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Sample records for a2780 identifikacia novych

  1. Elevated β-catenin activity contributes to carboplatin resistance in A2780cp ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barghout, Samir H.; Zepeda, Nubia; Xu, Zhihua

    2015-12-04

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortalities in women. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) represents approximately 90% of all ovarian malignancies. Most EOC patients are diagnosed at advanced stages and current chemotherapy regimens are ineffective against advanced EOC due to the development of chemoresistance. It is important to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying acquired resistance to effectively manage this disease. In this study, we examined the expression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling components in the paired cisplatin-sensitive (A2780s) and cisplatin-resistant (A2780cp) EOC cell lines. Our results showed that several negative regulators of Wnt signaling are downregulated, whereas amore » few Wnt ligands and known Wnt/β-catenin target genes are upregulated in A2780cp cells compared to A2780s cells, suggesting that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is more active in A2780cp cells. Further analysis revealed nuclear localization of β-catenin and higher β-catenin transcriptional activity in A2780cp cells compared to A2780s cells. Finally, we demonstrated that chemical inhibition of β-catenin transcriptional activity by its inhibitor CCT036477 sensitized A2780cp cells to carboplatin, supporting a role for β-catenin in carboplatin resistance in A2780cp cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity contributes to carboplatin resistance in A2780cp cells. - Highlights: • Wnt ligands and target genes are upregulated in cisplatin resistant A2780cp cells. • Negative regulators of Wnt signaling are down-regulated in A2780cp cells. • β-catenin transcriptional activity is higher in A2780cp cells compared to A2780s cells. • Inhibition of β-catenin activity increases carboplatin cytotoxicity in A2780cp cells.« less

  2. Heparin antagonizes cisplatin resistance of A2780 ovarian cancer cells by affecting the Wnt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pfankuchen, Daniel Bastian; Baltes, Fabian; Batool, Tahira; Li, Jin-Ping; Schlesinger, Martin; Bendas, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), the guideline based drug for prophylaxis and treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis, was recently shown to sensitize cisplatin resistant A2780cis human ovarian cancer cells for cisplatin cytotoxicity upon 24 h pretreatment with 50 μg × mL−1 of the LMWH tinzaparin in vitro, equivalent to a therapeutic dosage. Thereby, LMWH induced sensitization by transcriptional reprogramming of A2780cis cells via not yet elucidated mechanisms that depend on cellular proteoglycans. Here we aim to illuminate the underlying molecular mechanisms of LMWH in sensitizing A2780cis cells for cisplatin. Using TCF/LEF luciferase promotor assay (Top/Flash) we show that resistant A2780cis cells possess a threefold higher Wnt signaling activity compared to A2780 cells. Furthermore, Wnt pathway blockade by FH535 leads to higher cisplatin sensitivity of A2780cis cells. Glypican-3 (GPC3) is upregulated in A2780cis cells in response to LMWH treatment, probably as counter-regulation to sustain the high Wnt activity against LMWH. Hence, LMWH reduces the cisplatin-induced rise in Wnt activity and TCF-4 expression in A2780cis cells, but keeps sensitive A2780 cells unaffected. Consequently, Wnt signaling pathway appears as primary target of LMWH in sensitizing A2780cis cells for cisplatin toxicity. Considering the outstanding role of LMWH in clinical oncology, this finding appears as promising therapeutic option to hamper chemoresistance. PMID:28978053

  3. Lectin array and glycogene expression analyses of ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and its cisplatin-resistant derivate cell line A2780-cp.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran; Qin, Wenjun; Qin, Ruihuan; Han, Jing; Li, Can; Wang, Yisheng; Xu, Congjian

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal gynecological malignancies, in which platinum resistance is a common cause of its relapse and death. Glycosylation has been reported to be involved in drug resistance, and glycomic analyses of ovarian cancer may improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cancer cell drug resistance and provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The serous ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and its platinum-resistant counterpart A2780-cp were used in this study. We performed a lectin array analysis to compare the glycosylation patterns of the two cell lines, a gene expression array was employed to probe the differences in glycogenes. Furthermore, the results were verified by lectin blots. A2780-cp cell exhibited stronger intensities of Lens culinaris (LCA) Canavalia ensiformis (ConA), and Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) and weaker intensities of Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectins. The gene expression array analysis revealed increased expression of Fut8, B3gnt4, B3gnt5, B4galt2 and decreased expression of Fut1 and ST6GalNAc 6 expression were evident in the A2780-cp cells. The lectin blot confirmed the differences in LCA, ConA, SNA and LEL between the A2780 and A2780-cp cells. The combination of the lectin and gene expression analyses showed that the levels of core fucosylation and poly-LacNAc were increased in the A2780-cp cells and the levels of Fuc α1-2(gal β1-4) GlcNAc and α2-6-linked sialic structures were decreased in the A2780-cp cells. These glycans represent potential biomarkers and might be involved in the mechanism of drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

  4. Inhibition of A2780 Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Proliferation by a Rubus Component, Sanguiin H-6.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dahae; Ko, Hyeonseok; Kim, Young-Joo; Kim, Su-Nam; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Hyun Young; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2016-02-03

    The effects of a red raspberry component, sanguiin H-6 (SH-6), on the induction of apoptosis and the related signaling pathways in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells were investigated. SH-6 caused an antiproliferative effect and a severe morphological change resembling that of apoptotic cell death but no effect on the cancer cell cycle arrest. In addition, SH-6 induced an early apoptotic effect and activation of caspases as well as the cleavage of PARP, which is a hallmark of apoptosis. The early apoptotic percentages of A2780 cells exposed to 20 and 40 μM SH-6 were 35.39 and 41.76, respectively. Also, SH-6 caused the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), especially p38, and the increase of truncated p15/BID. These results in the present study suggest that the apoptosis of A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells by SH-6 is mediated by the MAPK p38 and a caspase-8-dependent BID cleavage pathway.

  5. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer A2780s cells by activation of ERK/p53/PUMA signals.

    PubMed

    Song, Hao; Wei, Mei; Liu, Wenfen; Shen, Shulin; Li, Jiaqun; Wang, Liming

    2018-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most effective anticancer agents widely used in the treatment of solid tumors, including ovarian cancer. It is generally considered as a cytotoxic drug which kills cancer cells by causing DNA damage, and subsequently inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to cell apoptosis remain obscure. In this study, the signaling pathways involved in CDDP-induced apoptosis were examined using CDDP-sensitive ovarian cancer A2780s cells. A2780s cells were treated with CDDP (1.5-3 μg/ml) for 6h, 12h and 24h. Using siRNA targeting P53 and PUMA, and a selective MEK inhibitor, PD98059 to examine the relation between ERK1/2 activation, p53 and PUMA expression after exposure to CDDP, and the effect on CDDP-induced apoptosis. The results shown that treatment of A2780s cells with CDDP (3 μg/ml) for 6-24h induced apoptosis, resulting in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and accumulation of p53 and PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) protein. Knockdown of P53 or PUMA by siRNA transfection blocked CDDP-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of ERK1/2 using PD98059, a selective MEK inhibitor, blocked the apoptotic cell death but prevented CDDP-induced accumulation of p53 and PUMA. Knockdown of P53 by siRNA transfection also blocked CDDP-induced accumulation of PUMA. We therefore concluded that CDDP activated ERK1/2 and induced-p53-dependent PUMA upregulation, resulting in triggering apoptosis in A2780s cells. Our study clearly demonstrates that the ERK1/2/p53/PUMA axis is related to CDDP-induced cell death in A2780s cells.

  6. Salidroside induces apoptosis in human ovarian cancer SKOV3 and A2780 cells through the p53 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ge; Li, Na; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Wei; Feng, Xiao-Ling

    2018-05-01

    Salidroside is one of the most potent compounds extracted from the plant Rhodiola rosea , and its cardiovascular protective effects have been studied extensively. However, the role of salidroside in human ovarian carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of salidroside on the proliferation and apoptosis of SKOV3 and A2780 cells using MTT assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. Salidroside activated caspase-3 and upregulated the levels of apoptosis-inducing factor, Bcl-2-associated X and Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) proteins. Furthermore, salidroside downregulated the levels of Bcl-2, p-Bad and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. Salidroside activated the caspase-dependent pathway in SKOV3 and A2780 cells, upregulating p53, p21 Cip1/Waf1 and p16 INK4a . These results suggest that the p53/p21 Cip1/Waf1 /p16 INK4a pathway may serve a key function in salidroside-mediated effects on SKOV3 and A2780 cells. The current findings indicate that salidroside may be a promising novel drug candidate for ovarian cancer therapy.

  7. Lichen secondary metabolites are responsible for induction of apoptosis in HT-29 and A2780 human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bačkorová, M; Jendželovský, R; Kello, M; Bačkor, M; Mikeš, J; Fedoročko, P

    2012-04-01

    Lichens are a known source of approximately 800 unique secondary metabolites, many of which play important ecological roles, including regulating the equilibrium between symbionts. However, only a few of these compounds have been assessed for their effectiveness against various in vitro cancer models. Moreover, the mechanisms of biological activity of lichen secondary metabolites on living cells (including cancer cells) are still almost entirely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of four lichen secondary metabolites (parietin, atranorin, usnic acid and gyrophoric acid) on A2780 and HT-29 cancer cell lines. We found that usnic acid and atranorin were more effective anti-cancer compounds when compared to parietin and gyrophoric acid. Usnic acid and atranorin were capable of inducing a massive loss in the mitochondrial membrane potential, along with caspase-3 activation (only in HT-29 cells) and phosphatidylserine externalization in both tested cell lines. Induction of both ROS and especially RNS may be responsible, at least in part, for the cytotoxic effects of the tested compounds. Based on the detection of protein expression (PARP, p53, Bcl-2/Bcl-xL, Bax, p38, pp38) we found that usnic acid and atranorin are activators of programmed cell death in A2780 and HT-29, probably through the mitochondrial pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Resveratrol analogue 3,4,4′,5-tetramethoxystilbene inhibits growth, arrests cell cycle and induces apoptosis in ovarian SKOV‐3 and A-2780 cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Piotrowska, Hanna; Myszkowski, Krzysztof; Ziółkowska, Alicja

    2012-08-15

    In the screening studies, cytotoxicity of 12 methylated resveratrol analogues on 11 human cancer cell lines was examined. The most active compound 3,4,4′5-tetramethoxystilbene (DMU-212) and two ovarian cancer cell lines A-2780 (IC{sub 50} = 0.71 μM) and SKOV-3 (IC{sub 50} = 11.51 μM) were selected for further investigation. To determine the mechanism of DMU-212 cytotoxicity, its ability to induce apoptosis was examined. DMU-212 arrested cell cycle in the G2/M or G0/G1 phase which resulted in apoptosis of both cell lines. The expression level of 84 apoptosis-related genes was investigated. In SKOV-3 cells DMU-212 caused up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax, Apaf-1 andmore » p53 genes, specific to intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, and a decrease in Bcl-2 and Bcl 2110 mRNA expressions. Conversely, in A-2780 cells an increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes Fas, FasL, TNF, TNFRSF10A, TNFRSF21, TNFRSF16 specific to extracellular mechanism of apoptosis was observed. There are no data published so far regarding the receptor mediated apoptosis induced by DMU-212. The activation of caspase-3/7 was correlated with decreased TRAF-1 and BIRC-2 expression level in A-2780 cells exposed to DMU-212. DMU-212 caused a decrease in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA levels in A-2780 by 50% and 75%, and in SKOV-3 cells by 15% and 45%, respectively. The protein expression was also reduced in both cell lines. It is noteworthy that the expression of CYP1B1 protein was entirely inhibited in A-2780 cells treated with DMU-212. It can be suggested that different CYP1B1 expression patterns in either ovarian cell line may affect their sensitivity to cytotoxic activity of DMU-212. -- Highlights: ► DMU-212 was the most cytotoxic among 12 O-methylated resveratrol analogues. ► DMU-212 arrested cell cycle at G2/M and G0/G1phase ► DMU-212 triggered mitochondria- and receptor‐mediated apoptosis. ► DMU-212 entirely inhibited CYP1B1 protein expression in A-2780 cells.« less

  9. Cellular Uptake, DNA Binding and Apoptosis Induction of Cytotoxic Trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(Isopropylamine)] in A2780cisR Ovarian Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, José M.; Montero, Eva I.; Quiroga, Adoración G.; Fuertes, Miguel A; Alonso, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(isopropylamine)] is a novel trans-platinum compound that shows cytotoxic activity in several cisplatin resistant cell lines. The aim of this paper was to analyse, by means of molecular cell biology techniques and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), the cytotoxic activity, the induction of apoptosis, the cellular uptake and the DNA binding of trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(isopropylamine)] in the cisplatin resistant cell line A2780cisR. The results show that this drug is more cytotoxic and induces a higher amount of apoptotic cells than cisplatin in A2780cisR cells. However, the intracellular accumulation and extent of binding to DNA of trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)( isopropylamine)] is lower than that of cis-DDP. Moreover, trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(isopropylaminae)] is partially inactivated by intracellular levels of glulathione. The result suggest that circumvention of ciplatin resistance by trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(isopropylamine)] in A2780cisR cells might be related with the ability of this drug to induce apoptosis. PMID:18475973

  10. Cheminformatics-based selection and synergism of herbal extracts with anticancer agents on drug resistance tumor cells-ACHN and A2780/cp cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Ghazaleh; Sardari, Soroush; Ali Shokrgozar, Mohammad

    2011-08-01

    The treatment of cancer usually involves lethal effect on normal body cells as side effects. Cheminformatics methodology can play a significant role in biomed/clinical scientific research. Similarity searching is a standard cheminformatics tool in drug discovery area and database design. In this study, five novel herbal extracts in combination with doxorubicin and cisplatin have been used to sensitize ACHN and A2780/cp cells. These herbal extracts have been selected on the basis of novel cheminformatics methodology and assayed for the first time. The findings confirmed predicted outcomes from the in silico research and the results introduced may bring to use the effects of these herbs in reversing of multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organometallic Half-Sandwich Dichloridoruthenium(II) Complexes with 7-Azaindoles: Synthesis, Characterization and Elucidation of Their Anticancer Inactivity against A2780 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Štarha, Pavel; Hanousková, Lucie; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    A series of organometallic half-sandwich dichloridoruthenium(II) complexes of the general formula [Ru(η6-p-cym)(naza)Cl2] (1–8; p-cym = p-cymene; naza = 7-azaindole or its derivatives) was synthesised and fully characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and infrared and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. A single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of [Ru(η6-p-cym)(2Me4Claza)Cl2] (6) revealed a typical piano-stool geometry with an N7-coordination mode of 2-methyl-4-chloro-7-azaindole (2Me4Claza). The complexes have been found to be inactive against human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 up to the highest applied concentration (IC50 > 50.0 μM). An inactivity of the complexes is caused by their instability in water-containing solvents connected with a release of the naza N-donor ligand, as proved by the detailed 1H NMR, mass spectrometry and fluorescence experiments. PMID:26606245

  12. Grape seed procyanidin reversal of p-glycoprotein associated multi-drug resistance via down-regulation of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activity in A2780/T cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo-xin; Sun, Ya-bin; Wang, Sheng-qi; Duan, Lian; Huo, Qi-lu; Ren, Fei; Li, Guo-feng

    2013-01-01

    The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multi-drug resistance (MDR), leading chemotherapy failure of patients suffered with cancer. Grape seed procyanidin(GSP) is a natural polyphenol supplement with anti-inflammatory effect. Present study assessed a new use of GSP on the MDR reversal activity and its possible molecular mechanisms in MDR1-overpressing paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed GSP significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and adriamycin in paclitaxel resistant A2780/T cells but its parental A2780 cells. Furthermore, GSP strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription, as well as, increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate rhodamine-123 in A2780/T cells. Nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) activity, IκB degradation level and NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) were markedly inhibited by pre-treatment with GSP. Meanwhile, GSP inhibited MAPK/ERK pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, resulting in reduced the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) activation with blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, the up-regulation of P-gp expression, the activation of AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway induced by LPS was attenuated by GSP administration. Compared with PDTC and U1026, inhibitor of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK respectively, GSP showed the same tendency of down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activities. Thus, GSP reverses P-gp associated MDR by inhibiting the function and expression of P-gp through down-regulation of NF-κB activity and MAPK/ERK pathway mediated YB-1 nuclear translocation, offering insight into the mechanism of reversing MDR by natural polyphenol supplement compounds. GSP could be a new potential MDR reversal agent used for combination therapy with chemotherapeutics in clinic.

  13. Grape Seed Procyanidin Reversal of P-glycoprotein Associated Multi-Drug Resistance via Down-regulation of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK Mediated YB-1 Activity in A2780/T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-qi; Duan, Lian; Huo, Qi-lu; Ren, Fei; Li, Guo-feng

    2013-01-01

    The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multi-drug resistance (MDR), leading chemotherapy failure of patients suffered with cancer. Grape seed procyanidin(GSP) is a natural polyphenol supplement with anti-inflammatory effect. Present study assessed a new use of GSP on the MDR reversal activity and its possible molecular mechanisms in MDR1-overpressing paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed GSP significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and adriamycin in paclitaxel resistant A2780/T cells but its parental A2780 cells. Furthermore, GSP strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription, as well as, increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate rhodamine-123 in A2780/T cells. Nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) activity, IκB degradation level and NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) were markedly inhibited by pre-treatment with GSP. Meanwhile, GSP inhibited MAPK/ERK pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, resulting in reduced the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) activation with blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, the up-regulation of P-gp expression, the activation of AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway induced by LPS was attenuated by GSP administration. Compared with PDTC and U1026, inhibitor of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK respectively, GSP showed the same tendency of down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activities. Thus, GSP reverses P-gp associated MDR by inhibiting the function and expression of P-gp through down-regulation of NF-κB activity and MAPK/ERK pathway mediated YB-1 nuclear translocation, offering insight into the mechanism of reversing MDR by natural polyphenol supplement compounds. GSP could be a new potential MDR reversal agent used for combination therapy with chemotherapeutics in clinic. PMID:23967153

  14. Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Folic Acid-Targeted Liposomes Co-Loaded with C6 Ceramide and Doxorubicin: In Vitro Evaluation on HeLa, A2780-ADR, and H69-AR Cells.

    PubMed

    Sriraman, Shravan Kumar; Pan, Jiayi; Sarisozen, Can; Luther, Ed; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    Current research in cancer therapy is beginning to shift toward the use of combinational drug treatment regimens. However, the efficient delivery of drug combinations is governed by a number of complex factors in the clinical setting. Therefore, the ability to synchronize the pharmacokinetics of the individual therapeutic agents present in combination not only to allow for simultaneous tumor accumulation but also to allow for a synergistic relationship at the intracellular level could prove to be advantageous. In this work, we report the development of a novel folic acid-targeted liposomal formulation simultaneously co-loaded with C6 ceramide and doxorubicin [FA-(C6+Dox)-LP]. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP was able to significantly reduce the IC50 of Dox when compared to that after the treatment with the doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (Dox-LP) as well as the untargeted drug co-loaded (C6+Dox)-LP on HeLa, A2780-ADR, and H69-AR cells. The analysis of the cell cycle distribution showed that while the C6 liposomes (C6-LP) did not cause cell cycle arrest, all the Dox-containing liposomes mediated cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells in the G2 phase at Dox concentrations of 0.3 and 1 μM and in the S phase at the higher concentrations. It was also found that this arrest in the S phase precedes the progression of the cells to apoptosis. The targeted FA-(C6+Dox)-LP were able to significantly enhance the induction of apoptotic events in HeLa cell monolayers as compared to the other treatment groups. Next, using time-lapse phase holographic imaging microscopy, it was found that upon treatment with the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP, the HeLa cells underwent rapid progression to apoptosis after 21 h as evidenced by a drastic drop in the average area of the cells after loss of cell membrane integrity. Finally, upon evaluation in a HeLa spheroid cell model, treatment with the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP showed significantly higher levels of cell death compared to those with C6-LP and

  15. Transcriptional factor snail controls tumor neovascularization, growth and metastasis in mouse model of human ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abdulkhalek, Samar; Geen, Olivia D; Brodhagen, Lacey; Haxho, Fiona; Alghamdi, Farah; Allison, Stephanie; Simmons, Duncan J; O'Shea, Leah K; Neufeld, Ronald J; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2014-12-01

    Snail, a transcriptional factor and repressor of E-cadherin is well known for its role in cellular invasion. It can regulate epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) during embryonic development and in epithelial cells. Snail also mediates tumor progression and metastases. Silencing of Snail and its associate member Slug in human A2780 ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line was investigated to identify its role in tumor neovascularization. Live cell sialidase, WST-1 cell viability and immunohistochemistry assays were used to evaluate sialidase activity, cell survival and the expression levels of tumor E-cadherin, N-cadherin, VE-cadherin, and host endothelial CD31+(PECAM-1) cells in archived paraffin-embedded ovarian A2780, A2780 Snail shRNA GIPZ lentiviral knockdown (KD) and A2780 Slug shRNA GIPZ lentiviral KD tumors grown in RAGxCγ double mutant mice. Oseltamivir phosphate (OP), anti-Neu1 antibodies and MMP-9 specific inhibitor blocked Neu1 activity associated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulated A2780 ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells. Silencing Snail in A2780 cells abrogated the Neu1 activity following EGF stimulation of the cells compared to A2780 and A2780 Slug KD cells. OP treatment of A2780 and cisplatin-resistant A2780cis cells reproducibly and dose-dependently abated the cell viability with a LD50 of 7 and 4 μm, respectively, after 48 h of incubation. Heterotopic xenografts of A2780 and A2780 Slug KD tumors developed robust and bloody tumor vascularization in RAG2xCγ double mutant mice. OP treatment at 50 mg/kg daily intraperitoneally did not significantly impede A2780 tumor growth rate but did cause a significant reduction of lung metastases compared with the untreated and OP 30mg/kg cohorts. Silencing Snail in A2780 tumor cells completely abrogated tumor vascularization, tumor growth and spread to the lungs in RAGxCγ double mutant mice. A2780 and A2780 Slug KD tumors expressed high levels of human N- and VE-cadherins, and host CD31

  16. The anti-tumor effect of cross-reacting material 197, an inhibitor of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, in human resistant ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiao-han; Deng, Suo; Li, Meng

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HB-EGF over-expression in A2780/Taxol, A2780/CDDP cells and the matched xenografts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 induces enhanced apoptosis in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 arrests A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells at G0/G1 phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 suppressed the A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP growth of xenografts. -- Abstract: Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a promising target for ovarian cancer therapy. Cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197), a specific HB-EGF inhibitor, has been proven to represent possible chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer. However, the effect of CRM197 on the resistant ovarian carcinoma cells has not been sufficiently elucidated. Here, we found that HB-EGF wasmore » over-expressed in a paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cell line (A2780/Taxol) and a cisplatin-resistant cell line (A2780/CDDP), as well as the xenograft mouse tissue samples with these cells. To investigate the possible significance of the HB-EGF over-expression in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells, we inhibited HB-EGF expression by CRM197 to investigate the effect of CRM197 treatment on these cells. We observed that CRM197 significantly induced anti-proliferative activity in a dose-dependent manner with the cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and enhanced apoptosis in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells. The sensitive ovarian carcinoma parental cell line (A2780), A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells formed tumors in nude mice, and enhanced tumorigenicity was observed in drug-resistant tumors. Furthermore, we observed that CRM197 significantly suppressed the growth of drug-resistant ovarian cancer xenografts in vivo (p < 0.001). These results suggest that CRM197 as an HB-EGF-targeted agent has potent anti-tumor activity in paclitaxel- and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer which over-express HB-EGF.« less

  17. The Impact of the Low Molecular Weight Heparin Tinzaparin on the Sensitization of Cisplatin-Resistant Ovarian Cancers-Preclinical In Vivo Evaluation in Xenograft Tumor Models.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Thomas; Pfankuchen, Daniel Bastian; Wantoch von Rekowski, Kathleen; Schlesinger, Martin; Reipsch, Franziska; Bendas, Gerd

    2017-05-03

    Resistance formation of tumors against chemotherapeutics is the major obstacle in clinical cancer therapy. Although low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is an important component in oncology referring to guideline-based antithrombotic prophylaxis of tumor patients, a potential interference of LMWH with chemoresistance is unknown. We have recently shown that LMWH reverses the cisplatin resistance of A2780cis human ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Here we address the question whether this LMWH effect is also valid under in vivo conditions. Therefore, we established tumor xenografts of A2780 and cisplatin resistant A2780cis cells in nude mice and investigated the impact of daily tinzaparin applications (10 mg/kg BW) on anti-tumor activity of cisplatin (6 mg/kg BW, weekly) considering the tumor growth kinetics. Intratumoral platinum accumulation was detected by GF-AAS. Xenografts of A2780 and A2780cis cells strongly differed in cisplatin sensitivity. As an overall consideration, tinzaparin co-treatment affected the response to cisplatin of A2780cis, but not A2780 tumors in the later experimental time range. A subgroup analysis confirmed that initially smaller A2780cis tumors benefit from tinzaparin, but also small A2780 xenografts. Tinzaparin did not affect cisplatin accumulation in A2780cis xenografts, but strongly increased the platinum content in A2780, obviously related to morphological differences in both xenografts. Although we cannot directly confirm a return of A2780cis cisplatin resistance by tinzaparin, as shown in vitro, the present findings give reason to discuss heparin effects on cytostatic drug efficiency for small tumors and warrants further investigation.

  18. Cellular glutathione level does not predict ovarian cancer cells' resistance after initial or repeated exposure to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Nikounezhad, Nastaran; Nakhjavani, Maryam; Shirazi, Farshad H

    2017-05-01

    Cisplatin resistance development is a major obstacle in ovarian cancer treatment. One of the most important mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance is drug detoxification by glutathione. In the present study, the importance of initial or repeated exposure to cisplatin in glutathione dependent resistance was investigated. To this purpose, some cisplatin sensitive and resistant variants of human ovarian cancer cell lines providing an appropriate range of cisplatin sensitivity were selected. Clonogenic survival assay was performed to evaluate cisplatin resistance and intracellular contents of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione were analyzed using an HPLC method. Our results indicated that the intracellular GSH and GSSG concentrations were nearly equal in A2780 and A2780CP cells, while the A2780CP cells showed 14 times more resistance than the A2780 cells after initial exposure to cisplatin. A2780-R1 and A2780-R3 cells which have been repeatedly exposed to cisplatin also showed no significant difference in glutathione content, even though A2780-R3 was about two times more resistant than A2780-R1. Moreover, intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio decreased in the resistant cells, reflecting a shift towards a more oxidizing intracellular environment indicative of oxidative stress. As a conclusion, it seems that although the intracellular glutathione concentration increases after repeated exposure to cisplatin, there is no clear correlation between the intracellular GSH content in ovarian cancer cells and their resistance to cisplatin neither after initial nor after repeated exposure to this drug.

  19. Resveratrol Inhibits Cisplatin-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Baribeau, Sébastien; Chaudhry, Parvesh; Parent, Sophie; Asselin, Éric

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer experience recurrence and metastasis, two aspects that will often cause their demise. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process involved in cancer progression. With increasing evidence linking Cisplatin and EMT, we wanted to identify a compound able to counter EMT progression when cancer cells are treated with Cisplatin. Methodology/Principal Findings Cell death was evaluated by cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining in A2780 and A2780CP cells. Ovarian cancer cell lines were treated with Cisplatin (24 h, 10 µM) and different concentrations of Resveratrol to evaluate its effect on Cisplatin-induced EMT using Western Blot and RT-PCR analysis. Morphological studies and wound healing assay to evaluate cell motility were performed using 72 h Cisplatin treatment with A2780 and A2780CP cells. Densitometry was done on Western Blot and PCR results, and statistical significance was determined using One-Way ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc test. Our results show that Cisplatin induced EMT-associated morphological changes in the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line and to a lesser extent in its Cisplatin-resistant counterpart A2780CP. Resveratrol caused cell death in A2780 and A2780CP cell lines in an apoptotic-independent manner. Resveratrol inhibited Cisplatin-induced Snail expression by reducing the Erk pathway activation, reverted morphological changes induced by Cisplatin and decreased cell migration. Conclusions These results indicate that Resveratrol has interesting potential to prevent Cisplatin-induced EMT in ovarian cancer cells. By increasing cell death, it also represents an inviting approach as adjuvant therapy to be used with chemotherapy. Using Erk pathway inhibitors could also prove helpful in ovarian cancer treatment to reduce the risk of metastasis. PMID:24466305

  20. Cellular accumulation and DNA platination of two new platinum(II) anticancer compounds based on anthracene derivatives as carrier ligands.

    PubMed

    Marqués-Gallego, Patricia; Kalayda, Ganna V; Jaehde, Ulrich; Dulk, Hans den; Brouwer, Jaap; Reedijk, Jan

    2009-05-01

    The anticancer properties of two new fluorescent platinum(II) compounds, cis-[Pt(A9opy)Cl(2)] and cis-[Pt(A9pyp)(dmso)Cl(2)] are described. These compounds are highly active against several human tumor cell lines, including human ovarian carcinoma sensitive and cisplatin-resistant cell lines (A2780 and A2780R). To study the cellular processing of these new compounds, a series of in vitro studies have been performed, including the investigation of intracellular platinum accumulation and DNA-platination experiments in A2780 and A2780R cells. Compared to cisplatin, both compounds are accumulated highly in both sensitive and resistant cell lines, and more platinum has been found to bind to the nuclear DNA. Interestingly, cis-[Pt(A9opy)Cl(2)] shows high accumulation and DNA adduct formation in the resistant cell line A2780R, as compared to the sensitive counterpart A2780 cell line. This suggests that cis-[Pt(A9opy)Cl(2)] is able to overcome some of the well-known resistance mechanisms in this cell line, such as decreased cellular uptake and increased DNA repair.

  1. Chemotherapy induces adaptive drug resistance and metastatic potentials via phenotypic CXCR4-expressing cell state transition in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Hee; Bellat, Vanessa; Law, Benedict

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OVC) patients who receive chemotherapy often acquire drug resistance within one year. This can lead to tumor reoccurrence and metastasis, the major causes of mortality. We report a transient increase of a small distinctive CXCR4High/CD24Low cancer stem cell population (CXCR4High) in A2780 and SKOV-3 OVC cell lines in response to cisplatin, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel, treatments. The withdrawal of the drug challenges reversed this cell-state transition. CXCR4High exhibits dormancy in drug resistance and mesenchymal-like invasion, migration, colonization, and tumor formation properties. The removal of this cell population from a doxorubicin-resistant A2780 lineage (A2780/ADR) recovered the sensitivity to drug treatments. A cytotoxic peptide (CXCR4-KLA) that can selectively target cell-surface CXCR4 receptor was further synthesized to investigate the therapeutic merits of targeting CXCR4High. This peptide was more potent than the conventional CXCR4 antagonists (AMD3100 and CTCE-9908) in eradicating the cancer stem cells. When used together with cytotoxic agents such as doxorubicin and cisplatin, the combined drug-peptide regimens exhibited a synergistic cell-killing effect on A2780, A2780/ADR, and SKOV-3. Our data suggested that chemotherapy could establish drug-resistant and tumor-initiating properties of OVC via reversible CXCR4 cell state transition. Therapeutic strategies designed to eradicate rather than antagonize CXCR4High might offer a far-reaching potential as supportive chemotherapy.

  2. MCT1 promotes the cisplatin-resistance by antagonizing Fas in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chunxiao; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Chunxia; Chen, Xuejun; Han, Xuechuan; Liu, Xueqin; Ma, Hongyun; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of MCT1 in the development of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer and its possible relationship with Fas. We found the expression of MCT1 was obviously increased both in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer tissue and A2780/CP cells compared with sensitive ovarian cancer tissue and cell lines A2780. And in A2780 cells treated with Cisplatin, the expression of MCT1 increased in a concentration-dependent manner, MCT1 knockdown attenuates cisplatin-induced cell viability. In A2780 and A2780/CP cells transfected with MCT1 siRNA, the activation of several downstream targets of Fas, including FasL and FAP-1 were largely prevented, whereas the expression of Caspase-3 was increased, accompanying with increased abundance of Fas. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence showed that there is interaction between endogenous MCT1 with Fas in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, depletion of MCT1 by shRNA reverses cisplatin-resistance and the expression of Fas. This study showed that down regulation of MCT1 promote the sensibility to Cisplatin in ovarian cancer cell line. And this effect appeared to be mediated via antagonizing the effect of Fas.

  3. Synthesis, structural characterization, modal membrane interaction and anti-tumor cell line studies of nitrophenyl ferrocenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altaf, Ataf Ali; Lal, Bhajan; Badshah, Amin; Usman, Muhammad; Chatterjee, Pabitra B.; Huq, Fazlul; Ullah, Shafiq; Crans, Debbie C.

    2016-06-01

    A series of nitrophenyl ferrocens (A1 - A5) were synthesized and fully characterized in solid state (using CHN analysis, FTIR and single crystal XRD) as well as in solution phase (1H &13C NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy). Micelle interface interactions of these compounds were explored and found to have ability across a micelle membrane interface. Interestingly, these compounds exhibited π-electronic push pull systems and oxidation of ferrocene to ferrocenium on crossing the negative interface of the micelle membrane. Selective compounds were screened for antitumor activity against parental and drug resistant human ovarian tumor models i.e. A2780 and A2780cisR, A2780ZD0473R. Screened compounds were found to overcome resistance factor compared to cisplatin.

  4. A new cytotoxic cytochalasin from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiqin; Daletos, Georgios; Okoye, Festus; Lai, Daowan; Dai, Haofu; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The new natural product 4]-hydroxy-deacetyl-18-deoxycytochalasin H (1), together with the known deacetyl-18-deoxycytochalasin H (2) and 18-deoxycytochalasin H (3) were obtained from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum isolated from leaves of Cola nitida. The structure of the new compound was unambiguously determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and by HRESIMS measurements, as well as by comparison with the literature. Compounds 1-3 showed potent cytotoxic activity against the murine lymphoma (L5178Y) cell line and against human ovarian cancer (A2780 sens and A2780 CisR) cell lines (IC50 0.19-6.97 µM). The A2780 cell lines included cisplatin-sensitive (sens) and -resistant (R) cells.

  5. Metabolomic Profiling of the Synergistic Effects of Melittin in Combination with Cisplatin on Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alonezi, Sanad; Tusiimire, Jonans; Wallace, Jennifer; Dufton, Mark J.; Parkinson, John A.; Young, Louise C.; Clements, Carol J.; Park, Jin-Kyu; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Ferro, Valerie A.; Watson, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Melittin, the main peptide present in bee venom, has been proposed as having potential for anticancer therapy; the addition of melittin to cisplatin, a first line treatment for ovarian cancer, may increase the therapeutic response in cancer treatment via synergy, resulting in improved tolerability, reduced relapse, and decreased drug resistance. Thus, this study was designed to compare the metabolomic effects of melittin in combination with cisplatin in cisplatin-sensitive (A2780) and resistant (A2780CR) ovarian cancer cells. Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to identify metabolic changes in A2780 (combination treatment 5 μg/mL melittin + 2 μg/mL cisplatin) and A2780CR (combination treatment 2 μg/mL melittin + 10 μg/mL cisplatin) cells. Principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) multivariate data analysis models were produced using SIMCA-P software. All models displayed good separation between experimental groups and high-quality goodness of fit (R2) and goodness of prediction (Q2), respectively. The combination treatment induced significant changes in both cell lines involving reduction in the levels of metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and the arginine/proline pathway. The combination of melittin with cisplatin that targets these pathways had a synergistic effect. The melittin-cisplatin combination had a stronger effect on the A2780 cell line in comparison with the A2780CR cell line. The metabolic effects of melittin and cisplatin in combination were very different from those of each agent alone. PMID:28420117

  6. Induction of apoptosis by taxol and cisplatin and effect on cell cycle-related proteins in cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant human ovarian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zaffaroni, N.; Silvestrini, R.; Orlandi, L.; Bearzatto, A.; Gornati, D.; Villa, R.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of taxol (TX) and cisplatin (CDDP), singly or in association, was assessed on two human ovarian cancer cell lines, one sensitive (A2780) and one resistant (A2780 cp8) to CDDP. Cell lines showed a similar sensitivity to TX, whereas different cytotoxicity results were obtained in the two cell lines as a function of TX and CDDP sequence. Specifically, TX followed by CDDP induced simply additive effects in both cell lines, whereas the opposite sequence produced antagonistic effects in A2780 cells and synergistic effects in A2780 cp8 cells. TX, with or without CDDP, induced oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation typical of the apoptotic process, but the biochemical mechanisms undergoing apoptosis were different in the two cell lines. In fact, in A2780 cells, TX (with or without CDDP) treatment markedly increased p53 as well as p21waf1 protein expression. In A2780 cp8 cells, drug treatment enhanced p53 levels, whereas the expression of p21waf1 was always undetectable at mRNA and protein levels. In the latter cell line, a premature activation of p34cdc2 kinase was observed in correspondence with the drug-induced increase in the S-phase cell fraction. Such an activation was not ascribable to an increase in the overall expression of p34cdc2 or cyclin B1 proteins, but to a dephosphorylation of p34cdc2 kinase. Overall, our results indicate that TX-induced apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells may be sustained by different events at the cell cycle-control level. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9652752

  7. Metabolomic Profiling of the Synergistic Effects of Melittin in Combination with Cisplatin on Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Alonezi, Sanad; Tusiimire, Jonans; Wallace, Jennifer; Dufton, Mark J; Parkinson, John A; Young, Louise C; Clements, Carol J; Park, Jin-Kyu; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Ferro, Valerie A; Watson, David G

    2017-04-14

    Melittin, the main peptide present in bee venom, has been proposed as having potential for anticancer therapy; the addition of melittin to cisplatin, a first line treatment for ovarian cancer, may increase the therapeutic response in cancer treatment via synergy, resulting in improved tolerability, reduced relapse, and decreased drug resistance. Thus, this study was designed to compare the metabolomic effects of melittin in combination with cisplatin in cisplatin-sensitive (A2780) and resistant (A2780CR) ovarian cancer cells. Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to identify metabolic changes in A2780 (combination treatment 5 μg/mL melittin + 2 μg/mL cisplatin) and A2780CR (combination treatment 2 μg/mL melittin + 10 μg/mL cisplatin) cells. Principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) multivariate data analysis models were produced using SIMCA-P software. All models displayed good separation between experimental groups and high-quality goodness of fit (R²) and goodness of prediction (Q²), respectively. The combination treatment induced significant changes in both cell lines involving reduction in the levels of metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and the arginine/proline pathway. The combination of melittin with cisplatin that targets these pathways had a synergistic effect. The melittin-cisplatin combination had a stronger effect on the A2780 cell line in comparison with the A2780CR cell line. The metabolic effects of melittin and cisplatin in combination were very different from those of each agent alone.

  8. Daunorubicin and doxorubicin inhibit the [(11)C]choline accumulation in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mikecz, Pál; Márián, Teréz; Miklovicz, Tünde; Galuska, László; Krasznai, Zoltán; Tóth, Agnes; Goda, Katalin; Trón, Lajos; Hernádi, Zoltán; Krasznai, Zoárd T

    2009-10-01

    We studied how very short (10-40min) incubation with anthracycline derivatives modifies the accumulation of PET tumor-diagnostic radiotracers in cancer cells. The human ovarian A2780 and A2780AD, human B lymphoid JY, human epidermoid KB-3-1 and KB-V-1, and smooth muscle DDT1 MF-2 cells were pre-incubated with daunorubicin and doxorubicin, and the uptake of [(18)F]FDG and [(11)C]choline was measured. Anthracycline treatment decreased remarkably the [(11)C]choline accumulation in a concentration dependent manner, while it did not modify significantly the [(18)F]FDG uptake of the cells.

  9. HOXB4 knockdown enhances the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel and cisplatin by downregulating ABC transporters in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Sun, Jingli; Gao, Shaofeng; Hu, Heping; Xie, Pengmu

    2018-04-13

    Therapeutic effects of anti-cancer drugs for ovarian cancer were limited due to the rapid development of chemotherapy resistance. The aim of this study was to test whether knockdown of Homeobox B4 (HOXB4) enhanced the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel and cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells. HOXB4 expressions at mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in Taxol-resistant A2780 (A2780/Taxol) and DDP-resistant SKOV-3 (SKOV-3/DDP) cells. HOXB4 knockdown enhanced the cytotoxic effects of Taxol and DDP in A2780/Taxol and SKOV-3/DDP cells, respectively. HOXB4 silencing suppressed the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway and reduced the expression of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 in ovarian cancer cells. PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or siRNA targeting Akt (si-Akt) treatment inhibited cell viability, decreased protein levels of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2, and increased LDH release in A2780/Taxol and SKOV-3/DDP cells. These findings revealed that HOXB4 knockdown enhanced the cytotoxic effects of Taxol and DDP by downregulating ABC transporters via inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway in ovarian cancer cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Polymeric nanoassemblies entrapping curcumin overcome multidrug resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gou, Qiheng; Liu, Lei; Wang, Chunting; Wu, Qinjie; Sun, Lu; Yang, Xi; Xie, Yuxin; Li, Ping; Gong, Changyang

    2015-02-01

    The increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells presents a challenge to effective cancer therapy. Curcumin (CUR) has multifunctional anticancer properties, but its clinical use has been limited by poor solubility. We developed biodegradable polymeric micelles entrapping CUR in order to improve its antitumor activity and to explore whether it could treat MDR cells. This delivery system produced small micelles with a high encapsulation efficiency, good stability, and slow release of CUR. CUR micelles showed cytotoxic effects in wild-type drug-sensitive A2780s and in paclitaxel-resistant A2780t ovarian adenocarcinoma cells. The concentration of free CUR that reduced cell viability by 50% (IC50) was 1.5 fold and 1.2 fold higher than that of CUR micelles in A2780s and A2780t cells, respectively. Cellular uptake studies indicated that delivery by micelles improved CUR uptake into both cell lines. Cell cycle analysis suggested that CUR micelles induced apoptosis and enhanced G2/M arrest. Overall, CUR micelles may provide a novel strategy to improve the clinical management of MDR ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the contribution of the two protein disulfide isomerases PDIA1 and PDIA3 to cisplatin resistance.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Maximilian; Kalayda, Ganna V; Hellwig, Malte; Kotz, Sandra; Hilger, Ralf A; Metzger, Sabine; Jaehde, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Intracellular binding of cisplatin to non-DNA partners, such as proteins, has received increasing attention as an additional mode of action and as mechanism of resistance. We investigated two cisplatin-interacting isoforms of protein disulfide isomerase regarding their contribution to acquired cisplatin resistance using sensitive and resistant A2780/A2780cis ovarian cancer cells. Cisplatin cytotoxicity was assessed after knockdown of either protein disulfide isomerase family A member 1 (PDIA1) or protein disulfide isomerase family A member 3 (PDIA3). Whereas PDIA1 knockdown led to increased cytotoxicity in resistant A2780cis cells, PDIA3 knockdown showed no influence on cytotoxicity. Coincubation with propynoic acid carbamoyl methyl amide 31 (PACMA31), a PDIA1 inhibitor, resensitized A2780cis cells to cisplatin treatment. Determination of the combination index revealed that the combination of cisplatin and PACMA31 acts synergistically. Our results warrant further evaluation of PDIA1 as promising target for chemotherapy, and its inhibition by PACMA31 as a new therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis, Structure, and Anticancer Activity of Arene-Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Acylpyrazolones Bearing Aliphatic Groups in the Acyl Moiety.

    PubMed

    Palmucci, Jessica; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Pettinari, Claudio; Scopelliti, Rosario; Riedel, Tina; Therrien, Bruno; Galindo, Agustin; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-11-21

    A series of neutral ruthenium(II) arene complexes [(arene)Ru(Q R )Cl] (arene = p-cymene (cym) or hexamethylbenzene (hmb)) containing 4-acyl-5-pyrazolonate Q R ligands with different electronic and steric substituents (R = 4-cyclohexyl, 4-stearoyl, or 4-adamantyl) and related ionic complexes [(arene)Ru(Q R )(PTA)][PF 6 ] (PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopy (IR, UV-vis, ESI-MS, and 1 H and 13 C NMR), elemental analysis, X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory studies. The cytotoxicity of the proligands and metal complexes was evaluated in vitro against human ovarian carcinoma cells (A2780 and A2780cisR), as well as against nontumorous human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. In general the cationic PTA-containing complexes are more cytotoxic than their neutral precursors with a chloride ligand in place of the PTA. Moreover, the complexes do not show cross-resistance and are essentially equally cytotoxic to both the A2780 and A2780cisR cell lines, although they only show limited selectivity toward the cancer cell lines.

  13. 1H HR-MAS NMR Based Metabolic Profiling of Cells in Response to Treatment with a Hexacationic Ruthenium Metallaprism as Potential Anticancer Drug

    PubMed Central

    Vermathen, Martina; Paul, Lydia E. H.; Diserens, Gaëlle

    2015-01-01

    1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy was applied in combination with multivariate statistical analyses to study the metabolic response of whole cells to the treatment with a hexacationic ruthenium metallaprism [1]6+ as potential anticancer drug. Human ovarian cancer cells (A2780), the corresponding cisplatin resistant cells (A2780cisR), and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) were each incubated for 24 h and 72 h with [1]6+ and compared to untreated cells. Different responses were obtained depending on the cell type and incubation time. Most pronounced changes were found for lipids, choline containing compounds, glutamate and glutathione, nucleotide sugars, lactate, and some amino acids. Possible contributions of these metabolites to physiologic processes are discussed. The time-dependent metabolic response patterns suggest that A2780 cells on one hand and HEK-293 cells and A2780cisR cells on the other hand may follow different cell death pathways and exist in different temporal stages thereof. PMID:26024484

  14. Exosomes as mediators of platinum resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Crow, Jennifer; Atay, Safinur; Banskota, Samagya; Artale, Brittany; Schmitt, Sarah; Godwin, Andrew K

    2017-02-14

    Exosomes have been implicated in the cell-cell transfer of oncogenic proteins and genetic material. We speculated this may be one mechanism by which an intrinsically platinum-resistant population of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells imparts its influence on surrounding tumor cells. To explore this possibility we utilized a platinum-sensitive cell line, A2780 and exosomes derived from its resistant subclones, and an unselected, platinum-resistant EOC line, OVCAR10. A2780 cells demonstrate a ~2-fold increase in viability upon treatment with carboplatin when pre-exposed to exosomes from platinum-resistant cells as compared to controls. This coincided with increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). DNA sequencing of EOC cell lines revealed previously unreported somatic mutations in the Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (SMAD4) within platinum-resistant cells. A2780 cells engineered to exogenously express these SMAD4 mutations demonstrate up-regulation of EMT markers following carboplatin treatment, are more resistant to carboplatin, and release exosomes which impart a ~1.7-fold increase in resistance in naive A2780 recipient cells as compared to controls. These studies provide the first evidence that acquired SMAD4 mutations enhance the chemo-resistance profile of EOC and present a novel mechanism in which exchange of tumor-derived exosomes perpetuates an EMT phenotype, leading to the development of subpopulations of platinum-refractory cells.

  15. Tetramethoxychalcone, a chalcone derivative, suppresses proliferation, blocks cell cycle progression, and induces apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zihao; Liu, Mingming; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Yang, Gong

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antitumor functions of a synthetic chalcone derivative 4,3',4',5'- tetramethoxychalcone (TMOC) in ovarian cancer cells. We found that TMOC inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of cisplatin sensitive cell line A2780 and resistant cell line A2780/CDDP, as well as ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Treatment of A2780 cells with TMOC resulted in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4, and the up-regulation of p16, p21 and p27 proteins. We demonstrated that TMOC might induce cell apoptosis through suppressing Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but enhancing the expression of Bax and the cleavage of PARP-1. Treatment of TMOC also reduced the invasion and migration of A2780 cells. Finally, we found that TMOC inhibited the constitutive activation of STAT3 signaling pathway and induced the expression of the tumor suppressor PTEN regardless of the p53 status in cell lines. These data suggest that TMOC may be developed as a potential chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including ovarian cancer.

  16. Tetramethoxychalcone, a Chalcone Derivative, Suppresses Proliferation, Blocks Cell Cycle Progression, and Induces Apoptosis of Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Yang, Gong

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antitumor functions of a synthetic chalcone derivative 4,3′,4′,5′- tetramethoxychalcone (TMOC) in ovarian cancer cells. We found that TMOC inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of cisplatin sensitive cell line A2780 and resistant cell line A2780/CDDP, as well as ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Treatment of A2780 cells with TMOC resulted in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4, and the up-regulation of p16, p21 and p27 proteins. We demonstrated that TMOC might induce cell apoptosis through suppressing Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but enhancing the expression of Bax and the cleavage of PARP-1. Treatment of TMOC also reduced the invasion and migration of A2780 cells. Finally, we found that TMOC inhibited the constitutive activation of STAT3 signaling pathway and induced the expression of the tumor suppressor PTEN regardless of the p53 status in cell lines. These data suggest that TMOC may be developed as a potential chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including ovarian cancer. PMID:25180593

  17. Monofunctional Platinum-containing Pyridine-based Ligand Acts Synergistically in Combination with the Phytochemicals Curcumin and Quercetin in Human Ovarian Tumour Models.

    PubMed

    Arzuman, Laila; Beale, Philip; Yu, Jun Q; Huq, Fazlul

    2015-05-01

    With the idea that platinum compounds that bind with DNA differently than cisplatin may be better-able to overcome platinum resistance in ovarian tumor, the monofunctional platinum complex tris(imidazo(1,2-α)pyridine) chloroplatinum(II) chloride (coded as LH6) has been synthesized and investigated for its activity, alone and in combination with the phytochemicals curcumin and quercetin, against human ovarian A2780, A2780(cisR) and A2780(ZD0473R) cancer cell lines. LH6 is found to be more active than cisplatin against the resistant cell lines and its bolus combinations with curcumin and quercetin are found to produce more pronounced cell kill. Whereas platinum accumulation from cisplatin is found to increase almost linearly with time, that from LH6 reaches a maximum at 4 h and is somewhat lowered at 24 h. It is possible that the presence of bulky hydrophobic imidazo (1,2-α-pyridine) ligand in LH6 facilitates its rapid uptake through the cytoplasmic membrane. Lower platinum accumulation at 24 h than at 4 h for LH6 can be seen to imply that efflux processes may be more dominant as the period of incubation is increased. When platinum-DNA binding levels at 24 h are compared, cisplatin is found to be associated with the higher level in the parent A2780 cell line and LH6 in the resistant A2780(cisR) cell line, in line with greater activity of cisplatin in the parent cell line and that of LH6 in the resistant cell line. If the observed in vitro activity of LH6 is confirmed in vivo, it can be seen to have the potential for development as novel platinum based anticancer drug. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Adenoviral-delivered HE4-HSV-tk sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to ganciclovir

    PubMed Central

    Rawlinson, Jennifer W.; Vaden, Kiara; Hunsaker, Joseph; Miller, David F.; Nephew, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ovarian cancer (OC) is most often contained within the peritoneal cavity, making it an ideal disease for adenoviral-delivered gene therapies. In effort to develop a safe and effective gene therapy for OC, we created a replication deficient adenovirus bearing the herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene under direction of the tumor specific promoter human epididymis protein 4 (HE4). The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of our adenoviral construct to transduce OC cells in vitro and mediate transgene expression of HSV-tk, thereby sensitizing OC to the pro-drug ganciclovir. Cisplatin-sensitive (CS) and -resistant (CR) A2780 OC cells, infected with virus for 6 hours at 100, 500, and 1000 multiplicity of infection followed by ganciclovir treatment every other day for 5 days, were assayed for cell viability. Adenoviral-mediated transgene expression increased with increasing amounts of virus and peaked at 48 hours after transduction in both A2780-CS and -CR. Unexpectedly, ganciclovir alone was slightly toxic to both A2780 cell lines (IC50 of 234.9 μg/mL and 257.2 μg/mL in A2780-CS and –CR, respectively). Transduction with ADV-HE4-HSV-tk followed by ganciclovir treatment increased (P<0.05) cell killing up to ten-fold, lowering the IC50 to 23.9 μg/mL and 32.6 μg/mL in A2780-CS and –CR, respectively, at 1000 multiplicity of infection. The results support the potential use of this approach as a gene therapy for OC, a disease that accounts for more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. PMID:26005395

  19. Targeting of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases to early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) in the human paclitaxel-resistance ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meisong; Xiao, Lan; Hu, Jianli; Deng, Suo; Xu, Yan

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between the expression of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) and p38MAPK pathway in the paclitaxel resistance of ovarian carcinoma cells, the effect of p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 on cell apoptosis was examined by using Hoechst 33258 staining. The intracellular Rh123 (Rhodamine 123) accumulation was detected by the flow cytometry (FCM). The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of paclitaxel for A2780/Taxol cells was determined by MTT method. Electrophoretic motility shift assay (EMSA) was employed to examine the EGR-1DNA binding activity. MDR1 and EGR-1 mRNA were assessed by RT-PCR. The expressed of p-gp, phosphorylated p53 and p38 were detected by Western blotting. SB203580 could remarkably promote the apoptosis of A2780/Taxol cells, and the cell apoptosis was in a time-dependent manner. Cellular Rh123 accumulation was increased, and the IC50 of paclitaxel for A2780/Taxol cells was decreased significantly. A2780/Taxol cell line after SB203580 treatment was shown to have a significantly higher level of EGR-1 DNA binding activity. SB203580 down-regulated the activity of p38MAPK pathway, but up-regulated EGR-1 expression. SB203580 significantly increased the level of cellular phosphorylated p53 protein, but decreased the p-gp protein level and MDR1 mRNA level in A2780/Taxol cells. There existed a close relationship between p38MAPK pathway and the paclitaxel resistance of ovarian carcinoma cells. The expression of EGR-1 mediated by p38MAPK pathway plays a critical role in paclitaxel resistance of ovarian carcinoma cells.

  20. Anticancer effect and mechanism of polymer micelle-encapsulated quercetin on ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Bilan; Wei, Xiawei; Men, Ke; Zheng, Fengjin; Zhou, Yingfeng; Zheng, Yu; Gou, Maling; Huang, Meijuan; Guo, Gang; Huang, Ning; Qian, Zhiyong; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-10-01

    Encapsulation of hydrophobic agents in polymer micelles can improve the water solubility of cargos, contributing to develop novel drugs. Quercetin (QU) is a hydrophobic agent with potential anticancer activity. In this work, we encapsulated QU into biodegradable monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles and tried to provide proof-of-principle for treating ovarian cancer with this nano-formulation of quercetin. These QU loaded MPEG-PCL (QU/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 6.9% had a mean particle size of 36 nm, rendering the complete dispersion of quercetin in water. QU inhibited the growth of A2780S ovarian cancer cells on a dose dependent manner in vitro. Intravenous administration of QU/MPEG-PCL micelles significantly suppressed the growth of established xenograft A2780S ovarian tumors through causing cancer cell apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, the anticancer activity of quercetin on ovarian cancer cells was studied in vitro. Quercetin treatment induced the apoptosis of A2780S cells associated with activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. MCL-1 downregulation, Bcl-2 downregulation, Bax upregulation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential change were observed, suggesting that quercetin may induce apoptosis of A2780S cells through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Otherwise, quercetin treatment decreased phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylated Akt, contributing to inhibition of A2780S cell proliferation. Our data suggested that QU/MPEG-PCL micelles were a novel nano-formulation of quercetin with a potential clinical application in ovarian cancer therapy.

