. In five out of five cases, untreated HOSE cells expressed genes encoding enzymes required for de novo biosynthesis of cholesterol from acetate and subsequent formation of C21-pregnane and C19-androstane steroids. Consistent with the inability of HOSE cells to synthesise glucocorticoids, oestrogens or 5alpha-reduced androgens de novo, CYP21, CYP19 and 5alpha-reductase were not detected. The only steroidogenic gene significantly up-regulated by IL-1alpha was 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1). Other cytokine-induced genes were IL-6, IL-8, nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) inhibitor alpha, metallothionein-IIA and lysyl oxidase: inflammation-associated genes that respond to glucocorticoids. The only steroidogenic gene significantly suppressed by IL-1alpha was 3betaHSD1. Other genes suppressed by IL-1alpha were aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1, ALDH 10, gonadotrophin hormone-releasing hormone receptor, peroxisome

  14. Role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor AZD1080 in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuo; Sun, Kai-Xuan; Feng, Miao-Xiao; Sang, Xiu-Bo; Liu, Bo-Liang; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in cancer tumorigenesis and progression. We investigated the role of the GSK-3β inhibitor AZD1080 in ovarian cancer cell lines. Methods A2780 and OVCAR3 ovarian cancer cell lines were exposed to AZD1080, after which cell proliferation, cell cycle, invasion, and migration assays were performed. Phalloidin staining was used to observe lamellipodia formation. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to assess the respective mRNA and protein expression levels of GSK-3β, CDK2, CDK1, cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), and Bcl-xL. Results AZD1080 exposure suppressed ovarian cancer cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and lamellipodia formation, and induced G1 arrest, which was concentration dependent. AZD1080 also significantly downregulated GSK-3β, CDK2, CDK1, cyclin D1, MMP9, and Bcl-xL expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate that the GSK-3β inhibitor AZD1080 suppresses ovarian cancer development and therefore may indicate a new direction for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27051274

  15. Inhibition of HDAC1 and DNMT1 Modulate RGS10 Expression and Decrease Ovarian Cancer Chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Cacan, Ercan; Ali, Mourad W.; Boyd, Nathaniel H.; Hooks, Shelley B.; Greer, Susanna F.

    2014-01-01

    RGS10 is an important regulator of cell survival and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. We recently showed that RGS10 transcript expression is suppressed during acquired chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. The suppression of RGS10 is due to DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, two important mechanisms that contribute to silencing of tumor suppressor genes during cancer progression. Here, we fully investigate the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic silencing of RGS10 expression in chemoresistant A2780-AD ovarian cancer cells. We identify two important epigenetic regulators, HDAC1 and DNMT1, that exhibit aberrant association with RGS10 promoters in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. Knockdown of HDAC1 or DNMT1 expression, and pharmacological inhibition of DNMT or HDAC enzymatic activity, significantly increases RGS10 expression and cisplatin-mediated cell death. Finally, DNMT1 knock down also decreases HDAC1 binding to the RGS10 promoter in chemoresistant cells, suggesting HDAC1 recruitment to RGS10 promoters requires DNMT1 activity. Our results suggest that HDAC1 and DNMT1 contribute to the suppression of RGS10 during acquired chemoresistance and support inhibition of HDAC1 and DNMT1 as an adjuvant therapeutic approach to overcome ovarian cancer chemoresistance. PMID:24475290

  16. miR-494 inhibits ovarian cancer cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis by targeting FGFR2

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, XIAOJUAN; ZHOU, YUN; CHEN, YU; YU, FENG

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) have been reported to be key regulators in numerous types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of miR-494 in ovarian cancer. Expression of miR-494 was analyzed in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). miR-494 mimic or negative control was transiently transfected into A2780 and SKOV3 cell lines. A cell counting kit-8 assay was performed to assess the effects of miR-494 on cell proliferation, and flow cytometry was used to evaluate the apoptotic rate. The target gene of miR-494 was detected by luciferase assay. Expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) was identified using RT-qPCR and western blotting. In the present study, decreased expression of miR-494 was observed in ovarian cancer samples and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-494 inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Additional investigation indicated that FGFR2 was a direct target of miR-494. Taken together, the results of the present study suggested that miR-494 suppressed ovarian cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis via targeting FGFR2. PMID:27313773

  17. The role of Crk/Dock180/Rac1 pathway in the malignant behavior of human ovarian cancer cell SKOV3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Linghu, Hua; Wang, Jin; Che, Ya-ling; Xiang, Ting-xiu; Tang, Wei-xue; Yao, Zhen-wei

    2010-01-01

    Small GTPases, particularly the Rho family, are key regulators of cell motility and migration. Dock180 was well known for the main target of signal adaptor protein Crk and acted as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for small GTPase Rac1. In the present study, Dock180 was found to combine primarily with CrkI other than CrkII, and its association with Elmo1 was also demonstrated in ovarian cancer cell SKOV3. To evaluate the role of Dock180 in human ovarian cancer cell, we performed RNAi-mediated knockdown of Dock180 in SKOV3 cells using small interfering RNA expression vector. In Dock180 knockdown cells, we found that Elmo1 expression and Rac1 activity were decreased simultaneously. By contrast, the expressions of both another Crk-combining molecule C3G and Rap1 activity were observed to increase obviously. Accordingly, all Dock180 knockdown cells present with evident change in cell morphology, reduced cell proliferation, and attenuated cell migration. Taken together, these results suggest that signal transfer of Crk/Dock180/Rac1 is implicated in actin cytoskeleton reorganization and thus in the cell proliferation, motility, invasion, and of human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3. PMID:20237902

  18. The presence of centrioles and centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells suggests human parthenotes developed in vitro can differentiate into mature cells without a sperm centriole

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Bo Yon; Shim, Sang Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Seung Bo

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sperm centriole is the progenitor of centrosomes in all somatic cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Centrioles and centrosomes exist in parthenogenetic ovarian teratoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Without a sperm centriole, parthenogenetic oocytes produce centrioles and centrosomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parthenogenetic human oocytes can develop and differentiate into mature cells. -- Abstract: In most animals, somatic cell centrosomes are inherited from the centriole of the fertilizing spermatozoa. The oocyte centriole degenerates during oogenesis, and completely disappears in metaphase II. Therefore, the embryos generated by in vitro parthenogenesis are supposed to develop without any centrioles. Exceptional acentriolar and/or acentrosomal developments are possible in mice and in some experimental cells; however, in most animals, the full developmental potential of parthenogenetic cells in vitro and the fate of their centrioles/centrosomes are not clearly understood. To predict the future of in vitro human parthenogenesis, we explored the centrioles/centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells by immunofluorescent staining and transmission electron microscopy. We confirmed the presence of centrioles and centrosomes in these well-known parthenogenetic ovarian tumor cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that, even without a sperm centriole, parthenotes that develop from activated oocytes can produce their own centrioles/centrosomes, and can even develop into the well-differentiated mature tissue.

  19. The E3 ubiquitin ligase EDD is an adverse prognostic factor for serous epithelial ovarian cancer and modulates cisplatin resistance in vitro.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P M; Davies, M J; Scurry, J P; Smith, A N; Barton, C A; Henderson, M J; Saunders, D N; Gloss, B S; Patterson, K I; Clancy, J L; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, V A; Murali, Rajmohan; Scolyer, R A; Zeng, Y; Williams, E D; Scurr, L; Defazio, A; Quinn, D I; Watts, C K W; Hacker, N F; Henshall, S M; Sutherland, R L

    2008-03-25

    Despite a high initial response rate to first-line platinum/paclitaxel chemotherapy, most women with epithelial ovarian cancer relapse with recurrent disease that becomes refractory to further cytotoxic treatment. We have previously shown that the E3 ubiquitin ligase, EDD, a regulator of DNA damage responses, is amplified and overexpressed in serous ovarian carcinoma. Given that DNA damage pathways are linked to platinum resistance, the aim of this study was to determine if EDD expression was associated with disease recurrence and platinum sensitivity in serous ovarian cancer. High nuclear EDD expression, as determined by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 151 women with serous ovarian carcinoma, was associated with an approximately two-fold increased risk of disease recurrence and death in patients who initially responded to first-line chemotherapy, independently of disease stage and suboptimal debulking. Although EDD expression was not directly correlated with relative cisplatin sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines, sensitivity to cisplatin was partially restored in platinum-resistant A2780-cp70 ovarian cancer cells following siRNA-mediated knockdown of EDD expression. These results identify EDD as a new independent prognostic marker for outcome in serous ovarian cancer, and suggest that pathways involving EDD, including DNA damage responses, may represent new therapeutic targets for chemoresistant ovarian cancer. PMID:18349819

  20. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antisense transfection reduces the expression of EGFR and suppresses the malignant phenotype of a human ovarian cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Brader, K R; Wolf, J K; Chakrabarty, S; Price, J E

    1998-01-01

    An EGFR-expressing clone of the human ovarian cancer line 2774 was transfected with an antisense construct of EGFR to test how suppression of this gene modulates the malignant phenotype. Transfected clones were screened for EGFR expression by Western blot and FACS analysis. Anchorage-independent growth was used to assess the effect of reduced EGFR on the malignant behavior of the cells. Several transfected clones with decreased EGFR (40-50% reduction) were identified. A correlation was noted between reduced EGFR and decreased anchorage-independent growth, with the transfected clones losing the ability to grow in agarose and responsiveness to exogenous EGF. These results suggest that EGFR may be an important factor in the malignant behavior of this ovarian cancer cell line. PMID:9683849

  1. Simultaneous suppression of epidermal growth factor receptor and c-erbB-2 reverses aneuploidy and malignant phenotype of a human ovarian carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Pack, Svetlana D; Alper, Ozgül M; Stromberg, Kurt; Augustus, Meena; Ozdemirli, Metin; Miermont, Anne M; Klus, Greg; Rusin, Marek; Slack, Rebecca; Hacker, Neville F; Ried, Thomas; Szallasi, Zoltan; Alper, Ozge

    2004-02-01

    Coexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-erbB-2 in 47-68% of ovarian cancer cells indicate their strong association with tumor formation. We examined the effects of simultaneous antisense- or immunosuppression of EGFR and c-erbB-2 expression on the invasive phenotype, aneuploidy, and genotype of cultured human ovarian carcinoma cells (NIH:OVCAR-8). We report here that suppression of both EGFR and c-erbB-2 results in regression of aneuploidy and genomic imbalances in NIH:OVCAR-8 cells, restores a more normal phenotype, and results in a more normal gene expression profile. Combined with cytogenetic analysis, our data demonstrate that the regression of aneuploidy is due to the selective apoptosis of double antisense transfected cells with highly abnormal karyotype. PMID:14871800

  2. Toward gene therapy of premature ovarian failure: intraovarian injection of adenovirus expressing human FSH receptor restores folliculogenesis in FSHR(−/−) FORKO mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghadami, M.; El-Demerdash, E.; Salama, S.A.; Binhazim, A.A.; Archibong, A.E.; Chen, X.; Ballard, B.R.; Sairam, M.R.; Al-Hendy, A.

    2010-01-01

    A homozygous missense mutation, C566T, in the follicle stimulation hormone receptor (FSHR) gene has been linked to premature ovarian failure. The disease leads to infertility in a normal karyotype female with an elevated follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and decreased serum estrogen level. Female mice carrying mutated FSHR gene, called follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO), display similar phenotype and are sterile because of a folliculogenesis block at a primary stage. We investigated the effects of bilateral intra-ovarian injection of an adenovirus expressing a normal copy of human FSHR on the reproductive system of 6–10 weeks female FORKO mice. Ad-LacZ was injected directly into each ovary of the control group. Animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-injection and tissues collected for evaluation. Treated mice showed estrogenic changes in daily vaginal smear whereas control animals remained fixated in the diestrus stage. Histological evaluation showed on average 26 ± 4 follicles/ovary in treated group with 8 ± 2 follicles at the antral stage compared with only 5 ± 2 with zero follicles at antral stage in Ad-LacZ control mice. There was no significant change in serum level of progesterone, however, estrogen level increased 2–3-fold (P < 0.02) and FSH decreased by up to 50% (P < 0.04) in treated animals. FSHR mRNA was detected in the ovaries of the treated group. In conclusion, intra-ovarian injection of an adenovirus expressing human FSHR gene is able to restore FSH responsiveness and reinitiate ovarian folliculogenesis as well as resume estrogen production in female FORKO mice. Ad-LacZ injections indicate the absence of systemic viral dissemination or germ line transmission of adenovirus DNA to offspring. PMID:20086006

  3. Delivery of Constitutively Active Mutant MKK6(E) With TAT-OSBP Induces Apoptosis in Human Ovarian Carcinoma HO8910 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hua; Kang, Jia-li; Jiang, Wen-yan; Deng, Cui; Yuan, Jin; Shuai, Rong

    2015-11-01

    Biologically active peptides and proteins are novel agents that show promise in the development of anticancer drugs. Their relatively low cell permeability and poor tumor selectivity, however, impede their widespread applicability. In this study, we evaluated the tumor selectivity, cellular internalization, and biological activity of a cell-permeable ovarian cancer cell-specific therapeutic protein consisting of TAT-OSBP and constitutively active MKK6(E), an upstream kinase of the p38 signaling pathway that mediates cellular apoptosis. OSBP, a 7-amino-acid peptide with high affinity for human ovarian cancer HO8910 cells, was conjugated to the cell-penetrating peptide (TAT) to form a tumor-selective peptide (TAT-OSBP), which was further conjugated with EGFP or MKK6(E). Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy were performed to evaluate the tumor-targeted penetration of TAT-OSBP-EGFP. The inhibitory effects of TAT-OSBP-MKK6(E) were determined by cell proliferation and apoptosis assays. The internalization efficiency of TAT-OSBP-EGFP was significantly higher than that of TAT-EGFP. TAT-OSBP-EGFP selectively penetrated HO8910 cells. TAT-OSBP-MKK6(E) fusion protein inhibited cancer cell growth to varying degrees, with the highest level of inhibition in HO8910 cells. Moreover, TAT-OSBP-MKK6(E) significantly induced apoptosis of HO8910 cells. However, there was no significant difference in apoptosis in the normal ovarian epithelial cells treated with either TAT-OSBP-MKK6(E) or TAT-MKK6(E). Our results demonstrate that TAT-OSBP-MKK6(E) is a novel artificially designed molecule, which induces apoptosis and selectively targets human ovarian carcinoma HO8910 cells. Our study provides novel insights that may aid in the development of a new generation of anticancer drugs. PMID:26495757

  4. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor by normal and cancerous human ovarian tissues: possible implication of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Medina, Liat; Rabinovich, Alex; Piura, Benjamin; Dyomin, Victor; Levy, Ruthy Shaco; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.0007), IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P = 0.04), and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.036). Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P = 0.025), while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24963217

  5. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 Binding Protein, and IL-18 Receptor by Normal and Cancerous Human Ovarian Tissues: Possible Implication of IL-18 in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Liat; Rabinovich, Alex; Piura, Benjamin; Dyomin, Victor; Shaco Levy, Ruthy; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.0007), IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P = 0.04), and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.036). Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P = 0.025), while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24963217

  6. Ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Matulonis, Ursula A; Sood, Anil K; Fallowfield, Lesley; Howitt, Brooke E; Sehouli, Jalid; Karlan, Beth Y

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is not a single disease and can be subdivided into at least five different histological subtypes that have different identifiable risk factors, cells of origin, molecular compositions, clinical features and treatments. Ovarian cancer is a global problem, is typically diagnosed at a late stage and has no effective screening strategy. Standard treatments for newly diagnosed cancer consist of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. In recurrent cancer, chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors are used, and immunological therapies are currently being tested. High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most commonly diagnosed form of ovarian cancer and at diagnosis is typically very responsive to platinum-based chemotherapy. However, in addition to the other histologies, HGSCs frequently relapse and become increasingly resistant to chemotherapy. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms underlying platinum resistance and finding ways to overcome them are active areas of study in ovarian cancer. Substantial progress has been made in identifying genes that are associated with a high risk of ovarian cancer (such as BRCA1 and BRCA2), as well as a precursor lesion of HGSC called serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, which holds promise for identifying individuals at high risk of developing the disease and for developing prevention strategies. PMID:27558151

  7. The human Müllerian inhibiting substance type II receptor as immunotherapy target for ovarian cancer. Validation using the mAb 12G4.

    PubMed

    Kersual, Nathalie; Garambois, Véronique; Chardès, Thierry; Pouget, Jean-Pierre; Salhi, Imed; Bascoul-Mollevi, Caroline; Bibeau, Frédéric; Busson, Muriel; Vié, Henri; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Behrens, Christian K; Estupina, Pauline; Pèlegrin, André; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate among gynecologic malignancies. The monoclonal antibody 12G4 specifically recognizes the human Müllerian inhibiting substance type II receptor (MISRII) that is strongly expressed in human granulosa cell tumors (GCT) and in the majority of human epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC). To determine whether MISRII represents an attractive target for antibody-based tumor therapy, we first confirmed by immunohistochemistry with 12G4 its expression in all tested GCT samples (4/4) and all, but one, EOC human tissue specimens (13/14). We then demonstrated in vitro the internalization of 12G4 in MISRII(high)COV434 cells after binding to MISRII and its ability to increase the apoptosis rate (FACS, DNA fragmentation) in MISRII(high)COV434 (GCT) and MISRII(medium)NIH-OVCAR-3 (EOC) cells that express different levels of MISRII. A standard (51)Cr release assay showed that 12G4 mediates antibody-dependent cell-meditated cytotoxicity. Finally, in vivo assessment of 12G4 anti-tumor effects showed a significant reduction of tumor growth and an increase of the median survival time in mice xenografted with MISRII(high)COV434 or MISRII(medium)NIH-OVCAR-3 cells and treated with 12G4 in comparison to controls treated with an irrelevant antibody. Altogether, our data indicate that MISRII is a new promising target for the control of ovarian GCTs and EOCs. A humanized version of the 12G4 antibody, named 3C23K, is in development for the targeted therapy of MISRII-positive gynecologic cancers. PMID:25517316

  8. ALDH1A1 Maintains Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties by Altered Regulation of Cell Cycle Checkpoint and DNA Repair Network Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Erhong; Mitra, Aparna; Tripathi, Kaushlendra; Finan, Michael A.; Scalici, Jennifer; McClellan, Steve; da Silva, Luciana Madeira; Reed, Eddie; Shevde, Lalita A.; Palle, Komaraiah; Rocconi, Rodney P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expressing cells have been characterized as possessing stem cell-like properties. We evaluated ALDH+ ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties and their role in platinum resistance. Methods Isogenic ovarian cancer cell lines for platinum sensitivity (A2780) and platinum resistant (A2780/CP70) as well as ascites from ovarian cancer patients were analyzed for ALDH+ by flow cytometry to determine its association to platinum resistance, recurrence and survival. A stable shRNA knockdown model for ALDH1A1 was utilized to determine its effect on cancer stem cell-like properties, cell cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair mediators. Results ALDH status directly correlated to platinum resistance in primary ovarian cancer samples obtained from ascites. Patients with ALDHHIGH displayed significantly lower progression free survival than the patients with ALDHLOW cells (9 vs. 3 months, respectively p<0.01). ALDH1A1-knockdown significantly attenuated clonogenic potential, PARP-1 protein levels, and reversed inherent platinum resistance. ALDH1A1-knockdown resulted in dramatic decrease of KLF4 and p21 protein levels thereby leading to S and G2 phase accumulation of cells. Increases in S and G2 cells demonstrated increased expression of replication stress associated Fanconi Anemia DNA repair proteins (FANCD2, FANCJ) and replication checkpoint (pS317 Chk1) were affected. ALDH1A1-knockdown induced DNA damage, evidenced by robust induction of γ-H2AX and BAX mediated apoptosis, with significant increases in BRCA1 expression, suggesting ALDH1A1-dependent regulation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair networks in ovarian cancer stem-like cells. Conclusion This data suggests that ovarian cancer cells expressing ALDH1A1 may maintain platinum resistance by altered regulation of cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair network signaling. PMID:25216266

  9. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis discriminates normal, borderline and malignant ovarian tissue: classifying subtypes of human cancer.

