Science.gov

Sample records for a2780 ovarian carcinoma

  1. Elevated β-catenin activity contributes to carboplatin resistance in A2780cp ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barghout, Samir H.; Zepeda, Nubia; Xu, Zhihua

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortalities in women. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) represents approximately 90% of all ovarian malignancies. Most EOC patients are diagnosed at advanced stages and current chemotherapy regimens are ineffective against advanced EOC due to the development of chemoresistance. It is important to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying acquired resistance to effectively manage this disease. In this study, we examined the expression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling components in the paired cisplatin-sensitive (A2780s) and cisplatin-resistant (A2780cp) EOC cell lines. Our results showed that several negative regulators of Wnt signaling are downregulated, whereas amore » few Wnt ligands and known Wnt/β-catenin target genes are upregulated in A2780cp cells compared to A2780s cells, suggesting that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is more active in A2780cp cells. Further analysis revealed nuclear localization of β-catenin and higher β-catenin transcriptional activity in A2780cp cells compared to A2780s cells. Finally, we demonstrated that chemical inhibition of β-catenin transcriptional activity by its inhibitor CCT036477 sensitized A2780cp cells to carboplatin, supporting a role for β-catenin in carboplatin resistance in A2780cp cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity contributes to carboplatin resistance in A2780cp cells. - Highlights: • Wnt ligands and target genes are upregulated in cisplatin resistant A2780cp cells. • Negative regulators of Wnt signaling are down-regulated in A2780cp cells. • β-catenin transcriptional activity is higher in A2780cp cells compared to A2780s cells. • Inhibition of β-catenin activity increases carboplatin cytotoxicity in A2780cp cells.« less

  2. Lectin array and glycogene expression analyses of ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and its cisplatin-resistant derivate cell line A2780-cp.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran; Qin, Wenjun; Qin, Ruihuan; Han, Jing; Li, Can; Wang, Yisheng; Xu, Congjian

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal gynecological malignancies, in which platinum resistance is a common cause of its relapse and death. Glycosylation has been reported to be involved in drug resistance, and glycomic analyses of ovarian cancer may improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cancer cell drug resistance and provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The serous ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and its platinum-resistant counterpart A2780-cp were used in this study. We performed a lectin array analysis to compare the glycosylation patterns of the two cell lines, a gene expression array was employed to probe the differences in glycogenes. Furthermore, the results were verified by lectin blots. A2780-cp cell exhibited stronger intensities of Lens culinaris (LCA) Canavalia ensiformis (ConA), and Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) and weaker intensities of Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectins. The gene expression array analysis revealed increased expression of Fut8, B3gnt4, B3gnt5, B4galt2 and decreased expression of Fut1 and ST6GalNAc 6 expression were evident in the A2780-cp cells. The lectin blot confirmed the differences in LCA, ConA, SNA and LEL between the A2780 and A2780-cp cells. The combination of the lectin and gene expression analyses showed that the levels of core fucosylation and poly-LacNAc were increased in the A2780-cp cells and the levels of Fuc α1-2(gal β1-4) GlcNAc and α2-6-linked sialic structures were decreased in the A2780-cp cells. These glycans represent potential biomarkers and might be involved in the mechanism of drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

  3. A Specific Mixture of Nutrients Suppresses Ovarian Cancer A-2780 Tumor Incidence, Growth, and Metastasis to Lungs.

    PubMed

    Roomi, Mohd Waheed; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Rath, Matthias; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra

    2017-03-18

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological malignancy in women, and fifth leading cause of death. Despite advances made in chemotherapy and surgery, the average time of clinical remission is approximately 2 years and the 5-year survival rate is 45%. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of a novel therapeutic approach to ovarian cancer treatment. We investigated the effect of a specific nutrient mixture (EPQ) containing ascorbic acid, lysine, proline, green tea extract, and quercetin on human ovarian cancer cell A-2780 in vivo and in vitro. Athymic female nude mice (n = 12) were all inoculated intraperitoneally (IP) with 2 × 10⁶ cells in 0.1 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and randomly divided into two groups. Upon injection, the Control group (n = 6) was fed a regular diet and the EPQ group (n = 6) a regular diet supplemented with 0.5% EPQ. Four weeks later, the mice were sacrificed and tumors that developed in the ovary were excised, weighed, and processed for histology. Lungs were inspected for metastasis. In vitro, A-2780 cells were cultured in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% FBS and antibiotics. At near confluence, cells were treated with EPQ in triplicate at concentrations between 0 and 1000 μg/mL. Cell proliferation was measured via MTT assay, MMP-9 secretion via gelatinase zymography, invasion through Matrigel and morphology via hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining. All Control mice developed large ovarian tumors, whereas 5 out of 6 mice in the EPQ group developed no tumors, and one, a small tumor. Control mice also showed lung metastasis in 6 out of 6 mice, while no lung metastasis was evident in EPQ mice. Zymography demonstrated only MMP-9 expression, which EPQ inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion, with virtual total block at 250 μg/mL concentration. EPQ significantly inhibited invasion through Matrigel with total block at 250 μg/mL concentration. MTT showed dose-dependent inhibition of cell

  4. Antiproliferative effects of TSA, PXD‑101 and MS‑275 in A2780 and MCF7 cells: Acetylated histone H4 and acetylated tubulin as markers for HDACi potency and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-12-01

    Inhibition of histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) has been well documented as an attractive target for the development of chemotherapeutic drugs. The present study investigated the effects of two prototype hydroxamic acid HDAC inhibitors, namely Trichostatin A (TSA) and Belinostat (PXD‑101) and the benzamide Entinostat (MS‑275) in A2780 ovarian carcinoma and MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. The three HDACi inhibited the proliferation of A2780 and MCF7 cells at comparable levels, below the µM range. Enzyme inhibition assays in a cell‑free system showed that TSA was the most potent inhibitor of total HDAC enzyme activity followed by PXD‑101 and MS‑275. Incubation of A2780 and MCF7 cells with the hydroxamates TSA and PXD‑101 for 24 h resulted in a dramatic increase of acetylated tubulin induction (up to 30‑fold for TSA). In contrast to acetylated tubulin, western blot analysis and flow cytometry indicated that the induction of acetylated histone H4 was considerably smaller. The benzamide MS‑275 exhibited nearly a 2‑fold induction of acetylated histone H4 and an even smaller induction of acetylated tubulin in A2780 and MCF7 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that although the three HDACi were equipotent in inhibiting proliferation of MCF7 and A2780 cells, only the benzamide MS‑275 did not induce acetylated tubulin expression, a marker of class IIb HDACs.

  5. Targeting Src in Mucinous Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koji; Nishimura, Masato; Bottsford-Miller, Justin N.; Huang1, Jie; Komurov, Kakajan; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Shahzad, Mian M. K.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Roh, Ju Won; Sanguino, Angela M.; Lu, Chunhua; Im, Dwight D.; Rosenshien, Neil B.; Sakakibara, Atsuko; Nagano, Tadayoshi; Yamasaki, Masato; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Tadashi; Ram, Prahlad T.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Gallick, Gary E.; Wong, Kwong K.; Frumovitz, Michael; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Mucinous ovarian carcinomas have a distinct clinical pattern compared to other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Here, we evaluated (i) stage-specific clinical significance of mucinous ovarian carcinomas in a large cohort and (ii) the functional role of src kinase in pre-clinical models of mucinous ovarian carcinoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 1302 ovarian cancer patients including 122 (9.4%) cases of mucinous carcinoma were evaluated for survival analyses. Biological effects of src kinase inhibition were tested in a novel orthotopic mucinous ovarian cancer model (RMUG-S-ip2) using dasatinib-based therapy. RESULTS Patients with advanced-stage mucinous ovarian cancer had significantly worse survival compared to those with serous histology: median overall survival, 1.67 versus 3.41 years, p=0.002; and median survival time after recurrence of 0.53 versus 1.66 years, p<0.0001. Among multiple ovarian cancer cell lines, RMUG-S-ip2 mucinous ovarian cancer cells showed the highest src kinase activity. Moreover, oxaliplatin treatment induced phosphorylation of src kinase. This induced activity by oxaliplatin therapy was inhibited by concurrent administration of dasatinib. Targeting src with dasatinib in vivo showed significant anti-tumor effects in the RMUG-S-ip2 model, but not in the serous ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3-TR) model. Combination therapy of oxaliplatin with dasatinib further demonstrated significant effects on reducing cell viability, increasing apoptosis, and in vivo anti-tumor effects in the RMUG-S-ip2 model. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that poor survival of women with mucinous ovarian carcinoma is associated with resistance to cytotoxic therapy. Targeting src kinase with combination of dasatinib and oxaliplatin may be an attractive approach in this disease. PMID:21737505

  6. Quercetin induces the apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma cells by upregulating the expression of microRNA-145.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junbo; Gong, Jian; Ding, Chun; Chen, Guiqin

    2015-08-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most malignant types of cancer of the female human reproductive track, posing a severe threat to the health of the female population. Numerous previous studies have demonstrated that microRNA (miR)-145 is downregulated in ovarian cancer, and that quercetin can inhibit the growth of cancer cells via regulating the expression of miRs. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of quercetin on the expression of miR-145 in SKOV-3 and A2780 human ovarian cancer cell lines. The results revealed that the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 in the SKOV-3 and A2780 cells were significantly increased following treatment to induce overexpression of miR-145 compared with treatment with quercetin alone (P<0.01). However, the expression of cleaved caspase-3 in the anti-miR-145 (miR-145 inhibitor) group of cells was markedly decreased compared with that in the miR-145 overexpression group (P<0.01). Taken together, the results suggested that treatment with quercetin induced the apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma cells through activation of the extrinsic death receptor mediated and intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

  7. Molecular pathogenesis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gounaris, Ioannis; Brenton, James D

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma is a distinct subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer, characterized by an association with endometriosis, glycogen accumulation and resistance to chemotherapy. Key driver events, including ARID1A mutations and HNF1B overexpression, have been recently identified and their functional characterization is ongoing. Additionally, the role of glycogen in promoting the malignant phenotype is coming under scrutiny. Appreciation of the notion that ovarian clear cell carcinoma is essentially an ectopic uterine cancer will hopefully lead to improved animal models of the disease, in turn paving the way for effective treatments.

  8. Denileukin Diftitox Used in Treating Patients With Advanced Refractory Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, or Epithelial Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-01

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  9. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-03-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in benign ovarian epithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  10. Autophagy as an emerging therapy target for ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Lei; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Wenyan; Song, Enxue; Fan, Yijun; Li, Jun; Wei, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular self-digestion pathway for maintenance of homeostasis under basal and stressed conditions. Autophagy plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as aging-related diseases, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Of special note is that accumulating data suggest an intimate relationship between autophagy and ovarian carcinoma. Autophagy is well identified to act as either as a tumor-suppressor or as a tumor-promoter in ovarian carcinoma. The exact function of autophagy in ovarian carcinoma is highly dependent on the circumstances of cancer including hypoxic, nutrient-deficient, chemotherapy and so on. However, the mechanism underlying autophagy associated with ovarian carcinoma remains elusive, the precise role of autophagy in ovarian carcinoma also remains undetermined. In this review, we tried to sum up and discuss recent research achievements of autophagy in ovarian cancer. Moreover, waves of novel therapies ways for ovarian carcinoma based on the functions of autophagy were collected. PMID:27825125

  11. Gallic acid sensitizes paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cells through an increase in reactive oxygen species and subsequent downregulation of ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carranza, Jessica Nayelli; Díaz, J Fernando; Redondo-Horcajo, Mariano; Barasoain, Isabel; Alvarez, Laura; Lastres, Pedro; Romero-Estrada, Antonio; Aller, Patricio; González-Maya, Leticia

    2018-06-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is currently used as a front-line chemotherapeutic agent for several types of cancer, including ovarian carcinoma; however, PTX-resistance frequently arises through multiple mechanisms. The development of new strategies using natural compounds and PTX in combination has been the aim of several prior studies, in order to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy. In this study, we found the following: (i) gallic acid (GA), a phenolic compound, potentiated the capacity of PTX to decrease proliferation and to cause G2/M cycle arrest in the PTX-resistant A2780AD ovarian cancer cell line; (ii) GA exerted a pro-oxidant action by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and co-treatment with the antioxidant agent N‑acetyl-L‑cysteine (NAC) prevented GA+PTX-induced cell proliferation inhibition and G2/M phase arrest; (iii) PTX stimulated ERK phosphorylation/activation, and co-treatment with the MEK/ERK inhibitor PD98049 potentiated the proliferation inhibition and G2/M phase arrest; (iv) and finally, GA abrogated the PTX-induced stimulation of ERK phosphorylation, a response that was prevented by co-treatment with NAC. Taken together, these results indicate that GA sensitizes PTX-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells via the ROS‑mediated inactivation of ERK, and suggest that GA could represent a useful co-adjuvant to PTX in ovarian carcinoma treatment.

  12. Telomerase Activity in Human Ovarian Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counter, Christopher M.; Hirte, Hal W.; Bacchetti, Silvia; Harley, Calvin B.

    1994-04-01

    Telomeres fulfill the dual function of protecting eukaryotic chromosomes from illegitimate recombination and degradation and may aid in chromosome attachment to the nuclear membrane. We have previously shown that telomerase, the enzyme which synthesizes telomeric DNA, is not detected in normal somatic cells and that telomeres shorten with replicative age. In cells immortalized in vitro, activation of telomerase apparently stabilizes telomere length, preventing a critical destabilization of chromosomes, and cell proliferation continues even when telomeres are short. In vivo, telomeres of most tumors are shorter than telomeres of control tissues, suggesting an analogous role for the enzyme. To assess the relevance of telomerase and telomere stability in the development and progression of tumors, we have measured enzyme activity and telomere length in metastatic cells of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We report that extremely short telomeres are maintained in these cells and that tumor cells, but not isogenic nonmalignant cells, express telomerase. Our findings suggest that progression of malignancy is ultimately dependent upon activation of telomerase and that telomerase inhibitors may be effective antitumor drugs.

  13. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P < 0.05) and higher than in middle and remote paraneoplastic tissue (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes in middle and proximal paraneoplastic tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  14. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma with ovarian metastasis - an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, Silviu Horia; Matei, Emil; Stănescu, CodruŢ Silvian; Lupescu, Ioana Gabriela; Boroş, Mirela; Herlea, Vlad; Luca, Niculina Ioana; DorobanŢu, Bogdan Mihail

    2017-01-01

    Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) has been considered a distinct clinical entity vs. hepatocellular carcinoma, with respect to its epidemiology, etiology, and prognosis. We describe the unusual case of a 23-year-old female patient with FLC and ovarian (Krukenberg) and peritoneal metastases, clinically mimicking an ovarian carcinoma. Multiple recurrences occurred despite initial R0 resection and chemotherapy, requiring surgical treatment. The patient survived five years and died from generalized disease. The particularities of our case are discussed by comparison with the other two similar cases and other date from the literature. To our knowledge, the ovarian involvement encountered in our case is the third case published in literature, being explained by the superficial location of the liver tumor.

  15. Testing for NRAS Mutations in Serous Borderline Ovarian Tumors and Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Grzanka, Dariusz; Grabiec, Marek

    2018-01-01

    The Idylla NRAS Mutation Test, performed on the Biocartis Idylla system, is an in vitro diagnostic tool for the qualitative assessment of 18 NRAS mutations in codons 12, 13, 59, 61, 117, and 146. Low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSC) represents less than 10% of all serous ovarian carcinomas. LGSCs are believed to arise from preexisting cystadenomas or serous borderline tumors (SBOTs) that eventually progress to an invasive carcinoma. The molecular analysis of cancer-causing mutations and the development of targeted biological therapies constitute a milestone in the diagnosis and therapy of ovarian malignancies. According to some authors, NRAS may be an important oncogene for the progression of SBOT to a frankly invasive disease. The primary aim of this study was to verify if a fully integrated, real-time PCR-based Idylla system can be used for the rapid determination of the NRAS mutation status in patients with serous borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. The study included tissue specimens from 12 patients with histopathologically verified ovarian masses, operated on at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz (Poland), between January 2009 and June 2012. The mean age of the study patients was 52.5 years (range 27–80 years). NRAS mutation in codon 13 (G13D, p.Gly13Asp; nucleotide: c.38G>A) was found in one patient, a woman with low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, our experiment was the first published study using the novel Idylla NRAS Mutation Test for the evaluation of ovarian tumors in a clinical setting. The Idylla platform is an interesting ancillary first-line rapid and fully automated instrument to detect NRAS mutations in SBOTs and LGSCs. However, the clinical usefulness of this method still needs to be verified in larger groups of cancer patients. PMID:29682098

  16. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesitymore » has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.« less

  17. Synchronous Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas: Evidence of Clonality.

    PubMed

    Anglesio, Michael S; Wang, Yi Kan; Maassen, Madlen; Horlings, Hugo M; Bashashati, Ali; Senz, Janine; Mackenzie, Robertson; Grewal, Diljot S; Li-Chang, Hector; Karnezis, Anthony N; Sheffield, Brandon S; McConechy, Melissa K; Kommoss, Friedrich; Taran, Florin A; Staebler, Annette; Shah, Sohrab P; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Brucker, Sara; Gilks, C Blake; Kommoss, Stefan; Huntsman, David G

    2016-06-01

    Many women with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma present with concurrent endometrial carcinoma. Organ-confined and low-grade synchronous endometrial and ovarian tumors (SEOs) clinically behave as independent primary tumors rather than a single advanced-stage carcinoma. We used 18 SEOs to investigate the ancestral relationship between the endometrial and ovarian components. Based on both targeted and exome sequencing, 17 of 18 patient cases of simultaneous cancer of the endometrium and ovary from our series showed evidence of a clonal relationship, ie, primary tumor and metastasis. Eleven patient cases fulfilled clinicopathological criteria that would lead to classification as independent endometrial and ovarian primary carcinomas, including being of FIGO stage T1a/1A, with organ-restricted growth and without surface involvement; 10 of 11 of these cases showed evidence of clonality. Our observations suggest that the disseminating cells amongst SEOs are restricted to physically accessible and microenvironment-compatible sites yet remain indolent, without the capacity for further dissemination. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Gene expression signatures differentiate ovarian/peritoneal serous carcinoma from breast carcinoma in effusions

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Ben; Stavnes, Helene Tuft; Holth, Arild; Chen, Xu; Yang, Yanqin; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Ovarian/primary peritoneal carcinoma and breast carcinoma are the gynaecological cancers that most frequently involve the serosal cavities. With the objective of improving on the limited diagnostic panel currently available for the differential diagnosis of these two malignancies, as well as to define tumour-specific biological targets, we compared their global gene expression patterns. Gene expression profiles of 10 serous ovarian/peritoneal and eight ductal breast carcinoma effusions were analysed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina. Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using all 54,675 genes in the array separated ovarian from breast carcinoma samples. We identified 288 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the two cancers by greater than 3.5-fold, of which 81 and 207 were overexpressed in breast and ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma, respectively. SAM analysis identified 1078 differentially expressed probes with false discovery rate less than 0.05. Genes overexpressed in breast carcinoma included TFF1, TFF3, FOXA1, CA12, GATA3, SDC1, PITX1, TH, EHFD1, EFEMP1, TOB1 and KLF2. Genes overexpressed in ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma included SPON1, RBP1, MFGE8, TM4SF12, MMP7, KLK5/6/7, FOLR1/3, PAX8, APOL2 and NRCAM. The differential expression of 14 genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and differences in 5 gene products were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Expression profiling distinguishes ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma from breast carcinoma and identifies genes that are differentially expressed in these two tumour types. The molecular signatures unique to these cancers may facilitate their differential diagnosis and may provide a molecular basis for therapeutic target discovery. PMID:20132413

  19. The role of EMMPRIN expression in ovarian epithelial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Chen, Shuo; Gou, Wen-feng; Niu, Zhe-feng; Zhao, Shuang; Xiao, Li-jun; Takano, Yasuo; Zheng, Hua-chuan

    2013-09-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was reported to involve in the invasion and metastasis of malignancies by regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in stromal and cancer cells. The study aimed to clarify the role of EMMPRIN expression in tumorigenesis and progression of ovarian epithelial carcinomas. EMMPRIN siRNA were transfected into ovarian carcinoma cells with the phenotypes and their related molecules examined. EMMPRIN expression was determined in ovarian normal tissue, benign and borderline tumors, and epithelial carcinomas by real-time PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. EMMPRIN siRNA treatment resulted in a lower growth, G 1 arrest, apoptotic induction, decreased migration, and invasion. The transfectants showed reduced expression of Wnt5a, Akt, p70s6k, Bcl-xL, survivin, VEGF, and MMP-9 than mock and control cells at both mRNA and protein levels. According to real-time PCR and western blot, EMMPRIN mRNA or protein level was higher in ovarian borderline tumor and carcinoma than normal ovary and benign tumors (P<0.05), and positively correlated with dedifferentiation and FIGO staging (P<0.05). Immunohistochemically, EMMPRIN expression was positively correlated with FIGO staging, dedifferentiation, Ki-67 expression, the lower cumulative and relapse-free survival rate (P<0.05). Upregulated expression of EMMPRIN protein and mRNA might be involved in the pathogenesis, differentiation, and progression of ovarian carcinomas, possibly by modulating cellular events, such as proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion.

  20. The role of EMMPRIN expression in ovarian epithelial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Chen, Shuo; Gou, Wen-feng; Niu, Zhe-feng; Zhao, Shuang; Xiao, Li-jun; Takano, Yasuo; Zheng, Hua-chuan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was reported to involve in the invasion and metastasis of malignancies by regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in stromal and cancer cells. The study aimed to clarify the role of EMMPRIN expression in tumorigenesis and progression of ovarian epithelial carcinomas. Methods: EMMPRIN siRNA were transfected into ovarian carcinoma cells with the phenotypes and their related molecules examined. EMMPRIN expression was determined in ovarian normal tissue, benign and borderline tumors, and epithelial carcinomas by real-time PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemisty. Results: EMMPRIN siRNA treatment resulted in a lower growth, G1 arrest, apoptotic induction, decreased migration, and invasion. The transfectants showed reduced expression of Wnt5a, Akt, p70s6k, Bcl-xL, survivin, VEGF, and MMP-9 than mock and control cells at both mRNA and protein levels. According to real-time PCR and western blot, EMMPRIN mRNA or protein level was higher in ovarian borderline tumor and carcinoma than normal ovary and benign tumors (P < 0.05), and positively correlated with dedifferentiation and FIGO staging (P < 0.05). Immuhistochemically, EMMPRIN expression was positively correlated with FIGO staging, dedifferentiation, Ki-67 expression, the lower cumulative and relapse-free survival rate (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Upregulated expression of EMMPRIN protein and mRNA might be involved in the pathogenesis, differentiation, and progression of ovarian carcinomas, possibly by modulating cellular events, such as proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. PMID:23966157

  1. OVARIAN HILUS CELLS AND ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA WITH REFERENCE TO RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, S.; Janovski, N.A.

    1963-07-01

    A survey of the relation of hilus cell genesis and frequency of detection in ovaries to adenocarcinoma of the endometrium is presented. Results were based on the examination of 281 ovaries obtained from patients with endometrial carcinoma. The results showed that there was no statistical difference between the occurrence of hilus cells in the endometrial carcinoma group and a control group (33 and 25% respectively). However, if mode of treatment was taken into consideration, and patients undergoing irradiation for endometrial adenocarcinoma prior to operation separated into an individual group, there was a significant difference in the distribution of hilus cellsmore » in those patients as compared with the nonirradiated carcinoma group, at the level of 5%. The radiotherapy in these cases consisisted mainly of 50100 mg intracavitary Ra for approximates 72 hr. A surprisingly high incidence (60%) of ovarian hilus cells was found in patients who underwent radioinduced menopause for benign gynecologic conditions prior to developing adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. The incidence in all postmenopausal patients was only 37%. Ovarian hilus cells were more prevalent in postmenopausal women irrespective of endometrial carcinoma. Premenopausal women with endometrial carcinoma who received no irradiation prior to definitive operation are, therefore, the ideal subjects for further investigation of the relation between endometrial adenocarcinoma and ovarian hilus cells. (BBB)« less

  2. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Veliparib, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-24

    Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  3. MV-NIS Infected Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-31

    Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis and sensitizes human ovarian cancer cells to carboplatin therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Mian; Zhang, Ruiwen; Wang, Hui

    2009-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of artemisinin (ARS) and its derivatives on human ovarian cancer cells, to evaluate their potential as novel chemotherapeutic agents used alone or in combination with a conventional cancer chemotherapeutic agent, and to investigate their underlying mechanisms of action. Human ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and OVCAR-3), and immortalized non-tumourigenic human ovarian surface epithelial cells (IOSE144), were exposed to four ARS compounds for cytotoxicity testing. The in vitro and in vivo antitumour effects and possible underlying mechanisms of action of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the most effective compound, were further determined in ovarian cancer cells. ARS compounds exerted potent cytotoxicity to human ovarian carcinoma cells, with minimal effects on non-tumourigenic ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. DHA inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth when administered alone or in combination with carboplatin, presumably through the death receptor- and, mitochondrion-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. These effects were also observed in in vivo ovarian A2780 and OVCAR-3 xenograft tumour models. In conclusion, ARS derivatives, particularly DHA, exhibit significant anticancer activity against ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, with minimal toxicity to non-tumourigenic human OSE cells, indicating that they may be promising therapeutic agents for ovarian cancer, either used alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy.

  5. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis and sensitizes human ovarian cancer cells to carboplatin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Li, Mian; Zhang, Ruiwen; Wang, Hui

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of artemisinin (ARS) and its derivatives on human ovarian cancer cells, to evaluate their potential as novel chemotherapeutic agents used alone or in combination with a conventional cancer chemotherapeutic agent, and to investigate their underlying mechanisms of action. Human ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and OVCAR-3), and immortalized non-tumourigenic human ovarian surface epithelial cells (IOSE144), were exposed to four ARS compounds for cytotoxicity testing. The in vitro and in vivo antitumour effects and possible underlying mechanisms of action of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the most effective compound, were further determined in ovarian cancer cells. ARS compounds exerted potent cytotoxicity to human ovarian carcinoma cells, with minimal effects on non-tumourigenic ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. DHA inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth when administered alone or in combination with carboplatin, presumably through the death receptor- and, mitochondrion-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. These effects were also observed in in vivo ovarian A2780 and OVCAR-3 xenograft tumour models. In conclusion, ARS derivatives, particularly DHA, exhibit significant anticancer activity against ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, with minimal toxicity to non-tumourigenic human OSE cells, indicating that they may be promising therapeutic agents for ovarian cancer, either used alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy. PMID:18466355

  6. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775 in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-04

    Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. MicroRNA-133b targets glutathione S-transferase π expression to increase ovarian cancer cell sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuo; Jiao, Jin-Wen; Sun, Kai-Xuan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating studies reveal that aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression can affect the development of chemotherapy drug resistance by modulating the expression of relevant target proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-133b in the development of drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells. We examined the levels of miR-133b expression in ovarian carcinoma tissues and the human ovarian carcinoma cell lines (A2780, A2780/DDP and A2780/Taxol, respectively). We determined the cell viability of these cell lines treated with cisplatin or paclitaxel in the presence or absence of miR-133b or anti-miR-133b transfection using the MTT assay. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to assess the mRNA and protein expression levels of two drug-resistance-related genes: glutathione S-transferase (GST)-π and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). The dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to detect the promoter activity of GST-π in the presence and absence of miR-133b. The expression of miR-133b was significantly lower in primary resistant ovarian carcinomas than in the chemotherapy-sensitive carcinomas (P<0.05), and the same results were found in primary resistant ovarian cell lines (A2780/Taxol and A2780/DDP) compared to the chemotherapy-sensitive cell line (A2780; P<0.05). Following miR-133b transfection, four cell lines showed increased sensitivity to paclitaxel and cisplatin, while anti-miR-133b transfection reduced cell sensitivity to paclitaxel and cisplatin. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-133b interacted with the 3'-untranslated region of GST-π. Compared to controls, the mRNA and protein levels of MDR1 and GST-π were downregulated after miR-133b transfection and upregulated after anti-miR-133b transfection. MicroRNA-133b may reduce ovarian cancer drug resistance by silencing the expression of the drug-resistance-related proteins, GST-π and MDR1. In future, the combination of miR-133b with

  8. Antiangiogenic and Antitumor Effects of Src Inhibition in Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Liz Y.; Landen, Charles N.; Trevino, Jose G.; Halder, Jyotsnabaran; Lin, Yvonne G.; Kamat, Aparna A.; Kim, Tae-Jin; Merritt, William M.; Coleman, Robert L.; Gershenson, David M.; Shakespeare, William C.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorth, Raji; Metcalf, Chester A.; Dalgarno, David C.; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Gallick, Gary E.; Sood, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Src, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, is a key mediator for multiple signaling pathways that regulate critical cellular functions and is often aberrantly activated in a number of solid tumors, including ovarian carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of activated Src inhibition on tumor growth in an orthotopic murine model of ovarian carcinoma. In vitro studies on HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1 cell lines revealed that Src inhibition by the Src-selective inhibitor, AP23846, occurred within 1 hour and responded in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Src inhibition enhanced the cytotoxicity of docetaxel in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines, HeyA8 and HeyA8-MDR, respectively. In vivo, Src inhibition by AP23994, an orally bioavailable analogue of AP23846, significantly decreased tumor burden in HeyA8 (P = 0.02), SKOV3ip1 (P = 0.01), as well as HeyA8-MDR (P < 0.03) relative to the untreated controls. However, the greatest effect on tumor reduction was observed in combination therapy with docetaxel (P < 0.001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.01, for the above models, respectively). Proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining showed that Src inhibition alone (P = 0.02) and in combination with docetaxel (P = 0.007) significantly reduced tumor proliferation. In addition, Src inhibition alone and in combination with docetaxel significantly down-regulated tumoral production of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin 8, whereas combination therapy decreased the microvessel density (P = 0.02) and significantly affected vascular permeability (P < 0.05). In summary, Src inhibition with AP23994 has potent antiangiogenic effects and significantly reduces tumor burden in preclinical ovarian cancer models. Thus, Src inhibition may be an attractive therapeutic approach for patients with ovarian carcinoma. PMID:16951177

  9. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kelemen, Linda E.; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan; Li, Qiyuan; M. Lee, Janet; Seo, Ji-Heui; Phelan, Catherine M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqin; Spindler, Tassja J.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y. Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T.; Edwards, Robert P.; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B.; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wlodzimierz, Sawicki; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Sellers, Thomas A.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D.; Gayther, Simon A.; Berchuck, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk associations for ovarian carcinomas (OC) but not for mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOC). Genotypes from OC cases and controls were imputed into the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. Analysis of 1,644 MOC cases and 21,693 controls identified three novel risk associations: rs752590 at 2q13 (P = 3.3 × 10−8), rs711830 at 2q31.1 (P = 7.5 × 10−12) and rs688187 at 19q13.2 (P = 6.8 × 10−13). Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis in ovarian and colorectal tumors (which are histologically similar to MOC) identified significant eQTL associations for HOXD9 at 2q31.1 in ovarian (P = 4.95 × 10−4, FDR = 0.003) and colorectal (P = 0.01, FDR = 0.09) tumors, and for PAX8 at 2q13 in colorectal tumors (P = 0.03, FDR = 0.09). Chromosome conformation capture analysis identified interactions between the HOXD9 promoter and risk SNPs at 2q31.1. Overexpressing HOXD9 in MOC cells augmented the neoplastic phenotype. These findings provide the first evidence for MOC susceptibility variants and insights into the underlying biology of the disease. PMID:26075790

  10. Targeting Src and tubulin in mucinous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Hu, Wei; Dalton, Heather J.; Choi, Hyun Jin; Huang, Jie; Kang, Yu; Pradeep, Sunila; Miyake, Takahito; Song, Jian H.; Wen, Yunfei; Lu, Chunhua; Pecot, Chad V.; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Zand, Behrouz; Jennings, Nicholas B; Ivan, Cristina; Gallick, Gary E.; Baggerly, Keith A; Hangauer, David G.; Coleman, Robert L.; Frumovitz, Michael; Sood, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the antitumor effects of targeting Src and tubulin in mucinous ovarian carcinoma. Experimental design The in vitro and in vivo effects and molecular mechanisms of KX-01, which inhibits Src pathway and tubulin polymerization, were examined in mucinous ovarian cancer models. Results In vitro studies using RMUG-S and RMUG-L cell lines showed that KX-01 inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase, and enhanced the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin in the KX-01-sensitive cell line, RMUG-S. In vivo studies showed that KX-01 significantly decreased tumor burden in RMUG-S and RMUG-L mouse models relative to untreated controls, and the effects were greater when KX-01 was combined with oxaliplatin. KX-01 alone and in combination with oxaliplatin significantly inhibited tumor growth by reducing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in vivo. PTEN knock-in experiments in RMUG-L cells showed improved response to KX-01. Reverse phase protein array analysis showed that in addition to blocking downstream molecules of Src family kinases, KX-01 also activated acute stress-inducing molecules. Conclusion Our results showed that targeting both the Src pathway and tubulin with KX-01 significantly inhibited tumor growth in preclinical mucinous ovarian cancer models, suggesting that this may be a promising therapeutic approach for patients with mucinous ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24100628

  11. Hypomagnesaemia and hypocalcaemia in a patient with ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Leese, G. P.; Jung, R. T.; Browning, M. C.

    1993-01-01

    A patient with disseminated ovarian carcinoma presented with symptoms of hypocalcaemia secondary to hypomagnesaemia. The low serum magnesium (0.4 mmol/l) appeared to be due to renal leakage with no evidence of ureteric obstruction or hydronephrosis on intravenous urogram. Parathyroid hormone activity (serum levels and cAMP response) was normal, despite hypomagnesaemia. The patient's complaints resolved after magnesium and calcium supplementation. Hypomagnesaemia of malignancy is a rare but important complication, and is both poorly recognized and understood. PMID:8415350

  12. Identification and Characterization of Genomic Amplifications in Ovarian Serous Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    oncogenes, Rsf1 and Notch3, which were up-regulated in both genomic DNA and transcript levels in ovarian cancer. In a large- scale FISH analysis, Rsf1...associated with worse disease outcome, suggesting that Rsf1 could be potentially used as a prognostic marker in the future (Appendix #1). For the...over- expressed in a recurrent carcinoma. Although the follow-up study in a larger- scale sample size did not demonstrate clear amplification in NAC1

  13. Parkin gene alterations in ovarian carcinoma from northern Indian population.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Syed Jafar; Ali, Asgar; Rizvi, M Moshahid Alam

    2011-09-01

    Parkin, a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 6q25-27, has been identified as a target for mutation in many human malignancies like breast, ovaries, cervical and lungs etc. After a preliminary report on the loss of heterozygosity and altered Parkin expression in breast and ovarian tumors, we aimed to study loss of heterozygosity in the Parkin gene associated microsatellite markers and its expression in human ovarian cancer patients from Indian population. We examined 102 paired normal and ovarian cancer samples for allelic loss in Parkin gene locus using Parkin gene associated microsatellite markers through loss of heterozygosity and changes in its expression through semiquantitative RT-PCR. Loss of heterozygosity identified common region of loss in Parkin locus with highest frequency for the intragenic marker D6S1599 (53%) whereas, 49 of 102 (48%) specimens showed decreased or no expression of Parkin in ovarian tumors. The study revealed that presence of loss of heterozygosity was significantly higher in both the intragenic markers (D6S1599 and D6S305) as compared with the locus of flanking region (D6S1008) with their p value 0.000001 and 0.00008, respectively. It also revealed that Parkin inactivation is probably a combination of loss of heterozygosity coupled with downregulation of Parkin gene through an alternative means like epigenetic mechanism. These data strongly supports the previous study and argue that Parkin is a tumor suppressor gene whose inactivation may play an important role in ovarian carcinoma.

  14. Aberrant DNA Damage Response Pathways May Predict the Outcome of Platinum Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stefanou, Dimitra T.; Bamias, Aristotelis; Episkopou, Hara; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Likka, Maria; Kalampokas, Theodore; Photiou, Stylianos; Gavalas, Nikos; Sfikakis, Petros P.; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Souliotis, Vassilis L.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Despite the advances in the treatment of OC with combinatorial regimens, including surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, patients generally exhibit poor prognosis due to high chemotherapy resistance. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are involved in resistance of OC patients to platinum chemotherapy. Selected DDR signals were evaluated in two human ovarian carcinoma cell lines, one sensitive (A2780) and one resistant (A2780/C30) to platinum treatment as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from OC patients, sensitive (n = 7) or resistant (n = 4) to subsequent chemotherapy. PBMCs from healthy volunteers (n = 9) were studied in parallel. DNA damage was evaluated by immunofluorescence γH2AX staining and comet assay. Higher levels of intrinsic DNA damage were found in A2780 than in A2780/C30 cells. Moreover, the intrinsic DNA damage levels were significantly higher in OC patients relative to healthy volunteers, as well as in platinum-sensitive patients relative to platinum-resistant ones (all P<0.05). Following carboplatin treatment, A2780 cells showed lower DNA repair efficiency than A2780/C30 cells. Also, following carboplatin treatment of PBMCs ex vivo, the DNA repair efficiency was significantly higher in healthy volunteers than in platinum-resistant patients and lowest in platinum-sensitive ones (t1/2 for loss of γH2AX foci: 2.7±0.5h, 8.8±1.9h and 15.4±3.2h, respectively; using comet assay, t1/2 of platinum-induced damage repair: 4.8±1.4h, 12.9±1.9h and 21.4±2.6h, respectively; all P<0.03). Additionally, the carboplatin-induced apoptosis rate was higher in A2780 than in A2780/C30 cells. In PBMCs, apoptosis rates were inversely correlated with DNA repair efficiencies of these cells, being significantly higher in platinum-sensitive than in platinum-resistant patients and lowest in healthy volunteers (all P<0.05). We conclude that

  15. Low-molecular weight forms of cyclin E differentiate ovarian carcinoma from cells of mesothelial origin and are associated with poor survival in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ben; Skrede, Martina; Silins, Ilvars; Shih, Ie-Ming; Trope, Claes G; Flørenes, Vivi Ann

    2007-09-15

    The authors recently reported on the role of cyclin E in differentiating ovarian/primary peritoneal carcinoma from malignant peritoneal mesothelioma using gene expression arrays. In the current study, they analyzed the expression of low-molecular weight (LMW) forms of cyclin E in ovarian carcinoma, malignant mesothelioma, and benign reactive effusions. Cyclin E protein expression was analyzed in 98 effusions (72 ovarian carcinomas, 14 malignant mesotheliomas, and 12 reactive specimens) using immunoblotting. Sixty-two ovarian carcinoma effusions were studied further for cyclin E expression using immunohistochemistry. The correlations between cyclin E expression in ovarian carcinoma and clinical parameters, including chemotherapy response, were analyzed. LMW forms of cyclin E were identified in 54 of 72 ovarian carcinoma effusions (75%) compared with 1 of 14 malignant mesothelioma effusions (7%) and 1 of 12 reactive effusions (8%) (P < .001). Their presence in ovarian carcinoma was associated with a higher percentage of cyclin E-positive cells (P = .001) and increased staining intensity (P < .001) using immunohistochemistry. The presence of LMW forms of cyclin E was correlated with shorter overall survival (P = .021) and progression-free survival (P = .020). The presence of a higher percentage of cyclin E-positive cells using immunohistochemistry was correlated with shorter progression-free survival (P = .026). No association with chemotherapy response was observed. LMW forms of cyclin E differentiated ovarian carcinoma from benign and malignant mesothelial cells and were associated with increased protein expression using immunohistochemistry. The expression of LMW cyclin E forms was not associated with chemotherapy response, although it may be a marker of aggressive disease in patients with metastatic ovarian carcinoma. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  16. [Ovarian carcinoma: new prognostic and therapeutic viewpoints].

    PubMed

    Goldhirsch, A; Joss, R; Greiner, R; Brunner, K W

    1980-11-01

    Some recently developed concepts concerning the management of ovarian cancer are discussed. Cytoreductive surgery to debulk the tumor to a minimum, even in those cases which were considered inoperable in the past, improves the chances for cure. Adjuvant radiotherapy or combination chemotherapy with new drugs have proved highly effective in inducing complete remission and potential cures in these patients. The definition and better understanding of prognostic criteria play a primary role in the selection of treatment. In designing the strategy for adequate treatment, the following points are of major importance: (1) exact definition of tumor spread as determined by accurate surgical staging; (2) histologic and cytologic grading; and (3) evaluation of response.

  17. Tumor angiogenesis in advanced stage ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, H C; Kohn, E C; Steinberg, S M; Rothenberg, M L; Merino, M J

    1995-07-01

    Tumor angiogenesis has been found to have prognostic significance in many tumor types for predicting an increased risk of metastasis. We assessed tumor vascularity in 43 cases of advanced stage (International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians stages III and IV) ovarian cancer by using the highly specific endothelial cell marker CD34. Microvessel counts and stage were associated with disease-free survival and with overall survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The plots show that higher stage, higher average vessel count at 200x (200x avg) and 400x (400x avg) magnification and highest vessel count at 400x (400x high) magnification confer a worse prognosis for disease-free survival. Average vessel count of less than 16 (400x avg, P2 = 0.01) and less than 45 (200x avg, P2 = 0.026) suggested a better survival. Similarly, a high vessel count of less than 20 (400x high, P2 = 0.019) conferred a better survival as well. The plots suggest that higher stage, higher average vessel count at 200x and 400x, and highest vessel count at 200x and 400x show a trend to worse overall survival as well. With the Cox proportional hazards model, stage was the best predictor of overall survival, however, the average microvessel count at 400x was found to be the best predictor of disease-free survival. These results suggest that analysis of neovascularization in advanced stage ovarian cancer may be a useful prognostic factor.

  18. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Linda E; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan; Li, Qiyuan; Lee, Janet M; Seo, Ji-Heui; Phelan, Catherine M; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Spindler, Tassja J; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia

    2015-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk associations for ovarian carcinomas but not for mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOCs). Our analysis of 1,644 MOC cases and 21,693 controls with imputation identified 3 new risk associations: rs752590 at 2q13 (P = 3.3 × 10(-8)), rs711830 at 2q31.1 (P = 7.5 × 10(-12)) and rs688187 at 19q13.2 (P = 6.8 × 10(-13)). We identified significant expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) associations for HOXD9 at 2q31.1 in ovarian (P = 4.95 × 10(-4), false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.003) and colorectal (P = 0.01, FDR = 0.09) tumors and for PAX8 at 2q13 in colorectal tumors (P = 0.03, FDR = 0.09). Chromosome conformation capture analysis identified interactions between the HOXD9 promoter and risk-associated SNPs at 2q31.1. Overexpressing HOXD9 in MOC cells augmented the neoplastic phenotype. These findings provide the first evidence for MOC susceptibility variants and insights into the underlying biology of the disease.

  19. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Stage III Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-08

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  20. Ovarian and endometrial endometrioid carcinomas have distinct CTNNB1 and PTEN mutation profiles.

    PubMed

    McConechy, Melissa K; Ding, Jiarui; Senz, Janine; Yang, Winnie; Melnyk, Nataliya; Tone, Alicia A; Prentice, Leah M; Wiegand, Kimberly C; McAlpine, Jessica N; Shah, Sohrab P; Lee, Cheng-Han; Goodfellow, Paul J; Gilks, C Blake; Huntsman, David G

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian endometrioid carcinomas and endometrial endometrioid carcinomas share many histological and molecular alterations. These similarities are likely due to a common endometrial epithelial precursor cell of origin, with most ovarian endometrioid carcinomas arising from endometriosis. To directly compare the mutation profiles of two morphologically similar tumor types, endometrial endometrioid carcinomas (n=307) and ovarian endometrioid carcinomas (n=33), we performed select exon capture sequencing on a panel of genes: ARID1A, PTEN, PIK3CA, KRAS, CTNNB1, PPP2R1A, TP53. We found that PTEN mutations are more frequent in low-grade endometrial endometrioid carcinomas (67%) compared with low-grade ovarian endometrioid carcinomas (17%) (P<0.0001). By contrast, CTNNB1 mutations are significantly different in low-grade ovarian endometrioid carcinomas (53%) compared with low-grade endometrial endometrioid carcinomas (28%) (P<0.0057). This difference in CTNNB1 mutation frequency may be reflective of the distinct microenvironments; the epithelial cells lining an endometriotic cyst within the ovary are exposed to a highly oxidative environment that promotes tumorigenesis. Understanding the distinct mutation patterns found in the PI3K and Wnt pathways of ovarian and endometrial endometrioid carcinomas may provide future opportunities for stratifying patients for targeted therapeutics.

  1. Unraveling endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinomas using integrative proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Felix; Bernardini, Marcus Q.; Liang, Kun; Batruch, Ihor; Rouzbahman, Marjan; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.; Kulasingam, Vathany

    2018-01-01

    Background: To elucidate potential markers of endometriosis and endometriosis-associated endometrioid and clear cell ovarian carcinomas using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Methods: A total of 21 fresh, frozen tissues from patients diagnosed with clear cell carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, endometriosis and benign endometrium were subjected to an in-depth liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis on the Q-Exactive Plus. Protein identification and quantification were performed using MaxQuant, while downstream analyses were performed using Perseus and various bioinformatics databases. Results: Approximately 9000 proteins were identified in total, representing the first in-depth proteomic investigation of endometriosis and its associated cancers. This proteomic data was shown to be biologically sound, with minimal variation within patient cohorts and recapitulation of known markers. While moderate concordance with genomic data was observed, it was shown that such data are limited in their abilities to represent tumours on the protein level and to distinguish tumours from their benign precursors. Conclusions: The proteomic data suggests that distinct markers may differentiate endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma from endometriosis. These markers may be indicators of pathobiology but will need to be further investigated. Ultimately, this dataset may serve as a basis to unravel the underlying biology of the endometrioid and clear cell cancers with respect to their endometriotic origins. PMID:29721309

  2. Polyglutamate Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-07

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  3. Wilms tumor gene product: sensitive and contextually specific marker of serous carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Harry; Quenneville, Louise; Yaziji, Hadi; Gown, Allen M

    2004-06-01

    Carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin can arise from, and often present at, extraovarian sites. There are few available markers for the positive identification of carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin, which might aid in distinguishing them from metastatic carcinomas, such as of breast, colon, or lung origin. Recently, the Wilms tumor gene product (WT-1) has been shown to be expressed in ovarian surface and mesothelial epithelium. We tested the hypothesis that WT-1 would be a sensitive and specific marker of ovarian surface epithelium carcinomas. An archived series of 116 ovarian carcinomas (57 serous [43 ovarian, 14 extraovarian], 31 mucinous, 15 clear cell, 13 endometrioid), 118 breast carcinomas, 46 colonic carcinomas, and 45 nonsmall cell lung cancers were selected. A polyclonal antibody to the WT-1 gene product was applied to deparaffinized, formalin-fixed tissue sections after epitope retrieval. Fifty-two of 57 (93%) serous carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin were WT-1-positive, in a nuclear pattern, with virtually all the tumor cell population positive in the majority of cases. None of the mucinous, clear cell, or endometrioid ovarian cancers were positive, and only 8 of 118 breast, 0 of 46 colonic, and 0 of 45 lung nonsmall cell carcinomas were WT-1-positive. These findings demonstrate that WT-1 is a highly sensitive and specific marker of serous carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin (both ovarian and extraovarian). These results also contradict recent reports demonstrating WT-1 expression in both breast and lung carcinomas.

  4. Converging endometrial and ovarian tumorigenesis in Lynch syndrome: Shared origin of synchronous carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Niskakoski, Anni; Pasanen, Annukka; Porkka, Noora; Eldfors, Samuli; Lassus, Heini; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Kaur, Sippy; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Bützow, Ralf; Peltomäki, Päivi

    2018-04-28

    The diagnosis of carcinoma in both the uterus and the ovary simultaneously is not uncommon and raises the question of synchronous primaries vs. metastatic disease. Targeted sequencing of sporadic synchronous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas has shown that such tumors are clonally related and thus represent metastatic disease from one site to the other. Our purpose was to investigate whether or not the same applies to Lynch syndrome (LS), in which synchronous cancers of the gynecological tract are twice as frequent as in sporadic cases, reflecting inherited defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR). MMR gene mutation carriers with endometrial or ovarian carcinoma or endometrial hyperplasia were identified from a nationwide registry. Endometrial (n = 35) and ovarian carcinomas (n = 23), including 13 synchronous carcinoma pairs, were collected as well as endometrial hyperplasias (n = 56) and normal endometria (n = 99) from a surveillance program over two decades. All samples were studied for MMR status, ARID1A and L1CAM protein expression and tumor suppressor gene promoter methylation, and synchronous carcinomas additionally for somatic mutation profiles of 578 cancer-relevant genes. Synchronous carcinomas were molecularly concordant in all cases. Prior or concurrent complex (but not simple) endometrial hyperplasias showed a high degree of concordance with endometrial or ovarian carcinoma as the endpoint lesion. Our investigation suggests shared origins for synchronous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas in LS, in analogy to sporadic cases. The similar degrees of concordance between complex hyperplasias and endometrial vs. ovarian carcinoma highlight converging pathways for endometrial and ovarian tumorigenesis overall. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Epigenetic determinants of ovarian clear cell carcinoma biology

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Ken; Huang, Zhiqing; Matsumura, Noriomi; Mandai, Masaki; Okamoto, Takako; Baba, Tsukasa; Konishi, Ikuo; Berchuck, Andrew; Murphy, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted approaches have revealed frequent epigenetic alterations in ovarian cancer, but the scope and relation of these changes to histologic subtype of disease is unclear. Genome-wide methylation and expression data for 14 clear cell carcinoma (CCC), 32 non-CCC, and 4 corresponding normal cell lines were generated to determine how methylation profiles differ between cells of different histological derivations of ovarian cancer. Consensus clustering showed that CCC is epigenetically distinct. Inverse relationships between expression and methylation in CCC were identified, suggesting functional regulation by methylation, and included 22 hypomethylated (UM) genes and 276 hypermethylated (HM) genes. Categorical and pathway analyses indicated that the CCC-specific UM genes were involved in response to stress and many contain hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1 binding sites, while the CCC-specific HM genes included members of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) network and genes involved in tumor development. We independently validated the methylation status of 17 of these pathway-specific genes, and confirmed increased expression of HNF1 network genes and repression of ERalpha pathway genes in CCC cell lines and primary cancer tissues relative to non-CCC specimens. Treatment of three CCC cell lines with the demethylating agent Decitabine significantly induced expression for all five genes analyzed. Coordinate changes in pathway expression were confirmed using two primary ovarian cancer datasets (p<0.0001 for both). Our results suggest that methylation regulates specific pathways and biological functions in CCC, with hypomethylation influencing the characteristic biology of the disease while hypermethylation contributes to the carcinogenic process. PMID:24382740

  6. [Immunotherapy in epithelial ovarian carcinoma: hope and reality].

    PubMed

    Lavoué, V; Foucher, F; Henno, S; Bauville, E; Catros, V; Cabillic, F; Levêque, J

    2014-03-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) has a worst prognosis with little progress in terms of survival for the last two decades. Immunology received little interest in EOC in the past, but now appears very important in the natural history of this cancer. This review is an EOC immunology state of art and focuses on the place of immunotherapy in future. A systematic review of published studies was performed. Medline baseline interrogation was performed with the following keywords: "Ovarian carinoma, immunotherapy, T-lymphocyte, regulator T-lymphocyte, dendritic cells, macrophage, antigen, chemotherapy, surgery, clinical trials". Identified publications (English or French) were assessed for the understanding of EOC immunology and the place of conventional treatment and immunotherapy strategy. Intratumoral infiltration by immune cells is a strong prognotic factor in EOC. Surgery and chemotherapy in EOC decrease imunosuppression in patients. The antitumoral immunity is a part of the therapeutic action of surgery and chemotherapy. Until now, immunotherapy gave some disappointing results, but the new drugs that target the tolerogenic tumoral microenvironnement rise and give a new hope in the treatment of cancer. Immunology controls the EOC natural history. The modulation of immunosuppressive microenvironment associated with the stimulation of antitumoral immunity could be the next revolution in the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma--bad endometriosis or bad endometrium?

    PubMed

    Gounaris, Ioannis; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Brenton, James D

    2011-10-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the four main histological subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), high-grade serous, endometrioid, clear cell and mucinous, are entities with different epidemiologies, clinical presentations, responses to treatment, and ultimate outcomes. In fact, for all intents and purposes, they can be considered different diseases, their only common denominator being that they frequently involve the ovary and pelvic organs. However, clinical practice has not caught up with these insights and the treatment of EOC is that of a single disease entity. In part, this is because we lack detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms driving the pathogenesis of each disease, which is vital in order to develop therapeutic approaches against common driver events. In the last few years, mutations in ARID1A and PIK3CA have been described in a substantial fraction of cases of ovarian clear cell carcinoma, yet the paper by Yamamoto et al in this issue of The Journal of Pathology reveals that PIK3CA mutations can be detected in precursor endometriosis tissues. These and other recent observations underscore the importance of investigating whether mutations in the eutopic endometrium actually predispose to endometriosis and eventually to malignancy. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Combination of Scoring Criteria and Whole Exome Sequencing Analysis of Synchronous Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingyi; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Qiujuan; Liu, Changxu; Qi, Lisha; Li, Lingmei; Qu, Tongyuan; Wang, Yalei; Liu, Suxiang; Meng, Bin; Sun, Baocun; Cao, Wenfeng

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian carcinomas from single primary tumor with metastasis by clinical pathologic criteria and whole exome sequencing (WES). Fifty-two patients with synchronous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas (SEOCs) between 2010 and 2017 were reviewed and subjected to WES. On the basis of the Scully criteria, 11 cases were supposed as synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian carcinomas, 38 cases as single primary tumor with metastasis, and the remaining 3 cases (S50-S52) cannot be defined. Through a quantization scoring analysis, 9 cases that were scored 0-1 point were defined as synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian carcinomas, and 42 cases that were scored 3-8 points were defined as single primary tumor with metastasis. Two of the undefined cases were classified into metastatic disease, and another one that scored 2 points (S52) was subjected to WES. S52 was deemed synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian carcinomas, with few shared somatic mutations and overlapping copy number varieties. The finding of a serous component examined from the uterine endometrium samples further illustrated that the case was synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian carcinomas. By scoring criterion, SEOCs were divided into 2 groups: synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian carcinoma group and single primary tumor with metastasis group. The analysis of clonality indicated that the case that scored 2 (S52) can be considered as synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian carcinomas. Scoring criteria of clinical pathology, along with the study of the WES, may further identify the classification of SEOCs.

  9. A6 in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-27

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Everolimus and Letrozole in Treating Patients With Recurrent Hormone Receptor Positive Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-05

    Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  11. Small cell ovarian carcinoma: genomic stability and responsiveness to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gamwell, Lisa F; Gambaro, Karen; Merziotis, Maria; Crane, Colleen; Arcand, Suzanna L; Bourada, Valerie; Davis, Christopher; Squire, Jeremy A; Huntsman, David G; Tonin, Patricia N; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

    2013-02-21

    The biology of small cell ovarian carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT), which is a rare and aggressive form of ovarian cancer, is poorly understood. Tumourigenicity, in vitro growth characteristics, genetic and genomic anomalies, and sensitivity to standard and novel chemotherapeutic treatments were investigated in the unique SCCOHT cell line, BIN-67, to provide further insight in the biology of this rare type of ovarian cancer. The tumourigenic potential of BIN-67 cells was determined and the tumours formed in a xenograft model was compared to human SCCOHT. DNA sequencing, spectral karyotyping and high density SNP array analysis was performed. The sensitivity of the BIN-67 cells to standard chemotherapeutic agents and to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and the JX-594 vaccinia virus was tested. BIN-67 cells were capable of forming spheroids in hanging drop cultures. When xenografted into immunodeficient mice, BIN-67 cells developed into tumours that reflected the hypercalcemia and histology of human SCCOHT, notably intense expression of WT-1 and vimentin, and lack of expression of inhibin. Somatic mutations in TP53 and the most common activating mutations in KRAS and BRAF were not found in BIN-67 cells by DNA sequencing. Spectral karyotyping revealed a largely normal diploid karyotype (in greater than 95% of cells) with a visibly shorter chromosome 20 contig. High density SNP array analysis also revealed few genomic anomalies in BIN-67 cells, which included loss of heterozygosity of an estimated 16.7 Mb interval on chromosome 20. SNP array analyses of four SCCOHT samples also indicated a low frequency of genomic anomalies in the majority of cases. Although resistant to platinum chemotherapeutic drugs, BIN-67 cell viability in vitro was reduced by > 75% after infection with oncolytic viruses. These results show that SCCOHT differs from high-grade serous carcinomas by exhibiting few chromosomal anomalies and lacking TP53 mutations. Although BIN-67 cells are

  12. Frequent POLE1 p.S297F mutation in Chinese patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yang; Liu, Fa-Ying; Liu, Huai; Wang, Feng; Li, Wei; Huang, Mei-Zhen; Huang, Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Qun; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Huang, Ou-Ping; He, Ming

    2014-03-01

    The catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE1) functions primarily in nuclear DNA replication and repair. Recently, POLE1 mutations were detected frequently in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas while with lower frequency in several other types of cancer, and the p.P286R and p.V411L mutations were the potential mutation hotspots in human cancers. Nevertheless, the mutation frequency of POLE1 in ovarian cancer still remains largely unknown. Here, we screened a total of 251 Chinese samples with distinct subtypes of ovarian carcinoma for the presence of POLE1 hotspot mutations by direct sequencing. A heterozygous somatic POLE1 mutation, p.S297F (c.890C>T), but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was identified in 3 out of 37 (8.1%) patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma; this mutation was evolutionarily highly conserved from Homo sapiens to Schizosaccharomyces. Of note, the POLE1 mutation coexisted with mutation in the ovarian cancer-associated PPP2R1A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, α) gene in a 46-year-old patient, who was also diagnosed with ectopic endometriosis in the benign ovary. In addition, a 45-year-old POLE1-mutated ovarian endometrioid carcinoma patient was also diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma while the remaining 52-year-old POLE1-mutated patient showed no additional distinctive clinical manifestation. In contrast to high frequency of POLE1 mutations in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, no POLE1 mutations were identified in patients with other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Our results showed for the first time that the POLE1 p.S297F mutation, but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was frequent in Chinese ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but absent in other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. These results implicated that POLE1 p.S297F mutation might be actively involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but might not be actively

  13. PET Imaging of Ovarian Carcinoma With 18F-FSPG

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-04

    Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  14. TLR8 Agonist VTX-2337 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride or Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. DNA methylation profiles of ovarian epithelial carcinoma tumors and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Houshdaran, Sahar; Hawley, Sarah; Palmer, Chana; Campan, Mihaela; Olsen, Mari N; Ventura, Aviva P; Knudsen, Beatrice S; Drescher, Charles W; Urban, Nicole D; Brown, Patrick O; Laird, Peter W

    2010-02-22

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a significant cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide and in the United States. Epithelial ovarian cancer comprises several histological subtypes, each with distinct clinical and molecular characteristics. The natural history of this heterogeneous disease, including the cell types of origin, is poorly understood. This study applied recently developed methods for high-throughput DNA methylation profiling to characterize ovarian cancer cell lines and tumors, including representatives of three major histologies. We obtained DNA methylation profiles of 1,505 CpG sites (808 genes) in 27 primary epithelial ovarian tumors and 15 ovarian cancer cell lines. We found that the DNA methylation profiles of ovarian cancer cell lines were markedly different from those of primary ovarian tumors. Aggregate DNA methylation levels of the assayed CpG sites tended to be higher in ovarian cancer cell lines relative to ovarian tumors. Within the primary tumors, those of the same histological type were more alike in their methylation profiles than those of different subtypes. Supervised analyses identified 90 CpG sites (68 genes) that exhibited 'subtype-specific' DNA methylation patterns (FDR<1%) among the tumors. In ovarian cancer cell lines, we estimated that for at least 27% of analyzed autosomal CpG sites, increases in methylation were accompanied by decreases in transcription of the associated gene. The significant difference in DNA methylation profiles between ovarian cancer cell lines and tumors underscores the need to be cautious in using cell lines as tumor models for molecular studies of ovarian cancer and other cancers. Similarly, the distinct methylation profiles of the different histological types of ovarian tumors reinforces the need to treat the different histologies of ovarian cancer as different diseases, both clinically and in biomarker studies. These data provide a useful resource for future studies, including those of potential

  16. Similar protein expression profiles of ovarian and endometrial high-grade serous carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Kosuke; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Serada, Satoshi; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Hori, Yumiko; Fujimoto, Minoru; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Ueda, Yutaka; Morii, Eiichi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Naka, Tetsuji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian and endometrial high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) have similar clinical and pathological characteristics; however, exhaustive protein expression profiling of these cancers has yet to be reported. We performed protein expression profiling on 14 cases of HGSCs (7 ovarian and 7 endometrial) and 18 endometrioid carcinomas (9 ovarian and 9 endometrial) using iTRAQ-based exhaustive and quantitative protein analysis. We identified 828 tumour-expressed proteins and evaluated the statistical similarity of protein expression profiles between ovarian and endometrial HGSCs using unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (P<0.01). Using 45 statistically highly expressed proteins in HGSCs, protein ontology analysis detected two enriched terms and proteins composing each term: IMP2 and MCM2. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the higher expression of IMP2 and MCM2 in ovarian and endometrial HGSCs as well as in tubal and peritoneal HGSCs than in endometrioid carcinomas (P<0.01). The knockdown of either IMP2 or MCM2 by siRNA interference significantly decreased the proliferation rate of ovarian HGSC cell line (P<0.01). We demonstrated the statistical similarity of the protein expression profiles of ovarian and endometrial HGSC beyond the organs. We suggest that increased IMP2 and MCM2 expression may underlie some of the rapid HGSC growth observed clinically.

  17. Ovarian carcinoma ascites spheroids adhere to extracellular matrix components and mesothelial cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Kathryn M; Casey, Rachael C; Skubitz, Keith M; Pambuccian, Stephan E; Oegema, Theodore R; Skubitz, Amy P N

    2004-04-01

    Ovarian carcinoma cells form multicellular aggregates, or spheroids, in the peritoneal cavity of patients with advanced disease. The current paradigm that ascites spheroids are non-adhesive leaves their contribution to ovarian carcinoma dissemination undefined. Here, spheroids obtained from ovarian carcinoma patients' ascites were characterized for their ability to adhere to molecules encountered in the peritoneal cavity, with the goal of establishing their potential to contribute to ovarian cancer spread. Spheroids were recovered from the ascites fluid of 11 patients with stage III or stage IV ovarian carcinoma. Adhesion assays to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and human mesothelial cell monolayers were performed for each of the ascites spheroid samples. Subsequently, inhibition assays were performed to identify the cell receptors involved. Most ascites samples adhered moderately to fibronectin and type I collagen, with reduced adhesion to type IV collagen and laminin. Monoclonal antibodies against the beta1 integrin subunit partially inhibited this adhesion. Ascites spheroids also adhered to hyaluronan. Additionally, spheroids adhered to live, but not fixed, human mesothelial cell monolayers, and this adhesion was partially mediated by beta1 integrins. The cellular content of the ascites fluid has often been considered non-adhesive, but our findings are the first to suggest that patient-derived ascites spheroids can adhere to mesothelial extracellular matrix via beta1 integrins, indicating that spheroids should not be ignored in the dissemination of ovarian cancer.

