Science.gov

Sample records for a2780 na cisplatinu

  1. Elevated β-catenin activity contributes to carboplatin resistance in A2780cp ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barghout, Samir H.; Zepeda, Nubia; Xu, Zhihua

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortalities in women. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) represents approximately 90% of all ovarian malignancies. Most EOC patients are diagnosed at advanced stages and current chemotherapy regimens are ineffective against advanced EOC due to the development of chemoresistance. It is important to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying acquired resistance to effectively manage this disease. In this study, we examined the expression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling components in the paired cisplatin-sensitive (A2780s) and cisplatin-resistant (A2780cp) EOC cell lines. Our results showed that several negative regulators of Wnt signaling are downregulated, whereas amore » few Wnt ligands and known Wnt/β-catenin target genes are upregulated in A2780cp cells compared to A2780s cells, suggesting that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is more active in A2780cp cells. Further analysis revealed nuclear localization of β-catenin and higher β-catenin transcriptional activity in A2780cp cells compared to A2780s cells. Finally, we demonstrated that chemical inhibition of β-catenin transcriptional activity by its inhibitor CCT036477 sensitized A2780cp cells to carboplatin, supporting a role for β-catenin in carboplatin resistance in A2780cp cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity contributes to carboplatin resistance in A2780cp cells. - Highlights: • Wnt ligands and target genes are upregulated in cisplatin resistant A2780cp cells. • Negative regulators of Wnt signaling are down-regulated in A2780cp cells. • β-catenin transcriptional activity is higher in A2780cp cells compared to A2780s cells. • Inhibition of β-catenin activity increases carboplatin cytotoxicity in A2780cp cells.« less

  2. Lectin array and glycogene expression analyses of ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and its cisplatin-resistant derivate cell line A2780-cp.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran; Qin, Wenjun; Qin, Ruihuan; Han, Jing; Li, Can; Wang, Yisheng; Xu, Congjian

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal gynecological malignancies, in which platinum resistance is a common cause of its relapse and death. Glycosylation has been reported to be involved in drug resistance, and glycomic analyses of ovarian cancer may improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cancer cell drug resistance and provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The serous ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and its platinum-resistant counterpart A2780-cp were used in this study. We performed a lectin array analysis to compare the glycosylation patterns of the two cell lines, a gene expression array was employed to probe the differences in glycogenes. Furthermore, the results were verified by lectin blots. A2780-cp cell exhibited stronger intensities of Lens culinaris (LCA) Canavalia ensiformis (ConA), and Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) and weaker intensities of Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectins. The gene expression array analysis revealed increased expression of Fut8, B3gnt4, B3gnt5, B4galt2 and decreased expression of Fut1 and ST6GalNAc 6 expression were evident in the A2780-cp cells. The lectin blot confirmed the differences in LCA, ConA, SNA and LEL between the A2780 and A2780-cp cells. The combination of the lectin and gene expression analyses showed that the levels of core fucosylation and poly-LacNAc were increased in the A2780-cp cells and the levels of Fuc α1-2(gal β1-4) GlcNAc and α2-6-linked sialic structures were decreased in the A2780-cp cells. These glycans represent potential biomarkers and might be involved in the mechanism of drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

  3. A Specific Mixture of Nutrients Suppresses Ovarian Cancer A-2780 Tumor Incidence, Growth, and Metastasis to Lungs.

    PubMed

    Roomi, Mohd Waheed; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Rath, Matthias; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra

    2017-03-18

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological malignancy in women, and fifth leading cause of death. Despite advances made in chemotherapy and surgery, the average time of clinical remission is approximately 2 years and the 5-year survival rate is 45%. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of a novel therapeutic approach to ovarian cancer treatment. We investigated the effect of a specific nutrient mixture (EPQ) containing ascorbic acid, lysine, proline, green tea extract, and quercetin on human ovarian cancer cell A-2780 in vivo and in vitro. Athymic female nude mice (n = 12) were all inoculated intraperitoneally (IP) with 2 × 10⁶ cells in 0.1 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and randomly divided into two groups. Upon injection, the Control group (n = 6) was fed a regular diet and the EPQ group (n = 6) a regular diet supplemented with 0.5% EPQ. Four weeks later, the mice were sacrificed and tumors that developed in the ovary were excised, weighed, and processed for histology. Lungs were inspected for metastasis. In vitro, A-2780 cells were cultured in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% FBS and antibiotics. At near confluence, cells were treated with EPQ in triplicate at concentrations between 0 and 1000 μg/mL. Cell proliferation was measured via MTT assay, MMP-9 secretion via gelatinase zymography, invasion through Matrigel and morphology via hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining. All Control mice developed large ovarian tumors, whereas 5 out of 6 mice in the EPQ group developed no tumors, and one, a small tumor. Control mice also showed lung metastasis in 6 out of 6 mice, while no lung metastasis was evident in EPQ mice. Zymography demonstrated only MMP-9 expression, which EPQ inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion, with virtual total block at 250 μg/mL concentration. EPQ significantly inhibited invasion through Matrigel with total block at 250 μg/mL concentration. MTT showed dose-dependent inhibition of cell

  4. Antiproliferative effects of TSA, PXD‑101 and MS‑275 in A2780 and MCF7 cells: Acetylated histone H4 and acetylated tubulin as markers for HDACi potency and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-12-01

    Inhibition of histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) has been well documented as an attractive target for the development of chemotherapeutic drugs. The present study investigated the effects of two prototype hydroxamic acid HDAC inhibitors, namely Trichostatin A (TSA) and Belinostat (PXD‑101) and the benzamide Entinostat (MS‑275) in A2780 ovarian carcinoma and MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. The three HDACi inhibited the proliferation of A2780 and MCF7 cells at comparable levels, below the µM range. Enzyme inhibition assays in a cell‑free system showed that TSA was the most potent inhibitor of total HDAC enzyme activity followed by PXD‑101 and MS‑275. Incubation of A2780 and MCF7 cells with the hydroxamates TSA and PXD‑101 for 24 h resulted in a dramatic increase of acetylated tubulin induction (up to 30‑fold for TSA). In contrast to acetylated tubulin, western blot analysis and flow cytometry indicated that the induction of acetylated histone H4 was considerably smaller. The benzamide MS‑275 exhibited nearly a 2‑fold induction of acetylated histone H4 and an even smaller induction of acetylated tubulin in A2780 and MCF7 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that although the three HDACi were equipotent in inhibiting proliferation of MCF7 and A2780 cells, only the benzamide MS‑275 did not induce acetylated tubulin expression, a marker of class IIb HDACs.

  5. Glycosides of naphthohydroquinones and anthraquinones isolated from the aerial parts of Morinda parvifolia Bartl. ex DC (Rubiaceae) increase p53 mRNA expression in A2780 cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Xianming; Zhang, Jian; Li, Changkang; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Hongqing; Gu, Haifeng; Li, Baoming; Chen, Ruoyun; Kang, Jie

    2018-05-11

    Eight previously undescribed naphthohydroquinone glycosides, namely morindaparvins H-O, together with four known anthraquinone glycosides were isolated from the n-BuOH extract of the aerial parts of Morinda parvifolia Bartl. ex DC (Rubiaceae). The structures of morindaparvins H-O were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of quinone glycosides from the plant M. parvifolia. The results showed that all 12 compounds at the concentration of 50 μM significantly increased p53 mRNA expression in A2780 cells compared with the blank control group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Folic Acid-Targeted Liposomes Co-Loaded with C6 Ceramide and Doxorubicin: In Vitro Evaluation on HeLa, A2780-ADR, and H69-AR Cells.

    PubMed

    Sriraman, Shravan Kumar; Pan, Jiayi; Sarisozen, Can; Luther, Ed; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    Current research in cancer therapy is beginning to shift toward the use of combinational drug treatment regimens. However, the efficient delivery of drug combinations is governed by a number of complex factors in the clinical setting. Therefore, the ability to synchronize the pharmacokinetics of the individual therapeutic agents present in combination not only to allow for simultaneous tumor accumulation but also to allow for a synergistic relationship at the intracellular level could prove to be advantageous. In this work, we report the development of a novel folic acid-targeted liposomal formulation simultaneously co-loaded with C6 ceramide and doxorubicin [FA-(C6+Dox)-LP]. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP was able to significantly reduce the IC50 of Dox when compared to that after the treatment with the doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (Dox-LP) as well as the untargeted drug co-loaded (C6+Dox)-LP on HeLa, A2780-ADR, and H69-AR cells. The analysis of the cell cycle distribution showed that while the C6 liposomes (C6-LP) did not cause cell cycle arrest, all the Dox-containing liposomes mediated cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells in the G2 phase at Dox concentrations of 0.3 and 1 μM and in the S phase at the higher concentrations. It was also found that this arrest in the S phase precedes the progression of the cells to apoptosis. The targeted FA-(C6+Dox)-LP were able to significantly enhance the induction of apoptotic events in HeLa cell monolayers as compared to the other treatment groups. Next, using time-lapse phase holographic imaging microscopy, it was found that upon treatment with the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP, the HeLa cells underwent rapid progression to apoptosis after 21 h as evidenced by a drastic drop in the average area of the cells after loss of cell membrane integrity. Finally, upon evaluation in a HeLa spheroid cell model, treatment with the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP showed significantly higher levels of cell death compared to those with C6-LP and

  7. Condition of Si crystal formation by vaporizing Na from NaSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morito, Haruhiko; Karahashi, Taiki; Yamane, Hisanori

    2012-09-01

    NaSi was heated at various Na vapor pressures (pNa 0.1-1.2 atm) and temperatures (973-1173 K) to investigate the condition of Si crystal formation from NaSi by Na evaporation. Silicon single crystals 1-3 mm in diameter were grown by evaporation of Na from Na-Si melt at 1173 K and pNa=0.74 atm.

  8. Superconductivity could occur Na-supersaturated NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanaki, Koji

    1997-04-01

    A flow-into electron and a flow-out hole mean flow-into of two unit electric c harges. Even if an exciton consisting of an electron and a hole is a neutral q uasi-particle, overlapping of excitons, namely, the bose condensation changes into a superconductor where half the electric current is due to holes moving t oward the reverse direction. The Meisner effect of the bose condensation comes from the precession of the each exciton under the magnetic field^1. Moreo ver, the present mechanism is supported with that superconducting material alw ays has two kinds of carriers. The superconductivity of NaCl comes from the ab ove-mentioned theory. Free stable holes at first and then electrons are produc ed in NaCl when considerable number of Cl^- lattice vacancies are brought in NaCl mainly because some electrons in the Cl-3p filled band fall into the v acancies. The coexistence of two kinds of stable carriers does not always mean the presence of excitons like VO with electrons not paired and localized in e ach V atom though. While, the absorption spectrum of the NaCl has already conf irmed the presence of excitons; the strength of the spectrum seems to indicate the formation of the bose condensation. Thus we could expect a new supercondu ctor. 1) Hanaki B.Am.P.Soc.,40-1(1995)568

  9. β decay of Na32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattoon, C. M.; Sarazin, F.; Hackman, G.; Cunningham, E. S.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Koopmans, K. A.; Leslie, J. R.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, H. C.; Schwarzenberg, J.; Smith, M. B.; Svensson, C. E.; Waddington, J. C.; Walker, P. M.; Washbrook, B.; Zganjar, E.

    2007-01-01

    The β-decay of Na32 has been studied using β-γ coincidences. New transitions and levels are tentatively placed in the level scheme of Mg32 from an analysis of γ-γ and β-γ-γ coincidences. The observation of the indirect feeding of the 2321 keV state in Mg32 removes some restrictions previously placed on the spin assignment for this state. No evidence of a state at 2117 keV in Mg32 is found. Previously unobserved weak transitions up to 5.4 MeV were recorded but could not be placed in the decay scheme of Na32.

  10. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore » during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g -1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  11. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; ...

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore » during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g -1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  12. The NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The main aim of the NA62 experiment (NA62 Technical Design Report, na62.web.cern.ch/NA62/Documents/TD_Full_doc_v1.pdf> [1]) is to study ultra-rare Kaon decays. In order to select rare events over the overwhelming background, central systems with high-performance, high bandwidth, flexibility and configurability are necessary, that minimize dead time while maximizing data collection reliability. The NA62 experiment consists of 12 sub-detector systems and several trigger and control systems, for a total channel count of less than 100,000. The GigaTracKer (GTK) has the largest number of channels (54,000), and the Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter shares with it the largest raw data rate (19 GB/s). The NA62 trigger system works with 3 trigger levels. The first trigger level is based on a hardware central trigger unit, so-called L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP), and Local Trigger Units (LTU), which are all located in the experimental cavern. Other two trigger levels are based on software, and done with a computer farm located on surface. The L0TP receives information from triggering sub-detectors asynchronously via Ethernet; it processes the information, and then transmits a final trigger decision synchronously to each sub-detector through the Trigger and Timing Control (TTC) system. The interface between L0TP and the TTC system, which is used for trigger and clock distribution, is provided by the Local Trigger Unit board (LTU). The LTU can work in two modes: global and stand-alone. In the global mode, the LTU provides an interface between L0TP and TTC system. In the stand-alone mode, the LTU can fully emulate L0TP and so provides an independent way for each sub-detector for testing or calibration purposes. In addition to the emulation functionality, a further functionality is implemented that allows to synchronize the clock of the LTU with the L0TP and the TTC system. For testing and debugging purposes, a Snap Shot Memory (SSM) interface is implemented, that can work

  13. Europlanet NA2 Science Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Szego, Karoly; Genzer, Maria; Schmidt, Walter; Krupp, Norbert; Lammer, Helmut; Kallio, Esa; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    Europlanet RI / NA2 Science Networking [1] focused on determining the major goals of current and future European planetary science, relating them to the Research Infrastructure that the Europlanet RI project [2] developed, and placing them in a more global context. NA2 also enhanced the ability of European planetary scientists to participate on the global scene with their own agenda-setting projects and ideas. The Networking Activity NA2 included five working groups, aimed at identifying key science issues and producing reference books on major science themes that will bridge the gap between the results of present and past missions and the scientific preparation of the future ones. Within the Europlanet RI project (2009-2012) the NA2 and NA2-WGs organized thematic workshops, an expert exchange program and training groups to improve the scientific impact of this Infrastructure. The principal tasks addressed by NA2 were: • Science activities in support to the optimal use of data from past and present space missions, involving the broad planetary science community beyond the "space club" • Science activities in support to the preparation of future planetary missions: Earth-based preparatory observations, laboratory studies, R&D on advanced instrumentation and exploration technologies for the future, theory and modeling etc. • Develop scientific activities, joint publications, dedicated meetings, tools and services, education activities, engaging the public and industries • Update science themes and addressing the two main scientific objectives • Prepare and support workshops of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern and • Support Trans National Activities (TNAs), Joined Research Activities (JRAs) and the Integrated and Distributed Information Service (IDIS) of the Europlanet project These tasks were achieved by WG workshops organized by the NA2 working groups, by ISSI workshops and by an Expert Exchange Program. There were 17 official WG

  14. Compensatory regulation of Na+ absorption by Na+/H+ exchanger and Na+-Cl- cotransporter in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In mammals, internal Na+ homeostasis is maintained through Na+ reabsorption via a variety of Na+ transport proteins with mutually compensating functions, which are expressed in different segments of the nephrons. In zebrafish, Na+ homeostasis is achieved mainly through the skin/gill ionocytes, namely Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3b)-expressing H+-ATPase rich (HR) cells and Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC)-expressing NCC cells, which are functionally homologous to mammalian proximal and distal convoluted tubular cells, respectively. The present study aimed to investigate whether or not the functions of HR and NCC ionocytes are differentially regulated to compensate for disruptions of internal Na+ homeostasis and if the cell differentiation of the ionocytes is involved in this regulation pathway. Results Translational knockdown of ncc caused an increase in HR cell number and a resulting augmentation of Na+ uptake in zebrafish larvae, while NHE3b loss-of-function caused an increase in NCC cell number with a concomitant recovery of Na+ absorption. Environmental acid stress suppressed nhe3b expression in HR cells and decreased Na+ content, which was followed by up-regulation of NCC cells accompanied by recovery of Na+ content. Moreover, knockdown of ncc resulted in a significant decrease of Na+ content in acid-acclimated zebrafish. Conclusions These results provide evidence that HR and NCC cells exhibit functional redundancy in Na+ absorption, similar to the regulatory mechanisms in mammalian kidney, and suggest this functional redundancy is a critical strategy used by zebrafish to survive in a harsh environment that disturbs body fluid Na+ homeostasis. PMID:23924428

  15. Growth of binary organic NLO crystals: m.NA-p.NA and m.NA-CNA system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Henningsen, T.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mazelsky, R.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to grow 3.Nitroaniline (m.NA) crystals doped with 4.Nitroaniline (p.NA) and 2.chloro 4.Nitroaniline (CNA). The measured undercooling for m.NA, p.NA, and CNA were 0.21 tm K, 0.23 tm K, and 0.35 tm K respectively, where tm represents the melting temperature of the pure component. Because of the crystals' large heat of fusion and large undercooling, it was not possible to grow good quality crystals with low thermal gradients. In the conventional two-zone Bridgman furnace we had to raise the temperature of the hot zone above the decomposition temperature of CNA, p.NA, and m.NA to achieve the desired thermal gradient. To avoid decomposition, we used an unconventional Bridgman furnace. Two immiscible liquids, silicone oil and ethylene glycol, were used to build a special two-zone Bridgman furnace. A temperature gradient of 18 K/cm was achieved without exceeding the decomposition temperature of the crystal. The binary crystals, m.NA-p.NA and m.NA-CNA, were grown in centimeter size in this furnace. X-ray and optical characterization showed good optical quality.

  16. Mechanism of epithelial lithium transport. Evidence for basolateral Na:Na and Na:Li exchange

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Measurement of transmural sodium fluxes across isolated, ouabain- inhibited turtle colon in the presence of a serosal-to-mucosal sodium gradient shows that in the absence of active transport the amiloride- sensitive cellular path contains at least two routes for the transmural movement of sodium and lithium, one a conductive path and the other a nonconductive, cation-exchange mechanism. The latter transport element can exchange lithium for sodium, and the countertransport of these two cations provides a mechanistic basis for the ability of tight epithelia to actively absorb lithium despite the low affinity of the basolateral Na/K-ATPase for this cation. PMID:6644269

  17. Maintaining the NA atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

    1993-02-01

    The possible sources of the Na atmosphere of Mercury are calculatively studied. The likely structure, composition, and temperature of the planet's upper crust is examined along with the probable flux of Na from depth by grain boundary diffusion and by Knudsen flow. The creation of fresh regolith is considered along with mechanisms for supplying Na from the surface to the exosphere. The implications of the calculations for the probable abundances in the regolith are discussed.

  18. Na+/Ca2+ exchange and Na+/K+-ATPase in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Shattock, Michael J; Ottolia, Michela; Bers, Donald M; Blaustein, Mordecai P; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Bossuyt, Julie; Bridge, John H B; Chen-Izu, Ye; Clancy, Colleen E; Edwards, Andrew; Goldhaber, Joshua; Kaplan, Jack; Lingrel, Jerry B; Pavlovic, Davor; Philipson, Kenneth; Sipido, Karin R; Xie, Zi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) and Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA). While the relevance of Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac function has been extensively investigated, the role of Na+ regulation in shaping heart function is often overlooked. Small changes in the cytoplasmic Na+ content have multiple effects on the heart by influencing intracellular Ca2+ and pH levels thereby modulating heart contractility. Therefore it is essential for heart cells to maintain Na+ homeostasis. Among the proteins that accomplish this task are the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and the Na+/K+ pump (NKA). By transporting three Na+ ions into the cytoplasm in exchange for one Ca2+ moved out, NCX is one of the main Na+ influx mechanisms in cardiomyocytes. Acting in the opposite direction, NKA moves Na+ ions from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space against their gradient by utilizing the energy released from ATP hydrolysis. A fine balance between these two processes controls the net amount of intracellular Na+ and aberrations in either of these two systems can have a large impact on cardiac contractility. Due to the relevant role of these two proteins in Na+ homeostasis, the emphasis of this review is on recent developments regarding the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) and Na+/K+ pump and the controversies that still persist in the field. PMID:25772291

  19. Formation of Si grains from a NaSi melt prepared by reaction of SiO2 and Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hisanori; Morito, Haruhiko; Uchikoshi, Masahito

    2013-08-01

    A mixture of Na2SiO3 and NaSi was found to be formed by reaction of SiO2 and Na at 650 °C as follows: 5Na+3SiO2→2Na2SiO3+NaSi. Single crystals of NaSi were grown by cooling the mixture of Na2SiO3 and NaSi with an excess amount of Na from 850 °C, and polycrystalline Si was obtained by vaporization of Na from the crystals. Coarse grains of Si were also crystallized by Na evaporation after the formation of Na2SiO3 and Si-dissolved liquid Na at 830 °C. The Si grains were collected by washing the product with water. The yield of the Si grains was 85% of the ideal amount expected from the reaction.

  20. Kinetin Reversal of NaCl Effects

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Adriana; Dehan, Klara; Itai, Chanan

    1978-01-01

    Leaf discs of Nicotiana rustica L. were floated on NaCl in the presence of kinetin or abscisic acid. On the 5th day 14CO2 fixation, [3H]leucine incorporation, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content were determined. Kinetin either partially or completely reversed the inhibitory effects of NaCl while ABA had no effect. PMID:16660618

  1. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  2. Long range intermolecular interactions between the alkali diatomics Na2, K2, and NaK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemke, Warren T.; Byrd, Jason N.; Michels, H. Harvey; Montgomery, John A.; Stwalley, William C.

    2010-06-01

    Long range interactions between the ground state alkali diatomics Na2-Na2, K2-K2, Na2-K2, and NaK-NaK are examined. Interaction energies are first determined from ab initio calculations at the coupled-cluster with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] level of theory, including counterpoise corrections. Long range energies calculated from diatomic molecular properties (polarizabilities and dipole and quadrupole moments) are then compared with the ab initio energies. A simple asymptotic model potential ELR=Eelec+Edisp+Eind is shown to accurately represent the intermolecular interactions for these systems at long range.

  3. Long range intermolecular interactions between the alkali diatomics Na(2), K(2), and NaK.

    PubMed

    Zemke, Warren T; Byrd, Jason N; Michels, H Harvey; Montgomery, John A; Stwalley, William C

    2010-06-28

    Long range interactions between the ground state alkali diatomics Na(2)-Na(2), K(2)-K(2), Na(2)-K(2), and NaK-NaK are examined. Interaction energies are first determined from ab initio calculations at the coupled-cluster with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] level of theory, including counterpoise corrections. Long range energies calculated from diatomic molecular properties (polarizabilities and dipole and quadrupole moments) are then compared with the ab initio energies. A simple asymptotic model potential E(LR)=E(elec)+E(disp)+E(ind) is shown to accurately represent the intermolecular interactions for these systems at long range.

  4. Cytosolic Na+ Controls an Epithelial Na+ Channel Via the Go Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Regulatory Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komwatana, P.; Dinudom, A.; Young, J. A.; Cook, D. I.

    1996-07-01

    In tight Na+-absorbing epithelial cells, the rate of Na+ entry through amiloride-sensitive apical membrane Na+ channels is matched to basolateral Na+ extrusion so that cell Na+ concentration and volume remain steady. Control of this process by regulation of apical Na+ channels has been attributed to changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration or pH, secondary to changes in cytosolic Na+ concentration, although cytosolic Cl- seems also to be involved. Using mouse mandibular gland duct cells, we now demonstrate that increasing cytosolic Na+ concentration inhibits apical Na+ channels independent of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, pH, or Cl-, and the effect is blocked by GDP-β -S, pertussis toxin, and antibodies against the α -subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Go). In contrast, the inhibitory effect of cytosolic anions is blocked by antibodies to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Gi1/Gi2. It thus appears that apical Na+ channels are regulated by Go and Gi proteins, the activities of which are controlled, respectively, by cytosolic Na+ and Cl-.

  5. Kinetic contribution to extracellular Na+/K+ selectivity in the Na+/K+ pump.

    PubMed

    Vleeskens, Elizabeth; Clarke, Ronald J

    2018-05-01

    The sodium potassium pump (Na + ,K + -ATPase) shows a high selectivity for K + over Na + binding from the extracellular medium. To understand the K + selectivity in the presence of a high concentration of competing Na + ions requires consideration of more than just ion binding affinities. Here, equilibrium-based calculations of the extracellular occupation of the Na + ,K + -ATPase transport sites by Na + and K + are compared to fluxes through Na + and K + transport pathways. The results show that, under physiological conditions, there is a 332-fold selectivity for pumping of K + from the extracellular medium into the cytoplasm relative to Na + , whereas equilibrium calculations alone predict only a 7.5-fold selectivity for K + . Thus, kinetic effects make a major contribution to the determination of extracellular K + selectivity.

  6. Na and K Dependence of the Na/K Pump in Cystic Fibrosis Fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznik, Vivian M.; Schneider, Jerry A.; Mendoza, Stanley A.

    1981-11-01

    The Na and K dependence of the Na/K pump was measured in skin fibroblasts from patients with cystic fibrosis and age/sex-matched controls. Under basal conditions, there was no difference between control and cystic fibrosis cells in protein per cell, intracellular Na and K content, or Na/K pump activity (measured as ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake). There was no difference in the Na dependence of the Na/K pump between cystic fibrosis cells and control cells. In cells from patients with cystic fibrosis, the Na/K pump had a significantly lower affinity for K (Km = 1.6 mM) when compared to normals (Km = 0.9 mM). This difference was demonstrated by using two independent experimental designs.

  7. Electrogenic Na+/Ca2+ Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Danaceau, Jonathan P.; Lucero, Mary T.

    2000-01-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) from the squid, Lolliguncula brevis, respond to the odors l-glutamate or dopamine with increases in internal Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i). To directly asses the effects of increasing [Ca2+]i in perforated-patched squid ORNs, we applied 10 mM caffeine to release Ca2+ from internal stores. We observed an inward current response to caffeine. Monovalent cation replacement of Na+ from the external bath solution completely and selectively inhibited the caffeine-induced response, and ruled out the possibility of a Ca2+-dependent nonselective cation current. The strict dependence on internal Ca2+ and external Na+ indicated that the inward current was due to an electrogenic Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Block of the caffeine-induced current by an inhibitor of Na+/Ca2+ exchange (50–100 μM 2′,4′-dichlorobenzamil) and reversibility of the exchanger current, further confirmed its presence. We tested whether Na+/Ca2+ exchange contributed to odor responses by applying the aquatic odor l-glutamate in the presence and absence of 2′,4′-dichlorobenzamil. We found that electrogenic Na+/Ca2+ exchange was responsible for ∼26% of the total current associated with glutamate-induced odor responses. Although Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are known to be present in ORNs from numerous species, this is the first work to demonstrate amplifying contributions of the exchanger current to odor transduction. PMID:10828249

  8. NMR studies on Na+ transport in Synechococcus PCC 6311

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitschmann, W. H.; Packer, L.

    1992-01-01

    The freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 6311 is able to adapt to grow after sudden exposure to salt (NaCl) stress. We have investigated the mechanism of Na+ transport in these cells during adaptation to high salinity. Na+ influx under dark aerobic conditions occurred independently of delta pH or delta psi across the cytoplasmic membrane, ATPase activity, and respiratory electron transport. These findings are consistent with the existence of Na+/monovalent anion cotransport or simultaneous Na+/H+ +anion/OH- exchange. Na+ influx was dependent on Cl-, Br-, NO3-, or NO2-. No Na+ uptake occurred after addition of NaI, NaHCO3, or Na2SO4. Na+ extrusion was absolutely dependent on delta pH and on an ATPase activity and/or on respiratory electron transport. This indicates that Na+ extrusion via Na+/H+ exchange is driven by primary H+ pumps in the cytoplasmic membrane. Cells grown for 4 days in 0.5 m NaCl medium, "salt-grown cells," differ from control cells by a lower maximum velocity of Na+ influx and by lower steady-state ratios of [Na+]in/[Na+]out. These results indicate that cells grown in high-salt medium increase their capacity to extrude Na+. During salt adaptation Na+ extrusion driven by respiratory electron transport increased from about 15 to 50%.

  9. Thermal decomposition of sodium amide, NaNH2, and sodium amide hydroxide composites, NaNH2-NaOH.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Lars H; Wang, Peikun; Wu, Guotao; Xiong, Zhitao; Besenbacher, Flemming; Chen, Ping; Jensen, Torben R

    2016-09-14

    Sodium amide, NaNH 2 , has recently been shown to be a useful catalyst to decompose NH 3 into H 2 and N 2 , however, sodium hydroxide is omnipresent and commercially available NaNH 2 usually contains impurities of NaOH (<2%). The thermal decomposition of NaNH 2 and NaNH 2 -NaOH composites is systematically investigated and discussed. NaNH 2 is partially dissolved in NaOH at T > 100 °C, forming a non-stoichiometric solid solution of Na(OH) 1-x (NH 2 ) x (0 < x < ∼0.30), which crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell with the space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 determined by synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The composite xNaNH 2 -(1 - x)NaOH (∼0.70 < x < 0.72) shows a lowered melting point, ∼160 °C, compared to 200 and 318 °C for neat NaNH 2 and NaOH, respectively. We report that 0.36 mol of NH 3 per mol of NaNH 2 is released below 400 °C during heating in an argon atmosphere, initiated at its melting point, T = 200 °C, possibly due to the formation of the mixed sodium amide imide solid solution. Furthermore, NaOH reacts with NaNH 2 at elevated temperatures and provides the release of additional NH 3 .

  10. Computational and Experimental Investigations of Na-Ion Conduction in Cubic Na 3PSe 4

    DOE PAGES

    Bo, Shou -Hang; Wang, Yan; Kim, Jae Chul; ...

    2015-11-17

    All-solid-state Na-ion batteries that operate at or close to room temperature are a promising next-generation battery technology with enhanced safety and reduced manufacturing cost. An indispensable component of this technology is the solid-state electrolyte that allows rapid shuttling of the mobile cation (i.e., Na +) between the cathode and anode. However, there are very few fast Na-ion conductors with ionic conductivity approaching that of the liquid counterparts (i.e., 1 mS cm –1). In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of a fast Na-ion conductor, cubic Na 3PSe 4. This material possesses a room-temperature ionic conductivity exceeding 0.1 mSmore » cm –1 and does not require high-temperature sintering to minimize grain boundary resistance, making it a promising solid-state electrolyte candidate for all-solid-state Na-ion battery applications. On the basis of density functional theory, nudged elastic band, and molecular dynamics investigations, we demonstrate that the framework of cubic Na 3PSe 4 only permits rapid Na + diffusion with the presence of defects, and that the formation of the Na vacancy (charge-balanced by slight Se 2– oxidation) is more energetically favorable among the various defects considered. This finding provides important guidelines to further improve Na-ion conductivity in this class of materials.« less

  11. Computational and Experimental Investigations of Na-Ion Conduction in Cubic Na 3PSe 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bo, Shou -Hang; Wang, Yan; Kim, Jae Chul

    All-solid-state Na-ion batteries that operate at or close to room temperature are a promising next-generation battery technology with enhanced safety and reduced manufacturing cost. An indispensable component of this technology is the solid-state electrolyte that allows rapid shuttling of the mobile cation (i.e., Na +) between the cathode and anode. However, there are very few fast Na-ion conductors with ionic conductivity approaching that of the liquid counterparts (i.e., 1 mS cm –1). In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of a fast Na-ion conductor, cubic Na 3PSe 4. This material possesses a room-temperature ionic conductivity exceeding 0.1 mSmore » cm –1 and does not require high-temperature sintering to minimize grain boundary resistance, making it a promising solid-state electrolyte candidate for all-solid-state Na-ion battery applications. On the basis of density functional theory, nudged elastic band, and molecular dynamics investigations, we demonstrate that the framework of cubic Na 3PSe 4 only permits rapid Na + diffusion with the presence of defects, and that the formation of the Na vacancy (charge-balanced by slight Se 2– oxidation) is more energetically favorable among the various defects considered. This finding provides important guidelines to further improve Na-ion conductivity in this class of materials.« less

  12. Glutathionylation-Dependence of Na+-K+-Pump Currents Can Mimic Reduced Subsarcolemmal Na+ Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Alvaro; Liu, Chia-Chi; Cornelius, Flemming; Clarke, Ronald J.; Rasmussen, Helge H.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a subsarcolemmal space with restricted diffusion for Na+ in cardiac myocytes has been inferred from a transient peak electrogenic Na+-K+ pump current beyond steady state on reexposure of myocytes to K+ after a period of exposure to K+-free extracellular solution. The transient peak current is attributed to enhanced electrogenic pumping of Na+ that accumulated in the diffusion-restricted space during pump inhibition in K+-free extracellular solution. However, there are no known physical barriers that account for such restricted Na+ diffusion, and we examined if changes of activity of the Na+-K+ pump itself cause the transient peak current. Reexposure to K+ reproduced a transient current beyond steady state in voltage-clamped ventricular myocytes as reported by others. Persistence of it when the Na+ concentration in patch pipette solutions perfusing the intracellular compartment was high and elimination of it with K+-free pipette solution could not be reconciled with restricted subsarcolemmal Na+ diffusion. The pattern of the transient current early after pump activation was dependent on transmembrane Na+- and K+ concentration gradients suggesting the currents were related to the conformational poise imposed on the pump. We examined if the currents might be accounted for by changes in glutathionylation of the β1 Na+-K+ pump subunit, a reversible oxidative modification that inhibits the pump. Susceptibility of the β1 subunit to glutathionylation depends on the conformational poise of the Na+-K+ pump, and glutathionylation with the pump stabilized in conformations equivalent to those expected to be imposed on voltage-clamped myocytes supported this hypothesis. So did elimination of the transient K+-induced peak Na+-K+ pump current when we included glutaredoxin 1 in patch pipette solutions to reverse glutathionylation. We conclude that transient K+-induced peak Na+-K+ pump current reflects the effect of conformation-dependent β1 pump subunit

  13. Hydrogen-fluorine exchange in NaBH4-NaBF4.

    PubMed

    Rude, L H; Filsø, U; D'Anna, V; Spyratou, A; Richter, B; Hino, S; Zavorotynska, O; Baricco, M; Sørby, M H; Hauback, B C; Hagemann, H; Besenbacher, F; Skibsted, J; Jensen, T R

    2013-11-07

    Hydrogen-fluorine exchange in the NaBH4-NaBF4 system is investigated using a range of experimental methods combined with DFT calculations and a possible mechanism for the reactions is proposed. Fluorine substitution is observed using in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) as a new Rock salt type compound with idealized composition NaBF2H2 in the temperature range T = 200 to 215 °C. Combined use of solid-state (19)F MAS NMR, FT-IR and DFT calculations supports the formation of a BF2H2(-) complex ion, reproducing the observation of a (19)F chemical shift at -144.2 ppm, which is different from that of NaBF4 at -159.2 ppm, along with the new absorption bands observed in the IR spectra. After further heating, the fluorine substituted compound becomes X-ray amorphous and decomposes to NaF at ~310 °C. This work shows that fluorine-substituted borohydrides tend to decompose to more stable compounds, e.g. NaF and BF3 or amorphous products such as closo-boranes, e.g. Na2B12H12. The NaBH4-NaBF4 composite decomposes at lower temperatures (300 °C) compared to NaBH4 (476 °C), as observed by thermogravimetric analysis. NaBH4-NaBF4 (1:0.5) preserves 30% of the hydrogen storage capacity after three hydrogen release and uptake cycles compared to 8% for NaBH4 as measured using Sievert's method under identical conditions, but more than 50% using prolonged hydrogen absorption time. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity tends to decrease possibly due to the formation of NaF and Na2B12H12. On the other hand, the additive sodium fluoride appears to facilitate hydrogen uptake, prevent foaming, phase segregation and loss of material from the sample container for samples of NaBH4-NaF.

  14. Painful Na-channelopathies: an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Stephen G

    2013-07-01

    The universe of painful Na-channelopathies--human disorders caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels--has recently expanded in three dimensions. We now know that mutations of sodium channels cause not only rare genetic 'model disorders' such as inherited erythromelalgia and channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain but also common painful neuropathies. We have learned that mutations of NaV1.8, as well as mutations of NaV1.7, can cause painful Na-channelopathies. Moreover, recent studies combining atomic level structural models and pharmacogenomics suggest that the goal of genomically guided pain therapy may not be unrealistic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Accessing naïve human pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    De Los Angeles, Alejandro; Loh, Yuin-Han; Tesar, Paul J; Daley, George Q

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotency manifests during mammalian development through formation of the epiblast, founder tissue of the embryo proper. Rodent pluripotent stem cells can be considered as two distinct states: naïve and primed. Naïve pluripotent stem cell lines are distinguished from primed cells by self-renewal in response to LIF signaling and MEK/GSK3 inhibition (LIF/2i conditions) and two active X chromosomes in female cells. In rodent cells, the naïve pluripotent state may be accessed through at least three routes: explantation of the inner cell mass, somatic cell reprogramming by ectopic Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and C-myc, and direct reversion of primed post-implantation-associated epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). In contrast to their rodent counterparts, human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells more closely resemble rodent primed EpiSCs. A critical question is whether naïve human pluripotent stem cells with bona fide features of both a pluripotent state and naïve-specific features can be obtained. In this review, we outline current understanding of the differences between these pluripotent states in mice, new perspectives on the origins of naïve pluripotency in rodents, and recent attempts to apply the rodent paradigm to capture naïve pluripotency in human cells. Unraveling how to stably induce naïve pluripotency in human cells will influence the full realization of human pluripotent stem cell biology and medicine. PMID:22463982

  16. Structural and Na-ion conduction characteristics of Na 3 PS x Se 4-x

    SciTech Connect

    Bo, Shou-Hang; Wang, Yan; Ceder, Gerbrand

    The recent discovery of the isostructrual cubic Na 3PS 4 and Na 3PSe 4 as fast Na-ion conductors provided a general structural framework for the exploration of new sodium superionic conductors. In this work, we systematically investigated the structures and ionic conduction characteristics of a series of compounds with the general chemical formula of Na 3PS xSe 4-x. Synthesis of Na 3PS 4 under different conditions (e.g., temperature, reaction vessel, mass of the precursors) reveals the reactivity of the precursors with the reaction tubes, producing different polymorphs. X-ray diffraction studies on the solid solution phases Na 3PS xSe 4-x more » identified a tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition with increasing Se concentration. This observation is consistent with the computed stability of the tetragonal and cubic polymorphs, where the energy difference between the two polymorphs becomes very close to zero in Se-rich compositions. Furthermore, ab initio molecular dynamic simulations suggest that the fast Na-ion conduction in Na 3PS xSe 4-x may not be causally related with the symmetry or the composition of these phases. The formation of defects, instead, enables fast Na-ion conduction in this class of materials.« less

  17. NA62 and NA48/2 results on search for Heavy Neutral Leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Gianluca; Aliberti, R.; Ambrosino, F.; Ammendola, R.; Angelucci, B.; Antonelli, A.; Anzivino, G.; Arcidiacono, R.; Barbanera, M.; Biagioni, A.; Bician, L.; Biino, C.; Bizzeti, A.; Blazek, T.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Bonaiuto, V.; Boretto, M.; Bragadireanu, M.; Britton, D.; Brizioli, F.; Brunetti, M. B.; Bryman, D.; Bucci, F.; Capussela, T.; Ceccucci, A.; Cenci, P.; Cerny, V.; Cerri, C.; Checcucci, B.; Conovaloff, A.; Cooper, P.; Cortina Gil, E.; Corvino, M.; Costantini, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Coward, D.; D'Agostini, G.; Dainton, J.; Dalpiaz, P.; Danielsson, H.; De Simone, N.; Di Filippo, D.; Di Lella, L.; Doble, N.; Dobrich, B.; Duval, F.; Duk, V.; Engelfried, J.; Enik, T.; Estrada-Tristan, N.; Falaleev, V.; Fantechi, R.; Fascianelli, V.; Federici, L.; Fedotov, S.; Filippi, A.; Fiorini, M.; Fry, J.; Fu, J.; Fucci, A.; Fulton, L.; Gamberini, E.; Gatignon, L.; Georgiev, G.; Ghinescu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giudici, S.; Gonnella, F.; Goudzovski, E.; Graham, C.; Guida, R.; Gushchin, E.; Hahn, F.; Heath, H.; Husek, T.; Hutanu, O.; Hutchcroft, D.; Iacobuzio, L.; Iacopini, E.; Imbergamo, E.; Jenninger, B.; Kampf, K.; Kekelidze, V.; Kholodenko, S.; Khoriauli, G.; Khotyantsev, A.; Kleimenova, A.; Korotkova, A.; Koval, M.; Kozhuharov, V.; Kucerova, Z.; Kudenko, Y.; Kunze, J.; Kurochka, V.; Kurshetsov, V.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lamanna, G.; Latino, G.; Laycock, P.; Lazzeroni, C.; Lenti, M.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Leonardi, E.; Lichard, P.; Litov, L.; Lollini, R.; Lomidze, D.; Lonardo, A.; Lubrano, P.; Lupi, M.; Lurkin, N.; Madigozhin, D.; Mannelli, I.; Mannocchi, G.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Marchevski, R.; Martellotti, S.; Massarotti, P.; Massri, K.; Maurice, E.; Medvedeva, M.; Mefodev, A.; Menichetti, E.; Migliore, E.; Minucci, E.; Mirra, M.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Moulson, M.; Movchan, S.; Napolitano, M.; Neri, I.; Newson, F.; Norton, A.; Noy, M.; Numao, T.; Obraztsov, V.; Ostankov, A.; Padolski, S.; Page, R.; Palladino, V.; Parkinson, C.; Pedreschi, E.; Pepe, M.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Petrov, P.; Petrucci, F.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pinzino, J.; Polenkevich, I.; Pontisso, L.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Protopopescu, D.; Raggi, M.; Romano, A.; Rubin, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Ryjov, V.; Salamon, A.; Santoni, C.; Saracino, G.; Sargeni, F.; Semenov, V.; Sergi, A.; Shaikhiev, A.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Soldi, D.; Sougonyaev, V.; Sozzi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Spinella, F.; Sturgess, A.; Swallow, J.; Trilov, S.; Valente, P.; Velghe, B.; Venditti, S.; Vicini, P.; Volpe, R.; Vormstein, M.; Wahl, H.; Wanke, R.; Wrona, B.; Yushchenko, O.; Zamkovsky, M.; Zinchenko, A.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we present new results on upper limits for the search of Heavy Neutral Leptons (HNL) with data collected by NA48/2 (2003-2004), NA62-RK (2007) and NA62 (2015) CERN experiments. The data collected with different trigger configuration allow to search for both long and short living heavy neutrinos in the mass range below the kaon mass. In addition the status of the search for K+ → π+vv with the NA62 detector will be briefly presented.

  18. Clues to NaCN formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Agúndez, M.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Fonfría, J. P.; Massalkhi, S.; Pardo, J. R.

    2017-11-01

    Context. ALMA is providing us essential information on where certain molecules form. Observing where these molecules emission arises from, the physical conditions of the gas, and how this relates with the presence of other species allows us to understand the formation of many species, and to significantly improve our knowledge of the chemistry that occurs in the space. Aims: We studied the molecular distribution of NaCN around IRC +10216, a molecule detected previously, but whose origin is not clear. High angular resolution maps allow us to model the abundance distribution of this molecule and check suggested formation paths. Methods: We modeled the emission of NaCN assuming local thermal equilibrium (LTE) conditions. These profiles were fitted to azimuthal averaged intensity profiles to obtain an abundance distribution of NaCN. Results: We found that the presence of NaCN seems compatible with the presence of CN, probably as a result of the photodissociation of HCN, in the inner layers of the ejecta of IRC +10216. However, similar as for CH3CN, current photochemical models fail to reproduce this CN reservoir. We also found that the abundance peak of NaCN appears at a radius of 3 × 1015 cm, approximately where the abundance of NaCl, suggested to be the parent species, starts to decay. However, the abundance ratio shows that the NaCl abundance is lower than that obtained for NaCN. We expect that the LTE assumption might result in NaCN abundances higher than the real ones. Updated photochemical models, collisional rates, and reaction rates are essential to determine the possible paths of the NaCN formation. Based on observations carried out with ALMA and the IRAM 30 m Telescope. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France

  19. Elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G.; Shubhchintak, Chatterjee, R.

    2016-08-01

    Background: 34Na is conjectured to play an important role in the production of seed nuclei in the alternate r -process paths involving light neutron rich nuclei very near the β -stability line, and as such, it is important to know its ground state properties and structure to calculate rates of the reactions it might be involved in, in the stellar plasma. Found in the region of `island of inversion', its ground state might not be in agreement with normal shell model predictions. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb to give us a core of 33Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of 34Na. Method: A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum, and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results: The total one neutron removal cross section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of 34Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate 34Na to have a halo structure. The parallel momentum distributions with narrow full widths at half-maxima signify the same. Conclusion: We have attempted to analyze the possible ground state configurations of 34Na and in congruity with the patterns in the `island of inversion' conclude that even without deformation, 34Na should be a neutron halo with a predominant contribution to its ground state most probably coming from 33Na(3 /2+)⊗ 2 p3 /2ν configuration. We also surmise that it would certainly be useful and rewarding to test our

  20. Coulomb excitation of radioactive 20, 21Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumaker, M. A.; Cline, D.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C.; Svensson, C. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Buchmann, L.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Leach, K. G.; Lee, G.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Moisan, F.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Orce, J. N.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, D. P.; Waddington, J. C.; Wan, J. M.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.

    2009-12-01

    The low-energy structures of the radioactive nuclei 20, 21Na have been examined using Coulomb excitation at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. Beams of ˜ 5×106 ions/s were accelerated to 1.7MeV/A and Coulomb excited in a 0.5mg/cm^2 natTi target. Two TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors perpendicular to the beam axis were used for γ -ray detection, while scattered nuclei were observed by the Si detector BAMBINO. For 21Na , Coulomb excitation from the 3/2+ ground state to the first excited 5/2+ state was observed, while for 20Na , Coulomb excitation was observed from the 2+ ground state to the first excited 3+ and 4+ states. For both beams, B ( λ L) values were determined using the 2+ rightarrow 0+ de-excitation in 48Ti as a reference. The resulting B( E2) ↓ value for 21Na is 137±9 e^2fm^4, while the resulting B( λ L) ↓ values for 20Na are 55±6 e^2fm^4 for the 3+ rightarrow 2+ , 35.7±5.7 e^2 fm^4 for the 4+ rightarrow 2+ , and 0.154±0.030 μ_ N^2 for the 4+ rightarrow 3+ transitions. This analysis significantly improves the measurement of the 21Na B( E2) value, and provides the first experimental determination of B( λ L) values for the proton dripline nucleus 20Na .-1

  1. The plant vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport.

    PubMed

    Barkla, B J; Apse, M P; Manolson, M F; Blumwald, E

    1994-01-01

    Salt stress imposes severe limitations on plant growth, however, the extent of growth reduction depends upon the soil salinity level and the plant species. One of the mechanisms employed by salt tolerant plants is the effective vacuolar compartmentalization of sodium. The sequestration of sodium into the vacuole occurs by the operation of a Na+/H+ antiport located at the tonoplast. Evidence for a plant vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport has been demonstrated in tissues, intact vacuoles and isolated tonoplast vesicles. In sugar beet cell suspensions, the activity of the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport increased with increasing NaCl concentrations in the growth medium. This increased activity was correlated with the increased synthesis of a 170 kDa tonoplast polypeptide. In vivo labelling of tonoplast proteins showed the enhanced synthesis of the 170 kDa polypeptide not only upon exposure of the cells to salt, but also when the cells were grown in the presence of amiloride. Exposure of the cells to amiloride also resulted in increased vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport activity. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the 170 kDa polypeptide almost completely inhibited the antiport activity, suggesting the association of this protein with the plant vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport. Antibodies against the Na+/H+ antiport-associated polypeptide were used to screen a Beta lambda ZAP expression library. A partial clone of 1.65 kb was sequenced and found to encode a polypeptide with a putative transmembrane domain and a large hydrophilic C terminus. This clone showed no homology to any previously cloned gene at either the nucleic acid or the amino acid level.

  2. Quasi-solid state rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries with reduced graphene oxide Na anodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofei; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Yaran; Sun, Jianchao; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Na-CO 2 batteries using earth-abundant Na and greenhouse gas CO 2 are promising tools for mobile and stationary energy storage, but they still pose safety risks from leakage of liquid electrolyte and instability of the Na metal anode. These issues result in extremely harsh operating conditions of Na-CO 2 batteries and increase the difficulty of scaling up this technology. We report the development of quasi-solid state Na-CO 2 batteries with high safety using composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) Na anodes. The CPE of PVDF-HFP [poly(vinylidene fluoride- co -hexafluoropropylene)]-4% SiO 2 /NaClO 4 -TEGDME (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) has high ion conductivity (1.0 mS cm -1 ), robust toughness, a nonflammable matrix, and strong electrolyte-locking ability. In addition, the rGO-Na anode presents fast and nondendritic Na + plating/stripping (5.7 to 16.5 mA cm -2 ). The improved kinetics and safety enable the constructed rGO-Na/CPE/CO 2 batteries to successfully cycle in wide CO 2 partial pressure window (5 to 100%, simulated car exhaust) and especially to run for 400 cycles at 500 mA g -1 with a fixed capacity of 1000 mA·hour g -1 in pure CO 2 . Furthermore, we scaled up the reversible capacity to 1.1 A·hour in pouch-type batteries (20 × 20 cm, 10 g, 232 Wh kg -1 ). This study makes quasi-solid state Na-CO 2 batteries an attractive prospect.

  3. Quasi–solid state rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries with reduced graphene oxide Na anodes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaofei; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Yaran; Sun, Jianchao; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Na-CO2 batteries using earth-abundant Na and greenhouse gas CO2 are promising tools for mobile and stationary energy storage, but they still pose safety risks from leakage of liquid electrolyte and instability of the Na metal anode. These issues result in extremely harsh operating conditions of Na-CO2 batteries and increase the difficulty of scaling up this technology. We report the development of quasi–solid state Na-CO2 batteries with high safety using composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) Na anodes. The CPE of PVDF-HFP [poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)]–4% SiO2/NaClO4–TEGDME (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) has high ion conductivity (1.0 mS cm−1), robust toughness, a nonflammable matrix, and strong electrolyte-locking ability. In addition, the rGO-Na anode presents fast and nondendritic Na+ plating/stripping (5.7 to 16.5 mA cm−2). The improved kinetics and safety enable the constructed rGO-Na/CPE/CO2 batteries to successfully cycle in wide CO2 partial pressure window (5 to 100%, simulated car exhaust) and especially to run for 400 cycles at 500 mA g−1 with a fixed capacity of 1000 mA·hour g−1 in pure CO2. Furthermore, we scaled up the reversible capacity to 1.1 A·hour in pouch-type batteries (20 × 20 cm, 10 g, 232 Wh kg−1). This study makes quasi–solid state Na-CO2 batteries an attractive prospect. PMID:28164158

  4. Na/K pump inactivation, subsarcolemmal Na measurements, and cytoplasmic ion turnover kinetics contradict restricted Na spaces in murine cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fang-Min

    2017-01-01

    Decades ago, it was proposed that Na transport in cardiac myocytes is modulated by large changes in cytoplasmic Na concentration within restricted subsarcolemmal spaces. Here, we probe this hypothesis for Na/K pumps by generating constitutive transsarcolemmal Na flux with the Na channel opener veratridine in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Using 25 mM Na in the patch pipette, pump currents decay strongly during continuous activation by extracellular K (τ, ∼2 s). In contradiction to depletion hypotheses, the decay becomes stronger when pump currents are decreased by hyperpolarization. Na channel currents are nearly unchanged by pump activity in these conditions, and conversely, continuous Na currents up to 0.5 nA in magnitude have negligible effects on pump currents. These outcomes are even more pronounced using 50 mM Li as a cytoplasmic Na congener. Thus, the Na/K pump current decay reflects mostly an inactivation mechanism that immobilizes Na/K pump charge movements, not cytoplasmic Na depletion. When channel currents are increased beyond 1 nA, models with unrestricted subsarcolemmal diffusion accurately predict current decay (τ ∼15 s) and reversal potential shifts observed for Na, Li, and K currents through Na channels opened by veratridine, as well as for Na, K, Cs, Li, and Cl currents recorded in nystatin-permeabilized myocytes. Ion concentrations in the pipette tip (i.e., access conductance) track without appreciable delay the current changes caused by sarcolemmal ion flux. Importantly, cytoplasmic mixing volumes, calculated from current decay kinetics, increase and decrease as expected with osmolarity changes (τ >30 s). Na/K pump current run-down over 20 min reflects a failure of pumps to recover from inactivation. Simulations reveal that pump inactivation coupled with Na-activated recovery enhances the rapidity and effectivity of Na homeostasis in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, an autoregulatory mechanism enhances cardiac Na/K pump activity when

  5. A thermochemical explanation for the stability of NaCl3 and NaCl7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes de Farias, Robson

    2017-03-01

    Thermodynamically stable cubic and orthorhombic NaCl3 as well as NaCl7 have been synthesized (Zhang et al., 2013). In the present work, a thermochemical explanation for the stability of such unusual sodium chlorides is provided, based on lattice energy values. Using the Glasser-Jenkins generalized equation (Glasser and Jenkins, 2000) lattice energies (kJ mol-1) of -162.5, -168.9 and -113.1 are calculated for Pm3n NaCl3, Pnma NaCl3 and NaCl7, respectively. It is postulated that any NaxCly compound could be synthesized, if the ionic character of the Nasbnd Cl bond in the prepared compound remains around 80%, and the sodium charge below unit.

  6. Concentration dependence of Li+/Na+ diffusion in manganese hexacyanoferrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takachi, Masamitsu; Fukuzumi, Yuya; Moritomo, Yutaka

    2016-06-01

    Manganese hexacyanoferrates (Mn-HCFs) with a jungle-gym-type structure are promising cathode materials for Li+/Na+ secondary batteries (LIBs/SIBs). Here, we investigated the diffusion constants D Li/D Na of Li+/Na+ against the Li+/Na+ concentration x Na/x Li and temperature (T) of A 1.32Mn[Fe(CN)6]0.833.6H2O (A = Li and Na). We evaluated the activation energy E\\text{a}\\text{Li}/E\\text{a}\\text{Na} of D Li/D Na against x Na/x Li. We found that E\\text{a}\\text{Na} steeply increases with x Na from 0.41 eV at x Na = 0.69 to 0.7 eV at 1.1. The increase in E\\text{a}\\text{Na} is ascribed to the occupancy effect of the Na+ site. The increase in E\\text{a}\\text{Li} is suppressed, probably because the number of Li+ sites is three times that of Na+ sites.

  7. CAPE-2 Cubesat - ELaNa IV

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-25

    CAPE-2: Cajun Advanced Picosatellite Experiment – ELaNa IV CAPE-2 was developed by students from the University of Louisiana Lafayette to engage, inspire and educate K-12 students to encourage them to pursue STEM careers. The secondary focus is the technology demonstration of deployed solar panels to support the following payloads: text to speech, voice repeater, tweeting, email, file transfer and data collection from buoys. Launched by NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative on the ELaNa IV mission as an auxiliary payload aboard the U.S. Air Force-led Operationally Responsive Space (ORS-3) Mission on November 19, 2013.

  8. Glutathionylation-Dependence of Na(+)-K(+)-Pump Currents Can Mimic Reduced Subsarcolemmal Na(+) Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alvaro; Liu, Chia-Chi; Cornelius, Flemming; Clarke, Ronald J; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2016-03-08

    The existence of a subsarcolemmal space with restricted diffusion for Na(+) in cardiac myocytes has been inferred from a transient peak electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current beyond steady state on reexposure of myocytes to K(+) after a period of exposure to K(+)-free extracellular solution. The transient peak current is attributed to enhanced electrogenic pumping of Na(+) that accumulated in the diffusion-restricted space during pump inhibition in K(+)-free extracellular solution. However, there are no known physical barriers that account for such restricted Na(+) diffusion, and we examined if changes of activity of the Na(+)-K(+) pump itself cause the transient peak current. Reexposure to K(+) reproduced a transient current beyond steady state in voltage-clamped ventricular myocytes as reported by others. Persistence of it when the Na(+) concentration in patch pipette solutions perfusing the intracellular compartment was high and elimination of it with K(+)-free pipette solution could not be reconciled with restricted subsarcolemmal Na(+) diffusion. The pattern of the transient current early after pump activation was dependent on transmembrane Na(+)- and K(+) concentration gradients suggesting the currents were related to the conformational poise imposed on the pump. We examined if the currents might be accounted for by changes in glutathionylation of the β1 Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit, a reversible oxidative modification that inhibits the pump. Susceptibility of the β1 subunit to glutathionylation depends on the conformational poise of the Na(+)-K(+) pump, and glutathionylation with the pump stabilized in conformations equivalent to those expected to be imposed on voltage-clamped myocytes supported this hypothesis. So did elimination of the transient K(+)-induced peak Na(+)-K(+) pump current when we included glutaredoxin 1 in patch pipette solutions to reverse glutathionylation. We conclude that transient K(+)-induced peak Na(+)-K(+) pump current reflects the effect

  9. Response of saliva Na/K ratio to changing Na supply of lactating cows under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Thiangtum, Wandee; Schonewille, J Thomas; Verstegen, Martin Wa; Arsawakulsudhi, Supot; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2017-06-01

    Factorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat-stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the subsequent rate of repletion. The rate of Na depletion and subsequent rate of Na repletion with two levels of dietary Na to lactating dairy cows housed under tropical conditions were investigated using the salivary Na/K. The 12 lactating cows (salivary Na/K ratio 14.6) rapidly developed clinical signs of Na deficiency, including pica, polyuria and polydipsia, reduced body weight and reduced milk yield when fed a low-Na ration (0.33 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)) for 3 weeks. Deficiency symptoms were associated with a rapid decrease in salivary Na/K ratio to <4.3 from 7 to 21 days. Subsequent repletion of the cows with NaCl to a ration concentration of 1.1 or 1.6 g Na kg -1 DM for 5 weeks did not restore salivary Na/K ratio to values of >6. A daily Na intake of heat-stressed lactating cows to a ration intake of 1.6 g Na kg -1 DM was insufficient to restore Na deficiency. One week was sufficient to deplete heat-stressed lactating cows of Na, allowing for rapid dose-response studies utilizing the salivary Na/K ratio as a parameter for Na status of cows under tropical conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Study on Na layer response to geomagnetic activities based on Odin/OSIRIS Na density data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Takuo; Nakamura, Takuji; Hedin, Jonas; Gumbel, Jorg; Hosokawa, Keisuke; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Nishiyama, Takanori; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-07-01

    The Na layer is normally distributed from 80 to 110 km, and the height range is corresponding to the ionospheric D and E region. In the polar region, the energetic particles precipitating from the magnetosphere can often penetrate into the E region and even into the D region. Thus, the influence of the energetic particles to the Na layer is one of interests in the aspect of the atmospheric composition change accompanied with the auroral activity. There are several previous studies in this issue. For example, recently, we have reported an initial result on a clear relationship between the electron density increase (due to the energetic particles) and the Na density decrease from observational data sets obtained by Na lidar, EISCAT VHF radar, and optical instruments at Tromsoe, Norway on 24-25 January 2012. However, all of the previous studies had been carried out based on case studies by ground-based lidar observations. In this study, we have performed, for the first time, statistical analysis using Na density data from 2004 to 2009 obtained with the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) onboard Odin satellite. In the presentation, we will show relationship between the Na density and geomagnetic activities, and its latitudinal variation. Based on these results, the Na layer response to the energetic particles will be discussed.

  11. High-resolution molecular-beam spectroscopy of NaCN and Na 13CN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vaals, J. J.; Meerts, W. Leo; Dymanus, A.

    The sodium cyanide molecule was studied by molecular-beam electric-resonance spectroscopy in the microwave region. We used the seeded-beam technique to produce a supersonic beam with strong translational, rotational and vibrational cooling. In the frequency range 9.5-40 GHz we observed and identified for NaCN 186 and for Na 13CN 107 hyperfine transitions in 20 and 16 rotational transitions, respectively, all in the ground vibrational state. The rotational, the five quartic and three sextic centrifugal distortion constants of NaCN are: A″ = 57921.954(7) MHz; B″ = 8369.312(2) MHz, C″ = 7272.712(2) MHz. All quadrupole and several spin-rotation coupling constants for the hyperfine interaction were evaluated. The quadrupole coupling constants (in MHz) for NaCN are: eQq12(Na) = -5.344(5), eQq12 = 2.397(7). eQq12(N) = 2.148(4), eQq12(N) = -4.142(5). From these constants and those of Na 13CN we have determined the principal components of the quadrupole coupling tensor for potassium and nitrogen. The structure of sodium cyanide evaluated from the rotational constants of NaCN and Na 13CN was found to be T shaped, similar to the structure of KCN but completely different from the linear isocyanide configuration of LiNC. The effective structural parameters for sodium cyanide in the ground vibrational state are: rCN = 1.170(4) Å, rNaC = 2.379(15) Å, rN12N = 2.233(15) Å, in gratifying agreement with ab initio calculations. Both the geometrical structure and the hyperfine coupling justify the conclusion that the CN group in gaseous sodium cyanide approximately can be considered as a free CN - ion.

  12. On the Stability of NaO2 in Na-O2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenjuan; Carboni, Marco; Brant, William R; Pan, Ruijun; Hedman, Jonas; Zhu, Jiefang; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Younesi, Reza

    2018-04-25

    Na-O 2 batteries are regarded as promising candidates for energy storage. They have higher energy efficiency, rate capability, and chemical reversibility than Li-O 2 batteries; in addition, sodium is cheaper and more abundant compared to lithium. However, inconsistent observations and instability of discharge products have inhibited the understanding of the working mechanism of this technology. In this work, we have investigated a number of factors that influence the stability of the discharge products. By means of in operando powder X-ray diffraction study, the influence of oxygen, sodium anode, salt, solvent, and carbon cathode were investigated. The Na metal anode and an ether-based solvent are the main factors that lead to the instability and decomposition of NaO 2 in the cell environment. This fundamental insight brings new information on the working mechanism of Na-O 2 batteries.

  13. Role of Na+ conductance, Na+-H+ exchange, and Na+-K+-2Cl− symport in the regulatory volume increase of rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Frank; Tinel, Hanna

    1998-01-01

    In rat hepatocytes under hypertonic stress, the entry of Na+ (which is thereafter exchanged for K+ via Na+-K+-ATPase) plays the key role in regulatory volume increase (RVI).In the present study, the contributions of Na+ conductance, Na+-H+ exchange and Na+-K+-2Cl− symport to this process were quantified in confluent primary cultures by means of intracellular microelectrodes and cable analysis, microfluorometric determinations of cell pH and buffer capacity, and measurements of frusemide (furosemide)/bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake, respectively. Osmolarity was increased from 300 to 400 mosmol l−1 by addition of sucrose.The experiments indicate a relative contribution of approximately 4:1:1 to hypertonicity-induced Na+ entry for the above-mentioned transporters and the overall Na+ yield equalled 51 mmol l−1 (10 min)−1.This Na+ gain is in good agreement with the stimulation of Na+ extrusion via Na+-K+-ATPase plus the actual increase in cell Na+, namely 55 mmol l−1 (10 min)−1, as was determined on the basis of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake and by means of Na+-sensitive microelectrodes, respectively.The overall increase in Na+ and K+ activity plus the expected concomitant increase in cell Cl− equalled 68 mmol l−1, which fits well with the increase in osmotic activity expected to occur from an initial cell shrinkage to 87.5 % and a RVI to 92.6 % of control, namely 53 mosmol l−1.The prominent role of Na+ conductance in the RVI of rat hepatocytes could be confirmed on the basis of the pharmacological profile of this process, which was characterized by means of confocal laser-scanning microscopy. PMID:9481677

  14. Studies of Inelastic Collisions of NaK and NaCs Molecules with Atomic Perturbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joshua A.

    We have investigated collisions of NaK molecules in the first excited state [2(A)1Sigma+], with Ar and He collision partners using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIF) and polarization-labeling (PL) spectroscopy in a two-step excitation scheme. Additionally, we have investigated collisions of NaCs molecules in the first excited state [2(A)1Sigma +] with Ar and He perturbers using the LIF technique. We use a pump-probe, two-step excitation process. The pump laser prepares the molecule in a particular ro-vibrational (v, J) level in the A state. The probe laser frequency is scanned over transitions to the 31Π in NaK or to the 53Π in NaCs. In addition to observing strong direct lines, we also see weak collisional satellite lines that arise from collisions in the intermediate state that take the molecule from the prepared level (v, J) to level (v, J + Delta J). The ratio of the intensity of the collisional line to the intensity of the direct line in LIF and PL yield information about population and orientation transfer. Our results show a propensity for DeltaJ=even collisions of NaK with Ar and an even stronger propensity for collisions with He. Collisions of NaCs with Ar do not show any such J=even propensity. Preliminary investigations of collisions of NaCs with He seem to indicate a slight J=even propensity. In addition, we observe that rotationally inelastic collisions of excited NaK molecules with potassium atoms destroy almost all of the orientation, while collisions with argon destroy about one third to two thirds and collisions with helium destroy only about zero to one third of the initial orientation.

  15. Interaction of NaOH solutions with silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rimsza, Jessica M.; Jones, Reese E.; Criscenti, Louise J.

    Sodium adsorption on silica surfaces depends on the solution counter-ion. Here, we use NaOH solutions to investigate basic environments. Sodium adsorption on hydroxylated silica surfaces from NaOH solutions were investigated through molecular dynamics with a dissociative force field, allowing for the development of secondary molecular species. Furthermore, across the NaOH concentrations (0.01 M – 1.0 M), ~50% of the Na + ions were concentrated in the surface region, developing silica surface charges between –0.01 C/m 2 (0.01 M NaOH) and –0.76 C/m 2 (1.0 M NaOH) due to surface site deprotonation. Five inner-sphere adsorption complexes were identified, including monodentate, bidentate,more » and tridentate configurations and two additional structures, with Na + ions coordinated by bridging oxygen and hydroxyl groups or water molecules. Coordination of Na + ions by bridging oxygen atoms indicates partial or complete incorporation of Na + ions into the silica surface. Residence time analysis identified that Na + ions coordinated by bridging oxygen atoms stayed adsorbed onto the surface four times longer than the mono/bi/tridentate species, indicating formation of relatively stable and persistent Na + ion adsorption structures. Such inner-sphere complexes form only at NaOH concentrations of > 0.5 M. Na + adsorption and lifetimes have implications for the stability of silica surfaces.« less

  16. Interaction of NaOH solutions with silica surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Rimsza, Jessica M.; Jones, Reese E.; Criscenti, Louise J.

    2018-01-16

    Sodium adsorption on silica surfaces depends on the solution counter-ion. Here, we use NaOH solutions to investigate basic environments. Sodium adsorption on hydroxylated silica surfaces from NaOH solutions were investigated through molecular dynamics with a dissociative force field, allowing for the development of secondary molecular species. Furthermore, across the NaOH concentrations (0.01 M – 1.0 M), ~50% of the Na + ions were concentrated in the surface region, developing silica surface charges between –0.01 C/m 2 (0.01 M NaOH) and –0.76 C/m 2 (1.0 M NaOH) due to surface site deprotonation. Five inner-sphere adsorption complexes were identified, including monodentate, bidentate,more » and tridentate configurations and two additional structures, with Na + ions coordinated by bridging oxygen and hydroxyl groups or water molecules. Coordination of Na + ions by bridging oxygen atoms indicates partial or complete incorporation of Na + ions into the silica surface. Residence time analysis identified that Na + ions coordinated by bridging oxygen atoms stayed adsorbed onto the surface four times longer than the mono/bi/tridentate species, indicating formation of relatively stable and persistent Na + ion adsorption structures. Such inner-sphere complexes form only at NaOH concentrations of > 0.5 M. Na + adsorption and lifetimes have implications for the stability of silica surfaces.« less

  17. High pressure structural stability of the Na-Te system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youchun; Tian, Fubo; Li, Da; Duan, Defang; Xie, Hui; Liu, Bingbing; Zhou, Qiang; Cui, Tian

    2018-03-01

    The ab initio evolutionary algorithm is used to search for all thermodynamically stable Na-Te compounds at extreme pressure. In our calculations, several new structures are discovered at high pressure, namely, Imma Na2Te, Pmmm NaTe, Imma Na8Te2 and P4/mmm NaTe3. Like the known structures of Na2Te (Fm-3m, Pnma and P63/mmc), the Pmmm NaTe, Imma Na8Te2 and P4/mmm NaTe3 structures also show semiconductor properties with band-gap decreases when pressure increased. However, we find that the band-gap of Imma Na2Te structure increases with pressure. We presume that the result may be caused by the increasing of splitting between Te p states and Na s, Na p and Te d states. Furthermore, we think that the strong hybridization between Na p state and Te d state result in the band gap increasing with pressure.

  18. The relative viscosity of NaNO 3 and NaNO 2 aqueous solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Mauss, Billie M.; Daniel, Richard C.