    PubMed

    Theophilou, Georgios; Lima, Kássio M G; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Stringfellow, Helen F; Martin, Francis L

    2016-01-21

    Surgical management of ovarian tumours largely depends on their histo-pathological diagnosis. Currently, screening for ovarian malignancy with tumour markers in conjunction with radiological investigations has a low specificity for discriminating benign from malignant tumours. Also, pre-operative biopsy of ovarian masses increases the risk of intra-peritoneal dissemination of malignancy. Intra-operative frozen section, although sufficiently accurate in differentiating tumours according to their histological type, increases operation times. This results in increased surgery-related risks to the patient and additional burden to resource allocation. We set out to determine whether attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometric analysis can be applied to discriminate between normal, borderline and malignant ovarian tumours and classify ovarian carcinoma subtypes according to the unique spectral signatures of their molecular composition. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian tissue blocks were de-waxed, mounted on Low-E slides and desiccated before being analysed using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Chemometric analysis in the form of principal component analysis (PCA), successive projection algorithm (SPA) and genetic algorithm (GA), followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of the obtained spectra revealed clear segregation between benign versus borderline versus malignant tumours as well as segregation between different histological tumour subtypes, when these approaches are used in combination. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis has the potential to provide a novel diagnostic approach in the accurate diagnosis of ovarian tumours assisting surgical decision making to avoid under-treatment or over-treatment, with minimal impact to the patient. PMID:26090781

  10. Potent organo-osmium compound shifts metabolism in epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hearn, Jessica M.; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Munro, Alison F.; Fu, Ying; Pizarro, Ana M.; Garnett, Mathew J.; McDermott, Ultan; Carragher, Neil O.; Sadler, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The organometallic “half-sandwich” compound [Os(η6-p-cymene)(4-(2-pyridylazo)-N,N-dimethylaniline)I]PF6 is 49× more potent than the clinical drug cisplatin in the 809 cancer cell lines that we screened and is a candidate drug for cancer therapy. We investigate the mechanism of action of compound 1 in A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Whole-transcriptome sequencing identified three missense mutations in the mitochondrial genome of this cell line, coding for ND5, a subunit of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) in the electron transport chain. ND5 is a proton pump, helping to maintain the coupling gradient in mitochondria. The identified mutations correspond to known protein variants (p.I257V, p.N447S, and p.L517P), not reported previously in epithelial ovarian cancer. Time-series RNA sequencing suggested that osmium-exposed A2780 cells undergo a metabolic shunt from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, where defective machinery, associated with mutations in complex I, could enhance activity. Downstream events, measured by time-series reverse-phase protein microarrays, high-content imaging, and flow cytometry, showed a dramatic increase in mitochondrially produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent DNA damage with up-regulation of ATM, p53, and p21 proteins. In contrast to platinum drugs, exposure to this organo-osmium compound does not cause significant apoptosis within a 72-h period, highlighting a different mechanism of action. Superoxide production in ovarian, lung, colon, breast, and prostate cancer cells exposed to three other structurally related organo-Os(II) compounds correlated with their antiproliferative activity. DNA damage caused indirectly, through selective ROS generation, may provide a more targeted approach to cancer therapy and a concept for next-generation metal-based anticancer drugs that combat platinum resistance. PMID:26162681

  11. Potent organo-osmium compound shifts metabolism in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Jessica M; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Munro, Alison F; Fu, Ying; Pizarro, Ana M; Garnett, Mathew J; McDermott, Ultan; Carragher, Neil O; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-07-21

    The organometallic "half-sandwich" compound [Os(η(6)-p-cymene)(4-(2-pyridylazo)-N,N-dimethylaniline)I]PF6 is 49× more potent than the clinical drug cisplatin in the 809 cancer cell lines that we screened and is a candidate drug for cancer therapy. We investigate the mechanism of action of compound 1 in A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Whole-transcriptome sequencing identified three missense mutations in the mitochondrial genome of this cell line, coding for ND5, a subunit of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) in the electron transport chain. ND5 is a proton pump, helping to maintain the coupling gradient in mitochondria. The identified mutations correspond to known protein variants (p.I257V, p.N447S, and p.L517P), not reported previously in epithelial ovarian cancer. Time-series RNA sequencing suggested that osmium-exposed A2780 cells undergo a metabolic shunt from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, where defective machinery, associated with mutations in complex I, could enhance activity. Downstream events, measured by time-series reverse-phase protein microarrays, high-content imaging, and flow cytometry, showed a dramatic increase in mitochondrially produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent DNA damage with up-regulation of ATM, p53, and p21 proteins. In contrast to platinum drugs, exposure to this organo-osmium compound does not cause significant apoptosis within a 72-h period, highlighting a different mechanism of action. Superoxide production in ovarian, lung, colon, breast, and prostate cancer cells exposed to three other structurally related organo-Os(II) compounds correlated with their antiproliferative activity. DNA damage caused indirectly, through selective ROS generation, may provide a more targeted approach to cancer therapy and a concept for next-generation metal-based anticancer drugs that combat platinum resistance. PMID:26162681

  12. Macitentan (ACT-064992), a Tissue-Targeting Endothelin Receptor Antagonist, Enhances Therapeutic Efficacy of Paclitaxel by Modulating Survival Pathways in Orthotopic Models of Metastatic Human Ovarian Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Jin; Kim, Jang Seong; Kim, Seung Wook; Brantley, Emily; Yun, Seok Joong; He, Junqin; Maya, Marva; Zhang, Fahao; Wu, Qiuyu; Lehembre, François; Regenass, Urs; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2011-01-01

    Potential treatments for ovarian cancers that have become resistant to standard chemotherapies include modulators of tumor cell survival, such as endothelin receptor (ETR) antagonist. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the dual ETR antagonist, macitentan, on human ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3ip1 and IGROV1, growing orthotopically in nude mice. Mice with established disease were treated with vehicle (control), paclitaxel (weekly, intraperitoneal injections), macitentan (daily oral administrations), or a combination of paclitaxel and macitentan. Treatment with paclitaxel decreased tumor weight and volume of ascites. Combination therapy with macitentan and paclitaxel reduced tumor incidence and further reduced tumor weight and volume of ascites when compared with paclitaxel alone. Macitentan alone occasionally reduced tumor weight but alone had no effect on tumor incidence or ascites. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that treatment with macitentan and macitentan plus paclitaxel inhibited the phosphorylation of ETRs and suppressed the survival pathways of tumor cells by decreasing the levels of pVEGFR2, pAkt, and pMAPK. The dose of macitentan necessary for inhibition of phosphorylation correlated with the dose required to increase antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel. Treatment with macitentan enhanced the cytotoxicity mediated by paclitaxel as measured by the degree of apoptosis in tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. Collectively, these results show that administration of macitentan in combination with paclitaxel prevents the progression of ovarian cancer in the peritoneal cavity of nude mice in part by inhibiting survival pathways of both tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. PMID:21403842

  13. Human monocytes in the presence of interferons alpha2a and gamma are potent killers of serous ovarian cancer cell lines in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chase L; Green, Daniel S; Zoon, Kathryn C

    2015-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) play an important role in immune surveillance of tumors; however, their efficacy in the treatment of malignancies has been limited. Monocytes are mononuclear phagocytes that are critical to the generation of an innate immune response to tumors. The authors and others have shown that treatment of tumor cell lines in vitro and in vivo with human monocytes primed with type I and type II IFNs results in killing. We now expand on this work, in an extended panel of ovarian cancer cell lines. In this study, we hypothesized that there would be variable sensitivity amongst cell lines to the killing properties of monocytes and IFNs. To this end, we explored the interactions of IFN primed monocytes in conjunction with the standard of therapy for ovarian cancer, taxane, and platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Using 6 ovarian cancer cell lines, we demonstrated that there is variation from cell line to cell line in the ability of IFN-α2a and IFN-γ primed monocytes to synergistically kill target tumor cells, and further, there is an additive killing effect when target cells are treated with both IFN primed monocytes and chemotherapy. PMID:25068849

  14. Human Monocytes in the Presence of Interferons Alpha2a and Gamma Are Potent Killers of Serous Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines in Combination with Paclitaxel and Carboplatin

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Chase L.; Zoon, Kathryn C.

    2015-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) play an important role in immune surveillance of tumors; however, their efficacy in the treatment of malignancies has been limited. Monocytes are mononuclear phagocytes that are critical to the generation of an innate immune response to tumors. The authors and others have shown that treatment of tumor cell lines in vitro and in vivo with human monocytes primed with type I and type II IFNs results in killing. We now expand on this work, in an extended panel of ovarian cancer cell lines. In this study, we hypothesized that there would be variable sensitivity amongst cell lines to the killing properties of monocytes and IFNs. To this end, we explored the interactions of IFN primed monocytes in conjunction with the standard of therapy for ovarian cancer, taxane, and platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Using 6 ovarian cancer cell lines, we demonstrated that there is variation from cell line to cell line in the ability of IFN-α2a and IFN-γ primed monocytes to synergistically kill target tumor cells, and further, there is an additive killing effect when target cells are treated with both IFN primed monocytes and chemotherapy. PMID:25068849

  15. Novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex Mono-Pt induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human ovarian carcinoma cells, distinct from cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Yang-Miao; Zhang, Li; Huang, Bin; Tao, Fei-Fei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Zi-Jian; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Failure to engage apoptosis appears to be a leading mechanism of resistance to traditional platinum drugs in patients with ovarian cancer. Therefore, an alternative strategy to induce cell death is needed for the chemotherapy of this apoptosis-resistant cancer. Here we report that autophagic cell death, distinct from cisplatin-induced apoptosis, is triggered by a novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex named Mono-Pt in human ovarian carcinoma cells. Mono-Pt-induced cell death has the following features: cytoplasmic vacuolation, caspase-independent, no nuclear fragmentation or chromatin condensation, and no apoptotic bodies. These characteristics integrally indicated that Mono-Pt, rather than cisplatin, initiated a nonapoptotic cell death in Caov-3 ovarian carcinoma cells. Furthermore, incubation of the cells with Mono-Pt but not with cisplatin produced an increasing punctate distribution of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and an increasing ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. Mono-Pt also caused the formation of autophagic vacuoles as revealed by monodansylcadaverine staining and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, Mono-Pt-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by the knockdown of either BECN1 or ATG7 gene expression, or by autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine, chloroquine and bafilomycin A1. Moreover, the effect of Mono-Pt involved the AKT1-MTOR-RPS6KB1 pathway and MAPK1 (ERK2)/MAPK3 (ERK1) signaling, since the MTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased, while the MAPK1/3 inhibitor U0126 decreased Mono-Pt-induced autophagic cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that Mono-Pt exerts anticancer effect via autophagic cell death in apoptosis-resistant ovarian cancer. These findings lead to increased options for anticancer platinum drugs to induce cell death in cancer. PMID:23580233

  16. Ras-induced epigenetic inactivation of the RRAD (Ras-related associated with diabetes) gene promotes glucose uptake in a human ovarian cancer model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Li, Guiling; Mao, Fengbiao; Li, Xianfeng; Liu, Qi; Chen, Lin; Lv, Lu; Wang, Xin; Wu, Jinyu; Dai, Wei; Wang, Guan; Zhao, Enfeng; Tang, Kai-Fu; Sun, Zhong Sheng

    2014-05-16

    RRAD (Ras-related associated with diabetes) is a small Ras-related GTPase that is frequently inactivated by DNA methylation of the CpG island in its promoter region in cancer tissues. However, the role of the methylation-induced RRAD inactivation in tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study, the Ras-regulated transcriptome and epigenome were profiled by comparing T29H (a Ras(V12)-transformed human ovarian epithelial cell line) with T29 (an immortalized but non-transformed cell line) through reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and digital gene expression. We found that Ras(V12)-mediated oncogenic transformation was accompanied by RRAD promoter hypermethylation and a concomitant loss of RRAD expression. In addition, we found that the RRAD promoter was hypermethylated, and its transcription was reduced in ovarian cancer versus normal ovarian tissues. Treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in demethylation in the RRAD promoter and restored RRAD expression in T29H cells. Additionally, treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI277 resulted in restored RRAD expression and inhibited DNA methytransferase expression and activity in T29H cells. By employing knockdown and overexpression techniques in T29 and T29H, respectively, we found that RRAD inhibited glucose uptake and lactate production by repressing the expression of glucose transporters. Finally, RRAD overexpression in T29H cells inhibited tumor formation in nude mice, suggesting that RRAD is a tumor suppressor gene. Our results indicate that Ras(V12)-mediated oncogenic transformation induces RRAD epigenetic inactivation, which in turn promotes glucose uptake and may contribute to ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. PMID:24648519

  17. PGE2-Induced CXCL12 Production and CXCR4 Expression Controls the Accumulation of Human MDSCs in Ovarian Cancer Environment

    PubMed Central

    Obermajer, Nataša; Muthuswamy, Ravikumar; Odunsi, Kunle; Edwards, Robert P.; Kalinski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Signals mediated by CXCL12 (SDF1) and its receptor CXCR4 are centrally involved in cancer progression, both directly by activating cancer cells and indirectly by inducing angiogenesis plus recruiting T regulatory and plasmacytoid dendritic immune cells. Here, we show that in ascites isolated from ovarian cancer patients, both CXCL12 and CXCR4 are controlled by the tumor-associated inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which attracts myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) into the ascites microenvironment. In this setting, PGE2 was essential both for expression of functional CXCR4 in cancer-associated MDSCs and for production of its ligand CXCL12. Frequencies of CD11b+CD14+CD33+CXCR4+ MDSCs closely correlated with CXCL12 and PGE2 levels in patient ascites. MDSCs migrated toward ovarian cancer ascites in a CXCR4-dependent manner that required COX2 activity and autocrine PGE2 production. Inhibition of COX2 or the PGE2 receptors EP2/EP4 in MDSCs suppressed expression of CXCR4 and MDSC responsiveness to CXCL12 or ovarian cancer ascites. Similarly, COX2 inhibition also blocked CXCL12 production in the ovarian cancer environment and its ability to attract MDSCs. Together, our findings elucidate a central role for PGE2 in MDSC accumulation triggered by the CXCL12-CXCR4 pathway, providing a powerful rationale to target PGE2 signaling in ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:22025564

  18. Molecular expression of adenosine receptors in OVCAR-3, Caov-4 and SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Hajiahmadi, S.; Panjehpour, M.; Aghaei, M.; Mousavi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, A2b and A3) have several physiological and pathological roles in cancer cell lines. The present study was carried out to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression profile and functional role of adenosine receptors in OVCAR-3, Caov-4 and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cell lines. The levels of mRNA and protein expression of A1, A2a, A2b and A3 adenosine receptors in the ovarian cancer cell lines were measured by Real-time PCR and western blotting. The functional roles of adenosine receptors were investigated through measurement of cAMP levels after agonist treatment. The mRNA and protein of all adenosine receptors subtypes were expressed in the ovarian cancer cell lines. Our findings demonstrated that A2b and A3 had the most mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, cAMP assay confirmed the functional role of A2b and A3 adenosine receptors. This findings demonstrated that A2b and A3 subtypes are most important adenosine receptors in humn ovarian cancer cell lines. This information provide a strong possibility into the relationship of A2b and A3 adenosine receptor and ovarian cancer. PMID:26430456

  19. Molecular expression of adenosine receptors in OVCAR-3, Caov-4 and SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hajiahmadi, S; Panjehpour, M; Aghaei, M; Mousavi, S

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, A2b and A3) have several physiological and pathological roles in cancer cell lines. The present study was carried out to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression profile and functional role of adenosine receptors in OVCAR-3, Caov-4 and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cell lines. The levels of mRNA and protein expression of A1, A2a, A2b and A3 adenosine receptors in the ovarian cancer cell lines were measured by Real-time PCR and western blotting. The functional roles of adenosine receptors were investigated through measurement of cAMP levels after agonist treatment. The mRNA and protein of all adenosine receptors subtypes were expressed in the ovarian cancer cell lines. Our findings demonstrated that A2b and A3 had the most mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, cAMP assay confirmed the functional role of A2b and A3 adenosine receptors. This findings demonstrated that A2b and A3 subtypes are most important adenosine receptors in humn ovarian cancer cell lines. This information provide a strong possibility into the relationship of A2b and A3 adenosine receptor and ovarian cancer. PMID:26430456

  20. Ovarian stimulation with human chorionic gonadotropin and equine chorionic gonadotropin affects prostacyclin and its receptor expression in the porcine oviduct.

    PubMed

    Małysz-Cymborska, I; Andronowska, A

    2015-10-01

    Prostaglandins are well-known mediators of crucial events in the female reproductive tract, eg, early embryo development and implantation. Prostacyclin (PGI2) is the most synthesized prostaglandin in the human oviduct during the postovulatory period, indicating its important role in supporting and regulating the oviductal environment. The present study was undertaken to determine the influence of insemination and ovarian stimulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)/equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on PGI2 synthesis in the porcine oviduct on day 3 post coitus. Mature gilts (n = 25) were assigned into 2 experiments. In experiment I, gilts were divided into cyclic (control; n = 5) and inseminated (control; n = 5) groups. In experiment II, there were 3 groups of animals: inseminated (n = 5), induced ovulation/inseminated (750 IU eCG, 500 IU hCG; n = 5), and superovulated/inseminated (1,500 IU eCG, 1,000 IU hCG; n = 5) gilts. Parts of oviducts (isthmus and ampulla) were collected 3 days after phosphate-buffered saline treatment (cyclic gilts of experiment I) or insemination (all other groups). Expression of messenger RNA for PGI2 synthase (PGIS) and its receptor (IP) was measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT PCR) and protein levels using Western blots. Concentrations of the PGI2 metabolite 6-keto PGF1α were evaluated by enzyme immunoassay and localization of PGIS and IP in the oviductal tissues using immunohistochemical staining. Insemination by itself increased PGIS protein levels in the oviductal isthmus (P < 0.05) and IP protein expression in the ampulla (P < 0.05). The concentration of 6-keto PGF1α increased significantly in the oviductal ampulla after insemination (P < 0.05). Induction of ovulation decreased IP protein levels in the oviductal ampulla (P < 0.05), whereas superovulation reduced IP levels in both parts of the oviduct (P < 0.01). Synthesis of 6-keto PGF1α was reduced by induction of ovulation

  1. Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 Attenuation of Protein Kinase C-Induced Inflammation in Human Ovarian Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yi-Ning; Sun, David; Peng, Yen-Chun; Wu, Yuh-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are two important inflammatory mediators in ovulation. Ghrelin may modulate inflammatory signaling via growth hormone secretagogue receptors. We investigated the role of ghrelin in KGN human ovarian granulosa cells using protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (PDD) and synthetic ghrelin analog growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2). GHRP-2 attenuated PDD-induced expression of protein and mRNA, the promoter activity of COX-2 and IL-8 genes, and the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-8. GHRP-2 promoted the degradation of PDD-induced COX-2 and IL-8 proteins with the involvement of proteasomal and lysosomal pathways. PDD-mediated COX-2 production acts via the p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathways; PDD-mediated IL-8 production acts via the p38, JNK and ERK pathways. GHRP-2 reduced the PDD-induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and activator protein 1 (AP-1) reporter activation and PDD-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and reporter activation. The inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) reduced the inhibitory effect of GHRP-2 on PDD-induced COX-2 and IL-8 expression. Our findings demonstrate an anti-inflammatory role for ghrelin (GHRP-2) in PKC-mediated inflammation of granulosa cells, at least in part, due to its inhibitory effect on PKC-induced activation of p38, JNK and NF-κB, possibly by targeting to MKP-1 and PP2A. PMID:27548147

  2. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) plays a key role in ovarian cancer cell adhesion and motility

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Renquan; Sun, Xinghui; Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Lei; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Lin

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We generated stable transduced HE4 overexpression and knockdown cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 was associated with EOC cell adhesion and motility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 might have some effects on activation of EGFR-MAPK signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 play an important role in EOC tumorigenicity. -- Abstract: Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a novel and specific biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We previously demonstrated that serum HE4 levels were significantly elevated in the majority of EOC patients but not in subjects with benign disease or healthy controls. However, the precise mechanism of HE4 protein function is unknown. In this study, we generated HE4-overexpressing SKOV3 cells and found that stably transduced cells promoted cell adhesion and migration. Knockdown of HE4 expression was achieved by stable transfection of SKOV3 cells with a construct encoding a short hairpin DNA directed against the HE4 gene. Correspondingly, the proliferation and spreading ability of HE4-expressed cells were inhibited by HE4 suppression. Mechanistically, impaired EGFR and Erk1/2 phosphorylation were observed in cells with HE4 knockdown. The phosphorylation was restored when the knockdown cells were cultured in conditioned medium containing HE4. Moreover, in vivo tumorigenicity showed that HE4 suppression markedly inhibited the growth of tumors. This suggests that expression of HE4 is associated with cancer cell adhesion, migration and tumor growth, which can be related to its effects on the EGFR-MAPK signaling pathway. Our results provide evidence of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may underlie the motility-promoting role of HE4 in EOC progression. The role of HE4 as a target for gene-based therapy might be considered in future studies.