  18. Sulforaphane reduces molecular response to hypoxia in ovarian tumor cells independently of their resistance to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pastorek, Michal; Simko, Veronika; Takacova, Martina; Barathova, Monika; Bartosova, Maria; Hunakova, Luba; Sedlakova, Olga; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga; Dequiedt, Franck; Pastorekova, Silvia; Sedlak, Jan

    2015-07-01

    One of the recently emerging anticancer strategies is the use of natural dietary compounds, such as sulforaphane, a cancer-chemopreventive isothiocyanate found in broccoli. Based on the growing evidence, sulforaphane acts through molecular mechanisms that interfere with multiple oncogenic pathways in diverse tumor cell types. Herein, we investigated the anticancer effects of bioavailable concentrations of sulforaphane in ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and its two derivatives, adriamycin-resistant A2780/ADR and cisplatin-resistant A2780/CP cell lines. Since tumor microenvironment is characterized by reduced oxygenation that induces aggressive tumor phenotype (such as increased invasiveness and resistance to chemotherapy), we evaluated the effects of sulforaphane in ovarian cancer cells exposed to hypoxia (2% O2). Using the cell-based reporter assay, we identified several oncogenic pathways modulated by sulforaphane in hypoxia by activating anticancer responses (p53, ARE, IRF-1, Pax-6 and XRE) and suppressing responses supporting tumor progression (AP-1 and HIF-1). We further showed that sulforaphane decreases the level of HIF-1α protein without affecting its transcription and stability. It can also diminish transcription and protein level of the HIF-1 target, CA IX, which protects tumor cells from hypoxia-induced pH imbalance and facilitates their migration/invasion. Accordingly, sulforaphane treatment leads to diminished pH regulation and reduced migration of ovarian carcinoma cells. These effects occur in all three ovarian cell lines suggesting that sulforaphane can overcome the chemoresistance of cancer cells. This offers a path potentially exploitable in sensitizing resistant cancer cells to therapy, and opens a window for the combined treatments of sulforaphane either with conventional chemotherapy, natural compounds, or with other small molecules.

  19. Clinicopathologic significance of HLA-G and HLA-E molecules in Tunisian patients with ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Babay, Wafa; Ben Yahia, Hamza; Boujelbene, Nadia; Zidi, Nour; Laaribi, Ahmed Baligh; Kacem, Dhikra; Ben Ghorbel, Radhia; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Ouzari, Hadda-Imene; Rizzo, Roberta; Rebmann, Vera; Mrad, Karima; Zidi, Inès

    2018-06-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and HLA-E, non classical HLA class I molecules, have been highly implicated in immune tolerance. HLA-G and HLA-E molecules were proposed as putative markers of several advanced cancers. As a step towards a better understanding of ovarian carcinoma, we evaluated the expression of both HLA-G and HLA-E molecules and explored their prognostic implication. HLA-G and HLA-E expression were studied by immunohistochemistry on ovarian carcinoma tissues. This expression was semi-quantitatively scored into four expression groups and correlated to clinicopathological parameters and patients' survival. HLA-G and HLA-E have been found to be highly expressed in ovarian carcinoma tissues (Respectively, 72.4% and 96.8%). They are frequently co-expressed. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that a positive HLA-G expression status in tumor tissue is a promising candidate parameter to predict disease recurrence in addition to the disease status in Tunisian patients with ovarian carcinoma. Moreover, the elevated HLA-E expression was associated with serous ovarian carcinoma subtype as well as with advanced stages of ovarian carcinoma. HLA-G and HLA-E are highly represented in ovarian carcinoma suggesting a potential association with progressive disease mechanism. HLA-G and HLA-E molecules might be new candidates' markers for ovarian carcinoma progression. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Downregulation of LRRC8A protects human ovarian and alveolar carcinoma cells against Cisplatin-induced expression of p53, MDM2, p21Waf1/Cip1, and Caspase-9/-3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Nielsen, Dorthe; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    The leucine-rich repeat containing 8A (LRRC8A) protein is an essential component of the volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC), and using pharmacological anion channel inhibitors (NS3728, DIDS) and LRRC8A siRNA we have investigated its role in development of Cisplatin resistance in human ovarian (A2780) and alveolar (A549) carcinoma cells. In Cisplatin-sensitive cells Cisplatin treatment increases p53-protein level as well as downstream signaling, e.g., expression of p21Waf1/Cip1, Bax, Noxa, MDM2, and activation of Caspase-9/-3. In contrast, Cisplatin-resistant cells do not enter apoptosis, i.e., their p53 and downstream signaling are reduced and caspase activity unaltered following Cisplatin exposure. Reduced LRRC8A expression and VSOAC activity are previously shown to correlate with Cisplatin resistance, and here we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition and transient knockdown of LRRC8A reduce the protein level of p53, MDM2, and p21Waf1/Cip1 as well as Caspase-9/-3 activation in Cisplatin-sensitive cells. Cisplatin resistance is accompanied by reduction in total LRRC8A expression (A2780) or LRRC8A expression in the plasma membrane (A549). Activation of Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis by TNFα-exposure or hyperosmotic cell shrinkage is almost unaffected by pharmacological anion channel inhibition. Our data indicate 1) that expression/activity of LRRC8A is essential for Cisplatin-induced increase in p53 protein level and its downstream signaling, i.e., Caspase-9/-3 activation, expression of p21Waf1/Cip1 and MDM2; and 2) that downregulation of LRRC8A-dependent osmolyte transporters contributes to acquirement of Cisplatin resistance in ovarian and lung carcinoma cells. Activation of LRRC8A-containing channels is upstream to apoptotic volume decrease as hypertonic cell shrinkage induces apoptosis independent of the presence of LRRC8A. PMID:26984736

  1. Mucin-1 and its relation to grade, stage and survival in ovarian carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mucin-1 is known to be over-expressed by various human carcinomas and is shed into the circulation where it can be detected in patient’s serum by specific anti-Mucin-1 antibodies, such as the tumour marker assays CA 15–3 and CA 27.29. The prognostic value of Mucin-1 expression in ovarian carcinoma remains uncertain. One aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of Mucin-1 in a cohort of patients with either benign or malignant ovarian tumours detected by CA 15–3 and CA 27.29. Another aim of this study was to evaluate Mucin-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in a different cohort of ovarian carcinoma patients with respect to grade, stage and survival. Methods Patients diagnosed with and treated for ovarian tumours were included in the study. Patient characteristics, histology including histological subtype, tumour stage, grading and follow-up data were available from patient records. Serum Mucin-1 concentrations were measured with ELISA technology detecting CA 15–3 and CA 27.29, Mucin-1 tissue expression was determined by immunohistochemistry using the VU4H5 and VU3C6 anti-Mucin-1 antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 18.0. Results Serum samples of 118 patients with ovarian tumours were obtained to determine levels of Mucin-1. Median CA 15–3 and CA 27.29 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with malignant disease (p< 0.001) than in patients with benign disease. Paraffin-embedded tissue of 154 patients with ovarian carcinoma was available to determine Mucin-1 expression. The majority of patients presented with advanced stage disease at primary diagnosis. Median follow-up time was 11.39 years. Immunohistochemistry results for VU4H5 showed significant differences with respect to tumour grade, FIGO stage and overall survival. Patients with negative expression had a mean overall survival of 9.33 years compared to 6.27 years for patients with positive Mucin-1 expression. Conclusions This study found

  2. Ovarian carcinomas with genetic and epigenetic BRCA1 loss have distinct molecular abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Gilks, C. Blake; Press, Joshua Z.; De Luca, Alessandro

    2008-05-02

    Subclassification of ovarian carcinomas can be used to guide treatment and determine prognosis. Germline and somatic mutations, loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and epigenetic events such as promoter hypermethylation can lead to decreased expression of BRCA1/2 in ovarian cancers. The mechanism of BRCA1/2 loss is a potential method of subclassifying high grade serous carcinomas. A consecutive series of 49 ovarian cancers was assessed for mutations status of BRCA1 and BRCA2, LOH at the BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci, methylation of the BRCA1 promoter, BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, and PIK3CA transcript levels, PIK3CA gene copy number, and BRCA1, p21, p53, and WT-1 immunohistochemistry. Eighteenmore » (37%) of the ovarian carcinomas had germline or somatic BRCA1 mutations, or epigenetic loss of BRCA1. All of these tumors were high-grade serous or undifferentiated type. None of the endometrioid (n=5), clear cell (n=4), or low grade serous (n=2) carcinomas showed loss of BRCA1, whereas 47% of the 38 high-grade serous or undifferentiated carcinomas had loss of BRCA1. It was possible to distinguish high grade serous carcinomas with BRCA1 mutations from those with epigenetic BRCA1 loss: tumors with BRCA1 mutations typically had decreased PTEN mRNA levels while those with epigenetic loss of BRCA1 had copy number gain of PIK3CA. Overexpression of p53 with loss of p21 expression occurred significantly more frequently in high grade serous carcinomas with epigenetic loss of BRCA1, compared to high grade serous tumors without loss of BRCA1. High grade serous carcinomas can be subclassified into three groups: BRCA1 loss (genetic), BRCA1 loss (epigenetic), and no BRCA1 loss. Tumors in these groups show distinct molecular alterations involving the PI3K/AKT and p53 pathways.« less

  3. Ovarian carcinomas with genetic and epigenetic BRCA1 loss havedistinct molecular abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Press, Joshua Z.; De Luca, Alessandro; Boyd, Niki

    2007-07-23

    Subclassification of ovarian carcinomas can be used to guide treatment and determine prognosis. Germline and somatic mutations, loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and epigenetic events such as promoter hypermethylation can lead to decreased expression of BRCA1/2 in ovarian cancers. The mechanism of BRCA1/2 loss is a potential method of subclassifying high grade serous carcinomas. A consecutive series of 49 ovarian cancers was assessed for mutations status of BRCA1 and BRCA2, LOH at the BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci, methylation of the BRCA1 promoter, BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, and PIK3CA transcript levels, PIK3CA gene copy number, and BRCA1, p21, p53, and WT-1 immunohistochemistry. Eighteenmore » (37%) of the ovarian carcinomas had germline or somatic BRCA1 mutations, or epigenetic loss of BRCA1. All of these tumors were high-grade serous or undifferentiated type. None of the endometrioid (n = 5), clear cell (n = 4), or low grade serous (n = 2) carcinomas showed loss of BRCA1, whereas 47% of the 38 high-grade serous or undifferentiated carcinomas had loss of BRCA1. It was possible to distinguish high grade serous carcinomas with BRCA1 mutations from those with epigenetic BRCA1 loss: tumors with BRCA1 mutations typically had decreased PTEN mRNA levels while those with epigenetic loss of BRCA1 had copy number gain of PIK3CA. Overexpression of p53 with loss of p21 expression occurred significantly more frequently in high grade serous carcinomas with epigenetic loss of BRCA1, compared to high grade serous tumors without loss of BRCA1. High grade serous carcinomas can be subclassified into three groups: BRCA1 loss (genetic), BRCA1 loss (epigenetic), and no BRCA1 loss. Tumors in these groups show distinct molecular alterations involving the PI3K/AKT and p53 pathways.« less

  4. Correlation of ALDH1 and Notch3 Expression: Clinical implication in Ovarian Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Joung; Kim, A-Ram; Jeong, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Kwang-Il; Kim, Tae-Heon; Lee, Chan; Chung, Kwanghoe; Ko, Young-Hyeh; An, Hee-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose : ALDH1 is a putative cancer stem cell marker, while the Notch signaling pathway is involved in regulation of cancer stem cell (CSC)s. This study aims to determine the expression of Notch signaling genes in ovarian CSCs, and to assess the clinical impact of expression of ALDH1 and Notch signaling genes in ovarian cancers. Methods : We examined expression of Notch signaling genes in FACS-sorted ALDH1(+) putative ovarian CSCs and expression of ALDH1 and Notch signaling genes in 86 ovarian epithelial tumors and various ovarian cancer cell lines by real-time RT-PCR, including Notch receptors ( Notch1-4 ), Notch ligands ( Jagged1 and Jagged2 ), and the downstream molecule, Hes1 . Furthermore, we correlated their expression with clinicopathological parameters and patient's survival in ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC)s, the most prevalent type of ovarian cancer. Results : The higher expression levels of ALDH1 and Notch related genes, especially Notch3 were associated with CSCs and with chemoresistant OSCs and paclitaxel-resistant SKpac ovarian cancer cells. Among the Notch signaling genes, high Notch3 expression was significantly associated with all the parameters of poor prognosis, i.e., advanced stage, lymph node and distant metastases, and chemoresistance, whereas other genes were less correlated with these parameters. A combined upregulation of ALDH1 and Notch3 was an independent poor prognostic factor in OSCs. Conclusions : ALDH1 correlates with Notch3 expression in ovarian carcinomas. ALDH1 and Notch3 overexpression is an independent poor prognostic indicator for worse patient's survival in this subset of OSCs.

  5. Molecular alterations in endometrial and ovarian clear cell carcinomas: clinical impacts of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsien-Neng; Chiang, Ying-Cheng; Cheng, Wen-Fang; Chen, Chi-An; Lin, Ming-Chieh; Kuo, Kuan-Ting

    2015-02-01

    Recently, mutations of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter were found in several types of cancer. A few reports demonstrate TERT promoter mutations in ovarian clear cell carcinomas but endometrial clear cell carcinoma has not been studied. The aims of this study were to compare differences of molecular alterations and clinical factors, and identify their prognostic impact in endometrial and ovarian clear cell carcinomas. We evaluated mutations of the TERT promoter and PIK3CA, expression of ARID1A, and other clinicopathological factors in 56 ovarian and 14 endometrial clear cell carcinomas. We found that TERT promoter mutations were present in 21% (3/14) of endometrial clear cell carcinomas and 16% (9/56) of ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Compared with ovarian clear cell carcinomas, endometrial clear cell carcinomas showed older mean patient age (P<0.001), preserved ARID1A immunoreactivity (P=0.017) and infrequent PIK3CA mutation (P=0.025). In ovarian clear cell carcinomas, TERT promoter mutations were correlated with patient age >45 (P=0.045) and preserved ARID1A expression (P=0.003). In cases of endometrial clear cell carcinoma, TERT promoter mutations were not statistically associated with any other clinicopathological factors. In ovarian clear cell carcinoma patients with early FIGO stage (stages I and II), TERT promoter mutation was an independent prognostic factor and correlated with a shorter disease-free survival and overall survival (P=0.015 and 0.009, respectively). In recurrent ovarian clear cell carcinoma patients with early FIGO stage, TERT promoter mutations were associated with early relapse within 6 months (P=0.018). We concluded that TERT promoter mutations were present in endometrial and ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Distinct molecular alteration patterns in endometrial and ovarian clear cell carcinomas implied different processes of tumorigenesis in these morphologically similar tumors. In ovarian clear cell carcinoma of early FIGO

  6. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma diagnosis by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dória, Maria Luisa; McKenzie, James S.; Mroz, Anna; Phelps, David L.; Speller, Abigail; Rosini, Francesca; Strittmatter, Nicole; Golf, Ottmar; Veselkov, Kirill; Brown, Robert; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Takats, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is highly prevalent among European women, and is the leading cause of gynaecological cancer death. Current histopathological diagnoses of tumour severity are based on interpretation of, for example, immunohistochemical staining. Desorption electrospray mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) generates spatially resolved metabolic profiles of tissues and supports an objective investigation of tumour biology. In this study, various ovarian tissue types were analysed by DESI-MSI and co-registered with their corresponding haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained images. The mass spectral data reveal tissue type-dependent lipid profiles which are consistent across the n = 110 samples (n = 107 patients) used in this study. Multivariate statistical methods were used to classify samples and identify molecular features discriminating between tissue types. Three main groups of samples (epithelial ovarian carcinoma, borderline ovarian tumours, normal ovarian stroma) were compared as were the carcinoma histotypes (serous, endometrioid, clear cell). Classification rates >84% were achieved for all analyses, and variables differing statistically between groups were determined and putatively identified. The changes noted in various lipid types help to provide a context in terms of tumour biochemistry. The classification of unseen samples demonstrates the capability of DESI-MSI to characterise ovarian samples and to overcome existing limitations in classical histopathology. PMID:27976698

  7. Biobehavioral modulation of the exosome transcriptome in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lutgendorf, Susan K; Thaker, Premal H; Arevalo, Jesusa M; Goodheart, Michael J; Slavich, George M; Sood, Anil K; Cole, Steve W

    2018-02-01

    Social factors in the patient macroenvironment have been shown to influence molecular events in the tumor microenvironment and thereby influence cancer progression. However, biomarkers providing a window into the longitudinal effects of biobehavioral factors on tumor biology over time are lacking. Exosome analysis is a novel strategy for in vivo monitoring of dynamic changes in tumor cells. This study examined exosomal profiles from patients with low or high levels of social support for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) polarization and gene expression related to inflammation and β-adrenergic signaling. Exosomes were isolated from plasma sampled from a series of 40 women before primary surgical resection of advanced-stage, high-grade ovarian carcinoma. Samples were selected for analysis on the basis of extremes of low and high levels of social support. After exosomal isolation and RNA extraction, a microarray analysis of the transcriptome was performed. Primary analyses identified significant upregulation of 67 mesenchymal-characteristic gene transcripts and downregulation of 63 epithelial-characteristic transcripts in patients with low social support; this demonstrated increased EMT polarization (P = .0002). Secondary analyses using promoter sequence bioinformatics supported a priori hypotheses linking low social support to 1) increased activity of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor (ATF) family transcription factors that mediate the β-adrenergic response to catecholamines via the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A signaling pathway (mean fold change for CREB: 2.24 ± 0.65; P = .0019; mean fold change for ATF: 2.00 ± 0.55; P = .0049) and 2) increased activity of the proinflammatory nuclear factor κB/Rel family of transcription factors (mean fold change: 2.10 ± 0.70; P = .0109). These findings suggest the possibility of leveraging exosomes as a

  8. Argonaute, Dicer, and Drosha are up-regulated along tumor progression in serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vaksman, Olga; Hetland, Thea Eline; Trope', Claes G; Reich, Reuven; Davidson, Ben

    2012-11-01

    MicroRNAs are posttranscriptional regulators of messenger RNA synthesis that are intracellularly processed and transferred by the microRNA-regulating machinery consisting of Drosha, Dicer, and Argonaute. The present study analyzed the expression and clinical role of the microRNA-regulating machinery in advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma. Drosha, Dicer, Argonaute 1, and Argonaute 2 messenger RNA levels were analyzed in 144 specimens (82 effusions, 33 primary carcinomas, and 29 solid metastases) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Dicer, Argonaute 1, and Argonaute 2 protein levels were analyzed in 103 of the above specimens by Western blotting. Argonaute 1, Argonaute 2, and Drosha messenger RNAs were overexpressed in effusions compared with primary carcinomas and solid metastases (P<.001), whereas Argonaute 1 protein expression was highest in solid metastases (P=.004). Significantly higher expression of all 4 messenger RNAs was found in effusions compared with primary carcinomas (P<.001 to P=.006), whereas Argonaute 2 messenger RNA (P=.002), Drosha messenger RNA (P=.009), and Dicer protein (P=.006) were overexpressed in solid metastases compared with primary carcinomas. Drosha, Dicer, Argonaute 1, and Argonaute 2 messenger RNAs and protein levels in effusions were unrelated to clinicopathologic parameters. In primary carcinomas, higher levels of 3 messenger RNAs were significantly associated with high-grade histology (P=.003 for Dicer and P=.01 for Drosha and Argonaute 1). Higher Argonaute 2 messenger RNA levels in prechemotherapy effusions were related to shorter progression-free survival (P=.049), a finding that retained its significance in multivariate Cox analysis (P=.046). In conclusion, Drosha, Dicer, Argonaute 1, and Argonaute 2 are differentially expressed at different metastatic sites in ovarian carcinoma compared with primary carcinomas, suggesting a role for these molecules in tumor progression. Their clinical role in metastatic ovarian carcinoma

  9. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  10. Synchronous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas: predictors of risk and associations with survival and tumor expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Linda E; Rambau, Peter F; Koziak, Jennifer M; Steed, Helen; Köbel, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Synchronous endometrial and ovarian tumors (SEOs) are diagnosed in 10% of ovarian cancer patients. We examined predictors of SEOs, evaluated associations of SEOs with survival and characterized ovarian tumor profiles using immunohistochemistry. We included patients with endometrioid (n = 180) and clear cell (n = 165) ovarian carcinoma identified from the Alberta Cancer Registry between 1979 and 2010 for whom we abstracted medical records and constructed tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). A concurrent diagnosis of endometrial cancer was obtained from the medical chart. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Protein expression in ovarian tumors of patients with and without SEOs was evaluated using Fisher's exact test. Comparing 52 patients with SEO tumors to 293 patients with endometrioid or clear cell ovarian carcinomas, endometriosis at the ovary (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.23-0.87, p = 0.02) was the strongest predictor of decreased risk in multivariable models. Premenopausal status (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 0.92-5.13, p = 0.08) and lower pre-treatment CA125 levels (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.02-1.32, p = 0.09) showed weaker associations. There were no significant differences in survival between patients with or without SEO tumors. More patients with SEO tumors compared to endometrioid ovarian carcinoma were deficient in MLH1, PMS2 and PTEN (p ≤ 0.03). Endometriosis may not be the mechanism by which SEO cancers arise. Altered tumor oncoprotein expression between women with and without SEOs indicates important biological differences although this did not translate into prognostic differences.

  11. Presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its messenger ribonucleic acid in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ohno, T; Imai, A; Furui, T; Takahashi, K; Tamaya, T

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid and the presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in human ovarian carcinoma known to have gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites and to be affected by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog. Human ovarian carcinomas surgically removed and human ovarian carcinoma cell lines were examined. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was determined by a radioimmunoassay and a bioassay. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using oligonucleotide primers synthesized according to the published human gonadotropin-releasing hormone sequence. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was shown to be present in extracts of ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma sample (0.8 +/- 0.12 pg/mg of protein) and ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line SK-OV3 (0.92 +/- 0.17 pg/mg of protein) but not in the normal ovary and placenta. Two of two extract samples from individual cases evoked dose-dependent phosphoinositide breakdown in rat granulosa cells similar to that caused by authentic gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid was detected in two of two mucinous cystadenocarcinoma specimens, one of one serous cystadenocarcinoma, and SK-OV3 cells but not in the dysgerminoma, mucinous cystadenoma, and normal ovary and placenta. The demonstration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its messenger ribonucleic acid raises the possibility that gonadotropin-releasing hormone may play an autocrine regulatory role in the growth of ovarian carcinoma.

  12. [Expressions of VEGF/VEGFRs and activation of STATs in ovarian carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing-Ya; Ye, Da-Feng; Xie, Xing; Chen, Huai-Zeng; Lü, Wei-Guo

    2005-01-01

    To study the expressions of VEGF/VEGFRs and activation of STATs in ovarian epithelial carcinoma, and to elucidate direct effect of VEGF on ovarian carcinoma cells. Tissue samples from 42 women with primary ovarian epithelial carcinoma (OVCA), 29 with begnin ovarian tumor (OVBT) and 11 with normal ovarian tissue (NOV) were collected. LSAB immunohistochemical staining was used to determine the expression of VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and activated STATS (P-STAT1, P-STAT3, P-STAT5, P-STAT6) proteins. (1) Semi-quantitative scoring showed that VEGF expression in OVCA was significantly higher than that in OVBT and NOV (P < 0.01). Expressions of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were significantly elevated in OVCA, including tumor cells and stromal vascular endothelial cells (P < 0.01, compared with OVBT and NOV). There was no difference in VEGFRs expressions between OVBT and NOV. (2) In OVCA, tumor cells and endothelial cells expressed P-STAT3 and P-STAT5 at significantly higher levels than those in OVBT and NOV (P = 0.000). The staining of P-STAT1 and P-STAT6 was weak with no significant differences among OVCA, OVBT and NOV. (3) Expressions of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in endothelial cells were significantly correlated with P-STAT5 and P-STAT3, respectively (P = 0.006 and 0.001). In cancer cells, VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were all significantly correlated with P-STAT3 and P-STAT5 (P = 0.000), but not with P-STAT1 or P-STAT6. VEGF affects ovarian carcinoma cells via VEGFRs, and STATs probably participate in intracellular signaling of VEGF.

  13. Aurora-A overexpression and aneuploidy predict poor outcome in serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lassus, Heini; Staff, Synnöve; Leminen, Arto; Isola, Jorma; Butzow, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Aurora-A is a potential oncogene and therapeutic target in ovarian carcinoma. It is involved in mitotic events and overexpression leads to centrosome amplification and chromosomal instability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of Aurora-A and DNA ploidy in serous ovarian carcinoma. Serous ovarian carcinomas were analysed for Aurora-A protein by immunohistochemistry (n=592), Aurora-A copy number by CISH (n=169), Aurora-A mRNA by real-time PCR (n=158) and DNA ploidy by flowcytometry (n=440). Overexpression of Aurora-A was found in 27% of the tumors, cytoplasmic overexpression in 11% and nuclear in 17%. The cytoplasmic and nuclear overexpression were nearly mutually exclusive. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear overexpression were associated with shorter survival, high grade, high proliferation index and aberrant p53. Interestingly, only cytoplasmic expression was associated with aneuploidy and expression of phosphorylated Aurora-A. DNA ploidy was associated with poor patient outcome as well as aggressive clinicopathological parameters. In multivariate analysis, Aurora-A overexpression appeared as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival, together with grade, stage and ploidy. Aurora-A protein expression is strongly linked with poor patient outcome and aggressive disease characteristics, which makes Aurora-A a promising biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in ovarian carcinoma. Cytoplasmic and nuclear Aurora-A protein may have different functions. DNA aneuploidy is a strong predictor of poor prognosis in serous ovarian carcinoma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of Tissue Factor in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Is Involved in the Development of Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Manabu; Matsumoto, Koji; Gosho, Masahiko; Sakata, Akiko; Hosokawa, Yoshihiko; Tenjimbayashi, Yuri; Katoh, Takashi; Shikama, Ayumi; Komiya, Haruna; Michikami, Hiroo; Tasaka, Nobutaka; Akiyama-Abe, Azusa; Nakao, Sari; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Onuki, Mamiko; Minaguchi, Takeo; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Toyomi

    2017-01-01

    Our 2007 study of 32 patients with ovarian cancer reported the possible involvement of tissue factor (TF) in the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) before treatment, especially in clear cell carcinoma (CCC). This follow-up study further investigated this possibility in a larger cohort. We investigated the intensity of TF expression (ITFE) and other variables for associations with VTE using univariate and multivariate analyses in 128 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer initially treated between November 2004 and December 2010, none of whom had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Before starting treatment, all patients were ultrasonographically screened for VTE. The ITFE was graded based on immunostaining of surgical specimens. Histological types were serous carcinoma (n = 42), CCC (n = 12), endometrioid carcinoma (n = 15), mucinous carcinoma (n = 53), and undifferentiated carcinoma (n = 6). The prevalence of VTE was significantly higher in CCC (34%) than in non-CCC (17%, P = 0.03). As ITFE increased, the frequencies of CCC and VTE increased significantly (P < 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified TF expression and pretreatment dimerized plasmin fragment D level as significant independent risk factors for VTE development. These factors showed particularly strong impacts on advanced-stage disease (P = 0.021). The 2007 cohort was small, preventing multivariate analysis. This study of a larger cohort yielded stronger evidence that the development of VTE in epithelial ovarian cancer may involve TF expression in cancer tissues.

  15. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas associated with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chen, F; Gaitskell, K; Garcia, M J; Albukhari, A; Tsaltas, J; Ahmed, A A

    2017-05-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) have been documented in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs). However, the rate of association between STICs and HGSOCs and, therefore, the fraction of HGSOCs that are likely to have originated from the fallopian tube (FT), has remained unclear. To appraise the literature describing the association between STICs and established HGSOCs. Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched. Studies were included if they evaluated the frequency of STICs in HGSOCs, and were published in an English peer-reviewed journal. Appropriate studies were evaluated for their compliance with the 'Strengthening and Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE)' criteria. Ten articles met the study selection criteria. The reported coexistence between STICs and HGSOCs ranged from 11% to 61% (mean: 31%, 95% CI: 17-46%). STICs were rarely found in other gynaecological cancers. Small sample size, lack of objective criteria to identify STICs and the retrospective nature of the studies contributed to the variability in reporting the rate of the association. STICs were identified commonly in the FTs of women with HGSOC. Finding the true rate of association between STICs and HGSOCs will require further investigations. While there is evidence that a fraction of HGSOCs arise from the FTs, an accurate estimate of that fraction remains to be determined. The lack of an accurate estimate of the association makes it difficult to evaluate the potential magnitude of reduction of HGSOCs following prophylactic salpingectomy. A systematic review of the incidence of STICs in HGSOCs identifies significant methodological inconsistencies. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. MV-NIS or Investigator's Choice Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-27

    Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  17. Enhanced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G Y; Ahmed, N; Riley, C; Oliva, K; Barker, G; Quinn, M A; Rice, G E

    2005-01-17

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to a subclass of nuclear hormone receptor that executes important cellular transcriptional functions. Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of PPARgamma in several tumours including colon, breast, bladder, prostate, lung and stomach. This study demonstrates the relative expression of PPARgamma in normal ovaries and different pathological grades of ovarian tumours of serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell and mixed subtypes. A total of 56 ovarian specimens including 10 normal, eight benign, 10 borderline, seven grade 1, nine grade 2 and 12 grade 3 were analysed using immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactive PPARgamma was not expressed in normal ovaries. Out of eight benign and 10 borderline tumours, only one tumour in each group showed weak cytoplasmic PPARgamma expression. In contrast, 26 out of 28 carcinomas studied were positive for PPARgamma expression with staining confined to cytoplasmic and nuclear regions. An altered staining pattern of PPARgamma was observed in high-grade ovarian tumours with PPARgamma being mostly localized in the nuclei with little cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. On the other hand, predominant cytoplasmic staining was observed in lower-grade tumours. Significantly increased PPARgamma immunoreactivity was observed in malignant ovarian tumours (grade 1, 2 and 3) compared to benign and borderline tumours (chi2 = 48.80, P < 0.001). Western blot analyses showed significant elevation in the expression of immunoreactive PPARgamma in grade 3 ovarian tumours compared with that of normal ovaries and benign ovarian tumours (P < 0.01). These findings suggest an involvement of PPARgamma in the onset and development of ovarian carcinoma and provide an insight into the regulation of this molecule in the progression of the disease.

  18. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (7). Omental caking due to ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Helpert, C; Peh, W C; Ng, T Y

    1995-12-01

    A 52-year-old Chinese woman with previously resected ovarian carcinoma was found to have ascites and a mass in the Pouch of Douglas on follow-up examination. A large omental cake was detected on computerised tomography (CT), and subsequently confirmed during laparotomy. After completion of four cycles of chemotherapy, a near complete resolution of omental metastases was demonstrated on both CT and laparotomy. The role of CT in ovarian cancer is discussed and the CT appearances of omental tumour are described.

  19. Functional role and prognostic significance of CD157 in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ortolan, Erika; Arisio, Riccardo; Morone, Simona; Bovino, Paola; Lo-Buono, Nicola; Nacci, Giulia; Parrotta, Rossella; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Rapa, Ida; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Ferrero, Enza; Volante, Marco; Funaro, Ada

    2010-08-04

    CD157, an ADP-ribosyl cyclase-related cell surface molecule, regulates leukocyte diapedesis during inflammation. Because CD157 is expressed in mesothelial cells and diapedesis resembles tumor cell migration, we investigated the role of CD157 in ovarian carcinoma. We assayed surgically obtained ovarian cancer and mesothelial cells and both native and engineered ovarian cancer cell lines for CD157 expression using flow cytometry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and for adhesion to extracellular matrices, migration, and invasion using cell-based assays. We investigated invasion of human peritoneal mesothelial cells by serous ovarian cancer cells with a three-dimensional coculture model. Experiments were performed with or without CD157-blocking antibodies. CD157 expression in tissue sections from ovarian cancer patients (n = 88) was examined by immunohistochemistry, quantified by histological score (H score), and categorized as at or above or below the median value of 60, and compared with clinical parameters. Statistical tests were two-sided. CD157 was expressed by ovarian cancer cells and mesothelium, and it potentiated the adhesion, migration, and invasion of serous ovarian cancer cells through different extracellular matrices. CD157-transfected ovarian cancer cells migrated twice as much as CD157-negative control cells (P = .001). Blockage of CD157 inhibited mesothelial invasion by serous ovarian cancer cells in a three-dimensional model. CD157 was expressed in 82 (93%) of the 88 epithelial ovarian cancer tissue specimens. In serous ovarian cancer, patients with CD157 H scores of 60 or greater had statistically significantly shorter disease-free survival and overall survival than patients with lower CD157 H scores (CD157 H score > or =60 vs <60: median disease-free survival = 18 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.92 to 30.07 vs unreached, P = .005; CD157 H score > or =60 vs <60: median overall survival = 45 months, 95% CI = 21

  20. KRAS mutation testing in borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade ovarian carcinomas with a rapid, fully integrated molecular diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Sadlecki, Pawel; Antosik, Paulina; Grzanka, Dariusz; Grabiec, Marek; Walentowicz-Sadlecka, Malgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of tumors, including various malignancies with distinct clinicopathologic and molecular features. Mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes are the most frequent genetic aberrations found in low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas and serous and mucinous borderline tumors. Implementation of targeted therapeutic strategies requires access to highly specific and highly sensitive diagnostic tests for rapid determination of mutation status. One candidate for such test is fully integrated, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based Idylla™ system for quick and simple detection of KRAS mutations in formaldehyde fixed-paraffin embedded tumor samples. The primary aim of this study was to verify whether fully integrated real-time polymerase chain reaction-based Idylla system may be useful in determination of KRAS mutation status in patients with borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade ovarian carcinomas. The study included tissue specimens from 37 patients with histopathologically verified ovarian masses, operated on at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nicolaus Copernicus University Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz (Poland) between January 2009 and June 2012. Based on histopathological examination of surgical specimens, 30 lesions were classified as low-grade ovarian carcinomas and 7 as borderline ovarian tumors. Seven patients examined with Idylla KRAS Mutation Test tested positive for KRAS mutation. No statistically significant association was found between the incidence of KRAS mutations and histopathological type of ovarian tumors. Mean survival of the study subjects was 48.51 months (range 3-60 months). Presence of KRAS mutation did not exert a significant effect on the duration of survival in our series. Our findings suggest that Idylla KRAS Mutation Test may be a useful tool for rapid detection of KRAS mutations in ovarian tumor tissue.

  1. The in vitro antitumor activity of vitamins C and K3 against ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    von Gruenigen, Vivian E; Jamison, James M; Gilloteaux, Jacques; Lorimer, Heather E; Summers, Marcia; Pollard, Robert R; Gwin, Carley A; Summers, Jack L

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect and mechanism of action of vitamins C (VC) and K3 (VK3) on ovarian carcinoma. Cytotoxicity assays were performed on ovarian cancer cell lines with VC, VK3 or a VC/VK3 combination. FIC index was employed to evaluate synergism. Flow cytometry was accomplished at 90% cytotoxic doses. Light, transmission electron microscopy and DNA isolation were performed. Antitumor activity was exhibited by both VC, VK3 and VC/VK3. VC/VK3 demonstrated synergistic activity. VC/VK3 may induce a G1 block in the cell cycle. Combined vitamin treatment resulted in cells that maintain apparently intact nuclei while extruding pieces of organelle-free cytoplasm. Degradation of chromosomal DNA was observed. Cell death (autoschizis) displayed characteristics of both apoptosis and necrosis. The cytotoxic effects observed may enable vitamins C and K3 to play an adjuvant role in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  2. Acetaminophen Enhances Cisplatin- and Paclitaxel-mediated Cytotoxicity to SKOV3 Human Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y. Jeffrey; Neuwelt, Alexander J.; Muldoon, Leslie L.; Neuwelt, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is commonly treated with cisplatin/paclitaxel but many tumors become resistant. Acetaminophen reduced glutathione and enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in treating hepatic cancer. The objective of this study was to examine if acetaminophen enhances the cytotoxicity of cisplatin/paclitaxel in ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods SKOV3 human ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro and a subcutaneous tumor nude rat model were used and treated with cisplatin/paclitaxel with or without acetaminophen. Results In vitro, acetaminophen enhanced apoptosis induced by cisplatin and paclitaxel with similar effects on glutathione, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential but different effects on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) translocation. In vivo, acetaminophen was uniformly distributed in tissue and significantly reduced hepatic glutathione. Acetaminophen enhanced cisplatin chemotherapeutic effect by reducing tumor recurrence Conclusion Our results suggest that acetaminophen as a chemoenhancing adjuvant could improve the efficacy of cisplatin and paclitaxel in treating patients with ovarian carcinoma and other tumor types. PMID:23749887

  3. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Hydrochloride in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Fatigue; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Pain; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  4. Prevention of Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinoma by Elucidating Its Early Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    burden of ovarian cancer through prevention. Finally, it is important to note that clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous carcinomas are clinically...were cut onto PEN membrane slides (Leica), and immediately stored on dry ice. An entire cross-section of fallopian tubes for each case underwent LCM...containing BRCA1, BRCA2 and non-BRCA cases, utilizing the following exclusion criteria: o Systemic steroid treatment for other conditions (ie SLE/ankylosing

  5. The origin of ovarian carcinomas: a unifying hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Auersperg, Nelly

    2011-01-01

    It is currently a controversial issue whether epithelial ovarian cancers arise in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) or the fimbrial epithelium of the oviduct. The hypothesis presented here aims to reconcile these 2 views and provides a possible explanation for 2 questions arising: first, why tumors originating in the fimbriae and OSE, which are parts of different organs, express common features; second, why these epithelia are prone to neoplastic transformation whereas the remaining oviduct and the extraovarian mesothelium are not. We hypothesize that these questions relate to the common origin of the OSE and fimbriae in that region of the embryonic coelomic epithelium, which will eventually link the extraovarian mesothelium to the epithelium of the oviductal ampulla. OSE and fimbriae become separated during embryonic development but, like other transitional, interepithelial junctions in adults, this region might remain incompletely committed and thus prone to neoplastic progression. To define differentiation at the OSE-tubal junction, salpingo-oophorectomy specimens were stained immunohistochemically for mesenchymal differentiation markers of OSE and for epithelial markers and Pax8, characterizing oviductal fimbriae and ampullae. OSE and ampullae were distinctly different, but there was no sharp boundary between OSE and fimbriae. Rather, both mesenchymal and epithelial markers overlapped, and Pax8 and fimbrial epithelial markers diminished distally, near the OSE. The results support the hypothesis that the OSE and fimbriae are parts of a transitional epithelium of common origin rather than 2 independent sources of ovarian cancer, and suggest that their immature, incompletely determined phenotype contributes to their propensity to neoplastic transformation.

  6. Risk factors for progression to invasive carcinoma in patients with borderline ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Song, Taejong; Lee, Yoo-Young; Choi, Chel Hun; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for progression to invasive carcinoma in patients with borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs). We performed a retrospective review of all patients treated and followed for BOTs between 1996 and 2011. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for progression to invasive carcinoma. A total of 364 patients were identified. During the median follow-up of 53.8 months, 31 patients (8.5%) developed recurrent disease: 12 (3.3%) had recurrent disease with progression to invasive carcinoma, and 19 (5.2%) had recurrent disease with borderline histology. Disease-related deaths (7/364; 1.7%) were observed only in patients with progression to invasive carcinoma. The multivariate analysis showed that independent risk factors for progression to invasive carcinoma were advanced disease stage (hazard ratio [HR], 5.59; P = 0.005), age 65 years or older (HR, 5.13; P = 0.037), and the presence of microinvasion (HR, 3.71; P = 0.047). These 3 factors were also independently related to overall survival. Although patients with BOTs have an excellent prognosis, the risk of progression to invasive carcinoma and thereby death remains. Therefore, physicians should pay closer attention to BOT patients with these risk factors (ie, advanced disease stage, old age, and microinvasion), and more careful surveillance for progression to invasive carcinoma is needed.

  7. Downregulation of SASH1 correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis in ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    REN, XIAOYAN; LIU, YIFEI; TAO, YUMEI; ZHU, GUOXIANG; PEI, MEILAN; ZHANG, JIANGUO; LIU, JIAN

    2016-01-01

    SAM- and SH3-domain containing 1 (SASH1) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene that is required in the tumorigenesis of breast and other solid carcinomas. The SASH1 protein contains SH3 and SAM domains, indicating that it may serve an important role in intracellular signal transduction. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression of SASH1 in ovarian carcinoma and the correlation between its expression with clinical pathological features and clinical significance, and the effect of SASH1 on cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration of ovarian SKOV3 cells. The human ovarian carcinoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected following surgery. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression levels of SASH1 mRNA and protein, respectively. The expression levels of SASH1 mRNA and protein in ovarian carcinoma tissues were significantly lower than that observed in adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). The expression levels of SASH1 in samples from patients without lymph nodes metastasis and patients with early FIGO stage was lower than those with lymph nodes metastasis and patients with advanced FIGO stage (P<0.05). Flow cytometry analysis and Transwell invasion chamber experiments were used to investigate the effect of SASH1 on the cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration of SKOV3 cells. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-SASH1 was constructed and transfected into SKOV3 cells. In addition, the SKOV3 cells in the pcDNA3.1-SASH1 group exhibited significantly reduced cell growth, proliferation, and migration ability compared to the empty vector group and normal group (P<0.01). There were a greater number of apoptotic cells in the pcDNA3.1-SASH1 group compared to the empty vector group and normal group (P<0.01). Taken together, these results indicated that SASH1 may be a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian carcinoma, and SASH1 expression inhibited growth

  8. Downregulation of SASH1 correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yifei; Tao, Yumei; Zhu, Guoxiang; Pei, Meilan; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    SAM- and SH3-domain containing 1 (SASH1) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene that is required in the tumorigenesis of breast and other solid carcinomas. The SASH1 protein contains SH3 and SAM domains, indicating that it may serve an important role in intracellular signal transduction. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression of SASH1 in ovarian carcinoma and the correlation between its expression with clinical pathological features and clinical significance, and the effect of SASH1 on cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration of ovarian SKOV3 cells. The human ovarian carcinoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected following surgery. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression levels of SASH1 mRNA and protein, respectively. The expression levels of SASH1 mRNA and protein in ovarian carcinoma tissues were significantly lower than that observed in adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). The expression levels of SASH1 in samples from patients without lymph nodes metastasis and patients with early FIGO stage was lower than those with lymph nodes metastasis and patients with advanced FIGO stage (P<0.05). Flow cytometry analysis and Transwell invasion chamber experiments were used to investigate the effect of SASH1 on the cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration of SKOV3 cells. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-SASH1 was constructed and transfected into SKOV3 cells. In addition, the SKOV3 cells in the pcDNA3.1-SASH1 group exhibited significantly reduced cell growth, proliferation, and migration ability compared to the empty vector group and normal group (P<0.01). There were a greater number of apoptotic cells in the pcDNA3.1-SASH1 group compared to the empty vector group and normal group (P<0.01). Taken together, these results indicated that SASH1 may be a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian carcinoma, and SASH1 expression inhibited growth

  9. Identification and Characterization of Genomic Amplifications in Ovarian Serous Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Wang (2005) Exploring cancer genome using innovative technologies. Curr Opin Oncol, 17:33-38. • G Singer, R Stohr, L Cope, R Dehari, A Hartmann, D -F...tions/plate × 6 plates/ d ). This high-throughput platform permits a systemic scan of cancer genome at the nucleo- tide level in a short time [35]. This...Carter D , Foellmer HG, et al.: Neu proto-oncogene amplification and expression in ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines. Am J Pathol 1992, 140:23–31. 12

  10. Identification and Characterization of Genomic Amplifications in Ovarian Serous Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Powell B, Mills GB, Gray JW. PIK3CA is implicated as an oncogene in ovarian cancer. Nat Genet 1999; 21:99-102. 26. Ma YY, Wei SJ, Lin YC, Lung JC, Chang TC...Woffendin H, Garnett MJ, Bottomley W, Davis N, Dicks E, Ewing R, Floyd Y, Gray K, Hall S, Hawes R, Hughes J, Kosmidou V, Menzies A, Mould C, Parker A...McCormick F, Gray JW. Chromosome aberrations in solid tumors. Nat Genet 2003;34:369–76. 3. Wang TL, Diaz LA, Jr, Romans K, Bardelli A, Saha S, Galizia

  11. Identification and Characterization of Genomic Amplifications in Ovarian Serous Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    lower cost. As a result, we have analyzed more than 40 affinity purified ovarian serous tumors and our results demonstrated that CCNE1, Notch3 , Rsf-1...serous tumors. In addition, we have further characterized the biological functions of the two of the commonly amplified genes, Notch3 and Rsf-1, in...analyses, we have focused on two of the most frequently amplified regions, 11q13.2 (Rsf-1 locus) and 19p13 ( Notch3 locus), for detailed mapping and

  12. Mutational profiles of Brenner tumors show distinctive features uncoupling urothelial carcinomas and ovarian carcinoma with transitional cell histology.

    PubMed

    Pfarr, Nicole; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Leichsenring, Jonas; Taube, Eliane; Boxberg, Melanie; Braicu, Ioana; Jesinghaus, Moritz; Penzel, Roland; Endris, Volker; Noske, Aurelia; Weichert, Wilko; Schirmacher, Peter; Denkert, Carsten; Stenzinger, Albrecht

    2017-10-01

    Brenner tumors (BT) are rare ovarian tumors encompassing benign, borderline, and malignant variants. While the histopathology of BTs and their clinical course is well described, little is known about the underlying genetic defects. We employed targeted next generation sequencing to analyze the mutational landscape in a cohort of 23 BT cases (17 benign, 2 borderline, and 4 malignant) and 3 ovarian carcinomas with transitional cell histology (TCC). Copy number variations (CNV) were validated by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative PCR-based copy number assays. Additionally, we analyzed the TERT promotor region by conventional Sanger sequencing. We identified 25 different point mutations in 23 of the analyzed genes in BTs and 10 mutations in 8 genes in TCCs. About 57% percent of mutations occurred in genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA repair, and epigenetic regulation processes. All TCC cases harbored TP53 mutations whereas all BTs were negative and none of the mutations observed in BTs were present in TCCs. CNV analysis revealed recurrent MDM2 amplifications in 3 out of 4 of the malignant BT cases with one case harboring a concomitant amplification of CCND1. No mutations were observed in the TERT promoter region in BTs and TCCs, which is mutated in about 50%-75% of urothelial carcinoma and in 16% of ovarian clear-cell carcinomas. In conclusion, our study highlights distinct genetic features of BTs, and detection of the triplet phenotype MDM2 amplification/TP53 wt/TERT wt may aid diagnosis of malignant BT in difficult cases. Moreover, selected genetic lesions may be clinically exploitable in a metastatic setting. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Ovarian malignant mixed germ cell tumor with clear cell carcinoma in a postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiu-Jie; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Zai-Ping; Shi, Yi-Quan; Liu, Yi-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary are very rare and account for about 2-5% of all ovarian tumors of germ origin. Most patients are adolescent and young women, approximately two-thirds of them are under 20 years of age, occasionally in postmenopausal women. But clear cell carcinoma usually occurs in older patients (median age: 57-year old), and closely related with endometriosis. Here we report a case of a 55-year old woman with right ovarian mass that discovered by B ultrasonic. Her serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) were elevated. Pathological examination revealed the tumor to be a mixed germ cell tumor (yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma and mature teratoma) with clear cell carcinoma in a background of endometriosis. Immunohistochemical staining showed SALL4 and PLAP were positive in germ cell tumor area, hCG, CD30 and OCT4 were positive in epithelial-like cells and giant synctiotrophoblastic cells, AFP, AAT, CD117 and Glyp3 were positive in yolk sac component, EMA and CK7 were positive in clear cell carcinoma, CD10 was positive in endometrial cells of endometriotic area. She was treated with surgery followed by seven courses of chemotherapy. She is well and serum levels of hCG and AFP have been decreased to normal levels.

  14. Mechanisms of the HRSL3 tumor suppressor function in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nazarenko, Irina; Schäfer, Reinhold; Sers, Christine

    2007-04-15

    HRSL3 (also known as H-REV107-1) belongs to a class II tumor suppressor gene family and is downregulated in several human tumors including ovarian carcinomas. To unravel the mechanism of HRSL3 tumor suppressor action, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen and identified the alpha-isoform of the regulatory subunit A of protein phosphatase 2A (PR65alpha) as a new interaction partner of HRSL3. Interaction between HRSL3 and PR65alpha was confirmed in vitro and by co-immunoprecipitation in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that HRSL3 binds to the endogenous PR65alpha, thereby partially sequestering the catalytic subunit PR36 from the PR65 protein complex, and inhibiting PP2A catalytic activity. Furthermore, binding of HRSL3 to PR65 induces apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells in a caspase-dependent manner. Using several mutant HRSL3 constructs, we identified the N-terminal proline-rich region within the HRSL3 protein as the domain that is relevant for both binding of PR65alpha and induction of programmed cell death. This suggests that the negative impact of HRSL3 onto PP2A activity is important for the HRSL3 pro-apoptotic function and indicates a role of PP2A in survival of human ovarian carcinomas. The analysis of distinct PP2A target molecules revealed PKCzeta as being involved in HRSL3 action. These data implicate HRSL3 as a signaling regulatory molecule, which is functionally involved in the oncogenic network mediating growth and survival of ovarian cancer cells.

  15. Overcoming chemotherapy resistance of ovarian cancer cells by liposomal cisplatin: molecular mechanisms unveiled by gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Koch, Martin; Krieger, Michaela L; Stölting, Daniel; Brenner, Norbert; Beier, Manfred; Jaehde, Ulrich; Wiese, Michael; Royer, Hans-Dieter; Bendas, Gerd

    2013-04-15

    Previously we reported that liposomal cisplatin (CDDP) overcomes CDDP resistance of ovarian A2780cis cancer cells (Krieger et al., Int. J. Pharm. 389, 2010, 10-17). Here we find that the cytotoxic activity of liposomal CDDP is not associated with detectable DNA platination in resistant ovarian cancer cells. This suggests that the mode of action of liposomal CDDP is different from the free drug. To gain insight into mechanisms of liposomal CDDP activity, we performed a transcriptome analysis of untreated A2780cis cells, and A2780cis cells in response to exposure with IC50 values of free or liposomal CDDP. A process network analysis of upregulated genes showed that liposomal CDDP induced a highly different gene expression profile in comparison to the free drug. p53 was identified as a key player directing transcriptional responses to free or liposomal CDDP. The free drug induced expression of essential genes of the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptosis pathway (BAX, BID, CASP9) most likely through p38MAPK activation. In contrast, liposomal CDDP induced expression of genes from DNA damage pathways and several genes of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis (TNFRSF10B-DR5, CD70-TNFSF7). It thus appears that liposomal CDDP overcomes CDDP resistance by inducing DNA damage and in consequence programmed cell death by the extrinsic pathway. Predictions from gene expression data with respect to apoptosis activation were confirmed at the protein level by an apoptosis antibody array. This sheds new light on liposomal drug carrier approaches in cancer and suggests liposomal CDDP as promising strategy for the treatment of CDDP resistant ovarian carcinomas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intravital Microscopy in Evaluating Patients With Primary Peritoneal, Fallopian Tube, or Stage IA-IV Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-20

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  17. Ovarian carcinoma in a 14-year-old with classical salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia and bilateral adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Pina, Christian; Khattab, Ahmed; Katzman, Philip; Bruckner, Lauren; Andolina, Jeffrey; New, Maria; Yau, Mabel

    2015-05-01

    A 14-year-old female with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia because of 21-hydroxylase deficiency underwent bilateral adrenalectomy at 6 years of age as a result of poor hormonal control. Because the patient was adrenalectomized, extra adrenal androgen production was suspected. Imaging studies including pelvic ultrasound and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained to evaluate for adrenal rest tumors of the ovaries. Abdominal MRI was obtained to evaluate for residual adrenal tissue. A cystic lesion arising from her right ovary suspicious for ovarian neoplasm was noted on pelvic MRI. Right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and histopathological examination revealed ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, low-grade, and well-differentiated. Tumor marker CA-125 was elevated and additional ovarian cancer staging workup confirmed stage IIIC due to one lymph node positive for carcinoma. The patient then developed a large left ovarian cyst, which led to a complete total abdominal hysterectomy and removal of the left ovary and fallopian tube. Pathology confirmed ovarian serous adenocarcinoma with microscopic focus of carcinoma in the left ovary. After numerous complications, the patient responded well to chemotherapy, CA-125 levels fell and no evidence of carcinoma was observed on subsequent imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an ovarian serous adenocarcinoma in a patient with CAH. Although rare, we propose that the ovaries were the origin of androgen production and not residual adrenal tissue. The relationship between CAH and ovarian carcinomas has yet to be established, but further evaluation is needed given the poor survival rate of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

  18. Cellular glutathione level does not predict ovarian cancer cells' resistance after initial or repeated exposure to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Nikounezhad, Nastaran; Nakhjavani, Maryam; Shirazi, Farshad H

    2017-05-01

    Cisplatin resistance development is a major obstacle in ovarian cancer treatment. One of the most important mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance is drug detoxification by glutathione. In the present study, the importance of initial or repeated exposure to cisplatin in glutathione dependent resistance was investigated. To this purpose, some cisplatin sensitive and resistant variants of human ovarian cancer cell lines providing an appropriate range of cisplatin sensitivity were selected. Clonogenic survival assay was performed to evaluate cisplatin resistance and intracellular contents of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione were analyzed using an HPLC method. Our results indicated that the intracellular GSH and GSSG concentrations were nearly equal in A2780 and A2780CP cells, while the A2780CP cells showed 14 times more resistance than the A2780 cells after initial exposure to cisplatin. A2780-R1 and A2780-R3 cells which have been repeatedly exposed to cisplatin also showed no significant difference in glutathione content, even though A2780-R3 was about two times more resistant than A2780-R1. Moreover, intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio decreased in the resistant cells, reflecting a shift towards a more oxidizing intracellular environment indicative of oxidative stress. As a conclusion, it seems that although the intracellular glutathione concentration increases after repeated exposure to cisplatin, there is no clear correlation between the intracellular GSH content in ovarian cancer cells and their resistance to cisplatin neither after initial nor after repeated exposure to this drug.

  19. Massively parallel sequencing analysis of mucinous ovarian carcinomas: genomic profiling and differential diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jennifer J; Schlappe, Brooke A; Kumar, Rahul; Olvera, Narciso; Dao, Fanny; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem; Aghajanian, Carol; DeLair, Deborah; Hussein, Yaser R; Soslow, Robert A; Levine, Douglas A; Weigelt, Britta

    2018-05-21

    Mucinous ovarian cancer (MOC) is a rare type of epithelial ovarian cancer resistant to standard chemotherapy regimens. We sought to characterize the repertoire of somatic mutations in MOCs and to define the contribution of massively parallel sequencing to the classification of tumors diagnosed as primary MOCs. Following gynecologic pathology and chart review, DNA samples obtained from primary MOCs and matched normal tissues/blood were subjected to whole-exome (n = 9) or massively parallel sequencing targeting 341 cancer genes (n = 15). Immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, PTEN, ARID1A/BAF250a, and the DNA mismatch (MMR) proteins MSH6 and PMS2 was performed for all cases. Mutational frequencies of MOCs were compared to those of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs) and mucinous tumors from other sites. MOCs were heterogeneous at the genetic level, frequently harboring TP53 (75%) mutations, KRAS (71%) mutations and/or CDKN2A/B homozygous deletions/mutations (33%). Although established criteria for diagnosis were employed, four cases harbored mutational and immunohistochemical profiles similar to those of endometrioid carcinomas, and one case for colorectal or endometrioid carcinoma. Significant differences in the frequencies of KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, FBXW7, PIK3CA and/or APC mutations between the confirmed primary MOCs (n = 19) and HGSOCs, mucinous gastric and/or mucinous colorectal carcinomas were found, whereas no differences in the 341 genes studied between MOCs and mucinous pancreatic carcinomas were identified. Our findings suggest that the assessment of mutations affecting TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, ARID1A and POLE, and DNA MMR protein expression may be used to further aid the diagnosis and treatment decision-making of primary MOC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression pattern of RAGE and IGF-1 in the human fetal ovary and ovarian serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poljicanin, Ana; Filipovic, Natalija; Vukusic Pusic, Tanja; Soljic, Violeta; Caric, Ana; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Vukojevic, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The expression pattern of RAGE and IGF-1 proteins in different ovarian cell lineages was histologically analyzed in six fetal, nine adult human ovaries, and nine serous ovarian carcinomas (OSC) using immunohistochemical methods. Mild expression of IGF-1 in ovarian surface epithelium (Ose) and oocytes in the 15-week human ovaries increased to moderate or strong in the stromal cells, oocytes and follicular cells in week 22. Occasional mild RAGE expression was observed in Ose during week 15, while strong expression characterized primordial follicles in week 22. In the reproductive human ovary, IGF-1 was mildly to moderately expressed in all ovarian cell lineages except in theca cells of the tertiary follicle where IGF-1 was negative. RAGE was strongly positive in the granulosa cells and some theca cells of the tertiary follicle, while negative to mildly positive in all cells of the secondary follicle. In the postmenopausal human ovary IGF-1 and RAGE were mildly expressed in Ose and stroma. In OSC, cells were strongly positive to IGF-1 and RAGE, except for some negative stromal cells. Different levels of IGF-1 and RAGE co-expression characterized fetal ovarian cells during development. In reproductive ovaries, IGF-1 and RAGE were co-localized in the granulosa and theca interna cells of tertiary follicles, while in postmenopausal ovaries and OSC, IGF-1 and RAGE were co-localized in Ose and OSC cells respectively. Our results indicate that intracellular levels of IGF-1 and RAGE protein might regulate the final destiny of the ovarian cell populations prior and during folliculogenesis, possibly controlling the metastatic potential of OSC as well. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Decreased expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase A1 predicts an unfavorable prognosis in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaqing; Huang, Ruixia; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaoran; Yu, Dandan; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wen, Jianguo; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Trope, Claes G; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase A1 (PDHA1) serves as a gate-keeper enzyme link between glycolysis and the mitochondrial citric acid cycle. The inhibition of PDHA1 in cancer cells can result in an increased Warburg effect and a more aggressive phenotype in cancer cells. This study was conducted to investigate the expression of PDHA1 in ovarian cancer and the correlation between PDHA1 expression and the prognosis of patients. The PDHA1 protein expression in 3 ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and ES-2) and 248 surgically removed ovarian carcinoma samples was immunocytochemically examined. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlations between PDHA1 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients as well as the predictive value of PDHA1. The results showed the presence of variable expression of PDHA1 in the three ovarian cancer cell lines. Of the 248 ovarian cancer tissue specimens, 45 cases (18.1%) were negative in tumor cells for PDHA1, 162 cases (65.3%) displayed a low expression level, and 41 cases (16.5%) had a relatively high PDHA1 staining. The expression of PDHA1 was associated with the histological subtype ( P =0.004) and FIGO stage ( P =0.002). The median OS time in the PDHA1 negative group, low expression group and high expression group were 0.939 years, 1.443 years and 9.900 years, respectively. The median PFS time in the above three groups were 0.287 years, 0.586 years and 9.900 years, respectively. Furthermore, the high expression of PDHA1 in ovarian carcinoma cells was significantly associated with better OS and PFS by statistical analyses. Multivariate analyses showed that PDHA1 expression was also an independent prognostic factor for higher OS in ovarian cancer patients (HR=0.705, 95% CI 0.541-0.918, P =0.01). Our study indicated that the decreased expression of PDHA1 might be an independent prognostic factor in unfavorable outcomes.

  2. Serous Tubal Carcinogenesis: The Recent Concept of Origin of Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal and Fallopian Tube High-Grade Serous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kar, Tushar; Kar, Asaranti; Dhal, Ipsita; Panda, Sasmita; Biswal, Priyadarshini; Nayak, Bhagyalaxmi; Rout, Niranjan; Samantray, Sagarika

    2017-12-01

    Pelvic (non-uterine) high-grade serous carcinomas (PHGSC) including ovarian, tubal and primary peritoneal serous carcinomas have increased death: incidence ratio due to presentation at advanced stage, rapid progression, poor prognosis and high morbidity. Ambiguity regarding their pathogenesis and lack of a proper screening method is the cause of their late detection and high fatality rate. This study was undertaken to assess the fallopian tube for the presence of precursor lesions in pelvic serous carcinoma. This was a prospective case-control study carried out in a tertiary care center. Consecutive specimens of 55 cases of pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma and 41 controls inclusive of 21 low-grade serous carcinoma, 10 benign adnexal masses and 10 normal adnexa were included in the study. Both side fallopian tubes in each case were subjected to histopathological examination and p53, Ki67 immunohistochemistry. There were 55 cases of PHGSC comprising of 50 cases of ovarian HGSC, two cases of primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) and three cases of tubal carcinoma. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) was detected in 14 cases (28%), p53 signature in 13 cases (26%) and tubal intraepithelial lesion in transition in 10 cases (20%) of ovarian HGSC. One case (50%) of PPC and one (33%) case of tubal carcinoma revealed the presence of STIC. None of the controls exhibited any precursor lesion except ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma where p53 was detected in 20% of cases. This revelation concludes that fallopian tubes are the sites of precursors of PHGSC to a large extent. In the absence of a proper screening method of HGSC, prophylactic bilateral salpingectomy at hysterectomy for benign diseases can achieve ultimate goal of reduction in incidence of PHGSC.

  3. Efficacy of neratinib in the treatment of HER2/neu-amplified epithelial ovarian carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Menderes, Gulden; Bonazzoli, Elena; Bellone, Stefania; Black, Jonathan D; Lopez, Salvatore; Pettinella, Francesca; Masserdotti, Alice; Zammataro, Luca; Litkouhi, Babak; Ratner, Elena; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E; Santin, Alessandro D

    2017-05-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal of gynecologic malignancies. There is a need to optimize the currently available treatment strategies and to urgently develop novel therapeutic agents against chemotherapy-resistant disease. The objective of our study was to evaluate neratinib's preclinical efficacy in treating HER2-amplified ovarian cancer. Neratinib's efficacy in treating HER2-amplified ovarian cancer was studied in vitro utilizing six primary tumor cell lines with differential HER2/neu expression. Flow cytometry was utilized to assess IC 50 , cell signaling changes, and cell cycle distribution. Neratinib's in vivo efficacy was evaluated in HER2-amplified epithelial ovarian carcinoma xenografts. Three of six (50%) ovarian cancer cell lines were HER2/neu-amplified. Neratinib showed significantly higher efficacy in treating HER2/neu-amplified cell lines when compared to the non-HER2/neu-amplified tumor cell lines (mean ± SEM IC 50 :0.010 μM ± 0.0003 vs. 0.076 μM ± 0.005 p < 0.0001). Neratinib treatment significantly decreased the phosphorylation of the transcription factor S6, leading to arrest of the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. Neratinib prolonged survival in mice harboring HER2-amplified epithelial ovarian carcinoma xenografts (p = 0.003). Neratinib inhibits proliferation, signaling, cell cycle progression and tumor growth of HER2-amplified epithelial ovarian carcinoma in vitro. Neratinib inhibits xenograft growth and improves overall survival in HER2/neu-amplified ovarian cancer in vivo. Clinical trials are warranted.

  4. Efficacy of neratinib in the treatment of HER2/neu-amplified epithelial ovarian carcinoma in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Menderes, Gulden; Bonazzoli, Elena; Bellone, Stefania; Black, Jonathan D.; Lopez, Salvatore; Pettinella, Francesca; Masserdotti, Alice; Zammataro, Luca; Litkouhi, Babak; Ratner, Elena; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E.