    2018-05-09

    In aqueous solution, both nitrate and nitrite are planar, monovalent, and have the same elements but different sizes and charge densities. Comparing the viscosity of NaNO 2 and NaNO 3 aqueous solutions provides an opportunity to determine the relative importance of anion size versus strength of anion interaction with water. The viscosity of aqueous NaNO 2 and NaNO 3 were measured over a temperature and concentration range relevant to nuclear waste processing. The viscosity of NaNO 2 solutions was consistently larger than NaNO 3 under all conditions, even though nitrate is larger than nitrite. This was interpreted in terms ofmore » quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics calculations that indicate that nitrite forms more and stronger hydrogen bonds with water per oxygen atom than nitrate. Furthermore, these hydrogen bonds inhibit rotational motion required for fluid flow, thus increasing the nitrite solution viscosity relative to that of an equivalent nitrate solution.« less

  19. The relative viscosity of NaNO 3 and NaNO 2 aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Mauss, Billie M.; Daniel, Richard C.

    In aqueous solution, both nitrate and nitrite are planar, monovalent, and have the same elements but different sizes and charge densities. Comparing the viscosity of NaNO 2 and NaNO 3 aqueous solutions provides an opportunity to determine the relative importance of anion size versus strength of anion interaction with water. The viscosity of aqueous NaNO 2 and NaNO 3 were measured over a temperature and concentration range relevant to nuclear waste processing. The viscosity of NaNO 2 solutions was consistently larger than NaNO 3 under all conditions, even though nitrate is larger than nitrite. This was interpreted in terms ofmore » quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics calculations that indicate that nitrite forms more and stronger hydrogen bonds with water per oxygen atom than nitrate. Furthermore, these hydrogen bonds inhibit rotational motion required for fluid flow, thus increasing the nitrite solution viscosity relative to that of an equivalent nitrate solution.« less

  20. Na/beta-alumina/NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherng, Jing-Yih; Bennion, Douglas N.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of a high specific energy battery based on a sodium negative electrode and a chlorine positive electrode with molten AlCl3-NaCl electrolyte and a solid beta alumina separator. The basic performance of a Na beta-alumina NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell at 200 C was demonstrated. This cell can be started at 150 C. The use of melting sodium chloroaluminate electrolyte overcomes some of the material problems associated with the high working temperatures of present molten salt systems, such as Na/S and LiAl/FeS, and retains the advantages of high energy density and relatively efficient electrode processes. Preliminary investigations were conducted on a sodium-chlorine static cell, material compability, electrode design, wetting, and theoretical calculations to assure a better chance of success before assembling a Na/Cl2 circulating cell. Mathematical models provide a theoretical explanation for the performance of the NaCl2 battery. The results of mathematical models match the experimental results very well. According to the result of the mathematical modeling, an output at 180 mA/sq cm and 3.2 V can be obtained with optimized cell design.

  1. Regulation of Epithelial Sodium Transport via Epithelial Na+ Channel

    PubMed Central

    Marunaka, Yoshinori; Niisato, Naomi; Taruno, Akiyuki; Ohta, Mariko; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi; Nishio, Kyosuke; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Nakahari, Takashi; Kubota, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Renal epithelial Na+ transport plays an important role in homeostasis of our body fluid content and blood pressure. Further, the Na+ transport in alveolar epithelial cells essentially controls the amount of alveolar fluid that should be kept at an appropriate level for normal gas exchange. The epithelial Na+ transport is generally mediated through two steps: (1) the entry step of Na+ via epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) at the apical membrane and (2) the extrusion step of Na+ via the Na+, K+-ATPase at the basolateral membrane. In general, the Na+ entry via ENaC is the rate-limiting step. Therefore, the regulation of ENaC plays an essential role in control of blood pressure and normal gas exchange. In this paper, we discuss two major factors in ENaC regulation: (1) activity of individual ENaC and (2) number of ENaC located at the apical membrane. PMID:22028593

  2. U. S. EPA’S NA APPROACH FOR PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most evaluations of NA of petroleum hydrocarbons use geochemical data to document the NA through biodegradation. The expected trends during biodegradation (plume interior vs. background concentrations) are Dissolved oxygen concentrations below background, Nitrate concentrations ...

  3. An enhancement to the NA4 gear vibration diagnostic parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Harry J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1994-01-01

    A new vibration diagnostic parameter for health monitoring of gears, NA4*, is proposed and tested. A recently developed gear vibration diagnostic parameter NA4 outperformed other fault detection methods at indicating the start and initial progression of damage. However, in some cases, as the damage progressed, the sensitivity of the NA4 and FM4 parameters tended to decrease and no longer indicated damage. A new parameter, NA4* was developed by enhancing NA4 to improve the trending of the parameter. This allows for the indication of damage both at initiation and also as the damage progresses. The NA4* parameter was verified and compared to the NA4 and FM4 parameters using experimental data from single mesh spur and spiral bevel gear fatigue rigs. The primary failure mode for the test cases was naturally occurring tooth surface pitting. The NA4* parameter is shown to be a more robust indicator of damage.

  4. Effect of NaNO3 concentration on anodic electrochemical behavior on the Sb surface in NaOH solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yun-long; Xu, Rui-dong; He, Shi-wei; Chen, Han-sen; Li, Kuo; Zhu, Yun; Shen, Qing-feng

    2018-03-01

    The effect of NaNO3 concentration on the anodic electrochemical behavior of antimony in 4 M NaOH solution was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses. The mechanism of NO 3 - concentration effect on the anodic electrochemical behavior of antimony was proposed, and its availability was confirmed by experimental results. The effect of NaNO3 on the anodic behavior of antimony in NaOH solution can be interpreted as a stepwise formation of different antimony compounds with different NaNO3 concentrations. Metallic antimony is apt to be oxidized into Sb2O3 within the NaNO3 concentration range of 0-0.48 M. NaSbO3 can be found on the antimony surface when the NaNO3 concentration increases gradually. Insoluable NaSbO3 inhibits the anodic oxidation of antimony due to its shielding effect on the mass transport of the reactants and products. Surface morphology and composition were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. Results indicate that the anodic oxidation layer is composed of Sb2O3, NaSbO3, and Sb. The atomic proportion of antimony in the form of NaSbO3 increases with increasing NaNO3 concentration due to the powerful oxidizing property of NaNO3.

  5. ATP Dependence of Na+/H+ Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Demaurex, Nicolas; Romanek, Robert R.; Orlowski, John; Grinstein, Sergio

    1997-01-01

    We studied the ATP dependence of NHE-1, the ubiquitous isoform of the Na+/H+ antiporter, using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique to apply nucleotides intracellularly while measuring cytosolic pH (pHi) by microfluorimetry. Na+/H+ exchange activity was measured as the Na+-driven pHi recovery from an acid load, which was imposed via the patch pipette. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblasts stably transfected with NHE-1, omission of ATP from the pipette solution inhibited Na+/H+ exchange. Conversely, ATP perfusion restored exchange activity in cells that had been metabolically depleted by 2-deoxy-d-glucose and oligomycin. In cells dialyzed in the presence of ATP, no “run-down” was observed even after extended periods, suggesting that the nucleotide is the only diffusible factor required for optimal NHE-1 activity. Half-maximal activation of the antiporter was obtained at ∼5 mM Mg-ATP. Submillimolar concentrations failed to sustain Na+/H+ exchange even when an ATP regenerating system was included in the pipette solution. High ATP concentrations are also known to be required for the optimal function of other cation exchangers. In the case of the Na/Ca2+ exchanger, this requirement has been attributed to an aminophospholipid translocase, or “flippase.” The involvement of this enzyme in Na+/H+ exchange was examined using fluorescent phosphatidylserine, which is actively translocated by the flippase. ATP depletion decreased the transmembrane uptake of NBD-labeled phosphatidylserine (NBD-PS), indicating that the flippase was inhibited. Diamide, an agent reported to block the flippase, was as potent as ATP depletion in reducing NBD-PS uptake. However, diamide had no effect on Na+/H+ exchange, implying that the effect of ATP is not mediated by changes in lipid distribution across the plasma membrane. K-ATP and ATPγS were as efficient as Mg-ATP in sustaining NHE-1 activity, while AMP-PNP and AMP-PCP only partially substituted for ATP. In

  6. News from the NA61/SHINE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šuša, Tatjana

    2018-02-01

    The main goals of the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS are the search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter and the study of the properties of the onset of deconfinement. These aims are pursued by performing a two-dimensional scan of the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter by varying the momentum and size of the colliding nuclei. This contribution summarises the latest results from the NA61/SHINE experiment, in particular, new results on spectra and yields of ϕ meson in p+p interactions at 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c and K+ and K- production in central Be+Be collisions at mid-rapidity. In addition, results on system size dependence of particle yield ratios and fluctuations are presented.

  7. Na+-driven bacterial flagellar motors.

    PubMed

    Imae, Y; Atsumi, T

    1989-12-01

    Bacterial flagellar motors are the reversible rotary engine which propels the cell by rotating a helical flagellar filament as a screw propeller. The motors are embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane, and the energy for rotation is supplied by the electrochemical potential of specific ions across the membrane. Thus, the analysis of motor rotation at the molecular level is linked to an understanding of how the living system converts chemical energy into mechanical work. Based on the coupling ions, the motors are divided into two types; one is the H+-driven type found in neutrophiles such as Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and the other is the Na+-driven type found in alkalophilic Bacillus and marine Vibrio. In this review, we summarize the current status of research on the rotation mechanism of the Na+-driven flagellar motors, which introduces several new aspects in the analysis.

  8. Double-frequency microwave ionization of Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, G. A.; Dietrick, K. M.; Gallagher, T. F.

    1990-11-01

    We report the ionization of Na atoms by the simultaneous application of microwave fields of two different frequencies. We conclude that the salient features of double-frequency ionization can be readily understood. Both the hydrogenlike ||m||=2 states and the nonhydrogenic ||m||=0 and 1 states ionize when the sum of the field amplitudes, the peak field, reaches the field required for ionization by a single microwave frequency, E=1/9n4 and E=1/3n5, respectively.

  9. The complex lightcurve of 1992 NA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisniewski, Wieslaw Z.; Harris, A. W.

    1994-01-01

    Amor asteroid 1992 NA was monitored during three nights at a large phase angle of -65 deg. The lightcurves obtained did not reveal a repeatable curve with two maxima and two minima. However, some features suggested a periodicity with three maxima and three minima. A satisfactory composite lightcurve of this form was obtained by means of an 'eyeball' fit and by Fourier analysis. Individual and composite lightcurves are presented. The observed colors are consistent with the C class.

  10. 33 CFR 147.833 - Na Kika FDS safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Na Kika FDS safety zone. 147.833 Section 147.833 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.833 Na Kika FDS safety zone. (a) Description. Na...

  11. 33 CFR 147.833 - Na Kika FDS safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Na Kika FDS safety zone. 147.833 Section 147.833 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.833 Na Kika FDS safety zone. (a) Description. Na...

  12. Laser-induced chemiluminescence of NaMg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benard, D. J.; Michels, H. H.

    1982-03-01

    An unstructured continuum emission around 670 nm was observed when Mg was added to an optically pumped heat pipe containing Na and K vapor, in good agreement with ab initio calculations of the NaMg potential energy curves. The corresponding excitation spectrum showed that the incident radiation was observed by NaK molecules (X → C transitions).

  13. Route, mechanism, and implications of proton import during Na+/K+ exchange by native Na+/K+-ATPase pumps

    PubMed Central

    Vedovato, Natascia

    2014-01-01

    A single Na+/K+-ATPase pumps three Na+ outwards and two K+ inwards by alternately exposing ion-binding sites to opposite sides of the membrane in a conformational sequence coupled to pump autophosphorylation from ATP and auto-dephosphorylation. The larger flow of Na+ than K+ generates outward current across the cell membrane. Less well understood is the ability of Na+/K+ pumps to generate an inward current of protons. Originally noted in pumps deprived of external K+ and Na+ ions, as inward current at negative membrane potentials that becomes amplified when external pH is lowered, this proton current is generally viewed as an artifact of those unnatural conditions. We demonstrate here that this inward current also flows at physiological K+ and Na+ concentrations. We show that protons exploit ready reversibility of conformational changes associated with extracellular Na+ release from phosphorylated Na+/K+ pumps. Reversal of a subset of these transitions allows an extracellular proton to bind an acidic side chain and to be subsequently released to the cytoplasm. This back-step of phosphorylated Na+/K+ pumps that enables proton import is not required for completion of the 3 Na+/2 K+ transport cycle. However, the back-step occurs readily during Na+/K+ transport when external K+ ion binding and occlusion are delayed, and it occurs more frequently when lowered extracellular pH raises the probability of protonation of the externally accessible carboxylate side chain. The proton route passes through the Na+-selective binding site III and is distinct from the principal pathway traversed by the majority of transported Na+ and K+ ions that passes through binding site II. The inferred occurrence of Na+/K+ exchange and H+ import during the same conformational cycle of a single molecule identifies the Na+/K+ pump as a hybrid transporter. Whether Na+/K+ pump–mediated proton inflow may have any physiological or pathophysiological significance remains to be clarified. PMID

  14. DOR activation inhibits anoxic/ischemic Na+ influx through Na+ channels via PKC mechanisms in the cortex.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dongman; He, Xiaozhou; Yang, Yilin; Bazzy-Asaad, Alia; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Balboni, Gianfranco; Kim, Dong H; Xia, Ying

    2012-08-01

    Activation of delta-opioid receptors (DOR) is neuroprotective against hypoxic/ischemic injury in the cortex, which is at least partially related to its action against hypoxic/ischemic disruption of ionic homeostasis that triggers neuronal injury. Na(+) influx through TTX-sensitive voltage-gated Na(+) channels may be a main mechanism for hypoxia-induced disruption of K(+) homeostasis, with DOR activation attenuating the disruption of ionic homeostasis by targeting voltage-gated Na(+) channels. In the present study we examined the role of DOR in the regulation of Na(+) influx in anoxia and simulated ischemia (oxygen-glucose deprivation) as well as the effect of DOR activation on the Na(+) influx induced by a Na(+) channel opener without anoxic/ischemic stress and explored a potential PKC mechanism underlying the DOR action. We directly measured extracellular Na(+) activity in mouse cortical slices with Na(+) selective electrodes and found that (1) anoxia-induced Na(+) influx occurred mainly through TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels; (2) DOR activation inhibited the anoxia/ischemia-induced Na(+) influx; (3) veratridine, a Na(+) channel opener, enhanced the anoxia-induced Na(+) influx; this could be attenuated by DOR activation; (4) DOR activation did not reduce the anoxia-induced Na(+) influx in the presence of chelerythrine, a broad-spectrum PKC blocker; and (5) DOR effects were blocked by PKCβII peptide inhibitor, and PKCθ pseudosubstrate inhibitor, respectively. We conclude that DOR activation inhibits anoxia-induced Na(+) influx through Na(+) channels via PKC (especially PKCβII and PKCθ isoforms) dependent mechanisms in the cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A computational study of Na behavior on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyi, Oleksandr I.; Sopiha, Kostiantyn; Kulish, Vadym V.; Tan, Teck L.; Manzhos, Sergei; Persson, Clas

    2015-04-01

    We present the first ab initio and molecular dynamics study of Na adsorption and diffusion on ideal graphene that considers Na-Na interaction and dispersion forces. From density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), the binding energy (vs. the vacuum reference state) of -0.75 eV is higher than the cohesive energy of Na metal (ENa metal cohesive energy (EcohDFT - D = - 1.21 eV) when dispersion correction is included (DFT-D), with Eb = -1.14 eV. Both DFT and DFT-D predict that the increase of Na concentration on graphene results in formation of Na complexes. This is evidenced by smaller Bader charge on Na atoms of Na dimer, 0.55e (0.48e for DFT) compared to 0.86e (for both DFT and DFT-D) for the single atom adsorption as well as by the formation of a Nasbnd Na bond identified by analysis of the electron density. These results suggest that ideal graphene is not a promising anode material for Na-ion batteries. Analysis of diffusion pathways for a Na dimer shows that the dimer remains stable during the diffusion, and computed migration barriers are significantly lower for the dimer than that for the single atom diffusion. This indicates that Na-Na interaction should be taken into account during the analysis of Na transport on graphene. Finally, we show that the typical defects (vacancy and divacancy) induce significant strengthening of the Nasbnd C interaction. In particular, the largest change to the interaction is computed for vacancy-defected graphene, where the found lowest binding energy (vs. the metal reference state) is about 1.15 eV (1.21 eV for DFT) lower than that for ideal graphene.

  16. Shoot Na+ exclusion and increased salinity tolerance engineered by cell type-specific alteration of Na+ transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Møller, Inge S; Gilliham, Matthew; Jha, Deepa; Mayo, Gwenda M; Roy, Stuart J; Coates, Juliet C; Haseloff, Jim; Tester, Mark

    2009-07-01

    Soil salinity affects large areas of cultivated land, causing significant reductions in crop yield globally. The Na+ toxicity of many crop plants is correlated with overaccumulation of Na+ in the shoot. We have previously suggested that the engineering of Na+ exclusion from the shoot could be achieved through an alteration of plasma membrane Na+ transport processes in the root, if these alterations were cell type specific. Here, it is shown that expression of the Na+ transporter HKT1;1 in the mature root stele of Arabidopsis thaliana decreases Na+ accumulation in the shoot by 37 to 64%. The expression of HKT1;1 specifically in the mature root stele is achieved using an enhancer trap expression system for specific and strong overexpression. The effect in the shoot is caused by the increased influx, mediated by HKT1;1, of Na+ into stelar root cells, which is demonstrated in planta and leads to a reduction of root-to-shoot transfer of Na+. Plants with reduced shoot Na+ also have increased salinity tolerance. By contrast, plants constitutively expressing HKT1;1 driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter accumulated high shoot Na+ and grew poorly. Our results demonstrate that the modification of a specific Na+ transport process in specific cell types can reduce shoot Na+ accumulation, an important component of salinity tolerance of many higher plants.

  17. Zero-gravity growth of NaF-NaCl eutectics in the NASA Skylab program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Allen, F. G.; Yu, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous NaF fibers, embedded in a NaCl matrix, were produced in space and on earth. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture is attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It is shown that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of NaF fibers along the ingot axis. A new concept is advanced to explain the phenomenon of transmittance versus far infrared wavelength of the directionally solidified NaCl-NaF eutectic in terms of the two-dimensional Bragg Scattering and the polarization effect of Rayleigh scattering. This concept can be applied to other eutectic systems as long as the index of refraction of the matrix over a range of wavelengths is known. Experimental data are in agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  18. Vacancy-Controlled Na+ Superion Conduction in Na11 Sn2 PS12.

    PubMed

    Duchardt, Marc; Ruschewitz, Uwe; Adams, Stefan; Dehnen, Stefanie; Roling, Bernhard

    2018-01-26

    Highly conductive solid electrolytes are crucial to the development of efficient all-solid-state batteries. Meanwhile, the ion conductivities of lithium solid electrolytes match those of liquid electrolytes used in commercial Li + ion batteries. However, concerns about the future availability and the price of lithium made Na + ion conductors come into the spotlight in recent years. Here we present the superionic conductor Na 11 Sn 2 PS 12 , which possesses a room temperature Na + conductivity close to 4 mS cm -1 , thus the highest value known to date for sulfide-based solids. Structure determination based on synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data proves the existence of Na + vacancies. As confirmed by bond valence site energy calculations, the vacancies interconnect ion migration pathways in a 3D manner, hence enabling high Na + conductivity. The results indicate that sodium electrolytes are about to equal the performance of their lithium counterparts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of Na+ on surface fractal dimension of compacted bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, G. S.; Xu, Y. F.; Jiang, H.

    2015-05-01

    Compacted Tsukinuno bentonite was immersed into NaCl solutions of different concentrations in oedometers, and the surface fractal dimension of bentonite-saline association was measured by nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The application of the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equation and the Neimark thermodynamic method to nitrogen adsorption isotherms indicated that the surface roughness was greater for the bentonite-saline association. The surface fractal dimension of bentonite increased in the NaCl solution with low Na+ concentration, but decreased at high Na+ concentration. This process was accompanied by the same tendency in specific surface area and microporosity with the presence of Na+ coating in the clay particles.

  20. Acidosis Differentially Modulates Inactivation in NaV1.2, NaV1.4, and NaV1.5 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vilin, Yury Y.; Peters, Colin H.; Ruben, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    NaV channels play a crucial role in neuronal and muscle excitability. Using whole-cell recordings we studied effects of low extracellular pH on the biophysical properties of NaV1.2, NaV1.4, and NaV1.5, expressed in cultured mammalian cells. Low pH produced different effects on different channel subtypes. Whereas NaV1.4 exhibited very low sensitivity to acidosis, primarily limited to partial block of macroscopic currents, the effects of low pH on gating in NaV1.2 and NaV1.5 were profound. In NaV1.2 low pH reduced apparent valence of steady-state fast inactivation, shifted the τ(V) to depolarizing potentials and decreased channels availability during onset to slow and use-dependent inactivation (UDI). In contrast, low pH delayed open-state inactivation in NaV1.5, right-shifted the voltage-dependence of window current, and increased channel availability during onset to slow and UDI. These results suggest that protons affect channel availability in an isoform-specific manner. A computer model incorporating these results demonstrates their effects on membrane excitability. PMID:22701426

  1. NPF MECHANICAL CELL NaK DISPOSAL AND FUME ABATEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, G.

    Some of the fuels originally scheduled for processing in the nonproduction fuel (NPF) processing program incorporated sodium or sodium- potassium alloy (NaK) as the bonding material between stainless-steel cladding and the uranium or uranium-molybdenum alloy core. Because of the special hazards involved in handling NaK, studies were made to determine safe methods for processing NaK-containing fuels. An underwater NaK dispensing system was installed, and tests were made to determine the characteristics of the NaK-water reaction. The equipment consisted of a dispenser, reaction pan, and off-gas scrubber. After initinl studies, a prototype test was made wherein U-Mo canned slugs containing NaKmore » reservoirs were hack sawed underwater. The studies demonstrated that the NaK reservoirs can be safely deactivated by hack sawing under a submerged hood in a shallow water bath. (W.L.H.)« less

  2. Synthesis of zeolites Na-A and Na-X from tablet compressed and calcinated coal fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tao; Gao, Wenyan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yifu; Meng, Changgong

    2017-10-01

    Zeolites Na-A and Na-X are important synthetic zeolites widely used for separation and adsorption in industry. It is of great significance to develop energy-efficient routines that can synthesize zeolites Na-A and Na-X from low-cost raw materials. Coal fly ash (CFA) is the major residue from the combustion of coal and biomass containing more than 85% SiO2 and Al2O3, which can readily replace the conventionally used sodium silicate and aluminate for zeolite synthesis. We used Na2CO3 to replace the expensive NaOH used for the calcination of CFA and showed that tablet compression can enhance the contact with Na2CO3 for the activation of CFA through calcination for the synthesis of zeolites Na-A and Na-X under mild conditions. We optimized the control variables for zeolite synthesis and showed that phase-pure zeolite Na-A can be synthesized with CFA at reactant molar ratio, hydrothermal reaction temperature and reaction time of 1.3Na2O: 0.6Al2O3: 1SiO2: 38H2O at 80°C for 6 h, respectively, while phase-pure zeolite Na-X can be synthesized at 2.2Na2O: 0.2Al2O3: 1SiO2: 88H2O at 100°C for 8 h, respectively. The composition, morphology, specific surface area, vibration spectrum and thermogravimetry of synthesized Na-A and Na-X were further characterized.

  3. Jahn–Teller Assisted Na Diffusion for High Performance Na Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin; Wang, Yan; Wu, Di

    2016-08-30

    Na energy storage technology is strategically attractive for large scale applications such as grid energy storage. Here, we show in this paper that there is a clear relation between the Jahn$-$Teller activity of a transition metal ion at the end of charge and the mobility of Na in a cathode material. This is particularly important as mobility at the end of charge limits the capacity of current materials. Consequently, by using this classical piece of physics in the battery world, it is possible to create higher capacity Na-cathode materials. Even more exciting is that the ideal element to impart thismore » effect on cathodes is Fe, which is the least expensive of the transition metal oxides and can therefore enable low cost cathode materials.« less

  4. Design and implementation of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors output signal generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Cong-Zhan; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Li, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Xu-Fang; Lu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Zhen-Ling; Lu, Fang-Jun

    2014-02-01

    We designed and implemented a signal generator that can simulate the output of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors' pre-amplifier onboard the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Using the development of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with VHDL language and adding a random constituent, we have finally produced the double exponential random pulse signal generator. The statistical distribution of the signal amplitude is programmable. The occurrence time intervals of the adjacent signals contain negative exponential distribution statistically.

  5. Revisiting the hydration structure of aqueous Na +

    SciTech Connect

    Galib, M.; Baer, M. D.; Skinner, L. B.

    In this paper, a combination of theory, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are used to probe the hydration structure of aqueous Na +. The high spatial resolution of the XRD measurements corresponds to Qmax = 24 Å –1 while the first-reported Na K-edge EXAFS measurements have a spatial resolution corresponding to 2k = Qmax = 16 Å –1. Both provide an accurate measure of the shape and position of the first peak in the Na–O pair distribution function, g NaO(r). The measured Na–O distances of 2.384 ± 0.003 Å (XRD) and 2.37 ± 0.024 Åmore » (EXAFS) are in excellent agreement. These measurements show a much shorter Na–O distance than generally reported in the experimental literature (Na–O avg ~ 2.44 Å) although the current measurements are in agreement with recent neutron diffraction measurements. The measured Na–O coordination number from XRD is 5.5 ± 0.3. The measured structure is compared with both classical and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Both of the DFT-based methods, revPBE and BLYP, predict a Na–O distance that is too long by about 0.05 Å with respect to the experimental data (EXAFS and XRD). The inclusion of dispersion interactions (–D3 and –D2) significantly worsens the agreement with experiment by further increasing the Na–O distance by 0.07 Å. In contrast, the use of a classical Na–O Lennard-Jones potential with SPC/E water accurately predicts the Na–O distance as 2.39 Å although the Na–O peak is over-structured with respect to experiment.« less

  6. Revisiting the hydration structure of aqueous Na +

    DOE PAGES

    Galib, M.; Baer, M. D.; Skinner, L. B.; ...

    2017-02-27

    In this paper, a combination of theory, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are used to probe the hydration structure of aqueous Na +. The high spatial resolution of the XRD measurements corresponds to Qmax = 24 Å –1 while the first-reported Na K-edge EXAFS measurements have a spatial resolution corresponding to 2k = Qmax = 16 Å –1. Both provide an accurate measure of the shape and position of the first peak in the Na–O pair distribution function, g NaO(r). The measured Na–O distances of 2.384 ± 0.003 Å (XRD) and 2.37 ± 0.024 Åmore » (EXAFS) are in excellent agreement. These measurements show a much shorter Na–O distance than generally reported in the experimental literature (Na–O avg ~ 2.44 Å) although the current measurements are in agreement with recent neutron diffraction measurements. The measured Na–O coordination number from XRD is 5.5 ± 0.3. The measured structure is compared with both classical and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Both of the DFT-based methods, revPBE and BLYP, predict a Na–O distance that is too long by about 0.05 Å with respect to the experimental data (EXAFS and XRD). The inclusion of dispersion interactions (–D3 and –D2) significantly worsens the agreement with experiment by further increasing the Na–O distance by 0.07 Å. In contrast, the use of a classical Na–O Lennard-Jones potential with SPC/E water accurately predicts the Na–O distance as 2.39 Å although the Na–O peak is over-structured with respect to experiment.« less

  7. COPPER Students - ELaNa IV

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-11

    The Close Orbiting Propellant Plume Elemental Recognition (COPPER) was developed by students from St. Louis University as a technology demonstration mission whose objective is to test the suitability of a commercially-available compact uncooled microbolometer (tiny infrared camera) array for scientific imagery of Earth in the long-wave infrared range (LWIR, 7-13 microns). Launched by NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative on the ELaNa IV mission as an auxiliary payload aboard the U.S. Air Force-led Operationally Responsive Space (ORS-3) Mission on November 19, 2013.

  8. CONCEPTUAL BASIS FOR NATURAL ATTENUATION (NA) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As used in enforcement actions at hazardous waste sites by U.S. EPA, monitored natural attenuation is a remedy fully equivalent to any other remedy. The acceptance of MNA is based on three lines of evidence: historical ground water and/or soil chemistry data that demonstrates a trend of declining contaminant concentration, 2. hydrogeologic and geochemical data that demonstrate NA processes and rates, and 3. Field or microcosm studies. MNA is appropriate as remedial approach only where it can be demonstrated to achieve remedial objectives within reasonable time frame, and meets the applicable remedy selection criteria for the particular regulatory program. To inform the public.

  9. Effects of non-uniform root zone salinity on water use, Na+ recirculation, and Na+ and H+ flux in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangqiang; Luo, Zhen; Dong, Hezhong; Eneji, A. Egrinya

    2012-01-01

    A new split-root system was established through grafting to study cotton response to non-uniform salinity. Each root half was treated with either uniform (100/100 mM) or non-uniform NaCl concentrations (0/200 and 50/150 mM). In contrast to uniform control, non-uniform salinity treatment improved plant growth and water use, with more water absorbed from the non- and low salinity side. Non-uniform treatments decreased Na+ concentrations in leaves. The [Na+] in the ‘0’ side roots of the 0/200 treatment was significantly higher than that in either side of the 0/0 control, but greatly decreased when the ‘0’ side phloem was girdled, suggesting that the increased [Na+] in the ‘0’ side roots was possibly due to transportation of foliar Na+ to roots through phloem. Plants under non-uniform salinity extruded more Na+ from the root than those under uniform salinity. Root Na+ efflux in the low salinity side was greatly enhanced by the higher salinity side. NaCl-induced Na+ efflux and H+ influx were inhibited by amiloride and sodium orthovanadate, suggesting that root Na+ extrusion was probably due to active Na+/H+ antiport across the plasma membrane. Improved plant growth under non-uniform salinity was thus attributed to increased water use, reduced leaf Na+ concentration, transport of excessive foliar Na+ to the low salinity side, and enhanced Na+ efflux from the low salinity root. PMID:22200663

  10. Hydrogen Sulfide Induced Disruption of Na+ Homeostasis in the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dongman; He, Xiaozhou; Yang, Yilin; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Kim, Dong H.; Xia, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance of ionic balance is essential for neuronal functioning. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a known toxic environmental gaseous pollutant, has been recently recognized as a gasotransmitter involved in numerous biological processes and is believed to play an important role in the neural activities under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, it is unclear if it plays any role in maintenance of ionic homeostasis in the brain under physiological/pathophysiological conditions. Here, we report by directly measuring Na+ activity using Na+ selective electrodes in mouse cortical slices that H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) increased Na+ influx in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be partially blocked by either Na+ channel blocker or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blocker alone or almost completely abolished by coapplication of both blockers but not by non-NMDAR blocker. These data suggest that increased H2S in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia, potentially causes a disruption of ionic homeostasis by massive Na+ influx through Na+ channels and NMDARs, thus injuring neural functions. Activation of delta-opioid receptors (DOR), which reduces Na+ currents/influx in normoxia, had no effect on H2S-induced Na+ influx, suggesting that H2S-induced disruption of Na+ homeostasis is resistant to DOR regulation and may play a major role in neuronal injury in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia. PMID:22474073

  11. Advancement of technology towards developing Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamesh, Mohammed Ibrahim; Prakash, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    The Na-ion-batteries are considered much attention for the next-generation power-sources due to the high abundance of Na resources that lower the cost and become the alternative for the state of the art Li-ion batteries in future. In this review, the recently reported potential cathode and anode candidates for Na-ion-batteries are identified in-light-of-their high-performance for the development of Na-ion-full-cells. Further, the recent-progress on the Na-ion full-cells including the strategies used to improve the high cycling-performance (stable even up-to 50000 cycles), operating voltage (even ≥ 3.7 V), capacity (>350 mAhg-1 even at 1000 mAg-1 (based-on-mass-of-the-anode)), and energy density (even up-to 400 Whkg-1) are reviewed. In addition, Na-ion-batteries with the electrodes containing reduced graphene oxide, and the recent developments on symmetric Na-ion-batteries are discussed. Further, this paper identifies the promising Na-ion-batteries including the strategies used to assemble full-cell using hard-carbon-anodes, Na3V2(PO4)3 cathodes, and other-electrode-materials. Then, comparison between aqueous and non-aqueous Na-ion-batteries in terms of voltage and energy density has been given. Later, various types of electrolytes used for Na-ion-batteries including aqueous, non-aqueous, ionic-liquids and solid-state electrolytes are discussed. Finally, commercial and technological-developments on Na-ion-batteries are provided. The scientific and engineering knowledge gained on Na-ion-batteries afford conceivable development for practical application in near future.

  12. 24Mg(p, α) 21Na reaction study for spectroscopy of 21Na

    DOE PAGES

    Cha, S. M.; Chae, K. Y.; Kim, A.; ...

    2015-11-03

    The Mg-24(p, alpha)Na-21 reaction was measured at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to better constrain the spins and parities of the energy levels in Na-21 for the astrophysically important F-17(alpha, p)Ne-20 reaction rate calculation. 31-MeV proton beams from the 25-MV tandem accelerator and enriched Mg-24 solid targets were used. When recoiling He-4 particles from the Mg-24(p, alpha)Na-21 reaction we used a highly segmented silicon detector array to detect them; it measured the yields of He-4 particles over a range of angles simultaneously. A observed a new level at 6661 ± 5 keVmore » in the present work. The extracted angular distributions for the first four levels of Na-21 and the results from distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations were compared to verify and extract the angular momentum transfer.« less

  13. Electrical resistivity of liquid Na-alkali alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malan, Rajesh C.; Vora, Aditya M.

    2018-05-01

    The electrical resistivity (ρ) has been investigated for the liquid Na-alkali alloys. An effort is made to extend the applicability of the potential suggested by Fiolhais and co-workers to the liquid range for alkali group. The universal parameters of the potential are used for the entire calculation. Eight different screening functions proposed by Hartree (H), Hubbard and Sham (HS), Vashishtha and Shingwi (VS), Taylor (T), Ichimaru and Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F), Sarkar et al. (S) and Nagy (N) are used to study the electrical resistivity (ρ) of liquid Na-alkali alloys with well-known Faber-Ziman theory along with Percus-Yevic hard sphere (PYHS) reference system. The results of electrical resistivity (ρ) are found in qualitative agreement with experimental data for the Na-K and Na-Rb alloys than those for Na-Li and Na-Cs alloys.

  14. Recent results and prospects for NA62 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellotti, Silvia; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Aliberti, R.; Ambrosino, F.; Ammendola, R.; Angelucci, B.; Antonelli, A.; Anzivino, G.; Arcidiacono, R.; Azhinenko, I.; Balev, S.; Barbanera, M.; Bendotti, J.; Biagioni, A.; Bician, L.; Biino, C.; Bizzeti, A.; Blazek, T.; Blik, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Bolotov, V.; Bonaiuto, V.; Boretto, M.; Bragadireanu, M.; Britton, D.; Britvich, G.; Brunetti, M. B.; Bryman, D.; Bucci, F.; Butin, F.; Capitolo, E.; Capoccia, C.; Capussela, T.; Cassese, A.; Catinaccio, A.; Cecchetti, A.; Ceccucci, A.; Cenci, P.; Cerny, V.; Cerri, C.; Checcucci, B.; Chikilev, O.; Chiozzi, S.; Ciaranfi, R.; Collazuol, G.; Conovaloff, A.; Cooke, P.; Cooper, P.; Corradi, G.; Cortina Gil, E.; Costantini, F.; Cotorobai, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Coward, D.; D'Agostini, G.; Dainton, J.; Dalpiaz, P.; Danielsson, H.; Degrange, J.; De Simone, N.; Di Filippo, D.; Di Lella, L.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Dixon, N.; Doble, N.; Dobrich, B.; Duk, V.; Elsha, V.; Engelfried, J.; Enik, T.; Estrada, N.; Falaleev, V.; Fantechi, R.; Fascianelli, V.; Federici, L.; Fedotov, S.; Fiorini, M.; Fry, J.; Fu, J.; Fucci, A.; Fulton, L.; Gallorini, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gamberini, E.; Gatignon, L.; Georgiev, G.; Gianoli, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giudici, S.; Glonti, L.; Goncalves Martins, A.; Gonnella, F.; Goudzovski, E.; Guida, R.; Gushchin, E.; Hahn, F.; Hallgren, B.; Heath, H.; Herman, F.; Husek, T.; Hutanu, O.; Hutchcroft, D.; Iacobuzio, L.; Iacopini, E.; Imbergamo, E.; Jamet, O.; Jarron, P.; Jones, E.; Kampf, K.; Kaplon, J.; Kekelidze, V.; Kholodenko, S.; Khoriauli, G.; Khotyantsev, A.; Khudyakov, A.; Kiryushin, Yu.; Kleimenova, A.; Kleinknecht, K.; Kluge, A.; Koval, M.; Kozhuharov, V.; Krivda, M.; Kucerova, Z.; Kudenko, Y.; Kunze, J.; Lamanna, G.; Latino, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Lehmann-Miotto, G.; Lenci, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Lichard, P.; Lietava, R.; Litov, L.; Lollini, R.; Lomidze, D.; Lonardo, A.; Lupi, M.; Lurkin, N.; McCormick, K.; Madigozhin, D.; Maire, G.; Mandeiro, C.; Mannelli, I.; Mannocchi, G.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Marchevski, R.; Martellotti, S.; Massarotti, P.; Massri, K.; Matak, P.; Maurice, E.; Mefodev, A.; Menichetti, E.; Minucci, E.; Mirra, M.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Morant, J.; Morel, M.; Moulson, M.; Movchan, S.; Munday, D.; Napolitano, M.; Neri, I.; Newson, F.; Norton, A.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Numao, T.; Obraztsov, V.; Ostankov, A.; Padolski, S.; Page, R.; Palladino, V.; Paoluzzi, G.; Parkinson, C.; Pedreschi, E.; Pepe, M.; Perez Gomez, F.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Petrov, P.; Petrucci, F.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pietreanu, D.; Pinzino, J.; Polenkevich, I.; Pontisso, L.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Protopopescu, D.; Raffaelli, F.; Raggi, M.; Riedler, P.; Romano, A.; Rubin, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Russo, V.; Ryjov, V.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Samsonov, V.; Santoni, C.; Saracino, G.; Sargeni, F.; Semenov, V.; Sergi, A.; Serra, M.; Shaikhiev, A.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Skillicorn, I.; Soldi, D.; Sotnikov, A.; Sougonyaev, V.; Sozzi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Spinella, F.; Staley, R.; Sturgess, A.; Sutcliffe, P.; Szilasi, N.; Tagnani, D.; Trilov, S.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valente, P.; Vasile, M.; Vassilieva, T.; Velghe, B.; Veltri, M.; Venditti, S.; Vicini, P.; Volpe, R.; Vormstein, M.; Wahl, H.; Wanke, R.; Wertelaers, P.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Wrona, B.; Yushchenko, O.; Zamkovsky, M.; Zinchenko, A.; NA62 Collaboration

    2017-04-01

    The K+ →π+ ν ν ‾ decay is theoretically one of the cleanest meson decays and so a good place to look for indirect effects of new physics complementary to LHC searches. The NA62 experiment at CERN is designed to measure the branching ratio of this decay with 10% precision. NA62 was commissioned in October 2014, took data in pilot runs in 2014 and 2015. The NA62 experimental setup is illustrated and data quality is reported.

  15. Na+ Interactions with the Neutral Amino Acid Transporter ASCT1*

    PubMed Central

    Scopelliti, Amanda J.; Heinzelmann, Germano; Kuyucak, Serdar; Ryan, Renae M.; Vandenberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The alanine, serine, cysteine transporters (ASCTs) belong to the solute carrier family 1A (SLC1A), which also includes the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) and the prokaryotic aspartate transporter GltPh. Acidic amino acid transport by the EAATs is coupled to the co-transport of three Na+ ions and one proton, and the counter-transport of one K+ ion. In contrast, neutral amino acid exchange by the ASCTs does not require protons or the counter-transport of K+ ions and the number of Na+ ions required is not well established. One property common to SLC1A family members is a substrate-activated anion conductance. We have investigated the number and location of Na+ ions required by ASCT1 by mutating residues in ASCT1 that correspond to residues in the EAATs and GltPh that are involved in Na+ binding. Mutations to all three proposed Na+ sites influence the binding of substrate and/or Na+, or the rate of substrate exchange. A G422S mutation near the Na2 site reduced Na+ affinity, without affecting the rate of exchange. D467T and D467A mutations in the Na1 site reduce Na+ and substrate affinity and also the rate of substrate exchange. T124A and D380A mutations in the Na3 site selectively reduce the affinity for Na+ and the rate of substrate exchange without affecting substrate affinity. In many of the mutants that reduce the rate of substrate transport the amplitudes of the substrate-activated anion conductances are not substantially affected indicating altered ion dependence for channel activation compared with substrate exchange. PMID:24808181

  16. Simulation of Na D emission near Europa during eclipse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cassidy, T.A.; Johnson, R.E.; Geissler, P.E.; Leblanc, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini imaging science subsystem observed Europa in eclipse during Cassini's Jupiter flyby. The disk-resolved observations revealed a spatially nonuniform emission in the wavelength range of 200-1050 nm (clear filters). By building on observations and simulations of Europa's Na atmosphere and torus we find that electron-excited Na in Europa's tenuous atmosphere can account for the observed emission if the Na is ejected preferentially from Europa's dark terrain. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Model based high NA anamorphic EUV RET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fan; Wiaux, Vincent; Fenger, Germain; Clifford, Chris; Liubich, Vlad; Hendrickx, Eric

    2018-03-01

    With the announcement of the extension of the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) roadmap to a high NA lithography tool that utilizes anamorphic optics design, an investigation of design tradeoffs unique to the imaging of anamorphic lithography tool is shown. An anamorphic optical proximity correction (OPC) solution has been developed that models fully the EUV near field electromagnetic effects and the anamorphic imaging using the Domain Decomposition Method (DDM). Clips of imec representative for the N3 logic node were used to demonstrate the OPC solutions on critical layers that will benefit from the increased contrast at high NA using anamorphic imaging. However, unlike isomorphic case, from wafer perspective, OPC needs to treat x and y differently. In the paper, we show a design trade-off seen unique to Anamorphic EUV, namely that using a mask rule of 48nm (mask scale), approaching current state of the art, limitations are observed in the available correction that can be applied to the mask. The metal pattern has a pitch of 24nm and CD of 12nm. During OPC, the correction of the metal lines oriented vertically are being limited by the mask rule of 12nm 1X. The horizontally oriented lines do not suffer from this mask rule limitation as the correction is allowed to go to 6nm 1X. For this example, the masks rules will need to be more aggressive to allow complete correction, or design rules and wafer processes (wafer rotation) would need to be created that utilize the orientation that can image more aggressive features. When considering VIA or block level correction, aggressive polygon corner to corner designs can be handled with various solutions, including applying a 45 degree chop. Multiple solutions are discussed with the metrics of edge placement error (EPE) and Process Variation Bands (PVBands), together with all the mask constrains. Noted in anamorphic OPC, the 45 degree chop is maintained at the mask level to meet mask manufacturing constraints, but results in skewed

  18. Integrated Control of Na Transport along the Nephron

    PubMed Central

    Schnermann, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The kidney filters vast quantities of Na at the glomerulus but excretes a very small fraction of this Na in the final urine. Although almost every nephron segment participates in the reabsorption of Na in the normal kidney, the proximal segments (from the glomerulus to the macula densa) and the distal segments (past the macula densa) play different roles. The proximal tubule and the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle interact with the filtration apparatus to deliver Na to the distal nephron at a rather constant rate. This involves regulation of both filtration and reabsorption through the processes of glomerulotubular balance and tubuloglomerular feedback. The more distal segments, including the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), connecting tubule, and collecting duct, regulate Na reabsorption to match the excretion with dietary intake. The relative amounts of Na reabsorbed in the DCT, which mainly reabsorbs NaCl, and by more downstream segments that exchange Na for K are variable, allowing the simultaneous regulation of both Na and K excretion. PMID:25098598

  19. Transcriptional regulators of Na,K-ATPase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqin; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic α-subunit, the β-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids, and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits has been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease. PMID:26579519

  20. Secretory NaCl and volume flow in renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Beyenbach, K W

    1986-05-01

    This review attempts to give a retrospective survey of the available evidence concerning the secretion of NaCl and fluid in renal tubules of the vertebrate kidney. In the absence of glomerular filtration, epithelial secretory mechanisms, which to this date have not been elucidated, are responsible for the renal excretion of NaCl and water in aglomerular fish. However, proximal tubules isolated from glomerular fish kidneys of the flounder, killifish, and the shark also have the capacity to secrete NaCl and fluid. In shark proximal tubules, fluid secretion appears to be driven via secondary active transport of Cl. In another marine vertebrate, the sea snake, secretion of Na (presumably NaCl) and fluid is observed in freshwater-adapted and water-loaded animals. Proximal tubules of mammals can be made to secrete NaCl in vitro together with secretion of aryl acids. An epithelial cell line derived from dog kidney exhibits secondary active secretion of Cl when stimulated with catecholamines. Tubular secretion of NaCl and fluid may serve a variety of renal functions, all of which are considered here. The occurrence of NaCl and fluid secretion in glomerular proximal tubules of teleosts, elasmobranchs, and reptiles and in mammalian renal tissue cultures suggests that the genetic potential for NaCl secretion is present in every vertebrate kidney.

  1. Scintillation efficiency measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) below the DAMA/LIBRA energy threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingke; Shields, Emily; Calaprice, Frank; Westerdale, Shawn; Froborg, Francis; Suerfu, Burkhant; Alexander, Thomas; Aprahamian, Ani; Back, Henning O.; Casarella, Clark; Fang, Xiao; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Ianni, Aldo; Lamere, Edward; Lippincott, W. Hugh; Liu, Qian; Lyons, Stephanie; Siegl, Kevin; Smith, Mallory; Tan, Wanpeng; Kolk, Bryant Vande

    2015-07-01

    The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3 to 52 keVnr, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for dark matter-Na scattering interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies but fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal.

  2. Na Diffusion in Quasi One-Dimensional Ion Conductor NaMn2O4 Observed by μ+SR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umegaki, Izumi; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Harada, Masashi; Månsson, Martin; Sakurai, Hiroya; Kawasaki, Ikuto; Watanabe, Isao; Sugiyama, Jun

    A quasi one-dimensional (1D) compound, NaMn2O4, in which Mn2O4 zigzag chains form a 1D channel along the b-axis and Na ions locate at the center of the channel, is thought to be a good Na ionic conductor. In order to study Na-ion diffusion, we have measured μ+SR spectra using a powder sample in the temperature range between 100 and 500 K. A diffusive behavior was clearly observed above 325 K. Assuming a thermal activate process for jump diffusion of Na-ion between two nearest neighboring sites, a self diffusion coefficient of Na ion (DNa) and its activation energy (Ea) were estimated as DNa = (3.1 ± 0.2) × 10 - 11 cm2/s at 350 K and Ea = 180(9) meV.

  3. Scintillation efficiency measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) below the DAMA/LIBRA energy threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jingke; Shields, Emily; Calaprice, Frank

    2015-07-01

    The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3 to 52 keVnr, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for dark matter-Na scattering interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies butmore » fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal.« less

  4. Na-Zn liquid metal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junli; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria; Kongstein, Ole Edvard; Haarberg, Geir Martin

    2016-11-01

    A new kind of membrane free liquid metal battery was developed. The battery employs liquid sodium and zinc as electrodes both in liquid state, and NaCl-CaCl2 molten salts as electrolyte. The discharge flat voltage is in the range of about 1.4 V-1.8 V, and the cycle efficiency achieved is about 90% at low discharge current densities (below 40 mA cm-2). Moreover, this battery can also be charged and discharged at high current density with good performance. The discharge flat voltage is above 1.1 V when it is discharged at 100 mA cm-2, while it is about 0.8 V with 100% cycle efficiency when it is discharged at 200 mA cm-2. Compared to other reported liquid metal battery, this battery has lower cost, which suggests broad application prospect in energy storage systems for power grid.

  5. Luminorefrigeration: vibrational cooling of NaCs.

    PubMed

    Wakim, A; Zabawa, P; Haruza, M; Bigelow, N P

    2012-07-02

    We demonstrate the use of optical pumping of kinetically ultracold NaCs to cool an initial vibrational distribution of electronic ground state molecules X(1)Σ(+)(v ≥ 4) into the vibrational ground state X(1)Σ(+)(v=0). Our approach is based on the use of simple, commercially available multimode diode lasers selected to optically pump population into X(1)Σ(+)(v=0). We investigate the impact of the cooling process on the rotational state distribution of the vibrational ground state, and observe that an initial distribution, J(initial)=0-2 is only moderately affected resulting in J(final)=0-4. This method provides an inexpensive approach to creation of vibrational ground state ultracold polar molecules.

  6. Symbiodinium isolation by NaOH treatment.

    PubMed

    Zamoum, Thamilla; Furla, Paola

    2012-11-15

    The presence of photosynthetic zooxanthellae (dinoflagellates) in the tissue of many cnidarians is the main reason for their ecological success (i.e. coral reefs). It could also be the main cause of their demise, as the worldwide bleaching of reef-building coral is nothing less than the breakdown of this symbiotic association. The stability of this relationship is the principal marker for the biomonitoring of cnidarian health. We have therefore developed a new, simple method to isolate zooxanthellae in a few steps using NaOH solution. The protocol was validated in three symbiotic cnidarian species: a sea anemone, a gorgonian and a coral. Our method allows the isolation of intact and viable zooxanthellae with better yields than classic methods, especially for species with a calcareous skeleton. Moreover, the isolated zooxanthellae were free of host nucleic contaminants, facilitating subsequent specific molecular analyses.

  7. Mercury's Na Exosphere from MESSENGER Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Sarantos, M.; Vervack, R. J.; McClintock, W. El; Merkel, A. W.; Sprague, A. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UWS) channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has been observing Mercury's exosphere nearly continuously. Daily measurements of Na brightness were fitted with non-uniform exospheric models. With Monte Carlo sampling we traced the trajectories of a representative number of test particles, generally one million per run per source process, until photoionization, escape from the gravitational well, or permanent sticking at the surface removed the atom from the simulation. Atoms were assumed to partially thermally accommodate on each encounter with the surface with accommodation coefficient 0.25. Runs for different assumed source processes are run separately, scaled and co-added. Once these model results were saved onto a 3D grid, we ran lines of sight from the MESSENGER spacecraft :0 infinity using the SPICE kernels and we computed brightness integrals. Note that only particles that contribute to the measurement can be constrained with our method. Atoms and molecules produced on the nightside must escape the shadow in order to scatter light if the excitation process is resonant-light scattering, as assumed here. The aggregate distribution of Na atoms fits a 1200 K gas, with a PSD distribution, along with a hotter component. Our models constrain the hot component, assumed to be impact vaporization, to be emitted with a 2500 K Maxwellian. Most orbits show a dawnside enhancement in the hot component broadly spread over the leading hemisphere. However, on some dates there is no dawn/dusk asymmetry. The portion of the hot/cold source appears to be highly variable.

  8. Enhancement of the sulfur capture capacity of limestones by the addition of Na2CO3 and NaCl.

    PubMed

    Laursen, K; Grace, J R; Lim, C J

    2001-11-01

    The ability of Na2CO3 and NaCl to enhance the sulfur capture capacity of three limestones was evaluated via fixed-bed calcination and sulfation experiments. The tested limestones represent three different sulfation morphologies: unreacted-core, network, and uniformly sulfated. Treatment with aqueous or powdered Na2CO3 significantly increased the Ca-utilization for two stones which normally sulfate in an unreacted-core pattern (20% to 45%) and network pattern (33% to 49%). The increase was lower for the uniformly sulfated stone (44% to 48%). Na2CO3 treatment increased the number of macropores leading to uniform sulfation of all particles, nearly eliminating the normal strong dependence of utilization on limestone type and particle size. The effect of Na2CO3 is believed to be associated with formation of a eutectic melt which enhances ionic diffusion and accelerates molecular rearrangement of the CaO. Treatment with aqueous NaCl solution caused a decrease in utilization, probably due to formation of large grains and plugging of pores caused by formation of a large amount of eutectic melt. The effect of Na2CO3 is less sensitive than that of NaCl to the amount added and the combustion environment (temperature and gas composition). In addition, Na2CO3 neither promotes corrosion nor forms chlorinated byproducts, which are main concerns associated with NaCl. Thus, Na2CO3 appears to have significant advantages over NaCl for enhancement of limestone sulfur capture capacity in fluidized-bed combustors.

  9. RNA adducts with Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 - Stability and structural features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Manouchehri, Firouzeh; Montazeri, Maryam

    2011-12-01

    Selenium compounds are widely available in dietary supplements and have been extensively studied for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Low blood Se levels were found to be associated with an increased incidence and mortality from various types of cancers. Although many in vivo and clinical trials have been conducted using these compounds, their biochemical and chemical mechanisms of efficacy are the focus of much current research. This study was designed to examine the interaction of Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 with RNA in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using a constant RNA concentration (6.25 mM) and various sodium selenate and sodium selenite/polynucleotide (phosphate) ratios of 1/80, 1/40, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2 and 1/1. Fourier transform infrared, UV-Visible spectroscopic methods were used to determine the drug binding modes, the binding constants, and the stability of Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3-RNA complexes in aqueous solution. Spectroscopic evidence showed that Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 bind to the major and minor grooves of RNA ( via G, A and U bases) with some degree of the Se-phosphate (PO 2) interaction for both compounds with overall binding constants of K(Na 2SeO 4-RNA) = 8.34 × 10 3 and K(Na 2SeO 3-RNA) = 4.57 × 10 3 M -1. The order of selenium salts-biopolymer stability was Na 2SeO 4-RNA > Na 2SeO 3-RNA. RNA aggregations occurred at higher selenium concentrations. No biopolymer conformational changes were observed upon Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 interactions, while RNA remains in the A-family structure.

  10. The effect of NaCl/g/ on the Na2SO4-induced hot corrosion of NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeggil, J. G.; Bornstein, N. S.; Decrescente, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies have been performed to examine the effect of NaCl vapor on the Na2SO4-induced hot corrosion of the alumina former NiAl. In the incubation period associated with such hot corrosion, NaCl(g) has been shown to be effective in removing aluminum from below the protective alumina scale and redepositing it as Al2O3 whiskers on the surface of the Na2SO4-coated sample. Similar effects seen in simple oxidation are associated with isothermal rupturing of the protective alumina scale.

  11. Structural and Na-ion conduction characteristics of Na 3PS xSe 4–x

    SciTech Connect

    Bo, Shou -Hang; Wang, Yan; Ceder, Gerbrand

    The recent discovery of the isostructrual cubic Na 3PS 4 and Na 3PSe 4 as fast Na-ion conductors provided a general structural framework for the exploration of new sodium superionic conductors. In this work, we systematically investigated the structures and ionic conduction characteristics of a series of compounds with the general chemical formula of Na 3PS xSe 4–x. Synthesis of Na 3PS 4 under different conditions (e.g., temperature, reaction vessel, mass of the precursors) reveals the reactivity of the precursors with the reaction tubes, producing different polymorphs. X-ray diffraction studies on the solid solution phases Na 3PS xSe 4–x identifiedmore » a tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition with increasing Se concentration. This observation is consistent with the computed stability of the tetragonal and cubic polymorphs, where the energy difference between the two polymorphs becomes very close to zero in Se-rich compositions. Furthermore, ab initio molecular dynamic simulations suggest that the fast Na-ion conduction in Na 3PS xSe 4–x may not be causally related with the symmetry or the composition of these phases. The formation of defects, instead, enables fast Na-ion conduction in this class of materials.« less

  12. Structural and Na-ion conduction characteristics of Na 3PS xSe 4–x

    DOE PAGES

    Bo, Shou -Hang; Wang, Yan; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-05-19

    The recent discovery of the isostructrual cubic Na 3PS 4 and Na 3PSe 4 as fast Na-ion conductors provided a general structural framework for the exploration of new sodium superionic conductors. In this work, we systematically investigated the structures and ionic conduction characteristics of a series of compounds with the general chemical formula of Na 3PS xSe 4–x. Synthesis of Na 3PS 4 under different conditions (e.g., temperature, reaction vessel, mass of the precursors) reveals the reactivity of the precursors with the reaction tubes, producing different polymorphs. X-ray diffraction studies on the solid solution phases Na 3PS xSe 4–x identifiedmore » a tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition with increasing Se concentration. This observation is consistent with the computed stability of the tetragonal and cubic polymorphs, where the energy difference between the two polymorphs becomes very close to zero in Se-rich compositions. Furthermore, ab initio molecular dynamic simulations suggest that the fast Na-ion conduction in Na 3PS xSe 4–x may not be causally related with the symmetry or the composition of these phases. The formation of defects, instead, enables fast Na-ion conduction in this class of materials.« less

  13. Temperature-dependent formation of NaCl dihydrate in levitated NaCl and sea salt aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Peckhaus, Andreas; Kiselev, Alexei; Wagner, Robert; Duft, Denis; Leisner, Thomas

    2016-12-28

    Recent laboratory studies indicate that the hydrated form of crystalline NaCl is potentially important for atmospheric processes involving depositional ice nucleation on NaCl dihydrate particles under cirrus cloud conditions. However, recent experimental studies reported a strong discrepancy between the temperature intervals where the efflorescence of NaCl dihydrate has been observed. Here we report the measurements of the volume specific nucleation rate of crystalline NaCl in the aqueous solution droplets of pure NaCl suspended in an electrodynamic balance at constant temperature and humidity in the range from 250 K to 241 K. Based on these measurements, we derive the interfacial energy of crystalline NaCl dihydrate in a supersaturated NaCl solution and determined its temperature dependence. Taking into account both temperature and concentration dependence of nucleation rate coefficients, we explain the difference in the observed fractions of NaCl dihydrate reported in the previous studies. Applying the heterogeneous classical nucleation theory model, we have been able to reproduce the 5 K shift of the NaCl dihydrate efflorescence curve observed for the sea salt aerosol particles, assuming the presence of super-micron solid inclusions (hypothetically gypsum or hemihydrate of CaSO 4 ). These results support the notion that the phase transitions in microscopic droplets of supersaturated solution should be interpreted by accounting for the stochastic nature of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation and cannot be understood on the ground of bulk phase diagrams alone.

  14. Temperature-dependent formation of NaCl dihydrate in levitated NaCl and sea salt aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckhaus, Andreas; Kiselev, Alexei; Wagner, Robert; Duft, Denis; Leisner, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Recent laboratory studies indicate that the hydrated form of crystalline NaCl is potentially important for atmospheric processes involving depositional ice nucleation on NaCl dihydrate particles under cirrus cloud conditions. However, recent experimental studies reported a strong discrepancy between the temperature intervals where the efflorescence of NaCl dihydrate has been observed. Here we report the measurements of the volume specific nucleation rate of crystalline NaCl in the aqueous solution droplets of pure NaCl suspended in an electrodynamic balance at constant temperature and humidity in the range from 250 K to 241 K. Based on these measurements, we derive the interfacial energy of crystalline NaCl dihydrate in a supersaturated NaCl solution and determined its temperature dependence. Taking into account both temperature and concentration dependence of nucleation rate coefficients, we explain the difference in the observed fractions of NaCl dihydrate reported in the previous studies. Applying the heterogeneous classical nucleation theory model, we have been able to reproduce the 5 K shift of the NaCl dihydrate efflorescence curve observed for the sea salt aerosol particles, assuming the presence of super-micron solid inclusions (hypothetically gypsum or hemihydrate of CaSO4). These results support the notion that the phase transitions in microscopic droplets of supersaturated solution should be interpreted by accounting for the stochastic nature of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation and cannot be understood on the ground of bulk phase diagrams alone.

  15. Projectile n distributions following charge transfer of Ar+ and Na+ in a Na Rydberg target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAdam, K. B.; Gray, L. G.; Rolfes, R. G.

    1990-11-01

    The n distributions produced by charge transfer of Ar+ and Na+ ions in a target of Na(nl) Rydberg atoms were extensively measured at intermediate velocities. The 60-2100-eV ions bombarded a laser-excited atomic-beam target. The projectiles were neutralized by capture into Rydberg states of Ar and Na and were analyzed by field ionization in an inhomogeneous-field detector whose response over states and energies was carefully mapped. The choice of initially prepared Na states, 24d, 25s, 28d, 29s, 33d, and 34s, allowed a comparison of l=0 and >=2 targets at nearly equal binding energies over a range of reduced velocity v~=0.187 to 1.95. Capture populates m sublevels broadly, not merely m~=0. Overlapping contributions from adiabatic and diabatic modes of field ionization were accommodated in the analysis, which used a maximum-entropy-principle parametric form to fit the observed final-state distributions. The peak of the distributions, nmax, shifts upward from a value less than the initial state ni to a value one to three units higher than ni at v~ between 0.7 and 0.9 and ultimately shifts downward below ni as v~ is further increased. The distributions become significantly sharper where the maximum upward shift occurs. Two ratios were defined to express the widths of final-state distributions in relative terms, one measuring the spread of orbital kinetic energy and the other the spread of Bohr-orbit velocity. By these ratios a universal behavior over energies, states, and projectile species is observed, and small differences between l=0 and >=2 targets may be seen. A theoretical understanding of the present results, which span velocities where both molecular and perturbative theories are normally used, will require a quantal formulation that models the free-ranging response that is a hallmark of the high-quantum-number limit.

  16. Low-temperature glasslike properties in (NaCl)1-x(NaCN)x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Susan K.; Pohl, R. O.

    1995-04-01

    Thermal conductivity, internal friction, transverse sound velocity (60 mK to 300 K), and specific-heat data (100 mK to 40 K) for (NaCl)1-x(NaCN)x (x=0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.76, 1) show a progression from crystalline to glasslike behavior as the CN- concentration is increased from 0 to 76 %. The evolution of glasslike properties is compared to that in other crystals in which glasslike properties evolve with increasing disorder, e.g., (KBr)1-x(KCN)x and Ba1-xLaxF2-x. For (KBr)1-x(KCN)x, Sethna and Chow have shown that as the concentration of the almost freely rotating CN- ions is increased the average potential barrier for CN- reorientation also increases through elastic quadrupolar interactions. For x~0.5, only a small density of low-energy states is left, which equals that observed in structural glasses. In Ba1-xLaxF2-x, on the other hand, the crystal field for small doping x is so large that no atomic motion occurs at low temperatures. (NaCl)1-x(NaCN)x is shown to represent an intermediate case, in that the crystal field is non-negligible at small x, yet glasslike low-energy excitations indicative of very small potential barrier heights evolve with increasing x. It is argued that random internal strains cause a decrease of the barrier heights in these crystals, which lead to the low-energy excitations. It is proposed that random strains have a similar effect in other disordered crystals as in Ba1-xLaxF2-x, which for small x show no low-energy mobile states, yet which for large x become glasslike.

  17. Moderate temperature rechargeable NaNiS2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    A rechargeable sodium battery of the configuration, liquid Na/beta double prime -Al2O3/molten NaAlCl4, NiS2, operating in the temperature range of 170 to 190 C, is described. This battery is capable of delivering or = to 50 W-hr/1b and 1000 deep discharge/charge cycles.

  18. Resurgent current of voltage-gated Na+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Amanda H; Raman, Indira M

    2014-01-01

    Resurgent Na+ current results from a distinctive form of Na+ channel gating, originally identified in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. In these neurons, the tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Na+ channels responsible for action potential firing have specialized mechanisms that reduce the likelihood that they accumulate in fast inactivated states, thereby shortening refractory periods and permitting rapid, repetitive, and/or burst firing. Under voltage clamp, step depolarizations evoke transient Na+ currents that rapidly activate and quickly decay, and step repolarizations elicit slower channel reopening, or a ‘resurgent’ current. The generation of resurgent current depends on a factor in the Na+ channel complex, probably a subunit such as NaVβ4 (Scn4b), which blocks open Na+ channels at positive voltages, competing with the fast inactivation gate, and unblocks at negative voltages, permitting recovery from an open channel block along with a flow of current. Following its initial discovery, resurgent Na+ current has been found in nearly 20 types of neurons. Emerging research suggests that resurgent current is preferentially increased in a variety of clinical conditions associated with altered cellular excitability. Here we review the biophysical, molecular and structural mechanisms of resurgent current and their relation to the normal functions of excitable cells as well as pathophysiology. PMID:25172941

  19. Naïve Bayes classification in R.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-06-01

    Naïve Bayes classification is a kind of simple probabilistic classification methods based on Bayes' theorem with the assumption of independence between features. The model is trained on training dataset to make predictions by predict() function. This article introduces two functions naiveBayes() and train() for the performance of Naïve Bayes classification.

  20. Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, R.S.; Song, S.K.; Ling, C.S.

    The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ((Na+)i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosedmore » as septic were also examined for (Na+)i. Five rat RBC specimens had (Na+)i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing (6,6-2H2)glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in (Na+)i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in (Na+)i in the two groups of patients. The (Na+)i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the (Na+)i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism.« less

  1. Quantification of Sodium (Na) in Bone with in Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (IVNAA) and Its Implications on Na Retention Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyne, Mychaela

    The locations of Na storage and its exchange mechanisms in different tissues in the body are not well known. This information is important for understanding the impact of Na intake, absorption, and retention on human health, especially on the risk of developing chronic diseases like hypertension. In order to non-invasively quantify Na in bone, a compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator-based IVNAA system was developed for use in Na nutrition studies. This thesis will first discuss the optimization of the system using MCNP to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the irradiation cave while limiting radiation exposure to the hand and the whole body. With optimized assembly in place, an animal study was conducted to investigate the storage and exchange of Na in the body. The right posterior legs of two live pigs, one on a low Na diet and one on a high Na diet, were irradiated inside the customized assembly and then measured with a 100% high efficiency high purity germanium detector (HPGe). The results show that the difference in concentration between the pigs on high vs low Na diets was distinguishable with the system. Analysis also shows rapid exchange of Na in the leg during the first 2 hour measurements (with an exchange decay time of 1.3 hours) while the exchange was minimal at the second and third 2 hour measurements, taken 7 and 21 hours post irradiation. With these results, we conclude there is a non or low exchangeable compartment (likely to be bone) for Na storage and that the DD neutron generator-based IVNAA is a useful method in Na nutrition studies.

  2. Unidirectional Flux Balance of Monovalent Ions in Cells with Na/Na and Li/Na Exchange: Experimental and Computational Studies on Lymphoid U937 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vereninov, Igor A.; Yurinskaya, Valentina E.; Model, Michael A.; Vereninov, Alexey A.

    2016-01-01

    Monovalent ion traffic across the cell membrane occurs via various pathways. Evaluation of individual fluxes in whole cell is hampered by their strong interdependence. This difficulty can be overcome by computational analysis of the whole cell flux balance. However, the previous computational studies disregarded ion movement of the self-exchange type. We have taken this exchange into account. The developed software allows determination of unidirectional fluxes of all monovalent ions via the major pathways both under the balanced state and during transient processes. We show how the problem of finding the rate coefficients can be solved by measurement of monovalent ion concentrations and some of the fluxes. Interdependence of fluxes due to the mandatory conditions of electroneutrality and osmotic balance and due to specific effects can be discriminated, enabling one to identify specific changes in ion transfer machinery under varied conditions. To test the effectiveness of the developed approach we made use of the fact that Li/Na exchange is known to be an analogue of the coupled Na/Na exchange. Thus, we compared the predicted and experimental data obtained on U937 cells under varied Li+ concentrations and following inhibition of the sodium pump with ouabain. We found that the coupled Na/Na exchange in U937 cells comprises a significant portion of the entire Na+ turnover. The data showed that the loading of the sodium pump by Li/Na exchange involved in the secondary active Li+ transport at 1–10 mM external Li+ is small. This result may be extrapolated to similar Li+ and Na+ flux relationships in erythrocytes and other cells in patients treated with Li+ in therapeutic doses. The developed computational approach is applicable for studying various cells and can be useful in education for demonstrating the effects of individual transporters and channels on ion gradients, cell water content and membrane potential. PMID:27159324

  3. Trisodium citrate, Na 3 (C 6 H 5 O 7 )

    SciTech Connect

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-05-10

    The crystal structure of anhydrous trisodium citrate, Na 3(C 6H 5O 7), has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional theory (DFT). There are two independent five-coordinate Na +and one six-coordinate Na +cations in the asymmetric unit. The [NaO 5] and [NaO 6] polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework. There are channels parallel to theaandbaxes in which the remainder of the citrate anions reside. The only hydrogen bonds are an intramolecular one between the hydroxy group and one of the terminal carboxylate O atoms and an intermolecular onemore » between a methylene group and the hydroxyl O atom.« less

  4. Feasibility study for a secondary Na/S battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, K. M.; Schiff, R.; Brummer, S. B.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of a moderate temperature Na battery was studied. This battery is to operate at a temperature in the range of 100-150 C. Two kinds of cathode were investigated: (1) a soluble S cathode consisting of a solution of Na2Sn in an organic solvent and (2) an insoluble S cathode consisting of a transition metal dichalcogenide in contact with a Na(+)ion conducting electrolyte. Four amide solvents, dimethyl acetamide, diethyl acetamide, N-methyl acetamide and acetamide, were investigated as possible solvents for the soluble S cathode. Results of stability and electrochemical studies using these solvents are presented. The dialkyl substituted amides were found to be superior. Although the alcohol 1,3-cyclohexanediol was found to be stable in the presence of Na2Sn at 130 C, its Na2Sn solutions did not appear to have suitable electrochemical properties.