  3. Electromechanical activities of human uteri during extra-corporeal perfusion with ovarian steroids.

    PubMed

    Bulletti, C; Prefetto, R A; Bazzocchi, G; Romero, R; Mimmi, P; Polli, V; Lanfranchi, G A; Labate, A M; Flamigni, C

    1993-10-01

    A new experimental system was designed to study human uterine activities based on the extra-corporeal perfusion of isolated human uteri. Electromechanical activities in the uterine wall were recorded using bipolar silver-silver electrodes, endoluminal pressure catheters and a dedicated acquisition, storage and analytical system. The electrical signals recorded were isolated spikes and rhythmic activities; the last being primarily associated with organized mechanical events. Perfusion media containing 17 beta-oestradiol alone or with progesterone were used for those uteri obtained during proliferative (n = 5) or secretory (n = 5) phases of the menstrual cycle, respectively. Progesterone caused a reduction of frequency (P < 0.001) and duration (P < 0.001) of the rhythmic electrical activity, and decreased the endoluminal pressure at both detection sites (P < 0.01). 17 beta-Oestradiol increased both frequency (P < 0.001) and duration (P < 0.001) of the rhythmic electrical activity as well as the endoluminal pressure at two different detection sites (3 and 5 cm from the fundus) (P < 0.05). Significant differences between the fundus and cervix sites in the uterine wall were detected. In conclusion, uterine perfusion would be useful to examine the effects of uterotonic and tocolytic drugs before administration to humans, at no risk to the patients. Oestrogens increase and progesterone decreases both electrical and mechanical uterine activities. PMID:8300807

  4. Oncolytic reovirus against ovarian and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Sandra G; Norman, Kara L; Alain, Tommy; Kossakowska, Anna; Lee, Patrick W K

    2002-03-15

    Reovirus selectively replicates in and destroys cancer cells with an activated Ras signaling pathway. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using reovirus (serotype 3, strain Dearing) as an antihuman colon and ovarian cancer agent. In in vitro studies, reovirus infection in human colon and ovarian cell lines was assessed by cytopathic effect as detected by light microscopy, [(35)S]Methionine labeling of infected cells for viral protein synthesis and progeny virus production by plaque assay. We observed that reovirus efficiently infected all five human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, DLD-1, HCT-116, HT-29, and SW48) and four human ovarian cancer cell lines (MDAH2774, PA-1, SKOV3, and SW626) which were tested, but not a normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) or a normal ovarian cell line (NOV-31). We also observed that the Ras activity in the human colon and ovarian cancer cell lines was elevated compared with that in normal colon and ovarian cell lines. In animal models, intraneoplastic as well as i.v. inoculation of reovirus resulted in significant regression of established s.c. human colon and ovarian tumors implanted at the hind flank. Histological studies revealed that reovirus infection in vivo was restricted to tumor cells, whereas the surrounding normal tissue remained uninfected. Additionally, in an i.p. human ovarian cancer xenograft model, inhibition of ascites tumor formation and the survival of animals treated with live reovirus was significantly greater than of control mice treated with UV-inactivated reovirus. Reovirus infection in ex vivo primary human ovarian tumor surgical samples was also confirmed, further demonstrating the potential of reovirus therapy. These results suggest that reovirus holds promise as a novel agent for human colon and ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:11912142

  5. Discrimination of Human Cell Lines by Infrared Spectroscopy and Mathematical Modeling.

    PubMed

    Zendehdel, Rezvan; H Shirazi, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Variations in biochemical features are extensive among cells. Identification of marker that is specific for each cell is essential for following the differentiation of stem cell and metastatic growing. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as a biochemical analysis more focused on diagnosis of cancerous cells. In this study, commercially obtained cell lines such as Human ovarian carcinoma (A2780), Human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell lines in 20 individual samples for each cell lines were used for FTIR spectral measurements. Data dimension were reduced through principal component analysis (PCA) and then subjected to neural network and linear discrimination analysis to classify FTIR pattern in different cell lines. The results showed dramatic changes of FTIR spectra among different cell types. These appeared to be associated with changes in lipid bands from CH2 symmetric and asymmetric bands, as well as amide I and amid II bands of proteins. The PCA-ANN analysis provided over 90% accuracy for classifying the spectrum of lipid section in different cell lines. This work supports future study to establish the data bank of FTIR feature for different cells and move forward to tissues as more complex systems. PMID:26330868

  6. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with human breast or ovarian carcinoma: In vivo applications

    SciTech Connect

    Thor, A.D.; Edgerton, S.M. )

    1989-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) are unique and useful bioprobes that allow in vivo targeting of membrane-associated or circulating antigens. Most of the clinical trials to date have used low dosages of radiolabeled MoAb given in a single dose. Newer studies have included antibody fragments, repeated injections, intraperitoneal (IP) administration, and other labels such as 90Y. Clinical MoAb trials are often arduous, expensive, and time-consuming to perform. Before human use, animal studies and extensive MoAb characterization are required. The production of pharmaceutical grade, radiolabeled MoAb is technically difficult and costly. Clinical trials require administrative and patient consent as well as extensive written protocols. These studies necessitate interdepartmental and intradepartmental cooperation and coordination. Furthermore, the use of in vivo radiolabeled probes impacts many levels of health care providers from janitorial, nursing, and technical staff to laboratories and physicians. Simple blood tests or disposal of body excretions may concern nursing or technical staff with the possibility of radiation exposure. The responsibility for study design, personnel involvement, and prospective use in patients without a definitive cancer diagnosis ultimately rests with the physician. While many issues have been addressed, additional clinical trials, consideration of safety issues, and standardization between institutions will be necessary before the use of radiolabeled MoAb for diagnosis, management, or therapy of human tumors becomes routine. Continued cooperation and funding should ensure its achievement. 136 references.

  7. Comparative gene expression profiling in human cumulus cells according to ovarian gonadotropin treatments.

    PubMed

    Assou, Said; Haouzi, Delphine; Dechaud, Hervé; Gala, Anna; Ferrières, Alice; Hamamah, Samir

    2013-01-01

    In in vitro fertilization cycles, both HP-hMG and rFSH gonadotropin treatments are widely used to control human follicle development. The objectives of this study are (i) to characterize and compare gene expression profiles in cumulus cells (CCs) of periovulatory follicles obtained from patients stimulated with HP-hMG or rFSH in a GnRH antagonist cycle and (ii) to examine their relationship with in vitro embryo development, using Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Genes that were upregulated in HP-hMG-treated CCs are involved in lipid metabolism (GM2A) and cell-to-cell interactions (GJA5). Conversely, genes upregulated in rFSH-treated CCs are implicated in cell assembly and organization (COL1A1 and COL3A1). Interestingly, some genes specific to each gonadotropin treatment (NPY1R and GM2A for HP-hMG; GREM1 and OSBPL6 for rFSH) were associated with day 3 embryo quality and blastocyst grade at day 5, while others (STC2 and PTX3) were related to in vitro embryo quality in both gonadotropin treatments. These genes may prove valuable as biomarkers of in vitro embryo quality. PMID:24151596

  8. What Is Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about ovarian cancer? What is ovarian cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... section . Other cancers that are similar to epithelial ovarian cancer Primary peritoneal carcinoma Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is ...

  9. Cytotoxic effect of Alpinia scabra (Blume) Náves extracts on human breast and ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpinia scabra, locally known as 'Lengkuas raya’, is an aromatic, perennial and rhizomatous herb from the family Zingiberaceae. It is a wild species which grows largely on mountains at moderate elevations in Peninsular Malaysia, but it can also survive in the lowlands like in the states of Terengganu and Northern Johor. The present study reports the cytotoxic potential of A. scabra extracts from different parts of the plant. Methods The experimental approach in the present study was based on a bioassay-guided fractionation. The crude methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform and water) from different parts of A. scabra (leaves, rhizomes, roots and pseudo stems) were prepared prior to the cytotoxicity evaluation against human ovarian (SKOV-3) and hormone-dependent breast (MCF7) carcinoma cells. The identified cytotoxic extracts were then subjected to chemical investigations in order to identify the active ingredients. A normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) was used to determine the specificity for cancerous cells. The cytotoxic extracts and fractions were also subjected to morphological assessment, DNA fragmentation analysis and DAPI nuclear staining. Results The leaf (hexane and chloroform) and rhizome (chloroform) extracts showed high inhibitory effect against the tested cells. Ten fractions (LC1-LC10) were yielded after purification of the leaf chloroform extract. Fraction LC4 which showed excellent cytotoxic activity was further purified and resulted in 17 sub-fractions (VLC1-VLC17). Sub-fraction VLC9 showed excellent cytotoxicity against MCF7 and SKOV-3 cells but not toxic against normal MRC-5 cells. Meanwhile, eighteen fractions (RC1-RC18) were obtained after purification of the rhizome chloroform extract, of which fraction RC5 showed cytotoxicity against SKOV-3 cells with high selectivity index. There were marked morphological changes when observed using phase-contrast inverted microscope, DAPI nuclear staining and also DNA

  10. Rethinking Ovarian Cancer: Recommendations for Improving Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Sebastian; Coward, Jermaine I.; Bast Jr., Robert C.; Berchuck, Andy; Berek, Jonathan S.; Brenton, James D.; Coukos, George; Crum, Christopher C.; Drapkin, Ronny; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Friedlander, Michael; Gabra, Hani; Kaye, Stan B.; Lord, Chris J.; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A.; McNeish, Iain A.; Menon, Usha; Mills, Gordon B.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Oza, Amit M.; Sood, Anil K.; Stronach, Euan A.; Walczak, Henning; Bowtell, David D.; Balkwill, Frances R.

    2012-01-01

    There have been major advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of the human malignancies collectively referred to as ovarian cancer. At a recent Helene Harris Memorial Trust meeting, an international group of researchers considered actions that should be taken to improve the outcome for women with ovarian cancer. Nine major recommendations are outlined in this Perspective. PMID:21941283

  11. Photodynamic action of LED-activated pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.; Xu, C. S.; Xia, X. S.; Yu, H. P.; Bai, D. Q.; He, Y.; Leung, A. W. N.

    2009-04-01

    Cisplatin-resistance is a major obstacle for the successful therapy to ovarian cancer, and exploring novel approach to deactivate cisplatin-resistant ovarian cells will improve the clinical outcomes. Our present study showed that there was no dark cytotoxicity of MPPa in the COC1/DDP cells at the dose of 0.25 - 4 μM, and LED-activated MPPa resulted in drug dose- and light-dependent cytotoxicity. Apoptotic rate 6 h after LED-activated MPPa (2 μM) increased to 16.71% under the light energy of 1 J/cm2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that MPPa mainly localized in the intracellular membrane system, namely the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and mitochondria in the COC1/DDP cells. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was collapsed when COC1/DDP cells were exposed to 2 μM MPPa for 20 h and then 1 J/cm2 irradiation of LED source. These data demonstrated that LED-activated MPPa significantly deactivated cisplatin-resistant ovarian cell line COC1/DDP cells and enhanced apoptosis and decreased ΔΨm, which suggests LED is an efficient light source for PDT and LED-activated MPPa can be developed as new modality for treating cisplatin-resistant ovarian.

  12. Resistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel does not affect the sensitivity of human ovarian cancer cells to antiprogestin-induced cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiprogestin compounds have been shown to be effective in blocking the growth of ovarian cancer cells of different genetic backgrounds. Herein we studied the anti-ovarian cancer effect of a series of antiprogestins sharing the chemical backbone of the most characterized antiprogestin, mifepristone, but with unique modifications in position C-17 of the steroid ring. We assessed the effect of mifepristone-like antiprogestins on the growth of ovarian cancer cells sensitive to the standard combination therapy cisplatin-paclitaxel or made double-resistant upon six cycles of pulse-selection with the drugs used at clinically relevant concentrations and exposure times. Methods IGROV-1 and SKOV-3 cells were pulsed with 20 μM cisplatin for 1 h followed by 100 nM paclitaxel for 3 h once a week for six weeks. The cells that did not die and repopulate the culture after the chemotherapies were termed Platinum-Taxane-EScape cells (PTES). Parental cells were compared against their PTES derivatives in their responses to further platinum-taxane treatments. Moreover, both ovarian cancer cells and their PTES siblings were exposed to escalating doses of the various antiprogestin derivatives. We assessed cell growth, viability and sub-G1 DNA content using microcapillary cytometry. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21cip1 and p27kip1 and cleavage of downstream caspase-3 substrate PARP were used to assess whether cell fate, as a consequence of treatment, was limited to cytostasis or progressed to lethality. Results Cells subjected to six pulse-selection cycles of cisplatin-paclitaxel gave rise to sibling derivatives that displayed ~2-7 fold reduction in their sensitivities to further chemotherapy. However, regardless of the sensitivity the cells developed to the combination cisplatin-paclitaxel, they displayed similar sensitivity to the antiprogestins, which blocked their growth in a dose-related manner, with lower concentrations causing cytostasis, and higher

  13. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha is required for the tumourigenic and aggressive phenotype associated with Rab25 expression in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Roman, Natividad; Sahasrabudhe, Neha Mohan; McGregor, Fiona; Chalmers, Anthony J.; Cassidy, Jim; Plumb, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab25 has been functionally linked to tumour progression and aggressiveness in ovarian cancer and promotes invasion in three-dimensional environments. This type of migration has been shown to require the expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α). In this report we demonstrate that Rab25 regulates HIF-1α protein expression in an oxygen independent manner in a panel of cancer cell lines. Regulation of HIF-1α protein expression by Rab25 did not require transcriptional upregulation, but was dependent on de novo protein synthesis through the Erbb2/ERK1/2 and p70S6K/mTOR pathways. Rab25 expression induced HIF-1 transcriptional activity, increased cisplatin resistance, and conferred intraperitoneal growth to the A2780 cell line in immunocompromised mice. Targeting HIF1 activity by silencing HIF-1β re-sensitised cells to cisplatin in vitro and reduced tumour formation of A2780-Rab25 expressing cells in vivo in a mouse ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis model. Similar effects on cisplatin resistance in vitro and intraperitoneal tumourigenesis in vivo were obtained after HIF1b knockdown in the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3, which expresses endogenous Rab25 and HIF-1α at atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Our results suggest that Rab25 tumourigenic potential and chemoresistance relies on HIF1 activity in aggressive and metastatic ovarian cancer. Targeting HIF-1 activity may potentially be effective either alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy for aggressive metastatic ovarian cancer. PMID:26967059

  14. Suppression of SIK1 by miR-141 in human ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Long; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Liu, Nai-Fu

    2016-06-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the sixth most common cancer in women worldwide, is the most commonly fatal gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. One of the main reasons for this is that relatively little was known about the molecular events responsible for the development of this highly aggressive disease. In the present study, we demonstrated that salt‑inducible kinase 1 (SIK1; which is also known as MSK/SIK/SNF1LK) was downregulated in ovarian cancer tissue samples. Using HEY ovarian cancer cells, we noted that SIK1 overexpression inhibited proliferation as well as cancer stem cell-associated traits. Silencing SIK1 promoted the proliferation of the EG ovarian cancer cell line. We performed an analysis of potential microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) target sites using three commonly used prediction algorithms: miRanda, TargetScan and PicTar. All three algorithms predicted that miR-141 targets the 3'UTR of SIK1. Subsequent experiments not only confirmed this prediction, but also showed that miR-141 was associated with the progression of this disease. Finally, we found that miR-141 promoted proliferation of EG cells, whereas silencing miR-141 restored SIK1 expression and inhibited the proliferation of the HEY cells. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of ovarian cancer not only enables us to further understand the pathogenesis and progression of the disease, but also provides new targets for effective therapies. PMID:27081781

  15. Human chorionic gonadotrophin in early gestation induces growth of estrogenic ovarian follicles and improves primiparous sow fertility during summer.