    2018-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal of gynecologic malignancies. There is a need to optimize the currently available treatment strategies and to urgently develop novel therapeutic agents against chemotherapy-resistant disease. The objective of our study was to evaluate neratinib’s preclinical efficacy in treating HER2-amplified ovarian cancer. Neratinib’s efficacy in treating HER2-amplified ovarian cancer was studied in vitro utilizing six primary tumor cell lines with differential HER2/neu expression. Flow cytometry was utilized to assess IC50, cell signaling changes, and cell cycle distribution. Neratinib’s in vivo efficacy was evaluated in HER2-amplified epithelial ovarian carcinoma xenografts. Three of six (50%) ovarian cancer cell lines were HER2/neu-amplified. Neratinib showed significantly higher efficacy in treating HER2/neu-amplified cell lines when compared to the non-HER2/neu-amplified tumor cell lines (mean ± SEM IC50:0.010 μM ± 0.0003 vs. 0.076 μM ± 0.005 p < 0.0001). Neratinib treatment significantly decreased the phosphorylation of the transcription factor S6, leading to arrest of the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. Neratinib prolonged survival in mice harboring HER2-amplified epithelial ovarian carcinoma xenografts (p = 0.003). Neratinib inhibits proliferation, signaling, cell cycle progression and tumor growth of HER2-amplified epithelial ovarian carcinoma in vitro. Neratinib inhibits xenograft growth and improves overall survival in HER2/neu-amplified ovarian cancer in vivo. Clinical trials are warranted. PMID:28397106

  5. Snail, Slug, and Smad-interacting protein 1 as novel parameters of disease aggressiveness in metastatic ovarian and breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Elloul, Sivan; Elstrand, Mari Bukholt; Nesland, Jahn M; Tropé, Claes G; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Goldberg, Iris; Reich, Reuven; Davidson, Ben

    2005-04-15

    It was demonstrated previously that the Snail family of transcription factors and Smad-interacting protein 1 (Sip1) regulate E-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) expression, cellular morphology, and invasion in carcinoma. For the current study, the authors analyzed the relation between the expression of Snail, Slug, and Sip1; the expression of MMP-2 and E-cadherin; and clinical parameters in patients with metastatic ovarian and breast carcinoma. One hundred one fresh-frozen, malignant effusions from patients who were diagnosed with gynecologic carcinomas (78 ovarian carcinomas and 23 breast carcinomas) were studied for mRNA expression of Snail, Slug, Sip1, MMP-2, and E-cadherin using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Snail mRNA and E-cadherin protein expression levels also were studied in ovarian carcinoma effusions using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. The results were analyzed for possible correlation with clinicopathologic parameters in both tumor types. E-cadherin mRNA expression was lower in breast carcinoma (P = 0.001), whereas Snail expression was higher (P = 0.003). The Snail/E-cadherin ratio (P < 0.001) and the Sip1/E-cadherin ratio (P = 0.002) were higher in breast carcinomas. Sip1 mRNA expression (P < 0.001) and Slug mRNA expression (P < 0.001) were correlated with the expression of MMP-2 in ovarian carcinomas. The Sip1/E-cadherin ratio was higher in primary ovarian carcinomas at the time of diagnosis compared with postchemotherapy ovarian carcinoma effusions (P = 0.003), higher in Stage IV tumors compared with Stage III tumors (P = 0.049), and higher in pleural effusions compared with peritoneal effusions (P = 0.044). In a univariate survival analysis of patients with ovarian carcinoma, a high Sip1/E-cadherin ratio predicted poor overall survival (P = 0.018). High E-cadherin mRNA expression predicted better disease-free survival (P = 0.023), with a similar trend for a low Slug/E-cadherin ratio (P = 0

  6. Olaparib or Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib Compared With Standard Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Platinum-Sensitive Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-11

    BRCA Rearrangement; Deleterious BRCA1 Gene Mutation; Deleterious BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Tumor; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Novel Candidate Markers of Ovarian Carcinoma Intraperitoneal Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Elsnerova, Katerina; Bartakova, Alena; Tihlarik, Josef; Bouda, Jiri; Rob, Lukas; Skapa, Petr; Hruda, Martin; Gut, Ivan; Mohelnikova-Duchonova, Beatrice; Soucek, Pavel; Vaclavikova, Radka

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has the highest mortality among gynecological carcinomas. The lack of specific markers for prognostic determination of EOC progression hinders the search for novel effective therapies. The aim of the present study was (i) to explore differences in expressions of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) transporter genes, genes associated with drug metabolism and cell cycle regulation between control ovarian tissues (n = 14), primary EOCs (n = 44) and intraperitoneal metastases (n = 29); (ii) to investigate associations of gene expression levels with prognosis of patients with intraperitoneal metastases. In all tissue samples, transcript levels of the above target genes were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. Gene expression levels were compared between particular tissue types and evaluated with regard to progression-free survival (PFS) and drug-resistance status of patients with metastases. Gene expression of ABCA7 significantly increased and that of ESR2 decreased in the order control ovarian tissues - primary EOCs - metastases. High expressions of ABCA2 / 8 / 9 / 10 , ABCB1 , ABCC9 , ABCG2 , ATP7A , SLC16A14 , and SOD3 genes were significantly associated with longer progression-free survival of patients. In intraperitoneal metastases, expression of all of these genes highly correlated and indicated prognostic profile. Transporters from the ABCA family, ABCG2, and ESR2 are involved mainly in lipid metabolism, membrane transport, and cell proliferation. These processes are thus probably the most important for EOC progression. Based on these results, we have proposed novel markers of ovarian carcinoma progression and metastatic spread which might be potentially useful as therapeutic targets. Their significance should be further explored on a larger independent set of patients.

  8. Endometrial and ovarian carcinomas with undifferentiated components: clinically aggressive and frequently underrecognized neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tafe, Laura J; Garg, Karuna; Chew, Ivy; Tornos, Carmen; Soslow, Robert A

    2010-06-01

    Carcinomas of the endometrium and ovary with undifferentiated components are uncommon neoplasms that are likely underdiagnosed. They are important to recognize as they have been shown to be clinically aggressive. We identified 32 carcinomas with undifferentiated components as defined by Silva and co-workers, 26 endometrial and 6 of ovarian origin. The patient age ranged from 21 to 76 years (median 55); 40% of patients were ovarian carcinomas with undifferentiated components) presented at advanced stages (FIGO III-IV). Pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes were the most frequent sites of metastases. Twenty tumors, entirely undifferentiated, consisted of sheets of dyshesive, ovoid cells with uniform, large vesicular nuclei, whereas 12 tumors contained combinations of differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma with undifferentiated components. Although most undifferentiated tumors had a monotonous cytologic appearance without prominent stroma, six showed focal nuclear pleomorphism and eight cases had variably sized zones of rhabdoid cells in a background of myxoid stroma. The tumors were frequently misdiagnosed; they received a wide range of diagnoses, including FIGO grade 2 or 3 endometrioid carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, high-grade sarcoma including endometrial stromal sarcoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, lymphoma, granulosa cell tumor and epithelioid sarcoma. Up to 86% of the cases showed focal, but strong keratin and/or epithelial membrane antigen staining, with CK18 being the most frequently positive keratin stain. They were predominantly negative for neuroendocrine markers, smooth muscle markers and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor. Mismatch repair protein expression by immunohistochemistry was evaluated in 17 cases, and 8 (47%) were abnormal (7 with loss of MLH1/PMS2 and 1 with MSH6 loss). Follow-up was available for 27 patients, although it was very short in many cases, ranging from 0.5 to 89

  9. CHIP/Stub1 regulates the Warburg effect by promoting degradation of PKM2 in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shang, Y; He, J; Wang, Y; Feng, Q; Zhang, Y; Guo, J; Li, J; Li, S; Wang, Y; Yan, G; Ren, F; Shi, Y; Xu, J; Zeps, N; Zhai, Y; He, D; Chang, Z

    2017-07-20

    Tumor cells preferentially adopt aerobic glycolysis for their energy supply, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. It remains a matter of debate as to how the Warburg effect is regulated during tumor progression. Here, we show that CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein), a U-box E3 ligase, suppresses tumor progression in ovarian carcinomas by inhibiting aerobic glycolysis. While CHIP is downregulated in ovarian carcinoma, induced expression of CHIP results in significant inhibition of the tumor growth examined by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Reciprocally, depletion of CHIP leads to promotion of tumor growth. By a SiLAD proteomics analysis, we identified pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2), a critical regulator of glycolysis in tumors, as a target that CHIP mediated for degradation. Accordingly, we show that CHIP regulates PKM2 protein stability and thereafter the energy metabolic processes. Depletion or knockout of CHIP increased the glycolytic products in both tumor and mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Simultaneously, we observed that CHIP expression inversely correlated with PKM2 levels in human ovarian carcinomas. This study reveals a mechanism that the Warburg effect is regulated by CHIP through its function as an E3 ligase, which mediates the degradation of PKM2 during tumor progression. Our findings shed new light into understanding of ovarian carcinomas and may provide a new therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer.

  10. Silencing of p130Cas in Ovarian Carcinoma: A Novel Mechanism for Tumor Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Nick, Alpa M.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo; Ozpolat, Bulent; Tekedereli, Ibrahim; Graybill, Whitney S.; Landen, Charles N.; Villares, Gabriel; Vivas-Mejia, Pablo; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Kim, Hye Sun; Lee, Ju-Seog; Kim, Soo Mi; Baggerly, Keith A.; Ram, Prahlad T.; Deavers, Michael T.; Coleman, Robert L.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the clinical and biological significance of p130cas, an important cell signaling molecule, in ovarian carcinoma. Methods Expression of p130cas in ovarian tumors, as assessed by immunohistochemistry, was associated with tumor characteristics and patient survival. The effects of p130cas gene silencing with small interfering RNAs incorporated into neutral nanoliposomes (siRNA-DOPC), alone and in combination with docetaxel, on in vivo tumor growth and on tumor cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling) were examined in mice bearing orthotopic taxane-sensitive (HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1) or taxane-resistant (HeyA8-MDR) ovarian tumors (n = 10 per group). To determine the specific mechanisms by which p130cas gene silencing abrogates tumor growth, we measured cell viability (MTT assay), apoptosis (fluorescence-activated cell sorting), autophagy (immunoblotting, fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy), and cell signaling (immunoblotting) in vitro. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Of 91 ovarian cancer specimens, 70 (76%) had high p130cas expression; and 21 (24%) had low p130cas expression. High p130cas expression was associated with advanced tumor stage (P < .001) and higher residual disease (>1 cm) following primary cytoreduction surgery (P = .007) and inversely associated with overall survival and progression-free survival (median overall survival: high p130cas expression vs low expression, 2.14 vs 9.1 years, difference = 6.96 years, 95% confidence interval = 1.69 to 9.48 years, P < .001; median progression-free survival: high p130cas expression vs low expression, 1.04 vs 2.13 years, difference = 1.09 years, 95% confidence interval = 0.47 to 2.60 years, P = .01). In mice bearing orthotopically implanted HeyA8 or SKOV3ip1 ovarian tumors, treatment with p130cas siRNA-DOPC in combination with docetaxel chemotherapy resulted in the greatest

  11. A rational approach to the management of recurrent or persistent ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thigpen, Tate

    2012-03-01

    Evidence supports the current paradigm for the management of patients with recurrent or persistent ovarian carcinoma. The paradigm requires that patients be classified as platinum-sensitive or platinum-resistant. Patients who achieve a complete response with platinum-based therapy and experience at least 6 months free from recurrence should be categorized as having chemosensitive disease and should be retreated with carboplatin-based doublets. Patients who progress while receiving treatment, whose best response is stable disease, or who experience a complete response of <6 months duration should be categorized as having chemoresistant disease and should be treated with a nonplatinum single agent.

  12. Predictive markers of chemoresistance in advanced stages epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Claire; Rouzier, Roman; Geyl, Caroline; Cortez, Annie; Castela, Mathieu; Lis, Raphael; Daraï, Emile; Touboul, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    DNA repair mechanisms, environment-mediated drug resistance and cancer initiating cells (CIC) are three major research concepts that can explain the chemoresistance of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The objective was to test if changes in the expression of potential markers associated with drug resistance before and after chemotherapy would correlate with platinum resistance, defined as a recurrence within the first year after chemotherapy cessation, and with survival, in advanced EOC. We included 32 patients with stage IIIC-IV EOC who underwent laparoscopy to evaluate the extent of carcinomatosis, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin/taxol) and interval surgery. Biopsies taken during the initial laparoscopies and interval surgeries were evaluated using immunohistochemistry for the expression of 7 proteins: CD117, CD44 and ALDH1 to evaluate CIC; IL-6, IL-8 and BMP2 to evaluate environment-mediated drug resistance; and ERCC1 to evaluate DNA repair. Expression measurements were correlated with platin resistance and survival. The markers' relevance was confirmed in vitro using chemoresistance tests and flow cytometric measurements of the proportion of CD44+ cells. 17 patients were chemoresistant and 15 patients were chemosensitive. We observed increases in CD44, IL-6 and ERCC1 expression and stable ALDH1, CD117, IL-8, and BMP2 expression. Reduced expression of cancer initiating cell markers and increased expression of environment-mediated drug resistance markers were associated with poor prognosis. We also demonstrated that CD44+ cells had survival advantages in vitro. Changes in CD44 and IL-8 expression on tumor cells appeared to correlate with overall survival and should be further tested as predictors of chemoresistance using larger cohort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Trametinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Progressive Low-Grade Ovarian Cancer or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-11

    Low Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Micropapillary Serous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  14. Chemokine axes CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 correlate with lymph node metastasis in epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li; Cui, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Jia; Huang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the chemokine axis of CXC chemokine ligand-12 and its receptor CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCL12/CXCR4) is highly expressed in gynecological tumors and the axis of CXC chemokine ligand-16 and CXC chemokine receptor-6 (CXCL16/CXCR6) is overexpressed in inflammation-associated tumors. This study aimed to determine the relationship between CXCL12/CXCR4, CXCL16/CXCR6 and ovarian carcinoma's clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Accordingly, the expression of these proteins in ovarian tissues was detected by tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 were significantly higher in epithelial ovarian carcinomas than in normal epithelial ovarian tissues or benign epithelial ovarian tumors. The expression of chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL16 were positively correlated with their receptors CXCR4 and CXCR6 in ovarian carcinoma, respectively (r = 0.300, P < 0.05; r = 0.395, P < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of CXCL12 was related to the occurrence of ascites (χ2 = 4.76, P < 0.05), the expression of CXCR4 was significantly related to lymph node metastasis (χ2 = 4.37, P < 0.05), the expression of CXCR6 was significantly related to lymph node metastasis (χ2 = 7.43, P < 0.05) and histological type (χ2 = 33.48, P < 0.05). In univariate analysis, the expression of CXCR4 and CXCL16 significantly correlated with reduced median survival (χ2 = 4.67, P < 0.05; χ2 = 4.48, P < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that the chemokine axes CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 may play important roles in the growth, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:21527066

  15. Chemokine axes CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 correlate with lymph node metastasis in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Cui, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Jia; Huang, Yu

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the chemokine axis of CXC chemokine ligand-12 and its receptor CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCL12/CXCR4) is highly expressed in gynecological tumors and the axis of CXC chemokine ligand-16 and CXC chemokine receptor-6 (CXCL16/CXCR6) is overexpressed in inflammation-associated tumors. This study aimed to determine the relationship between CXCL12/CXCR4, CXCL16/CXCR6 and ovarian carcinoma's clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Accordingly, the expression of these proteins in ovarian tissues was detected by tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 were significantly higher in epithelial ovarian carcinomas than in normal epithelial ovarian tissues or benign epithelial ovarian tumors. The expression of chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL16 were positively correlated with their receptors CXCR4 and CXCR6 in ovarian carcinoma, respectively (r = 0.300, P < 0.05; r = 0.395, P < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of CXCL12 was related to the occurrence of ascites (Χ² = 4.76, P < 0.05), the expression of CXCR4 was significantly related to lymph node metastasis (Χ(2) = 4.37, P < 0.05), the expression of CXCR6 was significantly related to lymph node metastasis (Χ² = 7.43, P < 0.05) and histological type (Χ² = 33.48, P < 0.05). In univariate analysis, the expression of CXCR4 and CXCL16 significantly correlated with reduced median survival (Χ² = 4.67, P < 0.05; Χ² = 4.48, P < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that the chemokine axes CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 may play important roles in the growth, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

  16. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Endometrial or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-04

    Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma

  17. Altered expression pattern of circular RNAs in primary and metastatic sites of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ikhlak; Karedath, Thasni; Andrews, Simeon S; Al-Azwani, Iman K; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Querleu, Denis; Rafii, Arash; Malek, Joel A

    2016-06-14

    Recently, a class of endogenous species of RNA called circular RNA (circRNA) has been shown to regulate gene expression in mammals and their role in cellular function is just beginning to be understood. To investigate the role of circRNAs in ovarian cancer, we performed paired-end RNA sequencing of primary sites, peritoneal and lymph node metastases from three patients with stage IIIC ovarian cancer. We developed an in-house computational pipeline to identify and characterize the circRNA expression from paired-end RNA-Seq libraries. This pipeline revealed thousands of circular isoforms in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma (EOC). These circRNAs are enriched for potentially effective miRNA seed matches. A significantly larger number of circRNAs are differentially expressed between tumor sites than mRNAs. Circular and linear expression exhibits an inverse trend for many cancer related pathways and signaling pathways like NFkB, PI3k/AKT and TGF-β typically activated for mRNA in metastases are inhibited for circRNA expression. Further, circRNAs show a more robust expression pattern across patients than mRNA forms indicating their suitability as biomarkers in highly heterogeneous cancer transcriptomes. The consistency of circular RNA expression may offer new candidates for cancer treatment and prognosis.

  18. Proteomic investigating the cooperative lethal effect of EGFR and MDM2 inhibitors on ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shing-Jyh; Liao, En-Chi; Yeo, Hsin-Yueh; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wei, Yu-Shan; Chen, Ying-Jen; Wang, Yi-Shiuan; Li, Ji-Min; Shih, Chuan-Chi; Chan, Chia-Hao; Lai, Zih-Yin; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chan, Hong-Lin

    2018-06-01

    With the concept of precision medicine, combining multiple molecular-targeting therapies has brought new approaches to current cancer treatments. Malfunction of the tumor suppressor protein, p53 is a universal hallmark in human cancers. Under normal conditions, p53 is degraded through an ubiquitin-proteosome pathway regulated by its negative regulator, MDM2. In contrast, cellular stress such as DNA damage will activate p53 to carry out DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. In this study, we focused on ovarian carcinoma with high EGFR and MDM2 overexpression rate. We assessed the effects of combined inhibition by MDM2 (JNJ-26854165) and EGFR (gefitinib) inhibitors on various ovarian cell lines to determine the importance of these two molecular targets on cell proliferation. We then used a proteomic strategy to investigate the relationship between MDM2 and EGFR inhibition to explore the underlying mechanisms of how their combined signaling blockades work together to exert cooperative inhibition. Our results demonstrated that all four cell lines were sensitive to both individual and combined, MDM2 and EGFR inhibition. The proteomic analysis also showed that gefitinib/JNJ-treated CAOV3 cells exhibited downregulation of proteins involved in nucleotide biosynthesis such as nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NME2). In conclusion, our study showed that the combined treatment with JNJ and gefitinib exerted synergistic inhibition on cell proliferation, thereby suggesting the potential application of combining MDM2 inhibitors with EGFR inhibitors for enhancing efficacy in ovarian cancer treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Monoclonal antibody DS6 detects a tumor-associated sialoglycotope expressed on human serous ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kearse, K P; Smith, N L; Semer, D A; Eagles, L; Finley, J L; Kazmierczak, S; Kovacs, C J; Rodriguez, A A; Kellogg-Wennerberg, A E

    2000-12-15

    A newly developed murine monoclonal antibody, DS6, immunohistochemically reacts with an antigen, CA6, that is expressed by human serous ovarian carcinomas but not by normal ovarian surface epithelium or mesothelium. CA6 has a limited distribution in normal adult tissues and is most characteristically detected in fallopian tube epithelium, inner urothelium and type 2 pneumocytes. Pre-treatment of tissue sections with either periodic acid or neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae abolishes immunoreactivity with DS6, indicating that CA6 is a neuraminidase-sensitive and periodic acid-sensitive sialic acid glycoconjugate ("sialoglycotope"). SDS-PAGE of OVCAR5 cell lysates has revealed that the CA6 epitope is expressed on an 80 kDa non-disulfide-linked glycoprotein containing N-linked oligosaccharides. Two-dimensional non-equilibrium pH gradient gel electrophoresis indicates an isoelectric point of approximately 6.2 to 6.5. Comparison of the immunohistochemical distribution of CA6 in human serous ovarian adenocarcinomas has revealed similarities to that of CA125; however, distinct differences and some complementarity of antigen expression were revealed by double-label, 2-color immunohistochemical studies. The DS6-detected CA6 antigen appears to be distinct from other well-characterized tumor-associated antigens, including MUC1, CA125 and the histo-blood group-related antigens sLea, sLex and sTn. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Altered expression pattern of circular RNAs in primary and metastatic sites of epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ikhlak; Karedath, Thasni; Andrews, Simeon S.; Al, Iman K.; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Querleu, Denis; Rafii, Arash; Malek, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a class of endogenous species of RNA called circular RNA (circRNA) has been shown to regulate gene expression in mammals and their role in cellular function is just beginning to be understood. To investigate the role of circRNAs in ovarian cancer, we performed paired-end RNA sequencing of primary sites, peritoneal and lymph node metastases from three patients with stage IIIC ovarian cancer. We developed an in-house computational pipeline to identify and characterize the circRNA expression from paired-end RNA-Seq libraries. This pipeline revealed thousands of circular isoforms in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma (EOC). These circRNAs are enriched for potentially effective miRNA seed matches. A significantly larger number of circRNAs are differentially expressed between tumor sites than mRNAs. Circular and linear expression exhibits an inverse trend for many cancer related pathways and signaling pathways like NFkB, PI3k/AKT and TGF-β typically activated for mRNA in metastases are inhibited for circRNA expression. Further, circRNAs show a more robust expression pattern across patients than mRNA forms indicating their suitability as biomarkers in highly heterogeneous cancer transcriptomes. The consistency of circular RNA expression may offer new candidates for cancer treatment and prognosis. PMID:27119352

  1. Genomic analysis of genetic heterogeneity and evolution in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Susanna L; Ng, Charlotte KY; Melnyk, Nataliya; Garcia, Maria J; Hardcastle, Tom; Temple, Jillian; Langdon, Simon; Huntsman, David; Brenton, James D

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer is poorly understood. Evolutionary models of cancer predict that, following treatment, resistance emerges either due to outgrowth of an intrinsically resistant sub-clone, or evolves in residual disease under the selective pressure of treatment. To investigate genetic evolution in high-grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancers we first analysed cell line series derived from three cases of HGS carcinoma before and after platinum resistance had developed (PEO1, PEO4 and PEO6, PEA1 and PEA2, and PEO14 and PEO23). Analysis with 24-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation and SNP array comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) showed mutually exclusive endoreduplication and loss of heterozygosity events in clones present at different timepoints in the same individual. This implies that platinum sensitive and resistant disease was not linearly related but shared a common ancestor at an early stage of tumour development. Array CGH analysis of six paired pre- and post-neoadjuvant treatment HGS samples from the CTCR-OV01 clinical study did not show extensive copy number differences, suggesting that one clone was strongly dominant at presentation. These data show that cisplatin resistance in HGS carcinoma develops from pre-existing minor clones but that enrichment for these clones is not apparent during short-term chemotherapy treatment. PMID:20581869

  2. Comparative clinicopathological and cytomorphological analyses of peritoneal carcinomatosis associated with metastatic breast carcinoma and primary peritoneal/ovarian carcinoma in patients with a history of breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Na, Kiyong; Lee, Jung-Yun; Sung, Ji-Youn; Kim, Gun Min; Koo, Ja Seung; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2018-06-20

    Causes of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) in patients with a history of breast carcinoma include both metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) and primary peritoneal/ovarian carcinoma (PPOC). The origin of PC is important to determine the appropriate treatment strategy. Cytological examination of the peritoneal fluid (PF), which may be the first diagnostic approach to PC, is of distinct value in confirming the presence of malignant cells and determining the origin of PC. We analyzed the clinicopathological and cytomorphological characteristics of 33 patients with a history of breast carcinoma whose PF cytology contained malignant cells. Cases showing positive immunoreactivity for PAX8 and a lack of GATA3 expression were considered as PPOC. Sixteen patients developed PC caused by PPOC. PPOC patients were characterized by early-stage primary breast carcinoma, absence of non-peritoneal MBC before PC, and normal serum levels of CEA and CA15-3. Fourteen PPOC patients had pathogenic germline BRCA mutations. Cytological examination revealed that most of the PPOC cases had a dominant papillary arrangement of the tumor cells with severe nuclear pleomorphism, occasional bizarre nuclei, and atypical mitotic figures. Patients with PPOC who underwent cytoreductive surgery had a significantly longer survival time compared to those who did not, or MBC patients. In patients with a history of breast carcinoma presenting with PC, the presence of early-stage primary breast carcinoma, no prior non-peritoneal MBC, and a dominant papillary cellular arrangement pattern in the PF cytology were independent predictors of PPOC. Cytoreductive surgery significantly improved survival for patients with PPOC.

  3. The expression of TP53 pathway-related proteins in ovarian carcinoma transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S-R; Li, D-B; Xue, J-W

    2018-03-01

    Given the important functions of TP53 pathway in various biological processes, this study aimed to investigate the expression of TP53 pathway-related proteins in ovarian carcinoma transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice with and without the presence of p53 inhibitor and to explore possible roles of p53 in the development of ovarian cancer. Thirty BALB/c-nu female nude mice were randomly divided into model group, control group and p53 inhibitor group (Pftα group). There were 10 rats in each group. The nude mice were subcutaneously inoculated with human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3, and the tumor growth was observed. Morphological changes of tumor tissue were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The mRNA and protein levels of TP53 pathway related factors-p53, p21 and mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. p53 inhibitor can increase the growth rate of subcutaneously transplanted tumor in nude mice. p53 inhibitor could decrease the expression of p53 and p21 at both mRNA and protein levels and increase the expression of MDM2 at both mRNA and protein levels in ovarian carcinoma transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice. TP53 pathway may play pivotal roles in the development of ovarian cancer and TP53 pathway may be a new target for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  4. A nationwide study of ovarian serous borderline tumors in Denmark 1978-2002. Risk of recurrence, and development of ovarian serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Vang, Russell; Junge, Jette; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kurman, Robert J; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2017-01-01

    Absolute risk and risk factors for recurrence and ovarian serous carcinoma following ovarian serous borderline tumors (SBTs) is not well-established. We included all women with SBTs in Denmark, 1978-2002. Diagnoses were confirmed by centralized pathology review and classified as atypical proliferative serous tumor (APST) or noninvasive low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC). Implants were classified as noninvasive or invasive. Medical records were collected and reviewed, and follow-up was obtained. Subsequent diagnoses were also confirmed by centralized pathology review. We examined absolute risk and risk factors for recurrent APST and serous carcinoma using Cox regression. The absolute serous carcinoma risk after, respectively, 5 and 20years was 5.0% and 13.9% for noninvasive LGSC, and 0.9% and 3.7% for APST. Serous carcinoma risk was significantly higher following noninvasive LGSC compared with APST among stage I patients/patients without implants (HR=5.3; 95% CI: 1.7-16.3), whereas no significant association with tumor type was found in advanced stage patients/patients with implants. Advanced stage - notably invasive implants - bilaterality, surface involvement, and residual disease increased serous carcinoma risk. However, women with stage I APST also had a higher risk than the general population. This largest population-based cohort of verified SBTs revealed that women with noninvasive LGSC are significantly more likely to develop serous carcinoma than women with APST, which could not entirely be explained by invasive implants. Although invasive implants was a strong risk factor for serous carcinoma, even women with stage I APST were at increased risk compared with the general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Analysis of Cell Cycle-related Proteins in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma Versus High-grade Serous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hazama, Yukiko; Moriya, Takuya; Sugihara, Mika; Sano, Rikiya; Shiota, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Takafumi; Shimoya, Koichiro

    2017-10-10

    In Japan, the frequency of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is twice as high as that in the United States and Europe. Often, patient prognosis of CCC is poor because of chemoresistance. Here, we focus on the cell cycle, which is one of the mechanisms of chemoresistance. To detect the informative markers and improve the strategy of chemotherapy for CCC, we performed immunochemical staining of cell cycle-related proteins in ovarian malignant tumors. We detected that each of the 29 samples of CCC and high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) were necessary to reveal the significant differences in immunostaining and prognosis. We performed the immunostaining analysis using the antibodies of cell cycle-related proteins such as Ki-67, Cdt1, MCM7, and geminin. The positive rate of Cdt1 in the CCC group was significantly higher than that in the HGSC group (P<0.0001). However, the positive rate of geminin in the HGSC group was significantly higher than that in the CCC group (P<0.0001). The overall survival of CCC patients with high labeling index of Cdt1 was significantly worse than that of CCC patients with low labeling index of Cdt1 (P=0.004). The study results suggested that the cancer cells of CCC and HGSC exist in the G1 phase and S, G2, and M phases, respectively. The differences in cell cycle of CCC might be one of the reasons for chemotherapy resistance. Further investigations are necessary to reveal the usefulness of Cdt1 as a biomarker in CCC.

  6. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without Bevacizumab After Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-06

    Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. Low meprin α expression differentiates primary ovarian mucinous carcinoma from gastrointestinal cancers that commonly metastasise to the ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Heinzelmann‐Schwarz, Viola A; Scolyer, Richard A; Scurry, James P; Smith, Alison N; Gardiner‐Garden, Margaret; Biankin, Andrew V; Baron‐Hay, Sally; Scott, Carolyn; Ward, Robyn L; Fink, Daniel; Hacker, Neville F; Sutherland, Robert L; O'Brien, Philippa M

    2007-01-01

    Background Currently, no specific immunohistochemical markers are available to differentiate primary mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (MOC) from adenocarcinomas originating at other sites that have metastasised to the ovary, which may have an impact on patient management and prognosis. Aim To investigate the expression of two intestinal markers, galectin 4 and meprin α, in mucinous carcinomas of the ovary and gastrointestinal tract. Methods Using immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of galectin 4 and meprin α was investigated in 10 MOCs and in 38 mucinous adenocarcinomas of colon, pancreas, stomach and appendix, the most common sites of origin of ovarian metastases. Results Total cytoplasmic galectin 4 expression was relatively consistent between the different carcinomas. Membranous meprin α expression was significantly lower in MOCs compared with gastrointestinal carcinomas. Moreover, meprin α expression showed greater discrimination between the ovarian and gastrointestinal carcinomas than the cytokeratins CK7 and CK20, the current standard immunohistochemical markers used to determine the tissue origin of mucinous carcinomas involving the ovaries. Conclusions Meprin α is a useful additional marker in differentiating primary from secondary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the ovary. PMID:16822880

  8. Ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, A G; Reimer, D; Sopper, S; Boesch, M; Martowicz, A; Roessler, J; Wiedemair, A M; Rumpold, H; Untergasser, G; Concin, N; Hofstetter, G; Muller-Holzner, E; Fiegl, H; Marth, C; Wolf, D; Pesta, M; Hatina, J

    2012-01-01

    Because of its semi-solid character in dissemination and growth, advanced ovarian cancer with its hundreds of peritoneal tumor nodules and plaques appears to be an excellent in vivo model for studying the cancer stem cell hypothesis. The most important obstacle, however, is to adequately define and isolate these tumor-initiating cells endowed with the properties of anoikis-resistance and unlimited self-renewal. Until now, no universal single marker or marker constellation has been found to faithfully isolate (ovarian) cancer stem cells. As these multipotent cells are known to possess highly elaborated efflux systems for cytotoxic agents, these pump systems have been exploited to outline putative stem cells as a side-population (SP) via dye exclusion analysis. Furthermore, the cells in question have been isolated via flow cytometry on the basis of cell surface markers thought to be characteristic for stem cells.In the Vienna variant of the ovarian cancer cell line A2780 a proof-of-principle model with both a stable SP and a stable ALDH1A1+ cell population was established. Double staining clearly revealed that both cell fractions were not identical. Of note, A2780V cells were negative for expression of surface markers CD44 and CD117 (c-kit). When cultured on monolayers of healthy human mesothelial cells, green-fluorescence-protein (GFP)-transfected SP of A2780V exhibited spheroid-formation, whereas non-side-population (NSP) developed a spare monolayer growing over the healthy mesothelium. Furthermore, A2780V SP was found to be partially resistant to platinum. However, this resistance could not be explained by over-expression of the "excision repair cross-complementation group 1" (ERCC1) gene, which is essentially involved in the repair of platinated DNA damage. ERCC1 was, nonetheless, over-expressed in A2780V cells grown as spheres under stem cell-selective conditions as compared to adherent monolayers cultured under differentiating conditions. The same was true for

  9. Shikonin induces apoptosis and inhibits migration of ovarian carcinoma cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Src and FAK

    PubMed Central

    HAO, ZHENFENG; QIAN, JING; YANG, JISHI

    2015-01-01

    The present study identified that shikonin, a naphthoquinone extracted from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, inhibits the migration of ovarian cancer cells and induces their apoptosis by impairing the phosphorylation of two kinases, proto-oncogene tyrosine protein kinase Src (Src) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 cells were treated with various concentrations of shikonin and analyzed for the effects on cell migration, invasion and apoptosis via Transwell assays and flow cytometry. In addition, the effects of shikonin administration on the expression and phosphorylation of Src and FAK in the SKOV-3 cells were analyzed by western blotting. Shikonin appeared to induce apoptosis and decrease cell migration in the SKOV-3 ovarian cells. Furthermore, the present study provides evidence that shikonin may exert these effects on human ovarian carcinoma cells via the inhibition of the protein tyrosine kinases, Src and FAK. Thus, shikonin should be considered for additional investigation as a candidate agent for the prevention and treatment of human ovarian cancer. PMID:25621031

  10. Response of endometrioid ovarian carcinoma in nude mice to the combination of vincristine sulphate and cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Bjondahl, K; Grönroos, M; Klemi, P; Möttönen, M

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a combination treatment with vincristine sulphate and cyclophosphamide to endometrioid ovarian carcinoma grown in nude mice hosts was studied by histopathological, ultrastructural and biochemical methods. The first course of treatment had little or no effect. After the second and third courses, however, the growth of the tumors was suppressed as evidenced by increased necrosis and decreased weight of tumors. The total volume of the mitochondria decreased but there was no change in the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio and other ultrastructural features. In the DNA and RNA contents a decreasing trend was found. No complete remission was observed during the treatment. However, in two treated animals, kept for a longer observation period, the tumors regressed completely and no new tumor growths were found. In the control animals, the tumors grew progressively and the histology was identical to that in the patient. However, the frequency of mitoses was slightly higher in the transplanted tumor than in the primary tumor.

  11. Complexity of expression of the intermediate filaments of six new human ovarian carcinoma cell lines: new expression of cytokeratin 20.

    PubMed

    Yanagibashi, T; Gorai, I; Nakazawa, T; Miyagi, E; Hirahara, F; Kitamura, H; Minaguchi, H

    1997-01-01

    Six permanent human ovarian carcinoma cell lines (OVISE, OVTOKO, OVMANA and OVSAYO from clear cell adenocarcinoma, and OVSAHO and OVKATE from serous papillary adenocarcinoma) were established from solid tumours. The cell lines have been in culture for 5-8 years, the passage number varying from 62 to 246. Immunohistochemical analysis has shown that five of the six cell lines express at least six cytokeratin (CK) polypeptides. OVISE and OVSAYO expressed CKs 6, 7, 8, 18, 19 and 15 and/or 16. OVTOKO was positive for CKs 7, 8, 18, 19 and 15 and/or 16. OVSAHO expressed CKs 6, 7, 8, 14, 18, 19 and 15 and/or 16. OVMANA expressed CKs 6, 7, 8, 18, 19, 20 and 15 and/or 16. OVKATE expressed CKs 6, 7, 8, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 15 and/or 16. The expression of CK7, additional expression of vimentin, and clinical and histopathological findings enabled us to confirm that six cell lines had been established from primary ovarian cancers. Two of the six cell lines were positive for CK20, although CK20 was not expressed in the original tumours. The heterotransplanted tumours produced by CK20-positive cells also expressed CK20. This is the first report of ovarian carcinoma cell lines that express CK20 irrespective of their histological type. CK20 has been found in all colon carcinoma cell lines, but only in the mucinous type of ovarian tumours. These new ovarian carcinoma cell lines will therefore provide a relevant experimental system for elucidating the regulatory control mechanisms of intermediate filament expression.

  12. PAPP-A proteolytic activity enhances IGF bioactivity in ascites from women with ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Jacob; Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Espelund, Ulrick; Ørtoft, Gitte; Vestergaard, Poul; Magnusson, Nils E.; Conover, Cheryl A.; Tramm, Trine; Hager, Henrik; Høgdall, Claus; Høgdall, Estrid; Oxvig, Claus; Frystyk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action through proteolysis of IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-4. In experimental animals, PAPP-A accelerates ovarian tumor growth by this mechanism. To investigate the effect of PAPP-A in humans, we compared serum and ascites from 22 women with ovarian carcinoma. We found that ascites contained 46-fold higher PAPP-A levels as compared to serum (P < 0.001). The majority (80%) of PAPP-A was enzymatically active. This is supported by the finding that ascites contained more cleaved than intact IGFBP-4 (P < 0.03). Ascites was more potent than serum in activating the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in vitro (+31%, P < 0.05); in 8 of 22 patients by more than two-fold. In contrast, ascites contained similar levels of immunoreactive IGF-I, and lower levels of IGF-II (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of IGF-IR in all but one tumor, whereas all tumors expressed PAPP-A, IGFBP-4, IGF-I and IGF-II. Addition of recombinant PAPP-A to ascites increased the cleavage of IGFBP-4 and enhanced IGF-IR activation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, human ovarian tumors express PAPP-A, IGFBP-4 and IGFs and these proteins are also present in ascites. We suggest that both soluble PAPP-A in ascites and tissue-associated PAPP-A serve to increase IGF bioactivity and, thereby, to stimulate IGF-IR-mediated tumor growth. PMID:26336825

  13. Actin cytoskeleton stiffness grades metastatic potential of ovarian carcinoma Hey A8 cells via nanoindentation mapping.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z L; Sun, X X; Ma, J; Tong, M H; To, S K Y; Wong, A S T; Ngan, A H W

    2017-07-26

    Recent studies have indicated that the nanoindentation measured stiffness of carcinoma adherent cells is in general lower than normal cells, thus suggesting that cell stiffness may serve as a bio-marker for carcinoma. However, the proper establishment of such a conclusion would require biophysical understanding of the underlying mechanism of the cell stiffness. In this work, we compared the elastic moduli of the actin cytoskeletons of Hey A8 ovarian carcinoma cells with and without metastasis (HM and NM), as measured by 2D atomic force microscopy (AFM) with low-depth nanoindentation via a rate-jump method. The results indicate clearly that HM cells showed lower actin cytoskeleton stiffness atop of their nucleus position and higher actin cytoskeleton stiffness at their rims, compared to NM cells, suggesting that the local stiffness on the cytoskeleton can reflect actin filament distribution. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also indicated that the difference in stiffness in Hey A8 cells with different metastasis is associated with their F-actin rearrangement. Finite-element modelling (FEM) shows that a migrating cell would have its actin filaments bundled together to form stress fibers, which would exhibit lower indentation stiffness than the less aligned arrangement of filaments in a non-migrating cell. The results here indicate that the actin cytoskeleton stiffness can serve as a reliable marker for grading the metastasis of adherent carcinoma cells due to their cytoskeleton change and potentially predicting the migration direction of the cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epigenetic alteration of p16 and retinoic acid receptor beta genes in the development of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Rahul; Kumar, Sandeep Sriram; Vaderhobli, Shilpa; Premalata, Chennagiri S; Pallavi, Venkateshaiah Reddihalli; Ramesh, Gawari; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2014-09-01

    Silencing of tumor suppressor and tumor-related genes by promoter hypermethylation is one of the major events in ovarian carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed aberrant promoter methylation of p16 and RAR-β genes in 134 epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs), 23 low malignant potential (LMP) tumors, 26 benign cystadenomas, and 15 normal ovarian tissues. Methylation was investigated by methylation-specific PCR (MSP), and the results were confirmed by bisulfite DNA sequencing. Relative gene expression of p16 and RAR-β was done using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) on 51 EOC cases, 9 LMP tumors, and 7 benign cystadenomas with 5 normal ovarian tissues. Aberrant methylation for p16 and RAR-β was present in 43 % (58/134) and 31 % (41/134) in carcinoma cases, 22 % (05/23) and 52 % (12/23) in LMP tumors, and 42 % (11/26) and 69 % (18/26) in benign cystadenomas. No methylation was observed in any of the normal ovarian tissues. The mRNA expression level of p16 and RAR-β was significantly downregulated in EOC and LMP tumors than the corresponding normal tissues whereas the expression level was normal in benign cystadenomas for p16 and slightly reduced for RAR-β. A significant correlation of p16 promoter methylation was observed with reduced gene expression in EOC. For RAR-β, no significant correlation was observed between promoter methylation and gene expression. Our results suggest that epigenetic alterations of p16 and RAR-β have an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis and that mechanism along with methylation plays a significant role in downregulation of RAR-β gene in ovarian cancer.

  15. Sialoglycoproteins and N-glycans from secreted exosomes of ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Escrevente, Cristina; Grammel, Nicolas; Kandzia, Sebastian; Zeiser, Johannes; Tranfield, Erin M; Conradt, Harald S; Costa, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes consist of vesicles that are secreted by several human cells, including tumor cells and neurons, and they are found in several biological fluids. Exosomes have characteristic protein and lipid composition, however, the results concerning glycoprotein composition and glycosylation are scarce. Here, protein glycosylation of exosomes from ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells has been studied by lectin blotting, NP-HPLC analysis of 2-aminobenzamide labeled glycans and mass spectrometry. An abundant sialoglycoprotein was found enriched in exosomes and it was identified by peptide mass fingerprinting and immunoblot as the galectin-3-binding protein (LGALS3BP). Exosomes were found to contain predominantly complex glycans of the di-, tri-, and tetraantennary type with or without proximal fucose and also high mannose glycans. Diantennary glycans containing bisecting N-acetylglucosamine were also detected. This work provides detailed information about glycoprotein and N-glycan composition of exosomes from ovarian cancer cells, furthermore it opens novel perspectives to further explore the functional role of glycans in the biology of exosomes.

  16. Clinical outcomes of fertility-sparing treatments in young patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Zhu, Li-rong; Liang, Zhi-qing; Meng, Yuan-guang; Guo, Hong-yan; Qu, Peng-peng; Ma, Cai-ling; Xu, Cong-jian; Yuan, Bi-bo

    2011-10-01

    To assess the clinical outcomes of fertility-sparing treatments in young patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). A retrospective study of young EOC inpatients (≤40 years old) was performed during January 1994 and December 2010 in eight institutions. Data were analyzed from 94 patients treated with fertility-sparing surgery with a median follow-up time of 58.7 months. As histologic grade increased, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of patients receiving fertility-sparing surgery declined. Neither staging surgery nor laparoscopy of early stage EOC with conservative surgery had a significant effect on OS or DFS. Normal menstruation recommenced after chemotherapy in 89% of the fertility-sparing group. Seventeen pregnancies among twelve patients were achieved by the end of the follow-ups. Fertility-sparing treatment for patients with EOC Stage I Grade 1 could be cautiously considered for young patients. The surgical procedure and surgical route might not significantly influence the prognosis. Standard chemotherapy is not likely to have an evident impact on ovarian function or fertility in young patients.

  17. The effect of adjuvant radiation on survival in early stage clear cell ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hogen, Liat; Thomas, Gillian; Bernardini, Marcus; Bassiouny, Dina; Brar, Harinder; Gien, Lilian T; Rosen, Barry; Le, Lisa; Vicus, Danielle

    2016-11-01

    To assess the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) on survival in patients with stage I and II ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). Data collection and analysis of stage I and II OCCC patients treated at two tertiary centers in Toronto, between 1995 and 2014, was performed. Descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier survival probability estimates were completed. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves. 163 patients were eligible. 44 (27%) patients were treated with adjuvant RT: 37 of them received adjuvant chemotherapy (CT), and 7 had RT only. In the no-RT group, there were 119 patients: 83 patients received adjuvant CT and 36 had no adjuvant treatment. The 10year progression free survival (PFS) was 65% for patients treated with RT, and 59% no-RT patients. There were a total of 41 (25%) recurrences in the cohort: 12 (27.2%) patients in RT group and 29 (24.3%) in the no-RT group. On multivariable analysis, adjuvant RT was not significantly associated with an increased PFS (0.85 (0.44-1.63) p=0.63) or overall survival (OS) (0.84 (0.39-1.82) p=0.66). In the subset of 59 patients defined as high-risk: stage IC with positive cytology and/or surface involvement and stage II: RT was not found to be associated with a better PFS (HR 1.18 (95% CI: 0.55-2.54) or O S(HR 1.04 (95% CI: 0.40-2.69)). Adjuvant RT was not found to be associated with a survival benefit in patients with stage I and II ovarian clear cell carcinoma or in a high risk subset of patients including stage IC cytology positive/surface involvement and stage II patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reclassification of serous ovarian carcinoma by a 2-tier system: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.

    PubMed

    Bodurka, Diane C; Deavers, Michael T; Tian, Chunqiao; Sun, Charlotte C; Malpica, Anais; Coleman, Robert L; Lu, Karen H; Sood, Anil K; Birrer, Michael J; Ozols, Robert; Baergen, Rebecca; Emerson, Robert E; Steinhoff, Margaret; Behmaram, Behnaz; Rasty, Golnar; Gershenson, David M

    2012-06-15

    A study was undertaken to use the 2-tier system to reclassify the grade of serous ovarian tumors previously classified using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 3-tier system and determine the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients treated on Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Protocol 158. The authors retrospectively reviewed demographic, pathologic, and survival data of 290 patients with stage III serous ovarian carcinoma treated with surgery and chemotherapy on GOG Protocol 158, a cooperative multicenter group trial. A blinded pathology review was performed by a panel of 6 gynecologic pathologists to verify histology and regrade tumors using the 2-tier system. The association of tumor grade with PFS and OS was assessed. Of 241 cases, both systems demonstrated substantial agreement when combining FIGO grades 2 and 3 (overall agreement, 95%; kappa statistic, 0.68). By using the 2-tier system, patients with low-grade versus high-grade tumors had significantly longer PFS (45.0 vs 19.8 months, respectively; P = .01). By using FIGO criteria, median PFS for patients with grade 1, 2, and 3 tumors was 37.5, 19.8, and 20.1 months, respectively (P = .07). There was no difference in clinical outcome in patients with grade 2 or 3 tumors in multivariate analysis. Woman with high-grade versus low-grade tumors demonstrated significantly higher risk of death (hazard ratio, 2.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.04; P = .02). Women with high-grade versus low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary are 2 distinct patient populations. Adoption of the 2-tier grading system provides a simple yet precise framework for predicting clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  19. MAL2 and tumor protein D52 (TPD52) are frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but differentially associated with histological subtype and patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Jennifer A; Maleki, Sanaz; Hardy, Jayne R; Gloss, Brian S; Murali, Rajmohan; Scurry, James P; Fanayan, Susan; Emmanuel, Catherine; Hacker, Neville F; Sutherland, Robert L; Defazio, Anna; O'Brien, Philippa M

    2010-09-17

    The four-transmembrane MAL2 protein is frequently overexpressed in breast carcinoma, and MAL2 overexpression is associated with gain of the corresponding locus at chromosome 8q24.12. Independent expression microarray studies predict MAL2 overexpression in ovarian carcinoma, but these had remained unconfirmed. MAL2 binds tumor protein D52 (TPD52), which is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but the clinical significance of MAL2 and TPD52 overexpression was unknown. Immunohistochemical analyses of MAL2 and TPD52 expression were performed using tissue microarray sections including benign, borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. Inmmunohistochemical staining intensity and distribution was assessed both visually and digitally. MAL2 and TPD52 were significantly overexpressed in high-grade serous carcinomas compared with serous borderline tumours. MAL2 expression was highest in serous carcinomas relative to other histological subtypes, whereas TPD52 expression was highest in clear cell carcinomas. MAL2 expression was not related to patient survival, however high-level TPD52 staining was significantly associated with improved overall survival in patients with stage III serous ovarian carcinoma (log-rank test, p < 0.001; n = 124) and was an independent predictor of survival in the overall carcinoma cohort (hazard ratio (HR), 0.498; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.728; p < 0.001; n = 221), and in serous carcinomas (HR, 0.440; 95% CI, 0.294-0.658; p < 0.001; n = 182). MAL2 is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, and TPD52 overexpression is a favourable independent prognostic marker of potential value in the management of ovarian carcinoma patients.

  20. Potentiation by Tumor Necrosis Factor of Mitoxantrone Cytotoxicity to Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Silvio; Billi, Giovanna; Oliva, Cristina; Venturing, Marco; Noviello, Elvira; Conte, PierFranco

    1992-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (rHuTNF) (from 0.01 to 10000 U/ml) was assayed on six human ovarian cancer cell lines and one human cervical carcinoma cell line using a crystal violet assay. rHuTNF was cytotoxic to four cell lines (A2780, A2774, SW626, PAD, while 3 cell lines (IGROV1, SKOV3, Mel80) were marginally sensitive to its activity. However, under the same experimental conditions rHuTNF markedly enhanced the cytotoxicity of mitoxantrone, a chemotherapeutic drug targeted at DNA topoisomerase II, in six cell lines. The potentiation of mitoxantrone cytotoxicity was not caused by increased drug accumulation after rHuTNF treatment. No significant increase in cytotoxicity to Me180 cell line was seen when rHuTNF was added to mitoxantrone. PMID:1517145

  1. Cisplatin-induced caspase activation mediates PTEN cleavage in ovarian cancer cells: a potential mechanism of chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohan; Chaudhry, Parvesh; Fabi, Francois; Asselin, Eric

    2013-05-10

    The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) tumor suppressor protein is a central negative regulator of the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade and suppresses cell survival as well as cell proliferation. PTEN is found to be either inactivated or mutated in various human malignancies. In the present study, we have investigated the regulation of PTEN during cisplatin induced apoptosis in A2780, A270-CP (cisplatin resistant), OVCAR-3 and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell lines. Cells were treated with 10μM of cisplatin for 24h. Transcript and protein levels were analysed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to assess the intracellular localization of PTEN. Proteasome inhibitor and various caspases inhibitors were used to find the mechanism of PTEN degradation. PTEN protein levels were found to be decreased significantly in A2780 cells; however, there was no change in PTEN protein levels in A2780-CP, OVCAR-3 and SKOV3 cells with cisplatin treatment. The decrease in PTEN protein was accompanied with an increase in the levels of AKT phosphorylation (pAKT) in A2780 cells and a decrease of BCL-2. Cisplatin treatment induced the activation/cleavage of caspase-3, -6, -7, -8, -9 in all cell lines tested in this study except the resistant variant A2780-CP cells. In A2780 cells, restoration of PTEN levels was achieved upon pre-treatment with Z-DEVD-FMK (broad range caspases inhibitor) and not with MG132 (proteasome inhibitor) and by overexpression of BCL-2, suggesting that caspases and BCL-2 are involved in the decrease of PTEN protein levels in A2780 cells. The decrease in pro-apoptotic PTEN protein levels and increase in survival factor pAKT in A2780 ovarian cancer cells suggest that cisplatin treatment could further exacerbate drug resistance in A2780 ovarian cancer cells.

  2. Pembrolizumab, Bevacizumab, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-03

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  3. Profile of differentially expressed miRNAs in high-grade serous carcinoma and clear cell ovarian carcinoma, and the expression of miR-510 in ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XINCHEN; GUO, GORDON; WANG, GUANG; ZHAO, JINYAO; WANG, BO; YU, XIAOTANG; DING, YANFANG

    2015-01-01

    Improved insight into the molecular and genetic profile of different types of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is required for understanding the carcinogenesis of EOC and may potentially be exploited by future targeted therapies. The aim of the present study was to identify a unique microRNA (miRNA) patterns and key miRNAs, which may assist in predicting progression and prognosis in high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) and clear cell carcinoma (CCC). To identify unique miRNA patterns associated with HGSC and CCC, a miRNA microarray was performed using Chinese tumor bank specimens of patients with HGSC or CCC in a retrospective analysis. The expression levels of four deregulated miRNAs were further validated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in an external cohort of 42 cases of HGSC and 36 cases of CCC. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between the expression levels of the four miRNAs and patient prognosis. Among these validated miRNAs, miR-510 was further examined in another cohort of normal ovarian tissues, as well as the HGSC, low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) and CCC specimens using RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization. The results revealed that, of the 768 miRNAs analyzed in the microarray, 33 and 50 miRNAs were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, with at least a 2-fold difference in HGSC, compared with CCC. The quantitative analysis demonstrated that miR-510 and miR-129-3p were significantly downregulated, and that miR-483-5p and miR-miR-449a were significantly upregulated in CCC, compared with HGSC (P<0.05), which was consistent with the microarray results. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed low expression levels of miR-510 and low expression levels of miR-129-3p, advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, lymphatic metastasis and that HGSC was significantly associated with the poorer overall survival rates (P<0.05). The expression of miR-510

  4. [Establishment of nude mouse model with ovarian carcinomaand the effect of Paris Phyllin VII combined with silica nano complex on the inhibition and the antioxidant ability of ovarian carcinoma in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Bihang; Zhang, Jialing; Yang, Ruiqi; Fan, Limei

    2015-08-04

    To establish the research model of ovarian carcinoma in nude mice, and to explore the effect of Paris Phyllin VII combined with silica nano complex on the inhibition and the antioxidant ability of ovarian carcinoma in nude mice. Nude mice models with ovarian carcinoma were established by axillary subcutaneous inoculation of human SKOV3/DDP resistant ovarian cancer cell 200 µl and were used in the experiment. Treating the nude mice with Paris Phyllin VII combined with silica nano complex by gavage for 15 days to observe the weight change of the nude mice, tumor inhibition effect and changes of serum antioxidant capacity. Compared with the negative control group, tumor inhibition rate increased significantly in Paris Phyllin VII combined with silica nano complex treatment group, and was higher than that in both Paris Phyllin VII treatment only and silica nano composites treatment only group. The serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level of Paris Phyllin VII combined with silica nano complex treatment group was significantly higher than that of control group, Paris Phyllin VII treatment only and silica nano composites treatment only group. The serum malonaldehyde (MDA) level of Paris Phyllin VII combined with silica nano complex treatment group was significantly lower than that of the negative control group. Paris Phyllin VII combined with silica nano complex treatment can inhibit the ovarian carcinoma in nude mice, which may mediate by the enhancement of antioxidant capability in nude mice with ovarian cancer.

  5. Complete resection of locally advanced ovarian carcinoma fixed to the pelvic sidewall and involving external and internal iliac vessels.

    PubMed

    Nishikimi, Kyoko; Tate, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Ayumu; Shozu, Makio

    2017-08-01

    Locally advanced ovarian carcinomas may be fixed to the pelvic sidewall, and although these often involve the internal iliac vessels, they rarely involve the external iliac vessels. Such tumors are mostly considered inoperable. We present a surgical technique for complete resection of locally advanced ovarian carcinoma fixed to the pelvic sidewall and involving external and internal iliac vessels. A 69-year-old woman presented with ovarian carcinoma fixed to the right pelvic sidewall, which involved the right external and internal iliac arteries and veins and the right lower ureter, rectum, and vagina. We cut the external iliac artery and vein at the bifurcation and at the inguinal ligament to resect the external artery and vein. Then, we reconstructed the arterial and venous supplies of the right external artery and vein with grafts. After creating a wide space immediately inside of the sacral plexus to allow the tumor fixed to pelvic sidewall with the internal iliac vessels to move medially, we performed total internal iliac vessel resection. We achieved complete en bloc tumor resection with the right external and internal artery and vein, right ureter, vagina, and rectum adhering to the tumor. There were no intra- or postoperative complications, such as bleeding, graft occlusion, infection, or limb edema. Exfoliation from the sacral plexus and total resection with external and internal iliac vessels enables complete resection of the tumor fixed to the pelvic sidewall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Akt2/ZEB2 may be a biomarker for exfoliant cells in ascitic fluid in advanced grades of serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changmei; Yang, Fangmei

    2015-09-01

    Ovarian cancers present a mild clinical course when diagnosed early but an aggressive pathway when diagnosed in the peri- and postmenopausal periods. However, the predictability of tumor progression is stochastic and is difficult to predict. In the present study, we hypothesized to examine the key pathways that are dysregulated to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in serous ovarian carcinoma. Examination of these steps would help to identify ascitic fluid with cells poised for metastasis or otherwise. We focused on examining the Akt2 expression, mainly because of its report as being overamplified in the aggressive variants of ovarian cancer, as well as TGFbeta-sensitivity of Akt2 that forms the key basis for metastasis initiation of most kinds of carcinoma. We obtained primary ovarian carcinoma samples as well as ascitic fluid and distantly metastatic ovarian carcinoma to examine the expression of Akt2. The results of the study demonstrated that in malignant exfoliated ovarian cancer cells, Smad4 expression was tremendously increased in the nuclei, suggesting nuclear translocation of Smad, which thereafter may have activated ZEB2, and thereafter genomically affected the expression of E-cadherin, myosin II, and vimentin, key components for initiating and sustaining metastasis. All of these may have been stimulated by increased cellular expression of Akt2 in metastatic variants of the serous ovarian carcinoma. The reliance on Akt2 and TGF beta signaling may also potentiate the case for Akt inhibitors or small molecule inhibitors of TGFbeta signaling like doxycycline as adjunct chemotherapy in serous ovarian carcinoma, especially the metastatic variants.

  7. Clinical Significance of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor 2, a Serum Biomarker Candidate for Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Masuishi, Yusuke; Ino, Yoko; Shigetomi, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Naoto; Ohtake, Norihisa; Miyagi, Yohei; Hirahara, Fumiki; Hirano, Hisashi; Miyagi, Etsuko

    2016-01-01

    Background There is currently no reliable serum biomarker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC), a highly lethal histological subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Previously, using a proteome-based approach, we identified tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2) as a candidate serum biomarker for CCC. In this study, we sought to evaluate the clinical diagnostic performance of TFPI2 in preoperative prediction of CCC. Methods Serum TFPI2 levels were measured in serum samples from a retrospective training set consisting of patients with benign and borderline ovarian tumors, EOC subtypes, and uterine diseases. Via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, we compared the diagnostic performance of TFPI2 with that of CA125 in discrimination of patients with ovarian CCC from other patient groups. The observed diagnostic performances were examined in a prospective validation set. Results The 268-patient training set included 29 patients with ovarian CCC. Unlike CA125, which was also elevated in patients with endometriosis and several EOC subtypes, serum TFPI2 levels were specifically elevated only in ovarian CCC patients, consistent with the mRNA expression pattern in tumor tissues. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of serum TFPI2 was obviously higher than that of CA125 for discrimination of CCC from other ovarian diseases (AUC = 0.891 versus 0.595). Applying a cut-off value of 280 pg/mL, TFPI2 could distinguish early-stage (FIGO I and II) CCC from endometriosis with 72.2% sensitivity, 93.3% specificity, and 88.8% accuracy. Similar results were confirmed in an independent 156-patient prospective validation set. Conclusions TFPI2 is a useful serum biomarker for preoperative clinical diagnosis of CCC. PMID:27798689

  8. Clinical Significance of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor 2, a Serum Biomarker Candidate for Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Masuishi, Yusuke; Ino, Yoko; Shigetomi, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Naoto; Ohtake, Norihisa; Miyagi, Yohei; Hirahara, Fumiki; Hirano, Hisashi; Miyagi, Etsuko

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no reliable serum biomarker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC), a highly lethal histological subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Previously, using a proteome-based approach, we identified tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2) as a candidate serum biomarker for CCC. In this study, we sought to evaluate the clinical diagnostic performance of TFPI2 in preoperative prediction of CCC. Serum TFPI2 levels were measured in serum samples from a retrospective training set consisting of patients with benign and borderline ovarian tumors, EOC subtypes, and uterine diseases. Via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, we compared the diagnostic performance of TFPI2 with that of CA125 in discrimination of patients with ovarian CCC from other patient groups. The observed diagnostic performances were examined in a prospective validation set. The 268-patient training set included 29 patients with ovarian CCC. Unlike CA125, which was also elevated in patients with endometriosis and several EOC subtypes, serum TFPI2 levels were specifically elevated only in ovarian CCC patients, consistent with the mRNA expression pattern in tumor tissues. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of serum TFPI2 was obviously higher than that of CA125 for discrimination of CCC from other ovarian diseases (AUC = 0.891 versus 0.595). Applying a cut-off value of 280 pg/mL, TFPI2 could distinguish early-stage (FIGO I and II) CCC from endometriosis with 72.2% sensitivity, 93.3% specificity, and 88.8% accuracy. Similar results were confirmed in an independent 156-patient prospective validation set. TFPI2 is a useful serum biomarker for preoperative clinical diagnosis of CCC.

  9. Elesclomol Sodium and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-02

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Downregulation of connective tissue growth factor by three-dimensional matrix enhances ovarian carcinoma cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Barbolina, Maria V; Adley, Brian P; Kelly, David L; Shepard, Jaclyn; Fought, Angela J; Scholtens, Denise; Penzes, Peter; Shea, Lonnie D; Stack, M Sharon

    2009-08-15

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies, due mainly to the prevalence of undetected metastatic disease. The process of cell invasion during intraperitoneal anchoring of metastatic lesions requires concerted regulation of many processes, including modulation of adhesion to the extracellular matrix and localized invasion. Exploratory cDNA microarray analysis of early response genes (altered after 4 hr of 3D collagen culture) coupled with confirmatory real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, multiple 3D cell culture matrices, Western blot, immunostaining, adhesion, migration and invasion assays were used to identify modulators of adhesion pertinent to EOC progression and metastasis. cDNA microarray analysis indicated a dramatic downregulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in EOC cells placed in invasion- mimicking conditions (3D Type I collagen). Examination of human EOC specimens revealed that CTGF expression was absent in 46% of the tested samples (n = 41), but was present in 100% of normal ovarian epithelium samples (n = 7). Reduced CTGF expression occurs in many types of cells and may be a general phenomenon displayed by cells encountering a 3D environment. CTGF levels were inversely correlated with invasion such that downregulation of CTGF increased, while its upregulation reduced collagen invasion. Cells adhered preferentially to a surface comprised of both collagen I and CTGF relative to either component alone using alpha6beta1 and alpha3beta1 integrins. Together these data suggest that downregulation of CTGF in EOC cells may be important for cell invasion through modulation of cell-matrix adhesion.