  1. Assessing Therapeutic Potential of Magnetic Mesoporous Nanoassemblies for Chemo-Resistant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Lina; Thakur, Bhushan; Srivastava, Rohit; Ray, Pritha; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2016-01-01

    Smart drug delivery system with strategic drug distribution is the future state-of-the-art treatment for any malignancy. To investigate therapeutic potential of such nanoparticle mediated delivery system, we examined the efficacy of dual drug-loaded, pH and thermo liable lipid coated mesoporous iron oxide-based magnetic nanoassemblies (DOX:TXL-LMMNA) in mice bearing both drug sensitive (A2780S) and drug resistant (A2780-CisR) ovarian cancer tumor xenografts. In presence of an external AC magnetic field (ACMF), DOX:TXL-LMMNA particles disintegrate to release encapsulated drug due to hyperthermic temperatures (41-45 ºC). In vivo bio distribution study utilizing the optical and magnetic properties of DOX:TXL-LMMNA particles demonstrated minimum organ specific toxicity. Noninvasive bioluminescence imaging of mice bearing A2780S tumors and administered with DOX-TXL-LMMNA followed by the application of ACMF revealed 65% less luminescence signal and 80% mice showed complete tumor regression within eight days. A six months follow-up study revealed absence of relapse in 70% of the mice. Interestingly, the A2780-CisR tumors which did not respond to drug alone (DOX:TXL) showed 80% reduction in luminescence and tumor volume with DOX:TXL-LMMNA after thermo-chemotherapy within eight days. Cytotoxic effect of DOX:TXL-LMMNA particles was more pronounced in A2780-CisR cells than in their sensitive counterpart. Thus these novel stimuli sensitive nanoassemblies hold great promise for therapy resistant malignancies and future clinical applications. PMID:27446490

  2. Hyperactive EGF receptor, Jaks and Stat3 signaling promote enhanced colony-forming ability, motility and migration of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Peibin; Zhang, Xiaolei; Paladino, David; Sengupta, Bhaswati; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Holloway, Robert W.; Ingersoll, Susan B.; Turkson, James

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence that the cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer lines, A2780S/CP1 (S/CP1), A2780S/CP3 (S/CP3), and A2780S/CP5 (S/CP5), derived by subjecting the sensitive A2780S ovarian cancer line to multiple rounds of cisplatin treatments followed by recovery and are resistant to 1, 3, and 5 μM cisplatin, respectively, have increased colony-forming ability and altered morphology that is consistent with enhanced motility, migration, and invasiveness in vitro. The malignant phenotype progresses with increasing resistance and is associated with hyperactive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 and Janus kinases (Jaks), aberrant Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (Stat) 3 activation promoted by EGFR and Jaks, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro. Survivin and FLIP anti-apoptotic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase activities are also elevated in the resistant cells. Accordingly, the ectopic expression of constitutively-active Stat3C in the sensitive A2780S cells diminished cisplatin sensitivity. The inhibition of EGFR or Stat3 activity repressed Survivin, VEGF and Vimentin expression and the colony-forming potential, viability, motility, and migration of the resistant cells, and sensitized them to cisplatin. Analysis of human ovarian cancer patients’ tumor tissues shows aberrantly-active EGFR and Stat3 that in certain cases correlate with Vimentin over-expression. Intra-peritoneal mouse xenograft studies revealed, compared to the sensitive A2780S line that had low tumor incidence restricted to the ovary, a high tumor incidence for the resistant S/CP3 and S/CP5 lines that formed tumor nodules at several locations on the small-intestine and colon, and which responded poorly to cisplatin, but were sensitive to concurrent treatment with cisplatin and EGFR or Stat3 inhibitor. Hyperactive EGFR signaling through Stat3 and the Jak-Stat3

  3. Enhanced anti-cancer activities of a gold(III) pyrrolidinedithiocarbamato complex incorporated in a biodegradable metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Sun, Raymond Wai-Yin; Zhang, Ming; Li, Dan; Li, Mian; Wong, Alice Sze-Tsai

    2016-10-01

    An anti-cancer active gold(III) pyrrolidinedithiocarbamato complex [(PDTC)Au III Cl 2 ] (1) has been synthesized and characterized by means of X-ray crystallography. Compared to the pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate ligand itself, this gold(III) complex displays an up to 33-fold higher anti-cancer potency towards a panel of cancer cell lines including the cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell line (A2780cis). As demonstrated by a set of Transwell® assay-based cytotoxicity experiments, incorporating this gold(III) complex in a zinc-based biodegradable metal-organic framework (MOF) displays a significant enhancement in anti-cancer activity towards A2780cis than the gold(III) complex alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Unsymmetric Mono- and Dinuclear Platinum(IV) Complexes Featuring an Ethylene Glycol Moiety: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, Verena; Heffeter, Petra; Valiahdi, Seied M.; Kowol, Christian R.; Egger, Alexander; Berger, Walter; Jakupec, Michael A.; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2014-01-01

    Eight novel mononuclear and two dinuclear platinum(IV) complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and reversed-phase HPLC (log kw) and in one case by X-ray diffraction. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was studied in three human cancer cell lines (CH1, SW480, and A549) by means of the MTT assay, featuring IC50 values to the low micromolar range. Furthermore a selected set of compounds was investigated in additional cancer cell lines (P31 and P31/cis, A2780 and A2780/cis, SW1573, 2R120, and 2R160) with regard to their resistance patterns, offering a distinctly different scheme compared to cisplatin. To gain further insights into the mode of action, drug uptake, DNA synthesis inhibition, cell cycle effects, and induction of apoptosis were determined for two characteristic substances. PMID:23194425

  5. Fragment-based design of 3-aminopyridine-derived amides as potent inhibitors of human nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT).

    PubMed

    Dragovich, Peter S; Zhao, Guiling; Baumeister, Timm; Bravo, Brandon; Giannetti, Anthony M; Ho, Yen-Ching; Hua, Rongbao; Li, Guangkun; Liang, Xiaorong; Ma, Xiaolei; O'Brien, Thomas; Oh, Angela; Skelton, Nicholas J; Wang, Chengcheng; Wang, Weiru; Wang, Yunli; Xiao, Yang; Yuen, Po-wai; Zak, Mark; Zhao, Qiang; Zheng, Xiaozhang

    2014-02-01

    The fragment-based identification of two novel and potent biochemical inhibitors of the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) enzyme is described. These compounds (51 and 63) incorporate an amide moiety derived from 3-aminopyridine, and are thus structurally distinct from other known anti-NAMPT agents. Each exhibits potent inhibition of NAMPT biochemical activity (IC50=19 and 15 nM, respectively) as well as robust antiproliferative properties in A2780 cell culture experiments (IC50=121 and 99 nM, respectively). However, additional biological studies indicate that only inhibitor 51 exerts its A2780 cell culture effects via a NAMPT-mediated mechanism. The crystal structures of both 51 and 63 in complex with NAMPT are also independently described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antitumor trans-N-heterocyclic carbene-amine-Pt(II) complexes: synthesis of dinuclear species and exploratory investigations of DNA binding and cytotoxicity mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chtchigrovsky, Mélanie; Eloy, Laure; Jullien, Hélène; Saker, Lina; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Poupon, Joel; Bombard, Sophie; Cresteil, Thierry; Retailleau, Pascal; Marinetti, Angela

    2013-03-14

    A series of bimetallic [(NHC)PtX2]2(diamine) complexes have been prepared as a new chemotype for potential anticancer agents. These complexes display an uncommon set of structural features as far as they combine two bifunctional, trans-configured platinum centers. They display cytotoxic activities in the micromolar range on many cancerous cell lines and do not cross-react with cisplatin in A2780/DDP cell lines. They bind slowly to double-stranded DNAs, giving monoadducts as the major products. Pathways for cellular toxicity have been investigated for both mono- and bimetallic trans-(NHC)PtX2(amine) complexes. It has been highlighted that, unlike cisplatin, these complexes do not induce cell cycle arrest. They trigger apoptosis in A2780 cells by a pathway involving translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and caspase 12 to the nucleus. Moreover, bimetallic complexes may induce necrosis.

  7. Antiproliferative and antimalarial anthraquinones of Scutia myrtina from the Madagascar forest1

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yanpeng; Cao, Shugeng; Brodie, Peggy J.; Callmander, Martin W.; Ratovoson, Fidisoa; Rakotobe, Etienne; Rasamison, Vincent E.; Ratsimbason, Michel; Alumasa, John N.; Roepe, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanol extract of a Madagascar collection of the bark of Scutia myrtina led to the isolation of three new anthrone-anthraquinones, scutianthraquinones A, B and C (1-3), one new bisanthrone-anthraquinone, scutianthraquinone D (4), and the known anthraquinone, aloesaponarin I (5). The structures of all compounds were determined using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, including COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY sequences, and mass spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were tested against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line for antiproliferative activities, and against the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains Dd2 and FCM29 for antiplasmodial activities. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 showed weak antiproliferative activities against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line, while compounds 1 – 4 exhibited moderate antiplasmodial activities against P. falciparum Dd2 and compounds 1, 2, and 4 exhibited moderate antiplasmodial activities against P. falciparum FCM29 PMID:19282186

  8. Metabolomic Profiling of the Effects of Melittin on Cisplatin Resistant and Cisplatin Sensitive Ovarian Cancer Cells Using Mass Spectrometry and Biolog Microarray Technology

    PubMed Central

    Alonezi, Sanad; Tusiimire, Jonans; Wallace, Jennifer; Dufton, Mark J.; Parkinson, John A.; Young, Louise C.; Clements, Carol J.; Park, Jin Kyu; Jeon, Jong Woon; Ferro, Valerie A.; Watson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was employed to characterise the metabolic profiles of two human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive) and A2780CR (cisplatin-resistant) in response to their exposure to melittin, a cytotoxic peptide from bee venom. In addition, the metabolomics data were supported by application of Biolog microarray technology to examine the utilisation of carbon sources by the two cell lines. Data extraction with MZmine 2.14 and database searching were applied to provide metabolite lists. Principal component analysis (PCA) gave clear separation between the cisplatin-sensitive and resistant strains and their respective controls. The cisplatin-resistant cells were slightly more sensitive to melittin than the sensitive cells with IC50 values of 4.5 and 6.8 μg/mL respectively, although the latter cell line exhibited the greatest metabolic perturbation upon treatment. The changes induced by melittin in the cisplatin-sensitive cells led mostly to reduced levels of amino acids in the proline/glutamine/arginine pathway, as well as to decreased levels of carnitines, polyamines, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). The effects on energy metabolism were supported by the data from the Biolog assays. The lipid compositions of the two cell lines were quite different with the A2780 cells having higher levels of several ether lipids than the A2780CR cells. Melittin also had some effect on the lipid composition of the cells. Overall, this study suggests that melittin might have some potential as an adjuvant therapy in cancer treatment. PMID:27754384

  9. Metabolomic Profiling of the Effects of Melittin on Cisplatin Resistant and Cisplatin Sensitive Ovarian Cancer Cells Using Mass Spectrometry and Biolog Microarray Technology.

    PubMed

    Alonezi, Sanad; Tusiimire, Jonans; Wallace, Jennifer; Dufton, Mark J; Parkinson, John A; Young, Louise C; Clements, Carol J; Park, Jin Kyu; Jeon, Jong Woon; Ferro, Valerie A; Watson, David G

    2016-10-13

    In the present study, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was employed to characterise the metabolic profiles of two human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive) and A2780CR (cisplatin-resistant) in response to their exposure to melittin, a cytotoxic peptide from bee venom. In addition, the metabolomics data were supported by application of Biolog microarray technology to examine the utilisation of carbon sources by the two cell lines. Data extraction with MZmine 2.14 and database searching were applied to provide metabolite lists. Principal component analysis (PCA) gave clear separation between the cisplatin-sensitive and resistant strains and their respective controls. The cisplatin-resistant cells were slightly more sensitive to melittin than the sensitive cells with IC 50 values of 4.5 and 6.8 μg/mL respectively, although the latter cell line exhibited the greatest metabolic perturbation upon treatment. The changes induced by melittin in the cisplatin-sensitive cells led mostly to reduced levels of amino acids in the proline/glutamine/arginine pathway, as well as to decreased levels of carnitines, polyamines, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). The effects on energy metabolism were supported by the data from the Biolog assays. The lipid compositions of the two cell lines were quite different with the A2780 cells having higher levels of several ether lipids than the A2780CR cells. Melittin also had some effect on the lipid composition of the cells. Overall, this study suggests that melittin might have some potential as an adjuvant therapy in cancer treatment.

  10. The relationship between p38MAPK and apoptosis during paclitaxel resistance of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meisong; Xiao, Lan; Li, Zhimin

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and cell apoptosis during the paclitaxel resistance of ovarian carcinoma cell lines, flow cytometry (FCM) and PI staining were employed to determine the effect of p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 on the apoptosis of A2780/Taxol cells, a drug-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cell line. p38MAPK protein expression in SB203580-treated cells was immunochemically measured. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) of paclitaxel on A2780/Taxol cells was determined by MTT assay. MDR-1 mRNA, and expression of p38MAPK and phospho-p53 protein were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The apoptosis rate of A2780/Taxol cells was (19.7+/-1.04)% 24 h after SB203580 treatment. A significant difference in apoptosis rate was found among experiment group, control group and untreated group (P<0.05). The relative reversal rate of A2780/Taxol cells to paclitaxel was (57.18+/-2.01)%. As compared with the control group and the untreated group, p38MAPK protein and MDR-1 mRNA in SB203580-treated cells was substantially decreased. The expression of p53 protein was significantly increased. It is concluded that p38MAPK pathway is related to paclitaxel resistance of ovarian carcinoma, and blockade of this pathway can promote the apoptosis of the drug-resistant cells and reverse the drug-resistance. Moreover, p38MAPK-mediated apoptosis in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells depends on the activation of p53.

  11. Antiproliferative Xanthones of Terminalia calcicola from the Madagascar Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shugeng; Brodie, Peggy J.; Miller, James S.; Randrianaivo, Richard; Ratovoson, Fidy; Birkinshaw, Chris; Andriantsiferana, Rabodo; Rasamison, Vincent E.; Kingston, David G. I.

    2008-01-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extract of the Madagascan plant Terminalia calcicola H. Perrier (Combretaceae) led to the isolation of two new cytotoxic xanthones, termicalcicolanone A (1) and termicalcicolanone B (2). The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. Both compounds showed modest antiproliferative activity toward the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line. PMID:17323994

  12. In vitro and in vivo activity and cross resistance profiles of novel ruthenium (II) organometallic arene complexes in human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aird, R E; Cummings, J; Ritchie, A A; Muir, M; Morris, R E; Chen, H; Sadler, P J; Jodrell, D I

    2002-01-01

    Ruthenium complexes offer the potential of reduced toxicity, a novel mechanism of action, non-cross resistance and a different spectrum of activity compared to platinum containing compounds. Thirteen novel ruthenium(II) organometallic arene complexes have been evaluated for activity (in vitro and in vivo) in models of human ovarian cancer, and cross-resistance profiles established in cisplatin and multi-drug-resistant variants. A broad range of IC50 values was obtained (0.5 to >100 μM) in A2780 parental cells with two compounds (RM175 and HC29) equipotent to carboplatin (6 μM), and the most active compound (HC11) equipotent to cisplatin (0.6 μM). Stable bi-dentate chelating ligands (ethylenediamine), a more hydrophobic arene ligand (tetrahydroanthracene) and a single ligand exchange centre (chloride) were associated with increased activity. None of the six active ruthenium(II) compounds were cross-resistant in the A2780cis cell line, demonstrated to be 10-fold resistant to cisplatin/carboplatin by a mechanism involving, at least in part, silencing of MLH1 protein expression via methylation. Varying degrees of cross-resistance were observed in the P-170 glycoprotein overexpressing multi-drug-resistant cell line 2780AD that could be reversed by co-treatment with verapamil. In vivo activity was established with RM175 in the A2780 xenograft together with non-cross-resistance in the A2780cis xenograft and a lack of activity in the 2780AD xenograft. High activity coupled to non cross-resistance in cisplatin resistant models merit further development of this novel group of anticancer compounds. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1652–1657. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600290 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12085218

  13. Biological effects of combined ultrasound and cisplatin treatment on ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Vladan; Skorpíková, Jirina; Mornstein, Vojtech; Slaninová, Iva

    2010-03-01

    The effects of low-power ultrasound, the anti-cancer drug cisplatin, and their combined application were studied in two lines of human ovarian carcinoma cells, A2780 and A2780cis. Four modes of treatment were used: exposure to ultrasonic field, application of cisplatin, exposure to ultrasound followed by cisplatin, and presence of cisplatin followed by exposure to application ultrasound. Ultrasound was used at intensities of 0.5 W/cm(2) and 1.0 W/cm(2) for 10 min, cisplatin was applied at concentrations of 1 microM and 6 microM per cell suspension treated in A2780 and cisplatin-resistant A2780cis cells, respectively. The results of each experimental treatment were assessed by the resultant cell viability related to the viability of control cells, using a standard MTT test. It was shown that a combined effect of ultrasound and cisplatin was more effective than that of ultrasound or cisplatin alone. It also appeared that the order of application played a role, with the cisplatin-ultrasound treatment lowering cell viability more than the ultrasound-cisplatin treatment. It can be assumed that the exposure of cells to a low-power ultrasonic field has an immediate effect on the structure of cell surfaces and, consequently, on entry of cisplatin into the cell. The study also included observations on changes in the cell cycle associated with the treatments used in both cell lines and their evaluation by flow cytometry. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Paclitaxel modifies the accumulation of tumor-diagnostic tracers in different ways in P-glycoprotein-positive and negative cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Krasznai, Zoárd Tibor; Péli-Szabó, Judit; Németh, Eniko; Balkay, László; Szabó, Gábor; Goda, Katalin; Galuska, László; Trón, Lajos; Major, Tamás; Hernádi, Zoltán

    2006-06-01

    To study how paclitaxel treatment modifies the accumulation of tumor-diagnostic radiotracers in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) positive and negative cancer cells. The accumulations of different P-gp substrates, including rhodamine 123, daunorubicin and [(99m)Tc]hexakis-2-methoxybutyl isonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI), were measured in P-gp-positive (A2780AD) and P-gp-negative human ovarian carcinoma cells (A2780) and JY human lymphoid B cells. The uptakes of the tumor-diagnostic tracers (11)C-choline and 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ((18)FDG) were measured in the same cell lines. The P-gp expression and function were demonstrated by flow-cytometry. The (18)FDG measurements revealed that the glucose metabolic rate was significantly higher (p<0.01) in the P-gp-positive A2780AD cells than in the P-gp-negative cells. Paclitaxel (1-70microM) increased the (18)FDG uptake (up to 200%) of both P-gp-positive and P-gp-negative cells, whereas it did not modulate their (11)C-choline uptake. Paclitaxel reinstated the (99m)Tc-MIBI accumulation of the A2780AD cells (to 1500% of the control) in a concentration-dependent manner, while it increased the uptake of the P-gp-negative cells to a lesser extent (to a maximum of 200% of the control). Paclitaxel modifies the uptake of tumor-diagnostic tracers in both P-gp-dependent and independent manners. Interpretation of the multifactorial effects of paclitaxel may promote a correct in vivo diagnosis of P-gp-positive and P-gp-negative tumors.

  15. PG545 enhances anti-cancer activity of chemotherapy in ovarian models and increases surrogate biomarkers such as VEGF in preclinical and clinical plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Winterhoff, Boris; Freyer, Luisa; Hammond, Edward; Giri, Shailendra; Mondal, Susmita; Roy, Debarshi; Teoman, Attila; Mullany, Sally A; Hoffmann, Robert; von Bismarck, Antonia; Chien, Jeremy; Block, Matthew S; Millward, Michael; Bampton, Darryn; Dredge, Keith; Shridhar, Viji

    2015-05-01

    Despite the utility of antiangiogenic drugs in ovarian cancer, efficacy remains limited due to resistance linked to alternate angiogenic pathways and metastasis. Therefore, we investigated PG545, an anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic agent which is currently in Phase I clinical trials, using preclinical models of ovarian cancer. PG545's anti-cancer activity was investigated in vitro and in vivo as a single agent, and in combination with paclitaxel, cisplatin or carboplatin using various ovarian cancer cell lines and tumour models. PG545, alone, or in combination with chemotherapeutics, inhibited proliferation of ovarian cancer cells, demonstrating synergy with paclitaxel in A2780 cells. PG545 inhibited growth factor-mediated cell migration and reduced HB-EGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK, AKT and EGFR in vitro and significantly reduced tumour burden which was enhanced when combined with paclitaxel in an A2780 model or carboplatin in a SKOV-3 model. Moreover, in the immunocompetent ID8 model, PG545 also significantly reduced ascites in vivo. In the A2780 maintenance model, PG545 initiated with, and following paclitaxel and cisplatin treatment, significantly improved overall survival. PG545 increased plasma VEGF levels (and other targets) in preclinical models and in a small cohort of advanced cancer patients which might represent a potential biomarker of response. Our results support clinical testing of PG545, particularly in combination with paclitaxel, as a novel therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Driving p53 Response to Bax Activation Greatly Enhances Sensitivity to Taxol by Inducing Massive Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    De Feudis, Paola; Vignati, Sara; Rossi, Cosmo; Mincioni, Tatiana; Giavazzi, Raffaella; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Broggini, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The proapoptotic gene bax is one of the downstream effectors of p53. The p53 binding site in the bax promoter is less responsive to p53 than the one in the growth arrest mediating gene p21. We introduced the bax gene under the control of 13 copies of a strong p53 responsive element into two ovarian cancer cell lines. The clones expressing bax under the control of p53 obtained from the wild-type (wt) p53-expressing cell line A2780 were much more sensitive (500- to 1000-fold) to the anticancer agent taxol than the parent cell line, with a higher percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis after drug treatment that was clearly p53-dependent and bax-mediated. Xenografts established in nude mice from one selected clone (A2780/C3) were more responsive to taxol than the parental line and the apoptotic response of A2780/C3 tumors was also increased after treatment. Introduction of the same plasmid into the p53 null SKOV3 cell line did not alter the sensitivity to taxol or the induction of apoptosis. In conclusion, driving the p53 response (after taxol treatment) by activating the bax gene rather than the p21 gene results in induction of massive apoptosis, in vitro and in vivo, and greatly enhances sensitivity to the drug. PMID:10935506

  17. Chloroquine Is a Zinc Ionophore

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jing; Moyer, Amanda; Peng, Bing; Wu, Jinchang; Hannafon, Bethany N.; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2014-01-01

    Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780). Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity. PMID:25271834

  18. Platelet Adhesion and Degranulation Induce Pro-Survival and Pro-Angiogenic Signalling in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Paul; O'Toole, Sharon; Spillane, Cathy; Martin, Cara; Gallagher, Michael; Canney, Aoife; Norris, Lucy; Conlon, Niamh; McEvoy, Lynda; Ffrench, Brendan; Stordal, Britta; Keegan, Helen; Finn, Stephen; McEneaney, Victoria; Laios, Alex; Ducrée, Jens; Dunne, Eimear; Smith, Leila; Berndt, Michael; Sheils, Orla; Kenny, Dermot; O'Leary, John

    2011-01-01

    Thrombosis is common in ovarian cancer. However, the interaction of platelets with ovarian cancer cells has not been critically examined. To address this, we investigated platelet interactions in a range of ovarian cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials [HIO-80, 59M, SK-OV-3, A2780, A2780cis]. Platelets adhered to ovarian cancer cells with the most significant adhesion to the 59M cell line. Ovarian cancer cells induced platelet activation [P-selectin expression] in a dose dependent manner, with the most significant activation seen in response to the 59M cell line. The platelet antagonists [cangrelor, MRS2179, and apyrase] inhibited 59M cell induced activation suggesting a P2Y12 and P2Y1 receptor mediated mechanism of platelet activation dependent on the release of ADP by 59M cells. A2780 and 59M cells potentiated PAR-1, PAR-4, and TxA2 receptor mediated platelet activation, but had no effect on ADP, epinephrine, or collagen induced activation. Analysis of gene expression changes in ovarian cancer cells following treatment with washed platelets or platelet releasate showed a subtle but valid upregulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-autophagy pro-angiogenic, pro-cell cycle and metabolic genes. Thus, ovarian cancer cells with different metastatic potential adhere and activate platelets differentially while both platelets and platelet releasate mediate pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signals in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:22022533

  19. pH-sensitive docetaxel-loaded D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate-poly(β-amino ester) copolymer nanoparticles for overcoming multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuang; Tan, Songwei; Guo, Yuanyuan; Huang, Jing; Chu, Min; Liu, Hudan; Zhang, Zhiping

    2013-08-12

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major obstacles to successful chemotherapy. Overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an important factor responsible for MDR. Herein, a novel copolymer, D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000-block-poly(β-amino ester) (TPGS-b-PBAE, TP), was synthesized for overcoming multidrug resistance by the synergistic effect of the pH-sensitive behavior of PBAE and P-gp inhibiting activity of TPGS. Docetaxel (DTX) was chosen as the model drug. The resulting DTX-loaded nanoparticles were stable at pH 7.4, while they dissociated in a weakly acidic environment (pH 5.5) and released the incorporated DTX quickly. The DTX-loaded TP nanoparticles increased the cell cytotoxicity against both drug-sensitive human ovarian A2780 and drug-resistant A2780/T cells. The IC(50) of DTX-loaded TP against A2780/T cells was 100-fold lower than that of commercial DTX. This was associated with enhanced DTX-induced apoptosis and cell arrest in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, P-gp inhibition assays, including enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of rhodamine 123 and reduction of the intracellular ATP levels, confirmed the P-gp inhibition nature of the TP copolymer. The use of the TP copolymer is a new approach to improve the therapeutic effect of anticancer drugs in MDR tumors.

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure and anticancer activity of tetrakis(N-isopropylimidazolidine-2-selenone)platinum(II) chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Saeed; Altoum, Ali Osman S.; Vančo, Ján; Křikavová, Radka; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Altaf, Muhammad; Sohail, Manzar; Isab, Anvarhusein A.

    2018-01-01

    A Platinum(II) complex of N-isopropylimidazolidine-2-selenone (i-PrImSe), [Pt(i-PrImSe)4]Cl2 (1) was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and NMR (1H, 13C, 77Se &195Pt) spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. The structure of 1 consists of [Pt(i-PrImSe)4]2+ complex ion and chloride counter ions. The platinum(II) atom adopts a distorted square planar geometry. The in vitro antitumor activity of 1 as well as cisplatin, was evaluated by MTT assay against human; ovarian carcinoma A2780 and its cisplatin-resistant subline A2780R, prostate cancer 22Rv1 and breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines. The title complex displayed the activity against the A2780 cells (IC50 = 30.8 μM) at the level comparable to cisplatin (IC50 = 26.8 μM). The interaction studies with sulfur-containing biomolecules revealed its ability to form a variety of intermediates and oxidized species with L-cysteine and reduced glutathione.

  1. TET1 promotes cisplatin-resistance via demethylating the vimentin promoter in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Xi; Zhou, Yuanyuan; You, Yuanyi; Lu, Jiaojiao; Wang, Lijie; Hou, Huilian; Li, Jing; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Le; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    The development of chemo-resistance impairs the outcome of the first line platinum-based chemotherapies for ovarian cancer. Deregulation of DNA methylation/demethylation provides a critical mechanism for the occurrence of chemo-resistance. The ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of dioxygenases including TET1/2/3 plays an important part in DNA demethylation, but their roles in cisplatin resistance have not been elucidated. Using cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell models, we found that TET1 was significantly upregulated in cisplatin-resistant CP70 cells compared with that in cisplatin-sensitive A2780 cells. Ectopic expression of TET1 in A2780 cells promoted cisplatin resistance and decreased cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin, while inhibition of TET1 by siRNA transfection in CP70 cells attenuated cisplatin resistance and enhanced cytotoxicity of cisplatin. Increased TET1 induced re-expression of vimentin through active DNA demethylation, and cause partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) in A2780 cells. Contrarily, knocking down of TET1 in CP70 cells reduced vimentin expression and reversed EMT process. Immunohistochemical analysis of TET1 in human ovarian cancer tissues revealed that TET1 existed in nucleus and cytoplasm in ovarian cancer tissues. And the expression of nuclear TET1 was positively correlated with residual tumor and chemotherapeutic response. Thus, TET1 expression causes resistance to cisplatin and one of the targets of TET1 action is vimentin in ovarian cancer. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  2. Sodium/proton exchanger isoform 1 regulates intracellular pH and cell proliferation in human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Carlos; Araos, Joaquín; Naranjo, Luciano; Toledo, Fernando; Beltrán, Ana R; Ramírez, Marco A; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells generate protons (H + ) that are extruded to the extracellular medium mainly via the Na + /H + exchanger 1 (NHE1), which regulates intracellular pH (pHi) and cell proliferation. In primary cultures of human ascites-derived ovarian cancer cells (haOC) we assayed whether NHE1 was required for pHi modulation and cell proliferation. Human ovary expresses NHE1, which is higher in haOC and A2780 (ovarian cancer cells) compared with HOSE cells (normal ovarian cells). Basal pHi and pHi recovery (following a NH 4 Cl pulse) was higher in haOC and A2780, compared with HOSE cells. Zoniporide (NHE1 inhibitor) caused intracellular acidification and pHi recovery was independent of intracellular buffer capacity, but reduced in NHE1 knockdown A2780 cells. Zoniporide reduced the maximal proliferation capacity, cell number, thymidine incorporation, and ki67 (marker of proliferation) fluorescence in haOC cells. SLC9A1 (for NHE1) amplification associated with lower overall patient survival. In conclusion, NHE1 is expressed in human ovarian cancer where it has a pro-proliferative role. Increased NHE1 expression and activity constitute an unfavourable prognostic factor in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Discovery of imidazo[1,2- a ]-pyridine inhibitors of pan-PI3 kinases that are efficacious in a mouse xenograft model

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Wooseok; Menezes, Daniel L.; Xu, Yongjin

    2016-02-01

    Alterations in PI3K/AKT signaling are known to be implicated with tumorigenesis. The PI3 kinases family of lipid kinases has been an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Imidazopyridine compound 1, a potent, selective, and orally available pan-PI3K inhibitor, identified by scaffold morphing of a benzothiazole hit, was further optimized in order to achieve efficacy in a PTEN-deleted A2780 ovarian cancer mouse xenograft model. With a hypothesis that a planar conformation between the core and the 6-heteroaryl ring will allow for the accommodation of larger 5'-substituents in a hydrophobic area under P-loop, SAR efforts focused on 5'-alkoxy heteroaryl rings at themore » 6-position of imidazopyridine and imidazopyridazine cores that have the same dihedral angle of zero degrees. 6'-Alkoxy 5'-aminopyrazines in the imidazopyridine series were identified as the most potent compounds in the A2780 cell line. Compound 14 with 1,1,1-trifluoroisopropoxy group at 6'-position demonstrated excellent potency and selectivity, good oral exposure in rats and in vivo efficacy in A2780 tumor-bearing mouse. Also, we disclose the X-ray co-crystal structure of one enantiomer of compound 14 in PI3Kα, confirming that the trifluoromethyl group fits nicely in the hydrophobic hot spot under P-loop.« less

  4. Evodiamine from Evodia rutaecarpa induces apoptosis via activation of JNK and PERK in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tze-Chien; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Wu, Ming-Shun; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2016-01-15

    Evodiamine (EVO; 8,13,13b,14-tetrahydro-14-methylindolo[2'3'-3,4]pyrido[2,1-b]quinazolin-5-[7H]-one derived from the traditional herbal medicine Evodia rutaecarpa was reported to possess anticancer activity; however, the anticancer mechanism of EVO against the viability of human ovarian cancer cells is still unclear. A number of studies showed that chemotherapeutic benefits may result from targeting the endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress signaling pathway. The objective of the study is to investigate the mechanism by which ER stress protein PERK plays in EVO-induced apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cells. Cell death analysis was performed by MTT assay, DNA fragmentation assay, and Giemsa staining. DiOC6 staining was used for mitochondrial membrane potential measurement. Protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting. Pharmacological studies using MAPK inhibitors and PERK inhibitor GSK2606414 were involved. The viability of human ovarian cancer cells A2780, A2780CP, ES-2, and SKOV-3 was inhibited by EVO at various concentrations in accordance with increases in the percentage of apoptotic cells, DNA ladders, and cleavage of caspase 3 and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins. Decreased viability of cells was reversed by adding caspase inhibitors VAD and DEVD in SKOV-3 and A2780CP cells, and incubation of cells with JNK inhibitor SP600125 (SP) and JNKI, but not other MAPK and AKT inhibitors including PD98059, SB203580, significantly prevented the apoptosis elicited by EVO in human ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, increased expression of phospho-eIF2α (peIF2α) and phospho-PERK (pPERK) proteins was detected in EVO-treated human ovarian cancer cells, and that was inhibited by adding JNK inhibitors SP600125 and JNKI. Application of a PERK inhibitor GSK2606414 showed a significant protection of human ovarian cancer cells A2780 and A2780CP from EVO-induced apoptosis. EVO disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was also inhibited by adding JNK or

  5. Hydroxyquinoline derived vanadium(IV and V) and copper(II) complexes as potential anti-tuberculosis and anti-tumor agents.

    PubMed

    Correia, Isabel; Adão, Pedro; Roy, Somnath; Wahba, Mohamed; Matos, Cristina; Maurya, Mannar R; Marques, Fernanda; Pavan, Fernando R; Leite, Clarice Q F; Avecilla, Fernando; Costa Pessoa, João

    2014-12-01

    Several mixed ligand vanadium and copper complexes were synthesized containing 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) and a ligand such as picolinato (pic(-)), dipicolinato (dipic(2-)) or a Schiff base. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic techniques and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in the case of [V(V)O(L-pheolnaph-im)(5-Cl-8HQ)] and [V(V)O(OMe)(8HQ)2], which evidenced the distorted octahedral geometry of the complexes. The electronic absorption data showed the presence of strong ligand to metal charge transfer bands, significant solvent effects, and methoxido species in methanol, which was further confirmed by (51)V-NMR spectroscopy. The structures of [Cu(II)(dipic)(8HQ)]Na and [V(IV)O(pic)(8HQ)] were confirmed by EPR spectroscopy, showing only one species in solution. The biological activity of the compounds was assessed through the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and the cytotoxic activity against the cisplatin sensitive/resistant ovarian cells A2780/A2780cisR and the non-tumorigenic HEK cells (IC50 values). Almost all tested vanadium complexes were very active against Mtb and the MICs were comparable to, or better than, the MICs of drugs, such as streptomycin. The activity of the complexes against the A2780 cell line was dependent on incubation time presenting IC50 values in the 3-14 μM (at 48 h) range. In these conditions, the complexes were significantly (*P<0.05-**P<0.001) more active than cisplatin (22 μM), in the A2780 cells and even surpassing its activity in the cisplatin-resistant cells A2780cisR (2.4-8 μM vs. 75.4; **P<0.001). In the non-tumorigenic HEK cells poor selectivity toward cancer cells for most of the complexes was observed, as well as for cisplatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel C,N-Cyclometalated Benzimidazole Ruthenium(II) and Iridium(III) Complexes as Antitumor and Antiangiogenic Agents: A Structure-Activity Relationship Study.

    PubMed

    Yellol, Jyoti; Pérez, Sergio A; Buceta, Alicia; Yellol, Gorakh; Donaire, Antonio; Szumlas, Piotr; Bednarski, Patrick J; Makhloufi, Gamall; Janiak, Christoph; Espinosa, Arturo; Ruiz, José

    2015-09-24

    A series of novel C,N-cyclometalated benzimidazole ruthenium(II) and iridium(III) complexes of the types [(η(6)-p-cymene)RuCl(κ(2)-N,C-L)] and [(η(5)-C5Me5)IrCl(κ(2)-N,C-L)] (HL = methyl 1-butyl-2-arylbenzimidazolecarboxylate) with varying substituents (H, Me, F, CF3, MeO, NO2, and Ph) in the R4 position of the phenyl ring of 2-phenylbenzimidazole chelating ligand of the ruthenium (3a-g) and iridium complexes (4a-g) have been prepared. The cytotoxic activity of the new ruthenium(II) and iridium(III) compounds has been evaluated in a panel of cell lines (A2780, A2780cisR, A427, 5637, LCLC, SISO, and HT29) in order to investigate structure-activity relationships. Phenyl substitution at the R4 position shows increased potency in both Ru and Ir complexes (3g and 4g, respectively) as compared to their parent compounds (3a and 4a) in all cell lines. In general, ruthenium complexes are more active than the corresponding iridium complexes. The new ruthenium and iridium compounds increased caspase-3 activity in A2780 cells, as shown for 3a,d and 4a,d. Compound 4g is able to increase the production of ROS in A2780 cells. Furthermore, all the new compounds are able to overcome the cisplatin resistance in A2780cisR cells. In addition, some of the metal complexes effectively inhibit angiogenesis in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line EA.hy926 at 0.5 μM, the ruthenium derivatives 3g (Ph) and 3d (CF3) being the best performers. QC calculations performed on some ruthenium model complexes showed only moderate or slight electron depletion at the phenyl ring of the C,N-cyclometalated ligand and the chlorine atom on increasing the electron withdrawing effect of the R substituent.

  7. Platinum (IV)-fatty acid conjugates overcome inherently and acquired Cisplatin resistant cancer cell lines: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ratzon, Einav; Najajreh, Yousef; Salem, Rami; Khamaisie, Hazem; Ruthardt, Martin; Mahajna, Jamal

    2016-02-23

    Platinum-based drugs are used as cancer chemotherapeutics for the last 40 years. However, drug resistance and nephrotoxicity are the major limitations of the use of platinum-based compounds in cancer therapy. Platinum (IV) complexes are believed to act as platinum prodrugs and are able to overcome some of platinum (II) limitations. A number of previously sensitized platinum (IV) complexes were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity by monitoring ability to affect proliferation, clonigenicity and apoptosis induction of Cisplatin sensitive and resistant cancer cells. In addition, the uptake of Cisplatin and the platinum (IV) derivatives to Cisplatin sensitive and resistant cancer cells was monitored. The bis-octanoatoplatinum (IV) complex (RJY13), a Cisplatin derivative with octanoate as axial ligand, exhibited strong anti-proliferative effect on the Cisplatin resistant and sensitive ovarian cells, A2780cisR and A2780, respectively. Moreover, RJY13 exhibited good activity in inhibiting clonigenicity of both cells. Anti-proliferative activity of RJY13 was mediated by induction of apoptosis. Interestingly, a bis-lauratopaltinum (IV) complex (RJY6) was highly potent in inhibiting clonigenicity of both Cisplatin sensitive and Cisplatin resistant cells, however, exhibited reduced activity in assays that utilize cells growing in two dimensional (2D) conditions. The uptake of Cisplatin was reduced by 30% in A2780 in which the copper transporter-1 (Ctr1) was silenced. Moreover, uptake of RJY6 was marginally dependent on Ctr1, while uptake of RJY13 was Ctr1-independent. Our data demonstrated the potential of platinum (IV) prodrugs in overcoming acquired and inherited drug resistance in cancer cell lines. Moreover, our data demonstrated that the uptake of Cisplatin is partially dependent on Ctr1 transporter, while uptake of RJY6 is marginally dependent on Ctr1 and RJY13 is Ctr1-independent. In addition, our data illustrated the therapeutic potential of platinum (IV) prodrugs

  8. Evaluation of cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and cellular ultrastructural effects of heteroleptic oxidovanadium(IV) complexes of salicylaldimines and polypyridyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Scalese, Gonzalo; Correia, Isabel; Benítez, Julio; Rostán, Santiago; Marques, Fernanda; Mendes, Filipa; Matos, António Pedro; Costa Pessoa, João; Gambino, Dinorah

    2017-01-01

    Searching for prospective vanadium-based drugs for cancer treatment, a new series of structurally related [V IV O(L-2H)(NN)] compounds (1-8) was developed. They include a double deprotonated salicylaldimine Schiff base ligand (L-2H) and different NN-polypyridyl co-ligands having DNA intercalating capacity. Compounds were characterized in solid state and in solution. EPR spectroscopy suggests that the NN ligands act as bidentate and bind through both nitrogen donor atoms in an axial-equatorial mode. The cytotoxicity was evaluated in human tumoral cells (ovarian A2780, breast MCF7, prostate PC3). The cytotoxic activity was dependent on type of cell and incubation time. At 24h PC3 cells presented low sensitivity, but at 72h all complexes showed high cytotoxic activity in all cells. Human kidney HEK293 and ovarian cisplatin resistant A2780cisR cells were also included to evaluate selectivity towards cancer cells and potency to overcome cisplatin resistance, respectively. Most complexes showed no detectable interaction with plasmid DNA, except 2 and 7 which depicted low ability to induce single strand breaks in supercoiled DNA. Based on the overall cytotoxic profile, complexes with 2,2´-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline ligands (1 and 2) were selected for further studies, which consisted on cellular distribution and ultrastructural analyses. In the A2780 cells both depicted different distribution profiles; the former accumulates mostly at the membrane and the latter in the cytoskeleton. Morphology of treated cells showed nuclear atypia and membrane alterations, more severe for 1. Complexes induce different cell death pathways, predominantly necrosis for 1 and apoptosis for 2. Complexes alternative mode of cell death motivates the possibility for further developments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypermethylation of the TGF-β target, ABCA1 is associated with poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chou, Jian-Liang; Huang, Rui-Lan; Shay, Jacqueline; Chen, Lin-Yu; Lin, Sheng-Jie; Yan, Pearlly S; Chao, Wei-Ting; Lai, Yi-Hui; Lai, Yen-Ling; Chao, Tai-Kuang; Lee, Cheng-I; Tai, Chien-Kuo; Wu, Shu-Fen; Nephew, Kenneth P; Huang, Tim H-M; Lai, Hung-Cheng; Chan, Michael W Y

    2015-01-01

    The dysregulation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a crucial role in ovarian carcinogenesis and in maintaining cancer stem cell properties. Classified as a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family, ABCA1 was previously identified by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation microarray (mDIP-Chip) to be methylated in ovarian cancer cell lines, A2780 and CP70. By microarray, it was also found to be upregulated in immortalized ovarian surface epithelial (IOSE) cells following TGF-β treatment. Thus, we hypothesized that ABCA1 may be involved in ovarian cancer and its initiation. We first compared the expression level of ABCA1 in IOSE cells and a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines and found that ABCA1 was expressed in HeyC2, SKOV3, MCP3, and MCP2 ovarian cancer cell lines but downregulated in A2780 and CP70 ovarian cancer cell lines. The reduced expression of ABCA1 in A2780 and CP70 cells was associated with promoter hypermethylation, as demonstrated by bisulfite pyro-sequencing. We also found that knockdown of ABCA1 increased the cholesterol level and promoted cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Further analysis of ABCA1 methylation in 76 ovarian cancer patient samples demonstrated that patients with higher ABCA1 methylation are associated with high stage (P = 0.0131) and grade (P = 0.0137). Kaplan-Meier analysis also found that patients with higher levels of methylation of ABCA1 have shorter overall survival (P = 0.019). Furthermore, tissue microarray using 55 ovarian cancer patient samples revealed that patients with a lower level of ABCA1 expression are associated with shorter progress-free survival (P = 0.038). ABCA1 may be a tumor suppressor and is hypermethylated in a subset of ovarian cancer patients. Hypermethylation of ABCA1 is associated with poor prognosis in these patients.

  10. Sulforaphane reduces molecular response to hypoxia in ovarian tumor cells independently of their resistance to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    PASTOREK, MICHAL; SIMKO, VERONIKA; TAKACOVA, MARTINA; BARATHOVA, MONIKA; BARTOSOVA, MARIA; HUNAKOVA, LUBA; SEDLAKOVA, OLGA; HUDECOVA, SONA; KRIZANOVA, OLGA; DEQUIEDT, FRANCK; PASTOREKOVA, SILVIA; SEDLAK, JAN

    2015-01-01

    One of the recently emerging anticancer strategies is the use of natural dietary compounds, such as sulforaphane, a cancer-chemopreventive isothiocyanate found in broccoli. Based on the growing evidence, sulforaphane acts through molecular mechanisms that interfere with multiple oncogenic pathways in diverse tumor cell types. Herein, we investigated the anticancer effects of bioavailable concentrations of sulforaphane in ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and its two derivatives, adriamycin-resistant A2780/ADR and cisplatin-resistant A2780/CP cell lines. Since tumor microenvironment is characterized by reduced oxygenation that induces aggressive tumor phenotype (such as increased invasiveness and resistance to chemotherapy), we evaluated the effects of sulforaphane in ovarian cancer cells exposed to hypoxia (2% O2). Using the cell-based reporter assay, we identified several oncogenic pathways modulated by sulforaphane in hypoxia by activating anticancer responses (p53, ARE, IRF-1, Pax-6 and XRE) and suppressing responses supporting tumor progression (AP-1 and HIF-1). We further showed that sulforaphane decreases the level of HIF-1α protein without affecting its transcription and stability. It can also diminish transcription and protein level of the HIF-1 target, CA IX, which protects tumor cells from hypoxia-induced pH imbalance and facilitates their migration/invasion. Accordingly, sulforaphane treatment leads to diminished pH regulation and reduced migration of ovarian carcinoma cells. These effects occur in all three ovarian cell lines suggesting that sulforaphane can overcome the chemoresistance of cancer cells. This offers a path potentially exploitable in sensitizing resistant cancer cells to therapy, and opens a window for the combined treatments of sulforaphane either with conventional chemotherapy, natural compounds, or with other small molecules. PMID:25955133

  11. Combinations of platinums and selected phytochemicals as a means of overcoming resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Huq, Fazlul; Yu, Jun Q; Beale, Philip; Chan, Charles; Arzuman, Lalia; Nessa, Meher U; Mazumder, Mohammed E H

    2014-01-01

    Cancer sufferers are often found to use herbal products along with targeted therapy although not much information (whether beneficial or harmful) is available about the effects of such combinations. In this study, we investigated synergism from the combination of platinum drugs and a number of tumour-active phytochemicals including curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, thymoquinone, genistein, resveratrol, betulinic acid and ursolic acid in three human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780, A2780(cisR) and A2780(ZD0473R), as a function of concentration and the sequence of administration. Both the dose-effect curves and combination indices show that the binary combinations of platinum drugs with the phytochemicals exert concentration- and sequence-dependent synergism in the cell lines. Generally the degree of synergism is found to be greater in sequenced administration such as 0/2 h, 2/0 h, 0/4 h and 4/0 h than the bolus. The variation in the nature of the combined drug action from being highly synergistic to antagonistic with the change in sequence of administration clearly indicates that the action of one drug modulates that of the other (towards the induction or inhibition of apoptosis). We have also used sequenced combinations of platinum drugs and bortezomib (a proteasome inhibitor that prevents cisplatin-induced proteasomal degration of copper transporter CTR1) to enhance cellular platinum accumulation and the level of platinum-DNA binding especially in the resistant human ovarian tumour models. Proteomic studies to identify the key proteins associated with platinum resistance are ongoing. We have identified 59 proteins associated with platinum resistance in ovarian tumor models.

  12. Tumor suppressive effects of bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Ae; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Hye-Sun; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Choi, Chel Hun; Choi, Jung-Joo; Jeon, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Young Jae; Ryu, Ji Yoon; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2014-02-01

    Bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7), which is a subunit of SWI/SNF complex, has been recently suggested as a novel tumor suppressor in several cancers. In this study, we investigated the tumor suppressive effect of BRD7 in epithelial ovarian cancer. We analyzed the expression of BRD7 in human ovarian tissues with real-time PCR. To investigate the functional role of BRD7, we transfected ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and SKOV3) with BRD7 plasmid and checked the cell viability, apoptosis, and invasion. The activities of BRD7 in the signaling pathways associated with carcinogenesis were also tested. In addition, we used the orthotopic mouse model for ovarian cancer to evaluate tumor growth-inhibiting effect by administration of BRD7 plasmid. The BRD7 expression was downregulated in the ovarian cancer tissues compared with normal (P < 0.05), high-grade serous cancer exhibited significantly decreased expression of BRD7 compared with low-grade (P < 0.01) serous cancer. Transfection of BRD7 plasmid to A2780 (p53-wild) or SKOV3 (p53-null) ovarian cancer cells showed the tumor suppressive effects assessed by cell viability, apoptosis, and invasion assay and especially significantly decreased tumor weight in orthotopic mouse model (A2780). Moreover, we found that tumor suppressive effects of BRD7 are independent to the presence of p53 activity in ovarian cancer cells. BRD7 negatively regulated β-catenin pathway, resulting in decreased its accumulation in the nucleus. These results suggested that BRD7 acts as a tumor suppressor in epithelial ovarian cancers independently of p53 activity, via negative regulation of β-catenin pathway. ©2013 AACR.

  13. TP53 Status is Associated with Thrombospondin1 Expression In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez Secord, Angeles; Bernardini, Marcus Q.; Broadwater, Gloria; Grace, Lisa A.; Huang, Zhiqing; Baba, Tsukasa; Kondoh, Eiji; Sfakianos, Gregory; Havrilesky, Laura J.; Murphy, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To elucidate the association between thrombospondin1 (THBS1) expression and TP53 status and THBS1 promoter methylation in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods: Epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines with known TP53 status were analyzed for THBS1 gene expression using Affymetrix U133 microarrays and promoter methylation by pyrosequencing. THBS1 mRNA expression was obtained pre- and post-exposure to radiation and hypoxia treatment in A2780 parent wild-type (wt) and mutant (m)TP53 cells. THBS1 expression was compared to tumor growth properties. Results: THBS1 gene expression was higher in cells containing a wtTP53 gene or null TP53 mutation (p = 0.005) and low or absent p53 protein expression (p = 0.008) compared to those harboring a missense TP53 gene mutation and exhibiting high p53 protein expression. Following exposure to radiation, there was a 3.4-fold increase in THBS1 mRNA levels in the mTP53 versus wtTP53 A2780 cells. After exposure to hypoxia, THBS1 mRNA levels increased approximately fourfold in both wtTP53 and mTP53 A2780 cells. Promoter methylation levels were low (median = 8.6%; range = 3.5–88.8%). There was a non-significant inverse correlation between THBS1 methylation and transcript levels. There was no association between THBS1 expression and population doubling time, invasive capacity, or anchorage-independent growth. Conclusion: THBS1 expression may be regulated via the TP53 pathway, and induced by hypoxic tumor microenvironment conditions. Overall low levels of THBS1 promoter methylation imply that methylation is not the primary driver of THBS1 expression in EOC. PMID:24195060

  14. Preclinical evaluation of olaparib and metformin combination in BRCA1 wildtype ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hijaz, M; Chhina, J; Mert, I; Taylor, M; Dar, S; Al-Wahab, Z; Ali-Fehmi, R; Buekers, T; Munkarah, A R; Rattan, R

    2016-08-01

    BRCA mutated ovarian cancers show increased responsiveness to PARP inhibitors. PARP inhibitors target DNA repair and provide a second hit to BRCA mutated tumors, resulting in "synthetic lethality". We investigated a combination of metformin and olaparib to provide "synthetic lethality" in BRCA intact ovarian cancer cells. Ovarian cancer cell lines (UWB1.289, UWB1.289.BRCA, SKOV3, OVCAR5, A2780 and C200) were treated with a combination of metformin and olaparib. Cell viability was assessed by MTT and colony formation assays. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle events. In vivo studies were performed in SKOV3 or A2780 xenografts in nude mice. Animals were treated with single agent, metformin or olaparib or combination. Molecular downstream effects were examined by immunohistochemistry. Compared to single drug treatment, combination of olaparib and metformin resulted in significant reduction of cell proliferation and colony formation (p<0.001) in ovarian cancer cells. This treatment was associated with a significant S-phase cell cycle arrest (p<0.05). Combination of olaparib and metformin significantly inhibited SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian tumor xenografts which were accompanied with decreased Ki-index (p<0.001). Metformin did not affect DNA damage signaling, while olaparib induced adenosine monophosphate activated kinase activation; that was further potentiated with metformin combination in vivo. Combining PARP inhibitors with metformin enhances its anti-proliferative activity in BRCA mutant ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination showed significant activity in BRCA intact cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. This is a promising treatment regimen for women with epithelial ovarian cancer irrespective of BRCA status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Knockdown of MACC1 expression increases cisplatin sensitivity in cisplatin-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruitao; Shi, Huirong; Ren, Fang; Li, Xia; Zhang, Minghui; Feng, Wei; Jia, Yanyan

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal expression of metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) was found to be closely associated with several types of malignant tumors. The present study aimed to verify the relationship between MACC1 and cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells and the possible mechanisms, which was implemented by inhibition of the expression of MACC1 in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780/DDP and COC1/DDP. MACC1 shRNA eukaryotic plasmids and negative control plasmids were transfected into A2780/DDP and COC1/DDP cells, respectively, while A2780/DDP and COC1/DDP cells were used as blank controls. Western blotting and sqRT-PCR were used to detect the expression of MACC1 in the different cell groups. Different concentrations of cispaltin (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 µmol/l) were used to treat the cell groups, respectively, and then the chemosensitivity of cisplatin and cell apoptosis were examined by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. The activity of caspase-3 was determined by spectrophotometry. Expression levels of p-ERK1/2, permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-XL, Bax and Bad protein were detected in the different ovarian cancer cells by western blotting. After MACC1 knockdown, the chemosensitivity of cisplatin in the ovarian cancer cells was enhanced, and the cell growth inhibition and apoptosis rates were increased. The expression levels of Bax and Bad were upregulated, the activity of caspase-3 was increased, while the expression levels of p-ERK1/2, P-gp, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were downregulated as a result of MACC1 inhibition. These results indicate that inhibition of MACC1 improves the chemosensitivity of cisplatin in epithelial ovarian cancer cells, through the regulation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway on P-gp and its downstream apoptosis proteins.