  5. Dynamic polarizabilities and Van der Waals coefficients for alkali atoms Li, Na and alkali dimer molecules Li2, Na2 and NaLi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mérawa, M.; Dargelos, A.

    1998-07-01

    The present paper gives an account of investigations of the polarizability of the alkali atoms Li, Na, diatomics homonuclear and heteronuclear Li2, Na2 and NaLi at SCF (Self Consistent Field) level of approximation and at correlated level, using a time Time-Dependent Gauge Invariant method (TDGI). Our static polarizability values agree with the best experimental and theoretical determinations. The Van der Waals C6 coefficients for the atom-atom, atom-dimer and dimer-dimer interactions have been evaluated. Les polarisabilités des atomes alcalins Li, Na, et des molécules diatomiques homonucléaires et hétéronucléaire Li2, Na2 et NaLi, ont été calculées au niveau SCF (Self Consistent Field) et au niveau corrélé à partir d'une méthode invariante de jauge dépendante du temps(TDGI). Nos valeurs des polarisabilités statiques sont en accord avec les meilleurs déterminations expérimentales et théoriques. Les coefficients C6 de Van de Waals pour les interactions atome-atome, atome-dimère et dimère-dimère ont également été évalués.

  6. A semiclassical study of laser-induced atomic fluorescence from Na2, K2 and NaK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, J.-M.; Bhattacharyya, D. K.; George, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    A semiclassical treatment of laser-induced atomic fluorescence for the alkali-dimer systems Na2, K2 and NaK is presented. The variation of the fluorescence intensity with the frequency of the exciting laser photon is studied and a comparison of theoretical results with a set of experimental data is presented.

  7. Studies of rotationally inelastic collisions of NaK and NaCs with Ar and He perturbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Faust, C.; Richter, K.; Wolfe, C. M.; Ashman, S.; Malenda, R. F.; Weiser, P.; Carlus, S.; Fragale, A.; Hickman, A. P.; Huennekens, J.

    2013-05-01

    We report studies of rotationally inelastic collisions of Ar and He atoms with the molecules NaK and NaCs prepared in various ro-vibrational levels of the A1Σ+ electronic state. We use laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and polarization labeling (PL) spectroscopy in a pump-probe, two step excitation process. The pump excites the molecule to a ro-vibrational level (v , J) in the A state. The probe laser is scanned over transitions to the 31 Π state in NaK or the 53 Π state in NaCs. In addition to strong direct lines, we observe weak satellite lines that arise from collision-induced transitions of the A state level (v , J) to (v , J + ΔJ) . The ratio of intensities of the satellite line to the direct line in LIF and PL yields information about population and orientation transfer. Preliminary results show a strong propensity for collisions with ΔJ =even for NaK; the propensity is larger for He than for Ar. Collisions of NaCs with He show a similar propensity, but collisions of NaCs with Ar do not. Theoretical calculations are also underway. For He-NaK, we have completed potential surface calculations using GAMESS and coupled channel scattering calculations of rotational energy transfer and transfer of orientation. Work supported by NSF and XSEDE.

  8. Raman spectroscopic study of synthesized Na-bearing majoritic garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, K.

    2003-12-01

    Majoritic garnets in diamond have been considered as the sample from mantle transition zone (e.g. Moore and Gurney, 1985). For non-destructive, in-situ Raman analysis, Gillet et al. (2002) systematically checked chemistry and Raman peak of various majoritic garnets in diamond. They treated majoritic component as number of excess-silica than 3.0 per formula unit. However, in the basaltic system, majorite garnets also have significant amounts of Na. Na substitution is coupled with Si and Ti as follows; Na +Ti = Ca +Al (Ringwood and Lovering, 1970), Na +Si = Ca + Al (Sobolev and Labrentav, 1971; Ringwood and Major, 1971) or Na + Si = Mg + Al (Gasparik, 1989). Each component in garnet is defined as follows; Mj (majorite) component = ((Si-3)-Na)/2), NaSi (Na2MSi5O12 where M= Ca, Mg, Fe2+) component = (Na-T)/2, and NaTi component = Ti/2. Okamoto and Maruyama (2003) conducted UHP experiments in the MORB + H2O system (KNCFMATSH) at 10-19 GPa. They show that 1) Mj and NaTi component are constant and lower than 0.1 at T = 900 \\deg C, and 2) NaSi component increases drastically above 15 GPa although it is neglibly small at P<15 GPa. Raman spectra was newly analyzed using Okamoto and Maruyama (2003)'s run charges. Above 15 GPa, there is a characteristic sharp peak at 910 cm-1 and broad shoulder between 800 and 900 cm-1 as well as broad band near 960 cm-1. Gillet et at (2002) concluded that the former peak at 910cm-1 is the only reliable signature for the majoritic garnet (Si>3). They also implied that the latter two broad peaks are diagnostic feature for Ti rich garnet (> 1wt% of TiO2) as well as peak at 1030 cm-1. However, in all P range (10-19 GPa) of the present study, TiO2 is higher than 1wt%, and there is a peak at 1030 cm-1. Additional Ti-free experiment at 16 GPa, 1200 \\deg C clearly revealed that Na-bearing majoritic garnet has a significant shoulder at 800-900 cm-1. Ref; Gasparik (1989) CMP, 102,389, Gillet et al. (2002) Am.Min., 87, 312, Moore and Gurney (1985

  9. Preparation of Al-La Master Alloy by Thermite Reaction in NaF-NaCl-KCl Molten Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Poknam; Li, Hyonmo; Kim, Wenjae; Wang, Zhaowen; Liu, Fengguo

    2015-05-01

    A NaF-NaCl-KCl ternary system containing La2O3 was investigated for the preparation of Al-La master alloy by the thermite reaction method. The solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salt was determined by the method of isothermal solution saturation. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to consider the content of La2O3 in molten salt and the supernatant composition of molten salt after dissolution of La2O3, respectively. The results showed that the content of NaF had a positive influence on the solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salts, and the solubility of La2O3 could reach 8.71 wt.% in molten salts of 50 wt.%NaF-50 wt.% (44 wt.%NaCl + 56 wt.%KCl). The XRD pattern of cooling molten salt indicated the formation of LaOF in molten salt, which was probably obtained by the reaction between NaF and La2O3. The kinetic study showed that the thermite reaction was in accord with a first-order reaction model. The main influence factors on La content in the Al-La master alloy product, including molten salt composition, amount of Al, concentration of La2O3, stirring, reduction time and temperature, were investigated by single-factor experimentation. The content of La in the Al-La master alloy could be reached to 10.1 wt.%.

  10. Na intercalation in Fe-MIL-100 for aqueous Na-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Chavez, James S.; Harrison, Katharine L.; Sava Gallis, Dorina F.

    2017-05-04

    Here we report for the first time the feasibility of using metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as electrodes for aqueous Na-ion batteries. We show that Fe-MIL-100, a known redox-active MOF, is electrochemically active in a Na aqueous electrolyte, under various compositions. Emphasis was placed on investigating the electrode–electrolyte interface, with a focus on identifying the relationship between additives in the composition of the working electrode, particle size and overall performance. We found that the energy storage capacity is primarily dependent on the binder additive in the composite; the best activity for this MOF is obtained with Nafion as a binder, owing tomore » its hydrophilic and ion conducting nature. Kynar-bound electrodes are clearly less effective, due to their hydrophobic character, which impedes wetting of the electrode. The binder-free systems show the poorest electrochemical activity. There is little difference in the overall performance as function of particle size (micro vs. nano), implying the storage capacities in this study are not limited by ionic and/or electronic conductivity. Excellent reversibility and high coulombic efficiency are achieved at higher potential ranges, observed after cycle 20. That is despite progressive capacity decay observed in the initial cycles. Importantly, structural analyses of cycled working electrodes confirm that the long range crystallinity remains mainly unaltered with cycling. These findings suggest that limited reversibility of the intercalated Na ions in the lower potential range, together with the gradual lack of available active sites in subsequent cycles is responsible for the rapid decay in capacity retention.« less

  11. Na intercalation in Fe-MIL-100 for aqueous Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, James S.; Harrison, Katharine L.; Sava Gallis, Dorina F.

    Here we report for the first time the feasibility of using metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as electrodes for aqueous Na-ion batteries. We show that Fe-MIL-100, a known redox-active MOF, is electrochemically active in a Na aqueous electrolyte, under various compositions. Emphasis was placed on investigating the electrode–electrolyte interface, with a focus on identifying the relationship between additives in the composition of the working electrode, particle size and overall performance. We found that the energy storage capacity is primarily dependent on the binder additive in the composite; the best activity for this MOF is obtained with Nafion as a binder, owing tomore » its hydrophilic and ion conducting nature. Kynar-bound electrodes are clearly less effective, due to their hydrophobic character, which impedes wetting of the electrode. The binder-free systems show the poorest electrochemical activity. There is little difference in the overall performance as function of particle size (micro vs. nano), implying the storage capacities in this study are not limited by ionic and/or electronic conductivity. Excellent reversibility and high coulombic efficiency are achieved at higher potential ranges, observed after cycle 20. That is despite progressive capacity decay observed in the initial cycles. Importantly, structural analyses of cycled working electrodes confirm that the long range crystallinity remains mainly unaltered with cycling. These findings suggest that limited reversibility of the intercalated Na ions in the lower potential range, together with the gradual lack of available active sites in subsequent cycles is responsible for the rapid decay in capacity retention.« less

  12. Growth and characterization of struvite-Na crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Chetan K.; Joshi, Mihirkumar J.

    2014-09-01

    Sodium magnesium phosphate heptahydrate [NaMgPO4·7H2O], also known as struvite-Na, is the sodium analog to struvite. Among phosphate containing bio-minerals, struvite has attracted considerable attention, because of its common occurrence in a wide variety of environments. Struvite and family crystals were found as urinary calculi in humans and animals. Struvite-Na crystals were grown by a single diffusion gel growth technique in a silica hydro gel medium. Struvite-Na crystals with different morphologies having transparent to translucent diaphaneity were grown with different growth parameters. The phenomenon of Liesegang rings was also observed with some particular growth parameters. The powder XRD study confirmed the structural similarity of the grown struvite-Na crystals with struvite and found that struvite-Na crystallized in the orthorhombic Pmn21 space group with unit cell parameters such as a= 6.893 Å, b=6.124 Å, c=11.150 Å, and α=β=γ=90°. FT-IR spectra of struvite-Na crystals revealed the presence of functional groups. The TGA, DTA and DSC were carried out simultaneously. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dehydration/decomposition process were calculated. The variation of dielectric constant with frequency of applied field was studied in the range from 400 Hz to 100 kHz.

  13. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Drabińska, Aneta, E-mail: Aneta.Drabinska@fuw.edu.pl; Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał

    2015-01-07

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The mainmore » inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer.« less

  14. Characterization of ZnAl cast alloys with Na addition

    SciTech Connect

    Gancarz, Tomasz, E-mail: t.gancarz@imim.pl; Cempura, Grzegorz; Skuza, Wojciech

    2016-01-15

    This study was aimed at evaluating the microstructural change and thermal, electrical and mechanical properties with the addition of Na to eutectic ZnAl alloys. Solders based on eutectic ZnAl containing 0.2 to 3.0 (wt.%) of Na were developed for high temperature solder. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were performed to determine the melting temperatures of the alloys. Thermal linear expansion and electrical resistivity measurements were performed over − 50 °C to 300 °C and 30 °C to 300 °C temperature ranges, respectively. The microstructure of the specimens was analyzed using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Chemical microanalysismore » was performed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on SEM and TEM. The precipitates of NaZn{sub 13} were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) techniques. The addition of Na to eutectic ZnAl alloy increased the electrical resistivity and reduced the coefficient of thermal expansion; however, the melting point did not change. The mechanical properties, strain and microhardness increased with Na content in alloys. - Highlights: • High temperature soldering materials of ZnAl with Na were designed and characterized. • Precipitates of NaZn{sub 13}were observed and confirmed using TEM and XRD. • Addition of Na to eutectic ZnAl cussed increased mechanical properties. • NaZn{sub 13} caused increased electrical resistivity and microhardness, and reduced the CTE.« less

  15. Na+/H+ and Na+/NH4+ exchange activities of zebrafish NHE3b expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yusuke; Kato, Akira; Hirata, Taku; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish Na+/H+ exchanger 3b (zNHE3b) is highly expressed in the apical membrane of ionocytes where Na+ is absorbed from ion-poor fresh water against a concentration gradient. Much in vivo data indicated that zNHE3b is involved in Na+ absorption but not leakage. However, zNHE3b-mediated Na+ absorption has not been thermodynamically explained, and zNHE3b activity has not been measured. To address this issue, we overexpressed zNHE3b in Xenopus oocytes and characterized its activity by electrophysiology. Exposure of zNHE3b oocytes to Na+-free media resulted in significant decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) and intracellular Na+ activity (aNai). aNai increased significantly when the cytoplasm was acidified by media containing CO2-HCO3− or butyrate. Activity of zNHE3b was inhibited by amiloride or 5-ethylisopropyl amiloride (EIPA). Although the activity was accompanied by a large hyperpolarization of ∼50 mV, voltage-clamp experiments showed that Na+/H+ exchange activity of zNHE3b is electroneutral. Exposure of zNHE3b oocytes to medium containing NH3/NH4+ resulted in significant decreases in pHi and aNai and significant increase in intracellular NH4+ activity, indicating that zNHE3b mediates the Na+/NH4+ exchange. In low-Na+ (0.5 mM) media, zNHE3b oocytes maintained aNai of 1.3 mM, and Na+-influx was observed when pHi was decreased by media containing CO2-HCO3− or butyrate. These results provide thermodynamic evidence that zNHE3b mediates Na+ absorption from ion-poor fresh water by its Na+/H+ and Na+/NH4+ exchange activities. PMID:24401990

  16. Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Drubach, Laura A; Sapp, Mark V; Laffin, Stephen; Kleinman, Paul K

    2008-07-01

    We describe the use of 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution.

  17. High-Performance Na-O2 Batteries Enabled by Oriented NaO2 Nanowires as Discharge Products.

    PubMed

    Khajehbashi, S Mohammad B; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Guobin; Tan, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Lai-Sen; Li, Jiantao; Luo, Wen; Peng, Dong-Liang; Mai, Liqiang

    2018-06-13

    Na-O 2 batteries are emerging rechargeable batteries due to their high theoretical energy density and abundant resources, but they suffer from sluggish kinetics due to the formation of large-size discharge products with cubic or irregular particle shapes. Here, we report the unique growth of discharge products of NaO 2 nanowires inside Na-O 2 batteries that significantly boosts the performance of Na-O 2 batteries. For this purpose, a high-spin Co 3 O 4 electrocatalyst was synthesized via the high-temperature oxidation of pure cobalt nanoparticles in an external magnetic field. The discharge products of NaO 2 nanowires are 10-20 nm in diameter and ∼10 μm in length, characteristics that provide facile pathways for electron and ion transfer. With these nanowires, Na-O 2 batteries have surpassed 400 cycles with a fixed capacity of 1000 mA h g -1 , an ultra-low over-potential of ∼60 mV during charging, and near-zero over-potential during discharging. This strategy not only provides a unique way to control the morphology of discharge products to achieve high-performance Na-O 2 batteries but also opens up the opportunity to explore growing nanowires in novel conditions.

  18. Ecotoxicological evaluation of three deicers (NaCl, NaFo, CMA)-effect on terrestrial organisms.

    PubMed

    Robidoux, P Y; Delisle, C E

    2001-02-01

    The use of chemical deicers such as sodium chloride (NaCl) has increased significantly during the past three decades. Deicers induce metal corrosion and alter the physicochemical properties of soils and water. Environmental damage caused by the use of NaCl has prompted government agencies to find alternative deicers. This article presents a comparative ecotoxicological study of three deicers on soil organisms. Sodium formiate (NaFo) and calcium-magnesium acetate (CMA) are the most interesting commercially available deicers based upon their characteristics and potential toxicity. Organisms used in this study were four species of macrophytes (cress (Lepidium sativum), barley (Ordeum vulgare), red fescue grass (Festuca rubra), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis)) and an invertebrate (Eisenia fetida). Using standardized and modified methods, the relative toxicity of deicers was CMA < NaFo congruent with NaCl. The results demonstrate that these chemicals could have similar impacts in terrestrial environments since similar quantities of NaFo and greater amounts of CMA are necessary to achieve the same efficiency as NaCl. The toxicity of the tested substances was lower in natural composted soil than in artificial substrate (silica or OECD soil), indicating decreased environmental bioavailability. The response of the organisms changed according to endpoint, species, and soil characteristics (artificial substrate as compared to natural organic soil). The most sensitive endpoint measured was macrophyte growth with Kentucky bluegrass being the most sensitive species. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  19. Structure determination in 55-atom Li-Na and Na-K nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Andrés; López, José M

    2010-09-07

    The structure of 55-atom Li-Na and Na-K nanoalloys is determined through combined empirical potential (EP) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The potential energy surface generated by the EP model is extensively sampled by using the basin hopping technique, and a wide diversity of structural motifs is reoptimized at the DFT level. A composition comparison technique is applied at the DFT level in order to make a final refinement of the global minimum structures. For dilute concentrations of one of the alkali atoms, the structure of the pure metal cluster, namely, a perfect Mackay icosahedron, remains stable, with the minority component atoms entering the host cluster as substitutional impurities. At intermediate concentrations, the nanoalloys adopt instead a core-shell polyicosahedral (p-Ih) packing, where the element with smaller atomic size and larger cohesive energy segregates to the cluster core. The p-Ih structures show a marked prolate deformation, in agreement with the predictions of jelliumlike models. The electronic preference for a prolate cluster shape, which is frustrated in the 55-atom pure clusters due to the icosahedral geometrical shell closing, is therefore realized only in the 55-atom nanoalloys. An analysis of the electronic densities of states suggests that photoelectron spectroscopy would be a sufficiently sensitive technique to assess the structures of nanoalloys with fixed size and varying compositions.

  20. Electrochemical Dissolution of Tungsten Carbide in NaCl-KCl-Na2WO4 Molten Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Nie, Zuoren; Xi, Xiaoli; Ma, Liwen; Xiao, Xiangjun; Li, Ming

    2018-02-01

    Tungsten carbide was utilized as anode to extract tungsten in a NaCl-KCl-Na2WO4 molten salt, and the electrochemical dissolution was investigated. Although the molten salt electrochemical method is a short process method of tungsten extraction from tungsten carbide in one step, the dissolution efficiency and current efficiency are quite low. In order to improve the dissolution rate and current efficiency, the sodium tungstate was added as the active substance. The dissolution rate, the anode current efficiency, and the cathode current efficiency were calculated with different contents of sodium tungstate addition. The anodes prior to and following the reaction, as well as the product, were analyzed through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the sodium tungstate could improve the dissolution rate and the current efficiency, due to the addition of sodium tungstate decreasing the charge transfer resistance in the electrolysis system. Due to the fact that the addition of sodium tungstate could remove the carbon during electrolysis, pure tungsten powders with 100 nm diameter were obtained when the content of sodium tungstate was 1.0 pct.

  1. α-synuclein assemblies sequester neuronal α3-Na+/K+-ATPase and impair Na+ gradient

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amulya Nidhi; Redeker, Virginie; Fritz, Nicolas; Pieri, Laura; Almeida, Leandro G; Spolidoro, Maria; Liebmann, Thomas; Bousset, Luc; Renner, Marianne; Léna, Clément; Aperia, Anita; Melki, Ronald; Triller, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular α-synuclein (α-syn) assemblies can be up-taken by neurons; however, their interaction with the plasma membrane and proteins has not been studied specifically. Here we demonstrate that α-syn assemblies form clusters within the plasma membrane of neurons. Using a proteomic-based approach, we identify the α3-subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) as a cell surface partner of α-syn assemblies. The interaction strength depended on the state of α-syn, fibrils being the strongest, oligomers weak, and monomers none. Mutations within the neuron-specific α3-subunit are linked to rapid-onset dystonia Parkinsonism (RDP) and alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC). We show that freely diffusing α3-NKA are trapped within α-syn clusters resulting in α3-NKA redistribution and formation of larger nanoclusters. This creates regions within the plasma membrane with reduced local densities of α3-NKA, thereby decreasing the efficiency of Na+ extrusion following stimulus. Thus, interactions of α3-NKA with extracellular α-syn assemblies reduce its pumping activity as its mutations in RDP/AHC. PMID:26323479

  2. Characterization and antibacterial activity of silver exchanged regenerated NaY zeolite from surfactant-modified NaY zeolite.

    PubMed

    Salim, Mashitah Mad; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik

    2016-02-01

    The antibacterial activity of regenerated NaY zeolite (thermal treatment from cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified NaY zeolite and pretreatment with Na ions) loaded with silver ions were examined using the broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method against Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 11229) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 6538). X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and chemical elemental analyses were used to characterize the regenerated NaY and AgY zeolites. The XRD patterns indicated that the calcination and addition of silver ions on regenerated NaY zeolite did not affect the structure of the regenerated NaY zeolite as the characteristic peaks of the NaY zeolite were retained, and no new peaks were observed. The regenerated AgY zeolite showed good antibacterial activity against both bacteria strains in distilled water, and the antibacterial activity of the samples increased with increasing Ag loaded on the regenerated AgY zeolite; the regenerated AgY zeolite was more effective against E. coli than S. aureus. However, the antibacterial activity of the regenerated AgY was not effective in saline solution for both bacteria. The study showed that CTAB-modified NaY zeolite materials could be regenerated to NaY zeolite using thermal treatment (550°C, 5h) and this material has excellent performance as an antibacterial agent after silver ions loading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Degradation Of Carbon/Phenolic Composites By NaOH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. M.; Semmel, M. L.; Goldberg, B. E.; Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of sodium hydroxide contamination level on physical and chemical properties of phenolic resin and carbon/phenolic composites described in report. NaOH degrades both carbon and phenolic components of carbon/phenolic laminates.

  4. NaKnowBase”: A Nanomaterials Relational Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    NaKnowBase is an internal relational database populated with data from peer-reviewed ORD nanomaterials research publications. The database focuses on papers describing the actions of nanomaterials in environmental or biological media including their interactions, transformations...

  5. Redetermination of Na(3)TaF(8).

    PubMed

    Langer, Vratislav; Smrcok, Lubomír; Boca, Miroslav

    2010-09-01

    The crystal structure of trisodium octafluoridotantalate, Na(3)TaF(8), has been redetermined using diffractometer data collected at 153 K, resulting in more accurate bond distances and angles than obtained from a previous structure determination based on film data. The structure is built from layers running along [101], which are formed by distorted [TaF(8)] antiprisms and [NaF(6)] rectangular bipyramids sharing edges and corners. The individual layers are separated by eight-coordinated Na ions. Two atoms in the asymmetric unit are in special positions: the Ta atom is on a twofold axis in Wyckoff position 4e and one of the Na ions lies on an inversion centre in Wyckoff site 4d.

  6. NaKnowBase”: A Nanomaterials Relational Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    NaKnowBase is a relational database populated with data from peer-reviewed ORD nanomaterials research publications. The database focuses on papers describing the actions of nanomaterials in environmental or biological media including their interactions, transformations and poten...

  7. Interpretation of Na-K-Mg relations in geothermal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    When using a Na-K-???Mg triangular diagram as an aid in the interpretation of a geothermal water, the estimated temperature of last water-rock equilibration may change by as much as 50??C, depending on which of the many Na/K geothermometers one assumes is correct. A particular geothermometer may work well in one place and not in another because of differences in the mineralogy of the phases that are in contact with the reservoir fluid. The position of the full equilibrium line that is used for geothermometry and for assessing degrees of departure from equilibrium also changes as the assumed K/???Mg geothermometer equation changes. The degree of ambiguity can be evaluated by utilizing the results of all the recently published Na/K geothermometers on a single Na-K-???Mg triangular plot.

  8. An empirical NaKCa geothermometer for natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1973-01-01

    An empirical method of estimating the last temperature of water-rock interaction has been devised. It is based upon molar Na, K and Ca concentrations in natural waters from temperature environments ranging from 4 to 340??C. The data for most geothermal waters cluster near a straight line when plotted as the function log ( Na K) + ?? log [ ??? (Ca) Na] vs reciprocal of absolute temperature, where ?? is either 1 3 or 4 3 depending upon whether the water equilibrated above or below 100??C. For most waters tested, the method gives better results than the Na K methods suggested by other workers. The ratio Na K should not be used to estimate temperature if ??? ( MCa) MNa is greater than 1. The Na K values of such waters generally yield calculated temperatures much higher than the actual temperature at which water interacted with the rock. A comparison of the composition of boiling hot-spring water with that obtained from a nearby well (170??C) in Yellowstone Park shows that continued water-rock reactions may occur during ascent of water even though that ascent is so rapid that little or no heat is lost to the country rock, i.e. the water cools adiabatically. As a result of such continued reaction, waters which dissolve additional Ca as they ascend from the aquifer to the surface will yield estimated aquifer temperatures that are too low. On the other hand, waters initially having enough Ca to deposit calcium carbonate during ascent may yield estimated aquifer temperatures that are too high if aqueous Na and K are prevented from further reaction with country rock owing to armoring by calcite or silica minerals. The Na-K-Ca geothermometer is of particular interest to those prospecting for geothermal energy. The method also may be of use in interpreting compositions of fluid inclusions. ?? 1973.

  9. Na + Xe collisions in the presence of two nonresonant lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Vries, P. L.; Chang, C. H.; George, T. F.; Laskowski, B.; Stallcop, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Na+Xe collisions in the presence of two distinct laser fields (rhodamine 110 and Nd:glass) are investigated with reference to the response to nonresonant radiation of alkali metals collisionally perturbed by a buffer gas. It is found that the excited Na-asterisk (4s)+Xe state is produced with a measurable cross section due to two-photon absorption with field intensities as low as 10 MW/sq cm.

  10. High Capacity Na+/H+ Exchange Activity in Mineralizing Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Slack, Nicole M.; Friedman, Peter A.; Blair, Harry C.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoblasts synthesize bone in polarized groups of cells sealed by tight junctions. Large amounts of acid are produced as bone mineral is precipitated. We addressed the mechanism by which cells manage this acid load by measuring intracellular pH (pHi) in non-transformed osteoblasts in response to weak acid or bicarbonate loading. Basal pHi in mineralizing osteoblasts was ∼7.3 and decreased by ∼ 1.4 units upon replacing extracellular Na+ with N-methyl-d-glucamine. Loading with 40 mM acetic or propionic acids, in normal extracellular Na+, caused only mild cytosolic acidification. In contrast, in Na+-free solutions, weak acids reduced pHi dramatically. After Na+ reintroduction, pHi recovered rapidly, in keeping with Na+/H+exchanger (NHE) activity. Sodium-dependent pHi recovery from weak acid loading was inhibited by amiloride with the Ki consistent with NHEs. NHE1 and NHE6 were expressed strongly, and expression was upregulated highly, by mineralization, in human osteoblasts. Antibody labeling of mouse bone showed NHE1 on basolateral surfaces of all osteoblasts. NHE6 occurred on basolateral surfaces of osteoblasts mainly in areas of mineralization. Conversely, elevated HCO3- alkalinized osteoblasts, and pH recovered in medium containing CI-, with or without Na+, in keeping with Na+-independent CI-/HCO3- exchange. The exchanger AE2 also occurred on the basolateral surface of osteoblasts, consistent with CI-/HCO3- exchange for elimination of metabolic carbonate. Overexpression of NHE6 or knockdown of NHE1 in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells confirmed roles of NHE1 and NHE6 in maintaining pHi. We conclude that in mineralizing osteoblasts, slightly basic basal pHi is maintained, and external acid load is dissipated, by high-capacity Na+/H+ exchange via NHE1 and NHE6. PMID:21413028

  11. The enhancement of neutral metal Na layer above thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bingkun; Xue, Xianghui; Lu, Gaopeng; Kuo, Chengling; Dou, Xiankang; Gao, Qi; Qie, Xiushu; Wu, Jianfei; Tang, Yihuan

    2017-04-01

    Na (sodium) exists as layers of atoms in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) at altitudes between 80 and 105 km. It has lower ionization potential of 5.139 eV than atmospheric species, such as O2 (12.06 eV). Tropospheric thunderstorms affect the lower ionosphere and the ionospheric sporadic E (Es) at 100 km can also be influenced by lightning. The mechanism is expected to be associated with transient luminous events (TLE) as red sprites and gigantic jets at upper atmosphere. However, measurements of ionospheric electric fields of 20mV·m-1 above thunderstorms are less than estimated value (>48 0mV·m-1) to excite ionization in the lower ionosphere. We found an enhancement of Na layer above thunderstorms. The increase of Na density in the statistical result can be as much as 500 cm-3 and it will have an impact on ionospheric chemistry and modify the conductivity properties of the MLT region. The ionospheric observations made with two digisondes near the Na lidar, the thunderstorm model, ionosphere model, and Na chemistry model are all used to discuss the possible mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of Na layer after thunderstorms.

  12. Crystallization kinetics from mixture Na2SO4/glycerol droplets of Na2SO4 by FTIR-ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Dan-Ting; Cai, Chen; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Na; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2016-08-01

    The efflorescence of mixed Na2SO4/glycerol aerosols on the ZnSe substrate with various mole ratios (Na2SO4/glycerol = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4) has been studied in the relative humidity (RH) linearly decline process, using a situ Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) technique. The crystal ratio at a given RH can be gained by the absorbance of the band at 1132 cm-1, which shows the incomplete nucleation for mixed Na2SO4/glycerol aerosols and the decreased amount of the droplets crystallized at the lowest RH with the glycerol increase. Using the volume fraction of droplets that have yet to crystallize, the heterogeneous nucleation kinetics has been gained. By the Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM), the nucleation rate as the function of solute saturation degree has been gained for various mixed Na2SO4/glycerol aerosols.

  13. Carbon dioxide sequestration using NaHSO4 and NaOH: A dissolution and carbonation optimisation study.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Aimaro; Steel, Luc; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes

    2017-03-15

    The use of NaHSO 4 to leach out Mg fromlizardite-rich serpentinite (in form of MgSO 4 ) and the carbonation of CO 2 (captured in form of Na 2 CO 3 using NaOH) to form MgCO 3 and Na 2 SO 4 was investigated. Unlike ammonium sulphate, sodium sulphate can be separated via precipitation during the recycling step avoiding energy intensive evaporation process required in NH 4 -based processes. To determine the effectiveness of the NaHSO 4 /NaOH process when applied to lizardite, the optimisation of the dissolution and carbonation steps were performed using a UK lizardite-rich serpentine. Temperature, solid/liquid ratio, particle size, concentration and molar ratio were evaluated. An optimal dissolution efficiency of 69.6% was achieved over 3 h at 100 °C using 1.4 M sodium bisulphate and 50 g/l serpentine with particle size 75-150 μm. An optimal carbonation efficiency of 95.4% was achieved over 30 min at 90 °C and 1:1 magnesium:sodium carbonate molar ratio using non-synthesised solution. The CO 2 sequestration capacity was 223.6 g carbon dioxide/kg serpentine (66.4% in terms of Mg bonded to hydromagnesite), which is comparable with those obtained using ammonium based processes. Therefore, lizardite-rich serpentinites represent a valuable resource for the NaHSO 4 /NaOH based pH swing mineralisation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Na(+) transport, and the E(1)P-E(2)P conformational transition of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Babes, A; Fendler, K

    2000-01-01

    We have used admittance analysis together with the black lipid membrane technique to analyze electrogenic reactions within the Na(+) branch of the reaction cycle of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. ATP release by flash photolysis of caged ATP induced changes in the admittance of the compound membrane system that are associated with partial reactions of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Frequency spectra and the Na(+) dependence of the capacitive signal are consistent with an electrogenic or electroneutral E(1)P <--> E(2)P conformational transition which is rate limiting for a faster electrogenic Na(+) dissociation reaction. We determine the relaxation rate of the rate-limiting reaction and the equilibrium constants for both reactions at pH 6.2-8.5. The relaxation rate has a maximum value at pH 7.4 (approximately 320 s(-1)), which drops to acidic (approximately 190 s(-1)) and basic (approximately 110 s(-1)) pH. The E(1)P <--> E(2)P equilibrium is approximately at a midpoint position at pH 6.2 (equilibrium constant approximately 0.8) but moves more to the E(1)P side at basic pH 8.5 (equilibrium constant approximately 0.4). The Na(+) affinity at the extracellular binding site decreases from approximately 900 mM at pH 6.2 to approximately 200 mM at pH 8.5. The results suggest that during Na(+) transport the free energy supplied by the hydrolysis of ATP is mainly used for the generation of a low-affinity extracellular Na(+) discharge site. Ionic strength and lyotropic anions both decrease the relaxation rate. However, while ionic strength does not change the position of the conformational equilibrium E(1)P <--> E(2)P, lyotropic anions shift it to E(1)P. PMID:11053130

  15. Modulation of contraction by intracellular Na+ via Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange in single shark (Squalus acanthias) ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Näbauer, M; Morad, M

    1992-01-01

    1. The effect of direct alteration of intracellular Na+ concentration on contractile properties of whole-cell clamped shark ventricular myocytes was studied using an array of 256 photodiodes to monitor the length of the isolated myocytes. 2. In myocytes dialysed with Na(+)-free solution, the voltage dependence of Ca2+ current (ICa) and contraction were similar and bell shaped. Contractions activated at all voltages were completely suppressed by nifedipine (5 microM), and failed to show significant tonic components, suggesting dependence of the contraction on Ca2+ influx through the L-type Ca2+ channel. 3. In myocytes dialysed with 60 mM Na+, a ICa-dependent and a ICa-independent component of contraction could be identified. The Ca2+ current-dependent component was prominent in voltages between -30 to +10 mV. The ICa-independent contractions were maintained for the duration of depolarization, increased with increasing depolarization between +10 to +100 mV, and were insensitive to nifedipine. 4. In such myocytes, repolarization produced slowly decaying inward tail currents closely related to the time course of relaxation and the degree of shortening prior to repolarization. 5. With 60 mM Na+ in the pipette solution, positive clamp potentials activated decaying outward currents which correlated to the size of contraction. These outward currents appeared to be generated by the Na(+)-Ca(2+)-exchanger since they depended on the presence of intracellular Na+, and were neither suppressed by nifedipine nor by K+ channel blockers. 6. The results suggest that in shark (Squalus acanthias) ventricular myocytes, which lack functionally relevant Ca2+ release pools, both Ca2+ channel and the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger deliver sufficient Ca2+ to activate contraction, though the effectiveness of the latter mechanism was highly dependent on the [Na+]i. PMID:1338467

  16. Experimental and first-principles study of photoluminescent and optical properties of Na-doped CuAlO2: the role of the NaAl-2Na i complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruijian; Li, Yongfeng; Yao, Bin; Ding, Zhanhui; Deng, Rui; Zhang, Ligong; Zhao, Haifeng; Liu, Lei

    2015-08-01

    We report that a band-tail emission at 3.08 eV, lower than near-band-edge energy, is observed in photoluminescence measurements of bulk Na-doped CuAlO2. The band-tail emission is attributed to Na-related defects. Electronic structure calculations based on the first-principles method demonstrate that the donor-acceptor compensated complex of NaAl-2Na i in Na-doped CuAlO2 plays a key role in leading to the band-tail emission and bandgap narrowing. Furthermore, Hall effect measurements indicates that the hole concentration in CuAlO2 is independent on Na doping, which is well understood by the donor-acceptor compensation effect of NaAl-2Na i complex.

  17. pH-regulative synthesis of Na 3(VPO 4) 2F 3 nanoflowers and their improved Na cycling stability

    DOE PAGES

    Qi, Yuruo; Mu, Linqin; Zhao, Junmei; ...

    2016-04-08

    Na-ion batteries are becoming increasingly attractive as a low cost energy storage device. Sodium vanadium fluorophosphates have been studied extensively recently due to their high storage capacity and high discharge voltage. Shape and size often have a crucial influence over the properties. The controlling synthesis of nanoparticles with special microstructures is significant, which becomes a challenging issue and has drawn considerable attention. In this study, Na 3(VPO 4) 2F 3 nanoflowers have been synthesized via a pH-regulative low-temperature (120 °C) hydro-thermal route. In particular, it is a green route without any organic compounds involved. The hydro-thermal reaction time for themore » formation of Na 3(VPO 4) 2F 3 nanoflowers has also been investigated. A weak acid environment (pH = 2.60) with the possible presence of hydrogen fluoride molecules is necessary for the formation of the desired nanoflower microstructures. Moreover, compared to the nanoparticles obtained by Na 2HPO 4·12H 2O, the as-synthesized Na 3(VPO 4) 2F 3 nanoflowers showed an excellent Na-storage performance in terms of superior cycle stability, even without any further carbon coating or high-temperature treatment.« less

  18. Use-dependent inhibition of Na+ currents by benzocaine homologs.

    PubMed Central

    Quan, C; Mok, W M; Wang, G K

    1996-01-01

    Most local anesthetics (LAs) elicit use-dependent inhibition of Na+ currents when excitable membranes are stimulated repetitively. One exception to this rule is benzocaine, a neutral LA that fails to produce appreciable use-dependent inhibition. In this study, we have examined the use-dependent phenomenon of three benzocaine homologs: ethyl 4-diethylaminobenzoate, ethyl 4-ethoxybenzoate, and ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate. Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate at 1 mM, like benzocaine, elicited little use-dependent inhibition of Na+ currents, whereas ethyl 4-diethylaminobenzoate at 0.15 mM and ethyl 4-ethoxybenzoate at 0.5 mM elicited substantial use-dependent inhibition--up to 55% of peak Na+ currents were inhibited by repetitive depolarizations at 5 Hz. Each of these compounds produced significant tonic block of Na+ currents at rest and shifted the steady-state inactivation curve (h infinity) toward the hyperpolarizing direction. Kinetic analyses showed that the decaying phase of Na+ currents during a depolarizing pulse was significantly accelerated by all drugs, thus suggesting that these drugs also block the activated channel. The recovery time course for the use-dependent inhibition of Na+ currents was relatively slow, with time constants of 6.8 and 4.4 s for ethyl 4-diethylaminobenzoate and ethyl 4-ethoxybenzoate, respectively. We conclude that benzocaine and 4-hydroxybenzoate interact with the open and inactivated channels during repetitive pulses, but during the interpulse the complex dissociates too fast to accumulate sufficient use-dependent block of Na+ currents. In contrast, ethyl 4-diethylaminobenzoate and ethyl 4-ethoxybenzoate dissociate slowly from their binding site and consequently elicit significant use-dependent block. A common LA binding site suffices to explain the presence and absence of use-dependent block by benzocaine homologs during repetitive pulses. PMID:8770198

  19. Quantitative (23) Na MRI of human knee cartilage using dual-tuned (1) H/(23) Na transceiver array radiofrequency coil at 7 tesla.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chan Hong; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Zhao, Tiejun; Bae, Kyongtae Ty

    2013-11-01

    To develop quantitative dual-tuned (DT) (1) H/(23) Na MRI of human knee cartilage in vivo at 7 Tesla (T). A sensitive (23) Na transceiver array RF coil was developed at 7T. B1 fields generated by the transceiver array coil were characterized and corrected in the (23) Na images. Point spread function (PSF) of the (23) Na images was measured, and the signal decrease due to partial-volume-effect was compensated in [(23) Na] quantification of knee cartilage. SNR and [(23) Na] in anterior femoral cartilage were measured from seven healthy subjects. SNR of (23) Na image with the transceiver array coil was higher than that of birdcage coil. SNR in the cartilage at 2-mm isotropic resolution was 26.80 ± 3.69 (n = 7). B1 transmission and reception fields produced by the DT coil at 7T were similar to each other. Effective full-width-half-maximum of (23) Na image was ∼5 mm at 2-mm resolution. Mean [(23) Na] was 288.13 ± 29.50 mM (n = 7) in the anterior femoral cartilage of normal subjects. We developed a new high-sensitivity (23) Na RF coil for knee MRI at 7T. Our (1) H/(23) Na MRI allowed quantitative measurement of [(23) Na] in knee cartilage by measuring PSF and cartilage thickness from (23) Na and (1) H image, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Thermodynamic description of Tc(iv) solubility and carbonate complexation in alkaline NaHCO3-Na2CO3-NaCl systems.

    PubMed

    Baumann, A; Yalçıntaş, E; Gaona, X; Polly, R; Dardenne, K; Prüßmann, T; Rothe, J; Altmaier, M; Geckeis, H

    2018-03-28

    The solubility of 99 Tc(iv) was investigated in dilute to concentrated carbonate solutions (0.01 M ≤ C tot ≤ 1.0 M, with C tot = [HCO 3 - ] + [CO 3 2- ]) under systematic variation of ionic strength (I = 0.3-5.0 M NaHCO 3 -Na 2 CO 3 -NaCl-NaOH) and pH m (-log[H + ] = 8.5-14.5). Strongly reducing conditions (pe + pH m ≈ 2) were set with Sn(ii). Carbonate enhances the solubility of Tc(iv) in alkaline conditions by up to 3.5 log 10 -units compared to carbonate-free systems. Solvent extraction and XANES confirmed that Tc was kept as +IV during the timeframe of the experiments (≤ 650 days). Solid phase characterization performed by XAFS, XRD, SEM-EDS, chemical analysis and TG-DTA confirmed that TcO 2 ·0.6H 2 O(am) controls the solubility of Tc(iv) under the conditions investigated. Slope analysis of the solubility data in combination with solid/aqueous phase characterization and DFT calculations indicate the predominance of the species Tc(OH) 3 CO 3 - at pH m ≤ 11 and C tot ≥ 0.01 M, for which thermodynamic and activity models are derived. Solubility data obtained above pH m ≈ 11 indicates the formation of previously unreported Tc(iv)-carbonate species, possibly Tc(OH) 4 CO 3 2- , although the likely formation of additional complexes prevents deriving a thermodynamic model valid for this pH m -region. This work provides the most comprehensive thermodynamic dataset available for the system Tc 4+ -Na + -Cl - -OH - -HCO 3 - -CO 3 2- -H 2 O(l) valid under a range of conditions relevant for nuclear waste disposal.

  1. Thyroid thermogenesis. Relationships between Na+-dependent respiration and Na+ + K+-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Y; Liberman, U A; Edelman, I S

    1976-01-01

    The effect of thyroid status on QO2, QO2 (t) and NaK-ATPase activity was examined in rat skeletal muscle. QO2(t) (i.e. Na+-transport-dependent respiration) was estimated with ouabain or Na+-free media supplemented with K+. In contrast to the effects of ouabain on ion composition, intracellular K+ was maintained at about 125 meq/liter, and intracellular Na+ was almost nil in the Na+-free media. The estimates of QO2(t) were independent of the considerable differences in tissue ion concentrations. The increase in QO2(t) account for 47% of the increase in QO2 in the transition from the hypothyroid to the euthyroid state and 84% of the increase in the transition from the euthyroid to the hyperthyroid state. Surgical thyroidectomy lowered NaK-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction (expressed per milligram protein) 32%; injections of triodothyronine (T3) increased this activity 75% in initially hypothyroid rats and 26% in initially euthyroid rats. Thyroidectomy was attended by significant falls in serum Ca and Pi concentrations. Administration of T3 resulted in further declines in serum Ca and marked increases in serum Ps concentrations. Similar effects were seen in 131I-treated rats, but the magnitude of the declines in serum Ca were less. The effects of T3 on QO2, QO2(t), and NaK-ATPase activity of skeletal muscle were indistinguishable in the 131I-ablated and surgically thyroidectomized rats. In thyroidectomized or euthyroid rats given repeated doses of T3, QO2(t) and NaA-ATPase activity increased proportionately. In thyroidectomized rats injected with single doses of T3, either 10, 50, or 250 mug/100 g body wt, QO2(t) increased linearly with NaK-ATPase activity. The kinetics of the NaK-ATPase activity was assessed with an ATP-generating system. T3 elicited a significant increase in Vmax with no change in Km for ATP. PMID:130385

  2. A Sensor Based on LiCl/NaA Zeolite Composites for Effective Humidity Sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Xiang, Hongyu; Sun, Liang; Xie, Qiuhong; Liu, Man; Chen, Yu; Ruan, Shengping

    2018-03-01

    LiCl/NaA zeolite composites were successfully prepared by doping 1 wt%, 2 wt%, 5 wt%, and 8 wt% of LiCl into NaA zeolite. The humidity sensing properties of LiCl/NaA composites were investigated among 11% 95% relative humidity (RH). The LiCl/NaA composites exhibited better humidity sensing properties than pure NaA zeolite. The sensor made by 2 wt% Li-doped NaA zeolite possesses the best linearly in the whole RH. These results demonstrate that the LiCl/NaA composites have the potential application in humidity sensing.

  3. High-Pressure Polymorph of NaBiO3.

    PubMed

    Naa, Octavianti; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Miura, Akira; Takei, Takahiro; Azuma, Masaki; Kusano, Yoshihiro; Oka, Kengo

    2016-06-20

    A new high-pressure polymorph of NaBiO3 (hereafter β-NaBiO3) was synthesized under the conditions of 6 GPa and 600 °C. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern of this new phase was indexed with a hexagonal cell of a = 9.968(1) Å and c = 3.2933(4) Å. Crystal structure refinement using synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data led to RWP = 8.53% and RP = 5.55%, and the crystal structure was closely related with that of Ba2SrY6O12. No photocatalytic activity for phenol decomposition was observed under visible-light irradiation in spite of a good performance for its mother compound, NaBiO3. The optical band-gap energy of β-NaBiO3 was narrower than that of NaBiO3, which was confirmed with density of states curves simulated by first-principles density functional theory calculation.

  4. Salinity controls on Na incorporation in Red Sea planktonic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezger, E. M.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Boer, W.; Brummer, G. J. A.; Reichart, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Whereas several well-established proxies are available for reconstructing past temperatures, salinity remains challenging to assess. Reconstructions based on the combination of (in)organic temperature proxies and foraminiferal stable oxygen isotopes result in relatively large uncertainties, which may be reduced by application of a direct salinity proxy. Cultured benthic and planktonic foraminifera showed that Na incorporation in foraminiferal shell calcite provides a potential independent proxy for salinity. Here we present the first field calibration of such a potential proxy. Living planktonic foraminiferal specimens from the Red Sea surface waters were collected and analyzed for their Na/Ca content using laser ablation quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using the Red Sea as a natural laboratory, the calibration covers a broad range of salinities over a steep gradient within the same water mass. For both Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerinoides sacculifer calcite Na/Ca increases with salinity, albeit with a relatively large intraspecimen and interspecimen variability. The field-based calibration is similar for both species from a salinity of 36.8 up to 39.6, while values for G. sacculifer deviate from this trend in the northernmost transect. It is hypothesized that the foraminifera in the northernmost part of the Red Sea are (partly) expatriated and hence should be excluded from the Na/Ca-salinity calibration. Incorporation of Na in foraminiferal calcite therefore provides a potential proxy for salinity, although species-specific calibrations are still required and more research on the effect of temperature is needed.

  5. Na(7)Mg(13)Nd(PO(4))(12).

    PubMed

    Jerbi, Hasna; Hidouri, Mourad; Mongi, Ben Amara

    2012-06-01

    Investigations of the quasi-ternary system Na(3)PO(4)-Mg(3)(PO(4))(2)-NdPO(4) allowed us to obtain the new phosphate hepta-sodium trideca-magnesium neodymium dodeca-kis-phosphate, Na(7)Mg(13)Nd(PO(4))(12), by applying a flux method. The crystal structure is isotypic with that of the previously reported Na(7)Mg(13)Ln(PO(4))(12) (Ln = Eu, La) compounds. It consists of a complex three-dimensional framework built up from an NdO(8) polyhedron (m symmetry), an MO(6) octa-hedron statistically occupied by M = Mg and Na, and eight MgO(x) (x = 5, 6) polyhedra (four with site symmetry m), linked either directely by sharing corners, edges and faces, or by one of the eight unique PO(4) tetra-hedra through common corners. Two of the PO(4) tetra-hedra are statisticaly disordered over a mirror plane. The whole structure can be described as resutling from an assembly of two types of structural units, viz [Mg(4)MP(4)O(22)](∞) (2) layers extending parallel to (100) and stacked along [100], and [Mg(4)NdP(4)O(36)](∞) (1) undulating chains running along the [010] direction. The six different Na(+) cations (five with site symmetry m and one with 0.5 occupancy) are situated in six distinct cavities delimited by the framework. The structure was refined from data of a racemic twin.

  6. Mercury Na exospheric emission related to solar disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsini, S.; Mangano, V.; Milillo, A.; Plainaki, C.; Mura, A.; Massetti, S.; Raines, J. M.; De Angelis, E.; Rispoli, R.; Lazzarotto, F.; Aronica, A.

    2017-09-01

    A first attempt to use Na exospheric emission at Mercury as a proxy of CME transit is presented, in a kind of planetary space weather. The link existing between the dayside exosphere Na pattern at Mercury and the solar wind-magnetosphere-surface interactions is investigated. This goal is pursued by analyzing the Na hourly average distributions, as observed by the ground-based THEMIS solar telescope during 10 selected periods between 2012 and 2013 (seeing <2"), when also data from MESSENGER were available. Very often a two-peak pattern of variable intensity is observed, symmetrically located at high latitudes in both hemispheres. Occasionally, the signal is instead diffused above the sub-solar region. We compare these different Na emission patterns with the time profiles of proton fluxes and magnetic field data, as measured in-situ by MESSENGER. Among these 10 cases, only in one occasion the Na signal is all the time diffused above the subsolar region, and only in this case the MESSENGER data indicate the occurrence of significant solar CME perturbations.

  7. Na[superscript +] binding to meizothrombin desF1

    SciTech Connect

    Papaconstantinou, M.E.; Gandhi, P.S.; Chen, Z.

    2009-06-10

    Meizothrombin is the physiologically active intermediate generated by a single cleavage of prothrombin at R320 to separate the A and B chains. Recent evidence has suggested that meizothrombin, like thrombin, is a Na{sup +}-activated enzyme. In this study we present the first X-ray crystal structure of human meizothrombin desF1 solved in the presence of the active site inhibitor PPACK at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. The structure reveals a Na{sup +} binding site whose architecture is practically identical to that of human thrombin. Stopped-flow measurements of Na{sup +} binding to meizothrombin desF1 document a slow phase of fluorescence change with a kmore » obs decreasing hyperbolically with increasing [Na{sup +}], consistent with the existence of three conformations in equilibrium, E*, E and E:Na{sup +}, as for human thrombin. Evidence that meizothrombin exists in multiple conformations provides valuable new information for studies of the mechanism of prothrombin activation.« less

  8. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites

    DOE PAGES

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; ...

    2015-06-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. We investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe 4Sb 12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for amore » material near an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe 4P 12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe 4Sb 12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe 4As 12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb 3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form.« less

  9. Electronic structure and molecular dynamics of Na2Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malcolm, Nathaniel O. J.; McDouall, Joseph J. W.

    Following the first report (Mile, B., Sillman, P. D., Yacob, A. R. and Howard, J. A., 1996, J. chem. Soc. Dalton Trans , 653) of the EPR spectrum of the mixed alkali-metal trimer Na2Li a detailed study has been made of the electronic structure and structural dynamics of this species. Two isomeric forms have been found: one of the type, Na-Li-Na, of C , symmetry and another, Li-Na-Na, of C symmetry. Also, there are two linear saddle points which correspond to 'inversion' transition structures, and a saddle point of C symmetry which connects the two minima. A molecular dynamics investigation of these species shows that, at the temperature of the reported experiments (170 K), the C minimum is not 'static', but undergoes quite rapid inversion. At higher temperatures the C minimum converts to the C form, but by a mechanism very different from that suggested by minimum energy path considerations. 2 2v s s 2v 2v s

  10. Na+/H+ antiport is essential for Yersinia pestis virulence.

    PubMed

    Minato, Yusuke; Ghosh, Amit; Faulkner, Wyatt J; Lind, Erin J; Schesser Bartra, Sara; Plano, Gregory V; Jarrett, Clayton O; Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Winogrodzki, Judith; Dibrov, Pavel; Häse, Claudia C

    2013-09-01

    Na(+)/H(+) antiporters are ubiquitous membrane proteins that play a central role in the ion homeostasis of cells. In this study, we examined the possible role of Na(+)/H(+) antiport in Yersinia pestis virulence and found that Y. pestis strains lacking the major Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, NhaA and NhaB, are completely attenuated in an in vivo model of plague. The Y. pestis derivative strain lacking the nhaA and nhaB genes showed markedly decreased survival in blood and blood serum ex vivo. Complementation of either nhaA or nhaB in trans restored the survival of the Y. pestis nhaA nhaB double deletion mutant in blood. The nhaA nhaB double deletion mutant also showed inhibited growth in an artificial serum medium, Opti-MEM, and a rich LB-based medium with Na(+) levels and pH values similar to those for blood. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that intact Na(+)/H(+) antiport is indispensable for the survival of Y. pestis in the bloodstreams of infected animals and thus might be regarded as a promising noncanonical drug target for infections caused by Y. pestis and possibly for those caused by other blood-borne bacterial pathogens.

  11. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 surface treatment with Na and NaF: A combined photoelectron spectroscopy and surface photovoltage study in ultra-high vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvan, V.; Mizrak, A.; Majumdar, I.; Ümsür, B.; Calvet, W.; Greiner, D.; Kaufmann, C. A.; Dittrich, T.; Avancini, E.; Lauermann, I.

    2018-06-01

    Either metallic Na or NaF were deposited onto Cu(In,Ga)Se2 surfaces and studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and surface photovoltage spectroscopy without breaking the ultra-high vacuum. The deposition of elemental Na at room temperature led to the formation of an intermediate Cu and Ga rich layer at the CIGSe surface, whereas for NaF the composition of the CIGSe surface remained unchanged. A metal like surface induced by an inverted near surface region with a reduced number of defect states was formed after the deposition of Na. Under the chosen experimental conditions, the near surface layer was independent on the amount of Na and stable in time. In contrast, the usage of NaF weakened the inversion and led to an increased band bending compared to the untreated CIGSe sample. The SPV signals decreased with proceeding time after the deposition of NaF.

  12. Adsorption and Formation of Small Na Clusters on Pristine and Double-Vacancy Graphene for Anodes of Na-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhicong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Singh, David J

    2017-05-24

    Layered carbon is a likely anode material for Na-ion batteries (NIBs). Graphitic carbon has a low capacity of approximately 35 (mA h)/g due to the formation of NaC 64 . Using first-principles methods including van der Waals interactions, we analyze the adsorption of Na ions and clusters on graphene in the context of anodes. The interaction between Na ions and graphene is found to be weak. Small Na clusters are not stable on the surface of pristine graphene in the electrochemical environment of NIBs. However, we find that Na ions and clusters can be stored effectively on defected graphene that has double vacancies. In addition, the adsorption energy of small Na clusters near a double vacancy is found to decrease with increasing cluster size. With high concentrations of vacancies the capacity of Na on defective graphene is found to be as much as 10-30 times higher than that of graphitic carbon.

  13. The Na(+) transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na(+) accumulation in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan; Xu, Bo; Krishnan, Mahima; Lightfoot, Damien James; Athman, Asmini; Jacobs, Andrew Keith; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S; Plett, Darren; Munns, Rana; Tester, Mark; Gilliham, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K(+) /Na(+) ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na(+) -selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na(+) concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na(+) from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na(+) from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na(+) exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K(+) /Na(+) ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. EDITORIAL: TaCoNa-Photonics 2008 TaCoNa-Photonics 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Busch, Kurt; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on theoretical and computational nano-photonics features papers presented at the first International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Nano-Photonics (TaCoNa-Photonics 2008) held in Bad Honnef, Germany, 3-5 December 2008. The workshop covered a broad range of topics related to current developments and achievements in this interdisciplinary area of research. Since the late 1960s, the word `photonics' has been understood as the science of generating, controlling, and detecting light. Nowadays, a routine fabrication of complex structures with micro- and nano-scale dimensions opens up many new and exciting possibilities in photonics. The science of generating, routing and detecting light in micro- and nano-structured matter, `nano-photonics', is becoming more important both in research and technology and offers many promising applications. The inherently sub-wavelength character of the structures that nano-photonics deals with challenges modern theoretical and computational physics and engineering with many nontrivial questions: Up to what length-scale can one use a macroscopic phenomenological description of matter? Where is the interface between the classical and quantum description of light in nano-scale structures? How can one combine different physical systems, different time- and length-scales in a single computational model? How can one engineer nano-structured materials in order to achieve the desired optical properties for particular applications? Any attempt at answering these kinds of questions is impossible without the joint efforts of physicists, engineers, applied mathematicians and programmers. This is the reason why the major goal of the TaCoNa-Photonics workshops is to provide a forum where theoreticians and specialists in numerical methods from all branches of physics, engineering sciences and mathematics can compare their results, report on novel results and breakthroughs, and discuss new challenges ahead. In order to

  15. Na7 [Fe2S6 ] , Na2 [FeS2 ] and Na2 [FeSe2 ] : New 'reduced' sodium chalcogenido ferrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüble, Pirmin; Peschke, Simon; Johrendt, Dirk; Röhr, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    Three new 'reduced' FeII containing sodium chalcogenido ferrates were obtained applying a reductive synthetic route. The mixed-valent sulfido ferrate Na7 [Fe2S6 ] , which forms bar-shaped crystals with metallic greenish luster, was synthesized in pure phase from natural pyrite and elemental sodium at a maximum temperature of 800 °C. Its centrosymmetric triclinic structure (SG P 1 bar , a = 764.15(2), b = 1153.70(2), c = 1272.58(3) pm, α = 62.3325 (7) , β = 72.8345 (8) , γ = 84.6394 (8) ° , Z = 3, R1 = 0.0185) exhibits two crystallographically different [Fe2S6 ] 7 - dimers of edge-sharing [FeS4 ] tetrahedra, with somewhat larger Fe-S distances than in the fully oxidized FeIII dimers of e.g. Na6 [Fe2III S6 ] . In contrast to the localized AFM ordered pure di-ferrates(III), the Curie-Weiss behavior of the magnetic susceptibility proves the rarely observed valence-delocalized S = 9/2 state of the mixed-valent FeIII /FeII dimer. The nearly spin-only value of the magnetic moment combined with the chemical bonding not generally differing from that in pure ferrates(II) and (III), provides a striking argument, that the reduction of the local Fe spin moments observed in all condensed sulfido ferrate moieties is connected with the AFM spin ordering. The two isotypic ferrates(II) Na2 [FeS2 ] and Na2 [FeSe2 ] with chain-like structural units (SG Ibam, a = 643.54(8)/ 660.81(1), b = 1140.2(2)/1190.30(2) c = 562.90(6)/585.59(1) pm, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0372/0.0466) crystallize in the K2 [ZnO2 ] -type structure. Although representing merely further members of the common series of chalcogenido metallates(II) Na2 [MIIQ2 ] , these two new phases, together with Na6 [FeS4 ] and Li2 [FeS2 ] , are the only examples of pure FeII alkali chalcogenido ferrates. The new compounds allow for a general comparison of di- and chain ferrates(II) and (III) and mixed-valent analogs concerning the electronic and magnetic properties (including Heisenberg super-exchange and double-exchange interactions

  16. IR-IR Conformation Specific Spectroscopy of Na +(Glucose) Adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, Jonathan M.; Kregel, Steven J.; Fischer, Kaitlyn C.

    Here in this paper we report an IR-IR double resonance study of the structural landscape present in the Na +(glucose) complex. Our experimental approach involves minimal modifications to a typical IR predissociation setup, and can be carried out via ion-dip or isomer-burning methods, providing additional flexibility to suit different experimental needs. In the current study, the single-laser IR predissociation spectrum of Na +(glucose), which clearly indicates contributions from multiple structures, was experimentally disentangled to reveal the presence of three α-conformers and five β-conformers. Comparisons with calculations show that these eight conformations correspond to the lowest energy gas-phase structures with distinctivemore » Na+ coordination.« less

  17. HARP and NA61 (SHINE) hadron production experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Boris A.

    2009-11-25

    The hadroproduction experiments HARP and NA61 (SHINE) as well as their implications for neutrino physics are discussed. Recent HARP measurements have already been used for precise predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve the atmospheric neutrino flux predictions and to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. First preliminary data from NA61 are of significant importance for a precise prediction of a new neutrino beam at J-PARC to be used for the first stage of the T2K experiment. Both HARP and NA61 provide a large amount of inputmore » for validation and tuning of hadroproduction models in Monte-Carlo generators.« less

  18. IR-IR Conformation Specific Spectroscopy of Na +(Glucose) Adducts

    DOE PAGES

    Voss, Jonathan M.; Kregel, Steven J.; Fischer, Kaitlyn C.; ...

    2017-09-27

    Here in this paper we report an IR-IR double resonance study of the structural landscape present in the Na +(glucose) complex. Our experimental approach involves minimal modifications to a typical IR predissociation setup, and can be carried out via ion-dip or isomer-burning methods, providing additional flexibility to suit different experimental needs. In the current study, the single-laser IR predissociation spectrum of Na +(glucose), which clearly indicates contributions from multiple structures, was experimentally disentangled to reveal the presence of three α-conformers and five β-conformers. Comparisons with calculations show that these eight conformations correspond to the lowest energy gas-phase structures with distinctivemore » Na+ coordination.« less

  19. Shoot Na+ Exclusion and Increased Salinity Tolerance Engineered by Cell Type–Specific Alteration of Na+ Transport in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Inge S.; Gilliham, Matthew; Jha, Deepa; Mayo, Gwenda M.; Roy, Stuart J.; Coates, Juliet C.; Haseloff, Jim; Tester, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Soil salinity affects large areas of cultivated land, causing significant reductions in crop yield globally. The Na+ toxicity of many crop plants is correlated with overaccumulation of Na+ in the shoot. We have previously suggested that the engineering of Na+ exclusion from the shoot could be achieved through an alteration of plasma membrane Na+ transport processes in the root, if these alterations were cell type specific. Here, it is shown that expression of the Na+ transporter HKT1;1 in the mature root stele of Arabidopsis thaliana decreases Na+ accumulation in the shoot by 37 to 64%. The expression of HKT1;1 specifically in the mature root stele is achieved using an enhancer trap expression system for specific and strong overexpression. The effect in the shoot is caused by the increased influx, mediated by HKT1;1, of Na+ into stelar root cells, which is demonstrated in planta and leads to a reduction of root-to-shoot transfer of Na+. Plants with reduced shoot Na+ also have increased salinity tolerance. By contrast, plants constitutively expressing HKT1;1 driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter accumulated high shoot Na+ and grew poorly. Our results demonstrate that the modification of a specific Na+ transport process in specific cell types can reduce shoot Na+ accumulation, an important component of salinity tolerance of many higher plants. PMID:19584143

  20. Experimental study of the astrophysically important Na 23 ( α , p ) Mg 26 and Na 23 ( α , n ) Al 26 reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, M. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.

    The 23Na(α,p) 26Mg and 23Na(α,n) 26Al reactions are important for our understanding of the 26Al abundance in massive stars. The aim of this work is to report on a direct and simultaneous measurement of these astrophysically important reactions using an active target system. The reactions were investigated in inverse kinematics using 4He as the active target gas in the detector. We measured the excitation functions in the energy range of about 2 to 6 MeV in the center of mass. We have found that the cross sections of the 23Na(α,p) 26Mg and the 23Na(α,n) 26Al reactions are in good agreementmore » with previous experiments and with statistical-model calculations. As a result, the astrophysical reaction rate of the 23Na(α,n) 26Al reaction has been reevaluated and it was found to be larger than the recommended rate.« less

  1. Experimental study of the astrophysically important Na 23 ( α , p ) Mg 26 and Na 23 ( α , n ) Al 26 reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Avila, M. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; ...

    2016-12-19

    The 23Na(α,p) 26Mg and 23Na(α,n) 26Al reactions are important for our understanding of the 26Al abundance in massive stars. The aim of this work is to report on a direct and simultaneous measurement of these astrophysically important reactions using an active target system. The reactions were investigated in inverse kinematics using 4He as the active target gas in the detector. We measured the excitation functions in the energy range of about 2 to 6 MeV in the center of mass. We have found that the cross sections of the 23Na(α,p) 26Mg and the 23Na(α,n) 26Al reactions are in good agreementmore » with previous experiments and with statistical-model calculations. As a result, the astrophysical reaction rate of the 23Na(α,n) 26Al reaction has been reevaluated and it was found to be larger than the recommended rate.« less

  2. High Pressure Strength Study on NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Z.; Shieh, S. R.; High Pressure Mineral Physics Group

    2010-12-01

    Yield strength is regarded as one important property related to rheological characteristics of minerals in the Earth’s interior. The strength study of NaCl, a popular pressure medium in static high pressure experiments, has been carried out under non-hydrostatic conditions in a diamond anvil cell up to 43 GPa at room temperature using radial energy dispersive X-ray diffraction technique. Phase transformation from B1 (rock salt structure) to B2 (CsCl structure) starts at 29.4 GPa, and is complete at 32.1 GPa. Bulk modulus obtained by third order Birch-Manurgham equation of state is 25.5 GPa with pressure derivative 4.6 for B1 phase, and 30.78 GPa with pressure derivative 4.32 GPa for B2 phase, which are in a good agreement with previous studies. The differential stress of NaCl B1 phase shows very gentle increase with pressure, which indicates that NaCl is a very good pressure-transmitting medium at pressure below 30 GPa. However, the differential stress increases more abruptly for B2 phase and this may imply that NaCl can no longer be regarded as a “soft” pressure medium at very high pressures. For B1 phase, (111) is the strongest plane and (200) is the weakest plane, while (200) becomes the strongest plane in B2 phase. Pure NaCl is weaker than mixture MgO and NaCl, which indicates that soft material become stronger when mixed with hard material. The yield strength of B2 obtained through energy dispersive X-ray diffraction technique increase linearly, while the value derived by pressure gradient method shows jagged trend.

  3. CCCP activation of the reconstituted NaK-pump.

    PubMed

    Yoda, A; Yoda, S

    1990-08-01

    In the NaK-ATPase proteoliposomes (PLs), the NaK-pump activity, Na+ uptake, and ATP hydrolysis were apparently enhanced by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) and other ionophores without ion gradients. These ionophore effects were not cation specific. Without ionophores, the PL's ATPase activity fell to its steady-state value within 3 sec at 15 degrees C. This decrease in activity disappeared in the presence of CCCP. Since CCCP is believed to enhance proton mobility across the lipid bilayer and dissipate membrane potential (Vm), we postulated that a Vm build-up partially inhibits the PLs by changing the conformation of the NaK-pump, and that CCCP eliminated this partial inhibition. Since this activation required extracellular K+ and high ATP concentration in the PLs, CCCP must affect the conversion between the phosphorylated forms of NaK-ATPase (EP); this step has been suggested by Goldschlegger et al. (1987) to be the voltage-sensitive step (J. Physiol. (London) 387:331-355). Although cytoplasmic K+ accelerated the change of ADP- and K(+)-sensitive EP (E*P) to K(+)-sensitive ADP-insensitive EP (E2P), CCCP did not complete with cytoplasmic K+ when cytoplasmic Na+ was saturated. When the PLs were phosphorylated with 20 microM ATP and 20 microM palmitoyl CoA instead of with high concentration of ATP, CCCP increased the E*P content and decreased the ADP-sensitive K(+)-insensitive EP (E1P). The results described above suggest that CCCP affects the E1P to E*P change in the E1P----E*P----E2P conversion and that this reaction step is inhibited by Vm.

  4. GPU real-time processing in NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cretaro, P.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2017-01-01

    A commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is used to build a fast Level 0 (L0) trigger system tested parasitically with the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition systems) of the NA62 experiment at CERN. In particular, the parallel computing power of the GPU is exploited to perform real-time fitting in the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector. Direct GPU communication using a FPGA-based board has been used to reduce the data transmission latency. The performance of the system for multi-ring reconstrunction obtained during the NA62 physics run will be presented.

  5. Optically stimulated luminescence in doped NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Gaikwad, S. U., E-mail: gaikwadsonali09@yahoo.com; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.

    NaCl:Ca,Cu,P NaCl:Mg,Cu,P OSL phosphors are synthesized. Intense OSL is observed in these samples which is 14 times more than Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C. Same samples coated with PVA (poly vinyl actetae) polymer also show similar OSL properties and these coated samples are found to be less susceptible to the moisture due to protected layer of hydrophobic polymer. These coated samples may be useful as OSL dosimetersdue to high sensitivity and less or no susceptibility to moisture.