  11. Downregulation of Connective Tissue Growth Factor by Three-Dimensional Matrix Enhances Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Barbolina, Maria V.; Adley, Brian P.; Kelly, David L.; Shepard, Jaclyn; Fought, Angela J.; Scholtens, Denise; Penzes, Peter; Shea, Lonnie D.; Sharon Stack, M

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, due mainly to the prevalence of undetected metastatic disease. The process of cell invasion during intra-peritoneal anchoring of metastatic lesions requires concerted regulation of many processes, including modulation of adhesion to the extracellular matrix and localized invasion. Exploratory cDNA microarray analysis of early response genes (altered after 4 hours of 3-dimensional collagen culture) coupled with confirmatory real-time RT-PCR, multiple three-dimensional cell culture matrices, Western blot, immunostaining, adhesion, migration, and invasion assays were used to identify modulators of adhesion pertinent to EOC progression and metastasis. cDNA microarray analysis indicated a dramatic downregulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in EOC cells placed in invasion-mimicking conditions (3-dimensional type I collagen). Examination of human EOC specimens revealed that CTGF expression was absent in 46% of the tested samples (n=41), but was present in 100% of normal ovarian epithelium samples (n=7). Reduced CTGF expression occurs in many types of cells and may be a general phenomenon displayed by cells encountering a 3D environment. CTGF levels were inversely correlated with invasion such that downregulation of CTGF increased, while its upregulation reduced, collagen invasion. Cells adhered preferentially to a surface comprised of both collagen I and CTGF relative to either component alone using α6β1 and α3β1 integrins. Together these data suggest that downregulation of CTGF in EOC cells may be important for cell invasion through modulation of cell-matrix adhesion. PMID:19382180

  12. Differential expression of alpha 2 macroglobulin in response to dietylstilbestrol and in ovarian carcinomas in chickens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alpha 2 macroglobulin (A2M; also known as ovostatin), a homotetrameric protein with four disulfide-linked subunits, has the unique feature of inactivating/inhibiting most known proteases including serine-, threonine-, cysteine-, aspartic- and metalloproteases. In chickens, A2M has been identified and characterized biochemically, but little is known of its functional role(s) in the oviduct, hormonal regulation of expression or its expression in ovarian carcinomas in chickens. Therefore, we investigated estrogen regulation of A2M gene expression during development of the chicken oviduct, and its expression in normal and cancerous ovaries from chickens. Methods To determine tissue-specific expression of A2M in chickens, we collected various organs from male and female chickens and performed RT-PCR analyses. To examine A2M gene expression in the oviduct of 1-week-old female chicks that received a subcutaneous implant of 15 mg DES in the abdominal region for 20 days, we performed RT-PCR, qPCR and in situ hybridization analyses using cDNAs from control- (n = 5) and DES-treated oviducts (n = 5), and then each segment of the oviduct from DES-treated chicks. To determine if A2M is a biomarker of ovarian cancer in hens, we collected cancerous (n = 10) ovaries from a total of 136 chickens which had completely stopped egg-laying and performed RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses. Results We found that A2M is most abundant in the chicken oviduct, specifically luminal (LE) and glandular epithelia (GE), but it was not detected in any other tissues of either sex. We then determined that DES (dietylstilbestrol, a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen) increased A2M mRNA only in LE and GE of the oviduct of chicks. Further, expression of A2M was most abundant in GE of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of cancerous, but not normal ovaries of hens. Conclusions Collectively, results of the present study indicate that A2M is novel estrogen-stimulated gene expressed in LE and GE of

  13. [Effect and mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress on cisplatin resistance in ovarian carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Hu, Xiaoming; Qu, Quanxin

    2014-05-01

    The study intended to investigate the effect and mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress on cisplatin resistance in ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to test the expression of mTOR and Beclin1 mRNA and protein in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells after saquinavir induction. MTT assay was used to analyze the influence of saquinavir on cisplatin sensitivity in SKOV3 cells. The IC50 of SKOV3 cells was (5.490 ± 1.148) µg/ml. After induced by Saquinavair 10 µmol/L and 20 µmol/L, the IC50 of SKOV3 cells was increased to (11.199 ± 0.984) µg/ml and (14.906 ± 2.015) µg/ml, respectively. It suggested that the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin was decreased significantly (P = 0.001). The expression of mTOR and Beclin1 mRNA and protein was significantly different among the five groups: the (Saquinavair+DDP) group of, Saquinavair group, LY294002 group, DDP group and control group (P < 0.001) . The expressions of mTOR and Beclin1 mRNA were highest in the (Saquinavair+DDP) group, 0.684 ± 0.072 and 0.647 ± 0.047, respectively; Secondly, the Saquinavair group, 0.577 ± 0.016 and 0.565 ± 0.037, respectively. The expressions of mTOR and Beclin1 proteins were also highest in the (Saquinavair+DDP) group, 0.624 ± 0.058 and 0.924 ± 0.033, respectively, followed by the Saquinavair group, 0.544 ± 0.019 and 0.712 ± 0.024. 3-MA inhibited the autophagy and restored cisplatin sensitivity in the SKOV3 cells after Saquinavir induced ER stress (P < 0.001). Saquinavir can effectively induce endoplasmic reticulum stress in SKOV3 cells. Endoplasmic reticulum stress can decrease the sensitivity to cisplatin in SKOV3 cells. The mechanism of the decrease of sensitivity to cisplatin in SKOV3 cells may be that ERS regulates cell autophagy through the mTOR and Beclin1 pathways. ERS of tumor cells and autophagy may become a new target to improve the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy and to reverse the drug resistance in tumor treatment.

  14. PKC-alpha modulation by miR-483-3p in platinum-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arrighetti, Noemi, E-mail: Noemi.Arrighetti@istitu

    The occurrence of drug resistance limits the efficacy of platinum compounds in the cure of ovarian carcinoma. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this phenomenon by regulating different aspects of tumor cell response, the aim of this study was to exploit the analysis of expression of miRNAs in platinum sensitive/resistant cells in an attempt to identify potential regulators of drug response. MiR-483-3p, which may participate in apoptosis and cell proliferation regulation, was found up-regulated in 4 platinum resistant variants, particularly in the IGROV-1/Pt1 subline, versus parental cells. Transfection of a synthetic precursor of miR-483-3p in IGROV-1 parental cells elicited amore » marked up-regulation of the miRNA levels. Growth-inhibition and colony-forming assays indicated that miR-483-3p over-expression reduced cell growth and conferred mild levels of cisplatin resistance in IGROV-1 cells, by interference with their proliferative potential. Predicted targets of miR-483-3p included PRKCA (encoding PKC-alpha), previously reported to be associated to platinum-resistance in ovarian carcinoma. We found that miR-483-3p directly targeted PRKCA in IGROV-1 cells. In keeping with this finding, cisplatin sensitivity of IGROV-1 cells decreased upon molecular/pharmacological inhibition of PKC-alpha. Overall, our results suggest that overexpression of miR-483-3p by ovarian carcinoma platinum-resistant cells may interfere with their proliferation, thus protecting them from DNA damage induced by platinum compounds and ultimately representing a drug-resistance mechanism. The impairment of cell growth may account for low levels of drug resistance that could be relevant in the clinical setting. - Highlights: • miR-483-3p is up-regulated in ovarian carcinoma cells resistant to platinum drugs. • Ectopic expression of miR-483-3p in IGROV-1 confers mild levels of Pt-resistance. • Overexpression of miR-483-3p down-regulates PRKCA levels in ovarian carcinoma cells.

  15. MCT1 promotes the cisplatin-resistance by antagonizing Fas in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chunxiao; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Chunxia; Chen, Xuejun; Han, Xuechuan; Liu, Xueqin; Ma, Hongyun; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of MCT1 in the development of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer and its possible relationship with Fas. We found the expression of MCT1 was obviously increased both in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer tissue and A2780/CP cells compared with sensitive ovarian cancer tissue and cell lines A2780. And in A2780 cells treated with Cisplatin, the expression of MCT1 increased in a concentration-dependent manner, MCT1 knockdown attenuates cisplatin-induced cell viability. In A2780 and A2780/CP cells transfected with MCT1 siRNA, the activation of several downstream targets of Fas, including FasL and FAP-1 were largely prevented, whereas the expression of Caspase-3 was increased, accompanying with increased abundance of Fas. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence showed that there is interaction between endogenous MCT1 with Fas in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, depletion of MCT1 by shRNA reverses cisplatin-resistance and the expression of Fas. This study showed that down regulation of MCT1 promote the sensibility to Cisplatin in ovarian cancer cell line. And this effect appeared to be mediated via antagonizing the effect of Fas.

  16. MCT1 promotes the cisplatin-resistance by antagonizing Fas in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chunxiao; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Chunxia; Chen, Xuejun; Han, Xuechuan; Liu, Xueqin; Ma, Hongyun; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of MCT1 in the development of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer and its possible relationship with Fas. We found the expression of MCT1 was obviously increased both in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer tissue and A2780/CP cells compared with sensitive ovarian cancer tissue and cell lines A2780. And in A2780 cells treated with Cisplatin, the expression of MCT1 increased in a concentration-dependent manner, MCT1 knockdown attenuates cisplatin-induced cell viability. In A2780 and A2780/CP cells transfected with MCT1 siRNA, the activation of several downstream targets of Fas, including FasL and FAP-1 were largely prevented, whereas the expression of Caspase-3 was increased, accompanying with increased abundance of Fas. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence showed that there is interaction between endogenous MCT1 with Fas in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, depletion of MCT1 by shRNA reverses cisplatin-resistance and the expression of Fas. This study showed that down regulation of MCT1 promote the sensibility to Cisplatin in ovarian cancer cell line. And this effect appeared to be mediated via antagonizing the effect of Fas. PMID:26045776

  17. Prognostic significance of cell cycle proteins and genomic instability in borderline, early and advanced stage ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Blegen, H.; Einhorn, N.; Sjövall, K.; Roschke, A.; Ghadimi, B. M.; McShane, L. M.; Nilsson, B.; Shah, K.; Ried, T.; Auer, G.

    2000-11-01

    Disturbed cell cycle-regulating checkpoints and impairment of genomic stability are key events during the genesis and progression of malignant tumors. We analyzed 80 epithelial ovarian tumors of benign (n = 10) and borderline type (n = 18) in addition to carcinomas of early (n = 26) and advanced (n = 26) stages for the expression of Ki67, cyclin A and cyclin E, p21WAF-1, p27KIP-1 and p53 and correlated the results with the clinical course. Genomic instability was assessed by DNA ploidy measurements and, in 35 cases, by comparative genomic hybridization. Overexpression of cyclin A and cyclin E was observed in the majority of invasive carcinomas, only rarely in borderline tumors and in none of the benign tumors. Similarly, high expression of p53 together with undetectable p21 or loss of chromosome arm 17p were frequent events only in adenocarcinomas. Both borderline tumors and adenocarcinomas revealed a high number of chromosomal gains and losses. However, regional chromosomal amplifications were found to occur 13 times more frequently in the adenocarcinomas than in the borderline tumors. The expression pattern of low p27 together with high Ki67 was found to be an independent predictor of poor outcome in invasive carcinomas. The results provide a link between disturbed cell cycle regulatory proteins, chromosomal aberrations and survival in ovarian carcinomas.

  18. Metformin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Ovarian Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  19. Cancer stem-like cells of ovarian clear cell carcinoma are enriched in the ALDH-high population associated with an accelerated scavenging system in reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, T; Suzuki, N; Makino, H; Furui, T; Morii, E; Aoki, H; Kunisada, T; Yano, M; Kuji, S; Hirashima, Y; Arakawa, A; Nishio, S; Ushijima, K; Ito, K; Itani, Y; Morishige, K

    2015-05-01

    In ovarian cancer cases, recurrence after chemotherapy is frequently observed, suggesting the involvement of ovarian cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). The chemoresistance of ovarian clear cell carcinomas is particularly strong in comparison to other epithelial ovarian cancer subtypes. We investigated the relationship between a CSC marker, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), and clinical prognosis using ovarian clear cell carcinoma tissue samples. Furthermore, we investigated the antioxidant mechanism by which CSCs maintain a lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, which provides protection from chemotherapeutic agents. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to examine the CSC markers (CD133, CD44, ALDH1) using ovarian clear cell carcinoma tissue samples (n=81). Clear cell carcinoma cell lines (KOC-7C, OVTOKO) are separated into the ALDH-high and ALDH-low populations by ALDEFLUOR assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We compared the intracellular ROS level, mRNA level of the antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2 expression of the two populations. High ALDH1 expression levels are related to advanced stage in clear cell carcinoma cases. ALDH1 expression significantly reduced progression free survival. Other markers are not related to clinical stage and prognosis. ALDH-high cells contained a lower ROS level than ALDH-low cells. Antioxidant enzymes were upregulated in ALDH-high cells. ALDH-high cells showed increased expression of Nrf2, a key transcriptional factor of the antioxidant system. ALDH-positive CSCs might have increased Nrf2-induced antioxidant scavengers, which lower ROS level relevant to chemoresistance in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Microenvironmental Regulation of Chemokine (C-X-C-motif) Receptor 4 in Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Barbolina, Maria V.; Kim, Mijung; Liu, Yueying; Shepard, Jaclyn; Belmadani, Abdelhak; Miller, Richard J.; Shea, Lonnie D.; Stack, M. Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The majority of women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) succumb due to complications of metastatic disease, suggesting that anti-metastatic therapies may improve patient survival. EOC metastasis involves intra-peritoneal shedding of cells from the primary tumor, followed by adhesion and localized penetration of the submesothelial matrix to anchor metastatic implants. Accumulation of malignant ascites is also common. Thus, a unique microenvironmental niche is established, which includes malignant cells and a plethora of soluble factors secreted by – or in response to – tumor cells. As cells penetrating the sub-mesothelial surface encounter an interstitial collagen-rich ECM, we have used 3-dimensional type I collagen (3DCI) gels to model early events resulting from intra-peritoneal anchoring. In this study we demonstrate a novel pathway of CXCR4 upregulation through β1-integrin- and NFκB- dependent signaling pathways in response to 3DCI. We also demonstrate the involvement of CXCR4-SDF1 axis in collagen invasion and proliferation, relevant to the metastatic EOC. Our data show that CXCR4 expression in human EOCs, as well as SDF1 presence in the ascites, is correlated with disease progression and metastasis. These data emphasize the importance of CXCR4 – SDF1 axis in EOC metastasis and suggest that this mechanism should be accounted for when targeting EOC metastasis. PMID:20460402

  1. Microenvironmental regulation of chemokine (C-X-C-motif) receptor 4 in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Barbolina, Maria V; Kim, Mijung; Liu, Yueying; Shepard, Jaclyn; Belmadani, Abdelhak; Miller, Richard J; Shea, Lonnie D; Stack, M Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The majority of women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) succumb due to complications of metastatic disease, suggesting that antimetastatic therapies may improve patient survival. EOC metastasis involves intraperitoneal shedding of cells from the primary tumor, followed by adhesion and localized penetration of the submesothelial matrix to anchor metastatic implants. Accumulation of malignant ascites is also common. Thus, a unique microenvironmental niche is established, which includes malignant cells and a plethora of soluble factors secreted by-or in response to-tumor cells. As cells penetrating the submesothelial surface encounter an interstitial collagen-rich extracellular matrix, we have used three-dimensional type I collagen gels to model early events resulting from intraperitoneal anchoring. In this study, we show a novel pathway of CXCR4 upregulation through beta1 integrin - and NFkappaB-dependent signaling pathways in response to three-dimensional type I collagen. We also show the involvement of CXCR4-SDF1 axis in collagen invasion and proliferation, relevant to the metastatic EOC. Our data show that CXCR4 expression in human EOCs, as well as SDF1 presence in the ascites, is correlated with disease progression and metastasis. These data emphasize the importance of the CXCR4-SDF1 axis in EOC metastasis and suggest that this mechanism should be accounted for when targeting EOC metastasis.

  2. Analysis of second-harmonic-generation microscopy in a mouse model of ovarian carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jennifer M.; Rice, Photini F.; Marion, Samuel L.; Brewer, Molly A.; Davis, John R.; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J.; Utzinger, Urs; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2012-07-01

    Second-harmonic-generation (SHG) imaging of mouse ovaries ex vivo was used to detect collagen structure changes accompanying ovarian cancer development. Dosing with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene resulted in histologically confirmed cases of normal, benign abnormality, dysplasia, and carcinoma. Parameters for each SHG image were calculated using the Fourier transform matrix and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Cancer versus normal and cancer versus all other diagnoses showed the greatest separation using the parameters derived from power in the highest-frequency region and GLCM energy. Mixed effects models showed that these parameters were significantly different between cancer and normal (P<0.008). Images were classified with a support vector machine, using 25% of the data for training and 75% for testing. Utilizing all images with signal greater than the noise level, cancer versus not-cancer specimens were classified with 81.2% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity, and cancer versus normal specimens were classified with 77.8% sensitivity and 79.3% specificity. Utilizing only images with greater than of 75% of the field of view containing signal improved sensitivity and specificity for cancer versus normal to 81.5% and 81.1%. These results suggest that using SHG to visualize collagen structure in ovaries could help with early cancer detection.

  3. Specific recruitment of regulatory T cells in ovarian carcinoma fosters immune privilege and predicts reduced survival.

    PubMed

    Curiel, Tyler J; Coukos, George; Zou, Linhua; Alvarez, Xavier; Cheng, Pui; Mottram, Peter; Evdemon-Hogan, Melina; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R; Zhang, Lin; Burow, Matthew; Zhu, Yun; Wei, Shuang; Kryczek, Ilona; Daniel, Ben; Gordon, Alan; Myers, Leann; Lackner, Andrew; Disis, Mary L; Knutson, Keith L; Chen, Lieping; Zou, Weiping

    2004-09-01

    Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells mediate homeostatic peripheral tolerance by suppressing autoreactive T cells. Failure of host antitumor immunity may be caused by exaggerated suppression of tumor-associated antigen-reactive lymphocytes mediated by T(reg) cells; however, definitive evidence that T(reg) cells have an immunopathological role in human cancer is lacking. Here we show, in detailed studies of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) T(reg) cells in 104 individuals affected with ovarian carcinoma, that human tumor T(reg) cells suppress tumor-specific T cell immunity and contribute to growth of human tumors in vivo. We also show that tumor T(reg) cells are associated with a high death hazard and reduced survival. Human T(reg) cells preferentially move to and accumulate in tumors and ascites, but rarely enter draining lymph nodes in later cancer stages. Tumor cells and microenvironmental macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which mediates trafficking of T(reg) cells to the tumor. This specific recruitment of T(reg) cells represents a mechanism by which tumors may foster immune privilege. Thus, blocking T(reg) cell migration or function may help to defeat human cancer.

  4. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride With Atezolizumab and/or Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-20

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal High Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  5. Characterization of ovarian clear cell carcinoma using target drug-based molecular biomarkers: implications for personalized cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengjiao; Li, Haoran; Liu, Fei; Bi, Rui; Tu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Lihua; Ye, Shuang; Cheng, Xi

    2017-02-10

    It has long been appreciated that different subtypes (serous, clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous) of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) have distinct pathogenetic pathways. However, clinical management, especially chemotherapeutic regimens, for EOC patients is not subtype specific. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare histological subtype of EOC, which exhibits high rates of recurrence and low chemosensitivity. We assessed potential therapeutic targets for ovarian CCC patients through analyzing the variation of drug-based molecular biomarkers expression between ovarian CCC and high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). Seven candidate drug-based molecular biomarkers, human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), aurora kinase A (AURKA), breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1), breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) were measured in 96 ovarian CCC and 113 HGSC by immunohistochemistry in paraffin embedded tissues. The relationship between these biomarkers and clinicopathological factors were explored. The expression level of four of the seven drug-based molecular biomarkers was markedly different between HGSC and CCC. High expression levels of HER2 and PD-L1 were more commonly observed in CCC patients (12.6% vs 2.7%, 21.1% vs 11.6%, P = 0.006, 0.064, respectively), while loss of BRCA1 and BRCA2 expression were more frequently occurred in HGSC patients (72.6% vs 54.3%, 89.4% vs 79.8%, P = 0.007, 0.054, respectively). Survival analysis showed that five of seven biomarkers had prognostic values but varied between subtypes. Furthermore, EGFR expressed frequently in CCC patients with endometriosis than in HGSC patients (44.4% vs 8.3%, P = 0.049). AURKA and PD-L1 correlated with the resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in CCC patients (P = 0.043, 0.028, respectively) while no similar

  6. Belinostat and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Carboplatin or Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  7. Optimized p53 immunohistochemistry is an accurate predictor of TP53 mutation in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Köbel, Martin; Piskorz, Anna M; Lee, Sandra; Lui, Shuhong; LePage, Cecile; Marass, Francesco; Rosenfeld, Nitzan; Mes Masson, Anne-Marie; Brenton, James D

    2016-10-01

    TP53 mutations are ubiquitous in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC), and the presence of TP53 mutation discriminates between high and low-grade serous carcinomas and is now an important biomarker for clinical trials targeting mutant p53. p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC) is widely used as a surrogate for TP53 mutation but its accuracy has not been established. The objective of this study was to test whether improved methods for p53 IHC could reliably predict TP53 mutations independently identified by next generation sequencing (NGS). Four clinical p53 IHC assays and tagged-amplicon NGS for TP53 were performed on 171 HGSOC and 80 endometrioid carcinomas (EC). p53 expression was scored as overexpression (OE), complete absence (CA), cytoplasmic (CY) or wild type (WT). p53 IHC was evaluated as a binary classifier where any abnormal staining predicted deleterious TP53 mutation and as a ternary classifier where OE, CA or WT staining predicted gain-of-function (GOF or nonsynonymous), loss-of-function (LOF including stopgain, indel, splicing) or no detectable TP53 mutations (NDM), respectively. Deleterious TP53 mutations were detected in 169/171 (99%) HGSOC and 7/80 (8.8%) EC. The overall accuracy for the best performing IHC assay for binary and ternary prediction was 0.94 and 0.91 respectively, which improved to 0.97 (sensitivity 0.96, specificity 1.00) and 0.95 after secondary analysis of discordant cases. The sensitivity for predicting LOF mutations was lower at 0.76 because p53 IHC detected mutant p53 protein in 13 HGSOC with LOF mutations. CY staining associated with LOF was seen in 4 (2.3%) of HGSOC. Optimized p53 IHC can approach 100% specificity for the presence of TP53 mutation and its high negative predictive value is clinically useful as it can exclude the possibility of a low-grade serous tumour. 4.1% of HGSOC cases have detectable WT staining while harboring a TP53 LOF mutation, which limits sensitivity for binary prediction of mutation to 96%.

  8. Optimized p53 immunohistochemistry is an accurate predictor of TP53 mutation in ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Köbel, Martin; Piskorz, Anna M; Lee, Sandra; Lui, Shuhong; LePage, Cecile; Marass, Francesco; Rosenfeld, Nitzan; Mes Masson, Anne‐Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract TP53 mutations are ubiquitous in high‐grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC), and the presence of TP53 mutation discriminates between high and low‐grade serous carcinomas and is now an important biomarker for clinical trials targeting mutant p53. p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC) is widely used as a surrogate for TP53 mutation but its accuracy has not been established. The objective of this study was to test whether improved methods for p53 IHC could reliably predict TP53 mutations independently identified by next generation sequencing (NGS). Four clinical p53 IHC assays and tagged‐amplicon NGS for TP53 were performed on 171 HGSOC and 80 endometrioid carcinomas (EC). p53 expression was scored as overexpression (OE), complete absence (CA), cytoplasmic (CY) or wild type (WT). p53 IHC was evaluated as a binary classifier where any abnormal staining predicted deleterious TP53 mutation and as a ternary classifier where OE, CA or WT staining predicted gain‐of‐function (GOF or nonsynonymous), loss‐of‐function (LOF including stopgain, indel, splicing) or no detectable TP53 mutations (NDM), respectively. Deleterious TP53 mutations were detected in 169/171 (99%) HGSOC and 7/80 (8.8%) EC. The overall accuracy for the best performing IHC assay for binary and ternary prediction was 0.94 and 0.91 respectively, which improved to 0.97 (sensitivity 0.96, specificity 1.00) and 0.95 after secondary analysis of discordant cases. The sensitivity for predicting LOF mutations was lower at 0.76 because p53 IHC detected mutant p53 protein in 13 HGSOC with LOF mutations. CY staining associated with LOF was seen in 4 (2.3%) of HGSOC. Optimized p53 IHC can approach 100% specificity for the presence of TP53 mutation and its high negative predictive value is clinically useful as it can exclude the possibility of a low‐grade serous tumour. 4.1% of HGSOC cases have detectable WT staining while harboring a TP53 LOF mutation, which limits sensitivity for binary prediction of

  9. Profile of differentially expressed miRNAs in high-grade serous carcinoma and clear cell ovarian carcinoma, and the expression of miR-510 in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinchen; Guo, Gordon; Wang, Guang; Zhao, Jinyao; Wang, Bo; Yu, Xiaotang; Ding, Yanfang

    2015-12-01

    Improved insight into the molecular and genetic profile of different types of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is required for understanding the carcinogenesis of EOC and may potentially be exploited by future targeted therapies. The aim of the present study was to identify a unique microRNA (miRNA) patterns and key miRNAs, which may assist in predicting progression and prognosis in high‑grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) and clear cell carcinoma (CCC). To identify unique miRNA patterns associated with HGSC and CCC, a miRNA microarray was performed using Chinese tumor bank specimens of patients with HGSC or CCC in a retrospective analysis. The expression levels of four deregulated miRNAs were further validated using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) in an external cohort of 42 cases of HGSC and 36 cases of CCC. Kaplan‑Meier analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between the expression levels of the four miRNAs and patient prognosis. Among these validated miRNAs, miR‑510 was further examined in another cohort of normal ovarian tissues, as well as the HGSC, low‑grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) and CCC specimens using RT‑qPCR and in situ hybridization. The results revealed that, of the 768 miRNAs analyzed in the microarray, 33 and 50 miRNAs were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, with at least a 2‑fold difference in HGSC, compared with CCC. The quantitative analysis demonstrated that miR‑510 and miR‑129‑3p were significantly downregulated, and that miR‑483‑5p and miR‑miR‑449a were significantly upregulated in CCC, compared with HGSC (P<0.05), which was consistent with the microarray results. Kaplan‑Meier analysis revealed low expression levels of miR‑510 and low expression levels of miR‑129‑3p, advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, lymphatic metastasis and that HGSC was significantly associated with the poorer overall

  10. Radiosensitivity of human ovarian carcinoma and melanoma cells to γ-rays and protons

    PubMed Central

    Keta, Otilija; Todorović, Danijela; Popović, Nataša; Korićanac, Lela; Cuttone, Giacomo; Petrović, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Proton radiation offers physical advantages over conventional radiation. Radiosensitivity of human 59M ovarian cancer and HTB140 melanoma cells was investigated after exposure to γ-rays and protons. Material and methods Irradiations were performed in the middle of a 62 MeV therapeutic proton spread out Bragg peak with doses ranging from 2 to 16 Gy. The mean energy of protons was 34.88 ±2.15 MeV, corresponding to the linear energy transfer of 4.7 ±0.2 keV/µm. Irradiations with γ-rays were performed using the same doses. Viability, proliferation and survival were assessed 7 days after both types of irradiation while analyses of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed 48 h after irradiation. Results Results showed that γ-rays and protons reduced the number of viable cells for both cell lines, with stronger inactivation achieved after irradiation with protons. Surviving fractions for 59M were 0.91 ±0.01 for γ-rays and 0.81 ±0.01 for protons, while those for HTB140 cells were 0.93 ±0.01 for γ-rays and 0.86 ±0.01 for protons. Relative biological effectiveness of protons, being 2.47 ±0.22 for 59M and 2.08 ±0.36 for HTB140, indicated that protons provoked better cell elimination than γ-rays. After proton irradiation proliferation capacity of the two cell lines was slightly higher as compared to γ-rays. Proliferation was higher for 59M than for HTB140 cells after both types of irradiation. Induction of apoptosis and G2 arrest detected after proton irradiation were more prominent in 59M cells. Conclusions The obtained results suggest that protons exert better antitumour effects on ovarian carcinoma and melanoma cells than γ-rays. The dissimilar response of these cells to radiation is related to their different features. PMID:25097591

  11. Birinapant and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Recurrent High Grade Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-26

    High Grade Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal High Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  12. The sebaceous gland antigen defined by the OM-1 monoclonal antibody is expressed at high density on the surface of ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    de Kretser, T A; Thorne, H J; Jacobs, D J; Jose, D G

    1985-09-01

    A monoclonal antibody, designated OM-1, was raised against ovarian serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma (stage IV) cells. This antibody was found to react strongly with primary and metastatic ovarian serous cystadenocarcinomas and endometrioid carcinomas but the antigen detected was either absent or at very low levels in ovarian mucinous adenocarcinomas, clear cell carcinomas, benign serous and mucinous cystadenomas and Brenner tumours. The OM-1 antibody gave no detectable reaction with 93 other human tumours, including examples of breast and colon adenocarcinomas. In normal tissues the OM-1 antibody reacted with normal sebaceous gland cells, lung type II pneumocytes and placental syncytial trophoblasts. In the normal ovary OM-1 reactivity was confined to extremely weak staining of the surface epithelium. No reaction with any other ovarian cell type could be detected. No evidence of reaction with other normal cell populations present in 24 adult and seven foetal tissues was found. The antigen detected is compared with other ovarian tumour-associated antigens. The OM-1 antibody is likely to prove of value in the detection and diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma.

  13. Effect of a streptococcal preparation (OK432) on natural killer activity of tumour-associated lymphoid cells in human ovarian carcinoma and on lysis of fresh ovarian tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Colotta, F.; Rambaldi, A.; Colombo, N.; Tabacchi, L.; Introna, M.; Mantovani, A.

    1983-01-01

    The streptococcal preparation OK432 was studied for its effects on natural killer (NK) activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from normal donors and from ovarian cancer patients, and of tumour-associated lymphocytes (TAL) from peritoneal effusions. OK432 augmented NK activity against the susceptible K562 line and induced killing of the relatively resistant Raji line. Freshly isolated ovarian carcinoma cells were relatively resistant to killing by unstimulated PBL and TAL. OK432 induced significant, though low, levels of cytotoxicity against 51Cr-labelled ovarian carcinoma cells. Augmentation of killing of fresh tumour cells by OK432 was best observed in a 20 h assay and both autologous and allogeneic targets were lysed. PBL were separated on discontinuous Percoll gradients. Unstimulated and OK432-boosted activity were enriched in the lower density fractions where large granular lymphocytes (LGL) and activity against K562 were found. Thus, OK432 augments NK activity of PBL and TAL in human ovarian carcinomas and induces low, but significant, levels of killing of fresh tumour cells. Effector cells involved in killing of fresh ovarian tumours copurify with LGL on discontinuous gradients of Percoll. PMID:6626452

  14. Problems arising in the diagnosis of primary ovarian transitional cell carcinoma after the occurrence of a transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a report of a difficult case and a critical review of literature.

    PubMed

    Raspollini, Maria Rosaria; Paglierani, Milena; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2009-03-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ovary is a recently recognized subtype of ovarian surface epithelial-stromal cancer that morphologically resembles a TCC of the bladder. The most frequent metastases to ovaries come from the gastrointestinal tract and from breast carcinoma, but metastatic TCCs from the urinary tract to the ovary have been reported. TCC of the bladder is the sixth most common cancer in European and North American countries and its incidence has been increasing. We recently observed a woman, who previously had undergone endoscopic resection of a TCC of the bladder. She was affected by an ovarian bilateral tumor with features of malignant transitional cell tumor, characterized by papillae with multilayered transitional epithelium infiltrating the ovarian stroma. In this study, we showed the utility of WT1 and a panel of immunohistochemical markers in the difficult differential diagnosis between bladder and ovarian TCC.

  15. Hypermethylated APC in serous carcinoma based on a meta-analysis of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chunyan; Sheng, Qifang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Fu, Yuling; Zhu, Kemiao

    2016-09-26

    The reduced expression of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, a tumor suppressor gene, through promoter hypermethylation has been reported to play a key role in the carcinogenesis. However, the correlation between APC promoter hypermethylation and ovarian cancer (OC) remains to be clarified. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in related research databases. The overall odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the effects of APC promoter hypermethylation on OC and clinicopathological characteristics. Ultimately, 12 eligible studies were used in our study, including 806 OC samples, 429 normal controls, 109 benign lesions and 75 LMP samples. The pooled OR showed that APC promoter hypermethylation was significantly higher in OC than in normal and benign controls (OR = 6.18 and OR = 3.26, respectively). No significant correlation was observed between OC and low malignant potential (LMP) tumors (P = 0.436). In the comparison of OC and normal controls, subgroup analysis based on race showed that the overall OR of APC promoter hypermethylation was significant and similar in Asians and Caucasians (OR = 8.34 and OR = 5.39, respectively). A subgroup analysis based on sample type found that the pooled OR was significantly higher in blood than in tissue (OR = 18.71 and OR = 5.74, respectively). A significant association was not observed between APC promoter hypermethylation and tumor grade or tumor stage. The pooled OR indicated that APC promoter hypermethylation was significantly lower in serous carcinoma than in non-serous carcinoma (OR = 0.56, P = 0.02). No obvious publication bias was detected by Egger's test (all P > 0.05). APC promoter hypermethylation may be linked to the increased risk of OC. It was associated with histological type, but not with tumor grade or tumor stage. Moreover, hypermethylated APC may be a noninvasive biomarker using blood samples. Future

  16. Prevention of Ovarian High Grade Serous Carcinoma by Elucidating Its Early Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    tissue sections for studies related to study early tumor development in ovarian cancer. This information will be shared with science community. 15...fallopian tube. IMPACT ON SOCIETY BEYOND SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: The findings will help to educate the society about the origins of ovarian...A Team-based Science Approach This project will help to plan the scientific and leadership aspects of the Ovarian Cancer Academy. It will also

  17. Regulatory network involving miRNAs and genes in serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haiyan; Xu, Hao; Xue, Luchen

    2017-01-01

    Serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC) is one of the most life-threatening types of gynecological malignancy, but the pathogenesis of SOC remains unknown. Previous studies have indicated that differentially expressed genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) serve important functions in SOC. However, genes and miRNAs are identified in a disperse form, and limited information is known about the regulatory association between miRNAs and genes in SOC. In the present study, three regulatory networks were hierarchically constructed, including a differentially-expressed network, a related network and a global network to reveal associations between each factor. In each network, there were three types of factors, which were genes, miRNAs and transcription factors that interact with each other. Focus was placed on the differentially-expressed network, in which all genes and miRNAs were differentially expressed and therefore may have affected the development of SOC. Following the comparison and analysis between the three networks, a number of signaling pathways which demonstrated differentially expressed elements were highlighted. Subsequently, the upstream and downstream elements of differentially expressed miRNAs and genes were listed, and a number of key elements (differentially expressed miRNAs, genes and TFs predicted using the P-match method) were analyzed. The differentially expressed network partially illuminated the pathogenesis of SOC. It was hypothesized that if there was no differential expression of miRNAs and genes, SOC may be prevented and treatment may be identified. The present study provided a theoretical foundation for gene therapy for SOC. PMID:29113276

  18. Genomic landscape of ovarian clear cell carcinoma via whole exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Ji Won; Lee, Maria; Kim, Hee Seung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong-Sang; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2018-02-01

    To analyze whole exome sequencing (WES) data on ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) in Korean patients via the technique of next generation sequencing (NGS). Genomic profiles were compared between endometriosis-associated OCCC (EMS-OCCC) and Non-EMS-OCCC. We used serum samples and cancer tissues, stored at the Seoul National University Hospital Human Biobank, that were initially collected from women diagnosed with OCCC between 2012 and 2016. In total, 15 patients were enrolled: 5 with pathologically confirmed EMS-OCCC and 10 with Non-EMS-OCCC. We performed NGS WES on 15 fresh frozen OCCC tissues and matched serum samples, enabling comprehensive genomic characterization of OCCC. OCCC was characterized by complex genomic alterations, with a median of 178 exonic mutations (range, 111-25,798) and a median of 343 somatic copy number variations (range, 43-1,820) per tumor sample. In all, 54 somatic mutations were discovered across 14 genes, including PIK3CA (40%), ARID1A (40%), and KRAS (20%) in the 15 Korean OCCCs. Copy number gains in NTRK1 (33%), MYC (40%), and GNAS (47%) and copy number losses in TET2 (73%), TSC1 (67%), BRCA2 (60%), and SMAD4 (47%) were frequent. The significantly altered pathways were associated with proliferation and survival (including the PI3K/AKT, TP53, and ERBB2 pathways) in 87% of OCCCs and with chromatin remodeling in 47% of OCCCs. No significant differences in frequencies of genetic alterations were detected between EMS-OCCC and Non-EMS-OCCC groups. We successfully characterized the genomic landscape of 15 Korean patients with OCCC. We identified potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this malignancy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Prognosis for advanced-stage primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma and serous ovarian cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, Kuan-Chong; Chen, Yi-Jen; Juang, Chi-Mou; Lau, Hei-Yu; Wen, Kuo-Chang; Sung, Pi-Lin; Fang, Feng-Ying; Twu, Nae-Fang; Yen, Ming-Shyen

    2013-03-01

    To compare the prognosis of patients with advanced-stage primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma (PSPC) or papillary serous ovarian cancer (PSOC). This was a retrospective case-control study and included two study groups: one with stage III/IV PSPC (n = 38) patients and the other with PSOC (n = 53) patients. Patients were matched for histologic subtype (serous tumor), tumor stage, tumor grade, residual disease at the end of debulking surgery (primary or interval), and age (±5 years). Mean age was significantly greater for patients with PSPC (63.03 ± 11.88 years) than for patients with PSOC (55.92 ± 12.56 years, p = 0.008). Optimal debulking surgery was performed initially in 71.9% of PSPC patients and 66.0% of PSOC patients. In addition, 93.9% of PSPC patients and 92.3% of PSOC patients were treated with platinum-paclitaxel chemotherapy. The frequency of high-grade tumors was significantly higher in the PSPC (100%) than in the PSOC group (68.3%; p < 0.001). Progression-free survival (PFS) was similar in the PSPC [median 12 months, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.3-16.7] and PSOC groups (median 16.7 months, 95% CI 12.9-20.4; p = 0.470). Overall survival was shorter in the PSPC (median 62 months, 95% CI 19.6-104.4) than in the PSOC group (median 77.5 months, 95% CI 69.7-85.2; p = 0.006, log-rank statistic). PFS was similar for advanced-stage PSPC and PSOC patients. Since the PSPC patients tended to be older and have more high-grade tumors, OS was shorter for PSPC than for POSC patients. Thus, management of the two types of cancer should not differ. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Endometriosis is the independent prognostic factor for survival in Chinese patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tong; Wang, Shu; Sun, Jian; Qu, Ji-Min; Xiang, Yang; Shen, Keng; Lang, Jing He

    2017-10-03

    Clinico-pathological characteristics and possible prognostic factors among women with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) with or without concurrent endometriosis were explored. We retrospectively identified 304 patients with EOC treated primarily at Peking Union Medical College Hospital with median follow-up time of 60 months. Of 304 patients with EOC, concurrent endometriosis was identified in 69 (22.7%). The patients with concurrent endometriosis were younger and more probably post-menopausal at onset, were less likely to have abdominal distension, with significantly lower level of pre-surgery serum Ca125 and less possibility of having the history of tubal ligation. The women with concurrent endometriosis group were more likely to have early stage tumors (88.41% versus 52.77%), receive optimal cytoreductive surgery (92.75% versus 71.06%), and less likely to have lymph node metastasis or to develop platinum resistance disease (7.25% versus 14.89%, and 7.35% versus 20%), when compared with women without coexisting endometriosis. The univariate analysis showed that concurrent endometriosis was a prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), but this association just remained in the DFS by multivariate analysis. Besides, multivariate analysis also showed that FIGO stage, residual disease, chemotherapy cycles, chemotherapy resistance and concomitant hypertension were the independent impact factors of OS for EOC patients; whereas FIGO stage, lymphadenectomy, residual disease, coexisting endometriosis and chemoresistance were independent impact factors of DFS for those patients. EOC patients with concurrent endometriosis showed distinct characteristics and had longer overall survival and disease-free survival when compared with those without endometriosis. Endometriosis was the independent prognostic factor for DFS for patients in this series.

  1. Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib or Standard Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-15

    Deleterious BRCA1 Gene Mutation; Deleterious BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  2. Unexpected metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast with intraabdominal spread and subsequent port-site metastasis after diagnostic laparoscopy for exclusion of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mylonas, Ioannis; Janni, Wolfgang; Friese, Klaus; Gerber, Bernd

    2004-11-01

    Although lobular carcinomas metastasize primarily to lymph nodes, bone, lung and liver, they can also spread to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum and gynecologic organs. We report a case of intraperitoneal carcinomatosis of a lobular breast carcinoma that metastasized primarily to the peritoneum, with a subsequent abdominal wall invasion at the trocar site following laparoscopic surgery for the exclusion of an ovarian carcinoma. Port-site metastases (PSM) have occurred after laparoscopic surgery for endometrial, fallopian tube, ovarian, and cervical cancers. This is the first report of PSM of a lobular breast carcinoma primarily metastasized to the abdominal cavity. Every surgeon should be aware of the metastatic pattern of breast cancer, especially in relation to its histological subtypes. This case report emphasizes that PSM can occur in various kinds of gynecologic tumors, including breast cancer.

  3. Belinostat in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer or Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-20

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Stage III Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  4. Is the two-tier ovarian serous carcinoma grading system potentially useful in stratifying uterine serous carcinoma? A large multi-institutional analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Quratulain; Hussein, Yaser; Hayek, Kinda; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Semaan, Assaad; Abdul-Karim, Fadi; Al-Wahab, Zaid; Munkarah, Adnan R; Elshaikh, Mohamed A; Alosh, Baraa; Nucci, Marisa R; Van de Vijver, Koen K; Morris, Robert T; Oliva, Esther; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba

    2014-02-01

    A subset of uterine serous carcinoma (USC) may have better clinical behavior bringing up the possibility that there may be morphologic features, which would help in their categorization. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential use of the MD Anderson Cancer Center 2-tier grading system for ovarian carcinoma in USC. Tumors assigned a combined score included in this analysis were 1) low-grade: tumors without marked atypia and 12 mitoses/10 high power field (HPF) and 2) high grade: tumors with severe nuclear atypia and >12 mitoses/10 HPF. Clinicopathologic parameters evaluated included patients' age, tumor size, myometrial invasion (MI), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), lymph node (LN), FIGO stage, and patient outcome. 140 patients with USC were included, 30 low grade uterine serous carcinoma (LGUSC) and 110 high grade uterine serous carcinoma (HGUSC). Of all parameters only 2 (MI and stage IA) reached statistical significance. 67% of LGUSC cases showed myometrial invasion versus 93.6% HGUSC cases (p = 0.003). A higher percentage of LGUSC (63.3%) versus HGUSC (32.7%) were in stage IA (p = 0.01). However, by multivariate analysis including age, LVI, stage and tumor grade only stage was an independent prognostic factor. The presence of atypia and mitosis across a uterine serous carcinoma is notoriously variable in magnitude and extent, potentially making evaluation of these features difficult and subsequent grading subjective. Our findings thus show that actual prognostic utility of application of MDACC two-tier grading system to uterine serous carcinoma may not be applicable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Clinical Characteristic and Prognosis between Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma and Serous Carcinoma: A 10-Year Cohort Study of Chinese Patients.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuang; Yang, Jiaxin; You, Yan; Cao, Dongyan; Huang, Huifang; Wu, Ming; Chen, Jie; Lang, Jinghe; Shen, Keng

    2015-01-01

    To compare the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of Chinese patients with ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and serous carcinoma (SC). A retrospective cohort study was designed to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristic and prognosis of patients with CCC and SC who were diagnosed and treated in in a tertiary referral center (Peking Union Medical College Hospital) between 1999 and 2009. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were employed in the survival analysis. A total of 504 cases were included in the study, comprising 197 cases of CCC and 307 cases of SC. The mean age of the patients with SC was greater than of CCC patients (3.6±0.94, P<0.001). Patients with CCC were more likely to be early-stage and optimally debulked (P<0.001). Regarding cancer-antigen 125, 22% of the patients with CCC had normal values, and the level was significantly lower than in patients with SC (P<0.001). More CCC patients had platinum-resistant tumors compared with platinum-sensitive disease (45.7% in CCC vs. 61.0% in SC [P=0.008]). The 5-year survival rate was 51.2% in the CCC group vs. 49.8% in the SC group (P=0.428). Patients with advanced CCC had a statistically significant poorer overall survival (OS) compared with their SC counterparts (38.0 vs. 52.0 months; hazard ratio 1.584, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.167-2.150, P=0.003). However, the advantage of improved progression-free survival (PFS) existed across all stages. Women with ovarian CCC presented at a younger age and early stage. Patients with ovarian CCC also had improved PFS, but they had similar OS compared to patients with SC. However, patients with advanced CCC had decreased survival.

  6. APOBEC3B upregulation and genomic mutation patterns in serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Brandon; Hart, Steven N.; Burns, Michael B.; Carpenter, Michael A.; Temiz, Nuri A.; Rathore, Anurag; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Nikas, Jason B.; Law, Emily K.; Brown, William L.; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yuji; Maurer, Matthew J.; Oberg, Ann L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Shridhar, Viji; Bell, Debra A.; April, Craig; Bentley, David; Bibikova, Marina; Cheetham, R. Keira; Fan, Jian-Bing; Grocock, Russell; Humphray, Sean; Kingsbury, Zoya; Peden, John; Chien, Jeremy; Swisher, Elizabeth M.; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Goode, Ellen L.; Sicotte, Hugues; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Harris, Reuben S.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease. The driving forces behind this variability are unknown. Here we report wide variation in expression of the DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B, with elevated expression in a majority of ovarian cancer cell lines (3 standard deviations above the mean of normal ovarian surface epithelial cells) and high grade primary ovarian cancers. APOBEC3B is active in the nucleus of several ovarian cancer cell lines and elicits a biochemical preference for deamination of cytosines in 5′TC dinucleotides. Importantly, examination of whole-genome sequence from 16 ovarian cancers reveals that APOBEC3B expression correlates with total mutation load as well as elevated levels of transversion mutations. In particular, high APOBEC3B expression correlates with C-to-A and C-to-G transversion mutations within 5′TC dinucleotide motifs in early-stage high grade serous ovarian cancer genomes, suggesting that APOBEC3B-catalyzed genomic uracil lesions are further processed by downstream DNA ‘repair’ enzymes including error-prone translesion polymerases. These data identify a potential role for APOBEC3B in serous ovarian cancer genomic instability. PMID:24154874

  7. HSP27 Knockdown Increases Cytoplasmic p21 and Cisplatin Sensitivity in Ovarian Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Sun, Chaoyang; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Bo; Guo, Ensong; Shan, Wanying; Xia, Meng; Li, Kezhen; Weng, Danhui; Meng, Li; Xu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Junbo; Ma, Ding; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance is the leading cause of chemotherapy failure in the treatment of ovarian cancer. So far, little is known about the mechanism of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. In this study, we explored the mechanism that HSP27 was involved in cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer both in vitro and clinically. HSP27 protein was found to be upregulated and expressed in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line C13*, and HSP27 siRNA transfection reversed the chemoresistance of C13*. We found that HSP27 exerted its chemoresistant role by inhibiting p21 transferring from the nucleus to the plasma through the activation of phosphorylated-Akt pathway. These findings have implications for clinical trials aimed at a potential therapeutic target for ovarian tumors that are refractory to conventional treatment.

  8. Adjuvant intraperitoneal chromic phosphate therapy for women with apparent early ovarian carcinoma who have not undergone comprehensive surgical staging

    SciTech Connect

    Soper, J.T.; Berchuck, A.; Clarke-Pearson, D.L.

    1991-08-15

    Forty-nine women with apparent Stage 1 and 2 ovarian carcinoma received intraperitoneal phosphate 32 as the only adjuvant therapy after primary surgery. In addition to bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 40 (82%) had analysis of peritoneal cytology, and 35 (71%) underwent omentectomy. Random peritoneal biopsies and retroperitoneal lymph node sampling were not done in any of these patients. The overall and disease-free survival rates were 86% and 75%, respectively, with no significant differences by stage, histologic grade, histologic type, or low-risk versus high-risk subsets recognized in patients who received comprehensive surgical staging. Seven (58%) of 12 patients had lymph node metastasis as themore » first site of recurrence, including two of three with late recurrences. Significant morbidity related to intraperitoneal chromic phosphate (32P) occurred in one (2%) woman. These results emphasize the need for comprehensive surgical staging of women with apparent early ovarian carcinoma to aid in the selection of appropriate initial adjuvant therapy.« less

  9. Modulation of c-fms proto-oncogene in an ovarian carcinoma cell line by a hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Y.; Morishita, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Tamaya, T.

    1997-01-01

    Co-expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor (c-fms) is often found in ovarian epithelial carcinoma, suggesting the existence of autocrine regulation of cell growth by M-CSF. To block this autocrine loop, we have developed hammerhead ribozymes against c-fms mRNA. As target sites of the ribozyme, we chose the GUC sequence in codon 18 and codon 27 of c-fms mRNA. Two kinds of ribozymes were able to cleave an artificial c-fms RNA substrate in a cell-free system, although the ribozyme against codon 18 was much more efficient than that against codon 27. We next constructed an expression vector carrying a ribozyme sequence that targeted the GUC sequence in codon 18 of c-fms mRNA. It was introduced into TYK-nu cells that expressed M-CSF and its receptor. Its transfectant showed a reduced growth potential. The expression levels of c-fms protein and mRNA in the transfectant were clearly decreased with the expression of ribozyme RNA compared with that of an untransfected control or a transfectant with the vector without the ribozyme sequence. These results suggest that the ribozyme against GUC in codon 18 of c-fms mRNA is a promising tool for blocking the autocrine loop of M-CSF in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9376277

  10. Inhibition of IGF-1-Mediated Cellular Migration and Invasion by Migracin A in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ukaji, Tamami; Lin, Yinzhi; Banno, Kouji; Okada, Shoshiro; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Previously we isolated migracin A from a Streptomyces culture filtrate as an inhibitor of cancer cell migration. In the present research, we found that migracin A inhibited migration and invasion of ovarian clear cell carcinoma ES-2 cells. In the course of our mechanistic study, migracin A was shown to enhance vasohibin-1 expression in an angiogenesis array. We also confirmed that it increased the mRNA expression of this protein. Moreover, overexpression of vasohibin-1 lowered the migration but not the invasion of ES-2 cells. Then, we looked for another target protein employing a motility array, and found that migracin A lowered the IGF-1 expression. Knockdown of IGF-1 by siRNA decreased the migration and invasion of ES-2 cells. Migracin A also decreased Akt phosphorylation involved in the downstream signaling. Crosstalk analysis indicated that overexpression of vasohibin-1 decreased the IGF-1 expression. On the other hand, it showed no direct anticancer activity in terms of the ES-2 growth in agar. Migracin A inhibited the migration and IGF-1 expression in not only ES-2 but also another ovarian clear cell carcinoma JHOC-5 cells. In addition, it also inhibited capillary tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Since its cytotoxicity is very low, migracin A may be a candidate for an anti-metastasis agent not exhibiting prominent toxicity.

  11. Long-term survival of patients with mismatch repair protein-deficient, high-stage ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Colin J R; Bowtell, David D L; Doherty, Dorota A; Leung, Yee C

    2017-01-01

    Gynaecological cancer patients with germline mutations appear to have a better prognosis than those with sporadic malignancies. Following the observation of long-term survival in a patient with stage III ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and possible Lynch syndrome (LS), DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein immunohistochemistry was performed in a series of high-stage CCC and correlated with patient outcomes. Thirty-two consecutive cases of stage III/IV ovarian CCCs accessioned between 1992 and 2015 were examined. The tumours from two patients (6%), including the index case, showed loss of MSH2/MSH6 expression while MLH1/PMS2 staining was retained. The index patient subsequently developed colonic and rectal carcinomas that were also MSH2/MSH6-deficient, while the second patient had a genetically confirmed germline MSH2 mutation. All other tumours showed retained expression of the four MMR proteins. The two patients with MMR protein-deficient tumours were alive 160 months and 124 months following surgery, whereas the median survival of patients with MMR protein-intact CCCs was 11.8 months (75th and 25th percentiles of 8.1 months and 39.3 months, respectively), with 21 patients deceased due to tumour. Larger studies are required but high-stage, MMR protein-deficient CCCs may have a relatively favourable prognosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cell lines CaOV3 and SKOV3 by natural withanolide Withaferin A.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Samadi, Abbas K; Roby, Katherine F; Timmermann, Barbara; Cohen, Mark S

    2012-03-01

    Withaferin A, a natural withanolide, has shown anti-cancer properties in various cancers including breast cancer, but its effects in ovarian cancer remain unexplored. Notch 1 and Notch3 are critically involved in ovarian cancer progression. We decided to examine the effects of Withaferin A in ovarian carcinoma cell lines and its molecular mechanism of action including its regulation of Notch. The effects of Withaferin A were examined in CaOV3 and SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cell lines using MTS assay, clonogenic assay, annexin V/propidium iodide flow cytometry, and cell cycle analysis. Western analysis was conducted to examine the molecular mechanisms of action. Withaferin A inhibited the growth and colony formation of CaOV3 and SKOV3 cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. These changes correlated with down-regulation of Notch1, Notch3, cdc25C, total and phosphorylated Akt, and bcl-2 proteins. Withaferin A inhibits CaOV3 and SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cell growth, at least in part by targeting Notch1 and Notch3. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. α2β1 integrin affects metastatic potential of ovarian carcinoma spheroids by supporting disaggregation and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Shield, Kristy; Riley, Clyde; Quinn, Michael A; Rice, Gregory E; Ackland, Margaret L; Ahmed, Nuzhat

    2007-01-01

    activation of MMP's observed in monolayer cells. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated enhanced expression of α2 and diminution of α6 integrin subunits in spheroids versus monolayer cells. No change in the expression of α3, αv and β1 subunits was evident. Conversely, except for αv integrin, a 1.5–7.5-fold decrease in α2, α3, α6 and β1 integrin subunit expression was observed in IOSE29 cells within 2 days. Neutralizing antibodies against α2, β1 subunits and α2β1 integrin inhibited disaggregation as well as activation of MMPs in spheroids. Conclusion Our results suggest that enhanced expression of α2β1 integrin may influence spheroid disaggregation and proteolysis responsible for the peritoneal dissemination of ovarian carcinoma. This may indicate a new therapeutic target for the suppression of the peritoneal metastasis associated with advanced ovarian carcinomas. PMID:17567918

  14. CT Features of Ovarian Tumors: Defining Key Differences Between Serous Borderline Tumors and Low-Grade Serous Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Lakhman, Yulia; Molinari, Nicolas; Feier, Diana; Scelzo, Chiara; Vargas, Hebert A; Sosa, Ramon E; Hricak, Hedvig; Soslow, Robert A; Grisham, Rachel N; Sala, Evis

    2018-04-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate whether the CT features of serous borderline tumors (SBTs) differ from those of low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs) and to evaluate if mutation status is associated with distinct CT phenotypes. This retrospective study included 59 women, 37 with SBT and 22 with LGSC, who underwent CT before primary surgical resection. Thirty of 59 patients were genetically profiled. Two radiologists (readers 1 and 2) independently and retrospectively reviewed CT examinations for qualitative features and quantified total tumor volumes (TTVs), solid tumor volumes (STVs), and solid proportion of ovarian masses. Univariate and multivariate associations of the CT features with histopathologic diagnoses and mutations were evaluated, and interreader agreement was determined. At multivariate analysis, the presence of bilateral ovarian masses (p = 0.03), the presence of peritoneal disease (PD) (p = 0.002), and higher STV of ovarian masses (p = 0.002) were associated with LGSC. The presence of nodular PD pattern (p < 0.001 each reader) and the presence of PD calcifications (reader 1, p = 0.02; reader 2, p = 0.003) were associated with invasive peritoneal lesions (i.e., LGSC). The presence of bilateral ovarian masses (p = 0.04 each reader), PD (reader 1, p = 0.01; reader 2, p = 0.004), and higher STV (p = 0.03 for each reader) were associated with the absence of BRAF mutation (i.e., wild type [wt]-BRAF). The CT features of LGSCs were distinct from those of SBTs. The CT manifestations of LGSC and the wt-BRAF phenotype were similar.

  15. Differential effects of rapalogues, dual kinase inhibitors on human ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    ROGERS-BROADWAY, KARLY-RAI; CHUDASAMA, DIMPLE; PADOS, GEORGE; TSOLAKIDIS, DIMITRIS; GOUMENOU, ANASTASIA; HALL, MARCIA; KARTERIS, EMMANOUIL

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynaecological malignancy and was diagnosed in over 7,000 women in 2011 in the UK. There are currently no reliable biomarkers available for use in a regular screening assay for ovarian cancer and due to characteristic late presentation (78% in stages III and IV) ovarian cancer has a low survival rate (35% after 10 years). The mTOR pathway is a central regulator of growth, proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis; providing balance between available resources such as amino acids and growth factors, and stresses such as hypoxia, to control cellular behaviour accordingly. Emerging data links mTOR with the aetiopathogenesis of ovarian cancer. We hypothesised that mTOR inhibitors could play a therapeutic role in ovarian cancer treatment. In this study we began by validating the expression of four main mTOR pathway components, mTOR, DEPTOR, rictor and raptor, at gene and protein level in in vitro models of endometrioid (MDAH-2774) and clear cell (SKOV3) ovarian cancer using qPCR and ImageStream technology. Using a wound healing assay we show that inhibition of the mTOR pathway using rapamycin, rapalogues, resveratrol and NVP BEZ-235 induces a cytostatic and not cytotoxic response up to 18 h in these cell lines. We extended these findings up to 72 h with a proliferation assay and show that the effects of inhibition of the mTOR pathway are primarily mediated by the dephosphorylation of p70S6 kinase. We show that mTOR inhibition does not involve alteration of mTOR pathway components or induce caspase 9 cleavage. Preclinical studies including ovarian tissue of ovarian cancer patients, unaffected controls and patients with unrelated gynaecological conditions show that DEPTOR is reliably upregulated in ovarian cancer. PMID:27211906

  16. Ovarian transitional cell carcinoma represents a poorly differentiated form of high-grade serous or endometrioid adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Tadahisa; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Imamura, Hiroko; Aman, Murasaki; Shida, Kaai; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kato, Kiyoko; Oda, Yoshinao

    2013-07-01

    Ovarian transitional cell tumors include Brenner tumors (BTs) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; non-BTs) according to the most recent World Health Organization classification. However, it remains a matter of debate whether TCC represents a distinct entity or a morphologic variant of high-grade serous adenocarcinoma (HG-SC). The purpose of this study was to resolve the above question by clarifying the morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of TCC. We reviewed 488 cases of epithelial ovarian carcinomas and reclassified them on the basis of the most recent World Health Organization classification with the modifications proposed by Köbel and colleagues, and 35 cases of TCC were identified; 25 and 6 TCCs were admixed with HG-SC and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EC), respectively, and the remaining 4 cases were pure TCC. TCC components were not observed in any clear cell carcinomas or mucinous adenocarcinomas. Only 2 cases of malignant BT were identified. In addition to TCCs, malignant BTs, and related adenocarcinomas, benign and borderline BTs were included in the following immunohistochemical and molecular analyses. Immunohistochemically, pure TCCs, TCCs admixed with HG-SC, and pure HG-SCs were characterized by frequent aberrant p53 expression (diffuse or null pattern) and WT1+/ER+/PR+/IMP2+ immunophenotype, whereas BTs, including benign, borderline, and malignant BTs, were characterized by lack of aberrant p53 expression and WT1-/ER-/PR-/IMP2- immunophenotype. In contrast to the BTs, pure ECs and TCCs admixed with EC showed an ER+/PR+ immunophenotype. Nearly all the tumors with a TP53 gene mutation by molecular analysis showed aberrant p53 staining patterns. In conclusion, TCC is not a distinct entity but a poorly differentiated form of serous or EC, as (1) most TCCs coexist with HG-SC (mostly) or EC (occasionally), and (2) the immunophenotype and molecular features are similar to those of HG-SC or EC but different from those of BTs.

  17. Selumetinib Sulfate in Treating Woman With Recurrent Low-Grade Ovarian Cancer or Peritoneum Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-30

    Borderline Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Low Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Low Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor

  18. Endometrial thickness and risk of breast and endometrial carcinomas in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Ashley S.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Modugno, Francesmary; Black, Amanda; Hill, Lyndon M.; Martin, Jerry; Sit, Anita S.; Sherman, Mark E.; Brinton, Louise A.

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal women with higher circulating estrogen levels are at increased risk of developing breast and endometrial carcinomas. In the endometrium, excess estrogen relative to progesterone produces a net proliferative stimulus, which may result in endometrial thickening. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that endometrial thickness is a biological marker of excess estrogen stimulation that is associated with risk of breast and endometrial carcinomas. Endometrial thickness was measured in 1,272 postmenopausal women, aged 55–74, who underwent transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) screening as part of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Serial endometrial thickness measurements were available for a subset of women at one (n=1,018), two (n=869) and three years (n=641) after baseline. We evaluated associations between endometrial thickness and breast (n=91) and endometrial (n=14) carcinoma by estimating relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression with age as the time metric. Models incorporating baseline endometrial thickness and as a time-varying covariate using all measurements were examined. Median follow-up among study participants was 12.5 years (range: 0.3–13.8 years). Compared to baseline endometrial thickness of 1.0 – 2.99 mm, women with baseline endometrial thickness greater than or equal to 5.0 mm had an increased risk of breast (RR: 2.00, 95% CI 1.15, 3.48) and endometrial (RR: 5.02, 95% CI 0.96, 26.36) carcinomas in models adjusted for menopausal hormone use and BMI. Our data suggest that increased endometrial thickness as assessed by TVU was associated with increased risk of breast and endometrial carcinomas. PMID:23907658

  19. LncRNA PCGEM1 Induces Ovarian Carcinoma Tumorigenesis and Progression Through RhoA Pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuo; Wang, Li-Li; Sun, Kai-Xuan; Liu, Yao; Guan, Xue; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Yang

    2018-06-27

    Prostate cancer gene expression marker 1 (PCGEM1) is a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and is well known as a promoter in prostate cancer and osteoarthritis synoviocytes. However, the role PCGEM1 plays in epithelial ovarian cancer is unknown. PCGEM1 expression was examined in epithelial ovarian cancer and normal ovarian tissues using reverse transcription-PCR. Ovarian cancer cell phenotypes and genotypes were examined after PCGEM1 overexpression or downregulation in vitro; besides, the effects of PCGEM1 overexpression was also examined in vivo. PCGEM1 expression level was higher in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues than in normal ovarian tissues and was positively associated with differentiation (Well vs. Mod/Poor). Upregulation of PCGEM1 induced cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, but decreased cell apoptosis through upregulating RhoA, YAP (Yes-associated protein), MMP2 (matrix metalloproteinase 2), Bcl-xL, and P70S6K expression; while PCGEM1 downregulation had the opposite effect. The nude mouse xenograft assay demonstrated that PCGEM1 overexpression promoted tumor growth. Furthermore, silencing RhoA expression reversed the effect of PCGEM1 and significantly inhibited RhoA, YAP, MMP2, Bcl-xL, and P70S6K protein expression. In conclusion, we suggest that PCGEM1 may be an inducer in epithelial ovarian cancer tumorigenesis and progression by upregulating RhoA and the subsequent expression of YAP, P70S6K, MMP2, and Bcl-xL. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Mirvetuximab Soravtansine and Rucaparib Camsylate in Treating Participants With Recurrent Endometrial, Ovarian, Fallopian Tube or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-09

    BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Folate Receptor Alpha Positive; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Serous Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Carcinosarcoma; Platinum Resistant Ovarian Cancer

  1. Antimetastatic effects of cordycepin mediated by the inhibition of mitochondrial activity and estrogen-related receptor α in human ovarian carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chia-Woei; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2017-01-01

    Cordycepin (3′-deoxyadenosine) is a compound for antitumor, which has been found to exert antiangiogenic, antimetastatic, and antiproliferative effects, as well as inducing apoptosis. However, the association between cancer metastasis and mitochondrial activity in cordycepin-treated ovarian carcinoma cells remains unclear. The 50 and 100 μM of cordycepin inhibits mitochondrial fusion and induces mitochondrial fission, respectively. These suggested that cordycepin showed the down-regulation of mitochondrial function and limitation of energy production. Because of activation of mitochondria and generation of energy are needed in cancer cell migration/invasion. After 24 h treatment, cordycepin suppresses epithelial–mesenchymal transition and migration in ovarian carcinoma cells through inhibiting estrogen-related receptor (ERR)-α. The ERRα is a co-transcription factor for gene expressions associated with mitochondrial fusion. Our results indicate that cordycepin suppresses metastasis and migration of ovarian carcinoma cells via inhibiting mitochondrial activity in non-toxic concentrations, and cordycepin has potential benefits in ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:27966445

  2. Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium associated with benign ovarian brenner tumor: a case report with immunohistochemistry molecular analysis and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Giovanna; D'Adda, Tiziana; Gnetti, Letizia; Merisio, Carla; Raboni, Stefano

    2007-07-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium (TCCE) is a subtype of endometrial carcinoma, characterized by a prominent papillary pattern, resembling the papillary carcinoma of the urothelium. This neoplasm is very rare, with only 13 cases reported in the international literature. In this paper, a new case of TCCE associated with benign ovarian Brenner tumor is described. This association is extremely rare, with only 1 other case reported. A review of the literature is performed to delineate the clinico pathologic features of this malignancy. Moreover, immunohistochemical and molecular studies are carried out in the effort to establish the phenotype and etiology of this rare neoplasm. The molecular study, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) failing to reveal the presence of HPV DNA, demonstrates that neither the TCCE nor the ovarian Brenner tumor is caused by an HPV infection. The association of TCCE with benign ovarian Brenner tumor could be a coincidental event. Conversely, this finding could be the manifestation of a multicentric metaplastic process (neometaplasia), involving both the coelomic epithelium of the ovary and the Mullerian epithelium of the uterus, or the evidence of "field effect" that manifests differently at different anatomical sites. In our view, other cases of TCCE associated with ovarian Brenner tumor should be reported to confirm the last 2 hypotheses.