  16. Downregulation of ATG14 by EGR1-MIR152 sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis by inhibiting cyto-protective autophagy

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun; Yu, Jing-Jie; Xu, Qing; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Jenny Z; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin is commonly used in ovarian cancer treatment by inducing apoptosis in cancer cells as a result of lethal DNA damage. However, the intrinsic and acquired resistance to cisplatin in cancer cells remains a big challenge for improving overall survival. The cyto-protective functions of autophagy in cancer cells have been suggested as a potential mechanism for chemoresistance. Here, we reported MIR152 as a new autophagy-regulating miRNA that plays a role in cisplatin-resistance. We showed that MIR152 expression was dramatically downregulated in the cisplatin-resistant cell lines A2780/CP70, SKOV3/DDP compared with their respective parental cells, and in ovarian cancer tissues associated with cisplatin-resistance. Overexpression of MIR152 sensitized cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells by reducing cisplatin-induced autophagy, enhancing cisplatin-induced apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation. A mouse subcutaneous xenograft tumor model using A2780/CP70 cells with overexpressing MIR152 was established and displayed decreased tumor growth in response to cisplatin. We also identified that ATG14 is a functional target of MIR152 in regulating autophagy inhibition. Furthermore, we found that EGR1 (early growth response 1) regulated the MIR152 gene at the transcriptional level. Ectopic expression of EGR1 enhanced efficacy of chemotherapy in A2780/CP70 cells. More importantly, these findings were relevant to clinical cases. Both EGR1 and MIR152 expression levels were significantly lower in ovarian cancer tissues with high levels of ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1), a marker for cisplatin-resistance. Collectively, these data provide insights into novel mechanisms for acquired cisplatin-resistance. Activation of EGR1 and MIR152 may be a useful therapeutic strategy to overcome cisplatin-resistance by preventing cyto-protective autophagy in ovarian cancer. PMID:25650716

  17. A Synthetic Butenolide Diterpene is now a Natural Product Isolated from Metaporana sericosepala, a Plant from the Madagascar Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Presley, Christopher C; Rakotondraibe, L Harinantenaina; Brodie, Peggy J; Callmander, Martin W; Randrianaivo, Richard; Rasamison, Vincent E; Rakotobe, Etienne; Kingston, David G I

    2015-09-01

    Antiproliferative bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the endemic Madagascan plant Metaporana sericosepala led to the first natural product isolation of a butenolide diterpene, which was synthesized during an anti-inflammatory study in 1988. The structure of the compound was elucidated as 3-homofarnesyl-4-hydroxybutenolide (1) by analysis of its spectroscopic data, including 1D- and 2D-NMR data and chemical evidence. The once synthetic compound can now also be considered as a natural product. Compound 1 had modest antiproliferative activity towards the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line,with an IC50 value of 8 µM.

  18. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of bridged epothilone D analogues†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiao-Hong; Ganesh, Thota; Brodie, Peggy; Slebodnick, Carla; Jiang, Yi; Banerjee, Abhijit; Bane, Susan; Snyder, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Six epothilone D analogues with a bridge between the C4-methyl and the C12-methyl carbons were prepared in an attempt to constrain epothilone D to its proposed tubulin-binding conformation. Ring-closing metathesis (RCM) was employed as the key step to build the C4-C26 bridge. In antiproliferative assays in the human ovarian cancer (A2780) and prostate cancer (PC3) cell lines, and also in tubulin assembly assay, all these compounds proved to be less active than epothilone D. PMID:19039362

  19. Saponins and a lignan derivative of Terminalia tropophylla from the Madagascar Dry Forest†

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shugeng; Brodie, Peggy J.; Callmander, Martin; Randrianaivo, Richard; Rakotobe, Etienne; Rasamison, Vincent E.; Kingston, David G. I.

    2009-01-01

    A study of an EtOH extract obtained from the roots of the Madagascan plant Terminalia tropophylla H. Perrier (Combretaceae) led to the isolation of the new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin 1, the new lignan derivative 2, and the two known saponins arjunglucoside I (3) and sericoside (4). The structures of the new compounds 1 (terminaliaside A) and 2 (4′-O-cinnamoyl cleomiscosin A) were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. Compound 1 showed antiproliferative activity against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line with an IC50 value of 1.2 μM. PMID:19875137

  20. Amino(oxo)acetate moiety: A new functional group to improve the cytotoxicity of betulin derived carbamates.

    PubMed

    Heller, Lucie; Perl, Vincent; Wiemann, Jana; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Csuk, René

    2016-06-15

    While 3-O-acetylated betulin derivatives carrying a carbamate moiety at position C-28 are of rather low cytotoxicity for human tumor cell lines, the corresponding C-3 amino(oxo) acetates show good cytotoxicity. For example, an EC50 as low as 2.0μM was found for (3β) 28-{[(hexylamino)carbonyl]oxy}lup-20(29)-en-3-yl amino(oxo)acetate (16) employing the ovarian cancer cell line A2780. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein promotes cisplatin resistance and regulates CD147 via Sp1 in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Ma, Xiangdong; Yang, Hong; Hua, Wei; Chen, Biliang; Cai, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the highest mortality rate of all female reproductive malignancies. Drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in malignant tumors. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein acts as an oncoprotein, regulates cell proliferation, and migration in breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of hepatitis B X-interacting protein on resistance to cisplatin in human ovarian cancer cell lines. The mRNA and protein levels of hepatitis B X-interacting protein were detected using RT-PCR and Western blotting in cisplatin-resistant and cisplatin-sensitive tissues, cisplatin-resistant cell lines A2780/CP and SKOV3/CP, and cisplatin-sensitive cell lines A2780 and SKOV3. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured to evaluate cellular sensitivity to cisplatin in A2780/CP cells. Luciferase reporter gene assay was used to determine the relationship between hepatitis B X-interacting protein and CD147. The in vivo function of hepatitis B X-interacting protein on tumor burden was assessed in cisplatin-resistant xenograft models. The results showed that hepatitis B X-interacting protein was highly expressed in ovarian cancer of cisplatin-resistant tissues and cells. Notably, knockdown of hepatitis B X-interacting protein significantly reduced cell viability in A2780/CP compared with cisplatin treatment alone. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein and cisplatin cooperated to induce apoptosis and increase the expression of c-caspase 3 as well as the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. We confirmed that hepatitis B X-interacting protein up-regulated CD147 at the protein expression and transcriptional levels. Moreover, we found that hepatitis B X-interacting protein was able to activate the CD147 promoter through Sp1. In vivo, depletion of hepatitis B X-interacting protein decreased the tumor volume and weight induced by cisplatin. Taken together, these results indicate that hepatitis B X-interacting protein promotes cisplatin resistance and regulated CD147 via Sp1 in

  2. Two new terpenoids from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. F-31.

    PubMed

    Ge, Han-Lin; Zhang, De-Wu; Li, Li; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jian-Hua; Si, Yi-Kang; Dai, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    Two new terpenoids, (+)-(3S,6S,7R,8S)-periconone A (1) and (-)-(1R,4R,6S,7S)-2-caren-4,8-olide (2), have been isolated from an endophytic fungus Periconia sp., which was collected from the plant Annona muricata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. In the in vitro assays, the two compounds showed low cytotoxic activities against six human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7) with IC(50)>10(-5) M.

  3. N-heterocyclic carbene-amine Pt(II) complexes, a new chemical space for the development of platinum-based anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Skander, Myriem; Retailleau, Pascal; Bourrié, Bernard; Schio, Laurent; Mailliet, Patrick; Marinetti, Angela

    2010-03-11

    N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC) platinum complexes have been highlighted as a promising and original platform for building new cytotoxic drugs of the cisplatin series. Mixed NHC-amine Pt(II) complexes have been prepared via a facile and modular two step sequence leading to trans-configured square planar species. They have been characterized by spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction studies. Their efficiency against both cisplatin sensitive (CEM and H460) and resistant (A2780/DDP, CH1/DDP, and SK-OV-3) cell lines has been demonstrated by in vitro experiments.

  4. In Vitro Antitumor Active Gold(I) Triphenylphosphane Complexes Containing 7-Azaindoles.

    PubMed

    Štarha, Pavel; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Drahoš, Bohuslav; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2016-12-11

    A series of gold(I) complexes of the general composition [Au( n aza)(PPh₃)] ( 1 - 8 ) was prepared and thoroughly characterized (e.g., electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry and multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy). The N 1-deprotonated anions of 7-azaindole or its derivatives ( n aza) are coordinated to the metal centre through the N 1 atom of their pyrrole ring, as proved by a single crystal X-ray analysis of the complexes [Au( 3I5Br aza)(PPh₃)] ( 7 ) and [Au( 2Me4Cl aza)(PPh₃)]·½H₂O ( 8 '). The in vitrocytotoxicity of the complexes 1 - 8 was studied against both the cisplatin -sensitive and -resistant variants of the A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cell line, as well as against the MRC-5 human normal fibroblast cell line. The complexes 4 , 5 , and 8 , containing deprotonated 3-iodo-7-azaindole, 5-bromo-7-azaindole, and 2-methyl-4-chloro-7-azaindole ( 2Me4Cl aza), respectively, showed significantly higher potency ( IC 50 = 2.8-3.5 µM) than cisplatin ( IC 50 = 20.3 µM) against the A2780 cells and markedly lower effect towards the MRC-5 non-cancerous cells ( IC 50 = 26.0-29.2 µM), as compared with the mentioned A2780 cancer cells. The results of the flow cytometric studies of the A2780 cell cycle perturbations revealed a G₂-cell cycle phase arrest of the cells treated by the representative complexes 1 and 5 , which is indicative of a different mechanism of action from cisplatin (induced S-cell cycle phase arrest). The stability of the representative complex 8 in the water-containing solution as well as its ability to interact with the reduced glutathione, cysteine and bovine serum albumin was also studied using ¹H and 31 P-NMR spectroscopy (studied in the 50% DMF- d₇ /50% D₂O mixture) and ESI+ mass spectrometry (studied in the 50% DMF/50% H₂O mixture); DMF = dimethylformamide. The obtained results are indicative for the release of the N -donor azaindole-based ligand in the presence of the used biomolecules.

  5. Pgp inhibition by UIC2 antibody can be followed in vitro by using tumor-diagnostic radiotracers, 99mTc-MIBI and 18FDG.

    PubMed

    Krasznai, Zoárd Tibor; Tóth, Agnes; Mikecz, Pál; Fodor, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Galuska, László; Hernádi, Zoltán; Goda, Katalin

    2010-12-23

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) is one of the active efflux pumps that are able to extrude a large variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cells, causing the phenomenon of multidrug resistance. It has been shown earlier that the combined application of a class of Pgp modulators (e.g. cyclosporine A and SDZ PSC 833) used at low concentrations and UIC2 antibody is a novel, specific, and effective way of blocking Pgp function (Goda et al., 2007). In the present work we study the UIC2 antibody mediated Pgp inhibition in more detail measuring the accumulation of tumor diagnostic radiotracers, 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ((18)FDG) and [(99m)Tc]hexakis-2-methoxybutyl isonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI), into Pgp(+) (A2780AD) and Pgp(-) (A2780) human ovarian carcinoma cells. Co-incubation of cells with UIC2 and cyclosporine A (CSA, 2μM) increased the binding of UIC2 more than 3-fold and reverted the rhodamine 123 (R123), daunorubicin (DNR) and (99m)Tc-MIBI accumulation of the Pgp(+) 2780AD cells to approx. the same level as observed in Pgp(-) cells. Similarly, 50μM paclitaxel (Pacl) increased UIC2 binding, and consequently reinstated the uptake of R123, DNR and (99m)Tc-MIBI into the Pgp(+) cells. Blocking Pgp by combined treatments with CSA+UIC2 or Pacl+UIC2 also decreased the glucose metabolic rate of the A2780AD Pgp(+) cells measured in (18)FDG accumulation experiments suggesting that the maintenance of Pgp activity requires a considerable amount of energy. Similar treatments of the A2780 Pgp(-) cells did not result in significant change in the R123, DNR, (99m)Tc-MIBI and (18)FDG accumulation demonstrating that the above effects are Pgp-specific. Thus, combined treatment with the UIC2 antibody and Pgp modulators can completely block the function of Pgp in human ovarian carcinoma cells and this effect can be followed in vitro by using tumor-diagnostic radiotracers, (99m)Tc-MIBI and (18)FDG. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary In Vitro Evaluation of Genistein Chemopreventive Capacity as a Result of Esterification and Cyclodextrin Encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Danciu, Corina; Soica, Codruta; Dehelean, Cristina; Zupko, Istvan; Csanyi, Erzsebet; Pinzaru, Iulia

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on the synthesis and analysis of a genistein ester derivative with myristic acid followed by beta cyclodextrin encapsulation; physicochemical analysis using consecrated techniques such as FTIR, MS, DSC, and SEM revealed both a successful esterification and inclusion inside the cyclodextrin cavity. Cytotoxic effects were measured in vitro on three human cell lines: HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma), A2780 (ovary carcinoma), and A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma). The in vitro biological analysis exhibited rather poor antiproliferative results on all three tested cancer cell lines, behavior that may be due to the high stability of the complex within the in vitro environment. PMID:26161301

  7. Near infrared light-mediated photoactivation of cytotoxic Re(i) complexes by using lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming; Zhao, Jixian; Ai, Xiangzhao; Budanovic, Maja; Mu, Jing; Webster, Richard D; Cao, Qian; Mao, Zongwan; Xing, Bengang

    2016-09-13

    Platinum-based chemotherapy, although it has been well proven to be effective in the battle against cancer, suffers from limited specificity, severe side effects and drug resistance. The development of new alternatives with potent anticancer effects and improved specificity is therefore urgently needed. Recently, there are some new chemotherapy reagents based on photoactive Re(i) complexes which have been reported as promising alternatives to improve specificity mainly attributed to the spatial and temporal activation process by light irradiation. However, most of them respond to short-wavelength light (e.g. UV, blue or green light), which may cause unwanted photo damage to cells. Herein, we demonstrate a system for near-infrared (NIR) light controlled activation of Re(i) complex cytotoxicity by integration of photoactivatable Re(i) complexes and lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). Upon NIR irradiation at 980 nm, the Re(i) complex can be locally activated by upconverted UV light emitted from UCNPs and subsequently leads to enhanced cell lethality. Cytotoxicity studies showed effective inactivation of both drug susceptible human ovarian carcinoma A2780 cells and cisplatin resistant subline A2780cis cells by our UCNP based system with NIR irradiation, and there was minimum light toxicity observed in the whole process, suggesting that such a system could provide a promising strategy to control localized activation of Re(i) complexes and therefore minimize potential side effects.

  8. A cisplatin slow-release hydrogel drug delivery system based on a formulation of the macrocycle cucurbit[7]uril, gelatin and polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Oun, Rabbab; Plumb, Jane A; Wheate, Nial J

    2014-05-01

    The anticancer drug cisplatin was encapsulated within the cucurbit[7]uril macrocycle to form the host-guest complex: cisplatin@CB[7]. This was then incorporated into gelatin and 0-4% w/v polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based hydrogels as slow release drug delivery vehicles. The hydrogels demonstrated predicable swelling and disintegration dependent on the PVA concentration. The hydrogel with the highest PVA content was slower to swell and release drug compared with lower concentrations of PVA. The effect of the hydrogel PVA concentration on in vitro cytotoxicity was examined using A2780/CP70 ovarian cancer cells. Over the 24h drug exposure time used, hydrogels containing 4% PVA showed a 20% decrease in viable cells compared to the control, whereas hydrogels containing 0% and 2% PVA induced an 80% and 45% inhibition of cell growth, respectively. There was no measurable difference in the in vitro cytotoxicity of free cisplatin and cisplatin@CB[7] containing hydrogels. Finally, the in vivo effectiveness of a 2%-PVA hydrogel implanted under the skin of nude mice bearing A2780/CP70 xenografts showed that low dose hydrogels containing cisplatin@CB[7] (30 μg equivalent of drug) was just as effective as an intraperitoneal high dose administration of free cisplatin (150 μg) at inhibiting tumour growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Co-delivery of paclitaxel and tetrandrine via iRGD peptide conjugated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles overcome multidrug resistance in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinming; Wang, Lu; Fai Chan, Hon; Xie, Wei; Chen, Sheng; He, Chengwei; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Meiwan

    2017-05-04

    One of the promising strategies to overcome tumor multidrug resistance (MDR) is to deliver anticancer drug along with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor simultaneously. To enhance the cancer cellular internalization and implement the controlled drug release, herein an iRGD peptide-modified lipid-polymer hybrid nanosystem (LPN) was fabricated to coload paclitaxel (PTX) and tetrandrine (TET) at a precise combination ratio. In this co-delivery system, PTX was covalently conjugated to poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymeric core by redox-sensitive disulfide bond, while TET was physically capsulated spontaneously for the aim to suppress P-gp in advance by the earlier released TET in cancer cells. As a result, the PTX+TET/iRGD LPNs with a core-shell structure possessed high drug loading efficiency, stability and redox-sensitive drug release profiles. Owing to the enhanced cellular uptake and P-gp suppression mediated by TET, significantly more PTX accumulated in A2780/PTX cells treated with PTX+TET/iRGD LPNs than either free drugs or non-iRGD modified LPNs. As expected, PTX+TET/iRGD LPNs presented the highest cytotoxicity against A2780/PTX cells and effectively promoted ROS production, enhanced apoptosis and cell cycle arrests particularly. Taken together, the co-delivery system demonstrated great promise as potential treatment for MDR-related tumors based on the synergistic effects of P-gp inhibition, enhanced endocytosis and intracellular sequentially drug release.

  10. Vitamin E derivative-based multifunctional nanoemulsions for overcoming multidrug resistance in cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nannan; Gao, Yanan; Ji, Hongyu; Wu, Linhua; Qi, Xuejing; Liu, Xiaona; Tang, Jingling

    2016-08-01

    The multidrug resistance (MDR), including intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance, is a major problem in tumor chemotherapy. Here, we proposed a strategy for modulating intrinsic and/or acquired multidrug resistance by altering the levels of Bax and Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting the transport function of P-gp, increasing the intracellular concentration of its substrate anticancer drugs. Vitamin E derivative-based nanoemulsions containing paclitaxel (MNEs-PTX) were fabricated in this study, and in vitro anticancer efficacy of the nanoemulsion system was evaluated in the paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780/Taxol. The MNEs-PTX exhibited a remarkably enhanced antiproliferation effect on A2780/Taxol cells than free paclitaxel (PTX) (p < 0.01). Compared with that in the Taxol group, MNEs-PTX further decreased mitochondrial potential. Vitamin E derivative-based multifunctional nanoemulsion (MNEs) obviously increased intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 (P-gp substrate). Overexpression of Bcl-2 is generally associated with tumor drug resistance, we found that MNEs could reduce Bcl-2 protein level and increase Bax protein level. Taken together, our findings suggest that anticancer drugs associated with MNEs could play a role in the development of MDR in cancers.

  11. Studies of interaction of trichloro{eta2-cis-N,N-dimethyl-1-[6-(N',N'-dimethyl-ammoniummethyl)-cyclohex-3-ene-1-yl]-methylammonium}platinum(II) chloride with DNA: Effects on secondary and tertiary structures of DNA. Cytotoxic assays on human ovarian cancer cell lines, resistant and non-resistant to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Gay, Marina; Montaña, Angel M; Moreno, Virtudes; Prieto, María-José; Pérez, José Manuel; Alonso, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    The studies of interaction with DNA and the cytotoxic activity of a new organometallic platinum(II) compound are presented. The ability of this new platinum complex to modify secondary DNA structure was explored by circular dichroism (CD). Electrophoretic mobility showed changes in tertiary DNA structure, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed morphological changes of plasmid DNA (pBR322). This compound breaks the traditional structure-activity rules for cis-platinum compounds, but it could be of interest because of its different kinetics. An organometallic bond normally shows a trans-effect higher than that of an amine ligand, and that fact, a priori, could contribute to a higher DNA binding rate. Several ovarian cancer cell lines, resistant and non-resistant to cisplatin, were exposed to increasing concentrations of cisplatin and complex 5 for 24 h, after which time the cell number/viability was determined by the colorimetric MTT assay. A lower cytotoxicity but also a lower resistant factor was observed for organometallic compound 5 than for cisplatin, against A2780 and A2780cisR cell lines. This result is consistent with the DNA interaction degree observed by the aforementioned techniques.

  12. Smac peptide potentiates TRAIL- or paclitaxel-mediated ovarian cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hong Luan; Pang, Yingxin; Zhang, Xiaolei; Yang, Fang; Zheng, Jingfang; Wang, Yu; Liu, Peishu

    2013-02-01

    Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) is a recently identified protein that is released from mitochondria in response to apoptotic stimuli and promotes apoptosis by antagonizing the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). Our previous study showed that ectopic overexpression of Smac sensitizes drug-resistant tumor cells to TRAIL- or paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in vitro. The present study was designed to explore the effect of the synthesized Smac N7 peptide in a human ovarian cancer cell line and xenograft model. The results showed that the single-agent Smac N7 had a non-cytotoxic effect, but it effectively enhanced TRAIL- or paclitaxel-induced inhibition of cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, even in TRAIL-resistant A2780 cells. When Smac N7 was combined with TRAIL or paclitaxel in treating A2780 cell tumor xenografts, synergistic anticancer effects were achieved. Furthermore, the combination therapy caused less damage in normal tissues and more apoptosis in tumor xenografts compared with TRAIL or paclitaxel alone. Increased apoptosis was associated with the downregulation of XIAP, survivin and the increased activity of caspase-3, along with an increased amount of cleaved PARP. In conclusion, this Smac N7 peptide is a promising candidate for ovarian cancer combination therapy, and Smac may be the target for the development of a novel class of anticancer drugs.

  13. New bipyridine gold(III) dithiocarbamate-containing complexes exerted a potent anticancer activity against cisplatin-resistant cancer cells independent of p53 status

    PubMed Central

    Altaf, Muhammad; Monim-ul-Mehboob, Muhammad; Kawde, Abdel-Nasser; Corona, Giuseppe; Larcher, Roberto; Ogasawara, Marcia; Casagrande, Naike; Celegato, Marta; Borghese, Cinzia; Siddik, Zahid H.; Aldinucci, Donatella; Isab, Anvarhusein A.

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized, characterized and tested in a panel of cancer cell lines, nine new bipyridine gold(III) dithiocarbamate-containing complexes. In vitro studies demonstrated that compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8 were the most cytotoxic in prostate, breast, ovarian cancer cell lines and in Hodgkin lymphoma cells with IC50 values lower than the reference drug cisplatin. The most active compound 1 was more active than cisplatin in ovarian (A2780cis and 2780CP-16) and breast cancer cisplatin-resistant cells. Compound 1 determined an alteration of the cellular redox homeostasis leading to increased ROS levels, a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome-c release from the mitochondria and activation of caspases 9 and 3. The ROS scavenger NAC suppressed ROS generation and rescued cells from damage. Compound 1 resulted more active in tumor cells than in normal human Mesenchymal stromal cells. Gold compounds were active independent of p53 status: exerted cytotoxic effects on a panel of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines with different p53 status and in the ovarian A2780 model where the p53 was knocked out. In conclusion, these promising results strongly indicate the need for further preclinical evaluation to test the clinical potential of these new gold(III) complexes. PMID:27888799

  14. New bipyridine gold(III) dithiocarbamate-containing complexes exerted a potent anticancer activity against cisplatin-resistant cancer cells independent of p53 status.

    PubMed

    Altaf, Muhammad; Monim-Ul-Mehboob, Muhammad; Kawde, Abdel-Nasser; Corona, Giuseppe; Larcher, Roberto; Ogasawara, Marcia; Casagrande, Naike; Celegato, Marta; Borghese, Cinzia; Siddik, Zahid H; Aldinucci, Donatella; Isab, Anvarhusein A

    2017-01-03

    We synthesized, characterized and tested in a panel of cancer cell lines, nine new bipyridine gold(III) dithiocarbamate-containing complexes. In vitro studies demonstrated that compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8 were the most cytotoxic in prostate, breast, ovarian cancer cell lines and in Hodgkin lymphoma cells with IC50 values lower than the reference drug cisplatin. The most active compound 1 was more active than cisplatin in ovarian (A2780cis and 2780CP-16) and breast cancer cisplatin-resistant cells. Compound 1 determined an alteration of the cellular redox homeostasis leading to increased ROS levels, a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome-c release from the mitochondria and activation of caspases 9 and 3. The ROS scavenger NAC suppressed ROS generation and rescued cells from damage. Compound 1 resulted more active in tumor cells than in normal human Mesenchymal stromal cells. Gold compounds were active independent of p53 status: exerted cytotoxic effects on a panel of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines with different p53 status and in the ovarian A2780 model where the p53 was knocked out. In conclusion, these promising results strongly indicate the need for further preclinical evaluation to test the clinical potential of these new gold(III) complexes.

  15. Synthesis, characterisation and biological properties of gold(III) compounds with modified bipyridine and bipyridylamine ligands.

    PubMed

    Casini, Angela; Diawara, Mariam Celine; Scopelliti, Rosario; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Grätzel, Michael; Dyson, Paul J

    2010-03-07

    Square planar gold(III) complexes that contain functionalised bipyridine ligands of general formula [Au(N--N)Cl(2)][PF(6)] [where N--N = 2,2'-bipyridine, 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, 4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine and 4,4'-diamino-2,2'-bipyridine] have been prepared and characterised by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Two of the complexes have also been characterised in the solid state by X-ray crystallography. In addition, a gold(iii) compound bearing a dipyridin-2-ylamine ligand was also prepared and characterised. The complexes were found to undergo hydrolysis under pseudo-physiological conditions. Moreover, the complexes showed moderate to good cytotoxicity in vitro towards the A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cell line and the cisplatin resistant variant A2780cisR. Reactivity studies with biomolecules, such as reducing agents, plasmid DNA and a model protein (ubiquitin) were also performed to provide tentative insights into the mode of action of the complexes.

  16. Triphenyltin derivatives of sulfanylcarboxylic esters.

    PubMed

    Casas, José S; Couce, María D; Sánchez, Agustín; Seoane, Rafael; Sordo, José; Perez-Estévez, Antonio; Vázquez-López, Ezequiel

    2018-03-01

    The reaction of 3-(aryl)-2-sulfanylpropenoic acids [H 2 xspa; x: p=3-phenyl-, f=3-(2-furyl)-, t=3-(2-thienyl)-] with methanol or ethanol gave the corresponding methyl (Hxspme) or ethyl (Hxspee) esters. The reaction of these esters (HL) with triphenyltin(IV) hydroxide gave compounds of the type [SnPh 3 L], which were isolated and characterized as solids by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and in solution by multinuclear ( 1 H, 13 C and 119 Sn) NMR spectroscopy. The structures of [SnPh 3 (pspme)], [SnPh 3 (fspme)] and [SnPh 3 (fspee)] were determined by X-ray diffractometry and the antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, Resistant P. aeruginosa (a strain resistant to 'carbapenem'), and C. albicans was tested and the in vitro cytotoxic activity against the HeLa-229, A2780 and A2780cis cell lines was determined for all compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Discovery and investigation of anticancer ruthenium-arene Schiff-base complexes via water-promoted combinatorial three-component assembly.

    PubMed

    Chow, Mun Juinn; Licona, Cynthia; Yuan Qiang Wong, Daniel; Pastorin, Giorgia; Gaiddon, Christian; Ang, Wee Han

    2014-07-24

    The structural diversity of metal scaffolds makes them a viable alternative to traditional organic scaffolds for drug design. Combinatorial chemistry and multicomponent reactions, coupled with high-throughput screening, are useful techniques in drug discovery, but they are rarely used in metal-based drug design. We report the optimization and validation of a new combinatorial, metal-based, three-component assembly reaction for the synthesis of a library of 442 Ru-arene Schiff-base (RAS) complexes. These RAS complexes were synthesized in a one-pot, on-a-plate format using commercially available starting materials under aqueous conditions. The library was screened for their anticancer activity, and several cytotoxic lead compounds were identified. In particular, [(η6-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene)RuCl(4-methoxy-N-(2-quinolinylmethylene)aniline)]Cl (4) displayed low micromolar IC50 values in ovarian cancers (A2780, A2780cisR), breast cancer (MCF7), and colorectal cancer (HCT116, SW480). The absence of p53 activation or changes in IC50 value between p53+/+ and p53-/- cells suggests that 4 and possibly the other lead compounds may act independently of the p53 tumor suppressor gene frequently mutated in cancer.

  18. Dietary Compound Proanthocyanidins from Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) leaves inhibit angiogenesis and regulate cell cycle of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells via targeting Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shiguo; Wei, Chaoyang; Rankin, Gary O; Rojanasakul, Yon; Ren, Ning; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2018-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancy and natural products have drawn great attention for cancer treatment. Chinese bayberry leaves proanthocyanidin (BLPs) with epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) as its terminal and major extension units is unusual in the plant kingdom. In the present study, BLPs showed strong growth inhibitory effects on cisplatin-resistant A2780/CP70 cells by inhibiting angiogenesis and inducing G1 cell cycle arrest. BLPs reduced the tube formation in HUVECs and attenuated the wound healing ability in A2780/CP70 cells. BLPs further reduced the level of ROS and targeted Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP-1 pathway to reduce the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, and thus inhibited angiogenesis. Furthermore, BLPs induced G1 cell cycle arrest by reducing the expressions of c-Myc, cyclin D1 and CDK4, which was also in accordance with the flow cytometry analysis. Overall, these results indicated that BLPs could be a valuable resource of natural compounds for cancer treatment.

  19. Lack of a correlation between micronucleus formation and radiosensitivity in established and primary cultures of human tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Villa, R.; Zaffaroni, N.; Gornati, D.; Costa, A.; Silvestrini, R.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation-induced genotoxic damage in three established cell lines and 15 primary cultures of human malignant melanoma and ovarian carcinoma showing different radiosensitivity was tested by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. A dose-related increase in micronucleus frequency was observed in all the cell systems. The mean number of micronuclei per Gy of ionising radiation per binucleated cell was respectively 0.44 +/- 0.0075 and 0.43 +/- 0.04 for M14 and JR8 malignant melanoma cell lines and 0.19 +/- 0.013 for the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. The number of micronuclei did not rank the cell lines in the same order of radiosensitivity as clonogenic cell survival, which showed a surviving fraction at 2 Gy of 0.38 +/- 0.02 for JR8, 0.34 +/- 0.05 for M14 and 0.22 +/- 0.007 for A2780. As regards primary tumour cultures, no correlation was observed between micronucleus induction and surviving fraction at 2 Gy. In conclusion, the discrepancy we observed between micronucleus formation and cell death raises doubts about the potential of the micronucleus assay as a preclinical means to predict radiosensitivity. Images Figure 1 PMID:7981062

  20. Regulating the anticancer properties of organometallic dendrimers using pyridylferrocene entities: synthesis, cytotoxicity and DNA binding studies.

    PubMed

    Govender, Preshendren; Riedel, Tina; Dyson, Paul J; Smith, Gregory S

    2016-06-21

    A new series of eight first- and second-generation heterometallic ferrocenyl-derived metal-arene metallodendrimers, containing ruthenium(ii)-p-cymene, ruthenium(ii)-hexamethylbenzene, rhodium(iii)-cyclopentadienyl or iridium(iii)-cyclopentadienyl moieties have been prepared. The metallodendrimers were synthesized by first reacting DAB-(NH2)n (where n = 4 or 8, DAB = diaminobutane) with salicylaldehyde, and then the Schiff-base dendritic ligands were reacted in a one-pot reaction with the appropriate [(η(6)-p-iPrC6H4Me)RuCl2]2, [(η(6)-C6Me6)RuCl2]2, [(η(5)-C5Me5)IrCl2]2 or [(η(5)-C5Me5)RhCl2]2 dimers, in the presence of 4-pyridylferrocene. Heterometallic binuclear analogues were prepared as models of the larger metallodendrimers. All complexes have been characterized using analytical and spectroscopic methods. The cytotoxicity of the heterometallic metallodendrimers and their binuclear analogues were evaluated against A2780 cisplatin-sensitive and A2780cisR cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cell lines and against a non-tumorigenic HEK-293 human embryonic kidney cell line. The second generation Ru(ii)-η(6)-C6Me6 metallodendrimer is the most cytotoxic and selective compound. DNA binding experiments reveal that a possible mode-of-action of these compounds involves non-covalent interactions with DNA.

  1. NOXA-Induced Alterations in the Bax/Smac Axis Enhance Sensitivity of Ovarian Cancer Cells to Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao; Zhao, Xin-yu; Li, Lei; Liu, Huan-yi; Cao, Kang; Wan, Yang; Liu, Xin-yu; Nie, Chun-lai; Liu, Lei; Tong, Ai-ping; Deng, Hong-xin; Li, Jiong; Yuan, Zhu; Wei, Yu-quan

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death from gynecologic malignancy. Deregulation of p53 and/or p73-associated apoptotic pathways contribute to the platinum-based resistance in ovarian cancer. NOXA, a pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, is identified as a transcription target of p53 and/or p73. In this study, we found that genetic variants of Bcl-2 proteins exist among cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian cancer cells, and the responses of NOXA and Bax to cisplatin are regulated mainly by p53. We further evaluated the effect of NOXA on cisplatin. NOXA induced apoptosis and sensitized A2780s and SKOV3 cells to cisplatin in vitro and in vivo. The effects were mediated by elevated Bax expression, enhanced caspase activation, release of Cyt C and Smac into the cytosol. Furthermore, gene silencing of Bax or Smac significantly attenuated NOXA and/or cisplatin-induced apoptosis in chemosensitive A2780s cells, whereas overexpression of Bax or addition of Smac-N7 peptide significantly increased NOXA and/or cisplatin-induced apoptosis in chemoresistant SKOV3 cells. To our knowledge, these data suggest a new mechanism by which NOXA chemosensitized ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin by inducing alterations in the Bax/Smac axis. Taken together, our findings show that NOXA is potentially useful as a chemosensitizer in ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:22590594

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of new polynuclear organometallic Ru(II), Rh(III) and Ir(III) pyridyl ester complexes as in vitro antiparasitic and antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Chellan, Prinessa; Land, Kirkwood M; Shokar, Ajit; Au, Aaron; An, Seung Hwan; Taylor, Dale; Smith, Peter J; Riedel, Tina; Dyson, Paul J; Chibale, Kelly; Smith, Gregory S

    2014-01-14

    New polynuclear organometallic Platinum Group Metal (PGM) complexes containing di- and tripyridyl ester ligands have been synthesised and characterised using analytical and spectroscopic techniques including (1)H, (13)C NMR and infrared spectroscopy. Reaction of these polypyridyl ester ligands with either [Ru(p-cymene)Cl2]2, [Rh(C5Me5)Cl2]2 or [Ir(C5Me5)Cl2]2 dimers yielded the corresponding di- or trinuclear organometallic complexes. The polyaromatic ester ligands act as monodentate donors to each metal centre and this coordination mode was confirmed upon elucidation of the molecular structures for two of the dinuclear complexes. The di- and trinuclear PGM complexes synthesized were evaluated for inhibitory effects on the human protozoal parasites Plasmodium falciparum strain NF54 (chloroquine sensitive), Trichomonas vaginalis strain G3 and the human ovarian cancer cell lines, A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive) and A2780cisR (cisplatin-resistant) cell lines. All of the complexes were observed to have moderate to high antiplasmodial activities and the compounds with the best activities were evaluated for their ability to inhibit formation of synthetic hemozoin in a cell free medium. The in vitro antitumor evaluation of these complexes revealed that the trinuclear pyridyl ester complexes demonstrated moderate activities against the two tumor cell lines and were also less toxic to model non-tumorous cells.

  3. Multidrug resistant lncRNA profile in chemotherapeutic sensitive and resistant ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Wu, Jiacong; Fu, Chenyang; Teng, Fang; Liu, Siyu; Dai, Chencheng; Shen, Rong; Jia, Xuemei

    2018-06-01

    Most ovarian cancer patients are chemosensitive initially, but finally relapse with acquired chemoresistance. Multidrug-resistance is the extremely terrible situation. The mechanism for the acquired chemoresistance of ovarian cancer patients is still not clear. LncRNAs have been recognized as the important regulator of a variety of biological processes, including the multidrug-resistant process. Here, we carried out the lncRNA sequencing of the ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and the paxitaxel resistant cell line A2780/PTX which is also cross resistant to the cisplatin and epirubicin. Through integrating the published data with the cisplatin resistant lncRNAs in ovarian cancer cell line or ovarian cancer patients, 5 up-regulated and 21 down-regulated lncRNAs are considered as the multidrug-resistant lncRNAs. By real-time PCR analysis, we confirmed the 5 up-regulated and 4 down-regulated multidrug resistant lncRNAs were similarly changed in both the multidrug resistant ovarian cancer cell lines and the multidrug resistant colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we conducted the lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network to predict the potential multidrug resistant lncRNAs' targets. Interestingly, the multidrug resistant genes ABCB1, ABCB4, ABCC3, and ABCG2 are all co-expressed with lncRNA CTD-2589M5.4. Our results provide the valuable information for the understanding of the lncRNA function in the multidrug resistant process. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cytotoxic hydrogen bridged ruthenium quinaldamide complexes showing induced cancer cell death by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lord, Rianne M; Allison, Simon J; Rafferty, Karen; Ghandhi, Laura; Pask, Christopher M; McGowan, Patrick C

    2016-08-16

    This report presents the first known p-cymene ruthenium quinaldamide complexes which are stabilised by a hydrogen-bridging atom, [{(p-cym)Ru(II)X(N,N)}{H(+)}{(N,N)XRu(II)(p-cym)}][PF6] (N,N = functionalised quinaldamide and X = Cl or Br). These complexes are formed by a reaction of [p-cymRu(μ-X)2]2 with a functionalised quinaldamide ligand. When filtered over NH4PF6, and under aerobic conditions the equilibrium of NH4PF6 ⇔ NH3 + HPF6 enables incorporation of HPF6 and the stabilisation of two monomeric ruthenium complexes by a bridging H(+), which are counter-balanced by a PF6 counterion. X-ray crystallographic analysis is presented for six new structures with OO distances of 2.420(4)-2.448(15) Å, which is significant for strong hydrogen bonds. Chemosensitivity studies against HCT116, A2780 and cisplatin-resistant A2780cis human cancer cells showed the ruthenium complexes with a bromide ancillary ligand to be more potent than those with a chloride ligand. The 4'-fluoro compounds show a reduction in potency for both chloride and bromide complexes against all cell lines, but an increase in selectivity towards cancer cells compared to non-cancer ARPE-19 cells, with a selectivity index >1. Mechanistic studies showed a clear correlation between IC50 values and induction of cell death by apoptosis.

  5. Synthesis, Anticancer Activity, and Genome Profiling of Thiazolo Arene Ruthenium Complexes.

    PubMed

    Grozav, Adriana; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Balacescu, Loredana; Cheminel, Thomas; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Therrien, Bruno

    2015-11-12

    Sixteen hydrazinyl-thiazolo arene ruthenium complexes of the general formula [(η(6)-p-cymene)Ru(N,N'-hydrazinyl-thiazolo)Cl]Cl were synthesized. All complexes were tested in vitro for their antiproliferative activity on three tumor cell lines (HeLa, A2780, and A2780cisR) and on a noncancerous cell line (HFL-1). A superior cytotoxic activity of the ruthenium complexes as compared to cisplatin and oxaliplatin, on both cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells, was observed. In addition, the biological activity of two selected derivatives was evaluated using microarray gene expression assay and ingenuity pathway analysis. p53 signaling was identified as an important pathway modulated by both arene ruthenium compounds. New activated molecules such as FAS, ZMAT3, PRMT2, BBC3/PUMA, and PDCD4, whose overexpressions are correlated with overcoming resistance to cisplatin therapy, were also identified as potential targets. Moreover, the arene ruthenium complexes can be used in association with cisplatin to prevent cisplatin resistance development and synergistically to induce cell death in ovarian cancer cells.

  6. Isolation and cytotoxicity evaluation of taxanes from the barks of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhang-Hua; Chen, Yu; Guo, Yan-Qiong; Qiu, Jie; Zhu, Cui-Ge; Jin, Jing; Tang, Gui-Hua; Bu, Xian-Zhang; Yin, Sheng

    2015-03-15

    Fifteen taxanes (1-15) including a new taxane glucoside, 7β,9α,10β-triacetoxy-13α-hydroxy-5α-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)taxa-4(20),11-diene (1), were isolated from the barks of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei. Compounds 1-15 representing three sub-types of 6/8/6-taxane were evaluated in vitro for anti-proliferative activity against a panel of parental and drug-resistant cancer cells. Potent compounds were found while several exhibited selective cytotoxicity. Especially, 3, 8, and 10 showed selective inhibition to breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7, while 13 selectively inhibited taxol resistant human ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780/TAX (IC50=0.19μM), being more potent than the clinical drugs taxol (IC50=4.4μM) and docetaxol (IC50=0.42μM), and less cytotoxic to mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3, a cell line close to normal cell line. The possible P-glycoprotein evasion mechanism of 13 against A2780/TAX and the preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) of this group of compounds were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation, characterisation and preliminary antitumour activity evaluation of a novel nanoparticulate system based on a cisplatin-hyaluronate complex and N-trimethyl chitosan.

    PubMed

    Cafaggi, Sergio; Russo, Eleonora; Stefani, Rossana; Parodi, Brunella; Caviglioli, Gabriele; Sillo, Greta; Bisio, Angela; Aiello, Cinzia; Viale, Maurizio

    2011-06-01

    In this work, nanoparticles with a positive surface charge were prepared through the electrostatic interaction of a new cisplatin-hyaluronate complex with N-trimethyl chitosan (substitution degree of 85%). Mean particle diameter was approximately 195 nm. Drug loading of nanoparticles, which had a zeta potential of about 27 mV, was equal to 6% w/w. After 24 h, while the cisplatin-hyaluronate complex released approximately 60% w/w drug in phosphate buffered saline at pH 7.4, approximately 40% w/w of total cisplatin was released from nanoparticles. The same cumulative amounts of released drug were found after 48 h. These nanoparticles, as well as the starting cisplatin-hyaluronate complex, were active on all cell lines tested (P388, A2780, A549), with an antiproliferative activity similar to that of cisplatin. Apoptosis was markedly induced in A2780 cells by nanoparticles. In a preliminary in vivo experiment, the antitumour activity against a murine tumour (P388 cells) subcutaneously implanted in mice, resulted similar to that of cisplatin for nanoparticles whereas the starting complex showed a non-significant activity at the cisplatin dose tested. Body weight change of treated mice suggested a significantly better tolerance of the nanoparticles compared to cisplatin, after an initial brief period of acute toxicity higher than the parent drug. These results indicate that such a particulate system could be useful as a carrier for cisplatin delivery.

  8. Nobiletin enhances the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in ABCB1 overexpression cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenzhe; Feng, Senling; Yao, Xiaojun; Yuan, Zhongwen; Liu, Liang; Xie, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major obstacle to the successful chemotherapy treatment of many cancers. Here we found that nobiletin, a citrus methoxyflavone, significantly sensitized ABCB1 overexpressing cells A2780/T and A549/T to chemotherapeutic agents such as paclitaxel (a 433-fold reversal of MDR to PTX at 9 μM), doxorubicin (DOX), docetaxel and dounorubicin. Nobiletin profoundly inhibited ABCB1 transporter activity since it significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX and Flutax-2 in A2780/T cells and decreased the efflux of ABCB1 substrates in Caco2 cells without altering the mRNA and protein expression of ABCB1. Moreover, nobiletin stimulated ATPase activity and inhibited verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating a direct interaction with the transporter. Consistent with these findings, molecular docking analysis also identified favorable binding of nobiletin with the transmemberane region site 1 of homology modeled human ABCB1 transporter. Moreover, the Nrf2 protein expression and phosphorylation levels of AKT/ERK were suppressed by co-treated with nobiletin and PTX at the reversal concentrations, suggesting that inhibition of the AKT/ERK/Nrf2 pathway was associated with the sensitizing effect of nobiletin. These findings encourage further animal and clinical MDR studies with the combination therapy of nobiletin and chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:26689156

  9. Nobiletin enhances the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in ABCB1 overexpression cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenzhe; Feng, Senling; Yao, Xiaojun; Yuan, Zhongwen; Liu, Liang; Xie, Ying

    2015-12-22

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major obstacle to the successful chemotherapy treatment of many cancers. Here we found that nobiletin, a citrus methoxyflavone, significantly sensitized ABCB1 overexpressing cells A2780/T and A549/T to chemotherapeutic agents such as paclitaxel (a 433-fold reversal of MDR to PTX at 9 μM), doxorubicin (DOX), docetaxel and dounorubicin. Nobiletin profoundly inhibited ABCB1 transporter activity since it significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX and Flutax-2 in A2780/T cells and decreased the efflux of ABCB1 substrates in Caco2 cells without altering the mRNA and protein expression of ABCB1. Moreover, nobiletin stimulated ATPase activity and inhibited verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating a direct interaction with the transporter. Consistent with these findings, molecular docking analysis also identified favorable binding of nobiletin with the transmemberane region site 1 of homology modeled human ABCB1 transporter. Moreover, the Nrf2 protein expression and phosphorylation levels of AKT/ERK were suppressed by co-treated with nobiletin and PTX at the reversal concentrations, suggesting that inhibition of the AKT/ERK/Nrf2 pathway was associated with the sensitizing effect of nobiletin. These findings encourage further animal and clinical MDR studies with the combination therapy of nobiletin and chemotherapeutic drugs.

  10. Tangeretin sensitizes cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells through downregulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Arafa, El-Shaimaa A; Zhu, Qianzheng; Barakat, Bassant M; Wani, Gulzar; Zhao, Qun; El-Mahdy, Mohamed A; Wani, Altaf A

    2009-12-01

    Combination of innocuous dietary components with anticancer drugs is an emerging new strategy for cancer chemotherapy to increase antitumor responses. Tangeretin is a citrus flavonoid known to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Here, we show an enhanced response of A2780/CP70 and 2008/C13 cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells to various combination treatments of cisplatin and tangeretin. Pretreatment of cells with tangeretin before cisplatin treatment synergistically inhibited cancer cell proliferation. This combination was effective in activating apoptosis via caspase cascade as well as arresting cell cycle at G(2)-M phase. Moreover, phospho-Akt and its downstream substrates, e.g., NF-kappaB, phospho-GSK-3beta, and phospho-BAD, were downregulated upon tangeretin-cisplatin treatment. The tangeretin-cisplatin-induced apoptosis in A2780/CP70 cells was increased by phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibition and siRNA-mediated Akt silencing, but reduced by overexpression of constitutively activated Akt and GSK-3beta inhibition. The overall results indicated that tangeretin exposure preconditions cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells for a conventional response to low-dose cisplatin-induced cell death occurring through downregulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Thus, effectiveness of tangeretin combinations, as a promising modality in the treatment of resistant cancers, warrants systematic clinical studies.

  11. Tangeretin Sensitizes Cisplatin-resistant Human Ovarian Cancer Cells through Down-regulation of PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Arafa, El-Shaimaa A.; Zhu, Qianzheng; Barakat, Bassant M.; Wani, Gulzar; Zhao, Qun; El-Mahdy, Mohamed A.; Wani, Altaf A.

    2012-01-01

    Combination of innocuous dietary components with anticancer drugs is an emerging new strategy for cancer chemotherapy to increase anti-tumor responses. Tangeretin (TG) is a citrus flavonoid known to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Here, we show an enhanced response of A2780/CP70 and 2008/C13 cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells to various combination treatments of cisplatin (Cis) and tangeretin. Pretreatment of cells with tangeretin prior to cisplatin treatment synergistically inhibited cancer cell proliferation. This combination was effective in activating apoptosis via caspase cascade as well as arresting cell cycle at G2/M-phase. Moreover, phospho-Akt and its downstream substrates, e.g., NF-κB, phospho-GSK-3β and phospho-BAD were down-regulated upon tangeretin-cisplatin treatment. The tangeretin-cisplatin induced apoptosis in A2780/CP70 cells was increased by phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibition and siRNA-mediated Akt silencing, but reduced by over-expression of constitutively activated-Akt and GSK-3β inhibition. The overall results indicated that tangeretin exposure preconditions cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells for a conventional response to low-dose cisplatin-induced cell death occurring through down-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Thus, effectiveness of tangeretin combinations, as a promising modality in the treatment of resistant cancers, warrants systematic clinical studies. PMID:19903849

  12. Spectroscopy, electrochemistry and antiproliferative properties of Au(iii), Pt(ii) and Cu(ii) complexes bearing modified 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine ligands.

    PubMed

    Maroń, Anna; Czerwińska, Katarzyna; Machura, Barbara; Raposo, Luis; Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Małecki, Jan G; Szlapa-Kula, Agata; Kula, Slawomir; Krompiec, Stanisław

    2018-04-24

    Structural, spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of six complexes [AuCl(L1)](PF6)2·CH3CN (1), [AuCl(L2)](PF6)2 (2), [PtCl(L1)](BPh4)·CH3CN (3), [PtCl(L2)](SO3CF3) (4), [CuCl2(L1)] (5) and [CuCl2(L2)]·CH3CN (6) with modified 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine ligands, 4'-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (L1) and 4'-(4-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (L2) were thoroughly investigated and a significant role of the substituent (4-methoxyphenyl or 4-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl) and the metal center was demonstrated. The naphthyl-based substituent was found to increase the emission quantum yield of the luminescent Au(iii) and Pt(ii) complexes. Furthermore, the antiproliferative potential of the reported complexes was examined towards human colorectal (HCT116) and ovarian (A2780) carcinoma cell lines as well as towards normal human fibroblasts. The Au(iii) complex 2 and Cu(ii) complex 5 were found to have a higher antiproliferative effect on HCT116 colorectal and A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells when compared with the Pt(ii) complex with the same ligand (4). The order of cytotoxicity in both cell lines is 2 > 6 > 1 > 3 > 4. Complex 2 seems to be more cytotoxic towards HCT116 and A2780 cancer cell lines with IC50 values 300× and 130× higher in normal human fibroblasts compared to the respective cancer cells. The viability loss induced by the complexes agrees with Hoechst 33258 staining and the typical morphological apoptotic characteristics like chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation and flow cytometry assay. The induction of apoptosis correlates with the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Fluorescence microscopy analysis indicates that after 3 h of incubation, complexes 1-4 are localized inside HCT116 cells and the high levels of internalization correlate with their cytotoxicity.

  13. Inhibition of epithelial ovarian cancer by Minnelide, a water-soluble pro-drug.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Colleen; Geller, Melissa; Schnettler, Erica; Saluja, Manju; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Saluja, Ashok; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2014-11-01

    Minnelide is a water-soluble pro-drug of triptolide, a natural product. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Minnelide on ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. The effect of Minnelide on ovarian cancer cell proliferation was determined by real time electrical impedance measurements. Multiple mouse models with C200 and A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines were used to assess the efficacy of Minnelide in inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. Minnelide decreased cell viability of both platinum sensitive and resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Minnelide with carboplatin showed additive effects in vitro. Minnelide monotherapy increased the survival of mice bearing established ovarian tumors. Minnelide, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, improved overall survival of mice. Minnelide is a promising pro-drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer, especially when combined with standard chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antidepressants and platinum drugs.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Brigitte J; Ryan, John J; Farrell, Nicholas P

    2014-01-01

    Antidepressants are frequently prescribed concurrently with anti-cancer drugs and may have synergistic, additive or antagonistic effects. The present work investigated the effect of antidepressants on the cytotoxicity of platinum agents cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin. The cytotoxicity of platinum drugs alone or in combination with antidepressants was measured in HCT116 wild-type (wt), HCT116 (p53 -/-), HT-29, SKOV3 and A2780 cells using an apoptosis-based assay. The effect of antidepressants on platinum cytotoxicity is both cell type- and drug dependent. Mostly additive effects were observed. Desipramine and fluoxetine caused the greatest effects, with cisplatin in general being most sensitive to their presence. There is little effect of p53 status on the drug-drug interaction while the calmodulin inhibitor W7 augmented cisplatin cytotoxicity relative to carboplatin and oxaliplatin. The drug-drug interaction between antidepressants and platinum anti-cancer agents requires detailed evaluation for optimization of patient care.

  15. Revealing the Cytotoxicity of Residues of Phosphazene Catalysts Used for the Synthesis of Poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Xia, Yening; Shen, Jizhou; Alamri, Haleema; Hadjichristidis, Nikos; Zhao, Junpeng; Wang, Yucai; Zhang, Guangzhao

    2017-10-09

    We herein report a case study on the toxicity of residual catalyst in metal-free polymer. Eight-arm star-like poly(ethylene oxide)s were successfully synthesized via phosphazene-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide using sucrose as an octahydroxy initiator. The products were subjected to MTT assay using human cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and A2780). Comparison between the crude and purified products clearly revealed that the residual phosphazenium salts were considerably cytotoxic, regardless of the anionic species, and that the cytotoxicity of more bulky t-BuP 4 salt was higher than that of t-BuP 2 salt. Such results have therefore put forward the necessity for removal of the catalyst residues from PEO-based polymers synthesized through phosphazene catalysis for biorelated applications and for the development of less or nontoxic organocatalysts for such polymers.

  16. A Series of Enthalpically Optimized Docetaxel Analogues Exhibiting Enhanced Antitumor Activity and Water Solubility.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-Tao; Yang, Yanting; Cai, Pei; Sun, De-Yang; Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro A; Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Jia, Wen-Qiang; Lei, Lei; Guo, Mengqi; Gago, Federico; Wang, Hongbo; Fang, Wei-Shuo

    2018-03-23

    A dual-purpose strategy aimed at enhancing the binding affinity for microtubules and improving the water solubility of docetaxel led to the design and synthesis of a series of C-2- and C-3'-modified analogues. Both aims were realized when the C-3' phenyl group present in docetaxel was replaced with a propargyl alcohol. The resulting compound, 3f, was able to overcome drug resistance in cultured P-gp-overexpressing tumor cells and showed greater activity than docetaxel against drug-resistant A2780/AD ovarian cancer xenografts in mice. In addition, the considerably lower hydrophobicity of 3f relative to both docetaxel and paclitaxel led to better aqueous solubility. A molecular model of tubulin-bound 3f revealed novel hydrogen-bonding interactions between the propargyl alcohol and the polar environment provided by the side chains of Ser236, Glu27, and Arg320.

  17. Overexpression of CARMA3 is associated with advanced tumor stage, cell cycle progression, and cisplatin resistance in human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chengyao; Han, Yong; Fu, Lin; Li, Qingchang; Qiu, Xueshan; Wang, Enhua

    2014-08-01

    CARD recruited membrane associated protein 3 (CARMA3) overexpression has been found in several human cancers. However, its expression pattern and biological roles in human ovarian cancers are not clear. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of CARMA3 in 101 ovarian cancer specimens. We found that 52 (51.5 %) showed CARMA3 overexpression. CARMA3 overexpression positively correlated with tumor histology and advanced FIGO stage. CARMA3 depletion in ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and HO8910 inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation and blocked cell cycle progression. CARMA3 depletion also sensitized ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, Western blot showed that CARMA3 depletion downregulated cyclin D1, cyclin E, and Bcl-2 levels. In conclusion, our data provides evidence that CARMA3 is overexpressed in ovarian cancers and associated with advanced stage. CARMA3 regulates the ovarian cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and chemoresistance.