  6. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways

  7. Thermoelectric properties of layered NaSbSe2.

    PubMed

    Putatunda, Aditya; Xing, Guangzong; Sun, Jifeng; Li, Yuwei; Singh, David J

    2018-06-06

    We investigate ordered monoclinic NaSbSe 2 as a thermoelectric using first principles calculations. We find that from an electronic point of view, ordered and oriented n-type NaSbSe 2 is comparable to the best known thermoelectric materials. This phase has a sufficiently large band gap for thermoelectric and solar absorber applications in contrast to the disordered phase which has a much narrower gap. The electronic structure shows anisotropic, non-parabolic bands. The results show a high Seebeck coefficient in addition to direction dependent high conductivity. The electronic structure quantified by an electron fitness function is very favorable, especially in the n-type case.

  8. Thermoelectric properties of layered NaSbSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putatunda, Aditya; Xing, Guangzong; Sun, Jifeng; Li, Yuwei; Singh, David J.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate ordered monoclinic NaSbSe2 as a thermoelectric using first principles calculations. We find that from an electronic point of view, ordered and oriented n-type NaSbSe2 is comparable to the best known thermoelectric materials. This phase has a sufficiently large band gap for thermoelectric and solar absorber applications in contrast to the disordered phase which has a much narrower gap. The electronic structure shows anisotropic, non-parabolic bands. The results show a high Seebeck coefficient in addition to direction dependent high conductivity. The electronic structure quantified by an electron fitness function is very favorable, especially in the n-type case.

  9. Possible selective adsorption of enantiomers by Na-montmorillonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friebele, E.; Shimoyama, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1981-01-01

    Racemic amino acids including (D,L) alpha-alamine, (D,L) alpha-aminobutyric acid, (D,L) valine, and (D,L) norvaline were incubated with Na-montmorillonite at 100% CEC at three hydrogen ion concentrations, and amino acid adsorption was determined by ion exchange chromatography. Enantiomers were analyzed by gas chromatography. Differences in the quantities of D and L enantiomers in any of the fractions was no larger than a few percent. Although a large difference in the adsorption of the amino acid enantiomers was not observed, the analysis may indicate a small preferential adsorption (0.5-2%) of L-amino acids by Na-montmorillonite.

  10. Toward Triplet Ground State NaLi Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadi, Sepehr; Jamison, Alan; Rvachov, Timur; Jing, Li; Son, Hyungmok; Jiang, Yijun; Zwierlein, Martin; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The NaLi molecule is expected to have a long lifetime in the triplet ground-state due to its fermionic nature, large rotational constant, and weak spin-orbit coupling. The triplet state has both electric and magnetic dipole moments, affording unique opportunities in quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. We have mapped the excited state NaLi triplet potential by means of photoassociation spectroscopy. We report on this and our further progress toward the creation of the triplet ground-state molecules using STIRAP. NSF, ARO-MURI, Samsung, NSERC.

  11. 23Na and 35/37Cl as NMR probes of growth and shape of sodium taurodeoxycholate micellar aggregates in the presence of NaCl.

    PubMed

    Asaro, Fioretta; Feruglio, Luigi; Galantini, Luciano; Nardelli, Alessia

    2013-02-15

    The growth of the aggregates of the dihydroxylated bile salt sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) upon NaCl addition and the involvement of the counterion were investigated by NMR spectroscopy of monoatomic ionic species. (23)Na T(1) values from 0.015, 0.100, and 0.200 mol kg(-1) NaTDC solutions in D(2)O, at variable NaCl content, proved to be sensitive to the transition from primary to secondary aggregates, which occurs in the former sample, and to intermicellar interaction. Some (79)Br NMR measurements were performed on a 0.100 mol kg(-1) NaTDC sample added by NaBr in place of NaCl for comparison purposes. The (23)Na, (35)Cl, and (37)Cl double quantum filtered (DQF) patterns, from the 0.100 mol kg(-1) NaTDC sample, and (23)Na ones also from the 0.200 mol kg(-1) NaTDC one, in the presence of 0.750 mol kg(-1) NaCl, are a clear manifestation of motional anisotropy. Moreover, the DQF spectra of (23)Na and (37)Cl, which possess close quadrupole moments, display a striking similarity. The DQF lineshapes were simulated exploiting the Scilab environment to obtain an estimate of the residual quadrupole splitting magnitude. These results support the description of NaTDC micelles as cylindrical aggregates, strongly interacting at high ionic strengths, and capable of association with added electrolytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Na+-dependent and Na+-independent betaine transport across the apical membrane of rat renal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Cano, Mercedes; Calonge, María L; Ilundáin, Anunciación A

    2015-10-01

    The low renal excretion of betaine indicates that the kidney efficiently reabsorbs the betaine filtered by the glomeruli but the mechanisms involved in such a process have been scarcely investigated. We have detected concentrative and non-concentrative betaine transport activity in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from rat renal cortex and medulla. The concentrative system is the Sodium/Imino-acid Transporter 1 (SIT1) because it is Na+- and Cl--dependent, electrogenic and is inhibited by an anti-SIT1 antibody. Its apparent affinity constant for betaine, Kt, is 1.1±0.5 mM and its maximal transport velocity, Vmax, 0.5±0.1 nmol betaine/mg protein/s. Inhibitors of the Na+/Cl-/betaine uptake are L-proline (75%) and cold betaine, L-carnitine and choline (40-60%). Neither creatine, TEA, taurine, β-alanine, GABA nor glycine significantly inhibited Na+/Cl-/betaine uptake. The non-concentrative betaine transport system is Na+- and H+-independent, electroneutral, with a Kt for betaine of 47±7 μM and a Vmax of 7.8±1 pmol betaine/mg protein/s. Its transport activity is nearly abolished by betaine, followed by L-carnitine (70-80%) and proline (40-50%), but a difference from the Na+/Cl-/betaine transport is that it is inhibited by TEA (approx. 50%) and unaffected by choline. The underlying carrier functions as an antiporter linking betaine entry into the BBMV with the efflux of either L-carnitine or betaine, an exchange unaffected by the anti-SIT1 antibody. As far as we know this is the first work reporting that betaine crosses the apical membrane of rat renal epithelium by SIT1 and by a Na+- and H+-independent transport system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Infrared reflectance spectra of Na2S with contaminant Na2CO3 - Effects of adsorbed H2O and CO2 and relation to studies of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Douglas B.

    1988-01-01

    A previously reported laboratory determination of the IR spectrum of Na2S is presently noted to have been incorrectly interpreted, due to the inadvertent contamination of the sample with Na2CO3. New Na2S spectra are presented, and the Na2CO3 spectrum is examined in order to demonstrate that this phase is the primary sample contaminant. Na2S is a candidate surface component on the Jupiter satellite, Io, in view of its apparent high IR brightness and spectral neutrality in the 1-5 micron range.

  14. The Na+-Responsive ntp Operon Is Indispensable for Homeostatis of K+ and Na+ in Enterococcus hirae at Limited Proton Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Miyuki; Igarashi, Kazuei; Kakinuma, Yoshimi

    1998-01-01

    Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 grew well in Na+-deficient, low-K+ medium, but growth was inhibited by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Growth inhibition and decrease of cellular K+ levels in the presence of CCCP were relieved by the addition of Na+ and a high concentration of K+. In contrast, in the mutant defective in Na+-ATPase or the NtpJ component of the KtrII K+ uptake system, CCCP-induced growth inhibition was rescued by a high concentration of K+ but not of Na+. These transporters are thus indispensable for homeostatis of K+ and Na+ at low proton potential. PMID:9733699

  15. Increased cell membrane permeability to Na+ and K+ induced by thyroid hormone in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Asano, Y

    1978-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (T3) increased Na+ dependent respiration accompanied by an increase in NaK-ATPase activity. Administration of T3 increased intracellular K+ concentration and Na/K ratio in thyroidectomized rats, and the Na+ efflux rate constant incubated in oxygenized Na+, K+-Ringers in euthyroid rats. However, the magnitude of the changes in intracellular K+ concentration was modest or invisible in comparison to the changes in QO2(t) and NaK-ATPase activity. The Na+ and K+ efflux rate constants in K+-free +ouabain Ringers were increased by T3 in both thyroidectomized and euthyroid rats. Thus, thyroid hormone stimulates not only Na pump but also the permeability of cell membrane to Na+ and K+. The both effects might contribute to the thyroid thermogenesis.

  16. Multiple quantum filtered 23Na NMR in the Langendorff perfused mouse heart: Ratio of triple/double quantum filtered signals correlates with [Na]i

    PubMed Central

    Eykyn, Thomas R.; Aksentijević, Dunja; Aughton, Karen L.; Southworth, Richard; Fuller, William; Shattock, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the potential of multiple quantum filtered (MQF) 23Na NMR to probe intracellular [Na]i in the Langendorff perfused mouse heart. In the presence of Tm(DOTP) shift reagent the triple quantum filtered (TQF) signal originated largely from the intracellular sodium pool with a 32 ± 6% contribution of the total TQF signal arising from extracellular sodium, whilst the rank 2 double-quantum filtered signal (DQF), acquired with a 54.7° flip-angle pulse, originated exclusively from the extracellular sodium pool. Given the different cellular origins of the 23Na MQF signals we propose that the TQF/DQF ratio can be used as a semi-quantitative measure of [Na]i in the mouse heart. We demonstrate a good correlation of this ratio with [Na]i measured with shift reagent at baseline and under conditions of elevated [Na]i. We compare the measurements of [Na]i using both shift reagent and TQF/DQF ratio in a cohort of wild type mouse hearts and in a transgenic PLM3SA mouse expressing a non-phosphorylatable form of phospholemman, showing a modest but measurable elevation of baseline [Na]i. MQF filtered 23Na NMR is a potentially useful tool for studying normal and pathophysiological changes in [Na]i, particularly in transgenic mouse models with altered Na regulation. PMID:26196304

  17. FTIR spectra of the solid solutions (Na0.88K0.12)VO3, (Na0.5K0.5)VO3, and Na(V0.66P0.34)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waal, D.; Heyns, A. M.

    1992-03-01

    It is known that three different solid solutions, (Na0.88K0.12)VO3, (Na0.5K0.5)VO3 and Na(V0.66P0.34)O3, form in the (Na,K)(V,P)O3 system. These compounds all have monoclinic crystal structures similar to the pure alkali metal metavanadates containing small cations, e.g. Li+ and Na+ (Space group C2/c). Metavanadates with large cations like K+, Rb+, C+s and NH+4 form orthorhombic crystals, space group Pbcm. All those are structurally related to the silicate pyroxenes. Na(V0.66P0.34)O3 and (Na0.88K0.12)VO3 have the same modified diopside structure as (alpha) - NaVO3 while (Na0.5K0.5)VO3 adopts the true diopside structure. The infrared spectra of the three solid solutions are reported here in comparison with those of (alpha) -NaVO3 and KVO3. The results are also correlated with those obtained in two independent high pressure Raman studies of NH4VO3 and RbVO3 as the introduction of a larger cation like K+ should increase the pressure in the structure.

  18. Effects of Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 on molybdenum and tungsten electrodes for the alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Wheeler, B. L.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Loveland, M. E.; Bankston, C. P.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of adding Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 to porous Mo and W electrodes, respectively, on the performance and impedance characteristics of the electrodes in an alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) were investigated. It was found that corrosion of the porous electrode by Na2MoO4 or Na2WO4 to form Na2MO3O6 and WO2, respectively, and recrystallization of the Mo or W as the salt evaporates, result in major morphological changes including a loss of columnar structure and a significant increase in porosity. This effect is more pronounced in Na2MoO4/Mo electrodes, due to the lower stability of Na2MoO4.

  19. The Na+ transport in gram-positive bacteria defect in the Mrp antiporter complex measured with 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Górecki, Kamil; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Drakenberg, Torbjörn

    2014-01-15

    (23)Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has previously been used to monitor Na(+) translocation across membranes in gram-negative bacteria and in various other organelles and liposomes using a membrane-impermeable shift reagent to resolve the signals resulting from internal and external Na(+). In this work, the (23)Na NMR method was adapted for measurements of internal Na(+) concentration in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, with the aim of assessing the Na(+) translocation activity of the Mrp (multiple resistance and pH) antiporter complex, a member of the cation proton antiporter-3 (CPA-3) family. The sodium-sensitive growth phenotype observed in a B. subtilis strain with the gene encoding MrpA deleted could indeed be correlated to the inability of this strain to maintain a lower internal Na(+) concentration than an external one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermoelectric Performance of Na-Doped GeSe

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Recently, hole-doped GeSe materials have been predicted to exhibit extraordinary thermoelectric performance owing largely to extremely low thermal conductivity. However, experimental research on the thermoelectric properties of GeSe has received less attention. Here, we have synthesized polycrystalline Na-doped GeSe compounds, characterized their crystal structure, and measured their thermoelectric properties. The Seebeck coefficient decreases with increasing Na content up to x = 0.01 due to an increase in the hole carrier concentration and remains roughly constant at higher concentrations of Na, consistent with the electrical resistivity variation. However, the electrical resistivity is large for all samples, leading to low power factors. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectrometry results show the presence of a ternary impurity phase within the GeSe matrix for all doped samples, which suggests that the optimal carrier concentration cannot be reached by doping with Na. Nevertheless, the lattice thermal conductivity and carrier mobility of GeSe is similar to those of polycrystalline samples of the leading thermoelectric material SnSe, leading to quality factors of comparable magnitude. This implies that GeSe shows promise as a thermoelectric material if a more suitable dopant can be found. PMID:29302637

  1. Luminescence and radiation resistance of undoped NaI crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shiran, N., E-mail: shiran@isc.kharkov.com; Boiaryntseva, I.; Gektin, A.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The performance of NaI scintillators depends on luminescence properties. • A criterion of crystals’ purity level is radiation colorability at room temperature. • The traces of the most dangerous impurities were detected. • Crucial role in efficiency of pure NaI scintillator play the crystal perfection. - Abstract: Undoped NaI single crystal is an excellent scintillator at low temperature. However, scintillation parameters of different quality crystals vary in a wide range, significantly exceeding measurement error. Experimental data demonstrate the features of luminescence, radiation induced coloration, and afterglow dependence on the quality of nominally pure crystals. It is found thatmore » defects level that allows to elucidate artefacts introduced by traces of harmful impurities corresponds to 3 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} that significantly overhead accuracy of chemical and absorption analysis. It is shown that special raw material treatment before and during the single crystal growth allows to reach NaI purity level that avoids impurities influence to the basic luminescence data.« less

  2. Project ELaNa and NASA's CubeSat Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrobot, Garrett Lee

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the NASA program to use expendable lift vehicles (ELVs) to launch nanosatellites for the purpose of enhancing educational research. The Education Launch of Nanosatellite (ELaNa) project, run out of the Launch Services Program is requesting proposals for CubeSat type payload to provide information that will aid or verify NASA Projects designs while providing higher educational research

  3. Altered erythrocyte Na-K pump in anorectic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquali, R.; Strocchi, E.; Malini, P.

    1985-07-01

    The status of the erythrocyte sodium pump was evaluated in a group of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and a group of healthy female control subjects. Anorectic patients showed significantly higher mean values of digoxin-binding sites/cell (ie, the number of Na-K-ATPase units) with respect to control subjects while no differences were found in the specific /sup 86/Rb uptake (which reflects the Na-K-ATPase activity) between the two groups. A significant correlation was found between relative weight and the number of Na-K-ATPase pump units (r = -0.66; P less than 0.0001). Anorectic patients showed lower serum T3 concentrations (71.3 +/- 53 ng/dL)more » with respect to control subjects (100.8 +/- 4.7 ng/dL; P less than 0.0005) and a significant negative correlation between T3 levels and the number of pump units (r = -0.52; P less than 0.003) was found. This study therefore shows that the erythrocyte Na-K pump may be altered in several anorectic patients. The authors suggest that this feature could be interrelated with the degree of underweight and/or malnutrition.« less

  4. Space nuclear system thermoelectric NaK pump development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The engineering, design, fabrication, and test history of the dual-throat thermoelectric NaK development pump is summarized, along with the engineering and design status of a similar prototype pump intended for use on the 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system. The history of dc pump development and testing on previous programs is also summarized.

  5. Stainless Steel NaK Circuit Integration and Fill Submission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Anne E.

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has been tasked by the Marshall Space Flight Center Nuclear Systems Office to design, fabricate, and test an actively pumped alkali metal flow circuit. The system, which was originally designed to hold a eutectic mixture of sodium potassium (NaK), was redesigned to hold lithium; but due to a shift in focus, it is once again being prepared for use with NaK. Changes made to the actively pumped, high temperature loop include the replacement of the expansion reservoir, addition of remotely operated valves, and modification of the support table. Basic circuit components include: reactor segment, NaK to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and a spill reservoir. A 37-pin partial-array core (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in a full design) was selected for fabrication and test. This document summarizes the integration and fill of the pumped liquid metal NaK flow circuit.

  6. Neutral Na in comets tails: a chemical story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, Y.; Pauzat, F.; Mousis, O.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Leblanc, F.; Ali-Dib, M.; Doronin, M.; Zicler, E.; Doressoundiram, A.

    2015-10-01

    The origin of the neutral sodium comet tail discovered in comet Hale-Bopp in 1997 is still a matter of discussion. Here we propose a scenario which is based on chemical grounds. The starting point is the chemical trapping of the Na+ ion in the refractory material during the condensation phase of the protosolar nebula, followed by its incorporation in the building blocks of the comets parent bodies. In the next step, the Na+ ions are washed out of the refractory material by the water formed by the melting of the ice due to the heat released in the radioactive decay of short period elements. When the water freezes again, the Na+ ion looses its positive charge to evolve progressively toward a neutral atom when approaching the surface of the ice. As shown by high-level numerical simulations based on first principle periodic density functional theory (DFT) to describe the solid structure of the ice, it is a neutral Na that is ejected with the sublimation of the ice top layer.

  7. Functional identification and characterization of sodium binding sites in Na symporters

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Donald D. F.; Jiang, Xuan; Gorraitz, Edurne; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Wright, Ernest M.

    2013-01-01

    Sodium cotransporters from several different gene families belong to the leucine transporter (LeuT) structural family. Although the identification of Na+ in binding sites is beyond the resolution of the structures, two Na+ binding sites (Na1 and Na2) have been proposed in LeuT. Na2 is conserved in the LeuT family but Na1 is not. A biophysical method has been used to measure sodium dissociation constants (Kd) of wild-type and mutant human sodium glucose cotransport (hSGLT1) proteins to identify the Na+ binding sites in hSGLT1. The Na1 site is formed by residues in the sugar binding pocket, and their mutation influences sodium binding to Na1 but not to Na2. For the canonical Na2 site formed by two –OH side chains, S392 and S393, and three backbone carbonyls, mutation of S392 to cysteine increased the sodium Kd by sixfold. This was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in the apparent sugar and phlorizin affinities. We suggest that mutation of S392 in the Na2 site produces a structural rearrangement of the sugar binding pocket to disrupt both the binding of the second Na+ and the binding of sugar. In contrast, the S393 mutations produce no significant changes in sodium, sugar, and phlorizin affinities. We conclude that the Na2 site is conserved in hSGLT1, the side chain of S392 and the backbone carbonyl of S393 are important in the first Na+ binding, and that Na+ binding to Na2 promotes binding to Na1 and also sugar binding. PMID:24191006

  8. Na+-H+ exchange activity in taste receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Vinnikova, Anna K; Alam, Rammy I; Malik, Shahbaz A; Ereso, Glenn L; Feldman, George M; McCarty, John M; Knepper, Mark A; Heck, Gerard L; DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2004-03-01

    mRNA for two Na(+)-H(+)-exchanger isoforms 1 and 3 (NHE-1 and NHE-3) was detected by RT-PCR in fungiform and circumvallate taste receptor cells (TRCs). Anti-NHE-1 antibody binding was localized to the basolateral membranes, and the anti-NHE-3 antibody was localized in the apical membranes of fungiform and circumvallate TRCs. In a subset of TRCs, NHE-3 immunoreactivity was also detected in the intracellular compartment. For functional studies, an isolated lingual epithelium containing a single fungiform papilla was mounted with apical and basolateral sides isolated and perfused with nominally CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-free physiological media (pH 7.4). The TRCs were monitored for changes in intracellular pH (pH(i)) and Na(+) ([Na(+)](i)) using fluorescence ratio imaging. At constant external pH, 1) removal of basolateral Na(+) reversibly decreased pH(i) and [Na(+)](i); 2) HOE642, a specific blocker, and amiloride, a nonspecific blocker of basolateral NHE-1, attenuated the decrease in pH(i) and [Na(+)](i); 3) exposure of TRCs to basolateral NH(4)Cl or sodium acetate pulses induced transient decreases in pH(i) that recovered spontaneously to baseline; 4) pH(i) recovery was inhibited by basolateral amiloride, 5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl)-amiloride (MIA), 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA), HOE642, and by Na(+) removal; 5) HOE642, MIA, EIPA, and amiloride inhibited pH(i) recovery with K(i) values of 0.23, 0.46, 0.84, and 29 microM, respectively; and 6) a decrease in apical or basolateral pH acidified TRC pH(i) and inhibited spontaneous pH(i) recovery. The results indicate the presence of a functional NHE-1 in the basolateral membranes of TRCs. We hypothesize that NHE-1 is involved in sour taste transduction since its activity is modulated during acid stimulation.

  9. Light-driven Na + pump from Gillisia limnaea: A high-affinity Na + binding site is formed transiently in the photocycle

    DOE PAGES

    Balashov, Sergei P.; Imasheva, Eleonora S.; Dioumaev, Andrei K.; ...

    2014-11-06

    A group of microbial retinal proteins most closely related to the proton pump xanthorhodopsin has a novel sequence motif and a novel function. Instead of, or in addition to, proton transport, they perform light-driven sodium ion transport, as reported for one representative of this group (KR2) from Krokinobacter. In this paper, we examine a similar protein, GLR from Gillisia limnaea, expressed in Escherichia coli, which shares some properties with KR2 but transports only Na +. The absorption spectrum of GLR is insensitive to Na + at concentrations of ≤3 M. However, very low concentrations of Na + cause profound differencesmore » in the decay and rise time of photocycle intermediates, consistent with a switch from a “Na +-independent” to a “Na +-dependent” photocycle (or photocycle branch) at ~60 μM Na +. The rates of photocycle steps in the latter, but not the former, are linearly dependent on Na + concentration. This suggests that a high-affinity Na + binding site is created transiently after photoexcitation, and entry of Na + from the bulk to this site redirects the course of events in the remainder of the cycle. A greater concentration of Na + is needed for switching the reaction path at lower pH. The data suggest therefore competition between H + and Na + to determine the two alternative pathways. The idea that a Na + binding site can be created at the Schiff base counterion is supported by the finding that upon perturbation of this region in the D251E mutant, Na + binds without photoexcitation. Furthermore, binding of Na+ to the mutant shifts the chromophore maximum to the red like that of H +, which occurs in the photocycle of the wild type.« less

  10. Na+-independent phosphate transport in Caco2BBE cells

    PubMed Central

    Candeal, Eduardo; Caldas, Yupanqui A.; Guillén, Natalia; Levi, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Pi transport in epithelia has both Na+-dependent and Na+-independent components, but so far only Na+-dependent transporters have been characterized in detail and molecularly identified. Consequently, in the present study, we initiated the characterization and analysis of intestinal Na+-independent Pi transport using an in vitro model, Caco2BBE cells. Only Na+-independent Pi uptake was observed in these cells, and Pi uptake was dramatically increased when cells were incubated in high-Pi DMEM (4 mM) from 1 day to several days. No response to low-Pi medium was observed. The increased Pi transport was mainly caused by Vmax changes, and it was prevented by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. Pi transport in cells grown in 1 mM Pi (basal DMEM) decreased at pH > 7.5, and it was inhibited with proton ionophores. Pi transport in cells incubated with 4 mM Pi increased with alkaline pH, suggesting a preference for divalent phosphate. Pi uptake in cells in 1 mM Pi was completely inhibited only by Pi and partially inhibited by phosphonoformate, oxalate, DIDS, SITS, SO42−, HCO3−, and arsenate. This inhibition pattern suggests that more than one Pi transporter is active in cells maintained with 1 mM Pi. Phosphate transport from cells maintained at 4 mM Pi was only partially inhibited by phosphonoformate, oxalate, and arsenate. Attempts to identify the responsible transporters showed that multifunctional anion exchangers of the Slc26 family as well as members of Slc17, Slc20, and Slc37 and the Pi exporter xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 are not involved. PMID:25298422

  11. Skin Tattoos Alter Sweat Rate and Na+ Concentration.

    PubMed

    Luetkemeier, Maurie Joe; Hanisko, Joseph Michael; Aho, Kyle Mathiew

    2017-07-01

    The popularity of tattoos has increased tremendously in the last 10 yr particularly among athletes and military personnel. The tattooing process involves permanently depositing ink under the skin at a similar depth as eccrine sweat glands (3-5 mm). The purpose of this study was to compare the sweat rate and sweat Na concentration of tattooed versus nontattooed skin. The participants were 10 healthy men (age = 21 ± 1 yr), all with a unilateral tattoo covering a circular area at least 5.2 cm. Sweat was stimulated by iontophoresis using agar gel disks impregnated with 0.5% pilocarpine nitrate. The nontattooed skin was located contralateral to the position of the tattooed skin. The disks used to collect sweat were composed of Tygon® tubing wound into a spiral so that the sweat was pulled into the tubing by capillary action. The sweat rate was determined by weighing the disk before and after sweat collection. The sweat Na concentration was determined by flame photometry. The mean sweat rate from tattooed skin was significantly less than nontattooed skin (0.18 ± 0.15 vs 0.35 ± 0.25 mg·cm·min; P = 0.001). All 10 participants generated less sweat from tattooed skin than nontattooed skin and the effect size was -0.79. The mean sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin was significantly higher than nontattooed skin (69.1 ± 28.9 vs 42.6 ± 15.2 mmol·L; P = 0.02). Nine of 10 participants had higher sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin than nontattooed skin, and the effect size was 1.01. Tattooed skin generated less sweat and a higher Na concentration than nontattooed skin when stimulated by pilocarpine iontophoresis.

  12. Semi-volatiles at Mercury: Sodium (Na) and potassium (K)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A.

    1994-01-01

    Several lines of evidence now suggest that Mercury is a planet rich in moderately-volatile elements such as Na and K. Recent mid-infrared spectral observations of Mercury's equatorial and mid-latitude region near 120 degrees mercurian longitude indicate the presence of plagioclase feldspar. Spectra of Mercury's surface exhibit spectral activity similar to labradorite (plagioclase feldspar with NaAlSi3O8: 30-50 percent) and bytownite (NaAlSi3O8: 10-30 percent). These surface studies were stimulated by the relatively large abundance of Na and K observed in Mercury's atmosphere. An enhanced column of K is observed at the longitudes of Caloris Basin and of the antipodal terrain. Extreme heating at these 'hot' longitudes and severe fracturing suffered from the large impact event could lead to enhanced outgassing from surface or subsurface materials. Alternatively, sputtering from a surface enriched in K could be the source of the observed enhancement. Recent microwave measurements of Mercury also give indirect evidence of a mercurian regolith less FeO-rich than the Moon. An anomalously high index of refraction derived from the whole-disk integrated phase curve of Danjon may also be indicative of surface sulfides contributing to a regolith that is moderately volatile-rich. The recent exciting observations of radar-bright spots at high latitudes also indicate that a substance of high volume scattering, like ice, is present in shadowed regions. Other radar-bright spots have been seen at locations of Na enhancements on the atmosphere. All combined, these pieces of evidence point to a planet that is not severely depleted in volatiles or semi-volatiles.

  13. Na0.44MnO2 nanorods as a cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avci, Sevda; Oz, Erdinc; Demirel, Serkan; Altin, Emine; Altin, Serdar; Bayri, Ali; Yakinci, Eyyuphan

    2014-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have dominated the rechargeable battery market because of their high energy and power capability. On the other hand, sodium is one of the more abundant elements on Earth unlike Li. Moreover, Na has similar chemical properties to Li, indicating that Na-ion batteries can be an alternative to Li counterparts. With that respect, we have synthesized Na0.44MnO2 nanorods as cathode materials for Na-ion batteries. We have investigated the effects of structural, electrical, and magnetic properties on battery performance. We report the synthesis conditions and growth mechanism of the nanorods. The structure and the morphology of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Temperature dependent structural changes were determined via in situ X-ray diffraction and TG-DTA measurements showing structural changes above room temperature. This work is funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey with Grant No:112M487.

  14. Validation of estimating food intake in gray wolves by 22Na turnover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Duquette, L.S.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    We studied 22sodium (22Na) turnover as a means of estimating food intake in 6 captive, adult gray wolves (Canis lupus) (2 F, 4 M) over a 31-day feeding period. Wolves were fed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) meat only. Mean mass-specific exchangeable Na pool was 44.8 .+-. 0.7 mEq/kg; there was no differeence between males and females. Total exchangeable Na was related (r2 = 0.85, P < 0.009) to body mass. Overall, 22Na turnover overestimated Na intake by 9.8 .+-. 2.4% after 32 days. Actual Na intake was similar in males and females; however, Na turnover (P < 0.05) and the discrepancy (P < 0.01) between turnover and actual Na intake were greater in females than males. From Day 8 to the end of the study, the absolute difference (mEq) between Na intake and Na turnover remained stable. Sodium turnover (mEq/kg/day) was a reliable (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) estimator of food consumption (g/kg/day) in wolves over a 32-day period. Sampling blood and weighing wolves every 1-4 days permitted identification of several potential sources of error, including changes in size of exchangeable Na pools, exchange of 22Na with gastrointestinal and bone Na, and rapid loss of the isotope by urinary excretion.

  15. Physiological responses to salt stress of salt-adapted and directly salt (NaCl and NaCl+Na2SO4 mixture)-stressed cyanobacterium Anabaena fertilissima.

    PubMed

    Swapnil, Prashant; Rai, Ashwani K

    2018-05-01

    Soil salinity in nature is generally mixed type; however, most of the studies on salt toxicity are performed with NaCl and little is known about sulfur type of salinity (Na 2 SO 4 ). Present study discerns the physiologic mechanisms responsible for salt tolerance in salt-adapted Anabaena fertilissima, and responses of directly stressed parent cells to NaCl and NaCl+Na 2 SO 4 mixture. NaCl at 500 mM was lethal to the cyanobacterium, whereas salt-adapted cells grew luxuriantly. Salinity impaired gross photosynthesis, electron transport activities, and respiration in parent cells, but not in the salt-adapted cells, except a marginal increase in PSI activity. Despite higher Na + concentration in the salt mixture, equimolar NaCl appeared more inhibitive to growth. Sucrose and trehalose content and antioxidant activities were maximal in 250 mM NaCl-treated cells, followed by salt mixture and was almost identical in salt-adapted (exposed to 500 mm NaCl) and control cells, except a marginal increase in ascorbate peroxidase activity and an additional fourth superoxide dismutase isoform. Catalase isoform of 63 kDa was induced only in salt-stressed cells. Salinity increased the uptake of intracellular Na + and Ca 2+ and leakage of K + in parent cells, while cation level in salt-adapted cells was comparable to control. Though there was differential increase in intracellular Ca 2+ under different salt treatments, ratio of Ca 2+ /Na + remained the same. It is inferred that stepwise increment in the salt concentration enabled the cyanobacterium to undergo priming effect and acquire robust and efficient defense system involving the least energy.

  16. INTEX-NA: Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jacob, D.; Pfister, L.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    INTEX-NA is an integrated atmospheric chemistry field experiment to be performed over North America using the NASA DC-8 and P-3B aircraft as its primary platforms. It seeks to understand the exchange of chemicals and aerosols between continents and the global troposphere. The constituents of interest are ozone and its precursors (hydrocarbons, NOX and HOX), aerosols, and the major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). INTEX-NA will provide the observational database needed to quantify inflow, outflow, and transformations of chemicals over North America. INTEX-NA is to be performed in two phases. Phase A will take place during the period of May-August 2004 and Phase B during March-June 2006. Phase A is in summer when photochemistry is most intense and climatic issues involving aerosols and carbon cycle are most pressing, and Phase B is in spring when Asian transport to North America is at its peak. INTEX-NA will coordinate its activities with concurrent measurement programs including satellites (e. g. Terra, Aura, Envisat), field activities undertaken by the North American Carbon Program (NACP), and other U.S. and international partners. However, it is being designed as a 'stand alone' mission such that its successful execution is not contingent on other programs. Synthesis of the ensemble of observation from surface, airborne, and space platforms, with the help of global/regional models is an important It is anticipated that approximately 175 flight hours for each of the aircraft (DC-8 and P-3B) will be required for each Phase. Principal operational sites are tentatively selected to be Bangor, ME; Wallops Island, VA; Seattle, WA; Rhinelander, WI; Lancaster, CA; and New Orleans, LA. These coastal and continental sites can support large missions and are suitable for INTEX-NA objectives. The experiment will be supported by forecasts from meteorological and chemical models, satellite observations, surface networks, and enhanced O3,-sonde releases. In addition to

  17. Analysis of cardiovascular responses to the H2S donors Na2S and NaHS in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Daniel; Jupiter, Ryan C.; Pankey, Edward A.; Reddy, Vishwaradh G.; Edward, Justin A.; Swan, Kevin W.; Peak, Taylor C.; Mostany, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous molecule formed from L-cysteine in vascular tissue. In the present study, cardiovascular responses to the H2S donors Na2S and NaHS were investigated in the anesthetized rat. The intravenous injections of Na2S and NaHS 0.03–0.5 mg/kg produced dose-related decreases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate, and at higher doses decreases in cardiac output, pulmonary arterial pressure, and systemic vascular resistance. H2S infusion studies show that decreases in systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance are well-maintained, and responses to Na2S are reversible. Decreases in heart rate were not blocked by atropine, suggesting that the bradycardia was independent of parasympathetic activation and was mediated by an effect on the sinus node. The decreases in systemic arterial pressure were not attenuated by hexamethonium, glybenclamide, Nw-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, sodium meclofenamate, ODQ, miconazole, 5-hydroxydecanoate, or tetraethylammonium, suggesting that ATP-sensitive potassium channels, nitric oxide, arachidonic acid metabolites, cyclic GMP, p450 epoxygenase metabolites, or large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels are not involved in mediating hypotensive responses to the H2S donors in the rat and that responses are not centrally mediated. The present data indicate that decreases in systemic arterial pressure in response to the H2S donors can be mediated by decreases in vascular resistance and cardiac output and that the donors have an effect on the sinus node independent of the parasympathetic system. The present data indicate that the mechanism of the peripherally mediated hypotensive response to the H2S donors is uncertain in the intact rat. PMID:26071540

  18. Fabrication and Luminescence Characterization of a Silica Nanomatrix Embedded with NaYF4:Yb:Er:Tm@NaGdF4/Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangaraju, Dheivasigamani; Santhana, Vedi; Matsuda, Satoshi; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro

    2018-05-01

    Hexagonal NaYF4:Yb:Er:Tm@NaGdF4 core-shell nanocrystals were synthesized using a seed mediated hot injection method, and monodispersed Fe3O4 (4 nm) nanoparticles were prepared from iron(II) actylacetonate by a precursor thermal decomposition method. Structural and morphology verified NaYF4:Yb:Er:Tm@NaGdF4 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were utilized for the preparation of NaYF4:Yb:Er:Tm@NaGdF4/Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposite using a micro-emulsion method. Existence of Fe3O4 in NaYF4:Yb:Er:Tm@NaGdF4 in SiO2 nano-spheres were confirmed with transmission electron microscopy. Luminescence measurement revealed that NaYF4:Yb:Er:Tm@NaGdF4 exhibited strong emissions at green and red regions, in addition to a weak blue emission also observed under 980 nm excitation. Up-conversion emission of the nanoparticle-embedded silica nanocomposite showed that the up-conversion emission was not affected by Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

  19. [Effect of NaHCO3 stress on uptake and transportation of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in three shrub species].

    PubMed

    Mao, Gui-Lian; Li, Guo-Qi; Xu, Xing; Zhang, Xin-Xue

    2014-03-01

    We detected absorption and transportation of ions in the leaves of Atriplex nummularia, Atriplex canescens and Lycium barbarum under NaHCO3 stress (300 mmol x L(-1)) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and non-invasive ion flux measurement. The results showed that leaves of the A. nummularia, A. canescens and L. barbarum exhibited a high capacity to induce the Na+ accumulation when compared with that of control. The higher the concentration of NaHCO3 treatment, the more Na+ accumulated in the leaves of the three plants under experimental condition. L. barbarum showed a higher Na+ efflux in the mesophyll cells, whereas A. nummularia and A. canescens showed a relative lower efflux. A lower K+ content and a higher Na+/K+ ratio were detected in leaves of A. nummularia and L. barbarum. However, a higher K+ content and a lower Na+/K+ ratio were seen in leaves of A. canescens. Due to induction of Ca2+ efflux under the NaHCO3 treatment, a lower Ca2+ content and a higher Na+/Ca2+ ratio were observed in L. barbarum. On the contrary, a higher Ca2+ influx was observed in A. nummularia and A. canescens. These results suggested that the three shrubs species had different Na+ segmentation strategies. The accumulation of Na+ inhibited Ca2+ absorption in leaves of L. barbarum, while in the A. nummularia and A. canescens, Ca2+ influx induced [Ca2+]cyt which preserved a less-depolarized PM and then inhibited K efflux. The maintaining of cellular K+/Na+ homeostasis in A. nummularia and A. canescens might be achieved by the induction of [Ca2+]cyt under the NaHCO3 treatment.

  20. Heterogeneous reactions of HNO3(g) + NaCl(s) yields HCl(g) + NaNO3(s) and N2O5(g) + NaCl(s) yields ClNO2(g) + NaNO3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun; Timonen, Raimo S.; Keyser, Leon F.; Yung, Yuk L.

    1995-01-01

    The heterogeneous reactions of HNO3(g) + NaCl(s) yields HCl(g) + NaNO3(s) (eq 1) and N2O5(g) + NaCl(s) yields ClNO2(g) + NaNO3(S) (eq 2) were investigated over the temperature range 223-296 K in a flow-tube reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Either a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) or an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer (EIMS) was used to provide suitable detection sensitivity and selectivity. In order to mimic atmospheric conditions, partial pressures of HNO3 and N2O5 in the range 6 x 10(exp -8) - 2 x 10(exp -6) Torr were used. Granule sizes and surface roughness of the solid NaCl substrates were determined by using a scanning electron microscope. For dry NaCl substrates, decay rates of HNO3 were used to obtain gamma(1) = 0.013 +/- 0.004 (1sigma) at 296 K and > 0.008 at 223 K, respectively. The error quoted is the statistical error. After all corrections were made, the overall error, including systematic error, was estimated to be about a factor of 2. HCl was found to be the sole gas-phase product of reaction 1. The mechanism changed from heterogeneous reaction to predominantly physical adsorption when the reactor was cooled from 296 to 223 K. For reaction 2 using dry salts, gamma(2) was found to be less than 1.0 x 10(exp -4) at both 223 and 296 K. The gas-phase reaction product was identified as ClNO2 in previous studies using an infrared spectrometer. An enhancement in reaction probability was observed if water was not completely removed from salt surfaces, probably due to the reaction of N2O5(g) + H2O(s) yields 2HNO3(g). Our results are compared with previous literature values obtained using different experimental techniques and conditions. The implications of the present results for the enhancement of the hydrogen chloride column density in the lower stratosphere after the El Chichon volcanic eruption and for the chemistry of HCl and HNO3 in the marine troposphere are discussed.

  1. Origin of high Coulombic loss during sodiation in Na-Sn battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byeon, Young-Woon; Choi, Yong-Seok; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2017-03-01

    Electrochemical sodiation is performed in crystalline Sn foil using in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to simultaneously measure the changes in the electrical resistivity and volume of the Sn anode in a Na-Sn battery. We observe that sodiation causes an increase in the Sn anode resistivity by six orders of magnitude. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the Na-Sn alloy system demonstrate that the increased resistivity of the anode is caused by the formation of an electrically resistive amorphous NaSn phase (a-NaSn) with a pseudogap. It is also observed that the formation of a-NaSn is always accompanied by a large volume expansion of ∼200%, causing the development of residual tensile stress. The residual stress in turn alters the electronic structure of the a-NaSn phase, further increasing the resistivity of a-NaSn and thus decreasing the energy efficiency of the Na-Sn battery.

  2. Oxidation of ethanol on NaX zeolite modified with transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzai, J. I.; Nadirov, P. A.; Velieva, A. D.; Muradkhanli, V. G.

    2017-06-01

    NaLaX, NaX + Co, and NaPdX catalysts are synthesized by modification of NaX zeolite with transition metals (La, Co, Pd). The activity of the prepared materials in catalytic ethanol oxidation is studied in the temperature range of 423-723 K. It is shown that NaPdX and NaX + Co accelerate the reactions of partial and complete oxidation of ethanol as the temperature rises. NaLaX accelerates both intramolecular and intermolecular dehydration of alcohol. It is shown that the NaPdX (1.0% Pd) sample has the highest activity in the complete oxidation of alcohol with the formation of CO2.

  3. Energetics of Na + Transport through the Electrode/Cathode Interface in Single Solvent Electrolytes

    DOE PAGES

    Browning, Katie L.; Sacci, Robert L.; Veith, Gabriel M.

    2017-01-27

    Here, the activation energy of desolvation for Na-ion electrolyte systems were studied using temperature dependent electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Propylene carbonate (PC) and tetraglyme were chosen as solvents in single solvent electrolyte solution coupled with NaClO 4, NaPF 6, NaAsF 6, NaBF 4, and NaOFt salts. The results demonstrate the insertion and desolvation processes are extremely fast at or above room temperature. The data shows under optimal salt chemistry the desolvation activation energy is less than 21 kJ/mole. This is in contrast to the ~50 kJ/mole measured for analogous Li systems. The dominant factor affecting performance was the anion. Indeed,more » anions with lower donor numbers (PF 6 –, AsF 6 –) had more than 30 kJ/mole lower desolvation energies than species like NaBF 4 and NaOFt.« less

  4. Preferential Interaction of Na+ over K+ to Carboxylate-functionalized Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elucidating mechanistic interactions between specific ions (Na+/ K+) and nanoparticle surfaces to alter particle stability in polar media has received little attention. We investigated relative preferential binding of Na+ and K+ to carboxylate-functionalized silver nanoparticles ...

  5. Hydrogen production by sodium borohydride in NaOH aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Zhang, L. F.; Zhao, Z. G.

    2018-01-01

    The kinetics of hydrolysis reaction of NaBH4 in NaOH aqueous solution is studied. The influence of pH of the NaOH aqueous solution on the rate of hydrogen production and the hydrogen production efficiency are studied for the hydrolysis reaction of NaBH4. The results show that the activation energy of hydrolysis reaction of NaBH4 increased with the increase of the initial pH of NaOH aqueous solution.With the increasing of the initial pH of NaOH aqueous solution, the rate of hydrogen production and hydrogen production efficiency of NaBH4 hydrolysis decrease.

  6. A Versatile Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Zintl Phase Precursors: Na4Si4, Na4Ge4 and K4Ge4 as Examples

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuchu; Xu, Fen; Atkins, Tonya; Goforth, Andrea M.; Neiner, Doinita; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4 are ideal chemical precursors for inorganic clathrate structures, clusters, and nanocrystals. The monoclinic Zintl phases, Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4, contain isolated homo-tetrahedranide [Si4]4− and [Ge4]4− clusters surrounded by alkali metal cations. In this study, a simple scalable route has been applied to prepare Zintl phases of composition Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4 using the reaction between NaH and Si or Ge at low temperature (420 °C for Na4Si4 and 270 °C for Na4Ge4). The method was also applied to K4Ge4, using KH and Ge as raw materials, to show the versatility of this approach. The influence of specific reaction conditions on the purity of these Zintl phases has been studied by controlling five factors: the method of reagent mixing (manual or ball milled), the stoichiometry between raw materials, the reaction temperature, the heating time and the gas flow rate. Moderate ball-milling and excess NaH or KH facilitate the formation of pure Na4Si4, Na4Ge4 or K4Ge4 at 420 °C (Na4Si4) or 270 °C (both M4Ge4 compounds, M = Na, K). TG/DSC analysis of the reaction of NaH and Ge indicates that ball milling reduces the temperature for reaction and confirms the formation temperature. This method provides large quantities of high quality Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4 without the need for specialized laboratory equipment, such as Schlenk lines, niobium/tantalum containers, or an arc welder, thereby expanding the accessibility and chemical utility of these phases by making them more convenient to prepare. This new synthetic method may also be extended to lithium-containing Zintl phases (LiH is commercially available) as well as to alkali metal-tetrel Zintl compounds of other compositions, e.g. K4Ge9. PMID:19921060

  7. [Effect of NaOH-treatment on dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of Spartina alterniflora].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang-Yin; Zheng, Zheng; Chang, Zhi-Zhou; Ye, Xiao-Mei; Luo, Yan

    2011-07-01

    In order to improve the biotransformation rate of lignocellulosic materials, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was widely used to pretreat lignocellulosic materials. Effect of NaOH-treatment on dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of Spartina alternflora was studied by batch model under the temperature of 55 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C, at the initial total solid loading (TSL) of 20%. The results indicated that biogas production was inhibited by NaOH-treatment and improved by NaOH-treatment with water washed. The cumulative biogas yield of control (CK), NaOH-treated and NaOH-treated with water washed (NaOH + water) were 268.35 mL/g, 205.76 mL/g and 299.97 mL/g, respectively. The methane content of CK and NaOH + water treatments kept stable while fluctuation of NaOH-treated treatment during anaerobic digestion process was observed. Compared with CK and NaOH + water treatments, methane content of NaOH-treated treatment was improved by 5.30%. The content of hemi-cellulose and cellulose of S. alternifora decreased while content of lignin of S. alterniflora increased after 51-day anaerobic digestion. The crystallinity of cellulose of S. alterniflora increased after NaOH-treatment which was consistent to the result of FTIR. The lignocellulosic structure was destroyed and the biodegradability of S. alterniflora was increased by NaOH pretreatment. However, the amount of Na+ was taken into the anaerobic system, besides the high Na+ content in the plant itself which inhibited the anaerobic microorganisms. Therefore, NaOH-treatment is considered to be unsuitable for the anaerobic digestion of S. alterniflora.

  8. Autoregulation of apical membrane Na+ permeability of tight epithelia. Noise analysis with amiloride and CGS 4270

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Noise analysis of the Na+ channels of the apical membranes of frog skin bathed symmetrically in a Cl-HCO3 Ringer solution was done with amiloride and CGS 4270. Tissues were studied in their control states and after inhibition of transepithelial Na+ transport (Isc) by addition of quinine or quinidine to the apical solution. A critical examination of the amiloride-induced noise indicated that the single channel Na+ currents (iNa) were decreased by quinine and quinidine, probably because of depolarization of apical membrane voltage. Despite considerable statistical uncertainty in the methods of estimation of the Na+ channel density with amiloride-induced noise (NA, see text), the striking observation was a large increase of NA with amiloride inhibition of the rate of Na+ entry into the cells. NA was increased to 406% of control, whereas Isc was inhibited to 8.6% of control by 6 microM amiloride. Studies were done also with the Na+ channel blocker CGS 4270. Noise analysis with this compound was advantageous, permitting iCGSNa and NCGS to be measured in individual tissues with a relatively small inhibition of Isc. As with amiloride, inhibition of Isc with CGS 4270 caused large increases of the Na+ channel density (approximately 200% at approximately 35% inhibition of the Isc). Quinine and quinidine caused an approximately 50% increase of Na+ channel density while inhibiting iNa by approximately 60-70%. As inhibition of Na+ entry leads to an increase of Na+ channel density, a mechanism of autoregulation appears to be a major factor in adjusting the apical membrane Na+ permeability of the cells. PMID:2409219

  9. High precision measurements of 26Naβ- decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinyer, G. F.; Svensson, C. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A. N.; Austin, R. A.; Ball, G. C.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Hackman, G.; Hardy, J. C.; Hyland, B.; Iacob, V. E.; Koopmans, K. A.; Kulp, W. D.; Leslie, J. R.; MacDonald, J. A.; Morton, A. C.; Ormand, W. E.; Osborne, C. J.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Sarazin, F.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, H. C.; Schwarzenberg, J.; Smith, M. B.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Wood, J. L.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2005-04-01

    High-precision measurements of the half-life and β-branching ratios for the β- decay of 26Na to 26Mg have been measured in β-counting and γ-decay experiments, respectively. A 4π proportional counter and fast tape transport system were employed for the half-life measurement, whereas the γ rays emitted by the daughter nucleus 26Mg were detected with the 8π γ-ray spectrometer, both located at TRIUMF's isotope separator and accelerator radioactive beam facility. The half-life of 26Na was determined to be T1/2=1.07128±0.00013±0.00021s, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. The logft values derived from these experiments are compared with theoretical values from a full sd-shell model calculation.

  10. Mass determination near N = 20 for Al and Na isotopes

    DOE PAGES

    Gallant, A. T.; Alanssari, M.; Bale, J. C.; ...

    2017-08-31

    We report on the mass measurements of 31;32Na and 29;34;35Al, performed with the TITAN Penning trap mass spectrometer at TRIUMF. The mass excesses were found to be 12246(14) keV and 18638(37) keV for 31;32Na and -18207:77(37) keV, -3000:5(29) keV, and -223:7(73) keV for 29;34;35Al, respectively. Our measurements con rm the observation of a crossover in the two-neutron separation energies of 33Mg and 34Al. We did not observe the recently reported, long-lived, isomeric state of 34Al, but, based on the previously measured half-lives, the mass value of the ground state was determined.

  11. Sustainable Materials for Sustainable Energy Storage: Organic Na Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Oltean, Viorica-Alina; Renault, Stéven; Valvo, Mario; Brandell, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarize research efforts to realize Na-based organic materials for novel battery chemistries. Na is a more abundant element than Li, thereby contributing to less costly materials with limited to no geopolitical constraints while organic electrode materials harvested from biomass resources provide the possibility of achieving renewable battery components with low environmental impact during processing and recycling. Together, this can form the basis for truly sustainable electrochemical energy storage. We explore the efforts made on electrode materials of organic salts, primarily carbonyl compounds but also Schiff bases, unsaturated compounds, nitroxides and polymers. Moreover, sodiated carbonaceous materials derived from biomasses and waste products are surveyed. As a conclusion to the review, some shortcomings of the currently investigated materials are highlighted together with the major limitations for future development in this field. Finally, routes to move forward in this direction are suggested. PMID:28773272

  12. Sustainable Materials for Sustainable Energy Storage: Organic Na Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Oltean, Viorica-Alina; Renault, Stéven; Valvo, Mario; Brandell, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    In this review, we summarize research efforts to realize Na-based organic materials for novel battery chemistries. Na is a more abundant element than Li, thereby contributing to less costly materials with limited to no geopolitical constraints while organic electrode materials harvested from biomass resources provide the possibility of achieving renewable battery components with low environmental impact during processing and recycling. Together, this can form the basis for truly sustainable electrochemical energy storage. We explore the efforts made on electrode materials of organic salts, primarily carbonyl compounds but also Schiff bases, unsaturated compounds, nitroxides and polymers. Moreover, sodiated carbonaceous materials derived from biomasses and waste products are surveyed. As a conclusion to the review, some shortcomings of the currently investigated materials are highlighted together with the major limitations for future development in this field. Finally, routes to move forward in this direction are suggested.

  13. First principles molecular dynamics of molten NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galamba, N.; Costa Cabral, B. J.

    2007-03-01

    First principles Hellmann-Feynman molecular dynamics (HFMD) results for molten NaCl at a single state point are reported. The effect of induction forces on the structure and dynamics of the system is studied by comparison of the partial radial distribution functions and the velocity and force autocorrelation functions with those calculated from classical MD based on rigid-ion and shell-model potentials. The first principles results reproduce the main structural features of the molten salt observed experimentally, whereas they are incorrectly described by both rigid-ion and shell-model potentials. Moreover, HFMD Green-Kubo self-diffusion coefficients are in closer agreement with experimental data than those predicted by classical MD. A comprehensive discussion of MD results for molten NaCl based on different ab initio parametrized polarizable interionic potentials is also given.

  14. News on mean pion multiplicity from NA61/SHINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naskręt, Michał

    2018-02-01

    NA61/SHINE is a large acceptance fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS which studies final hadronic states in interactions between various particles and nuclei [1]. The main topic of this contribution are preliminary results for mean negatively charged pion multiplicities 〈π-〉 from central Ar+Sc and Be+Be collisions. The data were taken recently by the NA61/SHINE collaboration for a wide range of beam momenta. Measured rapidity distributions were extrapolated to unmeasured regions to obtain total multiplicities 〈π-〉 A new scheme to calculate the mean number of wounded nucleons 〈W〉 utilizing the EPOS MC model is described. Using data from other experiments, a comparison of for different collisions and beam momenta is discussed.

  15. Challenges of anamorphic high-NA lithography and mask making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Stephen D.; Liu, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    Chip makers are actively working on the adoption of 0.33 numerical aperture (NA) EUV scanners for the 7-nm and 5-nm nodes (B. Turko, S. L. Carson, A. Lio, T. Liang, M. Phillips, et al., in `Proc. SPIE9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 977602 (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2225014; A. Lio, in `Proc. SPIE9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 97760V (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2225017). In the meantime, leading foundries and integrated device manufacturers are starting to investigate patterning options beyond the 5-nm node (O. Wood, S. Raghunathan, P. Mangat, V. Philipsen, V. Luong, et al., in `Proc. SPIE. 9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', vol. 94220I (2015) doi: 10.1117/12.2085022). To minimize the cost and process complexity of multiple patterning beyond the 5-nm node, EUV high-NA single-exposure patterning is a preferred method over EUV double patterning (O. Wood, S. Raghunathan, P. Mangat, V. Philipsen, V. Luong, et al., in `Proc. SPIE. 9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', vol. 94220I (2015) doi: 10.1117/12.2085022; J. van Schoot, K. van Ingen Schenau, G. Bottiglieri, K. Troost, J. Zimmerman, et al., `Proc. SPIE. 9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 97761I (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2220150). The EUV high-NA scanner equipped with a projection lens of 0.55 NA is designed to support resolutions below 10 nm. The high-NA system is beneficial for enhancing resolution, minimizing mask proximity correction bias, improving normalized image log slope (NILS), and controlling CD uniformity (CDU). However, increasing NA from 0.33 to 0.55 reduces the depth of focus (DOF) significantly. Therefore, the source mask optimization (SMO) with sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) are needed to increase DOF to meet the demanding full chip process control requirements (S. Hsu, R. Howell, J. Jia, H.-Y. Liu, K. Gronlund, et al., EUV `Proc. SPIE9048, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', (2015) doi: 10

  16. THE EXCRETION OF Na$sup 22$ IN SWEAT

    SciTech Connect

    Weigel, H.W.; Parsons, J.; Elrick, H.

    A new method for measuring sodium excretion in sweat, utilizing Na/sup 22/, is described. The physical characteristics of the radioisotope are very favorable and the test procedure is simple. The method has been applied to 50 control subjects, 20 patients with chronic lung disease, and 4 patients with fibrocystic disease of the pancreas. The results show a significant elevation of sweat Na excretion in patients with chronic lung disease, but not to the degree seen in patients with cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. These findings are compatible with the concept that some patients with chronic lung disease may have amore » form of pancreatic fibrosis not clinically detectable. (auth)« less

  17. Performance comparison of MoNA and LISA neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purtell, Kimberly; Rethman, Kaitlynne; Haagsma, Autumn; Finck, Joseph; Smith, Jenna; Snyder, Jesse

    2010-11-01

    In 2002 eight primarily undergraduate institutions constructed and tested the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) which has been used to detect high energy neutrons at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). Nine institutions have now designed, constructed and tested the Large-area multi-Institutional Scintillator Array (LISA) neutron detector which will be used at the NSCL and the future Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). Both detectors are comprised of 144 detector modules. Each module is a 200 x 10 x 10 cm^3 bar organic plastic scintillator with a photomultiplier tube mounted on each end. Using cosmic rays and a gamma source, we compared the performance of MoNA and LISA by using the same electronics to check light attenuation, position resolution, rise times, and cosmic ray peak widths. Results will be presented.

  18. High-NA EUV projection lens with central obscuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhevlakov, A. P.; Seisyan, R. P.; Bespalov, V. G.; Elizarov, V. V.; Grishkanich, A. S.; Kascheev, S. V.; Bagdasarov, A. A.; Sidorov, I. S.

    2016-03-01

    The lenses with coaxial mirrors allow obtain NA values up to of 0.8 and demagnification β >=10. The larger β value leads to the mask cost reducing, as in this case, the elements of the IC pattern template can be made bigger and, therefore, with fewer defects. Coaxial schemes can engender a problem of the image plane shift beyond the projection lens element boundaries near the wafer. The projection lens consisting of four coaxial mirrors with NA= 0.485 and s = 12 combined with the "Vanguard" imaging subsystem have been designed. According to the computation the circuit features at 10 nm in center and 20 nm on the edge of 12.4 mm field of view can be imaged.

  19. High-pressure NaCl-phase of tetrahedral compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, T.; -Matsuo Kagaya, H.

    1984-04-01

    The phase transition of tetrahedral compounds such as GaP, InP, ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe and CdTe under pressure is investigated from the electronic theory of solids by using our recently presented binding force, which includes mainly covalent interactions in the pseudopotential formalism and partially ionic interactions. The partially ionic forces give the important contributions to the high-pressure phase and stabilize the NaCl-type structure for the high-pressure phase of these compounds, although not reported for GaP experimentally. Then, the numerical results such as the transition pressure, the volume-discontinuity, the transition heat with respect to the pressure-induced phase transition from the zinc-blende-to the NaCl-type lattice are obtained theoretically.

  20. Prospects for observation at CERN in NA62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, F.; NA62 Collaboration; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Aliberti, R.; Ambrosino, F.; Angelucci, B.; Antonelli, A.; Anzivino, G.; Arcidiacono, R.; Azhinenko, I.; Balev, S.; Bendotti, J.; Biagioni, A.; Biino, C.; Bizzeti, A.; Blazek, T.; Blik, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Bolotov, V.; Bonaiuto, V.; Bragadireanu, M.; Britton, D.; Britvich, G.; Brook, N.; Bucci, F.; Butin, F.; Capitolo, E.; Capoccia, C.; Capussela, T.; Carassiti, V.; Cartiglia, N.; Cassese, A.; Catinaccio, A.; Cecchetti, A.; Ceccucci, A.; Cenci, P.; Cerny, V.; Cerri, C.; Chikilev, O.; Ciaranfi, R.; Collazuol, G.; Cooke, P.; Cooper, P.; Corradi, G.; Cortina Gil, E.; Costantini, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Coward, D.; D'Agostini, G.; Dainton, J.; Dalpiaz, P.; Danielsson, H.; Degrange, J.; De Simone, N.; Di Filippo, D.; Di Lella, L.; Dixon, N.; Doble, N.; Duk, V.; Elsha, V.; Engelfried, J.; Enik, T.; Falaleev, V.; Fantechi, R.; Federici, L.; Fiorini, M.; Fry, J.; Fucci, A.; Fulton, L.; Gallorini, S.; Gatignon, L.; Gianoli, A.; Giudici, S.; Glonti, L.; Goncalves Martins, A.; Gonnella, F.; Goudzovski, E.; Guida, R.; Gushchin, E.; Hahn, F.; Hallgren, B.; Heath, H.; Herman, F.; Hutchcroft, D.; Iacopini, E.; Jamet, O.; Jarron, P.; Kampf, K.; Kaplon, J.; Karjavin, V.; Kekelidze, V.; Kholodenko, S.; Khoriauli, G.; Khudyakov, A.; Kiryushin, Yu; Kleinknecht, K.; Kluge, A.; Koval, M.; Kozhuharov, V.; Krivda, M.; Kudenko, Y.; Kunze, J.; Lamanna, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Leitner, R.; Lenci, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Lichard, P.; Lietava, R.; Litov, L.; Lomidze, D.; Lonardo, A.; Lurkin, N.; Madigozhin, D.; Maire, G.; Makarov, A.; Mannelli, I.; Mannocchi, G.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Massarotti, P.; Massri, K.; Matak, P.; Mazza, G.; Menichetti, E.; Mirra, M.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Morant, J.; Morel, M.; Moulson, M.; Movchan, S.; Munday, D.; Napolitano, M.; Newson, F.; Norton, A.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Obraztsov, V.; Padolski, S.; Page, R.; Palladino, V.; Pardons, A.; Pedreschi, E.; Pepe, M.; Perez Gomez, F.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrucci, F.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pietreanu, D.; Pinzino, J.; Pivanti, M.; Polenkevich, I.; Popov, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu; Protopopescu, D.; Raffaelli, F.; Raggi, M.; Riedler, P.; Romano, A.; Rubin, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Russo, V.; Ryjov, V.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Samsonov, V.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Sargeni, F.; Schifano, S.; Semenov, V.; Sergi, A.; Serra, M.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Sotnikov, A.; Sougonyaev, V.; Sozzi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Spinella, F.; Staley, R.; Statera, M.; Sutcliffe, P.; Szilasi, N.; Tagnani, D.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valente, P.; Vasile, M.; Vassilieva, V.; Velghe, B.; Veltri, M.; Venditti, S.; Vormstein, M.; Wahl, H.; Wanke, R.; Wertelaers, P.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Wrona, B.; Yushchenko, O.; Zamkovsky, M.; Zinchenko, A.

    2015-07-01

    The rare decays are excellent processes to probe the Standard Model and indirectly search for new physics complementary to the direct LHC searches. The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to collect and analyse O(1013) kaon decays before the CERN long-shutdown 2 (in 2018). This will allow to measure the branching ratio to a level of 10% accuracy. The experimental apparatus has been commissioned during a first run in autumn 2014.

  1. The Offline Software Framework of the NA61/SHINE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipos, Roland; Laszlo, Andras; Marcinek, Antoni; Paul, Tom; Szuba, Marek; Unger, Michael; Veberic, Darko; Wyszynski, Oskar

    2012-12-01

    NA61/SHINE (SHINE = SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) is an experiment at the CERN SPS using the upgraded NA49 hadron spectrometer. Among its physics goals are precise hadron production measurements for improving calculations of the neutrino beam flux in the T2K neutrino oscillation experiment as well as for more reliable simulations of cosmic-ray air showers. Moreover, p+p, p+Pb and nucleus+nucleus collisions will be studied extensively to allow for a study of properties of the onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter. Currently NA61/SHINE uses the old NA49 software framework for reconstruction, simulation and data analysis. The core of this legacy framework was developed in the early 1990s. It is written in different programming and scripting languages (C, pgi-Fortran, shell) and provides several concurrent data formats for the event data model, which includes also obsolete parts. In this contribution we will introduce the new software framework, called Shine, that is written in C++ and designed to comprise three principal parts: a collection of processing modules which can be assembled and sequenced by the user via XML files, an event data model which contains all simulation and reconstruction information based on STL and ROOT streaming, and a detector description which provides data on the configuration and state of the experiment. To assure a quick migration to the Shine framework, wrappers were introduced that allow to run legacy code parts as modules in the new framework and we will present first results on the cross validation of the two frameworks.

  2. Na8Au9.8(4)Ga7.2 and Na17Au5.87(2)Ga46.63: The diversity of pseudo 5-fold symmetries in the Na-Au-Ga system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Corbett, John D.; Miller, Gordon J.

    2013-11-01

    The Na-rich part (~30% Na) of the Na-Au-Ga system between NaAu2, NaGa4, and Na22Ga39 has been found to contain the ternary phases Na8Au9.8(4)Ga7.2 (I) and Na17Au5.87(2)Ga46.63 (II), according to the results of single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. I is orthorhombic, Cmcm, a=5.3040(1), b=24.519(5), c=14.573(3) Å, and contains a network of clusters with local 5-fold symmetry along the a-axis. Such clusters are frequent building units in decagonal quasicrystals and their approximants. II is rhombohedral, R3¯m, a=16.325(2), c=35.242(7) Å, and contains building blocks that are structurally identical to the Bergman-type clusters as well as fused icosahedral units known with active metals, triels and late transition elements. II also contains a polycationic network with elements of the clathrate V type structure. Tight-binding electronic structure calculations using linear muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) methods on idealized models of I and II indicate that both compounds are metallic with evident pseudogaps at the corresponding Fermi levels. The overall Hamilton bond populations are generally dominated by Au-Ga and Au-Au bonds in I and by Ga-Ga bonds in II; moreover, the Na-Au and Na-Ga contributions in I are unexpectedly large, ~20% of the total. A similar involvement of sodium in covalent bonding has also been found in the electron-richer i-Na13Au12Ga15 quasicrystal approximant.

  3. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the Na+/H+ exchanger gene family in Medicago truncatula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One important mechanism plants use to cope with salinity is keeping the cytosolic Na+ concentration low by sequestering Na+ in vacuoles, a process facilitated by Na+/H+ exchangers (NHX). There are eight NHX genes (NHX1 through NHX8) identified and characterized in Arabidopsis. Bioinformatic analysis...

  4. Observation of Feshbach resonances between ultracold Na and Rb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fudong; Xiong, Dezhi; Li, Xiaoke; Wang, Dajun

    2013-03-01

    Absolute ground-state 23Na87Rb molecule has a large electric dipole moment of 3.3 Debye and its two body exchange chemical reaction is energetically forbidden at ultracold temperatures. It is thus a nice candidate for studying quantum gases with dipolar interactions. We have built an experiment setup to investigate ultracold collisions between Na and Rb atoms as a first step toward the production of ground state molecular samples. Ultracold mixtures are first obtained by evaporative cooling of Rb and sympathetic cooling of Na. They are then transferred to a crossed dipole trap and prepared in different spin combinations for Feshbach resonance study. Several resonances below 1000 G are observed with both atoms prepared in either | F = 1,mF = 1 > or | F = 1,mF = - 1 > hyperfine states. Most of them are within 30 G of predicted values§ based on potentials obtained by high quality molecular spectroscopy studies. This work is supported by RGC Hong Kong. § E. Tiemann, private communications

  5. Nonradiative transport of atomic excitation in Na vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajonc, Arthur G.; Phelps, A. V.

    1981-05-01

    Measurements are reported which show the effect of nonradiative losses at a gas-window interface on the backscattered fluorescence intensity for Na vapor at frequencies in the vicinity of the resonance lines near 589 nm. The Na 3P12,32 states are excited with a low-intensity single-mode tunable dye laser at high Na densities and the frequency integral of the backscattered fluorescence intensity in the D1 and D2 lines is measured. As the laser is tuned through resonance, the loss of atomic excitation to the window appears as a sharp decrease in the frequency-integrated fluorescence intensity. For example, at 7×1020 atoms m-3 the fluorescence intensity decreases by a factor of 4 in a frequency interval of 4 GHz. Measured absolute fluorescence intensities versus laser frequency are compared with predictions made using the theory of Hummer and Kunasz which includes both radiative and nonradiative transport processes. The agreement between theory and experiment is remarkably good when one considers that the theory contains only one unknown coefficient, i.e., the reflection coefficient for excited atoms at the windows. In our case the excited atoms are assumed to be completely destroyed at the window.

  6. Short-term variations of Mercury's cusps Na emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massetti, S.; Mangano, V.; Milillo, A.; Mura, A.; Orsini, S.; Plainaki, C.

    2017-09-01

    We illustrate the analysis of short-term ground-based observations of the exospheric Na emission (D1 and D2 lines) from Mercury, which was characterized by two high-latitude peaks confined near the magnetospheric cusp footprints. During a series of scheduled observations from THEMIS solar telescope, achieved by scanning the whole planet, we implemented a series of extra measurements by recording the Na emission from a narrow north-south strip only, centered above the two emission peaks. Our aim was to inspect the existence of short-term variations, which were never analyzed before from ground-based observations, and their possible correlation with interplanetary magnetic field variations. Though Mercury possesses a miniature magnetosphere, characterized by fast reconnection events that develop on a timescale of few minutes, ground-based observations show that the exospheric Na emission pattern can be globally stable for a prolonged period (some days) and can exhibits fluctuations in the time range of tens of minutes.

  7. Hydrogenation properties of KSi and NaSi Zintl phases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wan Si; Chotard, Jean-Noël; Raybaud, Pascal; Janot, Raphaël

    2012-10-14

    The recently reported KSi-KSiH(3) system can store 4.3 wt% of hydrogen reversibly with slow kinetics of several hours for complete absorption at 373 K and complete desorption at 473 K. From the kinetics measured at different temperatures, the Arrhenius plots give activation energies (E(a)) of 56.0 ± 5.7 kJ mol(-1) and 121 ± 17 kJ mol(-1) for the absorption and desorption processes, respectively. Ball-milling with 10 wt% of carbon strongly improves the kinetics of the system, i.e. specifically the initial rate of absorption becomes about one order of magnitude faster than that of pristine KSi. However, this fast absorption causes a disproportionation into KH and K(8)Si(46), instead of forming the KSiH(3) hydride from a slow absorption. This disproportionation, due to the formation of stable KH, leads to a total loss of reversibility. In a similar situation, when the pristine Zintl NaSi phase absorbs hydrogen, it likewise disproportionates into NaH and Na(8)Si(46), indicating a very poorly reversible reaction.