  3. CYP1B1, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in the Etiology of Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Using an Avian Model of Ovarian Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information...ovarian cancer in Women and Hens”. First AACR International Conference on Molecular Diagnostics in Cancer Therapeutic Development, Sep 12-15, 2006...associated with ovarian cancer in humans and hens“ Presented at the 1st International Aegean conference on Ovarian Cancer, June 2006,Crete, Greece 4

  4. A novel far-red fluorescent xenograft model of ovarian carcinoma for preclinical evaluation of HER2-targeted immunotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Zdobnova, Tatiana; Sokolova, Evgeniya; Stremovskiy, Oleg; Karpenko, Dmitry; Telford, William; Turchin, Ilya; Balalaeva, Irina; Deyev, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    We have created a novel fluorescent model of a human ovarian carcinoma xenograft overexpressing receptor HER2, a promising molecular target of solid tumors. The model is based on a newly generated SKOV-kat cell line stably expressing far-red fluorescent protein Katushka. Katushka is most suitable for the in vivo imaging due to an optimal combination of high brightness and emission in the “window of tissue transparency”. The relevance of the fluorescent model for the in vivo monitoring of tumor growth and response to treatment was demonstrated using a newly created HER2-targeted recombinant immunotoxin based on the 4D5scFv antibody and a fragment of the Pseudomonas exotoxin A. PMID:26436696

  5. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIC-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer Following Surgery and Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-12

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Tumor; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  6. 18F-FDG PET/CT as predictor of tumour biology and prognosis in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    González García, B; García Vicente, A M; Jiménez Londoño, G A; Pena Pardo, F J; Bellón Guardia, M E; Talavera Rubio, M P; Palomar Muñoz, A; Gómez Herrero, P; Soriano Castrejón, Á M

    To investigate the relationship between maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) of ovarian lesions and histopathology subtypes, and their involvement in the response and prognosis of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). A retrospective analysis of 31 patients with EOC and 18 F-FDG-PET/CT before treatment, including an assessment of the SUVmax of ovarian lesion. Histopathological diagnosis and follow-up was performed. A study was made on the relationship between the SUVmax and histological type (type I and II) and tumour stage, as well as the role of various parameters (SUVmax, histology, stage) on the patient outcomes (complete response [CR], overall survival [OS], disease-free survival [DFS], and disease-free [DF] status, at 12 and 24 months). The medium SUVmax in type I lesions was lower than in type II (6.3 and 9.3, respectively; P=.03). A 7.1 cut-off was set for SUVmax in order to identify type II EOC (sensitivity: 77.8%, specificity: 69.2%; AUC=0.748; P=.02). No significant relationship was found between tumour stage and SUVmax. CR was more common in early stages; relative risk (RR) of 1.64; P=.003, as well as in type I tumours and a lower SUVmax. Tumour stage was decisive in DFS (P=.04), LE24m (0.07) and OS (P=.08). Longer DFS and a higher percentage of DF 24m were observed in type I tumours (RR: 1.32; P=.26). SUVmax was related to EOC histology, so could predict the response and prognosis of these patients. No association was found between glycolytic activity of the primary tumor with the response and prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolites from invasive pests inhibit mitochondrial complex II: A potential strategy for the treatment of human ovarian carcinoma?

    SciTech Connect

    Ferramosca, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.ferramosca@unisalento.it; Conte, Annalea; Guerra, Flora

    The red pigment caulerpin, a secondary metabolite from the marine invasive green algae Caulerpa cylindracea can be accumulated and transferred along the trophic chain, with detrimental consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Despite increasing research efforts to understand how caulerpin modifies fish physiology, little is known on the effects of algal metabolites on mammalian cells. Here we report for the first time the mitochondrial targeting activity of both caulerpin, and its closely related derivative caulerpinic acid, by using as experimental model rat liver mitochondria, a system in which bioenergetics mechanisms are not altered. Mitochondrial function was tested by polarographic andmore » spectrophotometric methods. Both compounds were found to selectively inhibit respiratory complex II activity, while complexes I, III, and IV remained functional. These results led us to hypothesize that both algal metabolites could be used as antitumor agents in cell lines with defects in mitochondrial complex I. Ovarian cancer cisplatin-resistant cells are a good example of cell lines with a defective complex I function on which these molecules seem to have a toxic effect on proliferation. This provided novel insight toward the potential use of metabolites from invasive Caulerpa species for the treatment of human ovarian carcinoma cisplatin-resistant cells. -- Highlights: •Novel insight toward the potential use of the algal metabolites for the treatment of human diseases. •Caulerpin and caulerpinic acid inhibit respiratory complex II activity. •Both algal metabolites could be used as antitumor agents in ovarian cancer cisplatin-resistant cells.« less

  8. Preliminary studies on LED-activated pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester killing cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yong; Xu, Chuan Shan; Xia, Xin Shu; Yu, He Ping; Bai, Ding Qun; He, Yong; Xu, Jing; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xin Na; Leung, Albert Wing Nang

    2009-05-01

    In the present study, a novel LED source was applied for activating pyropheophorbids-a methyl ester (MPPa) in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cell line COC1/DDP cells. MPPa concentration was 2 μM and light energy from 0.125-8 J/cm2. Cytotoxicity was investigated 24 h using MTT reduction assay and light microscopy after treatment. Cellular ultrastructure was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nuclear chromatin by fluorescent microscope with Hoechst33258 staining. MTT reduction assay showed that the cytotoxicity of LED-activated MPPa in the COC1/DDP cells increased along with the light dose of LED source and LED-activated MPPa resulted in light-dependent cytotoxicity. The observations from light microscopy reinforced the above results. TEM showed that necrotic cells with the disruption of karyotheca, karyorrhexis, and karyolysis of nucleus and apoptotic cells, especially the apoptotic body, can be seen post LED-activated MPPa. Hoechst33258 staining showed that condensation of chromatin and nuclear fragmentations could be found in many treated cells and some of them formed the structure of apoptotic bodies when COC1/DDP cells were exposed to 2 μM MPPa for 20 h and then 1 J/cm2 irradiation of LED source. The findings demonstrated that the novel LED source could efficiently activated MPPa and LED-activated MPPa could significantly kill cisplatin-resistant ovarian cell line COC1/DDP cells through two major pathways including necrosis and apoptosis, suggesting that LED is a novel and efficient light source and LED-activated MPPa might be potential therapeutic modality for treating cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma.

  9. Incidence of Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma (STIC) by Algorithm Classification in Serous Ovarian Tumor Associated with PAX8 Expression in Tubal Epithelia: A Study of Single Institution in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    Serous ovarian carcinoma is now hypothesized to originate from fallopian tube epithelium (FTE). We investigated the FTE abnormalities in the patients with epithelial ovarian tumors. Our study included 55 cases of serous tumors (24 carcinomas, 8 borderline tumors, and 23 adenomas), 14 mucinous carcinomas, 22 endometrioid carcinomas, 5 clear cell carcinomas, and 2 malignant Brenner tumors. FTE was diagnosed by the diagnostic algorithm, which combines the data of morphology, and p53, Ki-67 immunostaining, as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, serous tubal intraepithelial lesion, p53 signature, and normal/reactive. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, serous tubal intraepithelial lesion, p53 signature, and normal/reactive were observed in 5, 3, 0, and 16 cases in serous carcinoma; 0, 3, 0, and 5 cases in serous borderline tumor; 0, 1, 1, and 21 cases in serous adenoma; 0, 0, 1, and 13 cases in mucinous carcinoma; 0, 0, 3, and 19 cases in endometrioid carcinoma; 0, 0, 0, and 5 cases in clear cell carcinoma; and 0, 1, 0, and 1 case in malignant Brenner tumor. Among tumors of serous histology and between carcinomas, FTE abnormalities differed significantly (P<0.05). Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas were only found in serous carcinoma. The incidence of secretory cell proliferation (SCP) was examined by PAX8 expression. The rate of SCP was extremely high in serous carcinoma (96%). Among tumors of serous histology and between carcinomas, an incidence of SCP differed significantly (P<0.05). Patients with SCP were significantly older (P<0.0001). Our observations were concordant with the hypothesis of serous ovarian carcinogenesis. The SCP has a meaningful association with serous ovarian cancer. PMID:25473747

  10. Risk factors of epithelial ovarian carcinomas among women with endometriosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Line H; Schnack, Tine H; Buchardi, Kristina; Hummelshoj, Lone; Missmer, Stacey A; Forman, Axel; Blaakaer, Jan

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this review was to evaluate the published literature on epidemiologic risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer among women with a diagnosis of endometriosis. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus. Studies comparing epidemiologic risk factors of epithelial ovarian cancer among women with endometriosis were included. A quality assessment was conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Eight of 794 articles met the inclusion criteria. A lower risk of epithelial ovarian cancer was observed in women with documented complete surgical excision of endometriotic tissue and suggested among women with unilateral oophorectomy. The use of oral contraceptives (≥10 years) may be associated with a lower risk of epithelial ovarian cancer among women with endometriosis, whereas older age at endometriosis diagnosis (≥45 years, pre- or postmenopausal), nulliparity, hyperestrogenism (endogenous or exogenous), premenopausal status at endometriosis diagnosis, solid compartments as well as larger size of endometrioma (≥9 cm in diameter at endometriosis diagnosis) were all associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. A subgroup of women with endometriosis characterized by endometriosis observed through surgery or imaging after the age of 45 years, nulliparity, postmenopausal status at endometriosis diagnosis, larger size of endometrioma (>9 cm) at endometriosis diagnosis, hyperestrogenism (endogenous or exogenous) and/or cysts with solid compartments may have an elevated risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. However, due to the limited number and size of studies in this area we cannot draw definitive conclusions. Further research into a risk factor profile among women with endometriosis is needed before clear recommendations can be made. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Establishment and characterization of a platinum- and paclitaxel-resistant high grade serous ovarian carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Teng, Pang-Ning; Bateman, Nicholas W; Wang, Guisong; Litzi, Tracy; Blanton, Brian E; Hood, Brian L; Conrads, Kelly A; Ao, Wei; Oliver, Kate E; Darcy, Kathleen M; McGuire, William P; Paz, Keren; Sidransky, David; Hamilton, Chad A; Maxwell, G Larry; Conrads, Thomas P

    2017-07-01

    High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) patients have a high recurrence rate after surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy due to inherent or acquired drug resistance. Cell lines derived from HGSOC tumors that are resistant to chemotherapeutic agents represent useful pre-clinical models for drug discovery. Here, we describe establishment of a human ovarian carcinoma cell line, which we term WHIRC01, from a patient-derived mouse xenograft established from a chemorefractory HGSOC patient who did not respond to carboplatin and paclitaxel therapy. This newly derived cell line is platinum- and paclitaxel-resistant with cisplatin, carboplatin, and paclitaxel half-maximal lethal doses of 15, 130, and 20 µM, respectively. Molecular characterization of this cell line was performed using targeted DNA exome sequencing, transcriptomics (RNA-seq), and mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses. Results from exomic sequencing revealed mutations in TP53 consistent with HGSOC. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of WHIRC01 showed high level of alpha-enolase and vimentin, which are associated with cell migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. WHIRC01 represents a chemorefractory human HGSOC cell line model with a comprehensive molecular profile to aid future investigations of drug resistance mechanisms and screening of chemotherapeutic agents.

  12. Chemosensitivity testing of human tumors using a microplate adenosine triphosphate luminescence assay: clinical correlation for cisplatin resistance of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, P E; Cree, I A; Kurbacher, C M; Hartmann, D M; Linder, D; Harel, G; Gleiberman, I; Caruso, P A; Ricks, S H; Untch, M

    1995-11-15

    An ATP luminescence assay (TCA 100) was used to measure chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity and resistance of dissociated tumor cells cultured for 6 days in serum-free medium and 96-well polypropylene microplates. Studies were performed with surgical, needle biopsy, pleural, or ascitic fluid specimens using 10,000-20,000 cells/well. ATP measurements were used to determine tumor growth inhibition. Single agent and drug combinations were evaluated using the area under the curve and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) results for a series of test drug concentrations. The ATP luminometry method had high sensitivity, linearity, and precision for measuring the activity of single agents and drug combinations. Assay reproducibility was high with intraassay and interassay coefficients of variation of 10-15% for percentage of tumor growth inhibition, 5-10% for area under curve, and 15-20% for IC50 results. Good correlation (r = 0.93) between the area under the curve, and IC50 results was observed. Cytological studies with 124 specimens demonstrated selective growth of malignant cells in the serum-free culture system. Studies with malignant and benign specimens also showed selective growth of malignant cells in the serum-free medium used for assay. The assay had a success rate of 87% based on criteria for specimen histopathology, magnitude of cell growth, and dose-response drug activity. Cisplatin results for ovarian carcinoma are presented for 81 specimens from 70 untreated patients and 33 specimens from 30 refractory patients. A model for interpretation of these results based on the correlation of clinical response with the area under the curve and IC50 results indicates that the assay has > 90% accuracy for cisplatin resistance of ovarian carcinoma. Additional studies are in progress to evaluate the clinical efficacy of this assay.

  13. Chicken Pleiotrophin: Regulation of Tissue Specific Expression by Estrogen in the Oviduct and Distinct Expression Pattern in the Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Whasun; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W.; Han, Jae Yong; Song, Gwonhwa

    2012-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a developmentally-regulated growth factor which is widely distributed in various tissues and also detected in many kinds of carcinomas. However, little is known about the PTN gene in chickens. In the present study, we found chicken PTN to be highly conserved with respect to mammalian PTN genes (91–92.6%) and its mRNA was most abundant in brain, heart and oviduct. This study focused on the PTN gene in the oviduct where it was detected in the glandular (GE) and luminal (LE) epithelial cells. Treatment of young chicks with diethylstilbesterol induced PTN mRNA and protein in GE and LE, but not in other cell types of the oviduct. Further, several microRNAs, specifically miR-499 and miR-1709 were discovered to influence PTN expression via its 3′-UTR which suggests that post-transcriptional regulation influences PTN expression in chickens. We also compared expression patterns and CpG methylation status of the PTN gene in normal and cancerous ovaries from chickens. Our results indicated that PTN is most abundant in the GE of adenocarcinoma of cancerous, but not normal ovaries of hens. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that 30- and 40% of −1311 and −1339 CpG sites are demethylated in ovarian cancer cells, respectively. Collectively, these results indicate that chicken PTN is a novel estrogen-induced gene expressed mainly in the oviductal epithelia implicating PTN regulation of oviduct development and egg formation, and also suggest that PTN is a biomarker for epithelial ovarian carcinoma that could be used for diagnosis and monitoring effects of therapies for the disease. PMID:22496782

  14. Broad Ligament Lipoleiomyoma Masses: Two curious cases masquerading as ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Surekha; Maheswari, Barkha; Sagar, Nishant; Mallya, Varuna; Khurana, Nita; Gupta, Sangeeta

    2017-11-01

    Lipoleiomyomas are an extremely rare form of uterine leiomyoma; moreover, the occurrence of this type of tumour on the broad ligament is even rarer. We report two cases of broad ligament lipoleiomyomas in 15- and 38-year-old female patients who presented to the Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Hospital in New Delhi, India, between 2016 and 2017. In both cases, the preoperative diagnosis was of a solid ovarian malignancy. Most broad ligament tumours are mistaken for ovarian masses as they are difficult to diagnose radiologically.

  15. Hypoxia-Activated Alkylating Agents in BRCA1-Mutant Ovarian Serous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Michael; Borad, Mitesh J; Bryce, Alan H

    2017-07-26

    Breast cancer 1 antigen (BRCA 1) and breast cancer 2 antigen (BRCA2) genes play a significant role in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair by means of interstrand crosslink repair, and deleterious germline mutations of these are responsible for most hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Therapeutic strategies which specifically target interstrand crosslink repair can therefore be helpful in patients with harmful mutations. We describe two patients with advanced ovarian cancer and deleterious BRCA1 mutations who were treated with TH-302, a hypoxia-activated alkylating agent.

  16. Anticancer effect and mechanism of polymer micelle-encapsulated quercetin on ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Bilan; Wei, Xiawei; Men, Ke; Zheng, Fengjin; Zhou, Yingfeng; Zheng, Yu; Gou, Maling; Huang, Meijuan; Guo, Gang; Huang, Ning; Qian, Zhiyong; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-10-01

    Encapsulation of hydrophobic agents in polymer micelles can improve the water solubility of cargos, contributing to develop novel drugs. Quercetin (QU) is a hydrophobic agent with potential anticancer activity. In this work, we encapsulated QU into biodegradable monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles and tried to provide proof-of-principle for treating ovarian cancer with this nano-formulation of quercetin. These QU loaded MPEG-PCL (QU/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 6.9% had a mean particle size of 36 nm, rendering the complete dispersion of quercetin in water. QU inhibited the growth of A2780S ovarian cancer cells on a dose dependent manner in vitro. Intravenous administration of QU/MPEG-PCL micelles significantly suppressed the growth of established xenograft A2780S ovarian tumors through causing cancer cell apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, the anticancer activity of quercetin on ovarian cancer cells was studied in vitro. Quercetin treatment induced the apoptosis of A2780S cells associated with activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. MCL-1 downregulation, Bcl-2 downregulation, Bax upregulation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential change were observed, suggesting that quercetin may induce apoptosis of A2780S cells through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Otherwise, quercetin treatment decreased phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylated Akt, contributing to inhibition of A2780S cell proliferation. Our data suggested that QU/MPEG-PCL micelles were a novel nano-formulation of quercetin with a potential clinical application in ovarian cancer therapy.

  17. A binary histologic grading system for ovarian serous carcinoma is an independent prognostic factor: a population-based study of 4317 women diagnosed in Denmark 1978-2006.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Vang, Russell; Junge, Jette; Kjaerbye-Thygesen, Anette; Kurman, Robert J; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of histologic grade on survival of ovarian serous cancer in Denmark during nearly 30 years. Using the nationwide Danish Pathology Data Bank, we evaluated 4317 women with ovarian serous carcinoma in 1978-2006. All pathology reports were scrutinized and tumors classified as either low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSC) or high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC). Tumors in which the original pathology reports were described as well-differentiated were classified as LGSC, and those that were described as moderately or poorly differentiated were classified as HGSC. We obtained histologic slides from the pathology departments for women with a diagnosis of well-differentiated serous carcinoma during 1997-2006, which were then reviewed by expert gynecologic pathologists. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with follow-up through June 2009. Women with HGSC had a significantly increased risk of dying (HR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.6-2.3) compared with women with LGSC while adjusting for age and stage. Expert review of 171 women originally classified as well-differentiated in 1997-2006 were interpreted as LGSC in 30% of cases, whereas 12% were interpreted as HGSC and 50% as serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBT). Compared with women with confirmed LGSC, women with SBT at review had a significantly lower risk of dying (HR=0.5; 95% CI: 0.22-0.99), and women with HGSC at review had a non-significantly increased risk of dying (HR=1.6; 95% CI: 0.7-3.4). A binary grading system is a significant predictor of survival for ovarian serous carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) a promising therapeutic target of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jagadish, Nirmala; Fatima, Rukhsar; Sharma, Aditi; Devi, Sonika; Suri, Vitusha; Kumar, Vikash; Suri, Anil

    2018-05-01

    SPAG9 is a novel tumor associated antigen, expressed in variety of malignancies. However, its role in ovarian cancer remains unexplored. SPAG9 expression was validated in ovarian cancer cells by real time PCR and Western blot. SPAG9 involvement in cell cycle, DNA damage, apoptosis, paclitaxel sensitivity and epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) was investigated employing RNA interference approach. Combinatorial effect of SPAG9 ablation and paclitaxel treatment was evaluated in in vitro. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis revealed SPAG9 expression in A10, SKOV-3 and Caov3 compared to normal ovarian epithelial cells. SPAG9 ablation resulted in reduced cellular proliferation, colony forming ability and enhanced cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel. Effect of ablation of SPAG9 on cell cycle revealed S phase arrest and showed decreased expression of CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, cyclin E and increased expression of tumor suppressor p21. Ablation of SPAG9 also resulted in increased apoptosis with increased expression of various pro- apoptotic molecules including BAD, BID, PUMA, caspase 3, caspase 7, caspase 8 and cytochrome C. Decreased expression of mesenchymal markers and increased expression of epithelial markers was found in SPAG9 ablated cells. Combinatorial effect of SPAG9 ablation and paclitaxel treatment was evaluated in in vitro assays which showed that ablation of SPAG9 resulted in increased paclitaxel sensitivity and caused enhanced cell death. In vivo ovarian cancer xenograft studies showed that ablation of SPAG9 resulted in significant reduction in tumor growth. Present study revealed therapeutic potential of SPAG9 in ovarian cancer.

  19. [Expansion of secretory cells in the fallopian tubal epithelium in the early stages of the pathogenesis of ovarian serous carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Asaturova, A V; Ezhova, L S; Faizullina, N M; Adamyan, L V; Khabas, G N; Sannikova, M V

    to investigate the frequency of the types of fallopian tubal secretory cell expansion (SCE) in diseases of the reproductive organs and to determine the immunophenotype and biological role of the cells in the early stages of the pathogenesis of high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas (HGOSC). The investigation enrolled 287 patients with extraovarian diseases and ovarian serous tumors varying in grade, whose fallopian tubes were morphologically and immunohistochemically examined using p53, Ki-67, PAX2, Bcl-2, beta-catenin, and ALDH1 markers. The material was statistically processed applying the Mann-Whitney test and χ2 test. The rate of secretory cell proliferation (SCP) (more than 10 consecutive secretory cells) and that of secretory cell overgrowth (SCO) (more than 30 consecutive secretory cells) increase with age in all investigated reproductive system diseases. The rate of SCP in the corpus fimbriatum of the patients with HGOSC was 5.9 times higher than that in those with extraovarian disease (p<0.01); when comparing the same patient groups, that of SCO was 3.4 times higher (p<0.05). The immunohistochemical characteristics of the investigated lesions (in scores) were as follows: PAX2 was expressed in the intact epithelium (2.8), in SCP (1.3), in SCO (1.2), in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) (1.0), and in HGOSC (0.9); Bcl-2 was in the intact epithelium (2.2), in SCP (2.1), STIC (0.9), and in HGOSC (0.6), β-catenin was in the intact epithelium (0.5), in SCP (2.85), in SCO (2.95), in STIC (0.6), and in HGOSC (0.5); ALDH1 was in the intact epithelium (0.5), in SCP (2.91), in SCO (2.92), in STIC (1.2), and in HGOSC (0.6). There were statistically significant differences with a 95% confidence interval (p<0.05) for: 1) PAX2 between the intact epithelium and pathology (fallopian tube lesions and HGOSC); 2) Bcl-2 between the intact epithelium and SCE (SCP and SCO) and between SCE and HGOSC; 3) beta-catenin between the intact epithelium and SCE (SCP and SCO

  20. [The value of immunohistochemistry using SMARCA4/BRG1 in the diagnosis of small cell ovarian carcinoma hypercalcemic type. A report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, Gema; Torroba-Carón, M Amparo; Ferri-Ñíguez, Belén; Lencina-Guardiola, Miriam; García-Molina, Francisco; Martínez-Barba, Enrique

    Small cell carcinoma of ovary-hypercalcemic type is an undifferentiated carcinoma. We describe two cases in women aged 32 and 29. Both presented with large masses and complete surgical extirpation was impossible. Histologically, the images were similar, with diffuse cell proliferation, accompanied by the presence of follicle-like spaces. In both cases it was necessary to make a differential diagnosis with entities such as adult or juvenile granulosa cell tumour, small cell carcinoma of pulmonary type, dysgerminoma and even peripheral neuroectodermal tumour. The absence of SMARCA4/BRG1 immunostaining proved very useful in the diagnosis of hypercalcemic small cell ovarian carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anatomía Patológica. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Combination of adriamycin and cis-diammine-dichloro-platinum (II) in the treatment of advanced, therapy-resistant, ovarian carcinoma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Cavalli, F; Stoller, U; Tschopp, L; Sonntag, R W; Brunner, K W

    1978-06-02

    Adriamycin (doxorubicin, Adriblastin) and cis-diammine-dichloro-platinum (II) (DDP, NSC 119 875) were used in the treatment of 18 patients with ovarian carcinoma, usually after intensive pre-treatment, both in a dosage of 50 mg/m2 once every 4 weeks. Forced diuresis was initiated at the same time. On average three such treatments were given. Six patients showed partial remission defined as decrease of tumour mass by more than 50% or as almost complete disappearance of ascites during more than two months without concomitant diuretic treatment. The remission time was 2+, 3, 3+, 3.5, 7+, and 9+ months. In all patients severe gastrointestinal toxicity occurred, however the myelosuppressive action was only moderate. Nephrotoxicity was negligible. Combined chemotherapy with Adriblastin and DDP thus seems effective even in intensively pretreated patients with ovarian carcinoma.

  2. Paclitaxel, Polyglutamate Paclitaxel, or Observation in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-03

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  3. 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid potentiates Hsp90 inhibition-induced apoptosis in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells via activation of death receptor and mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae Chon; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Wonyong; Lee, Chung Soo

    2012-11-01

    The Hsp90 inhibition has been shown to induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. The licorice compounds may enhance the anti-cancer drug effect. However, effect of the licorice compounds on the Hsp90 inhibition-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells has not been studied. To assess the ability of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid to promote apoptosis, we examined whether 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid potentiated the Hsp90 inhibitor-induced apoptosis in the human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3. Radicicol and geldanamycin induced a decrease in Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin protein levels, an increase in Bax levels, the mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspases (-8, -9, and -3), cleavage of PARP-1, and an increase in the tumor suppressor p53 levels. 18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid enhanced Hsp90 inhibitor-induced apoptosis-related protein activation, nuclear damage, and cell death. The results suggest that 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid may potentiate the Hsp90 inhibition-induced apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cell lines via the activation of the caspase-8- and Bid-dependent pathways and the mitochondria-mediated cell death pathway, leading to activation of caspases. Combination of Hsp90 inhibitors and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid may confer a benefit in the treatment of epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma.

  4. The current social, political, and medical role of genetic testing in familial breast and ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, J N

    1999-02-01

    Few advances in medical science have yielded as much publicity and controversy as discoveries in genetics. Moving quickly from the bench to the bedside, genetic testing for inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer has had a significant impact on our paradigms for decisions about the treatment and prevention of disease. Assessment of cancer risk is developing into a distinct discipline, with rapidly evolving genetic technologies and models for estimating an individual's risk of cancer. Exciting developments in chemoprevention of breast cancer demonstrate the potential to offer a broader range of options for decreasing cancer risk. This article will consider recent advances in the understanding of cancer genetics, and describe the state-of-the-art in terms of management of individuals with inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer.

  5. Evaluation of DNA Repair Function as a Predictor of Response in a Clinical Trial of PARP Inhibitor Monotherapy for Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    no specifi c biomarkers were tested in a trial of a PARP inhibitor in patients with ovarian carcinoma with measurable disease . There is currently no... disease that was measurable with the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1 (RECIST) and amenable to biopsy at trial entry. Patients...have measurable disease treated with a PARP inhibitor, thereby testing the assay as a biomarker for PARP inhibitor response. Other prospective

  6. Evaluation of DNA Repair Function as a Predictor of Response in a Clinical Trial of PARP Inhibitor Monotherapy for Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Monotherapy for Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Scott H. Kaufmann CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55905...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mayo Clinic and Foundation AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...NUMBER 200 First St., S.W. Rochester, MN 55905 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55905 10. SPONSOR

  7. Proliferation of CD4CD25Foxp3 regulatory T lymphocytes in ex vivo expanded ascitic fluid from primary and recurrent ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shin Wha; Kim, Yong-Man; Lee, Ha-Young; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Tak

    2010-03-01

    Regulatory T lymphocytes evoke the immune tolerance by suppressing and inactivating cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The objective of this study was to compare the proportion of regulatory T lymphocytes, precisely defined as CD4(+)CD25(high+)Foxp3(+) T lymphocytes, in primary and recurrent ovarian carcinoma before and after ex vivo expansion of ascites with interleukin-2 (IL-2). Ascitic fluid samples were obtained from 26 patients with ovarian carcinoma. Lymphocytes were isolated from ascites and cell markers were analyzed by flow cytometry using anti-CD3/CD4/CD8/CD16/CD56/CD25 and anti-Foxp3 antibodies. Lymphocytes were incubated for 2 to 3 weeks and expanded ex vivo by IL-2 stimulation and their phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Following ex vivo expansion, ascitic fluid lymphocytes increased by a greater extent in the recurrent group than in the primary group. The proportion of ex vivo-expanded lymphocytes changed as follows; CD4(+) T lymphocytes increased, CD8(+) T lymphocytes decreased, and the proportion of CD3(-)CD16(+)56(+) NK cells was unchanged. The proportion of CD4(+)CD25(high+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T lymphocytes in CD4(+) T lymphocytes increased after ex vivo expansion in both groups, but to a greater degree in the recurrent group. This study showed that regulatory T lymphocytes, neither cytotoxic T lymphocytes nor NK cells, were extensively increased after ex vivo expansion, especially in recurrent ovarian carcinoma. These results may provide information that helps to guide the future development of adoptive immunotherapy against ovarian carcinoma.

  8. Metabolomic Profiling of the Synergistic Effects of Melittin in Combination with Cisplatin on Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alonezi, Sanad; Tusiimire, Jonans; Wallace, Jennifer; Dufton, Mark J.; Parkinson, John A.; Young, Louise C.; Clements, Carol J.; Park, Jin-Kyu; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Ferro, Valerie A.; Watson, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Melittin, the main peptide present in bee venom, has been proposed as having potential for anticancer therapy; the addition of melittin to cisplatin, a first line treatment for ovarian cancer, may increase the therapeutic response in cancer treatment via synergy, resulting in improved tolerability, reduced relapse, and decreased drug resistance. Thus, this study was designed to compare the metabolomic effects of melittin in combination with cisplatin in cisplatin-sensitive (A2780) and resistant (A2780CR) ovarian cancer cells. Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to identify metabolic changes in A2780 (combination treatment 5 μg/mL melittin + 2 μg/mL cisplatin) and A2780CR (combination treatment 2 μg/mL melittin + 10 μg/mL cisplatin) cells. Principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) multivariate data analysis models were produced using SIMCA-P software. All models displayed good separation between experimental groups and high-quality goodness of fit (R2) and goodness of prediction (Q2), respectively. The combination treatment induced significant changes in both cell lines involving reduction in the levels of metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and the arginine/proline pathway. The combination of melittin with cisplatin that targets these pathways had a synergistic effect. The melittin-cisplatin combination had a stronger effect on the A2780 cell line in comparison with the A2780CR cell line. The metabolic effects of melittin and cisplatin in combination were very different from those of each agent alone. PMID:28420117

  9. Aurora Kinase A expression predicts platinum-resistance and adverse outcome in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, Chiara; Staropoli, Nicoletta; Botta, Cirino; De Marco, Carmela; Rizzuto, Antonia; Morelli, Michele; Di Cello, Annalisa; Franco, Renato; Camastra, Caterina; Presta, Ivan; Malara, Natalia; Salvino, Angela; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Barni, Tullio; Donato, Giuseppe; Di Vito, Anna

    2016-05-21

    High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma (HGSOC) is the predominant histotype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), characterized by advanced stage at diagnosis, frequent TP53 mutation, rapid progression, and high responsiveness to platinum-based-chemotherapy. To date, standard first-line-chemotherapy in advanced EOC includes platinum salts and paclitaxel with or without bevacizumab. The major prognostic factor is the response duration from the end of the platinum-based treatment (platinum-free interval) and about 10-0 % of EOC patients bear a platinum-refractory disease or develop early resistance (platinum-free interval shorter than 6 months). On these bases, a careful selection of patients who could benefit from chemotherapy is recommended to avoid unnecessary side effects and for a better disease outcome. In this retrospective study, an immunohistochemical evaluation of Aurora Kinase A (AURKA) was performed on 41 cases of HGSOC according to platinum-status. Taking into account the number and intensity of AURKA positive cells we built a predictive score able to discriminate with high accuracy platinum-sensitive patients from platinum-resistant patients (p < 0.001). Furthermore, we observed that AURKA overexpression correlates to worse overall survival (p = 0.001; HR 0.14). We here suggest AURKA as new effective tool to predict the biological behavior of HGSOC. Particularly, our results indicate that AURKA has a role both as predictor of platinum-resistance and as prognostic factor, that deserves further investigation in prospective clinical trials. Indeed, in the era of personalized medicine, AURKA could assist the clinicians in selecting the best treatment and represent, at the same time, a promising new therapeutic target in EOC treatment.

  10. Exosomes as mediators of platinum resistance in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Jennifer; Atay, Safinur; Banskota, Samagya; Artale, Brittany; Schmitt, Sarah; Godwin, Andrew K

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes have been implicated in the cell-cell transfer of oncogenic proteins and genetic material. We speculated this may be one mechanism by which an intrinsically platinum-resistant population of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells imparts its influence on surrounding tumor cells. To explore this possibility we utilized a platinum-sensitive cell line, A2780 and exosomes derived from its resistant subclones, and an unselected, platinum-resistant EOC line, OVCAR10. A2780 cells demonstrate a ~2-fold increase in viability upon treatment with carboplatin when pre-exposed to exosomes from platinum-resistant cells as compared to controls. This coincided with increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). DNA sequencing of EOC cell lines revealed previously unreported somatic mutations in the Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (SMAD4) within platinum-resistant cells. A2780 cells engineered to exogenously express these SMAD4 mutations demonstrate up-regulation of EMT markers following carboplatin treatment, are more resistant to carboplatin, and release exosomes which impart a ~1.7-fold increase in resistance in naive A2780 recipient cells as compared to controls. These studies provide the first evidence that acquired SMAD4 mutations enhance the chemo-resistance profile of EOC and present a novel mechanism in which exchange of tumor-derived exosomes perpetuates an EMT phenotype, leading to the development of subpopulations of platinum-refractory cells. PMID:28060758

  11. Exosomes as mediators of platinum resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Crow, Jennifer; Atay, Safinur; Banskota, Samagya; Artale, Brittany; Schmitt, Sarah; Godwin, Andrew K

    2017-02-14

    Exosomes have been implicated in the cell-cell transfer of oncogenic proteins and genetic material. We speculated this may be one mechanism by which an intrinsically platinum-resistant population of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells imparts its influence on surrounding tumor cells. To explore this possibility we utilized a platinum-sensitive cell line, A2780 and exosomes derived from its resistant subclones, and an unselected, platinum-resistant EOC line, OVCAR10. A2780 cells demonstrate a ~2-fold increase in viability upon treatment with carboplatin when pre-exposed to exosomes from platinum-resistant cells as compared to controls. This coincided with increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). DNA sequencing of EOC cell lines revealed previously unreported somatic mutations in the Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (SMAD4) within platinum-resistant cells. A2780 cells engineered to exogenously express these SMAD4 mutations demonstrate up-regulation of EMT markers following carboplatin treatment, are more resistant to carboplatin, and release exosomes which impart a ~1.7-fold increase in resistance in naive A2780 recipient cells as compared to controls. These studies provide the first evidence that acquired SMAD4 mutations enhance the chemo-resistance profile of EOC and present a novel mechanism in which exchange of tumor-derived exosomes perpetuates an EMT phenotype, leading to the development of subpopulations of platinum-refractory cells.

  12. [Effect of aurora kinase B inhibitor AZD1152 in the treatment of cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ya-xi; Li, Xiu-zhen

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether AZD1152 (AZD), the selective inhibitor of aurora kinase B, may play a role in the treatment of cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma when administrated alone or in combination with cisplatin. Hey (cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line) cells were analyzed. According to the treatment plan, Hey cells were divided into four groups (AZD group, cisplatin group, AZD + cisplatin group and control group). Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to test the cells proliferation, caspase-3/7 activity analysis was used to analyze cells apoptosis, and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) assay was used to determine the copy the number of chromosome 7 and checked the copy numbers of hTERC gene and C-myc gene. MTT test showed that proliferation of AZD group was lower than that in control group (P < 0.01). The cells proliferation with the treatment with 10 and 20 nmol/L AZD for 24 hours was (81.4 ± 3.6)% and (81.4 ± 3.6)% respectively, and the cells proliferation for 48 hours was (43.1 ± 2.0)% and (38.5 ± 1.6)% respectively, which was significantly lower than control group (100%, P < 0.01); Treated with the same concentration of AZD, inhibition of proliferation was significantly enhanced as the time extended (P < 0.01). Proliferation in group AZD + cisplatin was lower than that in cisplatin group (P < 0.01) which suggest that there were additive effects after combined AZD with cisplatin. Compared with control group, caspase-3/7 activity in AZD group increased significantly (P = 0.000), and the same results was seen between AZD + cisplatin group and cisplatin group or AZD group (all P < 0.01). Compared with cisplatin group or control group, the copy numbers of hTERC, C-myc and the number of chromosome were significantly increased in AZD group and AZD + cisplat group (all P < 0.05). AZD could inhibit ovarian cancer cells proliferation and induce cells apoptosis significantly. AZD alone or in combination with cisplatin may result in

  13. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-11

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  14. Minimally Invasive Surgical Staging for Ovarian Carcinoma: A Propensity-Matched Comparison With Traditional Open Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Antonino; Bogani, Giorgio; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Scaffa, Cono; Indini, Alice; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the safety of a laparoscopic approach for patients affected by apparent early-stage ovarian cancer. However, no well-designed studies comparing laparoscopic and open surgical staging are available. In the present investigation we aimed to provide a balanced long-term comparison between these 2 approaches. Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Tertiary center. Data of consecutive patients affected by early-stage ovarian cancer who had laparoscopic staging were matched 1:1 with a cohort of patients undergoing open surgical staging. The matching was conducted by a propensity-score comparison. Laparoscopic and open surgical staging. Fifty patient pairs (100 patients: 50 undergoing laparoscopic staging vs 50 undergoing open surgical staging) were included. Demographic and baseline oncologic characteristics were balanced between groups (p > .2). We observed that patients undergoing laparoscopic staging experienced longer operative time (207.2 [71.6] minutes vs 180.7 [47.0] minutes; p = .04), lower blood loss (150 [52.7] mL vs 339.8 [225.9] mL; p < .001), and shorter length of hospital stay (4.0 [2.6] days vs 6.1 [1.6] days; p < .001) compared with patients undergoing open surgical staging. No conversion to open surgery occurred. Complication rate was similar between groups. No difference in survival outcomes were observed, after a mean (SD) follow-up of 49.5 (64) and 52.6 (31.7) months after laparoscopic and open surgical staging, respectively. Our findings suggest that the implementation of minimally invasive staging does not influence survival outcomes of patients affected by early-stage ovarian cancer. Laparoscopic staging improved patient outcomes, reducing length of hospital stay. Further large prospective studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pathogenesis of Ovarian Serous Carcinoma as the Basis for Immunologic Directed Diagnosis and Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    antibodies specific for TAAs are prevalent in cancer patients but absent from controls, and therefore have potential as serum biomarkers (12). Perhaps the...Hung et al., 2001a), pcDNA3-E7/GFP (Hung et al., of Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) 2001c), pcDNA3-E7/IHSP70 (Chen et al... potential tumor-associated marker in ovarian cancer by serial analysis of gene expression. ApoE has long been known to play a key role in lipid transport

  16. Pathogenesis of Ovarian Serous Carcinoma as the Basis for Immunologic Directed Diagnosis and Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    0.49 (0.50) Vector 0.40 (0.49) 0.41 (0.50) HOXA7 0.42 (0.49) 0.43 (0.49) Hsp27 0.42 (0.49) 0.37 (0.48) CA125 0.99 (0.07...2/ neu and HOXB7; ref. 11). Autoantibody to heat shock proteins (Hsp), notably Hsp27 and Hsp90 (23–25), has also been associated with ovarian cancer...tagged recombinant TAA. Similarly, a further six distinct sets of LabMAP carboxylated microspheres were directly coupled to 25 Ag purified Hsp27 , Hsp70

  17. Identification and Characterization of Ovarian Carcinoma Peptide Epitopes Recognized by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    CCA CAG TGC CCC AGG TTA GAA CGG TCA GCA GAA TAG-2a 62 528 AGC GGC GGG CTG AAG GA GAG GGT AGG GTG GTC ATT GTG TCA TAG-2b 62 401 AGC GGC GGG CTG AAG...GGT AGG GTG GTC ATT GTG TCA TAG-2b 62 401 AGC GGC GGG CTG AAG GAC TC CAG CAC AAC AGG AAC ATT CAG TGG TAB-2c 62 536 AGC GGC GGG CTG AAG GA GGG GGA TTT...Makrigiannakis A, Gray H, Schlienger K, Liebman MN, Rubin SC, Coukos G (2003) Intratumoral T cells, recurrence, and survival in epithelial ovarian

  18. Prevention of Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinoma by Elucidating Its Early Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    about  Pathogenesis   11:50      Blaise  Clarke,  MD   Lynch   Syndrome  and  Ovarian  Cancer     12:15      Lunch...that precede the development of STICs using gene expression analysis of morphologically normal FTE from high-risk women compared to FTE from normal...of STICs using gene expression analysis of morphologically normal FTE from high-risk women compared to FTE from normal control specimens and use an

  19. Prevention of Ovarian High Grade Serous Carcinoma by Elucidating Its Early Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    journals including J Pathol (PMID: 23378270), Am J Surg Pathol (PMID: 22892598) and Mod Pathology (PMID: 25216223). Task 2d. Telomere FISH on STICs...STICs have shorter telomere length and lower degree of centrosome amplification than the adjacent high- grade serous carcinomas (HGSC). Therefore, our

  20. TET1 promotes cisplatin-resistance via demethylating the vimentin promoter in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Xi; Zhou, Yuanyuan; You, Yuanyi; Lu, Jiaojiao; Wang, Lijie; Hou, Huilian; Li, Jing; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Le; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    The development of chemo-resistance impairs the outcome of the first line platinum-based chemotherapies for ovarian cancer. Deregulation of DNA methylation/demethylation provides a critical mechanism for the occurrence of chemo-resistance. The ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of dioxygenases including TET1/2/3 plays an important part in DNA demethylation, but their roles in cisplatin resistance have not been elucidated. Using cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell models, we found that TET1 was significantly upregulated in cisplatin-resistant CP70 cells compared with that in cisplatin-sensitive A2780 cells. Ectopic expression of TET1 in A2780 cells promoted cisplatin resistance and decreased cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin, while inhibition of TET1 by siRNA transfection in CP70 cells attenuated cisplatin resistance and enhanced cytotoxicity of cisplatin. Increased TET1 induced re-expression of vimentin through active DNA demethylation, and cause partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) in A2780 cells. Contrarily, knocking down of TET1 in CP70 cells reduced vimentin expression and reversed EMT process. Immunohistochemical analysis of TET1 in human ovarian cancer tissues revealed that TET1 existed in nucleus and cytoplasm in ovarian cancer tissues. And the expression of nuclear TET1 was positively correlated with residual tumor and chemotherapeutic response. Thus, TET1 expression causes resistance to cisplatin and one of the targets of TET1 action is vimentin in ovarian cancer. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  1. Multiple anticancer activities of EF24, a novel curcumin analog, on human ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xin; Sidell, Neil; Mancini, Alessandra; Huang, Ruo-Pan; Shenming Wang; Horowitz, Ira R; Liotta, Dennis C; Taylor, Robert N; Wieser, Friedrich

    2010-10-01

    Curcumin, a component of turmeric, has been reported to exhibit potential antitumor activities. This study assessed the effects of a novel synthetic curcumin analog, EF24, on proliferation, apoptosis, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulation in platinum-sensitive (IGROV1) and platinum-resistant (SK-OV-3) human ovarian cancer cells. EF24 time- and dose-dependently suppressed the growth of both cell lines and synergized with cisplatin to induce apoptosis. Although treatment with EF24 had no significant effect on VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression,VEGF protein secretion into conditioned media was dose-dependently reduced with EF24 demonstrating ∼8-fold greater potency than curcumin (P < .05). EF24 significantly inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced VEGF expression, as did the phenolic antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ). EF24 upregulated cellular antioxidant responses as observed by the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent gene transcription. Given its high potency, EF24 is an excellent lead candidate for further development as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in preclinical models of ovarian cancer.

  2. Genomic scar signatures associated with homologous recombination deficiency predict adverse clinical outcomes in patients with ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chao, Angel; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Jung, Shih-Ming; Lee, Yun-Shien; Chang, Wei-Yang; Yang, Lan-Yang; Ku, Fei-Chun; Huang, Huei-Jean; Chao, An-Shine; Wang, Chin-Jung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Wu, Ren-Chin

    2018-05-03

    We investigated whether genomic scar signatures associated with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), which include telomeric allelic imbalance (TAI), large-scale transition (LST), and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), can predict clinical outcomes in patients with ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). We enrolled patients with OCCC (n = 80) and high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC; n = 92) subjected to primary cytoreductive surgery, most of whom received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Genomic scar signatures based on genome-wide copy number data were determined in all participants and investigated in relation to prognosis. OCCC had significantly lower genomic scar signature scores than HGSC (p < 0.001). Near-triploid OCCC specimens showed higher TAI and LST scores compared with diploid tumors (p < 0.001). While high scores of these genomic scar signatures were significantly associated with better clinical outcomes in patients with HGSC, the opposite was evident for OCCC. Multivariate survival analysis in patients with OCCC identified high LOH scores as the main independent adverse predictor for both cancer-specific (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.22, p = 0.005) and progression-free survival (HR = 2.54, p = 0.01). In conclusion, genomic scar signatures associated with HRD predict adverse clinical outcomes in patients with OCCC. The LOH score was identified as the strongest prognostic indicator in this patient group. Genomic scar signatures associated with HRD are less frequent in OCCC than in HGSC. Genomic scar signatures associated with HRD have an adverse prognostic impact in patients with OCCC. LOH score is the strongest adverse prognostic factor in patients with OCCC.

  3. Density-dependent induction of apoptosis by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, C; Jozan, S; Mazars, P; Côme, M G; Moisand, A; Valette, A

    1995-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 inhibited proliferation of a human ovarian carcinoma cell line (NIH-OVCAR-3). The inhibition of NIH-OVCAR-3 cell proliferation was accompanied by a decrease in clonogenic potential, evidenced by the reduced ability of TGF-beta 1-treated NIH-OVCAR-3 cells to form colonies on a plastic substratum. This rapid decrease of clonogenic potential, which was detected 6 h after addition of TGF-beta 1 was dose-dependent (IC50 = 4 pM). Fluorescence microscopy of DAPI-stained cells supported by electron-microscopic examination showed that TGF-beta 1 induced chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. In addition, oligonucleosomal-sized fragments were detected in the TGF-beta 1-treated cells. These features indicated that TGF-beta 1 induced NIH-OVCAR-3 cell death by an apoptosis-like mechanism. This TGF-beta 1 apoptotic effect was subject to modulation by cell density. It was observed that an increase in cell density (up to 20 x 10(3) cells/cm2) protected NIH-OVCAR-3 cells against apoptosis induced by TGF-beta 1. Conditioned medium from high-density cultures of NIH-OVCAR-3 cells did not inhibit apoptosis induced by TGF-beta 1 on NIH-OVCAR-3 cells cultured at low density, suggesting that the protective effect of cell density was not related to the cell secretion of a soluble survival factor.

  4. PIK3CA and KRAS mutations in cell free circulating DNA are useful markers for monitoring ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Asuka; Hayashi, Tomoatsu; Shimizu, Naomi; Kobayashi, Mana; Taniue, Kenzui; Takahashi, Akiko; Tachibana, Kota; Saito, Misato; Kawabata, Ayako; Iida, Yasushi; Ueda, Kazu; Saito, Motoaki; Yanaihara, Nozomu; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kyosuke; Takano, Hirokuni; Nureki, Osamu; Okamoto, Aikou; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2018-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) exhibits distinct phenotypes, such as resistance to chemotherapy, poor prognosis and an association with endometriosis. Biomarkers and imaging techniques currently in use are not sufficient for reliable diagnosis of this tumor or prediction of therapeutic response. It has recently been reported that analysis of somatic mutations in cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) released from tumor tissues can be useful for tumor diagnosis. In the present study, we attempted to detect mutations in PIK3CA and KRAS in cfDNA from OCCC patients using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Here we show that we were able to specifically detect PIK3CA-H1047R and KRAS-G12D in cfDNA from OCCC patients and monitor their response to therapy. Furthermore, we found that by cleaving wild-type PIK3CA using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we were able to improve the sensitivity of the ddPCR method and detect cfDNA harboring PIK3CA-H1047R. Our results suggest that detection of mutations in cfDNA by ddPCR would be useful for the diagnosis of OCCC, and for predicting its recurrence. PMID:29632642

  5. Consortium analysis of gene and gene-folate interactions in purine and pyrimidine metabolism pathways with ovarian carcinoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Kelemen, Linda E.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Webb, Penelope M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; McGuire, Valerie; Rossing, Mary Anne; Wang, Qinggang; Dicks, Ed; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Song, Honglin; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Plisiecka-Halasa, Joanna; Timorek, Agnieszka; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Narod, Steven A.; Risch, Harvey A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Glasspool, Rosalind; Paul, James; Carty, Karen; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubiński, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; van Altena, Anne M.; Aben, Katja K. H.; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Cramer, Daniel W.; Levine, Douglas A.; Bisogna, Maria; Giles, Graham G.; Southey, Melissa C.; Bruinsma, Fiona; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Høgdall, Claus K.; Lundvall, Lene; Engelholm, Svend-Aage; Heitz, Florian; du Bois, Andreas; Harter, Philipp; Schwaab, Ira; Butzow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Leminen, Arto; Thompson, Pamela J.; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Beesley, Jonathan; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Wu, Anna H.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Stram, Daniel; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Odunsi, Kunle; Edwards, Robert P.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Ness, Roberta B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Fridley, Brooke L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Wu, Xifeng; Lu, Karen; Liang, Dong; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Iversen, Edwin S.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Krakstad, Camilla; Bjorge, Line; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Kellar, Melissa; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Campbell, Ian G.; Eccles, Diana; Whittemore, Alice S.; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Phelan, Catherine M.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Goode, Ellen L.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Cook, Linda S.; Le, Nhu D.

    2014-01-01

    Scope We re-evaluated previously reported associations between variants in pathways of one-carbon (folate) transfer genes and ovarian carcinoma (OC) risk, and in related pathways of purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and assessed interactions with folate intake. Methods and Results Odds ratios (OR) for 446 genetic variants were estimated among 13,410 OC cases and 22,635 controls and among 2,281 cases and 3,444 controls with folate information. Following multiple testing correction, the most significant main effect associations were for DPYD variants rs11587873 (OR=0.92, P=6x10−5) and rs828054 (OR=1.06, P=1x10−4). Thirteen variants in the pyrimidine metabolism genes, DPYD, DPYS, PPAT and TYMS, also interacted significantly with folate in a multi-variant analysis (corrected P=9.9x10−6) but collectively explained only 0.2% of OC risk. Although no other associations were significant after multiple testing correction, variants in SHMT1 in one-carbon transfer, previously reported with OC, suggested lower risk at higher folate (Pinteraction=0.03-0.006). Conclusions Variation in pyrimidine metabolism genes, particularly DPYD, which was previously reported to be associated with OC, may influence risk; however, stratification by folate intake is unlikely to modify disease risk appreciably in these women. SHMT1 SNP-byfolate interactions are plausible but require further validation. Polymorphisms in selected genes in purine metabolism were not associated with OC. PMID:25066213

  6. Tazemetostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-02

    Grade 1 Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Grade 2 Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma

  7. Tectorigenin sensitizes paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells through downregulation of the Akt and NFκB pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yeong-In; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Park, Hee-Juhn; Kim, Tae Jin; Choi, Youn Seok; Shih, Ie-Ming; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2012-12-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) is currently used as the front-line chemotherapeutic agent for several cancers including ovarian carcinoma; however, the drug frequently induces drug resistance through multiple mechanisms. The new strategy of using natural compounds in combination therapies is highly attractive because those compounds may enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy. In this study, we found that tectorigenin, an isoflavonoid isolated from flower of Pueraria thunbergiana, enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of paclitaxel in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells (MPSC1(TR), A2780(TR) and SKOV3(TR)) as well as their naive counterparts. The combination of tectorigenin with paclitaxel resulted in a synergistic apoptosis compared with either agent alone through activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9. Treatment with tectorigenin inhibited the nuclear translocation of NFκB and the expression of NFκB-dependent genes such as FLIP, XIAP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and COX-2, which are known to be associated with chemoresistance. In addition, the tectorigenin-paclitaxel combination inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB and IKK and the activation of Akt in paclitaxel-resistant cancer cells. Moreover, tectorigenin-paclitaxel-induced cell growth inhibition was enhanced by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor LY294002 or overexpression of the dominant negative Akt (Akt-DN), but reduced by overexpression of constitutively activated Akt (Akt-Myr). Furthermore, we found that Akt-Myr, at least in part, reversed tectorigenin-paclitaxel-induced nuclear translocation of NFκB and the phosphorylation of IκB and IKK. These data suggest that tectorigenin could sensitize paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells through inactivation of the Akt/IKK/IκB/NFκB signaling pathway, and promise a new intervention to chemosensitize paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer.

  8. Prevention of Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinoma by Elucidating its Early Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    We will determine the early molecular changes in STIC and their biological significance in developing high-grade serous carcinoma. marker selection...and sample preparation will begin in the next coming months. Project 2 We will evaluate whether the presence of a STIC is associated with different...clinical manifestations and/or outcome compare to those patients in whom a STIC was not identified. Molecular profiling will be initiated after quality

  9. Melatonin Reduces Angiogenesis in Serous Papillary Ovarian Carcinoma of Ethanol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zonta, Yohan Ricci; Martinez, Marcelo; Camargo, Isabel Cristina C.; Domeniconi, Raquel F.; Lupi Júnior, Luiz Antonio; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F.; Reiter, Russel J.; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo; Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A.

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of ovarian cancer (OC); the ingrowth of blood vessels promotes rapid cell growth and the associated metastasis. Melatonin is a well-characterized indoleamine that possesses important anti-angiogenic properties in a set of aggressive solid tumors. Herein, we evaluated the role of melatonin therapy on the angiogenic signaling pathway in OC of an ethanol-preferring rat model that mimics the same pathophysiological conditions occurring in women. OC was chemically induced with a single injection of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) under the ovarian bursa. After the rats developed serous papillary OC, half of the animals received intraperitoneal injections of melatonin (200 µg/100 g body weight/day) for 60 days. Melatonin-treated animals showed a significant reduction in OC size and microvessel density. Serum levels of melatonin were higher following therapy, and the expression of its receptor MT1 was significantly increased in OC-bearing rats, regardless of ethanol intake. TGFβ1, a transforming growth factor-beta1, was reduced only after melatonin treatment. Importantly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was severely reduced after melatonin therapy in animals given or not given ethanol. Conversely, the levels of VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) was diminished after ethanol consumption, regardless of melatonin therapy, and VEGFR2 was only reduced following melatonin. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was augmented with ethanol consumption, and, notably, melatonin significantly reduced their levels. Collectively, our results suggest that melatonin attenuates angiogenesis in OC in an animal model of ethanol consumption; this provides a possible complementary therapeutic opportunity for concurrent OC chemotherapy. PMID:28398226

  10. Giant Syncytia and Virus-Like Particles in Ovarian Carcinoma Cells Isolated from Ascites Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Rakowicz-Szulczynska, Eva M.; McIntosh, David G.; Smith, McClure L.

    1999-01-01

    Ovarian cancer cells were isolated from ascites fluid of 30 different patients diagnosed with cystadenocarcinoma of ovaries. Large colonies of malignant ASC cells were observed during the first week of cell growth in vitro. Colony formation was followed by fusion of cells and formation of large multinucleated and highly vacuolated syncytia. In contrast, cells isolated from the ascites fluid produced by patients with benign mucinous cystadenoma of ovaries did not form syncytia. Nonmalignant Brenner tumor cells, isolated from the ascites fluid, also did not form syncytia. Syncytia, but not the nonmalignant tumor cells, were immunofluorescence stained with an anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 monoclonal antibody (MAb) and MAb RAK-BrI. Both MAbs recognized cancer-associated antigens RAK (for Rakowicz markers) p120, p42, and p25. Exposure of ASC cells to either the anti-HIV-1 gp120 MAb or MAb RAK-BrI inhibited syncytium formation. PCR with HIV-1 Env-derived primers revealed DNA sequences with over 90% homology to HIV-1 gp41 in syncytia and in ovarian cancer cells but not in normal ovary cells. Electron microscopic analysis revealed viral particles, hexagonal in shape (90 nm in diameter), with a dense central core surrounded by an inner translucent capsid and dense outer shell with projections. Negative staining detected membrane-covered particles (100 to 110 nm in diameter) in the cell culture medium. Incubation of normal breast cells with viral particles resulted in drastic morphological changes and syncytium formation by the transformed breast cells. The cytopathic effects of the identified virus resembled those of spumaviruses, which, in addition to their epitopic and genetic homology to HIV-1, might suggest a common phylogeny. PMID:9874674

  11. Giant syncytia and virus-like particles in ovarian carcinoma cells isolated from ascites fluid.

    PubMed

    Rakowicz-Szulczynska, E M; McIntosh, D G; Smith, M L

    1999-01-01

    Ovarian cancer cells were isolated from ascites fluid of 30 different patients diagnosed with cystadenocarcinoma of ovaries. Large colonies of malignant ASC cells were observed during the first week of cell growth in vitro. Colony formation was followed by fusion of cells and formation of large multinucleated and highly vacuolated syncytia. In contrast, cells isolated from the ascites fluid produced by patients with benign mucinous cystadenoma of ovaries did not form syncytia. Nonmalignant Brenner tumor cells, isolated from the ascites fluid, also did not form syncytia. Syncytia, but not the nonmalignant tumor cells, were immunofluorescence stained with an anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 monoclonal antibody (MAb) and MAb RAK-BrI. Both MAbs recognized cancer-associated antigens RAK (for Rakowicz markers) p120, p42, and p25. Exposure of ASC cells to either the anti-HIV-1 gp120 MAb or MAb RAK-BrI inhibited syncytium formation. PCR with HIV-1 Env-derived primers revealed DNA sequences with over 90% homology to HIV-1 gp41 in syncytia and in ovarian cancer cells but not in normal ovary cells. Electron microscopic analysis revealed viral particles, hexagonal in shape (90 nm in diameter), with a dense central core surrounded by an inner translucent capsid and dense outer shell with projections. Negative staining detected membrane-covered particles (100 to 110 nm in diameter) in the cell culture medium. Incubation of normal breast cells with viral particles resulted in drastic morphological changes and syncytium formation by the transformed breast cells. The cytopathic effects of the identified virus resembled those of spumaviruses, which, in addition to their epitopic and genetic homology to HIV-1, might suggest a common phylogeny.

  12. A multicenter phase II study of carboplatin in advanced ovarian carcinoma: final report.

    PubMed

    Kjorstad, K; Harris, A; Bertelsen, K; Slevin, M; Schultz, H; Hellman, K; Janssens, N; Martin, A; Canetta, R

    1992-03-01

    A phase II trial of single-agent carboplatin in advanced ovarian cancer was performed by 19 institutions from 10 European countries. A total of 260 patients were treated, with a median age of 55 (range: 20-79) years. Karnofsky performance status was 80-100 in about two-thirds of the patients. Prior therapy consisted of surgery only in 31 patients, irradiation in 9, chemotherapy without cisplatin in 45, and with cisplatin in 175. Carboplatin was administered as second-line therapy in about one-half and as third-line or more in one additional third of the study population. Initial dose was 400 mg/m2 in 90, 360 mg/m2 in 152, and 320 mg/m2 or less in 18 patients. A total of 971 courses (mean 3.7, median 2, range: 1-13) of therapy were administered. A total of 16 complete and 46 partial responses were observed in 226 evaluable patients, for an objective response rate of 27%. Efficacy was greater in chemotherapy-untreated patients (51% vs. 23%, p = 0.002). In cisplatin-pretreated patients activity was significantly higher in non-refractory patients (26% vs. 4%, p = 0.015). Myelosuppression was the most significant side effect. However, low hematologic counts seldom translated into clinically significant complications. Patients with impaired baseline creatinine clearance and poor performance status were at higher risk of developing severe myelosuppression during the initial course of treatment. Non hematologic side effects were rare and mild, except for emesis. Carboplatin has a definite role in the treatment of ovarian cancer, but almost complete cross-resistance with the parent compound was observed clinically.

  13. Tetramethoxychalcone, a chalcone derivative, suppresses proliferation, blocks cell cycle progression, and induces apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zihao; Liu, Mingming; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Yang, Gong

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antitumor functions of a synthetic chalcone derivative 4,3',4',5'- tetramethoxychalcone (TMOC) in ovarian cancer cells. We found that TMOC inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of cisplatin sensitive cell line A2780 and resistant cell line A2780/CDDP, as well as ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Treatment of A2780 cells with TMOC resulted in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4, and the up-regulation of p16, p21 and p27 proteins. We demonstrated that TMOC might induce cell apoptosis through suppressing Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but enhancing the expression of Bax and the cleavage of PARP-1. Treatment of TMOC also reduced the invasion and migration of A2780 cells. Finally, we found that TMOC inhibited the constitutive activation of STAT3 signaling pathway and induced the expression of the tumor suppressor PTEN regardless of the p53 status in cell lines. These data suggest that TMOC may be developed as a potential chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including ovarian cancer.

  14. Tetramethoxychalcone, a Chalcone Derivative, Suppresses Proliferation, Blocks Cell Cycle Progression, and Induces Apoptosis of Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Yang, Gong

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antitumor functions of a synthetic chalcone derivative 4,3′,4′,5′- tetramethoxychalcone (TMOC) in ovarian cancer cells. We found that TMOC inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of cisplatin sensitive cell line A2780 and resistant cell line A2780/CDDP, as well as ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Treatment of A2780 cells with TMOC resulted in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4, and the up-regulation of p16, p21 and p27 proteins. We demonstrated that TMOC might induce cell apoptosis through suppressing Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but enhancing the expression of Bax and the cleavage of PARP-1. Treatment of TMOC also reduced the invasion and migration of A2780 cells. Finally, we found that TMOC inhibited the constitutive activation of STAT3 signaling pathway and induced the expression of the tumor suppressor PTEN regardless of the p53 status in cell lines. These data suggest that TMOC may be developed as a potential chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including ovarian cancer. PMID:25180593

  15. A phase II study of intraperitoneal radioimmunotherapy with iodine-131-labeled monoclonal antibody OC-125 in patients with residual ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mahé, M A; Fumoleau, P; Fabbro, M; Guastalla, J P; Faurous, P; Chauvot, P; Chetanoud, L; Classe, J M; Rouanet, P; Chatal, J F

    1999-10-01

    Standard treatment of advanced ovarian cancer is a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. Additional therapies using the i.p. route are considered as a potential means of improving the locoregional control rate. This Phase II study evaluated the efficacy of i.p. radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in patients with minimal residual ovarian adenocarcinoma after primary treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. Between February 1995 and March 1996, six patients with residual macroscopic (<5 mm) or microscopic disease as demonstrated by laparotomy and multiple biopsies received i.p. RIT. All had initial stage III epithelial carcinoma and were treated with debulking surgery and one line (four patients) or two lines (two patients) of chemotherapy. RIT was performed with 60 mg of OC 125 F(ab')2 monoclonal antibody labeled with 4.44 GBq (120 mCi) of 131I injected 5-10 days after the surgical procedure. Systematic laparoscopy or laparotomy with multiple biopsies performed 3 months after RIT in five patients (clinical progression was seen in one patient) showed no change in three patients and progression in two patients. Toxicity was mainly hematological, with grade III neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in two patients. Human antimouse antibody production was demonstrated in all six patients. This study showed little therapeutic benefit from i.p. RIT in patients with residual ovarian carcinoma.