    PubMed

    Seyfang, Jemma; Langendijk, P; Chen, T Y; Bouwman, E; Kirkwood, R N

    2016-09-01

    Reduced summer farrowing rates may be due to inadequate corpora luteal (CL) support. Porcine CL become dependent on LH from 12 d of pregnancy and the embryonic estrogen signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) is initiated at about 11-12 d after insemination. We hypothesised that injection of the LH analogue human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) would induce growth of estrogenic follicles and, by mimicking the signal for MRP and stimulating progesterone secretion, increase primiparous sow fertility. In Experiment 1, during a 28 d lactation 53 mixed parity sows were full-fed either throughout lactation (n=16) or until 18 d and then feed restricted during the last 10 d of lactation (n=36). At 12 d after mating restrict-fed sows were injected with 1000IU hCG (n=17) or were not injected (n=19); the full-fed sows acted as non-treated positive controls. Transrectal ovarian ultrasound exams were performed on days 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28; blood samples were obtained on days 12, 14, and 15 for estradiol and progesterone assay. For Experiment 2, during the summer months primiparous sows received 1000IU hCG 12 d after mating (n=28) or were non-injected controls (n=27). Pregnancy status was determined at 28 d and sows allowed to go to term to determine farrowing rates and litter sizes. In Experiment 1, injection of hCG increased (P<0.001) follicle diameter and serum concentrations of estradiol (P<0.01) and progesterone (P<0.05). There were no effects of lactation feeding level on wean-estrus interval, farrowing rate or subsequent litter size. In Experiment 2, hCG injection was associated with a higher pregnancy rate (P<0.05) and farrowing rate (P<0.08). There was no effect on litter size. These data confirm that hCG stimulates growth of estrogenic follicles and CL function, and improves primiparous sow fertility during the summer months. PMID:27397793

  16. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%). Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma) and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma), by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts. PMID:23158079

  17. Correlation of circular RNA abundance with proliferation – exemplified with colorectal and ovarian cancer, idiopathic lung fibrosis, and normal human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bachmayr-Heyda, Anna; Reiner, Agnes T.; Auer, Katharina; Sukhbaatar, Nyamdelger; Aust, Stefanie; Bachleitner-Hofmann, Thomas; Mesteri, Ildiko; Grunt, Thomas W.; Zeillinger, Robert; Pils, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Circular RNAs are a recently (re-)discovered abundant RNA species with presumed function as miRNA sponges, thus part of the competing endogenous RNA network. We analysed the expression of circular and linear RNAs and proliferation in matched normal colon mucosa and tumour tissues. We predicted >1,800 circular RNAs and proved the existence of five randomly chosen examples using RT-qPCR. Interestingly, the ratio of circular to linear RNA isoforms was always lower in tumour compared to normal colon samples and even lower in colorectal cancer cell lines. Furthermore, this ratio correlated negatively with the proliferation index. The correlation of global circular RNA abundance (the circRNA index) and proliferation was validated in a non-cancerous proliferative disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, ovarian cancer cells compared to cultured normal ovarian epithelial cells, and 13 normal human tissues. We are the first to report a global reduction of circular RNA abundance in colorectal cancer cell lines and cancer compared to normal tissues and discovered a negative correlation of global circular RNA abundance and proliferation. This negative correlation seems to be a general principle in human tissues as validated with three different settings. Finally, we present a simple model how circular RNAs could accumulate in non-proliferating cells. PMID:25624062

  18. Decreased LRIG1 in Human Ovarian Cancer Cell SKOV3 Upregulates MRP-1 and Contributes to the Chemoresistance of VP16.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Yao, Jun; Yin, Jiangpin; Wei, Xuan

    2016-05-01

    The leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) are used as tumor suppressors in clinical applications. Although the LRIG has been identified to manipulate the cell proliferation via various oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases in diverse cancers, its role in multidrug resistance needs to be further elucidated, especially in human ovarian cancer. We herein established that the etoposide (VP16)-resistant SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cell clones (SKOV3/VP16 cells) and mRNA expression of LRIG1 were significantly reduced by the treatment of VP16 in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, downregulated LRIG1 in SKOV3 could enhance the colony formation and resist the inhibition of proliferation by VP16, leading to the elevated expression of Bcl-2 and decreased apoptosis of SKOV3. Interestingly, our results uncovered that the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) was upregulated for the chemoresistance of VP16. To overcome the chemoresistance of SKOV3, SKOV3/VP16 was ectopically expressed of LRIG1. We found that the inhibition of VP16 on colony formation and proliferation was remarkably enhanced with increased apoptosis in SKOV3/VP16. Furthermore, the expression of MRP-1 and Bcl-2 was also inhibited, suggesting that the LRIG1could negatively control MRP-1 and the apoptosis to improve the sensitivity of VP16-related chemotherapy. PMID:27183435

  19. The anti-tumour effects of the prodrugs N-l-leucyl-doxorubicin and vinblastine-isoleucinate in human ovarian cancer xenografts.

    PubMed Central

    Boven, E.; Hendriks, H. R.; Erkelens, C. A.; Pinedo, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    N-l-leucyl-doxorubicin and vinblastine-isoleucinate can be considered as relatively non-toxic prodrugs from doxorubicin and vinblastine, respectively. A comparative analysis was carried out of the anti-tumour activity of the four compounds as well as vintriptol in four human ovarian cancer xenografts different in histology, growth rate and chemosensitivity. Injections were given i.v. weekly twice into mice bearing well-established s.c. tumours. At equitoxic doses, the amount of drug administered for N-l-leucyl-doxorubicin and vinblastine-isoleucinate was respectively 3-fold and 2-fold higher than the doses of the parent compound. N-l-leucyl-doxorubicin induced a growth inhibition > 50% in three out of four human ovarian cancer lines. The anti-tumour effects obtained were significantly better (P < 0.01) than in the case of doxorubicin. Vinblastine-isoleucinate studied in two of these lines could induce a growth inhibition of > 50%. This prodrug appeared slightly less effective than vinblastine. Insignificant growth inhibition (< 50%) was obtained by vintriptol. PMID:1457343

  20. Selective inhibition of tumor cell associated Vacuolar-ATPase 'a2' isoform overcomes cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Arpita; Katara, Gajendra K; Ginter, Jordyn; Pamarthy, Sahithi; Ibrahim, Safaa A; Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Sandulescu, Corina; Periakaruppan, Ramayee; Dolan, James; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Beaman, Kenneth D

    2016-06-01

    Development of resistance to platinum compounds significantly hinders successful ovarian cancer (OVCA) treatment. In tumor cells, dysregulated pH gradient across cell membranes is a key physiological mechanism of metastasis/chemo-resistance. These pH alterations are mediated by aberrant activation of key multi-subunit proton pumps, Vacuolar-ATPases (V-ATPases). In tumor cells, its 'a2' isoform (V-ATPase-V0a2) is a component of functional plasma-membrane complex and promotes tumor invasion through tumor-acidification and immuno-modulation. Its involvement in chemo-resistance has not been studied. Here, we show that V-ATPase-V0a2 is over-expressed in acquired-cisplatin resistant OVCA cells (cis-A2780/cis-TOV112D). Of all the 'a' subunit isoforms, V-ATPase-V0a2 exhibited an elevated expression on plasma membrane of cisplatin-resistant cells compared to sensitive counterparts. Immuno-histochemistry revealed V-ATPase-V0a2 expression in both low grade (highly drug-resistant) and high grade (highly recurrent) human OVCA tissues indicating its role in a centralized mechanism of tumor resistance. In cisplatin resistant cells, shRNA mediated inhibition of V-ATPase-V0a2 enhanced sensitivity towards both cisplatin and carboplatin. This improved cytotoxicity was mediated by enhanced cisplatin-DNA-adduct formation and suppressed DNA-repair pathway, leading to enhanced apoptosis. Suppression of V0a2 activity strongly reduced cytosolic pH in resistant tumor cells, which is known to enhance platinum-associated DNA-damage. As an indicator of reduced metastasis and chemo-resistance, in contrast to plasma membrane localization, a diffused cytoplasmic localization of acidic vacuoles was observed in V0a2-knockdown resistant cells. Interestingly, pre-treatment with monoclonal V0a2-inhibitory antibody enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity in resistant cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that the isoform specific inhibition of V-ATPase-V0a2 could serve as a therapeutic strategy for chemo

  1. Identification of predictive factors of response to the BH3-mimetic molecule ABT-737: an ex vivo experiment in human serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lheureux, Stéphanie; N'Diaye, Monique; Blanc-Fournier, Cécile; Dugué, Audrey Emmanuelle; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Dutoit, Soizic; Giffard, Florence; Abeilard, Edwige; Briand, Mélanie; Labiche, Alexandre; Grellard, Jean-Michel; Crouet, Hubert; Martin, Sandrine; Joly, Florence; Poulain, Laurent

    2015-03-01

    Ovarian cancers are addicted to Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Bcl-xL can be inhibited by the BH3-mimetic ABT-737. In vitro, ABT-737 can induce apoptosis of cancer cells, and its activity is potentiated by Mcl-1 inactivation. Herein, we assessed the sensitivity of human ovarian tumor nodes to ABT-737 when combined with carboplatin, which can indirectly inhibit Mcl-1. Fresh samples from 25 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) who were chemo-naïve and had undergone surgery were prospectively exposed ex vivo to ABT-737 ± carboplatin. The treatment effect was studied on sliced tumor nodes by assessment of cleaved-caspase 3 immunostaining. We also studied the association between baseline Bcl-2 family protein expression (via immunohistochemistry) and the response of nodes to treatment. ABT-737 induced apoptosis as a single agent but its efficacy was not improved by the addition of carboplatin. Bim was frequently expressed (20/25) and its absence or low expression was associated with the absence of response to ABT-737, p value = 0.019 by Fisher's test and sensitivity = 93%, (95% confidence interval, 66-100). Moreover, we observed that in tumors in which Bim was expressed, a low expression of phospho-Erk1/2 or Mcl-1 improved the proportion of responses. This pilot study showed that ABT-737 has promise as monotherapy for HGSOC in a specific subgroup of tumors. Bim, Mcl-1, and phospho-Erk1/2 appeared to be relevant biomarkers that could be used for the selection of patients in the design of clinical trials using Navitoclax (an orally available compound related to ABT-737). PMID:25066666

  2. Involvement of microRNA Mir15a in control of human ovarian granulosa cell proliferation, apoptosis, steroidogenesis, and response to FSH.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Kisová, Gabriela; Brenaut, Pauline; Ovcharenko, Dmitriy; Grossmann, Roland; Mlyncek, Milos

    2014-01-01

    Our study aimed to examine the role of micro RNA Mir15a in control of basic ovarian cell functions: proliferation, apoptosis, and secretory activity. In the first series of experiments, primary human ovarian granulosa cells were transfected with antisense construct blocking Mir15a (anti-Mir15a) and cultured without hormonal treatments. Accumulation of markers of proliferation (MAPK/ERK1,2 and PCNA) and apoptosis (caspase 3 and bax), and release of steroid hormones (progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol) were evaluated by immunocytochemical analysis and by enzyme immunoassay. In the second series of experiments, granulosa cells were transfected with gene construct encoding Mir15a precursor (pre-Mir15a) and cultured with and without follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; 0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml). Expression of markers of proliferation (MAPK/ERK1,2) apoptosis (caspase 3), and steroidogenesis (release of progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol) were evaluated. Transfection of cells with anti-Mir15a resulted in a significant increase in accumulation of both proliferation and apoptosis markers, a reduction in progesterone and testosterone release, and an increase in estradiol release. Transfection of cells with pre-Mir15a had an opposite effect: it reduced accumulation of proliferation- and apoptosis-related proteins MAPK/ERK1,2 and caspase 3, and promoted release of progesterone and testosterone, but not estradiol. Moreover, pre-Mir15a reversed the effect of FSH on caspase 3, progesterone, and testosterone, but not on MAPK/ERK1,2 and estradiol. Our observations demonstrate involvement of Mir15a in control of multiple ovarian functions: proliferation, apoptosis, release of progesterone, androgen, and estrogen, and response to gonadotropin. Moreover, this is the first demonstration that miRNAs can affect response of cells to hormonal regulators. We propose that Mir15 could potentially be used for control of different reproductive processes. PMID:25069510

  3. Adenosine induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via cyclinD1/Cdk4 and Bcl-2/Bax pathways in human ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3.

    PubMed

    Shirali, Saeid; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Shabani, Mahdi; Fathi, Mojtaba; Sohrabi, Majid; Moeinifard, Marzieh

    2013-04-01

    Adenosine is a regulatory molecule with widespread physiological effects in almost every cells and acts as a potent regulator of cell growth. Adenosine has been shown to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in the several cancer cells via caspase activation and Bcl-2/Bax pathway. The present study was designed to understand the mechanism underlying adenosine-induced apoptosis in the OVCAR-3 human ovarian cancer cells. MTT viability, BrdU and cell counting assays were used to study the cell proliferation effect of adenosine in presence of adenosine deaminase inhibitor and the nucleoside transporter inhibitor. Cell cycle analysis, propidium iodide and annexin V staining, caspase-3 activity assay, cyclinD1, Cdk4, Bcl-2 and Bax protein expressions were assessed to detect apoptosis. Adenosine significantly inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner in OVCAR-3 cell line. Adenosine induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase via Cdk4/cyclinD1-mediated pathway. Adenosine induced apoptosis, which was determined by Annexin V-FITC staining and increased sub-G1 population. Moreover, down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression, up-regulation of Bax protein expression and activation of caspase-3 were observed in response to adenosine treatment. The results of this study suggest that extracellular adenosine induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via cyclinD1/ Cdk4 and Bcl-2/Bax pathways and caspase-3 activation. These data might suggest that adenosine could be used as an agent for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:23345014

  4. Upregulation of p27Kip1 by demethylation sensitizes cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Li, Qiaoyan; Wu, Xiaoying; Chen, Puxiang

    2016-08-01

    Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis due to its chemoresistance, and p27Kip1 (p27) has been implicated in tumor prognosis and drug-resistance. However, the regulatory mechanisms of p27 in drug‑resistance in ovarian cancer remain unknown. The current study successfully established chemoresistant cell lines using paclitaxel (TAX), cisplatin (DDP) and carboplatin (CBP) in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. The results indicated that the expression levels of p27 were dramatically downregulated in chemoresistant cells. However, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza) treatment restored p27 expression in DDP-resistant cells, and increased their sensitivity to DDP. In addition, it was observed that the methylation of DDP‑resistant cells, which was downregulated by 5‑aza treatment, was significantly higher compared with SKOV3 cells. Additionally, the overexpression of p27 arrested the cell cycle in S phase and promoted an apoptotic response to DDP. In conclusion, p27 was involved in chemoresistance of SKOV3 cells. Upregulated p27 expression induced by demethylation may enhance sensitivity to DDP through the regulation of the cell cycle. PMID:27314502

  5. Expression of the RNA-binding protein RBM3 is associated with a favourable prognosis and cisplatin sensitivity in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We recently demonstrated that increased expression of the RNA-binding protein RBM3 is associated with a favourable prognosis in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic value of RBM3 mRNA and protein expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and the cisplatin response upon RBM3 depletion in a cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cell line. Methods RBM3 mRNA expression was analysed in tumors from a cohort of 267 EOC cases (Cohort I) and RBM3 protein expression was analysed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in an independent cohort of 154 prospectively collected EOC cases (Cohort II). Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were applied to assess the relationship between RBM3 and recurrence free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Immunoblotting and IHC were used to examine the expression of RBM3 in a cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line A2780-Cp70 and its cisplatin-responsive parental cell line A2780. The impact of RBM3 on cisplatin response in EOC was assessed using siRNA-mediated silencing of RBM3 in A2780 cells followed by cell viability assay and cell cycle analysis. Results Increased RBM3 mRNA expression was associated with a prolonged RFS (HR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.47-0.86, p = 0.003) and OS (HR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.44-0.95, p = 0.024) in Cohort I. Multivariate analysis confirmed that RBM3 mRNA expression was an independent predictor of a prolonged RFS, (HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.44-0.84, p = 0.003) and OS (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.95; p = 0.028) in Cohort I. In Cohort II, RBM3 protein expression was associated with a prolonged OS (HR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.35-0.79, p = 0.002) confirmed by multivariate analysis (HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.40-0.92, p = 0.017). RBM3 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher in the cisplatin sensitive A2780 cell line compared to the cisplatin resistant A2780-Cp70 derivative. siRNA-mediated silencing of RBM3 expression in the A2780 cells resulted in a

  6. Comparison of Expression Profiles in Ovarian Epithelium In Vivo and Ovarian Cancer Identifies Novel Candidate Genes Involved in Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Catherine; Gava, Natalie; Kennedy, Catherine; Balleine, Rosemary L.; Sharma, Raghwa; Wain, Gerard; Brand, Alison; Hogg, Russell; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; George, Joshy; Birrer, Michael J.; Clarke, Christine L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Bowtell, David D. L.; Harnett, Paul R.; deFazio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Molecular events leading to epithelial ovarian cancer are poorly understood but ovulatory hormones and a high number of life-time ovulations with concomitant proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation, increases risk. We identified genes that are regulated during the estrous cycle in murine ovarian surface epithelium and analysed these profiles to identify genes dysregulated in human ovarian cancer, using publically available datasets. We identified 338 genes that are regulated in murine ovarian surface epithelium during the estrous cycle and dysregulated in ovarian cancer. Six of seven candidates selected for immunohistochemical validation were expressed in serous ovarian cancer, inclusion cysts, ovarian surface epithelium and in fallopian tube epithelium. Most were overexpressed in ovarian cancer compared with ovarian surface epithelium and/or inclusion cysts (EpCAM, EZH2, BIRC5) although BIRC5 and EZH2 were expressed as highly in fallopian tube epithelium as in ovarian cancer. We prioritised the 338 genes for those likely to be important for ovarian cancer development by in silico analyses of copy number aberration and mutation using publically available datasets and identified genes with established roles in ovarian cancer as well as novel genes for which we have evidence for involvement in ovarian cancer. Chromosome segregation emerged as an important process in which genes from our list of 338 were over-represented including two (BUB1, NCAPD2) for which there is evidence of amplification and mutation. NUAK2, upregulated in ovarian surface epithelium in proestrus and predicted to have a driver mutation in ovarian cancer, was examined in a larger cohort of serous ovarian cancer where patients with lower NUAK2 expression had shorter overall survival. In conclusion, defining genes that are activated in normal epithelium in the course of ovulation that are also dysregulated in cancer has identified a number of pathways and novel candidate genes that may contribute

  7. Eradication of Human Ovarian Cancer Cells by Transgenic Expression of Recombinant DNASE1, DNASE1L3, DNASE2, and DFFB Controlled by EGFR Promoter: Novel Strategy for Targeted Therapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Malecki, Marek; Dahlke, Jessica; Haig, Melissa; Wohlwend, Lynn; Malecki, Raf

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ovarian cancer is the most deadly among all gynecological cancers. Patients undergoing systemic therapies of advanced ovarian cancers suffer from horrendous side effects. Cancer survivors and their offspring suffer from iatrogenic consequences of systemic therapies: genetic mutations. The ultimate goal of our work is development of therapies, which selectively and completely eliminate cancer cells, but do not harm healthy cells. An important consideration for attaining this goal is the fact that ovarian cancer cells over-express EGFR or its mutants, what becomes the factor discriminating them from healthy cells - a potential facilitator of personalized therapy. Specific aim The specific aim of this project was threefold: (1) to bioengineer suicide genes’ carrying vectors guided by synthetic antibodies for EGFRvIII and EGFR; (2) to genetically engineer DNA constructs for the human, recombinant DNASE1, DNASE1L3, DNASE2, and DFFB controlled by the EGFR promoter; (3) to selectively eradicate ovarian cancer cells by intranuclear targeting of the transgenically expressed recombinant DNases. Methods Synthetic antibodies for EGFR and EGFRvIII were selected from the human library and used to bioengineer biotag-guided transgenes’ vectors. Coding sequences for the human DNASE1, DNASE1L3, DNASE2, DFFB controlled by the EGFR promoter were amplified from the human cDNA and genetically engineered into the plasmid constructs also coding for the fusions with NLS and GFP. The vectors carrying transgenes for the DNases were delivered in vitro into human ovarian cancer cells from ascites and cultures. Results Synthetic antibody guided vectors delivered the transgenes for the recombinant DNases efficiently into the ovarian cancer cells. Transgenic expression and nuclear targeting of the DNases in those cells resulted in destruction of their genomes and led to their death, as validated by labeling with the molecular death tags. In healthy cells, which did not over

  8. Cyclin Y regulates the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells via Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyuan; Shi, Honghui; Fan, Qingbo; Sun, Xiangxiu

    2016-08-01

    This study is designated to investigate the roles of cyclin Y (CCNY) and Wnt signaling pathway in regulating ovarian cancer (OC) cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot, MTT assay, cell scratch, and transwell test were used in our study, and transplanted tumor model was constructed on nude mice. C-Myc, cyclin D1, PFTK1, ki67, OGT, and β-catenin protein expressions in tumor tissues were detected. CCNY was significantly upregulated in OC cell lines and tissues (both P < 0.05); significant association was observed between CCNY expression and clinicopathological stage, lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P < 0.05); and the CCNY expression in stages III to IV was higher than that in stages I to II, and patients with LNM had higher CCNY expression when compared with those in patients without LNM (P < 0.05); expressions of c-Myc, cyclin D, PFTK1, ki67, and OGT were upregulated in OC tissues compared with ovarian benign tissues, suggesting that these expressions were significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.05); CCNY significantly exacerbated proliferation, migration, and invasion of A2780 cells; c-Myc and cyclin D1 protein expressions increased as the expression of CCNY increased (P < 0.001); β-catenin expressions in A2780 cells with over-expression of CCNY were significantly increased in the nucleus, but significantly decreased in the cytoplasm (both P < 0.05); high expressions of CCNY exacerbated the proliferation of A2780 cells in nude mice and significantly increased c-Myc, cyclin D1, PFTK1, ki67, and OGT protein expressions in tumor tissues which were transplanted into nude mice (P < 0.01). CCNY might exacerbate the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OC cells via activating the Wnt signaling pathway. Thus, this study provides a theoretical foundation for the development of therapeutic drugs that are able to cure OC by targeting CCNY. PMID:26831658