  18. Anticancer Organometallic Osmium(II)-p-cymene Complexes.

    PubMed

    Păunescu, Emilia; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Clavel, Catherine M; Scopelliti, Rosario; Griffioen, Arjan W; Dyson, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Osmium compounds are attracting increasing attention as potential anticancer drugs. In this context, a series of bifunctional organometallic osmium(II)-p-cymene complexes functionalized with alkyl or perfluoroalkyl groups were prepared and screened for their antiproliferative activity. Three compounds from the series display selectivity toward cancer cells, with moderate cytotoxicity observed against human ovarian carcinoma (A2780) cells, whereas no cytotoxicity was observed on non-cancerous human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells and human endothelial (ECRF24) cells. Two of these three cancer-cell-selective compounds induce cell death largely via apoptosis and were also found to disrupt vascularization in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Based on these promising properties, these compounds have potential clinical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Antiproliferative compounds of Helmiopsis sphaerocarpa from the Madagascar rainforest.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shugeng; Brodie, Peggy; Miller, James S; Birkinshaw, Chris; Rakotondrafara, A; Andriantsiferana, Rabodo; Rasamison, Vincent E; Kingston, David G I

    2009-01-01

    Bioassay-directed separation of an ethanol extract of the leaves of Helmiopsis sphaerocarpa L.C. Barnett (Sterculiaceae) led to the isolation of the new compound 14alpha,15alpha-epoxy-3beta-hydroxytaraxerane (1) and the four known compounds taraxerol (2), stigmast-5-en-3-ol (3), 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxy-24(S)-methylcholesta-6,22-dien-3beta-ol (4), and 24xi-hydroperoxy-24-ethylcholesta-4,28(29)-dien-3-one (5). The structure of the new compound 1 was established on the basis of interpretation of its 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All the compounds were tested against A2780 human ovarian cancer cell lines, and compounds 4 and 5 showed mild antiproliferative activity, with IC(50) values of 16 and 7 microg mL(-1), respectively.

  20. Isolation of the New Antiplasmodial Butanolide, Malleastrumolide A, from Malleastrum sp. (Meliaceae) from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Du, Yongle; Abedi, Alexander K; Valenciano, Ana Lisa; Fernández-Murga, Maria L; Cassera, Maria B; Rasamison, Vincent E; Applequist, Wendy L; Miller, James S; Kingston, David G I

    2017-12-01

    An extract of Malleastrum sp. (Meliaceae) collected in Madagascar by the Madagascar International Cooperative Biodiversity Group was found to have antimalarial activity, with an IC 50 value between 2.5 and 5 μg ml -1 . After purification by liquid-liquid partition, chromatography on a Diaion open column, C 18 SPE and C 18 reversed phase HPLC, the new butanolide, malleastrumolide A, was isolated. The structure of malleastrumolide A was determined by mass spectrometry, NMR, and ECD. The double bond position was determined by cross-metathesis and mass spectrometry. The compound has antiproliferative activity against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line with an IC 50 value of 17.4 μm and antiplasmodial activity against the drug-resistant Dd2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum with an IC 50 value of 2.74 μm. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. In vitro circumvention of cisplatin resistance by the novel sterically hindered platinum complex AMD473.

    PubMed Central

    Holford, J.; Sharp, S. Y.; Murrer, B. A.; Abrams, M.; Kelland, L. R.

    1998-01-01

    A novel sterically hindered platinum complex, AMD473 [cis-aminedichloro(2-methylpyridine) platinum (II)], has been selected for phase I clinical trials due to commence in 1997. AMD473 was rationally designed to react preferentially with nucleic acids over sulphur ligands such as glutathione. This report documents the in vitro circumvention of acquired cisplatin resistance mechanisms in human ovarian carcinoma (HOC) cell lines by AMD473. In a panel of 11 HOC cell lines, AMD473 showed intermediate growth inhibition potency (mean IC50 of 8.1 microM) in comparison to cisplatin (mean IC50 of 2.6 microM) and carboplatin (mean IC50 of 20.3 microM). AMD473 showed only a 30.7-fold increase in IC50 value from the most sensitive to the most resistant HOC cell line, whereas for cisplatin it was 117.9-fold and for carboplatin 119.7-fold. AMD473 also showed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced cross-resistance to cisplatin in a panel of three cell lines with known acquired platinum drug resistance mechanisms (mean RF for AMD473 was 1.9, for cisplatin 9.1). Cellular accumulation of AMD473 was not reduced in two HOC cell lines (A2780cisR and 41McisR), in which reduced cisplatin accumulation is a major mechanism of acquired cisplatin resistance. AMD473 naked-DNA binding was significantly less affected (P < 0.05) than that of cisplatin by the presence of 5 mM glutathione. Also, AMD473 almost completely circumvented acquired cisplatin resistance in a cell line (A2780cisR) with fivefold elevated intracellular glutathione levels compared with the parent A2780 cell line when measured by clonogenic assay (RF 4.5 for AMD473 vs RF 18 for cisplatin). AMD473 also showed a lower increase in IC50 than cisplatin in an A2780 cell line model with artificially elevated glutathione levels. AMD473 DNA binding was slower than that of cisplatin on both naked and cellular DNA. AMD473 also formed DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) at a slower rate than cisplatin (peak ICL formation was at 5 h for cisplatin

  2. The nerve growth factor alters calreticulin translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface and its signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vera, Carolina Andrea; Oróstica, Lorena; Gabler, Fernando; Ferreira, Arturo; Selman, Alberto; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen Aurora

    2017-04-01

    Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer among women worldwide, causing approximately 120,000 deaths every year. Immunotherapy, designed to boost the body's natural defenses against cancer, appears to be a promising option against ovarian cancer. Calreticulin (CRT) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident chaperone that, translocated to the cell membrane after ER stress, allows cancer cells to be recognized by the immune system. The nerve growth factor (NGF) is a pro-angiogenic molecule overexpressed in this cancer. In the present study, we aimed to determine weather NGF has an effect in CRT translocation induced by cytotoxic and ER stress. We treated A2780 ovarian cancer cells with NGF, thapsigargin (Tg), an ER stress inducer and mitoxantrone (Mtx), a chemotherapeutic drug; CRT subcellular localization was analyzed by immunofluorescence followed by confocal microscopy. In order to determine NGF effect on Mtx and Tg-induced CRT translocation from the ER to the cell membrane, cells were preincubated with NGF prior to Mtx or Tg treatment and CRT translocation to the cell surface was determined by flow cytometry. In addition, by western blot analyses, we evaluated proteins associated with the CRT translocation pathway, both in A2780 cells and human ovarian samples. We also measured NGF effect on cell apoptosis induced by Mtx. Our results indicate that Mtx and Tg, but not NGF, induce CRT translocation to the cell membrane. NGF, however, inhibited CRT translocation induced by Mtx, while it had no effect on Tg-induced CRT exposure. NGF also diminished cell death induced by Mtx. NGF effect on CRT translocation could have consequences in immunotherapy, potentially lessening the effectiveness of this type of treatment.

  3. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of LHRHa-targeted brucea javanica oil liposomes for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hongxia; Liu, Xiaojuan; Sun, Jiangchuan; Zhu, Shenyin; Zhu, Yi; Chang, Shufang

    2016-10-29

    Although brucea javanica oil liposomes (BJOLs) have been used clinically to treat ovarian cancer, its clinical efficacy is often limited by systemic side effects due to non-specific distribution. Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone receptor (LHRHR) is overexpressed in most ovarian cancers but negligibly expressed in most of the other visceral organs. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel LHRHa targeted and BJO-loaded liposomes (LHRHa-BJOLs), and investigate its characteristics, targeting ability and anti-ovarian cancer efficiency both in vitro and in vivo. The LHRHa-BJOLs were prepared by film-dispersion and biotin-streptavidin linkage methods, and characterized in terms of its morphology, particle size, zeta potential, ligand conjugation, encapsulation efficiency and stability. The targeting nature and antitumor effects of the liposomes were evaluated in vitro using cultured human ovarian cancer A2780/DDP cells, and in vivo using ovarian cancer-bearing nude mice. The LHRHa-BJOLs were successfully synthesized, with a uniformly spherical shape, appropriate particle size and zeta potential, as well as a high encapsulation efficiency. Compared to non-targeted liposomes and BJO emulsion, the LHRHa-BJOLs could significantly increase specific intracellular uptaking rate, enhance cell inhibitory effect and induce cell apoptosis in A2780/DDP cells in vitro. Meanwhile, LHRHa-BJOLs also had a significantly stronger activity of targeting tumor tissue, inhibiting tumor growth, inducing tumor apoptosis and prolonging survival time in ovarian cancer-bearing mice in vivo. Our experiment suggests that LHRHa-BJOLs may be a useful targeted drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  4. Synthesis, Molecular Structure and Cytotoxicity of Molecular Materials Based on Water Soluble Half-Sandwich Rh(III) and Ir(III) Tetranuclear Metalla-Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gajendra; Murray, Benjamin S.; Dyson, Paul J.; Therrien, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The neutral dinuclear complexes [(η5-C5Me5)2Rh2(μ-dhnq)Cl2] (1) and [(η5-C5Me5)2Ir2(μ-dhnq)Cl2] (2) (dhnqH2 = 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) were obtained from the reaction of [(η5-C5Me5)M(μ-Cl)Cl]2 (M = Rh, Ir) with dhnqH2 in the presence of CH3COONa. Treatment of 1 or 2 in methanol with linear ditopic ligands L (L = pyrazine, 4,4′-bipyridine or 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene), in the presence of AgCF3SO3, affords the corresponding tetranuclear metalla-rectangles [(η5-C5Me5)4M4(μ-dhnq)2(μ-L)2]4+ (L = pyrazine, M = Rh, 3; M = Ir, 4; L = 4,4′-bipyridine, M = Rh, 5; M = Ir, 6; L = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene, M = Rh, 7; M = Ir, 8). All complexes were isolated as their triflate salts and were fully characterized by infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and some representative complexes by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The X-ray structures of 3, 5 and 6 confirm the formation of the tetranuclear metalla-cycles, and suggest that complexes 5 and 6 possess a cavity of sufficient size to encapsulate small guest molecules. In addition, the antiproliferative activity of the metalla-cycles 3–8 was evaluated against the human ovarian A2780 (cisplatin sensitive) and A2780cisR (cisplatin resistant) cancer cell lines and on non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. All cationic tetranuclear metalla-rectangles were found to be highly cytotoxic, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. PMID:28788394

  5. Copper(II) Complexes of Phenanthroline and Histidine Containing Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of their DNA Cleavage and Cytotoxic Activity.

    PubMed

    Leite, Sílvia M G; Lima, Luís M P; Gama, Sofia; Mendes, Filipa; Orio, Maylis; Bento, Isabel; Paulo, António; Delgado, Rita; Iranzo, Olga

    2016-11-21

    Copper(II) complexes have been intensely investigated in a variety of diseases and pathological conditions due to their therapeutic potential. The development of these complexes requires a good knowledge of metal coordination chemistry and ligand design to control species distribution in solution and tailor the copper(II) centers in the right environment for the desired biological activity. Herein we present the synthesis and characterization of two ligands HL1 and H 2 L2 containing a phenanthroline unit (phen) attached to the amino group of histidine (His). Their copper(II) coordination properties were studied using potentiometry, spectroscopy techniques (UV-vis and EPR), mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and DFT calculations. The data showed the formation of single copper complexes, [CuL1] + and [CuL2], with high stability within a large pH range (from 3.0 to 9.0 for [CuL1] + and from 4.5 to 10.0 for [CuL2]). In both complexes the Cu 2+ ion is bound to the phen unit, the imidazole ring and the deprotonated amide group, and displays a distorted square pyramidal geometry as confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Interestingly, despite having similar structures, these copper complexes show different redox potentials, DNA cleavage properties and cytotoxic activity against different cancer cell lines (human ovarian (A2780), its cisplatin-resistant variant (A2780cisR) and human breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines). The [CuL2] complex has lower reduction potential (E pc = -0.722 V vs -0.452 V for [CuL1] + ) but higher biological activity. These results highlight the effect of different pendant functional groups (carboxylate vs amide), placed out of the coordination sphere, in the properties of these copper complexes.

  6. The anti-tumor effect and bioactive phytochemicals of Hedyotis diffusa willd on ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Jing; Qi, Bing; Jiang, Guoqiang; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Pei; Ma, Yuan; Li, Weiling

    2016-11-04

    Hedyotis diffusa willd (HDW) is a widely used medicinal herb in China. It processed various medicinal properties including antioxidative, anti-inflamatory and anti-cancer effects. This study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor effects of HDW on ovarian cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms as well as identify the bioactive compounds. Effects of HDW on the viability of ovarian cancer A2780 cells were detected by MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected by cell morphologic observation through DAPI staining and flow cytometry analysis. The migration of ovarian cancer cells which exposed to HDW were detected by wound healing and transwell assays. The protein levels of caspase 3/9, Bcl-2 and MMP-2/9 in human ovarian cancer cells treated with HDW were assessed by western blotting analysis. The potential bioactive compounds were characterized by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. HDW significantly inhibited the growth of A2780 ovarian cancer cells and induced apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis by HDW was associated with down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase 3/9. Wound healing and transwell chamber assays indicated HDW suppressed the migration of ovarian cancer cells. HDW dramatically decreased MMP-2/9 expression. A HPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis of HDW indicated the presence of 13 flavonoids compounds and one anthraquinone compound, which may contribute to the anticancer activity of the HDW. HDW effectively restricted the growth of ovarian cancer cells and induced apoptosis through the mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, HDW suppressed the migration of ovarian cancer cells through down-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. These results showed that HDW hold potential therapeutic effect for ovarian cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced graphene oxide-silver nanoparticle nanocomposite: a potential anticancer nanotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eunsu; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Graphene and graphene-based nanocomposites are used in various research areas including sensing, energy storage, and catalysis. The mechanical, thermal, electrical, and biological properties render graphene-based nanocomposites of metallic nanoparticles useful for several biomedical applications. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the fifth most deadly cancer in women; most tumors initially respond to chemotherapy, but eventually acquire chemoresistance. Consequently, the development of novel molecules for cancer therapy is essential. This study was designed to develop a simple, non-toxic, environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-silver (rGO-Ag) nanoparticle nanocomposites using Tilia amurensis plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The anticancer properties of rGO-Ag were evaluated in ovarian cancer cells. The synthesized rGO-Ag nanocomposite was characterized using various analytical techniques. The anticancer properties of the rGO-Ag nanocomposite were evaluated using a series of assays such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, cellular levels of malonaldehyde and glutathione, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation in ovarian cancer cells (A2780). AgNPs with an average size of 20 nm were uniformly dispersed on graphene sheets. The data obtained from the biochemical assays indicate that the rGO-Ag nanocomposite significantly inhibited cell viability in A2780 ovarian cancer cells and increased lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation compared with other tested nanomaterials such as graphene oxide, rGO, and AgNPs. T. amurensis plant extract-mediated rGO-Ag nanocomposites could facilitate the large-scale production of graphene-based nanocomposites; rGO-Ag showed a significant inhibiting effect on cell viability compared to graphene oxide, rGO, and silver nanoparticles. The nanocomposites could be

  8. Enhanced Cytotoxic Effects of Combined Valproic Acid and the Aurora Kinase Inhibitor VE465 on Gynecologic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanfang; Liu, Tao; Ivan, Cristina; Huang, Jie; Shen, De-Yu; Kavanagh, John J.; Bast, Robert C.; Fu, Siqing; Hu, Wei; Sood, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that targeting epigenetic changes including acetylation and deacetylation of core nucleosomal histones as well as Aurora kinases hold promise for improving the treatment of human cancers including ovarian cancer. We investigated whether the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), and the Aurora kinase inhibitor VE465 can have additive or synergistic effects on gynecologic cancer cells. We tested the in vitro antitumor activity of VPA and VE465, alone and in combination, in gynecologic cancer cells and assessed potential mechanisms of action. 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis revealed that 72 h of treatment with VPA or VE465 alone induced dose-dependent cytotoxic effects in nine gynecologic cancer cell lines (ovarian: 2008/C13, OVCAR3, SKOV3, and A2780; cervical: ME180 and CaSki; endometrial: HEC-1B; and uterine sarcoma: MES-SA and MES-SA/D×5). Co-treatment with VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects on five of these cell lines: ovarian: 2008/C13, A2780, and OVCAR3; endometrial: HEC-1B; and cervical: ME180. In ovarian 2008/C13 cells, co-treatment with VPA (2 mM) and VE465 (1 μM) induced more apoptosis than either VPA or VE465 alone. Western blot analysis showed that VPA alone increased the expression of cleaved PARP and p21 in a dose-dependent manner in 2008/C13 cells, while co-treatment with VPA and VE465 induced more cleaved PARP than treatment with VPA or VE465 alone did. The combined use of VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects in some ovarian cancer cells, via enhanced induction of apoptosis. Targeting epigenetics with the HDAC inhibitor, in combination with Aurora kinase inhibitors, holds promise for more effective therapy of ovarian cancer. PMID:23519775

  9. Reduced graphene oxide–silver nanoparticle nanocomposite: a potential anticancer nanotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eunsu; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Background Graphene and graphene-based nanocomposites are used in various research areas including sensing, energy storage, and catalysis. The mechanical, thermal, electrical, and biological properties render graphene-based nanocomposites of metallic nanoparticles useful for several biomedical applications. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the fifth most deadly cancer in women; most tumors initially respond to chemotherapy, but eventually acquire chemoresistance. Consequently, the development of novel molecules for cancer therapy is essential. This study was designed to develop a simple, non-toxic, environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide–silver (rGO–Ag) nanoparticle nanocomposites using Tilia amurensis plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The anticancer properties of rGO–Ag were evaluated in ovarian cancer cells. Methods The synthesized rGO–Ag nanocomposite was characterized using various analytical techniques. The anticancer properties of the rGO–Ag nanocomposite were evaluated using a series of assays such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, cellular levels of malonaldehyde and glutathione, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation in ovarian cancer cells (A2780). Results AgNPs with an average size of 20 nm were uniformly dispersed on graphene sheets. The data obtained from the biochemical assays indicate that the rGO–Ag nanocomposite significantly inhibited cell viability in A2780 ovarian cancer cells and increased lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation compared with other tested nanomaterials such as graphene oxide, rGO, and AgNPs. Conclusion T. amurensis plant extract-mediated rGO–Ag nanocomposites could facilitate the large-scale production of graphene-based nanocomposites; rGO–Ag showed a significant inhibiting effect on cell viability compared to graphene oxide, rGO, and

  10. Potent Half-Sandwich Iridium(III) Anticancer Complexes Containing C∧N-Chelated and Pyridine Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of eight half-sandwich cyclopentadienyl IrIII pyridine complexes of the type [(η5-Cpxph)Ir(phpy)Z]PF6, in which Cpxph = C5Me4C6H5 (tetramethyl(phenyl)cyclopentadienyl), phpy = 2-phenylpyridine as C∧N-chelating ligand, and Z = pyridine (py) or a pyridine derivative. Three X-ray crystal structures have been determined. The monodentate py ligands blocked hydrolysis; however, antiproliferative studies showed that all the Ir compounds are highly active toward A2780, A549, and MCF-7 human cancer cells. In general the introduction of an electron-donating group (e.g., Me, NMe2) at specific positions on the pyridine ring resulted in increased antiproliferative activity, whereas electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., COMe, COOMe, CONEt2) decreased anticancer activity. Complex 5 displayed the highest anticancer activity, exhibiting submicromolar potency toward a range of cancer cell lines in the National Cancer Institute NCI-60 screen, ca. 5 times more potent than the clinical platinum(II) drug cisplatin. DNA binding appears not to be the major mechanism of action. Although complexes [(η5-Cpxph)Ir(phpy)(py)]+ (1) and [(η5-Cpxph)Ir(phpy)(4-NMe2-py)]+ (5) did not cause cell apoptosis or cell cycle arrest after 24 h drug exposure in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells at IC50 concentrations, they increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) dramatically and led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), which appears to contribute to the anticancer activity. This class of organometallic Ir complexes has unusual features worthy of further exploration in the design of novel anticancer drugs. PMID:25328266

  11. ESC-3 induces apoptosis of human ovarian carcinomas through Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qi-Rui; Song, Wei; Deng, Yi-Tao; Li, Hua-Liang; Mao, Xiao-Mei; Lin, Chen-Lu; Zheng, Ya-Hui; Chen, Shu-Ming; Chen, Qiong-Hua; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis, programmed cell death under physiological or pathological conditions, plays a critical role in the tissue homeostasis of eukaryotes. It is desirable to prevent the occurrence and metastasis of cancer through inducing apoptosis. Our previous study demonstrated that apoptosis could be induced by extract from crocodile in human cholangiocarcinoma. ESC-3, a novel cytotoxic compound isolated from the extract induced apoptosis in Mz-ChA-1 cells via the mitochondria-dependent pathway in a dose-dependent manner. In this study, ESC-3 significantly inhibited the proliferation of A2780 cells and arrested the cells at G2/M phase. After exposure to ESC-3, A2780 cells displayed typical morphological changes and the ability of colony-forming was remarkably inhibited. ESC-3 could significantly upregulate the expression of Bax proteins while Bcl-2 protein remained unchanged, resulting in the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which usually could induce apoptosis. The critical protein of Wnt signaling (β-catenin) was significantly downregulated, whereas Hes1, the downstream protein of Notch signaling, was remarkably attenuated through upregulating the expression of P53. In addition, xenograft models demonstrated that ESC-3 effectively suppressed the growth of OvCa tumors (T/C=42%). Western blot analysis of PCNA and VEGF confirmed that ESC-3 could inhibit the growth and metastasis of OvCa tumors. In conclusion, apoptosis could be induced by ESC-3 through Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling in vitro and in vivo, and might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of human OvCa.

  12. Gallium phosphinoarylbisthiolato complexes counteract drug resistance of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Vălean, Ana-Maria; Virag, Piroska; Ilea, Petru; Tatomir, Corina; Imre-Lucaci, Florica; Schrepler, Maria Perde; Krausz, Ludovic Tibor; Tudoran, Lucian Barbu; Precup, Calin George; Lupan, Iulia; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminita

    2014-04-01

    In cancer therapy the platinum-based drugs are used frequently with a good clinical outcome, but besides unwanted side effects which occur, the tumour cells subjected to treatment are prone to develop tolerance or even multidrug resistance (MDR). Metal compounds with a central atom other than platinum are efficient in targeting the chemoresistant cells, therefore the biological outcome of two recently synthesized gallium phosphinoarylbisthiolato complexes was studied, having the formula [X][Ga{PPh(2-SC6H4)2-κ(3)S,S',P}{PPh(2-SC6H4)2-κ(2)S,S'}] where [X] is either the NEt3H (1) or PPh4 (2) cation. Compounds 1 and 2 display in vitro cytotoxicity against both platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant cell lines (A2780 and A2780cis). Morphological and ultrastructural evidence points toward their capacity to impair tumour cells survival. This behaviour is based on malignant cells capacity to selectively intake gallium, and to bind to the cellular DNA. They are able to cause massive DNA damage in treated cancer cells, focusing on 7-methylguanine and 8-oxoguanine sites and oxidizing the pyrimidine bases; this leads to early apoptosis of a significant percent of treated cells. The intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways are influenced through the modulation of gene expression following the treatment with complexes 1 and 2, which accompanies the negative regulation of P-glycoprotein 1 (Pgp-1), an important cellular ABC-type transporter from the multidrug resistance (MDR) family. The studied Ga(III) compounds demonstrated the capacity to counteract the chemoresistance mechanisms in the tumours defiant to standard drug action. Compound 2 shows a good anticancer potential and it could represent an alternative to platinum-based drugs especially in the situation of standard treatment failure.

  13. Relationships of Ex-Vivo Drug Resistance Assay and Cytokine Production with Clinicopathological Features in the Primary Cell Culture of Thai Ovarian and Fallopian Tube Cancer Patients

    PubMed

    Mon, May Thuu; Yodkeeree, Supachai; Punfa, Wanisa; Umsumarng, Sonthaya; Lekwanavijit, Suree; Siriaunkgul, Sumalee; Suprasert, Prapaporn; Limtrakul, Pornngarm

    2017-11-26

    Objective: Our goal was to determine the ex-vivo drug resistance assay, as well as the cytokine production, in response to platinum-based chemotherapy treatment in primary culture cells established from the tumor tissue of ovarian or fallopian tube carcinoma patients, and to predict the clinical responses to chemotherapy. Methods: Sensitivity to the platinum-based drug was analyzed in two ovarian cancer cell lines and 19 tumor samples using the primary cell culture obtained from 19 patients having ovarian or fallopian tube cancer that had undergone surgery from 2014 to 2017. Results: Our findings in the ovarian cancer cell lines showed that SKOV3 cells displayed 10-fold greater resistance to cisplatin and 5.8 times more resistance to carboplatin than A2780 cells. SKOV3 cells displayed platinum-induced IL-6 and IL-8 overproduction whereas wild type A2780 displayed no detectable cytokine production. Regarding the primary cell culture obtained from patients, ex-vivo drug resistance assay results revealed that although extreme drug resistance was correlated with late stage ovarian cancer (P= 0.031), it could not independently predict or alter the outcomes of patients with ovarian or fallopian tube cancer. No relationship was found between basal cytokine secretion and the clinical parameters. However, carboplatin-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production had a significant association with the clinical response to chemotherapy (P=0.016 and P=0.038 respectively). Carboplatin-induced IL-8 overproduction was correlated with FIGO staging III-IV (P=0.026), but no correlation between carboplatin-induced IL-6 and FIGO staging (P= 0.061) was noted. Conclusion: These results suggest that cytokine production in response to platinum-based chemotherapy in primary culture cells may be useful as a predictive marker for the therapeutic outcomes among ovarian or fallopian tube cancer patients. Creative Commons Attribution License

  14. Transferrin and octaarginine modified dual-functional liposomes with improved cancer cell targeting and enhanced intracellular delivery for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Pranali; Jhaveri, Aditi; Pattni, Bhushan; Biswas, Swati; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2018-11-01

    Off-target effects of drugs severely limit cancer therapy. Targeted nanocarriers are promising to enhance the delivery of therapeutics to tumors. Among many approaches for active tumor-targeting, arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides (AR-CPP) and ligands specific to target over-expressed receptors on cancer-cell surfaces, are popular. Earlier, we showed that the attachment of an AR-CPP octaarginine (R8) to the surface of DOXIL ® (Doxorubicin encapsulated PEGylated liposomes) improved cytoplasmic and nuclear DOX delivery that enhanced the cytotoxic effect in vitro and improved therapeutic efficacy in vivo. Here, we report on DOX-loaded liposomes, surface-modified with, R8 and transferrin (Tf) (Dual DOX-L), to improve targeting of A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells via the over-expressed transferrin receptors (TfRs) with R8-mediated intracellular DOX delivery. Flow cytometry analysis with fluorescently labeled DualL (without DOX) showed two-fold higher cancer-cell association than other treatments after 4 h treatment. Blocking entry pathways of R8 (macropinocytosis) and Tf (receptor-mediated endocytosis, RME) resulted in a decreased cancer-cell association of DualL. Confocal microscopy confirmed involvement of both entry pathways and cytoplasmic liposome accumulation with nuclear DOX delivery for Dual DOX-L. Dual DOX-L exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity in vitro and was most effective in controlling tumor growth in vivo in an A2780 ovarian xenograft model compared to other treatments. A pilot biodistribution study showed improved DOX accumulation in tumors after Dual DOX-L treatment. All results collectively presented a clear advantage of the R8 and Tf combination to elevate the therapeutic potential of DOX-L by exploiting TfR over-expression imparting specificity followed by endosomal escape and intracellular delivery via R8.

  15. Brown algae phlorotannins enhance the tumoricidal effect of cisplatin and ameliorate cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yeong-In; Ahn, Ji-Hye; Choi, Youn Seok; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-02-01

    The clinical application of cisplatin is limited due to its drug resistance and side effects. We investigated the effect of a phlorotannin-rich extract from the edible brown alga Ecklonia cava (PREC) and its major phlorotannin (dieckol) on cisplatin responsiveness and side effects. The A2780 and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell lines and the SKOV3-bearing mouse model were used. The MTT assay was applied to assess cell viability, and the annexin V assay was employed for apoptosis analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and protein expression were assessed by H2DCFDA staining and Western blotting, respectively. We found that PREC enhanced the tumor growth-inhibitory effect of cisplatin and diminished cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and weight loss in SKOV3-bearing mice. PREC augmented cisplatin-induced apoptosis by activating caspases in SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells. In addition, a combination of PREC and cisplatin-induced ovarian cancer cell apoptosis by downregulating the Akt and NFκB pathways. We further demonstrated that PREC increased intracellular ROS and that antioxidants significantly attenuated Akt-NFκB activation and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. In contrast, PREC inhibited cisplatin-induced ROS production and cell death in normal HEK293 kidney cells. Dieckol, a major compound in PREC, significantly enhanced the inhibition of tumor growth by cisplatin with less weight loss and kidney damage in a mouse model. These data suggest that brown algae phlorotannins may improve the efficacy of platinum drugs for ovarian cancer by enhancing cancer cell apoptosis via the ROS/Akt/NFκB pathway and reduce nephrotoxicity by protecting against normal kidney cell damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Restoration of microRNA-708 sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin via IGF2BP1/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xuying; Sun, Linlin; Wang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    A previous study has shown that microRNA-708 (miR-708) functions as a metastasis suppressor in ovarian cancer. In this study, we aimed to explore its implication in regulating cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer cells. To this end, ovarian cancer cells were transfected with miR-708-expressing plasmids or vector before treatment with different concentrations of cisplatin for 48 h. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) value was calculated. Apoptosis was analyzed by measuring caspase-3 activity. The target gene mediating the function of miR-708 was identified. Ectopic expression of miR-708 sensitized SKOV3 and A2780 cells to cisplatin, decreasing the IC 50 value by two- to threefold. miR-708 overexpression significantly augmented cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells, which was coupled with increased caspase-3 activity by two- to fourfold. Similarly, overexpression of miR-708 increased the sensitivity of cisplatin-resistant SKOV3/DDP and A2780/DDP cells to cisplatin-induced toxicity, reducing the IC 50 by three- and fivefold, respectively. Delivery of miR-708 enhanced cisplatin-induced elevation in caspase-3 activity in both cisplatin-resistant and parental ovarian cancer cells. Mechanistically, miR-708 downregulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) and suppressed Akt phosphorylation. Silencing of IGF2BP1 markedly blocked the phosphorylation of Akt. Overexpression of IGF2BP1 restored cisplatin resistance and Akt phosphorylation in miR-708-overexpressing ovarian cancer cells. Collectively, miR-708 increases the susceptibility of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin by targeting IGF2BP1 and inhibiting Akt signaling. Delivery of miR-708 may represent a promising strategy for improving cisplatin chemotherapy. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  17. Nanoceria: a rare-earth nanoparticle as a novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic agent in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Giri, Shailendra; Karakoti, Ajay; Graham, Rondell P; Maguire, Jacie L; Reilly, Christopher M; Seal, Sudipta; Rattan, Ramandeep; Shridhar, Viji

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is the fifth most common cause of death from all cancers among women in United Sates and the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. While most OvCa patients initially respond to surgical debulking and chemotherapy, 75% of patients later succumb to the disease. Thus, there is an urgent need to test novel therapeutic agents to counteract the high mortality rate associated with OvCa. In this context, we have developed and engineered Nanoceria (NCe), nanoparticles of cerium oxide, possessing anti-oxidant properties, to be used as a therapeutic agent in OvCa. We show for the first time that NCe significantly inhibited production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A2780 cells, attenuated growth factor (SDF1, HB-EGF, VEGF(165) and HGF) mediated cell migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells, without affecting the cell proliferation. NCe treatment also inhibited VEGF(165) induced proliferation, capillary tube formation, activation of VEGFR2 and MMP2 in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). NCe (0.1 mg/kg body weigh) treatment of A2780 ovarian cancer cells injected intra-peritoneally in nude mice showed significant reduction (p<0.002) in tumor growth accompanied by decreased tumor cell proliferation as evident from reduced tumor size and Ki67 staining. Accumulation of NCe was found in tumors isolated from treated group using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Reduction of the tumor mass was accompanied by attenuation of angiogenesis, as observed by reduced CD31 staining and specific apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. Collectively, these results indicate that cerium oxide based NCe is a novel nanoparticle that can potentially be used as an anti-angiogenic therapeutic agent in ovarian cancer.

  18. Nanoceria: A Rare-Earth Nanoparticle as a Novel Anti-Angiogenic Therapeutic Agent in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Shailendra; Karakoti, Ajay; Graham, Rondell P.; Maguire, Jacie L.; Reilly, Christopher M.; Seal, Sudipta; Rattan, Ramandeep; Shridhar, Viji

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is the fifth most common cause of death from all cancers among women in United Sates and the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. While most OvCa patients initially respond to surgical debulking and chemotherapy, 75% of patients later succumb to the disease. Thus, there is an urgent need to test novel therapeutic agents to counteract the high mortality rate associated with OvCa. In this context, we have developed and engineered Nanoceria (NCe), nanoparticles of cerium oxide, possessing anti-oxidant properties, to be used as a therapeutic agent in OvCa. We show for the first time that NCe significantly inhibited production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A2780 cells, attenuated growth factor (SDF1, HB-EGF, VEGF165 and HGF) mediated cell migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells, without affecting the cell proliferation. NCe treatment also inhibited VEGF165 induced proliferation, capillary tube formation, activation of VEGFR2 and MMP2 in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). NCe (0.1 mg/kg body weigh) treatment of A2780 ovarian cancer cells injected intra-peritoneally in nude mice showed significant reduction (p<0.002) in tumor growth accompanied by decreased tumor cell proliferation as evident from reduced tumor size and Ki67 staining. Accumulation of NCe was found in tumors isolated from treated group using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Reduction of the tumor mass was accompanied by attenuation of angiogenesis, as observed by reduced CD31 staining and specific apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. Collectively, these results indicate that cerium oxide based NCe is a novel nanoparticle that can potentially be used as an anti-angiogenic therapeutic agent in ovarian cancer. PMID:23382918

  19. Organometallic Iridium(III) Anticancer Complexes with New Mechanisms of Action: NCI-60 Screening, Mitochondrial Targeting, and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Platinum complexes related to cisplatin, cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2], are successful anticancer drugs; however, other transition metal complexes offer potential for combating cisplatin resistance, decreasing side effects, and widening the spectrum of activity. Organometallic half-sandwich iridium (IrIII) complexes [Ir(Cpx)(XY)Cl]+/0 (Cpx = biphenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl and XY = phenanthroline (1), bipyridine (2), or phenylpyridine (3)) all hydrolyze rapidly, forming monofunctional G adducts on DNA with additional intercalation of the phenyl substituents on the Cpx ring. In comparison, highly potent complex 4 (Cpx = phenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl and XY = N,N-dimethylphenylazopyridine) does not hydrolyze. All show higher potency toward A2780 human ovarian cancer cells compared to cisplatin, with 1, 3, and 4 also demonstrating higher potency in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) NCI-60 cell-line screen. Use of the NCI COMPARE algorithm (which predicts mechanisms of action (MoAs) for emerging anticancer compounds by correlating NCI-60 patterns of sensitivity) shows that the MoA of these IrIII complexes has no correlation to cisplatin (or oxaliplatin), with 3 and 4 emerging as particularly novel compounds. Those findings by COMPARE were experimentally probed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of A2780 cells exposed to 1, showing mitochondrial swelling and activation of apoptosis after 24 h. Significant changes in mitochondrial membrane polarization were detected by flow cytometry, and the potency of the complexes was enhanced ca. 5× by co-administration with a low concentration (5 μM) of the γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase inhibitor L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO). These studies reveal potential polypharmacology of organometallic IrIII complexes, with MoA and cell selectivity governed by structural changes in the chelating ligands. PMID:23618382

  20. Valeriana jatamansi constituent IVHD-valtrate as a novel therapeutic agent to human ovarian cancer: in vitro and in vivo activities and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoguang; Chen, Tao; Lin, Sheng; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Peizhan; Ba, Qian; Guo, He; Liu, Yanling; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Weidong; Wang, Hui

    2013-05-01

    Identification of novel chemotherapeutic agents from traditional medicines and elucidation of the molecular basis of their anticancer effects are critical and urgently needed for modern pharmacotherapy. We previously found that analogs of the compounds present in Valeriana jatamansi, a traditional medicine used to treat mental disorders, possess notable antitumor properties; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully demonstrated. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer effects of IVHD-valtrate, one of the most active Valeriana jatamansi derivatives, against human ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. IVHD-valtrate inhibited the growth and proliferation of the A2780 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, while relatively low cytotoxicity to immortalized non-tumorigenic human ovarian surface epithelial cells (IOSE-144) was observed. Treatment with IVHD-valtrate arrested the ovarian cancer cells in the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis, and significantly suppressed the growth of A2780 and OVCAR3 xenograft tumors in a dose-dependent manner. The detailed in vitro and in vivo study on the molecular mechanisms of this compound demonstrated that IVHD-valtrate exposure modulated the expression of numerous molecules involved in cell cycle progression and apoptosis regardless of p53 status, leading to increase the level of p53, Rb, p21, p27 and decrease Mdm2, E2F1, Cyclin B1, Cdc25C and Cdc2. It also down-regulated Bcl-2/Bax and Bcl-2/Bad ratio and enhanced the cleavage of PARP and Caspases. Our preclinical results indicated IVHD-valtrate is a potential therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer, providing a basis for development of the compound as a novel chemotherapeutic agent.

  1. D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate-based derivative nanoparticles as a novel carrier for paclitaxel delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yupei; Chu, Qian; Tan, Songwei; Zhuang, Xiangting; Bao, Yuling; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most effective antineoplastic drugs. Its current clinical administration Taxol® is formulated in Cremophor EL, which causes serious side effects. Nanoparticles (NP) with lower systemic toxicity and enhanced therapeutic efficiency may be an alternative formulation of the Cremophor EL-based vehicle for PTX delivery. In this study, novel amphipathic 4-arm-PEG-TPGS derivatives, the conjugation of D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) and 4-arm-polyethylene glycol (4-arm-PEG) with different molecular weights, have been successfully synthesized and used as carriers for the delivery of PTX. These 4-arm-PEG-TPGS derivatives were able to self-assemble to form uniform NP with PTX encapsulation. Among them, 4-arm-PEG5K-TPGS NP exhibited the smallest particle size, highest drug-loading efficiency, negligible hemolysis rate, and high physiologic stability. Therefore, it was chosen for further in vitro and in vivo investigations. Facilitated by the effective uptake of the NP, the PTX-loaded 4-arm-PEG5K-TPGS NP showed greater cytotoxicity compared with free PTX against human ovarian cancer (A2780), non-small cell lung cancer (A549), and breast adenocarcinoma cancer (MCF-7) cells, as well as a higher apoptotic rate and a more significant cell cycle arrest effect at the G2/M phase in A2780 cells. More importantly, PTX-loaded 4-arm-PEG5K-TPGS NP resulted in a significantly improved tumor growth inhibitory effect in comparison to Taxol® in S180 sarcoma-bearing mice models. This study suggested that 4-arm-PEG5K-TPGS NP may have the potential as an anticancer drug delivery system. PMID:26316751

  2. Metformin, at Concentrations Corresponding to the Treatment of Diabetes, Potentiates the Cytotoxic Effects of Carboplatin in Cultures of Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Erices, Rafaela; Bravo, Maria Loreto; Gonzalez, Pamela; Oliva, Bárbara; Racordon, Dusan; Garrido, Marcelo; Ibañez, Carolina; Kato, Sumie; Brañes, Jorge; Pizarro, Javier; Barriga, Maria Isabel; Barra, Alejandro; Bravo, Erasmo; Alonso, Catalina; Bustamente, Eva; Cuello, Mauricio A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of the type 2 diabetics drug metformin has been correlated with enhanced progression-free survival in ovarian cancer. The literature has speculated that this enhancement is due to the high concentration of metformin directly causing cancer cell death. However, this explanation does not fit with clinical data reporting that the women exposed to constant micromolar concentrations of metformin, as present in the treatment of diabetes, respond better to chemotherapy. Herein, our aim was to examine whether micromolar concentrations of metformin alone could bring about cancer cell death and whether micromolar metformin could increase the cytotoxic effect of commonly used chemotherapies in A2780 and SKOV3 cell lines and primary cultured cancer cells isolated from the peritoneal fluid of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Our results in cell lines demonstrate that no significant loss of viability or change in cell cycle was observed with micromolar metformin alone; however, we observed cytotoxicity with micromolar metformin in combination with chemotherapy at concentrations where the chemotherapy alone produced no loss in viability. We demonstrate that previous exposure and maintenance of metformin in conjunction with carboplatin produces a synergistic enhancement in cytotoxicity of A2780 and SKOV3 cells (55% and 43%, respectively). Furthermore, in 5 (44%) of the 11 ovarian cancer primary cultures, micromolar metformin improved the cytotoxic response to carboplatin but not paclitaxel or doxorubicin. In conclusion, we present data that support the need for a clinical study to evaluate the adjuvant maintenance or prescription of currently approved doses of metformin during the chemotherapeutic treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:23653391

  3. New copper(I) and heteronuclear copper(I)-ruthenium(II) complexes: Synthesis, structural characterization and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lopes, João; Alves, David; Morais, Tânia S; Costa, Paulo J; Piedade, M Fátima M; Marques, Fernanda; Villa de Brito, Maria J; Helena Garcia, M

    2017-04-01

    A new family of copper(I) complexes of general formula [Cu(dppe)(NN)] + have been synthesized and fully characterized, with dppe=1.2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane and NN representing several bidentate heteroaromatic ligands: 2,2'-bipy=2.2'-bipyridine (1), Me 2 bpy=4.4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (2), dpytz=3-(2-pyridyl)-5,6-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazine (3), dpp=2.3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine (4), and the metallaligand [Ru(η 5 -C 5 H 5 )(PPh 3 )(dpp)] + (5), yielding the bimetallic copper(I)-ruthenium(II) complex [Cu(dppe)(μ-dpp)Ru(η 5 -C 5 H 5 )(PPh 3 )] 2+ (6). The single crystal structures of complexes (2) and (4) were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. All the complexes exhibit high cytotoxicity against the human cancer cells A2780 and MCF7 with IC 50 values far lower than those found for the antitumor drug cisplatin in the same cell lines and even surpassing cisplatin resistance in the A2780cisR cells. They display IC 50 values on the human embryonic kidney HEK293 non-tumoral cells of the same order of magnitude as those found for the tumoral cells. In the ovarian cells the compounds induce rapid production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) probably through mitochondrial pathways. According to the results reported here, these compounds can be considered as prospective antitumoral agents that deserve further evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metformin, at concentrations corresponding to the treatment of diabetes, potentiates the cytotoxic effects of carboplatin in cultures of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Erices, Rafaela; Bravo, Maria Loreto; Gonzalez, Pamela; Oliva, Bárbara; Racordon, Dusan; Garrido, Marcelo; Ibañez, Carolina; Kato, Sumie; Brañes, Jorge; Pizarro, Javier; Barriga, Maria Isabel; Barra, Alejandro; Bravo, Erasmo; Alonso, Catalina; Bustamente, Eva; Cuello, Mauricio A; Owen, Gareth I

    2013-12-01

    The use of the type 2 diabetics drug metformin has been correlated with enhanced progression-free survival in ovarian cancer. The literature has speculated that this enhancement is due to the high concentration of metformin directly causing cancer cell death. However, this explanation does not fit with clinical data reporting that the women exposed to constant micromolar concentrations of metformin, as present in the treatment of diabetes, respond better to chemotherapy. Herein, our aim was to examine whether micromolar concentrations of metformin alone could bring about cancer cell death and whether micromolar metformin could increase the cytotoxic effect of commonly used chemotherapies in A2780 and SKOV3 cell lines and primary cultured cancer cells isolated from the peritoneal fluid of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Our results in cell lines demonstrate that no significant loss of viability or change in cell cycle was observed with micromolar metformin alone; however, we observed cytotoxicity with micromolar metformin in combination with chemotherapy at concentrations where the chemotherapy alone produced no loss in viability. We demonstrate that previous exposure and maintenance of metformin in conjunction with carboplatin produces a synergistic enhancement in cytotoxicity of A2780 and SKOV3 cells (55% and 43%, respectively). Furthermore, in 5 (44%) of the 11 ovarian cancer primary cultures, micromolar metformin improved the cytotoxic response to carboplatin but not paclitaxel or doxorubicin. In conclusion, we present data that support the need for a clinical study to evaluate the adjuvant maintenance or prescription of currently approved doses of metformin during the chemotherapeutic treatment of ovarian cancer.

  5. Biocompatible Lipid Nanoparticles as Carriers To Improve Curcumin Efficacy in Ovarian Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bondì, Maria Luisa; Emma, Maria Rita; Botto, Chiara; Augello, Giuseppa; Azzolina, Antonina; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Cavallaro, Gennara; Bachvarov, Dimcho; Cervello, Melchiorre

    2017-02-22

    Curcumin is a natural molecule with proved anticancer efficacy on several human cancer cell lines. However, its clinical application has been limited due to its poor bioavailability. Nanocarrier-based drug delivery approaches could make curcumin dispersible in aqueous media, thus overtaking the limits of its low solubility. The aim of this study was to increase the bioavailability and the antitumoral activity of curcumin, by entrapping it into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). For this purpose here we describe the preparation and characterization of three kinds of curcumin-loaded NLCs. The nanosystems allowed the achievement of a controlled release of curcumin, the amounts of curcumin released after 24 h from Compritol-Captex, Compritol-Miglyol, and Compritol NLCs being, respectively, equal to 33, 28, and 18% w/w on the total entrapped curcumin. Considering the slower curcumin release profile, Compritol NLCs were chosen to perform successive in vitro studies on ovarian cancer cell lines. The results show that curcumin-loaded NLCs maintain anticancer activity, and reduce cell colony survival more effectively than free curcumin. As an example, the ability of A2780S cells to form colonies was decreased after treatment with 5 μM free curcumin by 50% ± 6, whereas, at the same concentration, the delivery of curcumin with NLC significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited colony formation to approximately 88% ± 1, therefore potentiating the activity of curcumin to inhibit A2780S cell growth. The obtained results clearly suggest that the entrapment of curcumin into NLCs increases curcumin efficacy in vitro, indicating the potential use of NLCs as curcumin delivery systems.

  6. Synthesis, Molecular Structure and Cytotoxicity of Molecular Materials Based on Water Soluble Half-Sandwich Rh(III) and Ir(III) Tetranuclear Metalla-Cycles.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gajendra; Murray, Benjamin S; Dyson, Paul J; Therrien, Bruno

    2013-11-20

    The neutral dinuclear complexes [(η⁵-C₅Me₅)₂Rh₂(μ-dhnq)Cl₂] ( 1 ) and [(η⁵-C₅Me₅)₂Ir₂(μ-dhnq)Cl₂] ( 2 ) (dhnqH₂ = 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) were obtained from the reaction of [(η⁵-C₅Me₅)M(μ-Cl)Cl]₂ (M = Rh, Ir) with dhnqH₂ in the presence of CH₃COONa. Treatment of 1 or 2 in methanol with linear ditopic ligands L (L = pyrazine, 4,4'-bipyridine or 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene), in the presence of AgCF₃SO₃, affords the corresponding tetranuclear metalla-rectangles [(η⁵-C₅Me₅)₄M₄(μ-dhnq)₂(μ-L)₂] 4+ (L = pyrazine, M = Rh, 3 ; M = Ir, 4 ; L = 4,4'-bipyridine, M = Rh, 5 ; M = Ir, 6 ; L = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene, M = Rh, 7 ; M = Ir, 8 ). All complexes were isolated as their triflate salts and were fully characterized by infrared, ¹H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy, and some representative complexes by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The X-ray structures of 3 , 5 and 6 confirm the formation of the tetranuclear metalla-cycles, and suggest that complexes 5 and 6 possess a cavity of sufficient size to encapsulate small guest molecules. In addition, the antiproliferative activity of the metalla-cycles 3 - 8 was evaluated against the human ovarian A2780 (cisplatin sensitive) and A2780cisR (cisplatin resistant) cancer cell lines and on non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. All cationic tetranuclear metalla-rectangles were found to be highly cytotoxic, with IC 50 values in the low micromolar range.

  7. Decreased Eph receptor‑A1 expression is related to grade in ovarian serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yunfeng; Zou, Yi; Wan, Linling; Lu, Mingming; Liu, Ya; Huang, Guoqin; Wang, Jiandong; Xi, Qinghua

    2018-04-01

    Eph receptor‑A1 (EphA1) was the first member of the erythropoietin producing hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Although the roles of EphA1 in the tumorigenesis of various human cancers have been investigated, few studies have focused on ovarian carcinoma. The present study aimed to explore the profile of EphA1 expression in ovarian carcinomas, to analyzed the association between EphA1 expression and clinicopathologic parameters, and to investigate the roles of overexpressed EphA1 in ovarian cancer cells. EphA1 protein was detected in ovarian cancer cell lines and in a set of formalin‑fixed tissues, including normal fallopian tube, ovarian benign serous cystadenoma, borderline serous tumors and serous carcinoma. Ovarian cancer cell lines HO8910 and A2780 were transiently transfected with EphA1‑pCMV6‑GFP plasmid, and the proliferation and apoptosis of cells were measured. The association between EphA1 expression and clinicopathological parameters was statistically analyzed. EphA1 expression was negative in HO8910 and weakly positive in A2780 cells. The proliferation rate was significantly reduced in ovarian cancer cells after transfection with EphA1 plasmid compared with cells transfected with mock plasmid or untreated cells, but no obvious alteration in apoptosis was detected among these groups. EphA1 expression was positively detected in all normal fallopian tubes (10/10, 100%) and ovarian benign serous cystadenomas (12/12, 100%) as well as in some borderline serous tumors (9/15, 60%) and ovarian serous carcinomas (33/76, 43.42%). EphA1 expression was associated with grade of ovarian serous carcinomas, with loss of EphA1 more often observed in high‑grade tumors (P=0.016) and high Ki67 index tumors (P=0.007). These data suggest that EphA1 might be a useful marker for distinguishing low grade from high‑grade ovarian serous carcinoma.

  8. Exploring the Effect of Polypyridyl Ligands on the Anticancer Activity of Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Complexes: From Proteosynthesis Inhibitors to Photodynamic Therapy Agents.

    PubMed

    Pracharova, Jitka; Vigueras, Gloria; Novohradsky, Vojtech; Cutillas, Natalia; Janiak, Christoph; Kostrhunova, Hana; Kasparkova, Jana; Ruiz, José; Brabec, Viktor

    2018-03-26

    A series of five kinetically inert bis-cyclometalated Ir III complexes of general formula [Ir(C^N) 2 (N^N)][PF 6 ] [C^N=2-phenyl-1-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-κN,C; N^N=1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 1), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq, 2), dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz, 3), benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppn, 4), and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine-10,11-imidazolone (dppz-izdo, 5)] were designed and synthesized to explore the effect of the degree of π conjugation of the polypyridyl ligand on their toxicity in cancer cells. We show that less-lipophilic complexes 1 and 2 exhibit the highest toxicity [sub-micromolar inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values] in A2780, HeLa, and MCF-7 cancer cells, and they are markedly more efficient than clinically used platinum drugs. It is noteworthy that the investigated Ir agents display the capability to overcome acquired and inherent resistance to conventional cisplatin (in A2780cisR and MCF-7 cells, respectively). We demonstrate that the Ir complexes, unlike clinically used platinum antitumor drugs, do not kill cells through DNA-damage response. Rather, they kill cells by inhibiting protein translation by targeting preferentially the endoplasmic reticulum. Our findings also reveal that the toxic effect of the Ir complexes can be significantly potentiated by irradiation with visible light (by more than two orders of magnitude). The photopotentiation of the investigated Ir complexes can be attributed to a marked increase (≈10-30-fold) in intracellular reactive oxygen species. Collectively, these data highlight the functional diversity of antitumor metal-based drugs and the usefulness of a mechanism-based rationale for selecting candidate agents that are effective against chemoresistant tumors for further preclinical testing. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Diazido Mixed-Amine Platinum(IV) Anticancer Complexes Activatable by Visible-Light Form Novel DNA Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yao; Woods, Julie A; Farrer, Nicola J; Robinson, Kim S; Pracharova, Jitka; Kasparkova, Jana; Novakova, Olga; Li, Huilin; Salassa, Luca; Pizarro, Ana M; Clarkson, Guy J; Song, Lijiang; Brabec, Viktor; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Platinum diam(m)ine complexes, such as cisplatin, are successful anticancer drugs, but suffer from problems of resistance and side-effects. Photoactivatable PtIV prodrugs offer the potential of targeted drug release and new mechanisms of action. We report the synthesis, X-ray crystallographic and spectroscopic properties of photoactivatable diazido complexes trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(MA)(Py)] (1; MA=methylamine, Py=pyridine) and trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(MA)(Tz)] (2; Tz=thiazole), and interpret their photophysical properties by TD-DFT modelling. The orientation of the azido groups is highly dependent on H bonding and crystal packing, as shown by polymorphs 1 p and 1 q. Complexes 1 and 2 are stable in the dark towards hydrolysis and glutathione reduction, but undergo rapid photoreduction with UVA or blue light with minimal amine photodissociation. They are over an order of magnitude more potent towards HaCaT keratinocytes, A2780 ovarian, and OE19 oesophageal carcinoma cells than cisplatin and show particular potency towards cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells (A2780cis). Analysis of binding to calf-thymus (CT), plasmids, oligonucleotide DNA and individual nucleotides reveals that photoactivated 1 and 2 form both mono- and bifunctional DNA lesions, with preference for G and C, similar to transplatin, but with significantly larger unwinding angles and a higher percentage of interstrand cross-links, with evidence for DNA strand cross-linking further supported by a comet assay. DNA lesions of 1 and 2 on a 50 bp duplex were not recognised by HMGB1 protein, in contrast to cisplatin-type lesions. The photo-induced platination reactions of DNA by 1 and 2 show similarities with the products of the dark reactions of the PtII compounds trans-[PtCl2(MA)(Py)] (5) and trans-[PtCl2(MA)(Tz)] (6). Following photoactivation, complex 2 reacted most rapidly with CT DNA, followed by 1, whereas the dark reactions of 5 and 6 with DNA were comparatively slow

  10. Increased expression of protein kinase CK2α correlates with poor patient prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zebiao; Wang, Xiaojing; He, Jiehua

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the deadly gynecological malignancies. The function of protein kinase CK2α (CK2α) in EOC is still unknown. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the protein expression of CK2α and the tumor progression, the prognosis of human EOC. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of CK2α through Western blot, using EOC cell lines like A2780, HO8910, COV644, OVCAR3, SKOV3, and the primary normal ovarian surface epithelial (NOSE) cells. Furthermore, OVCAR3 and SKOV3 EOC cells were employed as a cellular model to study the role of CK2α on cell growth, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and cell cycle distribution. In addition, we investigated CK2α protein expression in tumor tissues from patients with EOC by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the association between CK2α expression and clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis of EOC patients. And we found that compared with NOSE cells, CK2α protein expression was increased in A2780, HO8910, OVCAR3, and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell lines. Decreased CK2α expression suppressed OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cell growth and induced more apoptosis. CK2α knockdown using specific siRNAs inhibited migration and invasion ability of OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells. In addition, high CK2α protein expression was found in 68.4% (80/117) of EOC patients. Increased CK2α expression of was significantly correlated with FIGO staging and peritoneal cytology. Patients with higher CK2α expression had a significantly poorer overall survival compared with those with lower CK2α expression. Multi-variate Cox regression analysis proved that increased CK2α expression was an independent prognostic marker for EOC. Taken together, our data displayed that CK2α may play a role in tumor aggressive behavior of EOC and could be used as a marker for predicting prognosis of EOC patient. High CK2α expression might predict poor patient survival. PMID:28355289

  11. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis and study of the DNA-binding properties of bi- and tetranuclear gallium(III) complexes with heterocyclic thiolato ligands.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Beatriz; Kaluđerović, Milena R; Kommera, Harish; Paschke, Reinhard; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie; Remmerbach, Torsten W; Kaluđerović, Goran N; Gómez-Ruiz, Santiago

    2011-10-01

    The reaction of the heterocyclic thiol derivatives, 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (SH-imi), 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole (SH-tet), 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (SH-ben) and 5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (SH-oxa), with trimethylgallium (1:1) afforded the dimeric or tetrameric complexes [Me(2)Ga(S-imi)](2) (1), [Me(2)Ga(S-tet)](2) (2), [Me(2)Ga(S-ben)](2) (3) and [Me(2)Ga(S-oxa)](4) (4), respectively. Molecular structures of 2 and 4 were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The cytotoxicity of the gallium(III) complexes 1-4 was tested against human cell lines 8505C anaplastic thyroid cancer, A253 head and neck tumor, A549 lung carcinoma, A2780 ovarian cancer, DLD-1 colon carcinoma and compared with those of cisplatin and Ga(NO(3))(3). Compound 4 seems to be slightly more active against 8505C, A253 and A2780 and substantially more active than all the other complexes against DLD-1, with an IC(50) value of 5.49 ± 0.16 µM, very close to that of cisplatin (5.14 ± 0.12 µM). Complexes 1-4 were less toxic on normal human fibroblasts (WWO70327) than on the investigated tumor cell lines and more selective to cancer cells than cisplatin. DNA laddering method showed that treatment of the DLD-1 cell line with IC(90) doses of 1-4 resulted in the induction of apoptosis. Compound 1 caused apoptosis by upregulation of caspases 2, 3 and 8. Since no activity of caspase 9 is observed, complex 1 is causing apoptosis triggered by an extrinsic pathway. DNA-interaction tests have been also carried out. Solutions of all the studied complexes have been treated with different concentrations of fish sperm DNA (FS-DNA). Modifications of the UV spectra which gave intrinsic binding constants of 3.03 × 10(5), 4.44 × 10(5), 3.02 × 10(6) and 5.56 × 10(5) M(-1) for 1-4 were observed, however, no notable interaction with pBR322 plasmid DNA was detected.