  16. Granisetron, Aprepitant, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-24

    Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  17. MAP3K8/TPL-2/COT is a potential predictive marker for MEK inhibitor treatment in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Gruosso, Tina; Garnier, Camille; Abelanet, Sophie; Kieffer, Yann; Lemesre, Vincent; Bellanger, Dorine; Bieche, Ivan; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Mieulet, Virginie; Mechta-Grigoriou, Fatima

    2015-10-12

    Ovarian cancer is a silent disease with a poor prognosis that urgently requires new therapeutic strategies. In low-grade ovarian tumours, mutations in the MAP3K BRAF gene constitutively activate the downstream kinase MEK. Here we demonstrate that an additional MAP3K, MAP3K8 (TPL-2/COT), accumulates in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSCs) and is a potential prognostic marker for these tumours. By combining analyses on HGSC patient cohorts, ovarian cancer cells and patient-derived xenografts, we demonstrate that MAP3K8 controls cancer cell proliferation and migration by regulating key players in G1/S transition and adhesion dynamics. In addition, we show that the MEK pathway is the main pathway involved in mediating MAP3K8 function, and that MAP3K8 exhibits a reliable predictive value for the effectiveness of MEK inhibitor treatment. Our data highlight key roles for MAP3K8 in HGSC and indicate that MEK inhibitors could be a useful treatment strategy, in combination with conventional chemotherapy, for this disease.

  18. Inhibition of epithelial ovarian cancer by Minnelide, a water-soluble pro-drug.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Colleen; Geller, Melissa; Schnettler, Erica; Saluja, Manju; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Saluja, Ashok; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2014-11-01

    Minnelide is a water-soluble pro-drug of triptolide, a natural product. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Minnelide on ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. The effect of Minnelide on ovarian cancer cell proliferation was determined by real time electrical impedance measurements. Multiple mouse models with C200 and A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines were used to assess the efficacy of Minnelide in inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. Minnelide decreased cell viability of both platinum sensitive and resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Minnelide with carboplatin showed additive effects in vitro. Minnelide monotherapy increased the survival of mice bearing established ovarian tumors. Minnelide, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, improved overall survival of mice. Minnelide is a promising pro-drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer, especially when combined with standard chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Continuous Low-Dose Oral Cyclophosphamide and Methotrexate as Maintenance Therapy in Patients With Advanced Ovarian Carcinoma After Complete Clinical Response to Platinum and Paclitaxel Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    El-Husseiny, Khalid; Motawei, Helmy; Ali, Mohamad Sayed

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of continuous, low dose of oral, metronomic chemotherapy as maintenance therapy in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma after complete clinical response to platinum and paclitaxel chemotherapy. In this nonrandomized study, patients older than 18 years, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status less than 2, with advanced ovarian carcinoma after complete clinical response to platinum and paclitaxel chemotherapy were enrolled in 2 arms--arm A (maintenance arm), treated with continuous low-dose oral cyclophosphamide 50 mg and methotrexate 2.5 mg, and arm B (observation arm). Both arms were followed up for progression-free survival and toxicity. Thirty patients were accrued in each arm from January 2009 to December 2010 in Ain Shams University Hospitals, where they received the treatment and followed up for disease progression and toxicity. Patients had a median age of 53 years in maintenance arm and 52.5 years in the observational arm, respectively. Over 80% had papillary serous adenocarcinoma, and over 40% of them had a stage IV disease in both arms. After median follow-up of 27 months, patients achieved median progression-free survival of 18 months in maintenance arm (A) and 15.5 months in observational arm (B), respectively. Toxicity profile was excellent with no grade 3 or 4 toxicity reported. Current study may provide an evidence of efficacy and tolerability of continuous low-dose oral cyclophosphamide and methotrexate as a maintenance therapy in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma after complete clinical response to platinum and paclitaxel chemotherapy.

  20. Amplification of the NSD3-BRD4-CHD8 pathway in pelvic high-grade serous carcinomas of tubo-ovarian and endometrial origin.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek H; Lin, Douglas I

    2017-08-01

    Identification of novel therapeutics in pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) has been hampered by a paucity of actionable point mutations in target genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of amplification of the therapeutically targetable NSD3-CHD8-BRD4 pathway in pelvic HGSC, and to determine whether amplification is associated with worse prognosis. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) ovarian and endometrial cancer cohorts were retrospectively analyzed via online data-mining tools to test the association of NSD3 , CHD8 and BRD4 genomic alterations with survival of pelvic HGSC patients. It was demonstrated that amplification of the NSD3-CHD8-BRD4 pathway in the ovarian HGSC cohort (observed in 18% of the cases, 88/489) was significantly associated with worse overall and progression-free survival compared with non-amplified cases. In addition, amplification of NSD3 , CHD8 and BRD4 also occurred in 9% (21/232) of overall endometrial cancer TCGA cases, which was associated with worse overall survival. In the endometrial cancer TCGA cohort, NSD3 , CHD8 and BRD4 amplification occurred specifically in the serous carcinoma (25%, 13/53) and 'serous-like' copy number high endometrial carcinoma (33%, 20/60) subgroups, compared with the polymerase e (0%, 0/17), microsatellite instability high (0%, 0/65) or low copy number (1%, 1/90) subgroups. These findings support the hypothesis that amplification of the NSD3-BRD4-CDH8 axis is frequent in pelvic HGSC of both ovarian and endometrial origin, and that this pathway is potentially targetable in a subset of HGSC patients.

  1. Objective, domain-specific HER2 measurement in uterine and ovarian serous carcinomas and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel E; Schalper, Kurt A; Bai, Yalai; Black, Jonathan; Santin, Alessandro D; Rimm, David L

    2017-04-01

    HER2 overexpression/amplification is identified in up to 40% of uterine serous carcinomas (USC) and 10% of ovarian serous carcinomas (OSC). However, clinical trials using various HER2-targeted agents failed to show significant responses. FDA-approved HER2 assays target only the protein's intracellular domain (ICD) and not the extracellular domain (ECD). Previous quantitative studies in breast cancer by our group have shown that ICD of HER2 is expressed in some cases that do not express the HER2 ECD. We measured HER2 ICD and ECD in USC and OSC samples, and determined their relationship with clinico-pathologic characteristics and survival. We measured HER2 ICD and ECD levels in 2 cohorts of USC and OSC comprising 102 and 175 patients, respectively. HER2 antibodies targeting ICD (CB11) and ECD (SP3) were validated and standardized using the AQUA® method of quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF) and a previously reported HER2 standardization tissue microarray (TMA). Objective, population-based cut-points were used to stratify patients according to HER2 ICD/ECD status. In USC, 8% of patients with high HER2 ICD had low ECD levels (6/75 patients). In OSC, 42% of patients with high HER2 ICD had low ECD levels (29/69 patients). HER2 ICD/ECD status in USC and OSC was not significantly associated with major clinico-pathological features or survival. Using objective, domain-specific HER2 measurement, 8% of USC and 42% of OSC patients with high HER2 ICD levels do not show uniform overexpression of the ECD. This may be related to the presence of p95 HER2, an oncogenic fragment generated by full protein cleavage or alternative initiation of translation. These observations raise the possibility that USC/OSCs expressing low ECD despite being HER2-positive by ICD measurement, may benefit from therapies directed against the intracellular domain (e.g. lapatinib or afatinib) alone or in combination with extracellular domain-directed drugs (e.g. trastuzumab, pertuzumab, T-DM1

  2. Whole-genome sequencing revealed novel prognostic biomarkers and promising targets for therapy of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Itamochi, Hiroaki; Oishi, Tetsuro; Oumi, Nao; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Mikami, Mikio; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Terao, Yasuhisa; Takehara, Kazuhiro; Ushijima, Kimio; Watari, Hidemichi; Aoki, Daisuke; Kimura, Tadashi; Nakamura, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Kigawa, Junzo; Sugiyama, Toru

    2017-08-22

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is mostly resistant to standard chemotherapy that results in poor patient survival. To understand the genetic background of these tumours, we performed whole-genome sequencing of OCCC tumours. Tumour tissue samples and matched blood samples were obtained from 55 Japanese women diagnosed with OCCC. Whole-genome sequencing was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform according to standard protocols. Alterations to the switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) subunit, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway, and the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras signalling pathway were found in 51%, 42%, and 29% of OCCC tumours, respectively. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for patients with an activated PI3K/Akt signalling pathway was significantly higher than that for those with inactive pathway (91 vs 40%, hazard ratio 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.56), P=0.0010). Similarly, the OS was significantly higher in patients with the activated RTK/Ras signalling pathway than in those with the inactive pathway (91 vs 53%, hazard ratio 0.35 (95% CI 0.13-0.94), P=0.0373). Multivariable analysis revealed that activation of the PI3K/Akt and RTK/Ras signalling pathways was an independent prognostic factor for patients with OCCC. The PI3K/Akt and RTK/Ras signalling pathways may be potential prognostic biomarkers for OCCC patients. Furthermore, our whole-genome sequencing data highlight important pathways for molecular and biological characterisations and potential therapeutic targeting in OCCC.

  3. In vivo targeting of OV-TL 3 immunoliposomes to ascitic ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR-3) in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Nässander, U K; Steerenberg, P A; Poppe, H; Storm, G; Poels, L G; De Jong, W H; Crommelin, D J

    1992-02-01

    Specific binding of immunoliposomes to target tumor cells was investigated in a xenograft model (athymic nude mice) of i.p. growing human ovarian carcinoma (OVCAR-3). For the first time, quantitative evidence is presented that attachment of a tumor-specific antibody (OV-TL 3) dramatically enhances the association of liposomes with i.p. growing OVCAR-3 cells. The OV-TL 3-mediated binding of liposomes to the OVCAR-3 cells was rapid; 30 min after i.p. injection approximately 70% of the injected dose of OV-TL 3 immunoliposomes was associated with the OVCAR-3 cells while for unconjugated liposomes a value of only approximately 3% was obtained. At 2 h after injection, a maximal binding level of 84% was achieved in case of the OV-TL 3 immunoliposomes whereas the binding level of unconjugated liposomes was still about 3%. Twenty-four h after injection about 83% of the injected dose OV-TL 3 immunoliposomes still was associated with the OVCAR-3 cells, compared to about 10% of the injected dose of unconjugated liposomes. Accordingly, unconjugated liposomes disappeared from the peritoneal cavity much faster than the OV-TL 3 immunoliposomes. By comparison with immunoliposomes bearing irrelevant antibody, the specificity of the binding of the OV-TL 3 immunoliposomes to the OVCAR-3 cells was demonstrated. In addition, it was observed that the sustained high OV-TL 3 immunoliposome levels found in the peritoneal cavity are the result of both reduced particle clearance from the peritoneal cavity and the tenacious binding of the immunoliposomes to the tumor cells. Finally, data are presented showing that the degree of binding of OV-TL 3 immunoliposomes to OVCAR-3 cells in vitro and in vivo correlates positively with the antibody (Fab') density on the liposomes.

  4. Integrative kinome profiling identifies mTORC1/2 inhibition as treatment strategy in ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Caumanns, Joseph J; Berns, Katrien; Wisman, G Bea A; Fehrmann, Rudolf S N; Tomar, Tushar; Klip, Harry; Meersma, Gert Jan; Hijmans, E Marielle; Gennissen, Annemiek; Duiker, Evelien W; Weening, Desiree; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Kluin, Roelof Jc; Reyners, An K L; Birrer, Michael J; Salvesen, Helga B; Vergote, Ignace; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Brenton, James D; Braicu, Elena I; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Mittempergher, Lorenza; Bernards, Rene; van der Zee, Ate G J; de Jong, Steven

    2018-04-23

    Advanced stage ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is unresponsive to conventional platinum-based chemotherapy. Frequent alterations in OCCC include deleterious mutations in the tumor suppressor ARID1A and activating mutations in the PI3K subunit PIK3CA. In this study, we aimed to identify currently unknown mutated kinases in OCCC patients and test druggability of downstream affected pathways in OCCC models. In a large set of OCCC patients (n=124), the human kinome (518 kinases) and additional cancer related genes were sequenced and copy number alterations were determined. Genetically characterized OCCC cell lines (n=17) and OCCC patient-derived xenografts (n=3) were used for drug testing of ERBB tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib and lapatinib, the PARP inhibitor olaparib and the mTORC1/2 inhibitor AZD8055. We identified several putative driver mutations in kinases at low frequency that were not previously annotated in OCCC. Combining mutations and copy number alterations, 91% of all tumors are affected in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, the MAPK pathway or the ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases and 82% in the DNA repair pathway. Strong p-S6 staining in OCCC patients suggests high mTORC1/2 activity. We consistently found that the majority of OCCC cell lines are especially sensitive to mTORC1/2 inhibition by AZD8055 and not towards drugs targeting ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases or DNA repair signaling. We subsequently demonstrated the efficacy of mTORC1/2 inhibition in all our unique OCCC patient-derived xenograft models. These results propose mTORC1/2 inhibition as an effective treatment strategy in OCCC. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Genetics Consultation Rates Following a Diagnosis of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma in the Canadian Province of Ontario.

    PubMed

    McGee, Jacob; Panabaker, Karen; Leonard, Sean; Ainsworth, Peter; Elit, Laurie; Shariff, Salimah Z

    2017-03-01

    In 2001, the province of Ontario expanded cancer genetic testing eligibility to include all women with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of women who attended genetics counseling for consideration of BRCA1/2 gene analysis. We also sought to examine if regional differences in consultation rate exist across administrative health regions in the province of Ontario. We identified all women with a pathological diagnosis of HGSC in the province of Ontario between 1997 until 2011. Our primary outcome was the 2-year rate of genetics consultation following a diagnosis of HGSC. We compared consultation rates over time and geographical regions and applied multiple logistic regression to identify predictors of genetics consultation. Of the 5412 women with a diagnosis of HGSC over the study period, 6.6% were seen for genetics consultation within 2 years of diagnosis. Factors predictive of genetics consultation included history of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR], 3.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87-6.78), era of diagnosis (2009-2011 vs 1997-2000; OR, 10.59; 95% CI, 5.02-22.33), and younger age at diagnosis (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.94-0.97 for each additional year). No regional differences in consultation rate were seen. Despite an increasing rate across eras, a small proportion of women with HGSC undergo genetics consultation. Efforts are required to increase cancer genetics consultation in patients with HGSC in the province of Ontario.

  6. The value of DCE-MRI in assessing histopathological and molecular biological features in induced rat epithelial ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Su Juan; Qiao, Tian Kui; Qiang, Jin Wei; Cai, Song Qi; Li, Ruo Kun

    2017-09-26

    To investigate dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for assessing histopathological and molecular biological features in induced rat epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs). 7,12-dimethylbenz[A]anthracene (DMBA) was applied to induce EOCs in situ in 46 SD rats. Conventional MRI and DCE-MRI were performed to evaluate the morphology and perfusion features of the tumors, including the time-signal intensity curve (TIC), volume transfer constant (K trans ), rate constant (K ep ), extravascular extracellular space volume ratio (V e ) and initial area under the curve (IAUC). DCE-MRI parameters were correlated with histological grade, microvascular density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fraction of Ki67-positive cells and the serum level of cancer antigen 125 (CA125). Thirty-five of the 46 rats developed EOCs. DCE-MRI showed type III TIC more frequently than type II (29/35 vs. 6/35, p < 0.001) in EOCs. The two types of TIC of tumors had significant differences in the histological grade, MVD, expression of VEGF and Ki67, and the serum level of CA125 (all p < 0.01). K trans , K ep and IAUC values showed significant differences in different histological grades in overall and pairwise comparisons except for IAUC in grade 2 vs. grade 3 (all p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in V e values among the three grade groups (p > 0.05). K trans , K ep and IAUC values were positively correlated with MVD, VEGF and Ki67 expression (all p < 0.01). V e was not significantly correlated with MVD, VEGF expression, Ki67 expression and the CA125 level (all p > 0.05). TIC types and perfusion parameters of DCE-MRI can reflect tumor grade, angiogenesis and cell proliferation to some extent, thereby helping treatment planning and predicting prognosis.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Matched Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Specimens in Patients with Advanced Serous Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ashlee L.; Sun, Mai; Bhargava, Rohit; Stewart, Nicolas A.; Flint, Melanie S.; Bigbee, William L.; Krivak, Thomas C.; Strange, Mary A.; Cooper, Kristine L.; Zorn, Kristin K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The biology of high grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is poorly understood. Little has been reported on intratumoral homogeneity or heterogeneity of primary HGSOC tumors and their metastases. We evaluated the global protein expression profiles of paired primary and metastatic HGSOC from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. Methods: After IRB approval, six patients with advanced HGSOC were identified with tumor in both ovaries at initial surgery. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to extract tumor for protein digestion. Peptides were extracted and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Tandem mass spectra were searched against the UniProt human protein database. Differences in protein abundance between samples were assessed and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for select proteins from the original and an additional validation set of five patients was performed. Results: Unsupervised clustering of the abundance profiles placed the paired specimens adjacent to each other. IHC H-score analysis of the validation set revealed a strong correlation between paired samples for all proteins. For the similarly expressed proteins, the estimated correlation coefficients in two of three experimental samples and all validation samples were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The estimated correlation coefficients in the experimental sample proteins classified as differentially expressed were not statistically significant. Conclusion: A global proteomic screen of primary HGSOC tumors and their metastatic lesions identifies tumoral homogeneity and heterogeneity and provides preliminary insight into these protein profiles and the cellular pathways they constitute. PMID:28250404

  8. Cashmere growth control in Liaoning cashmere goat by ovarian carcinoma immunoreactive antigen-like protein 2 and decorin genes

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objective The study investigated the biological functions and mechanisms for controlling cashmere growth of Liaoning cashmere goat by ovarian carcinoma immunoreactive antigen-like protein 2 (OCIAD2) and decorin (DCN) genes. Methods cDNA library of Liaoning cashmere goat was constructed in early stages. OCIAD2 and DCN genes related to cashmere growth were identified by homology analysis comparison. The expression location of OCIAD2 and DCN genes in primary and secondary hair follicles (SF) was performed using in situ hybridization. The expression of OCIAD2 and DCN genes in primary and SF was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results In situ hybridization revealed that OCIAD2 and DCN were expressed in the inner root sheath of Liaoning cashmere goat hair follicles. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that these genes were highly expressed in SF during anagen, while these genes were highly expressed in primary hair follicle in catagen phase. Melatonin (MT) inhibited the expression of OCIAD2 and promoted the expression of DCN. Insulin-like growth factors-1 (IGF-1) inhibited the expression of OCIAD2 and DCN, while fibroblast growth factors 5 (FGF5) promoted the expression of these genes. MT and IGF-1 promoted OCIAD2 synergistically, while MT and FGF5 inhibited the genes simultaneously. MT+IGF-1/MT+FGF5 inhibited DCN gene. RNAi technology showed that OCIAD2 expression was promoted, while that of DCN was inhibited. Conclusion Activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway up-regulated OCIAD2 expression and stimulated SF to control cell proliferation. DCN gene affected hair follicle morphogenesis and periodic changes by promoting transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and BMP signaling pathways. OCIAD2 and DCN genes have opposite effects on TGF-β signaling pathway and inhibit each other to affect the hair growth. PMID:29514440

  9. Effect of Tubal Sterilization Technique on Risk of Serous Ovarian and Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LESSARD-ANDERSON, Collette R.; HANDLOGTEN, Kathryn S.; MOLITOR, Rochelle J.; DOWDY, Sean C.; CLIBY, William A.; WEAVER, Amy L.; SAUVER, Jennifer ST.; BAKKUM-GAMEZ, Jamie N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of excisional tubal sterilization on subsequent development of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) or primary peritoneal cancer (PPC). Methods We performed a population-based, nested case-control study using the Rochester Epidemiology Project. We identified all patients with a diagnosis of serous EOC or PPC from 1966 through 2009. Each case was age-matched to 2 controls without either diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated from conditional logistic regression models. Models were adjusted for prior hysterectomy, prior salpingo-oophorectomy, oral contraceptive use, endometriosis, infertility, gravidity, and parity. Results In total, we identified 194 cases of serous EOC and PPC during the study period and matched them with 388 controls (mean [SD] age, 61.4 [15.2] years). Fourteen cases (7.2%) and 46 controls (11.9%) had undergone tubal sterilization. Adjusted risk of serous EOC or PPC was slightly lower after any tubal sterilization (OR, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.29–1.17]; P=.13). The rate of excisional tubal sterilization was lower in cases than controls (2.6% vs 6.4%). Adjusted risk of serous EOC and PPC was decreased by 64% after excisional tubal sterilization (OR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.13–1.02]; P=.054) compared with those without sterilization or with nonexcisional tubal sterilization. Conclusions We present a population-based investigation of the effects of excisional tubal sterilization on the risk of serous EOC and PPC. Excisional methods may confer greater risk reduction than other sterilization methods. PMID:25316178

  10. Survival benefit of patients with early-stage ovarian carcinoma treated with paclitaxel chemotherapeutic regimens

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objective Adjuvant chemotherapy was introduced in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (OC). The benefit of standard chemotherapeutic regimens including taxane has not been established. Methods Patients with early-stage OC from the National Health Insurance Research database of Taiwan who received platinum plus cyclophosphamide (CP) or platinum plus paclitaxel (PT) for 3–6 cycles were recruited, and the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined. Results A total of 1,510 early-stage OC patients, including 841 who received CP regimen and 699 who received PT regimen, were included. The 2 groups had a similar estimated probability of 5-year DFS (PT vs. CP, 79.0% vs. 77.6%; p=0.410) and OS (84.6% vs. 84.3%; p=0.691). Patients >50 years of age who received the CP regimen had a lower 5-year DFS than the patients ≤50 years of age who received the CP (p<0.001) or PT regimens (p=0.001). Additionally, patients >50 years of age who received the CP regimen had a worse 5-year OS compared with the other 3 groups (p=0.019) (p=0.179 for patients >50 years of age in the PT group; p=0.002 for patients ≤50 years of age in the CP group; and p=0.061 for patients ≤50 years of age in the PT group). Patients with the CP or PT regimen for 3–5 cycles had a similar 5-year DFS and OS compared to 6 cycles (p>0.050). Conclusion Chemotherapeutic regimens with taxane could be recommended for early-stage OC patients >50 years of age. PMID:29185274

  11. Sargramostim and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Previous Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-24

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  12. Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab And Adjuvant Intraperitoneal Carboplatin in Treating Patients Who Had Initial Debulking Surgery for Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  13. Secondary Somatic Mutations Restoring RAD51C and RAD51D Associated with Acquired Resistance to the PARP Inhibitor Rucaparib in High-Grade Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kondrashova, Olga; Nguyen, Minh; Shield-Artin, Kristy; Tinker, Anna V.; Teng, Nelson N.H.; Harrell, Maria I.; Kuiper, Michael J.; Ho, Gwo-Yaw; Barker, Holly; Jasin, Maria; Prakash, Rohit; Kass, Elizabeth M.; Sullivan, Meghan R.; Brunette, Gregory J.; Bernstein, Kara A.; Coleman, Robert L.; Floquet, Anne; Friedlander, Michael; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; O'Malley, David M.; Oza, Amit; Sun, James; Robillard, Liliane; Maloney, Lara; Giordano, Heidi; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Simmons, Andrew D.; Harding, Thomas C.; Raponi, Mitch; McNeish, Iain A.; Swisher, Elizabeth M.; Lin, Kevin K.; Scott, Clare L.

    2017-01-01

    High-grade epithelial ovarian carcinomas containing mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) homologous recombination (HR) genes are sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy and PARP inhibitors (PARPi), while restoration of HR function due to secondary mutations in BRCA1/2 has been recognized as an important resistance mechanism. We sequenced core HR pathway genes in 12 pairs of pretreatment and postprogression tumor biopsy samples collected from patients in ARIEL2 Part 1, a phase II study of the PARPi rucaparib as treatment for platinum-sensitive, relapsed ovarian carcinoma. In 6 of 12 pretreatment biopsies, a truncation mutation in BRCA1, RAD51C, or RAD51D was identified. In five of six paired postprogression biopsies, one or more secondary mutations restored the open reading frame. Four distinct secondary mutations and spatial heterogeneity were observed for RAD51C. In vitro complementation assays and a patient-derived xenograft, as well as predictive molecular modeling, confirmed that resistance to rucaparib was associated with secondary mutations. Significance Analyses of primary and secondary mutations in RAD51C and RAD51D provide evidence for these primary mutations in conferring PARPi sensitivity and secondary mutations as a mechanism of acquired PARPi resistance. PARPi resistance due to secondary mutations underpins the need for early delivery of PARPi therapy and for combination strategies. PMID:28588062

  14. [Expression of Jagged1 mRNA in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and effect of RNA interference of Jagged1 on growth of xenograft in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Liu, G Y; Gao, Z H; Li, L; Song, T T; Sheng, X G

    2016-06-25

    To investigate the expression of Jagged1 in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and the effect of Jagged1 on growth of xenograft in nude mice. (1) Forty-eight cases of ovarian cancer and 30 cases of patients with benign epithelial ovarian tumor in the Henan Province Xinxiang Central Hospital during Feb. 2011 to Mar. 2014 were enrolled in this study. The mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1 and the downstream target genes Hes1, Hey1 were analyzed by using realtime PCR method. (2) The ovarian cancer xenograft models in nude mice were constructed by injecting SKOV3 cells in axillary subcutaneouswere. The nude mice were randomly divided into Jagged1 interference group, blank plasmid group and control group. Each group had 10 mice. They were transfected with pcDNA3.1(+)-siRNA-Jagged1, blank plasmid pDC3.1 and phosphate buffer, respectively. The tumor volumes and tumor masses were measured 14 days after transfection and the inhibition rate was calculated. The relative mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in xenograft tissues after transfection in each group was detected by using realtime PCR technique and the relative protein expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in xenograft tissues was detected by utilizing western blot method. (1) The relative mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in ovarian cancer tissues were higher than benign ovarian tumor tissues, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). (2) The tumor volume was (491± 68) mm(3) and tumor mass was (2.6±0.4) g in Jagged1 interference group, which were significantly lower than that in the blank plasmid group [(842±88) mm(3) and (4.4±0.8) g, respectively] and that in the control group [(851±90) mm(3) and (4.5±0.9) g, respectively; P<0.05], the tumor inhibition rate was 42.2% in Jagged1 interference group, which was significantly higher than that in the blank plasmid group and that in the control group (2.2% and 0, respectively), the differences were

  15. Preclinical evaluation of olaparib and metformin combination in BRCA1 wildtype ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hijaz, M; Chhina, J; Mert, I; Taylor, M; Dar, S; Al-Wahab, Z; Ali-Fehmi, R; Buekers, T; Munkarah, A R; Rattan, R

    2016-08-01

    BRCA mutated ovarian cancers show increased responsiveness to PARP inhibitors. PARP inhibitors target DNA repair and provide a second hit to BRCA mutated tumors, resulting in "synthetic lethality". We investigated a combination of metformin and olaparib to provide "synthetic lethality" in BRCA intact ovarian cancer cells. Ovarian cancer cell lines (UWB1.289, UWB1.289.BRCA, SKOV3, OVCAR5, A2780 and C200) were treated with a combination of metformin and olaparib. Cell viability was assessed by MTT and colony formation assays. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle events. In vivo studies were performed in SKOV3 or A2780 xenografts in nude mice. Animals were treated with single agent, metformin or olaparib or combination. Molecular downstream effects were examined by immunohistochemistry. Compared to single drug treatment, combination of olaparib and metformin resulted in significant reduction of cell proliferation and colony formation (p<0.001) in ovarian cancer cells. This treatment was associated with a significant S-phase cell cycle arrest (p<0.05). Combination of olaparib and metformin significantly inhibited SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian tumor xenografts which were accompanied with decreased Ki-index (p<0.001). Metformin did not affect DNA damage signaling, while olaparib induced adenosine monophosphate activated kinase activation; that was further potentiated with metformin combination in vivo. Combining PARP inhibitors with metformin enhances its anti-proliferative activity in BRCA mutant ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination showed significant activity in BRCA intact cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. This is a promising treatment regimen for women with epithelial ovarian cancer irrespective of BRCA status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mirvetuximab Soravtansine and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With FRa-Positive Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, Fallopian Tube, Endometrial, or Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-21

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Folate Receptor Alpha Positive

  17. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B enhances the tumor growth of ovarian cancer cell line derived from a low-grade papillary serous carcinoma in p53-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Yang, Gong; Bai, Peng; Gui, Shunping; Nyuyen, Tri M Bui; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Yang, Mei; Zou, Juan; Li, Qintong; Xiao, Jianguo; Chang, Bin; Liu, Guangzhi; Wang, He; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-08-02

    NF-kB can function as an oncogene or tumor suppressor depending on cancer types. The role of NF-kB in low-grade serous ovarian cancer, however, has never been tested. We sought to elucidate the function of NF-kB in the low-grade serous ovarian cancer. The ovarian cancer cell line, HOC-7, derived from a low-grade papillary serous carcinoma. Introduction of a dominant negative mutant, IkBαM, which resulted in decrease of NF-kB function in ovarian cancer cell lines. The transcription ability, tumorigenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed in derivative cell lines in comparison with parental cells. Western blot analysis indicated increased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and reduced expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bad, and Bid in HOC-7/IĸBαM cell. Further investigations validate this conclusion in KRAS wildtype cell line SKOV3. Interesting, NF-kB can exert its pro-apoptotic effect by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell, whereas opposite changes detected in p-MEK in HOC-7 ovarian cancer cell, the same as some chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines. In vivo animal assay performed on BALB/athymic mice showed that injection of HOC-7 induced subcutaneous tumor growth, which was completely regressed within 7 weeks. In comparison, HOC-7/IĸBαM cells caused sustained tumor growth and abrogated tumor regression, suggesting that knock-down of NF-kB by IĸBαM promoted sustained tumor growth and delayed tumor regression in HOC-7 cells. Our results demonstrated that NF-kB may function as a tumor suppressor by facilitating regression of low grade ovarian serous carcinoma through activating pro-apoptotic pathways.

  18. Therapeutic effect of targeted Fas-expressing adenoviruses method combining γδ T cells in a mouse model of human ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dingyuan; Lin, Jiajing; He, Hongying; Tan, Guangping; Lan, Ying; Jiang, Fuyan; Sheng, Shuting

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect and safety of targeted use of Fas-expressing adenoviruses combined with γδ T cell-mediated killing to treat human ovarian cancer xenografts in BALB/c mice. Shuttle plasmids containing control elements of human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and two-step transcriptional amplification system were constructed and packaged into adenovirus-5 vectors to generate expression of an exogenous Fas gene. A mouse xenograft model of human ovarian carcinoma was constructed. A total of 35 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups, which were injected with PBS, γδ T cells, Fas-expressing adenoviruses, taxol, or Fas-expressing adenovirus and γδ T cells. The weight and volume of tumors in mice in each group was monitored. Tissue sections of the various tissues of mice in the Fas-expressing adenovirus and γδ T cells group was compared with those in the PBS group to evaluate the safety of Fas-expressing adenovirus and γδ T cells in the treatment of human ovarian cancer xenograft tumors. The results of the present study indicated that mice in all treatment groups were alive at the end of the treatment course. Tumor weight and volume was the highest in the PBS group, followed successively by the adenovirus group, the γδ T cell group, the adenovirus and γδ T cell group, and the taxol group. The weight and volume inhibition rate in adenovirus and γδ T cell group were significantly higher compared with in the PBS group (P<0.05). Pathological observation of tissue samples revealed that none of vital organs in the adenovirus and γδ T cell group developed any evident morphological changes during treatment, when compared with healthy controls. In conclusion, the combined therapy with Fas-expressing adenoviruses and γδ T cells is efficient and safe for the treatment of mouse human ovarian carcinoma xenografts.

  19. Discovering the Deregulated Molecular Functions Involved in Malignant Transformation of Endometriosis to Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Carcinoma Using a Data-Driven, Function-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Yang, Yi-Ping; Chuang, Jen-Hua; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Lin, Tzu-Wei; Wang, Peng-Hui; Yu, Mu-Hsien

    2017-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and endometrioid carcinoma EC) are concomitant with endometriosis (ES), which leads to the postulation of malignant transformation of ES to endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinoma (EAOC). Different deregulated functional areas were proposed accounting for the pathogenesis of EAOC transformation, and there is still a lack of a data-driven analysis with the accumulated experimental data in publicly-available databases to incorporate the deregulated functions involved in the malignant transformation of EOAC. We used the microarray gene expression datasets of ES, CCC and EC downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus (NCBI GEO) database. Then, we investigated the pathogenesis of EAOC by a data-driven, function-based analytic model with the quantified molecular functions defined by 1454 Gene Ontology (GO) term gene sets. This model converts the gene expression profiles to the functionome consisting of 1454 quantified GO functions, and then, the key functions involving the malignant transformation of EOAC can be extracted by a series of filters. Our results demonstrate that the deregulated oxidoreductase activity, metabolism, hormone activity, inflammatory response, innate immune response and cell-cell signaling play the key roles in the malignant transformation of EAOC. These results provide the evidence supporting the specific molecular pathways involved in the malignant transformation of EAOC. PMID:29113136

  20. PG545 enhances anti-cancer activity of chemotherapy in ovarian models and increases surrogate biomarkers such as VEGF in preclinical and clinical plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Winterhoff, Boris; Freyer, Luisa; Hammond, Edward; Giri, Shailendra; Mondal, Susmita; Roy, Debarshi; Teoman, Attila; Mullany, Sally A; Hoffmann, Robert; von Bismarck, Antonia; Chien, Jeremy; Block, Matthew S; Millward, Michael; Bampton, Darryn; Dredge, Keith; Shridhar, Viji

    2015-05-01

    Despite the utility of antiangiogenic drugs in ovarian cancer, efficacy remains limited due to resistance linked to alternate angiogenic pathways and metastasis. Therefore, we investigated PG545, an anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic agent which is currently in Phase I clinical trials, using preclinical models of ovarian cancer. PG545's anti-cancer activity was investigated in vitro and in vivo as a single agent, and in combination with paclitaxel, cisplatin or carboplatin using various ovarian cancer cell lines and tumour models. PG545, alone, or in combination with chemotherapeutics, inhibited proliferation of ovarian cancer cells, demonstrating synergy with paclitaxel in A2780 cells. PG545 inhibited growth factor-mediated cell migration and reduced HB-EGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK, AKT and EGFR in vitro and significantly reduced tumour burden which was enhanced when combined with paclitaxel in an A2780 model or carboplatin in a SKOV-3 model. Moreover, in the immunocompetent ID8 model, PG545 also significantly reduced ascites in vivo. In the A2780 maintenance model, PG545 initiated with, and following paclitaxel and cisplatin treatment, significantly improved overall survival. PG545 increased plasma VEGF levels (and other targets) in preclinical models and in a small cohort of advanced cancer patients which might represent a potential biomarker of response. Our results support clinical testing of PG545, particularly in combination with paclitaxel, as a novel therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of CA125 on metastasis of ovarian cancer: old marker new function

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weiwei; Wang, Hongyan; Huo, Qianyu; Yang, Jie; Yu, Xiaoxu; Liu, Yunde; Xu, Chen; Bao, Huijing

    2017-01-01

    CA125 has been used extensively to screen for neoplasms, especially in ovarian cancer. The serum CA125 level can be used as a better prognosis evaluation and it may dynamic monitoring the disease progression. We explored the effect of CA125 on ovarian cancer cell migration and its underlying mechanism. Transwell assays showed that exposure to 0.2 μg/ml or 0.4 μg/ml CA125 for 48 h increased migration of A2780 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. This effect of CA125 was blocked addition of 200 ng/ml DKK-1, a Wnt pathway inhibitor. Conversely, addition of CA125 reversed the inhibitory effect of Wnt inhibition in A2780 cells pretreated with DKK-1. Examination of CA125 levels in serum from 97 ovarian cancer patients revealed no relationship between a patient's age or CA125 level currently used clinically for ovarian cancer diagnosis and metastasis. However, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, we identified a new cut-off value for the serum CA125 concentration (82.9 U/ml) that is predictive of metastasis. The area under the curve is 0.632. This new cut-off value has the potential to serve as a clinically useful indicator of metastasis in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:28637006

  2. The effect of CA125 on metastasis of ovarian cancer: old marker new function.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qin; Song, Jiayin; Yang, Weiwei; Wang, Hongyan; Huo, Qianyu; Yang, Jie; Yu, Xiaoxu; Liu, Yunde; Xu, Chen; Bao, Huijing

    2017-07-25

    CA125 has been used extensively to screen for neoplasms, especially in ovarian cancer. The serum CA125 level can be used as a better prognosis evaluation and it may dynamic monitoring the disease progression. We explored the effect of CA125 on ovarian cancer cell migration and its underlying mechanism. Transwell assays showed that exposure to 0.2 μg/ml or 0.4 μg/ml CA125 for 48 h increased migration of A2780 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. This effect of CA125 was blocked addition of 200 ng/ml DKK-1, a Wnt pathway inhibitor. Conversely, addition of CA125 reversed the inhibitory effect of Wnt inhibition in A2780 cells pretreated with DKK-1. Examination of CA125 levels in serum from 97 ovarian cancer patients revealed no relationship between a patient's age or CA125 level currently used clinically for ovarian cancer diagnosis and metastasis. However, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, we identified a new cut-off value for the serum CA125 concentration (82.9 U/ml) that is predictive of metastasis. The area under the curve is 0.632. This new cut-off value has the potential to serve as a clinically useful indicator of metastasis in ovarian cancer patients.

  3. Sensitization of human carcinoma cells to alkylating agents by small interfering RNA suppression of 3-alkyladenine-DNA glycosylase.

    PubMed

    Paik, Johanna; Duncan, Tod; Lindahl, Tomas; Sedgwick, Barbara

    2005-11-15

    One of the major cytotoxic lesions generated by alkylating agents is DNA 3-alkyladenine, which can be excised by 3-alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG). Inhibition of AAG may therefore result in increased cellular sensitivity to chemotherapeutic alkylating agents. To investigate this possibility, we have examined the role of AAG in protecting human tumor cells against such agents. Plasmids that express small interfering RNAs targeted to two different regions of AAG mRNA were transfected into HeLa cervical carcinoma cells and A2780-SCA ovarian carcinoma cells. Stable derivatives of both cell types with low AAG protein levels were sensitized to alkylating agents. Two HeLa cell lines with AAG protein levels reduced by at least 80% to 90% displayed a 5- to 10-fold increase in sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, and the chemotherapeutic drugs temozolomide and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. These cells showed no increase in sensitivity to UV light or ionizing radiation. After treatment with methyl methanesulfonate, AAG knockdown HeLa cells were delayed in S phase but accumulated in G2-M. Our data support the hypothesis that ablation of AAG activity in human tumor cells may provide a useful strategy to enhance the efficacy of current chemotherapeutic regimens that include alkylating agents.

  4. The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A2 induces neoplastic properties and mediates tumorigenic effects of ZNF217 in precursor cells of human ovarian carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yu; Wong, Nicholas; Guan, Yinghui

    2008-04-25

    Ovarian epithelial carcinomas (OEC) frequently exhibit amplifications at the 20q13 locus which is the site of several oncogenes, including the eukaryotic elongation factor EEF1A2 and the transcription factor ZNF217. We reported previously that overexpressed ZNF217 induces neoplastic characteristics in precursor cells of OEC. Unexpectedly, ZNF217, which is a transcriptional repressor, enhanced expression of eEF1A2. In this study, array comparative genomic hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism and Affymetrix analysis of ZNF217-overexpressing cell lines confirmed consistently increased expression of eEF1A2 but not of other oncogenes, and revealed early changes in EEF1A2 gene copy numbers and increased expression at crisis during immortalization. We definedmore » the influence of eEF1A2 overexpression on immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells, and investigated interrelationships between effects of ZNF217 and eEF1A2 on cellular phenotypes. Lentivirally induced eEF1A2 overexpression caused delayed crisis, apoptosis resistance and increases in serum-independence, saturation densities, and anchorage independence. siRNA to eEF1A2 reversed apoptosis resistance and reduced anchorage independence in eEF1A2-overexpressing lines. Remarkably, siRNA to eEF1A2 was equally efficient in inhibiting both anchorage independence and resistance to apoptosis conferred by ZNF217 overexpression. Our data define neoplastic properties that are caused by eEF1A2 in nontumorigenic ovarian cancer precursor cells, and suggest that eEF1A2 plays a role in mediating ZNF217-induced neoplastic progression.« less

  5. Microscopic aspects of autoschizic cell death in human ovarian carcinoma (2774) cells following vitamin C, vitamin K3 or vitamin C:K3 treatment.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Jamison, James M; Arnold, David; Taper, Henryk S; Von Gruenigen, Vivian E; Summers, Jack L

    2003-08-01

    Human ovarian carcinoma cells (MDAH 2774) were treated with sodium ascorbate (VC), menadione (VK3), or with a VC:VK3 combination for 1 h and then studied using light microscopy (LM) and scanning (SEM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy. Plasma membrane damage (blisters and blebs, hairy aspect) results from vitamin C (VC) treatment, while cytoskeletal damage and self-morsellation are caused by vitamin K3 (VK3) treatment. VC:VK3-treated cells exhibit exacerbated injuries characteristic of both VC and VK3 treatment as well as a significant decrease in cell diameters from 20-35 microm for control cells to 7-12 microm for VC:VK3 treatment. Moreover, after a 1-h exposure to the vitamin combination, autoschizis (43%), apoptosis (3%), and oncosis (1.9%) are observed at the percentages indicated. All cellular changes associated with autoschizis observed with SEM were confirmed by LM and TEM observations and are consistent with cell death by autoschizis: decrease in cell size, cytoplasmic self-excisions, degradation of the nucleus and nucleolus without formation of apoptotic bodies and, ultimately, karyorrhexis and karyolysis. These results also suggest that the vitamin combination may find clinical use in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  6. Microscopic Aspects of Autoschizic Cell Death in Human Ovarian Carcinoma (2774) Cells Following Vitamin C, Vitamin K3 or Vitamin C:K3 Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Jamison, James M.; Arnold, David; Taper, Henryk S.; von Gruenigen, Vivian E.; Summers, Jack L.

    2003-08-01

    Human ovarian carcinoma cells (MDAH 2774) were treated with sodium ascorbate (VC), menadione (VK3), or with a VC:VK3 combination for 1 h and then studied using light microscopy (LM) and scanning (SEM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy. Plasma membrane damage (blisters and blebs, hairy aspect) results from vitamin C (VC) treatment, while cytoskeletal damage and self-morsellation are caused by vitamin K3 (VK3) treatment. VC:VK3-treated cells exhibit exacerbated injuries characteristic of both VC and VK3 treatment as well as a significant decrease in cell diameters from 20 35 [mu]m for control cells to 7 12 [mu]m for VC:VK3 treatment. Moreover, after a 1-h exposure to the vitamin combination, autoschizis (43%), apoptosis (3%), and oncosis (1.9%) are observed at the percentages indicated. All cellular changes associated with autoschizis observed with SEM were confirmed by LM and TEM observations and are consistent with cell death by autoschizis: decrease in cell size, cytoplasmic self-excisions, degradation of the nucleus and nucleolus without formation of apoptotic bodies and, ultimately, karyorrhexis and karyolysis. These results also suggest that the vitamin combination may find clinical use in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  7. Expression of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is related to advanced clinical stage and adverse prognosis in ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aman, Murasaki; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Imamura, Hiroko; Shinozaki, Tomoko; Yasutake, Nobuko; Kato, Kiyoko; Oda, Yoshinao

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) correlates with tumor progression in various tissues. On the other hand, oxidative stress arising from endometriosis has been considered a cause of carcinogenesis in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). We previously demonstrated that oxidative stress up-regulates PAR-2 expression, and we conducted the present study to investigate the PAR-2 expression and its relation to clinicopathological factors and oxidative stress in OCCC. We performed an immunohistochemical evaluation in 95 cases of OCCC. For the evaluation of oxidative stress markers, 31 cases of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma (OEC) were also examined. No significant differences in the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase were observed between OCCC and OEC. Sixty-two percent of the OCCC cases showed high 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine expression, whereas all of the OEC cases showed almost negative immunoreactivities. The presence of endometriosis did not affect the expression of these oxidative stress markers or prognosis. High PAR-2 expression was observed in 20% (14/71) of the early International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage cases and 58% (14/24) of the advanced FIGO stage cases. High PAR-2 expression was significantly correlated with advanced FIGO stage and shorter overall survival. We found no correlations between PAR-2 expression and oxidative stress in OCCC. Our results suggest that PAR-2 plays an important role in the progression of OCCC. The expression of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine is a characteristic finding of OCCC, indicating that the injury of DNA by oxidative stress may be involved in the carcinogenesis of OCCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A multi-stage process including transient polyploidization and EMT precedes the emergence of chemoresistent ovarian carcinoma cells with a dedifferentiated and pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Rohnalter, Verena; Roth, Katrin; Finkernagel, Florian; Adhikary, Till; Obert, Julia; Dorzweiler, Kristina; Bensberg, Maike; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2015-11-24

    DNA-damaging drugs induce a plethora of molecular and cellular alterations in tumor cells, but their interrelationship is largely obscure. Here, we show that carboplatin treatment of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells triggers an ordered sequence of events, which precedes the emergence of mitotic chemoresistant cells. The initial phase of cell death after initiation of carboplatin treatment is followed around day 14 by the emergence of a mixed cell population consisting of cycling, cell cycle-arrested and senescent cells. At this stage, giant cells make up >80% of the cell population, p21 (CDKN1A) in strongly induced, and cell numbers remain nearly static. Subsequently, cell death decreases, p21 expression drops to a low level and cell divisions increase, including regular mitoses of giant cells and depolyploidization by multi-daughter divisions. These events are accompanied by the upregulation of stemness markers and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, peaking after approximately 14 days of treatment. At the same time the cells initiate epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which over the subsequent weeks continuously increases, concomitantly with the emergence of highly proliferative, migratory, dedifferentiated, pro-inflammatory and chemoresistant cells (SKOV3-R). These cells are anchorage-independent and grow in a 3D collagen matrix, while cells on day 14 do not survive under these conditions, indicating that SKOV3-R cells were generated thereafter by the multi-stage process described above. This process was essentially recapitulated with the ovarian carcinoma cell line IGROV-1. Our observations suggest that transitory cells characterized by polyploidy, features of stemness and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype contribute to the acquisition of chemoresistance.

  9. A multi-stage process including transient polyploidization and EMT precedes the emergence of chemoresistent ovarian carcinoma cells with a dedifferentiated and pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Rohnalter, Verena; Roth, Katrin; Finkernagel, Florian; Adhikary, Till; Obert, Julia; Dorzweiler, Kristina; Bensberg, Maike; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    DNA-damaging drugs induce a plethora of molecular and cellular alterations in tumor cells, but their interrelationship is largely obscure. Here, we show that carboplatin treatment of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells triggers an ordered sequence of events, which precedes the emergence of mitotic chemoresistant cells. The initial phase of cell death after initiation of carboplatin treatment is followed around day 14 by the emergence of a mixed cell population consisting of cycling, cell cycle-arrested and senescent cells. At this stage, giant cells make up >80% of the cell population, p21 (CDKN1A) in strongly induced, and cell numbers remain nearly static. Subsequently, cell death decreases, p21 expression drops to a low level and cell divisions increase, including regular mitoses of giant cells and depolyploidization by multi-daughter divisions. These events are accompanied by the upregulation of stemness markers and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, peaking after approximately 14 days of treatment. At the same time the cells initiate epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which over the subsequent weeks continuously increases, concomitantly with the emergence of highly proliferative, migratory, dedifferentiated, pro-inflammatory and chemoresistant cells (SKOV3-R). These cells are anchorage-independent and grow in a 3D collagen matrix, while cells on day 14 do not survive under these conditions, indicating that SKOV3-R cells were generated thereafter by the multi-stage process described above. This process was essentially recapitulated with the ovarian carcinoma cell line IGROV-1. Our observations suggest that transitory cells characterized by polyploidy, features of stemness and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype contribute to the acquisition of chemoresistance. PMID:26503466

  10. Preclinical activity of melflufen (J1) in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Viktorsson, Kristina; Velander, Ebba; Nygren, Peter; Uustalu, Maria; Juntti, Therese; Lewensohn, Rolf; Larsson, Rolf; Spira, Jack; De Vlieghere, Elly; Ceelen, Wim P.; Gullbo, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer carries a significant mortality. Since symptoms tend to be minimal, the disease is often diagnosed when peritoneal metastases are already present. The standard of care in advanced ovarian cancer consists of platinum-based chemotherapy combined with cytoreductive surgery. Unfortunately, even after optimal cytoreduction and adjuvant chemotherapy, most patients with stage III disease will develop a recurrence. Intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapy is an alternative treatment for patients with localized disease. The pharmacological and physiochemical properties of melflufen, a peptidase potentiated alkylator, raised the hypothesis that this drug could be useful in ovarian cancer and particularily against peritoneal carcinomatosis. In this study the preclinical effects of melflufen were investigated in different ovarian cancer models. Melflufen was active against ovarian cancer cell lines, primary cultures of patient-derived ovarian cancer cells, and inhibited the growth of subcutaneous A2780 ovarian cancer xenografts alone and when combined with gemcitabine or liposomal doxorubicin when administered intravenously. In addition, an intra- and subperitoneal xenograft model showed activity of intraperitoneal administered melflufen for peritoneal carcinomatosis, with minimal side effects and modest systemic exposure. In conclusion, results from this study support further investigations of melflufen for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian cancer, both for intravenous and intraperitoneal administration. PMID:27528037

  11. Preclinical activity of melflufen (J1) in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Charlotte; Strese, Sara; Viktorsson, Kristina; Velander, Ebba; Nygren, Peter; Uustalu, Maria; Juntti, Therese; Lewensohn, Rolf; Larsson, Rolf; Spira, Jack; De Vlieghere, Elly; Ceelen, Wim P; Gullbo, Joachim

    2016-09-13

    Ovarian cancer carries a significant mortality. Since symptoms tend to be minimal, the disease is often diagnosed when peritoneal metastases are already present. The standard of care in advanced ovarian cancer consists of platinum-based chemotherapy combined with cytoreductive surgery. Unfortunately, even after optimal cytoreduction and adjuvant chemotherapy, most patients with stage III disease will develop a recurrence. Intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapy is an alternative treatment for patients with localized disease. The pharmacological and physiochemical properties of melflufen, a peptidase potentiated alkylator, raised the hypothesis that this drug could be useful in ovarian cancer and particularily against peritoneal carcinomatosis. In this study the preclinical effects of melflufen were investigated in different ovarian cancer models. Melflufen was active against ovarian cancer cell lines, primary cultures of patient-derived ovarian cancer cells, and inhibited the growth of subcutaneous A2780 ovarian cancer xenografts alone and when combined with gemcitabine or liposomal doxorubicin when administered intravenously. In addition, an intra- and subperitoneal xenograft model showed activity of intraperitoneal administered melflufen for peritoneal carcinomatosis, with minimal side effects and modest systemic exposure. In conclusion, results from this study support further investigations of melflufen for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian cancer, both for intravenous and intraperitoneal administration.

  12. Innovative T Cell-Targeted Therapy for Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    from co-culture with EL4 -ROR1neg and EL4 -ROR1+ tumor targets. Ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, EFO21, EFO27, IGROV1, OC314, and UPN251) were...profiled for ROR1 expression in normoxia (20% O2) and hypoxia (1% O2). Four-hour CRA was used to evaluate cytotoxicity against the OvCa and EL4 tumor...loaded aAPC for negative controls. EL4 is a murine T cell lymphoma cell line used to test specificity of CAR+ T cells with limited allo-reactivity

  13. Talazoparib and HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Metastatic Advanced Solid Tumor or Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Primary Peritoneal, or Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-22

    Adult Solid Neoplasm; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; HER2/Neu Negative; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  14. Management of brain metastasis in a patient with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma by gamma-knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Nikolaoul, Marinos; Stamenković, Srdjan; Stergiou, Christos; Skarleas, Christos; Torrens, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are rare events. We present a rare case of single ovarian cancer metastasis to the brain treated with gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKRS). A 65-year-old woman with advanced EOC presented with severe neurologic symptoms. A single brain metastasis of 3.2 cm with surrounding edema in the left parietal lobe was detected by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan during the work-up. The decision to perform GKRS was due to a surgical inaccessibility of intracranial lesion. Twelve weeks after the procedure, the MRI scan showed reduction in the diameter of brain metastasis and surrounding edema and the patient returned to good mental and motor performance.The patient survived for 22 months following treatment and died from a progressive intra-abdominal disease. Prognosis of ovarian cancer patients with brain metastases is generally poor regardless of treatment. Our case shows that GKRS as primary treatment modality for the control of ovarian cancer metastases to the brain was effective and can be considered as a treatment of choice if international selection criteria are followed.

  15. Photodynamic action of LED-activated pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.; Xu, C. S.; Xia, X. S.; Yu, H. P.; Bai, D. Q.; He, Y.; Leung, A. W. N.

    2009-04-01

    Cisplatin-resistance is a major obstacle for the successful therapy to ovarian cancer, and exploring novel approach to deactivate cisplatin-resistant ovarian cells will improve the clinical outcomes. Our present study showed that there was no dark cytotoxicity of MPPa in the COC1/DDP cells at the dose of 0.25 - 4 μM, and LED-activated MPPa resulted in drug dose- and light-dependent cytotoxicity. Apoptotic rate 6 h after LED-activated MPPa (2 μM) increased to 16.71% under the light energy of 1 J/cm2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that MPPa mainly localized in the intracellular membrane system, namely the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and mitochondria in the COC1/DDP cells. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was collapsed when COC1/DDP cells were exposed to 2 μM MPPa for 20 h and then 1 J/cm2 irradiation of LED source. These data demonstrated that LED-activated MPPa significantly deactivated cisplatin-resistant ovarian cell line COC1/DDP cells and enhanced apoptosis and decreased ΔΨm, which suggests LED is an efficient light source for PDT and LED-activated MPPa can be developed as new modality for treating cisplatin-resistant ovarian.

  16. The modularity and dynamicity of miRNA-mRNA interactions in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas and the prognostic implication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wensheng; Edwards, Andrea; Fan, Wei; Flemington, Erik K; Zhang, Kun

    2016-08-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the fifth-leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States. Major reasons for this persistent mortality include the poor understanding of the underlying biology and a lack of reliable biomarkers. Previous studies have shown that aberrantly expressed MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. However, the interference of miRNAs in tumorigenesis is quite complicated and far from being fully understood. In this work, by an integrative analysis of mRNA expression, miRNA expression and clinical data published by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we studied the modularity and dynamicity of miRNA-mRNA interactions and the prognostic implications in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. With the top transcriptional correlations (Bonferroni-adjusted p-value<0.01) as inputs, we identified five miRNA-mRNA module pairs (MPs), each of which included one positive-connection (correlation) module and one negative-connection (correlation) module. The number of miRNAs or mRNAs in each module varied from 3 to 7 or from 2 to 873. Among the four major negative-connection modules, three fit well with the widely accepted miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation theory. These modules were enriched with the genes relevant to cell cycle and immune response. Moreover, we proposed two novel algorithms to reveal the group or sample specific dynamic regulations between these two RNA classes. The obtained miRNA-mRNA dynamic network contains 3350 interactions captured across different cancer progression stages or tumor grades. We found that those dynamic interactions tended to concentrate on a few miRNAs (e.g. miRNA-936), and were more likely present on the miRNA-mRNA pairs outside the discovered modules. In addition, we also pinpointed a robust prognostic signature consisting of 56 modular protein-coding genes, whose co-expression patterns were predictive for the survival

  17. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel or Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine With or Without Bevacizumab as First-Line Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV or Recurrent Stage I Epithelial Ovarian or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-21

    Borderline Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  18. Integrated genome-wide DNA copy number and expression analysis identifies distinct mechanisms of primary chemoresistance in ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; deFazio, Anna; Beroukhim, Rameen; Mermel, Craig; George, Joshy; Getz, Gad; Tothill, Richard; Okamoto, Aikou; Raeder, Maria B; Harnett, Paul; Lade, Stephen; Akslen, Lars A; Tinker, Anna V; Locandro, Bianca; Alsop, Kathryn; Chiew, Yoke-Eng; Traficante, Nadia; Fereday, Sian; Johnson, Daryl; Fox, Stephen; Sellers, William; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Salvesen, Helga B; Meyerson, Matthew; Bowtell, David

    2009-02-15

    A significant number of women with serous ovarian cancer are intrinsically refractory to platinum-based treatment. We analyzed somatic DNA copy number variation and gene expression data to identify key mechanisms associated with primary resistance in advanced-stage serous cancers. Genome-wide copy number variation was measured in 118 ovarian tumors using high-resolution oligonucleotide microarrays. A well-defined subset of 85 advanced-stage serous tumors was then used to relate copy number variation to primary resistance to treatment. The discovery-based approach was complemented by quantitative-PCR copy number analysis of 12 candidate genes as independent validation of previously reported associations with clinical outcome. Likely copy number variation targets and tumor molecular subtypes were further characterized by gene expression profiling. Amplification of 19q12, containing cyclin E (CCNE1), and 20q11.22-q13.12, mapping immediately adjacent to the steroid receptor coactivator NCOA3, was significantly associated with poor response to primary treatment. Other genes previously associated with copy number variation and clinical outcome in ovarian cancer were not associated with primary treatment resistance. Chemoresistant tumors with high CCNE1 copy number and protein expression were associated with increased cellular proliferation but so too was a subset of treatment-responsive patients, suggesting a cell-cycle independent role for CCNE1 in modulating chemoresponse. Patients with a poor clinical outcome without CCNE1 amplification overexpressed genes involved in extracellular matrix deposition. We have identified two distinct mechanisms of primary treatment failure in serous ovarian cancer, involving CCNE1 amplification and enhanced extracellular matrix deposition. CCNE1 copy number is validated as a dominant marker of patient outcome in ovarian cancer.

  19. Integrated Analyses of microRNAs Demonstrate Their Widespread Influence on Gene Expression in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Douglas A.; Mankoo, Parminder; Schultz, Nikolaus; Du, Ying; Zhang, Yiqun; Larsson, Erik; Sheridan, Robert; Xiao, Weimin; Spellman, Paul T.; Getz, Gad; Wheeler, David A.; Perou, Charles M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Sander, Chris; Hayes, D. Neil; Gunaratne, Preethi H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network recently comprehensively catalogued the molecular aberrations in 487 high-grade serous ovarian cancers, with much remaining to be elucidated regarding the microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, using TCGA ovarian data, we surveyed the miRNAs, in the context of their predicted gene targets. Methods and Results Integration of miRNA and gene patterns yielded evidence that proximal pairs of miRNAs are processed from polycistronic primary transcripts, and that intronic miRNAs and their host gene mRNAs derive from common transcripts. Patterns of miRNA expression revealed multiple tumor subtypes and a set of 34 miRNAs predictive of overall patient survival. In a global analysis, miRNA:mRNA pairs anti-correlated in expression across tumors showed a higher frequency of in silico predicted target sites in the mRNA 3′-untranslated region (with less frequency observed for coding sequence and 5′-untranslated regions). The miR-29 family and predicted target genes were among the most strongly anti-correlated miRNA:mRNA pairs; over-expression of miR-29a in vitro repressed several anti-correlated genes (including DNMT3A and DNMT3B) and substantially decreased ovarian cancer cell viability. Conclusions This study establishes miRNAs as having a widespread impact on gene expression programs in ovarian cancer, further strengthening our understanding of miRNA biology as it applies to human cancer. As with gene transcripts, miRNAs exhibit high diversity reflecting the genomic heterogeneity within a clinically homogeneous disease population. Putative miRNA:mRNA interactions, as identified using integrative analysis, can be validated. TCGA data are a valuable resource for the identification of novel tumor suppressive miRNAs in ovarian as well as other cancers. PMID:22479643

  20. Integrated analyses of microRNAs demonstrate their widespread influence on gene expression in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Creighton, Chad J; Hernandez-Herrera, Anadulce; Jacobsen, Anders; Levine, Douglas A; Mankoo, Parminder; Schultz, Nikolaus; Du, Ying; Zhang, Yiqun; Larsson, Erik; Sheridan, Robert; Xiao, Weimin; Spellman, Paul T; Getz, Gad; Wheeler, David A; Perou, Charles M; Gibbs, Richard A; Sander, Chris; Hayes, D Neil; Gunaratne, Preethi H

    2012-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network recently comprehensively catalogued the molecular aberrations in 487 high-grade serous ovarian cancers, with much remaining to be elucidated regarding the microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, using TCGA ovarian data, we surveyed the miRNAs, in the context of their predicted gene targets. Integration of miRNA and gene patterns yielded evidence that proximal pairs of miRNAs are processed from polycistronic primary transcripts, and that intronic miRNAs and their host gene mRNAs derive from common transcripts. Patterns of miRNA expression revealed multiple tumor subtypes and a set of 34 miRNAs predictive of overall patient survival. In a global analysis, miRNA:mRNA pairs anti-correlated in expression across tumors showed a higher frequency of in silico predicted target sites in the mRNA 3'-untranslated region (with less frequency observed for coding sequence and 5'-untranslated regions). The miR-29 family and predicted target genes were among the most strongly anti-correlated miRNA:mRNA pairs; over-expression of miR-29a in vitro repressed several anti-correlated genes (including DNMT3A and DNMT3B) and substantially decreased ovarian cancer cell viability. This study establishes miRNAs as having a widespread impact on gene expression programs in ovarian cancer, further strengthening our understanding of miRNA biology as it applies to human cancer. As with gene transcripts, miRNAs exhibit high diversity reflecting the genomic heterogeneity within a clinically homogeneous disease population. Putative miRNA:mRNA interactions, as identified using integrative analysis, can be validated. TCGA data are a valuable resource for the identification of novel tumor suppressive miRNAs in ovarian as well as other cancers.