  9. Effect of Procyanidin-rich Extract from Natural Cocoa Powder on Cellular Viability, Cell Cycle Progression, and Chemoresistance in Human Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Taparia, Shruti; Khanna, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the last 400 years, cocoa and chocolate have been described as having potential medicinal value, being consumed as a beverage or eaten as food. Concentration–dependant, antiproliferation, and cytotoxic effects of some of their polyphenolic constituents have been demonstrated against various cancers. Such an effect remains to be demonstrated in ovarian cancer Objective: To investigate the effect of cocoa procyanidins against ovarian cancer in vitro using OAW42 and OVCAR3 cell lines. Materials and Methods: Cocoa procyanidins were extracted and enriched from non alkalized cocoa powder. The polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity were determined. Effect on cell viability was determined after the treatment with ≤1000 μg/mL cocoa procyanidin-rich extract on OAW42 and OVCAR3 and normal human dermal fibroblasts. Similarly, chemosensitization effect was determined by pretreating cancer cell lines with extract followed by doxorubicin hydrochloride treatment. The effect of treatment on cell cycle and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression was determined using flow cytometry. Results: The cocoa extract showed high polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Treatment with extract caused cytotoxicity and chemosensitization in OAW42 and OVCAR3 cell lines. Normal dermal fibroblasts showed an increase in cell viability post treatment with extract. Treatment with extract affected the cell cycle and an increasing percentage of cells in hypodiploid sub-G1/G0 phase was observed. Treatment of OVCAR3 with the extract caused reduction of P-gp expression. Conclusion: Cocoa procyanidins were found to be selectively cytotoxic against epithelial ovarian cancer, interfered with the normal cell cycle and sensitized cells to subsequent chemotherapeutic treatment. Chemosensitization was found to be associated with P-gp reduction in OVCAR3 cells. SUMMARY Among the naturally occurring flavonoids, procyanidins have been shown to be effective against cancersNon alkalized

  10. Comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of 211At- and 131I-labelled monoclonal antibody MOv18 in nude mice with intraperitoneal growth of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Andersson, H; Palm, S; Lindegren, S; Bäck, T; Jacobsson, L; Leser, G; Horvath, G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of the alpha-emitter Astatine-211 with the beta-emitter Iodine-131 bound to the specific monoclonal antibody MOv18. The measurements were performed in an ovarian cancer cell line (NIH:OVCAR 3) growing intraperitoneally in nude mice. Two weeks after the intraperitoneal inoculation of 1 x 10(7) cells of the human ovarian cancer cell line NIH:OVCAR-3 twenty mice were treated intraperitoneally with the specific monoclonal antibody MOv-18 labelled with either 211At (310-400 kBq) or 131I (5100-6200 kBq). The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of labelled antibody in tumour-free animals were studied and the resulting bone marrow dose was estimated. When the mice were treated with 211At-labelled antibody 9 out of 10 mice were free of macro- and microscopic tumour compared to 3 out of 10 when Iodine-131 was used. The equivalent dose to the bone marrow was 2.4-3.1 Sv from 211At- and 3.4-4.1 Sv from 131I-irradiation. The therapeutic efficacy of 211At-labelled specific antibody is very good and, at approximately equivalent bone marrow doses, better than that of 131I. PMID:11299770

  11. Analysis of microarray-identified genes and microRNAs associated with drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Yin, Fuqiang; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential microRNAs and genes associated with drug resistance in ovarian cancer through web-available microarrays. The drug resistant-related microRNA microarray dataset GS54665 and mRNA dataset GSE33482, GSE28646, and GSE15372 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Dysregulated microRNAs/genes were screened with GEO2R and were further identified in SKOV3 (SKOV3/DDP) and A2780 (A2780/DDP) cells by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), and then their associations with drug resistance was analyzed by comprehensive bioinformatic analyses. Nine microRNAs (microRNA-199a-5p, microRNA-199a-3p, microRNA-199b-3p, microRNA-215, microRNA-335, microRNA-18b, microRNA-363, microRNA-645 and microRNA-141) and 38 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells, with seven genes (NHSL1, EPHA3, USP51, ZSCAN4, EPHA7, SNCA and PI15) exhibited exactly the same expression trends in all three microarrays. Biological process annotation and pathway enrichment analysis of the 9 microRNAs and 38 genes identified several drug resistant-related signaling pathways, and the microRNA-mRNA interaction revealed the existence of a targeted regulatory relationship between the 9 microRNAs and most of the 38 genes. The expression of 9 microRNAs and the 7 genes by qRT-PCR in SKOV3/DDP and A2780/DDP cells indicating a consistent expression profile with the microarrays. Among those, the expression of EPHA7 and PI15 were negatively correlated with that of microRNA-141, and they were also identified as potential targets of this microRNA via microRNA-mRNA interaction. We thus concluded that microRNA-141, EPHA7, and PI15 might jointly participate in the regulation of drug resistance in ovarian cancer and serve as potential targets in targeted therapies. PMID:26261572

  12. 9-Oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoic acid, a cytotoxic fatty acid ketodiene isolated from eggplant calyx, induces apoptosis in human ovarian cancer (HRA) cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiyang; Tomoda, Yutaka; Mizukami, Hajime; Makino, Toshiaki

    2015-07-01

    9-Oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoic acid (9-EE-KODE), which is isolated from the calyx of eggplants, exhibits cytotoxic activity against human ovarian cancer (HRA) cells. The aim of the present study is to clarify the action mechanism of 9-EE-KODE leading to cell death. After the treatment of 9-EE-KODE in HRA cells, we found intracellular DNA fragmentation, surface-exposure of phosphatidylserine in the outer cell membrane, and increased caspase-3/7 activities in the HRA cells. The dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, down-regulation of Bcl-2, and up-regulation of Bax levels were also found in 9-EE-KODE-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrated that 9-EE-KODE induced apoptosis in HRA cells via the mitochondrial regulation pathway. PMID:25724148

  13. The induction of apoptosis in human melanoma, breast and ovarian cancer cell lines using an essential oil extract from the conifer Tetraclinis articulata.

    PubMed

    Buhagiar, J A; Podesta, M T; Wilson, A P; Micallef, M J; Ali, S

    1999-01-01

    The cytotoxic effect of conifer Tetraclinis articulata essential oil (TAEO) on a number of human cancer cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes was assessed at various concentrations and time exposures. The cytotoxic effect showed the hallmarks of apoptosis confirmed by a variety of techniques including flow cytometry, an apoptosis- specific marker combined to fluorescent staining and DNA laddering. All cell lines tested were inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion and within a contact time of less than eight hours for the higher concentrations. Melanoma, breast and ovarian cancer cells gave IC50s of around 80 micrograms/ml whilst the IC50s on peripheral blood lymphocytes was almost double this value. We conclude that the essential oil contains components that are effective at inducing apoptosis. The advantages of using a mixture of monoterpenes (C10) as present in an EO over a single component, are discussed. PMID:10697574

  14. Recombinant mistletoe lectin (rML) is successful in treating human ovarian cancer cells transplanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, U; Feldhaus, S; Mengs, U

    2000-03-31

    The main active constituents carrying the anti-cancer activities of aqueous mistletoe extracts have recently been identified as the mistletoe lectins (MLs). Although three different isolectins have been isolated from plant extracts, molecular biological techniques have revealed the presence of one gene only. Subsequently, recombinant mistletoe lectin (rML) has become available and the aim of the present study was to analyse its anti-cancer potential. SoTü 3 human ovarian cancer cells (2x10(7)) were injected intraperitoneally into SCID mice, while rML treatment was started on the following day. Three experimental groups (n=20 SCID mice) each received every working day an intraperitoneal injection of 30, 150, 500 ng rML per kg body weight, respectively, while 20 SCID mice in the control group received the vehicle solution only. The survival of the animals was taken as the principal outcome measure. In addition, the peritoneal cavity was searched for the presence of tumour cells. Animals were sacrificed when the weight increase due to the development of ascites exceeded 120% of the initial body weight. The treatment continued until day 83 and the surviving animals were sacrificed 84 days after inoculation. In the control group, only two animals survived and were free of tumour at the end of the experiment at 84 days. In contrast, thirteen animals in the 500 ng/kg rML group were still alive and no evidence for the presence of tumour cells in the peritoneum was found. Both, number of animals surviving and survival time were larger in this treatment group. The 30 ng/kg rML group showed an increased number of survivors, whilst the 150 ng rML per kg body weight group revealed the worst survival rates. The results of the present study indicate that rML has potent anti-tumour activity, if administered locally into the peritoneum of a human ovarian cancer harbouring SCID mouse. RML is a macromolecule and its instillation into the peritoneal cavity seems to be particularly

  15. Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Folic Acid-Targeted Liposomes Co-Loaded with C6 Ceramide and Doxorubicin: In Vitro Evaluation on HeLa, A2780-ADR, and H69-AR Cells.

    PubMed

    Sriraman, Shravan Kumar; Pan, Jiayi; Sarisozen, Can; Luther, Ed; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    Current research in cancer therapy is beginning to shift toward the use of combinational drug treatment regimens. However, the efficient delivery of drug combinations is governed by a number of complex factors in the clinical setting. Therefore, the ability to synchronize the pharmacokinetics of the individual therapeutic agents present in combination not only to allow for simultaneous tumor accumulation but also to allow for a synergistic relationship at the intracellular level could prove to be advantageous. In this work, we report the development of a novel folic acid-targeted liposomal formulation simultaneously co-loaded with C6 ceramide and doxorubicin [FA-(C6+Dox)-LP]. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP was able to significantly reduce the IC50 of Dox when compared to that after the treatment with the doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (Dox-LP) as well as the untargeted drug co-loaded (C6+Dox)-LP on HeLa, A2780-ADR, and H69-AR cells. The analysis of the cell cycle distribution showed that while the C6 liposomes (C6-LP) did not cause cell cycle arrest, all the Dox-containing liposomes mediated cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells in the G2 phase at Dox concentrations of 0.3 and 1 μM and in the S phase at the higher concentrations. It was also found that this arrest in the S phase precedes the progression of the cells to apoptosis. The targeted FA-(C6+Dox)-LP were able to significantly enhance the induction of apoptotic events in HeLa cell monolayers as compared to the other treatment groups. Next, using time-lapse phase holographic imaging microscopy, it was found that upon treatment with the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP, the HeLa cells underwent rapid progression to apoptosis after 21 h as evidenced by a drastic drop in the average area of the cells after loss of cell membrane integrity. Finally, upon evaluation in a HeLa spheroid cell model, treatment with the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP showed significantly higher levels of cell death compared to those with C6-LP and

  16. Uptake of a nido-carboranylporphyrin by human glioma xenografts in athymic nude mice and by syngeneic ovarian carcinomas in immunocompetent mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kahl, S.B. ); Joel, D.D.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Micca, P.L.; Tran, K.P.; Finkel, G.C.; Slatkin, D.N. )

    1990-09-01

    A tetraphenylporphyrin bearing four dicarbollide ((B{sub 9}C{sub 2}H{sub 11}){sup {minus}}) cages linked to the o-phenyl ring positions by anilide bonds, known as boronated tetraphenylporphyrin (BTPP), has been synthesized in excellent yield from tetra-(o-aminophenyl)porphyrin and carborane carbonyl chloride followed by base-assisted cage opening and ion exchange to give the highly water-soluble potassium salt. Preliminary studies showed that BTPP accumulates in liver and in a syngeneic ovarian carcinoma, but not in normal brain parenchyma, of mice infused with BTPP subcutaneously for 6 or 7 days via surgically implanted osmotic minipumps. In this study, the uptake of boron was measured in human gliomas xenografted subcutaneously to athymic nude mice in which BTPP was infused intraperitoneally or subcutaneously or both for 3 or 7 days by using similar minipumps. Immunocompetent mice bearing a syngeneic ovarian carcinoma were similarly infused to provide comparative data. Bulk concentrations of boron up to 18 {mu}g/g of glioma and up to 45 {mu}g/g of carcinoma were observed when up to 102 {mu}g/g of tissue was present in the liver after 7 days of BTPP infusion. Glioma boron concentrations were increased by {approx}80% on the average correspondingly greater amounts of BTPP were infused in only 3 days. Cell counts and chemical tests on blood samples from individual mice indicate that BTPP causes moderate hepatotoxicity and thromboxytopenia. This hepatohematic toxicity syndrome should be taken into account if BTPP or a similar agent is used for boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) of human malignancies.

  17. Ovarian aging and premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    Şükür, Yavuz Emre; Kıvançlı, İçten Balık; Özmen, Batuhan

    2014-01-01

    Physiological reproductive aging occurs as a result of a decrease in the number and quality of oocytes in ovarian cortex follicles. Although the reason for the decrease in the quality of the pool and follicular oocytes is not fully understood, endocrine, paracrine, genetic, and metabolic factors are thought to be effective. Nowadays, in order to understand the mechanisms of ovarian aging, genomic research has gained importance. The effect of co-factors, such as telomerase and ceramide, in the ovarian aging process is only getting ascertained with new research studies. The most important tests in the assessment of ovarian aging are antral follicle count and anti-Mullerian hormone. PMID:25317048

  18. Urea derivates of ursolic, oleanolic and maslinic acid induce apoptosis and are selective cytotoxic for several human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sommerwerk, Sven; Heller, Lucie; Kuhfs, Julia; Csuk, René

    2016-08-25

    2,3-Di-O-acetyl-maslinic acid benzylamide (5) has previously been shown to possess high cytotoxicity for a variety of human tumor cell lines while being of low cytotoxicity to non-malignant cells. Structural modifications performed on 5 revealed that the presence of these acetyl groups in 5 and the presence of (2β,3β)-configurated centers seems necessary for obtaining high cytotoxicity combined with best selectivity between malignant cells and non-malignant mouse fibroblasts. Compounds carrying an ursane skeleton showed weaker cytotoxicity than their oleanane derived analogs. In addition, the benzylamide function in compound 5 should be replaced by a phenylurea moiety to gain better cytotoxicity while retaining and improving the selectivity. Thus, maslinic acid derived N-[2β,3β-di-O-acetyl-17β-amino-28-norolean-12-en-17-yl]phenylurea (45) gave best results showing EC50 = 0.9 μM (for A2780 ovarian cancer cells) with EC50 > 120 μM for fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) and triggered apoptosis while caspase-3 was not activated by this compound. PMID:27149037

  19. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause one or more of these signs ...

  20. Premature Ovarian Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is when a woman's ovaries stop working before she is 40. POF is different from ... There is no treatment that will restore normal ovarian function. However, many health care providers suggest taking ...

  1. Down-regulated expression of miR-134 contributes to paclitaxel resistance in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Ting; Wang, Min; Shi, Cong; Zhou, Yingying; Wang, Dandan

    2015-10-01

    MiR-134 has been reported to have a role in the development and progression of various cancers. In this study, we found that miR-134 expression was significantly decreased in chemo-resistant serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Over-expression of miR-134 enhanced the sensitivity of SKOV3-TR30 cells to paclitaxel, and increased paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Further, Pak2 was identified as a direct target of miR-134, and Pak2-specific siRNA increased cell inhibition rate and promoted paclitaxal-induced apoptosis. By regulating Pak2 expression, miR-134 could mediate Bad phosphorylation at Ser112 and Ser136, which affected cell survival and apoptosis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that repression of miR-134 and consequent up-regulation of Pak2 might contribute to paclitaxel resistance. PMID:26363097

  2. Live birth after ovarian tissue transplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. M.; Yeoman, R. R.; Battaglia, D. E.; Stouffer, R. L.; Zelinski-Wooten, M. B.; Fanton, J. W.; Wolf, D. P.

    2004-03-01

    Radiation and high-dose chemotherapy may render women with cancer prematurely sterile, a side-effect that would be avoided if ovarian tissue that had been removed before treatment could be made to function afterwards. Live offspring have been produced from transplanted ovarian tissue in mice and sheep but not in monkeys or humans, although sex steroid hormones are still secreted. Here we describe the successful transplantation of fresh ovarian tissue to a different site in a monkey, which has led to the birth of a healthy female after oocyte production, fertilization and transfer to a surrogate mother. The ectopically grafted tissue functions without surgical connection to major blood vessels and sets the stage for the transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in humans.

  3. The Aminosteroid Derivative RM-133 Shows In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Activity in Human Ovarian and Pancreatic Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kenmogne, Lucie Carolle; Ayan, Diana; Roy, Jenny; Maltais, René; Poirier, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian and pancreatic cancers are two of the most aggressive and lethal cancers, whose management faces only limited therapeutic options. Typically, these tumors spread insidiously accompanied first with atypical symptoms, and usually shift to a drug resistance phenotype with the current pharmaceutical armamentarium. Thus, the development of new drugs acting via a different mechanism of action represents a clear priority. Herein, we are reporting for the first time that the aminosteroid derivative RM-133, developed in our laboratory, displays promising activity on two models of aggressive cancers, namely ovarian (OVCAR-3) and pancreatic (PANC-1) cancers. The IC50 value of RM-133 was 0.8 μM and 0.3 μM for OVCAR-3 and PANC-1 cell lines in culture, respectively. Based on pharmacokinetic studies on RM-133 using 11 different vehicles, we selected two main vehicles: aqueous 0.4% methylcellulose:ethanol (92:8) and sunflower oil:ethanol (92:8) for in vivo studies. Using subcutaneous injection of RM-133 with the methylcellulose-based vehicle, growth of PANC-1 tumors xenografted to nude mice was inhibited by 63%. Quite interestingly, RM-133 injected subcutaneously with the methylcellulose-based or sunflower-based vehicles reduced OVCAR-3 xenograft growth by 122% and 100%, respectively. After the end of RM-133 treatment using the methylcellulose-based vehicle, OVCAR-3 tumor growth inhibition was maintained for ≥ 1 week. RM-133 was also well tolerated in the whole animal, no apparent sign of toxicity having been detected in the xenograft studies. PMID:26660672

  4. Novel effects of the cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitor NS-398 on IL-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and IL-8 expression in human ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ou, Hui-Ling; Sun, David; Peng, Yen-Chun; Wu, Yuh-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Ovulation is a critical inflammation-like event that is central to ovarian physiology. IL-1β is an immediate early pro-inflammatory cytokine that regulates production of several other inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase 2 (COX)-2 and IL-8. NS-398 is a selective inhibitor of COX-2 bioactivity and thus this drug is able to mitigate the COX-2-mediated production of downstream prostaglandins and the subsequent inflammatory response. Here we have investigated the action of NS-398 using a human ovarian granulosa cell line, KGN, by exploring IL-1β-regulated COX-2 and IL-8 expression. First, NS-398, instead of reducing inflammation, appeared to further enhance IL-1β-mediated COX-2 and IL-8 production. Using selective inhibitors targeting various signaling molecules, MAPK and NF-κB pathways both seemed to be involved in the impact of NS-398 on IL-1β-induced COX-2 and IL-8 expression. NS-398 also promoted IL-1β-mediated NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation but had no effect on IL-1β-activated MAPK phosphorylation. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that NS-398, in combination with IL-1β, significantly enhanced cell cycle progression involving IL-8. Our findings demonstrate a clear pro-inflammatory function for NS-398 in the IL-1β-mediated inflammatory response of granulosa cells, at least in part, owing to its augmenting effect on the IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB. PMID:27312705