  12. Downregulation of LRRC8A protects human ovarian and alveolar carcinoma cells against Cisplatin-induced expression of p53, MDM2, p21Waf1/Cip1, and Caspase-9/-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Nielsen, Dorthe; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Hoffmann, Else Kay; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-06-01

    The leucine-rich repeat containing 8A (LRRC8A) protein is an essential component of the volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC), and using pharmacological anion channel inhibitors (NS3728, DIDS) and LRRC8A siRNA we have investigated its role in development of Cisplatin resistance in human ovarian (A2780) and alveolar (A549) carcinoma cells. In Cisplatin-sensitive cells Cisplatin treatment increases p53-protein level as well as downstream signaling, e.g., expression of p21(Waf1/Cip1), Bax, Noxa, MDM2, and activation of Caspase-9/-3. In contrast, Cisplatin-resistant cells do not enter apoptosis, i.e., their p53 and downstream signaling are reduced and caspase activity unaltered following Cisplatin exposure. Reduced LRRC8A expression and VSOAC activity are previously shown to correlate with Cisplatin resistance, and here we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition and transient knockdown of LRRC8A reduce the protein level of p53, MDM2, and p21(Waf1/Cip1) as well as Caspase-9/-3 activation in Cisplatin-sensitive cells. Cisplatin resistance is accompanied by reduction in total LRRC8A expression (A2780) or LRRC8A expression in the plasma membrane (A549). Activation of Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis by TNFα-exposure or hyperosmotic cell shrinkage is almost unaffected by pharmacological anion channel inhibition. Our data indicate 1) that expression/activity of LRRC8A is essential for Cisplatin-induced increase in p53 protein level and its downstream signaling, i.e., Caspase-9/-3 activation, expression of p21(Waf1/Cip1) and MDM2; and 2) that downregulation of LRRC8A-dependent osmolyte transporters contributes to acquirement of Cisplatin resistance in ovarian and lung carcinoma cells. Activation of LRRC8A-containing channels is upstream to apoptotic volume decrease as hypertonic cell shrinkage induces apoptosis independent of the presence of LRRC8A. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Downregulation of LRRC8A protects human ovarian and alveolar carcinoma cells against Cisplatin-induced expression of p53, MDM2, p21Waf1/Cip1, and Caspase-9/-3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Nielsen, Dorthe; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    The leucine-rich repeat containing 8A (LRRC8A) protein is an essential component of the volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC), and using pharmacological anion channel inhibitors (NS3728, DIDS) and LRRC8A siRNA we have investigated its role in development of Cisplatin resistance in human ovarian (A2780) and alveolar (A549) carcinoma cells. In Cisplatin-sensitive cells Cisplatin treatment increases p53-protein level as well as downstream signaling, e.g., expression of p21Waf1/Cip1, Bax, Noxa, MDM2, and activation of Caspase-9/-3. In contrast, Cisplatin-resistant cells do not enter apoptosis, i.e., their p53 and downstream signaling are reduced and caspase activity unaltered following Cisplatin exposure. Reduced LRRC8A expression and VSOAC activity are previously shown to correlate with Cisplatin resistance, and here we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition and transient knockdown of LRRC8A reduce the protein level of p53, MDM2, and p21Waf1/Cip1 as well as Caspase-9/-3 activation in Cisplatin-sensitive cells. Cisplatin resistance is accompanied by reduction in total LRRC8A expression (A2780) or LRRC8A expression in the plasma membrane (A549). Activation of Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis by TNFα-exposure or hyperosmotic cell shrinkage is almost unaffected by pharmacological anion channel inhibition. Our data indicate 1) that expression/activity of LRRC8A is essential for Cisplatin-induced increase in p53 protein level and its downstream signaling, i.e., Caspase-9/-3 activation, expression of p21Waf1/Cip1 and MDM2; and 2) that downregulation of LRRC8A-dependent osmolyte transporters contributes to acquirement of Cisplatin resistance in ovarian and lung carcinoma cells. Activation of LRRC8A-containing channels is upstream to apoptotic volume decrease as hypertonic cell shrinkage induces apoptosis independent of the presence of LRRC8A. PMID:26984736

  14. Differential Angiogenic Gene Expression in TP53 Wild-Type and Mutant Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Brittany Anne; Rubatt, Jennifer M.; Corcoran, David L.; Teoh, Deanna K.; Bernardini, Marcus Q.; Grace, Lisa A.; Soper, William John; Berchuck, Andrew; Siamakpour-Reihani, Sharareh; Chen, Wei; Owzar, Kouros; Murphy, Susan K.; Secord, Angeles Alvarez

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Underlying mechanisms regulating angiogenesis in ovarian cancer have not been completely elucidated. Evidence suggests that the TP53 tumor suppressor pathway and tumor microenvironment play integral roles. We utilized microarray technology to study the interaction between TP53 mutational status and hypoxia on angiogenic gene expression. Methods: Affymetrix U133A arrays were analyzed for angiogenic gene expression in 19 ovarian cancer cell lines stratified both by TP53 mutation status and A2780 wild-type (wt) TP53 vs. mutated (m) TP53 cell lines after treatment under hypoxic conditions or with ionizing radiation. Results: Twenty-eight differentially expressed angiogenic genes were identified in the mTP53 cell lines compared to wtTP53 lines. Five genes were upregulated in mTP53 cells: 40% involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation [matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10)/15] and 60% in angiogenesis (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3/VEGFA/ephrin receptor-B4). Twenty-three genes were upregulated in wtTP53: nearly 22% were ECM constituents or involved in ECM degradation; over 40% were growth factors or mediators of angiogenesis. Five genes were upregulated in the A2780mTP53 cells: 40% involved in ECM remodeling (MMP10, ADAMTS1), 40% with pro-angiogenic activity (EFNB2, factor 2 receptor), and 20% with anti-angiogenic properties (ADAMTS1). Three genes were upregulated in hypoxia treated cells compared to controls: one with anti-angiogenic activity (angiopoietin-like 4) and two with pro-angiogenic activity (VEGFA, EFNA3). No significant gene fold changes were noted after exposure to radiation. Four genes continued to demonstrate significant differential expression (p ≤ 0.05) after adjusting for multiple comparisons. These genes included endoglin upregulation in wt lines (pro-angiogenesis) and upregulation of FGF20 (growth factor), ADAMTS1 (anti-angiogenesis) and MMP10 (ECM degradation) in mTP53 cell lines. Conclusion: Our exploratory findings

  15. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory-Organometallic Anticancer Compounds.

    PubMed

    Păunescu, Emilia; McArthur, Sarah; Soudani, Mylène; Scopelliti, Rosario; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-02-15

    Compounds that combine metal-based drugs with covalently linked targeted organic agents have been shown, in some instances, to exhibit superior anticancer properties compared to the individual counterparts. Within this framework, we prepared a series of organometallic ruthenium(II)- and osmium(II)-p-cymene complexes modified with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) indomethacin and diclofenac. The NSAIDs are attached to the organometallic moieties via monodentate (pyridine/phosphine) or bidentate (bipyridine) ligands, affording piano-stool Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes of general formula [M(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(N)], where N is a pyridine-based ligand, {2-(2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetoxy)ethyl-3-(pyridin-3-yl)propanoate} or {2-(2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetoxy)ethyl-3-(pyridin-3-yl)propanoate}, [M(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(P)], where P is a phosphine ligand, {2-(2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetoxy)ethyl-4-(diphenylphosphanyl)benzoate} or {2-(2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetoxy)ethyl-4-(diphenylphosphanyl)benzoate, and [M(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl(N,N')][Cl], where N,N' is a bipyridine-based ligand, (4'-methyl-[2,2'-bipyridin]-4-yl)methyl-2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetate), (4'-methyl-[2,2'-bipyridin]-4-yl)methyl-2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetate), (bis(2-(2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetoxy)ethyl)[2,2'-bipyridine]-5,5'-dicarboxylate), or (bis(2-(2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetoxy)ethyl)[2,2'-bipyridine]-5,5'-dicarboxylate). The antiproliferative properties of the complexes were assessed in human ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and A2780cisR, the latter being resistant to cisplatin) and nontumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells. Some of the complexes are considerably more cytotoxic than the original drugs and also display significant cancer cell selectivity.

  16. The in vitro antitumor activity of arene-ruthenium(II) curcuminoid complexes improves when decreasing curcumin polarity.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Francesco; Pettinari, Riccardo; Rossi, Miriam; Monti, Elena; Gariboldi, Marzia Bruna; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Caruso, Alessio; Ramani, Modukuri V; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V

    2016-09-01

    The antitumor activity of ruthenium(II) arene (p-cymene, benzene, hexamethylbenzene) derivatives containing modified curcumin ligands (HCurcI=(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one and HCurcII=(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one) is described. These have been characterized by IR, ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The X-ray crystal structure of HCurcI has been determined and compared with its related Ru complex. Four complexes have been evaluated against five tumor cell lines, whose best activities [IC 50 (μM)] are: breast MCF7, 9.7; ovarian A2780, 9.4; glioblastoma U-87, 9.4; lung carcinoma A549, 13.7 and colon-rectal HCT116, 15.5; they are associated with apoptotic features. These activities are improved when compared to the already known corresponding curcumin complex, (p-cymene)Ru(curcuminato)Cl, about twice for the breast and ovarian cancer, 4.7 times stronger in the lung cancer and about 6.6 times stronger in the glioblastoma cell lines. In fact, the less active (p-cymene)Ru(curcuminato)Cl complex only shows similar activity to two novel complexes in the colon cancer cell line. Comparing antitumor activity between these novel complexes and their related curcuminoids, improvement of antiproliferative activity is seen for a complex containing CurcII in A2780, A549 and U87 cell lines, whose IC 50 are halved. Therefore, after replacing OH curcumin groups with OCH 3 , the obtained species HCurcI and its Ru complexes have increased antitumor activity compared to curcumin and its related complex. In contrast, HCurcII is less cytotoxic than curcumin but its related complex [(p-cymene)Ru(CurcII)Cl] is twice as active as HCurcII in 3 cell lines. Results from these novel arene-Ru curcuminoid species suggest that their increased cytotoxicity on tumor cells correlate with increase of curcuminoid lipophilicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chirality Controls Reaction-Diffusion of Nanoparticles for Inhibiting Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Xuewen; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jiaqing; Zhou, Rong; Xu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Reaction-diffusion (RD) is the most important inherent feature of living organism, but it has yet to be used for developing biofunctional nanoparticles (NPs). Here we show the use of chirality to control the RD of NPs for selectively inhibiting cancer cells. We observe that L-phosphotyrosine (L-pY) decorated NPs (NP@L-pYs) are innocuous to cells, but D-pY decorated ones (NP@D-pYs) selectively inhibit cancer cells. Our study shows that alkaline phosphatases (ALP), presented in the culture and overexpressed on the cancer cells, dephosphorylates NP@L-pYs much faster than NP@D-pYs. Such a rate difference allows the NP@D-pYs to be mainly dephosphorylated on cell surface, thus adhering selectively on the cancer cells to result in poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) hyperactivation mediated cell death. Without phosphate groups or being prematurely dephosphorylated before reaching cancer cells (as the case of NP@L-pYs), the NPs are innocuous to cells. Moreover, NP@D-pYs even exhibit more potent activity than cisplatin for inhibiting platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells (e.g., A2780-cis). As the first example of chirality controlling RD process of NPs for inhibiting cancer cells, this work illustrates a fundamentally new way for developing nanomedicine based on RD processes and nanoparticles.

  18. Green Chemistry Approach for Synthesis of Effective Anticancer Palladium Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, EunSu; Han, Jae Woong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to design and synthesize Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using an environmentally friendly approach and evaluate the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the conversion of Pd(II) ions to Pd(0)NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystallinity of the as-synthesized PdNPs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) further confirmed the role of the leaf extract of Evolvulus alsinoides as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of PdNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the average size of the NPs was 5 nm. After a 24-h exposure to PdNPs, cell viability and light microscopy assays revealed the dose-dependent toxicity of the PdNPs. Furthermore, the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of the PdNPs was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of PdNPs-induced autophagy, impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), enhanced caspase-3 activity, and detection of TUNEL-positive cells. Our study demonstrates a single, simple, dependable and green approach for the synthesis of PdNPs using leaf extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides. Furthermore, the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer cells suggests that it could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer therapy.

  19. Bioactive Oleanane Glycosides from Polyscias duplicata from the Madagascar Dry Forest [1

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Alexander L.; Brodie, Peggy J.; Callmander, Martin W.; Rakotondrajaona, Roland; Rakotobe, Etienne; Rasamison, Vincent E.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (ICBG) program, in a search for antiproliferative compounds, an ethanol extract of Polyscias duplicata was investigated due to its antiproliferative activity against the A2780 human ovarian cell cancer line (IC50 6 µg/mL). Seven known oleanane glycosides, 3β-[(α-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-16α-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (1, IC50 8 µM), 3β-[(α-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-16α,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-18-oic acid (2, IC50 13 µM), 3β-[(O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-16α-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (3, IC50 7 µM), 3β-[(O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-16α-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (4, IC50 2.8 µM), 3β-[(O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (5, IC50 10 µM), 3β-[(O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (6, IC50 3.4 µM), and 3β-[(α-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (7, IC50 3.4 µM) were isolated, and their structures determined using spectroscopic methods. PMID:25960824

  20. Targeting cancer cells with oleanolic and ursolic acid derived hydroxamates.

    PubMed

    Wiemann, Jana; Heller, Lucie; Csuk, René

    2016-02-01

    Oleanolic and ursolic acid derived hydroxamates were easily obtained from their parent compounds; they were screened for their cytotoxicity applying SRB assays employing several human tumor cell lines. Low EC50 values were determined for compounds in which the nitrogen as well as the oxygen in the hydroxamic acid part still holds acidic hydrogens. Thus, ursolic acid derived compounds having at least an OH and/or NH moiety in the hydroxamate part of the molecule showed good cytotoxicity but they are significantly less selective for the tumor cells than oleanolic acid derived compounds. Good results were determined for oleanolic acid derived 7 for tumor cell lines 518A2 (melanoma, EC50=3.3 μM), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma, EC50=3.4 μM) and HT29 (colon adenocarcinoma, EC50=5.6 μM) while being significantly less cytotoxic for fibroblasts (EC50=20.4 μM). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. General Characteristics and Cytotoxic Effects of Nano-Poly (Butyl Cyanoacrylate) Containing Carboplatin on Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanaani, Leila; Far, Meysam Ebrahimi; Kazemi, S Maryam; Choupani, Edris; Tabrizi, Maral Mazloumi; Shahmabadi, Hasan Ebrahimi; Khiyavi, Azim Akbarzadeh

    2017-01-01

    The initial response to treatment and subsequent development of resistance to carboplatin are very important challenges. Use of nano drug delivery is a new method to replace standard chemotherapy. In this research, both non-PEGylated and PEGylated nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by mini-emulsion polymerization of poly (butyl cyanoacrylate) (PBCA) NPs. Characteristics such as size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, drug release, and stability were examined. In addition, infrared spectroscopy was used for description of the produced NPs. Then, cytotoxicity effects of both formulations were studied on the A2780CIS ovarian cancer cell line with incubation for 24, 48, and 72h. Examination of characteristics of loaded carboplatin on the PBCA NPs under suitable laboratory conditions showed a positive effect of PEG on their properties. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated greater toxicity with both formulations of nano-drugs than the free drug. The results indicated that PBCA NPs can be considered as suitable candidates for nano-drugs in chemotherapy. PMID:28240014

  2. A two-photon fluorescent sensor revealing drug-induced liver injury via tracking γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) level in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peisheng; Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Nie, Xuezheng; Huang, Yong; Zeng, Fang; Xia, Xitao; Wu, Shuizhu

    2016-02-01

    Currently drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has become a major and challenging public health issue in terms of medicine development and clinical therapy. The level of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) has long been regarded as a preclinical/clinical biomarker for prediction of DILI. Herein, we report a two-photon fluorescent sensor for tracking GGT level changes resulted from DILI in vivo. The sensor was prepared by linking a glutamic acid to a dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran (DCM) derivative; and the presence of GGT cleaves γ-glutamyl amide group from the sensor and thereby restores the fluorescence emission (at 635 nm) of DCM moiety under femtosecond pulses at 800 nm. This two-photon sensor exhibits superior sensing performance such as red emission, high photostability and low detection limit (∼0.057 U/L). On a two-photon microscope, the sensor shows a bright red fluorescence in GGT-overexpressing A2780 cells; and it can fluorescently respond to the GGT generated in the liver of zebrafishes as a result of clinical drug (phenytoin) treatment. These findings demonstrate that a commonly-used clinical drug phenytoin can cause remarkable elevation in GGT level in liver, and this sensor may be useful as a marker to detect clinical drug-induced organ damages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Flavonoids from Chinese bayberry leaves induced apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest via Erk pathway in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shiguo; Wei, Chaoyang; Rankin, Gary O; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2018-03-10

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of death related to the female reproductive system in western countries. Adverse side effects and resistance to platinum based chemotherapy have become the major obstacles for ovarian cancer treatment. Natural products have gained great attention in cancer treatment in recent years. Chinese bayberry leaves flavonoids (BLF) containing rich content of myricitrin (myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside) and a part of quercetrin (quercetin 3-rhamnoside) inhibited the growth of an ovarian cancer cell line A2780/CP70. Such inhibitory effects might be due to the induction of apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest. BLF treatment increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and -7 and induced apoptosis via a Erk-dependent caspase-9 activation intrinsic apoptotic pathway by up-regulating the pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad and Bax) and down-regulating the anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-xL and Bcl-2), which were also in consistency with the results from Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry analysis. Furthermore, by reducing the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and p-Erk, BLF elevated the distribution of G1 phase in cell cycle and thus caused G1 cell cycle arrest. Overall, these results indicated that BLPs could be a valuable resource of natural compound for ovarian cancer treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Reprofiling of full-length phosphonated carbocyclic 2'-oxa-3'-aza-nucleosides toward antiproliferative agents: Synthesis, antiproliferative activity, and molecular docking study.

    PubMed

    Bkhaitan, Majdi M; Mirza, Agha Zeeshan; Abdalla, Ashraf N; Shamshad, Hina; Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Alarjah, Mohammed; Piperno, Anna

    2017-11-01

    A series of phosphonated carbocyclic 2'-oxa-3'-aza-nucleosides were synthesized via 1,3 dipolar cycloaddition and evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against the growth of cancer cell lines (MCF-7, A2780, HCT116) and normal non-transformed fibroblast (MRC5) using MTT assay. Synthesized compounds exhibited antiproliferative activity in the micromolar range. Compounds 11b showed the highest activity against MCF-7 cells (IC 50 of 0.2344 μm). Cell cycle analysis was performed for compound 11b on MCF7 cells showing arrest of cells in the S phase. Molecular docking of synthesized compounds confirmed high affinity of these compounds to two different receptors for anticancer nucleosides on dCK, namely the 1P5Z and 2ZIA, showing scores higher than the cognate ligand for all tested compounds. All synthesized compounds were evaluated according to the Lipinski, Veber, and Opera rules, and all of them passed the evaluation showing excellent features, superior to reference drugs. In addition, ADME for all the synthesized compounds was predicted through a theoretical kinetic study using the discovery studio 3.1 software. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang-Jun; Yuan, Ling; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2014-12-01

    Allium cepa L. is one of the most widely cultivated and used plants. In addition to its bulb (onion), which is used as food in many cultures, the seeds of A. cepa L. are used as a traditional herbal medicine by the Uygur nationality in China to treat diarrhea and promote blood flow. In a bioactivity-screening, the ethanol extract of seeds of A. cepa L. showed inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, with 81.1% inhibition. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of red onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds led to the isolation of eight new furostanol saponins, named ceparosides E-L (1-8). Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. Compounds 1-8 were screened for inhibitory effects on the PTP1B enzyme and cytotoxic activity against five human cells, including HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549 and A2780, but all were found to be inactive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Properties of Anthocyanin Rich Extracts from Blueberry and Blackcurrant Juice

    PubMed Central

    Diaconeasa, Zoriţa; Leopold, Loredana; Rugină, Dumitriţa; Ayvaz, Huseyin; Socaciu, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative potential of anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARFs) obtained from two commercially available juices (blueberry and blackcurrant juices) on three tumor cell lines; B16F10 (murine melanoma), A2780 (ovarian cancer) and HeLa (cervical cancer). Individual anthocyanin determination, identification and quantification were done using HPLC-MS. Antioxidant activity of the juices was determined through different mechanism methods such as DPPH and ORAC. For biological testing, the juices were purified through C18 cartridges in order to obtain fractions rich in anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins identified were glycosylated cyanidin derivatives. The antiproliferative activity of the fractions was tested using the MTT assay. The antiproliferative potential of ARF was found to be associated with those bioactive molecules, anthocyanins due to their antioxidant potential. The results obtained indicated that both blueberry and blackcurrants are rich sources of antioxidants including anthocyanins and therefore these fruits are highly recommended for daily consumption to prevent numerous degenerative diseases. PMID:25622252

  7. Identification and characterization of SSE15206, a microtubule depolymerizing agent that overcomes multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Safia; Bilal, Aishah; Khan, Sardraz; Ullah, Rahim; Iftikhar, Sunniya; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Alazmi, Meshari; Gao, Xin; Jawaid, Ali; Saleem, Rahman Shah Zaib; Faisal, Amir

    2018-02-19

    Microtubules are highly dynamic structures that form spindle fibres during mitosis and are one of the most validated cancer targets. The success of drugs targeting microtubules, however, is often limited by the development of multidrug resistance. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of SSE15206, a pyrazolinethioamide derivative [3-phenyl-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide] that has potent antiproliferative activities in cancer cell lines of different origins and overcomes resistance to microtubule-targeting agents. Treatment of cells with SSE15206 causes aberrant mitosis resulting in G2/M arrest due to incomplete spindle formation, a phenotype often associated with drugs that interfere with microtubule dynamics. SSE15206 inhibits microtubule polymerization both in biochemical and cellular assays by binding to colchicine site in tubulin as shown by docking and competition studies. Prolonged treatment of cells with the compound results in apoptotic cell death [increased Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and Annexin V/PI staining] accompanied by p53 induction. More importantly, we demonstrate that SSE15206 is able to overcome resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in different cancer cell lines including multidrug-resistant KB-V1 and A2780-Pac-Res cell lines overexpressing MDR-1, making it a promising hit for the lead optimization studies to target multidrug resistance.

  8. D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate-based redox-sensitive paclitaxel prodrug for overcoming multidrug resistance in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yuling; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhuang, Xiangting; Li, Dan; Cheng, Bolin; Tan, Songwei; Zhang, Zhiping

    2014-09-02

    To overcome the multidrug resistance (MDR) of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel (PTX), a novel dual-functional prodrug, D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) based PTX prodrug (TPGS-S-S-PTX), was synthesized here to fulfill the synergistic effect of P-gp inhibiting and intracellular redox-sensitive release. The prodrug could self-assemble into stable micelles in physiological environment with a diameter of ∼140 nm, while it disassociated in reductive condition and released PTX and TPGS active derivatives rapidly. High cell cytotoxicity in PTX-resistant human ovarian cell line A2780/T was observed with enhanced PTX accumulation due to the P-gp inhibition by the TPGS moiety. The IC50 of TPGS-S-S-PTX was 55% and 91% more effective than that of Taxol (clinical formulation of PTX) and uncleavable TPGS-C-C-PTX prodrug, respectively. This was found to be related with the increased apoptosis/necrosis and cell arrest in G2/M phase. In vivo evaluation of the TPGS-S-S-PTX prodrug exhibited an extended half-life, increased AUC (area under the concentration-time curve), enhanced tumor distribution and significant tumor growth inhibition with reduced side effects as compared to Taxol and TPGS-C-C-PTX. This prodrug has great potential in improving efficiency in the treatment of MDR tumors.

  9. Solid lipid nanoparticles for the delivery of 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) platinum (II) carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Sguizzato, Maddalena; Cortesi, Rita; Gallerani, Eleonora; Drechsler, Markus; Marvelli, Lorenza; Mariani, Paolo; Carducci, Federica; Gavioli, Riccardo; Esposito, Elisabetta; Bergamini, Paola

    2017-05-01

    The use of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) is a promising route for the delivery of platinum complexes aimed to anticancer activity. This paper describes the production and characterization of SLN suitable for the loading of Pt complexes containing the biocompatible phosphine 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) as neutral ligand. After a screening of several lipidic phases, stearic acid-based SLN were identified as the most appropriate for the purpose. They were produced by emulsion-dilution method and then characterized in terms of dimension, polydispersity, time stability, pH balance and morphological aspect. Stearic acid SLN are designed as a system able to coordinate to platinum, acting as anionic carboxylic ligands, replacing the base carbonate of the Pt synthon [PtCO 3 (DMSO) 2 ], where also DMSO can subsequently be substituted by phosphinic ligands, namely PTA. SLN functionalised with Pt-PTA were produced and characterized by this synthetic route. The toxicity of plain SLN and the antiproliferative effect of SLN functionalised with Pt-PTA were evaluated on two human cancer cell lines K562 and A2780. The results indicate that SLN can be exploited as a delivery system for Pt complexes with potential anticancer activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. shRNA-mediated downregulation of α-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase inhibits migration and invasion of cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Saburi, Ehsan; Tavakolafshari, Jalil; Mortazavi, Yousef; Biglari, Alireza; Mirzaei, Seyed Abbas; Nadri, Samad

    2017-09-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of many kinds of glycoproteins containing glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) moiety. The research was conducted based on the N-Acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) degradation of ECM components by α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) which facilitates migration and invasion of cancer cells. This study aims to investigate the effects of Naga-shRNA downregulation on migration and invasion of cancer cell lines. In this study, MCF-7 cell line (human mammary carcinoma cell line) and A2780 (human ovarian carcinoma cell line) were used. The level of normalized Naga expression and Nagalase protein were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/western blotting, respectively. Migration and invasion were determined using transwell assays, and statistical analysis was carried out by ANOVA test. Response to transduction by shRNA compared to the control group, migrative and invasive properties of the transfected cells were significantly inhibited. These results indicate that Nagalase may have an important role in migration and invasion of cancer cells and can be considered as a candidate for further studies.

  11. shRNA-mediated downregulation of α-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase inhibits migration and invasion of cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Saburi, Ehsan; Tavakolafshari, Jalil; Mortazavi, Yousef; Biglari, Alireza; Mirzaei, Seyed Abbas; Nadri, Samad

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of many kinds of glycoproteins containing glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) moiety. The research was conducted based on the N-Acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) degradation of ECM components by α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) which facilitates migration and invasion of cancer cells. This study aims to investigate the effects of Naga-shRNA downregulation on migration and invasion of cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: In this study, MCF-7 cell line (human mammary carcinoma cell line) and A2780 (human ovarian carcinoma cell line) were used. The level of normalized Naga expression and Nagalase protein were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/western blotting, respectively. Migration and invasion were determined using transwell assays, and statistical analysis was carried out by ANOVA test. Results: Response to transduction by shRNA compared to the control group, migrative and invasive properties of the transfected cells were significantly inhibited. Conclusion: These results indicate that Nagalase may have an important role in migration and invasion of cancer cells and can be considered as a candidate for further studies. PMID:29085597

  12. A New Bioactive Diterpene Glycoside from Molinaea retusa from the Madagascar Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Alexander L.; Harinantenaina, Liva; Brodie, Peggy J.; Cassera, Maria B.; Bowman, Jessica D.; Callmander, Martin W.; Randrianaivo, Richard; Rakotondrajaona, Roland; Rakotobe, Etienne; Rasamison, Vincent E.; Kingston, David G. I.

    2014-01-01

    In a continuing collaboration in a search for new antiproliferative compounds in Madagascar as part of an International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (ICBG), an ethanol extract of Molinaea retusa Radlk. (Sapindaceae) was investigated on the basis of its moderate antiproliferative activity against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line (IC50 16 μg/mL). One new compound, 2″,3″,4″,6′-de-O-acetylcupacinoside (1, IC50 15.4 μM) and two known compounds, cupacinoside (2, IC50 9.5 μM) and 6-de-O-acetylcupacinoside (3, IC50 10.9 μM), were isolated by bioassay-directed fractionation using liquid-liquid partitioning, column chromatography, and HPLC. Compounds 2 and 3 also had moderate antiplasmodial activities, with IC50 values of 4.0 and 6.4 μM, respectively, against Plasmodium falciparum, Dd2 strain. The structures were determined using spectroscopic methods. PMID:24273845

  13. Zinc protoporphyrin suppresses cancer cell viability through a heme oxygenase-1-independent mechanism: the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Avery, Jori E; Hannafon, Bethany N; Lind, Stuart E; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2013-06-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a known inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), has been reported to have anticancer activity in both in vitro and in vivo model systems. While the mechanisms of ZnPP's anticancer activity remain to be elucidated, it is generally believed that ZnPP suppresses tumor growth through inhibition of HO-1 activity. We examined this hypothesis by altering cellular levels of HO-1 in human ovarian (A2780) and prostate cancer (DU145) cells and found that ZnPP inhibits cancer cell viability through an HO-1-independent mechanism. Neither over-expression nor knockdown of HO-1 significantly alters ZnPP's cytotoxicity in human cancer cells, indicating that HO-1 does not mediate ZnPP's inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth. Consistent with these observations, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), a well-established HO-1 inhibitor, was found to be much less cytotoxic than ZnPP, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an HO-1 inducer, enhanced ZnPP's cytotoxicity. In an effort to define the mechanisms of ZnPP-induced cytotoxicity, we found that ZnPP but not SnPP, diminished β-catenin expression through proteasome degradation and potently suppressed β-catenin-mediated signaling in our model systems. Thus, ZnPP-induced cytotoxicity is independent of HO-1 expression in cancer cells and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is potentially involved in ZnPP's anticancer activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%). Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma) and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma), by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts. PMID:23158079

  15. Far-western blotting as a solution to the non-specificity of the anti-erythropoietin receptor antibody

    PubMed Central

    Fecková, Barbora; Kimáková, Patrícia; Ilkovičová, Lenka; Szentpéteriová, Erika; Debeljak, Nataša; Solárová, Zuzana; Sačková, Veronika; Šemeláková, Martina; Bhide, Mangesh; Solár, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) is a member of the cytokine receptor family. The interaction between erythropoietin (Epo) and EpoR is important for the production and maturation of erythroid cells, resulting in the stimulation of hematopoiesis. The fact that EpoR was also detected in neoplastic cells has opened the question about the relevance of anemia treatment with recombinant Epo in cancer patients. Numerous studies have reported pro-stimulating and anti-apoptotic effects of Epo in cancer cells, thus demonstrating EpoR functionality in these cells. By contrast, a previous study claims the absence of EpoR in tumor cells. This apparent discrepancy is based, according to certain authors, on the use of non-specific anti-EpoR antibodies. With the aim of bypassing the direct detection of EpoR with an anti-EpoR antibody, the present authors propose a far-western blot methodology, which in addition, confirms the interaction of Epo with EpoR. Applying this technique, the presence of EpoR and its interaction with Epo in human ovarian adenocarcinoma A2780 and normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells was confirmed. Furthermore, modified immunoprecipitation of EpoR followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis confirmed a 57 kDa protein as a human Epo-interacting protein in both cell lines. PMID:27446474

  16. Targeting mitochondria: Esters of rhodamine B with triterpenoids are mitocanic triggers of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Ratna Kancana; Heller, Lucie; Csuk, René

    2018-04-17

    Triterpenoic acids, ursolic acid (1), oleanolic acid (2), glycyrrhetinic acid (3) and betulinic acid (4) were converted into their corresponding methyl 5-8 and benzyl esters 9-12 or benzyl amides 21-24. These derivatives served as starting materials for the synthesis of pink colored rhodamine B derivatives 25-36 which were screened for cytotoxicity in colorimetric SRB assays. All of the compounds were cytotoxic for a variety of human tumor cell lines. The activity of the benzyl ester derivatives 29-32 was lower than the cytotoxicity of the methyl esters 25-28. The benzyl amides 33-36 were the most cytotoxic compounds of this series. The most potential compound was a glycyrrhetinic acid rhodamine B benzyl amide 35. This compound showed activity against the different cancer cell lines in a two-digit to low three-digit nano-molar range. Staining experiments combined with fluorescence microscopy showed that this compound triggered apoptosis in A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells and acted as a mitocan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimer-cisplatin complexes for chemotherapy of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellepeddi, Venkata Kashyap; Vangara, Kiran Kumar; Palakurthi, Srinath

    2013-09-01

    Dendrimer-cisplatin complexes were prepared using PAMAM dendrimers with terminal -NH2 and -COOH groups as well as biotin-conjugated dendrimers. Preformulation parameters of dendrimer-cisplatin complexes were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cytotoxicity and mechanism of cytotoxicity of dendrimer-cisplatin complexes was investigated in OVCAR-3, SKOV, A2780 and cisplatin-resistant CP70 human ovarian cancer cell lines. The loading of cisplatin in dendrimers was 11 % (w/w). PAMAM G4 dendrimers with amine surface groups (biotinylated and native) have shown 2.5- to 3.0-fold reduction in IC50 values in ovarian cancer cells when compared with carboxylate surface dendrimers ( p < 0.05). A correlation was observed among cytotoxicity of the complexes, cellular uptake, and platinum-DNA adduct formation. Treatment with dendrimer-cisplatin complexes resulted in a 7.0-fold increase ( p < 0.05) in expression of apoptotic genes ( Bcl2, Bax, p53) and 13.2- to 27.1-fold increase ( p < 0.05) in the activity of caspases 3, 8, and 9 in vitro. Results suggest that PAMAM dendrimers can be used as potential carrier for cisplatin chemotherapy of ovarian cancer.

  18. Measurement of nitrogen in the body using a commercial PGNAA system--phantom experiments.

    PubMed

    Chichester, D L; Empey, E

    2004-01-01

    An industrial prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system, originally designed for the real-time elemental analyses of bulk coal on a conveyor belt, has been studied to examine the feasibility of using such a system for body composition analysis. Experiments were conducted to measure nitrogen in a simple, tissue equivalent phantom comprised of 2.7 wt% of nitrogen. The neutron source for these experiments was 365 MBq (18.38 microg) of 252Cf located within an engineered low Z moderator and it yielded a dose rate in the measurement position of 3.91 mSv/h; data were collected using a 2780 cm(3) NaI(Tl) cylindrical detector with a digital signal processor and a 512 channel MCA. Source, moderator and detector geometries were unaltered from the system's standard configuration, where they have been optimized for considerations such as neutron thermalization, measurement sensitivity and uniformity, background radiation and external dose minimization. Based on net counts in the 10.8 MeV PGNAA nitrogen photopeak and its escape peaks the dose dependent nitrogen count rate was 11,600 counts/mSv with an uncertainty of 3.0% after 0.32 mSv (4.9 min), 2.0% after 0.74 mSv (11.4 min) and 1.0% after 3.02 mSv (46.4 min).

  19. Delivery of antisense oligonucleotides using poly(alkylene oxide)-poly(propylacrylic acid) graft copolymers in conjunction with cationic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Peddada, Lavanya Y; Garbuzenko, Olga B; Devore, David I; Minko, Tamara; Roth, Charles M

    2014-11-28

    The clinical application of gene silencing is hindered by poor stability and low delivery efficiency of naked oligonucleotides. Here, we present the in vitro and in vivo behaviors of a rationally designed, ternary, self-assembled nanoparticle complex, consisting of an anionic copolymer, cationic DOTAP liposome, and antisense oligonucleotide (AON). The multifunctional copolymers are based on backbone poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA), a pH-sensitive hydrophobic polymer, with grafted poly(alkylene oxides) (PAOs) varying in extent of grafting and PAO chemistry. The nanoparticle complexes with PPAA-g-PAO copolymers enhance antisense gene silencing effects in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells. A greater amount of AON is delivered to ovarian tumor xenografts using the ternary copolymer-stabilized delivery system, compared to a binary DOTAP/AON complex, following intraperitoneal injection in mice. Further, intratumoral injection of the nanoparticle complexes containing 1 mol% grafted PAO reduced tumoral bcl-2 expression by up to 60%. The data for complexes across the set of PAO polymers support a strong role for the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of the graft copolymer in achieving serum stability and cellular uptake. Based upon these results, we anticipate that this novel nanoparticle delivery system can be extended to the delivery of plasmid DNA, siRNA, or aptamers for preclinical and clinical development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Chemical constituents of an endophytic fungus from Annona muricata].

    PubMed

    Ge, Hanlin; Dai, Jungui

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of an endophytic fungus, F-31, from Annona muricata and search antitumor natural products. After scaling up, the fermentation broth and mycelia were extracted by macroporous resin and chromatographied by silica gel column, Sephadex LH-20 gel column and semi-preparative HPLC. The structures of compounds were determined by the means of extensive spectroscopic data The activity of the compounds were evaluated through MTT assay. Six compounds were isolated from the fermentation broth and mycelia of this fungus, their structures were identified as 5-(3-hydroxybutyl)furan-2(5H)-one(1), chloranthalactone E(2), 5, 7-dimethyl-6-hydroxycoumarin(3), 1, 2, 4-triazole-(1'R, 2'R, 3'R, 4'R)-nucleosides(4), L-tryptophan(5), L-phenylalanine(6). The in vitro pharmalogical evaluation results displayed that the above compounds exhibited no inhibitory effects on the proliferation of six tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7). Among these obtained compounds, compound 1 was a new compound.

  1. Sesquiterpenes from Neurolaena lobata and Their Antiproliferative and Anti-inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Five new sesquiterpenes, neurolobatin A (1), neurolobatin B (2), 5β-hydroxy-8β-isovaleroyloxy-9α-hydroxycalyculatolide (3), 3-epi-desacetylisovaleroylheliangine (4), and 3β-acetoxy-8β-isovaleroyloxyreynosin (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Neurolaena lobata. The structures were established by means of a combined spectroscopic data analysis, including ESIMS, APCI-MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Neurolobatin A (1) and B (2) are unusual isomeric seco-germacranolide sesquiterpenes with a bicyclic acetal moiety, compounds 3 and 4 are unsaturated epoxy-germacranolide esters, and compound 5 is the first eudesmanolide isolated from the genus Neurolaena. The isolated compounds (1–5) were shown to have noteworthy antiproliferative activities against human tumor cell lines (A2780, A431, HeLa, and MCF7). The anti-inflammatory effects of 1–5, evaluated in vitro using LPS- and TNF-α-induced IL-8 expression inhibitory assays, revealed that all these compounds strongly down-regulated the LPS-induced production of IL-8 protein, with neurolobatin B (2) and 3-epi-desacetylisovaleroylheliangine (4) being the most effective. PMID:24476550

  2. Betulinic acid derived hydroxamates and betulin derived carbamates are interesting scaffolds for the synthesis of novel cytotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wiemann, Jana; Heller, Lucie; Perl, Vincent; Kluge, Ralph; Ströhl, Dieter; Csuk, René

    2015-12-01

    The betulinic acid-derived hydroxamates 5-18, the amides 19-24, and betulin-derived bis-carbamates 25-28 as well as the carbamates 31-40 and 44-48 were prepared and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity in a photometric sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay against several human cancer cell lines and nonmalignant mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3). While for 3-O-acetyl hydroxamic acid 5 EC50 values as low as EC50 = 1.3 μM were found, N,O-bis-alkyl substituted hydroxamates showed lowered cytotoxicity (EC50 = 16-20 μM). In general, hydroxamic acid derivatives showed only reduced selectivity for tumor cells, except for allyl substituted compound 13 (EC50 = 5.9 μM for A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells and EC50 > 30 μM for nonmalignant mouse fibroblasts). The cytotoxicity of betulinic acid derived amides 19-24 and of betulin derived bis-carbamates 25-28 was low, except for N-ethyl substituted 25. Hexyl substituted 39 showed EC50 = 5.6 μM (518A2 cells) while for mouse fibroblasts EC50 > 30 was determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasound-enhanced localized chemotherapy of drug-sensitive and multidrug resistant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, Natalya Y.; Gao, Zhonggao; Kamaev, Pavel; Christensen, Douglas A.

    2006-05-01

    A new modality of targeted tumor chemotherapy is based on the drug encapsulation in polymeric nanoparticles followed by a localized release at the tumor site triggered by focused ultrasound. Effect of 1 MHz and 3 MHz unfocused ultrasound applied locally to the tumor on the Doxorubicin (DOX) biodistribution and tumor growth rates was measured for ovarian carcinoma tumors in nu/nu mice. The bioeffects of ultrasound were investigated on the systemic and cellular levels. Growth rates of A2780 ovarian carcinoma tumors were substantially reduced by combining micellar drug delivery with tumor irradiation. Ultrasound effect was not thermal as manifested by intratumoral temperature measurements during sonication. Biodistribution studies showed that ultrasound did not enhance micelle extravasation. Main mechanisms of the ultrasound-enhanced chemotherapy included (i) passive targeting of drug-loaded micelles to the tumor interstitium; (ii) ultrasound-triggered localized drug release from micelles in the tumor volume; (iii) enhanced micelle and drug diffusion through the tumor interstitium; and (iv) ultrasound-triggered cell membrane damage resulting in the enhanced micelle and drug uptake by tumor cells.

  4. Mitochondria-localising DNA-binding biscyclometalated phenyltriazole iridium(iii) dipyridophenazene complexes: syntheses and cellular imaging properties.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Sreejesh; Sinopoli, Alessandro; Jarman, Paul J; Robinson, Darren; Clemmet, Christopher; Scattergood, Paul A; Rice, Craig R; Smythe, Carl G W; Thomas, James A; Elliott, Paul I P

    2018-04-03

    Two new biscyclometalated complexes [Ir(ptzR)2(dppz)]+ (dppz = dipyridophenazene; ptzRH = 4-phenyl-1-benzyl-1,2,3-triazole (1+) and 4-phenyl-1-propyl-1,2,3-triazole (2+)) have been prepared. The hexafluorophosphate salts of these complexes have been fully characterized and, in one case, the X-ray structure of a nitrate salt was obtained. The DNA binding properties of the chloride salts of the complexes were investigated, as well as their cellular uptake by A2780 and MCF7 cell lines. Both complexes display an increase in the intensity of phosphorescence upon titration with duplex DNA, indicating the intercalation of the dppz ligand and, given that they are monocations, the complexes exhibit appreciable DNA binding affinity. Optical microscopy studies reveal that both complexes are taken up by live cancer cell lines displaying cytosol based luminescence. Colocalization studies with commercial probes show high Pearson coefficients with mitotracker dyes confirming that the new complexes specifically localize on mitochondria.

  5. Characterisation of the antiproliferative constituents and activity of Ficus exasperata (Vahl) on ovarian cancer cells -a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Bafor, Enitome E; McKenna, Jennifer; Rowan, Edward G; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2017-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gynaecological cancers today. This study therefore investigates the anticancer effects of Ficus exasperata extracts and fractions on ovarian cancer cells. The antiproliferative activity of the crude extracts (1 mg/mL) was assessed using the MTT assay on A2780 (ovarian cancer) cell line. Bio-activity guided fractionation was performed and preliminary identification was further achieved using high resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All crude extracts tested exhibited antiproliferative activity except for the methanol extract which interestingly showed proliferative effects. Five fatty acids were identified from the active fractions (FB1-10 and FB1-12). FB1-12 exhibited an IC 50 value of 15.20 μg/mL. The least potent fraction (FB1-4 + 5) had an IC 50 value of 34.51 μg/mL. H1-HEX and H1-MET exhibited 97.2 and 97.9%, respectively, compared to control. This study therefore provides proof-of-principle that fatty acids of Ficus exasperata exhibit significant antiproliferative effects on ovarian cancer cells.

  6. Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and cocrystal structures with tubulin of chiral β-lactam bridged combretastatin A-4 analogues as potent antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pengfei; Liang, Yuru; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Hao; Feng, Kechang; Xu, Pan; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xiaoming; Ding, Kuiling; Luo, Cheng; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Yang

    2018-01-20

    A diverse of chiral β-lactam bridged analogues of combretastatin A-4 (CA-4), 3-substituted 1,4-diaryl-2-azetidinones, were asymmetrically synthesized and biologically evaluated, leading to identify a number of potent anti-proliferative compounds represented by 14b and 14c with IC 50 values of 0.001-0.021 μM, against four human cancer cell lines (A2780, Hela, SKOV-3 and MDA-MB-231). Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on all stereoisomers of 14b and 14c revealed that the absolute configurations of the chiral centers at 3- and 4-position were critically important for the activity and generally a trans configuration between the "A" and "B" rings is optimal. In addition, 14b and 14c displayed less cytotoxicity on normal human oviduct epithelial cells than malignant cells indicating good selectivity in vitro. Further biochemical evaluation and cocrystal structures with tubulin demonstrated that both compounds disrupted tubulin polymerization through interacting at the colchicine-binding site, suppressed angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, blocked cell cycle progression at mitotic phase and induced cellular apoptosis. The in vivo assays verified that both compounds inhibited xenograft tumor growth in nude mice with acceptable therapeutic window, showing promising potentials for further clinical development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Hyperactivation of the insulin-like growth factor receptor I signaling pathway is an essential event for cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Niels; Servan, Kati; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Pölitz, Anne; von Jonquières, Georg; Wolf-Kümmeth, Sybille; Napierski, Inge; Hamacher, Alexandra; Kassack, Matthias U; Budczies, Jan; Beier, Manfred; Dietel, Manfred; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte; Denkert, Carsten; Royer, Hans-Dieter

    2009-04-01

    Platinum plays a central role in the therapy of ovarian cancer, and the emergence of platinum resistance is a major obstacle for clinical management of the disease. We treated A2780 ovarian cancer cells by weekly cycles of cisplatin over a period of 6 months and unveiled that enhanced insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) expression and autocrine IGF-I are associated with hyperactivation of the IGF-IR and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K) pathways in cisplatin-resistant cells. IGF-IR expression levels increased during treatment cycles and correlated with cisplatin resistance. Purified IGF-I induced cisplatin resistance in diverse ovarian cancer cell lines, and small molecule inhibitors proved that IGF-IR and PI3K are essential for cisplatin resistance. Similar results were obtained with BG-1 ovarian cancer cells. Cytogenetic and array comparative genomic hybridization analyses revealed selection and de novo formation of chromosomal alterations during resistance development. An analysis of gene expression profiles of primary ovarian carcinomas identified the regulatory subunit PIK3R2 of PI3-kinase as a significant negative prognosis factor for ovarian cancer. We conclude that targeting the IGF-IR and the PI3K pathways is a promising new strategy to treat cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinomas.

  8. Identification of amides derived from 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid as potent inhibitors of human nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaozhang; Bair, Kenneth W; Bauer, Paul; Baumeister, Timm; Bowman, Krista K; Buckmelter, Alexandre J; Caligiuri, Maureen; Clodfelter, Karl H; Feng, Yezhen; Han, Bingsong; Ho, Yen-Ching; Kley, Nikolai; Li, Hong; Liang, Xiaorong; Liederer, Bianca M; Lin, Jian; Ly, Justin; O'Brien, Thomas; Oeh, Jason; Oh, Angela; Reynolds, Dominic J; Sampath, Deepak; Sharma, Geeta; Skelton, Nicholas; Smith, Chase C; Tremayne, Jarrod; Wang, Leslie; Wang, Weiru; Wang, Zhongguo; Wu, Hongxing; Wu, Jiansheng; Xiao, Yang; Yang, Guangxing; Yuen, Po-wai; Zak, Mark; Dragovich, Peter S

    2013-10-15

    Potent, 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-containing inhibitors of the human nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) enzyme were identified using structure-based design techniques. Many of these compounds exhibited nanomolar antiproliferation activities against human tumor lines in in vitro cell culture experiments, and a representative example (compound 26) demonstrated encouraging in vivo efficacy in a mouse xenograft tumor model derived from the A2780 cell line. This molecule also exhibited reduced rat retinal exposures relative to a previously studied imidazo-pyridine-containing NAMPT inhibitor. Somewhat surprisingly, compound 26 was only weakly active in vitro against mouse and monkey tumor cell lines even though it was a potent inhibitor of NAMPT enzymes derived from these species. The compound also exhibited only minimal effects on in vivo NAD levels in mice, and these changes were considerably less profound than those produced by an imidazo-pyridine-containing NAMPT inhibitor. The crystal structures of compound 26 and the corresponding PRPP-derived ribose adduct in complex with NAMPT were also obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging of a clickable anticancer iridium catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Mingli; Gao, Fei; Wei, Wei; Qian, Yong; Liu, Hong-Ke; Zhao, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Iridium-based anticancer reagents are receiving increasing attention for their high cytotoxicity. Herein, by activating CH bonds in the well-known antioxidant α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN), we synthesized and characterized a series of new iridium complexes. Complex 1-AMP exhibited the best antiproliferation activity towards human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. The azide group in complex 1-AMP underwent the Cu(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction and the resulting fluorescent imaging in cells suggested it mainly accumulated in mitochondria. In comparison, to eliminate cytotoxicity of Cu(I) catalyst, we conducted a reaction between complex 1-AMP and a commercialized dye via strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reaction in live cells, confirming its targeting mainly in the mitochondria. Iridium-based anticancer complexes containing a nitrone ligand and azide group may offer a useful tool to probe the mechanism of metallodrugs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary compounds galangin and myricetin suppress ovarian cancer cell angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haizhi; Chen, Allen Y.; Rojanasakul, Yon; Ye, Xingqian; Rankin, Gary O.; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Galangin and myricetin are flavonoids isolated from vegetables and fruits which exhibit anti-proliferative activity in human cancer cells. In this study, their anti-angiogenic effects were investigated with in vitro (HUVEC) and in vivo (CAM) models, which showed that galangin and myricetin inhibited angiogenesis induced by OVCAR-3 cells. The molecular mechanisms through which galangin and myricetin suppress angiogenesis were also studied. It was observed that galangin and myricetin inhibited secretion of the key angiogenesis mediator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and decreased levels of p-Akt, p-70S6K and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) proteins in A2780/CP70 and OVCAR-3 cells. Transient transfection experiments showed that galangin and myricetin inhibited secretion of VEGF by the Akt/p70S6K/ HIF-1α pathway. Moreover, a novel pathway, p21/HIF-1α/VEGF, was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of myricetin on angiogenesis in OVCAR-3 cells. These data suggest that galangin and myricetin might serve as potential anti-angiogenic agents in the prevention of ovarian cancers dependent on new blood vessel networks. PMID:26113875

  11. Dietary compounds galangin and myricetin suppress ovarian cancer cell angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haizhi; Chen, Allen Y; Rojanasakul, Yon; Ye, Xingqian; Rankin, Gary O; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2015-05-01

    Galangin and myricetin are flavonoids isolated from vegetables and fruits which exhibit anti-proliferative activity in human cancer cells. In this study, their anti-angiogenic effects were investigated with in vitro (HUVEC) and in vivo (CAM) models, which showed that galangin and myricetin inhibited angiogenesis induced by OVCAR-3 cells. The molecular mechanisms through which galangin and myricetin suppress angiogenesis were also studied. It was observed that galangin and myricetin inhibited secretion of the key angiogenesis mediator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and decreased levels of p-Akt, p-70S6K and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) proteins in A2780/CP70 and OVCAR-3 cells. Transient transfection experiments showed that galangin and myricetin inhibited secretion of VEGF by the Akt/p70S6K/ HIF-1α pathway. Moreover, a novel pathway, p21/HIF-1α/VEGF, was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of myricetin on angiogenesis in OVCAR-3 cells. These data suggest that galangin and myricetin might serve as potential anti-angiogenic agents in the prevention of ovarian cancers dependent on new blood vessel networks.