  8. Synchronization modulation of Na/K pumps on Xenopus oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pengfei; Mast, Jason; Chen, Wei

    We developed a new technique named synchronization modulation to electrically synchronize and modulate the Na/K pump molecules by a specially designed oscillating electric field. This technique is based on the theory of energy-trap in quantum physics as well as the concept of electronic synchrotron accelerator. As a result, the Na-transports are all entrapped into the positive half-cycle of the applied electric field and consequently, all of the K-transports are entrapped into the negative half cycle of the field. To demonstrate the process of the pump synchronization and modulation, we use Xenopus oocytes as a platform and introduce two-electrode whole-cell voltage clamp in measurement of pump current. Practically, we first synchronize the pump molecules running at the same pace (rate and phase) by a specially designed oscillation electric field. Then, we carefully maintain the pump synchronization status and gradually change the field frequency (decrease and increase) to modulate the pump molecules to newer pumping rate. The result shows a separation of the inward K current from the outward Na current, and about 10 time increase of the total (inward plus outward) pump current from the net outward current from the random paced pump molecules. Also, the ratio of the modulated total pump current with synchronized total pump current is consistent with the ratio of their field frequencies.

  9. Level Zero Trigger Processor for the NA62 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldi, D.; Chiozzi, S.

    2018-05-01

    The NA62 experiment is designed to measure the ultra-rare decay K+ arrow π+ ν bar nu branching ratio with a precision of ~ 10% at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). The trigger system of NA62 consists in three different levels designed to select events of physics interest in a high beam rate environment. The L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP) is the lowest level system of the trigger chain. It is hardware implemented using programmable logic. The architecture of the NA62 L0TP system is a new approach compared to existing systems used in high-energy physics experiments. It is fully digital, based on a standard gigabit Ethernet communication between detectors and the L0TP Board. The L0TP Board is a commercial development board, mounting a programmable logic device (FPGA). The primitives generated by sub-detectors are sent asynchronously using the UDP protocol to the L0TP during the entire beam spill period. The L0TP realigns in time the primitives coming from seven different sources and performs a data selection based on the characteristics of the event such as energy, multiplicity and topology of hits in the sub-detectors. It guarantees a maximum latency of 1 ms. The maximum input rate is about 10 MHz for each sub-detector, while the design maximum output trigger rate is 1 MHz. A description of the trigger algorithm is presented here.

  10. A controllable molecular sieve for Na+ and K+ ions.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaojing; Li, Jichen; Xu, Ke; Wang, Jianfeng; Yang, Hui

    2010-02-17

    The selective rate of specific ion transport across nanoporous material is critical to biological and nanofluidic systems. Molecular sieves for ions can be achieved by steric and electrical effects. However, the radii of Na(+) and K(+) are quite similar; they both carry a positive charge, making them difficult to separate. Biological ionic channels contain precisely arranged arrays of amino acids that can efficiently recognize and guide the passage of K(+) or Na(+) across the cell membrane. However, the design of inorganic channels with novel recognition mechanisms that control the ionic selectivity remains a challenge. We present here a design for a controllable ion-selective nanopore (molecular sieve) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube with specially arranged carbonyl oxygen atoms modified inside the nanopore, which was inspired by the structure of potassium channels in membrane spanning proteins (e.g., KcsA). Our molecular dynamics simulations show that the remarkable selectivity is attributed to the hydration structure of Na(+) or K(+) confined in the nanochannels, which can be precisely tuned by different patterns of the carbonyl oxygen atoms. The results also suggest that a confined environment plays a dominant role in the selectivity process. These studies provide a better understanding of the mechanism of ionic selectivity in the KcsA channel and possible technical applications in nanotechnology and biotechnology, including serving as a laboratory-in-nanotube for special chemical interactions and as a high-efficiency nanodevice for purification or desalination of sea and brackish water.

  11. Polarization Spectroscopy and Collisions in NaK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, C. M.; Ashman, S.; Huennekens, J.; Beser, B.; Bai, J.; Lyyra, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    We report current work to study transfer of population and orientation in collisions of NaK molecules with argon and potassium atoms using polarization labeling (PL) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. In the PL experiment, a circularly polarized pump laser excites a specific NaK A^1&+circ;(v=16, J) <- X^1&+circ;(v=0, J±1) transition, creating an orientation (non-uniform MJ level distribution) in both levels. The linear polarized probe laser is scanned over various 3^1π(v=8, J' ±1) <- A^1&+circ;(v=16, J') transitions. The probe laser passes through a crossed linear polarizer before detection, and signal is recorded if the probe laser polarization has been modified by the vapor (which occurs when it comes into resonance with an oriented level). In addition to strong direct transitions (J' = J), we also observe weak collisional satellite lines (J' = J±n with n = 1, 2, 3, ...) indicating that orientation is transferred to adjacent rotational levels during a collision. An LIF experiment (with linear polarized pump and probe beams) gives information on the collisional transfer of population. From these data, cross sections for both processes can be determined. We experimentally distinguish collisions of NaK with argon atoms from collisions with alkali atoms.

  12. Characterization of Two Ton NaI Scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Alleta; Coherent Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The COHERENT collaboration is dedicated to measuring Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CE νNS), an interaction predicted by the standard model that ultimately serves as a background floor for dark matter detection. In the pursuit of observing the N2 scaling predicted, COHERENT is deploying two tons of NaI[Tl] detector to observe CE νNS recoils of sodium nuclei. Before the two tons of this NaI[Tl] scintillator are deployed, however, all crystals and PMTs must be characterized to understand the individual properties vital to precision in the measurement of CE νNS. This detector is also expected to allow COHERENT to observe charged current and CE νNS interactions with 127I. A standard operating procedure is developed to characterize each detector based on seven properties relevant to precision in the measurement of CE νNS: energy scale, energy resolution, low-energy light yield non-linearity, decay time energy dependence, position variance, time variance, and background levels. Crystals will be tested and characterized for these properties in the context of a ton-scale NaI[Tl] detector. Preliminary development of the SOP has allowed for greater understanding of optimization methods needed for characterization for the ton scale detector. TUNL, NSF, Duke University.

  13. Naïve Human Antibody Libraries for Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Chan, Soo Khim; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Lai, Jing Yi; Lim, Theam Soon

    2017-01-01

    Many countries are facing an uphill battle in combating the spread of infectious diseases. The constant evolution of microorganisms magnifies the problem as it facilitates the re-emergence of old infectious diseases as well as promote the introduction of new and more deadly variants. Evidently, infectious diseases have contributed to an alarming rate of mortality worldwide making it a growing concern. Historically, antibodies have been used successfully to prevent and treat infectious diseases since the nineteenth century using antisera collected from immunized animals. The inherent ability of antibodies to trigger effector mechanisms aids the immune system to fight off pathogens that invades the host. Immune libraries have always been an important source of antibodies for infectious diseases due to the skewed repertoire generated post infection. Even so, the role and ability of naïve antibody libraries should not be underestimated. The naïve repertoire has its own unique advantages in generating antibodies against target antigens. This chapter will highlight the concept, advantages and application of human naïve libraries as a source to isolate antibodies against infectious disease target antigens.

  14. Temperature dependence of thermal pressure for NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chandra K.; Pande, Brijesh K.; Pandey, Anjani K.

    2018-05-01

    Engineering applications of the materials can be explored upto the desired limit of accuracy with the better knowledge of its mechanical and thermal properties such as ductility, brittleness and Thermal Pressure. For the resistance to fracture (K) and plastic deformation (G) the ratio K/G is treated as an indication of ductile or brittle character of solids. In the present work we have tested the condition of ductility and brittleness with the calculated values of K/G for the NaCl. It is concluded that the nature of NaCl can be predicted upto high temperature simply with the knowledge of its elastic stiffness constant only. Thermoelastic properties of materials at high temperature is directly related to thermal pressure and volume expansion of the materials. An expression for the temperature dependence of thermal pressure is formulated using basic thermodynamic identities. It is observed that thermal pressure ΔPth calculated for NaCl by using Kushwah formulation is in good agreement with the experimental values also the thermal pressure increases with the increase in temperature.

  15. Phase Changes of Monosulfoaluminate in NaCl Aqueous Solution

    DOE PAGES

    Yoon, Seyoon; Ha, Juyoung; Chae, Sejung Rosie; ...

    2016-05-21

    Monosulfoaluminate (Ca 4Al 2(SO 4)(OH) 12∙6H 2O) plays an important role in anion binding in Portland cement by exchanging its original interlayer ions (SO 4 2- and OH -) with chloride ions. In this study, scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate the phase change of monosulfoaluminate due to its interaction with chloride ions. Pure monosulfoaluminate was synthesized and its powder samples were suspended in 0, 0.1, 1, 3, and 5 M NaCl solutions for seven days. At low chloride concentrations, a partial dissolution of monosulfoaluminate formedmore » ettringite, while, with increasing chloride content, the dissolution process was suppressed. As the NaCl concentration increased, the dominant mechanism of the phase change became ion exchange, resulting in direct phase transformation from monosulfoaluminate to Kuzel’s salt or Friedel’s salt. The phase assemblages of the NaCl-reacted samples were explored using thermodynamic calculations and least-square linear combination (LC) fitting of measured XANES spectra. A comprehensive description of the phase change and its dominant mechanism are discussed.« less

  16. The enhancement of neutral metal Na layer above thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, B.; Xue, X.; Lu, G.; Dou, X.; Gao, Q.; Qie, X.; Wu, J.; Tang, Y.; Holzworth, R.

    2016-12-01

    Na (sodium) exists as layers of atoms in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) at altitudes between 80 and 105 km. It has lower ionization potential of 5.139 eV than atmospheric species, such as O2 (12.06 eV). Tropospheric thunderstorms affect the lower ionosphere and the ionospheric sporadic E (Es) at 100 km can also be influenced by lightning. The mechanism is expected to be associated with transient luminous events (TLE) as red sprites and gigantic jets at upper atmosphere. However, measurements of ionospheric electric fields of 20mV·m-1 above thunderstorms are less than estimated value (>48 0mV·m-1) to excite ionization in the lower ionosphere. We found an enhancement of Na layer above thunderstorms. The increase of Na density in the statistical result can be as much as 500 cm-3 and it will have an impact on ionospheric chemistry and modify the conductivity properties of the MLT region.

  17. Fabrication of Na0.7MnO2/C composite cathode material by simple heat treatment for high-power na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, DongRak; Lim, Sung-Jin; Nam, Do-Hwan; Hong, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Tae-Hee; Oh, SeKwon; Eom, Ji-Yong; Cho, EunAe; Kwon, HyukSang

    2018-01-01

    A Na0.7MnO2/C composite cathode material is synthesized by simple and costeffective two-step heat treatment for an improvement in the rate capability of Na0.7MnO2. The first heat treatment is to synthesize Na0.7MnO2, and the second one is a low temperature annealing at 350 °C for 1 h in air, which is necessary to suppress an interfacial reaction between the Na0.7MnO2 and C in the synthesis process of Na0.7MnO2/C composite. Structural analyses by XRD and XPS reveal that the Na0.7MnO2/C shows the same structural properties as that of the pristine Na0.7MnO2, and hence they exhibit the same initial discharge capacity of 175 mAh g-1 at 20 mA g-1. At a current density of 400 mA g-1, the discharge capacity of Na0.7MnO2 reduces to 50 mAh g-1 (28% of the initial discharge capacity), whereas that of Na0.7MnO2/C reduces to 108 mAh g-1 (61% of the initial discharge capacity). The enhanced rate capability of the Na0.7MnO2/C is attributed to the conductive carbon layer formed on the surface of Na0.7MnO2 particles, enabling the facile transport of electrons from the current collector to the surface of the Na0.7MnO2 particles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Insight to the Thermal Decomposition and Hydrogen Desorption Behaviors of NaNH2-NaBH4 Hydrogen Storage Composite.

    PubMed

    Pei, Ziwei; Bai, Ying; Wang, Yue; Wu, Feng; Wu, Chuan

    2017-09-20

    The lightweight compound material NaNH 2 -NaBH 4 is regarded as a promising hydrogen storage composite due to the high hydrogen density. Mechanical ball milling was employed to synthesize the composite NaNH 2 -NaBH 4 (2/1 molar ratio), and the samples were investigated utilizing thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis-mass spectroscopy (TG-DTA-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The full-spectrum test (range of the ratio of mass to charge: 0-200) shows that the released gaseous species contain H 2 , NH 3 , B 2 H 6 , and N 2 in the heating process from room temperature to 400 °C, and possibly the impurity gas B 6 H 12 also exists. The TG/DTA analyses show that the composite NaNH 2 -NaBH 4 (2/1 molar ratio) is conductive to generate hydrogen so that the dehydrogenation process can be finished before 400 °C. Moreover, the thermal decomposition process from 200 to 400 °C involves two-step dehydrogenation reactions: (1) Na 3 (NH 2 ) 2 BH 4 hydride decomposes into Na 3 BN 2 and H 2 (200-350 °C); (2) remaining Na 3 (NH 2 ) 2 BH 4 reacts with NaBH 4 and Na 3 BN 2 , generating Na, BN, NH 3 , N 2 , and H 2 (350-400 °C). The better mechanism understanding of the thermal decomposition pathway lays a foundation for tailoring the hydrogen storage performance of the composite complex hydrides system.

  19. Sodium channel diversity in the vestibular ganglion: NaV1.5, NaV1.8, and tetrodotoxin-sensitive currents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Firing patterns differ between subpopulations of vestibular primary afferent neurons. The role of sodium (NaV) channels in this diversity has not been investigated because NaV currents in rodent vestibular ganglion neurons (VGNs) were reported to be homogeneous, with the voltage dependence and tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitivity of most neuronal NaV channels. RT-PCR experiments, however, indicated expression of diverse NaV channel subunits in the vestibular ganglion, motivating a closer look. Whole cell recordings from acutely dissociated postnatal VGNs confirmed that nearly all neurons expressed NaV currents that are TTX-sensitive and have activation midpoints between −30 and −40 mV. In addition, however, many VGNs expressed one of two other NaV currents. Some VGNs had a small current with properties consistent with NaV1.5 channels: low TTX sensitivity, sensitivity to divalent cation block, and a relatively negative voltage range, and some VGNs showed NaV1.5-like immunoreactivity. Other VGNs had a current with the properties of NaV1.8 channels: high TTX resistance, slow time course, and a relatively depolarized voltage range. In two NaV1.8 reporter lines, subsets of VGNs were labeled. VGNs with NaV1.8-like TTX-resistant current also differed from other VGNs in the voltage dependence of their TTX-sensitive currents and in the voltage threshold for spiking and action potential shape. Regulated expression of NaV channels in primary afferent neurons is likely to selectively affect firing properties that contribute to the encoding of vestibular stimuli. PMID:26936982

  20. Dramatic increase in naïve T cell turnover is linked to loss of naïve T cells from old primates

    PubMed Central

    Čičin-Šain, Luka; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Park, Byung; Currier, Noreen; Planer, Shannon; Fischer, Miranda; Tackitt, Shane; Nikolich-Žugich, Dragana; Legasse, Alfred; Axthelm, Michael K.; Picker, Louis J.; Mori, Motomi; Nikolich-Žugich, Janko

    2007-01-01

    The loss of naïve T cells is a hallmark of immune aging. Although thymic involution is a primary driver of this naïve T cell loss, less is known about the contribution of other mechanisms to the depletion of naïve T cells in aging primates. We examined the role of homeostatic cycling and proliferative expansion in different T cell subsets of aging rhesus macaques (RM). BrdU incorporation and the expression of the G1-M marker Ki-67 were elevated in peripheral naïve CD4 and even more markedly in the naïve CD8 T cells of old, but not young adult, RM. Proliferating naïve cells did not accumulate in old animals. Rather, the relative size of the naïve CD8 T cell compartment correlated inversely to its proliferation rate. Likewise, T cell receptor diversity decreased in individuals with elevated naïve CD8 T cell proliferation. This apparent contradiction was explained by a significant increase in turnover concomitant with the naïve pool loss. The turnover increased exponentially when the naïve CD8 T cell pool decreased below 4% of total blood CD8 cells. These results link the shrinking naïve T cell pool with a dramatic increase in homeostatic turnover, which has the potential to exacerbate the progressive exhaustion of the naïve pool and constrict the T cell repertoire. Thus, homeostatic T cell proliferation exhibits temporal antagonistic pleiotropy, being beneficial to T cell maintenance in adulthood but detrimental to the long-term T cell maintenance in aging individuals. PMID:18056811

  1. Phase equilibria in the NaF-CdO-NaPO{sub 3} system at 873 K and crystal structure and physico-chemical characterizations of the new Na{sub 2}CdPO{sub 4}F fluorophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Aboussatar, Mohamed; Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l’État Solide, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000 Sfax; Mbarek, Aïcha

    Isothermal sections of the diagram representing phase relationships in the NaF-CdO-NaPO{sub 3} system have been investigated by solid state reactions and powder X-ray diffraction. This phase diagram investigation confirms the polymorphism of the NaCdPO{sub 4} side component and the structure of the ß high temperature polymorph (orthorhombic, space group Pnma and unit cell parameters a=9.3118(2), b=7.0459(1), c=5.1849(1) Å has been refined. A new fluorophosphate, Na{sub 2}CdPO{sub 4}F, has been discovered and its crystal structure determined and refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. It exhibits a new 3D structure with orthorhombic symmetry, space group Pnma and unit cell parameters a=5.3731(1), b=6.8530(1),more » c=12.2691(2) Å. The structure is closely related to those of the high temperature polymorph of the nacaphite Na{sub 2}CaPO{sub 4}F and the fluorosilicate Ca{sub 2}NaSiO{sub 4}F but differs essentially in the cationic repartition since the structure is fully ordered with one Na site (8d) and one Cd site (4c). Relationships with other Na{sub 2}M{sup II}PO{sub 4}F (M{sup II}=Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) have been examined and the crystal-chemical and topographical analysis of these fluorophosphates is briefly reviewed. IR, Raman, optical and {sup 19}F, {sup 23}Na, {sup 31}P MAS NMR characterizations of Na{sub 2}CdPO{sub 4}F have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: The structure of the compound Na{sub 2}CdPO{sub 4}F, discovered during the study of the phase relationships in the NaF-CdO-NaPO{sub 3} system, has been determined and compared with other Na{sub 2}M{sup II}PO{sub 4}F fluorophosphates. - Highlights: • XRD analysis of the isothermal section of the NaF-CdO-NaPO{sub 3} system at 923 K. • Rietveld refinement of the high temperature polymorph β-NaCdPO{sub 4}. • Crystal structure of the new Na{sub 2}CdPO{sub 4}F fluorophosphate determined from powder XRD. • Crystal structure - composition relationships of Na{sub 2}M{sup II}PO{sub 4}F

  2. Enhancing Catalyzed Decomposition of Na2CO3 with Co2MnO x Nanowire-Decorated Carbon Fibers for Advanced Na-CO2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fang, Cong; Luo, Jianmin; Jin, Chengbin; Yuan, Huadong; Sheng, Ouwei; Huang, Hui; Gan, Yongping; Xia, Yang; Liang, Chu; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenkui; Tao, Xinyong

    2018-05-23

    The metal-CO 2 batteries, especially Na-CO 2 , batteries come into sight owing to their high energy density, ability for CO 2 capture, and the abundance of sodium resource. Besides the sluggish electrochemical reactions at the gas cathodes and the instability of the electrolyte at a high voltage, the final discharge product Na 2 CO 3 is a solid and poor conductor of electricity, which may cause the high overpotential and poor cycle performance for the Na-CO 2 batteries. The promotion of decomposition of Na 2 CO 3 should be an efficient strategy to enhance the electrochemical performance. Here, we design a facile Na 2 CO 3 activation experiment to screen the efficient cathode catalyst for the Na-CO 2 batteries. It is found that the Co 2 MnO x nanowire-decorated carbon fibers (CMO@CF) can promote the Na 2 CO 3 decomposition at the lowest voltage among all these metal oxide-decorated carbon fiber structures. After assembling the Na-CO 2 batteries, the electrodes based on CMO@CF show lower overpotential and better cycling performance compared with the electrodes based on pristine carbon fibers and other metal oxide-modified carbon fibers. We believe this catalyst screening method and the freestanding structure of the CMO@CF electrode may provide an important reference for the development of advanced Na-CO 2 batteries.

  3. Controlled phase stability of highly Na-active triclinic structure in nanoscale high-voltage Na2-2xCo1+xP2O7 cathode for Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hee Jo; Kim, Jae-Chan; Dar, Mushtaq Ahmad; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2018-02-01

    With the increasing demand for high energy density in energy-storage systems, a high-voltage cathode is essential in rechargeable Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The operating voltage of a triclinic-polymorph Na2CoP2O7, also known as the rose form, is above 4.0 V (vs. Na/Na+), which is relatively high compared to that of other cathode materials. Thus, it can be employed as a potential high-voltage cathode material in Na-ion batteries. However, it is difficult to synthesize a pure rose phase because of its low phase stability, thus limiting its use in high-voltage applications. Herein, compositional-engineered, rose-phase Na2-2xCo1+xP2O7/C (x = 0, 0.1 and 0.2) nanopowder are prepared using a wet-chemical method. The Na2-2xCo1+xP2O7/C cathode shows high electrochemical reactivity with Na ions at 4.0 V, delivering high capacity and high energy density.

  4. Mechanistic origin of low polarization in aprotic Na-O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shunchao; McKee, William C; Wang, Jiawei; Guo, Limin; Jansen, Martin; Xu, Ye; Peng, Zhangquan

    2017-05-21

    Research interest in aprotic sodium-air (Na-O 2 ) batteries is growing because of their considerably high theoretical specific energy and potentially better reversibility than lithium-air (Li-O 2 ) batteries. While Li 2 O 2 has been unequivocally identified as the major discharge product in Li-O 2 batteries containing relatively stable electrolytes, a multitude of discharge products, including NaO 2 , Na 2 O 2 and Na 2 O 2 ·2H 2 O, have been reported for Na-O 2 batteries and the corresponding cathodic electrochemistry remains incompletely understood. Herein, we provide molecular-level insights into the key mechanistic differences between Na-O 2 and Li-O 2 batteries based on gold electrodes in strictly dry, aprotic dimethyl sulfoxide electrolytes through a combination of in situ spectroelectrochemistry and density functional theory based modeling. While like Li-O 2 batteries, the formation of oxygen reduction products (i.e., O 2 - , NaO 2 and Na 2 O 2 ) in Na-O 2 batteries depends critically on the electrode potential, two factors lead to a better reversibility of Na-O 2 electrochemistry, and are therefore highly beneficial to a viable rechargeable metal-air battery design: (i) only O 2 - and NaO 2 , and no Na 2 O 2 , form down to as low as ∼1.5 V vs. Na/Na + during discharge; (ii) solid NaO 2 is quite soluble and its formation and oxidation can proceed through micro-reversible EC (a chemical reaction of the product after the electron transfer) and CE (a chemical reaction preceding the electron transfer) processes, respectively, with O 2 - as the key intermediate.

  5. Interaction of External K, Na, and Cardioactive Steroids with the Na-K Pump of the Human Red Blood Cell

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, John R.

    1974-01-01

    The interaction of extracellular Na (Nao), K (Ko), and strophanthidin with the Na-K pump of the human red blood cell has been investigated. Inhibition by submaximal concentrations of strophanthidin rapidly reaches a level which does not increase further over a relatively long period of time. Under these circumstances, it is possible to apply a steady-state kinetic analysis to the interaction of Nao, Ko, and strophanthidin with the pump. In Na-free solutions, strophanthidin increases the apparent K1/2 of the pump for Ko, but does not change the form of the relation between the reciprocal of the active K influx (i M K P–1) and the reciprocal of [Ko] ([Ko]–1); the relation both in the presence and absence of strophanthidin is adequately described by a straight line. In solutions containing Na, strophanthidin changes the form of the curve describing the relation between i M K P–1 vs. [Ko]–1; the curve becomes more parabolic in solutions containing strophanthidin. The rate of ouabain binding to K-free cells has also been measured; in the absence of K, the rate of binding is unaffected by Nao. The data are considered in terms of a simple kinetic model. The findings can be explained if it is supposed that at low external K the form of the pump combined with one Nao is more likely to combine with strophanthidin than is the uncombined form of the pump. The uncombined form of the pump is more likely to combine with K even at very low Ko than with strophanthidin. PMID:4812632

  6. Spatial and mineralogic variation of Na-Ca alteration in Laramide porphyry systems of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyon, S.; Seedorff, E.; Barton, M. D.; Mazdab, F. K.; Lecumberri-Sanchez, P.; Steele-MacInnis, M.

    2017-12-01

    Na-Ca alteration is characterized by the metasomatic addition of Ca ± Na and the loss of K. Minor volumes of Na-Ca alteration in Laramide porphyry systems develops from 3 to 8 km paleodepth. Mineral assemblages, mineral compositions, hydrogen isotopes, whole-rock analyses, and reconnaissance fluid inclusion characteristics have been documented for Na-Ca alteration in Laramide porphyry systems such as Tea Cup and Sierrita. Volumetrically minor Na-Ca alteration in Laramide porphyry systems documented in this study commonly takes the form of one of three mineral assemblages: albite-epidote-chlorite, Na-plagioclase-actinolite ± epidote, and garnet- or diopside-stable Na-plagioclase-actinolite ± epidote. These different Na-Ca mineral assemblages have broad spatial relationships, from shallow albite-chlorite-epidote to deeper Na-plagioclase-actinolite within a given district. Hydrogen isotope data on Na-Ca alteration minerals shows consistently distinct δD compositions of Na-Ca alteration minerals compared to igneous minerals in a given district. Further, calculated hydrogen isotope composition of fluids in equilibrium with Na-Ca alteration minerals are consistently enriched in δD compared to magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Whole-rock analyses show consistent losses of K and variable addition of Na and Ca across different Na-Ca alteration assemblages. Na-Ca alteration has been well documented associated with the Jurassic arc. Previous studies demonstrated through mass balance, timing and spatial relationships, isotopic, and fluid inclusion studies that Na-Ca alteration associated with the Jurassic arc likely formed from the circulation of external, highly saline, non-magmatic fluids (e.g., Battles and Barton, 1995; Dilles et al., 1995). Na-Ca alteration documented in Laramide systems is generally similar to Na-Ca alteration documented along the Jurassic arc in mineral assemblages, compositions, and timing, but the volume of Na-Ca alteration in the Laramide systems is

  7. Phase equilibria in the NaF-CdO-NaPO3 system at 873 K and crystal structure and physico-chemical characterizations of the new Na2CdPO4F fluorophosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboussatar, Mohamed; Mbarek, Aïcha; Naili, Houcine; El-Ghozzi, Malika; Chadeyron, Geneviève; Avignant, Daniel; Zambon, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Isothermal sections of the diagram representing phase relationships in the NaF-CdO-NaPO3 system have been investigated by solid state reactions and powder X-ray diffraction. This phase diagram investigation confirms the polymorphism of the NaCdPO4 side component and the structure of the ß high temperature polymorph (orthorhombic, space group Pnma and unit cell parameters a=9.3118(2), b=7.0459(1), c=5.1849(1) Å has been refined. A new fluorophosphate, Na2CdPO4F, has been discovered and its crystal structure determined and refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. It exhibits a new 3D structure with orthorhombic symmetry, space group Pnma and unit cell parameters a=5.3731(1), b=6.8530(1), c=12.2691(2) Å. The structure is closely related to those of the high temperature polymorph of the nacaphite Na2CaPO4F and the fluorosilicate Ca2NaSiO4F but differs essentially in the cationic repartition since the structure is fully ordered with one Na site (8d) and one Cd site (4c). Relationships with other Na2MIIPO4F (MII=Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) have been examined and the crystal-chemical and topographical analysis of these fluorophosphates is briefly reviewed. IR, Raman, optical and 19F, 23Na, 31P MAS NMR characterizations of Na2CdPO4F have been investigated.

  8. Threshold oxygen levels in Na(I) for the formation of NaCrO 2(s) on 18-8 stainless steels from accurate thermodynamic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreedharan, O. M.; Madan, B. S.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.

    1983-12-01

    The compound NaCrO 2(s) is an important corrosion product in sodium-cooled LMFBRs. The standard Gibbs energy of formation of NaCrO 2(s) is required for the computation of threshold oxygen levels in Na(1) for the formation of NaCrO 2(s) on 18-8 stainless steels. For this purpose the emf of the galvanic cell: Pt, NaCrO 2, Cr 2O 3, Na 2CrO 4/15 YSZ/O 2 ( P O 2 = 0.21 atm, air), Pt was measured over 784-1012 K to be: (E±4.4)(mV) = 483.67-0.34155 T(K). From this, the standard Gibbs energy of formation of NaCrO 2(s) from the elements ( ΔG f,T0) and from the oxides ( ΔG f,OX,T0) was calculated to be: [ΔG f,T0(NaCrO 2, s)±1.86] (kJ/mol) =-869.98 + 0.18575 T(K) , [ΔG f,OX,T0(NaCr0 2, s)±4.8] (kJ/mol) = -104.25-0.00856 T(K) . The molar heat capacity, C P0, of NaCrO 2(s) was measured by DSC to be (350-600 K): C P0(NaCrO 2, s) (J/K mol) = 27.15 + 0.1247 T (K) , From these data, values of -99.3 kJ/mol and 91.6 J/K mol were computed for ΔH f,2980 and S 2980 of NaCrO 2(s). The internal consistency was checked with the use of enthalpy data on Na 2CrO 4(s). From the standard Gibbs energy of formation of NaCrO 2(s) the equation logC 0(wppm) = 3.9905-3147.6 T(K) was derived, where C 0 is the threshold oxygen level for the formation of NaCrO 2(s) on 18-8 stainless steels.

  9. Development of Network Interface Cards for TRIDAQ systems with the NaNet framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Cretaro, P.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Valente, P.; Vicini, P.

    2017-03-01

    NaNet is a framework for the development of FPGA-based PCI Express (PCIe) Network Interface Cards (NICs) with real-time data transport architecture that can be effectively employed in TRIDAQ systems. Key features of the architecture are the flexibility in the configuration of the number and kind of the I/O channels, the hardware offloading of the network protocol stack, the stream processing capability, and the zero-copy CPU and GPU Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA). Three NIC designs have been developed with the NaNet framework: NaNet-1 and NaNet-10 for the CERN NA62 low level trigger and NaNet3 for the KM3NeT-IT underwater neutrino telescope DAQ system. We will focus our description on the NaNet-10 design, as it is the most complete of the three in terms of capabilities and integrated IPs of the framework.

  10. Na+/H+ Exchange Activity in the Plasma Membrane of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Quan-Sheng; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Schumaker, Karen S.

    2003-01-01

    In plants, Na+/H+ exchangers in the plasma membrane are critical for growth in high levels of salt, removing toxic Na+ from the cytoplasm by transport out of the cell. The molecular identity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger in Arabidopsis (SOS1) has recently been determined. In this study, immunological analysis provided evidence that SOS1 localizes to the plasma membrane of leaves and roots. To characterize the transport activity of this protein, purified plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from leaves of Arabidopsis. Na+/H+ exchange activity, monitored as the ability of Na to dissipate an established pH gradient, was absent in plants grown without salt. However, exchange activity was induced when plants were grown in 250 mm NaCl and increased with prolonged salt exposure up to 8 d. H+-coupled exchange was specific for Na, because chloride salts of other monovalent cations did not dissipate the pH gradient. Na+/H+ exchange activity was dependent on Na (substrate) concentration, and kinetic analysis indicated that the affinity (apparent Km) of the transporter for Na+ is 22.8 mm. Data from two experimental approaches supports electroneutral exchange (one Na+ exchanged for one proton): (a) no change in membrane potential was measured during the exchange reaction, and (b) Na+/H+ exchange was unaffected by the presence or absence of a membrane potential. Results from this research provide a framework for future studies into the regulation of the plant plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger and its relative contribution to the maintenance of cellular Na+ homeostasis during plant growth in salt. PMID:12805632

  11. Na+/H+ exchange activity in the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Quan-Sheng; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Schumaker, Karen S

    2003-06-01

    In plants, Na+/H+ exchangers in the plasma membrane are critical for growth in high levels of salt, removing toxic Na+ from the cytoplasm by transport out of the cell. The molecular identity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger in Arabidopsis (SOS1) has recently been determined. In this study, immunological analysis provided evidence that SOS1 localizes to the plasma membrane of leaves and roots. To characterize the transport activity of this protein, purified plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from leaves of Arabidopsis. Na+/H+ exchange activity, monitored as the ability of Na to dissipate an established pH gradient, was absent in plants grown without salt. However, exchange activity was induced when plants were grown in 250 mm NaCl and increased with prolonged salt exposure up to 8 d. H+-coupled exchange was specific for Na, because chloride salts of other monovalent cations did not dissipate the pH gradient. Na+/H+ exchange activity was dependent on Na (substrate) concentration, and kinetic analysis indicated that the affinity (apparent Km) of the transporter for Na+ is 22.8 mm. Data from two experimental approaches supports electroneutral exchange (one Na+ exchanged for one proton): (a) no change in membrane potential was measured during the exchange reaction, and (b) Na+/H+ exchange was unaffected by the presence or absence of a membrane potential. Results from this research provide a framework for future studies into the regulation of the plant plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger and its relative contribution to the maintenance of cellular Na+ homeostasis during plant growth in salt.

  12. Characterization of NaCl tolerance in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough through experimental evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Aifen; Baidoo, Edward; He, Zhili; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Baumohl, Jason K; Benke, Peter; Joachimiak, Marcin P; Xie, Ming; Song, Rong; Arkin, Adam P; Hazen, Terry C; Keasling, Jay D; Wall, Judy D; Stahl, David A; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough strains with significantly increased tolerance to NaCl were obtained via experimental evolution. A NaCl-evolved strain, ES9-11, isolated from a population cultured for 1200 generations in medium amended with 100 mM NaCl, showed better tolerance to NaCl than a control strain, EC3-10, cultured for 1200 generations in parallel but without NaCl amendment in medium. To understand the NaCl adaptation mechanism in ES9-11, we analyzed the transcriptional, metabolite and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of strain ES9-11 with 0, 100- or 250 mM-added NaCl in medium compared with the ancestral strain and EC3-10 as controls. In all the culture conditions, increased expressions of genes involved in amino-acid synthesis and transport, energy production, cation efflux and decreased expression of flagellar assembly genes were detected in ES9-11. Consistently, increased abundances of organic solutes and decreased cell motility were observed in ES9-11. Glutamate appears to be the most important osmoprotectant in D. vulgaris under NaCl stress, whereas, other organic solutes such as glutamine, glycine and glycine betaine might contribute to NaCl tolerance under low NaCl concentration only. Unsaturation indices of PLFA significantly increased in ES9-11. Branched unsaturated PLFAs i17:1 ω9c, a17:1 ω9c and branched saturated i15:0 might have important roles in maintaining proper membrane fluidity under NaCl stress. Taken together, these data suggest that the accumulation of osmolytes, increased membrane fluidity, decreased cell motility and possibly an increased exclusion of Na+ contribute to increased NaCl tolerance in NaCl-evolved D. vulgaris. PMID:23575373

  13. A neural network potential energy surface for the NaH2 system and dynamics studies on the H(2S) + NaH(X1Σ+) → Na(2S) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufen; Yuan, Jiuchuang; Li, Huixing; Chen, Maodu

    2017-08-02

    In order to study the dynamics of the reaction H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ), a new potential energy surface (PES) for the ground state of the NaH 2 system is constructed based on 35 730 ab initio energy points. Using basis sets of quadruple zeta quality, multireference configuration interaction calculations with Davidson correction were carried out to obtain the ab initio energy points. The neural network method is used to fit the PES, and the root mean square error is very small (0.00639 eV). The bond lengths, dissociation energies, zero-point energies and spectroscopic constants of H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ) and NaH(X 1 Σ + ) obtained on the new NaH 2 PES are in good agreement with the experiment data. On the new PES, the reactant coordinate-based time-dependent wave packet method is applied to study the reaction dynamics of H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ), and the reaction probabilities, integral cross-sections (ICSs) and differential cross-sections (DCSs) are obtained. There is no threshold in the reaction due to the absence of an energy barrier on the minimum energy path. When the collision energy increases, the ICSs decrease from a high value at low collision energy. The DCS results show that the angular distribution of the product molecules tends to the forward direction. Compared with the LiH 2 system, the NaH 2 system has a larger mass and the PES has a larger well at the H-NaH configuration, which leads to a higher ICS value in the H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ) reaction. Because the H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ) reaction releases more energy, the product molecules can be excited to a higher vibrational state.

  14. Quantification of Na+,K+ pumps and their transport rate in skeletal muscle: Functional significance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    During excitation, muscle cells gain Na+ and lose K+, leading to a rise in extracellular K+ ([K+]o), depolarization, and loss of excitability. Recent studies support the idea that these events are important causes of muscle fatigue and that full use of the Na+,K+-ATPase (also known as the Na+,K+ pump) is often essential for adequate clearance of extracellular K+. As a result of their electrogenic action, Na+,K+ pumps also help reverse depolarization arising during excitation, hyperkalemia, and anoxia, or from cell damage resulting from exercise, rhabdomyolysis, or muscle diseases. The ability to evaluate Na+,K+-pump function and the capacity of the Na+,K+ pumps to fill these needs require quantification of the total content of Na+,K+ pumps in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of Na+,K+-pump activity, or a decrease in their content, reduces muscle contractility. Conversely, stimulation of the Na+,K+-pump transport rate or increasing the content of Na+,K+ pumps enhances muscle excitability and contractility. Measurements of [3H]ouabain binding to skeletal muscle in vivo or in vitro have enabled the reproducible quantification of the total content of Na+,K+ pumps in molar units in various animal species, and in both healthy people and individuals with various diseases. In contrast, measurements of 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity associated with the Na+,K+-ATPase may show inconsistent results. Measurements of Na+ and K+ fluxes in intact isolated muscles show that, after Na+ loading or intense excitation, all the Na+,K+ pumps are functional, allowing calculation of the maximum Na+,K+-pumping capacity, expressed in molar units/g muscle/min. The activity and content of Na+,K+ pumps are regulated by exercise, inactivity, K+ deficiency, fasting, age, and several hormones and pharmaceuticals. Studies on the α-subunit isoforms of the Na+,K+-ATPase have detected a relative increase in their number in response to exercise and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone but have not

  15. Phase diagram of the LiNO3-NaNO3-NaCl-Sr(NO3)2 salt system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasulov, A. I.; Gasanaliev, A. M.; Mamedova, A. K.; Gamataeva, B. Yu.

    2015-04-01

    The phase diagram of the quaternary LiNO3-NaNO3-NaCl-Sr(NO3)2 system is studied by means of differential thermal analysis, and the compositions and crystallization temperatures of nonvariant equilibrium phases are revealed. The temperature dependence of conductivity in eutectic and peritectic salt compositions is investigated.

  16. Measurements of the liquidus surface and solidus transitions of the NaCl-UCl3 and NaCl-UCl3-CeCl3 phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sooby, E. S.; Nelson, A. T.; White, J. T.; McIntyre, P. M.

    2015-11-01

    NaCl-UCl3-PuCl3 is proposed as the fuel salt for a number of molten salt reactor concepts. No experimental data exists for the ternary system, and limited data is available for the binary compositions of this salt system. Differential scanning calorimetry is used in this study to examine the liquidus surface and solidus transition of a surrogate fuel-salt (NaCl-UCl3-CeCl3) and to reinvestigate the NaCl-UCl3 eutectic phase diagram. The results of this study show good agreement with previously reported data for the pure salt compounds used (NaCl, UCl3, and CeCl3) as well as for the eutectic points for the NaCl-UCl3 and NaCl-CeCl3 binary systems. The NaCl-UCl3 liquidus surface produced in this study predicts a 30-40 °C increase on the NaCl-rich side of the binary phase diagram. The increase in liquidus temperature could prove significant to molten salt reactor modeling.

  17. Osmolality- and Na+ -dependent effects of hyperosmotic NaCl solution on contractile activity and Ca2+ cycling in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Rafael A; Bassani, Rosana A; Bassani, José W M

    2008-01-01

    Hypertonic NaCl solutions have been used for small-volume resuscitation from hypovolemic shock. We sought to identify osmolality- and Na(+)-dependent components of the effects of the hyperosmotic NaCl solution (85 mOsm/kg increment) on contraction and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. The biphasic change in contraction and Ca(2+) transient amplitude (decrease followed by recovery) was accompanied by qualitatively similar changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content and fractional release and was mimicked by isosmotic, equimolar increase in extracellular [Na(+)] ([Na(+)](o)). Raising osmolality with sucrose, however, augmented systolic [Ca(2+)](i) monotonically without change in SR parameters and markedly decreased contraction amplitude and diastolic cell length. Functional SR inhibition with thapsigargin abolished hyperosmolality effects on [Ca(2+)](i). After 15-min perfusion, both hyperosmotic solutions slowed mechanical relaxation during twitches and [Ca(2+)](i) decline during caffeine-evoked transients, raised diastolic and systolic [Ca(2+)](i), and depressed systolic contractile activity. These effects were greater with sucrose solution, and were not observed after isosmotic [Na(+)](o) increase. We conclude that under the present experimental conditions, transmembrane Na(+) redistribution apparently plays an important role in determining changes in SR Ca(2+) mobilization, which markedly affect contractile response to hyperosmotic NaCl solutions and attenuate the osmotically induced depression of contractile activity.

  18. The effect of NaCl 0.9% and NaCl 0.45% on sodium, chloride, and acid-base balance in a PICU population.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Helena Isabel; Mascarenhas, Maria Inês; Loureiro, Helena Cristina; Abadesso, Clara S; Nunes, Pedro S; Moniz, Marta S; Machado, Maria Céu

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of two intravenous maintenance fluids on plasma sodium (Na), and acid-base balance in pediatric intensive care patients during the first 24h of hospitalization. A prospective randomized controlled study was performed, which allocated 233 patients to groups: (A) NaCl 0.9% or (B) NaCl 0.45%. Patients were aged 1 day to 18 years, had normal electrolyte concentrations, and suffered an acute insult (medical/surgical). change in plasma sodium. Parametric tests: t-tests, ANOVA, X(2) statistical significance level was set at α=0.05. Group A (n=130): serum Na increased by 2.91 (±3.9)mmol/L at 24h (p<0.01); 2% patients had Na higher than 150 mmol/L. Mean urinary Na: 106.6 (±56.8)mmol/L. No change in pH at 0 and 24h. Group B (n=103): serum Na did not display statistically significant changes. Fifteen percent of the patients had Na<135 mmol/L at 24h. The two fluids had different effects on respiratory and post-operative situations. The use of saline 0.9% was associated with a lower incidence of electrolyte disturbances. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Kinetics of veratridine action on Na channels of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sutro, JB

    1986-01-01

    Veratridine bath-applied to frog muscle makes inactivation of INa incomplete during a depolarizing voltage-clamp pulse and leads to a persistent veratridine-induced Na tail current. During repetitive depolarizations, the size of successive tail currents grows to a plateau and then gradually decreases. When pulsing is stopped, the tail current declines to zero with a time constant of approximately 3 s. Higher rates of stimulation result in a faster build-up of the tail current and a larger maximum value. I propose that veratridine binds only to open channels and, when bound, prevents normal fast inactivation and rapid shutting of the channel on return to rest. Veratridine-modified channels are also subject to a "slow" inactivation during long depolarizations or extended pulse trains. At rest, veratridine unbinds with a time constant of approximately 3 s. Three tests confirm these hypotheses: (a) the time course of the development of veratridine-induced tail currents parallels a running time integral of gNa during the pulse; (b) inactivating prepulses reduce the ability to evoke tails, and the voltage dependence of this reduction parallels the voltage dependence of h infinity; (c) chloramine-T, N-bromoacetamide, and scorpion toxin, agents that decrease inactivation in Na channels, each greatly enhance the tail currents and alter the time course of the appearance of the tails as predicted by the hypothesis. Veratridine-modified channels shut during hyperpolarizations from -90 mV and reopen on repolarization to -90 mV, a process that resembles normal activation gating. Veratridine appears to bind more rapidly during larger depolarizations. PMID:2419478

  20. Analysis of Cl and Na in Hyperimmune Sera by NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, T. S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Marcelino, J. R.

    2011-08-01

    The Cl and Na concentration values in four types of hyperimmune sera (anti-Bothrops, anti-Diphtheria, anti-Rabies and anti-Tetanus) used for immunological therapy were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). These data were compatible with the specifications established by the Word Health Organization (WHO-OMS) and with the Brazilian Official Pharmacopea (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country). These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brazil), responsible for supplying the Brazilian market.

  1. High-NA metrology and sensing on Berkeley MET5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Ryan; Anderson, Chris; Naulleau, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we compare two non-interferometric wavefront sensors suitable for in-situ high-NA EUV optical testing. The first is the AIS sensor, which has been deployed in both inspection and exposure tools. AIS is a compact, optical test that directly measures a wavefront by probing various parts of the imaging optic pupil and measuring localized wavefront curvature. The second is an image-based technique that uses an iterative algorithm based on simulated annealing to reconstruct a wavefront based on matching aerial images through focus. In this technique, customized illumination is used to probe the pupil at specific points to optimize differences in aberration signatures.

  2. The CERES/NA45 radial drift Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielčíková, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Milov, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Musa, L.; Panebrattsev, Y.; Pechenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Richter, M.; Sako, H.; Schäfer, E.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J. P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.

    2008-08-01

    The design, calibration, and performance of the first radial drift Time Projection Chamber (TPC) are presented. The TPC was built and installed at the CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS in the late nineties, with the objective to improve the momentum resolution of the spectrometer. The upgraded experiment took data twice, in 1999 and in 2000. After a detailed study of residual distortions a spatial resolution of 340 μm in the azimuthal and 640 μm in the radial direction was achieved, corresponding to a momentum resolution of Δp/p=√{(1%·p/GeV)2+(2%)2}.

  3. Geodetic satellite observations in North American (solution NA-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, I. I.; Reilly, J. P.; Soler, T.

    1972-01-01

    A new detailed geoidal map with claimed accuracies of plus or minus 2 meters (on land), based on gravimetric and satellite data, was presented. With the new geoid and the orthometric heights given, more reliable height constraints were calculated and applied. The basic purpose of this experiment was to compute the new solution NA9 by defining the origin of the system, from the point of view of error propagation, in the most favorable position applying inner constraints and imposing new weighted height constraints to all of the stations. The major differences with respect to formerly published adjustments are presented.

  4. Precursor Routes to Complex Ternary Intermetallics: Single-Crystal and Microcrystalline Preparation of Clathrate-I Na8Al8Si38 from NaSi + NaAlSi.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongkwan; Chai, Ping; Beekman, Matt; Zeng, Xiaoyu; Tritt, Terry M; Nolas, George S

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of the ternary clathrate-I Na8Al8Si38 were synthesized by kinetically controlled thermal decomposition (KCTD), and microcrystalline Na8Al8Si38 was synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using a NaSi + NaAlSi mixture as the precursor. Na8AlxSi46-x compositions with x ≤ 8 were also synthesized by SPS from precursor mixtures of different ratios. The crystal structure of Na8Al8Si38 was investigated using both Rietveld and single-crystal refinements. Temperature-dependent transport and UV/vis measurements were employed in the characterization of Na8Al8Si38, with diffuse-reflectance measurement indicating an indirect optical gap of 0.64 eV. Our results indicate that, when more than one precursor is used, both SPS and KCTD are effective methods for the synthesis of multinary inorganic phases that are not easily accessible by traditional solid-state synthesis or crystal growth techniques.

  5. Sodium ion transport mechanisms in antiperovskite electrolytes Na 3OBr and Na 4OI 2: An in Situ neutron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jinlong; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Shuai

    Na-rich antiperovskites are recently developed solid electrolytes with enhanced sodium ionic conductivity and show promising functionality as a novel solid electrolyte in an all solid-stat battery. In this work, the sodium ionic transport pathways of the parent compound Na 3OBr, as well as the modified layered antiperovskite Na 4OI 2, were studied and compared through temperature dependent neutron diffraction combined with the maximum entropy method. In the cubic Na 3OBr antiperovskite, the nuclear density distribution maps at 500 K indicate that sodium ions ho within and among oxygen octahedra, and Br - ions are not involved in the tetragonal Namore » 4OI 2 antiperovskite, Na ions, which connect octahedra in the ab plane, have the lowest activation energy barrier. In conclusion, the transport of sodium ions along the c axis is assisted by I - ions.« less

  6. Sodium ion transport mechanisms in antiperovskite electrolytes Na 3OBr and Na 4OI 2: An in Situ neutron diffraction study

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Jinlong; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Shuai; ...

    2016-06-02

    Na-rich antiperovskites are recently developed solid electrolytes with enhanced sodium ionic conductivity and show promising functionality as a novel solid electrolyte in an all solid-stat battery. In this work, the sodium ionic transport pathways of the parent compound Na 3OBr, as well as the modified layered antiperovskite Na 4OI 2, were studied and compared through temperature dependent neutron diffraction combined with the maximum entropy method. In the cubic Na 3OBr antiperovskite, the nuclear density distribution maps at 500 K indicate that sodium ions ho within and among oxygen octahedra, and Br - ions are not involved in the tetragonal Namore » 4OI 2 antiperovskite, Na ions, which connect octahedra in the ab plane, have the lowest activation energy barrier. In conclusion, the transport of sodium ions along the c axis is assisted by I - ions.« less

  7. The system Na2CO3-CaCO3 at 3 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podborodnikov, Ivan V.; Shatskiy, Anton; Arefiev, Anton V.; Rashchenko, Sergey V.; Chanyshev, Artem D.; Litasov, Konstantin D.

    2018-04-01

    It was suggested that alkali-alkaline earth carbonates may have a substantial role in petrological processes relevant to metasomatism and melting of the Earth's mantle. Because natrite, Na2CO3, Na-Ca carbonate (shortite and/or nyerereite), and calcite, CaCO3, have been recently reported from xenoliths of shallow mantle (110-115 km) origin, we performed experiments on phase relations in the system Na2CO3-CaCO3 at 3 GPa and 800-1300 °C. We found that the system has one intermediate compound, Na2Ca3(CO3)4, at 800 °C, and two intermediate compounds, Na2Ca(CO3)2 and Na2Ca3(CO3)4, at 850 °C. CaCO3 crystals recovered from experiments at 950 and 1000 °C are aragonite and calcite, respectively. Maximum solid solution of CaCO3 in Na2CO3 is 20 mol% at 850 °C. The Na-carbonate-Na2Ca(CO3)2 eutectic locates near 860 °C and 56 mol% Na2CO3. Na2Ca(CO3)2 melts incongruently near 880 °C to produce Na2Ca3(CO3)4 and a liquid containing about 51 mol% Na2CO3. Na2Ca3(CO3)4 disappears above 1000 °C via incongruent melting to calcite and a liquid containing about 43 mol% Na2CO3. At 1050 °C, the liquid, coexisting with Na-carbonate, contains 87 mol% Na2CO3. Na-carbonate remains solid up to 1150 °C and melts at 1200 °C. The Na2CO3 content in the liquid coexisting with calcite decreases to 15 mol% as temperature increases to 1300 °C. Considering the present and previous data, a range of the intermediate compounds on the liquidus of the Na2CO3-CaCO3 join changes as pressure increases in the following sequence: Na2Ca(CO3)2 (0.1 GPa) → Na2Ca(CO3)2, Na2Ca3(CO3)4 (3 GPa) → Na4Ca(CO3)3, Na2Ca3(CO3)4 (6 GPa). Thus, the Na2Ca(CO3)2 nyerereite stability field extends to the shallow mantle pressures. Consequently, findings of nyerereite among daughter phases in the melt inclusions in olivine from the sheared garnet peridotites are consistent with their mantle origin.

  8. Growth mechanism and magnetic and electrochemical properties of Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods as cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Demirel, S.; Oz, E.; Altin, E.

    Nanorods of Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} are a promising cathode material for Na-ion batteries due to their large surface area and single crystalline structure. We report the growth mechanism of Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods via solid state synthesis and their physical properties. The structure and the morphology of the Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and tunneling electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The growth mechanism of the rods is investigated and the effects of vapor pressure and partial melting of Na-rich regions are discussed. The magnetic measurements show an antiferromagnetic phasemore » transition at 25 K and the μ{sub eff} is determined as 3.41 and 3.24 μ{sub B} from the χ–T curve and theoretical calculation, respectively. The electronic configuration and spin state of Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} are discussed in detail. The electrochemical properties of the cell fabricated using the nanorods are investigated and the peaks in the voltammogram are attributed to the diffusion of Na ions from different sites. Na intercalation process is explained by one and two Margules and van Laar models. - Highlights: • We synthesized Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods via a simple solid state reaction technique. • Our studies show that excess Na plays a crucial role in the nanorod formation. • Magnetization measurements show that Mn{sup 3+} ions are in LS and HS states. • The electrochemical properties of the cell fabricated using the nanorods are investigated. • Na intercalation process is explained by one and two Margules and van Laar models.« less

  9. Ranolazine vs phenytoin: greater effect of ranolazine on the transient Na(+) current than on the persistent Na(+) current in central neurons.

    PubMed

    Terragni, Benedetta; Scalmani, Paolo; Colombo, Elisa; Franceschetti, Silvana; Mantegazza, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaV) are involved in pathologies and are important targets of drugs (NaV-blockers), e.g. some anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Besides the fast inactivating transient Na(+) current (INaT), they generate a slowly inactivating "persistent" current (INaP). Ranolazine, a NaV-blocker approved for treatment of angina pectoris, is considered a preferential inhibitor of INaP and has been proposed as a novel AED. Although it is thought that classic NaV-blockers used as AEDs target mainly INaT, they can also reduce INaP. It is important to disclose specific features of novel NaV-blockers, which could be necessary for their effect as AEDs in drug resistant patients. We have compared the action of ranolazine and of the classic AED phenytoin in transfected cells expressing the neuronal NaV1.1 Na(+) channel and in neurons of neocortical slices. Our results show that the relative block of INaT versus INaP of ranolazine and phenytoin is variable and depends on Na(+) current activation conditions. Strikingly, ranolazine blocks with less efficacy INaP and more efficacy INaT than phenytoin in conditions mimicking pathological states (i.e. high frequency firing and long lasting depolarizations). The effects are consistent with binding of ranolazine to both open/pre-open and inactivated states; larger INaT block at high stimulation frequencies is caused by the induction of a slow inactivated state. Thus, contrary than expected, ranolazine is not a better INaP blocker than phenytoin in central neurons, and phenytoin is not a better INaT blocker than ranolazine. Nevertheless, they show a complementary action and could differentially target specific pathological dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Co-intercalation of Mg(2+) and Na(+) in Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 as a High-Voltage Cathode for Magnesium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Youngjin; Arumugam, Durairaj; Woo, Sang Won; Jo, Yong Nam; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun; Choi, Nam-Soon; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2016-04-06

    Thanks to the advantages of low cost and good safety, magnesium metal batteries get the limelight as substituent for lithium ion batteries. However, the energy density of state-of-the-art magnesium batteries is not high enough because of their low operating potential; thus, it is necessary to improve the energy density by developing new high-voltage cathode materials. In this study, nanosized Berlin green Fe2(CN)6 and Prussian blue Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 are compared as high-voltage cathode materials for magnesium batteries. Interestingly, while Mg(2+) ions cannot be intercalated in Fe2(CN)6, Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 shows reversible intercalation and deintercalation of Mg(2+) ions, although they have the same crystal structure except for the presence of Na(+) ions. This phenomenon is attributed to the fact that Mg(2+) ions are more stable in Na(+)-containing Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 than in Na(+)-free Fe2(CN)6, indicating Na(+) ions in Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 plays a crucial role in stabilizing Mg(2+) ions. Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 delivers reversible capacity of approximately 70 mA h g(-1) at 3.0 V vs Mg/Mg(2+) and shows stable cycle performance over 35 cycles. Therefore, Prussian blue analogues are promising structures for high-voltage cathode materials in Mg batteries. Furthermore, this co-intercalation effect suggests new avenues for the development of cathode materials in hybrid magnesium batteries that use both Mg(2+) and Na(+) ions as charge carriers.

  11. Transmembrane Na+ and Ca2+ electrochemical gradients in cardiac muscle and their relationship to force development

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Na+- and CA2+-sensitive microelectrodes were used to measure intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ activities (alpha iCa) of sheep ventricular muscle and Purkinje strands to study the interrelationship between Na+ and Ca2+ electrochemical gradients (delta muNa and delta muCa) under various conditions. In ventricular muscle, alpha iNa was 6.4 +/- 1.2 mM and alpha iCa was 87 +/- 20 nM ([Ca/+] = 272 nM). A graded decrease of external Na+ activity (alpha oNa) resulted in decrease of alpha iNa, and increase of alpha iCa. There was increase of twitch tension in low- alpha oNa solutions, and occasional increase of resting tension in 40% alpha oNa. Increase of external Ca2+ (alpha oCa) resulted in increase of alpha iCa and decrease of alpha iNa. Decrease of alpha oCa resulted in decrease of alpha iCa and increase of alpha iNa. The apparent resting Na-Ca energy ratio (delta muCa/delta muNa) was between 2.43 and 2.63. When the membrane potential (Vm) was depolarized by 50 mM K+ in ventricular muscle, Vm depolarized by 50 mV, alpha iNa decreased, and alpha iCa increased, with the development of a contracture. The apparent energy coupling ratio did not change with depolarization. 5 x 10(-6) M ouabain induced a large increase in alpha iNa ad alpha iCa, accompanied by an increase in twitch and resting tension. Under the conditions we have studied, delta muNa and delta muCa appeared to be coupled and n was nearly constant at 2.5, as would be expected if the Na-Ca exchange system was able to set the steady level of alpha iCa. Tension threshold was about 230 nM alpha iCa. The magnitude of twitch tension was directly related to alpha iCa. PMID:6292328

  12. Intracellular Requirements for Passive Proton Transport through the Na+,K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Kevin S; Meyer, Dylan J; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2016-12-06

    The Na + ,K + -ATPase (NKA or Na/K pump) hydrolyzes one ATP to exchange three intracellular Na+ (Na + i ) for two extracellular K+ (K + o ) across the plasma membrane by cycling through a set of reversible transitions between phosphorylated and dephosphorylated conformations, alternately opening ion-binding sites externally (E2) or internally (E1). With subsaturating [Na + ] o and [K + ] o , the phosphorylated E2P conformation passively imports protons generating an inward current (I H ), which may be exacerbated in NKA-subunit mutations associated with human disease. To elucidate the mechanisms of I H , we studied the effects of intracellular ligands (transported ions, nucleotides, and beryllium fluoride) on I H and, for comparison, on transient currents measured at normal Na + o (Q Na ). Utilizing inside-out patches from Xenopus oocytes heterologously expressing NKA, we observed that 1) in the presence of Na + i , I H and Q Na were both activated by ATP, but not ADP; 2) the [Na + ] i dependence of I H in saturating ATP showed K 0.5,Na  = 1.8 ± 0.2 mM and the [ATP] dependence at saturating [Na + ] i yielded K 0.5,ATP  = 48 ± 11 μM (in comparison, Na + i -dependent Q Na yields K 0.5,Na  = 0.8 ± 0.2 mM and K 0.5,ATP  = 0.43 ± 0.03 μM; 3) ATP activated I H in the presence of K + i (∼15% of the I H observed in Na + i ) only when Mg 2+ i was also present; and 4) beryllium fluoride induced maximal I H  even in the absence of nucleotide. These data indicate that I H occurs when NKA is in an externally open E2P state with nucleotide bound, a conformation that can be reached through forward Na/K pump phosphorylation of E1, with Na + i and ATP, or by backward binding of K + i to E1, which drives the pump to the occluded E2(2K), where free P i (at the micromolar levels found in millimolar ATP solutions) promotes external release of occluded K + by backdoor NKA phosphorylation. Maximal I H through beryllium-fluorinated NKA indicates that this complex mimics ATP

  13. Dependence of renal (Na+ + k+)-adenosine triphosphatase activity on thyroid status.

    PubMed

    Lo, S C; August, T R; Liberman, U A; Edelman, I S

    1976-12-25

    In thyroidectomized rats, a single injection of L-2,,5,2'-triiodothyronine (T3) (50mug/100 g body weight) elicited at 45% increase in (Na+ + k+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (NaK-ATPase) activity of the membrane-rich fraction of renal cortex at the optimal time of response, 48 h after injection. Three successive doses of T3 (50 mug/100 g body weight), given on alternate days, increased NaK-ATPase by 67% in the renal cortex but had no significant effect on the outer medulla or the papilla. Moreover, T3 had no effect on Mg2+-dependent adenosine trisphatase (MgATPase) in cortex, cedulla, or papilla. Three doses of T3 (50 mug/100 g body weight) given on alternate days to thyroidectomized rats elecited a 134, 79, and 46% increase in Vmax for ATP, Na4, and K+, respectively. There were no changes in the Km for ATP or the K1/2 values for Na+ and K+. Two methods were used to estimate the effect of T3 on the number of NaK-ATPase units (assumed to represent the number of Na+ pump sites); rat renal plasma membrane fractions were incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP, Mg2+, and Na+; the 32P-labeled membrane protein yeild was quantitatively dependent on Na+ and was hydrolyzed on addition of K+. There was a linear correlation between the specific activity of NaK-ATPase (Vmax) and the amount of phosphorylated intermediate formed, in renal cortical membrane fractions from thyroidectomized rats given T3 or the diluent. There was also a linear correlation between the specific activity of NaK-ATPase (Vmax) and the amount of [3H]ouabain specifically bound (Na+-, Mg2+-, APT-dependent) to the NaK-ATPase preparation. Injection of T3 resulted in a 70% increase in NaK-ATPase activity, a 79% increase in formation of the phosphorylated intermediate, and a 65% increase in the [H]ouabain specifically bound to the NaK-ATPase system. The T3-dependent increases in Vmax for ATP, Na+, and K+ and the proportionate increases in the phosphorylated intermediate and in the amount of [3H]ouabain bound

  14. Risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy: role of Na(+)-Li+ countertransport.

    PubMed

    Neves, P L; Faisca, M; Gomes, V; Cacodcar, S; Bernardo, I; Anunciada, A I; Viegas, E; Martins, H; da Silva, A M

    1996-06-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with an increase in cardiovascular death in essential hypertension (EH). The factors involved in LVH are multiple and complex. We looked for risk factors of LVH in a group of 28 nonobese patients with EH (mean age = 45.3 years). We analyzed the activity of several erythrocyte ion transports (Vmax of NaLi countertransport, NaKCl cotransport and NaK-pump, and the Na-leak Kp Na), the intracellular Na and the insulin sensitivity index. All these parameters were used as independent variables whereas the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was used as the dependent variable. Variables showing a significant univariate correlation (age, time of EH, mean blood pressure and Vmax of NaLi countertransport) were introduced in a stepwise multiple regression model. Only age (P = 0.014), time of EH (P = 0.038) and Vmax of NaLi countertransport (P = 0.032) were independently associated with LVMI (R2 = 0.581, P = 0.0001). The NaLi CT, an operating mode of the NaH exchanger that facilitates cellular growth, may be a marker of LVH, and consequently a marker of increased cardiovascular risk.

  15. Application of 23Na MRI to Monitor Chemotherapeutic Response in RIF-1 Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Babsky, Andriy M; Hekmatyar, Shahryar K; Zhang, Hong; Solomon, James L; Bansal, Navin

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Effects of an alkylating anticancer drug, cyclophosphamide (Cp), on 23Na signal intensity (23Na SI) and water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were examined in subcutaneously-implanted radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumors by in vivo 23Na and 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI experiments were performed on untreated control (n = 5) and Cp-treated (n = 6) C3H mice, once before Cp injection (300 mg/kg) then daily for 3 days after treatment. Tumor volumes were significantly lower in treated animals 2 and 3 days posttreatment. At the same time points, MRI experiments showed an increase in both 23Na SI and water ADC in treated tumors, whereas control tumors did not show any significant changes. The correlation between 23Na SI and water ADC changes was dramatically increased in the Cp-treated group, suggesting that the observed increases in 23Na SI and water ADC were caused by the same mechanism. Histologic sections showed decreased cell density in the regions of increased 23Na and water ADC SI. Destructive chemical analysis showed that Cp treatment increased the relative extracellular space and tumor [Na+]. We conclude that the changes in water ADC and 23Na SI were largely due to an increase in extracellular space. 23Na MRI and 1H water ADC measurements may provide valuable noninvasive techniques for monitoring chemotherapeutic responses. PMID:16026645

  16. On the origin of high ionic conductivity in Na-doped SrSiO 3

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Po-Hsiu; Jee, Youngseok; Huang, Chen

    Understanding the local structure and ion dynamics is at the heart of ion conductor research. This paper reports on high-resolution solid-state 29Si, 23Na, and 17O NMR investigation of the structure, chemical composition, and ion dynamics of a newly discovered fast ion conductor, Na-doped SrSiO 3, which exhibited a much higher ionic conductivity than most of current oxide ion conductors. Quantitative analyses reveal that with a small dose (<10 mol%) of Na, the doped Na integrates into the SrSiO 3 structure to form Na xSr 1-xSiO 3-0.5x, and with >10 mol% Na doping, phase separation occurs, leading to the formation ofmore » an amorphous phase β-Na 2Si 2O 5 and a crystalline Sr-rich phase. Variable-temperature 23Na and 17O magic-angle-spinning NMR up to 618 °C have shown significant changes in Na ion dynamics at high temperatures but little oxide ion motion, suggesting that Na ions are responsible for the observed high ionic conductivity. In addition, β-Na 2Si 2O 5 starts to crystallize at temperatures higher than 480 °C with prolonged heating, resulting in reduction in Na+ motion, and thus degradation of ionic conductivity. This study has contributed critical evidence to the understanding of ionic conduction in Na-doped SrSiO 3 and demonstrated that multinuclear high-resolution and high-temperature solid-state NMR is a uniquely useful tool for investigating ion conductors at their operating conditions.« less

  17. On the origin of high ionic conductivity in Na-doped SrSiO 3

    DOE PAGES

    Chien, Po-Hsiu; Jee, Youngseok; Huang, Chen; ...

    2016-02-17

    Understanding the local structure and ion dynamics is at the heart of ion conductor research. This paper reports on high-resolution solid-state 29Si, 23Na, and 17O NMR investigation of the structure, chemical composition, and ion dynamics of a newly discovered fast ion conductor, Na-doped SrSiO 3, which exhibited a much higher ionic conductivity than most of current oxide ion conductors. Quantitative analyses reveal that with a small dose (<10 mol%) of Na, the doped Na integrates into the SrSiO 3 structure to form Na xSr 1-xSiO 3-0.5x, and with >10 mol% Na doping, phase separation occurs, leading to the formation ofmore » an amorphous phase β-Na 2Si 2O 5 and a crystalline Sr-rich phase. Variable-temperature 23Na and 17O magic-angle-spinning NMR up to 618 °C have shown significant changes in Na ion dynamics at high temperatures but little oxide ion motion, suggesting that Na ions are responsible for the observed high ionic conductivity. In addition, β-Na 2Si 2O 5 starts to crystallize at temperatures higher than 480 °C with prolonged heating, resulting in reduction in Na+ motion, and thus degradation of ionic conductivity. This study has contributed critical evidence to the understanding of ionic conduction in Na-doped SrSiO 3 and demonstrated that multinuclear high-resolution and high-temperature solid-state NMR is a uniquely useful tool for investigating ion conductors at their operating conditions.« less

  18. Coulomb excitation of the proton-dripline nucleus Na20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumaker, M. A.; Cline, D.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C. J.; Svensson, C. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Buchmann, L.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Leach, K. G.; Lee, G.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Moisan, F.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Orce, J. N.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, D. P.; Waddington, J. C.; Wan, J. M.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.

    2009-10-01

    The low-energy structure of the proton dripline nucleus Na20 has been studied using Coulomb excitation at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. A 1.7-MeV/nucleon Na20 beam of ~5×106 ions/s was Coulomb excited by a 0.5-mg/cm2natTi target. Scattered beam and target particles were detected by the BAMBINO segmented Si detector while γ rays were detected by two TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors set perpendicular to the beam axis. Coulomb excitation from the 2+ ground state to the first excited 3+ and 4+ states was observed, and B(λL) values were determined using the 2+→0+ de-excitation in Ti48 as a reference. The resulting B(λL)↓ values are B(E2;3+→2+)=55±6e2fm4 (17.0±1.9 W.u.), B(E2;4+→2+)=35.7±5.7e2fm4 (11.1±1.8 W.u.), and B(M1;4+→3+)=0.154±0.030μN2 (0.086±0.017 W.u.). These measurements provide the first experimental determination of B(λL) values for this proton dripline nucleus of astrophysical interest.

  19. Recent results from the NA48 experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkarovskiy, Sergey; NA48/2 Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    The NA48/2 experiment presents a final result of the charged kaon semileptonic decays form factors measurement based on 4.28 million Ke3+/- and 2.91 million K{μ3}+/- selected decays collected in 2004. The result is competetive with other measurements in K{μ3}+/- mode and has a smallest uncertainty for Ke3+/- , that leads to the most precise combined Kl3+/- result and allows to reduce the form factor uncertainty of |VUS |. The NA48/2 experiment at CERN collected a very large sample of charged kaon decays into multiple final states. From this data sample we have reconstructed about 1663 events of the very rare decay K ± → μ ± νe + e - over almost negligible background in the region with m(e + e -) above 140 MeV, which is of great interest in Chiral Perturbation Theory. We present the mee spectrum and a model-independent measurement of the decay rate for this region.