  1. Rucaparib in relapsed, platinum-sensitive high-grade ovarian carcinoma (ARIEL2 Part 1): an international, multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Swisher, Elizabeth M; Lin, Kevin K; Oza, Amit M; Scott, Clare L; Giordano, Heidi; Sun, James; Konecny, Gottfried E; Coleman, Robert L; Tinker, Anna V; O'Malley, David M; Kristeleit, Rebecca S; Ma, Ling; Bell-McGuinn, Katherine M; Brenton, James D; Cragun, Janiel M; Oaknin, Ana; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Harrell, Maria I; Mann, Elaina; Kaufmann, Scott H; Floquet, Anne; Leary, Alexandra; Harding, Thomas C; Goble, Sandra; Maloney, Lara; Isaacson, Jeff; Allen, Andrew R; Rolfe, Lindsey; Yelensky, Roman; Raponi, Mitch; McNeish, Iain A

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have activity in ovarian carcinomas with homologous recombination deficiency. Along with BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations genomic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) might also represent homologous recombination deficiency. In ARIEL2, we assessed the ability of tumour genomic LOH, quantified with a next-generation sequencing assay, to predict response to rucaparib, an oral PARP inhibitor. ARIEL2 is an international, multicentre, two-part, phase 2, open-label study done at 49 hospitals and cancer centres in Australia, Canada, France, Spain, the UK, and the USA. In ARIEL2 Part 1, patients with recurrent, platinum-sensitive, high-grade ovarian carcinoma were classified into one of three predefined homologous recombination deficiency subgroups on the basis of tumour mutational analysis: BRCA mutant (deleterious germline or somatic), BRCA wild-type and LOH high (LOH high group), or BRCA wild-type and LOH low (LOH low group). We prespecified a cutoff of 14% or more genomic LOH for LOH high. Patients began treatment with oral rucaparib at 600 mg twice per day for continuous 28 day cycles until disease progression or any other reason for discontinuation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. All patients treated with at least one dose of rucaparib were included in the safety analyses and all treated patients who were classified were included in the primary endpoint analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01891344. Enrolment into ARIEL2 Part 1 is complete, although an extension (Part 2) is ongoing. 256 patients were screened and 206 were enrolled between Oct 30, 2013, and Dec 19, 2014. At the data cutoff date (Jan 18, 2016), 204 patients had received rucaparib, with 28 patients remaining in the study. 192 patients could be classified into one of the three predefined homologous recombination deficiency subgroups: BRCA mutant (n=40), LOH high (n=82), or LOH low (n=70). Tumours from 12 patients

  2. Effect of Procyanidin-rich Extract from Natural Cocoa Powder on Cellular Viability, Cell Cycle Progression, and Chemoresistance in Human Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Taparia, Shruti; Khanna, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    cocoa powder is one of the richest sources of procyanidinsCocoa procyanidin-rich extract (CPRE) caused cytotoxicity and chemosensitization in ovarian carcinoma cell lines OAW42 and OVCAR3CPRE affected normal cell cycle progressionCPRE also downregulated P-glycoprotein, which mediates chemoresistance in multidrug-resistant OVCAR3 cell line. Abbreviations used: P-gp: P-glycoprotein, CPRE: Cocoa procyanidin rich extract, DMAC: 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, DPPH: Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, ABTS: 2,2’;-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), PI: Propidium iodide, FITC: Fluorescein isothiocyanate, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, TLC: Thin layer chromatography, HPTLC: High-performance thin layer chromatography. PMID:27279694

  3. Metformin suppresses ovarian cancer growth and metastasis with enhancement of cisplatin cytotoxicity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Ramandeep; Graham, Rondell P; Maguire, Jacie L; Giri, Shailendra; Shridhar, Viji

    2011-05-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer in women. Its high mortality rate (68%) reflects the fact that 75% of patients have extensive (>stage III) disease at diagnosis and also the limited efficacy of currently available therapies. Consequently, there is clearly a great need to develop improved upfront and salvage therapies for ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated the efficacy of metformin alone and in combination with cisplatin in vivo. A2780 ovarian cancer cells were injected intraperitoneally in nude mice; A2780-induced tumors in nude mice, when treated with metformin in drinking water, resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth, accompanied by inhibition of tumor cell proliferation (as assessed by immunohistochemical staining of Ki-67, Cyclin D1) as well as decreased live tumor size and mitotic cell count. Metformin-induced activation of AMPK/mTOR pathway was accompanied by decreased microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. More importantly, metformin treatment inhibited the growth of metastatic nodules in the lung and significantly potentiated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity resulting in approximately 90% reduction in tumor growth compared with treatment by either of the drugs alone. Collectively, our data show for the first time that, in addition to inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, metformin treatment inhibits both angiogenesis and metastatic spread of ovarian cancer. Overall, our study provides a strong rationale for use of metformin in ovarian cancer treatment.

  4. Integrated Copy Number and Expression Analysis Identifies Profiles of Whole-Arm Chromosomal Alterations and Subgroups with Favorable Outcome in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Yuriko; Oda, Katsutoshi; Ikeda, Yuji; Koso, Takahiro; Tsuji, Shingo; Yamamoto, Shogo; Asada, Kayo; Sone, Kenbun; Kurikawa, Reiko; Makii, Chinami; Hagiwara, Otoe; Tanikawa, Michihiro; Maeda, Daichi; Hasegawa, Kosei; Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Kawana, Kei; Fukayama, Masashi; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Yano, Tetsu; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Aburatani, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is generally associated with chemoresistance and poor clinical outcome, even with early diagnosis; whereas high-grade serous carcinomas (SCs) and endometrioid carcinomas (ECs) are commonly chemosensitive at advanced stages. Although an integrated genomic analysis of SC has been performed, conclusive views on copy number and expression profiles for CCC are still limited. In this study, we performed single nucleotide polymorphism analysis with 57 epithelial ovarian cancers (31 CCCs, 14 SCs, and 12 ECs) and microarray expression analysis with 55 cancers (25 CCCs, 16 SCs, and 14 ECs). We then evaluated PIK3CA mutations and ARID1A expression in CCCs. SNP array analysis classified 13% of CCCs into a cluster with high frequency and focal range of copy number alterations (CNAs), significantly lower than for SCs (93%, P < 0.01) and ECs (50%, P = 0.017). The ratio of whole-arm to all CNAs was higher in CCCs (46.9%) than SCs (21.7%; P < 0.0001). SCs with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of BRCA1 (85%) also had LOH of NF1 and TP53, and LOH of BRCA2 (62%) coexisted with LOH of RB1 and TP53. Microarray analysis classified CCCs into three clusters. One cluster (CCC-2, n = 10) showed more favorable prognosis than the CCC-1 and CCC-3 clusters (P = 0.041). Coexistent alterations of PIK3CA and ARID1A were more common in CCC-1 and CCC-3 (7/11, 64%) than in CCC-2 (0/10, 0%; P < 0.01). Being in cluster CCC-2 was an independent favorable prognostic factor in CCC. In conclusion, CCC was characterized by a high ratio of whole-arm CNAs; whereas CNAs in SC were mainly focal, but preferentially caused LOH of well-known tumor suppressor genes. As such, expression profiles might be useful for sub-classification of CCC, and might provide useful information on prognosis. PMID:26043110

  5. MARCH5 RNA promotes autophagy, migration, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianguo; Meng, Ying; Zhang, Zhanqin; Yan, Qiuting; Jiang, Xingwei; Lv, Zilan; Hu, Lina

    2017-02-01

    MARCH5 is a crucial regulator of mitochondrial fission. However, the expression and function of MARCH5 in ovarian cancer have not been determined. This study investigated the expression and function of MARCH5 in ovarian cancer with respect to its potential role in the tumorigenesis of the disease as well as its usefulness as an early diagnostic marker. We found that the expression of MARCH5 was substantially upregulated in ovarian cancer tissue in comparison with the normal control. Silencing MARCH5 in SKOV3 cells decreased TGFB1-induced cell macroautophagy/autophagy, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo, whereas the ectopic expression of MARCH5 in A2780 cells had the opposite effect. Mechanistic investigations revealed that MARCH5 RNA may function as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to regulate the expression of SMAD2 and ATG5 by competing for MIR30A. Knocking down SMAD2 or ATG5 can block the effect of MARCH5 in A2780 cells. Also, silencing the expression of MARCH5 in SKOV3 cells can inhibit the TGFB1-SMAD2/3 pathway. In contrast, the ectopic expression of MARCH5 in A2780 cells can activate the TGFB1-SMAD2/3 pathway. In turn, the TGFB1-SMAD2/3 pathway can regulate MARCH5 and ATG5 through MIR30A. Overall, the results of this study identified MARCH5 as a candidate oncogene in ovarian cancer and a potential target for ovarian cancer therapy.

  6. Olaparib and Cediranib Maleate in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-18

    Deleterious BRCA1 Gene Mutation; Deleterious BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  7. Anti-Yo positive and late-onset paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration associated with ovarian carcinoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dan; Xu, Li; Li, Wen-Yi; Qian, Wei-Dong

    2017-08-01

    Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a rare nonmetastatic neurological complication often associated with ovarian, breast, and other gynecologic cancers. Anti-Yo is one of the antionconeural antibodies found in patients with PCD. It primarily emerges before a malignancy is detected. In this report, we describe an unusual case involving a patient who exhibited anti-Yo-positive PCD 1 year after being diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Histopathology of the resected tissues and Antineuronal antibody testing. The patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG, 1 g/d) for 1 week and a large-dose of methylprednisolone (0.4 g/kg/d) for 5 days. At the same time, underlying complications were prevented actively, and the peripheral nerves were protected. Although most patients with anti-Yo-positive PCD do not improve after treatment, our patient significantly improved after receiving active and effective treatment.

  8. Granulopoietic Growth Factor Secretion in Ovarian Carcinoma as a Mechanism for the Emergence of Immune Suppressive Myeloid Subsets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    levels will be determined and tracked biweekly during the course of tumor growth. Age/ gender -matched non-tumor-bearing mice will serve as controls for...parameter flow cytometry, we compared 21 ovarian cancer patients reflecting stages II - IV to 22 gender - race- and age-matched controls. All patient...Sitkovsky, M. A2A adenosine receptors protect tumors from anti- tumor T cells. (*equal authorship ) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 13132-13137, 2006

  9. SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiao-han; Deng, Suo; Li, Meng

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HB-EGF over-expression in A2780/Taxol, A2780/CDDP cells and the matched xenografts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 induces enhanced apoptosis in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 arrests A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells at G0/G1 phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 suppressed the A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP growth of xenografts. -- Abstract: Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a promising target for ovarian cancer therapy. Cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197), a specific HB-EGF inhibitor, has been proven to represent possible chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer. However, the effect of CRM197 on the resistant ovarian carcinoma cells has not been sufficiently elucidated. Here, we found that HB-EGF wasmore » over-expressed in a paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cell line (A2780/Taxol) and a cisplatin-resistant cell line (A2780/CDDP), as well as the xenograft mouse tissue samples with these cells. To investigate the possible significance of the HB-EGF over-expression in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells, we inhibited HB-EGF expression by CRM197 to investigate the effect of CRM197 treatment on these cells. We observed that CRM197 significantly induced anti-proliferative activity in a dose-dependent manner with the cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and enhanced apoptosis in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells. The sensitive ovarian carcinoma parental cell line (A2780), A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells formed tumors in nude mice, and enhanced tumorigenicity was observed in drug-resistant tumors. Furthermore, we observed that CRM197 significantly suppressed the growth of drug-resistant ovarian cancer xenografts in vivo (p < 0.001). These results suggest that CRM197 as an HB-EGF-targeted agent has potent anti-tumor activity in paclitaxel- and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer which over-express HB-EGF.« less

  10. Activated T-cell Therapy, Low-Dose Aldesleukin, and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That is Stage III-IV, Refractory, or Recurrent

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-15

    Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  11. Carboplatin and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without ATR Kinase Inhibitor VX-970 in Treating Patients With Recurrent and Metastatic Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-16

    High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7

  12. Bevacizumab and Intravenous or Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-25

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  13. Radioimmunotargeting in ovarian carcinoma patients with indium-111 labeled monoclonal antibody OV-TL 3 F(ab')2: pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Buist, M.R.; Kenemans, P.; Vermorken, J.B.; Golding, R.P.; Burger, C.W.; Den Hollander, W.; Van Kamp, G.J.; Van Lingen, A.; Teule, G.J.J.; Baak, J.P.A.; Roos, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Safety and feasibility of tumor targeting with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies was studied in 28 patients suspected of having ovarian carcinoma, after i.v. administration of 1 mg F(ab')2 fragments of the murine monoclonal antibody OV-TL 3, labeled with 150 MBq Indium-111. There were no adverse reactions, hematological and biochemical serum parameters were stable. In one patient a (subclinical) HAMA-response was found. Plasma clearance of the immunoconjugate was biphasic with half lives of t(1/2)}alpha = 1.4+/-0.8 h and t(1/2)}beta = 25.1+/-3.7 h, resulting in an optimal time period for immunoscintigraphy at 24-48 h after administration. In 20 patients, undergoing extensive explorative surgery, a total of 271 samples of tumorous and normal tissues were analyzed for radiolabel uptake and tumor presence. The mean uptake in tumor deposits was 5.6 times (range 2.2-19.3) as high as the uptake in normal tissues (fat, peritoneum, muscle, skin). The diagnostic accuracy of immunosctigraphy was compared with that obtained with computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and physical examination. While pelvic localizations were equally well detected by all methods, 48% of the abdominally located tumor deposits were correctly diagnosed by immunoscintigraphy, with only 12% detected by ultrasonography, 8% by CT-scanning and physical examination, and 6% by MRI. Immunoscintigraphy has potential as a diagnostic tool in ovarian cancer patients and biolocalization results justify further research into the therapeutic application of labeled monoclonal antibodies.

  14. CDKN2D-WDFY2 is a cancer-specific fusion gene recurrent in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kalpana; Coarfa, Cristian; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Hawkins, Shannon M; Matzuk, Martin M; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Yen, Laising

    2014-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women. Almost 70% of ovarian cancer deaths are due to the high-grade serous subtype, which is typically detected only after it has metastasized. Characterization of high-grade serous cancer is further complicated by the significant heterogeneity and genome instability displayed by this cancer. Other than mutations in TP53, which is common to many cancers, highly recurrent recombinant events specific to this cancer have yet to be identified. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of seven patient samples combined with experimental validation at DNA, RNA and protein levels, we identified a cancer-specific and inter-chromosomal fusion gene CDKN2D-WDFY2 that occurs at a frequency of 20% among sixty high-grade serous cancer samples but is absent in non-cancerous ovary and fallopian tube samples. This is the most frequent recombinant event identified so far in high-grade serous cancer implying a major cellular lineage in this highly heterogeneous cancer. In addition, the same fusion transcript was also detected in OV-90, an established high-grade serous type cell line. The genomic breakpoint was identified in intron 1 of CDKN2D and intron 2 of WDFY2 in patient tumor, providing direct evidence that this is a fusion gene. The parental gene, CDKN2D, is a cell-cycle modulator that is also involved in DNA repair, while WDFY2 is known to modulate AKT interactions with its substrates. Transfection of cloned fusion construct led to loss of wildtype CDKN2D and wildtype WDFY2 protein expression, and a gain of a short WDFY2 protein isoform that is presumably under the control of the CDKN2D promoter. The expression of short WDFY2 protein in transfected cells appears to alter the PI3K/AKT pathway that is known to play a role in oncogenesis. CDKN2D-WDFY2 fusion could be an important molecular signature for understanding and classifying sub-lineages among heterogeneous high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas.

  15. Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-27

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  16. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  17. Platinum sensitivity and DNA repair in a recently established panel of patient-derived ovarian carcinoma xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Guffanti, Federica; Fratelli, Maddalena; Ganzinelli, Monica; Bolis, Marco; Ricci, Francesca; Bizzaro, Francesca; Chilà, Rosaria; Sina, Federica Paola; Fruscio, Robert; Lupia, Michela; Cavallaro, Ugo; Cappelletti, Maria Rosa; Generali, Daniele; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Damia, Giovanna

    2018-01-01

    A xenobank of patient-derived (PDX) ovarian tumor samples has been established consisting of tumors with different sensitivity to cisplatin (DDP), from very responsive to resistant. As the DNA repair pathway is an important driver in tumor response to DDP, we analyzed the mRNA expression of 20 genes involved in the nucleotide excision repair, fanconi anemia, homologous recombination, base excision repair, mismatch repair and translesion repair pathways and the methylation patterns of some of these genes. We also investigated the correlation with the response to platinum-based therapy. The mRNA levels of the selected genes were evaluated by Real Time-PCR (RT-PCR) with ad hoc validated primers and gene promoter methylation by pyrosequencing. All the DNA repair genes were variably expressed in all 42 PDX samples analyzed, with no particular histotype-specific pattern of expression. In high-grade serous/endometrioid PDXs, the CDK12 mRNA expression levels positively correlated with the expression of TP53BP1, PALB2, XPF and POLB. High-grade serous/endometrioid PDXs with TP53 mutations had significantly higher levels of POLQ, FANCD2, RAD51 and POLB than high-grade TP53 wild type PDXs. The mRNA levels of CDK12, PALB2 and XPF inversely associated with the in vivo DDP antitumor activity; higher CDK12 mRNA levels were associated with a higher recurrence rate in ovarian patients with low residual tumor. These data support the important role of CDK12 in the response to a platinum based therapy in ovarian patients. PMID:29872499

  18. The prediction of progression-free and overall survival in women with an advanced stage of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gerestein, C G; Eijkemans, M J C; de Jong, D; van der Burg, M E L; Dykgraaf, R H M; Kooi, G S; Baalbergen, A; Burger, C W; Ansink, A C

    2009-02-01

    Prognosis in women with ovarian cancer mainly depends on International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and the ability to perform optimal cytoreductive surgery. Since ovarian cancer has a heterogeneous presentation and clinical course, predicting progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the individual patient is difficult. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of PFS and OS in women with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) after primary cytoreductive surgery and first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Retrospective observational study. Two teaching hospitals and one university hospital in the south-western part of the Netherlands. Women with advanced stage EOC. All women who underwent primary cytoreductive surgery for advanced stage EOC followed by first-line platinum-based chemotherapy between January 1998 and October 2004 were identified. To investigate independent predictors of PFS and OS, a Cox' proportional hazard model was used. Nomograms were generated with the identified predictive parameters. The primary outcome measure was OS and the secondary outcome measures were response and PFS. A total of 118 women entered the study protocol. Median PFS and OS were 15 and 44 months, respectively. Preoperative platelet count (P = 0.007), and residual disease <1 cm (P = 0.004) predicted PFS with a optimism corrected c-statistic of 0.63. Predictive parameters for OS were preoperative haemoglobin serum concentration (P = 0.012), preoperative platelet counts (P = 0.031) and residual disease <1 cm (P = 0.028) with a optimism corrected c-statistic of 0.67. PFS could be predicted by postoperative residual disease and preoperative platelet counts, whereas residual disease, preoperative platelet counts and preoperative haemoglobin serum concentration were predictive for OS. The proposed nomograms need to be externally validated.

  19. Whole abdomen radiation for minimal residual epithelial ovarian carcinoma after surgical resection and maximal first-line chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, J.M.; Russell, A.H.; Greer, B.E.

    1988-02-01

    Ten patients with Stage III epithelial ovarian received whole abdomen radiation therapy after extensive courses of chemotherapy and second or third laparotomies. All patients had less than 2-mm diameter residual disease. The major side effect was bone marrow suppression which led to decreased dose or field size in four patients. Five patients have recurred and three of these have died. Further treatment after recurrence was compromised by bone marrow suppression. While 40-50% of selected patients may respond to this approach, numerous alternatives are being explored that would not handicap further treatment to the same degree and may have equal responsemore » rates.« less

  20. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-28

    Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  1. Lysophosphatidic Acid Initiates Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Induces β-Catenin-mediated Transcription in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Burkhalter, Rebecca J.; Westfall, Suzanne D.; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which influences metastatic success. Mutation-dependent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in gain of mesenchymal phenotype and loss of differentiation in several solid tumors; however, similar mutations are rare in most EOC histotypes. Nevertheless, evidence for activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in EOC has been reported, and immunohistochemical analysis of human EOC tumors demonstrates nuclear staining in all histotypes. This study addresses the hypothesis that the bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), prevalent in the EOC microenvironment, functions to regulate EMT in EOC. Our results demonstrate that LPA induces loss of junctional β-catenin, stimulates clustering of β1 integrins, and enhances the conformationally active population of surface β1 integrins. Furthermore, LPA treatment initiates nuclear translocation of β-catenin and transcriptional activation of Wnt/β-catenin target genes resulting in gain of mesenchymal marker expression. Together these data suggest that LPA initiates EMT in ovarian tumors through β1-integrin-dependent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, providing a novel mechanism for mutation-independent activation of this pathway in EOC progression. PMID:26175151

  2. Development of EGFR Targeted Nanoemulsion for Imaging and Novel Platinum Therapy of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ganta, Srinivas; Singh, Amit; Patel, Niravkumar R.; Cacaccio, Joseph; Rawal, Yashesh H.; Davis, Barbara J.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Coleman, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Platinum-based chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for malignant epithelial ovarian cancers, but generalized toxicity and platinum resistance limits its use. Theranostic nanoemulsion with a novel platinum prodrug, myrisplatin, and the pro-apoptotic agent, C6-ceramide, were designed to overcome these limitations. Methods The nanoemulsions, including ones with an EGFR binding peptide and gadolinium, were made using generally regarded as safe grade excipients and a high shear microfluidization process. Efficacy was evaluated in ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3, A2780 and A2780CP. Results The nanoemulsion with particle size <150 nm were stable in plasma and parenteral fluids for 24 h. Ovarian cancer cells in vitro efficiently took up the non-targeted and EGFR-targeted nanoemulsions; improved cytotoxicity was observed for the these nanoemulsions with the latter showing a 50-fold drop in the IC50 in SKOV3 cells as compared to cisplatin alone. The addition of gadolinium did not affect cell viability in vitro, but showed relaxation times comparable to Magnevist®. Conclusion The myrisplatin/C6-ceramide nanoemulsion synergistically enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity. An EGFR binding peptide addition further increased in vitro cytotoxicity in EGFR positive cancer cells. The diagnostic version showed MR imaging similar to the clinically relevant Magnevist® and may be suitable as a theranostic for ovarian cancer. PMID:24643932

  3. Mucinous metaplasia of breast carcinoma with macrocystic transformation resembling ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a case of synchronous bilateral infiltrating ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Huang; Chaung, Chen-Rong

    2008-09-01

    Mammary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA) is a rare, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast that is virtually identical morphologically to MCA of the ovary, pancreas or appendix. Synchronous bilateral breast tumors, not uncommonly encountered in fibroadenoma and lobular carcinoma, are unusual in IDC. Reported herein is a primary MCA of the right breast coexisting with a bilateral ordinary IDC in a 55-year-old Taiwanese woman who underwent modified radical mastectomy of both breasts with bilateral axillary level I and II lymph node dissection. In the right breast a 2.5 cm unilocular mucus-filled cyst was found. It had complex papillae, some of which were supported by delicate fibrovascular stroma, lined by simple to slightly stratified columnar neoplastic epithelial cells with intracellular mucin and an abundance of intracystic extracellular mucin, coexisting with a low-grade ordinary IDC. In the left breast a high-grade ordinary IDC was discovered. The patient had undergone simple abdominal total hysterectomy for myoma uteri along with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 10 years previously. Based on pathological studies and a literature review, it is suggested that mammary MCA arises from mucinous metaplasia and macrocystic transformation of ordinary breast carcinoma. A brief discussion of bilateral breast cancers is also given.

  4. EDD enhances cell survival and cisplatin resistance and is a therapeutic target for epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Amber; Zheng, Hui; Eblen, Scott T.

    2014-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase EDD is overexpressed in recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancers, suggesting a role in tumor survival and/or platinum resistance. EDD knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) induced apoptosis in A2780ip2, OVCAR5 and ES-2 ovarian cancer cells, correlating with loss of the prosurvival protein myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1) through a glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta-independent mechanism. SiRNA to EDD or Mcl-1 induced comparable levels of apoptosis in A2780ip2 and ES-2 cells. Stable overexpression of Mcl-1 protected cells from apoptosis following EDD knockdown, accompanied by a loss of endogenous, but not exogenous, Mcl-1 protein, suggesting that EDD regulated Mcl-1 synthesis. Indeed, EDD knockdown induced a 1.87-fold decrease in Mcl-1 messenger RNA and EDD transfection enhanced murine Mcl-1 promoter-driven luciferase expression 5-fold. To separate EDD survival and potential cisplatin resistance functions, we generated EDD shRNA stable cell lines that could survive initial EDD knockdown and showed that these cells were 4- to 21-fold more sensitive to cisplatin. Moreover, transient EDD overexpression in COS-7 cells was sufficient to promote cisplatin resistance 2.4-fold, dependent upon its E3 ligase activity. In vivo, mouse intraperitoneal ES-2 and A2780ip2 xenograft experiments showed that mice treated with EDD siRNA by nanoliposomal delivery [1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phophatidylcholine (DOPC)] and cisplatin had significantly less tumor burden than those treated with control siRNA/DOPC alone (ES-2, 77.9% reduction, P = 0.004; A2780ip2, 75.9% reduction, P = 0.042) or control siRNA/DOPC with cisplatin in ES-2 (64.4% reduction, P = 0.035), with a trend in A2780ip2 (60.3% reduction, P = 0.168). These results identify EDD as a dual regulator of cell survival and cisplatin resistance and suggest that EDD is a therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. PMID:24379240

  5. Inovium Ovarian Rejuvenation Trials

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-18

    Perimenopausal Disorder; Menopause; Menopause, Premature; Menopause Related Conditions; Menopause Premature Symptomatic; Menopause Premature Asymptomatic; Premature Ovarian Failure; Premature Ovarian Failure, Familial; Premature Ovarian Failure 2A; Premature Ovarian Failure 3; Premature Ovarian Failure 4; Premature Ovarian Failure 1; Premature Ovarian Failure 5; Premature Ovarian Failure 6; Premature Ovarian Failure 7; Premature Ovarian Failure 9; Premature Ovarian Failure 8; Infertility; Infertility, Female; Infertility Unexplained

  6. TP53 Mutation Status of Tubo-ovarian and Peritoneal High-grade Serous Carcinoma with a Wild-type p53 Immunostaining Pattern.

    PubMed

    Na, Kiyong; Sung, Ji-Youn; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2017-12-01

    Diffuse and strong nuclear p53 immunoreactivity and a complete lack of p53 expression are regarded as indicative of missense and nonsense mutations, respectively, of the TP53 gene. Tubo-ovarian and peritoneal high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is characterized by aberrant p53 expression induced by a TP53 mutation. However, our experience with some HGSC cases with a wild-type p53 immunostaining pattern led us to comprehensively review previous cases and investigate the TP53 mutational status of the exceptional cases. We analyzed the immunophenotype of 153 cases of HGSC and performed TP53 gene sequencing analysis in those with a wild-type p53 immunostaining pattern. Immunostaining revealed that 109 (71.3%) cases displayed diffuse and strong p53 expression (missense mutation pattern), while 39 (25.5%) had no p53 expression (nonsense mutation pattern). The remaining five cases of HGSC showed a wild-type p53 immunostaining pattern. Direct sequencing analysis revealed that three of these cases harbored nonsense TP53 mutations and two had novel splice site deletions. TP53 mutation is almost invariably present in HGSC, and p53 immunostaining can be used as a surrogate marker of TP53 mutation. In cases with a wild-type p53 immunostaining pattern, direct sequencing for TP53 mutational status can be helpful to confirm the presence of a TP53 mutation. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. NOXA-Induced Alterations in the Bax/Smac Axis Enhance Sensitivity of Ovarian Cancer Cells to Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao; Zhao, Xin-yu; Li, Lei; Liu, Huan-yi; Cao, Kang; Wan, Yang; Liu, Xin-yu; Nie, Chun-lai; Liu, Lei; Tong, Ai-ping; Deng, Hong-xin; Li, Jiong; Yuan, Zhu; Wei, Yu-quan

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death from gynecologic malignancy. Deregulation of p53 and/or p73-associated apoptotic pathways contribute to the platinum-based resistance in ovarian cancer. NOXA, a pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, is identified as a transcription target of p53 and/or p73. In this study, we found that genetic variants of Bcl-2 proteins exist among cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian cancer cells, and the responses of NOXA and Bax to cisplatin are regulated mainly by p53. We further evaluated the effect of NOXA on cisplatin. NOXA induced apoptosis and sensitized A2780s and SKOV3 cells to cisplatin in vitro and in vivo. The effects were mediated by elevated Bax expression, enhanced caspase activation, release of Cyt C and Smac into the cytosol. Furthermore, gene silencing of Bax or Smac significantly attenuated NOXA and/or cisplatin-induced apoptosis in chemosensitive A2780s cells, whereas overexpression of Bax or addition of Smac-N7 peptide significantly increased NOXA and/or cisplatin-induced apoptosis in chemoresistant SKOV3 cells. To our knowledge, these data suggest a new mechanism by which NOXA chemosensitized ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin by inducing alterations in the Bax/Smac axis. Taken together, our findings show that NOXA is potentially useful as a chemosensitizer in ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:22590594

  8. A Phase 2 Trial of Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) and Cisplatin in Platin-Resistant Ovarian and Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma: MC0261

    PubMed Central

    Bible, Keith C.; Peethambaram, Prema P.; Oberg, Ann L.; Maples, William; Groteluschen, David L.; Boente, Matthew; Burton, Jill K.; Gomez Dahl, Leigh C.; Tibodeau, Jennifer D.; Isham, Crescent R.; Maguire, Jacie L.; Shridhar, Viji; Kukla, Andrea K.; Voll, Kalli J.; Mauer, Mathew J.; Colevas, Alexander D.; Wright, John; Doyle, L. Austin; Erlichman, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Based upon promising preclinical and phase 1 trial results, combined flavopiridol and cisplatin therapy was evaluated in patients with ovarian and primary peritoneal cancers. Methods A two cohort phase 2 trial of cisplatin (60 mg/m2 IV) immediately followed by flavopiridol (100 mg/m2 IV, 24 h infusion; 21 day cycles) was undertaken in patients with recurrent platin-sensitive or platin-resistant disease (progression > vs. ≤6 months following prior platin-based therapy). Measurable disease (RECIST) - or evaluable disease plus CA125 >2× post-treatment nadir - and ECOG performance ≤2 were required. Results Forty-five patients were enrolled between December 23, 2004 and February 25, 2010: 40 platin-resistant (Group 1), and 5 platin-sensitive (Group 2). In Group 1, the median number of treatment cycles was 3 (range 2–12). Only 10% of patients incurred grade 4 toxicities, but grade 3 toxicities were common (65%): neutropenia (17.5%); nausea (12.5%); vomiting, fatigue, thrombosis, anemia (10% each). Seven patients (17.5%) achieved a confirmed response (1 CR, 6 PR; median duration 118 days); ten additional patients (25%) attained maintained stable disease. Median time to progression was 4.3 months; overall survival was 16.1 months. Pilot translational studies assessed ascites flavopiridol level; surrogate marker studies were uninformative. In Group 2, although 4 of 5 patients responded (2 confirmed PRs with median time to progression, 10.8 months and median overall survival 20.6 months) the cohort was closed due to poor accrual. Conclusions The assessed flavopiridol and cisplatin regimen displayed clinical activity in platin resistant and sensitive ovarian/primary peritoneal cancers, meriting further study. PMID:22664059

  9. Paradigm Shift in the Management Strategy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Keiichi; McAlpine, Jessica N; Lheureux, Stephanie; Matsumura, Noriomi; Oza, Amit M

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis on the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer continues to evolve. Although epithelial ovarian cancer had been assumed to arise from the coelomic epithelium of the ovarian surface, it is now becoming clearer that the majority of serous carcinomas arise from epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, whereas clear cell and endometrioid cancers arise from endometriosis. Molecular and genomic characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer have been extensively investigated. Our understanding of pathogenesis of the various histologic types of ovarian cancer have begun to inform changes to the strategies for management of epithelial ovarian cancer, which represent a paradigm shift not only for treatment but also for prevention, which previously had not been considered achievable. In this article, we will discuss novel attempts at the prevention of high-grade serous ovarian cancer and treatment strategies for two distinct entities in epithelial ovarian cancer: low-grade serous and clear cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively rare and resistant to conventional chemotherapy.

  10. YKL-40 in Serum Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-21

    Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Neoplasm; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Transitional Cell Tumor; Ovarian Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  11. Anti-tumor effects of osthole on ovarian cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoqiang; Liu, Jia; Ren, Baoyin; Tang, Yawei; Owusu, Lawrence; Li, Man; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Likun; Li, Weiling

    2016-12-04

    Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine to treat gynecological disease in some countries. Osthole, an active O-methylated coumadin isolated from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson, has been shown to induce various beneficial biochemical effects such as anti-seizure and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-tumor mechanism of osthole is not well known. Here, we show that osthole inhibited the proliferation and migration of two widely used ovarian cancer cell lines, A2780 and OV2008 cells, in a dose-dependent manner. The study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying ovarian cancer cells proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and migration triggered by osthole. Ovarian cancer cell lines A2780, OV2008 and normal ovarian cell line IOSE80 were used as experimental model. MTT assay was employed to evaluate cell viability. Flow cytometry assays were performed to confirm apoptosis and cell cycle. We employed wound healing and transwell assays to delineate invasive and migratory potential triggered by osthole. MTT assays indicated that cell viability significantly decreased in ovarian cancer cells treated with osthole without effect on normal ovarian cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that osthole suppressed cells proliferation by promoting G2/M arrest and inducing apoptosis. The underlying mechanisms involved were regulation of the relative apoptotic protein Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase 3/9. In addition, wound healing and transwell assays revealed that the migratory potential and activity of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 and MMP-9 were markedly inhibited when cells were exposed to osthole. Our findings suggested that osthole has the potential to be used in novel anti-cancer therapeutic formulations for ovarian cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Surrogate mothers and ovarian transposition: two attitudes to be considered in young women with cervical carcinoma. A case report].

    PubMed

    Giacalone, P L; Sobierajksi, J; Benos, P; Giovannini, N; Laffargue, F; Hédon, B

    2003-02-01

    In cases of cervical cancer, there are 2 major advantages to preserving the ovaries, with or without transposition: hormone function is maintained during subsequent cancer treatment and patient quality of life is improved. We report the first case of pregnancy in a surrogate mother following stimulation of a transposed ovary before irradiation and chemotherapy for a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Because of the wide dissemination of information on the technical progress in this area, patients are now in a position to make therapeutic choices that are no longer guided by strictly medical considerations.

  13. Glycosides of naphthohydroquinones and anthraquinones isolated from the aerial parts of Morinda parvifolia Bartl. ex DC (Rubiaceae) increase p53 mRNA expression in A2780 cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Xianming; Zhang, Jian; Li, Changkang; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Hongqing; Gu, Haifeng; Li, Baoming; Chen, Ruoyun; Kang, Jie

    2018-05-11

    Eight previously undescribed naphthohydroquinone glycosides, namely morindaparvins H-O, together with four known anthraquinone glycosides were isolated from the n-BuOH extract of the aerial parts of Morinda parvifolia Bartl. ex DC (Rubiaceae). The structures of morindaparvins H-O were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of quinone glycosides from the plant M. parvifolia. The results showed that all 12 compounds at the concentration of 50 μM significantly increased p53 mRNA expression in A2780 cells compared with the blank control group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. P-MAPA immunotherapy potentiates the effect of cisplatin on serous ovarian carcinoma through targeting TLR4 signaling.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo; de Moura Ferreira, Grazielle; Lupi, Luiz Antonio; da Silva Nunes, Iseu; Fávaro, Wagner José

    2018-01-17

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane proteins expressed on the surface of ovarian cancer (OC) and immune cells. Identifying the specific roles of the TLR-mediated signaling pathways in OC cells is important to guide new treatments. Because immunotherapies have emerged as the adjuvant treatment for patients with OC, we investigated the effect of a promising immunotherapeutic strategy based on protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride (P-MAPA) combined with cisplatin (CIS) on the TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways via myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and TLR-associated activator of interferon (TRIF) in an in vivo model of OC. Tumors were chemically induced by a single injection of 100 μg of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) directly under the left ovarian bursa in Fischer 344 rats. After the rats developed serous papillary OC, they were given P-MAPA, CIS or the combination P-MAPA+CIS as therapies. To understand the effects of the treatments, we assessed the tumor size, histopathology, and the TLR2- and TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses. Although CIS therapy was more effective than P-MAPA in reducing the tumor size, P-MAPA immunotherapy significantly increased the expressions of TLR2 and TLR4. More importantly, the combination of P-MAPA with CIS showed a greater survival rate compared to CIS alone, and exhibited a significant reduction in tumor volume compared to P-MAPA alone. The combination therapy also promoted the increase in the levels of the following OC-related proteins: TLR4, MyD88, TRIF, inhibitor of phosphorylated NF-kB alpha (p-IkBα), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB p65) in both cytoplasmic and nuclear sites. While P-MAPA had no apparent effect on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6, it seems to increase interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which may induce the Thelper (Th1)-mediated immune response. Collectively, our results suggest that P-MAPA immunotherapy combined with cisplatin

  15. Autocatalytic caspase-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter suppresses human ovarian carcinoma growth in vitro and in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Yue; Xia, Zhijun; Shen, Keng; Zhai, Xingyue

    2013-05-01

    To construct recombinant adenoviruses AdHT-rev-casp3 and Ad-rev-casp3, which express autocatalysis caspase-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and cytomegalovirus promoter, respectively; and to investigate their antitumor effects on ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Cell viabilities were determined using the cell counting kit 8 and flow cytometry. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting assays were used to detect cellular apoptotic activities after treatments. Tumor growth and survival of mice bearing AO cells were studied. AdHT-rev-casp3 significantly suppressed the survival of AO cells in a dose-dependent modality with a viability rate of 60.45% ± 7.8% at an multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 70 and 42.18 ± 5.3% at an MOI of 100, which was somewhat lower than that of the AO cells treated with Ad-rev-casp3 (32.28% ± 5.3% and 21.84% ± 3.4%, respectively). In contrast, AdHT-rev-casp3 induced little human umbilical vein epithelial cell (HUVEC) death with a viability rate of 98.52% ± 6.9% at an MOI of 70, whereas Ad-rev-casp3 induced significant cell death in HUVEC with a viability rate of 27.14% ± 5.4%. Additionally, AdHT-rev-casp3 (MOI = 70) caused significant apoptosis in AO cells with an apoptotic rate of 25.97%, whereas it caused undetectable apoptosis in HUVECs with the rate of only 1.75%. Ad-rev-casp3 (MOI = 70) caused strong apoptosis in both AO and HUVECs, with the rate of 35.82% and 38.12%, respectively. AdHT-rev-casp3 caused markedly higher levels of active caspase-3, causing no detectable active caspase-3 expression in HUVECs. The tumor growth suppression rate of AdHT-rev-casp3 was 54.94%, significantly higher than that of phosphate-buffered saline at the end point of the study. AdHT-rev-casp3 significantly improved the survival of mice receiving intraperitoneal inoculation of AO cells with little liver damage, with the mean survival of 177 ± 12 days. AdHT-rev-casp3 causes effective apoptosis

  16. A Mouse Model to Investigate Postmenopausal Biology as an Etiology of Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    1 mucinous adenocarcinomas 3 clear-cell carcinomas 1 malignant mixed mesodermal tumor 3 metastatic ovarian carcinomas 5 undifferentiated carcinomas 2...serous LMP tumors 2 mucinous LMP tumors 1 benign serous cystadenoma Ovarian tumor blocks 38 18 serous adenocarcinomas 5 mucinous adenocarcinomas 2...endometrioid adenocarcinomas 3 clear cell carcinomas 6 serous LMP 3 mucinous LMP 1 benign fibrous cystadenoma MMPs IN EARLY OVARIAN CANCER DEVELOPMENT

  17. Intra-abdominal temperature distribution during consolidation hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with carboplatin in the treatment of advanced stage ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rettenmaier, Mark A; Mendivil, Alberto A; Gray, Crystal M; Chapman, Amber P; Stone, Michelle K; Tinnerman, Erin J; Goldstein, Bram H

    2015-06-01

    Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) involves the continuous heating and circulation of chemotherapy throughout the abdominal cavity in an attempt to enhance cytotoxicity. Despite the potential of this chemotherapy procedure, there are scant anatomical temperature distribution studies reporting on this therapeutic process. We prospectively evaluated the temperature of select anatomical (e.g. upper abdominal, mid-abdominal and supra-pubic) sites in 11 advanced stage ovarian cancer patients who were treated with consolidation HIPEC carboplatin (AUC 10). The temperature of the aforementioned anatomical regions and the inflow/outflow tubing was measured at baseline and at 15-min intervals until the procedure's completion. The lowest observed mean composite temperature was 41.1 °C at the supra-pubic site whereas the highest temperature was 42.6 °C, in association with the inflow/outflow tubing. During the various time intervals we also ascertained that the lowest composite temperature was 40.9 °C at baseline (i.e. time 0), whereas the highest value (41.8 °C) occurred at multiple time periods (e.g., 15, 45 and 60 min). The HIPEC temperature variation amongst the various abdominal sites and time intervals was minimal. We also discerned that uniform temperature distribution throughout the abdominal cavity was facilitated when the abdomen was both maximally distended with fluid and a high flow rate was maintained.

  18. The role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-8 receptors in platinum response in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stronach, Euan A.; Cunnea, Paula; Turner, Christina; Guney, Tankut; Aiyappa, Radhika; Jeyapalan, Senthuran; de Sousa, Camila H.; Browne, Alacoque; Magdy, Nesreen; Studd, James B.; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Platinum based drugs are the cornerstone of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, however the development of chemoresistance hinders its success. IL-8 is involved in regulating several pro-survival pathways in cancer. We studied the expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors in platinum sensitive and resistant cell lines. Using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, both platinum sensitive (PEA1, PEO14) and resistant (PEA2, PEO23) show increased expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors. IL-8RA shows nuclear and cytoplasmic expression, whilst IL-8RB is present solely in the cytoplasm. Knockdown of IL-8 increased sensitivity to cisplatin in platinum sensitive and reversed platinum resistance in resistant cell lines, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreased inhibitory phosphorylation of pro-apoptotic Bad. IL-8 receptor antagonist treatment also enhanced platinum sensitivity. Nuclear localisation of IL-8RA was only detected in platinum resistant tumours. Inhibition of IL-8 signalling can enhance response in platinum sensitive and resistant disease. Nuclear IL-8RA may have potential as a biomarker of resistant disease. PMID:26267317

  19. The role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-8 receptors in platinum response in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stronach, Euan A; Cunnea, Paula; Turner, Christina; Guney, Tankut; Aiyappa, Radhika; Jeyapalan, Senthuran; de Sousa, Camila H; Browne, Alacoque; Magdy, Nesreen; Studd, James B; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2015-10-13

    Platinum based drugs are the cornerstone of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, however the development of chemoresistance hinders its success. IL-8 is involved in regulating several pro-survival pathways in cancer. We studied the expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors in platinum sensitive and resistant cell lines. Using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, both platinum sensitive (PEA1, PEO14) and resistant (PEA2, PEO23) show increased expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors. IL-8RA shows nuclear and cytoplasmic expression, whilst IL-8RB is present solely in the cytoplasm. Knockdown of IL-8 increased sensitivity to cisplatin in platinum sensitive and reversed platinum resistance in resistant cell lines, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreased inhibitory phosphorylation of pro-apoptotic Bad. IL-8 receptor antagonist treatment also enhanced platinum sensitivity. Nuclear localisation of IL-8RA was only detected in platinum resistant tumours. Inhibition of IL-8 signalling can enhance response in platinum sensitive and resistant disease. Nuclear IL-8RA may have potential as a biomarker of resistant disease.

  20. MT-4 suppresses resistant ovarian cancer growth through targeting tubulin and HSP27.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hui Chen; Kumar, Sunil; Shen, Chien-Chang; Liou, Jing Ping; Pan, Shiow Lin; Teng, Che Ming

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the anticancer mechanisms of MT-4 were examined in A2780 and multidrug-resistant NCI-ADR/res human ovarian cancer cell lines. To evaluate the activity of MT-4, we performed in vitro cell viability and cell cycle assays and in vivo xenograft assays. Immunoblotting analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of MT-4 on ovarian cancer. Tubulin polymerization was determined using a tubulin binding assay. MT-4 (2-Methoxy-5-[2-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-phenol), a derivative of moscatilin, can inhibit both sensitive A2780 and multidrug-resistant NCI-ADR/res cell growth and viability. MT-4 inhibited tubulin polymerization to induce G2/M arrest followed by caspase-mediated apoptosis. Further studies indicated that MT-4 is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein (p-gp). MT-4 also caused G2/M cell cycle arrest, accompanied by the upregulation of cyclin B, p-Thr161 Cdc2/p34, polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), Aurora kinase B, and phospho-Ser10-histone H3 protein levels. In addition, we found that p38 MAPK pathway activation was involved in MT-4-induced apoptosis. Most importantly, MT-4 also decreased heat shock protein 27 expression and reduced its interaction with caspase-3, which inured cancer cells to chemotherapy resistance. Treatment of cells with SB203580 or overexpression of dominant negative (DN)-p38 or wild-type HSP27 reduced PARP cleavage caused by MT-4. MT-4 induced apoptosis through regulation of p38 and HSP27. Our xenograft models also show the in vivo efficacy of MT-4. MT-4 inhibited both A2780 and NCI-ADR/res cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These findings indicate that MT-4 could be a potential lead compound for the treatment of multidrug-resistant ovarian cancer.

  1. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-23

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  2. Randomized phase II trial of carboplatin versus paclitaxel and carboplatin in platinum-sensitive recurrent advanced ovarian carcinoma: a GEICO (Grupo Espanol de Investigacion en Cancer de Ovario) study.

    PubMed

    González-Martín, A J; Calvo, E; Bover, I; Rubio, M J; Arcusa, A; Casado, A; Ojeda, B; Balañá, C; Martínez, E; Herrero, A; Pardo, B; Adrover, E; Rifá, J; Godes, M J; Moyano, A; Cervantes, A

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the response rate for the paclitaxel-carboplatin combination is superior to carboplatin alone in the treatment of patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian carcinoma. Patients with recurrent ovarian carcinoma, 6 months after treatment with a platinum-based regimen and with no more than two previous chemotherapy lines, were randomized to receive carboplatin area under the curve (AUC) 5 (arm A) or paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) + carboplatin AUC 5 (arm B). The primary end point was objective response, following a 'pick up the winner' design. Secondary end points included time to progression (TTP), overall survival, tolerability and quality of life (QoL). Eighty-one patients were randomized and included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The response rate in arm B was 75.6% [26.8% complete response (CR) + 48.8% partial response (PR)] [95% confidence interval (CI) 59.7% to 87.6%] and 50% in arm A (20% CR + 30% PR) (95% CI 33.8% to 66.2%). No significant differences were observed in grade 3-4 hematological toxicity. Conversely, mucositis, myalgia/arthralgia and peripheral neurophaty were more frequent in arm B. Median TTP was 49.1 weeks in arm B (95% CI 36.9-61.3) and 33.7 weeks in arm A (95% CI 25.8-41.5). No significant differences were found in the QoL analysis. Paclitaxel-carboplatin combination is a tolerable regimen with a higher response rate than carboplatin monotherapy in platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian carcinoma.

  3. Significantly greater expression of ER, PR, and ECAD in advanced-stage low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Lu, Karen H; Malpica, Anais; Bodurka, Diane C; Shvartsman, Hyun S; Schmandt, Rosemarie E; Thornton, Angela D; Deavers, Michael T; Silva, Elvio G; Gershenson, David M

    2007-10-01

    A 2-tier system that classifies ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC) as low grade or high grade is gaining acceptance. Women with low-grade OSC generally have higher 5-year survival rates than do women with high-grade OSC. We examined the expression of various markers to further understand the molecular differences between low-grade and high-grade OSCs: the potential therapeutic targets or prognostic markers Her-2/neu, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor (PR); the metastasis-associated markers cyclin D1 (BCL1), E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, and MMP-9; and the cell proliferation-associated markers BCL1, Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67), and p53. For this immunohistochemical analysis, we used paraffin-embedded specimens from 47 patients with advanced-stage low-grade OSC and from 49 patients with advanced-stage high-grade OSC. Our results showed that low-grade tumors expressed significantly higher levels of estrogen receptor, PR, and E-cadherin than did high-grade tumors, suggesting the involvement of gonadal steroid hormones, especially in the pathogenesis of low-grade OSC; the PR positivity was also observed in the stromal component of these low-grade tumors. On the other hand, high-grade tumors trended toward increased expression of MMP-9, BCL1, p53, and Ki-67, and robust MMP-9 positivity was observed in the stromal component of these high-grade tumors. These differences may lead to the development of different therapeutic strategies for women with either the low-grade or the high-grade form of OSC.

  4. Hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 immunoreactivity indicates an increased risk of poor overall survival in patients with ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenting; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kiyosumi; Koya, Yoshihiro; Senga, Takeshi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2018-06-01

    Hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (HS1) is a 75-kDa intracellular protein that is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. Several previous studies have demonstrated the association between HS1 expression and a poor prognosis in hematopoietic malignancies; however, in solid tumors, no studies not been reported. The present study examined the distribution and expression of HS1 in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) to determine its clinical significance. Paraffin sections were obtained from EOC tissues and immunostained with HS1 antibody, and then the staining intensities were evaluated. Overall survival (OS) was determined using the Kaplan-Meier estimator method, and multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards analysis. In total, 195 patients with EOC (median age, 56 years) were enrolled into the present study. HS1 immunoreactivity was categorized based on expression levels: Low (89/195; 45.6%) and high (106/195; 54.4%). Results demonstrated no association between expression level(s) and any clinicopathological parameter including age, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging, type of chemotherapy or type of surgery received. The 5-year OS rates of patients who demonstrated low (n=89) and high (n=106) HS1 expression were 90.4 and 66.7%, respectively. The OS times for patients with high HS1 expression were significantly shorter compared with those for patients exhibiting low HS1 expression (P=0.0065). Results obtained from the multivariate analysis demonstrated that the FIGO stage and the amount of HS1 expressed were significant independent prognostic markers for poorer OS (hazard ratio, 3.539; 95% confidence interval, 1.221-12.811; P=0.0187). High HS1 expression levels may serve as a useful biomarker in patients with EOC who are likely to exhibit an unfavorable clinical outcome.

  5. Histologic parameters predictive of disease outcome in women with advanced stage ovarian carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Samrao, Damanzoopinder; Wang, Dan; Ough, Faith; Lin, Yvonne G; Liu, Song; Menesses, Teodulo; Yessaian, Annie; Turner, Nicole; Pejovic, Tanja; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette

    2012-12-01

    The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by tumor reduction surgery, also called interval debulking surgery (IDS), is considered an alternative therapeutic regimen for selected patients with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Although minimal residual disease has been proven to be a prognostic factor in traditional cytoreduction for advanced stage EOC, predictive factors after IDS still remain unexplored. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of post-neoadjuvant histologic changes with clinical outcome. Three pathologists evaluated 67 cases for the following parameters: fibrosis, necrosis, residual tumor, and inflammation. The Cohen's kappa statistic was used to measure agreement among pathologists. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between histologic parameters and recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). There was substantial to almost perfect agreement among the three pathologists in all four histologic parameters (k ranged from 0.65 to 0.97). Fibrosis was associated with longer RFS (P = 0.0257) with a median of 20 months for tumors with fibrosis (3+) versus 12 months for tumors with fibrosis (1+, 2+) and longer OS (P = 0.0249) with a median of 51 months for tumors with fibrosis (3+) versus 32 months for tumors with fibrosis (1+, 2+). Our results revealed that patients with tumors exhibiting fibrosis (1+, 2+), as well as necrosis (0, 1+), had significant shorter RFS and OS (P = 0.059 and P = 0.0234, respectively). We suggest that the assessment of fibrosis and necrosis should be implemented in pathologic evaluation and prospectively validated in future studies.

  6. Surgical Techniques for Diaphragmatic Resection During Cytoreduction in Advanced or Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Chiappa, Valentina; Donfrancesco, Cristina; Di Donato, Violante; Indini, Alice; Aletti, Giovanni; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    Optimal cytoreduction is one the main factors improving survival outcomes in patients affected by ovarian cancer (OC). It is estimated that approximately 40% of OC patients have gross disease located on the diaphragm. However, no mature data evaluating outcomes of surgical techniques for the management of diaphragmatic carcinosis exist. In the present study, we aimed to estimate surgery-related morbidity of different surgical techniques for diaphragmatic cytoreduction in advanced or recurrent OC. PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, and Clincaltrials.gov databases were searched for records estimating outcomes of diaphragmatic peritoneal stripping (DPS) or diaphragmatic full-thickness resection (DFTR) for OC. The meta-analysis was performed using the Cochrane Review software. For the final analysis, 5 articles were available, including 272 patients. Diaphragmatic peritoneal stripping and DFTR were performed in 197 patients (72%) and 75 patients (28%), respectively. Pooled analysis suggested that the estimated pleural effusion rate was 43% and 51% after DPS and DFTR, respectively. The need for pleural punctures or chest tube placement was 4% and 9% after DPS and DFTR, respectively. The rate of postoperative pneumothorax (4% vs 9%; odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-2.08) and subdiaphragmatic abscess (3% vs 3%; odds ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-2.31) were similar after the execution of DPS and DFTR. Diaphragmatic surgery is a crucial step during cytoreduction for advanced or recurrent OC. Obviously, the choice to perform DPS or DFTR depends on the infiltration of the diaphragmatic muscle or not. Both the procedures are associated with a low pulmonary complication and chest tube placement rates.

  7. Minimally Invasive Surgical Staging in Early-stage Ovarian Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Borghi, Chiara; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Lopez, Carlos; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Scaffa, Cono; Indini, Alice; Ferrero, Simone; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    Few studies investigated the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (eEOC). In this context, we aimed to review the current evidence comparing laparoscopy and the laparotomic approach for staging procedures in eEOC. This systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. Overall, 3065 patients were included: 1450 undergoing laparoscopy and 1615 undergoing laparotomic staging. Patients undergoing laparoscopy experienced a longer (but not statistically significant) operative time (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 28.3 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.59 to 59.2), a lower estimated blood loss (WMD = -156.5 mL; 95% CI, -216.4 to -96.5), a shorter length of hospital stay (WMD = -3.7 days; 95% CI, -5.2 to -2.1), and a lower postoperative complication rate (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.29-0.81) than patients undergoing laparotomy. The upstaging (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.55-1.20) and cyst rupture (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 0.52-3.38) rates were similar between groups. Laparoscopic staging is associated with a shorter time to chemotherapy than laparotomic procedures (WMD = -5.16 days; 95% CI, -8.68 to -1.64). Survival outcomes were not influenced by the route of surgery. Pooled data suggested that the minimally invasive surgical approach is equivalent to laparotomy for the treatment of eEOC and may be superior in terms of perioperative outcomes. However, because of the low level of evidence of the included studies, further randomized trials are warranted. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. FRET Imaging Trackable Long Circulating Biodegradable Nanomedicines for Ovarian Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    difference between treatment with 2P-EPI and P- EPI until day 35 when tumor started regrowth in P-EPI group , and four of the tumors grew back to ~1200...A2780 ovarian tumors were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 5 for each group ). P-EPI and 2P-EPIwere administered via tail veinwith dose 5mg/kg...and P-EPI until day 35 when tumor started re- growth in P-EPI group , and four of the tumors grew back to ~1200% at day 80 (p b 0.01) (Fig. 3). On the

  9. Successful pregnancy after mucinous cystic neoplasm with invasive carcinoma of the pancreas in a patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Holloman, Conisha; Carlan, S J; Sundharkrishnan, Lohini; Guzman, Angela; Madruga, Mario

    2017-07-11

    The incidence of invasive cancer within a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas varies between 6 and 36%. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and anovulatory infertility. One surgical treatment that can restore endocrine balance and ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome is partial ovarian destruction. Successful pregnancies following preconception pancreaticoduodenectomies (Whipple procedures) and chemoradiation to treat pancreatic neoplasms have been reported rarely but none were diagnosed with pre-cancer polycystic ovarian syndrome-associated infertility. Gemcitabine is an antimetabolite drug used for the treatment of pancreatic cancer that can have profound detrimental effects on oogenesis and ovarian function. Whether the ovarian destructive property of gemcitabine could act as a method to restore ovulation potential in polycystic ovarian syndrome is unknown. A 40-year-old white American woman with a history of pancreatic cancer treatment with a Whipple procedure and chemoradiation with gemcitabine had a successful pregnancy after years of pre-cancerous anovulatory infertility and polycystic ovarian syndrome. She received no fertility agents and delivered full term via a spontaneous vaginal delivery with no pregnancy complications. Gemcitabine treatment for pancreatic cancer may result in resumption of ovulation in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and these women should be counseled accordingly.

  10. The role of topotecan for extending the platinum-free interval in recurrent ovarian cancer: an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Neil S; Hua, Jun; Gibb, Randall K; Mutch, David G; Herzog, Thomas J

    2004-07-01

    Topotecan, a novel topoisomerase-I inhibitor, is an active agent of second-line chemotherapy for extending the platinum-free interval (PFI) and improving the chances of a response to platinum in recurrent ovarian cancer patients. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular mechanism of topotecan-based second-line chemotherapy through an in vitro cell culture model and to gain clinical insight into sequencing issues for second-line treatment with novel agents versus retreatment with platinum. The human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and the cisplatin resistance cell line A2780-CR were separately seeded in 6-well cell culture plates and then exposed to multiple concentrations of cisplatin plus paclitaxel or topotecan for 7 days. Surviving cells were recovered and cultured in drug-free media for 3 weeks and then replated in a 96-well microtiter plate. The LD(50) for these cells was determined by a cytotoxic MTT assay after exposure to multiple clinically relevant concentrations of cisplatin or topotecan. Surviving cells were cultured in drug-free media for an additional 4 weeks at which time the LD(50) was reassessed for each cell population by a second MTT assay. Using RT-PCR and Northern blot hybridization to measure mRNA expression, the molecular profile of these cells in terms of resistance was evaluated for the multidrug-resistant gene (MDR-1), multidrug-resistant protein (MRP), Topoisomerase-I, and beta-Actin. The LD(50) to cisplatin was unchanged in A2780-CR cells treated by topotecan. Those A2780-CR cells originally exposed to higher concentrations of cisplatin became more resistant to cisplatin in the MTT assays, while those A2780-CR cell lines treated with a combination of lower cisplatin concentrations and paclitaxel became more sensitive to cisplatin in the MTT assay (P < 0.01). The second MTT assay demonstrated that the LD(50) for cisplatin in every cell line decreased significantly after a 4-week drug-free interval (P < 0.01). There was no

  11. Metformin and Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-17

    Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ascites; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  12. Metformin attenuates ovarian cancer cell growth in an AMP-kinase dispensable manner

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, R; Giri, S; Hartmann, LC; Shridhar, V

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Metformin, the most widely used drug for type 2 diabetes activates 59 adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates cellular energy metabolism. Here, we report that ovarian cell lines VOSE, A2780, CP70, C200, OV202, OVCAR3, SKOV3ip, PE01 and PE04 predominantly express -α1, -β1, -γ1 and -γ2 isoforms of AMPK subunits. Our studies show that metformin treatment (1) significantly inhibited proliferation of diverse chemo-responsive and -resistant ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, CP70, C200, OV202, OVCAR3, SKVO3ip, PE01 and PE04), (2) caused cell cycle arrest accompanied by decreased cyclin D1 and increased p21 protein expression, (3) activated AMPK in various ovarian cancer cell lines as evident from increased phosphorylation of AMPKα and its downstream substrate; acetyl co-carboxylase (ACC) and enhanced β-oxidation of fatty acid and (4) attenuated mTOR-S6RP phosphorylation, inhibited protein translational and lipid biosynthetic pathways, thus implicating metformin as a growth inhibitor of ovarian cancer cells. We also show that metformin-mediated effect on AMPK is dependent on liver kinase B1 (LKB1) as it failed to activate AMPK-ACC pathway and cell cycle arrest in LKB1 null mouse embryo fibroblasts (mefs). This observation was further supported by using siRNA approach to down-regulate LKB1 in ovarian cancer cells. In contrast, met formin inhibited cell proliferation in both wild-type and AMPKα1/2 null mefs as well as in AMPK silenced ovarian cancer cells. Collectively, these results provide evidence on the role of metformin as an anti-proliferative therapeutic that can act through both AMPK-dependent as well as AMPK-independent pathways. PMID:19874425

  13. EF5 in Finding Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Who Are Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Cervical, Endometrial, or Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  14. Ovarian Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pregnancy can occur. Ovaries also make the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. When a woman goes through menopause, her ovaries stop making those hormones and releasing eggs. Problems with the ovaries include Ovarian cancer Ovarian ...

  15. Tocotrienol Nanoemulsion Platform of Curcumin Elicit Elevated Apoptosis and Augmentation of Anticancer Efficacy against Breast and Ovarian Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Steuber, Nelson; Vo, Kathy; Wadhwa, Ritambhara; Birch, Jordan; Iacoban, Paulina; Chavez, Pedro; Elbayoumi, Tamer A

    2016-10-26

    Vitamin E (VE) tocotrienols (T3), recognized for their cancer-specific anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities, have been previously fabricated into bio-active nanoemulsion (NE) formulations. Here, our viscosity-adapted δ-T3 NE platform was developed to additionally incorporate curcumin (CUR), which is known for its potent suppression of signaling pathways involved in malignant cell growth, survival and metastasis. Thanks to efficient 70:30 wt % surfactant mix of Lutrol F-127:VE-TPGS, in conjunction with optimal CUR loading, a prototype CUR in δ-T3 NE was successfully prepared. Model CUR/δ-T3 NE demonstrated excellent nano-scale aspects (mean particle size = 261 nm, PDI = 0.27, and ζ-potential = -35 mV), pharmaceutical stability, and controlled release properties. Suitability for systemic administration was also verified via standardized in vitro biocompatibility and hemocompatibility assays. In two human cancer cells (MCF-7 and OVCAR-8), our CUR/δ-T3 NE prominently suppressed constitutive NF-κB activation, and significantly induced apoptosis. Finally, the combined CUR/δ-T3 NE produced superior cytotoxicity profiles, in concentration- and time-dependent manners ( p ≤ 0.05), at least three to four folds lower IC 50 than in closest CUR control. The strong synergism, estimated in both cultured carcinomas, revealed the augmented therapeutic efficacy of our CUR/δ-T3 NE combined platform, supporting its strong potential towards pharmaceutical development for cancer therapy.

  16. [The efficacy of autocatalytic casapse-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter on human ovarian carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Song, Yue; Shen, Keng; Yu, Jing-rong

    2007-11-06

    To construct recombinant adenoviral vector expressing autocatalysis caspase-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (hTERTp), and investigate its antitumor effect on ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant adenovirus expressing autocatalytic caspase-3 (rev-csapase-3) driven by hTERTp, AdHT-rev-casp3, was constructed. Ad-rev-casp3 expressing rev-caspase-3 driven by cytomegalovirus promoter (CMVp) was used as a positive control. hTERT positive human ovarian cancer cells of the line AO and hTERT-negative human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and transfected with AdHT-rev-casp3, Ad-rev-casp3, or Ad-EGFG expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein as control group. Western blotting, Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8), flow cytometry, and TUNEL were used to detect the expression of p17, active subunit of caspase-3, and p85, a poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage fragment, and they were also used to measure the cell survival rate and apoptotic rate. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of active caspase-3 and its substrate PARP in the AO cells and HUVECs. Twenty nude BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously with AO cells to establish subcutaneous tumor models, when the tumor grew to the volume of 150 mm3 the rats were divided into 4 equal groups to undergo intra-tumor injection of AdHT-rev-casp3, Ad-rev-casp3, Ad-EGFG, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) respectively, the survival rate tumor inhibition rate was observed, 72 days later the mice were killed with their livers and tumors taken out, and Western blotting was used to detect the expression of active caspase-3. Another 40 mice underwent intraperitoneal injection of AO cells to establish intraperitoneal transplanted tumor models, 21 days later the rats were divided into 4 equal groups to be injected intraperitoneally with AdHT-rev-casp3, Ad-rev-casp3, Ad-EGFG, or PBS, the survival rate was observed, and the blood levels of alanine transaminase

  17. Monoclonal antibody against human ovarian tumor-associated antigens.

    PubMed

    Poels, L G; Peters, D; van Megen, Y; Vooijs, G P; Verheyen, R N; Willemen, A; van Niekerk, C C; Jap, P H; Mungyer, G; Kenemans, P

    1986-05-01

    Mouse monoclonal antibodies (OV-TL 3) were raised against human ovarian tumor-associated antigens for diagnostic purposes. A cloned hybridoma cell line was obtained by fusion of murine myeloma cells with spleen lymphocytes from BALB/c mice immunized with a tumor cell suspension prepared from an ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. The antibodies were initially screened for their ability to bind on frozen sections of human ovarian carcinoma tissue and a negative reaction on gastric carcinoma tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. The reactivity of the selected OV-TL 3 clone (IgG1 subclass) was studied on normal and neoplastic tissues as well as on a cell line derived from the original tumor cell suspension used for immunization. OV-TL 3 antibodies stained frozen sections of human ovarian carcinomas of the following histological types: serous, mucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell. No reaction was found with breast cancers or other nongynecological tumors. No differences in staining pattern were observed between primary and metastatic ovarian carcinomas. OV-TL 3 antibodies brightly stained ovarian carcinoma cell clusters in ascitic fluids and left unstained mesothelial cells and peripheral blood cells. The OV-TL 3-defined antigen also remained strongly expressed on a cell line derived from the endometrioid ovarian carcinoma originally used for generation of OV-TL 3 clone. Reactivity was weak and irregular in a few ovarian cysts, while traces of fluorescence were sometimes detected in epithelial cells lining the female genital tract. In only 3 specimens of 15 endometrium carcinomas was weak focal reactivity with OV-TL 3 antibodies observed. The results of the immunofluorescence study were confirmed by the more sensitive avidin-biotin method and by 125I-labeled OV-TL 3 antibodies. Thus OV-TL 3 recognizes a common antigen for most ovarian carcinomas and may be a useful tool for rapid diagnosis of ovarian carcinomas.