  12. Zinc (II) complex with a cationic Schiff base ligand: Synthesis, characterization, and biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sze Koon; Tan, Kong Wai; Ng, Seik Weng; Ooi, Kah Kooi; Ang, Kok Pian; Abdah, Md Akim

    2014-03-01

    A cationic Schiff base ligand, TSB (L) and its Zn (II) complex (1) were synthesized and characterized by using CHN, 1H-NMR, FT-IR, UV, LC-MS, and X-ray methods. Their ability to inhibit topoisomerase I, DNA cleavage activities, and cytotoxicity were studied. X-ray diffraction study shows that the mononuclear complex 1 is four coordinated with distorted tetrahedral geometry. The singly deprotonated Schiff base ligand L acts as a bidentate ON-donor ligand. Complexation of L increases the inhibitory strength on topoisomerase I activity. Complex 1 could fully inhibit topoisomerase I activity at 250 μM, while L did not show any inhibitory effect on topoisomerase I activity. In addition, L and complex 1 could cleave pBR322 DNA in a concentration and time dependent profile. Surprisingly, L has better DNA cleavage activity than complex 1. The cleavage of DNA by complex 1 is altered in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, L and complex 1 are mildly cytotoxic towards human ovarian cancer A2780 and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2.

  13. MAP3K3 overexpression is associated with poor survival in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Dong, Yuling; Tao, Lin; Pang, Lijuan; Ren, Yan; Liang, Weihua; Jiang, Jinfang; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Wen Jie; Yuan, Xianglin; Li, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MAP3K3) is ubiquitously expressed in numerous tissues and is activated by various extracellular stimuli to regulate processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Recent studies have identified potentially pathologic conditions of MAP3K3 as an oncogene that promotes tumor progression and metastasis in a number of malignancies. However, the clinical significance of MAP3K3 expression in ovarian carcinoma (OC) remains unclear. In this study, the correlation between MAP3K3 expression and OC prognosis was assessed by immunohistochemistry. MAP3K3 overexpression was observed in 59.1% (55/93) of OCs and was significantly associated with histological type and grade, chemotherapy response, and challenge model (P < .05, respectively). MAP3K3 overexpression was also used as an independent prognostic marker for decreased disease-free survival and overall survival. In OC cell lines, MAP3K3 expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence. High MAP3K3 expression is significantly detected in SKOV3, C13*, and A2780 cells. All these findings suggested that MAP3K3 overexpression is an independent poor prognostic indicator of OC and can be a clinically effective biomarker of OC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcription factor Nrf2 maintains the basal expression of Mdm2: An implication of the regulation of p53 signaling by Nrf2.

    PubMed

    You, Aram; Nam, Chang-Won; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kensler, Thomas W; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung

    2011-03-15

    Co-operated regulation of oxidative stress-response transcription factors would be an important issue for animals to determine the cell fate under environmental stress. This notion raises a possibility that NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress, and p53 can have a direct co-regulation network. In the current study, we have indentified that the expression of murine double minute 2 (Mdm2) is repressed in nrf2-deleted murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). This was confirmed by microarray, RT-PCR, and immunoblot analyses, and further promoter analysis showed that Nrf2 is directly involved in the basal expression of Mdm2 through the antioxidant response element, which is located in the first intron of this gene. This linkage between Nrf2 and Mdm2 appears to cause the accumulation of p53 protein in nrf2-deficent MEFs. In addition, we show that ovarian carcinoma A2780 cells with Nrf2 shRNA expression displayed higher levels of p53 activation in response to hydrogen peroxide treatment, leading to increased cell death. Collectively, our results suggest novel evidence that the inhibition of Nrf2 can suppress Mdm2 expression, which may result in p53 signaling modulation. In addition, this observation supports the concept that Nrf2 inhibition in cancer cells can facilitate apoptotic response upon environmental stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis and cell selectivity of zinc dithiocarbamates functionalized with hydroxyethyl substituents.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yee Seng; Ooi, Kah Kooi; Ang, Kok Pian; Akim, Abdah Md; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Seng, Hoi-Ling; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2015-09-01

    In the solid state each of three binuclear zinc dithiocarbamates bearing hydroxyethyl groups, {Zn[S2CN(R)CH2CH2OH]2}2 for R = iPr (1), CH2CH2OH (2), and Me (3), and an all alkyl species, [Zn(S2CNEt2)2]2 (4), features a centrosymmetric {ZnSCS}2 core with a step topology; both 1 and 3 were isolated as monohydrates. All compounds were broadly cytotoxic, specifically against human cancer cell lines compared with normal cells, with greater potency than cisplatin. Notably, some selectivity were indicated with 2 being the most potent against human ovarian carcinoma cells (cisA2780), and 4 being more cytotoxic toward multidrug resistant human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7R), human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29), and human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549). Based on human apoptosis PCR-array analysis, caspase activities, DNA fragmentation, cell apoptotic assays, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements and human topoisomerase I inhibition, induction of apoptosis in HT-29 cells is demonstrated via both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Compounds 2-4 activate the p53 gene while 1 activates both p53 and p73. Cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases correlates with inhibition of HT-29 cell growth. Cell invasion is also inhibited by 1-4 which is correlated with down-regulation of NF-κB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential expression of p73 splice variants and protein in benign and malignant ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Zwahlen, D; Tschan, M P; Grob, T J; Peters, U R; Fink, D; Haenggi, W; Altermatt, H J; Cajot, J F; Tobler, A; Fey, M F; Aebi, S

    2000-10-01

    The p73 gene encodes a protein with substantial structural and functional similarities to the tumour-suppressor p53. Alternative splicing of p73 mRNA leads to expression of 6 known RNA species and proteins (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta). We analysed the expression of these splice variants in ovarian adenocarcinoma by RT-PCR followed by detection of amplicons with the Southern technique and by immunoblot in 32 malignant and benign epithelial ovarian tumour specimens and 3 ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines (A2780, 2008, OVCAR-3). p73alpha mRNA was expressed in all 17 ovarian cancer specimens, and 14 of 17 expressed at least 3 splice variants. In contrast, a different expression pattern was present in the ovarian adenomas: p73alpha was detected in 6 of 12 benign tumours, and only 1 adenoma expressed 3 splice variants. p73 protein was expressed in 9 of 16 ovarian cancer specimens, in all cell lines and in 1 of 3 borderline tumours. In contrast, none of 9 ovarian adenomas expressed detectable amounts of p73 protein. Expression of p73 mRNA and protein was not correlated with FIGO stage and histological grade, but we observed a significant correlation with over-expression of p53 protein. In summary, epithelial ovarian cancers express a more complex p73 isoform pattern and higher levels of p73 mRNA and protein than ovarian adenomas. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Effects of graphene quantum dots on linear and nonlinear optical behavior of malignant ovarian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Salman; Ara, Mohammad Hossein Majles; Serahatjoo, Leila

    2016-07-01

    We investigate linear and nonlinear optical properties of standard human ovarian cancer cells (cell line: A2780cp) in vitro. Cells were treated by graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with two special concentrations. Nontoxicity of GQDs was examined in standard biological viability tests. Cancerous cells were fixed on a glass slide; then, interaction of light with biofilms was studied in linear and nonlinear regimes. Absorption spectra of untreated biofilms and biofilms with two different concentrations of GQDs was studied by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Optical behavior of biofilms in a linear regime of intensity (with low-intensity laser exposure) was reported using a simple optical setup. After that, we compared the attenuation of light in biofilm of cancerous cells with and without GQDs. Nonlinear behavior of these biofilms was investigated by a Z-scan setup using a continued wave He-Ne laser. Results showed that GQDs decreased the extinction coefficient and changed the sign and exact value of the nonlinear refractive index of malignant ovarian cells noticeably. The nonlinear refractive index of studied cells with no GQDs treatment was in the order of 10-8 (cm2/w) with a positive sign. This quantity changed to the same order of magnitude with a negative sign after GQDs treatment. Thus, GQDs can be used for cancer diagnosis under laser irradiation.

  18. Bioactive ruthenium(II)-arene complexes containing modified 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid ligands.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yaqiong; Chen, Feng; Su, Zhi; Qian, Yong; Wang, Fang-Xin; Wang, Xiuxiu; Zhao, Jing; Mao, Zong-Wan; Liu, Hong-Ke

    2018-05-01

    Metal-arene complexes containing bioactive natural-product derived ligands can have new and unusual properties. We report the synthesis, characterization and antiproliferative activity of two new Ru(II) arene complexes with imidazole (dichlorido complex 1) or bipyridyl (chlorido complex 2) ligands conjugated to 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, an active triterpenoid metabolite of Glycyrrhiza glabra. In general, the conjugated ligands and complexes showed only moderate activity against HeLa (cervical), MCF-7 (breast) and A2780 (ovarian) cancer cells, although the activity of complex 2 in the former two cell lines approached that of the drug cisplatin. Complex 2 (in contrast to complex 1) also exhibited significant activity towards both Gram-positive S. aureus and Gram-negative E. coil bacteria. Complex 2 can induce condensation of DNA and enhances the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The conjugation of natural products to ligands in organometallic half-sandwich complexes provides a strategy to enhance their biological activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 9-Deazapurines as Broad-Spectrum Inhibitors of the ABC Transport Proteins P-Glycoprotein, Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1, and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Katja; Schmitt, Sven Marcel; Wiese, Michael

    2017-11-09

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) are the three major ABC transport proteins conferring resistance to many structurally diverse anticancer agents, leading to the phenomenon called multidrug resistance (MDR). Much effort has been put into the development of clinically useful compounds to reverse MDR. Broad-spectrum inhibitors of ABC transport proteins can be of great use in cancers that simultaneously coexpress two or three transporters. In this work, we continued our effort to generate new, potent, nontoxic, and multiply effective inhibitors of the three major ABC transporters. The best compound was active in a very low micromolar concentration range against all three transporters and restored sensitivity toward daunorubicin (P-gp and MRP1) and SN-38 (BCRP) in A2780/ADR (P-gp), H69AR (MRP1), and MDCK II BCRP (BCRP) cells. Additionally, the compound is a noncompetitive inhibitor of daunorubicin (MRP1), calcein AM (P-gp), and pheophorbide A (BCRP) transport.

  20. Cytotoxic properties of a new organometallic platinum(II) complex and its gold(I) heterobimetallic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Serratrice, Maria; Maiore, Laura; Zucca, Antonio; Stoccoro, Sergio; Landini, Ida; Mini, Enrico; Massai, Lara; Ferraro, Giarita; Merlino, Antonello; Messori, Luigi; Cinellu, Maria Agostina

    2016-01-14

    A novel platinum(ii) organometallic complex, [Pt(pbi)(Me)(DMSO)], bearing the 2-(2'-pyridyl)-benzimidazole (pbiH) ligand, was synthesized and fully characterized. Interestingly, the reaction of this organometallic platinum(ii) complex with two distinct gold(i) phosphane compounds afforded the corresponding heterobimetallic derivatives with the pbi ligand bridging the two metal centers. The antiproliferative properties in vitro of [Pt(pbi)(Me)(DMSO)] and its gold(i) derivatives as well as those of the known coordination platinum(ii) and palladium(ii) complexes with the same ligand, of the general formula [MCl2(pbiH)], were comparatively evaluated against A2780 cancer cells, either sensitive or resistant to cisplatin. A superior biological activity of the organometallic compound clearly emerged compared to the corresponding platinum(ii) complex; the antiproliferative effects are further enhanced upon attaching the gold(i) triphenylphosphine moiety to the organometallic Pt compound. Remarkably, these novel metal species are able to overcome nearly complete resistance to cisplatin. Significant mechanistic insight into the study compounds was gained after investigating their reactions with a few representative biomolecules by electrospray mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The obtained results are comprehensively discussed.

  1. Triterpenoids from the roots of Pterospermum heterophyllum Hance.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Shi, Yan; Shang, Xiao-Ya; Cui, Bao-Song; Yuan, Yi; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Yong-Chun; Shi, Jian-Gong

    2009-07-01

    Two new triterpenoids taraxer-14-ene-1alpha,3beta-diol (1) and 3beta-hydroxytaraxer-14-ene-1-one (2), together with the known triterpenes taraxerol (3), betulin (4), betulinic acid (5), sumaresinolic acid (6), and 5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (7), 5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethylchromone (8), alpha-monpalmitin (9), palmitic acid (10), 6beta-hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one (11), beta-sitostero1 (12), have been isolated from the petroleum ether fraction of the ethanolic extract of Pterospermum heterophyllum. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods including IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR experiments. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated against several human cancer cell lines. Compound 1 showed in vitro selective cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cell lines (A549) with an IC(50) value of 1.22 microM. Compound 7 showed significant cytotoxicity against the A549, HCT-8, Bel7402, BGC-823, and A2780 cancer cell lines with IC(50) values of 0.21, 0.55, 0.40, 0.59, and 0.34 microM, respectively. However, the other compounds were inactive (IC(50)>10 microM).

  2. Gadolinium Texaphyrin (Gd-Tex)-Malonato-Platinum Conjugates: Synthesis and Comparison with Carboplatin in Normal and Pt-Resistant Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Arambula, Jonathan F.; Fountain, Mark; Wei, Wen-hao

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of a new PEG3-solubilized gadolinium texaphyrin (Gd-Tex) conjugate containing a malonate-Pt(NH3)2 moiety is described. The effect of the tumor localizing Gd-Tex macrocycle on platinum activity was evaluated in cell culture. The malonate moiety, analogous to that present in carboplatin, is expected to release Pt(NH3)2 under physiological conditions. The half-life in phosphate-buffered saline was found to be ca. 3 days at room temperature, and the hydrolytic product released from the conjugate was collected and confirmed as Pt-based by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Anti-proliferative activity was tested using A549 human lung cancer and A2780 human ovarian cancer cell lines. In both cell lines, the activity of the Gd-Tex conjugate was found to be similar to that of carboplatin. Efficacy against a Pt-resistant ovarian cell line greater than that displayed by carboplatin was also observed. PMID:20023913

  3. Gadolinium texaphyrin (Gd-Tex)-malonato-platinum conjugates: synthesis and comparison with carboplatin in normal and Pt-resistant cell lines.

    PubMed

    Arambula, Jonathan F; Sessler, Jonathan L; Fountain, Mark E; Wei, Wen-hao; Magda, Darren; Siddik, Zahid H

    2009-12-28

    The synthesis of a new PEG-solubilized gadolinium texaphyrin (Gd-Tex) conjugate containing a malonate-Pt(NH(3))(2) moiety is described. The effect of the tumor localizing Gd-Tex macrocycle on platinum activity was evaluated in cell culture. The malonate moiety, analogous to that present in carboplatin, is expected to release an aquated Pt(NH(3))(2) species under physiological conditions. The half-life in phosphate-buffered saline was found to be ca. 3 days at room temperature, and the hydrolytic product released from the conjugate was collected and confirmed as Pt-based by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Anti-proliferative activity was tested using A549 human lung cancer and A2780 human ovarian cancer cell lines. In both cell lines, the activity of the Gd-Tex conjugate was found to be similar to that of carboplatin. Efficacy against a Pt-resistant ovarian cell line greater than that displayed by carboplatin was also observed.

  4. Antiproliferative Pt(IV) complexes: synthesis, biological activity, and quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Papa, Ester; Luini, Mara; Monti, Elena; Gariboldi, Marzia B; Ravera, Mauro; Gabano, Elisabetta; Gaviglio, Luca; Osella, Domenico

    2010-09-01

    Several Pt(IV) complexes of the general formula [Pt(L)2(L')2(L'')2] [axial ligands L are Cl-, RCOO-, or OH-; equatorial ligands L' are two am(m)ine or one diamine; and equatorial ligands L'' are Cl- or glycolato] were rationally designed and synthesized in the attempt to develop a predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model. Numerous theoretical molecular descriptors were used alongside physicochemical data (i.e., reduction peak potential, Ep, and partition coefficient, log Po/w) to obtain a validated QSAR between in vitro cytotoxicity (half maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC50, on A2780 ovarian and HCT116 colon carcinoma cell lines) and some features of Pt(IV) complexes. In the resulting best models, a lipophilic descriptor (log Po/w or the number of secondary sp3 carbon atoms) plus an electronic descriptor (Ep, the number of oxygen atoms, or the topological polar surface area expressed as the N,O polar contribution) is necessary for modeling, supporting the general finding that the biological behavior of Pt(IV) complexes can be rationalized on the basis of their cellular uptake, the Pt(IV)-->Pt(II) reduction, and the structure of the corresponding Pt(II) metabolites. Novel compounds were synthesized on the basis of their predicted cytotoxicity in the preliminary QSAR model, and were experimentally tested. A final QSAR model, based solely on theoretical molecular descriptors to ensure its general applicability, is proposed.

  5. Cytotoxic 14-Membered Macrolides from a Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus, Pestalotiopsis microspora.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Dai, Haofu; Makhloufi, Gamall; Heering, Christian; Janiak, Christoph; Hartmann, Rudolf; Mándi, Attila; Kurtán, Tibor; Müller, Werner E G; Kassack, Matthias U; Lin, Wenhan; Liu, Zhen; Proksch, Peter

    2016-09-23

    Seven new 14-membered macrolides, pestalotioprolides C (2), D-H (4-8), and 7-O-methylnigrosporolide (3), together with four known analogues, pestalotioprolide B (1), seiricuprolide (9), nigrosporolide (10), and 4,7-dihydroxy-13-tetradeca-2,5,8-trienolide (11), were isolated from the mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of NMR and MS data and by comparison with literature data. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis was used to confirm the absolute configurations of 1, 2, and 10, while Mosher's method and the TDDFT-ECD approach were applied to determine the absolute configurations of 5 and 6. Compounds 3-6 showed significant cytotoxicity against the murine lymphoma cell line L5178Y with IC50 values of 0.7, 5.6, 3.4, and 3.9 μM, respectively, while compound 5 showed potent activity against the human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 with an IC50 value of 1.2 μM. Structure-activity relationships are discussed. Coculture of P. microspora with Streptomyces lividans caused a roughly 10-fold enhanced accumulation of compounds 5 and 6 compared to axenic fungal control.

  6. Niclosamide and its analogs are potent inhibitors of Wnt/β-catenin, mTOR and STAT3 signaling in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Arend, Rebecca C; Londoño-Joshi, Angelina I; Gangrade, Abhishek; Katre, Ashwini A; Kurpad, Chandrika; Li, Yonghe; Samant, Rajeev S; Li, Pui-Kai; Landen, Charles N; Yang, Eddy S; Hidalgo, Bertha; Alvarez, Ronald D; Straughn, John Michael; Forero, Andres; Buchsbaum, Donald J

    2016-12-27

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer mortality worldwide. Platinum-based therapy is the standard first line treatment and while most patients initially respond, resistance to chemotherapy usually arises. Major signaling pathways frequently upregulated in chemoresistant cells and important in the maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) include Wnt/β-catenin, mTOR, and STAT3. The major objective of our study was to investigate the treatment of ovarian cancer with targeted agents that inhibit these three pathways. Here we demonstrate that niclosamide, a salicylamide derivative, and two synthetically manufactured niclosamide analogs (analog 11 and 32) caused significant inhibition of proliferation of two chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780cp20 and SKOV3Trip2), tumorspheres isolated from the ascites of EOC patients, and cells from a chemoresistant patient-derived xenograft (PDX). This work shows that all three agents significantly decreased the expression of proteins in the Wnt/β-catenin, mTOR and STAT3 pathways and preferentially targeted cells that expressed the ovarian CSC surface protein CD133. It also illustrates the potential of drug repurposing for chemoresistant EOC and can serve as a basis for pathway-oriented in vivo studies.

  7. Niclosamide and its analogs are potent inhibitors of Wnt/β-catenin, mTOR and STAT3 signaling in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arend, Rebecca C.; Londoño-Joshi, Angelina I.; Gangrade, Abhishek; Katre, Ashwini A.; Kurpad, Chandrika; Li, Yonghe; Samant, Rajeev S.; Li, Pui-Kai; Landen, Charles N.; Yang, Eddy S.; Hidalgo, Bertha; Alvarez, Ronald D.; Michael Straughn, John; Forero, Andres; Buchsbaum, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer mortality worldwide. Platinum-based therapy is the standard first line treatment and while most patients initially respond, resistance to chemotherapy usually arises. Major signaling pathways frequently upregulated in chemoresistant cells and important in the maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) include Wnt/β-catenin, mTOR, and STAT3. The major objective of our study was to investigate the treatment of ovarian cancer with targeted agents that inhibit these three pathways. Here we demonstrate that niclosamide, a salicylamide derivative, and two synthetically manufactured niclosamide analogs (analog 11 and 32) caused significant inhibition of proliferation of two chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780cp20 and SKOV3Trip2), tumorspheres isolated from the ascites of EOC patients, and cells from a chemoresistant patient-derived xenograft (PDX). This work shows that all three agents significantly decreased the expression of proteins in the Wnt/β-catenin, mTOR and STAT3 pathways and preferentially targeted cells that expressed the ovarian CSC surface protein CD133. It also illustrates the potential of drug repurposing for chemoresistant EOC and can serve as a basis for pathway-oriented in vivo studies. PMID:27888804

  8. BRCA1 as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent metabolic switch in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Da; Chen, Na-Na; Cao, Ji-Min; Sun, Wu-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Li, Chun-Yan; Wang, Xiu-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Both hereditary factors (e.g., BRCA1) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent metabolic pathways are implicated in the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer. However, whether crosstalk exists between BRCA1 and NAD metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that: (i) BRCA1 inactivation events (mutation and promoter methylation) were accompanied by elevated levels of NAD; (ii) the knockdown or overexpression of BRCA1 was an effective way to induce an increase or decrease of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt)-related NAD synthesis, respectively; and (iii) BRCA1 expression patterns were inversely correlated with NAD levels in human ovarian cancer specimens. In addition, it is worth noting that: (i) NAD incubation induced increased levels of BRCA1 in a concentration-dependent manner; (ii) Nampt knockdown-mediated reduction in NAD levels was effective at inhibiting BRCA1 expression; and (iii) the overexpression of Nampt led to higher NAD levels and a subsequent increase in BRCA1 levels in primary ovarian cancer cells and A2780, HO-8910 and ES2 ovarian cancer cell lines. These results highlight a novel link between BRCA1 and NAD. Our findings imply that genetic (e.g., BRCA1 inactivation) and NAD-dependent metabolic pathways are jointly involved in the malignant progression of ovarian cancer. PMID:25486197

  9. The long non-coding RNA HOTAIR promotes the proliferation of serous ovarian cancer cells through the regulation of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Jun-jun; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine-Related Diseases, 413 Zhaozhou Road, Shanghai 200011

    2015-05-01

    HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) is a well-known long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) whose dysregulation correlates with poor prognosis and malignant progression in many forms of cancer. Here, we investigate the expression pattern, clinical significance, and biological function of HOTAIR in serous ovarian cancer (SOC). Clinically, we found that HOTAIR levels were overexpressed in SOC tissues compared with normal controls and that HOTAIR overexpression was correlated with an advanced FIGO stage and a high histological grade. Multivariate analysis revealed that HOTAIR is an independent prognostic factor for predicting overall survival in SOC patients. We demonstrated that HOTAIR silencing inhibited A2780 andmore » OVCA429 SOC cell proliferation in vitro and that the anti-proliferative effects of HOTAIR silencing also occurred in vivo. Further investigation into the mechanisms responsible for the growth inhibitory effects by HOTAIR silencing revealed that its knockdown resulted in the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through certain cell cycle-related and apoptosis-related proteins. Together, these results highlight a critical role of HOTAIR in SOC cell proliferation and contribute to a better understanding of the importance of dysregulated lncRNAs in SOC progression. - Highlights: • HOTAIR overexpression correlates with an aggressive tumour phenotype and a poor prognosis in SOC. • HOTAIR promotes SOC cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. • The proliferative role of HOTAIR is associated with regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis.« less

  10. Curcumin suppresses cisplatin resistance development partly via modulating extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of MEG3 and miR-214 in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jinyu; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Li

    2017-03-01

    To investigate how curcumin alters the extracellular vesicles' (EVs) capability to ship drug resistance in ovarian cancer. The EVs from cisplatin-resistant A2780cp cells with curcumin treatment (EVs-CU) or without curcumin treatment (EVs-N) were collected for lncRNA profiling. Curcumin's effect on MEG3 promoter methylation and MEG3 expression were studied by MSP and qRT-PCR, respectively. The regulative effect of MEG3 on miR-214 expression and the functional role of EVs mediated transfer of miR-214 in cisplatin resistance were further investigated. Curcumin weakened the EVs-N's capability to induce drug resistance and induced significant changes of lncRNAs in the EVs. MEG3 is one of the most upregulated lncRNAs. Curcumin led to demethylation in the promoter region of MEG3 and 5-AZA-dC treatment restored MEG3 expression in a dose dependent manner. There were at least two binding sites between MEG3 and miR-214. MEG3 restoration by curcumin significantly reduced miR-214 in cells and in EVs. Functionally, miR-214 inhibition weakened the EVs-N's capability to enhance chemoresistance, while miR-214 overexpression increased the capability of EVs-CU in inducing chemoresistance. Curcumin can restore MEG3 levels via demethylation. MEG3 upregulation can decrease EVs mediated transfer of miR-214 in ovarian cancer cells, thereby reducing drug resistance.

  11. Adenovirus type 12 E1B 55-kilodalton oncoprotein promotes p53-mediated apoptotic response of ovarian cancer to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junnai; Gao, Qinglei; Li, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    The tumor suppressor p53-mediated apoptotic response plays an important role in cisplatin resistant in ovarian cancer. The adenovirus (Ad) type 12 E1B 55-kDa protein binds to p53 and inactivates its transcriptional transactivation function. In this study, we test the hypothesis that Ad12 E1B 55-kDa oncoprotein promotes p53-mediated apoptotic response of ovarian cancer to cisplatin. First, we observed the upregulation protein level of p53 target genes in cisplatin-resistant or cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer by Western blotting. Second, after transfection of Ad12 E1b 55-kDa expression plasmid, the expressions of p53 target genes in A2780 cells were further enhanced. Co-IP experiment demonstrated Ad12 E1b 55 kDa associated with p53. MTT assay confirmed that the cell proliferation was enhanced after transfection, as well as the enhanced cell inhibitory rate in the presence of cisplatin. Using flow cytometry, transfection of Ad12 E1B 55-kDa protein induced apoptosis and promoted S-phase transition in proliferation. Finally, results showed that all these changes promoted by Ad12 E1b 55 kDa were attenuated by the exposure of specific inhibitor of p53 signaling, pifithrin-α. Taken together, we concluded that Ad E1B 55-kDa oncoprotein promotes p53-mediated apoptotic response of ovarian cancer to cisplatin.

  12. Development and Characterization of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with a Highly Active Doxorubicin Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Peira, Elena; Dianzani, Chiara; Gallarate, Marina; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Dianzani, Umberto

    2018-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) comprise a versatile drug delivery system that has been developed for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The present study will investigate the feasibility of entrapping an active doxorubicin prodrug (a squalenoyl-derivative) in SLNs. The doxorubicin derivative-loaded SLNs are spherically shaped, have a mean diameter of 300–400 nm and show 85% w/w drug entrapment efficiency. The effects on cell growth of loaded SLNs, free doxorubicin and the prodrug have been examined using cytotoxicity and colony-forming assays in both human ovarian cancer line A2780 wild-type and doxorubicin-resistant cells. Further assessments as to the treatment’s ability to induce cell death by apoptosis have been carried out by analyzing annexin-V staining and the activation of caspase-3. The in vitro data demonstrate that the delivery of the squalenoyl-doxorubicin derivative by SLNs increases its cytotoxic activity, as well as its apoptosis effect. This effect was particularly evident in doxorubicin-resistant cells. PMID:29462932

  13. Development and Characterization of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with a Highly Active Doxorubicin Derivative.

    PubMed

    Stella, Barbara; Peira, Elena; Dianzani, Chiara; Gallarate, Marina; Battaglia, Luigi; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Boggio, Elena; Dianzani, Umberto; Dosio, Franco

    2018-02-16

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) comprise a versatile drug delivery system that has been developed for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The present study will investigate the feasibility of entrapping an active doxorubicin prodrug (a squalenoyl-derivative) in SLNs. The doxorubicin derivative-loaded SLNs are spherically shaped, have a mean diameter of 300-400 nm and show 85% w/w drug entrapment efficiency. The effects on cell growth of loaded SLNs, free doxorubicin and the prodrug have been examined using cytotoxicity and colony-forming assays in both human ovarian cancer line A2780 wild-type and doxorubicin-resistant cells. Further assessments as to the treatment's ability to induce cell death by apoptosis have been carried out by analyzing annexin-V staining and the activation of caspase-3. The in vitro data demonstrate that the delivery of the squalenoyl-doxorubicin derivative by SLNs increases its cytotoxic activity, as well as its apoptosis effect. This effect was particularly evident in doxorubicin-resistant cells.

  14. Raman spectroscopy and SERS analysis of ovarian tumour derived exosomes (TEXs): a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Laura T.; Gubbins, Luke; Weiner Gorzel, Karolina; Sharma, Shiva; Kell, Malcolm; McCann, Amanda; Hennelly, Bryan M.

    2014-05-01

    Here we report a preliminary study based on the application of Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to investigate the compositional differences between exosomes derived from ovarian carcinoma cells (cell line A2780) grown in normoxia (normal O2 conditions) and hypoxia (1% O2 conditions). Exosomes are integral to cell signalling, and are of interest in the study of how cells communicate within their environment. We are particularly interested in identifying whether hypoxia induced senescent cells can communi- cate via exosomes with neighbouring tumour cells, thereby causing them to become senescent and therefore radio and chemo resistant. With this goal in mind, we performed a preliminary study on the application of Raman spectroscopy and SERS to analyse the biomolecular fingerprint of both groups of exosomes and to investigate whether there exists a different biomolecular composition associated with exosomes derived from hypoxic cells in comparison to those from normoxic cells. We also applied multivariate statistical techniques for the classification of both groups of exosomes.

  15. Selecting bioactive phenolic compounds as potential agents to inhibit proliferation and VEGF expression in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    HE, ZHIPING; LI, BO; RANKIN, GARY O.; ROJANASAKUL, YON; CHEN, YI CHARLIE

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a disease that continues to cause mortality in female individuals worldwide. Ovarian cancer is challenging to treat due to emerging resistance to chemotherapy, therefore, the identification of effective novel chemotherapeutic agents is important. Polyphenols have demonstrated potential in reducing the risk of developing numerous types of cancer, as well reducing the risk of cancer progression, due to their ability to reduce cell viability and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. In the present study, eight phenolic compounds were screened in two human ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3 and A2780/CP70) to determine their effect on proliferation suppression and VEGF protein secretion inhibition, in comparison to cisplatin, a conventional chemotherapeutic agent. The current study identified that 40 μM gallic acid (GA) exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect on OVCAR-3 cell viability, compared with all of the phenolic compounds investigated. Similarly to cisplatin, baicalein, GA, nobiletin, tangeretin and baicalin were all identified to exhibit significant VEGF inhibitory effects from ELISA results. Furthermore, western blot analysis indicated that GA effectively decreased the level of the VEGF-binding protein hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in the ovarian cancer cell line. Considering the results of the present study, GA appears to inhibit cell proliferation and, thus, is a potential agent for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25663929

  16. Tangeretin, a citrus pentamethoxyflavone, antagonizes ABCB1-mediated multidrug resistance by inhibiting its transport function.

    PubMed

    Feng, Sen-Ling; Yuan, Zhong-Wen; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Ma, Wen-Zhe; Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhong-Qiu; Xie, Ying

    2016-08-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) and tumor metastasis are the main causes of chemotherapeutic treatment failure and mortality in cancer patients. In this study, at achievable nontoxic plasma concentrations, citrus flavonoid tangeretin has been shown to reverse ABCB1-mediated cancer resistance to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents effectively. Co-treatment of cells with tangeretin and paclitaxel activated apoptosis as well as arrested cell cycle at G2/M-phase. Tangeretin profoundly inhibited the ABCB1 transporter activity since it significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin, and flutax-2 in A2780/T cells and decreased the efflux of ABCB1 substrates in Caco2 cells without altering the expression of ABCB1. Moreover, it stimulated the ATPase activity and inhibited verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating a direct interaction with the transporter. The molecular docking results indicated a favorable binding of tangeretin with the transmemberane region site 1 of homology modeled ABCB1 transporter. The overall results demonstrated that tangeretin could sensitize ABCB1-overexpressing cancer cells to chemotherapeutical agents by directly inhibiting ABCB1 transporter function, which encouraged further animal and clinical studies in the treatment of resistant cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antiproliferative Compounds of Cyphostemma greveana from a Madagascar Dry Forest[1

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shugeng; Hou, Yanpeng; Brodie, Peggy; Miller, James S.; Randrianaivo, Richard; Rakotobe, Etienne; Rasamison, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extracts obtained from a plant identified as Cyphostemma greveana Desc. (Vitaceae) led to the identification of one macrolide, lasiodiplodin (1), three sesquiterpenoids, 12-hydroxy-15-oxo-selina-4,1l-diene (2), 1β,6α-dihydroxyeudesm-4(15)-ene (3), and (7R*)-opposit-4(15)-ene-1β,7-diol (5), and the new diterpenoid, 16,18-dihydroxykolavenic acid lactone (4). All the isolates were tested against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line, and compound 4 and a fraction containing 5 as the major constituent showed antiproliferative activities with IC50 values of 0.44 μM (0.14 μg/mL) and 0.045 μg/mL, respectively. A semisynthesis of compound 5 was carried out, but the pure synthetic compound was inactive, indicating that the activity of the fraction containing it must be due to a very minor and as yet unidentified substance. PMID:21480509

  18. The role of ROS and subsequent DNA-damage response in PUMA-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mei; Li, Lei; Lei, Yi; Cheng, Ping; Guo, Wenhao; Zheng, Yu; Wang, Wei; Luo, Na; Peng, Yong; Tong, Aiping; Wei, Yuquan; Nie, Chunlai; Yuan, Zhu

    2017-01-01

    PUMA is a member of the “BH3-only” branch of the BCL-2 family. Our previous study suggests a therapeutic potential of PUMA in treating ovarian cancer, however, the action mechanism of PUMA remains elusive. In this work, we found that in PUMA adenovirus-infected A2780s ovarian cancer cells, exogenous PUMA was partially accumulated in the cytosol and mainly located to the mitochondria. We further showed that PUMA induces mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated apoptosis and ROS generation through functional BAX in a ROS generating enzyme- and caspase-independent manner irrespective of their p53 status, and results in activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Furthermore, PUMA induces DNA breaks in γ-H2AX staining, and causes activation of DNA damage-related kinases including ATM, ATR, DNA-PKcs, Chk1 and Chk2, which are correlated with the apoptosis. PUMA also results in ROS-triggered JNK activation. Intriguingly, JNK plays a dual role in both DNA damage response and apoptosis, and has an additional contribution to apoptosis. Taken together, we have provided new insight into the action mechanism by which elevated PUMA first induces ROS generation then results in DNA damage response and JNK activation, ultimately contributing to apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:28423586

  19. The role of ROS and subsequent DNA-damage response in PUMA-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Zhao, Xinyu; Tang, Mei; Li, Lei; Lei, Yi; Cheng, Ping; Guo, Wenhao; Zheng, Yu; Wang, Wei; Luo, Na; Peng, Yong; Tong, Aiping; Wei, Yuquan; Nie, Chunlai; Yuan, Zhu

    2017-04-04

    PUMA is a member of the "BH3-only" branch of the BCL-2 family. Our previous study suggests a therapeutic potential of PUMA in treating ovarian cancer, however, the action mechanism of PUMA remains elusive. In this work, we found that in PUMA adenovirus-infected A2780s ovarian cancer cells, exogenous PUMA was partially accumulated in the cytosol and mainly located to the mitochondria. We further showed that PUMA induces mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated apoptosis and ROS generation through functional BAX in a ROS generating enzyme- and caspase-independent manner irrespective of their p53 status, and results in activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Furthermore, PUMA induces DNA breaks in γ-H2AX staining, and causes activation of DNA damage-related kinases including ATM, ATR, DNA-PKcs, Chk1 and Chk2, which are correlated with the apoptosis. PUMA also results in ROS-triggered JNK activation. Intriguingly, JNK plays a dual role in both DNA damage response and apoptosis, and has an additional contribution to apoptosis. Taken together, we have provided new insight into the action mechanism by which elevated PUMA first induces ROS generation then results in DNA damage response and JNK activation, ultimately contributing to apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells.

  20. Naphthohydroquinones, naphthoquinones, anthraquinones, and a naphthohydroquinone dimer isolated from the aerial parts of Morinda parvifolia and their cytotoxic effects through up-regulation of p53.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jie; Zhang, Peng; Gao, Zengping; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Zheng; Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Ruoyun

    2016-10-01

    Five unknown compounds, morindaparvins C-G, consisting of naphthohydroquinones, a naphthoquinone, an anthraquinone, and a naphthohydroquinone dimer, together with three known quinones and seven other known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Morinda parvifolia. The structures of morindaparvins C, D, E, F, and G were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic or X-ray diffraction analysis as methyl 4-hydroxy-1,6-dimethoxy-naphthalene-2-carboxylate, methyl 4,8-dihydroxy-1-methoxy-naphthalene-2-carboxylate, 3-amino-6-methoxy-2-methoxycarbonyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 1,4-dihydroxy-7-hydroxymethyl-anthraquinone, and dimethyl 1,1'-dihydroxy-4,4',7,7'-tetramethoxy-2,2'-binaphthalene-3,3'-dicarboxylate, respectively. Naphthoquinones and naphthohydroquinone dimers were previously unknown in the genus Morinda. In addition, the compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines HeLa, A2780, Ketr3 and MCF-7 and their effects on p53-activated transcription. Three naphthoquinones had moderate cytotoxic effects with IC50 values ranging from 1.51 to 9.56 μM, through up-regulation of p53 transcriptional activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Cobalt nanoparticles for biomedical applications: Facile synthesis, physiochemical characterization, cytotoxicity behavior and biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, S. M.; Bhor, R. D.; Pai, K. R.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Ghosh, Kartik; Kolekar, Y. D.; Ramana, C. V.

    2017-08-01

    Cobalt (Co) nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by a simple, one step hydrothermal method with the capping of oleic acid. Intrinsic structural, physiochemical and magnetic properties of Co NPs were investigated and demonstrated their applicability in biomedicine. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and infrared (IR) spectroscopic studies confirm the single phase Co NPs with a high structural quality. The IR data revealed the capping of oleic acid via monodentate interaction. Small angle scattering studies suggest the existence of sticky hard sphere type of interaction among the Co NPs because of magnetic interaction which is further evidenced by electron microscopy imaging analyses. The Co NPs exhibit a ferromagnetic character over a wide range of temperature (20-300 K). The temperature dependence of magnetic parameters namely, saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization, coercivity and reduced remanent magnetization were determined and correlated with structure of Co NPs. The Cytotoxicity studies demonstrate that these Co NPs exhibit the mild anti-proliferative character against the cancer cells (cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer (A2780/CP70)) and safe nature towards the normal cells. Haemolytic behavior of human red blood cells (RBC) revealed (<5%) haemolysis signifying the compatibility of Co NPs with human RBC which is an essential feature in vivo biomedical applications without creating any harmful effects in the human blood stream.

  2. Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 Inhibits the Warburg Effect Via Modulating DNMT3A/ MiR-532-3p/HK2 Pathway in Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Xia; Lu, Jiaojiao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xu; Zhao, Le

    2018-03-16

    The Warburg effect is one of the main energy metabolism features supporting cancer cell growth. 20(S)-Rg3 exerts anti-tumor effect on ovarian cancer partly by inhibiting the Warburg effect. microRNAs are important regulators of the Warburg effect. However, the microRNA regulatory network mediating the anti-Warburg effect of 20(S)-Rg3 was largely unknown. microRNA deep sequencing was performed to identify the 20(S)-Rg3-influenced microRNAs in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. miR-532-3p was overexpressed by mimic532-3p transfection in SKOV3 and A2780 cells or inhibited by inhibitor532-3p transfection in 20(S)-Rg3-treated cells to examine the changes in HK2 and PKM2 expression, glucose consumption, lactate production and cell growth. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was conducted to verify the direct binding of miR-532-3p to HK2. The methylation status in the promoter region of pre-miR-532-3p gene was examined by methylation-specific PCR. Expression changes of key molecules controlling DNA methylation including DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and TET1-3 were examined in 20(S)-Rg3-treated cells. DNMT3A was overexpressed in 20(S)-Rg3-treated cells to examine its influence on miR-532-3p level, HK2 and PKM2 expression, glucose consumption and lactate production. Deep sequencing results showed that 11 microRNAs were increased and 9 microRNAs were decreased by 20(S)-Rg3 in SKOV3 cells, which were verified by qPCR. More than 2-fold increase of miR-532-3p was found in 20(S)-Rg3-treated SKOV3 cells. Forced expression of miR-532-3p reduced HK2 and PKM2 expression, glucose consumption and lactate production in SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells. Inhibition of miR-532-3p antagonized the suppressive effect of 20(S)-Rg3 on HK2 and PKM2 expression, glucose consumption and lactate production in ovarian cancer cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-532-3p directly suppressed HK2 rather than PKM2. miR-532-3p level was controlled by the methylation in the promoter region of its host

  3. A novel dual-functioning ruthenium(II)-arene complex of an anti-microbial ciprofloxacin derivative - Anti-proliferative and anti-microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Ude, Ziga; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Twamley, Brendan; Fitzgerald Hughes, Deirdre; Sadler, Peter J; Marmion, Celine J

    2016-07-01

    7-(4-(Decanoyl)piperazin-1-yl)-ciprofloxacin, CipA, (1) which is an analogue of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, and its ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)(CipA-H)Cl], (2) have been synthesised and the x-ray crystal structures of 1·1.3H2O·0.6CH3OH and 2·CH3OH·0.5H2O determined. The complex adopts a typical pseudo-octahedral 'piano-stool' geometry, with Ru(II) π-bonded to the p-cymene ring and σ-bonded to a chloride and two oxygen atoms of the chelated fluoroquinolone ligand. The complex is highly cytotoxic in the low μM range and is as potent as the clinical drug cisplatin against the human cancer cell lines A2780, A549, HCT116, and PC3. It is also highly cytotoxic against cisplatin- and oxaliplatin-resistant cell lines suggesting a different mechanism of action. The complex also retained low μM cytotoxicity against the human colon cancer cell line HCT116p53 in which the tumour suppressor p53 had been knocked out, suggesting that the potent anti-proliferative properties associated with this complex are independent of the status of p53 (in contrast to cisplatin). The complex also retained moderate anti-bacterial activity in two Escherichia coli, a laboratory strain and a clinical isolate resistant to first, second and third generation β-lactam antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Overexpression of the microRNA miR-433 promotes resistance to paclitaxel through the induction of cellular senescence in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Weiner-Gorzel, Karolina; Dempsey, Eugene; Milewska, Malgorzata; McGoldrick, Aloysius; Toh, Valerie; Walsh, Aoibheann; Lindsay, Sinead; Gubbins, Luke; Cannon, Aoife; Sharpe, Daniel; O'Sullivan, Jacintha; Murphy, Madeline; Madden, Stephen F; Kell, Malcolm; McCann, Amanda; Furlong, Fiona

    2015-05-01

    Annually, ovarian cancer (OC) affects 240,000 women worldwide and is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. High-grade serous OC (HGSOC) is the most common and aggressive OC subtype, characterized by widespread genome changes and chromosomal instability and is consequently poorly responsive to chemotherapy treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the microRNA miR-433 in the cellular response of OC cells to paclitaxel treatment. We show that stable miR-433 expression in A2780 OC cells results in the induction of cellular senescence demonstrated by morphological changes, downregulation of phosphorylated retinoblastoma (p-Rb), and an increase in β-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, in silico analysis identified four possible miR-433 target genes associated with cellular senescence: cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), MAPK14, E2F3, and CDKN2A. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that downregulation of p-Rb is attributable to a miR-433-dependent downregulation of CDK6, establishing it as a novel miR-433 associated gene. Interestingly, we show that high miR-433 expressing cells release miR-433 into the growth media via exosomes which in turn can induce a senescence bystander effect. Furthermore, in relation to a chemotherapeutic response, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that only PEO1 and PEO4 OC cells with the highest miR-433 expression survive paclitaxel treatment. Our data highlight how the aberrant expression of miR-433 can adversely affect intracellular signaling to mediate chemoresistance in OC cells by driving cellular senescence. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Half-Sandwich Ru(II) and Os(II) Bathophenanthroline Complexes Containing a Releasable Dichloroacetato Ligand.

    PubMed

    Štarha, Pavel; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Vančo, Ján; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2018-02-14

    We report on the preparation and thorough characterization of cytotoxic half-sandwich complexes [Ru(η⁶- p cym)(bphen)(dca)]PF₆ ( Ru - dca ) and [Os(η⁶- p cym)(bphen)(dca)]PF₆ ( Os - dca ) containing dichloroacetate(1-) (dca) as the releasable O -donor ligand bearing its own cytotoxicity; p cym = 1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)benzene ( p -cymene), bphen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline). Complexes Ru - dca and Os-dca hydrolyzed in the water-containing media, which led to the dca ligand release (supported by ¹H NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectra). Mass spectrometry studies revealed that complexes Ru- dca and Os-dca do not interact covalently with the model proteins cytochrome c and lysozyme. Both complexes exhibited slightly higher in vitro cytotoxicity (IC 50 = 3.5 μM for Ru- dca , and 2.6 μM for Os-dca ) against the A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells than cisplatin (IC 50 = 5.9 μM), while their toxicity on the healthy human hepatocytes was found to be IC 50 = 19.1 μM for Ru- dca and IC 50 = 19.7 μM for Os-dca . Despite comparable cytotoxicity of complexes Ru- dca and Os-dca , both the complexes modified the cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release by a different way, as revealed by flow cytometry experiments. The obtained results point out the different mechanisms of action between the complexes.

  6. Iloprost, a prostacyclin analog, inhibits the invasion of ovarian cancer cells by downregulating matrix metallopeptidase-2 (MMP-2) through the IP-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji-Hye; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Youn Seok; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that a bioactive lipid prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) plays a role in various cancers, including lung cancer. However, the specific function of PGI 2 in ovarian cancer progression has not been determined. This study investigated the effects of PGI 2 on cell growth, migration, and invasion in ovarian cancer cells using iloprost, a stable PGI 2 analog. Iloprost significantly inhibited migration and invasion, but not cell growth, in a dose-dependent manner in human ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and SKOV3). Interestingly, the cell surface Gs protein-coupled PGI 2 receptor IP was enhanced in human ovarian cancer cells. The inhibitory effect of iloprost on migration and invasion was entirely reversed by an IP antagonist (CAY10449) and IP siRNA, whereas the knockdown of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ), a nuclear receptor of PGI 2 , did not rescue the effect of iloprost. Additionally, iloprost markedly decreased the expression of matrix metallopeptidase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), which may be induced in the process of ovarian cancer metastasis. IP siRNA inhibited iloprost-reduced MMP-2 expression but not MMP-9 expression. Moreover, inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) and overexpression of Akt and p38 rescued the inhibition of invasion and the reduction of MMP-2 expression by iloprost. Furthermore, iloprost-induced activation of PKA was associated with PKA-mediated Akt and p38 inactivation in ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that iloprost inhibits ovarian cancer cell invasion by downregulating MMP-2 expression via the IP-mediated PKA pathway. This study is the first to reveal a novel role for iloprost and to clarify its underlying mechanism in human ovarian cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemosensitizing effects of metformin on cisplatin- and paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Guimarães, Isabella; Ladislau-Magescky, Taciane; Tessarollo, Nayara Gusmão; Dos Santos, Diandra Zipinotti; Gimba, Etel Rodrigues Pereira; Sternberg, Cinthya; Silva, Ian Victor; Rangel, Leticia Batista Azevedo

    2017-11-21

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Primary cytoreductive surgery with adjuvant taxane-platinum chemotherapy is the standard treatment to fight ovarian cancer, however, their side effects are severe, and chemoresistance emerges at high rates. Therefore, EOC clinic urges for novel treatment strategies to reverse chemoresistance and to improve the survival rates. Metformin has been shown to act in synergy with certain anti-cancer agents, overcoming chemoresistance in various types of tumors. This paper aims to investigate the use of metformin as a new treatment option for cisplatin- and paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer. The effects of metformin alone or in combination with conventional drugs on resistant EOC cell lines were investigated using the MTT assay for cell proliferation; Flow Cytometry analysis for cell cycle and the mRNA expression was analyzed using the real-time PCR technique. We found that metformin exhibited antiproliferative effects in paclitaxel-resistant A2780-PR, and in cisplatin-resistant ACRP cell lines. The combined therapy containing conventional drugs and metformin improved the effect of the treatment in cell proliferation rate, especially in the resistant cells. We found that metformin, in clinical relevant doses, could significantly reduce the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, our observations suggest that metformin inhibits the inflammatory pathway induced by paclitaxel and cisplatin treatment. Furthermore, metformin in combination with paclitaxel or cisplatin improved the sensitivity in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Therefore, metformin may be beneficial treatment strategy, particularly in patients with tumors refractory to platinum and taxanes. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Senescent peritoneal mesothelium induces a pro-angiogenic phenotype in ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in a mouse xenograft model in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Sosińska, Patrycja; Naumowicz, Eryk; Maksin, Konstantin; Piotrowska, Hanna; Woźniak, Aldona; Szpurek, Dariusz; Książek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that senescent cells contribute to the progression of primary and metastatic tumors, however, the exact mechanisms of this activity remain elusive. In this report we show that senescent human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) alter the secretory profile of ovarian cancer cells (A2780, OVCAR-3, SKOV-3) by increasing the release of four angiogenic agents: CXCL1, CXCL8, HGF, and VEGF. Proliferation and migration of endothelial cells subjected to conditioned medium generated by: cancer cells modified by senescent HPMCs; cancer cells co-cultured with senescent HPMCs; and by early-passage HPMCs from aged donors, were markedly intensified. The same was the case for the vascularization, size and number of tumors that developed in the mouse peritoneum upon injection of ovarian cancer cells with senescent HPMCs. When the identified pro-angiogenic proteins were neutralized in conditioned medium from the cancer cells, both aspects of endothelial cell behavior intensified in vitro in response to senescent HPMCs were markedly reduced. The search for mediators of senescent HPMC activity using specific neutralizing antibodies and recombinant exogenous proteins showed that the intensified angiogenic potential of cancer cells was elicited by IL-6 and TGF-β1. At the transcriptional level, increased proliferation and migration of endothelial cells exposed to cancer cells modified by senescent HPMCs was regulated by HIF-1α, NF-κB/p50 and AP-1/c-Jun. Collectively, our findings indicate that senescent HPMCs may promote the progression of ovarian cancer cells by reprogramming their secretory phenotype towards increased production of pro-angiogenic agents and subsequent increase in the angiogenic capabilities of the vascular endothelium.

  9. Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Crude Extracts and Fractions from Phyllanthus amarus

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Van Tang; Sakoff, Jennette A.; Scarlett, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) has been used as a medicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of chronic ailments such as diabetes, hepatitis, and cancer. Methods: The physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts and fractions from P. amarus were determined using spectrophotometric method. Results: The P. amarus methanol (PAM) extract had lower levels of residual moisture (7.40%) and water activity (0.24) and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins (1657.86 mg escin equivalents, 250.45 mg gallic acid equivalents, 274.73 mg rutin equivalents and 61.22 mg catechin equivalents per g dried extract, respectively) than those of the P. amarus water (PAW) extract. The antioxidant activity of PAM extract was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the PAW extract, PAM fractions, and phyllanthin (known as a major compound in the P. amarus). Higher cytotoxic activity of PAM extract based on MTT assay on different cell lines including MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas), HT29 (colon), A2780 (ovarian), H460 (lung), A431 (skin), Du145 (prostate), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), MCF-7 (breast), MCF-10A (normal breast), and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma) was observed in comparison to the PAW extract and PAM fractions. The cytotoxic potential of the PAW extract (200 μg/mL), based on the CCK-8 assay on a pancreatic cancer cell line (MiaCaPa2) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of gemcitabine (50 nM) and a saponin-enriched extract from quillajia bark at 200 μg/mL (a commercial product), but was significantly higher than that of phyllanthin at 2 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results achieved from this study reveal that the PA extracts are a potential source for the development of natural antioxidant products and/or novel anticancer drugs. PMID:28930257

  10. The antitumor effect of bromophenol derivatives in vitro and Leathesia nana extract in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dayong; Li, Jing; Guo, Shuju; Su, Hua; Fan, Xiao

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect of bromophenol derivatives in vitro and Leathesia nana extract in vivo, six bromophenol derivatives 6-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy benzyl methyl ether (1), (+)-3-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-bromo-5,6-dihydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran (2), 3-bromo-4-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxymethyl-pyrocatechol (3), 2,2',3,3'-tetrabromo-4,4',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-diphenylmethane (4), bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether (5), 2,2',3-tribromo-3',4,4',5-tetrahydroxy-6'-ethyloxymethyldiphenylmethane (6) were isolated from brown alga Leathesia nana, and their cytotoxicity were tested by MTT assays in human cancer cell lines A549, BGC-823, MCF-7, B16-BL6, HT-1080, A2780, Bel7402 and HCT-8. Their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) with over-expression of c-kit was analyzed also by ELISA. The antitumor activity of ethanolic extraction of Leathesia nana (EELN) was evaluated on S180-bearing mice. All compounds showed very potent cytotoxicity against all of the eight cancer cell lines with IC50 below 10 μg/mL. In PTK inhibition study, all bromophenol derivatives showed moderate inhibitory activity and compounds 2, 5 and 6 showed significant bioactivity with the inhibition ratio of 77.5%, 80.1% and 71.4%, respectively. Pharmacological studies reveal that EELN could inhibit the growth of Sarcoma 180 tumor and increase the indices of thymus and spleen to improve the immune system remarkably in vivo. Results indicated that the bromophenol derivatives and EELN can be used as potent antitumor agents for PTK over-expression of c-kit and considered in a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of cancer.