  20. Functional Na+ Channels in Cell Adhesion probed by Transistor Recording

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtner, Markus; Fromherz, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Cell membranes in a tissue are in close contact to each other, embedded in the extracellular matrix. Standard electrophysiological methods are not able to characterize ion channels under these conditions. Here we consider the area of cell adhesion on a solid substrate as a model system. We used HEK 293 cells cultured on fibronectin and studied the activation of NaV1.4 sodium channels in the adherent membrane with field-effect transistors in a silicon substrate. Under voltage clamp, we compared the transistor response with the whole-cell current. We observed that the extracellular voltage in the cell-chip contact was proportional to the total membrane current. The relation was calibrated by alternating-current stimulation. We found that Na+ channels are present in the area of cell adhesion on fibronectin with a functionality and a density that is indistinguishable from the free membrane. The experiment provides a basis for studying selective accumulation and depletion of ion channels in cell adhesion and also for a development of cell-based biosensoric devices and neuroelectronic systems. PMID:16227504

  1. Interdiffusion of NaSi—CaAl in peristerite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yund, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    The ‘average’ interdiffusion coefficient (bar D) for NaSi—CaAl exchange in plagioclase for the interval from An0 to An26 was estimated from experimentally determined homogenization times for peristerite exsolution lamellae. The average spacing between adjacent (unlike) lamellae is 554±77 Å. Dry heating in air at 1,100°C for 98 days produced no change in the exsolution microstructure; thus bar D(dry)<10-17 cm2/s. This limit is consistent with the recently reported ‘average’ bar D(dry) values for the Huttenlocher interval (An70 90) at this temperature. At 1.5 GPa with about 0.2 weight percent water added the ‘average’ diffusion coefficient from 1,100°C to 900°C is given by: bar D(wet)=18{-15/+108}(cm2/s) exp (-97±5 (kcal/mol)/RT), where R is the gas constant, and T is °K. This bar D(wet) at 1,100°C is more than three orders of magnitude greater than bar D(dry) for Na- and Ca-rich plagioclases.

  2. Covering surface nanobubbles with a NaCl nanoblanket.

    PubMed

    Berkelaar, Robin P; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Lohse, Detlef

    2013-09-10

    By letting a NaCl aqueous solution of low (0.01 M) concentration evaporate on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, it is possible to form a thin film of salt. However, pre-existing surface nanobubbles prevent the homogeneous coverage of the surface with the salt, keeping the footprint areas on the substrate pristine. Comparing the surface nanobubbles in the salt solution with their associated footprint after drying, provides information on the shrinkage of nanobubbles during the hours-long process of drying the liquid film. At a slightly higher NaCl concentration and thus salt layer thickness, the nanobubbles are covered with a thin blanket of salt. Once the liquid film has evaporated until a water film remains that is smaller than the height of the nanobubbles, the blanket of salt cracks and unfolds into a flower-like pattern of salt flakes that is located at the rim of the nanobubble footprint. The formation of a blanket of salt covering the nanobubbles is likely to considerably or even completely block the gas out-flux from the nanobubble, partially stabilizing the nanobubbles against dissolution.

  3. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10-3 S cm-1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor.

  4. A Na(+) Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-08-30

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10(-3) S cm(-1). We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor.

  5. Collisional Transfer of Population and Orientation in NaK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, C. M.; Ashman, S.; Huennekens, J.; Beser, B.; Bai, J.; Lyyra, A. M.

    2010-03-01

    We report current work to study transfer of population and orientation in collisions of NaK molecules with argon and potassium atoms using polarization labeling (PL) and laser- induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. In the PL experiment, a circularly polarized pump laser excites a specific NaK A^1&+circ;(v'=16, J') <- X^1&+circ;(v''=0, J'±1) transition, creating an orientation (non-uniform MJ' level distribution) in both levels. The linearly polarized probe laser is scanned over various 3^1π(v, J'±1) <- A^1&+circ;(v'=16, J') transitions. The probe laser passes through a crossed linear polarizer before detection, and signal is recorded if the probe laser polarization has been modified by the vapor (which occurs when it comes into resonance with an oriented level). Using both spectroscopic methods, analysis of weak collisional satellite lines adjacent to these directly populated lines, as a function of argon buffer gas pressure and cell temperature, allows us to discern separately the effects collisions with argon atoms and potassium atoms have on the population and orientation of the molecule. In addition, code has been written which provides a theoretical analysis of the process, through a solution of the density matrix equations of motion for the system.

  6. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10−3 S cm−1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor. PMID:27572915

  7. Iron oxide nanoparticles in NaA zeolite cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulshreshtha, S. K.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Sudarsan, V.; Salunke, H. G.; Bhargava, S. C.

    2013-07-01

    Zeolite NaA samples with varying concentration of Fe3+ ions have been prepared by wet chemical method. Based on powder X-ray diffraction, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and Fe3+ EPR investigations, the formation of nano-sized ferric oxide particles inside the larger α-cages of zeolite NaA has been established. Both Mössbauer effect and magnetization measurements carried out down to 4.5 K established the superparamagnetic behaviour of these Fe2O3 particles with a blocking temperature of ≈20 K, where the magnetization values showed deviation for the zero field cooled and field cooled samples and the appearance of a very narrow magnetic hysteresis loop below this temperature. For all Fe3+ containing samples the room temperature Mössbauer spectrum is a broad quadrupole doublet with chemical shift, δ ≈ 0.33 mm/s and quadrupole splitting, ΔEq ≈ 0.68 mm/s. Variable temperature 57Fe Mössbauer effect measurements exhibited magnetic features below the blocking temperature and at 4.5 K, the observed spectrum is a broad magnetic sextet characterized by an internal hyperfine field value of ≈504 kOe along with a very weak central superparamagnetic quadrupole doublet.

  8. Rotationally inelastic collisions of excited NaK and NaCs molecules with noble gas and alkali atom perturbers.

    PubMed

    Jones, J; Richter, K; Price, T J; Ross, A J; Crozet, P; Faust, C; Malenda, R F; Carlus, S; Hickman, A P; Huennekens, J

    2017-10-14

    We report measurements of rate coefficients at T ≈ 600 K for rotationally inelastic collisions of NaK molecules in the 2(A) 1 Σ + electronic state with helium, argon, and potassium atom perturbers. Several initial rotational levels J between 14 and 44 were investigated. Collisions involving molecules in low-lying vibrational levels (v = 0, 1, and 2) of the 2(A) 1 Σ + state were studied using Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Collisions involving molecules in a higher vibrational level, v = 16, were studied using pump/probe, optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy. In addition, polarization spectroscopy measurements were carried out to study the transfer of orientation in these collisions. Many, but not all, of the measurements were carried out in the "single-collision regime" where more than one collision is unlikely to occur within the lifetime of the excited molecule. The analysis of the experimental data, which is described in detail, includes an estimate of effects of multiple collisions on the reported rate coefficients. The most significant result of these experiments is the observation of a strong propensity for ΔJ = even transitions in collisions involving either helium or argon atoms; the propensity is much stronger for helium than for argon. For the initial rotational levels studied experimentally, almost all initial orientation is preserved in collisions of NaK 2(A) 1 Σ + molecules with helium. Roughly between 1/3 and 2/3 of the orientation is preserved in collisions with argon, and almost all orientation is destroyed in collisions with potassium atoms. Complementary measurements on rotationally inelastic collisions of NaCs 2(A) 1 Σ + with argon do not show a ΔJ = even propensity. The experimental results are compared with new theoretical calculations of collisions of NaK 2(A) 1 Σ + with helium and argon. The calculations are in good agreement with the absolute magnitudes of the experimentally determined rate coefficients and accurately

  9. Rotationally inelastic collisions of excited NaK and NaCs molecules with noble gas and alkali atom perturbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Richter, K.; Price, T. J.; Ross, A. J.; Crozet, P.; Faust, C.; Malenda, R. F.; Carlus, S.; Hickman, A. P.; Huennekens, J.

    2017-10-01

    We report measurements of rate coefficients at T ≈ 600 K for rotationally inelastic collisions of NaK molecules in the 2(A)1Σ+ electronic state with helium, argon, and potassium atom perturbers. Several initial rotational levels J between 14 and 44 were investigated. Collisions involving molecules in low-lying vibrational levels (v = 0, 1, and 2) of the 2(A)1Σ+ state were studied using Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Collisions involving molecules in a higher vibrational level, v = 16, were studied using pump/probe, optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy. In addition, polarization spectroscopy measurements were carried out to study the transfer of orientation in these collisions. Many, but not all, of the measurements were carried out in the "single-collision regime" where more than one collision is unlikely to occur within the lifetime of the excited molecule. The analysis of the experimental data, which is described in detail, includes an estimate of effects of multiple collisions on the reported rate coefficients. The most significant result of these experiments is the observation of a strong propensity for ΔJ = even transitions in collisions involving either helium or argon atoms; the propensity is much stronger for helium than for argon. For the initial rotational levels studied experimentally, almost all initial orientation is preserved in collisions of NaK 2(A)1Σ+ molecules with helium. Roughly between 1/3 and 2/3 of the orientation is preserved in collisions with argon, and almost all orientation is destroyed in collisions with potassium atoms. Complementary measurements on rotationally inelastic collisions of NaCs 2(A)1Σ+ with argon do not show a ΔJ = even propensity. The experimental results are compared with new theoretical calculations of collisions of NaK 2(A)1Σ+ with helium and argon. The calculations are in good agreement with the absolute magnitudes of the experimentally determined rate coefficients and accurately reproduce the very

  10. Na-Ion Battery Anodes: Materials and Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Shen, Fei; Bommier, Clement; Zhu, Hongli; Ji, Xiulei; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-02-16

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, calls for sustainable electrical energy storage (EES) technologies for stationary applications. Li will be simply too rare for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) to be used for large-scale storage purposes. In contrast, Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are highly promising to meet the demand of grid-level storage because Na is truly earth abundant and ubiquitous around the globe. Furthermore, NIBs share a similar rocking-chair operation mechanism with LIBs, which potentially provides high reversibility and long cycling life. It would be most efficient to transfer knowledge learned on LIBs during the last three decades to the development of NIBs. Following this logic, rapid progress has been made in NIB cathode materials, where layered metal oxides and polyanionic compounds exhibit encouraging results. On the anode side, pure graphite as the standard anode for LIBs can only form NaC64 in NIBs if solvent co-intercalation does not occur due to the unfavorable thermodynamics. In fact, it was the utilization of a carbon anode in LIBs that enabled the commercial successes. Anodes of metal-ion batteries determine key characteristics, such as safety and cycling life; thus, it is indispensable to identify suitable anode materials for NIBs. In this Account, we review recent development on anode materials for NIBs. Due to the limited space, we will mainly discuss carbon-based and alloy-based anodes and highlight progress made in our groups in this field. We first present what is known about the failure mechanism of graphite anode in NIBs. We then go on to discuss studies on hard carbon anodes, alloy-type anodes, and organic anodes. Especially, the multiple functions of natural cellulose that is used as a low-cost carbon precursor for mass production and as a soft substrate for tin anodes are highlighted. The strategies of minimizing the surface area of carbon anodes for improving the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency are

  11. Identification of a 3rd Na+ Binding Site of the Glycine Transporter, GlyT2.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Nandhitha; Scopelitti, Amanda J; Carland, Jane E; Ryan, Renae M; O'Mara, Megan L; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The Na+/Cl- dependent glycine transporters GlyT1 and GlyT2 regulate synaptic glycine concentrations. Glycine transport by GlyT2 is coupled to the co-transport of three Na+ ions, whereas transport by GlyT1 is coupled to the co-transport of only two Na+ ions. These differences in ion-flux coupling determine their respective concentrating capacities and have a direct bearing on their functional roles in synaptic transmission. The crystal structures of the closely related bacterial Na+-dependent leucine transporter, LeuTAa, and the Drosophila dopamine transporter, dDAT, have allowed prediction of two Na+ binding sites in GlyT2, but the physical location of the third Na+ site in GlyT2 is unknown. A bacterial betaine transporter, BetP, has also been crystallized and shows structural similarity to LeuTAa. Although betaine transport by BetP is coupled to the co-transport of two Na+ ions, the first Na+ site is not conserved between BetP and LeuTAa, the so called Na1' site. We hypothesized that the third Na+ binding site (Na3 site) of GlyT2 corresponds to the BetP Na1' binding site. To identify the Na3 binding site of GlyT2, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Surprisingly, a Na+ placed at the location consistent with the Na1' site of BetP spontaneously dissociated from its initial location and bound instead to a novel Na3 site. Using a combination of MD simulations of a comparative model of GlyT2 together with an analysis of the functional properties of wild type and mutant GlyTs we have identified an electrostatically favorable novel third Na+ binding site in GlyT2 formed by Trp263 and Met276 in TM3, Ala481 in TM6 and Glu648 in TM10.

  12. Identification of a 3rd Na+ Binding Site of the Glycine Transporter, GlyT2

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Nandhitha; Scopelitti, Amanda J.; Carland, Jane E.; Ryan, Renae M.; O’Mara, Megan L.; Vandenberg, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Na+/Cl- dependent glycine transporters GlyT1 and GlyT2 regulate synaptic glycine concentrations. Glycine transport by GlyT2 is coupled to the co-transport of three Na+ ions, whereas transport by GlyT1 is coupled to the co-transport of only two Na+ ions. These differences in ion-flux coupling determine their respective concentrating capacities and have a direct bearing on their functional roles in synaptic transmission. The crystal structures of the closely related bacterial Na+-dependent leucine transporter, LeuTAa, and the Drosophila dopamine transporter, dDAT, have allowed prediction of two Na+ binding sites in GlyT2, but the physical location of the third Na+ site in GlyT2 is unknown. A bacterial betaine transporter, BetP, has also been crystallized and shows structural similarity to LeuTAa. Although betaine transport by BetP is coupled to the co-transport of two Na+ ions, the first Na+ site is not conserved between BetP and LeuTAa, the so called Na1' site. We hypothesized that the third Na+ binding site (Na3 site) of GlyT2 corresponds to the BetP Na1' binding site. To identify the Na3 binding site of GlyT2, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Surprisingly, a Na+ placed at the location consistent with the Na1' site of BetP spontaneously dissociated from its initial location and bound instead to a novel Na3 site. Using a combination of MD simulations of a comparative model of GlyT2 together with an analysis of the functional properties of wild type and mutant GlyTs we have identified an electrostatically favorable novel third Na+ binding site in GlyT2 formed by Trp263 and Met276 in TM3, Ala481 in TM6 and Glu648 in TM10. PMID:27337045

  13. SLC4A11 is an EIPA-sensitive Na+ permeable pHi regulator

    PubMed Central

    Ogando, Diego G.; Jalimarada, Supriya S.; Zhang, Wenlin; Vithana, Eranga N.

    2013-01-01

    Slc4a11, a member of the solute linked cotransporter 4 family that is comprised predominantly of bicarbonate transporters, was described as an electrogenic 2Na+-B(OH)4− (borate) cotransporter and a Na+-2OH− cotransporter. The goal of the current study was to confirm and/or clarify the function of SLC4A11. In HEK293 cells transfected with SLC4A11 we tested if SLC4A11 is a: 1) Na+-HCO3− cotransporter, 2) Na+-OH−(H+) transporter, and/or 3) Na+-B(OH)4− cotransporter. CO2/HCO3− perfusion yielded no significant differences in rate or extent of pHi changes or Na+ flux in SLC4A11-transfected compared with control cells. Similarly, in CO2/HCO3−, acidification on removal of Na+ and alkalinization on Na+ add back were not significantly different between control and transfected indicating that SLC4A11 does not have Na+-HCO3− cotransport activity. In the absence of CO2/HCO3−, SLC4A11-transfected cells showed higher resting intracelllular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i; 25 vs. 17 mM), increased NH4+-induced acidification and increased acid recovery rate (160%) after an NH4 pulse. Na+ efflux and influx were faster (80%) following Na+ removal and add back, respectively, indicative of Na+-OH−(H+) transport by SLC4A11. The increased alkalinization recovery was confirmed in NHE-deficient PS120 cells demonstrating that SLC4A11 is a bonafide Na+-OH−(H+) transporter and not an activator of NHEs. SLC4A11-mediated H+ efflux is inhibited by 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA; EC50: 0.1 μM). The presence of 10 mM borate did not alter dpHi/dt or ΔpH during a Na+-free pulse in SLC4A11-transfected cells. In summary our results show that SLC4A11 is not a bicarbonate or borate-linked transporter but has significant EIPA-sensitive Na+-OH−(H+) and NH4+ permeability. PMID:23864606

  14. Hot-corrosion of AISI 1020 steel in a molten NaCl/Na2SO4 eutectic at 700°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badaruddin, Mohammad; Risano, Ahmad Yudi Eka; Wardono, Herry; Asmi, Dwi

    2017-01-01

    Hot-corrosion behavior and morphological development of AISI 1020 steel with 2 mg cm-2 mixtures of various NaCl/Na2SO4 ratios at 700°C were investigated by means of weight gain measurements, Optical Microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The weight gain kinetics of the steel with mixtures of salt deposits display a rapid growth rates, compared with the weight gain kinetics of AISI 1020 steel without salt deposit in dry air oxidation, and follow a steady-state parabolic law for 49 h. Chloridation and sulfidation produced by a molten NaCl/Na2SO4 on the steel induced hot-corrosion mechanism attack, and are responsible for the formation of thicker scale. The most severe corrosion takes place with the 70 wt.% NaCl mixtures in Na2SO4. The typical Fe2O3 whisker growth in outer part scale was attributed to the FeCl3 volatilization. The formation of FeS in the innermost scale is more pronounced as the content of Na2SO4 in the mixture is increased.

  15. Effects of NaBF4 + NaF on the Tensile and Impact Properties of Al-Si-Mg-Fe Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zongning; Wang, Tongmin; Zhao, Yufei; Zheng, Yuanping; Kang, Huijun

    2015-05-01

    NaBF4 + NaF were found to play three roles, i.e., Fe-eliminator, grain refiner, and eutectic modifier, in treating A356 alloy with a high Fe content. The joint effects led to significant improvement in both tensile and impact properties of thus treated alloy. The multiple reactions between the NaBF4 + NaF and Al-Si-Mg-Fe system are suggested to form Fe2B, AlB2, and Na in the melt, as per thermodynamic analysis. The three are responsible for Fe removal, grain refinement, and eutectic modification, respectively. When NaBF4 and NaF are mixed in weight ratio of 1:1, an optimum addition rate is in the range between 1.0 and 2.0 wt pct for treating AlSi7Mg0.3Fe0.65 alloy, based on the results of tensile and impact tests. Excessive addition of the salt may deteriorate the mechanical properties of the alloy, basically owing to overmodification of Si and contamination of salt inclusions.

  16. Robust high pressure stability and negative thermal expansion in sodium-rich antiperovskites Na 3OBr and Na 4OI 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yonggang; Wen, Ting; Park, Changyong

    2016-01-14

    The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na 3OBr and Na 4OI 2, two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temp. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na 3OBr and Na 4OI 2, resp. The cubic Na 3OBr structure and tetragonal Na 4OI 2 with intergrowth K 2NiF 4 structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na 4OI 2 exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Neg. thermal expansion wasmore » obsd. at low temp. range (20-80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined. and confirmed by first-principles calculations. among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the neg. thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications.« less

  17. Arrhenius Behavior of the Bulk Na-Ion Conductivity in Na3Sc2(PO4)3 Single Crystals Observed by Microcontact Impedance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rettenwander, Daniel; Redhammer, Günther J; Guin, Marie; Benisek, Artur; Krüger, Hannes; Guillon, Olivier; Wilkening, Martin; Tietz, Frank; Fleig, Jürgen

    2018-03-13

    NASICON-based solid electrolytes with exceptionally high Na-ion conductivities are considered to enable future all solid-state Na-ion battery technologies. Despite 40 years of research the interrelation between crystal structure and Na-ion conduction is still controversially discussed and far from being fully understood. In this study, microcontact impedance spectroscopy combined with single crystal X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry is applied to tackle the question how bulk Na-ion conductivity σ bulk of sub-mm-sized flux grown Na 3 Sc 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (NSP) single crystals is influenced by supposed phase changes (α, β, and γ phase) discussed in literature. Although we found a smooth structural change at around 140 °C, which we assign to the β → γ phase transition, our conductivity data follow a single Arrhenius law from room temperature (RT) up to 220 °C. Obviously, the structural change, being mainly related to decreasing Na-ion ordering with increasing temperature, does not cause any jumps in Na-ion conductivity or any discontinuities in activation energies E a . Bulk ion dynamics in NSP have so far rarely been documented; here, under ambient conditions, σ bulk turned out to be as high as 3 × 10 -4 S cm -1  at RT ( E a, bulk = 0.39 eV) when directly measured with microcontacts for individual small single crystals.

  18. Arrhenius Behavior of the Bulk Na-Ion Conductivity in Na3Sc2(PO4)3 Single Crystals Observed by Microcontact Impedance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    NASICON-based solid electrolytes with exceptionally high Na-ion conductivities are considered to enable future all solid-state Na-ion battery technologies. Despite 40 years of research the interrelation between crystal structure and Na-ion conduction is still controversially discussed and far from being fully understood. In this study, microcontact impedance spectroscopy combined with single crystal X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry is applied to tackle the question how bulk Na-ion conductivity σbulk of sub-mm-sized flux grown Na3Sc2(PO4)3 (NSP) single crystals is influenced by supposed phase changes (α, β, and γ phase) discussed in literature. Although we found a smooth structural change at around 140 °C, which we assign to the β → γ phase transition, our conductivity data follow a single Arrhenius law from room temperature (RT) up to 220 °C. Obviously, the structural change, being mainly related to decreasing Na-ion ordering with increasing temperature, does not cause any jumps in Na-ion conductivity or any discontinuities in activation energies Ea. Bulk ion dynamics in NSP have so far rarely been documented; here, under ambient conditions, σbulk turned out to be as high as 3 × 10–4 S cm–1 at RT (Ea, bulk = 0.39 eV) when directly measured with microcontacts for individual small single crystals. PMID:29606799

  19. Growth responses and ion accumulation in the halophytic legume Prosopis strombulifera are determined by Na2SO4 and NaCl.

    PubMed

    Reginato, M; Sosa, L; Llanes, A; Hampp, E; Vettorazzi, N; Reinoso, H; Luna, V

    2014-01-01

    Halophytes are potential gene sources for genetic manipulation of economically important crop species. This study addresses the physiological responses of a widespread halophyte, Prosopis strombulifera (Lam.) Benth to salinity. We hypothesised that increasing concentrations of the two major salts present in soils of central Argentina (Na2SO4, NaCl, or their iso-osmotic mixture) would produce distinct physiological responses. We used hydroponically grown P. strombulifera to test this hypothesis, analysing growth parameters, water relations, photosynthetic pigments, cations and anions. These plants showed a halophytic response to NaCl, but strong general inhibition of growth in response to iso-osmotic solutions containing Na2SO4. The explanation for the adaptive success of P. strombulifera in high NaCl conditions seems to be related to a delicate balance between Na(+) accumulation (and its use for osmotic adjustment) and efficient compartmentalisation in vacuoles, the ability of the whole plant to ensure sufficient K(+) supply by maintaining high K(+)/Na(+) discrimination, and maintenance of normal Ca(2+) levels in leaves. The three salt treatments had different effects on the accumulation of ions. Findings in bi-saline-treated plants were of particular interest, where most of the physiological parameters studied showed partial alleviation of SO4(2-)-induced toxicity by Cl(-). Thus, discussions on physiological responses to salinity could be further expanded in a way that more closely mimics natural salt environments. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Robust high pressure stability and negative thermal expansion in sodium-rich antiperovskites Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yonggang, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu; Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006; High Pressure Synergetic Consortium

    2016-01-14

    The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}, two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temperature. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}, respectively. The cubic Na{sub 3}OBr structure and tetragonal Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2} with intergrowth K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2} exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Negative thermal expansion was observed at lowmore » temperature range (20–80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined and confirmed by first-principles calculations among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the negative thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications.« less

  1. Na3Tb(PO4)2: Synthesis, crystal structure and greenish emitting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dan; Ma, Zhao; Liu, Bao-Zhong; Zhang, Rui-Juan; Wu, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Jian; Duan, Pei-Gao

    2018-03-01

    A anhydrous orthoborate Na3Tb(PO4)2 has been prepared and its crystal structure was determined by X-Ray diffraction of a non-merohedral twinned single crystal. The results show that the compound crystallizes in monoclinic space group C2/c and the structure features a 3D framework containing PO4, NaO6, NaO7, NaO8 and TbO8 polyhedra. Under near-UV excitation (370 nm), Na3Tb(PO4)2 shows intense characteristic emission bands of Tb3+ (490 nm, 543 nm, 585 nm and 620 nm) with the CIE coordinate of (0.3062, 0.5901), corresponding to greenish color. The excitation spectrum covers a wide range from 340 nm to 390 nm, which indicates that phosphor Na3Tb(PO4)2 can be efficiently activated by near-UV LED ship.

  2. Crystal structure and europium luminescence of NaMgH3-xFx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflug, Christian; Franz, Alexandra; Kohlmann, Holger

    2018-02-01

    The solid solution series NaMgH3-xFx (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3) was synthesized by solid-state reactions under hydrogen gas pressure from binary ionic hydrides, fluorides and magnesium. Rietveld refinement based on X-ray powder diffraction data revealed the GdFeO3-structure type for all compounds and a trend of lattice parameters according to Vegard's law. The anion distribution in NaMgD2F and NaMgD1.5F1.5 was found to be statistical by Rietveld refinement based on neutron powder diffraction data. Photoluminescence measurements on europium(II) substituted NaMgH3-xFx revealed a strong red shift of the emission wavelength (λem = 665 nm for NaMgH2F:Eu) in comparison to violet emitting NaMgF3:Eu.

  3. Na(+) regulation by combined nitrogen in Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae symbiotic association during salt toxicity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satya S; Singh, Santosh K; Mishra, Arun K

    2008-01-01

    To study the regulation of Na(+) ion by combined-N sources in Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae, Na(+) influx, intracellular Na(+) and Na(+) efflux were investigated in the presence of different N-sources (N(2), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-) and urea) and various NaCl concentrations. Sodium influx by Azolla pinnata fronds was minimum in the presence of NO(3)(-). Almost identical levels of intracellular sodium, although less than N(2) and NH(4)(+) incubated fronds were observed in the presence of NO(3)(-) and urea. Efflux of sodium was minimum in urea and NO(3)(-) grown fronds. A low residual sodium was observed in the fronds incubated in NO(3)(-) and urea supplemented media. Results suggest that nitrate and urea curtailed the entry of sodium, reduced salt toxicity maximally by maintaining the minimum level of sodium and also conserved energy due to slow influx and efflux of Na(+) within the fronds during salt shock and the process of adaptation.

  4. Recycling of Na in advanced life support: strategies based on crop production systems.

    PubMed

    Guntur, S V; Mackowiak, C; Wheeler, R M

    1999-01-01

    Sodium is an essential dietary requirement in human nutrition, but seldom holds much importance as a nutritional element for crop plants. In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, recycling of gases, nutrients, and water loops is required to improve system closure. If plants are to play a significant role in recycling of human wastes, Na will need to accumulate in edible tissues for return to the crew diet. If crops fail to accumulate the incoming Na into edible tissues, Na could become a threat to the hydroponic food production system by increasing the nutrient solution salinity. Vegetable crops of Chenopodiaceae such as spinach, table beet, and chard may have a high potential to supply Na to the human diet, as Na can substitute for K to a large extent in metabolic processes of these crops. Various strategies are outlined that include both genetic and environmental management aspects to optimize the Na recovery from waste streams and their resupply through the human diet in ALS.

  5. Mechanism of potassium ion uptake by the Na+/K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Juan P.; Rui, Huan; Basilio, Daniel; Das, Avisek; Roux, Benoît; Latorre, Ramon; Bezanilla, Francisco; Holmgren, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The Na+/K+-ATPase restores sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) electrochemical gradients dissipated by action potentials and ion-coupled transport processes. As ions are transported, they become transiently trapped between intracellular and extracellular gates. Once the external gate opens, three Na+ ions are released, followed by the binding and occlusion of two K+ ions. While the mechanisms of Na+ release have been well characterized by the study of transient Na+ currents, smaller and faster transient currents mediated by external K+ have been more difficult to study. Here we show that external K+ ions travelling to their binding sites sense only a small fraction of the electric field as they rapidly and simultaneously become occluded. Consistent with these results, molecular dynamics simulations of a pump model show a wide water-filled access channel connecting the binding site to the external solution. These results suggest a mechanism of K+ gating different from that of Na+ occlusion. PMID:26205423

  6. Control of photodissociation and photoionization of the NaI molecule by dynamic Stark effect.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Chang; Yuan, Kai-Jun; Hu, Wen-Hui; Cong, Shu-Lin

    2009-01-28

    The diabatic photodissociation and photoionization processes of the NaI molecule are studied theoretically using the quantum wave packet method. A pump laser pulse is used to prepare a dissociation wave packet that propagates through both the ionic channel (NaI-->Na(+)+I(-)) and the covalent channel (NaI-->Na+I). A Stark pulse is used to control the diabatic dissociation dynamics and a probe pulse is employed to ionize the products from the two channels. Based on the first order nonresonant nonperturbative dynamic Stark effect, the dissociation probabilities and the branching ratio of the products from the two channels can be controlled. Moreover the final photoelectron kinetic energy distribution can also be affected by the Stark pulse. The influences of the delay time, intensity, frequency, and carrier-envelope phase of the Stark pulse on the dissociation and ionization dynamics of the NaI molecule are discussed in detail.

  7. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, O J

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK componentsmore » and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.« less

  8. Study of the quaternary Na+, K+//F-, Br-, NO 3 - reciprocal system using an innovative methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgunova, O. E.; Ukhanov, A. S.; Katasonova, E. A.; Trunin, A. S.; Surinskii, K. D.

    2016-08-01

    The topological structure of the quaternary Na+, K+//F-, Br-, NO 3 - system is studied using a computer-assisted research system. A tree of phases is constructed, and the eutectic characteristics of the secant triangle NaNO3-KBr-NaF, (equiv. %) 84.6 NaNO3-9.1 KBr-6.3 NaF, at 255.3°C are determined.

  9. Na2O-Al2O3 system: Activity of Na2O in (α + β)- and (β + β)-alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, G. M.

    1992-12-01

    The activity of Na2O in a biphasic mixture of (α + β)-alumina has been measured in the temperature range of 700 to 1100 K using the solid-state galvanic cell: 11663_2007_Article_BF02656462_TeX2GIFE1.gif _{(1:1)}^{Pt,CO_2 + O_2 /Na_2 CO_3 /(α + β ) - alumin a//(Y_2 O_3 )ZrO_2 //In + In_2 O_3 ,Ta,Pt} Similarly, the activity of Na2O in a (β + β’’)-alumina two-phase mixture has been measured between 700 and 1100 K employing the galvanic cell: 11663_2007_Article_BF02656462_TeX2GIFE2.gif _{(1:1)}^{Pt,CO_2 + O_2 /Na_2 CO_3 /(β + β ) - alumin a//(Y_2 O_3 )ZrO_2 //In + In_2 O_3 ,Ta,Pt} The reversible electromotive force (emf ) of both the cells was found to vary linearly with temperature over the entire temperature range of measurement. From the measured reversible emf and auxiliary thermodynamic data for In2O2, Na2O, CO2 and Na2CO3 reported in the literature, the temperature dependence of the logarithm of activity of Na2O in (α + β)-alumina is obtained: 11663_2007_Article_BF02656462_TeX2GIFE3.gif log α _{Na_2 O} (α + β ) = 1.85 - 14,750/T(K)( ± 0.015)(700 ≤slant T ≤slant 1100) For (β + β'’)-alumina, 11663_2007_Article_BF02656462_TeX2GIFE4.gif log α _{Na_2 O} (β + β ) = 3.9 - 13,000/T(K)( ± 0.015)(700 ≤slant T ≤slant 1100)

  10. Magnetic upconverting fluorescent NaGdF4:Ln3+ and iron-oxide@NaGdF4:Ln3+ nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Navadeep; Rocha, Uéslen; Muraca, Diego; Jacinto, Carlos; Moreno, Sergio; Vargas, J. M.; Sharma, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Microwave assisted solvothermal method has been employed to synthesize multifunctional upconverting β-NaGdF4:Ln3+ and magnetic-upconverting Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3@NaGdF4:Ln3+ (Ln = Yb and Er) nanoparticles. The powder x-ray diffraction data confirms the hexagonal structure of NaGdF4:Ln3+ and high resolution transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of rod shaped NaGdF4:Ln3+ (˜ 20 nm) and ovoid shaped Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3@NaGdF4:Ln3+ (˜ 15 nm) nanoparticles. The magnetic hysteresis at 300 K for β-NaGdF4:Ln3+ demonstrates paramagnetic features, whereas iron-oxide@β-NaGdF4:Ln3+ exhibits superparamagnetic behavior along with a linear component at large applied field due to paramagnetic NaGdF4 matrix. Both nanoparticle samples provide an excellent green emitting [(2H11/2, 4S3/2)→4I15/2 (˜ 540 nm)] upconversion luminescence emission under excitation at 980 nm. The energy migration between Yb and Er in NaGdF4 matrix has been explored from 300-800 nm. Intensity variation of blue, green and red lines and the observed luminescence quenching due to the presence of Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 in the composite has been proposed. These kinds of materials contain magnetic and luminescence characteristics into single nanoparticle open new possibility for bioimaging applications.

  11. Neuronal Na+ Channels Are Integral Components of Pro-arrhythmic Na+/Ca2+ Signaling Nanodomain That Promotes Cardiac Arrhythmias During β-adrenergic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Radwański, Przemysław B.; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Veeraraghavan, Rengasayee; Brunello, Lucia; Liu, Bin; Belevych, Andriy E.; Unudurthi, Sathya D.; Makara, Michael A.; Priori, Silvia G.; Volpe, Pompeo; Armoundas, Antonis A.; Dillmann, Wolfgang H.; Knollmann, Bjorn C.; Mohler, Peter J.; Hund, Thomas J.; Györke, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrhythmias are a leading cause of death in the US. Vast majority of these arrhythmias including catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) are associated with increased levels of circulating catecholamines and involve abnormal impulse formation secondary to aberrant Ca2+ and Na+ handling. However, the mechanistic link between β-AR stimulation and the subcellular/molecular arrhythmogenic trigger(s) remains elusive. Methods and Results We performed functional and structural studies to assess Ca2+ and Na+ signaling in ventricular myocyte as well as surface electrocardiograms in mouse models of cardiac calsequestrin (CASQ2)-associated CPVT. We demonstrate that a subpopulation of Na+ channels (neuronal Na+ channels; nNav) that colocalize with RyR2 and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) are a part of the β-AR-mediated arrhythmogenic process. Specifically, augmented Na+ entry via nNav in the settings of genetic defects within the RyR2 complex and enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)-mediated SR Ca2+ refill is both an essential and a necessary factor for the arrhythmogenesis. Furthermore, we show that augmentation of Na+ entry involves β-AR-mediated activation of CAMKII subsequently leading to nNav augmentation. Importantly, selective pharmacological inhibition as well as silencing of Nav1.6 inhibit myocyte arrhythmic potential and prevent arrhythmias in vivo. Conclusion These data suggest that the arrhythmogenic alteration in Na+/Ca2+ handling evidenced ruing β-AR stimulation results, at least in part, from enhanced Na+ influx through nNav. Therefore, selective inhibition of these channels and Nav1.6 in particular can serve as a potential antiarrhythmic therapy. PMID:27747307

  12. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S. M.; de Boer, Albertus H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na+ shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na+ points to a role of stem Na+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na+ transport to the leaves. PMID:23533673

  13. Effects of Combining Na and Sr additions on Eutectic Modification in Al-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, G. L.; Gu, N. J.; Zhou, B. J.

    2017-09-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the effects of strontium and sodium modified on the eutectic silicon for Al-Si alloy. It was found that combining addition of Na and Sr did not appear to cause deleterious interactions of modification, at at the same time, Sr-Na was fairly constant with holding time and without obvious modification fading. Addition of Na-Sr modifier could take effect quickly and decrease incubation period.

  14. Collisional transfer of population and orientation in NaK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, C. M.; Ashman, S.; Bai, J.; Beser, B.; Ahmed, E. H.; Lyyra, A. M.; Huennekens, J.

    2011-05-01

    Collisional satellite lines with |ΔJ| ≤ 58 have been identified in recent polarization spectroscopy V-type optical-optical double resonance (OODR) excitation spectra of the Rb2 molecule [H. Salami et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 022515 (2009)]. Observation of these satellite lines clearly requires a transfer of population from the rotational level directly excited by the pump laser to a neighboring level in a collision of the molecule with an atomic perturber. However to be observed in polarization spectroscopy, the collision must also partially preserve the angular momentum orientation, which is at least somewhat surprising given the extremely large values of ΔJ that were observed. In the present work, we used the two-step OODR fluorescence and polarization spectroscopy techniques to obtain quantitative information on the transfer of population and orientation in rotationally inelastic collisions of the NaK molecules prepared in the 2(A)1Σ+(v' = 16, J' = 30) rovibrational level with argon and potassium perturbers. A rate equation model was used to study the intensities of these satellite lines as a function of argon pressure and heat pipe oven temperature, in order to separate the collisional effects of argon and potassium atoms. Using a fit of this rate equation model to the data, we found that collisions of NaK molecules with potassium atoms are more likely to transfer population and destroy orientation than collisions with argon atoms. Collisions with argon atoms show a strong propensity for population transfer with ΔJ = even. Conversely, collisions with potassium atoms do not show this ΔJ = even propensity, but do show a propensity for ΔJ = positive compared to ΔJ = negative, for this particular initial state. The density matrix equations of motion have also been solved numerically in order to test the approximations used in the rate equation model and to calculate fluorescence and polarization spectroscopy line shapes. In addition, we have measured rate

  15. Collisional transfer of population and orientation in NaK.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, C M; Ashman, S; Bai, J; Beser, B; Ahmed, E H; Lyyra, A M; Huennekens, J

    2011-05-07

    Collisional satellite lines with |ΔJ| ≤ 58 have been identified in recent polarization spectroscopy V-type optical-optical double resonance (OODR) excitation spectra of the Rb(2) molecule [H. Salami et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 022515 (2009)]. Observation of these satellite lines clearly requires a transfer of population from the rotational level directly excited by the pump laser to a neighboring level in a collision of the molecule with an atomic perturber. However to be observed in polarization spectroscopy, the collision must also partially preserve the angular momentum orientation, which is at least somewhat surprising given the extremely large values of ΔJ that were observed. In the present work, we used the two-step OODR fluorescence and polarization spectroscopy techniques to obtain quantitative information on the transfer of population and orientation in rotationally inelastic collisions of the NaK molecules prepared in the 2(A)(1)Σ(+)(v' = 16, J' = 30) rovibrational level with argon and potassium perturbers. A rate equation model was used to study the intensities of these satellite lines as a function of argon pressure and heat pipe oven temperature, in order to separate the collisional effects of argon and potassium atoms. Using a fit of this rate equation model to the data, we found that collisions of NaK molecules with potassium atoms are more likely to transfer population and destroy orientation than collisions with argon atoms. Collisions with argon atoms show a strong propensity for population transfer with ΔJ = even. Conversely, collisions with potassium atoms do not show this ΔJ = even propensity, but do show a propensity for ΔJ = positive compared to ΔJ = negative, for this particular initial state. The density matrix equations of motion have also been solved numerically in order to test the approximations used in the rate equation model and to calculate fluorescence and polarization spectroscopy line shapes. In addition, we have measured

  16. Capturing and Understanding Experiment Provenance using NiNaC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, C.

    2017-12-01

    A problem the model development team faces at the GFDL is determining climate model experiment provenance. Each experiment is configured with at least one configuration file which may reference other files. The experiment then passes through three phases before completion. Configuration files or other input files may be modified between phases. Finding the modifications later is tedious due to the expanse of the experiment input and duplication across phases. Determining provenance may be impossible if any file has been changed or deleted. To reduce these efforts and address these problems, we propose a new toolset, NiNaC, for archiving experiment provenance from the beginning of the experiment to the end and every phase in-between. Each of the three phases, check-out, build, and run, of the experiment depends on the previous phase. We use a graph to model the phase dependencies. Let each phase be represented by a node. Let each edge correspond to a dependency between phases where the node incident with the tail depends on the node incident with the head. It follows that the dependency graph is a tree. We reduce the problem to finding the lowest common ancestor and diffing the successor nodes. All files related to input for a phase are assigned a checksum. A new file is created to aggregate the checksums. Then each phase is assigned a checksum of aforementioned file as an identifier. Any change to part of a phase configuration will create unique checksums in all subsequent phases. Finding differences between experiments with this toolset is as simple as diffing two files containing checksums found by traversing the tree. One new benefit is that this toolset now allows differences in source code to be found after experiments are run, which was previously impossible for executables that cannot be linked to a known version controlled source code. Knowing that these changes exist allows us to give priority to help desk tickets concerning unmodified supported experiment

  17. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Razak, Rafiza; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced. PMID:26006238

  18. OsHKT1;4-mediated Na(+) transport in stems contributes to Na(+) exclusion from leaf blades of rice at the reproductive growth stage upon salt stress.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kei; Yamaji, Naoki; Costa, Alex; Okuma, Eiji; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Kashiwagi, Tatsuhiko; Katsuhara, Maki; Wang, Cun; Tanoi, Keitaro; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Schroeder, Julian I; Ma, Jian Feng; Horie, Tomoaki

    2016-01-19

    Na(+) exclusion from leaf blades is one of the key mechanisms for glycophytes to cope with salinity stress. Certain class I transporters of the high-affinity K(+) transporter (HKT) family have been demonstrated to mediate leaf blade-Na(+) exclusion upon salinity stress via Na(+)-selective transport. Multiple HKT1 transporters are known to function in rice (Oryza sativa). However, the ion transport function of OsHKT1;4 and its contribution to the Na(+) exclusion mechanism in rice remain to be elucidated. Here, we report results of the functional characterization of the OsHKT1;4 transporter in rice. OsHKT1;4 mediated robust Na(+) transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that OsHKT1;4 shows strong Na(+) selectivity among cations tested, including Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), Cs(+), and NH4 (+), in oocytes. A chimeric protein, EGFP-OsHKT1;4, was found to be functional in oocytes and targeted to the plasma membrane of rice protoplasts. The level of OsHKT1;4 transcripts was prominent in leaf sheaths throughout the growth stages. Unexpectedly however, we demonstrate here accumulation of OsHKT1;4 transcripts in the stem including internode II and peduncle in the reproductive growth stage. Moreover, phenotypic analysis of OsHKT1;4 RNAi plants in the vegetative growth stage revealed no profound influence on the growth and ion accumulation in comparison with WT plants upon salinity stress. However, imposition of salinity stress on the RNAi plants in the reproductive growth stage caused significant Na(+) overaccumulation in aerial organs, in particular, leaf blades and sheaths. In addition, (22)Na(+) tracer experiments using peduncles of RNAi and WT plants suggested xylem Na(+) unloading by OsHKT1;4. Taken together, our results indicate a newly recognized function of OsHKT1;4 in Na(+) exclusion in stems together with leaf sheaths, thus excluding Na(+) from leaf blades of a japonica rice cultivar in the

  19. O3-type Na(Mn₀.₂₅Fe₀.₂₅Co₀.₂₅Ni₀.₂₅)O₂: a quaternary layered cathode compound for rechargeable Na ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xi; Zhou, Yong-Ning; Wu, Di

    2014-12-01

    We report a new layered Na(Mn₀.₂₅Fe₀.₂₅Co₀.₂₅Ni₀.₂₅)O₂ compound with O3 oxygen stacking. It delivers 180 mAh/g initial discharge capacity and 578 Wh/kg specific energy density with good cycling capability at high cutoff voltage. In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows a reversible structure evolution of O3-P3-O3'-O3'' upon Na de-intercalation. The excellent capacity and cycling performance at high cutoff voltage make it an important model system for studying the general issue of capacity fading in layered Na cathode compounds.

  20. Natural variability in Drosophila larval and pupal NaCl tolerance.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Craig A L; Oster, Sara; Busto, Macarena; Mackay, Trudy F C; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2016-05-01

    The regulation of NaCl is essential for the maintenance of cellular tonicity and functionality, and excessive salt exposure has many adverse effects. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a good osmoregulator and some strains can survive on media with very low or high NaCl content. Previous analyses of mutant alleles have implicated various stress signaling cascades in NaCl sensitivity or tolerance; however, the genes influencing natural variability of NaCl tolerance remain for the most part unknown. Here, we use two approaches to investigate natural variation in D. melanogaster NaCl tolerance. We describe four D. melanogaster lines that were selected for different degrees of NaCl tolerance, and present data on their survival, development, and pupation position when raised on varying NaCl concentrations. After finding evidence for natural variation in salt tolerance, we present the results of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping of natural variation in larval and pupal NaCl tolerance, and identify different genomic regions associated with NaCl tolerance during larval and pupal development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of Na-22 as a tracer for long-term bone mineral turnover studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.; Rieksts, G. A.; Palmer, R. F.; Gillis, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium-22 has been studied as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism in rats and dogs. When incorporated into bone during growth from birth to adulthood, the bone becomes uniformly tagged with Na-22, which is released through the metabolic turnover of the bone. The Na-22 not incorporated in the bone matrix is rapidly excreted within a few days when animals are fed high, but nontoxic levels of NaCl. The Na-22 tracer can be used to measure bone mineral loss in animals during space flight and in research on bone disease.

  2. Modification of thermal and electronic properties of bilayer graphene by using slow Na+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Mintae; Lee, Paengro; Kim, Jingul; Park, Heemin; Chung, Jinwook

    2016-12-01

    Bilayer graphene (BLG) has an extensive list of industrial applications in graphene-based nanodevices such as energy storage devices, flexible displays, and thermoelectric devices. By doping slow Na+ ions on Li-intercalated BLG, we find significantly improved thermal and electronic properties of BLG by using angle-resolved photoemission and high-resolution core level spectroscopy (HRCLS) with synchrotron photons. Our HRCLS data reveal that the adsorbed Na+ ions on a BLG produced by Li-intercalation through single layer graphene (SLG) spontaneously intercalate below the BLG, and substitute Li atoms to form Na-Si bonds at the SiC interface while preserving the same phase of BLG. This is in sharp contrast with no intercalation of Na+ ions on SLG though neutral Na atoms intercalate. The Na+-induced BLG is found to be stable upon heating up to T = 400 °C, but returns to SLG when heated at T d = 500 °C. The evolution of the π-bands upon doping the Na+ ions followed by thermal annealing shows that the carrier concentration of the π-band may be artificially controlled without damaging the Dirac nature of the π-electrons. The doubled desorption temperature from that (T d = 250 °C) of the Na-intercalated SLG together with the electronic stability of the Na+-intercalated BLG may find more practical and effective applications in advancing graphene-based thermoelectric devices and anode materials for rechargeable batteries.

  3. A Chimera Na+-Pump Rhodopsin as an Effective Optogenetic Silencer

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Mohammad Razuanul; Ishizuka, Toru; Inoue, Keiichi; Abe-Yoshizumi, Rei; Igarashi, Hiroyuki; Mishima, Takaaki; Kandori, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    With the progress of optogenetics, the activities of genetically identified neurons can be optically silenced to determine whether the neurons in question are necessary for the network performance of the behavioral expression. This logical induction is expected to be improved by the application of the Na+ pump rhodopsins (NaRs), which hyperpolarize the membrane potential with negligible influence on the ionic/pH balance. Here, we made several chimeric NaRs between two NaRs, KR2 and IaNaR from Krokinobacter eikastus and Indibacter alkaliphilus, respectively. We found that one of these chimeras, named I1K6NaR, exhibited some improvements in the membrane targeting and photocurrent properties over native NaRs. The I1K6NaR-expressing cortical neurons were stably silenced by green light irradiation for a certain long duration. With its rapid kinetics and voltage dependency, the photoactivation of I1K6NaR would specifically counteract the generation of action potentials with less hyperpolarization of the neuronal membrane potential than KR2. PMID:27861619

  4. Highly conductive porous Na-embedded carbon nanowalls for high-performance capacitive deionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Liang; Hu, Yun Hang

    2018-05-01

    Highly conductive porous Na-embedded carbon nanowalls (Na@C), which were recently invented, have exhibited excellent performance for dye-sensitized solar cells and electric double-layer capacitors. In this work, Na@C was demonstrated as an excellent electrode material for capacitive deionization (CDI). In a three-electrode configuration system, the specific capacity of the Na@C electrodes can achieve 306.4 F/g at current density of 0.2 A/g in 1 M NaCl, which is higher than that (235.2 F/g) of activated carbon (AC) electrodes. Furthermore, a high electrosorption capacity of 8.75 mg g-1 in 100 mg/L NaCl was obtained with the Na@C electrodes in a batch-mode capacitive deionization cell. It exceeds the electrosorption capacity (4.08 mg g-1) of AC electrodes. The Na@C electrode also showed a promising cycle stability. The excellent performance of Na@C electrode for capacitive deionization (CDI) can be attributed to its high electrical conductivity and large accessible surface area.

  5. Trehalose-producing enzymes MTSase and MTHase in Anabaena 7120 under NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Asthana, Ravi K; Nigam, Subhasha; Maurya, Archana; Kayastha, Arvind M; Singh, Sureshwar P

    2008-05-01

    Salt tolerance, a multigenic trait, necessitates knowledge about biosynthesis and function of candidate gene(s) at the cellular level. Among the osmolytes, trehalose biosynthesis in cyanobacteria facing NaCl stress is little understood. Anabaena 7120 filaments exposed to 150 mM: NaCl fragmented and recovered on transfer to -NaCl medium with the increased heterocysts frequency (7%) over the control (4%). Cells failed to retain Na+ beyond a threshold [2.19 mM/cm3 (PCV)]. Whereas NaCl-stressed cells exhibited a marginal rise in K+ (1.1-fold) only at 30 h, for Na+ it was 130-fold at 48 h over cells in control. A time-course study (0-54 h) revealed reduction in intracellular Na+ beyond 48 h [0.80 mM/cm3 (PCV)] suggestive of ion efflux. The NaCl-stressed cells showed differential expression of maltooligosyltrehalose synthase (MTSase; EC 5.4.99.15) and maltooligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolase (MTHase; EC 3.2.1.141) depending on the time and the extent of intracellular Na+ buildup.

  6. Control of Ion Selectivity in LeuT: Two Na+ Binding Sites with two different mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Noskov, Sergei Y.; Roux, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    The x-ray structure of LeuT, a bacterial homologue of Na+/Cl−-dependent neurotransmitter transporter, provides a great opportunity to better understand the molecular basis of monovalent cation selectivity in ion-coupled transporters. LeuT possesses two ion-binding sites, NA1 and NA2, which are highly selective for Na+. Extensive all-atom free energy molecular dynamics simulations of LeuT embedded in an explicit membrane are performed at different temperatures and various occupancy states of the binding sites to dissect the molecular mechanism of ion selectivity. The results show that the two binding sites display robust selectivity for Na+ over K+ or Li+, the competing ions of most similar radii. Of particular interest, the mechanism primarily responsible for selectivity for each of the two binding sites appears to be different. In site NA1, selectivity for Na+ over K+ arises predominantly from the strong electrostatic field arising from the negatively charged carboxylate group of the leucine substrate coordinating the ion directly. In site NA2, which comprises only neutral ligands, selectivity for Na+ is enforced by the local structural restraints arising from the hydrogen-bonding network and the covalent connectivity of the poly-peptide chain surrounding the ion according to a snug-fit mechanism. PMID:18280500

  7. First-principles study of amorphous carbon: a promising candidate for Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsis, Konstantinos; Legrain, Fleur; Manzhos, Sergei

    2015-03-01

    The perspective of a widespread use of clean but intermittent sources of electricity (wind and solar) as well as that of hybrid electric vehicles calls for alternatives to Li-ion batteries as Li resources are limited. Na being abundant, cheap, and a relatively light and small atom, Na-ion batteries have attracted a lot of interest the past few years. However, while most of the Na-ion batteries studies focus on the positive electrode, the negative electrode remains little investigated and an efficient anode providing all a good capacity, a high cycle life, and a descent rate of charge/discharge, is still not available. The efficient electrode materials for Li, in particular diamond Si and graphite C, have been shown to not allow the intercalation of Na [1, 2]. Computational studies report positive intercalation energies [3, 4] and therefore suggest that the insertion of Na into the crystalline framework (C and Si) is thermodynamically not favored: Na atoms prefer to gather into Na clusters rather than to intercalate into the crystalline phase. Amorphization of Si was found to be a valid strategy to improve the interaction between Si and Na [3]. We investigate here the effects of amorphization of C on its storage properties vis-à-vis Na (as well as Li for reference).

  8. A new high-energy cathode for a Na-ion battery with ultrahigh stability.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Uk; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Kwon, Hyung-Soon; Kim, Byoungkook; Kim, Jongsoon; Kim, Haegyeom; Kim, Inkyung; Yoo, Han-Ill; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-18

    Large-scale electric energy storage is a key enabler for the use of renewable energy. Recently, the room-temperature Na-ion battery has been rehighlighted as an alternative low-cost technology for this application. However, significant challenges such as energy density and long-term stability must be addressed. Herein, we introduce a novel cathode material, Na1.5VPO4.8F0.7, for Na-ion batteries. This new material provides an energy density of ~600 Wh kg(-1), the highest value among cathodes, originating from both the multielectron redox reaction (1.2 e(-) per formula unit) and the high potential (~3.8 V vs Na(+)/Na) of the tailored vanadium redox couple (V(3.8+)/V(5+)). Furthermore, an outstanding cycle life (~95% capacity retention for 100 cycles and ~84% for extended 500 cycles) could be achieved, which we attribute to the small volume change (2.9%) upon cycling, the smallest volume change among known Na intercalation cathodes. The open crystal framework with two-dimensional Na diffusional pathways leads to low activation barriers for Na diffusion, enabling excellent rate capability. We believe that this new material can bring the low-cost room-temperature Na-ion battery a step closer to a sustainable large-scale energy storage system.

  9. A possible mechanism for low affinity of silkworm Na+/K+-ATPase for K.

    PubMed

    Homareda, Haruo; Otsu, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Ushimaru, Makoto; Ito, Sayaka; Fukutomi, Toshiyuki; Jo, Taeho; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Hara, Yukichi

    2017-12-01

    The affinity for K + of silkworm nerve Na + /K + -ATPase is markedly lower than that of mammalian Na + /K + -ATPase (Homareda 2010). In order to obtain clues on the molecular basis of the difference in K + affinities, we cloned cDNAs of silkworm (Bombyx mori) nerve Na + /K + -ATPase α and β subunits, and analyzed the deduced amino acid sequences. The molecular masses of the α and β subunits were presumed to be 111.5 kDa with ten transmembrane segments and 37.7 kDa with a single transmembrane segment, respectively. The α subunit showed 75% identity and 93% homology with the pig Na + /K + -ATPase α1 subunit. On the other hand, the amino acid identity of the β subunit with mammalian counterparts was as low as 30%. Cloned α and β cDNAs were co-expressed in cultured silkworm ovary-derived cells, BM-N cells, which lack endogenous Na + /K + -ATPase. Na + /K + -ATPase expressed in the cultured cells showed a low affinity for K + and a high affinity for Na + , characteristic of the silkworm nerve Na + /K + -ATPase. These results suggest that the β subunit is responsible for the affinity for K + of Na + /K + -ATPase.

  10. Water-Soluble Epitaxial NaCl Thin Film for Fabrication of Flexible Devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Kim, Sungjoo; Oh, Sein; Choi, Jae-Young; Lee, Jong-Lam; Yu, Hak Ki

    2017-08-18

    We studied growth mechanisms of water-soluble NaCl thin films on single crystal substrates. Epitaxial growth of NaCl(100) on Si(100) and domain-matched growth of NaCl(111) on c-sapphire were obtained at thicknesses below 100 nm even at room temperature from low lattice mismatches in both cases. NaCl thin film, which demonstrates high solubility selectivity for water, was successfully applied as a water-soluble sacrificial layer for fabrication of several functional materials, such as WO 3 nano-helix and Sn doped In 2 O 3 nano-branches.

  11. Expression of cardiac sarcolemmal Na sup + -Ca sup 2+ exchange activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Longoni, S.; Coady, M.J.; Ikeda, T.

    1988-12-01

    Injection of Xenopus laevis oocytes with rabbit heart poly(A){sup +}RNA results in expression of Na{sup +} inside (Na{sub i}{sup +})-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake activity. The activity was measured by first loading the oocytes with Na{sup +} using nystatin and then incubating the oocytes in K{sup +} or Na{sup +} medium containing {sup 45}Ca. The expressed Na{sup +} gradient-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake was five to eight times that observed with water-injected oocytes or with poly(A){sup +}RNA-injected oocytes for which the Na{sup +} load step had been omitted. Induced activity was related to the amount of RNA injected and was insensitive tomore » nifedipine. Fractionation of the poly(A){sup +}RNA on a sucrose gradient determined that the active message had a size range between 3 and 8 kb. The properties of the Na{sup +} gradient-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake indicated that Na{sup +}-Ca{sup 2+} exchange activity had been expressed in X. laevis oocytes. The result may be useful for cloning and identifying the molecular component responsible for Na{sup +}-Ca{sup 2+} exchange.« less

  12. Defect evolution and impurity migration in Na-implanted ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuvonen, Pekka T.; Vines, Lasse; Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan; Zubiaga, Asier; Tuomisto, Filip; Hallén, Anders; Svensson, Bengt G.; Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu.

    2011-11-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to study impurity migration and open volume defect evolution in Na+ implanted hydrothermally grown ZnO samples. In contrast to most other elements, the presence of Na tends to decrease the concentration of open volume defects upon annealing and for temperatures above 600∘C, Na exhibits trap-limited diffusion correlating with the concentration of Li. A dominating trap for the migrating Na atoms is most likely Li residing on Zn site, but a systematic analysis of the data suggests that zinc vacancies also play an important role in the trapping process.

  13. Organophosphate inhibition of avian salt gland Na, K-ATPase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C.; Fleming, W.J.; Murray, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    1. Adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were given freshwater or saltwater (1.5% NaCl) for 11 days and half of each group was also given an organophosphate (17 p.p.m. fenthion) in the diet on days 6–11.2. After 11 days, ducks drinking saltrwater had lost more weight and had higher plasma Na and uric acid concentration and osmolalities than birds drinking freshwater.3. Saltwater treatment stimulated the salt gland to increased weight and Na, K-ATPase activity.4. Fenthion generally reduced plasma and brain cholinesterase activity and depressed cholinesterase and Na, K-ATPase activities in salt glands of birds drinking saltwater.

  14. 23Na NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE RELAXATION STUDIES OF SODIUM ION INTERACTION WITH SOLUBLE RNA*

    PubMed Central

    James, Thomas L.; Noggle, Joseph H.

    1969-01-01

    Interactions between 23Na+ and soluble RNA in aqueous solution are studied with the use of 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance. At low concentrations of NaCl, the interactions obey a simple equilibrium model with a formation constant log (Kf)3 = 2.8 ± 0.3. The relaxation rate of the bound sodium is found to be T1B-1 = 222 ± 19 sec-1 compared to that of free sodium T1F-1 = 17.5 sec-1. At high NaCl concentrations, the system deviates from the model, possibly owing to aggregation of the soluble RNA. PMID:5256995

  15. Structure and Function of Na+-Symporters with Inverted Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Jeff; Wright, Ernest M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Symporters are membrane proteins that couple energy stored in electrochemical potential gradients to drive the cotransport of molecules and ions into cells. Traditionally, proteins are classified into gene families based on sequence homology and functional properties, e.g. the sodium glucose (SLC5 or Sodium Solute Symporter Family, SSS or SSF) and GABA (SLC6 or Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporter Family, NSS or SNF) symporter families [1-4]. Recently, it has been established that four Na+-symporter proteins with unrelated sequences have a common structural core containing an inverted repeat of 5 transmembrane (TM) helices [5-8]. Analysis of these four structures reveals that they reside in different conformations along the transport cycle providing atomic insight into the mechanism of sodium solute cotransport. PMID:19631523

  16. Coherent Control of Ground State NaK Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zoe; Park, Jee Woo; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold dipolar molecules exhibit anisotropic, tunable, long-range interactions, making them attractive for the study of novel states of matter and quantum information processing. We demonstrate the creation and control of 23 Na40 K molecules in their rovibronic and hyperfine ground state. By applying microwaves, we drive coherent Rabi oscillations of spin-polarized molecules between the rotational ground state (J=0) and J=1. The control afforded by microwave manipulation allows us to pursue engineered dipolar interactions via microwave dressing. By driving a two-photon transition, we are also able to observe Ramsey fringes between different J=0 hyperfine states, with coherence times as long as 0.5s. The realization of long coherence times between different molecular states is crucial for applications in quantum information processing. NSF, AFOSR- MURI, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, DARPA-OLE

  17. CSUNSat-1 CubeSat – ELaNa XVII

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-04

    The primary mission of CSUNSat1 is to space test an innovative low temperature capable energy storage system developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, raising its TRL level to 7 from 4 to 5. The success of this energy storage system will enable future missions, especially those in deep space to do more science while requiring less energy, mass and volume. This CubeSat was designed, built, programmed, and tested by a team of over 70 engineering and computer science students at CSUN.  The primary source of funding for CSUNSat1 comes from NASA’s Smallest Technology Partnership program. Launched by NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative on the NET April 18, 2017 ELaNa XVII mission on the seventh Orbital-ATK Cygnus Commercial Resupply Services (OA-7) to the International Space Station and deployed on tbd.

  18. Tuning wettability of hydrogen titanate nanowire mesh by Na+ irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Pritam; Chatterjee, Shyamal

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen titanate (HT) nanowires have been widely studied for remarkable properties and various potential applications. However, a handful studies are available related to ion beam induced structural changes and influence on wetting behavior of the HT nanowire surface. In this work, we exposed HT nanowires to 5 keV Na+ at an ion fluence of 1×1016 ions.cm-2. Scanning electron microscope shows that at this ion fluence nanowires are bent arbitrarily and they are welded to each other forming an interlinked network structure. Computer simulation shows that ion beam induces defect formation in the nanowires, which plays major role in such structural modifications. An interesting alteration of surface wetting property is observed due to ion irradiation. The hydrophilic pristine surface turns into hydrophobic after ion irradiation.

  19. Long Life Na/NiCl2 Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The premature capacity failure of Na/NiCl2 secondary cells due to agglomeration of nickel particles on the surface of the NiCl2 cathode is prevented by addition of a minor amount such as 10 percent by weight of a transition metal such as Co, Fe or Mn to the cathode. The chlorides of the transition metals have lower potentials than nickel chloride and chlorinate during charge. A uniform dispersion of the transition metals in the cathodes prevents agglomeration of nickel, maintains morphology of the electrode, maintains the electrochemical area of the electrode and thus maintains capacity of the electrode. The additives do not effect sintering. The addition of sulfur to the liquid catholyte is expected to further reduce agglomeration of nickel in the cathode.

  20. KTAG: The Kaon Identification Detector for CERN experiment NA62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, J. R.; CERN NA62 Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In the study of ultra-rare kaon decays, CERN experiment NA62 exploits an unseparated monochromatic (75 GeV/c) beam of charged particles of flux 800 MHz, of which 50 MHz are K+. Kaons are identified with more than 95% efficiency, a time resolution of better than 100 ps, and misidentification of less than 10-4 using KTAG, a differential, ring-focussed, Cherenkov detector. KTAG utilises 8 sets of 48 Hamamatsu PMTs, of which 32 are of type 9880 and 16 of type 7400, with signals fed directly to the differential inputs of NINO front-end boards and then to TDC cards within the TEL62 system. Leading and trailing edges of the PMT signal are digitised, enabling slewing corrections to be made, and a mean hit rate of 5 MHz per PMT is supported. The electronics is housed within a cooled and insulated Faraday cage with environmental monitoring capabilities.

  1. Quenching of Excited Na due to He Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. Y.; Stancil, P. C.; Liebermann, H. P.; Funke, P.; Buenker, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    The quenching and elastic scattering of excited Sodium by collisions with Helium have been investigated for energies between 10(exp -13) eV and 10 eV. With the ab initio adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic radial and rotational couplings obtained from multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction approach, we carried out scattering calculations by the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling method. Cross sections for quenching reactions and elastic collisions are presented. Quenching and elastic collisional rate coefficients as a function of temperature between 1 micro-K and 10,000 K are also obtained. The results are relevant to modeling non-LTE effects on Na D absorption lines in extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs.

  2. The Small Acceptance Vertex Detector of NA61/SHINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveaux, M.; Aduszkiewicz, A.; Ali, Y.; Baszczyk, M.; Brylinski, W.; Dorosz, P.; Di Luise, S.; Feofilov, G.; Gazdzicki, M.; Igolkin, S.; Jablonski, M.; Kovalenko, V.; Koziel, M.; Kucewicz, W.; Larsen, D.; Lazareva, T.; Martinengo, P.; Merzlaya, A.; Mik, L.; Planeta, R.; Snoch, A.; Vechernin, V.; Tefelski, D.; Suljic, M.; Staszel, P.

    2018-02-01

    Charmonium production in heavy ion collisions is considered as an important diagnostic probe for studying the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter for potential phase transitions. The interpretation of existing data from the CERN SPS is hampered by a lack of knowledge on the properties of open charm particle production in the fireball. Moreover, open charm production in heavy ion collisions by itself is poorly understood. To overcome this obstacle, the NA61/SHINE was equipped with a Small Acceptance Vertex Detector (SAVD), which is predicted to make the experiment sensitive to open charm mesons produced in A-A collisions at the SPS top energy. This paper will introduce the concept and the hardware of the SAVD. Moreover, first running experience as obtained in a commissioning run with a 150 AGeV/c Pb+Pb collision system will be reported.

  3. Commissioning and first results of the NA62 RICH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenti, M.; NA62 RICH Working Group

    2016-12-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN has been constructed to measure the ultra rare charged kaon decay into a charged pion and two neutrinos with a 10% uncertainty. The main background is the charged kaon decay into a muon and a neutrino which is suppressed by kinematic tools using a magnetic spectrometer and by the different stopping power of muons and pions in the calorimeters. A RICH detector is needed to further suppress the μ+ contamination in the π+ sample by a factor of at least 100 between 15 and 35 GeV/c momentum, to measure the pion crossing time with a resolution of about 100 ps and to produce the trigger for a charged track. The detector consists of a 17 m long tank (vessel), filled with neon gas at atmospheric pressure. Cherenkov light is reflected by a mosaic of 20 spherical mirrors with 17 m focal length, placed at the downstream end, and collected by 1952 photomultipliers (PMTs) placed at the upstream end. The RICH detector installation was completed in the summer of 2014 and the detector was used for the first time during the pilot run at the end of 2014. The RICH was then operated during the NA62 Commissioning Run in 2015 and in the 2016 Physics Run. It must be noted that in 2014 and 2015 the RICH mirror alignment was not optimal and the need of a better performance in the pion-muon separation was the main reason for the detector maintenance carried out in the 2015-2016 winter shutdown. In this contribution the construction of the detector will be described and the performance reached during the 2014-2015 data-taking will be discussed; preliminary results from the 2016 data-taking will also be shown.