  5. Calpain-mediated Processing of p53-associated Parkin-like Cytoplasmic Protein (PARC) Affects Chemosensitivity of Human Ovarian Cancer Cells by Promoting p53 Subcellular Trafficking*

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Michael G.; Xue, Kai; Liu, Jiayin; McBride, Heidi; Tsang, Benjamin K.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to cisplatin (CDDP)-based therapy is a major hurdle to the successful treatment of human ovarian cancer (OVCA), and the chemoresistant phenotype in OVCA cells is associated with Akt-attenuated p53-mediated apoptosis. Pro-apoptotic functions of p53 involve both transcription-dependent and -independent signaling pathways, and dysfunctional localization and/or inactivation of p53 contribute to the development of chemoresistance. PARC is a cytoplasmic protein regulating p53 subcellular localization and subsequent function. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating PARC. Although PARC contains putative caspase-3 cleavage sites, and CDDP is known to induce the activation of caspases and calpains and induce proteasomal degradation of anti-apoptotic proteins, if and how PARC is regulated by CDDP in OVCA are unknown. Here, we present evidence that CDDP promotes calpain-mediated PARC down-regulation, mitochondrial and nuclear p53 accumulation, and apoptosis in chemosensitive but not resistant OVCA cells. Inhibition of Akt is required to sensitize chemoresistant cells to CDDP in a p53-dependent manner, an effect enhanced by PARC down-regulation. CDDP-induced PARC down-regulation is reversible by inhibition of calpain but not of caspases or the 26 S proteasome. Furthermore, in vitro experiments confirm the ability of calpain in mediating Ca2+-dependent PARC down-regulation. The role of Ca2+ in PARC down-regulation was further confirmed as ionomycin-induced PARC down-regulation in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. The data presented here implicate the regulation of p53 subcellular localization and apoptosis by PARC as a contributing factor in CDDP resistance in OVCA cells and Ca2+/calpain in PARC post-translational processing and chemosensitivity. PMID:22117079

  6. Microsurgery of ovarian endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Brosens, I A; Boeckx, W; Page, G

    1988-04-01

    A long-term follow-up study of 92 patients with ovarian endometriosis treated with microsurgical techniques showed that although endometriosis may persist in many patients, only seven patients required repeat ovarian surgery. Microsurgical techniques are to be recommended for the treatment of ovarian endometriosis and the prevention of postoperative adhesive disease of the ovaries. PMID:3372697

  7. Rethinking ovarian cancer: recommendations for improving outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Sebastian; Coward, Jermaine I; Bast, Robert C; Berchuck, Andy; Berek, Jonathan S; Brenton, James D; Coukos, George; Crum, Christopher C; Drapkin, Ronny; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Friedlander, Michael; Gabra, Hani; Kaye, Stan B; Lord, Chris J; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A; McNeish, Iain A; Menon, Usha; Mills, Gordon B; Nephew, Kenneth P; Oza, Amit M; Sood, Anil K; Stronach, Euan A; Walczak, Henning; Bowtell, David D; Balkwill, Frances R

    2011-10-01

    There have been major advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of the human malignancies that are collectively referred to as ovarian cancer. At a recent Helene Harris Memorial Trust meeting, an international group of researchers considered actions that should be taken to improve the outcome for women with ovarian cancer. Nine major recommendations are outlined in this Opinion article. PMID:21941283

  8. Ovarian stimulation and granulosa-cell tumour.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, W; Kruitwagen, R; Bastiaans, B; Hanselaar, T; Rolland, R

    1993-04-17

    Ovarian stimulation in the treatment of infertility is far from physiological because patients and their ovaries are exposed to high concentrations of gonadotropins. Many studies have focused on the two most common side-effects of ovarian stimulation--ie, hyperstimulation and multiple pregnancy. We describe 12 patients in whom granulosa-cell tumour was discovered after ovarian stimulation treatment with clomiphene citrate and/or gonadotropins. Although we cannot prove a causal link between the tumour and the medication, investigations in animals have shown a relation between gonadotropin exposition and the development of granulosa-cell tumours. The possible relation of ovarian stimulation and granulosa-cell tumours in human beings has not been published before. We postulate three explanations for this finding; first, the granulosa-cell tumour is present in the ovary, waiting for a hormonal trigger; second, increased follicle stimulating hormone concentrations are oncogenic to granulosa cell; and third, the onset of the granulosa-cell tumour during ovarian stimulation is coincidental. We recommend that ovarian stimulation is done only if there is a valid indication after proper assessment of the ovaries, and that women who have had ovarian stimulation are followed for longer than at present. PMID:8096944

  9. Three-dimensional modeling of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Erin, White; Hilary, Kenny; Ernst, Lengyel

    2015-01-01

    New models for epithelial ovarian cancer initiation and metastasis are required to obtain a mechanistic understanding of the disease and to develop new therapeutics. Modeling ovarian cancer however is challenging as a result of the genetic heterogeneity of the malignancy, the diverse pathology, the limited availability of human tissue for research, the atypical mechanisms of metastasis, and because the origin is unclear. Insights into the origin of high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas and mechanisms of metastasis have resulted in the generation of novel three-dimensional (3D) culture models that better approximate the behavior of the tumor cells in vivo than prior two-dimensional models. The 3D models aim to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment, which has a critical role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Ultimately, findings using models that accurately reflect human ovarian cancer biology are likely to translate into improved clinical outcomes. In this review we discuss the design of new 3D culture models of ovarian cancer primarily using human cells, key studies in which these models have been applied, current limitations, and future applications. PMID:25034878

  10. Mutant p53 promotes ovarian cancer cell adhesion to mesothelial cells via integrin β4 and Akt signals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Gyu; Ahn, Ji-Hye; Jin Kim, Tae; Ho Lee, Jae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Missense mutations in the TP53 gene resulting in the accumulation of mutant proteins are extremely common in advanced ovarian cancer, which is characterised by peritoneal metastasis. Attachment of cancer cells to the peritoneal mesothelium is regarded as an initial, key step for the metastatic spread of ovarian cancer. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of a p53 mutant in the mesothelial adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. We found that OVCAR-3 cells with the R248 TP53 mutation (p53R248) were more adhesive to mesothelial Met5A cells than were A2780 cells expressing wild-type p53. In addition, ectopic expression of p53R248 in p53-null SKOV-3 cells significantly increased adhesion to Met5A cells. Knockdown of mutant p53 significantly compromised p53R248-induced cell adhesion to Met5A cells. Microarray analysis revealed that several adhesion-related genes, including integrin β4, were markedly up-regulated, and certain signalling pathways, including PI3K/Akt, were activated in p53R248 transfectants of SKOV-3 cells. Inhibition of integrin β4 and Akt signalling using blocking antibody and the inhibitor LY294002, respectively, significantly attenuated p53R248-mediated ovarian cancer-mesothelial adhesion. These data suggest that the p53R248 mutant endows ovarian cancer cells with increased adhesiveness and that integrin β4 and Akt signalling are associated with the mutation-enhanced ovarian cancer-mesothelial cell adhesion. PMID:26223322

  11. Mechanistic Nanotherapeutic Approach Based on siRNA-Mediated DJ-1 Protein Suppression for Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Canan; Chan, Stephanie; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Khal, Shannon; Moskal, Vitaliya; Shah, Vidhi; Alani, Adam W G; Taratula, Olena; Taratula, Oleh

    2016-06-01

    We report an efficient therapeutic modality for platinum resistant ovarian cancer based on siRNA-mediated suppression of a multifunctional DJ-1 protein that is responsible for the proliferation, growth, invasion, oxidative stress, and overall survival of various cancers. The developed therapeutic strategy can work alone or in concert with a low dose of the first line chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, to elicit a maximal therapeutic response. To achieve an efficient DJ-1 knockdown, we constructed the polypropylenimine dendrimer-based nanoplatform targeted to LHRH receptors overexpressed on ovarian cancer cells. The quantitative PCR and Western immunoblotting analysis revealed that the delivered DJ-1 siRNA downregulated the expression of targeted mRNA and corresponding protein by more than 80% in various ovarian cancer cells. It was further demonstrated that siRNA-mediated DJ-1 suppression dramatically impaired proliferation, viability, and migration of the employed ovarian cancer cells. Finally, the combinatorial approach led to the most pronounced therapeutic response in all the studied cell lines, outperforming both siRNA-mediated DJ-1 knockdown and cisplatin treatment alone. It is noteworthy that the platinum-resistant cancer cells (A2780/CDDP) with the highest basal level of DJ-1 protein are most susceptible to the developed therapy and this susceptibility declines with decreasing basal levels of DJ-1. Finally, we interrogate the molecular underpinnings of the DJ-1 knockdown effects in the treatment of the ovarian cancer cells. By using various experimental techniques, it was revealed that DJ-1 depletion (1) decreases the activity of the Akt pathway, thereby reducing cellular proliferation and migration and increasing the antiproliferative effect of cisplatin on ovarian cancer cells; (2) enhances the activity of p53 tumor suppressor protein therefore restoring cell cycle arrest functionality and upregulating the Bax-caspase pathway, triggering cell death; and (3

  12. Uterine and ovarian carcinosarcomas overexpressing Trop-2 are sensitive to hRS7, a humanized anti-Trop-2 antibody

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We evaluated the expression of human trophoblastic cell-surface marker (Trop-2) and the potential of hRS7 - a humanized monoclonal anti-Trop-2 antibody - as a therapeutic strategy against treatment-refractory human uterine (UMMT) and ovarian (OMMT) carcinosarcoma cell lines. Materials and methods Trop-2 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in paraffin-embedded tumor tissues, by real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) and flow-cytometry in cell lines. Sensitivity to hRS7 antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity was tested using 5-hour chromium-release assays against UMMT and OMMT cells. Results Trop-2 expression was elevated in 9 of 26 (35%) UMMT and 8 of 14 (57%) OMMT tissues tested by IHC. Positivity for Trop-2 mRNA by RT-PCR and surface expression by flow cytometry were detected in 2 of 4 cell lines, with high positivity noted in OMMT-ARK-2. OMMT-ARK-2 was highly sensitive to hRS7 ADCC (range: 34.7-41.0%; P < 0.001) with negligible cytotoxicity seen in the absence of hRS7 or in the presence of control antibody (range: 1.1-2.5%). Human IgG did not significantly inhibit ADCC while human complement increased, hRS7-mediated-cytotoxicity against OMMT-ARK-2. Conclusion Trop-2 is overexpressed in a proportion of UMMT and OMMT, and hRS7 may represent a novel, potentially highly effective treatment option for patients with treatment-refractory carcinosarcomas overexpressing Trop-2. PMID:22075385

  13. Theaflavin-3, 3′-digallate decreases human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR-3 cell-induced angiogenesis via Akt and Notch-1 pathways, not via MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    GAO, YING; RANKIN, GARY O.; TU, YOUYING; CHEN, YI CHARLIE

    2016-01-01

    Theaflavin-3, 3′-digallate (TF3) is a black tea poly-phenol produced from polymerization and oxidization of the green tea ployphenols epicatechin gallate and (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) during fermentation of fresh tea leaves. TF3 has been reported to have anticancer properties. However, the effect of TF3 on tumor angiogenesis and the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In the present study, TF3 was verified to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Compared with EGCG, TF3 was more potent. TF3 inhibited human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR-3 cell-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cell model and in chick chorioallantoic membrane model. TF3 reduced tumor angiogenesis by downregulating HIF-1α and VEGF. One of the mechanisms was TF3 inactivated Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathway and Akt/c-Myc pathway. Besides, TF3 suppressed the cleavage of Notch-1, subsequently decreased the expression of c-Myc, HIF-1α and VEGF, and finally the impaired cancer cells induced angiogenesis. Nevertheless, TF3 did not have any influence on the MAPK pathways. Taken together, these findings suggest that TF3 might serve as a potential anti-angiogenic agent for cancer treatment. PMID:26648098

  14. Theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate decreases human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR-3 cell-induced angiogenesis via Akt and Notch-1 pathways, not via MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Rankin, Gary O; Tu, Youying; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate (TF3) is a black tea polyphenol produced from polymerization and oxidization of the green tea ployphenols epicatechin gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) during fermentation of fresh tea leaves. TF3 has been reported to have anticancer properties. However, the effect of TF3 on tumor angiogenesis and the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In the present study, TF3 was verified to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Compared with EGCG, TF3 was more potent. TF3 inhibited human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR-3 cell-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cell model and in chick chorioallantoic membrane model. TF3 reduced tumor angiogenesis by downregulating HIF-1α and VEGF. One of the mechanisms was TF3 inactivated Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathway and Akt/c-Myc pathway. Besides, TF3 suppressed the cleavage of Notch-1, subsequently decreased the expression of c-Myc, HIF-1α and VEGF, and finally the impaired cancer cells induced angiogenesis. Nevertheless, TF3 did not have any influence on the MAPK pathways. Taken together, these findings suggest that TF3 might serve as a potential anti-angiogenic agent for cancer treatment. PMID:26648098

  15. Variability in the components of high density lipoprotein particles measured in human ovarian follicular fluid - A cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Michael S.; Kim, Keewan; Fujimoto, Victor Y.; Browne, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Assess the variability of follicular fluid (FF) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle components. Design FF specimens were collected from two contralateral follicles on the day of oocyte retrieval and analyzed for HDL components. We characterized analytes by age, body mass index (BMI), race and smoking using a cross-sectional design. Biological variability was assessed using two-stage nested analysis of variance. Setting Reproductive health center. Patients One-hundred eighty in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Nineteen HDL components including HDL-cholesterol and free (unesterified) and esterified forms, phospholipids, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A-1 and A-2, paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities, and seven lipophilic vitamins and micronutrients. Results For some analytes, a majority of total measurement variability was attributed to sources between-follicles, suggesting an important role for the integrity of the blood-follicle-barrier and in situ remodeling of plasma derived constituents. For other analytes, variability was mostly attributed to sources between-women, likely indicative of plasma levels. Variability between-follicles decreased with increasing age, differed by BMI and smoking, and generally were lower for Asians and women with diminished ovarian reserve. Conclusions Substantial variability in FF HDL components exist between-follicles among women undergoing IVF, as well as between-women by age, BMI, race, smoking and by infertility diagnosis. PMID:24581578

  16. Myricetin induces apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress and DNA double-strand breaks in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    XU, YE; XIE, QI; WU, SHAOHUA; YI, DAN; YU, YANG; LIU, SHIBING; LI, SONGYAN; LI, ZHIXIN

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying myricetin-induced cancer cell apoptosis remain to be elucidated. Certain previous studies have shown that myricetin induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Apoptosis, however, can also be induced by other classical pathways, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The aim of the present study was to assess whether these two apoptotic pathways are involved in myricetin-induced cell death in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. The results revealed that treatment with myricetin inhibited viability of SKOV3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Myricetin induced nuclear chromatin condensation and fragmentation, and also upregulated the protein levels of active caspase 3 in a time-dependent manner. In addition, myricetin upregulated ER stress-associated proteins, glucose-regulated protein-78 and C/EBP homologous protein in SKOV3 cells. Phosphorylation of H2AX, a marker of DNA DSBs, was revealed to be upregulated in myricetin-treated cells. The data indicated that myricetin induces DNA DSBs and ER stress, which leads to apoptosis in SKOV3 cells. PMID:26782830

  17. Human ovarian tumor cell interactions with extracellular matrix: development of a model to study tumor cell invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Niedbala, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms involved in ovarian carcinoma cell implantation and the associated tumor cell-host interactions, a model system was developed employing a mesothelial cell line grown on bovine corneal endothelial cell extracellular matrix (ECM), in an attempt to reconstruct the mesothelium in vitro. Morphologic alterations of the reconstructed mesothelium induced by OCC were observed using immunohistochemical staining, light and electron microscopy. A relationship was observed between extracellular ..beta..-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity and (1) the ability of OCC to morphologically degrade ECM; (2) the capacity of OCC to degrade (/sup 3/H)-glucosamine radiolabelled ECM. The rate of accumulation of extracellular hexosaminidase in cell free-conditioned medium was progressive and closely paralleled the rate of OCC mediated release of (/sup 3/H)-glucosamine from ECM. Purified hexosaminidase (placental and/or OCC) was observed to directly hydrolzye (/sup 3/H)-glucosamine radiolabelled structurally intact ECM (up to 70% radiolabel) and resulted in the cumulative release of free (/sup 3/H)-N-acetylglucosamine.

  18. Identification of Mono- and Disulfated N-Acetyl-lactosaminyl Oligosaccharide Structures as Epitopes Specifically Recognized by Humanized Monoclonal Antibody HMOCC-1 Raised against Ovarian Cancer*♦

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Toshiaki K.; Matsumura, Fumiko; Wang, Ping; Yu, ShinYi; Chou, Chi-Chi; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Kitayama, Kazuko; Akama, Tomoya O.; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Kanayama, Naohiro; Kojima-Aikawa, Kyoko; Seeberger, Peter H.; Fukuda, Minoru; Suzuki, Atsushi; Aoki, Daisuke; Fukuda, Michiko N.

    2012-01-01

    A humanized monoclonal antibody raised against human ovarian cancer RMG-I cells and designated as HMOCC-1 (Suzuki, N., Aoki, D., Tamada, Y., Susumu, N., Orikawa, K., Tsukazaki, K., Sakayori, M., Suzuki, A., Fukuchi, T., Mukai, M., Kojima-Aikawa, K., Ishida, I., and Nozawa, S. (2004) Gynecol. Oncol. 95, 290–298) was characterized for its carbohydrate epitope structure. Specifically, a series of co-transfections was performed using mammalian expression vectors encoding specific glycosyltransferases and sulfotransferases. These experiments identified one sulfotransferase, GAL3ST3, and one glycosyltransferase, B3GNT7, as required for HMOCC-1 antigen formation. They also suggested that the sulfotransferase CHST1 regulates the abundance and intensity of HMOCC-1 antigen. When HEK293T cells were co-transfected with GAL3ST3 and B3GNT7 expression vectors, transfected cells weakly expressed HMOCC-1 antigen. When cells were first co-transfected with GAL3ST3 and B3GNT7 and then with CHST1, the resulting cells strongly expressed HMOCC-1 antigen. However, when cells were transfected with a mixture of GAL3ST3 and CHST1 before or after transfection with B3GNT7, the number of antigen-positive cells decreased relative to the number seen with only GAL3ST3 and B3GNT7, suggesting that CHST1 plays a regulatory role in HMOCC-1 antigen formation. Because these results predicted that HMOCC-1 antigens are SO3→3Galβ1→4GlcNAcβ1→3(±SO3→6)Galβ1→4GlcNAc, we chemically synthesized mono- and disulfated and unsulfated oligosaccharides. Immunoassays using these oligosaccharides as inhibitors showed the strongest activity by disulfated tetrasaccharide, weak but positive activity by monosulfated tetrasaccharide at the terminal galactose, and no activity by nonsulfated tetrasaccharides. These results establish the HMOCC-1 epitope, which should serve as a useful reagent to further characterize ovarian cancer. PMID:22194598

  19. Predictive and therapeutic markers in ovarian cancer

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Guan, Yinghui; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Fridlyand, Jane; Mills, Gordon B.

    2013-03-26

    Cancer markers may be developed to detect diseases characterized by increased expression of apoptosis-suppressing genes, such as aggressive cancers. Genes in the human chromosomal regions, 8q24, 11q13, 20q11-q13, were found to be amplified indicating in vivo drug resistance in diseases such as ovarian cancer. Diagnosis and assessment of amplification levels certain genes shown to be amplified, including PVT1, can be useful in prediction of poor outcome of patient's response and drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates. Certain genes were found to be high priority therapeutic targets by the identification of recurrent aberrations involving genome sequence, copy number and/or gene expression are associated with reduced survival duration in certain diseases and cancers, specifically ovarian cancer. Therapeutics to inhibit amplification and inhibitors of one of these genes, PVT1, target drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates is described.