  11. Anti-cancer activity of doxorubicin-loaded liposomes co-modified with transferrin and folic acid.

    PubMed

    Sriraman, Shravan Kumar; Salzano, Giusseppina; Sarisozen, Can; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2016-08-01

    Cancer-specific drug delivery represents an attractive approach to prevent undesirable side-effects and increase the accumulation of the drug in the tumor. Surface modification of nanoparticles such as liposomes with targeting moieties specific to the up-regulated receptors on the surface of tumor cells thus represents an effective strategy. Furthermore, since this receptor expression can be heterogeneous, using a dual-combination of targeting moieties may prove advantageous. With this in mind, the anti-cancer activity of PEGylated doxorubicin-loaded liposomes targeted with folic acid (F), transferrin (Tf) or both (F+Tf) was evaluated. The dual-targeted liposomes showed a 7-fold increase in cell association compared to either of the single-ligand targeted ones in human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell monolayers. The increased penetration and cell association of the dual-targeted liposomes were also demonstrated using HeLa cell spheroids. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the doxorubicin liposomes (LD) was then evaluated using HeLa and A2780-ADR ovarian carcinoma cell monolayers. In both these cell lines, the (F+Tf) LD showed significantly higher cytotoxic effects than the untargeted, or single-ligand targeted liposomes. In a HeLa xenograft model in nude mice, compared to the untreated group, though the untargeted LD showed 42% tumor growth inhibition, both the (F) LD and (F+Tf) LD showed 75% and 79% tumor growth inhibition respectively. These results thus highlight that though the dual-targeted liposomes represent an effective cytotoxic formulation in the in vitro setting, they were equally effective as the folic acid-targeted liposomes in reducing tumor burden in the more complex in vivo setting in this particular model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Implication of the Akt2/survivin pathway as a critical target in paclitaxel treatment in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Weng, Danhui; Song, Xiaohong; Xing, Hui; Ma, Xiaoli; Xia, Xi; Weng, Yanjie; Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Gang; Meng, Li; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Shixuan; Ma, Ding

    2009-01-18

    Although multiple mechanisms have been implicated in paclitaxel (PTX)-induced resistance in ovarian cancer, recent evidence has suggested that Akt2 has an important role in the protection of cells from paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Akt2/survivin pathway in paclitaxel-induced resistance by a modified method to generate an effective shRNA vector. We applied RNAi-mediated silencing techniques to investigate the mechanism of the Akt2/survivin pathway on PTX-induced resistance in ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and SKOV3). The expression of Akt2 and survivin mRNA and related protein levels were evaluated with semiquantitative real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Inhibition of cell proliferation was determined by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the induction of apoptosis was examined through flow cytometry (FACS) and Hoechst staining. Akt2 down-regulation sensitized ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, and inhibited survivin expression. We further demonstrated that suppressing the inhibition of survivin expression can induce the drug-resistance to paclitaxel. We introduced a modified vector to generate shRNA to induce RNA interference, which contained three U6 promoters to express different shRNAs; it severely reduced Akt2 gene expression and showed good specificity. Our findings will aid in understanding the molecular mechanism of paclitaxel-induced resistance in ovarian cancer and facilitate the development of novel anti-neoplastic strategies.

  13. Physicochemical, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Properties of Xao Tam Phan (Paramignya trimera) Root Extract and Its Fractions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Tang; Sakoff, Jennette A; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Xao tam phan (Paramignya trimera (Oliv.) Guillaum) has been used as a medicinal plant for cancer prevention and treatment in recent years. The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of crude P. trimera root (PTR) extract and its fractions using MeOH as a solvent and microwave-assisted extraction as an advanced technique for preparation of the PTR extract. The results showed that the PTR extract had high contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins (7731.05 mg escin equiv. (EE), 238.13 mg gallic acid equiv. (GAE), 81.49 mg rutin equiv., and 58.08 mg catechin equiv. (CE)/g dried extract, resp.). Antioxidant activity of PTR extract was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of four its fractions and ostruthin, a key bioactive compound in the P. trimera, while potent cytotoxic capacity of PTR extract on various cancer cell lines in terms of MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas), HT29 (colon), A2780 (ovarian), H460 (lung), A431 (skin), Du145 (prostate), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), MCF-7 (breast), MCF-10A (normal breast), and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma) was observed with GI 50 values ranging from 15 to 32 μg/ml. Cytotoxic potential on pancreatic cancer cells of PTR extract (100 - 200 μg/ml) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of its four fractions (50 μg/ml), ostruthin (20 μg/ml) and gemcitabine (50 nm), and being comparable to a saponin-enriched extract from quillajia bark, a commercial product. Based on the results achieved, we can conclude that the PTR extract is a potential source for application of in the nutraceutical, medical, and pharmaceutical industries. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. The Influence of cis-Regulatory Elements on DNA Methylation Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunlong; Li, Meng; Huang, Tim H. M.; Wang, Yadong; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Li, Lang

    2012-01-01

    It is now established that, as compared to normal cells, the cancer cell genome has an overall inverse distribution of DNA methylation (“methylome”), i.e., predominant hypomethylation and localized hypermethylation, within “CpG islands” (CGIs). Moreover, although cancer cells have reduced methylation “fidelity” and genomic instability, accurate maintenance of aberrant methylomes that underlie malignant phenotypes remains necessary. However, the mechanism(s) of cancer methylome maintenance remains largely unknown. Here, we assessed CGI methylation patterns propagated over 1, 3, and 5 divisions of A2780 ovarian cancer cells, concurrent with exposure to the DNA cross-linking chemotherapeutic cisplatin, and observed cell generation-successive increases in total hyper- and hypo-methylated CGIs. Empirical Bayesian modeling revealed five distinct modes of methylation propagation: (1) heritable (i.e., unchanged) high- methylation (1186 probe loci in CGI microarray); (2) heritable (i.e., unchanged) low-methylation (286 loci); (3) stochastic hypermethylation (i.e., progressively increased, 243 loci); (4) stochastic hypomethylation (i.e., progressively decreased, 247 loci); and (5) considerable “random” methylation (582 loci). These results support a “stochastic model” of DNA methylation equilibrium deriving from the efficiency of two distinct processes, methylation maintenance and de novo methylation. A role for cis-regulatory elements in methylation fidelity was also demonstrated by highly significant (p<2.2×10−5) enrichment of transcription factor binding sites in CGI probe loci showing heritably high (118 elements) and low (47 elements) methylation, and also in loci demonstrating stochastic hyper-(30 elements) and hypo-(31 elements) methylation. Notably, loci having “random” methylation heritability displayed nearly no enrichment. These results demonstrate an influence of cis-regulatory elements on the nonrandom propagation of both strictly

  15. Effects of Noncovalent Platinum Drug–Protein Interactions on Drug Efficacy: Use of Fluorescent Conjugates as Probes for Drug Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Brad T.; Peterson, Erica J.; Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Martínez, Alberto; Kipping, Ralph; Farrell, Nicholas P.

    2012-01-01

    The overall efficacy of platinum based drugs is limited by metabolic deactivation through covalent drug–protein binding. In this study the factors affecting cytotoxicity in the presence of glutathione, human serum albumin (HSA) and whole serum binding with cisplatin, BBR3464, and TriplatinNC, a “noncovalent” derivative of BBR3464, were investigated. Upon treatment with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), to reduce cellular glutathione levels, cisplatin and BBR3464-induced apoptosis was augmented whereas TriplatinNC-induced cytotoxicity was unaltered. Treatment of A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells with HSA-bound cisplatin (cisplatin/HSA) and cisplatin preincubated with whole serum showed dramatic decreases in cytotoxicity, cellular accumulation, and DNA adduct formation compared to treatment with cisplatin alone. Similar effects are seen with BBR3464. In contrast, TriplatinNC, the HSAbound derivative (TriplatinNC/HSA), and TriplatinNC pretreated with whole serum retained identical cytotoxic profiles and equal levels of cellular accumulation at all time points. Confocal microscopy of both TriplatinNC-NBD, a fluorescent derivative of TriplatinNC, and TriplatinNC-NBD/HSA showed nuclear/nucleolar localization patterns, distinctly different from the lysosomal localization pattern seen with HSA. Cisplatin-NBD, a fluorescent derivative of cisplatin, was shown to accumulate in the nucleus and throughout the cytoplasmwhile the localization of cisplatin-NBD/HSA was limited to lysosomal regions of the cytoplasm. The results suggest that TriplatinNCcan avoid high levels of metabolic deactivation currently seen with clinical platinum chemotherapeutics, and therefore retain a unique cytotoxic profile after cellular administration. PMID:21548575

  16. Vacuolar ATPase ‘a2’ isoform exhibits distinct cell surface accumulation and modulates matrix metalloproteinase activity in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kulshrestha, Arpita; Katara, Gajendra K.; Ibrahim, Safaa; Pamarthy, Sahithi; Jaiswal, Mukesh K.; Sachs, Alice Gilman; Beaman, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor associated vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are multi-subunit proton pumps that acidify tumor microenvironment, thereby promoting tumor invasion. Subunit ‘a’ of its V0 domain is the major pH sensing unit that additionally controls sub-cellular targeting of V-ATPase and exists in four different isoforms. Our study reports an elevated expression of the V-ATPase-V0a2 isoform in ovarian cancer(OVCA) tissues and cell lines(A2780, SKOV-3 and TOV-112D). Among all V0’a’ isoforms, V0a2 exhibited abundant expression on OVCA cell surface while normal ovarian epithelia did not. Sub-cellular distribution of V-ATPase-V0a2 confirmed its localization on plasma-membrane, where it was also co-associated with cortactin, an F-actin stabilizing protein at leading edges of cancer cells. Additionally, V0a2 was also localized in early and late endosomal compartments that are sites for modulations of several signaling pathways in cancer. Targeted inhibition of V-ATPase-V0a2 suppressed matrix metalloproteinase activity(MMP-9 & MMP-2) in OVCA cells. In conclusion, V-ATPase-V0a2 isoform is abundantly expressed on ovarian tumor cell surface in association with invasion assembly related proteins and plays critical role in tumor invasion by modulating the activity of matrix-degrading proteases. This study highlights for the first time, the importance of V-ATPase-V0a2 isoform as a distinct biomarker and possible therapeutic target for treatment of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:25686833

  17. Low-dimensional compounds containing bioactive ligands. Part VIII: DNA interaction, antimicrobial and antitumor activities of ionic 5,7-dihalo-8-quinolinolato palladium(II) complexes with K+and Cs+cations.

    PubMed

    Farkasová, Veronika; Drweesh, Sayed Ali; Lüköová, Andrea; Sabolová, Danica; Radojević, Ivana D; Čomić, Ljiljana R; Vasić, Sava M; Paulíková, Helena; Fečko, Stanislav; Balašková, Tatiana; Vilková, Mária; Imrich, Ján; Potočňák, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Starting from well-defined NH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 [PdCl 2 (XQ)] complexes, coordination compounds of general formula Cat[PdCl 2 (XQ)] have been prepared by cationic exchange of NH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 + and Cat cations, where XQ are biologically active halogen derivatives of quinolin-8-ol (5-chloro-7-iodo-quinolin-8-ol (CQ), 5,7-dibromo-quinolin-8-ol (dBrQ) and 5,7-dichloro-quinolin-8-ol (dClQ)) and Cat is K + or Cs + . The cation exchange of all prepared complexes, K[PdCl 2 (CQ)] (1), K[PdCl 2 (dClQ)] (2), K[PdCl 2 (dBrQ)] (3), Cs[PdCl 2 (CQ)] (4), Cs[PdCl 2 (dClQ)] (5) and Cs[PdCl 2 (dBrQ)] (6) was approved using IR spectroscopy, their structures in DMSO solution were elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments, whereas their stability in solution was verified by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Interaction of complexes to ctDNA was investigated using UV-VIS and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum microbicidal concentration values were detected against 15 bacterial strains and 4 yeast strains to examine the antimicrobial activity for the complexes. The in vitro antitumor properties of the complexes were studied by testing the complexes on leukemic cell line L1210, ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and non-cancerous cell line HEK293. The majority of the prepared compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial and very high cytotoxic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Endothelin-1/endothelin A receptor axis activates RhoA GTPase in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tocci, Piera; Caprara, Valentina; Cianfrocca, Roberta; Sestito, Rosanna; Di Castro, Valeriana; Bagnato, Anna; Rosanò, Laura

    2016-08-15

    The endothelin-1 (ET-1)/ET A receptor (ETAR) signaling pathway is critical driver of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression. Emerging evidences demonstrate that the scaffolding protein β-arrestin-1 (β-arr1) downstream of ETAR guides cell motility, although the signaling pathways by which ETAR activation controls these process are not well understood. Here, we set out to molecularly dissect whether RhoA GTPase activation is a mediator of ET-1 signaling controlling EOC cell migration. We cultured EOC cell lines (HEY, SKOV3, OVCAR, A2780 and 2008) with ET-1 and the ET-1R antagonist macitentan. RhoA expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. Activation of RhoA and ROCK1 was evaluated by pull down and kinase assays, respectively. Cell motility was evaluated by chemotaxis and wound healing assays, in untrasfected cells by using ROCK chemical inhibitors, Y-27632 or Fasudil, or in cells after transfection with dominant negative RhoA construct. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) was evaluated by immunoblotting. Pseudopodia formation was evaluated by a pseudopodia kit assay. In EOC cells, ET-1 activates RhoA and downstream ROCK1 and MLC2. These effects were inhibited by β-arr1 silencing, suggesting that ET-1/ETAR regulate RhoA signaling through β-arr1. At functional level, the activation of RhoA/ROCK signaling led to enhanced cell migration and pseudopodia formation. The suppressive effect of the ROCK inhibitors, as well as of macitentan, demonstrates that RhoA is involved in ET-1/ETAR-induced cell migration. Altogether these findings reveal a new pathway that depends on β-arr1 to sustain RhoA/ROCK signaling in response to ETAR activation in EOC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tribbles 2 mediates cisplatin sensitivity and DNA damage response in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kritsch, Daniel; Hoffmann, Franziska; Steinbach, Daniel; Jansen, Lars; Mary Photini, Stella; Gajda, Mieczyslaw; Mosig, Alexander S; Sonnemann, Jürgen; Peters, Sven; Melnikova, Margarita; Thomale, Jürgen; Dürst, Matthias; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Häfner, Norman

    2017-10-15

    Aim was to identify methylated genes with functional involvement in cisplatin-resistance development of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Genome-wide analyses of hypermethylated CpG-islands in resistant cell lines in combination with qRT-PCR analyses were used to identify epigenetically silenced genes. EOC-Type-II tumors were analyzed for gene methylation and expression and TCGA data were interrogated in-silico. Experiments revealed 37 commonly hypermethylated genes in resistant cells of which Tribbles 2 (TRIB2) showed the most pronounced downregulation on mRNA level and was characterized further. TRIB2 showed a reactivation after 5'-Aza-Cytidine treatment in resistant cells but a cisplatin-dependent, prominent upregulation on mRNA level in sensitive cells, only. Re-expression in resistant A2780 cells increased the sensitivity to cisplatin and other DNA-damaging agents, but not taxanes. Contrary, knockdown of TRIB2 increased resistance to cisplatin in sensitive cells. TRIB2 was involved in the induction of a cisplatin-dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by influencing p21 and survivin expression. An increased Pt-DNA-adduct formation in TRIB2 re-expressing cells did not translate in higher levels of dsDNA damage (yH2AX-foci). Thus, TRIB2 is potentially involved in the signal transduction from nucleotide excision repair of intrastrand cross links. Importantly, patient stratification of two homogenous cohorts of EOC-Type-II patients from Jena (n = 38) and the TCGA (n = 149) by TRIB2 mRNA expression consistently revealed a significantly decreased PFS for patients with low TRIB2 levels (log-rank p < 0.05). Tumors from resistant patients expressed the lowest levels of TRIB2. Downregulation of TRIB2 contributes to platin-resistance and TRIB2 expression should be validated as prognostic and predictive marker for EOC. © 2017 UICC.

  20. Controlling ligand substitution reactions of organometallic complexes: tuning cancer cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuyi; Habtemariam, Abraha; van der Geer, Erwin P L; Fernández, Rafael; Melchart, Michael; Deeth, Robert J; Aird, Rhona; Guichard, Sylvie; Fabbiani, Francesca P A; Lozano-Casal, Patricia; Oswald, Iain D H; Jodrell, Duncan I; Parsons, Simon; Sadler, Peter J

    2005-12-20

    Organometallic compounds offer broad scope for the design of therapeutic agents, but this avenue has yet to be widely explored. A key concept in the design of anticancer complexes is optimization of chemical reactivity to allow facile attack on the target site (e.g., DNA) yet avoid attack on other sites associated with unwanted side effects. Here, we consider how this result can be achieved for monofunctional "piano-stool" ruthenium(II) arene complexes of the type [(eta6-arene)Ru(ethylenediamine)(X)]n+. A potentially important activation mechanism for reactions with biomolecules is hydrolysis. Density functional calculations suggested that aquation (substitution of X by H2O) occurs by means of a concerted ligand interchange mechanism. We studied the kinetics and equilibria for hydrolysis of 21 complexes, containing, as X, halides and pseudohalides, pyridine (py) derivatives, and a thiolate, together with benzene (bz) or a substituted bz as arene, using UV-visible spectroscopy, HPLC, and electrospray MS. The x-ray structures of six complexes are reported. In general, complexes that hydrolyze either rapidly {e.g., X = halide [arene = hexamethylbenzene (hmb)]} or moderately slowly [e.g., X = azide, dichloropyridine (arene = hmb)] are active toward A2780 human ovarian cancer cells, whereas complexes that do not aquate (e.g., X = py) are inactive. An intriguing exception is the X = thiophenolate complex, which undergoes little hydrolysis and appears to be activated by a different mechanism. The ability to tune the chemical reactivity of this class of organometallic ruthenium arene compounds should be useful in optimizing their design as anticancer agents.

  1. Effects of hypoxia on human cancer cell line chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Environment inside even a small tumor is characterized by total (anoxia) or partial oxygen deprivation, (hypoxia). It has been shown that radiotherapy and some conventional chemotherapies may be less effective in hypoxia, and therefore it is important to investigate how different drugs act in different microenvironments. In this study we perform a large screening of the effects of 19 clinically used or experimental chemotherapeutic drugs on five different cell lines in conditions of normoxia, hypoxia and anoxia. Methods A panel of 19 commercially available drugs: 5-fluorouracil, acriflavine, bortezomib, cisplatin, digitoxin, digoxin, docetaxel, doxorubicin, etoposide, gemcitabine, irinotecan, melphalan, mitomycin c, rapamycin, sorafenib, thalidomide, tirapazamine, topotecan and vincristine were tested for cytotoxic activity on the cancer cell lines A2780 (ovarian), ACHN (renal), MCF-7 (breast), H69 (SCLC) and U-937 (lymphoma). Parallel aliquots of the cells were grown at different oxygen pressures and after 72 hours of drug exposure viability was measured with the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Results Sorafenib, irinotecan and docetaxel were in general more effective in an oxygenated environment, while cisplatin, mitomycin c and tirapazamine were more effective in a low oxygen environment. Surprisingly, hypoxia in H69 and MCF-7 cells mostly rendered higher drug sensitivity. In contrast ACHN appeared more sensitive to hypoxia, giving slower proliferating cells, and consequently, was more resistant to most drugs. Conclusions A panel of standard cytotoxic agents was tested against five different human cancer cell lines cultivated at normoxic, hypoxic and anoxic conditions. Results show that impaired chemosensitivity is not universal, in contrast different cell lines behave different and some drugs appear even less effective in normoxia than hypoxia. PMID:23829203

  2. New benzimidazoles and their antitumor effects with Aurora A kinase and KSP inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Abd El-All, Amira S; Magd-El-Din, Asmaa A; Ragab, Fatma A F; ElHefnawi, Mahmoud; Abdalla, Mohamed M; Galal, Shadia A; El-Rashedy, Ahmed A

    2015-07-01

    A newly synthesized series of anticancer compounds comprising thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine derivatives 6a-q bearing a benzimidazole moiety was produced via a one-pot reaction of N-(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-2-cyanoacetamide 5 with 2-aminothiazole and an appropriate aromatic aldehyde. Compound 7 was obtained via the reaction of 4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2yl)benzenamide 1 with carbon disulphide and methyl iodide in the presence of concentrated aqueous solution of NaOH, then treated with o-phenylenediamine to give N-(4-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-amine 8. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by analytical and spectroscopic measurements (IR, MS, and (1) H NMR). The synthesized products were screened and studied for their in vitro antitumor activity against three human cancer cell lines (namely colorectal cancer cell line HCT116, human liver cancer cell line HepG2, and human ovarian cancer cell line A2780) and their Aurora A kinase and KSP inhibitory activities. All newly synthesized compounds revealed marked results comparable with the standard drug CK0106023. The compounds 6e and 6k of the thiazolopyrimidine derivatives were the most active compounds when tested against the three cell lines in comparison with the standard drug CK0106023, and showed potent dual KSP and Aurora A kinase inhibition. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Comparison of the physical characteristics of monodisperse non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NISV) prepared using different manufacturing methods.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Mohammad A; Gebril, Ayman M; Tate, Rothwelle J; Mullen, Alexander B; Ferro, Valerie A

    2017-04-15

    Non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NISV) are synthetic membrane vesicles formed by self-assembly of a non-ionic surfactant, often in a mixture with cholesterol and a charged chemical species. Different methods can be used to manufacture NISV, with the majority of these requiring bulk mixing of two phases. This mixing process is time-consuming and leads to the preparation of large and highly dispersed vesicles, which affects the consistency of the final product and could hinder subsequent regulatory approval. In this study, we have compared the physical characteristics of NISV prepared using two conventional methods (thin-film hydration method and heating method) with a recently introduced microfluidic method. The resulting particles from these methods were assessed for their physical characteristics and in vitro cytotoxicity. Through microfluidics, nano-sized NISV were prepared in seconds, through rapid and controlled mixing of two miscible phases (lipids dissolved in alcohol and an aqueous medium) in a microchannel, without the need of a size reduction step, as required for the conventional methods. Stability studies over two months showed the particles were stable regardless of the method of preparation and there were no differences in terms of EC50 on A375 and A2780 cell lines. However, this work demonstrates the flexibility and ease of applying lab-on-chip microfluidics for the preparation of NISV that could be used to significantly improve formulation research and development, by enabling the rapid manufacture of a consistent end-product, under controlled conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Photocytotoxic trans-diam(m)ine platinum(IV) diazido complexes more potent than their cis isomers.

    PubMed

    Farrer, Nicola J; Woods, Julie A; Munk, Vivienne P; Mackay, Fiona S; Sadler, Peter J

    2010-02-15

    The photocytotoxicity of a series of anticancer trans-dihydroxido [Pt(N(3))(2)(OH)(2)(NH(3))(X)] (X = alkyl or aryl amine) platinum(IV) diazido complexes has been examined, and the influence of cis-trans isomerism has been investigated. A series of photoactivatable Pt(IV)-azido complexes has been synthesized: The synthesis, characterization, and photocytotoxicity of six mixed-ligand ammine/amine Pt(IV) diazido complexes, cis,trans,cis-[Pt(N(3))(2)(OH)(2)(NH(3))(X)] where X = propylamine (4c), butylamine (5c), or pentylamine (6c) and aromatic complexes where X = pyridine (7c), 2-methylpyridine (8c), or 3-methylpyridine (9c) are reported. Six all-trans isomers have also been studied where X = methylamine (2t), ethylamine (3t), 2-methylpyridine (8t), 4-methylpyridine (10t), 3-methylpyridine (9t), and 2-bromo-3-methylpyridine (11t). All of the complexes exhibit intense azide-to-Pt(IV) LMCT bands (ca. 290 nm for trans and ca. 260 nm for cis). When irradiated with UVA light (365 nm), the Pt(IV) complexes undergo photoreduction to Pt(II) species, as monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. The trans isomers of complexes containing aliphatic or aromatic amines were more photocytotoxic than their cis isomers. One of the cis complexes (9c) was nonphotocytotoxic despite undergoing photoreduction. Substitution of NH(3) ligands by MeNH(2) or EtNH(2) results in more potent photocytotoxicity for the all-trans complexes. The complexes were all nontoxic toward human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and A2780 human ovarian cancer cells in the dark, apart from the 3-methylpyridine (9t), 2-bromo-3-methylpyridine (11t), and 4-methylpyridine (10t) derivatives.

  5. Anti-tumor and Anti-angiogenic Effects of Aspirin-PC in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Lichtenberger, Lenard M.; Taylor, Morgan; Bottsford-Miller, Justin N.; Haemmerle, Monika; Wagner, Michael J.; Lyons, Yasmin; Pradeep, Sunila; Hu, Wei; Previs, Rebecca A.; Hansen, Jean M.; Fang, Dexing; Dorniak, Piotr L.; Filant, Justyna; Dial, Elizabeth J.; Shen, Fangrong; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Sood, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of a novel and safer (for gastrointestinal tract) aspirin (aspirin-PC) in preclinical models of ovarian cancer, in vitro dose-response studies were performed to compare the growth-inhibitory effect of aspirin-PC vs. aspirin on 3 human (A2780, SKOV3ip1, HeyA8), and a mouse (ID8) ovarian cancer cell line over an 8-day culture period. In the in vivo studies, the aspirin test drugs were studied alone and in the presence of a VEGF-A inhibitor (bevacizumab or B20), due to an emerging role for platelets in tumor growth following anti-angiogenic therapy, and we examined their underlying mechanisms. Aspirin-PC was more potent (vs. aspirin) in blocking the growth of both human and mouse ovarian cancer cells in monolayer culture. Using in vivo model systems of ovarian cancer, we found that aspirin-PC significantly reduced ovarian cancer growth by 50–90% (depending on the ovarian cell line/density). The efficacy was further enhanced in combination with Bevacizumab or B20. The growth-inhibitory effect on ovarian tumor mass and number of tumor nodules was evident, but less pronounced for aspirin and the VEGF inhibitors alone. There was no detectable gastrointestinal toxicity. Both aspirin and aspirin-PC also inhibited cell proliferation, angiogenesis and increased apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. In conclusion, PC-associated aspirin markedly inhibits the growth of ovarian cancer cells, which exceeds that of the parent drug, in both cell culture and in mouse model systems. We also found that both aspirin-PC and aspirin have robust anti-neoplastic action in the presence of VEGF blocking drugs. PMID:27638860

  6. Polymeric Micelles for Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs: Preparation and Anticancer Activity In Vitro of Paclitaxel Incorporated into Mixed Micelles Based on Poly(ethylene Glycol)-Lipid Conjugate and Positively Charged Lipids

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JUNPING; MONGAYT, DIMITRY; TORCHILIN, VLADIMIR P.

    2006-01-01

    Paclitaxel-loaded mixed polymeric micelles consisting of poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoyl phosphoethanolamine conjugates (PEG-PE), solid triglycerides (ST), and cationic Lipofectin® lipids (LL) have been prepared. Micelles with the optimized composition (PEG-PE/ST/LL/paclitaxel = 12/12/2/1 by weight) had an average micelle size of about 100 nm, and zeta-potential of about 26 mV. Micelles were stable and did not release paclitaxel when stored at 4°C in the darkness (just 2.9% of paclitaxel have been lost after 4 months with the particle size remaining unchanged). The release of paclitaxel from such micelles at room temperature was also insignificant. However, at 37°C, approx. 16% of paclitaxel was released from PEG-PE/ST/LL/paclitaxel micelles in 72 h, probably, because of phase transition in the ST-containing micelle core. In vitro anticancer effects of PEG-PE/ST/LL/paclitaxel and control micelles were evaluated using human mammary adenocarcinoma (BT-20) and human ovarian carcinoma (A2780) cell lines. Paclitaxel in PEG-PE/ST/LL micelles demonstrated the maximum anti-cancer activity. Cellular uptake of fluorescently-labeled paclitaxel-containing micelles by BT-20 cells was investigated using a fluorescence microscopy. It seems that PEG-PE/ST/LL micelles, unlike micelles without the LL component, could escape from endosomes and enter the cytoplasm of BT-20 cancer cells thus increasing the anticancer efficiency of the micellar paclitaxel. PMID:15848957

  7. Evidence for induction of a tumor metastasis-receptive microenvironment for ovarian cancer cells in bone marrow and other organs as an unwanted and underestimated side effect of chemotherapy/radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gunjal, Pranesh M; Schneider, Gabriela; Ismail, Ahmed Abdelbaset; Kakar, Sham S; Kucia, Magda; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2015-03-28

    One of side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is the induction of several factors in various tissues and organs that create a pro-metastatic microenvironment for cancer cells that survive initial treatment. In the present study, we employed human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and immunodeficient mice xenograft model to test effect of both ibuprofen and dexamethasone to ameliorate the therapy-induced pro-metastatic microenvironment in bone marrow, liver, and lung. In our studies, we found that total body irradiation or administration of cisplatin increases the metastatic spread of human ovarian cancer cells transplanted into immunodeficient mice compared with animals unexposed to irradiation or cisplatin. Moreover, conditioned media harvested from irradiated murine bone marrow, lung, and liver chemoattracted human ovarian cancer cells, and this chemotactic activity was inactivated by heat, suggesting a major involvement of peptide or peptide-bound chemoattractants. We also observed that human ovarian cancer cells proliferate better if exposed to cell debris harvested from irradiated murine bone marrow. Finally, the pro-metastatic microenvironment in mice induced by radio- or chemotherapy was significantly ameliorated if animals were treated at the time of radiotherapy administration with non-steroid (ibuprofen) or steroid (prednisone) anti-inflammatory drugs. In summary, we propose that a radiochemotherapy-induced, pro-metastatic microenvironment plays an important role in the metastasis of cancer cells that are resistant to treatment. Such cells have characteristics of cancer stem cells and are highly migratory, and simple, intensive, anti-inflammatory treatment by non-steroid agents to suppress induction of pro-metastatic factors after radiochemotherapy would be an interesting anti-metastatic treatment alternative.

  8. Unusual anti-leukemia activity of nanoformulated naproxen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Siril, Prem Felix; Javid, Farideh

    2016-12-01

    The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most widely used pharmaceuticals worldwide. Interestingly, many of them have significant anticancer properties too. However, the poor water solubility of certain NSAIDs limits their application for cancer treatment. Nanosizing of such drugs can help to improve the solubility and this may result in enhanced anticancer activities too. Moreover, over dosages and the accompanying side effects of NSAIDs can be minimized by improving their solubility and bioavailability. Successful nanoformulation of three NSAIDs: ibuprofen (IBP), ketoprufen (KP) and naproxen (NAP) using a novel evaporation assisted solvent-antisolvent interaction (EASAI) method is reported here. Three water soluble and biocompatible polymers: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were used to stabilize the drug nanoparticles. Particles having spherical morphology with average size below 30nm were thoroughly characterized using dynamic light scattering and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) imaging. The nanoformulation resulted in ten to fifteen fold improvements in the solubility and significant enhancement in the in-vitro drug release profiles of the NSAIDs. Anticancer screening of the nanoformulated NSAIDs against five different cancer cell lines such as MCF-7 (Human breast cancer cell line), (Human pancreatic cancer cell line) MIA-PA-CA-2, (Human colon cancer cell line) HT-29, (Human leukemia cell line) Jurkat and (human ovarian carcinoma cell line) A2780 was performed. All the nanoformulated samples showed improved anticancer activity against the Leukemia cancer cell line, out of which NAP-PVP showed the highest anti-cancer activity. The anti-Leukemia activity of NAP-PVP was more than twice that of doxorubicin which is a standard anticancer drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The oncogenic phosphatase PPM1D confers cisplatin resistance in ovarian carcinoma cells by attenuating checkpoint kinase 1 and p53 activation.

    PubMed

    Ali, A Y; Abedini, M R; Tsang, B K

    2012-04-26

    Cisplatin (CDDP: cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) resistance is a major hurdle in the treatment of human ovarian cancer (OVCA). A better understanding of the mechanisms of CDDP resistance can greatly improve therapeutic outcome for patients. A determinant of CDDP sensitivity in OVCA, p53, is activated by checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) in response to DNA damage. Although the oncogenic phosphatase protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1 (PPM1D) can deactivate both p53 and Chk1 through site-specific dephosphorylation, whether PPM1D has a role in CDDP resistance is unknown. Here, using pair-matched wild-type p53 CDDP-sensitive (OV2008) and -resistant (C13*) cells, and p53-compromised CDDP-resistant cells (A2780cp, OCC-1, OVCAR-3 and SKOV3), we have demonstrated (i) the existence of site-specific differences in phospho-Ser-Chk1 content between sensitive and resistant cells in response to CDDP; (ii) PPM1D, but not phosphoinositide-3-kinase-related kinase Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 related protein (ATR), is important in the regulation of CDDP-induced Chk1 activation and OVCA cell chemosensitivity; (iii) PPM1D downregulation sensitizes resistant cells to CDDP primarily by activating Chk1 and p53. Our findings establish for the first time that PPM1D confers CDDP resistance in OVCA cells through attenuating CDDP-induced, Chk1-mediated, p53-dependent apoptosis. These findings extend the current knowledge on the molecular and cellular basis of cisplatin resistance and offer the rationale for PPMID as a potential target for treatment of chemoresistant OVCA.

  10. Mutant p53 promotes ovarian cancer cell adhesion to mesothelial cells via integrin β4 and Akt signals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Gyu; Ahn, Ji-Hye; Jin Kim, Tae; Ho Lee, Jae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Missense mutations in the TP53 gene resulting in the accumulation of mutant proteins are extremely common in advanced ovarian cancer, which is characterised by peritoneal metastasis. Attachment of cancer cells to the peritoneal mesothelium is regarded as an initial, key step for the metastatic spread of ovarian cancer. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of a p53 mutant in the mesothelial adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. We found that OVCAR-3 cells with the R248 TP53 mutation (p53R248) were more adhesive to mesothelial Met5A cells than were A2780 cells expressing wild-type p53. In addition, ectopic expression of p53R248 in p53-null SKOV-3 cells significantly increased adhesion to Met5A cells. Knockdown of mutant p53 significantly compromised p53R248-induced cell adhesion to Met5A cells. Microarray analysis revealed that several adhesion-related genes, including integrin β4, were markedly up-regulated, and certain signalling pathways, including PI3K/Akt, were activated in p53R248 transfectants of SKOV-3 cells. Inhibition of integrin β4 and Akt signalling using blocking antibody and the inhibitor LY294002, respectively, significantly attenuated p53R248-mediated ovarian cancer-mesothelial adhesion. These data suggest that the p53R248 mutant endows ovarian cancer cells with increased adhesiveness and that integrin β4 and Akt signalling are associated with the mutation-enhanced ovarian cancer-mesothelial cell adhesion. PMID:26223322

  11. [Establishment of 5 resistant ovarian cancer cell strains and expression of resistance-related genes].

    PubMed

    Luan, Ying-zi; Li, Li; Li, Dang-rong; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Bu-jian

    2004-06-01

    To investigate expression difference of several drug resistance related genes between sensitive and resistant ovarian carcinoma cells. Cell lines resistant to cisplatin, carboplatin and taxol were established from ovarian carcinoma cell lines of SKOV3 and A2780, and their biological features were detected. The expressions of several genes related to drug resistance were measured by RT-PCR method. (1) The values of resistance index (RI) of resistant cells to relevant drugs were elevated 3 times or more, with different degrees of cross-resistance to several other drugs (RI 2 approximately 20). They grew more slowly than primary cells (Td elongated 1.4 approximately 2.4 times, P < 0.01) without obvious changes in G(1), G(2), and S ratios (P > 0.05). Intracellular concentrations of relevant drugs were reduced 2.0 approximately 8.5 times in resistant cells (P < 0.05). (2) p53, lung resistance protein-1 (LRP-1), multiple drug resistance related protein-1 (MRP-1) genes were expressed at lower levels in resistant cells than in sensitive cells; while protein kinase C (PKC), topoisomerase (topo) I, and topo II beta were expressed higher, no obvious alterations were found concerning glutathione S transferase-pi (GST-pi), and topo II alpha. Expression of multiple drug resistance-1 (MDR-1) gene was either elevated or reduced in different cells. The expressions of resistance related genes were widely different in different kinds of resistant cells, suggesting more than one pathway leading to resistance transformation. This adds more difficulties for clinical management.

  12. The p53 Upregulated Modulator of Apoptosis (PUMA) Chemosensitizes Intrinsically Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells to Cisplatin by Lowering the Threshold Set by Bcl-xL and Mcl-1

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhu; Cao, Kang; Lin, Chao; Li, Lei; Liu, Huan-yi; Zhao, Xin-yu; Liu, Lei; Deng, Hong-xin; Li, Jiong; Nie, Chun-lai; Wei, Yu-quan

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the number one cause of death from gynecologic malignancy. A defective p53 pathway is a hallmark of ovarian carcinoma. The p53 mutation correlates significantly with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy, early relapse and shortened overall survival in ovarian cancer patients. PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein, was recently identified as a transcriptional target of p53 and a potent apoptosis inducer in various cancer cells. In this study, we showed that the induction of PUMA by cisplatin was abolished in p53-deficient SKOV3 cells. Elevated expression of PUMA-induced apoptosis and sensitized A2780s and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin, and the combination of PUMA and low-dose cisplatin, significantly suppressed xenograft tumor growth in vivo through enhanced induction of apoptosis compared with treatment with PUMA or cisplatin alone. The effects of PUMA were mediated by enhanced caspase activation and release of cytochrome c and Smac (second mitochondria–derived activator of caspase) into the cytosol. Furthermore, PUMA chemosensitized intrinsically resistant SKOV3 cells to cisplatin through downregulation of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) and myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1). PUMA-mediated Bcl-xL downregulation mainly happened at the transcription level, whereas PUMA-induced Mcl-1 down-regulation was associated with caspase-dependent cleavage and proteasome-mediated degradation. To our knowledge, these data suggest a new mechanism by which overexpression of PUMA enhances sensitivity of SKOV3 cells to cisplatin by lowering the threshold set simultaneously by Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Taken together, our findings indicate that PUMA is an important modulator of therapeutic responses of ovarian cancer cells and is potentially useful as a chemosensitizer in ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:21863213

  13. Metabolomics Analysis of Metabolic Effects of Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) Inhibition on Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tolstikov, Vladimir; Nikolayev, Alexander; Dong, Sucai; Zhao, Genshi; Kuo, Ming-Shang

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) plays an important role in cellular bioenergetics. It is responsible for converting nicotinamide to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an essential molecule in cellular metabolism. NAMPT has been extensively studied over the past decade due to its role as a key regulator of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–consuming enzymes. NAMPT is also known as a potential target for therapeutic intervention due to its involvement in disease. In the current study, we used a global mass spectrometry–based metabolomic approach to investigate the effects of FK866, a small molecule inhibitor of NAMPT currently in clinical trials, on metabolic perturbations in human cancer cells. We treated A2780 (ovarian cancer) and HCT-116 (colorectal cancer) cell lines with FK866 in the presence and absence of nicotinic acid. Significant changes were observed in the amino acids metabolism and the purine and pyrimidine metabolism. We also observed metabolic alterations in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (TCA), and the pentose phosphate pathway. To expand the range of the detected polar metabolites and improve data confidence, we applied a global metabolomics profiling platform by using both non-targeted and targeted hydrophilic (HILIC)-LC-MS and GC-MS analysis. We used Ingenuity Knowledge Base to facilitate the projection of metabolomics data onto metabolic pathways. Several metabolic pathways showed differential responses to FK866 based on several matches to the list of annotated metabolites. This study suggests that global metabolomics can be a useful tool in pharmacological studies of the mechanism of action of drugs at a cellular level. PMID:25486521

  14. Sulforaphane-induced apoptosis involves the type 1 IP3 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hudecova, Sona; Markova, Jana; Simko, Veronika; Csaderova, Lucia; Stracina, Tibor; Sirova, Marta; Fojtu, Michaela; Svastova, Eliska; Gronesova, Paulina; Pastorek, Michal; Novakova, Marie; Cholujova, Dana; Kopacek, Juraj; Pastorekova, Silvia; Sedlak, Jan; Krizanova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    In this study we show that anti-tumor effect of sulforaphane (SFN) is partially realized through the type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1). This effect was verified in vitro on three different stable cell lines and also in vivo on the model of nude mice with developed tumors. Early response (6 hours) of A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells to SFN treatment involves generation of mitochondrial ROS and increased transcription of NRF2 and its downstream regulated genes including heme oxygenase 1, NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1, and KLF9. Prolonged SFN treatment (24 hours) upregulated expression of NRF2 and IP3R1. SFN induces a time-dependent phosphorylation wave of HSP27. Use of IP3R inhibitor Xestospongin C (Xest) attenuates both SFN-induced apoptosis and the level of NRF2 protein expression. In addition, Xest partially attenuates anti-tumor effect of SFN in vivo. SFN-induced apoptosis is completely inhibited by silencing of IP3R1 gene but only partially blocked by silencing of NRF2; silencing of IP3R2 and IP3R3 had no effect on these cells. Xest inhibitor does not significantly modify SFN-induced increase in the rapid activity of ARE and AP1 responsive elements. We found that Xest effectively reverses the SFN-dependent increase of nuclear content and decrease of reticular calcium content. In addition, immunofluorescent staining with IP3R1 antibody revealed that SFN treatment induces translocation of IP3R1 to the nucleus. Our results clearly show that IP3R1 is involved in SFN-induced apoptosis through the depletion of reticular calcium and modulation of transcription factors through nuclear calcium up-regulation. PMID:27528021

  15. Dieckol, isolated from the edible brown algae Ecklonia cava, induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells and inhibits tumor xenograft growth.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji-Hye; Yang, Yeong-In; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-02-01

    Ecklonia cava is an abundant brown alga and has been reported to possess various bioactive compounds having anti-inflammatory effect. However, the anticancer effects of dieckol, a major active compound in E. cava, are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the anti-tumor activity of dieckol and its molecular mechanism in ovarian cancer cells and in a xenograft mouse model . MTT assay, PI staining, and PI and Annexin double staining were performed to study cell cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis. We also investigated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and protein expression using flow cytometry and Western blot analysis, respectively. Anti-tumor effects of dieckol were evaluated in SKOV3 tumor xenograft model. We found that the E. cava extract and its phlorotannins have cytotoxic effects on A2780 and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. Dieckol induced the apoptosis of SKOV3 cells and suppressed tumor growth without any significant adverse effect in the SKOV3-bearing mouse model. Dieckol triggered the activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, and pretreatment with caspase inhibitors neutralized the pro-apoptotic activity of dieckol. Furthermore, treatment with dieckol caused mitochondrial dysfunction and suppressed the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins. We further demonstrated that dieckol induced an increase in intracellular ROS, and the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly reversed the caspase activation, cytochrome c release, Bcl-2 downregulation, and apoptosis that were caused by dieckol. Moreover, dieckol inhibited the activity of AKT and p38, and overexpression of AKT and p38, at least in part, reversed dieckol-induced apoptosis in SKOV3 cells. These data suggest that dieckol suppresses ovarian cancer cell growth by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis via ROS production and the regulation of AKT and p38 signaling.

  16. Cytotoxicity and cellular response mechanisms of water-soluble platinum(II) complexes of lidocaine and phenylcyanamide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Leila; Chiniforoshan, Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Three new platinum(II) complexes of lidocaine and phenylcyanamide derivative ligands of formula K[Pt(3,5-(NO 2 ) 2 pcyd) 2 (LC)], 1, K[Pt(3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 pcyd) 2 (LC)], 2, K[Pt(3,5-Cl 2 pcyd) 2 (LC)], 3 (LC: lidocaine, 3,5-(NO 2 ) 2 pcyd: 3,5-dinitro phenylcyanamide, 3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 pcyd: 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl) phenylcyanamide, 3,5-Cl 2 pcyd: 3,5-dichloro phenylcyanamide) have been synthesized and fully characterized. Cellular uptake, DNA platination and cytotoxicity against a panel of human tumor cell lines were evaluated. The complexes 1-3 revealed a significant in vitro antiproliferative activity against human ovarian carcinoma (A2780), colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), breast (MCF-7), liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2) and lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cancer cell lines. All the complexes are more active than cisplatin and follow the trend 1 > 2 > 3. Mechanistic studies showed that the trend in cytotoxicity of the Pt(II) complexes is mainly consistent with their ability to accumulate into cancer cells and to increase intracellular basal reactive oxygen species levels, which consequently results in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis induction. The complex 1 caused to approximately 80-fold higher DNA platination level with respect to cisplatin. The complexes 1-3 can considerably stimulate the production of hydrogen peroxide in a time-dependent manner. Also, the complexes 1-3 induced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that was superior to that induced by antimycin. The complex 1 had the most effect on ROS production in comparison with other complexes.

  17. Anti-cancer effect of Scutellaria baicalensis in combination with cisplatin in human ovarian cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bo Yoon; Joo, Jong Cheon; Lee, Yeon Kyu; Jang, Ik-Soon; Park, Soo Jung; Park, Yoon Jung

    2017-05-25

    Ovarian cancer is one of the major causes of death among females in worldwide. Cisplatin is a primary anti-cancer drug against ovarian cancer, but the recurrent tumors after treatment frequently show acquired chemoresistance. Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis (SbE) has been reported to have functional compounds including baicalin, which has anti-cancer effects. However, the anti-cancer effects of SbE in ovarian cancer and its underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated that the effects of SbE and/or cisplatin on cell death in the cisplatin sensitive ovarian cancer cell line A2780 (CSC) and the counterpart cell line that has cisplatin resistance (CRC). Molecular mechanisms of the effects, focusing on apoptosis and autophagy, were examined. Treatment of cisplatin or SbE reduced cell viability significantly in CSC and too much lesser extent in CRC. Cisplatin-induced cell death in CSC was mediated by p53-induced apoptosis acompanied by expresson of damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM). In CRC, decreased DRAM expression (p < 0.01) hindered p21-mediated cell death and contributed to cisplatin resistance. Treatment of SbE also induced cell death in CSC by p53-dependent apoptosis, not in CRC. Autophagy was not induced by neither cisplatin nor SbE. Intriguingly, the combinational treatment of SbE and cisplatin significantly decreased cell viability in CRC. The cell death was mediated by autophagy with increased expression of Atg5 and Atg12 (p < 0.05), rather than p53-dependent pathway with repressed expression of p21 (p < 0.001) through HDAC1 activation. The combined treatment of SbE with cisplatin was effective in CRC, leading to cell death via Beclin1-independent autophagy, suggesting that SbE treatment in combination with cisplatin has a potential as a chemotherapeutic agent in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer.

  18. Bis-picolinamide Ruthenium(III) Dihalide Complexes: Dichloride-to-Diiodide Exchange Generates Single trans Isomers with High Potency and Cancer Cell Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Basri, Aida M; Lord, Rianne M; Allison, Simon J; Rodríguez-Bárzano, Andrea; Lucas, Stephanie J; Janeway, Felix D; Shepherd, Helena J; Pask, Christopher M; Phillips, Roger M; McGowan, Patrick C

    2017-05-05

    A library of new bis-picolinamide ruthenium(III) dihalide complexes of the type [RuX 2 L 2 ] (X=Cl or I, L=picolinamide) have been synthesised and characterised. The complexes exhibit different picolinamide ligand binding modes, whereby one ligand is bound (N,N) and the other bound (N,O). Structural studies revealed a mixture of cis and trans isomers for the [RuCl 2 L 2 ] complexes but upon a halide exchange reaction to yield [RuI 2 L 2 ], only single trans isomers were detected. High cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines was observed, with the potencies of some complexes similar to or better than cisplatin. The conversion to [RuI 2 L 2 ] substantially increased the activity towards cancer cell lines by more than twelvefold. The [RuI 2 L 2 ] complexes displayed potent activity against the A2780cis (cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer) cell line, with a more than fourfold higher potency than cisplatin. Equitoxic activity was observed against normoxic and hypoxic cancer cells, which indicates the potential to eradicate both the hypoxic and aerobic fractions of solid tumours with similar efficiency. The activity of selected complexes against non-cancer ARPE-19 cells was also tested. The [RuI 2 L 2 ] complexes were found to be more potent than the [RuCl 2 L 2 ] analogues and also more selective towards cancer cells with a selectivity factor in excess of sevenfold. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Ovarian cancer-derived ascitic fluids induce a senescence-dependent pro-cancerogenic phenotype in normal peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Uruski, Paweł; Matuszkiewicz, Kinga; Szubert, Sebastian; Moszyński, Rafał; Szpurek, Dariusz; Sajdak, Stefan; Tykarski, Andrzej; Książek, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    After the seeding ovarian cancer cells into the peritoneal cavity, ascitic fluid creates a microenvironment in which these cells can survive and disseminate. The exact nature of the interactions between malignant ascitic fluids and peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) in ovarian cancer progression has so far remained elusive. Here we assessed whether malignant ascitic fluids may promote the senescence of HPMCs and, by doing so, enhance the acquisition of their pro-cancerogenic phenotype. Primary omentum-derived HPMCs, ovarian cancer-derived cell lines (A2780, OVCAR-3, SKOV-3), malignant ascitic fluids and benign ascitic fluids from non-cancerous patients were used in this study. Ovarian cancer cell proliferation, as well as HPMC proliferation and senescence, were determined using flow cytometry and β-galactosidase assays, respectively. Ovarian cancer cell migration was quantified using a Transwell assay. The concentrations of soluble agents in ascitic fluids, conditioned media and cell lysates were measured using DuoSet® Immunoassay Development kits. We found that HPMCs, when exposed to malignant ascitic fluids, exhibited decreased proliferation and increased senescence rates. The malignant ascitic fluids were found to contain elevated levels of HGF, TGF-β1 and GRO-1, of which HGF and GRO-1 were able to induce senescence in HPMCs. We also found that HPMCs subjected to malignant ascitic fluids or exogenously added HGF and GRO-1 stimulated ovarian cancer cell progression, which was manifested by an increased production of HA (adhesion), uPA (proliferation), IL-8 and MCP-1 (migration). Our results indicate that malignant ascitic fluids may contribute to ovarian cancer progression by accelerating the senescence of HPMCs.

  20. Dasatinib enhances antitumor activity of paclitaxel in ovarian cancer through Src signaling

    PubMed Central

    XIAO, JUAN; XU, MANMAN; HOU, TENG; HUANG, YONGWEN; YANG, CHENLU; LI, JUNDONG

    2015-01-01

    Src family tyrosine kinase (SFK) activation is associated with ovarian cancer progression. Therefore, SFKs are targets for the development of potential treatments of ovarian cancer. Dasatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets SFK activity, and is used for the treatment of B cell and Abelson lymphomas. At the present time, the potential effect of dasatinib on ovarian cancer is not clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor activity of dasatinib, alone and in combination with paclitaxel, in ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the expression of Src and phospho-Src-Y416 (p-Src) was measured in six ovarian cancer cell lines using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In addition, cell viability and apoptosis were measured using an MTT assay and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining. An ovarian cancer murine xenograft model was established, in order to evaluate the antitumor effect of dasatinib alone and in combination with paclitaxel in ovarian cancer. High levels of p-Src protein expression were observed in all cell lines, as compared with healthy cells, which indicated activation of the Src signaling pathway. p-Src expression increased in ovarian cancer cells following paclitaxel treatment. Dasatinib treatment demonstrated anti-ovarian cancer properties, by downregulating p-Src expression and by inducing cancer cell apoptosis. Combined treatment with dasatinib and paclitaxel markedly inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, compared with control cells. Combined dasatinib and paclitaxel treatment exhibited antitumor activities in vivo and in vitro (combination indices, 0.25–0.93 and 0.31–0.75; and tumor growth inhibitory rates, 76.7% and 58.5%, in A2780 and HO8910 cell lines, respectively), compared with paclitaxel treatment alone. Dasatinib monotherapy demonstrated anti-ovarian cancer activities. The effects of dasatinib and paclitaxel treatments on ovarian

  1. Inhibition of TMEM45A suppresses proliferation, induces cell cycle arrest and reduces cell invasion in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Chen, Li; Luo, Ning; Yang, Weihong; Qu, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Zhongping

    2015-06-01

    The association of TMEM45A with various cancers has been recently reported. However, the biological function of TMEM45A in ovarian cancer remains unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of TMEM45A in regulating the biological behavior of ovarian cancer cells. We compared the expression of TMEM45A between ovarian cancer tissues and normal tissues based on RNA-sequencing data of the ovarian cancer cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project and our real-time PCR data from 25 pairs of ovarian cancer and their matched non-cancerous tissue samples. The expression of TMEM45A was then suppressed in two ovarian cancer cell lines, HO-8910 and A2780, by RNA interference. Cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, adhesion and invasive ability were then detected using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay (CCK-8), propidium iodide (PI) staining, and cell adhesion and Transwell assays, respectively. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1 and TGF-β2), Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) and Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2) were detected with real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. TCGA data and our real-time PCR results demonstrated the overexpression of TMEM45A in ovarian cancer. Silencing of TMEM45A significantly inhibited cell proliferation and significantly increased the cell population in the G1 phase. Moreover, knockdown of TMEM45A also inhibited cell adhesion as well as cell invasion. More importantly, suppression of TMEM45A notably downregulated the expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, RhoA and ROCK2. In conclusion, TMEM45A may function as an oncogene for ovarian cancer, and inhibition of TMEM45A may be a therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer.

  2. A novel polyethylene glycol mediated lipid nanoemulsion as drug delivery carrier for paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiaolong; Deng, Li; Gao, Baoan; Xiao, Lin; Zhang, Yingying; Ke, Xingfa; Lian, Jianhao; Zhao, Qiang; Ma, Lulu; Yao, Jianzhong; Chen, Jianming

    2014-02-01

    A novel polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) mediated lipid nanoemulsion as drug-delivery carrier for paclitaxel (PTX) was successfully developed. The formulation comprised a PEG400 solution of the drug (25mg/mL) that would be mixed with commercially 20% lipid emulsion to form PTX-loaded nanoemulsion (1mg/mL) prior to use. This two-vial formulation of PTX-loaded lipid nanoemulsion (TPLE) could significantly reduce extraction of reticuloendothelial system (RES) organs and increase tumor uptake, and exhibited more potent antitumor efficacy on bearing A2780 or Bcap-37 tumor nude mice compared to conventional PTX-loaded lipid nanoemulsion (CPLE). TPLE did not cause haematolysis and intravenous irritation response yet, and showed the same cytotoxicity against HeLa cells as Taxol®, and its LD50 was 2.7-fold higher than that of Taxol®, suggesting its good safety and druggability. In addition, TPLE displayed distinctly faster release of PTX, a greater proportion of PTX in phospholipids layer and a smaller share in oil phase than CPLE. From the Clinical Editor: This study demonstrates the feasibility and potential advantage of a novel PEG400-mediated two-vial formulation of lipid nanoemulsion as drug carrier for PTX in clinical application for the cancer therapy. This team of investigators convincingly demonstrates the feasibility and potential advantage of a PEG400-mediated two-vial formulation of lipid nanoemulsion as drug carrier for PTX in cancer therapy, documenting superior safety and faster release of PTX compared to commercially available formulations. © 2014.