  4. Structure and properties of α-NaFeO{sub 2}-type ternary sodium iridates

    SciTech Connect

    Baroudi, Kristen, E-mail: kbaroudi@princeton.edu; Yim, Cindi; Wu, Hui

    2014-02-15

    The synthesis, structure, and elementary magnetic and electronic properties are reported for layered compounds of the type Na{sub 3−x}MIr{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Na{sub 3−x}M{sub 2}IrO{sub 6}, where M is a transition metal from the 3d series (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe and Mn). The rhombohedral structures, in space group R−3m, were determined by refinement of neutron and synchrotron powder diffraction data. No clear evidence for long range 2:1 or 1:2 honeycomb-like M/Ir ordering was found in the neutron powder diffraction patterns except in the case of M=Zn, and thus in general the compounds are best designated as sodium deficient α-NaFeO{submore » 2}-type phases with formulas Na{sub 1−x}M{sub 1/3}Ir{sub 2/3}O{sub 2} or Na{sub 1−x}M{sub 2/3}Ir{sub 1/3}O{sub 2}. Synchrotron powder diffraction patterns indicate that several of the compounds likely have honeycomb in-plane metal–iridium ordering with disordered stacking of the layers. All the compounds are sodium deficient under our synthetic conditions and are black and insulating. Weiss constants derived from magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that Na{sub 0.62}Mn{sub 0.61}Ir{sub 0.39}O{sub 2}, Na{sub 0.80}Fe{sub 2/3}Ir{sub 1/3}O{sub 2}, Na{sub 0.92}Ni{sub 1/3}Ir{sub 2/3}O{sub 2}, Na{sub 0.86}Cu{sub 1/3}Ir{sub 2/3}O{sub 2}, and Na{sub 0.89}Zn{sub 1/3}Ir{sub 2/3}O{sub 2} display dominant antiferromagnetic interactions. For Na{sub 0.90}Co{sub 1/3}Ir{sub 2/3}O{sub 2} the dominant magnetic interactions at low temperature are ferromagnetic while at high temperatures they are antiferromagnetic; there is also a change in the effective moment. Low temperature specific heat measurements (to 2 K) on Na{sub 0.92}Ni{sub 1/3}Ir{sub 2/3}O{sub 2} indicate the presence of a broad magnetic ordering transition. X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that iridium is at or close to the 4+ oxidation state in all compounds. {sup 23}Na nuclear magnetic resonance measurements comparing Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} to Na{sub 0.92}Ni{sub 1

  5. Thermodynamic Study of Solid-Liquid Equilibrium in NaCl-NaBr-H2O System at 288.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Meng, Ling-zong; Deng, Tian-long; Guo, Ya-fei; Fu, Qing-Tao

    2018-06-01

    The solubility data, composition of the solid solution and refractive indices of the NaCl-NaBr-H2O system at 288.15 K were studied with the isothermal equilibrium dissolution method. The solubility diagram and refractive index diagram of this system were plotted at 288.15 K. The solubility diagram consists of two crystallization zones for solid solution Na(Cl,Br) · 2H2O and Na(Cl,Br), one invariant points cosaturated with two solid solution and two univariant solubility isothermal curves. On the basis of Pitzer and Harvie-Weare (HW) chemical models, the composition equations and solubility equilibrium constant equations of the solid solutions at 288.15 K were acquired using the solubility data, the composition of solid solutions, and binary Pitzer parameters. The solubilities calculated using the new method combining the equations are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. The effect of K and Na excess on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, C. W.; Y Lee, S.; Lee, H. J.; Ullah, A.; Bae, J. S.; Jeong, E. D.; Choi, J. S.; Park, B. H.; Kim, I. W.

    2009-11-01

    We have fabricated K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) thin films on Pt substrates by a chemical solution deposition method and investigated the effect of K and Na excess (0-30 mol%) on ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of KNN thin film. It was found that with increasing K and Na excess in a precursor solution from 0 to 30 mol%, the leakage current and ferroelectric properties were strongly affected. KNN thin film synthesized by using 20 mol% K and Na excess precursor solution exhibited a low leakage current density and well saturated ferroelectric P-E hysteresis loops. Moreover, the optimized KNN thin film had good fatigue resistance and a piezoelectric constant of 40 pm V-1, which is comparable to that of polycrystalline PZT thin films.

  7. Identification of an ovarian voltage-activated Na+-channel type: hints to involvement in luteolysis.

    PubMed

    Bulling, A; Berg, F D; Berg, U; Duffy, D M; Stouffer, R L; Ojeda, S R; Gratzl, M; Mayerhofer, A

    2000-07-01

    An endocrine type of voltage-activated sodium channel (eNaCh) was identified in the human ovary and human luteinized granulosa cells (GC). Whole-cell patch-clamp studies showed that the eNaCh in GC is functional and tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive. The luteotrophic hormone human CG (hCG) was found to decrease the peak amplitude of the sodium current within seconds. Treatment with hCG for 24-48 h suppressed not only eNaCh mRNA levels, but also mean Na+ peak currents and resting membrane potentials. An unexpected role for eNaChs in regulating cell morphology and function was indicated after pharmacological modulation of presumed eNaCh steady-state activity in GC cultures for 24-48 h using TTX (NaCh blocker) and veratridine (NaCh activator). TTX preserved a highly differentiated cellular phenotype. Veratridine not only increased the number of secondary lysosomes but also led to a significantly reduced progesterone production. Importantly, endocrine cells of the nonhuman primate corpus luteum (CL), which represent in vivo counterparts of luteinized GC, also contain eNaCh mRNA. Although the mechanism of channel activity under physiological conditions is not clear, it may include persistent Na+ currents. As observed in GC in culture, abundant secondary lysosomes were particularly evident in the regressing CL, suggesting a functional link between eNaCh activity and this form of cellular regression in vivo. Our results identify eNaCh in ovarian endocrine cells and demonstrate that their expression is under the inhibitory control of hCG. Activation of eNaChs in luteal cells, due to loss of gonadotropin support, may initiate a cascade of events leading to decreased CL function, a process that involves lysosomal activation and autophagy. These results imply that ovarian eNaChs are involved in the physiological demise of the temporary endocrine organ CL in the primate ovary during the menstrual cycle. Because commonly used drugs, including phenytoin, target NaChs, these results

  8. Neutron diffraction studies of the Na-ion battery electrode materials NaCoCr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, NaNiCr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Cr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Yahia, H. Ben; Essehli, R., E-mail: ressehli@qf.org.qa; Avdeev, M.

    The new compounds NaCoCr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, NaNiCr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Cr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} were synthesized by sol-gel method and their crystal structures were determined by using neutron powder diffraction data. These compounds were characterized by galvanometric cycling and cyclic voltammetry. NaCoCr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, NaNiCr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Cr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystallize with a stuffed α-CrPO{sub 4}-type structure. The structure consists of a 3D-framework made of octahedra and tetrahedra that are sharing corners and/or edges generating channels along [100] and [010], in which the sodium atoms are located. Of significance, in the structuresmore » of NaNiCr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Cr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} a statistical disorder Ni{sup 2+}/Cr{sup 3+} was observed on both the 8g and 4a atomic positions, whereas in NaCoCr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} the statistical disorder Co{sup 2+}/Cr{sup 3+} was only observed on the 8g atomic position. When tested as negative electrode materials, NaCoCr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, NaNiCr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Cr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} delivered specific capacities of 352, 385, and 368 mA h g{sup −1}, respectively, which attests to the electrochemical activity of sodium in these compounds. - Highlights: • NaCoCr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, NaNiCr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Cr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} were synthesized by sol-gel method. • The crystal structures were determined by using neutron powder diffraction data. • The three compounds crystallize with a stuffed α-CrPO{sub 4}-type structure. • The three compounds were tested as anodes in sodium-ion batteries. • Relatively high specific capacities were obtained for these compounds.« less

  9. NaCl responsive taste cells in the mouse fungiform taste buds.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, R; Horio, N; Murata, Y; Yasumatsu, K; Shigemura, N; Ninomiya, Y

    2009-03-17

    Previous studies have demonstrated that rodents' chorda tympani (CT) nerve fibers responding to NaCl can be classified according to their sensitivities to the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blocker amiloride into two groups: amiloride-sensitive (AS) and -insensitive (AI). The AS fibers were shown to respond specifically to NaCl, whereas AI fibers broadly respond to various electrolytes, including NaCl. These data suggest that salt taste transduction in taste cells may be composed of at least two different systems; AS and AI ones. To further address this issue, we investigated the responses to NaCl, KCl and HCl and the amiloride sensitivity of mouse fungiform papilla taste bud cells which are innervated by the CT nerve. Comparable with the CT data, the results indicated that 56 NaCl-responsive cells tested were classified into two groups; 25 cells ( approximately 44%) narrowly responded to NaCl and their NaCl response were inhibited by amiloride (AS cells), whereas the remaining 31 cells ( approximately 56%) responded not only to NaCl, but to KCl and/or HCl and showed no amiloride inhibition of NaCl responses (AI cells). Amiloride applied to the basolateral side of taste cells had no effect on NaCl responses in the AS and AI cells. Single cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments indicated that ENaC subunit mRNA was expressed in a subset of AS cells. These findings suggest that the mouse fungiform taste bud is composed of AS and AI cells that can transmit taste information differently to their corresponding types of CT fibers, and apical ENaCs may be involved in the NaCl responses of AS cells.

  10. Selective inhibition of K(+)-stimulation of Na,K-ATPase by bretylium.

    PubMed Central

    Tiku, P. E.; Nowell, P. T.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of bretylium were investigated on purified Na,K-ATPase from guinea-pig heart and on the Na/K pump in trout erythrocytes, with a view to further identifying the mechanism(s) associated with its antiarrhythmic effects. 2. Na,K-ATPase activity of the thiocyanate-dispersed enzyme was determined by the measurement of inorganic phosphate produced by ATP hydrolysis. 3. When the concentrations of each of the Na,K-ATPase activating components were varied in turn, bretylium (1-5 mmol l-1) exhibited competitive-type effects against K+ with a Ki of 1.4 mmol l-1 and noncompetitive-type effects against Na+, Mg2+ and ATP. 4. In K+ influx studies in trout erythrocytes with 86Rb+ used as the marker, the inhibition of total influx observed with bretylium (5 and 10 mmol l-1) was attributable to the bretylium cation selectively inhibiting the Na/K pump-mediated influx with the associated tosylate anion inhibiting Na/K cotransport. 5. The observed inhibition kinetics indicated that the bretylium cation (2-15 mmol l-1) competitively inhibited K+ stimulation of the Na/K pump at 6 and 1.25 mmol l-1 external K+ with a mean K1 of 2.3 mmol l-1. 6. The effects demonstrated on the functioning Na/K pump in erythrocytes confirmed the Na,K-ATPase findings, with bretylium selectively inhibiting K+ stimulation of the pump mechanism in both cases. 7. It is suggested that Na,K-ATPase inhibition may contribute to the antiarrhythmic and positive inotropic effects of bretylium with the cardiac accumulation of bretylium also possibly being a further important factor. PMID:1667290

  11. Direct demonstration of persistent Na+ channel activity in dendritic processes of mammalian cortical neurones

    PubMed Central

    Magistretti, Jacopo; Ragsdale, David S; Alonso, Angel

    1999-01-01

    Single Na+ channel activity was recorded in patch-clamp, cell-attached experiments performed on dendritic processes of acutely isolated principal neurones from rat entorhinal-cortex layer II. The distances of the recording sites from the soma ranged from ≈20 to ≈100 μm.Step depolarisations from holding potentials of −120 to −100 mV to test potentials of −60 to +10 mV elicited Na+ channel openings in all of the recorded patches (n= 16).In 10 patches, besides transient Na+ channel openings clustered within the first few milliseconds of the depolarising pulses, prolonged and/or late Na+ channel openings were also regularly observed. This ‘persistent’ Na+ channel activity produced net inward, persistent currents in ensemble-average traces, and remained stable over the entire duration of the experiments (≈9 to 30 min).Two of these patches contained <= 3 channels. In these cases, persistent Na+ channel openings could be attributed to the activity of one single channel.The voltage dependence of persistent-current amplitude in ensemble-average traces closely resembled that of whole-cell, persistent Na+ current expressed by the same neurones, and displayed the same characteristic low threshold of activation.Dendritic, persistent Na+ channel openings had relatively high single-channel conductance (≈20 pS), similar to what is observed for somatic, persistent Na+ channels.We conclude that a stable, persistent Na+ channel activity is expressed by proximal dendrites of entorhinal-cortex layer II principal neurones, and can contribute a significant low-threshold, persistent Na+ current to the dendritic processing of excitatory synaptic inputs. PMID:10601494

  12. Rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    The rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase was analyzed in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) transferred from low salinity (0.1 ppt) to high salinity (25-35 ppt). In parr and presmolt, Salmo salar gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity started to increase 3 days after transfer. Exposure of Fundulus heteroclitus to 35 ppt seawater (SW) induced a rise in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity 3 hr after transfer. After 12 hr, the values dropped to initial levels but showed a second significant increase 3 days after transfer. The absence of detergent in the enzyme assay resulted in lower values of gill Na+,K+-ATPase, and the rapid increase after transfer to SW was not observed. Na+,K+-ATPase activity of gill filaments in vitro for 3 hr increased proportionally to the osmolality of the culture medium (600 mosm/kg > 500 mosm/kg > 300 mosm/kg). Osmolality of 800 mosm/kg resulted in lower gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity relative to 600 mosm/kg. Increasing medium osmolality to 600 mosm/kg with mannitol also increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity observed in hyperosmotic medium in a dose-dependent manner (10-4 M > 10-5 M > 10-6 M). Actinomycin D or bumetanide in the culture (doses of 10-4 M, 10-5 M, and 10-6 M) did not affect gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Injection of fish with actinomycin D prior to gill organ culture, however, prevented the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in hyperosmotic media. The results show a very rapid and transitory increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the first hours after the transfer of Fundulus heteroclitus to SW that is dependent on translational and transcriptional processes. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Double Knockout of the Na+-Driven Cl-/HCO3- Exchanger and Na+/Cl- Cotransporter Induces Hypokalemia and Volume Depletion.

    PubMed

    Sinning, Anne; Radionov, Nikita; Trepiccione, Francesco; López-Cayuqueo, Karen I; Jayat, Maximilien; Baron, Stéphanie; Cornière, Nicolas; Alexander, R Todd; Hadchouel, Juliette; Eladari, Dominique; Hübner, Christian A; Chambrey, Régine

    2017-01-01

    We recently described a novel thiazide-sensitive electroneutral NaCl transport mechanism resulting from the parallel operation of the Cl - /HCO 3 - exchanger pendrin and the Na + -driven Cl - /2HCO 3 - exchanger (NDCBE) in β-intercalated cells of the collecting duct. Although a role for pendrin in maintaining Na + balance, intravascular volume, and BP is well supported, there is no in vivo evidence for the role of NDCBE in maintaining Na + balance. Here, we show that deletion of NDCBE in mice caused only subtle perturbations of Na + homeostasis and provide evidence that the Na + /Cl - cotransporter (NCC) compensated for the inactivation of NDCBE. To unmask the role of NDCBE, we generated Ndcbe/Ncc double-knockout (dKO) mice. On a normal salt diet, dKO and single-knockout mice exhibited similar activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas only dKO mice displayed a lower blood K + concentration. Furthermore, dKO mice displayed upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the Ca 2+ -activated K + channel BKCa. During NaCl depletion, only dKO mice developed marked intravascular volume contraction, despite dramatically increased renin activity. Notably, the increase in aldosterone levels expected on NaCl depletion was attenuated in dKO mice, and single-knockout and dKO mice had similar blood K + concentrations under this condition. In conclusion, NDCBE is necessary for maintaining sodium balance and intravascular volume during salt depletion or NCC inactivation in mice. Furthermore, NDCBE has an important role in the prevention of hypokalemia. Because NCC and NDCBE are both thiazide targets, the combined inhibition of NCC and the NDCBE/pendrin system may explain thiazide-induced hypokalemia in some patients. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Effect of salts (NaCl and Na2CO3) on callus and suspension culture of Stevia rebaudiana for Steviol glycoside production.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pratibha; Sharma, Satyawati; Saxena, Sanjay

    2014-03-01

    Steviol glycosides are natural non-caloric sweeteners which are extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana plant. Present study deals the effect of salts (NaCl and Na2CO3) on callus and suspension culture of Stevia plant for steviol glycoside (SGs) production. Yellow-green and compact calli obtained from in vitro raised Stevia leaves sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l(-1) NAA and different concentrations of NaCl (0.05-0.20%) and Na2CO3 (0.0125-0.10%) for 2 weeks, and incubated at 24 ± 1 °C and 22.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light intensity provided by white fluorescent tubes for 16 h. Callus and suspension biomass cultured on salts showed less growth as well as browning of medium when compared with control. Quantification of SGs content in callus culture (collected on 15th day) and suspension cultures (collected at 10th and 15th days) treated with and without salts were analyzed by HPLC. It was found that abiotic stress induced by the salts increased the concentration of SGs significantly. In callus, the quantity of SGs got increased from 0.27 (control) to 1.43 and 1.57% with 0.10% NaCl, and 0.025% Na2CO3, respectively. However, in case of suspension culture, the same concentrations of NaCl and Na2CO3 enhanced the SGs content from 1.36 (control) to 2.61 and 5.14%, respectively, on the 10th day.

  15. Five ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for hydrated NaCl and NaF. I. Two-body interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yimin, E-mail: yimin.wang@emory.edu; Bowman, Joel M., E-mail: jmbowma@emory.edu; Kamarchik, Eugene, E-mail: eugene.kamarchik@gmail.com

    2016-03-21

    We report full-dimensional, ab initio-based potentials and dipole moment surfaces for NaCl, NaF, Na{sup +}H{sub 2}O, F{sup −}H{sub 2}O, and Cl{sup −}H{sub 2}O. The NaCl and NaF potentials are diabatic ones that dissociate to ions. These are obtained using spline fits to CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z energies. In addition, non-linear least square fits using the Born-Mayer-Huggins potential are presented, providing accurate parameters based strictly on the current ab initio energies. The long-range behavior of the NaCl and NaF potentials is shown to go, as expected, accurately to the point-charge Coulomb interaction. The three ion-H{sub 2}O potentials are permutationally invariant fits to roughly 20 000more » coupled cluster CCSD(T) energies (awCVTZ basis for Na{sup +} and aVTZ basis for Cl{sup −} and F{sup −}), over a large range of distances and H{sub 2}O intramolecular configurations. These potentials are switched accurately in the long range to the analytical ion-dipole interactions, to improve computational efficiency. Dipole moment surfaces are fits to MP2 data; for the ion-ion cases, these are well described in the intermediate- and long-range by the simple point-charge expression. The performance of these new fits is examined by direct comparison to additional ab initio energies and dipole moments along various cuts. Equilibrium structures, harmonic frequencies, and electronic dissociation energies are also reported and compared to direct ab initio results. These indicate the high fidelity of the new PESs.« less

  16. Double Knockout of the Na+-Driven Cl−/HCO3− Exchanger and Na+/Cl− Cotransporter Induces Hypokalemia and Volume Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Sinning, Anne; Radionov, Nikita; Trepiccione, Francesco; López-Cayuqueo, Karen I.; Jayat, Maximilien; Baron, Stéphanie; Cornière, Nicolas; Alexander, R. Todd; Hadchouel, Juliette; Eladari, Dominique; Hübner, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    We recently described a novel thiazide–sensitive electroneutral NaCl transport mechanism resulting from the parallel operation of the Cl−/HCO3− exchanger pendrin and the Na+–driven Cl−/2HCO3− exchanger (NDCBE) in β-intercalated cells of the collecting duct. Although a role for pendrin in maintaining Na+ balance, intravascular volume, and BP is well supported, there is no in vivo evidence for the role of NDCBE in maintaining Na+ balance. Here, we show that deletion of NDCBE in mice caused only subtle perturbations of Na+ homeostasis and provide evidence that the Na+/Cl− cotransporter (NCC) compensated for the inactivation of NDCBE. To unmask the role of NDCBE, we generated Ndcbe/Ncc double–knockout (dKO) mice. On a normal salt diet, dKO and single-knockout mice exhibited similar activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas only dKO mice displayed a lower blood K+ concentration. Furthermore, dKO mice displayed upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the Ca2+–activated K+ channel BKCa. During NaCl depletion, only dKO mice developed marked intravascular volume contraction, despite dramatically increased renin activity. Notably, the increase in aldosterone levels expected on NaCl depletion was attenuated in dKO mice, and single-knockout and dKO mice had similar blood K+ concentrations under this condition. In conclusion, NDCBE is necessary for maintaining sodium balance and intravascular volume during salt depletion or NCC inactivation in mice. Furthermore, NDCBE has an important role in the prevention of hypokalemia. Because NCC and NDCBE are both thiazide targets, the combined inhibition of NCC and the NDCBE/pendrin system may explain thiazide-induced hypokalemia in some patients. PMID:27151921

  17. Five ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for hydrated NaCl and NaF. I. Two-body interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M; Kamarchik, Eugene

    2016-03-21

    We report full-dimensional, ab initio-based potentials and dipole moment surfaces for NaCl, NaF, Na(+)H2O, F(-)H2O, and Cl(-)H2O. The NaCl and NaF potentials are diabatic ones that dissociate to ions. These are obtained using spline fits to CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z energies. In addition, non-linear least square fits using the Born-Mayer-Huggins potential are presented, providing accurate parameters based strictly on the current ab initio energies. The long-range behavior of the NaCl and NaF potentials is shown to go, as expected, accurately to the point-charge Coulomb interaction. The three ion-H2O potentials are permutationally invariant fits to roughly 20,000 coupled cluster CCSD(T) energies (awCVTZ basis for Na(+) and aVTZ basis for Cl(-) and F(-)), over a large range of distances and H2O intramolecular configurations. These potentials are switched accurately in the long range to the analytical ion-dipole interactions, to improve computational efficiency. Dipole moment surfaces are fits to MP2 data; for the ion-ion cases, these are well described in the intermediate- and long-range by the simple point-charge expression. The performance of these new fits is examined by direct comparison to additional ab initio energies and dipole moments along various cuts. Equilibrium structures, harmonic frequencies, and electronic dissociation energies are also reported and compared to direct ab initio results. These indicate the high fidelity of the new PESs.

  18. Elaboration and characterization of solid materials of types zeolite NaA and faujasite NaY exchanged by zinc metallic ions Zn2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nibou, D.; Amokrane, S.; Mekatel, H.; Lebaili, N.

    2009-11-01

    The present work deals with the elaborated of NaA and faujasite NaY solid materials according to a hydrothermal crystallization of amorphous gels composed of solutions of silicon, aluminum and sodium. The process elaboration has been achieved in autoclaves made of steel lined in Teflon under different operating conditions of temperature of heating, time of contact and stirring. After crystallization, the samples were characterized by different techniques such as X ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and chemical analysis. Pure solid materials NaA and NaY zeolites were obtained and were impregnated by (Zn2+) ions by ion exchange process. The effects of various parameters such as initial metal concentration, pH, solid-liquid ratio (R) and temperature on the exchange percentage are studied. The equilibrium isotherms of zinc ions sorption are also evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich models. Thermodynamic parameters, i.e. enthalpy of adsorption ΔHads∘, entropy change ΔSads∘ and Gibbs free energy ΔGads∘ for the sorption of zinc ions on NaA and NaY zeolites were examined.

  19. Energy landscape of the reactions governing the Na+ deeply occluded state of the Na+/K+-ATPase in the giant axon of the Humboldt squid

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Juan P.; De Giorgis, Daniela; Basilio, Daniel; Gadsby, David C.; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.; Latorre, Ramon; Holmgren, Miguel; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The Na+/K+ pump is a nearly ubiquitous membrane protein in animal cells that uses the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to alternatively export 3Na+ from the cell and import 2K+ per cycle. This exchange of ions produces a steady-state outwardly directed current, which is proportional in magnitude to the turnover rate. Under certain ionic conditions, a sudden voltage jump generates temporally distinct transient currents mediated by the Na+/K+ pump that represent the kinetics of extracellular Na+ binding/release and Na+ occlusion/deocclusion transitions. For many years, these events have escaped a proper thermodynamic treatment due to the relatively small electrical signal. Here, taking the advantages offered by the large diameter of the axons from the squid Dosidicus gigas, we have been able to separate the kinetic components of the transient currents in an extended temperature range and thus characterize the energetic landscape of the pump cycle and those transitions associated with the extracellular release of the first Na+ from the deeply occluded state. Occlusion/deocclusion transition involves large changes in enthalpy and entropy as the ion is exposed to the external milieu for release. Binding/unbinding is substantially less costly, yet larger than predicted for the energetic cost of an ion diffusing through a permeation pathway, which suggests that ion binding/unbinding must involve amino acid side-chain rearrangements at the site. PMID:22143771

  20. Energy landscape of the reactions governing the Na+ deeply occluded state of the Na+/K+-ATPase in the giant axon of the Humboldt squid.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Juan P; De Giorgis, Daniela; Basilio, Daniel; Gadsby, David C; Rosenthal, Joshua J C; Latorre, Ramon; Holmgren, Miguel; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2011-12-20

    The Na(+)/K(+) pump is a nearly ubiquitous membrane protein in animal cells that uses the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to alternatively export 3Na(+) from the cell and import 2K(+) per cycle. This exchange of ions produces a steady-state outwardly directed current, which is proportional in magnitude to the turnover rate. Under certain ionic conditions, a sudden voltage jump generates temporally distinct transient currents mediated by the Na(+)/K(+) pump that represent the kinetics of extracellular Na(+) binding/release and Na(+) occlusion/deocclusion transitions. For many years, these events have escaped a proper thermodynamic treatment due to the relatively small electrical signal. Here, taking the advantages offered by the large diameter of the axons from the squid Dosidicus gigas, we have been able to separate the kinetic components of the transient currents in an extended temperature range and thus characterize the energetic landscape of the pump cycle and those transitions associated with the extracellular release of the first Na(+) from the deeply occluded state. Occlusion/deocclusion transition involves large changes in enthalpy and entropy as the ion is exposed to the external milieu for release. Binding/unbinding is substantially less costly, yet larger than predicted for the energetic cost of an ion diffusing through a permeation pathway, which suggests that ion binding/unbinding must involve amino acid side-chain rearrangements at the site.

  1. Arrestins and Spinophilin Competitively Regulate Na+,K+-ATPase Trafficking through Association with a Large Cytoplasmic Loop of the Na+,K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tohru; Allen, Patrick B.; Nairn, Angus C.

    2007-01-01

    The activity and trafficking of the Na+,K+-ATPase are regulated by several hormones, including dopamine, vasopressin, and adrenergic hormones through the action of G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). Arrestins, GPCR kinases (GRKs), 14-3-3 proteins, and spinophilin interact with GPCRs and modulate the duration and magnitude of receptor signaling. We have found that arrestin 2 and 3, GRK 2 and 3, 14-3-3 ε, and spinophilin directly associate with the Na+,K+-ATPase and that the associations with arrestins, GRKs, or 14-3-3 ε are blocked in the presence of spinophilin. In COS cells that overexpressed arrestin, the Na+,K+-ATPase was redistributed to intracellular compartments. This effect was not seen in mock-transfected cells or in cells expressing spinophilin. Furthermore, expression of spinophilin appeared to slow, whereas overexpression of β-arrestins accelerated internalization of the Na+,K+-ATPase endocytosis. We also find that GRKs phosphorylate the Na+,K+-ATPase in vitro on its large cytoplasmic loop. Taken together, it appears that association with arrestins, GRKs, 14-3-3 ε, and spinophilin may be important modulators of Na+,K+-ATPase trafficking. PMID:17804821

  2. Effect of Na2SiO3/NaOH on mechanical properties and microstructure of geopolymer mortar using fly ash and rice husk ash as precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saloma, Hanafiah, Elysandi, Debby Orjina; Meykan, Della Garnesia

    2017-11-01

    Geopolymer concrete is an eco-friendly concrete that can reduce carbon emissions on the earth surface because it used industrial waste material such as fly ash, rice husk ash, bagasse ash, and palm oil fuel. Geopolymer is semi-crystalline amorphous materials which has irregular chemical bonds structure. The material is produced by geosynthesis of aluminosilicates and alkali-silicates which produce the Si-O-Al polymer structure. This research used the ratio of fly ash and rice husk ash as precursors e.g. 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75. NaOH solutions of 14 M and Na2SiO3 solutions with the variation e.g. 2.5, 2.75, 3.00, and 3.25 were used as activators on mortar geopolymer mixture. The tests of fresh mortar were slump flow and setting time. The optimum compressive strength is 68.36 MPa for 28 days resulted from mixture using 100% fly ash and Na2SiO3 and NaOH with ratio 2.75. The largest value of slump flow test resulted from mixture using Na2SiO3 and NaOH with ratio 2.50 is 17.25 cm. Based on SEM test results, mortar geopolymer microstructure with mixture RHA 0% has less pores and denser CSH structure.

  3. Effects of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution concentration on fly ash-based lightweight geopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, W. M. W.; Hussin, K.; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Kadir, A. A.; Deraman, L. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the effects of NaOH concentration on properties of fly ash-based lightweight geopolymer were investigated. Lightweight geopolymer was produced using fly ash as source materials and synthetic foaming agents as air entraining agent. The alkaline solutions used in this study are combination of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) solution. Different molarities of NaOH solution (6M, 8M, 10M, 12M, and 14M) are taken for preparation of 50 x 50 x 50 mm cubes of lightweight geopolymer. The ratio of fly ash/alkaline solution, Na2SiO3/NaOH solution, foaming agent/water and foam/geopolymer paste were kept constant at 2.0, 2.5, 1:10 and 1:1 respectively. The samples were cured at 80°C for 24 hours and left at room temperature for tested at 7 days of ageing. Physical and mechanical properties such as density, water absorption, compressive strength and microstructure property were determined from the cube dried samples. The results show that the NaOH molarity had effects on the properties of lightweight geopolymer with the optimum NaOH molarity found is 12M due to the high strength of 15.6 MPa, lower water absorption (7.3%) and low density (1440 kg/m3). Microstructure analysis shows that the lightweight geopolymer contain some porous structure and unreacted fly ash particles remains.

  4. Na/Ca Ratio in Large Benthic Foraminifera as a Novel Proxy for Past Ocean Calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Y.; Hauzer, H.; Evans, D.; Erez, J.

    2017-12-01

    Culture experiments with Operculina ammonoides (a large symbiont bearing benthic foraminifer and an extant relative of the Eocene Nummulites) were carried out varying seawater [Ca], temperature and salinity. The main results of these experiments are: 1. Na/Ca in these foraminifera shells varies with the Na/Ca ratio in the seawater 2. Na/Ca shows small, non-systematic variations with temperature (22-28 ºC) that are within our analytical precision. 3. Na/Ca in the shells show very low changes, increasing linearly with salinity. The sensitivity to salinity is very low compared to that caused by changes of Na/Ca in seawater. Over the seawater experimental range of Na/Ca (10-18 mM), a change of 5 ppt salinity induced a slight Na/Ca increase comparable to the analytical error for Na, or that caused by temperature. Initial reconstructions of seawater [Ca], based on these calibrations, generally agree well with previous models and reconstructions confirming that seawater [Ca] concentrations were substantially higher during the early-mid Cenozoic than today.

  5. Enhanced enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by combining O2 and NaOH.

    PubMed

    Bi, Shuaizhu; Peng, Lincai; Chen, Keli; Zhu, Zhengliang

    2016-08-01

    Sugarcane bagasse pretreated by combining O2 and NaOH with different variables was conducted to improve its enzymatic digestibility and sugar recovery, and the results were compared with sole NaOH pretreatment. Lignin removal for O2-NaOH pretreatment was around 10% higher than that for sole NaOH pretreatment under the same conditions, and O2-NaOH pretreatment resulted in higher glucan recovery in the solid remain. Subsequently, O2-NaOH pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented more efficient enzymatic digestibility than sole NaOH pretreatment. Under the moderate pretreatment conditions of combining 1% NaOH and 0.5MPa O2 at 80°C for 120min, a high glucan conversion of 95% was achieved after 48h enzymatic hydrolysis. Coupled with the operations of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, an admirable total sugar recovery of 89% (glucose recovery of 93% and xylose recovery of 84%) was obtained. The susceptibility of the substrates to enzymatic digestibility was explained by their physical and chemical characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The ground state of metallic nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl-KBF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkasov, F. G.; L'Vov, S. G.; Tikhonov, D. A.; den Hartog, H. W.; Vainshtein, D. I.

    ESR, NMR and static magnetic susceptibility measurements of heavily irradiated NaCl-K and NaCl-KBF4 are reported. Up to 10% of the NaCl-molecules are transformed into metallic Na nanoparticles and Cl-2 precipitates. In addition, there are paramagnetic F- and F-aggregates, which are coupled by exchange interactions to the conduction electrons in the nanoparticles. Above 160 K the NMR and ESR signals of NaCl-K and NaCl-KBF4 show Pauli paramagnetism and the properties of the Na nanoparticles are similar to bulk sodium. A single ESR line is observed revealing exchange interaction between conduction electrons in the nano-particles and F-aggregates. The observed decrease of the ESR susceptibility with decreasing temperature is due to a metal-insulator transition. The conduction electrons are localized below 40 K and the above mentioned F-aggregate centers contribute significantly to the overall ESR signal. For NaCl-KBF4 we observed that with decreasing temperature the ESR line shifts towards lower fields due to antiferromagnetic ordering and internal magnetic fields.

  7. Cation Transport Coupled to ATP Hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase: An Integrated, Animated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Francisco A.; Furriel, Rosa P. M.; McNamara, John C.; Horisberger, Jean D.; Borin, Ivana A.

    2010-01-01

    An Adobe[R] animation is presented for use in undergraduate Biochemistry courses, illustrating the mechanism of Na[superscript +] and K[superscript +] translocation coupled to ATP hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase, a P[subscript 2c]-type ATPase, or ATP-powered ion pump that actively translocates cations across plasma membranes. The enzyme is also…

  8. Electrical conductivity of low-temperature NaCl-KCl-ZrCl4 melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salyulev, A. B.; Khokhlov, V. A.; Red'kin, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    The dependences of the electrical conductivity of NaCl-KCl-ZrCl4 molten mixtures with a molar ratio NaCl : KCl = 8 : 29 on the temperature (temperature range of 300-540°C) and the ZrCl4 concentration (54.3-75.2 mol %) have been measured for the first time using unique cells.

  9. Localization of Ubiquinone-8 in the Na+-pumping NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Casutt, Marco S.; Nedielkov, Ruslan; Wendelspiess, Severin; Vossler, Sara; Gerken, Uwe; Murai, Masatoshi; Miyoshi, Hideto; Möller, Heiko M.; Steuber, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Na+ is the second major coupling ion at membranes after protons, and many pathogenic bacteria use the sodium-motive force to their advantage. A prominent example is Vibrio cholerae, which relies on the Na+-pumping NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) as the first complex in its respiratory chain. The Na+-NQR is a multisubunit, membrane-embedded NADH dehydrogenase that oxidizes NADH and reduces quinone to quinol. Existing models describing redox-driven Na+ translocation by the Na+-NQR are based on the assumption that the pump contains four flavins and one FeS cluster. Here we show that the large, peripheral NqrA subunit of the Na+-NQR binds one molecule of ubiquinone-8. Investigations of the dynamic interaction of NqrA with quinones by surface plasmon resonance and saturation transfer difference NMR reveal a high affinity, which is determined by the methoxy groups at the C-2 and C-3 positions of the quinone headgroup. Using photoactivatable quinone derivatives, it is demonstrated that ubiquinone-8 bound to NqrA occupies a functional site. A novel scheme of electron transfer in Na+-NQR is proposed that is initiated by NADH oxidation on subunit NqrF and leads to quinol formation on subunit NqrA. PMID:21885438

  10. Physiological sodium concentrations enhance the iodide affinity of the Na+/I- symporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Juan P.; Carrasco, Nancy; Mario Amzel, L.

    2014-06-01

    The Na+/I- symporter (NIS) mediates active I- transport—the first step in thyroid hormonogenesis—with a 2Na+:1I- stoichiometry. NIS-mediated 131I- treatment of thyroid cancer post-thyroidectomy is the most effective targeted internal radiation cancer treatment available. Here to uncover mechanistic information on NIS, we use statistical thermodynamics to obtain Kds and estimate the relative populations of the different NIS species during Na+/anion binding and transport. We show that, although the affinity of NIS for I- is low (Kd=224 μM), it increases when Na+ is bound (Kd=22.4 μM). However, this Kd is still much higher than the submicromolar physiological I- concentration. To overcome this, NIS takes advantage of the extracellular Na+ concentration and the pronounced increase in its own affinity for I- and for the second Na+ elicited by binding of the first. Thus, at physiological Na+ concentrations, ~79% of NIS molecules are occupied by two Na+ ions and ready to bind and transport I-.

  11. Ranolazine inhibits NaV1.5-mediated breast cancer cell invasiveness and lung colonization.

    PubMed

    Driffort, Virginie; Gillet, Ludovic; Bon, Emeline; Marionneau-Lambot, Séverine; Oullier, Thibauld; Joulin, Virginie; Collin, Christine; Pagès, Jean-Christophe; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Chevalier, Stéphan; Bougnoux, Philippe; Le Guennec, Jean-Yves; Besson, Pierre; Roger, Sébastien

    2014-12-11

    Na(V)1.5 voltage-gated sodium channels are abnormally expressed in breast tumours and their expression level is associated with metastatic occurrence and patients' death. In breast cancer cells, Na(V)1.5 activity promotes the proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix and enhances cell invasiveness. In this study, we showed that the extinction of Na(V)1.5 expression in human breast cancer cells almost completely abrogated lung colonisation in immunodepressed mice (NMRI nude). Furthermore, we demonstrated that ranolazine (50 μM) inhibited Na(V)1.5 currents in breast cancer cells and reduced Na(V)1.5-related cancer cell invasiveness in vitro. In vivo, the injection of ranolazine (50 mg/kg/day) significantly reduced lung colonisation by Na(V)1.5-expressing human breast cancer cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate the importance of Na(V)1.5 in the metastatic colonisation of organs by breast cancer cells and indicate that small molecules interfering with Na(V) activity, such as ranolazine, may represent powerful pharmacological tools to inhibit metastatic development and improve cancer treatments.

  12. Slow [Na+]i dynamics impacts arrhythmogenesis and spiral wave reentry in cardiac myocyte ionic model.

    PubMed

    Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Christini, David J

    2017-09-01

    Accumulation of intracellular Na + is gaining recognition as an important regulator of cardiac myocyte electrophysiology. The intracellular Na + concentration can be an important determinant of the cardiac action potential duration, can modulate the tissue-level conduction of excitation waves, and can alter vulnerability to arrhythmias. Mathematical models of cardiac electrophysiology often incorporate a dynamic intracellular Na + concentration, which changes much more slowly than the remaining variables. We investigated the dependence of several arrhythmogenesis-related factors on [Na + ] i in a mathematical model of the human atrial action potential. In cell simulations, we found that [Na + ] i accumulation stabilizes the action potential duration to variations in several conductances and that the slow dynamics of [Na + ] i impacts bifurcations to pro-arrhythmic afterdepolarizations, causing intermittency between different rhythms. In long-lasting tissue simulations of spiral wave reentry, [Na + ] i becomes spatially heterogeneous with a decreased area around the spiral wave rotation center. This heterogeneous region forms a functional anchor, resulting in diminished meandering of the spiral wave. Our findings suggest that slow, physiological, rate-dependent variations in [Na + ] i may play complex roles in cellular and tissue-level cardiac dynamics.

  13. Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Fernando A.; Yan, Pengfei; Engelhard, Mark H.

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) with controllable properties are highly desirable to improve battery performance. In this paper, we use a combined experimental and simulation approach to study the SEI formation on hard carbon in Li and Na-ion batteries. We show that with proper additives, stable SEI can be formed on hard carbon by pre-cycling the electrode materials in Li or Na-ion electrolyte. Detailed mechanistic studies suggest that the ion transport in the SEI layer is kinetically controlled and can be tuned by the applied voltage. Selective Na and Li-ion SEI membranes are produced using the Na or Li-ion based electrolytes respectively.more » The large Na ion SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the small Li ion SEI shuts off the Na-ion transport. Na-ion storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI with film-forming electrolyte additives or preforming a SEI on the electrodes’ surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to <25 mAh/g, ~1/10 of the normal capacity (250 mAh/g). Unusual selective/preferential transport of Li-ion is demonstrated by preforming a SEI on the electrode’s surface and corroborated with a mixed electrolyte. This work may provide new guidance for preparing good ion selective conductors using electrochemical approaches in the future.« less

  14. Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Fernando A.; Yan, Pengfei; Engelhard, Mark H.

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films with controllable properties are highly desirable for improving battery performance. In this paper, a combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study SEI films formed on hard carbon in Li- and Na-ion batteries. It is shown that a stable SEI layer can be designed by precycling an electrode in a desired Li- or Na-based electrolyte, and that ionic transport can be kinetically controlled. Selective Li- and Na-based SEI membranes are produced using Li- or Na-based electrolytes, respectively. The Na-based SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the Li-based SEI shuts off Na-ion transport. Na-ionmore » storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI layer with film-forming electrolyte additives, or by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to < 25 mAh g(-1); approximate to 1/10 of the normal capacity (250 mAh g(-1)). Unusual selective/ preferential transport of Li ions is demonstrated by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface and corroborated with a mixed electrolyte. This work may provide new guidance for preparing good ion-selective conductors using electrochemical approaches.« less

  15. 77 FR 60103 - Approval of Subzone Status; TST NA TRIM, LLC; Hidalgo, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [S-90-2012] Approval of Subzone Status; TST NA TRIM, LLC; Hidalgo, TX On August 3, 2012, the Executive Secretary of the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ..., requesting subzone status subject to the existing activation limit of FTZ 12, on behalf of TST NA TRIM, LLC...

  16. Building Students' Understanding of Quadratic Equation Concept Using Naïve Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fachrudin, Achmad Dhany; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Darmawijoyo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know how Naïve Geometry method can support students' understanding about the concept of solving quadratic equations. In this article we will discuss one activities of the four activities we developed. This activity focused on how students linking the Naïve Geometry method with the solving of the quadratic…

  17. Slow [Na+]i dynamics impacts arrhythmogenesis and spiral wave reentry in cardiac myocyte ionic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Christini, David J.

    2017-09-01

    Accumulation of intracellular Na+ is gaining recognition as an important regulator of cardiac myocyte electrophysiology. The intracellular Na+ concentration can be an important determinant of the cardiac action potential duration, can modulate the tissue-level conduction of excitation waves, and can alter vulnerability to arrhythmias. Mathematical models of cardiac electrophysiology often incorporate a dynamic intracellular Na+ concentration, which changes much more slowly than the remaining variables. We investigated the dependence of several arrhythmogenesis-related factors on [Na+]i in a mathematical model of the human atrial action potential. In cell simulations, we found that [Na+]i accumulation stabilizes the action potential duration to variations in several conductances and that the slow dynamics of [Na+]i impacts bifurcations to pro-arrhythmic afterdepolarizations, causing intermittency between different rhythms. In long-lasting tissue simulations of spiral wave reentry, [Na+]i becomes spatially heterogeneous with a decreased area around the spiral wave rotation center. This heterogeneous region forms a functional anchor, resulting in diminished meandering of the spiral wave. Our findings suggest that slow, physiological, rate-dependent variations in [Na+]i may play complex roles in cellular and tissue-level cardiac dynamics.

  18. New-concept Batteries Based on Aqueous Li+/Na+ Mixed-ion Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Gu, Qingwen; Zhou, Xufeng; Lee, Saixi; Xia, Yonggao; Liu, Zhaoping

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries made from low-cost and abundant materials operating in safe aqueous electrolytes are attractive for large-scale energy storage. Sodium-ion battery is considered as a potential alternative of current lithium-ion battery. As sodium-intercalation compounds suitable for aqueous batteries are limited, we adopt a novel concept of Li+/Na+ mixed-ion electrolytes to create two batteries (LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 and Na0.44MnO2/TiP2O7), which relies on two electrochemical processes. One involves Li+ insertion/extraction reaction, and the other mainly relates to Na+ extraction/insertion reaction. Two batteries exhibit specific energy of 17 Wh kg−1 and 25 Wh kg−1 based on the total weight of active electrode materials, respectively. As well, aqueous LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 battery is capable of separating Li+ and Na+ due to its specific mechanism unlike the traditional “rocking-chair” lithium-ion batteries. Hence, the Li+/Na+ mixed-ion batteries offer promising applications in energy storage and Li+/Na+ separation. PMID:23736113

  19. Transport properties and electronic structure of Na0.28PtSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahara, Hiroshi; Suzumura, Akitoshi; Oh, Song-Yul

    2017-07-01

    We have investigated the electronic structure and properties of Na0.28PtSi, which is a Pt-based intermetallic compound with no reported physical properties. Na0.28PtSi powder with an average grain size of 15 µm was demonstrated to be stable in a strongly acidic aqueous solution. The ab initio calculations revealed that there is a band crossing the Fermi level and that the density of states (DOS) under the Fermi level mainly consists of d orbitals of Pt atoms. Here, we used the model of Na0.25PtSi with an approximately ordered structure (space group I4, full Na site occupation), which was set instead of the reported statistically disordered structure of Na0.28PtSi (I4/mcm, Na site occupancy: 0.258). The calculated electronic structure corresponded to the measured metallic properties of the Na0.28PtSi sintered body: i.e., the electrical resistivity of Na0.28PtSi was increased from 1.77 × 10-8 Ω m at 30 K to 2.67 × 10-7 Ω m at 300 K and the Seebeck coefficient was 0.11 µV K-1 at 300 K.

  20. The puzzling interpretation of NIR indices: The case of NaI2.21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röck, B.; Vazdekis, A.; La Barbera, F.; Peletier, R. F.; Knapen, J. H.; Allende-Prieto, C.; Aguado, D. S.

    2017-11-01

    We present a detailed study of the Na I line strength index centred in the K band at 22 100 Å (NaI2.21 hereafter) relying on different samples of early-type galaxies. Consistent with previous studies, we find that the observed line strength indices cannot be fit by state-of-the-art scaled-solar stellar population models, even using our newly developed models in the near infrared (NIR). The models clearly underestimate the large NaI2.21 values measured for most early-type galaxies. However, we develop an Na-enhanced version of our newly developed models in the NIR, which - together with the effect of a bottom-heavy initial mass function - yield NaI2.21 indices in the range of the observations. Therefore, we suggest a scenario in which the combined effect of [Na/Fe] enhancement and a bottom-heavy initial mass function are mainly responsible for the large NaI2.21 indices observed for most early-type galaxies. To a smaller extent, also [C/Fe] enhancement might contribute to the large observed NaI2.21 values.

  1. 75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Marketing NA, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc. (GSEMNA) has applied for authority to transmit... purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United...

  2. Aspects of Salt Tolerance in a NaCl-Selected Stable Cell Line of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hayyim, G; Kochba, J

    1983-07-01

    A NaCl-tolerant cell line which was selected from ovular callus of ;Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) proved to be a true cell line variant. This conclusion is based on the following observations. (a) Cells which have been removed from the selection pressure for at least four passages retain the same NaCl tolerance as do cells which are kept constantly on 0.2 molar NaCl. (b) Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake are considerably lower in salt-tolerant cells (R-10) than in salt-sensitive cells (L-5) at a given external NaCl concentration. (c) Growth of salt-tolerant cells is markedly suppressed upon replacement of NaCl by KCl, whereas the growth of salt-sensitive cells is only slightly affected. Accumulation of K(+) and Cl(-) accompanies the inhibition of growth. Experiments carried out with sodium and potassium sulfate suggest that the toxic effect is due to the accumulated Cl(-). (d) Removal of Ca(2+) from the growth medium severely inhibits the growth of salt-tolerant cells in the presence of NaCl, while it has a minor effect on growth of salt-sensitive cells in the presence of NaCl. (e) Electron micrographs show that the salt-tolerant cells have very big vacuoles when exposed to salt, while the size of the vacuoles of the salt-sensitive cells does not change.

  3. NaCl intake and preference threshold of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Fregly, M J

    1975-09-01

    Both male and female spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats have an appetite for NaCl solution. The appetite is present when a choice is offered between distilled water and either isotonic or hypertonic (0.25 M) NaCl solution to drink. Total fluid intake (water plus NaCl solution) was greater for SH rats than for controls while food intakes (g/100 g body wt/day) of SH rats were not different from controls. Mean body weight of SH rats was always less than that of controls. The appetite for NaCl solution was accompanied by a significant reduction in preference (detection) threshold. SH rats could detect the difference between distilled water and NaCl solution when the concentration of the latter was 12 mEq/liter compared to a control threshold of 30 mEq/liter. The NaCl appetite and reduced NaCl preference threshold induced by spontaneous hypertension is in marked contrast to the NaCl aversion induced by other types of experimentally induced hypertension in rats. The mechanism or mechanisms responsible for these differences remain for further study.

  4. Glutamate transporter activity promotes enhanced Na+/K+‐ATPase‐mediated extracellular K+ management during neuronal activity

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Brian Roland; Holm, Rikke; Vilsen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Key points Management of glutamate and K+ in brain extracellular space is of critical importance to neuronal function.The astrocytic α2β2 Na+/K+‐ATPase isoform combination is activated by the K+ transients occurring during neuronal activity.In the present study, we report that glutamate transporter‐mediated astrocytic Na+ transients stimulate the Na+/K+‐ATPase and thus the clearance of extracellular K+.Specifically, the astrocytic α2β1 Na+/K+‐ATPase subunit combination displays an apparent Na+ affinity primed to react to physiological changes in intracellular Na+.Accordingly, we demonstrate a distinct physiological role in K+ management for each of the two astrocytic Na+/K+‐ATPase β‐subunits. Abstract Neuronal activity is associated with transient [K+]o increases. The excess K+ is cleared by surrounding astrocytes, partly by the Na+/K+‐ATPase of which several subunit isoform combinations exist. The astrocytic Na+/K+‐ATPase α2β2 isoform constellation responds directly to increased [K+]o but, in addition, Na+/K+‐ATPase‐mediated K+ clearance could be governed by astrocytic [Na+]i. During most neuronal activity, glutamate is released in the synaptic cleft and is re‐absorbed by astrocytic Na+‐coupled glutamate transporters, thereby elevating [Na+]i. It thus remains unresolved whether the different Na+/K+‐ATPase isoforms are controlled by [K+]o or [Na+]i during neuronal activity. Hippocampal slice recordings of stimulus‐induced [K+]o transients with ion‐sensitive microelectrodes revealed reduced Na+/K+‐ATPase‐mediated K+ management upon parallel inhibition of the glutamate transporter. The apparent intracellular Na+ affinity of isoform constellations involving the astrocytic β2 has remained elusive as a result of inherent expression of β1 in most cell systems, as well as technical challenges involved in measuring intracellular affinity in intact cells. We therefore expressed the different astrocytic isoform constellations in

  5. The (111) Surface of NaAu 2. Structure, Composition, and Stability

    DOE PAGES

    Kwolek, Emma J.; Widmer, Roland; Gröning, Oliver; ...

    2014-12-17

    The (111) surface of single-crystal NaAu 2 is a model for catalytically active, powdered NaAu 2. We prepare and characterize this surface with a broad suite of techniques. Preparation in ultrahigh vacuum consists of the traditional approach of ion bombardment (to remove impurities) and thermal annealing (to restore surface order). Both of these steps cause loss of sodium (Na), and repeated treatments eventually trigger conversion of the surface and near-surface regions to crystalline gold. The bulk has a limited ability to repopulate the surface Na. Under conditions where Na depletion is minimized, electron diffraction patterns are consistent with the bulk-terminatedmore » structure, and scanning tunneling microscopy reveals mesa-like features with lateral dimensions of a few tens of nanometers. The tops of the mesas do not possess fine structure characteristic of a periodic lattice, suggesting that the surface layer is disordered under the conditions of these experiments.« less

  6. NaCl and water responses across the frog tongue epithelium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Soeda, H; Sakudo, F

    1990-01-01

    Isolated dorsal epithelium of the frog tongue elicited transepithelial NaCl and water responses across the tissue when NaCl was added to or removed from the adapting Ringer solution in the mucosal surface, respectively. The NaCl response which was a negative polarization in the mucosa with respect to the serosa was associated with a decrease in resistance across the tissue, whereas the water response which was a positive polarization was associated with an increase in the resistance. The decrease and increase in the tissue resistance remained unchanged by various polarizations of the transepithelial potential difference across the tissue. Characteristics of the NaCl and water responses were similar in many respects to those in the taste cells and nerves of frogs. Thus the NaCl and water responses may relate to taste reception.

  7. Crystallization of the Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Casutt, Marco S.; Wendelspiess, Severin; Steuber, Julia; Fritz, Günter

    2010-01-01

    The Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) from the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH by membrane-bound quinone to Na+ translocation across the membrane. Na+-NQR consists of six different subunits (NqrA–NqrF) and contains a [2Fe–2S] cluster, a noncovalently bound FAD, a noncovalently bound riboflavin, two covalently bound FMNs and potentially Q8 as cofactors. Initial crystallization of the entire Na+-NQR complex was achieved by the sitting-drop method using a nanolitre dispenser. Optimization of the crystallization conditions yielded flat yellow-coloured crystals with dimensions of up to 200 × 80 × 20 µm. The crystals diffracted to 4.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 94, b = 146, c = 105 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 111°. PMID:21139223

  8. Search for solid conductors of Na(+) and K(+) ions: Five new conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, J.; Kautz, H.; Fielder, W. L.; Fordyce, J.

    1975-01-01

    Five conductors of three structure types were discovered which, as solids, can transport Na(+) or K(+) ions with conductivities of approximately .00001/(omega cm) at 300 K. These compounds are: (1) the pyrochlores NaTaWO6 and NaTa2O5F, both with an activation energy for conduction delta E of 21 kJ/mole; (2) the bodycentered cubic form of NaSbO3, with delta E = 42 kJ/mole; and (3) the niobates 2Na2O with 3Nb2O5 and 2K2O with 3Nb2O5, with the alkali ions probably in open layers of the incompletely determined structure; delta E = 17 kJ/mole. On the basis of approximately 40 structure types, some generalizations were made regarding the relation between structure and ionic transport.

  9. Solubility of NaCl in aqueous electrolyte solutions from 10 to 100°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W.; Haas, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The solubilities of NaCl in aqueous KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, and mixed CaCl2-KCl solutions have been determined from 10 to 100??C. The data were fit to an equation, and the equation was used to calculate values of the change in solubility of NaCl, ???[NaCl]/???T. These values are required for calculations of the rate of migration of fluids in a thermal gradient in rock salt. The data obtained here indicate that the values of ???[NaCl]/???T are 36-73% greater for solutions containing divalent ions than for the NaCl-H2O system.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous NaY zeolite from natural Blitar’s kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifah, S. N.; aini, Z. N.; Hayati, E. K.; Aini, N.; Prasetyo, A.

    2018-03-01

    Mesoporous NaY Zeolite has been synthesized from calcined natural Blitar’s kaolin with the addition of NaOH and CTABr surfactant as mesoporous template by hydrothermal method. Natural kaolin was calcinated with different time and temperature to change kaolin to metakaolin. X-ray diffraction data showed that mesoporous NaY zeolite was formed with impurities compound of sodalite, kaolin and quartz phases. The BET analysis resulted that the pore of NaY Zeolite belongs to mesoporous type with pore size 9,421 nm. Characterization from FTIR confirmed about the functional group of zeolites (988, 776, 663, 464 cm-1). Scanning electron microscopy characterization showed that the morphological of mesoporous NaY zeolites have uniform and crystalline particles formed.

  11. Proteome Analyses of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm at Elevated Levels of NaCl

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Nazrul; Ross, Julia M; Marten, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Our studies demonstrate that sodium chloride (NaCl) induces changes in biofilm, mediated by increased production of polysaccharides intercellular adhesion (PIA). We identified 12 proteins that showed higher abundance in increased level of NaCl. This includes one important protein (IsaA) known to be associated with biofilm stability. In addition, we also found higher abundance of a cold shock protein, CspA, at higher NaCl. We have also identified several other proteins that are differentially expressed to the elevated levels of NaCl and mapped them in the regulatory pathways of PIA. The majority of proteins are involved with various aspects bacterial metabolic function. Our results demonstrated that NaCl influences gene regulatory networks controlling exopolysaccharide expression. PMID:26973848

  12. Predictions of ground states of LiGa and NaGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldyrev, Alexander I.; Simons, Jack

    1996-11-01

    The ground and very low-lying excited states of LiGa and NaGa have been studied using high level ab initio techniques. At the QCISD(T)/6-311 + G(2df) level of theory, the 1Σ + state was found to be the most stable for both molecules. The equilibrium bond lengths and dissociation energies were found to be: R( LiGa) = 2.865 Å and D0(LiGa) = 22.3 kcal/mol and R( NaGa) = 3.174 Å and D0(NaGa) = 17.1 kcal/mol. Trends within the ground electronic states of LiB, NaB, LiAl, NaAl, LiGa and NaGa are discussed and predictions for related AlkM (Alk LiCs and MBTl) species are made.

  13. Design of a Mechanical NaK Pump for Fission Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Bradley, David E.; Godfroy, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Alkali liquid metal cooled fission reactor concepts are under development for spaceflight power requirements. One such concept utilizes a sodium-potassium eutectic (NaK) as the primary loop working fluid, which has specific pumping requirements. Traditionally, electromagnetic linear induction pumps have been used to provide the required flow and pressure head conditions for NaK systems but they can be limited in performance, efficiency, and number of available vendors. The objective of the project was to develop a mechanical NaK centrifugal pump that takes advantages of technology advances not available in previous liquid metal mechanical pump designs. This paper details the design, build, and performance test of a mechanical NaK pump developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The pump was designed to meet reactor cooling requirements using commercially available components modified for high temperature NaK service.

  14. Relationship between Na+-dependent respiration and Na+ + K+-adenosine triphosphatase activity in the action of thyroid hormone on rat jejunal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, U A; Asano, Y; Lo, C S; Edelman, I S

    1979-01-01

    Administration of three successive doses of triiodothyronine (T3) (50 micrograms/100 g body wt), given on alternate days to thyroidectomized and euthyroid rats, stimulated oxygen consumption (QO2) and Na+ transport-dependent respiration (QO2 [5]) in the stripped jejunal mucosa, a preparation that consisted mostly of epithelial cells. The increase in QO2(t) accounted for 57% of the increment in QO2 in the transition from the hypothyroid to the euthyroid state and for 29% of the increment in the transition from the euthyroid to the hyperthyroid state. Administration of T3 to hypothyroid rats also increased the yield of epithelial cells. Injection of T3 into thyroidectomized and euthyroid rats increased the specific activity (at Vmax) of the (Na+ + K+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (NaK-ATPase) in jejunal crude membrane preparations. No significant change was recorded in the activity of Mg-ATPase in the same preparation. The ratio of QO2/NaK-ATPase and QO2(t)/NaK-ATPase in the various thyroid states remained constant, indicating proportionate increased in the respiratory and enzymatic indices. The effect of administration of T3 to thyroidectomized rats on the number of NaK-ATPase units (recovered in the crude membrane preparation) was estimated by: (a) Na+ + Mg++ + ATP-dependent binding of [3H]-ouabain to crude membrane fractions, and (b) the amount of the phosphorylated intermediate formed in the NaK-ATPase reaction from AT32P(gamma). Estimates were obtained of the maximal number of [3H]ouabain binding sites (Nm) and dissociation constants (Kd). Nm for [3H]ouabain and Nak-ATPase specific activity increased to about the same extent after T3 administration to thyroidectomized rats, with no change in the apparent Kd values. The amount of phosphorylated intermediate formed in jejunal crude membrane preparations also increased significantly. Thus, thyroid hormone administration may increase the number of active Na+pump sites in the plasma membrane. The apparent

  15. Relationship between Na+-dependent respiration and Na+ + K+-adenosine triphosphatase activity in the action of thyroid hormone on rat jejunal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Liberman, U A; Asano, Y; Lo, C S; Edelman, I S

    1979-07-01

    Administration of three successive doses of triiodothyronine (T3) (50 micrograms/100 g body wt), given on alternate days to thyroidectomized and euthyroid rats, stimulated oxygen consumption (QO2) and Na+ transport-dependent respiration (QO2 [5]) in the stripped jejunal mucosa, a preparation that consisted mostly of epithelial cells. The increase in QO2(t) accounted for 57% of the increment in QO2 in the transition from the hypothyroid to the euthyroid state and for 29% of the increment in the transition from the euthyroid to the hyperthyroid state. Administration of T3 to hypothyroid rats also increased the yield of epithelial cells. Injection of T3 into thyroidectomized and euthyroid rats increased the specific activity (at Vmax) of the (Na+ + K+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (NaK-ATPase) in jejunal crude membrane preparations. No significant change was recorded in the activity of Mg-ATPase in the same preparation. The ratio of QO2/NaK-ATPase and QO2(t)/NaK-ATPase in the various thyroid states remained constant, indicating proportionate increased in the respiratory and enzymatic indices. The effect of administration of T3 to thyroidectomized rats on the number of NaK-ATPase units (recovered in the crude membrane preparation) was estimated by: (a) Na+ + Mg++ + ATP-dependent binding of [3H]-ouabain to crude membrane fractions, and (b) the amount of the phosphorylated intermediate formed in the NaK-ATPase reaction from AT32P(gamma). Estimates were obtained of the maximal number of [3H]ouabain binding sites (Nm) and dissociation constants (Kd). Nm for [3H]ouabain and Nak-ATPase specific activity increased to about the same extent after T3 administration to thyroidectomized rats, with no change in the apparent Kd values. The amount of phosphorylated intermediate formed in jejunal crude membrane preparations also increased significantly. Thus, thyroid hormone administration may increase the number of active Na+pump sites in the plasma membrane. The apparent

  16. Ka Hana `Imi Na`auao: A Science Curriculum Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napeahi, K.; Roberts, K. D.; Galloway, L. M.; Stodden, R. A.; Akuna, J.; Bruno, B.

    2005-12-01

    In antiquity, the first people to step foot on what are now known as the Hawaiian islands skillfully traversed the Pacific Ocean using celestial navigation and learned observations of scientific phenomena. Long before the Western world ventured beyond the horizon, Hawaiians had invented the chronometer, built aqueduct systems (awai) that continue to amaze modern engineers, and had preventive health systems as well as a comprehensive knowledge of medicinal plants (including antivirals) which only now are working their way through trials for use in modern pharmacopia. Yet, today, Native Hawaiians are severely underrepresented in science-related fields, reflecting (in part) a failure of the Western educational system to nurture the potential of these resourceful students, particularly the many "at-risk" students who are presently over-represented in special education. A curriculum which draws from and incorporates traditional Hawaiian values and knowledge is needed to reinforce links to the inquiry process which nurtured creative thinking during the renaissance of Polynesian history. The primary goal of the Ka Hana `Imi Na`auao Project (translation: `science` or `work in which you seek enlightenment, knowledge or wisdom`) is to increase the number of Native Hawaiian adults in science-related postsecondary education and employment fields. Working closely with Native Hawaiian cultural experts and our high school partners, we will develop and implement a culturally responsive 11th and 12th grade high school science curriculum, infused with math, literacy and technology readiness skills. Software and assistive technology will be used to adapt instruction to individual learners` reading levels, specific disabilities and learning styles. To ease the transition from secondary to post-secondary education, selected grade 12 students will participate in planned project activities that link high school experiences with college science-related programs of study. Ka Hana `Imi Na

  17. Effect of Alkali Metal Cations on Slow Inactivation of Cardiac Na+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Claire; Horn, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Human heart Na+ channels were expressed transiently in both mammalian cells and Xenopus oocytes, and Na+ currents measured using 150 mM intracellular Na+. The kinetics of decaying outward Na+ current in response to 1-s depolarizations in the F1485Q mutant depends on the predominant cation in the extracellular solution, suggesting an effect on slow inactivation. The decay rate is lower for the alkali metal cations Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+ than for the organic cations Tris, tetramethylammonium, N-methylglucamine, and choline. In whole cell recordings, raising [Na+]o from 10 to 150 mM increases the rate of recovery from slow inactivation at −140 mV, decreases the rate of slow inactivation at relatively depolarized voltages, and shifts steady-state slow inactivation in a depolarized direction. Single channel recordings of F1485Q show a decrease in the number of blank (i.e., null) records when [Na+]o is increased. Significant clustering of blank records when depolarizing at a frequency of 0.5 Hz suggests that periods of inactivity represent the sojourn of a channel in a slow-inactivated state. Examination of the single channel kinetics at +60 mV during 90-ms depolarizations shows that neither open time, closed time, nor first latency is significantly affected by [Na+]o. However raising [Na+]o decreases the duration of the last closed interval terminated by the end of the depolarization, leading to an increased number of openings at the depolarized voltage. Analysis of single channel data indicates that at a depolarized voltage a single rate constant for entry into a slow-inactivated state is reduced in high [Na+]o, suggesting that the binding of an alkali metal cation, perhaps in the ion-conducting pore, inhibits the closing of the slow inactivation gate. PMID:9234168

  18. Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na+ detected by contact chemosensilla in the proboscis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takashi A.; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Tetsuo; Niihara, Kinuko; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-12-01

    Many butterflies acquire nutrients from non-nectar sources such as puddles. To better understand how male Papilio butterflies identify suitable sites for puddling, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the responses of Japanese Papilio butterflies to Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. Based on behavioral analyses, these butterflies preferred a 10-mM Na+ solution to K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ solutions of the same concentration and among a tested range of 1 mM to 1 M NaCl. We also measured the ion concentrations of solutions sampled from puddling sites in the field. Na+ concentrations of the samples were up to 6 mM, slightly lower than that preferred by butterflies in the behavioral experiments. Butterflies that sipped the 10 mM Na+ solution from the experimental trays did not continue to puddle on the ground. Additionally, butterflies puddled at sites where the concentrations of K+, Ca2+, and/or Mg2+ were higher than that of Na+. This suggests that K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ do not interfere with the detection of Na+ by the Papilio butterfly. Using an electrophysiological method, tip recordings, receptor neurons in contact chemosensilla inside the proboscis evoked regularly firing impulses to 1, 10, and 100 mM NaCl solutions but not to CaCl2 or MgCl2. The dose-response patterns to the NaCl solutions were different among the neurons, which were classified into three types. These results showed that Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na+ detected by the contact chemosensilla in the proboscis, which measure its concentration.

  19. Characterization of the cardiac Na+/K+ pump by development of a comprehensive and mechanistic model.

    PubMed

    Oka, Chiaki; Cha, Chae Young; Noma, Akinori

    2010-07-07

    A large amount of experimental data on the characteristics of the cardiac Na(+)/K(+) pump have been accumulated, but it remains difficult to predict the quantitative contribution of the pump in an intact cell because most measurements have been made under non-physiological conditions. To extrapolate the experimental findings to intact cells, we have developed a comprehensive Na(+)/K(+) pump model based on the thermodynamic framework (Smith and Crampin, 2004) of the Post-Albers reaction cycle combined with access channel mechanisms. The new model explains a variety of experimental results for the Na(+)/K(+) pump current (I(NaK)), including the dependency on the concentrations of Na(+) and K(+), the membrane potential and the free energy of ATP hydrolysis. The model demonstrates that both the apparent affinity and the slope of the substrate-I(NaK) relationship measured experimentally are affected by the composition of ions in the extra- and intracellular solutions, indirectly through alteration in the probability distribution of individual enzyme intermediates. By considering the voltage dependence in the Na(+)- and K(+)-binding steps, the experimental voltage-I(NaK) relationship could be reconstructed with application of experimental ionic compositions in the model, and the view of voltage-dependent K(+) binding was supported. Re-evaluation of charge movements accompanying Na(+) and K(+) translocations gave a reasonable number for the site density of the Na(+)/K(+) pump on the membrane. The new model is relevant for simulation of cellular functions under various interventions, such as depression of energy metabolism. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na+ detected by contact chemosensilla in the proboscis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi A; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Tetsuo; Niihara, Kinuko; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-12-01

    Many butterflies acquire nutrients from non-nectar sources such as puddles. To better understand how male Papilio butterflies identify suitable sites for puddling, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the responses of Japanese Papilio butterflies to Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+). Based on behavioral analyses, these butterflies preferred a 10-mM Na(+) solution to K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) solutions of the same concentration and among a tested range of 1 mM to 1 M NaCl. We also measured the ion concentrations of solutions sampled from puddling sites in the field. Na(+) concentrations of the samples were up to 6 mM, slightly lower than that preferred by butterflies in the behavioral experiments. Butterflies that sipped the 10 mM Na(+) solution from the experimental trays did not continue to puddle on the ground. Additionally, butterflies puddled at sites where the concentrations of K(+), Ca(2+), and/or Mg(2+) were higher than that of Na(+). This suggests that K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) do not interfere with the detection of Na(+) by the Papilio butterfly. Using an electrophysiological method, tip recordings, receptor neurons in contact chemosensilla inside the proboscis evoked regularly firing impulses to 1, 10, and 100 mM NaCl solutions but not to CaCl(2) or MgCl(2). The dose-response patterns to the NaCl solutions were different among the neurons, which were classified into three types. These results showed that Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na(+) detected by the contact chemosensilla in the proboscis, which measure its concentration.