  20. Development of a Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elizabeth R.; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xiang-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progression remain to be defined. Suitable mouse models should complement the analysis of human tumor tissues and may provide clues to these questions currently perplexing ovarian cancer biology. A potentially useful model is the germ cell-deficient Wv (white spotting variant) mutant mouse line, which may be used to study the impact of menopausal physiology on the increased risk of ovarian cancer. The Wv mice harbor a point mutation in c-Kit that reduces the receptor tyrosine kinase activity to about 1–5% (it is not a null mutation). Homozygous Wv mutant females have a reduced ovarian germ cell reservoir at birth and the follicles are rapidly depleted upon reaching reproductive maturity, but other biological phenotypes are minimal and the mice have a normal life span. The loss of ovarian function precipitates changes in hormonal and metabolic activity that model features of menopause in humans. As a consequence of follicle depletion, the Wv ovaries develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis that mark human ovarian aging. Ongoing work will test the possibility of converting the benign epithelial tubular adenomas into neoplastic tumors by addition of an oncogenic mutation, such as of Tp53, to model the genotype and biology of serous ovarian cancer. Model based on the Wv mice may have the potential to gain biological and etiological insights into ovarian cancer development and prevention. PMID:24616881

  1. The Essential Role of H19 Contributing to Cisplatin Resistance by Regulating Glutathione Metabolism in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Hong; Suo, Sha-Sha; Xu, Xiao-Li; Ni, Mao-Wei; Gu, Lin-Hui; Chen, Wei; Wang, Liang-Yan; Zhao, Ye; Tian, Bing; Hua, Yue-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Primary and acquired drug resistance is one of the main obstacles encountered in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) chemotherapy. Cisplatin induces DNA damage through cross-linking and long integrated non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) play an important role in chemical induced DNA-damage response, which suggests that lincRNAs may be also associated with cisplatin resistance. However, the mechanism of long integrated non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) acting on cisplatin resistance is not well understood. Here, we showed that expression of lin-RECK-3, H19, LUCAT1, LINC00961, and linc-CARS2-2 was enhanced in cisplatin-resistant A2780-DR cells, while transcriptome sequencing showed decreased Linc-TNFRSF19-1 and LINC00515 expression. Additionally, we verified that different H19 expression levels in HGSC tissues showed strong correlation with cancer recurrence. H19 knockdown in A2780-DR cells resulted in recovery of cisplatin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative proteomics analysis indicated that six NRF2-targeted proteins, including NQO1, GSR, G6PD, GCLC, GCLM and GSTP1 involved in the glutathione metabolism pathway, were reduced in H19-knockdown cells. Furthermore, H19-knockdown cells were markedly more sensitive to hydrogen-peroxide treatment and exhibited lower glutathione levels. Our results reveal a previously unknown link between H19 and glutathione metabolism in the regulation of cancer-drug resistance. PMID:27193186

  2. The Essential Role of H19 Contributing to Cisplatin Resistance by Regulating Glutathione Metabolism in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Hong; Suo, Sha-Sha; Xu, Xiao-Li; Ni, Mao-Wei; Gu, Lin-Hui; Chen, Wei; Wang, Liang-Yan; Zhao, Ye; Tian, Bing; Hua, Yue-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Primary and acquired drug resistance is one of the main obstacles encountered in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) chemotherapy. Cisplatin induces DNA damage through cross-linking and long integrated non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) play an important role in chemical induced DNA-damage response, which suggests that lincRNAs may be also associated with cisplatin resistance. However, the mechanism of long integrated non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) acting on cisplatin resistance is not well understood. Here, we showed that expression of lin-RECK-3, H19, LUCAT1, LINC00961, and linc-CARS2-2 was enhanced in cisplatin-resistant A2780-DR cells, while transcriptome sequencing showed decreased Linc-TNFRSF19-1 and LINC00515 expression. Additionally, we verified that different H19 expression levels in HGSC tissues showed strong correlation with cancer recurrence. H19 knockdown in A2780-DR cells resulted in recovery of cisplatin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative proteomics analysis indicated that six NRF2-targeted proteins, including NQO1, GSR, G6PD, GCLC, GCLM and GSTP1 involved in the glutathione metabolism pathway, were reduced in H19-knockdown cells. Furthermore, H19-knockdown cells were markedly more sensitive to hydrogen-peroxide treatment and exhibited lower glutathione levels. Our results reveal a previously unknown link between H19 and glutathione metabolism in the regulation of cancer-drug resistance. PMID:27193186

  3. Ormeloxifene efficiently inhibits ovarian cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Diane M.; Khan, Sheema; Nordquist, Jordan; Ebeling, Mara C.; Bauer, Nichole A.; Kopel, Lucas; Singh, Man Mohan; Halaweish, Fathi; Bell, Maria C.; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer related deaths for women. Anticancer agents effective against chemo-resistant cells are greatly needed for ovarian cancer treatment. Repurposing drugs currently in human use is an attractive strategy for developing novel cancer treatments with expedited translation into clinical trials. Therefore, we examined whether ormeloxifene (ORM), a non-steroidal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) currently used for contraception, is therapeutically effective at inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. We report that ORM treatment inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines, including cell lines resistant to cisplatin. Furthermore, ORM treatment decreases Akt phosphorylation, increases p53 phosphorylation, and modulates the expression and localization patterns of p27, cyclin E, cyclin D1, and CDK2. In a pre-clinical xenograft mouse ORM treatment significantly reduces tumorigenesis and metastasis. These results indicate that ORM effectively inhibits the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. ORM is currently in human use and has an established record of patient safety. Our encouraging in vitro and pre-clinical in vivo findings indicate that ORM is a promising candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25306892

  4. HOXB13 promotes ovarian cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Jiangyong; Wang, Zuncai; Provencher, Heather; Muir, Beth; Dahiya, Sonika; Carney, Erin; Leong, Chee-Onn; Sgroi, Dennis C.; Orsulic, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Deregulated expression of HOXB13 in a subset of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen monotherapy is associated with an aggressive clinical course and poor outcome. Because the ovary is another hormone-responsive organ, we investigated whether HOXB13 plays a role in ovarian cancer progression. We show that HOXB13 is expressed in multiple human ovarian cancer cell lines and tumors and that knockdown of endogenous HOXB13 by RNA interference in human ovarian cancer cell lines is associated with reduced cell proliferation. Ectopic expression of HOXB13 is capable of transforming p53−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts and promotes cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in mouse ovarian cancer cell lines that contain genetic alterations in p53, myc, and ras. In this genetically defined cell line model of ovarian cancer, we demonstrate that HOXB13 collaborates with activated ras to markedly promote tumor growth in vivo and that HOXB13 confers resistance to tamoxifen-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, our results support a pro-proliferative and pro-survival role for HOXB13 in ovarian cancer. PMID:17942676

  5. Synthesis, structure, and antiproliferative activity of ruthenium(II) arene complexes with N,O-chelating pyrazolone-based β-ketoamine ligands.

    PubMed

    Pettinari, Riccardo; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Petrini, Agnese; Scopelliti, Rosario; Clavel, Catherine M; Dyson, Paul J

    2014-12-15

    Novel ruthenium half-sandwich complexes containing (N,O)-bound pyrazolone-based β-ketoamine ligands have been prepared, and the solid-state structures of one ligand and five complexes have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Some of the complexes display moderate cytotoxicity toward the human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and A2780cisR, the latter line having acquired resistance to cisplatin. PMID:25412203

  6. Afatinib reverses multidrug resistance in ovarian cancer via dually inhibiting ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-qi; Liu, Shi-ting; Zhao, Bo-xin; Yang, Fu-heng; Wang, Ya-tian; Liang, Qian-ying; Sun, Ya-bin; Liu, Yuan; Song, Zhi-hua; Cai, Yun; Li, Guo-feng

    2015-01-01

    ABCB1-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. Herein, afatinib at nontoxic concentrations significantly reversed ABCB1-mediated MDR in ovarian cancer cells in vitro (p < 0.05). Combining paclitaxel and afatinib caused tumor regressions and tumor necrosis in A2780T xenografts in vivo. More interestingly, unlike reversible TKIs, afatinib had a distinctive dual-mode action. Afatinib not only inhibited the efflux function of ABCB1, but also attenuated its expression transcriptionally via down-regulation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK/p38-dependent activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, apart from a substrate binding domain, afatinib could also bind to an ATP binding domain of ABCB1 through forming hydrogen bonds with Gly533, Gly534, Lys536 and Ala560 sites. Importantly, mutations in these four binding sites of ABCB1 and the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR were not correlated with the reversal activity of afatinib on MDR. Given that afatinib is a clinically approved drug, our results suggest combining afatinib with chemotherapeutic drugs in ovarian cancer. This study can facilitate the rediscovery of superior MDR reversal agents from molecular targeted drugs to provide a more effective and safer way of resensitizing MDR. PMID:26317651

  7. Solanum Incanum Extract Downregulates Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1-Mediated Stemness and Inhibits Tumor Formation in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Hui; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Young, Ming-Jer; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Yu-Fang; Chou, Cheng-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Solanum incanum extract (SR-T100), containing the active ingredient solamargine, can induce apoptosis via upregulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor expression and activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and has therapeutic effects in patients with actinic keratosis. Here, we evaluate the novel molecular mechanisms underlying SR-T100-regulated stemness and chemoresistance. The concentration of SR-T100 that inhibited 50% cell viability (IC50) was lower in ovarian cancer cells than in nonmalignant cells. Furthermore, the SR-T100 IC50 in chemoresistant cells was similar to the IC50 in chemosensitive cells. Additionally, SR-T100 increased cisplatin and paclitaxel sensitivity in chemoresistant cells. SR-T100 downregulated the expression of stem cell markers, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), Notch1, and FoxM1, and reduced sphere formation in ovarian cancer cells. Using microarray analyses, immunoblotting, luciferase activity, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we showed that SR-T100 suppressed the expression of c/EBPβ and COL11A1, and its promoter activity, in resistant cells, but not sensitive cells. SR-T100, paclitaxel, and cisplatin inhibited the growth of A2780CP70 cells in mouse xenografts, as compared to the vehicle control, and the combination of cisplatin and SR-T100 was more effective than either treatment alone. SR-T100 may represent a potential therapeutic adjunct to chemotherapy for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:26366215

  8. Safety of Ovarian Tissue Autotransplantation for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bockstaele, Laurence; Tsepelidis, Sophie; Dechene, Julie; Englert, Yvon; Demeestere, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Cancer treatments can induce premature ovarian failure in almost half of young women suffering from invasive neoplasia. Cryopreservation of ovarian cortex and subsequent autotransplantation of frozen-thawed tissue have emerged as promising alternatives to conventional fertility preservation technologies. However, human ovarian tissue is generally harvested before the administration of gonadotoxic treatment and could be contaminated with malignant cells. The safety of autotransplantation of ovarian cortex remains a major concern for fertility preservation units worldwide. This paper discusses the main tools for detecting disseminated cancer cells currently available, their limitations, and clinical relevance. PMID:22253631

  9. Synthetic Steroid Hormones Regulated Cell Proliferation Through MicroRNA-34a-5p in Human Ovarian Endometrioma.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Yi; Hsieh, Tsung-Hua; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Hung-Sheng; Liang, Peir-In; Hsu, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis is the hormone-dependent product of endometrial tissue found outside the uterus. Recently, micro-RNAs (miRNAs) were shown to play a role in endometriotic lesion development. However, the mechanism of steroid hormones responsible for miRNA remains obscure. In the present study, we assayed for the effects of synthetic steroid hormones (danazol, progesterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate [MPA]) on miRNAs in endometriosis. We used a global miRNA expression profile microarray to evaluate miRNA expression in endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EN-MSCs) of ovarian endometrioma following treatment with 1 μM danazol, progesterone, or MPA. Furthermore, we selected candidate miRNAs whose expression changed more than fivefold and compared the effects of danazol, progesterone, and MPA treatments and also compared those results with controls in EN-MSCs. Among those with a fivefold change, we found 13 ectopically upregulated miRNAs in EN-MSCs. To understand the function of these 13 miRNAs, we subjected their sequences to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. According to both the etiology and pathogenesis of endometriosis, we found that miR-199a-5p and miR-34a-5p showed specific association with the disease, including molecular and cellular functions. Steroid hormone treatment elevated the levels of miR-199a-5p and miR-34a-5p. An inhibitor of miR-34a-5p also reduced the synthetic steroid hormones effects on cell proliferation. In vivo data revealed that miRNA levels in endometriotic lesions correlated with findings following in vitro synthetic hormone treatment. Our data show the effects of synthetic steroid hormones on miRNA regulation. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular impact of the synthetic steroid hormones and suggest a potential mechanism for endometriosis treatment. PMID:26819477

  10. Emblica officinalis Extract Induces Autophagy and Inhibits Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Proliferation, Angiogenesis, Growth of Mouse Xenograft Tumors

    PubMed Central

    De, Alok; De, Archana; Papasian, Chris; Hentges, Shane; Banerjee, Snigdha; Haque, Inamul; Banerjee, Sushanta K.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with ovarian cancer (OC) may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, although none of these strategies are very effective. Several plant-based natural products/dietary supplements, including extracts from Emblicaofficinalis (Amla), have demonstrated potent anti-neoplastic properties. In this study we determined that Amla extract (AE) has anti-proliferative effects on OC cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. We also determined the anti-proliferative effects one of the components of AE, quercetin, on OC cells under in vitro conditions. AE did not induce apoptotic cell death, but did significantly increase the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. Quercetin also increased the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also significantly reduced the expression of several angiogenic genes, including hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in OVCAR3 cells. AE acted synergistically with cisplatin to reduce cell proliferation and increase expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also had anti-proliferative effects and induced the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II in mouse xenograft tumors. Additionally, AE reduced endothelial cell antigen – CD31 positive blood vessels and HIF-1α expression in mouse xenograft tumors. Together, these studies indicate that AE inhibits OC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo possibly via inhibition of angiogenesis and activation of autophagy in OC. Thus AE may prove useful as an alternative or adjunct therapeutic approach in helping to fight OC. PMID:24133573

  11. LHRH-targeted nanogels as delivery system for cisplatin to ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nukolova, Natalia V.; Oberoi, Hardeep S.; Zhao, Yi; Chekhonin, Vladimir P.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery using multifunctional polymeric nanocarriers is a modern approach for cancer therapy. Our purpose was to prepare targeted nanogels for selective delivery of chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor overexpressing tumor in vivo. Building blocks of such delivery systems consisted of innovative soft block copolymer nanogels with ionic cores serving as a reservoir for cisplatin (loading 35%) and a synthetic analog of LHRH conjugated to the nanogels via poly(ethylene glycol) spacer. Covalent attachment of (D-Lys6)-LHRH to nanogels was shown to be possible without loss in either the ligand binding affinity or the nanogel drug incorporation ability. LHRH-nanogel accumulation was specific to the LHRH-receptor positive A2780 ovarian cancer cells and not towards LHRH-receptor negative SKOV-3 cells. The LHRH-nanogel cisplatin formulation was more effective and less toxic than equimolar doses of free cisplatin or untargeted nanogels in the treatment of receptor-positive ovarian cancer xenografts in mice. Collectively, the study indicates that LHRH mediated nanogel-cisplatin delivery is a promising formulation strategy for therapy of tumors that express the LHRH receptor. PMID:23957812

  12. Autocrine production of interleukin-8 confers cisplatin and paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Qu, Ye; Niu, Xiu Long; Sun, Wei Jia; Zhang, Xiao Lei; Li, Ling Zhi

    2011-11-01

    It has been widely reported that interleukin-8 (IL-8) is overexpressed in ovarian cyst fluid, ascites, serum, and tumor tissue from ovarian cancer (OVCA) patients, and elevated IL-8 expression correlates with a poor final outcome and chemosensitivity. However, the role of IL-8 expression in the acquisition of the chemoresistance phenotype and the underlining mechanisms of drug resistance in OVCA cells are not yet fully understood. Here we show that both exogenous (a relatively short period of treatment with recombination IL-8) and endogenous IL-8 (by transfecting with plasmid encoding for sense IL-8) induce cisplatin and paclitaxel resistance in non-IL-8-expressing A2780 cells, while deleting of endogenous IL-8 expression in IL-8-overexpressing SKOV-3 cells (by transfecting with plasmid encoding for antisense IL-8) promotes the sensitivity of these cells to anticancer drugs. IL-8-mediated resistance of OVCA cells exhibits decreased proteolytic activation of caspase-3. Meanwhile, the further study demonstrates that the chemoresistance caused by IL-8 is associated with increased expression of both multidrug resistance-related genes (MDR1) and apoptosis inhibitory proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and XIAP), as well as activation of PI3K/Akt and Ras/MEK/ERK signaling. Therefore, modulation of IL-8 expression or its related signaling pathway may be a promising strategy of treatment for drug-resistant OVCA. PMID:21742513

  13. Human ovarian cancer, lymphoma spleen, and bovine milk GlcNAc:beta1,4Gal/GalNAc transferases: two molecular species in ovarian tumor and induction of GalNAcbeta1,4Glc synthesis by alpha-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, E V; Chawda, R; Piskorz, C; Locke, R D; Ta, A; Sharad, G; Odunsi, K; Lele, S; Matta, K L

    2001-08-23

    Affinity Gel-UDP was utilized to purify GlcNAc:beta1,4Gal/GalNAc transferases (Ts) from human lymphoma spleen, ovarian tumor, and ovarian cancer sera. Mn(2+) was found to be an absolute requirement for activity. Two molecular species containing both beta1,4Gal/GalNAc-T activities were discernible when the purified ovarian tumor microsomal enzyme was subjected to Sephacryl S-100 HR column chromatography as well as native polyacylamide gel-electrophoresis. Acceptor specificity studies of the affinity-purified lymphoma spleen and ovarian tumor microsomal enzymes and the conventionally purified, as well as the cloned, bovine milk GlcNAc:beta1,4Gal-Ts using a number of synthetic acceptors showed that the beta(1,6)-linked GlcNAc moiety to alpha-GalNAc was the most efficient acceptor. As compared to the purified milk enzyme, the recombinant form exhibited sixfold GlcNAc:beta1,4 GalNAc-T activity and up to eightfold GlcNAc6SO3beta-:beta1,4Gal-T activity. Further, the recombinant enzyme catalyzed the transfer of GalNAc to the terminal beta-linked GlcNAc6SO3 moiety. Alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) inhibited up to 85%, the transfer of Gal to the GlcNAc moiety linked either to Man or GlcNAc. On the contrary, alpha-LA had no significant influence on the transfer of GalNAc to the above acceptors. alpha-LA had no appreciable effect on the recombinant enzyme, except for the transfer of Gal or GalNAc to Glc. Both alpha- and beta-glucosides, as well as alpha-N-acetylglucosaminide, did not serve as acceptors. PMID:11502266

  14. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Stage III Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. A calicheamicin conjugate with a fully humanized anti-MUC1 antibody shows potent antitumor effects in breast and ovarian tumor xenografts.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Philip R; Hinman, Lois M; Beyer, Carl F; Lindh, Delores; Upeslacis, Janis; Shochat, Dan; Mountain, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Murine CTM01 is an internalizing murine IgG(1) monoclonal antibody that recognizes the MUC1 antigen expressed on many solid tumors of epithelial origin. Calicheamicin conjugates of this antibody have previously been shown to be potent, selective antitumor agents in preclinical models. A conjugate has now been made with a genetically engineered human version of this antibody, hCTM01. The hCTM01 is an IgG(4) isotype, has an immunoaffinity approximately 30% higher than mCTM01 by competitive RIA, and is efficiently internalized into target cells. The hCTM01-NAc-gamma calicheamicin DM amide conjugate, referred to as CMB-401, shows targeted killing of MUC1-expressing cells in vitro and produces pronounced dose-related antitumor effects over an 8-fold dose range against a MUC1-expressing, ovarian xenograft tumor, OvCar-3. The specificity of CMB-401 was confirmed by comparing its antitumor effects with those of an isotype-matched nonspecific conjugate against the MX-1 breast carcinoma. CMB-401, given either ip or iv, was highly active in these models in single and multiple dose regimens and gave complete regressions at the highest doses examined with good overall therapeutic ratios. CMB-401 also gave good antitumor effects at similar doses with a cisplatin-resistant MUC1-expressing cell line. PMID:15769089

  16. Plasma, tumor and tissue pharmacokinetics of Docetaxel delivered via nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes in mice bearing SKOV-3 human ovarian carcinoma xenograft

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kevin S.; Hasan, Warefta; Rawal, Sumit; Walsh, Mark D.; Enlow, Elizabeth M.; Luft, J. Christopher; Bridges, Arlene S.; Kuijer, Jennifer L.; Napier, Mary E.; Zamboni, William C.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    The particle fabrication technique PRINT® was used to fabricate monodisperse size and shape specific poly(lactide-co-glycolide) particles loaded with the chemotherapeutic Docetaxel. The pharmacokinetics of two cylindrical shaped particles with diameter=80nm; height=320nm (PRINT-Doc-80×320) and d=200nm; h=200nm (PRINT-Doc-200×200) were compared to Docetaxel in mice bearing human ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 flank xenografts. The Docetaxel plasma exposure was ~20-fold higher for both particles compared to docetaxel. Additionally, the volume of distribution (Vd) of Docetaxel in PRINT formulations was ~18-fold (PRINT-Doc-80×320) and ~33-fold (PRINT-Doc-200×200) lower than Docetaxel. The prolonged duration of Docetaxel in plasma when dosed with PRINT formulations subsequently lead to increased tumor exposure of Docetaxel from 0-168 hours (~53% higher for PRINT-Doc-80×320 and ~76% higher for PRINT-Doc-200×200 particles). PRINT-Doc-80×320 had lower exposures in the liver, spleen and lung compared with PRINT-Doc-200×200. Thus, the use of particles with smaller feature size may be preferred to decrease clearance by organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system. PMID:23219874

  17. Multifactorial mechanism for the potentiation of cisplatin (CDDP) cytotoxicity by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Caliaro, M. J.; Vitaux, P.; Lafon, C.; Lochon, I.; Néhmé, A.; Valette, A.; Canal, P.; Bugat, R.; Jozan, S.