  3. Melatonin-Induced Changes in Cytosolic Calcium Might be Responsible for Apoptosis Induction in Tumour Cells.

    PubMed

    Chovancova, Barbora; Hudecova, Sona; Lencesova, Lubomira; Babula, Petr; Rezuchova, Ingeborg; Penesova, Adela; Grman, Marian; Moravcik, Roman; Zeman, Michal; Krizanova, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin is a hormone transferring information about duration of darkness to the organism and is known to modulate several signaling pathways in the cells, e.g. generation of endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative status of the cells, etc. Melatonin has been shown to exert antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on various human cancers. We proposed that this hormone can differently affect tumour cells and healthy cells. We compared the effect of 24 h melatonin treatment on calcium transport (by fluorescent probes FLUO-3AM and Rhod-5N), ER stress (determined as changes in the expression of CHOP, XBP1 and fluorescently, using Thioflavin T), ROS formation (by CellROX® Green/Orange Reagent) and apoptosis induction (by Annexin-V-FLUOS/propidiumiodide) in two tumour cell lines - ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and stable cell line DLD1 derived from colorectal carcinoma, with non-tumour endothelial cell line EA.hy926. Melatonin increased apoptosis in both tumour cell lines more than twice, while in EA.hy926 cells the apoptosis was increased only by 30%. As determined by silencing with appropriate siRNAs, both, type 1 sodium/calcium exchanger and type 1 IP3 receptor are involved in the apoptosis induction. Antioxidant properties of melatonin were significantly increased in EA.hy926 cells, while in tumour cell lines this effect was much weaker. Taken together, melatonin has different antioxidative effects on tumour cells compared to non-tumour ones; it also differs in the ability to induce apoptosis through the type 1 sodium/calcium exchanger, and type 1 IP3 receptor. Different targeting of calcium transport systems in tumour and normal, non-tumour cells is suggested as a key mechanism how melatonin can exert its anticancer effects. Therefore, it might have a potential as a novel therapeutic implication in cancer treatment. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Analyses of merlin/NF2 connection to FAK inhibitor responsiveness in serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nina R; Tancioni, Isabelle; Ward, Kristy K; Lawson, Christine; Chen, Xiao Lei; Jean, Christine; Sulzmaier, Florian J; Uryu, Sean; Miller, Nichol L G; Connolly, Denise C; Schlaepfer, David D

    2014-07-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is overexpressed in serous ovarian cancer. Loss of merlin, a product of the neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor gene, is being evaluated as a biomarker for FAK inhibitor sensitivity in mesothelioma. Connections between merlin and FAK in ovarian cancer remain undefined. Nine human and two murine ovarian cancer cell lines were analyzed for growth in the presence of a small molecule FAK inhibitor (PF-271, also termed VS-6062) from 0.1 to 1 μM for 72 h. Merlin was evaluated by immunoblotting and immunostaining of a human ovarian tumor tissue array. Growth of cells was analyzed in an orthotopic tumor model and evaluated in vitro after stable shRNA-mediated merlin knockdown. Greater than 50% inhibition of OVCAR8, HEY, and ID8-IP ovarian carcinoma cell growth occurred with 0.1 μM PF-271 in anchorage-independent (p<0.001) but not in adherent culture conditions. PF-271-mediated reduction in FAK Y397 phosphorylation occurred independently of growth inhibition. Suspended growth of OVCAR3, OVCAR10, IGROV1, IGROV1-IP, SKOV3, SKOV3-IP, A2780, and 5009-MOVCAR was not affected by 0.1 μM PF-271. Merlin expression did not correlate with serous ovarian tumor grade or stage. PF-271 (30 mg/kg, BID) did not inhibit 5009-MOVCAR tumor growth and merlin knockdown in SKOV3-IP and OVCAR10 cells did not alter suspended cell growth upon PF-271 addition. Differential responsiveness to FAK inhibitor treatment was observed. Intrinsic low merlin protein level correlated with PF-271-mediated anchorage-independent growth inhibition, but reduction in merlin expression did not induce sensitivity to FAK inhibition. Merlin levels may be useful for patient stratification in FAK inhibitor trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. SHetA2 interference with mortalin binding to p66shc and p53 identified using drug-conjugated magnetic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Benbrook, Doris Mangiaracina; Nammalwar, Baskar; Long, Andrew; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Singh, Anil; Bunce, Richard A; Berlin, K Darrell

    2014-06-01

    SHetA2 is a small molecule flexible heteroarotinoid (Flex-Het) with promising cancer prevention and therapeutic activity. Extensive preclinical testing documented lack of SHetA2 toxicity at doses 25 to 150 fold above effective doses. Knowledge of the SHetA2 molecular target(s) that mediate(s) the mechanism of SHetA2 action is critical to appropriate design of clinical trials and improved analogs. The aim of this study was to develop a method to identify SHetA2 binding proteins in cancer cells. A known metabolite of SHetA2 that has a hydroxyl group available for attachment was synthesized and conjugated to a linker for attachment to a magnetic microsphere. SHetA2-conjugated magnetic microspheres and unconjugated magnetic microspheres were separately incubated with aliquots of a whole cell protein extract from the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line. After washing away non-specifically bound proteins with the protein extraction buffer, SHetA2-binding proteins were eluted with an excess of free SHetA2. In two independent experiments, an SDS gel band of about 72 kDa was present at differential levels in wells of eluent from SHetA2-microspheres in comparison to wells of eluent from unconjugated microspheres. Mass spectrometry analysis of the bands (QStar) and straight eluents (Orbitrap) identified mortalin (HSPA9) to be present in the eluent from SHetA2-microspheres and not in eluent from unconjugated microspheres. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that SHetA2 interfered with mortalin binding to p53 and p66 Src homologous-collagen homologue (p66shc) inside cancer cells. Mortalin and SHetA2 conflictingly regulate the same molecules involved in mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis. The results validate the power of this protocol for revealing drug targets.

  6. Bypassing multidrug resistant ovarian cancer using ultrasound responsive doxorubicin/curcumin co-deliver alginate nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah

    2017-05-01

    Ultrasound-responsive perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions are a class of new multifunctional smart nanocarriers which combine diagnostic properties with therapeutic properties and release their drug payload in a controlled manner in response to ultrasound. Therefore, combination therapy using chemotherapeutic and chemosensitizing agents co-entrapped in these nanocarriers seems beneficial for cancer treatment. In the present study, multifunctional smart alginate/perfluorohexane nanodroplets were developed for co-delivery of doxorubicin and curcumin (a strong chemosensitizer). The nanodroplets with the average particle size of 55.1nm were synthesized via nanoemulsion process. The entrapment efficiency of doxorubicin was 92.3%. To improve curcumin entrapment into the alginate shell, Span 60 was added to the formulation as a co-surfactant and finally curcumin entrapment of about 40% was achieved. Ultrasound-mediated drug release kinetic was evaluated at two different frequencies of 28kHz (low frequency) and 1MHz (high frequency). Low frequency ultrasound resulted in higher triggered drug release from nanodroplets. The nanodroplets showed strong ultrasound contrast via droplet to bubble transition as confirmed via B-mode ultrasound imaging. Enhanced cytotoxicity in adriamycin-resistant A2780 ovarian cancer cells was observed for Dox-Cur-NDs compared to Dox-NDs because of the synergistic effects of doxorubicin and curcumin. However, ultrasound irradiation significantly increased the cytotoxicity of Dox-Cur-NDs. Finally, in vivo ovarian cancer treatment using Dox/Cur-NDs combined with ultrasound irradiation resulted in efficient tumor regression. According to the present study, nanotherapy of multidrug resistant human ovarian cancer using ultrasound responsive doxorubicin/curcumin co-loaded alginate-shelled nanodroplets combined with ultrasound irradiation could be a promising modality for the future of cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Folate-conjugated polymeric micelle HB-loaded on targeting effect by intraperitoneal to ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Yao, Shu; Wang, Kai; Lu, Zaijun; Su, Xuantao; Li, Li; Yuan, Cunzhong; Feng, Jinbo; Yan, Shi; Kong, Beihua; Song, Kun

    2018-04-04

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered as an innovative and attractive modality to treat ovarian cancer. In this study, a biodegradable polymer poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (lactic acid)(PLA)-folate (FA-PEG-PLA) was prepared in order to synthesize an active targeting, water soluble and pharmacomodulated photosensitizer nano-carriers. The drug loading content, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro and in vivo release were characterized, in which HB/FA-PEG-PLA micelles had a high encapsulation efficiency and much slower control release for drugs compared to free drugs (p<0.05). To evaluate the targeting ability of the HB/FA-PEG-PLA micelles, the cellular uptake study in vitro were tested, which owned significantly enhanced uptake of HB/FA-PEG-PLA micelles in SKOV3 (FR+) compared to A2780 cancer cells (FR-). The enhanced uptake of HB/FA-PEG-PLA micelles to cancer cells resulted in a more effective post-PDT killing of SKOV3 cells compared to plain micelles and free drugs. Binding and uptake of HB/FA-PEG-PLA micelles by SKOV3 cells were also observed in vivo after intraperitoneal injection of folate targeted micelles in tumor-bearing ascitic ovarian cancer animals. The drug levels in ascitic tumor tissues were increased by 20-fold (p<0.001), which underscored the effect of a regional therapy approach with folate targeting. Furthermore, the HB-loaded micelles were mainly distributed in kidney and liver (the main clearance organs) in biodistribution. These results demonstrated that our new developed PDT photosensitizer HB/FA-PEG-PLA micelles has a high drug-loading capacity, good biocompatibility, control drug release, and enhanced targeting and antitumor effect, which is a potential approach to future targeting ovarian cancer therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. [Anthraquinones from the roots of Knoxia valerianoides].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Wang, Sujuan; Wu, Xiuli; Yu, Yang; Yue, Zhenggang; Liu, Bo; Lin, Sheng; Zhu, Chenggen; Yang, Yongchun; Shi, Jiangong

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of the roots of Knoxia valerianoides and their biological activities. The anthraquinones were isolated by using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and reversed-phase HPLC. Structures of the isolates were identified by their physical-chemical properties and spectroscopic analysis including 2D NMR and MS. Antioxidant, anti-HIV, neuroprotective, and cytotoxic activities were screened by using cell-based models. Twenty-two constituents were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the roots of K. valerianoides. Their structures were identified as nordamnacanthal (1), ibericin (2), rubiadin (3), damnacanthol (4), 2-ethoxymethylknoxiavaledin (5), 3-hydroxymorindone (6), knoxiadin (7), 2-formyl knoxiavaledin (8), lucidin (9), xanthopurpurin (10), 1, 3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-9, 10- anthraquinone (11), lucidin(-methyl ether (12), digiferruginol (13), 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (14), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (15), 6-methoxylucidin (-ethyl ether (16), 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (17), 1,3-dihydroxy-2-hydroxy methyl-6-methoxy-9,10-anthraquinone (18), 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2-methoxymethyl-9,10- anthraquinone (19), 3,6-dihydroxy-2- hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone (20), and 1,6-dihydroxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthra quinone (21). In the in vitro assays, at a concentration of 1 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1), no compounds were active against human cancer cell lines (HCT-8, Bel7402, BGC-823, A549, and A2780), deserum and glutamate induced PC12-syn cell damage, LPS induced NO production in macrophage, Fe2+-cystine induced rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation, HIV-1 replication, and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Compounds 9-21 were obtained from the roots of K. valerianoides for the first time.

  9. In silico inspired design and synthesis of a novel tubulin-binding anti-cancer drug: folate conjugated noscapine (Targetin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Pradeep K.; Lopus, Manu; Aneja, Ritu; Vangapandu, Surya N.; Joshi, Harish C.

    2012-02-01

    Our screen for tubulin-binding small molecules that do not depolymerize bulk cellular microtubules, but based upon structural features of well known microtubule-depolymerizing colchicine and podophyllotoxin, revealed tubulin binding anti-cancer property of noscapine (Ye et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:2280-2286, 1998). Guided by molecular modelling calculations and structure-activity relationships we conjugated at C9 of noscapine, a folate group—a ligand for cellular folate receptor alpha (FRα). FRα is over-expressed on some solid tumours such as ovarian epithelial cancers. Molecular docking experiments predicted that a folate conjugated noscapine (Targetin) accommodated well inside the binding cavity (docking score -11.295 kcal/mol) at the interface between α- and β-tubulin. The bulky folate moiety of Targetin is extended toward lumen of microtubules. The binding free energy (Δ G bind) computed based on molecular mechanics energy minimization was -221.01 kcal/mol that revealed favourable interaction of Targetin with the receptor. Chemical synthesis, tubulin-binding experiments, and anti-cancer activity in vitro corroborate fully well with the molecular modelling experiments. Targetin binds tubulin with a dissociation constant ( K d value) of 149 ± 3.0 μM and decreases the transition frequencies between growth and shortening phases of microtubule assembly dynamics at concentrations that do not alter the total polymer mass. Cancer cells in general were more sensitive to Targetin compared with the founding compound noscapine (IC50 in the range of 15-40 μM). Quite strikingly, ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3 and A2780), known to overexpress FRα, were much more sensitive to targetin (IC50 in the range of 0.3-1.5 μM).

  10. Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid inhibits proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells by inducing ER stress, autophagy, and modulation of Src

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Mian M. K.; Felder, Mildred; Ludwig, Kai; Van Galder, Hannah R.; Anderson, Matthew L.; Kim, Jong; Cook, Mark E.; Kapur, Arvinder K.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12 CLA). MTT assays and QCM™ chemotaxis 96-wells were used to test the effect of t10,c12 CLA on the proliferation and migration and invasion of cancer cells. qPCR and Western Blotting were used to determine the expression of specific factors. RNA sequencing was conducted using the Illumina platform and apoptosis was measured using a flow cytometry assay. t10,c12 CLA (IC50, 7 μM) inhibited proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV-3 and A2780. c9,t11 CLA did not attenuate the proliferation of these cells. Transcription of 165 genes was significantly repressed and 28 genes were elevated. Genes related to ER stress, ATF4, CHOP, and GADD34 were overexpressed whereas EDEM2 and Hsp90, genes required for proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins, were downregulated upon treatment. While apoptosis was not detected, t10,c12 CLA treatment led to 9-fold increase in autophagolysosomes and higher levels of LC3-II. G1 cell cycle arrest in treated cells was correlated with phosphorylation of GSK3β and loss of β-catenin. microRNA miR184 and miR215 were upregulated. miR184 likely contributed to G1 arrest by downregulating E2F1. miR215 upregulation was correlated with increased expression of p27/Kip-1. t10,c12 CLA—mediated inhibition of invasion and migration correlated with decreased expression of PTP1b and decreased Src activation by inhibiting phosphorylation at Tyr416. Due to its ability to inhibit proliferation and migration, t10,c12 CLA should be considered for treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:29324748

  11. Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid inhibits proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells by inducing ER stress, autophagy, and modulation of Src.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Mian M K; Felder, Mildred; Ludwig, Kai; Van Galder, Hannah R; Anderson, Matthew L; Kim, Jong; Cook, Mark E; Kapur, Arvinder K; Patankar, Manish S

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12 CLA). MTT assays and QCM™ chemotaxis 96-wells were used to test the effect of t10,c12 CLA on the proliferation and migration and invasion of cancer cells. qPCR and Western Blotting were used to determine the expression of specific factors. RNA sequencing was conducted using the Illumina platform and apoptosis was measured using a flow cytometry assay. t10,c12 CLA (IC50, 7 μM) inhibited proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV-3 and A2780. c9,t11 CLA did not attenuate the proliferation of these cells. Transcription of 165 genes was significantly repressed and 28 genes were elevated. Genes related to ER stress, ATF4, CHOP, and GADD34 were overexpressed whereas EDEM2 and Hsp90, genes required for proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins, were downregulated upon treatment. While apoptosis was not detected, t10,c12 CLA treatment led to 9-fold increase in autophagolysosomes and higher levels of LC3-II. G1 cell cycle arrest in treated cells was correlated with phosphorylation of GSK3β and loss of β-catenin. microRNA miR184 and miR215 were upregulated. miR184 likely contributed to G1 arrest by downregulating E2F1. miR215 upregulation was correlated with increased expression of p27/Kip-1. t10,c12 CLA-mediated inhibition of invasion and migration correlated with decreased expression of PTP1b and decreased Src activation by inhibiting phosphorylation at Tyr416. Due to its ability to inhibit proliferation and migration, t10,c12 CLA should be considered for treatment of ovarian cancer.

  12. The Effects of Vandetanib on Paclitaxel Tumor Distribution and Antitumor Activity in a Xenograft Model of Human Ovarian Carcinoma12

    PubMed Central

    Cesca, Marta; Frapolli, Roberta; Berndt, Alexander; Scarlato, Valentina; Richter, Petra; Kosmehl, Hartwig; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Ryan, Anderson J; Giavazzi, Raffaella

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of vandetanib, a small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptor, on paclitaxel (PTX) tumor distribution and antitumor activity in xenograft models of human ovarian carcinoma. Nude mice bearing A2780-1A9 xenografts received daily (5, 10, or 15 days) doses of vandetanib (50 mg/kg per os), combined with PTX (20 mg/kg intravenously). Morphologic and functional modifications associated with the tumor vasculature (CD31 and α-smooth muscle actin staining and Hoechst 33342 perfusion) and PTX concentrations in plasma and tumor tissues were analyzed. Activity was evaluated as inhibition of tumor growth subcutaneously and spreading into the peritoneal cavity. Vandetanib treatment produced no significant change in tumor vessel density, although a reduced number of large vessels, an increased percentage of mature vessels, and diminished tumor perfusion were evident. Pretreatment with vandetanib led to decreased tumor PTX levels within 1 hour of PTX injection, although 24 hours later, tumor PTX levels were comparable with controls. In efficacy studies, the combination of vandetanib plus PTX improved antitumor activity compared with vandetanib or PTX alone, with greater effects being obtained when PTX was administered before vandetanib. The combination of PTX plus vandetanib reduced tumor burden in the peritoneal cavity of mice and significantly increased their survival. Analysis of vascular changes and PTX tumor uptake in vandetanib-treated tumors may help to guide the scheduling of vandetanib plus PTX combinations and may have implications for the design of clinical trials with these drugs. PMID:19881951

  13. The efficacy of the anthracycline prodrug daunorubicin-GA3 in human ovarian cancer xenografts.

    PubMed Central

    Houba, P. H.; Boven, E.; Erkelens, C. A.; Leenders, R. G.; Scheeren, J. W.; Pinedo, H. M.; Haisma, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    The prodrug N-[4-(daunorubicin-N-carbonyl-oxymethyl)phenyl] O-beta-glucuronyl carbamate (DNR-GA3) was synthesized for specific activation by human beta-glucuronidase, released in necrotic areas of tumour lesions. In vitro, DNR-GA3 was 18 times less toxic than daunorubicin (DNR) and the prodrug was completely activated to the parent drug by human beta-glucuronidase. The maximum tolerated dose of DNR-GA3 in nude mice bearing s.c. human ovarian cancer xenografts was 6-10 times higher than that of DNR. The prodrug was cleared more rapidly from the circulation (elimination t1/2 = 20 min) than the parent drug (elimination t1/2 = 720 min). The anti-tumour effects of DNR-GA3 and DNR were investigated in four different human ovarian cancer xenografts OVCAR-3, FMa, A2780 and MRI-H-207 at a mean tumour size between 100 and 200 mm3. In three out of four of these tumour lines, the prodrug given i.v. at the maximum tolerated dose ranging from 150 to 250 mg kg(-1) resulted in a maximum tumour growth inhibition from 82% to 95%. The standard treatment with DNR at a dose of 8 mg kg(-1) given i.v. weekly x 2 resulted only in a maximum tumour growth inhibition from 40% to 47%. Tumour line FMa did not respond to DNR, nor to DNR-GA3. Treatment with DNR-GA3 was also given to mice with larger tumours that would contain more necrosis (mean size 300-950 mm3). The specific growth delay by DNR-GA3 was extended from 2.1 to 4.4 in OVCAR-3 xenografts and from 4.4 to 6.0 in MRI-H-207 xenografts. Our data indicate that DNR-GA3 is more effective than DNR and may be especially of use for treatment of tumours with areas of necrosis. PMID:9862570

  14. Anticancer Efficacy of Polyphenols and Their Combinations.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Roomi, Mohd Waheed; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Rath, Matthias

    2016-09-09

    Polyphenols, found abundantly in plants, display many anticarcinogenic properties including their inhibitory effects on cancer cell proliferation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and inflammation as well as inducing apoptosis. In addition, they can modulate immune system response and protect normal cells against free radicals damage. Most investigations on anticancer mechanisms of polyphenols were conducted with individual compounds. However, several studies, including ours, have indicated that anti-cancer efficacy and scope of action can be further enhanced by combining them synergistically with chemically similar or different compounds. While most studies investigated the anti-cancer effects of combinations of two or three compounds, we used more comprehensive mixtures of specific polyphenols and mixtures of polyphenols with vitamins, amino acids and other micronutrients. The mixture containing quercetin, curcumin, green tea, cruciferex, and resveratrol (PB) demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Fanconi anemia head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 secretion, cell migration and invasion through Matrigel. PB was found effective in inhibition of fibrosarcoma HT-1080 and melanoma A2058 cell proliferation, MMP-2 and -9 expression, invasion through Matrigel and inducing apoptosis, important parameters for cancer prevention. A combination of polyphenols (quercetin and green tea extract) with vitamin C, amino acids and other micronutrients (EPQ) demonstrated significant suppression of ovarian cancer ES-2 xenograft tumor growth and suppression of ovarian tumor growth and lung metastasis from IP injection of ovarian cancer A-2780 cells. The EPQ mixture without quercetin (NM) also has shown potent anticancer activity in vivo and in vitro in a few dozen cancer cell lines by inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis, MMP-2 and -9 secretion, invasion, angiogenesis

  15. Knockdown of eIF4E suppresses cell proliferation, invasion and enhances cisplatin cytotoxicity in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jing; Shi, Fang; Xu, Zhanzhan; Zhao, Min

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) plays an important role in cap-dependent translation. The overexpression of eIF4E gene has been found in a variety of human malignancies. In this study, we attempted to identify the potential effects of eIF4E and explore the possibility of eIF4E as a therapeutic target for the treatment of human ovarian cancer. First the activation of eIF4E protein was detected with m7-GTP cap binding assays in ovarian cancer and control cells. Next, the eIF4E-shRNA expression plasmids were used to specifically inhibit eIF4E activity in ovarian cancer cells line A2780 and C200. The effects of knockdown eIF4E gene on cell proliferation, migration and invasion were investigated in vitro. Moreover, the changes of cell cycle and apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells were detected by flow cytometry. Finally, we investigated the effect of knockdown of eIF4E on the chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin in vitro. Our results show there is elevated activation of eIF4E in ovarian cancer cells compared with normal human ovarian epithelial cell line. The results of BrdU incorporation and FCM assay indicate that knockdown of eIF4E efficiently suppressed cell growth and induce cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and subsequent apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. From Transwell assay analysis, knockdown eIF4E significantly decrease cellular migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. We also confirmed that knockdown eIF4E could synergistically enhance the cytotoxicity effects of cisplatin to cancer cells and sensitized cisplatin-resistant C200 cells in vitro. This study demonstrates that the activation of eIF4E gene is an essential component of the malignant phenotype in ovarian cancer, and aberration of eIF4E expression is associated with proliferation, migration, invasion and chemosensitivity to cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells. Knockdown eIF4E gene can be used as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human ovarian cancer.

  16. Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Crude Extracts and Fractions from Phyllanthus amarus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Tang; Sakoff, Jennette A; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2017-06-18

    Background: Phyllanthus amarus ( P. amarus ) has been used as a medicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of chronic ailments such as diabetes, hepatitis, and cancer. Methods: The physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts and fractions from P. amarus were determined using spectrophotometric method. Results: The P. amarus methanol ( PA M) extract had lower levels of residual moisture (7.40%) and water activity (0.24) and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins (1657.86 mg escin equivalents, 250.45 mg gallic acid equivalents, 274.73 mg rutin equivalents and 61.22 mg catechin equivalents per g dried extract, respectively) than those of the P. amarus water ( PA W) extract. The antioxidant activity of PA M extract was significantly higher ( p < 0.05) than that of the PA W extract, PA M fractions, and phyllanthin (known as a major compound in the P. amarus ). Higher cytotoxic activity of PA M extract based on MTT assay on different cell lines including MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas), HT29 (colon), A2780 (ovarian), H460 (lung), A431 (skin), Du145 (prostate), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), MCF-7 (breast), MCF-10A (normal breast), and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma) was observed in comparison to the PA W extract and PA M fractions. The cytotoxic potential of the PA W extract (200 μg/mL), based on the CCK-8 assay on a pancreatic cancer cell line (MiaCaPa2) was significantly lower ( p < 0.05) than those of gemcitabine (50 nM) and a saponin-enriched extract from quillajia bark at 200 μg/mL (a commercial product), but was significantly higher than that of phyllanthin at 2 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results achieved from this study reveal that the PA extracts are a potential source for the development of natural antioxidant products and/or novel anticancer drugs.

  17. Polysulfides and products of H2S/S-nitrosoglutathione in comparison to H2S, glutathione and antioxidant Trolox are potent scavengers of superoxide anion radical and produce hydroxyl radical by decomposition of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Misak, Anton; Grman, Marian; Bacova, Zuzana; Rezuchova, Ingeborg; Hudecova, Sona; Ondriasova, Elena; Krizanova, Olga; Brezova, Vlasta; Chovanec, Miroslav; Ondrias, Karol

    2018-06-01

    Exogenous and endogenously produced sulfide derivatives, such as H 2 S/HS - /S 2- , polysulfides and products of the H 2 S/S-nitrosoglutathione interaction (S/GSNO), affect numerous biological processes in which superoxide anion (O 2 - ) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals play an important role. Their cytoprotective-antioxidant and contrasting pro-oxidant-toxic effects have been reported. Therefore, the aim of our work was to contribute to resolving this apparent inconsistency by studying sulfide derivatives/free radical interactions and their consequent biological effects compared to the antioxidants glutathione (GSH) and Trolox. Using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping technique and O 2 - , we found that a polysulfide (Na 2 S 4 ) and S/GSNO were potent scavengers of O 2 - and cPTIO radicals compared to H 2 S (Na 2 S), GSH and Trolox, and S/GSNO scavenged the DEPMPO-OH radical. As detected by the EPR spectra of DEPMPO-OH, the formation of OH in physiological solution by S/GSNO was suggested. All the studied sulfide derivatives, but not Trolox or GSH, had a bell-shaped potency to decompose H 2 O 2 and produced OH in the following order: S/GSNO > Na 2 S 4  ≥ Na 2 S > GSH = Trolox = 0, but they scavenged OH at higher concentrations. In studies of the biological consequences of these sulfide derivatives/H 2 O 2 properties, we found the following: (i) S/GSNO alone and all sulfide derivatives in the presence of H 2 O 2 cleaved plasmid DNA; (ii) S/GSNO interfered with viral replication and consequently decreased the infectivity of viruses; (iii) the sulfide derivatives induced apoptosis in A2780 cells but inhibited apoptosis induced by H 2 O 2 ; and (iv) Na 2 S 4 modulated intracellular calcium in A87MG cells, which depended on the order of Na 2 S 4 /H 2 O 2 application. We suggest that the apparent inconsistency of the cytoprotective-antioxidant and contrasting pro-oxidant-toxic biological effects of sulfide derivatives results from their time

  18. Specific Glycosylation of Membrane Proteins in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines: Glycan Structures Reflect Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Status *

    PubMed Central

    Anugraham, Merrina; Jacob, Francis; Nixdorf, Sheri; Everest-Dass, Arun Vijay; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola; Packer, Nicolle H.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer in women worldwide bearing the highest mortality rate among all gynecological cancers. Cell membrane glycans mediate various cellular processes such as cell signaling and become altered during carcinogenesis. The extent to which glycosylation changes are influenced by aberrant regulation of gene expression is nearly unknown for ovarian cancer and remains crucial in understanding the development and progression of this disease. To address this effect, we analyzed the membrane glycosylation of non-cancerous ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE 6.3 and HOSE 17.1) and serous ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV 3, IGROV1, A2780, and OVCAR 3), the most common histotype among epithelial ovarian cancers. N-glycans were released from membrane glycoproteins by PNGase F and analyzed using nano-liquid chromatography on porous graphitized carbon and negative-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Glycan structures were characterized based on their molecular masses and tandem MS fragmentation patterns. We identified characteristic glycan features that were unique to the ovarian cancer membrane proteins, namely the “bisecting N-acetyl-glucosamine” type N-glycans, increased levels of α 2–6 sialylated N-glycans and “N,N′-diacetyl-lactosamine” type N-glycans. These N-glycan changes were verified by examining gene transcript levels of the enzymes specific for their synthesis (MGAT3, ST6GAL1, and B4GALNT3) using qRT-PCR. We further evaluated the potential epigenetic influence on MGAT3 expression by treating the cell lines with 5-azacytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor. For the first time, we provide evidence that MGAT3 expression may be epigenetically regulated by DNA hypomethylation, leading to the synthesis of the unique “bisecting GlcNAc” type N-glycans on the membrane proteins of ovarian cancer cells. Linking the observation of specific N-glycan substructures and their complex association

  19. An antimitotic and antivascular agent BPR0L075 overcomes multidrug resistance and induces mitotic catastrophe in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolei; Wu, Erxi; Wu, Jun; Wang, Tian-Li; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang; Liu, Xinli

    2013-01-01

    Paclitaxel plays a major role in the treatment of ovarian cancer; however, resistance to paclitaxel is frequently observed. Thus, new therapy that can overcome paclitaxel resistance will be of significant clinical importance. We evaluated antiproliferative effects of an antimitotic and antivascular agent BPR0L075 in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells. BPR0L075 displays potent and broad-spectrum cytotoxicity at low nanomolar concentrations (IC50 = 2-7 nM) against both parental ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3, and A2780-1A9) and paclitaxel-resistant sublines (OVCAR-3-TR, SKOV-3-TR, 1A9-PTX10), regardless of the expression levels of the multidrug resistance transporter P-gp and class III β-tubulin or mutation of β-tubulin. BPR0L075 blocks cell cycle at the G2/M phase in paclitaxel-resistant cells while equal concentration of paclitaxel treatment was ineffective. BPR0L075 induces cell death by a dual mechanism in parental and paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells. In the parental cells (OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3), BPR0L075 induced apoptosis, evidenced by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and DNA ladder formation. BPR0L075 induced cell death in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3-TR and SKOV-3-TR) is primarily due to mitotic catastrophe, evidenced by formation of giant, multinucleated cells and absence of PARP cleavage. Immunoblotting analysis shows that BPR0L075 treatment induced up-regulation of cyclin B1, BubR1, MPM-2, and survivin protein levels and Bcl-XL phosphorylation in parental cells; however, in resistant cells, the endogenous expressions of BubR1 and survivin were depleted, BPR0L075 treatment failed to induce MPM-2 expression and phosphorylation of Bcl-XL. BPR0L075 induced cell death in both parental and paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells proceed through caspase-3 independent mechanisms. In conclusion, BPR0L075 displays potent cytotoxic effects in ovarian cancer cells with a potential to overcome paclitaxel

  20. Tuning the reactivity of osmium(II) and ruthenium(II) arene complexes under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Anna F A; Habtemariam, Abraha; Fernández, Rafael; Walland, Victoria; Fabbiani, Francesca P A; Parsons, Simon; Aird, Rhona E; Jodrell, Duncan I; Sadler, Peter J

    2006-02-08

    The Os(II) arene ethylenediamine (en) complexes [(eta(6)-biphenyl)Os(en)Cl][Z], Z = BPh(4) (4) and BF(4) (5), are inactive toward A2780 ovarian cancer cells despite 4 being isostructural with an active Ru(II) analogue, 4R. Hydrolysis of 5 occurred 40 times more slowly than 4R. The aqua adduct 5A has a low pK(a) (6.3) compared to that of [(eta(6)-biphenyl)Ru(en)(OH(2))](2+) (7.7) and is therefore largely in the hydroxo form at physiological pH. The rate and extent of reaction of 5 with 9-ethylguanine were also less than those of 4R. We replaced the neutral en ligand by anionic acetylacetonate (acac). The complexes [(eta(6)-arene)Os(acac)Cl], arene = biphenyl (6), benzene (7), and p-cymene (8), adopt piano-stool structures similar to those of the Ru(II) analogues and form weak dimers through intermolecular (arene)C-H...O(acac) H-bonds. Remarkably, these Os(II) acac complexes undergo rapid hydrolysis to produce not only the aqua adduct, [(eta(6)-arene)Os(acac)(OH(2))](+), but also the hydroxo-bridged dimer, [(eta(6)-arene)Os(mu(2)-OH)(3)Os(eta(6)-arene)](+). The pK(a) values for the aqua adducts 6A, 7A, and 8A (7.1, 7.3, and 7.6, respectively) are lower than that for [(eta(6)-p-cymene)Ru(acac)(OH(2))](+) (9.4). Complex 8A rapidly forms adducts with 9-ethylguanine and adenosine, but not with cytidine or thymidine. Despite their reactivity toward nucleobases, complexes 6-8 were inactive toward A549 lung cancer cells. This is attributable to rapid hydrolysis and formation of unreactive hydroxo-bridged dimers which, surprisingly, were the only species present in aqueous solution at biologically relevant concentrations. Hence, the choice of chelating ligand in Os(II) (and Ru(II)) arene complexes can have a dramatic effect on hydrolysis behavior and nucleobase binding and provides a means of tuning the reactivity and the potential for discovery of anticancer complexes.

  1. Role of long non-coding RNA SNHG1 in occurrence and progression of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ge, J; Wu, X-M; Yang, X-T; Gao, J-M; Wang, F; Ye, K-F

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the expression of human long non-coding ribonucleic acid (lncRNA) small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on the in vitro proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis of ovarian carcinoma cells, and to investigate its possible mechanism. The expressions of SNHG1 in 20 pairs of epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and para-carcinoma normal tissues were detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The expressions of SNHG1 in normal ovarian epithelial cells (IOSE25) and ovarian carcinoma cells (CAOV-3, SKOV-3, ES2 and A2780) were further detected. The knockdown efficiency of SNHG1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) in SKOV-3 cells was detected via qRT-PCR. Moreover, the effects of SNHG1 knockdown on proliferation, migration and apoptosis of SKOV-3 cells were detected by cell counting kit 8 (CCK8) proliferation assay, clone formation assay, transwell migration assay and flow cytometry. Finally, the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in control group and interference group were detected by Western blotting. The expression level of lncRNA SNHG1 in ovarian carcinoma tissues was significantly higher than that in para-carcinoma normal tissues. After lncRNA SNHG1 knockdown in SKOV-3 cells, the cell proliferation and clone formation abilities were significantly inhibited. The apoptosis assay proved that inhibiting lncRNA SNHG1 could promote the apoptosis of SKOV-3 cells. Besides, Western blotting revealed that the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins in interference group were significantly upregulated compared with those in control group. Wound-healing assay and transwell migration assay showed that the down-regulation of lncRNA SNHG1 could inhibit the invasion and metastasis of SKOV-3 cells, whose mechanism was related to the inhibition of EMT process and down

  2. [Expression and significance of microRNAs in the p53 pathway in ovarian cancer cells and serous ovarian cancer tissues].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; He, Xiang-jun; Ma, Li-ping; Li, Na; Yang, Jing; Cheng, Ye-xia; Cui, Heng

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether miR-449a, miR-449b and miR-192 family microRNAs play the same roles in p53 pathway as miR-34 family in ovarian cancer. Wild-type p53 ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 cells were treated with genotoxic agent adriamycin. The reactivation of p53 was detected by Western blot. The expression of miR-449a/b, miR-34a, miR-34b, miR-34c, miR-192 and miR-194 were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Mutant p53 ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3.ipl cells were transfected with pre-microRNAs and the cell-cycle changes were detected. The expression level of miR-449a/b, miR-34a, miR-34b, miR-34c, miR-192 and miR-194 in serous ovarian carcinomas of varying grade and stage were compared with real-time PCR. The expressions of miR-449a/b, miR-34b and miR-34c were 19-fold to 21-fold elevated after p53 activation by genotoxic agent. Ectopic expression of miR-449b, as well as miR-34c, resulted in cell-cycle arrest in SKOV3.ipl cells. The expression of miR-449a/b was parallel with that of miR-34b, miR-34c, and were significantly lower in late stage and high-grade serous carcinomas than in the normal fallopian tube, early stage and low-grade serous carcinomas. The expression of miR-192, miR-194 and miR-34a did not show evident features in serous ovarian carcinomas and were much lower than miR-449a/b, miR-34b and miR-34c in normal fallopian tube. As tumor-suppressor microRNAs, miR-449a/b, miR-34b and miR-34c cooperate and play important roles in p53 pathway. Their inactivation may contribute to the carcinogenesis and progression of serous ovarian carcinomas.

  3. Drug-dependent functionalization of wild-type and mutant p53 in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian tum3or cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Michelle; Ivan, Cristina; Xie, Xiaolei; Siddik, Zahid H.

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin (cis-Pt) resistance in tumor cells from p53 dysfunction is a significant clinical problem. Although mutation can inhibit p53 function, >60% of p53 mutants retain normal function according to literature reports. Therefore, we examined the status of p53 in cisplatin-resistant ovarian tumor models and its functional response to cis-Pt and the mechanistically-distinct non-cross-resistant oxaliplatin (oxali-Pt). Relative to sensitive A2780 cells harboring wild-type p53, the 2780CP/Cl-16, OVCAR-10, Hey and OVCA-433 cell lines were 10- to 30-fold resistant to cis-Pt, but was substantially circumvented by oxali-Pt. Mutant p53 in 2780CP/Cl-16 (p53V172F) and OVCAR-10 (p53V172F and p53G266R) cells, predicted as non-functional in p53 database, displayed attenuated response to cis-Pt, as did the polymorphic p53P72R (functionally equivalent to wild-type p53) in HEY and OVCA-433 cell lines. However, p53 was robustly activated by oxali-Pt in all cell lines, with resultant drug potency confirmed as p53-dependent by p53 knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 system. This p53 activation by oxali-Pt was associated with phosphorylation at Ser20 by MEK1/2 based on inhibitor and kinase studies. Cis-Pt, however, failed to phosphorylate Ser20 due to downregulated Chk2, and its clinical impact validated by reduced overall survival of ovarian cancer patients according to TCGA database. In conclusion, cis-Pt resistance occurs in both wild-type and mutant p53 ovarian cancer cells, but is associated with loss of Ser20 phosphorylation. However, these mutant p53, like polymorphic p53, are functional and activated by oxali-Pt-induced Ser20 phosphorylation. Thus, the potential exists for repurposing oxali-Pt or similar drugs against refractory cancers harboring wild-type or specific mutant p53. PMID:28038466

  4. Multi-level suppression of receptor-PI3K-mTORC1 by fatty acid synthase inhibitors is crucial for their efficacy against ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Renate; Stübiger, Gerald; Veigel, Daniel; Wuczkowski, Michael; Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Weghuber, Julian; Karteris, Emmanouil; Nowikovsky, Karin; Wilfinger-Lutz, Nastasia; Singer, Christian F; Colomer, Ramón; Benhamú, Bellinda; López-Rodríguez, María Luz; Valent, Peter; Grunt, Thomas W

    2017-02-14

    Receptor-PI3K-mTORC1 signaling and fatty acid synthase (FASN)-regulated lipid biosynthesis harbor numerous drug targets and are molecularly connected. We hypothesize that unraveling the mechanisms of pathway cross-talk will be useful for designing novel co-targeting strategies for ovarian cancer (OC). The impact of receptor-PI3K-mTORC1 onto FASN is already well-characterized. However, reverse actions-from FASN towards receptor-PI3K-mTORC1-are still elusive. We show that FASN-blockade impairs receptor-PI3K-mTORC1 signaling at multiple levels. Thin-layer chromatography and MALDI-MS/MS reveals that FASN-inhibitors (C75, G28UCM) augment polyunsaturated fatty acids and diminish signaling lipids diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) in OC cells (SKOV3, OVCAR-3, A2780, HOC-7). Western blotting and micropatterning demonstrate that FASN-blockers impair phosphorylation/expression of EGF-receptor/ERBB/HER and decrease GRB2-EGF-receptor recruitment leading to PI3K-AKT suppression. FASN-inhibitors activate stress response-genes HIF-1α-REDD1 (RTP801/DIG2/DDIT4) and AMPKα causing mTORC1- and S6-repression. We conclude that FASN-inhibitor-mediated blockade of receptor-PI3K-mTORC1 occurs due to a number of distinct but cooperating processes. Moreover, decrease of PI3K-mTORC1 abolishes cross-repression of MEK-ERK causing ERK activation. Consequently, the MEK-inhibitor selumetinib/AZD6244, in contrast to the PI3K/mTOR-inhibitor dactolisib/NVP-BEZ235, increases growth inhibition when given together with a FASN-blocker. We are the first to provide deep insight on how FASN-inhibition blocks ERBB-PI3K-mTORC1 activity at multiple molecular levels. Moreover, our data encourage therapeutic approaches using FASN-antagonists together with MEK-ERK-inhibitors.

  5. Spatial and temporal corroboration of a fire-scar-based fire history in a frequently burned ponderosa pine forest.

    PubMed

    Farris, Calvin A; Baisan, Christopher H; Falk, Donald A; Yool, Stephen R; Swetnam, Thomas W

    2010-09-01

    Fire scars are used widely to reconstruct historical fire regime parameters in forests around the world. Because fire scars provide incomplete records of past fire occurrence at discrete points in space, inferences must be made to reconstruct fire frequency and extent across landscapes using spatial networks of fire-scar samples. Assessing the relative accuracy of fire-scar fire history reconstructions has been hampered due to a lack of empirical comparisons with independent fire history data sources. We carried out such a comparison in a 2780-ha ponderosa pine forest on Mica Mountain in southern Arizona (USA) for the time period 1937-2000. Using documentary records of fire perimeter maps and ignition locations, we compared reconstructions of key spatial and temporal fire regime parameters developed from documentary fire maps and independently collected fire-scar data (n = 60 plots). We found that fire-scar data provided spatially representative and complete inventories of all major fire years (> 100 ha) in the study area but failed to detect most small fires. There was a strong linear relationship between the percentage of samples recording fire scars in a given year (i.e., fire-scar synchrony) and total area burned for that year (y = 0.0003x + 0.0087, r2 = 0.96). There was also strong spatial coherence between cumulative fire frequency maps interpolated from fire-scar data and ground-mapped fire perimeters. Widely reported fire frequency summary statistics varied little between fire history data sets: fire-scar natural fire rotations (NFR) differed by < 3 yr from documentary records (29.6 yr); mean fire return intervals (MFI) for large-fire years (i.e., > or = 25% of study area burned) were identical between data sets (25.5 yr); fire-scar MFIs for all fire years differed by 1.2 yr from documentary records. The known seasonal timing of past fires based on documentary records was furthermore reconstructed accurately by observing intra-annual ring position of fire

  6. Half-sandwich rhodium(III) transfer hydrogenation catalysts: Reduction of NAD(+) and pyruvate, and antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Soldevila-Barreda, Joan J; Habtemariam, Abraha; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Organometallic complexes have the potential to behave as catalytic drugs. We investigate here Rh(III) complexes of general formula [(Cp(x))Rh(N,N')(Cl)], where N,N' is ethylenediamine (en), 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonamide (TfEn), and Cp(x) is pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*), 1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp(xPh)) or 1-biphenyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl cyclopentadienyl (Cp(xPhPh)). These complexes can reduce NAD(+) to NADH using formate as a hydride source under biologically-relevant conditions. The catalytic activity decreased in the order of N,N-chelated ligand bpy > phen > en with Cp* as the η(5)-donor. The en complexes (1-3) became more active with extension to the Cp(X) ring, whereas the activity of the phen (7-9) and bpy (4-6) compounds decreased. [Cp*Rh(bpy)Cl](+) (4) showed the highest catalytic activity, with a TOF of 37.4±2h(-1). Fast hydrolysis of the chlorido complexes 1-10 was observed by (1)H NMR (<10min at 310K). The pKa* values for the aqua adducts were determined to be ca. 8-10. Complexes 1-9 also catalysed the reduction of pyruvate to lactate using formate as the hydride donor. The efficiency of the transfer hydrogenation reactions was highly dependent on the nature of the chelating ligand and the Cp(x) ring. Competition reactions between NAD(+) and pyruvate for reduction by formate catalysed by 4 showed a preference for reduction of NAD(+). The antiproliferative activity of complex 3 towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells increased by up to 50% when administered in combination with non-toxic doses of formate, suggesting that transfer hydrogenation can induce reductive stress in cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dasatinib + Gefitinib, a non platinum-based combination with enhanced growth inhibitory, anti-migratory and anti-invasive potency against human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Benoît; Jean-Claude, Bertrand

    2017-04-26

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death for gynecological cancers and the 6th cause of women cancer death in developed countries. The late stage detection, the peritoneal dissemination and the acquisition of resistance against carboplatin are the main reasons to explain this poor prognosis and strengthen the need of alternative treatments to improve the management of ovarian cancer and/or to sensitize tumors to platinum salts. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met) and cellular Src kinase (c-Src) are crucial kinases implied in ovarian tumor growth, survival, invasion and resistance to carboplatin. Their expression is increased in advanced ovarian cancers and is correlated with poor prognosis. Despite a clear potential in inhibiting these proteins in ovarian cancer, as a single agent or in combination with a carboplatin treatment, we need to target kinases in tandem because of their capacity to trigger compensatory pathways that synergize to promote drug resistance. Here we target EGFR, c-Src and Met individually or in combination with carboplatin, using Gefitinib, Dasatinib and Crizotinib respectively, in a panel of carboplatin-sensitive (OVCAR-3, IGROV-1 and A2780) and carboplatin-resistant cells (SKOV-3 and EFO-21). We studied the ability of the most potent combination to induce apoptosis, regulate migration, invasion and to modulate the activation of proliferation and survival proteins. Crizotinib, Dasatinib and Gefitinib, alone or in combination with carboplatin, showed a cell-specific cytotoxic synergy in ovarian cancer cells. The Dasatinib plus Gefitinib combination was synergistic in OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and, in IGROV-1 cells (high concentrations). This combination was unable to induce apoptosis but suppressed cell migration, invasion and the activation of EGFR, Erk, c-Src and Akt compared to single treatments. Combining carboplatin with kinase inhibitors lead to synergistic interactions in a cell-specific manner

  8. Studies on the mechanism of action of antitumor bis(aminophenolate) ruthenium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dömötör, Orsolya; de Almeida, Rodrigo F M; Côrte-Real, Leonor; Matos, Cristina P; Marques, Fernanda; Matos, António; Real, Carla; Kiss, Tamás; Enyedy, Éva Anna; Helena Garcia, M; Tomaz, Ana Isabel

    2017-03-01

    Two recently published Ru(III) complexes bearing (N 2 O 2 ) tetradentate bis(aminophenolate) ligands, formulated as [Ru(III)(salan)(PPh 3 )Cl] (salan is the tetradentate ligand 6,6'-(1S,2S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diylbis(azanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(3-methoxyphenol) in complex 1, or 2,2'-(1S,2S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diylbis(azanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(4-methoxyphenol) in complex 2; PPh 3 is triphenylphosphane) and found very active against ovarian and breast adenocarcinoma human cells were studied to outline their antitumor mode of action. The human cisplatin-sensitive ovarian adenocarcinoma line A2780 was used herein as the cell model. At a 24h challenge (similarly as found before for 72h) both complexes are active, their cytotoxicity being comparable to that of cisplatin in the same conditions. As a possible target in the cell for their action, the interaction of 1 and 2 with DNA was assessed through displacement of well-established DNA fluorescent probes (ethidium bromide, EB, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, DAPI) through steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The whole emission spectra were analyzed globally for the binary DNA-probe and ternary DNA-probe-Ru(III) complex systems. Both Ru(III) complexes can displace EB and bind to DNA with similar and moderate strong affinity with conditional stability constants of logK'=(5.05±0.01) for 1 and logK'=(4.79±0.01) for 2. The analysis of time-domain fluorescence intensity decays confirmed both qualitatively and quantitatively the model used to describe the binding and competition processes. Cell studies indicated that apoptosis is the major mechanism of cell death for both complexes, with 2 (the more active complex) promoting that process more efficiently than 1. Transmission electron micrographs revealed clear alterations on intracellular organization consistent with the induction of programmed cell death processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. IND-2, a pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivative, circumvents multi-drug resistance and causes apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Lee, Crystal; Moore, Joshua; Mittal, Roopali; Suswam, Esther A; Abbott, Kodye L; Pondugula, Satyanarayana R; Manne, Upender; Narayanan, Narayanan K; Trivedi, Piyush; Tiwari, Amit K

    2015-02-01

    Naturally occurring condensed quinolines have anticancer properties. In efforts to find active analogues, we designed and synthesized eight polycyclic heterocycles with a pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline framework (IND series). The compounds were evaluated for activity against colon (HCT-116 and S1-MI-80), prostate (PC3 and DU-145), breast (MCF-7 and MDAMB-231), ovarian (ov2008 and A2780), and hepatocellular (HepG2) cancer cells and against non-cancerous Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK), mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3), and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). IND-2, a 4-chloro-2-methyl pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline, exhibited more than ten-fold selectivity and potent cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells relative to the other cancer and non-cancer cells. With five additional colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, LS-180, LS-174, and LoVo), IND-2 had similar cytotoxicity and selectivity, and sub-micromolar concentrations caused changes in the morphology of HCT-116 and HCT-15 cells. IND-2 did not activate the transactivating function of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), indicating that it does not induce PXR-regulated ABCB1 or ABCG2 transporters. Indeed, IND-2 was not a substrate of ABCB1 or ABCG2, and it induced cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells overexpressing ABCB1 or ABCG2 to the same extent as in normal HEK293 cells. IND-2 was cytotoxic to resistant colon carcinoma S1-MI-80 cells, approximately three- and five-fold more than SN-38 and topotecan, respectively. In HCT-116 colon cancer cells, IND-2 produced concentration-dependent changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis, and sub-micromolar concentrations caused chromosomal DNA fragmentation. These findings suggest that, by increasing apoptosis, IND-2 has potential therapeutic efficacy for colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis, cytotoxic activities and proposed mode of binding of a series of bis([(9-oxo-9,10-dihydroacridine-4-carbonyl)amino]alkyl) alkylamines.

    PubMed

    Braña, Miguel F; Casarrubios, Luis; Domínguez, Gema; Fernández, Carlos; Pérez, José M; Quiroga, Adoración G; Navarro-Ranninger, Carmen; de Pascual-Teresa, Beatriz

    2002-04-01

    A series of bis([(9-oxo-9,10-dihydroacridine-4-carbonyl)amino]alkyl) alkylamines have been prepared and their antiproliferative properties have been tested against HT-29 cell lines. Compounds 6b and 6d showed an interesting cytotoxic profile and were subjected to further cytotoxic evaluation, DNA binding properties and molecular modelling studies. The evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of compounds 6b and 6d against pairs of cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian tumour cells shows that both compounds may be endowed with interesting antitumour properties because they are able to circumvent cisplatin resistance in A2780cisR, CH1cisR and Pam 212-ras tumour cells. On the other hand, DNA binding data indicate that compounds 6b and 6d are able to intercalate stronger than acridine within the double helix. Both compounds displace ethidium bromide with an efficiency ten times higher than acridine from several linear double-stranded DNAs and induce 43 degrees unwinding in supercoiled pBR322 DNA while acridine unwinds pBR322 DNA by only 24 degrees. Altogether these data indicate that the significant conformational changes induced by compounds 6b and 6d in the double helix are due to a bis-intercalative DNA binding mode. We propose that binding to DNA through bisintercalation might be at least in part responsible for the remarkable cytotoxic properties of these acridine derivatives. The complex of 6b with d(GCGCGC)(2) in the four possible orientations that the ligand can adopt when binding to the DNA hexamer have been modelled and subjected to molecular dynamics simulations with the aim of evaluating the binding preferences of this bisintercalating agent into the DNA molecule. The predictions suggest that 6b binds to d(GCGCGC)(2) with a parallel orientation of the chromophores relative to each other and with a preference for binding through the minor groove of the hexamer. The possible relevance of these findings to the process of bisintercalation and the antitumour

  11. Cantharidin analogues: synthesis and evaluation of growth inhibition in a panel of selected tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Adam; Ackland, Stephen P; Bowyer, Michael C; Baldwin, Monique L; Garner, James; Walkom, Cecilia C; Sakoff, Jennette A

    2003-02-01

    Diels-Alder addition of furans (furan, furfuryl alcohol, and 3-bromofuran) to maelic anhydride yields three distinct 5,6-dehydronorcantharidins. Hydrogenation of (4,10-dioxatricyclo[5.2.1.0]decane-3,5-dione) (4a), in dry ethanol affords the monoester (7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic aid monoethyl ester) (6). Subsequent transesterification affords a series of monoesters (7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester (7)), 7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid monopropyl ester (8), (7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid monohexyl ester (9)) and differentially substituted diesters (7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid 2-ethyl ester 3-isopropyl ester) (10), and (7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid 2-ethyl ester 3-phenyl ester) (11). Analogues were firstly screened for their ability to inhibit protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) as the lead compounds cantharidin (1) and norcantharidin (2) are known PP1 and PP2A inhibitors. Only analogues 4a, 6-8 displayed good PP1 and PP2A inhibition (PP1 IC(50)'s=2.0, 2.96, 4.71, and 4.82 microM, respectively; PP2A IC(50)'s=0.2, 0.45, 0.41, and 0.47 microM, respectively). All analogues were also screened for their anti-cancer potential against a panel of tumour cell lines, HL60, L1210, SW480, WiDr, HT29, HCT116, A2780, ADDP, and 143B, producing GI(50) values ranging from 6 microM to >1000 microM. Analogues possessing good PP1 and/or PP2A inhibition also returned moderate to good anti-cancer activity. Analogues with substituents directly attached to the intact bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane skeleton were poor to moderate anti-cancer agents. This correlates well with their lack of PP1 or PP2A activity. Analogues capable of undergoing a facile ring opening of the anhydride or with a single carboxylate were good PP1 and PP2A inhibitors, largely correlating to the observed anti-cancer activity in all cases, except 11. Analogue 11, whist neither a PP1 nor a PP2A

  12. Dendrimer-encapsulated naphthalocyanine as a single agent-based theranostic nanoplatform for near-infrared fluorescence imaging and combinatorial anticancer phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taratula, Olena; Schumann, Canan; Duong, Tony; Taylor, Karmin L.; Taratula, Oleh

    2015-02-01

    dynamic light scattering (Fig. S1); absorption spectra of free SiNc 2 in THF before and after irradiation with the 785 nm laser diode for 30 min (Fig. S2); in vitro cytotoxicity of free DOX against A2780/AD human ovarian cancer cells (Fig. S3); the release profiles of SiNc from SiNc-NP under various conditions (Fig. S4); body weight curves of the mice with or without treatment (Fig. S5). See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06050d