  1. Na/K-ATPase/src complex mediates regulation of CD40 in renal parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jeffrey X; Zhang, Shungang; Cui, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jue; Yu, Hui; Khalaf, Fatimah K; Malhotra, Deepak; Kennedy, David J; Shapiro, Joseph I; Tian, Jiang; Haller, Steven T

    2017-12-22

    Recent studies have highlighted a critical role for CD40 in the pathogenesis of renal injury and fibrosis. However, little is currently understood about the regulation of CD40 in this setting. We use novel Na/K-ATPase cell lines and inhibitors in order to demonstrate the regulatory function of Na/K-ATPase with regards to CD40 expression and function. We utilize 5/6 partial nephrectomy as well as direct infusion of a Na/K-ATPase ligand to demonstrate this mechanism exists in vivo. We demonstrate that knockdown of the α1 isoform of Na/K-ATPase causes a reduction in CD40 while rescue of the α1 but not the α2 isoform restores CD40 expression in renal epithelial cells. Second, because the major functional difference between α1 and α2 is the ability of α1 to form a functional signaling complex with Src, we examined whether the Na/K-ATPase/Src complex is important for CD40 expression. We show that a gain-of-Src binding α2 mutant restores CD40 expression while loss-of-Src binding α1 reduces CD40 expression. Furthermore, loss of a functional Na/K-ATPase/Src complex also disrupts CD40 signaling. Importantly, we show that use of a specific Na/K-ATPase/Src complex antagonist, pNaKtide, can attenuate cardiotonic steroid (CTS)-induced induction of CD40 expression in vitro. Because the Na/K-ATPase/Src complex is also a key player in the pathogenesis of renal injury and fibrosis, our new findings suggest that Na/K-ATPase and CD40 may comprise a pro-fibrotic feed-forward loop in the kidney and that pharmacological inhibition of this loop may be useful in the treatment of renal fibrosis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrahigh Storage and Fast Diffusion of Na and K in Blue Phosphorene Anodes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sankha; Kavalsky, Lance; Singh, Chandra Veer

    2018-03-14

    In the wake of blue phosphorene's (BP) computational discovery and experimental realization, it has emerged as a versatile material with interesting optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. In this study, using first principles density functional theory calculations, we have investigated the adsorption and diffusion of Na and K over monolayer BP to assess its suitability as Na-ion and K-ion battery anodes. The optimized adsorption energies were found to be -0.96 eV for Na and -1.54 eV for K, which are sufficiently large to ensure stability and safety during operation. In addition, BP could adsorb Na and K atoms up to a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 which yields a high storage capacity of 865 mA h/g for both adatom species. Through examination of the electronic structure and projected density of states of BP as a function of Na/K concentration, we predict that the band gap of the system increasingly shrinks, and in the case of maximum K adsorption, the band gap diminishes completely. Additionally, the diffusion of Na and K over BP is observed to be ultrafast, especially for K, and anisotropic with modest energy barriers of 0.11 and 0.093 eV for Na and K, respectively. Building upon these findings, we employed vibrational analysis techniques with transition state theory to incorporate kinetic effects and predicted a diffusivity of 7.2 × 10 -5 cm 2 /s for Na and 8.58 × 10 -5 cm 2 /s for K on BP. Given these advantages, that is, ultrahigh capacity, electrical conductivity, and high Na/K diffusivity, we conclude that BP can be considered as an excellent candidate for anodes in Na- and K-ion batteries.

  3. Gene silencing reveals multiple functions of Na+/K+-ATPase in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

    PubMed

    Komisarczuk, Anna Z; Kongshaug, Heidi; Nilsen, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Na + /K + -ATPase has a key function in a variety of physiological processes including membrane excitability, osmoregulation, regulation of cell volume, and transport of nutrients. While knowledge about Na + /K + -ATPase function in osmoregulation in crustaceans is extensive, the role of this enzyme in other physiological and developmental processes is scarce. Here, we report characterization, transcriptional distribution and likely functions of the newly identified L. salmonis Na + /K + -ATPase (LsalNa + /K + -ATPase) α subunit in various developmental stages. The complete mRNA sequence was identified, with 3003 bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 1001 amino acids. Putative protein sequence of LsalNa + /K + -ATPase revealed all typical features of Na + /K + -ATPase and demonstrated high sequence identity to other invertebrate and vertebrate species. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed higher LsalNa + /K + -ATPase transcript level in free-living stages in comparison to parasitic stages. In situ hybridization analysis of copepodids and adult lice revealed LsalNa + /K + -ATPase transcript localization in a wide variety of tissues such as nervous system, intestine, reproductive system, and subcuticular and glandular tissue. RNAi mediated knock-down of LsalNa + /K + -ATPase caused locomotion impairment, and affected reproduction and feeding. Morphological analysis of dsRNA treated animals revealed muscle degeneration in larval stages, severe changes in the oocyte formation and maturation in females and abnormalities in tegmental glands. Thus, the study represents an important foundation for further functional investigation and identification of physiological pathways in which Na + /K + -ATPase is directly or indirectly involved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. (Na, K)NbO3-Based Ceramics for Self-Powered Energy Harvesting Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhwan; Koh, Jung-Hyuk

    2015-03-01

    Self-powered energy harvesting technologies have been intensively investigated by employ- ing Pb-free piezoelectric materials. One such Pb-free piezoelectric material, the ceramic 0.97(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3, was prepared by employing the conventional mixed oxide method. 0.97(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ceramics were prepared and the effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were system- atically investigated for energy harvesting applications. The crystal structure of 0.97(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3- 0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5) TiO3 Pb-free piezoelectric ceramics, sintered at temperatures between 1080 °C and 1160 °C, was examined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The dielectric properties of 0.97(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ceramics were measured from 1 kHz to 1 MHz for the various sintering temperatures. We expect that optimization of sintering parameters can improve the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of 0.97 (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ceramics for energy harvesting.

  5. 23Na and 39K NMR studies of ion transport in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ogino, T; Shulman, G I; Avison, M J; Gullans, S R; den Hollander, J A; Shulman, R G

    1985-02-01

    Ion transport in human erythrocytes was studied by 23Na and 39K NMR with an anionic paramagnetic shift reagent, Dy(P3O10)2(7-). The intra- and extracellular 23Na and 39K NMR signals were well separated (over 10 ppm) at 5 mM concentration of the shift reagent. The NMR visibility of the intracellular Na+ and K+ was determined to be 100% in human and duck erythrocytes. The intracellular ion concentrations were 8.1 +/- 0.8 mM Na+ (n = 7) and 110 +/- 12 mM K+ (n = 4) for fresh human erythrocytes. The ouabain-sensitive net Na+ efflux was 1.75 +/- 0.08 mmol/hr per liter of cells at 37 degrees C (n = 3). The gramicidin-induced ion transport in human erythrocytes was also studied by 23Na and 39K NMR or by simultaneous measurements of 23Na NMR and a K+-selective electrode. The time courses of the Na+ and K+ transport induced by the ionophore were biphasic. The initial rapid fluxes were due to an exchange of Na+ for K+, which were found to occur with a 1:1 stoichiometry. The subsequent slow components were the net Na+ and K+ effluxes rate-limited by the Cl- permeability and accompanied by a reduction in cell volume. The Cl- permeability determined from the NMR measurements of these slow fluxes was 3.2 +/- 0.5 X 10(-8) cm/sec at 25 degrees C (n = 4).

  6. 23Na and 39K NMR studies of ion transport in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, T; Shulman, G I; Avison, M J; Gullans, S R; den Hollander, J A; Shulman, R G

    1985-01-01

    Ion transport in human erythrocytes was studied by 23Na and 39K NMR with an anionic paramagnetic shift reagent, Dy(P3O10)2(7-). The intra- and extracellular 23Na and 39K NMR signals were well separated (over 10 ppm) at 5 mM concentration of the shift reagent. The NMR visibility of the intracellular Na+ and K+ was determined to be 100% in human and duck erythrocytes. The intracellular ion concentrations were 8.1 +/- 0.8 mM Na+ (n = 7) and 110 +/- 12 mM K+ (n = 4) for fresh human erythrocytes. The ouabain-sensitive net Na+ efflux was 1.75 +/- 0.08 mmol/hr per liter of cells at 37 degrees C (n = 3). The gramicidin-induced ion transport in human erythrocytes was also studied by 23Na and 39K NMR or by simultaneous measurements of 23Na NMR and a K+-selective electrode. The time courses of the Na+ and K+ transport induced by the ionophore were biphasic. The initial rapid fluxes were due to an exchange of Na+ for K+, which were found to occur with a 1:1 stoichiometry. The subsequent slow components were the net Na+ and K+ effluxes rate-limited by the Cl- permeability and accompanied by a reduction in cell volume. The Cl- permeability determined from the NMR measurements of these slow fluxes was 3.2 +/- 0.5 X 10(-8) cm/sec at 25 degrees C (n = 4). PMID:2579385

  7. Hierarchical Porous Carbon Spheres for High-Performance Na-O2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Kretschmer, Katja; Xie, Xiuqiang; Munroe, Paul; Peng, Zhangquan; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-12-01

    As a new family member of room-temperature aprotic metal-O 2 batteries, Na-O 2 batteries, are attracting growing attention because of their relatively high theoretical specific energy and particularly their uncompromised round-trip efficiency. Here, a hierarchical porous carbon sphere (PCS) electrode that has outstanding properties to realize Na-O 2 batteries with excellent electrochemical performances is reported. The controlled porosity of the PCS electrode, with macropores formed between PCSs and nanopores inside each PCS, enables effective formation/decomposition of NaO 2 by facilitating the electrolyte impregnation and oxygen diffusion to the inner part of the oxygen electrode. In addition, the discharge product of NaO 2 is deposited on the surface of individual PCSs with an unusual conformal film-like morphology, which can be more easily decomposed than the commonly observed microsized NaO 2 cubes in Na-O 2 batteries. A combination of coulometry, X-ray diffraction, and in situ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry provides compelling evidence that the operation of the PCS-based Na-O 2 battery is underpinned by the formation and decomposition of NaO 2 . This work demonstrates that employing nanostructured carbon materials to control the porosity, pore-size distribution of the oxygen electrodes, and the morphology of the discharged NaO 2 is a promising strategy to develop high-performance Na-O 2 batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Acute inhibition of NCC does not activate distal electrogenic Na+ reabsorption or kaliuresis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Robert W; Craigie, Eilidh; Homer, Natalie Z M; Mullins, John J; Bailey, Matthew A

    2014-02-15

    Na(+) reabsorption from the distal renal tubule involves electroneutral and electrogenic pathways, with the latter promoting K(+) excretion. The relative activities of these two pathways are tightly controlled, participating in the minute-to-minute regulation of systemic K(+) balance. The pathways are interdependent: the activity of the NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in the distal convoluted tubule influences the activity of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) downstream. This effect might be mediated by changes in distal Na(+) delivery per se or by molecular and structural adaptations in the connecting tubule and collecting ducts. We hypothesized that acute inhibition of NCC activity would cause an immediate increase in Na(+) flux through ENaC, with a concomitant increase in renal K(+) excretion. We tested this using renal clearance methodology in anesthetized mice, by the administration of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and/or benzamil (BZM) to exert specific blockade of NCC and ENaC, respectively. Bolus HCTZ elicited a natriuresis that was sustained for up to 110 min; urinary K(+) excretion was not affected. Furthermore, the magnitude of the natriuresis was no greater during concomitant BZM administration. This suggests that ENaC-mediated Na(+) reabsorption was not normally limited by Na(+) delivery, accounting for the absence of thiazide-induced kaliuresis. After dietary Na(+) restriction, HCTZ elicited a kaliuresis, but the natiuretic effect of HCTZ was not enhanced by BZM. Our findings support a model in which inhibition of NCC activity does not increase Na(+) reabsorption through ENaC solely by increasing distal Na(+) delivery but rather by inducing a molecular and structural adaptation in downstream nephron segments.

  9. The role of Na-Ca exchange current in the cardiac action potential.

    PubMed

    Janvier, N C; Boyett, M R

    1996-07-01

    Since 1981, when Mullins published his provocative book proposing that the Na-Ca exchanger is electrogenic, it has been shown, first by computer simulation by Noble and later by experiment by various investigators, that inward iNaCa triggered by the Ca2+ transient is responsible for the low plateau of the atrial action potential and contributes to the high plateau of the ventricular action potential. Reduction or complete block of inward iNaCa by buffering intracellular Ca2+ with EGTA or BAPTA, by blocking SR Ca2+ release or by substituting extracellular Na+ with Li+ can result in a shortening of the action potential. The effect of block of outward iNaCa or complete block of both inward and outward iNaCa on the action potential has not been investigated experimentally, because of the lack of a suitable blocker, and remains a goal for the future. An increase in the intracellular Na+ concentration (after the application of cardiac glycoside or an increase in heart rate) or an increase in extracellular Ca2+ are believed to lead to an outward shift in iNaCa at plateau potentials and a shortening of the action potential. Changes in the Ca2+ transient are expected to result in changes in inward iNaCa and thus the action potential. This may explain the shortening of the premature action potential as well as the prolongation of the action potential when a muscle is allowed to shorten during the action potential. Inward iNaCa may play an important role in both normal and abnormal pacemaker activity in the heart.

  10. 3T renal (23)Na-MRI: effects of desmopressin in patients with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Haneder, Stefan; Michaely, Henrik J; Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R; Morelli, John N; Krämer, Bernhard K; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Lammert, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to assess physiologic changes in the renal corticomedullary (23)Na-concentration ([(23)Na]) gradient with (23)Na-MRI at 3.0T in patients with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) before and after intranasal administration of 20 μg desmopressin (DDAVP). Four patients with CDI (all male, mean age 60.2 years) were included in this IRB-approved study. For (23)Na-imaging, a 3D density adapted, radial GRE-sequence (TE = 0.55 ms; TR = 120 ms; projections = 8,000; spatial resolution = 5 × 5 × 5 mm(3)) was used in combination with a dedicated (23)Na-coil and reference phantoms. The corticomedullary [(23)Na] gradient (in mmol/L/mm) was calculated pixel-by-pixel along a linear region-of-interest (ROI) spanning from the renal cortex in the direction of the medulla. Mean ± SDs of [(23)Na] were calculated for each patient as well as for the entire group. Mean [(23)Na] increased along the corticomedullary gradient from the cortex (pre-DDAVP 38.0 ± 6.3 mmol/L vs. post-DDAVP 30.7 ± 3.5 mmol/L) to the medulla (pre-DDAVP 71.6 ± 14.8 mmol/L vs. post-DDAVP 59.7 ± 10.8 mmol/L). The overall mean decrease of [(23)Na] after DDAVP administration was 17.1 ± 1.1 %. (23)Na-MRI with state-of-the-art techniques at 3T depicts the physiologic renal response to the administration of desmopressin in patients with central diabetes insipidus.

  11. Amiloride-Sensitive and Amiloride-Insensitive Responses to NaCl + Acid Mixtures in Hamster Chorda Tympani Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Hettinger, Thomas P.; Savoy, Lawrence D.; Frank, Marion E.

    2012-01-01

    Component signaling in taste mixtures containing both beneficial and dangerous chemicals depends on peripheral processing. Unidirectional mixture suppression of chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sucrose by quinine and acid is documented for golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). To investigate mixtures of NaCl and acids, we recorded multifiber responses to 50 mM NaCl, 1 and 3 mM citric acid and acetic acid, 250 μM citric acid, 20 mM acetic acid, and all binary combinations of each acid with NaCl (with and without 30 μM amiloride added). By blocking epithelial Na+ channels, amiloride treatment separated amiloride-sensitive NaCl-specific responses from amiloride-insensitive electrolyte-generalist responses, which encompass all of the CT response to the acids as well as responses to NaCl. Like CT sucrose responses, the amiloride-sensitive NaCl responses were suppressed by as much as 50% by citric acid (P = 0.001). The amiloride-insensitive electrolyte-generalist responses to NaCl + acid mixtures approximated the sum of NaCl and acid component responses. Thus, although NaCl-specific responses to NaCl were weakened in NaCl–acid mixtures, electrolyte-generalist responses to acid and NaCl, which tastes KCl-like, were transmitted undiminished in intensity to the central nervous system. The 2 distinct CT pathways are consistent with known rodent behavioral discriminations. PMID:22451526

  12. Fluid dilution and efficiency of Na(+) transport in a mathematical model of a thick ascending limb cell.

    PubMed

    Nieves-González, Aniel; Clausen, Chris; Marcano, Mariano; Layton, Anita T; Layton, Harold E; Moore, Leon C

    2013-03-15

    Thick ascending limb (TAL) cells are capable of reducing tubular fluid Na(+) concentration to as low as ~25 mM, and yet they are thought to transport Na(+) efficiently owing to passive paracellular Na(+) absorption. Transport efficiency in the TAL is of particular importance in the outer medulla where O(2) availability is limited by low blood flow. We used a mathematical model of a TAL cell to estimate the efficiency of Na(+) transport and to examine how tubular dilution and cell volume regulation influence transport efficiency. The TAL cell model represents 13 major solutes and the associated transporters and channels; model equations are based on mass conservation and electroneutrality constraints. We analyzed TAL transport in cells with conditions relevant to the inner stripe of the outer medulla, the cortico-medullary junction, and the distal cortical TAL. At each location Na(+) transport efficiency was computed as functions of changes in luminal NaCl concentration ([NaCl]), [K(+)], [NH(4)(+)], junctional Na(+) permeability, and apical K(+) permeability. Na(+) transport efficiency was calculated as the ratio of total net Na(+) transport to transcellular Na(+) transport. Transport efficiency is predicted to be highest at the cortico-medullary boundary where the transepithelial Na(+) gradient is the smallest. Transport efficiency is lowest in the cortex where luminal [NaCl] approaches static head.

  13. Optical measurements of Na-Ca-K exchange currents in intact outer segments isolated from bovine retinal rods

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The properties of Na-Ca-K exchange current through the plasma membrane of intact rod outer segments (ROS) isolated from bovine retinas were studied with the optical probe neutral red. Small cellular organelles such as bovine ROS do not offer an adequate collecting area to measure Na-Ca-K exchange currents with electrophysiological techniques. This study demonstrates that Na-Ca-K exchange current in bovine ROS can be measured with the dye neutral red and dual-wavelength spectrophotometry. The binding of neutral red is sensitive to transport of cations across the plasma membrane of ROS by the effect of the translocated cations on the surface potential of the intracellular disk membranes (1985. J. Membr. Biol. 88: 249-262). Electrogenic Na+ fluxes through the ROS plasma membrane were measured with a resolution of 10(5) Na+ ions/ROS per s, equivalent to a current of approximately 0.01 pA; maximal electrogenic Na-Ca-K exchange flux in bovine ROS was equivalent to a maximal exchange current of 1-2 pA. Electrogenic Na+ fluxes were identified as Na-Ca-K exchange current based on a comparison between electrogenic Na+ flux and Na(+)-stimulated Ca2+ release with respect to flux rate, Na+ dependence, and ion selectivity. Neutral red monitored the net entry of a single positive charge carried by Na+ for each Ca2+ ion released (i.e., monitored the Na-Ca-K exchange current). Na-Ca-K exchange in the plasma membrane of bovine ROS had the following properties: (a) Inward Na-Ca-K exchange current required internal Ca2+ (half-maximal stimulation at a free Ca2+ concentration of 0.9 microM), whereas outward Na-Ca-K exchange current required both external Ca2+ (half-maximal stimulation at a free Ca2+ concentration of 1.1 microM) and external K+. (b) Inward Na-Ca-K exchange current depended in a sigmoidal manner on the external Na+ concentration, identical to Na(+)-stimulated Ca2+ release measured with Ca(2+)- indicating dyes. (c) The neutral red method was modified to measure Ca(2

  14. Differential migratory properties of monocytes isolated from human subjects naïve and non-naïve to Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Michelle; Silvestroni, Aurelio; Möller, Thomas; Stella, Nephi

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluates the migratory potential of monocytes isolated from two groups of human subjects: naïve and non-naïve to Cannabis. Phytocannabinoids (pCB), the bioactive agents produced by the plant Cannabis, regulate the phenotype and function of immune cells by interacting with CB1 and CB2 receptors. It has been shown that agents influencing the phenotype of circulating monocytes influence the phenotype of macrophages and the outcome of immune responses. To date, nothing is known about the acute and long-term effects of pCB on human circulating monocytes. Healthy subjects were recruited for a single blood draw. Monocytes were isolated, fluorescently labeled and their migration quantified using a validated assay that employs near infrared fluorescence and modified Boyden chambers. CB1 and CB2 receptor mRNA expression was quantified by qPCR. Monocytes from all subjects (n = 10) responded to chemokine (c-c motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and human serum stimuli. Acute application of pCB significantly inhibited both the basal and CCL2-stimulated migration of monocytes, but only in subjects non-naïve to Cannabis. qPCR analysis indicates that monocytes from subjects non-naïve to Cannabis express significantly more CB1 mRNA. The phenotype of monocytes isolated from subjects non-naïve to Cannabis is significantly different from monocytes isolated from subjects naïve to Cannabis. Only monocytes from subjects non-naïve to Cannabis respond to acute exposure to pCB by reducing their overall migratory capacity. Our study suggests that chronic exposure to Cannabis affects the phenotype of circulating monocytes and accordingly could influence outcome of inflammatory responses occurring in injured tissues.

  15. Differential migratory properties of monocytes isolated from human subjects naïve and non-naïve to Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Silvestroni, Aurelio; Möller, Thomas; Stella, Nephi

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the migratory potential of monocytes isolated from two groups of human subjects: naïve and non-naïve to Cannabis. Phytocannabinoids (pCB), the bioactive agents produced by the plant Cannabis, regulate the phenotype and function of immune cells by interacting with CB1 and CB2 receptors. It has been shown that agents influencing the phenotype of circulating monocytes influence the phenotype of macrophages and the outcome of immune responses. To date, nothing is known about the acute and long-term effects of pCB on human circulating monocytes. Healthy subjects were recruited for a single blood draw. Monocytes were isolated, fluorescently labeled and their migration quantified using a validated assay that employs near infrared fluorescence and modified Boyden chambers. CB1 and CB2 receptor mRNA expression was quantified by qPCR. Monocytes from all subjects (n = 10) responded to chemokine (c–c motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and human serum stimuli. Acute application of pCB significantly inhibited both the basal and CCL2-stimulated migration of monocytes, but only in subjects non-naïve to Cannabis. qPCR analysis indicates that monocytes from subjects non-naïve to Cannabis express significantly more CB1 mRNA. The phenotype of monocytes isolated from subjects non-naïve to Cannabis is significantly different from monocytes isolated from subjects naïve to Cannabis. Only monocytes from subjects non-naïve to Cannabis respond to acute exposure to pCB by reducing their overall migratory capacity. Our study suggests that chronic exposure to Cannabis affects the phenotype of circulating monocytes and accordingly could influence outcome of inflammatory responses occurring in injured tissues. PMID:22492174

  16. Na+ extrusion from the cytosol and tissue-specific Na+ sequestration in roots confer differential salt stress tolerance between durum and bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Wu, Honghong; Shabala, Lana; Azzarello, Elisa; Huang, Yuqing; Pandolfi, Camilla; Su, Nana; Wu, Qi; Cai, Shengguan; Bazihizina, Nadia; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Meixue; Mancuso, Stefano; Chen, Zhonghua; Shabala, Sergey

    2018-06-11

    The progress in plant breeding for salinity stress tolerance is handicapped by the lack of understanding of the specificity of salt stress signalling and adaptation at the cellular and tissue levels. In this study, we used electrophysiological, fluorescence imaging, and real-time quantitative PCR tools to elucidate the essentiality of the cytosolic Na+ extrusion in functionally different root zones (elongation, meristem, and mature) in a large number of bread and durum wheat accessions. We show that the difference in the root's ability for vacuolar Na+ sequestration in the mature zone may explain differential salinity stress tolerance between salt-sensitive durum and salt-tolerant bread wheat species. Bread wheat genotypes also had on average 30% higher capacity for net Na+ efflux from the root elongation zone, providing the first direct evidence for the essentiality of the root salt exclusion trait at the cellular level. At the same time, cytosolic Na+ accumulation in the root meristem was significantly higher in bread wheat, leading to the suggestion that this tissue may harbour a putative salt sensor. This hypothesis was then tested by investigating patterns of Na+ distribution and the relative expression level of several key genes related to Na+ transport in leaves in plants with intact roots and in those in which the root meristems were removed. We show that tampering with this sensing mechanism has resulted in a salt-sensitive phenotype, largely due to compromising the plant's ability to sequester Na+ in mesophyll cell vacuoles. The implications of these findings for plant breeding for salinity stress tolerance are discussed.

  17. Suppression of NaNO3 crystal nucleation by glycerol: micro-Raman observation on the efflorescence process of mixed glycerol/NaNO3/water droplets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Yun; Zeng, Guang; Zheng, Chuan-Ming; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2012-02-09

    Although the hygroscopicity of a NaNO(3)/water microdroplet and a polyalcohol/water microdroplet, two of the most important aerosols in atmosphere, has been widely studied, little is known about the relationship between the hygroscopic behavior of mixed NaNO(3)/polyalcohol/water droplets and their structures on the molecular level. In this study, the hygroscopicity of mixed glycerol/NaNO(3)/water droplets deposited on a hydrophobic substrate was studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy with organic-to-inorganic molar ratios (OIRs) of 0.5, 1, and 2. In the mixed glycerol/NaNO(3)/water droplets, glycerol molecules tended to combine with Na(+) and NO(3)(-) ions by electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding, respectively. On the basis of the analyses of the changes of symmetric stretching (v(s)-CH(2)), asymmetric stretching (v(a)-CH(2)), their area ratio (Av(a)-CH(2)/Av(s)-CH(2)) of glycerol, and symmetric stretching band of NO(3)(-) (ν(1)-NO(3)(-)) with relative humidity (RH), it was found that the conformation of glycerol was transformed from αα mainly to γγ and partly to αγ with a decreasing RH in the mixed droplets, contrary to the case in the glycerol/water droplet. In addition, the glycerol with γγ and αγ conformation had strong interaction with Na(+) and NO(3)(-) respectively, which suppressed the formation of contact of ions and delayed the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) for the mixed droplets compared to the NaNO(3)/water droplet. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  18. Mutations in the Na+/Citrate Cotransporter NaCT (SLC13A5) in Pediatric Patients with Epilepsy and Developmental Delay

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Jenna; Porter, Brenda E; Colas, Claire; Schlessinger, Avner; Pajor, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the SLC13A5 gene that codes for the Na+/citrate cotransporter, NaCT, are associated with early onset epilepsy, developmental delay and tooth dysplasia in children. In this study, we identify additional SLC13A5 mutations in nine epilepsy patients from six families. To better characterize the syndrome, families with affected children answered questions about the scope of illness and the treatment strategies. Currently, there are no effective treatments, but some antiepileptic drugs targeting the γ-aminobutyric acid system reduce seizure frequency. Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and atypical antiseizure medication, decreases seizures in four patients. In contrast to previous reports, the ketogenic diet and fasting resulted in worsening of symptoms. The effects of the mutations on NaCT transport function and protein expression were examined by transient transfections of COS-7 cells. There was no transport activity from any of the mutant transporters, although some of the mutant transporter proteins were present on the plasma membrane. The structural model of NaCT suggests that these mutations can affect helix packing or substrate binding. We tested various treatments, including chemical chaperones and low temperatures, but none improved transport function in the NaCT mutants. Interestingly, coexpression of NaCT and the mutants results in decreased protein expression and activity of the wild-type transporter, indicating functional interaction. In conclusion, this study has identified additional SLC13A5 mutations in patients with chronic epilepsy starting in the neonatal period, with the mutations producing inactive Na+/citrate transporters. PMID:27261973

  19. Creation of the NaSCoRD Database

    SciTech Connect

    Denman, Matthew R.; Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle; Stuart, William

    This report was written as part of a United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy, Advanced Reactor Technologies program funded project to re-create the capabilities of the legacy Centralized Reliability Database Organization (CREDO) database. The CREDO database provided a record of component design and performance documentation across various systems that used sodium as a working fluid. Regaining this capability will allow the DOE complex and the domestic sodium reactor industry to better understand how previous systems were designed and built for use in improving the design and operations of future loops. The contents of this report include:more » overview of the current state of domestic sodium reliability databases; summary of the ongoing effort to improve, understand, and process the CREDO information; summary of the initial efforts to develop a unified sodium reliability database called the Sodium System Component Reliability Database (NaSCoRD); and explain both how potential users can access the domestic sodium reliability databases and the type of information that can be accessed from these databases.« less

  20. A PDS Archive for Observations of Mercury's Na Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, C.; Cassidy, T.; Merkel, A. W.; Killen, R. M.; Potter, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    We present a data product consisting of ground-based observations of Mercury's sodium exosphere. We have amassed a sizeable dataset of several thousand spectral observations of Mercury's exosphere from the McMath-Pierce solar telescope. Over the last year, a data reduction pipeline has been developed and refined to process and reconstruct these spectral images into low resolution images of sodium D2 emission. This dataset, which extends over two decades, will provide an unprecedented opportunity to analyze the dynamics of Mercury's mid to high-latitude exospheric emissions, which have long been attributed to solar wind ion bombardment. This large archive of observations will be of great use to the Mercury science community in studying the effects of space weather on Mercury's tenuous exosphere. When completely processed, images in this dataset will show the observed spatial distribution of Na D2 in the Mercurian exosphere, have measurements of this sodium emission per pixel in units of kilorayleighs, and be available through NASA's Planetary Data System. The overall goal of the presentation will be to provide the Planetary Science community with a clear picture of what information and data this archival product will make available.

  1. Dipolar collisions of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingyang; Ye, Xin; He, Junyu; Quéméner, Goulven; González-Martínez, Maykel; Dulieu, Olivier; Wang, Dajun

    2017-04-01

    Although ultracold polar molecules have long been proposed as a primary candidate for investigating dipolar many body physics, many of their basic properties, like their collisions in external electric fields, are still largely unknown. In fact, despite the successful production of several new ultracold molecular species in the last two years, so far the only available dipolar collision data is still from JILA's fermionic 40K87Rb experiment in 2010. In this talk, we will describe our investigation on dipolar collisions of ultracold bosonic and chemically stable 23Na87Rb molecules which possess a large permanent electric dipole moment. With a moderate electric field, an effective dipole moment large enough to strongly couple higher partial waves into the collisions can be achieved. We will report the influence of this effect on the molecular collisions observed in our experiment. Our theoretical model for understanding these observations will also be presented. This work is supported by the Hong Kong RGC CUHK404712 and the ANR/RGC Joint Research Scheme ACUHK403/13.

  2. RETRACTED: Neutron detection by large NaI crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagno, A.; Gervino, G.

    2016-07-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor. The article includes many textual similarities with a work that had already appeared in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, Volume 697, January 2013, p. 59-63 (10.1016/j.nima.2012.09.010), as well as the Master thesis Neutron detection with high-energy photons using NaI portal monitor, Aalto University, 2012 (https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/bitstream/handle/123456789/5206/master_holm_philip_2012.pdf?isAllowed=y&sequence=1). One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents an abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  3. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Marcondes, Michel L., E-mail: michel@if.usp.br; Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455; Shukla, Gaurav, E-mail: shukla@physics.umn.edu

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor bymore » using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.« less

  4. LighSail Students Testing - ELaNa XI

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-23

    Students Alex Diaz and Riki Munakata of California Polytechnic State University testing the LightSail CubeSat. LightSail is a citizen-funded technology demonstration mission sponsored by the Planetary Society using solar propulsion for CubeSats. The spacecraft is designed to “sail” on the energy of solar photons striking the thin, reflective sail material. The first LightSail mission is designed to test the spacecraft’s critical systems, including the sequence to autonomously deploy a Mylar solar sail with an area of 32 square meters (344 square feet). The Planetary Society is planning a second, full solar sailing demonstration flight for 2016. Light is made of packets of energy called photons. While photons have no mass, they have energy and momentum. Solar sails use this momentum as a method of propulsion, creating flight by light. LightSail’s solar sail is packaged into a three-unit CubeSat about the size of a loaf of bread. Launched by NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative on the ELaNa XI mission as an auxiliary payload aboard the U.S. Air Force X-37B space plane mission on May 20, 2015.

  5. NaKnowBaseTM: The EPA Nanomaterials Research ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ability to predict the environmental and health implications of engineered nanomaterials is an important research priority due to the exponential rate at which nanotechnology is being incorporated into consumer, industrial and biomedical applications. To address this need and develop predictive capability, we have created the NaKnowbaseTM, which provides a platform for the curation and dissemination of EPA nanomaterials data to support functional assay development, hazard risk models and informatic analyses. To date, we have combined relevant physicochemical parameters from other organizations (e.g., OECD, NIST), with those requested for nanomaterial data submitted to EPA under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Physiochemical characterization data were collated from >400 unique nanomaterials including metals, metal oxides, carbon-based and hybrid materials evaluated or synthesized by EPA researchers. We constructed parameter requirements and table structures for encoding research metadata, including experimental factors and measured response variables. As a proof of concept, we illustrate how SQL-based queries facilitate a range of interrogations including, for example, relationships between nanoparticle characteristics and environmental or toxicological endpoints. The views expressed in this poster are those of the authors and may not reflect U.S. EPA policy. The purpose of this submission for clearance is an abstract for submission to a scientific

  6. Production technology of an electrolyte for Na/S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimke, G.; Mayer, H.; Reckziegel, A.

    1982-05-01

    The trend to develop a cheap electrochemical electric battery and the development of the Na/S system are discussed. The main element in this type of battery is the beta Al2O3 solid electrolyte. Characteristics for this material of first importance are: specific surface, density of green and of sintered material, absence of cracks, gas permeability, resistance to flexion, purity, electrical conductivity, crystal structure and dimensions. Influence of production method on all these characteristics were investigated, e.g., method of compacting powder, tunnel kiln sintering versus static chamber furnace sintering, sintering inside a container or not, and type of kiln material when sintering in a container. In the stationary chamber furnace, beta alumina ceramics were produced with a density of 3.2 g/cm3, a mechanical strength higher than 160 MPa, and an electrical conductivity of about 0.125 Ohm-1cm-1 at 300 C. The best kiln material proved to be MgO and MgAl2O3.MgO ceramics.

  7. CXBN-2 CubeSat – ELaNa XVII

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-08

    The Cosmic X-Ray Background NanoSat-2 (CXBN-2) CubeSat Mission developed by Morehead State University and its partners the Keldysh Institute (Moscow, Russia), the Maysville Community and Technical College (Morehead, KY) and KYSpace LLC (Lexington, KY) will increase the precision of measurements of the Cosmic X-Ray Background in the 30-50 keV range to a precision of <5%, thereby constraining models that attempt to explain the relative contribution of proposed sources lending insight into the underlying physics of the early universe. The mission addresses a fundamental science question that is central to our understanding of the structure, origin, and evolution of the universe by potentially lending insight into both the high-energy background radiation and into the evolution of primordial galaxies. Launched by NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative NET April 18, 2017 ELaNa XVII mission on the seventh Orbital-ATK Cygnus Commercial Resupply Services (OA-7) to the International Space Station and deployed on tbd.

  8. Inelastic Proton Scattering on 21Na in Inverse Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Roby

    2009-10-01

    R.A.E. Austin, R. Kanungo, S. Reeve, Saint Mary's University; D.G. Jenkins, C.Aa.Diget, A. Robinson, A.G. Tuff, O. Roberts, University of York, UK; P.J. Woods, T. Davinson, G. J. Lotay, University of Edinburgh; C.-Y. Wu, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; H. Al Falou, G.C. Ball, M. Djongolov, A. Garnsworthy, G. Hackman, J.N. Orce, C.J. Pearson, S. Triambak, S.J. Williams, TRIUMF; C. Andreiou, D.S. Cross, N. Galinski, R. Kshetri, Simon Fraser University; C. Sumithrarachchi, M.A. Schumaker, University of Guelph; M.P. Jones, S.V. Rigby, University of Liverpool; D. Cline, A. Hayes, University of Rochester; T.E. Drake, University of Toronto; We describe an experiment and associated technique [1] to measure resonances of interest in astrophysical reactions. At the TRIUMF ISAC-II radioactive beam accelerator facility in Canada, particles inelastically scattered in inverse kinematics are detected with Bambino, a δE-E silicon telescope spanning 15-40 degrees in the lab. We use the TIGRESS to detect gamma rays in coincidence with the charged particles to cleanly select inelastic scattering events. We measured resonances above the alpha threshold in ^22Mg of relevance to the rate of break-out from the hot-CNO cycle via the reaction ^ 18Ne(α,p)^21Na. [1] PJ Woods et al. Rex-ISOLDE proposal 424 Cern (2003).

  9. Profilaxia de tromboembolismo venoso na gestação

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, André Luiz Malavasi Longo; Marques, Marcos Arêas

    2016-01-01

    Resumo O tromboembolismo venoso é importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade obstétrica. Durante a gestação, o risco de sua ocorrência aumenta entre cinco e dez vezes quando comparado ao de mulheres não gestantes de mesma idade. Associado a esse fato, a gestante apresenta algumas limitações para o diagnóstico clínico (alta frequência de dor e edema nos membros inferiores), ecográfico (menor sensibilidade e especificidade no diagnóstico de trombose venosa de ilíaca com a evolução da gestação) e laboratorial (o D-dímero apresenta aumento progressivo no decorrer da gravidez). Uma estratificação criteriosa de risco de tromboembolismo venoso de cada mulher antes da gestação pode diminuir a incidência dessa doença, frequente e de difícil diagnóstico na gravidez, e suas complicações. PMID:29930607

  10. Inactivation of Bacillus cereus by Na-chlorophyllin-based photosensitization on the surface of packaging.

    PubMed

    Luksiene, Z; Buchovec, I; Paskeviciute, E

    2010-11-01

    This study was focused on the possibility to inactivate food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus by Na-chlorophyllin (Na-Chl)-based photosensitization in vitro and after attachment to the surface of packaging material. Bacillus cereus in vitro or attached to the packaging was incubated with Na-Chl (7·5×10(-8) to 7·5×10(-5) mol l(-1) ) for 2-60min in phosphate buffer saline. Photosensitization was performed by illuminating cells under a light with a λ of 400nm and an energy density of 20mW cm(-2) . The illumination time varied 0-5min and subsequently the total energy dose was 0-6J cm(-2) . The results show that B. cereus vegetative cells in vitro or attached to the surface of packaging after incubation with 7·5×10(-7) mol l(-1) Na-Chl and following illumination were inactivated by 7log. The photoinactivation of B. cereus spores in vitro by 4log required higher (7·5×10(-6) mol l(-1) ) Na-Chl concentration. Decontamination of packaging material from attached spores by photosensitization reached 5log at 7·5×10(-5) mol l(-1) Na-Chl concentration. Comparative analysis of different packaging decontamination treatments indicates that washing with water can diminish pathogen population on the surface by <1log, 100ppm Na-hypochlorite reduces the pathogens about 1·7log and 200ppm Na-hypochlorite by 2·2log. Meanwhile, Na-Chl-based photosensitization reduces bacteria on the surface by 4·2 orders of magnitude. Food-borne pathogen B. cereus could be effectively inactivated (7log) by Na-Chl-based photosensitization in vitro and on the surface of packaging material. Spores are more resistant than vegetative cells to photosensitization-based inactivation. Comparison of different surface decontamination treatments indicates that Na-Chl-based photosensitization is much more effective antibacterial tool than washing with water or 200ppm Na-hypochlorite. Our data support the idea that Na-Chl-based photosensitization has great potential for future application as an environment

  11. Absorption of CO2 from modified flue gases of power generation Tarahan chemically using NaOH and Na2CO3 and biologically using microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purba, Elida; Agustina, Dewi; Putri Pertama, Finka; Senja, Fita

    2018-03-01

    This research was carried out on the absorption of CO2 from the modified flue gases of power generation Tarahan using NaOH (sodium hydroxide) and Na2CO3 (sodium carbonate). The operation was conducted in a packed column absorber and then the output gases from the packed column was fed into photo-bioreactor for biological absorption. In the photo-bioreactor, two species of microalgae, N. occulata and T. chuii, were cultivated to both absorb CO2 gas and to produce biomass for algal oil. The aims of this research were, first, to determine the effect of absorbent flow rate on the reduction of CO2 and on the decrease of output gas temperature, second, to determine the characteristics of methyl ester obtained from biological absorption process. Flow rates of the absorbent were varied as 1, 2, and 3 l/min. The concentrations of NaOH and Na2CO3 were 1 M at a constant gas flow rate of 6 l/min. The output concentrations of CO2 from the absorber was analyzed using Gas Chromatography 2014-AT SHIMADZU Corp 08128. The results show that both of the absorbents give different trends. From the absorption using NaOH, it can be concluded that the higher the flow rate, the higher the absorption rate obtained. The highest flow rate achieved maximum absorption of 100%. On the other hand, absorption with Na2CO3 revealed the opposite trend where the higher the flow rates the lower the absorption rate. The highest absorption using Na2CO3 was obtained with the lowest flow rate, 1 l/min, that was 45,5%. As the effect of flow rate on output gas temperature, the temperature decreased with increasing flow rates for both absorbents. The output gas temperature for NaOH and Na2CO3 were consecutively 35 °C and 31 °C with inlet gas temperature of 50°C. Absorption of CO2 biologically resulted a reduction of CO2 up to 60% from the input gas concentration. Algal oil was extracted with mixed hexane and chloroform to obtain algal oil. Extracted oil was transesterified to methyl ester using sodium

  12. Raman spectra from very concentrated aqueous NaOH and from wet and dry, solid, and anhydrous molten, LiOH, NaOH, and KOH.

    PubMed

    Walrafen, George E; Douglas, Rudolph T W

    2006-03-21

    High-temperature, high-pressure Raman spectra were obtained from aqueous NaOH solutions up to 2NaOHH2O, with X(NaOH)=0.667 at 480 K. The spectra corresponding to the highest compositions, X(NaOH)> or =0.5, are dominated by H3O2-. An IR xi-function dispersion curve for aqueous NaOH, at 473 K and 1 kbar, calculated from the data of Franck and Charuel indicates that the OH- ion forms H3O2- by preferential H bonding with nonhydrogen-bonded OH groups. Raman spectra from wet to anhydrous, solid LiOH, NaOH, and KOH yield sharp, symmetric OH- stretching peaks at 3664, 3633, and 3596 cm(-1), respectively, plus water-related, i.e., H3O2-, peaks near LiOH, 3562 cm(-1), NaOH, 3596 cm(-1), and, KOH, 3500 cm(-1). Absence of H3O2- peaks from the solid assures that the corresponding melt is anhydrous. Raman spectra from the anhydrous melts yield OH- stretching peak frequencies: LiOH, 3614+/-4 cm(-1), 873 K; NaOH, 3610+/-2 cm(-1), 975 K; and, KOH, 3607+/-2 cm(-1), 773 K, but low-frequency asymmetry due to ion-pair interactions is present which is centered near 3550 cm(-1). The ion-pair-related asymmetry corresponds to the sole IR maximum near 3550 cm(-1) from anhydrous molten NaOH, at 623 K. Bose-Einstein correction of published low-frequency Raman data from molten LiOH revealed an acoustic phonon, near 205 cm(-1), related to restricted translation of OH- versus Li+, and an optical phonon, at 625 cm(-1) and tau approximately 0.05 ps, due to protonic precession and/or pendular motion. Strong H bonding between water and the O atom of OH- forms H3O2-, but the proton of OH- does not bond with H significantly. Large Raman bandwidths (aqueous solutions) are explained in terms of inhomogeneous broadening due to proton transfer in a double well. Vibrational assignments are presented for H3O2-.

  13. Localization and Function of the Membrane-bound Riboflavin in the Na+-translocating NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) from Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Casutt, Marco S.; Huber, Tamara; Brunisholz, René; Tao, Minli; Fritz, Günter; Steuber, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The sodium ion-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) from the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is a respiratory membrane protein complex that couples the oxidation of NADH to the transport of Na+ across the bacterial membrane. The Na+-NQR comprises the six subunits NqrABCDEF, but the stoichiometry and arrangement of these subunits are unknown. Redox-active cofactors are FAD and a 2Fe-2S cluster on NqrF, covalently attached FMNs on NqrB and NqrC, and riboflavin and ubiquinone-8 with unknown localization in the complex. By analyzing the cofactor content and NADH oxidation activity of subcomplexes of the Na+-NQR lacking individual subunits, the riboflavin cofactor was unequivocally assigned to the membrane-bound NqrB subunit. Quantitative analysis of the N-terminal amino acids of the holo-complex revealed that NqrB is present in a single copy in the holo-complex. It is concluded that the hydrophobic NqrB harbors one riboflavin in addition to its covalently attached FMN. The catalytic role of two flavins in subunit NqrB during the reduction of ubiquinone to ubiquinol by the Na+-NQR is discussed. PMID:20558724

  14. Enhanced upconversion emission in colloidal (NaYF4:Er(3+))/NaYF4 core/shell nanoparticles excited at 1523 nm.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei; Chen, Guanying; Damasco, Jossana; Wang, Xianliang; Kachynski, Aliaksandr; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y; Yang, Chunhui; Ågren, Hans; Prasad, Paras N

    2014-03-15

    In this work, we report on efficient visible and near-IR upconversion emissions in colloidal hexagonal-phase core/shell NaYF4:Er(3+)/NaYF4 nanoparticles (∼38  nm) under IR laser excitation at 1523 nm. Varying amounts of Er(3+) dopants were introduced into the core NaYF4:Er(3+) nanoparticles, revealing an optimized Er(3+) concentration of 10% for the highest luminescent efficiency. An inert epitaxial shell layer of NaYF4 grown onto the core of the NaYF4:Er(3+) 10% nanoparticle increased its upconversion emission intensity fivefold due to suppression of surface-related quenching mechanisms, yielding the absolute upconversion efficiency to be as high as ∼3.9±0.3% under an excitation density of 18  W/cm(2). The dependence of the intensity of upconversion emission peaks on laser excitation density in the core/shell nanoparticle displayed "saturation effects" at low excitation density in the range of 1.5-18  W/cm(2), which again demonstrates high upconversion efficiency.

  15. Na-KATPase activity and intracellular ion concentrations in the lactating guinea pig mammary gland. Studies on Na-K activated adenosine triphosphatase, XXXVI.

    PubMed

    Vreeswijk, J H; de Pont, J J; Bonting, S L

    1975-01-01

    The intracellular sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations in slices of lactating guinea pig mammary gland have been determined by chemical analysis and the use of appropriate values for extracellular space. These ion concentrations after 1 hr incubation at 37 degrees C in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution are 45mM Na+, 138 mM K+ and 44 mM Cl-, which values are in agreement with those found in fresh mammary gland slices. Inhibition of the NaK activated ATPase cation pump system of the tissue by 10(-4)M ouabain, anoxia or cooling to 0 degrees C Causes a gain of Na+ and an equimolar loss of K+ without a significant change in chloride concentration. The effect of cooling (0 degrees C) is reversible by reincubation at 37 degrees C. Water content of the tissue (76.5% of wet weight) and extracellular space (40.5%) do not change under these conditions. The results permit the conclusion that the NaK activated ATPase system is responsible for the maintenance of the intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations, but do not support the presence of a chloride pump.

  16. Detailed investigation of Na2.24FePO4CO3 as a cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weifeng; Zhou, Jing; Li, Biao; Ma, Jin; Tao, Shi; Xia, Dingguo; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Na-ion batteries are gaining an increased recognition as the next generation low cost energy storage devices. Here, we present a characterization of Na3FePO4CO3 nanoplates as a novel cathode material for sodium ion batteries. First-principles calculations reveal that there are two paths for Na ion migration along b and c axis. In-situ and ex-situ Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) point out that in Na3FePO4CO3 both Fe2+/Fe3+ and Fe3+/Fe4+ redox couples are electrochemically active, suggesting also the existence of a two-electron intercalation reaction. Ex-situ X-ray powder diffraction data demonstrates that the crystalline structure of Na3FePO4CO3 remains stable during the charging/discharging process within the range 2.0–4.55 V. PMID:24595232

  17. Constraining the astrophysical 23Mg(p, γ)24Al reaction rate using the 23Na(d,p)24Na reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, E. A.; Catford, W. N.; Christian, G.; Dede, S.; Hallam, S.; Lotay, G.; Ota, S.; Saastamoinen, A.; Wilkinson, R.

    2017-09-01

    The 23Mg(p, γ)24Al reaction provides an escape from the Ne-Na cycle in classical novae and is therefore important in understanding nova nucleosynthesis in the A > 20 mass range. Although several resonances may contribute to the overall rate at novae temperatures, the resonance at 475 keV is thought to be dominant. The strength of this resonance has been directly measured using a radioactive 23Mg beam impinging on a windowless H2 gas target; however, recent high-precision 24Al mass measurements have called this result into question. Here we make an indirect measurement using the 23Na(d,p)24Na reaction in inverse kinematics to study the mirror state of the 475 keV resonance in 24Na. The experiment, performed at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute, utilized the TIARA silicon array, four HPGe detectors, and the MDM spectrometer to measure the excited states of the 24Na nucleus. Preliminary results from the experiment will be presented along with progress from the ongoing analysis.

  18. Polaronic and ionic conduction in NaMnO2: influence of native point defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen; Peelaers, Hartwin; van de Walle, Chris G.

    Layered NaMnO2 has promising applications as a cathode material for sodium ion batteries. We will discuss strategies to improve the electrical performance of NaMnO2, including how to optimize the conditions of synthesis and how impurity doping affects the performance. Using hybrid density functional theory, we explored the structural, electronic, and defect properties of bulk NaMnO2. It is antiferromagnetic in the ground state with a band gap of 3.75 eV. Small hole and electron polarons can form in the bulk either through self-trapping or adjacent to point defects. We find that both Na and Mn vacancies are shallow acceptors with the induced holes trapped as small polarons, while O vacancies are deep defect centers. Cation antisites, especially MnNa, are found to have low formation energies. As a result, we expect that MnNa exists in as-grown NaMnO2 in moderate concentrations, rather than forming only at a later stage of the charging process, at which point it causes undesirable structural phase transitions. Both electronic conduction, via polaron hopping, and ionic conduction, through VNa migration, are significantly affected by the presence of point defects. This work was supported by DOE.

  19. Constant Enthalpy Change Value during Pyrophosphate Hydrolysis within the Physiological Limits of NaCl*

    PubMed Central

    Wakai, Satoshi; Kidokoro, Shun-ichi; Masaki, Kazuo; Nakasone, Kaoru; Sambongi, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A decrease in water activity was thought to result in smaller enthalpy change values during PPi hydrolysis, indicating the importance of solvation for the reaction. However, the physiological significance of this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we combined biochemistry and calorimetry to solve this problem using NaCl, a physiologically occurring water activity-reducing reagent. The pyrophosphatase activities of extremely halophilic Haloarcula japonica, which can grow at ∼4 m NaCl, and non-halophilic Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were maximal at 2.0 and 0.1 m NaCl, respectively. Thus, halophilic and non-halophilic pyrophosphatases exhibit distinct maximal activities at different NaCl concentration ranges. Upon calorimetry, the same exothermic enthalpy change of −35 kJ/mol was obtained for the halophile and non-halophiles at 1.5–4.0 and 0.1–2.0 m NaCl, respectively. These results show that solvation changes caused by up to 4.0 m NaCl (water activity of ∼0.84) do not affect the enthalpy change in PPi hydrolysis. It has been postulated that PPi is an ATP analog, having a so-called high energy phosphate bond, and that the hydrolysis of both compounds is enthalpically driven. Therefore, our results indicate that the hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds, which are responsible for biological energy conversion, is enthalpically driven within the physiological limits of NaCl. PMID:23965994

  20. TOXICITY OF NATURAL DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENT (NaDES) BETAINE:GLYCEROL IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Benlebna, Melha; Ruesgas-Ramon, Mariana; Bonafos, Beatrice; Fouret, Gilles; Casas, Françcois; Coudray, Charles; Durand, Erwann; Figueroa, Maria-Cruz; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2018-05-28

    The natural deep eutectic solvents (NaDES) are new natural solvents in green chemistry that in some cases have been shown to allow better extraction of plant bioactive molecules compared to conventional solvents and higher phenolic compounds absorption in rodents. However, there is a serious lack of information regarding their in vivo safety. The purpose of this study was to verify the safety of a NaDES (glycerol:betaine (mole ratio 2:1) + 10 % (v/v) of water) extract from green coffee beans, rich in polyphenols. Twelve 6-weeks-old male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups of 6 animals each and twice daily gavaged for 14 days either with 3 ml water or with 3 ml phenolic NaDES extract. Oral administration of phenolic NaDES extract induced mortality in 2 rats. In addition, it induced excessive water consumption, reduced dietary intake and weight loss, hepatomegaly, plasma oxidative stress associated with high blood lipid levels. In conclusion, this work demonstrated the toxicity of oral administration of the selected NaDES, under a short-term condition. This occurs despite the fact that this NaDES extract contains polyphenols, whose beneficial effects have been shown. Therefore, complementary work is needed to find the best dose and formulation of NaDES that are safe for the environment, animals and ultimately for humans.

  1. Urea inhibits NaK2Cl cotransport in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, J; Gasson, C; Kaji, D M

    1995-01-01

    We examined the effect of urea on NaK2Cl cotransport in human erythrocytes. In erythrocytes from nine normal subjects, the addition of 45 mM urea, a concentration commonly encountered in uremic subjects, inhibited NaK2Cl cotransport by 33 +/- 7%. Urea inhibited NaK2Cl cotransport reversibly, and in a concentration-dependent fashion with half-maximal inhibition at 63 +/- 10 mM. Acute cell shrinkage increased, and acute cell swelling decreased NaK2Cl cotransport in human erythrocytes. Okadaic acid (OA), a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A, increased NaK2Cl cotransport by nearly 80%, suggesting an important role for these phosphatases in the regulation of NaK2Cl cotransport. Urea inhibited bumetanide-sensitive K influx even when protein phosphatases were inhibited with OA, suggesting that urea acted by inhibiting a kinase. In cells subjected to shrinking and OA pretreatment, maneuvers expected to increase the net phosphorylation, urea inhibited cotransport only minimally, suggesting that urea acted by causing a net dephosphorylation of the cotransport protein, or some key regulatory protein. The finding that concentrations of urea found in uremic subjects inhibited NaK2Cl cotransport, a widespread transport pathway with important physiological functions, suggests that urea is not only a marker for accumulation of other uremic toxins, but may be a significant uremic toxin itself. PMID:7593597

  2. Mechanism of Na accumulation at extended defects in Si from first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Sang; Chan, Maria K. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Sodium (Na) impurities in silicon solar cells are considered to play an important role in potential-induced degradation (PID), a significant cause of solar cell degradation and failure. Shorting due to Na accumulation at extended defects has been suggested as a culprit for PID. However, it is not clear how the extended defects are decorated by Na impurities. Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we find that Na impurities segregate from the bulk into extended defects such as intrinsic stacking faults and Σ3 (111) grain boundaries. The energy barrier required for Na to escape from the extended defects is substantial and similar to the sum of the barrier energy in bulk Si (1.1-1.2 eV) and the segregation energy to the stacking fault (˜0.7 eV). Surprisingly, the migration barrier for Na diffusion within the extended defects is even higher than the energy barrier for escaping. The results suggest that the extended defects likely accumulate Na as the impurities segregate to the defects from the bulk, rather than because of migration through the extended defects.

  3. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rong-fang; Yuan, Gao-feng; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2013-01-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts, the germination rate, fresh weight, contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment. The results showed that glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl. However, the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mmol/L). NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity. A relatively high level of NaCl treatment (100 mmol/L) significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control. These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition. PMID:23365011

  4. Unraveling the electrolyte properties of Na3SbS4 through computation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rush, Larry E.; Hood, Zachary D.; Holzwarth, N. A. W.

    2017-12-01

    Solid-state sodium electrolytes are expected to improve next-generation batteries on the basis of favorable energy density and reduced cost. Na3SbS4 represents a new solid-state ion conductor with high ionic conductivities in the mS/cm range. Here, we explore the tetragonal phase of Na3SbS4 and its interface with metallic sodium anode using a combination of experiments and first-principles calculations. The computed Na-ion vacancy migration energies of 0.1 eV are smaller than the value inferred from experiment, suggesting that grain boundaries or other factors dominate the experimental systems. Analysis of symmetric cells of the electrolyte—Na/Na 3SbS4/Na —show that a conductive solid electrolyte interphase forms. Computer simulations infer that the interface is likely to be related to Na3SbS3 , involving the conversion of the tetrahedral SbS43 - ions of the bulk electrolyte into trigonal pyramidal SbS33 - ions at the interface.

  5. NA61/SHINE facility at the CERN SPS: beams and detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abgrall, N.; Andreeva, O.; Aduszkiewicz, A.; Ali, Y.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Baatar, B.; Bay, F.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Bogusz, M.; Bravar, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bunyatov, S. A.; Christakoglou, P.; Cirkovic, M.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Dembinski, H.; Diakonos, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Ereditato, A.; Fabich, A.; Feofilov, G. A.; Fodor, Z.; Fulop, A.; Gaździcki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Idczak, R.; Igolkin, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Jokovic, D.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Kaptur, E.; Kielczewska, D.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kiss, T.; Kleinfelder, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V. P.; Korzenev, A.; Koversarski, P.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kurepin, A.; Larsen, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V. V.; Maćkowiak-Pawłowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A. I.; Maletic, D.; Manglunki, D.; Manic, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Marin, V.; Marton, K.; Mathes, H.-J.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G. L.; Messina, M.; Mrówczyński, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Paul, T.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Pistillo, C.; Płaneta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B. A.; Posiadala, M.; Puławski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Redij, A.; Renfordt, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Robert, A.; Röhrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczyński, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Savic, M.; Schmidt, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shibata, M.; Sipos, R.; Skrzypczak, E.; Słodkowski, M.; Sosin, Z.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Stroebele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tolyhi, T.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V. V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vinogradov, L.; Wilczek, A.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarz, A.; Wyszyński, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.

    2014-06-01

    NA61/SHINE (SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) is a multi-purpose experimental facility to study hadron production in hadron-proton, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. It recorded the first physics data with hadron beams in 2009 and with ion beams (secondary 7Be beams) in 2011. NA61/SHINE has greatly profited from the long development of the CERN proton and ion sources and the accelerator chain as well as the H2 beamline of the CERN North Area. The latter has recently been modified to also serve as a fragment separator as needed to produce the Be beams for NA61/SHINE. Numerous components of the NA61/SHINE set-up were inherited from its predecessors, in particular, the last one, the NA49 experiment. Important new detectors and upgrades of the legacy equipment were introduced by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration. This paper describes the state of the NA61/SHINE facility — the beams and the detector system — before the CERN Long Shutdown I, which started in March 2013.

  6. A Mechanism for Intracellular Release of Na+ by Neurotransmitter: Sodium Symporters

    PubMed Central

    Malinauskaite, Lina; Reinhard, Linda; Lyons, Joseph A.; Yano, Hideaki; Javitch, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) terminate synaptic signal transmission by Na+-dependent reuptake of released neurotransmitters, with key conformational states reported for a bacterial homolog LeuT and an inhibitor-bound Drosophila dopamine transporter. However, a coherent mechanism of Na+-driven transport has not been described. Here, we present two crystal structures of MhsT, a NSS member from Bacillus halodurans, in occluded inward-facing states with bound Na+ ions and L-Trp that provide insight into the cytoplasmic release of Na+. The switch from outward- to inward-oriented states is centered on the partial unwinding of transmembrane helix 5, which is facilitated by a conserved GlyX9Pro motif that opens an intracellular pathway for water to access the Na2 site. Based on our structural and functional findings we propose a mechanism according to which solvation through the TM5 pathway facilitates Na+ release from Na2 and the transition to an inward-open state. PMID:25282149

  7. Effects of Transition-Metal Mixing on Na Ordering and Kinetics in Layered P 2 Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chen; Radhakrishnan, Balachandran; Chu, Iek-Heng; Wang, Zhenbin; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2017-06-01

    Layered P 2 oxides are promising cathode materials for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries. In this work, we systematically investigate the effects of transition-metal (TM) mixing on Na ordering and kinetics in the NaxCo1 -yMnyO2 model system using density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations. The DFT-predicted 0-K stability diagrams indicate that Co-Mn mixing reduces the energetic differences between Na orderings, which may account for the reduction of the number of phase transformations observed during the cycling of mixed-TM P 2 layered oxides compared to a single TM. Using ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations and nudged elastic-band calculations, we show that the TM composition at the Na(1) (face-sharing) site has a strong influence on the Na site energies, which in turn impacts the kinetics of Na diffusion towards the end of the charge. By employing a site-percolation model, we establish theoretical upper and lower bounds for TM concentrations based on their effect on Na(1) site energies, providing a framework to rationally tune mixed-TM compositions for optimal Na diffusion.

  8. High-performance radiofrequency coils for (23)Na MRI: brain and musculoskeletal applications.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Graham C; Brown, Ryan; Lakshmanan, Karthik

    2016-02-01

    (23)Na RF coil design for brain and MSK applications presents a number of challenges, including poor coil loading for arrays of small coils and SNR penalties associated with providing (1)H capability with the same coil. The basics of RF coil design are described, as well as a review of historical approaches to dual tuning. There follows a review of published high performance coil designs for MSK and brain imaging. Several coil designs have been demonstrated at 7T and 3T which incorporate close-fitting receive arrays and in some cases design features which provide (1)H imaging with little penalty to (23)Na sensitivity. The "nested coplanar loop" approach is examined, in which small transmit-receive (1)H elements are placed within each (23)Na loop, presenting only a small perturbation to (23)Na performance and minimizing RF shielding issues. Other designs incorporating transmit-receive arrays for (23)Na and (1)H are discussed including a 9.4 T (23)Na/(1)H brain coil. Great gains in (23)Na SNR have been made with many of these designs, but simultaneously achieving high performance for 1H remains elusive. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Spray-dried chitosan/acid/NaCl microparticles enhance saltiness perception.

    PubMed

    Yi, Cheng; Tsai, Min-Lang; Liu, Tristan

    2017-09-15

    The composition, physicochemical properties and salinity of spray-dried chitosan/acid/NaCl microparticles were tested to ensure a low-sodium and high-salinity salty agent. The spray-dried chitosan/acid/NaCl microparticles were hollow and had a favourable hygroscopicity, and increased NaCl content and decreased organic acid content. Their size of the microparticles was 15.4-32.0μm and increased with NaCl concentration. The microparticles of acetic and lactic acid groups had a NaCl crystal size of 1-2 and 1-4μm, respectively. The NaCl crystals of acetic, lactic and citric acid group microparticles were distributed on the microparticle matrices, mostly on the microparticle surface and mainly on the inner walls of the microparticles walls, respectively. The acetic and lactic acid group microparticles were relatively smaller than general salt, with NaCl crystals distributed on the particle surfaces. Consequently, they were perceived as saltier than general salt and could potentially be regarded as a low-sodium salt for surface-salted foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. New double molybdate Na9Fe(MoO4)6: Synthesis, structure, properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, Aleksandra A.; Solodovnikov, Sergey F.; Basovich, Olga M.; Solodovnikova, Zoya A.; Belov, Dmitry A.; Pokholok, Konstantin V.; Gudkova, Irina A.; Stefanovich, Sergey Yu.; Lazoryak, Bogdan I.; Khaikina, Elena G.

    2013-09-01

    A new double molybdate Na9Fe(MoO4)6 was synthesized using solid state reactions and studied with X-ray powder diffraction, second harmonic generation (SHG) technique, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Mössbauer and dielectric impedance spectroscopy. Single crystals of Na9Fe(MoO4)6 were obtained and its structure was solved (the space group R3¯, a=14.8264(2), c=19.2402(3) Å, V=3662.79(9) Å3, Z=6, R=0.0132). The structure is related to that of sodium ion conductor II-Na3Fe2(AsO4)3. The basic structure units are polyhedral clusters composed of central FeО6 octahedron sharing edges with three Na(1)О6 octahedra. The clusters share common vertices with bridging МоО4 tetrahedra to form an open 3D framework where the cavities are occupied by Na(2) and Na(3) atoms. The compound melts incongruently at 904.7±0.2 K. Arrhenius type temperature dependence of electric conductivity σ has been registered in solid state (σ=6.8×10-2 S сm-1 at 800 K), thus allowing considering Na9Fe(MoO4)6 as a new sodium ion conductor.

  11. Experimental Studies of NaK in a Simulated Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibons, Marc; Sanzi, James; Ljubanovic, Damir

    2011-01-01

    Space fission power systems are being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) with a short term goal of building a full scale, non-nuclear, Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) test at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Due to the geometric constraints, mass restrictions, and fairly high temperatures associated with space reactors, liquid metals are typically used as the primary coolant. A eutectic mixture of sodium (22 percent) and potassium (78 percent), or NaK, has been chosen as the coolant for the TDU with a total system capacity of approximately 55 L. NaK, like all alkali metals, is very reactive, and warrants certain safety considerations. To adequately examine the risk associated with the personnel, facility, and test hardware during a potential NaK leak in the large scale TDU test, a small scale experiment was performed in which NaK was released in a thermal vacuum chamber under controlled conditions. The study focused on detecting NaK leaks in the vacuum environment as well as the molecular flow of the NaK vapor. This paper reflects the work completed during the NaK experiment and provides results and discussion relative to the findings.

  12. Structural manipulation approaches towards enhanced sodium ionic conductivity in Na-rich antiperovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Qingfei; Liu, Zhenpu; ...

    2015-06-10

    High-performance solid electrolytes are critical for realizing all-solid-state batteries with enhance safety and cycling efficiency. However, currently available candidates (sulfides and the NASICON-typ ceramics) still suffer from drawbacks such as inflammability, high-cost and unfavorable machinability Here we present the structural manipulation approaches to improve the sodium ionic conductivity in series of affordable Na-rich antiperovskites. Experimentally, the whole solid solutions of Na 3OX (X ¼ Cl Br, I) are synthesized via a facile and timesaving route from the cheapest raw materials (Na, NaOH an NaX). The materials are nonflammable, suitable for thermoplastic processing due to low melting temperature (<300° C) withoutmore » decomposing. Notably, owing to the flexibility of perovskite-type structure it's feasible to control the local structure features by means of size-mismatch substitution an unequivalent-doping for a favorable sodium ionic diffusion pathway. Enhancement of sodium ioni conductivity by 2 magnitudes is demonstrated by these chemical tuning methods. The optimized sodiu ionic conductivity in Na 2.9Sr 0.05OBr 0.6I 0.4 bulk samples reaches 1.9 10 - 3 S/cm at 200° C and even highe at elevated temperature. Here, we believe further chemical tuning efforts on Na-rich antiperovskites wil promote their performance greatly for practical all-solid state battery applications.« less

  13. Adrenergic-agonist-induced Ca2+ fluxes in rat parotid cells are not Na+-dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Helman, J; Roth, G S; Baum, B J

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that extracellular Na+ is required for the rapid mobilization of Ca2+ by rat parotid cells after adrenergic stimulation. When Na+ salts in the media were osmotically replaced with either choline chloride (+atropine) or sucrose, efflux of 45Ca2+ from preloaded cells, caused by 10 microM-(-)-adrenaline, was unchanged. Similarly adrenaline stimulated 45Ca2+ uptake into cells under nonsteady-state conditions in the presence or absence of Na+. Monensin, a Na+ ionophore, was able to elicit a modest increase in 45Ca2+ efflux, compared with controls. Studies of net 45Ca2+ flux, performed under near-steady-state conditions, showed that adrenaline caused net 45Ca2+ accumulation, whereas monensin caused net 45Ca2+ release. The effect of monensin required the presence of Na+ in the incubation medium. Both 1 mM-LaCl3 and 0.1 mM-D-600 prevented adrenaline-stimulated 45Ca2+ uptake into cells, but had no effect on monensin-induced changes. We conclude that (1) the rapid mobilization of Ca2+ by adrenergic agonists seen in rat parotid cells does not require a Na+out greater than Na+in gradient and (2) the nature of the monensin effect is quite different from the adrenergic-agonist-induced response. PMID:2413840

  14. The influence of thapsigargin on Na,K-ATPase activity in cultured nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mito, T; Kuwahara, S; Delamere, N A

    1995-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the influence of thapsigargin on the NaK-ATPase activity of cultured cells (ODM2) derived from human nonpigmented ciliary epithelium. The rate of ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis (Na,K-ATPase activity) was diminished in cells that had been pretreated with thapsigargin then permeabilized. Following 20 min exposure of intact cells to thapsigargin, the cells were permeabilized with digitonin and the rate of ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis (Na,K-ATPase activity) was measured immediately in a calcium-free buffer. In permeabilized cells that had been pretreated with 1 microM thapsigargin for 20 min, the rate of ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis (Na,K-ATPase activity) was reduced by 38%. Pretreatment with lesser concentrations of thapsigargin caused smaller changes of Na,K-ATPase activity. The decrease of Na,K-ATPase activity was the same whether or not calmodulin antagonists W7 or trifluoperazine were present during the thapsigargin pretreatment period. This inhibitory effect upon the Na,K-ATPase may serve to limit the extent of sodium pump activation that takes place in intact cells when thapsigargin causes sodium pump stimulation by a mechanism that appears to involve changes in cytoplasmic ion levels when potassium channels open.

  15. Specialized Functional Diversity and Interactions of the Na,K-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Matchkov, Vladimir V.; Krivoi, Igor I.

    2016-01-01

    Na,K-ATPase is a protein ubiquitously expressed in the plasma membrane of all animal cells and vitally essential for their functions. A specialized functional diversity of the Na,K-ATPase isozymes is provided by molecular heterogeneity, distinct subcellular localizations, and functional interactions with molecular environment. Studies over the last decades clearly demonstrated complex and isoform-specific reciprocal functional interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and neighboring proteins and lipids. These interactions are enabled by a spatially restricted ion homeostasis, direct protein-protein/lipid interactions, and protein kinase signaling pathways. In addition to its “classical” function in ion translocation, the Na,K-ATPase is now considered as one of the most important signaling molecules in neuronal, epithelial, skeletal, cardiac and vascular tissues. Accordingly, the Na,K-ATPase forms specialized sub-cellular multimolecular microdomains which act as receptors to circulating endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS) triggering a number of signaling pathways. Changes in these endogenous cardiotonic steroid levels and initiated signaling responses have significant adaptive values for tissues and whole organisms under numerous physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This review discusses recent progress in the studies of functional interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and molecu