    1997-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been previously shown to inhibit the proliferation of some human ovarian carcinoma cell lines, and this inhibition was accompanied by cellular changes that were indicative of differentiation (Caliaro et al, 1994). In this work, a pretreatment of these adenocarcinoma cells with ATRA, for their respective doubling time, enhanced cisplatin (CDDP) cytotoxicity in the cell ines that were sensitive to its antiproliferative effect, but not in the ATRA-resistant ones. Results were assessed using median effect analysis in two ATRA-sensitive cell lines (OVCCR1 and NIHOVCAR3 cells) and in one ATRA-insensitive cell line (IGROV1 cells). Synergy between these two agents was observed only in cells sensitive to ATRA, regardless of their relative sensitivity to CDDP. Potential mechanisms for this synergy were investigated. ATRA did not increase the cellular platinum content, did not decrease the cellular glutathione and had no influence on the metallothionein IIA mRNA levels in NIHOVCAR3 cells. Moreover, the protein kinase C (PKC) activity was modulated by this differentiating agent in all cell lines tested, indicating that this activity was not directly involved in this potentiation. However, an ATRA inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase activity associated with an increase in the total DNA adducts formation could explain the potentiation of the CDDP cytotoxicity observed in NIHOVCAR3 cells. Finally, the ATRA modulation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor mRNA level could also be implicated in this synergy. Images Figure 7 PMID:9020476

  18. Effectiveness of a recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone on the ovarian follicles, peripheral progesterone, estradiol-17β, and pregnancy rate of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed; Moustafa M., Zeitoun

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed at elucidating the effects of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) on the ovarian follicular dynamics, progesterone, estradiol-17β profiles, and pregnancy of dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Three groups (G, n=5 cows) of multiparous dairy cows were used. G1 (C) control cows were given controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and prostaglandin F2α; G2 (L) cows were given low dose (525 IU and G3 (H) cows were given high dose (1800 IU) of r-hFSH on twice daily basis at the last 3 days before CIDR removal. All cows were ultrasonically scanned for follicular growth and dynamics, and blood samples were collected every other day for two consecutive estrus cycles for the determination of estradiol-17β and progesterone. Results: Estrus was observed in all C and L but not in H cows. Dominant follicle was bigger in L compared to C and H cows. Dominant follicle in C (16.00±2.5 mm) and L cows (17.40±2.3 mm) disappeared at 72 h after CIDR removal. However, in H cows, no ovulation has occurred during 7 days post-CIDR removal. Progesterone was not different (p>0.10) among groups, whereas estradiol-17β revealed significant (p<0.01) reduction in H (15.96±2.5 pg/ml) cows compared to C (112.26±26.1 pg/ml) and L (97.49±15.9 pg/ml) cows. Pregnancy rate was higher in L cows (60%) compared with C cows (20%). However, H cows were not artificially inseminated due to non-ovulation. Only a cow of C group has calved one calf, however, 2 of the L cows gave birth of twins and a cow gave single calf. Conclusion: Administration of a low dose (525 IU) of r-hFSH resulted in an optimal size of dominant follicle, normal values of progesterone and estradiol-17β, and 40% twinning rate, howeverusing 1800 IU of r-hFSH, have adverse effects on ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal profiles with non-pregnancy of dairy cows raised under hot climate. PMID:27536029

  19. Ovarian tumors secreting insulin.

    PubMed

    Battocchio, Marialberta; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Chiarelli, Silvia; Trento, Mariangela; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Pasquali, Claudio; De Carlo, Eugenio; Dassie, Francesca; Mioni, Roberto; Rebellato, Andrea; Fallo, Francesco; Degli Uberti, Ettore; Martini, Chiara; Vettor, Roberto; Maffei, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    Combined ovarian germ cell and neuroendocrine tumors are rare. Only few cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion have been hypothesized in the literature. An ovarian tumor was diagnosed in a 76-year-old woman, referred to our department for recurrent hypoglycemia with hyperinsulinism. In vivo tests, in particular fasting test, rapid calcium infusion test, and Octreotide test were performed. Ectopic hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia was demonstrated in vivo and hypoglycemia disappeared after hysteroadnexectomy. Histological exam revealed an ovarian germ cell tumor with neuroendocrine and Yolk sac differentiation, while immunostaining showed insulin positivity in neuroendocrine cells. A cell culture was obtained by tumoral cells, testing Everolimus, and Pasireotide. Insulin was detected in cell culture medium and Everolimus and Pasireotide demonstrated their potentiality in reducing insulin secretion, more than controlling cell viability. Nine cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion reported in literature have been reviewed. These data confirm the ovarian tissue potentiality to induce hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic syndrome after neoplastic transformation. PMID:25896552

  20. Autocrine regulation of growth stimulation in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma by serine-proteinase-catalysed release of the urinary-type-plasminogen-activator N-terminal fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, D A; Kearns, A; Larsh, S; Enghild, J J; Stack, M S

    1999-01-01

    Ovarian carcinomas secrete single-chain urinary-type plasminogen activator (scuPA) and expression of uPA is up-regulated relative to normal ovarian epithelium, leading to an enhanced proteolytic capacity which may facilitate invasion. Furthermore, the uPA receptor (uPAR) is present on ovarian carcinoma cells and is occupied in tumour tissues. In the present study, incubation of scuPA with serum-free conditioned medium from ovarian carcinoma cells resulted in release of a 14 kDa polypeptide. N-terminal sequence analysis identified this fragment as the uPA N-terminal fragment (NTF), which contains a growth-factor and a kringle domain. NTF generation was abolished by serine-proteinase inhibitors, but not inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, and was not enhanced by the addition of plasminogen or plasmin. To determine whether ovarian carcinoma-cell growth is altered by uPA, the effect of exogenous scuPA or NTF on proliferation was analysed. Both NTF and scuPA induced a dose-dependent increase in proliferation, with maximal stimulation obtained at 10-20 nM. Furthermore, blocking the interaction of endogenous uPA with uPAR using anti-NTF antibodies significantly inhibited proliferation. Together these data indicate that, in addition to enhancing the invasive activity of ovarian carcinoma cells via increased pericellular proteolysis, uPA also acts as a mitogen for ovarian carcinoma cells, suggesting a biochemical mechanism whereby uPA may contribute to ovarian carcinoma progression by modulating both cell invasion and proliferation. PMID:10417342

  1. SMIFH2-mediated mDia formin functional inhibition potentiates chemotherapeutic targeting of human ovarian cancer spheroids.

    PubMed

    Ziske, Megan A; Pettee, Krista M; Khaing, MaNada; Rubinic, Kaitlin; Eisenmann, Kathryn M

    2016-03-25

    Due to a lack of effective screening or prevention protocol for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), there is a critical unmet need to develop therapeutic interventions for EOC treatment. EOC metastasis is unique. Initial dissemination is not primarily hematogenous, yet is facilitated through shedding of primary tumor cells into the peritoneal fluid and accumulating ascites. Increasingly, isolated patient spheroids point to a clinical role for spheroids in EOC metastasis. EOC spheroids are highly invasive structures that disseminate upon peritoneal mesothelium, and visceral tissues including liver and omentum. Selection for this subset of chemoresistant EOC cells could influence disease progression and/or recurrence. Thus, targeting spheroid integrity/structure may improve the chemotherapeutic responsiveness of EOC. We discovered a critical role for mammalian Diaphanous (mDia)-related formin-2 in maintaining EOC spheroid structure. Both mDia2 and the related mDia1 regulate F-actin networks critical to maintain cell-cell contacts and the integrity of multi-cellular epithelial sheets. We investigated if mDia2 functional inhibition via a small molecule inhibitor SMIFH2 combined with chemotherapeutics, such as taxol and cisplatin, inhibits the viability of EOC monolayers and clinically relevant spheroids. SMIFH2-mediated mDia formin inhibition significantly reduced both ES2 and Skov3 EOC monolayer viability while spheroid viability was minimally impacted only at the highest concentrations. Combining either cisplatin or taxol with SMIFH2 did not significantly enhance the effects of either drug alone in ES2 monolayers, while Skov3 monolayers treated with taxol or cisplatin and SMIFH2 showed significant additive inhibition of viability. ES2 spheroids were highly responsive with clear additive anti-viability effects with dual taxol or cisplatin when combined with SMIFH2 treatments. While combined taxol with SMIFH2 in spheroids showed an additive effect relative to single

  2. Erlotinib Plus Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Ovarian Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-29

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  3. Monitor Therapeutic Response of Human Ovarian Cancer to 17-DMAG by Non-invasive PET imaging with 64Cu-DOTA-Trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Gang; Li, Zibo; Cao, Qizhen; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    Purposes 17-DMAG, a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, has been intensively investigated for cancer therapy and is undergoing clinical trials. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) is one of the client proteins of Hsp90 and its expression is decreased upon 17-DMAG treatment. In this study, we aimed to non-invasively monitor the HER-2 response to 17-DMAG treatment in xenografted mice. Methods The sensitivity of human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells to 17-DMAG in vitro was measured by MTT assay. HER-2 expression of SKOV-3 cells was determined by flow cytometry. Nude mice bearing SKOV-3 tumors were treated with 17-DMAG and the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by tumor size measurement. Both treated and control mice were imaged with microPET using 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab and 18F-FDG. Biodistribution studies, immunofluorescence staining were performed to validate the microPET results. Results SKOV-3 cells are sensitive to 17-DMAG treatment, in a dose dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 68.7 nM after 72 h incubation. The tumor growth curve supported the inhibition effect of 17-DMAG on SKOV-3 tumors. Quantitative microPET imaging showed that 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab had prominent tumor activity accumulation in untreated SKOV-3 tumors, which was significantly reduced in 17-DMAG treated tumors. There was no uptake difference detected by FDG PET. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the significant reduction in tumor HER-2 level upon 17-DMAG treatment. Conclusion The early response to anti-Hsp90 therapy was successfully monitored by quantitative PET using 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab. This approach may be valuable in monitoring the therapeutic response in HER-2-positive cancer patients under 17-DMAG treatment. PMID:19440708

  4. Real-Time Imaging of Resident T Cells in Human Lung and Ovarian Carcinomas Reveals How Different Tumor Microenvironments Control T Lymphocyte Migration

    PubMed Central

    Bougherara, Houcine; Mansuet-Lupo, Audrey; Alifano, Marco; Ngô, Charlotte; Damotte, Diane; Le Frère-Belda, Marie-Aude; Donnadieu, Emmanuel; Peranzoni, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    T cells play a key role in the battle against cancer. To perform their antitumor activities, T cells need to adequately respond to tumor antigens by establishing contacts with either malignant cells or antigen-presenting cells. These latter functions rely on a series of migratory steps that go from entry of T cells into the tumor followed by their locomotion in the tumor stroma. Our knowledge of how T cells migrate within tumors mainly comes from experiments performed in mouse models. Whereas such systems have greatly advanced our understanding, they do not always faithfully recapitulate the disease observed in cancer patients. We previously described a technique based on tissue slices that enables to track with real-time imaging microscopy the motile behavior of fluorescent T cells plated onto fresh sections of human lung tumors. We have now refined this approach to monitor the locomotion of resident tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells labeled with fluorescently coupled antibodies. Using this approach, our findings reveal that CD8 T cells accumulate in the stroma of ovarian and lung carcinomas but move slowly in this compartment. Conversely, even though less populated, tumors islets were found to be zones of faster migration for resident CD8 T cells. We also confirm the key role played by collagen fibers, which, by their orientation, spacing and density, control the distribution and migration of resident CD8 T cells within the tumor stroma. We have subsequently demonstrated that, under some physical tissue constraints, CD8 T cells exhibited a mode of migration characterized by alternate forward and backward movements. In sum, using an ex vivo assay to track CD8 T cells in fresh human tumor tissues, we have identified the extracellular matrix as a major stromal component in influencing T cell migration, thereby impacting the control of tumor growth. This approach will aid in the development and testing of novel immunotherapy strategies to promote T cell migration in

  5. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  6. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1530x1350 View Download Large: 3060x2700 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows ...

  7. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  8. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage I Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage I Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  9. Ovarian Cancer Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... States, ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer death. Around one in every 60 ... States, ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer death. Are some women more at ...

  10. Evaluation of a novel human IgG1 anti-claudin3 antibody that specifically recognizes its aberrantly localized antigen in ovarian cancer cells and that is suitable for selective drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Chiara; Cocco, Emiliano; Bignotti, Eliana; Moratto, Daniele; Bugatti, Antonella; Todeschini, Paola; Bandiera, Elisabetta; Tassi, Renata; Zanotti, Laura; Pecorelli, Sergio; Sartori, Enrico; Odicino, Franco E.; de Marco, Ario; Davide Santin, Alessandro; Ravaggi, Antonella; Mitola, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Membrane protein claudin3 has been recently suggested as a marker for biologically aggressive tumors and a possible target for the therapeutic delivery of active anti-cancer compounds. Claudin3-binding molecules such as the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), CPE-related molecules, and murine and chimeric antibodies have shown promising antitumor efficacy in preclinical oncological settings. We first engineered a fully human anti-claudin3 IgG1 antibody (IgGH6) by fusing the human IgG1 Fc-domain to the anti-claudin3 scFvH6 previously isolated from a pre-immune phage display library. The construct was expressed in mammalian cells and specifically targeted claudin3 endogenously expressed on the surface of different human ovarian cancer cell lines. No detectable cross-reactivity with other homologous claudins was observed. The epitope recognized by IgGH6 is located within the minor extracellular domain of claudin3 and becomes accessible only in tumor cells characterized by incomplete junction formation. Confocal microscopy experiments demonstrated that IgGH6 was actively internalized in tumor cells after binding to native claudin3 and co-localized, likely within intracellular vesicles, with the C-CPE peptide. Preliminary results indicate that IgGH6 accumulated in vivo in free claudin3 ovarian carcinoma xenografts. For its selective uptake in tumor cells and its human nature, IgGH6 represents a valuable candidate for antibody-drug conjugate therapeutic applications in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:26416446

  11. Reproductive responses of dairy cows with ovarian cysts to simultaneous human chorionic gonadotropin or gonadotropin-releasing hormone and cloprostenol compared to gonadotropin-releasing hormone alone treatment

    PubMed Central

    Taktaz, T.; Kafi, M.; Mokhtari, Adel; Heidari, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Bovine ovarian cysts are a common cause of economic loss in modern dairy herds. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive responses to three protocols using hCG, GnRH and cloprostenol when the definite diagnosis of the type of ovarian cyst is/is not possible in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 lactating dairy cows with ovarian cysts were divided into three groups. At diagnosis (Day 0), cows in Group 1 (the conventional method, n=47) were injected with 0.02 mg of a GnRH analogue i.m. (Buserelin); cows in Group 2 (n=47) were intramuscularly treated with 0.02 mg Buserelin plus 500 µg cloprostenol; and cows in Group 3 (n=50) were intramuscularly treated with 1500 IU hCG plus 500 µg cloprostenol. All cows received 500 µg cloprostenol intramuscularly on Day 10. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the recovery time, interval to conception, conception rate at first AI, and pregnancy rates by Days 70 and 100 after treatment among the three groups. Conclusions: Simultaneous treatment of ovarian cysts with hCG or GnRH and cloprostenol appeared to have no advantage over the conventional method, GnRH alone, in dairy cows. Furthermore, hCG and GnRH have an equal therapeutic effect in cows with ovarian cysts. PMID:27047149

  12. Development of a recombinant human ovarian (BG1) cell line containing estrogen receptor α and β for improved detection of estrogenic/antiestrogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Jennifer C; Bassal, Arzoo; He, Guochun; Denison, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals are found in environmental and biological samples, commercial and consumer products, food, and numerous other sources. Given their ubiquitous nature and potential for adverse effects, a critical need exists for rapidly detecting these chemicals. The authors developed an estrogen-responsive recombinant human ovarian (BG1Luc4E2) cell line recently accepted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as a bioanalytical method to detect estrogen receptor (ER) agonists/antagonists. Unfortunately, these cells appear to contain only 1 of the 2 known ER isoforms, ERα but not ERβ, and the differential ligand selectivity of these ERs indicates that the currently accepted screening method only detects a subset of total estrogenic chemicals. To improve the estrogen screening bioassay, BG1Luc4E2 cells were stably transfected with an ERβ expression plasmid and positive clones identified using ERβ-selective ligands (genistein and Br-ERβ-041). A highly responsive clone (BG1LucERβc9) was identified that exhibited greater sensitivity and responsiveness to ERβ-selective ligands than BG1Luc4E2 cells, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of ERβ expression in these cells. Screening of pesticides and industrial chemicals identified chemicals that preferentially stimulated ERβ-dependent reporter gene expression. Together, these results not only demonstrate the utility of this dual-ER recombinant cell line for detecting a broader range of estrogenic chemicals than the current BG1Luc4E2 cell line, but screening with both cell lines allows identification of ERα- and ERβ-selective che