  18. Ovarian cancer statistics, 2018.

    PubMed

    Torre, Lindsey A; Trabert, Britton; DeSantis, Carol E; Miller, Kimberly D; Samimi, Goli; Runowicz, Carolyn D; Gaudet, Mia M; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L

    2018-05-29

    In 2018, there will be approximately 22,240 new cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed and 14,070 ovarian cancer deaths in the United States. Herein, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of ovarian cancer occurrence based on incidence data from nationwide population-based cancer registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. The status of early detection strategies is also reviewed. In the United States, the overall ovarian cancer incidence rate declined from 1985 (16.6 per 100,000) to 2014 (11.8 per 100,000) by 29% and the mortality rate declined between 1976 (10.0 per 100,000) and 2015 (6.7 per 100,000) by 33%. Ovarian cancer encompasses a heterogenous group of malignancies that vary in etiology, molecular biology, and numerous other characteristics. Ninety percent of ovarian cancers are epithelial, the most common being serous carcinoma, for which incidence is highest in non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) (5.2 per 100,000) and lowest in non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (APIs) (3.4 per 100,000). Notably, however, APIs have the highest incidence of endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas, which occur at younger ages and help explain comparable epithelial cancer incidence for APIs and NHWs younger than 55 years. Most serous carcinomas are diagnosed at stage III (51%) or IV (29%), for which the 5-year cause-specific survival for patients diagnosed during 2007 through 2013 was 42% and 26%, respectively. For all stages of epithelial cancer combined, 5-year survival is highest in APIs (57%) and lowest in NHBs (35%), who have the lowest survival for almost every stage of diagnosis across cancer subtypes. Moreover, survival has plateaued in NHBs for decades despite increasing in NHWs, from 40% for cases diagnosed during 1992 through 1994 to 47% during 2007 through 2013. Progress in reducing ovarian cancer incidence and mortality can be accelerated by reducing racial disparities and furthering knowledge of etiology and

  19. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein promotes cisplatin resistance and regulates CD147 via Sp1 in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Ma, Xiangdong; Yang, Hong; Hua, Wei; Chen, Biliang; Cai, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the highest mortality rate of all female reproductive malignancies. Drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in malignant tumors. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein acts as an oncoprotein, regulates cell proliferation, and migration in breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of hepatitis B X-interacting protein on resistance to cisplatin in human ovarian cancer cell lines. The mRNA and protein levels of hepatitis B X-interacting protein were detected using RT-PCR and Western blotting in cisplatin-resistant and cisplatin-sensitive tissues, cisplatin-resistant cell lines A2780/CP and SKOV3/CP, and cisplatin-sensitive cell lines A2780 and SKOV3. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured to evaluate cellular sensitivity to cisplatin in A2780/CP cells. Luciferase reporter gene assay was used to determine the relationship between hepatitis B X-interacting protein and CD147. The in vivo function of hepatitis B X-interacting protein on tumor burden was assessed in cisplatin-resistant xenograft models. The results showed that hepatitis B X-interacting protein was highly expressed in ovarian cancer of cisplatin-resistant tissues and cells. Notably, knockdown of hepatitis B X-interacting protein significantly reduced cell viability in A2780/CP compared with cisplatin treatment alone. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein and cisplatin cooperated to induce apoptosis and increase the expression of c-caspase 3 as well as the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. We confirmed that hepatitis B X-interacting protein up-regulated CD147 at the protein expression and transcriptional levels. Moreover, we found that hepatitis B X-interacting protein was able to activate the CD147 promoter through Sp1. In vivo, depletion of hepatitis B X-interacting protein decreased the tumor volume and weight induced by cisplatin. Taken together, these results indicate that hepatitis B X-interacting protein promotes cisplatin resistance and regulated CD147 via Sp1 in

  20. Evaluation of Ocoxin-Viusid® in Advanced or Metastatic Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-08

    Carcinoma; Ovarian Neoplasm; Endocrine Gland Neoplasm; Urogenital Neoplasms; Ovarian Diseases; Adnexal Diseases; Genital Diseases, Female; Female Urogenital Diseases; Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications; Endocrine System Diseases; Gonadal Disorders; Genital Neoplasm, Female; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

  1. Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Endometrial, Ovarian, Liver, Carcinoid, or Islet Cell Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-10

    Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Localized Non-Resectable Adult Liver Carcinoma; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Malignant Pancreatic Gastrinoma; Malignant Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Malignant Pancreatic Insulinoma; Malignant Pancreatic Somatostatinoma; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Pancreatic Alpha Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Beta Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Delta Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic G-Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Adult Liver Carcinoma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

  2. The role of hormonal therapy in patients with relapsed high-grade ovarian carcinoma: a retrospective series of tamoxifen and letrozole.

    PubMed

    George, Angela; McLachlan, Jennifer; Tunariu, Nina; Della Pepa, Chiara; Migali, Cristina; Gore, Martin; Kaye, Stan; Banerjee, Susana

    2017-06-30

    Hormonal therapy is used as a treatment option in high-grade ovarian carcinoma (HGOC), but the role and choice of treatment remains unclear. Agents used include tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of tamoxifen (T) and letrozole (L) in HGOC in clinical practice and investigate factors influencing clinical outcome. A retrospective review of patients with relapsed HGOC treated with either tamoxifen or letrozole at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 2007 and 2012 was performed. The primary endpoint of the study was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included CA125 response, clinical benefit rate (CBR) and duration of response. Platinum-sensitivity and ER-status were evaluated as predictors of treatment response. 97 patients were included (43 T, 54 L); median age 63 years (20-92); 91% high-grade serous; median number of lines of prior chemotherapy 3 (1-8); 60% platinum-resistant, 40% platinum-sensitive; 52% ER + ve, 1% ER-ve, 47% unknown. 14 patients (6 T, 8 L) achieved a partial response, with ORR (RECIST) of 14% (T) and 15% (L). The CBR for ≥3 months was 65% (22/43) for tamoxifen and 56% (22/54) for letrozole. There was no significant difference in ORR (p = 0.99) or CBR (p = 0.14) between tamoxifen and letrozole. 22 patients (23%) had a CA-125 response with hormonal therapy (10 T - 23% and 12 L - 22%). ORR did not differ by platinum sensitivity (p = 0.42); or ER-status (positive vs unknown, p = 0.12). Responders to letrozole had longer durations of response than responders to tamoxifen (26 vs 11.5 months, p = 0.03), but equivalent disease stability duration (9.6 vs 7.2 months respectively, p = 0.11). Within the constraints of a retrospective study, we identified that patients treated with letrozole had a significantly longer duration of response than those treated with tamoxifen. Treatment with either tamoxifen or letrozole is a rational treatment option for patients with ER + ve HGOC

  3. Inhibition of Growth and Metastasis of Ovarian Carcinoma by Administering a Drug Capable of Interfering with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Jie; Abe, Yoshiko; Tsutsui, Tateki; Yamamoto, Norihiko; Tai, Xu‐Guang; Niwa, Ohtsura; Tsujimura, Takahiro; Sato, Bunzo; Terano, Hiroshi; Hamaoka, Toshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between in vivo growth/metastasis of tumor cells and their capacity to produce the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as well as the regulation of tumor growth/metastasis using an angiogenesis‐inhibitory drug. Two cloned tumor cell lines designated OV‐LM and OV‐HM were isolated from a murine ovarian carcinoma OV2944. OV‐LM and OV‐HM cells grew in cultures at comparable rates. However, when transplanted s.c. into syngeneic mice, OV‐HM exhibited a faster growth rate and a much higher incidence of metastasis to lymph nodes and lung. Histologically, intense neovascularization was detected in sections of OV‐HM but not of OV‐LM tumor. OV‐HM and OV‐LM tumor cells obtained from in vitro cultures expressed high and low levels of VEGF mRNA, respectively. A difference in VEGF mRNA expression was much more clearly observed between RNAs prepared from fresh OV‐HM and OV‐LM tumor masses: RNA from OV‐HM contained larger amounts of VEGF mRNA, whereas RNA from OV‐LM exhibited only marginal levels of VEGF mRNA. An angiogenesis‐inhibitory drug, FR118487 inhibited the VEGF‐mediated in vitro growth of endothelial cells but did not affect the expression in vitro of VEGF mRNA by OV‐HM tumor cells. Intraperitoneal injections of FR118487 into mice bearing OV‐HM tumors resulted in: (i) a subsequent growth inhibition of primary tumors; (ii) a marked decrease in neovascularization inside tumor masses expressing comparable levels of VEGF mRNA to those detected in control OV‐HM masses; and (iii) almost complete inhibition of metastasis to lymph nodes and lung. These results indicate that growth/metastasis of tumor cells correlates with their VEGF‐producing capacity and that an angiogenesis inhibitor, FR118487, inhibits tumor growth and metastasis through mechanism(s) including the suppression of VEGF function in vivo. PMID:8878460

  4. Targeting aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) with cyclic-imide peptidomimetics derivative CIP-13F inhibits the growth of human ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shu-Xiang; Qu, Xian-Jun; Gao, Zu-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Fan; Zhao, Cui-Rong; Xu, Wen-Fang; Li, Qian-Bin; Han, Jin-Xiang

    2010-06-28

    Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) is an essential peptidase involved in the process of tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. Inhibition of APN/CD13 may be an effective strategy for cancer treatment. CIP-13F is a cyclic-imide peptidomimetics compound designed to fit the active pockets S1 and S'1 of APN/CD13 that act in tumor proliferation. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CIP-13F as a candidate compound for cancer treatment. The experiments were performed on the human ovarian carcinoma (OVCA) ES-2 and HRA cell lines, which have high and low levels of APN/CD13 respectively. CIP-13F significantly blocked APN/CD13 activity on the surface of ES-2 cells as measured by quantitating the enzymatic cleavage of the substrate l-leucine-p-nitroanilide. CIP-13F effectively inhibited ES-2 cell growth and migration without significant cytotoxic effect. In contrast, CIP-13F did not significantly inhibit HRA cell growth, indicating that CIP-13F may inhibit ES-2 cell growth via suppression of APN/CD13. The suppression of APN/CD13 was also observed by using the assays of flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. Further, the inhibitory effects of CIP-13F on APN/CD13 and on ES-2 proliferation were supported by the induction of ES-2 apoptosis. CIP-13F-treated ES-2 cells resulted apoptotic characteristics, such as induction of externalization of phosphatidylserine and DNA laddering fragment. The activation of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) was also enhanced. The inhibitory effects of CIP-13F on APN/CD13 expression and on ES-2 proliferation were confirmed in mice bearing ES-2 xenografts. CIP-13F delayed the growth of ES-2 xenografts in mice after 2 weeks of vena caudalis injection. These results suggest that CIP-13F has a high inhibitory effect on the growth of OVCA cells via decreasing the activity and expression of APN/CD13. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Randomized Phase II Evaluation of Bevacizumab Versus Bevacizumab Plus Fosbretabulin in Recurrent Ovarian, Tubal, or Peritoneal Carcinoma: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Sill, Michael W.; Walker, Joan L.; Darus, Christopher J.; Sutton, Gregory; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Martin, Lainie P.; Schilder, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Robert L.; Balkissoon, Jai; Aghajanian, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The vascular disrupting agent fosbretabulin tromethamine selectively targets pre-existing tumor vasculature, which causes vascular shutdown and leads to cancer cell death and necrosis. Antiangiogenesis agents such as bevacizumab, a humanized antivascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody, might prevent revascularization during and after treatment with a vascular disrupting agent. Patients and Methods Patients with recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma, measurable or detectable disease, and three or fewer prior regimens were randomly assigned to bevacizumab (15 mg/kg intravenously once every 3 weeks) or the combination of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) plus fosbretabulin (60 mg/m2) intravenously once every 3 weeks until disease progression or toxicity. Randomization was stratified by disease status (measurable v nonmeasurable), prior bevacizumab, and platinum-free interval. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). The study was designed with 80% power for a one-sided alternative at a 10% level of significance to detect a reduction in the hazard by 37.5%. Results The study enrolled 107 patients. Median PFS was 4.8 months for bevacizumab and 7.3 months for bevacizumab plus fosbretabulin (hazard ratio, 0.69; 90% two-sided CI, 0.47 to 1.00; one-sided P = .05). The proportion responding (overall response rate) to bevacizumab was 28.2% among 39 patients with measurable disease and 35.7% among 42 patients treated with the combination. The relative probability of responding was 1.27 (90% CI, 0.74 to 2.17; one-sided P = .24). Adverse events greater than grade 3 were more common in the combination regimen than in bevacizumab only for hypertension (35% v 20%). There was one grade 3 thromboembolic event in the combination arm and one intestinal fistula in the bevacizumab only arm. Conclusion On the basis of the PFS, overall response rate, and tolerability of these two antivascular therapies, further evaluation

  6. Randomized Phase II Evaluation of Bevacizumab Versus Bevacizumab Plus Fosbretabulin in Recurrent Ovarian, Tubal, or Peritoneal Carcinoma: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.

    PubMed

    Monk, Bradley J; Sill, Michael W; Walker, Joan L; Darus, Christopher J; Sutton, Gregory; Tewari, Krishnansu S; Martin, Lainie P; Schilder, Jeanne M; Coleman, Robert L; Balkissoon, Jai; Aghajanian, Carol

    2016-07-01

    The vascular disrupting agent fosbretabulin tromethamine selectively targets pre-existing tumor vasculature, which causes vascular shutdown and leads to cancer cell death and necrosis. Antiangiogenesis agents such as bevacizumab, a humanized antivascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody, might prevent revascularization during and after treatment with a vascular disrupting agent. Patients with recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma, measurable or detectable disease, and three or fewer prior regimens were randomly assigned to bevacizumab (15 mg/kg intravenously once every 3 weeks) or the combination of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) plus fosbretabulin (60 mg/m(2)) intravenously once every 3 weeks until disease progression or toxicity. Randomization was stratified by disease status (measurable v nonmeasurable), prior bevacizumab, and platinum-free interval. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). The study was designed with 80% power for a one-sided alternative at a 10% level of significance to detect a reduction in the hazard by 37.5%. The study enrolled 107 patients. Median PFS was 4.8 months for bevacizumab and 7.3 months for bevacizumab plus fosbretabulin (hazard ratio, 0.69; 90% two-sided CI, 0.47 to 1.00; one-sided P = .05). The proportion responding (overall response rate) to bevacizumab was 28.2% among 39 patients with measurable disease and 35.7% among 42 patients treated with the combination. The relative probability of responding was 1.27 (90% CI, 0.74 to 2.17; one-sided P = .24). Adverse events greater than grade 3 were more common in the combination regimen than in bevacizumab only for hypertension (35% v 20%). There was one grade 3 thromboembolic event in the combination arm and one intestinal fistula in the bevacizumab only arm. On the basis of the PFS, overall response rate, and tolerability of these two antivascular therapies, further evaluation is warranted for this chemotherapy-free regimen

  7. Silymarin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li; Ma, Yalin; Liu, Ying; Zheng, Dongping; Huang, Guangrong

    2014-11-15

    The polyphenolic flavonoid silymarin that is the milk thistle extract has been found to possess an anti-cancer effect against various human epithelial cancers. In this study, to explore the regulative effect of silymarin on human ovarian cancer line A2780s and PA-1 cells, 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry were respectively used to determine the inhibitory effect of silymarin on the both cell lines, and to measure their cell cycle progression. Apoptosis induction and mitochondrial membrane potential damage were separately detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick end labeling assay and 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide staining. Additionally, western blotting was applied to determine cytochrome C release and expression levels of p53, p21, p27, p16, CDK2, Bax, Bcl-2, procaspase-9, procaspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 proteins. The activity of caspase-9 and caspase-3 was measured using Caspase-Glo-9 and Caspase-Glo-3 assay. The results indicated that silymarin effectively suppressed cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and arrested cell cycle progression at G1/S phase in A2780s and PA-1 cells via up-regulation of p53, p21, and p27 protein expression, and down-regulation of CDK2 protein expression. Additionally, silymarin treatment for 24h at 50 and 100µg/ml resulted in a reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome C release, and significantly induced apoptosis in A2780s and PA-1 cells by increasing Bax and decreasing Bcl-2 protein expression, and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Therefore, silymarin is a possible potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sequential combination therapy of ovarian cancer with cisplatin and γ-secretase inhibitor MK-0752.

    PubMed

    Chen, XiuXiu; Gong, LiHua; Ou, RongYing; Zheng, ZhenZhen; Chen, JinYan; Xie, FengFeng; Huang, XiaoXiu; Qiu, JianGe; Zhang, WenJi; Jiang, QiWei; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Hua; Shi, Zhi; Yan, XiaoJian

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal of women cancers and lack potent therapeutic options. There have many evidences demonstrate the Notch signaling has deregulation in variety of human malignancies.MK-0752 is a novel potent γ-secretase inhibitor and now assessed in clinical trial for treatment of several types of cancer, our objective was to investigate the anticancer effects and mechanisms of MK-0752 alone or combined with cisplatin in ovarian cancer. Cell lines used: A2780, OVCAR3, SKOV3, HO8910PM, the effects of MK-0752 and cisplatin on cell proliferation were measured by MTT assay. The effect of combination treatment was examined by isobologram analysis. The distribution of cell cycle and cell apoptosis were analyzed using PI and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining by flow cytometric analysis. The mechanism in biochemistry was analyzed by using Western blot. Mouse xenograft model of A2780 was established to observe the anti-ovarian cancer effects in vivo setting, nude mice were randomized into four groups (n=6 per group) and treated every 4 days with control (solvent) group, MK-0752(25mg/kg) group, cisplatin (2mg/kg)group, combination group (both of MK-0752 and cisplatin). MK-0752 alone actively induced cell growth inhibition, G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis with down-regulation of Notch1 and its downstream effectors including Hes1, XIAP, c-Myc and MDM2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, sequential combination of cisplatin prior to MK-0752 significantly promoted cell apoptosis and inhibited the subcutaneous xenograft growth of ovarian cancer in nude mice. Our data supports the sequential combination of cisplatin prior to MK-0752 is a highly promising novel experimental therapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Construction of autocatalytic caspase-3 driven by amplified human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and its enhanced efficacy of inducing apoptosis in human ovarian carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Song, Yue; Shen, Keng; He, Chun-Xia

    2007-09-01

    To construct recombinant adenoviral vector expressing autocatalysis caspase-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter amplified by two-step transcription amplification (hTERTp-TSTA), and investigate its antitumor effect in ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant adenoviruses expressing autocatalytic caspase-3 (rev-caspase-3) driven by hTERTp-TSTA were prepared, which were named as AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3. AdHT-rev-casp3, Ad-rev-casp3 and AdHTVP2G5-EGEP, which express rev-caspase-3 driven by hTERTp, cytomegalovirus promoter (CMVp) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), respectively, were used as controls. Western blot, cell counting kit (CCK-8), flow cytometry (FCM) and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) were used to detect the expression of p17, active subunit of caspase-3, and p85, and to measure cell survival rates, apoptotic rates and cell cycle distribution in ovarian cell line AO and normal human umbilical vein endothelial cell line HUVEC, following treatments of AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3. subcutaneous tumor models and abdominally spread tumor models of human ovarian carcinoma using AO cells in BALB/c nude mice were established. Following treatments of AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3, western blot was used to detect the expression of active caspase-3 in abdominally spread tumors and liver tissues, respectively, and the mouse survival rates and the volume of tumor nodules were measured, and the serum level of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were analyzed to monitor liver damages and HE staining was used to detect the histopathological changes of various organs. The levels of p17 expression in AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3-treated AO cells were significantly higher than that in Ad-rev-casp3 or AdHT-rev-casp3 treated AO cells, while no expression was observed in AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3-treated HUVEC. There was strong cell killing of AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 of hTERT positive AO cells, but not of the hTERT-negative HUVEC cells

  10. Synergistic efficacy in human ovarian cancer cells by histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA and proteasome inhibitor PS-341.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yong; Hu, Yi; Wu, Peng; Wang, Beibei; Tian, Yuan; Xia, Xi; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Tong; Jiang, Xuefeng; Ma, Quanfu; Xu, Gang; Wang, Shixuan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Meng, Li

    2011-05-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors and proteasome inhibitor are all emerging as new classes of anticancer agents. We chose TSA and PS-341 to identify whether they have a synergistic efficacy on human ovarian cancer cells. After incubated with 500 nM TSA or/and 40 nM PS-341, we found that combined groups resulted in a striking increase of apoptosis and G2/M blocking rates, no matter in A2780, cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cell line OV2008 or its resistant variant C13*. This demonstrated that TSA interacted synergistically with PS-341, which raised the possibility that combined the two drugs may represent a novel strategy in ovarian cancer.

  11. Ovarian tumor antigens.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, M; Barlow, J J

    1978-09-01

    Evidence has been reported for at least two common tumor-associated antigens, or antigenic determinants, in human cystadenocarcinomas of the ovary that are apparently absent in tissues of normal reproductive organs. These antigenic determinants are immunologically distinct from carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-fetoprotein, ferritins and histocompatibility antigens. One of these two ovarian cystadenocarcinoma-associated antigens (OCAA) is not detectable in any ovarian carcinomas except serous or mucinous types, other gynecologic or nongynecologic malignancies thus far tested, while the second antigen is present in about 90% of all gynecologic tumors and occasionally in breast and colon tumors. OCAA has been purified and partially characterized. It is a high molecular weight glycoprotein which carries the unique ovarian tumor-specific antigenic determinant along with some normal cross-reacting determinants. High levels of this glycoprotein antigen have been detected in the sera of ovarian cancer patients with advanced disease by the radioimmunoassay inhibition technique. The serial determination of circulating OCAA appeared to correlate with tumor volume as well as the clinical status of the patients.

  12. Olaparib and Onalespib in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors That Are Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery or Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Primary Peritoneal, or Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-18

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; High Grade Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Metastatic Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Primary Peritoneal High Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Unresectable Solid Neoplasm

  13. Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) directly influences platinum drug chemosensitivity in ovarian tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sawers, L; Ferguson, M J; Ihrig, B R; Young, H C; Chakravarty, P; Wolf, C R; Smith, G

    2014-09-09

    Chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer patients is frequently compromised by drug resistance, possibly due to altered drug metabolism. Platinum drugs are metabolised by glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), which is abundantly, but variably expressed in ovarian tumours. We have created novel ovarian tumour cell line models to investigate the extent to which differential GSTP1 expression influences chemosensitivity. Glutathione S-transferase P1 was stably deleted in A2780 and expression significantly reduced in cisplatin-resistant A2780DPP cells using Mission shRNA constructs, and MTT assays used to compare chemosensitivity to chemotherapy drugs used to treat ovarian cancer. Differentially expressed genes in GSTP1 knockdown cells were identified by Illumina HT-12 expression arrays and qRT-PCR analysis, and altered pathways predicted by MetaCore (GeneGo) analysis. Cell cycle changes were assessed by FACS analysis of PI-labelled cells and invasion and migration compared in quantitative Boyden chamber-based assays. Glutathione S-transferase P1 knockdown selectively influenced cisplatin and carboplatin chemosensitivity (2.3- and 4.83-fold change in IC50, respectively). Cell cycle progression was unaffected, but cell invasion and migration was significantly reduced. We identified several novel GSTP1 target genes and candidate platinum chemotherapy response biomarkers. Glutathione S-transferase P1 has an important role in cisplatin and carboplatin metabolism in ovarian cancer cells. Inter-tumour differences in GSTP1 expression may therefore influence response to platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients.

  14. Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) directly influences platinum drug chemosensitivity in ovarian tumour cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sawers, L; Ferguson, M J; Ihrig, B R; Young, H C; Chakravarty, P; Wolf, C R; Smith, G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer patients is frequently compromised by drug resistance, possibly due to altered drug metabolism. Platinum drugs are metabolised by glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), which is abundantly, but variably expressed in ovarian tumours. We have created novel ovarian tumour cell line models to investigate the extent to which differential GSTP1 expression influences chemosensitivity. Methods: Glutathione S-transferase P1 was stably deleted in A2780 and expression significantly reduced in cisplatin-resistant A2780DPP cells using Mission shRNA constructs, and MTT assays used to compare chemosensitivity to chemotherapy drugs used to treat ovarian cancer. Differentially expressed genes in GSTP1 knockdown cells were identified by Illumina HT-12 expression arrays and qRT–PCR analysis, and altered pathways predicted by MetaCore (GeneGo) analysis. Cell cycle changes were assessed by FACS analysis of PI-labelled cells and invasion and migration compared in quantitative Boyden chamber-based assays. Results: Glutathione S-transferase P1 knockdown selectively influenced cisplatin and carboplatin chemosensitivity (2.3- and 4.83-fold change in IC50, respectively). Cell cycle progression was unaffected, but cell invasion and migration was significantly reduced. We identified several novel GSTP1 target genes and candidate platinum chemotherapy response biomarkers. Conclusions: Glutathione S-transferase P1 has an important role in cisplatin and carboplatin metabolism in ovarian cancer cells. Inter-tumour differences in GSTP1 expression may therefore influence response to platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:25010864

  15. Ovarian Autoantibodies Predict Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    2000. 48(10): 541- 549. 10 7. Barua, A., et al., Anti-ovarian and anti-tumor antibodies in women with ovarian cancer. Am J Reprod Immunol, 2007 . 57...Med 2007 . 26: 909-919. 9. Barua, A., et al., Prevalence of anti-tumor antibodies in the laying hen model of human ovarian cancer. International... 2007 ; 25:4159– 4161. 6. Bosse K, Rhiem K, Wappenschmidt B, et al. Screening for ovarian cancer by transvaginal ultrasound and serum CA125 measurement in

  16. Familial association of specific histologic types of ovarian malignancy with other malignancies.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Rawal, Rajesh; Hemminki, Kari

    2004-04-01

    Population-based data on the familial association of specific histologic types of ovarian malignancy with other malignancies are limited. Such data may help to elucidate etiologic differences among histologic types of ovarian malignancy. The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database, which includes 10.3 million individuals and 20,974 ovarian carcinomas, was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for age- and histology-specific ovarian malignancies in women whose parents or siblings were affected with malignancies at the most common disease sites. Ovarian malignancy was found to be associated with ovarian, laryngeal, breast, endometrial, liver, and colon carcinoma, as well as myeloma; epithelial ovarian malignancy was found to be associated with ovarian, endometrial, and skin malignancies and with melanoma and myeloma; papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma was found to be associated with ovarian and skin malignancies and with myeloma; and endometrioid carcinoma was found to be associated with endometrial, ovarian, and prostate malignancies and with melanoma. For younger women (ages 40-45 years) whose mothers were affected with endometrial malignancies, the risk of developing endometrioid carcinoma was slightly greater than the risk of developing papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma. Specific types of ovarian malignancy may be associated with specific familial disease sites, with such associations depending on age at diagnosis; the strength of the observed associations varied according to histology. Associations were found between endometrioid carcinoma and endometrial malignancy and between serous carcinoma and Hodgkin disease. Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.

  17. Selective inhibition of tumor cell associated Vacuolar-ATPase 'a2' isoform overcomes cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Arpita; Katara, Gajendra K; Ginter, Jordyn; Pamarthy, Sahithi; Ibrahim, Safaa A; Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Sandulescu, Corina; Periakaruppan, Ramayee; Dolan, James; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Beaman, Kenneth D

    2016-06-01

    Development of resistance to platinum compounds significantly hinders successful ovarian cancer (OVCA) treatment. In tumor cells, dysregulated pH gradient across cell membranes is a key physiological mechanism of metastasis/chemo-resistance. These pH alterations are mediated by aberrant activation of key multi-subunit proton pumps, Vacuolar-ATPases (V-ATPases). In tumor cells, its 'a2' isoform (V-ATPase-V0a2) is a component of functional plasma-membrane complex and promotes tumor invasion through tumor-acidification and immuno-modulation. Its involvement in chemo-resistance has not been studied. Here, we show that V-ATPase-V0a2 is over-expressed in acquired-cisplatin resistant OVCA cells (cis-A2780/cis-TOV112D). Of all the 'a' subunit isoforms, V-ATPase-V0a2 exhibited an elevated expression on plasma membrane of cisplatin-resistant cells compared to sensitive counterparts. Immuno-histochemistry revealed V-ATPase-V0a2 expression in both low grade (highly drug-resistant) and high grade (highly recurrent) human OVCA tissues indicating its role in a centralized mechanism of tumor resistance. In cisplatin resistant cells, shRNA mediated inhibition of V-ATPase-V0a2 enhanced sensitivity towards both cisplatin and carboplatin. This improved cytotoxicity was mediated by enhanced cisplatin-DNA-adduct formation and suppressed DNA-repair pathway, leading to enhanced apoptosis. Suppression of V0a2 activity strongly reduced cytosolic pH in resistant tumor cells, which is known to enhance platinum-associated DNA-damage. As an indicator of reduced metastasis and chemo-resistance, in contrast to plasma membrane localization, a diffused cytoplasmic localization of acidic vacuoles was observed in V0a2-knockdown resistant cells. Interestingly, pre-treatment with monoclonal V0a2-inhibitory antibody enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity in resistant cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that the isoform specific inhibition of V-ATPase-V0a2 could serve as a therapeutic strategy for chemo

  18. Functional Significance of VEGFR-2 on Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spannuth, Whitney A.; Nick, Alpa M.; Jennings, Nicholas B.; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Danes, Christopher G.; Lin, Yvonne G.; Merritt, William M.; Thaker, Premal H.; Kamat, Aparna A.; Han, Liz Y.; Tonra, James R.; Coleman, Robert L.; Ellis, Lee M.; Sood, Anil K.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) has recently been discovered on ovarian cancer cells, but its functional significance is unknown and is the focus of the current study. By protein analysis, A2780-par and HeyA8 ovarian cancer cell lines expressed VEGFR-1 and HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1 expressed VEGFR-2. By in situ hybridization (ISH), 85% of human ovarian cancer specimens showed moderate to high VEGFR-2 expression while only 15% showed moderate to high VEGFR-1 expression. By immunofluorescence, little or no VEGFR-2 was detected in normal ovarian surface epithelial cells, whereas expression was detected in 75% of invasive ovarian cancer specimens. To differentiate between the effects of tumor versus host expression of VEGFR, nude mice were injected with SKOV3ip1 cells and treated with either human VEGFR-2 specific antibody (1121B), murine VEGFR-2 specific antibody (DC101), or the combination. Treatment with 1121B reduced SKOV3ip1 cell migration by 68% (p < 0.01) and invasion by 72% (p < 0.01), but exposure to VEGFR-1 antibody had no effect. Treatment with 1121B effectively blocked VEGF-induced phosphorylation of p130Cas. In vivo, treatment with either DC101 or 1121B significantly reduced tumor growth alone and in combination in the SKOV3ip1 and A2774 models. Decreased tumor burden after treatment with DC101 or 1121B correlated with increased tumor cell apoptosis, decreased proliferative index, and decreased microvessel density. These effects were significantly greater in the combination group (p<0.001). We show functionally active VEGFR-2 is present on most ovarian cancer cells. The observed anti-tumor activity of VEGF-targeted therapies may be mediated by both anti-angiogenic and direct anti-tumor effects. PMID:19058181

  19. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Knowledge is an initiative that supports the Gynecologic Cancer Education and Awareness Act of 2005, or Johanna’s Law, which was unanimously passed by the U.S. House and Senate in December of 2006, and ... and symptoms of ovarian cancer? Ovarian cancer may cause one or more of ...

  20. Exploratory Analysis of TP53 Mutations in Circulating Tumour DNA as Biomarkers of Treatment Response for Patients with Relapsed High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Piskorz, Anna M.; Biggs, Heather; Addley, Helen; Freeman, Sue; Moyle, Penelope; Sala, Evis; Sayal, Karen; Hosking, Karen; Gounaris, Ioannis; Earl, Helena M.; Rosenfeld, Nitzan; Brenton, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) carrying tumour-specific sequence alterations may provide a minimally invasive means to dynamically assess tumour burden and response to treatment in cancer patients. Somatic TP53 mutations are a defining feature of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). We tested whether these mutations could be used as personalised markers to monitor tumour burden and early changes as a predictor of response and time to progression (TTP). Methods and Findings We performed a retrospective analysis of serial plasma samples collected during routine clinical visits from 40 patients with HGSOC undergoing heterogeneous standard of care treatment. Patient-specific TP53 assays were developed for 31 unique mutations identified in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour DNA from these patients. These assays were used to quantify ctDNA in 318 plasma samples using microfluidic digital PCR. The TP53 mutant allele fraction (TP53MAF) was compared to serum CA-125, the current gold-standard response marker for HGSOC in blood, as well as to disease volume on computed tomography scans by volumetric analysis. Changes after one cycle of treatment were compared with TTP. The median TP53MAF prior to treatment in 51 relapsed treatment courses was 8% (interquartile range [IQR] 1.2%–22%) compared to 0.7% (IQR 0.3%–2.0%) for seven untreated newly diagnosed stage IIIC/IV patients. TP53MAF correlated with volumetric measurements (Pearson r = 0.59, p < 0.001), and this correlation improved when patients with ascites were excluded (r = 0.82). The ratio of TP53MAF to volume of disease was higher in relapsed patients (0.04% per cm3) than in untreated patients (0.0008% per cm3, p = 0.004). In nearly all relapsed patients with disease volume > 32 cm3, ctDNA was detected at ≥20 amplifiable copies per millilitre of plasma. In 49 treatment courses for relapsed disease, pre-treatment TP53MAF concentration, but not CA-125, was associated with TTP. Response to

  1. Exploratory Analysis of TP53 Mutations in Circulating Tumour DNA as Biomarkers of Treatment Response for Patients with Relapsed High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Christine A; Gale, Davina; Piskorz, Anna M; Biggs, Heather; Hodgkin, Charlotte; Addley, Helen; Freeman, Sue; Moyle, Penelope; Sala, Evis; Sayal, Karen; Hosking, Karen; Gounaris, Ioannis; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Earl, Helena M; Qian, Wendi; Rosenfeld, Nitzan; Brenton, James D

    2016-12-01

    Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) carrying tumour-specific sequence alterations may provide a minimally invasive means to dynamically assess tumour burden and response to treatment in cancer patients. Somatic TP53 mutations are a defining feature of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). We tested whether these mutations could be used as personalised markers to monitor tumour burden and early changes as a predictor of response and time to progression (TTP). We performed a retrospective analysis of serial plasma samples collected during routine clinical visits from 40 patients with HGSOC undergoing heterogeneous standard of care treatment. Patient-specific TP53 assays were developed for 31 unique mutations identified in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour DNA from these patients. These assays were used to quantify ctDNA in 318 plasma samples using microfluidic digital PCR. The TP53 mutant allele fraction (TP53MAF) was compared to serum CA-125, the current gold-standard response marker for HGSOC in blood, as well as to disease volume on computed tomography scans by volumetric analysis. Changes after one cycle of treatment were compared with TTP. The median TP53MAF prior to treatment in 51 relapsed treatment courses was 8% (interquartile range [IQR] 1.2%-22%) compared to 0.7% (IQR 0.3%-2.0%) for seven untreated newly diagnosed stage IIIC/IV patients. TP53MAF correlated with volumetric measurements (Pearson r = 0.59, p < 0.001), and this correlation improved when patients with ascites were excluded (r = 0.82). The ratio of TP53MAF to volume of disease was higher in relapsed patients (0.04% per cm3) than in untreated patients (0.0008% per cm3, p = 0.004). In nearly all relapsed patients with disease volume > 32 cm3, ctDNA was detected at ≥20 amplifiable copies per millilitre of plasma. In 49 treatment courses for relapsed disease, pre-treatment TP53MAF concentration, but not CA-125, was associated with TTP. Response to chemotherapy was seen earlier with ct

  2. [Analysis of familial aggregation of ovarian and breast cancer in patients with ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Y; Nishida, M; Sugita, M; Arisawa, Y; Satoh, T; Oki, A; Kohno, K; Shigemitsu, S; Tsunoda, H; Kubo, T

    1995-09-01

    In 118 patients with common epithelial ovarian tumors (carcinomas and tumors of borderline malignancy) treated at Tsukuba University Hospital and Tsukuba-Gakuen Hospital, family histories of ovarian and breast cancer were obtained from medical records or in interviews, and familial aggregation of these cancers was examined. 1. A positive family history was found in 10 patients (8.5%). The high incidences of familial ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer in patients who were previously affected with breast cancer were statistically significant. 2. Patients with serous adenocarcinoma showed a significantly greater rate of positive family history than those with mucinous adenocarcinoma. 3. No significant correlation was seen between the clinical stage and a positive family history. 4. Every patient except one with a positive family history had onset of ovarian cancer after menopause. The age at onset for familial ovarian cancer cases was younger than that for the patients' relatives who were affected previously. 5. There were 14 healthy women considered to be at high risk for ovarian cancer among 5 familial ovarian and 2 familial ovarian and breast cancer aggregations. These preliminary findings suggest that screening for early ovarian cancer should be conducted in high risk relatives of familial cancer patients and women affected with breast cancer previously. More detailed studies are needed to define the occurrence of familial or hereditary ovarian and breast cancers in Japan.

  3. Femoral metastases from ovarian serous/endometroid adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Beresford–Cleary, NJA; Mehdi, SA; Magowan, B

    2012-01-01

    Bony metastases from ovarian cancer are rare, tend to affect the axial skeleton and are associated with abdomino-pelvic disease. The median time interval between diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma and presentation of bony metastases is 44 months (1). We describe a rare case of high grade left ovarian serous / endometrioid adenocarcinoma presenting with a pathological right femoral fracture 4 weeks following diagnosis and optimal debulking of the ovarian tumour. Orthopaedic surgeons must be vigilant when planning treatment of fractures presenting in patients with a history of ovarian cancer. PMID:24960734

  4. The utility and cost of routine follow-up procedures in the surveillance of ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinoma: a 16-year institutional review.

    PubMed

    Rettenmaier, N B; Rettenmaier, C R; Wojciechowski, T; Abaid, L N; Brown, J V; Micha, J P; Goldstein, B H

    2010-11-23

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the number of ovarian cancer and primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) progressive disease cases identified via routine follow-up procedures and the corresponding cost throughout a 16-year period at a single medical institution. Previously undiagnosed epithelial ovarian (n=241), PPC (n=23), and concurrent ovarian and uterine (n=24) cancer patients were treated and then followed via CA-125, imaging (e.g., CT scan, chest X-ray), physical examination and vaginal cytology. In the group of 287 patients, there were 151 cases of disease progression. Serial imaging detected the highest number of progressive disease cases (66 initial and 45 confirmatory diagnoses), but the cost was rather high ($13,454 per patient recurrence), whereas CA-125 testing (74 initial and 20 corroborative diagnoses) was the least expensive ($3,924) per recurrent diagnosis. The total cost of surveillance during the 16-year period was nearly $2,400,000. Ultimately, serial imaging and the CA-125 assay detected the highest number of ovarian cancer and PCC progressive disease cases in comparison to physical examination and vaginal cytology, but nevertheless, all of the procedures were conducted at a considerable financial expense.

  5. Effect of estradiol on the expression of angiogenic factors in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Macarena; Plaza-Parrochia, Francisca; Lépez, Macarena; López, Daniela; Gabler, Fernando; Gayan, Patricio; Selman, Alberto; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    Ovarian cancer presents a high angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels) regulated by pro-angiogenic factors, mainly vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). An association between endogenous levels of estrogen and increased risk of developing ovarian cancer has been reported. Estrogen action is mediated by the binding to its specific receptors (ERα and ERβ), altered ERα/ERβ ratio may constitute a marker of ovarian carcinogenesis progression. To determine the effect of estradiol through ERα on the expression of NGF and VEGF in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Levels of phosphorylated estrogen receptor alpha (pERα) were evaluated in well, moderate and poorly differentiated EOC samples (EOC-I, EOC-II, EOC-III). Additionally, ovarian cancer explants were stimulated with NGF (0, 10 and 100 ng/ml) and ERα, ERβ and pERα levels were detected. Finally, human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) and epithelial ovarian cancer (A2780) cell lines were stimulated with estradiol, where NGF and VEGF protein levels were evaluated. In tissues, ERs were detected being pERα levels significantly increased in EOC-III samples compared with EOC-I (p<0.05). Additionally, ovarian explants treated with NGF increased pERα levels meanwhile total ERα and ERβ levels did not change. Cell lines stimulated with estradiol revealed an increase of NGF and VEGF protein levels (p<0.05). Estradiol has a positive effect on pro-angiogenic factors such as NGF and VEGF expression in EOC, probably through the activation of ERα; generating a positive loop induced by NGF increasing pERα levels in epithelial ovarian cells.

  6. Anti-tumor and Anti-angiogenic Effects of Aspirin-PC in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Lichtenberger, Lenard M.; Taylor, Morgan; Bottsford-Miller, Justin N.; Haemmerle, Monika; Wagner, Michael J.; Lyons, Yasmin; Pradeep, Sunila; Hu, Wei; Previs, Rebecca A.; Hansen, Jean M.; Fang, Dexing; Dorniak, Piotr L.; Filant, Justyna; Dial, Elizabeth J.; Shen, Fangrong; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Sood, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of a novel and safer (for gastrointestinal tract) aspirin (aspirin-PC) in preclinical models of ovarian cancer, in vitro dose-response studies were performed to compare the growth-inhibitory effect of aspirin-PC vs. aspirin on 3 human (A2780, SKOV3ip1, HeyA8), and a mouse (ID8) ovarian cancer cell line over an 8-day culture period. In the in vivo studies, the aspirin test drugs were studied alone and in the presence of a VEGF-A inhibitor (bevacizumab or B20), due to an emerging role for platelets in tumor growth following anti-angiogenic therapy, and we examined their underlying mechanisms. Aspirin-PC was more potent (vs. aspirin) in blocking the growth of both human and mouse ovarian cancer cells in monolayer culture. Using in vivo model systems of ovarian cancer, we found that aspirin-PC significantly reduced ovarian cancer growth by 50–90% (depending on the ovarian cell line/density). The efficacy was further enhanced in combination with Bevacizumab or B20. The growth-inhibitory effect on ovarian tumor mass and number of tumor nodules was evident, but less pronounced for aspirin and the VEGF inhibitors alone. There was no detectable gastrointestinal toxicity. Both aspirin and aspirin-PC also inhibited cell proliferation, angiogenesis and increased apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. In conclusion, PC-associated aspirin markedly inhibits the growth of ovarian cancer cells, which exceeds that of the parent drug, in both cell culture and in mouse model systems. We also found that both aspirin-PC and aspirin have robust anti-neoplastic action in the presence of VEGF blocking drugs. PMID:27638860

  7. Quality of Life and Care Needs of Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-03

    Anxiety; Fatigue; Nausea and Vomiting; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  8. Metabolomic Profiling of the Effects of Melittin on Cisplatin Resistant and Cisplatin Sensitive Ovarian Cancer Cells Using Mass Spectrometry and Biolog Microarray Technology

    PubMed Central

    Alonezi, Sanad; Tusiimire, Jonans; Wallace, Jennifer; Dufton, Mark J.; Parkinson, John A.; Young, Louise C.; Clements, Carol J.; Park, Jin Kyu; Jeon, Jong Woon; Ferro, Valerie A.; Watson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was employed to characterise the metabolic profiles of two human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive) and A2780CR (cisplatin-resistant) in response to their exposure to melittin, a cytotoxic peptide from bee venom. In addition, the metabolomics data were supported by application of Biolog microarray technology to examine the utilisation of carbon sources by the two cell lines. Data extraction with MZmine 2.14 and database searching were applied to provide metabolite lists. Principal component analysis (PCA) gave clear separation between the cisplatin-sensitive and resistant strains and their respective controls. The cisplatin-resistant cells were slightly more sensitive to melittin than the sensitive cells with IC50 values of 4.5 and 6.8 μg/mL respectively, although the latter cell line exhibited the greatest metabolic perturbation upon treatment. The changes induced by melittin in the cisplatin-sensitive cells led mostly to reduced levels of amino acids in the proline/glutamine/arginine pathway, as well as to decreased levels of carnitines, polyamines, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). The effects on energy metabolism were supported by the data from the Biolog assays. The lipid compositions of the two cell lines were quite different with the A2780 cells having higher levels of several ether lipids than the A2780CR cells. Melittin also had some effect on the lipid composition of the cells. Overall, this study suggests that melittin might have some potential as an adjuvant therapy in cancer treatment. PMID:27754384

  9. Regulation and Impact of Cytoplasmic ARID1A in Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    verified in a xenograft murine model . Immunohistochemistry studies in OCCC showed that loss of nuclear ARID1A was associated with shorter progression-free...protein 1A; tumor suppressor; ovarian cancer; SWI/SNF – switch/sucrose non- fermentable complex; ovarian clear cell carcinoma; endometrioid ovarian

  10. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... mature in the ovaries, are released in monthly cycles during the childbearing years. Many women have ovarian ... cysts develop as a result of your menstrual cycle (functional cysts). Other types of cysts are much ...

  11. Ovarian cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to get pregnant and you often get functional cysts, you can prevent them by taking hormone drugs (such as birth control pills). These medicines prevent follicles from growing. Alternative Names Physiologic ovarian ...

  12. Ovarian Cancer Is an Imported Disease: Fact or Fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Elisabetta; Kurman, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The cell of origin of ovarian cancer has been long debated. The current paradigm is that epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) arises from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). OSE is composed of flat, nondescript cells more closely resembling the mesothelium lining the peritoneal cavity, with which it is continuous, rather than the various histologic types of ovarian carcinoma (serous, endometrioid, and clear cell carcinoma), which have a Müllerian phenotype. Accordingly, it has been argued that the OSE undergoes a process termed “metaplasia” to account for this profound morphologic transformation. Recent molecular and clinicopathologic studies not only have failed to support this hypothesis but also have provided evidence that EOC stems from Müllerian-derived extraovarian cells that involve the ovary secondarily, thereby calling into question the very existence of primary EOC. This new model of ovarian carcinogenesis proposes that fallopian tube epithelium (benign or malignant) implants on the ovary to give rise to both high-grade and low-grade serous carcinomas, and that endometrial tissue implants on the ovary and produces endometriosis, which can undergo malignant transformation into endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma. Thus, ultimately EOC is not ovarian in origin but rather is secondary, and it is logical to conclude that the only true primary ovarian neoplasms are germ cell and gonadal stromal tumors analogous to tumors in the testis. If this new model is confirmed, it has profound implications for the early detection and treatment of “ovarian cancer.” PMID:22506137

  13. Tangeretin sensitizes cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells through downregulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Arafa, El-Shaimaa A; Zhu, Qianzheng; Barakat, Bassant M; Wani, Gulzar; Zhao, Qun; El-Mahdy, Mohamed A; Wani, Altaf A

    2009-12-01

    Combination of innocuous dietary components with anticancer drugs is an emerging new strategy for cancer chemotherapy to increase antitumor responses. Tangeretin is a citrus flavonoid known to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Here, we show an enhanced response of A2780/CP70 and 2008/C13 cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells to various combination treatments of cisplatin and tangeretin. Pretreatment of cells with tangeretin before cisplatin treatment synergistically inhibited cancer cell proliferation. This combination was effective in activating apoptosis via caspase cascade as well as arresting cell cycle at G(2)-M phase. Moreover, phospho-Akt and its downstream substrates, e.g., NF-kappaB, phospho-GSK-3beta, and phospho-BAD, were downregulated upon tangeretin-cisplatin treatment. The tangeretin-cisplatin-induced apoptosis in A2780/CP70 cells was increased by phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibition and siRNA-mediated Akt silencing, but reduced by overexpression of constitutively activated Akt and GSK-3beta inhibition. The overall results indicated that tangeretin exposure preconditions cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells for a conventional response to low-dose cisplatin-induced cell death occurring through downregulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Thus, effectiveness of tangeretin combinations, as a promising modality in the treatment of resistant cancers, warrants systematic clinical studies.

  14. Metastatic ovarian tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 150 cases.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Rodríguez-Gómez, Adriana; Castelan-Pedraza, Jorge; Valencia-Cedillo, Raquel

    2013-10-01

    To determine the frequency of metastatic ovarian tumors and to identify their clinicopathologic features. A total of 150 patients with pathologically confirmed metastatic ovarian carcinoma who were treated between 1995 and 2011 at the Mexican Oncology Hospital were identified by retrospective review. Clinicopathologic data were analyzed. Metastatic ovarian carcinoma accounted for 15.7% of all ovarian malignancies. The primary sites of nongynecologic tumors were the colon (30%), stomach (16%), appendix (13%), breast (13%), pancreas (12%), biliary tract (15%), and liver (4%). Gynecologic primary sites were the uterine cervix (4%) and the uterine body (23%). Primary malignancies were detected first in 66 patients (44%) and simultaneously with ovarian metastasis in 53 patients (35.3%). An ovarian mass was the first manifestation of disease in 20.6% of the cases. The patients ranged in age from 26 to 72 years (mean, 51). Krukenberg tumors were found in 35 patients (23%). The cut surfaces of the ovaries were solid in 68 patients, solid-cystic in 38, and multicystic in 44. Metastatic ovarian carcinomas are an important group of ovarian neoplasms, constituting 15.7% of all ovarian malignancies. Most of them arise from the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Combined carboplatin plus ifosfamide and cisplatin in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma. A phase I-II study. GOCS (Gynecological Oncology Cooperative Study).

    PubMed

    Lorusso, V; Leone, B; Di Vagno, G; Manzione, L; Palmeri, S; Vallejo, C; Machiavelli, M; Nacci, G; Bilancia, D; Leonardi, V; Catino, A; Gargano, G; Loverro, G; Selvaggi, L; De Lena, M

    1998-02-01

    Because of the relative lack of overlapping toxicity, carboplatin (PPL) and cisplatin (CDDP) can be easily combined for treatment of ovarian cancer to increase total platinum dose intensity. Ifosfamide (IFO), one of the most effective single agents in ovarian cancer, has a low hematological toxicity when administered in continuous infusion. From January 1991 to December 1993, 34 patients with advanced ovarian cancer, previously untreated with chemo- or radiotherapy, were enrolled in a phase I-II study with the aim of determining the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of CDDP (on day 8 of a 28-day cycle) in combination with PPL (300 mg/m2 on day 1) and IFO (4,000 mg/m2/24 h by continuous infusion on day 1). The initial dose level of CDDP was 40 mg/m2, which was continuously increased by 10 mg/m2 up to the MTD defined as one dose level below that inducing dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in at least two-thirds of treated patients; no dose escalation was allowed in the same patient. Grade 3-4 leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were observed in 54 and 49% of patients, respectively. The DLT was reached at 70 mg/m2 and therefore the dose recommended for the phase II study was 60 mg/m2. Complete (CR) plus partial response was observed in 88% of patients with a 21% pathological CR. With a minimum follow-up of 32 months (median 40 months), median progression-free survival and overall survival were 21 and 39 months, respectively. In conclusion, the combination of CDDP, PPL, and IFO provides an effective regimen for ovarian cancer with an acceptable toxicity profile.

  16. Evaluation of DNA Repair Function as a Predictor of Response in a Clinical Trial of PARP Inhibitor Monotherapy for Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    glioblastoma MGMT promoter hypermethylation Abbreviations: BRAVO, Niraparib Versus Physician’s Choice in Her2 Negative, Germline BRCA Mutation-Positive...temozolomide in mela- noma, BC, glioblastoma , and acute leukemia, as well as with signal transduction inhibitors (eg, gefitinib in EGFR-mutant non–small...from both patient-derived xenografts and the ARIEL2 (Assessment of Rucaparib in Ovarian Cancer Phase 2 Trial) trial suggest that an assay using loss

  17. [Expression and clinical significance of Xiap and Caspase-3 protien in primary epithelia ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Peng, Ping

    2010-07-01

    To study the expression and clinical significance of Xiap, Caspase-3 protein in primary epithelia ovarian cancer. The Xiap and Caspase-3 were detected by immunohistochemical in 40 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer 20 cases of borderline ovarian tumor, 15 cases of benign ovarian tumor, and 15 normal ovarian tissues. There were significantly different between the expression of Xiap in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor, benign ovarian tumor and normal ovarian tissues. The expression of Caspase-3 in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor was significantly lower than that in benign ovarian tumor and normal ovarian tissue (P<0.01). The expression of Xiap in epithelial ovarian cancer was related to clinc stage, pathological grade and living. The expression of caspase-3 in epithelial ovarian cancer was related to clinc stage and living (P<0.01). The expressions of Xiap and Caspase-3 may be important roles for the formation and development of epithelia ovarian cancer. The expressions of Xiap and Caspase-3 are the poor prognostic factors in epithelial ovarian carcinomas.

  18. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab, and Veliparib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-22

    Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Tumor; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer AJCC V6 and v7; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  19. Formation of stable small cell number three-dimensional ovarian cancer spheroids using hanging drop arrays for preclinical drug sensitivity assays.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Shreya; Ward, Maria R; Rowley, Katelyn R; Wold, Rachel M; Takayama, Shuichi; Buckanovich, Ronald J; Mehta, Geeta

    2015-07-01

    Ovarian cancer grows and metastasizes from multicellular spheroidal aggregates within the ascites fluid. Multicellular tumor spheroids are therefore physiologically significant 3D in vitro models for ovarian cancer research. Conventional hanging drop cultures require high starting cell numbers, and are tedious for long-term maintenance. In this study, we generate stable, uniform multicellular spheroids using very small number of ovarian cancer cells in a novel 384 well hanging drop array platform. We used novel tumor spheroid platform and two ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780 and OVCAR3) to demonstrate the stable incorporation of as few as 10 cells into a single spheroid. Spheroids had uniform geometry, with projected areas (42.60×10(3)μm-475.22×10(3)μm(2) for A2780 spheroids and 37.24×10(3)μm(2)-281.01×10(3)μm(2) for OVCAR3 spheroids) that varied as a function of the initial cell seeding density. Phalloidin and nuclear stains indicated cells formed tightly packed spheroids with demarcated boundaries and cell-cell interaction within spheroids. Cells within spheroids demonstrated over 85% viability. 3D tumor spheroids demonstrated greater resistance (70-80% viability) to cisplatin chemotherapy compared to 2D cultures (30-50% viability). Ovarian cancer spheroids can be generated from limited cell numbers in high throughput 384 well plates with high viability. Spheroids demonstrate therapeutic resistance relative to cells in traditional 2D culture. Stable incorporation of low cell numbers is advantageous when translating this research to rare patient-derived cells. This system can be used to understand ovarian cancer spheroid biology, as well as carry out preclinical drug sensitivity assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Formation of stable small cell number three-dimensional ovarian cancer spheroids using hanging drop arrays for preclinical drug sensitivity assays

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Shreya; Ward, Maria R.; Rowley, Katelyn R.; Wold, Rachel M.; Takayama, Shuichi; Buckanovich, Ronald J.; Mehta, Geeta

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer grows and metastasizes from multicellular spheroidal aggregates within the ascites fluid. Multicellular tumor spheroids are therefore physiologically significant3Din vitro models for ovarian cancer research. Conventional hanging drop cultures require high starting cell numbers, and are tedious for long-term maintenance. In this study, we generate stable, uniform multicellular spheroids using very small number of ovarian cancer cells in a novel 384 well hanging drop array platform. Methods We used novel tumor spheroid platform and two ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780 and OVCAR3) to demonstrate the stable incorporation of as few as 10 cells into a single spheroid. Results Spheroids had uniform geometry, with projected areas (42.60 × 103 μm–475.22 × 103 μm2 for A2780 spheroids and 37.24 × 103 μm2–281.01 × 103 μm2 for OVCAR3 spheroids) that varied as a function of the initial cell seeding density. Phalloidin and nuclear stains indicated cells formed tightly packed spheroids with demarcated boundaries and cell–cell interaction within spheroids. Cells within spheroids demonstrated over 85% viability. 3D tumor spheroids demonstrated greater resistance (70–80% viability) to cisplatin chemotherapy compared to 2D cultures (30–50% viability). Conclusions Ovarian cancer spheroids can be generated from limited cell numbers in high throughput 384 well plates with high viability. Spheroids demonstrate therapeutic resistance relative to cells in traditional 2D culture. Stable incorporation of low cell numbers is advantageous when translating this research to rare patient-derived cells. This system can be used to understand ovarian cancer spheroid biology, as well as carry out preclinical drug sensitivity assays. PMID:25913133

  1. MicroRNA-873 mediates multidrug resistance in ovarian cancer cells by targeting ABCB1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di-di; Li, Xue-Song; Meng, Xiao-Na; Yan, Jing; Zong, Zhi-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Ovarian cancer is commonly treated with cisplatin and paclitaxel combination chemotherapy; however, ovarian cancer cells often develop resistance to these drugs. Increasingly, microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR-873 have been implicated in drug resistance in many cancers, but the role of miR-873 in ovarian cancer remains unknown. MTT cell viability assays revealed that the sensitivities of ovarian cancer lines to cisplatin and paclitaxel increased following transfection with miR-873 (P < 0.05). After predicting the miR-873 binding region in the 3'-untranslated region of ABCB1, dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed this prediction. RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that MDR1 expression was significantly downregulated after transfection with miR-873 and upregulated after transfection with anti-miR-873 at both mRNA and protein levels compared to negative controls (P < 0.05). Experiments in a mouse xenograft model confirmed that intratumoral administration of miR-873 could enhance the efficacy of cisplatin in inhibiting tumor growth in ovarian cancer in vivo (P < 0.05). ABCB1 overexpression reduced sensitivities of ovarian cancer lines OVCAR3 and A2780 to cisplatin and paclitaxel, which can be reversed by miR-873 mimic transfection (P < 0.05). In summary, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-873 increased the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin and paclitaxel by targeting MDR1 expression. Our findings suggest that combination therapies with chemotherapy agents and miR-873 may suppress drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

  2. Temsirolimus in women with platinum-refractory/resistant ovarian cancer or advanced/recurrent endometrial carcinoma. A phase II study of the AGO-study group (AGO-GYN8).

    PubMed

    Emons, Günter; Kurzeder, Christian; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Neuser, Petra; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Mahner, Sven; Schröder, Willibald; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Heubner, Martin Leonhard; Hanker, Lars; Thiel, Falk; Hilpert, Felix

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate activity and toxicity of mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus in patients with platinum-refractory/resistant ovarian cancer (OC) or advanced/recurrent endometrial carcinoma (EC). Women with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer were eligible, when they had progression during treatment with a platinum based regimen or within 6 months after receiving a platinum based regimen and a previous taxane treatment. Women with advanced/recurrent EC, no longer amenable to curative surgery and/or radiotherapy were eligible when they had no previous or only adjuvant chemotherapy. Preceding endocrine therapy for metastatic/recurrent disease was allowed. Patients received weekly IV infusions of 25mg temsirolimus. Primary endpoint was progression free survival rate after 4 months (OC) or 6 months (EC). A two stage design was applied. Forty-four patients (OC: n=22; EC: n=22) were enrolled and received temsirolimus treatment. Median age was 56 years (OC) or 63 years (EC). After eight weeks of treatment, 10 of 21 evaluable patients in the OC cohort and 8 of 20 evaluable patients in the EC cohort had progressive disease. Thus efficacy did not meet the predefined levels during the first stage of recruitment and the trial was stopped. Some patients in both cohorts had long lasting PFS (>7 months). Toxicity of temsirolimus was mild. Temsirolimus treatment was well tolerated in our patients, but did not meet the predefined efficacy criteria. In our study as in other trials on rapalogs in OC or EC, a few patients had long lasting disease stabilisations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Molybdenum cluster loaded PLGA nanoparticles: An innovative theranostic approach for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Brandhonneur, N; Hatahet, T; Amela-Cortes, M; Molard, Y; Cordier, S; Dollo, G

    2018-04-01

    We evaluate poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles embedding inorganic molybdenum octahedral cluster for photodynamic therapy of cancer (PDT). Tetrabutyl ammonium salt of Mo 6 Br 14 cluster unit, (TBA) 2 Mo 6 Br 14 , presents promising photosensitization activity in the destruction of targeted cancer cells. Stable cluster loaded nanoparticles (CNPs) were prepared by solvent displacement method showing spherical shapes, zeta potential values around -30 mV, polydispersity index lower than 0.2 and sizes around 100 nm. FT-IR and DSC analysis revealed the lack of strong chemical interaction between the cluster and the polymer within the nanoparticles. In vitro release study showed that (TBA) 2 Mo 6 Br 14 was totally dissolved in 20 min, while CNPs were able to control the release of encapsulated cluster. In vitro cellular viability studies conducted on A2780 ovarian cancer cell line treated up to 72 h with cluster or CNPs did not show any sign of toxicity in concentrations up to 20 µg/ml. This concentration was selected for photo-activation test on A2780 cells and CNPs were able to generate oxygen singlet resulting in a decrease of the cellular viability up to 50%, respectively compared to non-activated conditions. This work presents (TBA) 2 Mo 6 Br 14 as a novel photosensitizer for PDT and suggests PLGA nanoparticles as an efficient delivery system intended for tumor targeting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Repeatability of quantitative FDG-PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT in recurrent ovarian carcinoma: test-retest measurements for tumor FDG uptake, diameter, and volume.

    PubMed

    Rockall, Andrea G; Avril, Norbert; Lam, Raymond; Iannone, Robert; Mozley, P David; Parkinson, Christine; Bergstrom, Donald; Sala, Evis; Sarker, Shah-Jalal; McNeish, Iain A; Brenton, James D

    2014-05-15

    Repeatability of baseline FDG-PET/CT measurements has not been tested in ovarian cancer. This dual-center, prospective study assessed variation in tumor 2[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake, tumor diameter, and tumor volume from sequential FDG-PET/CT and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) in patients with recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Patients underwent two pretreatment baseline FDG-PET/CT (n = 21) and CECT (n = 20) at two clinical sites with different PET/CT instruments. Patients were included if they had at least one target lesion in the abdomen with a standardized uptake value (SUV) maximum (SUVmax) of ≥ 2.5 and a long axis diameter of ≥ 15 mm. Two independent reading methods were used to evaluate repeatability of tumor diameter and SUV uptake: on site and at an imaging clinical research organization (CRO). Tumor volume reads were only performed by CRO. In each reading set, target lesions were independently measured on sequential imaging. Median time between FDG-PET/CT was two days (range 1-7). For site reads, concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) for SUVmean, SUVmax, and tumor diameter were 0.95, 0.94, and 0.99, respectively. Repeatability coefficients were 16.3%, 17.3%, and 8.8% for SUVmean, SUVmax, and tumor diameter, respectively. Similar results were observed for CRO reads. Tumor volume CCC was 0.99 with a repeatability coefficient of 28.1%. There was excellent test-retest repeatability for FDG-PET/CT quantitative measurements across two sites and two independent reading methods. Cutoff values for determining change in SUVmean, SUVmax, and tumor volume establish limits to determine metabolic and/or volumetric response to treatment in platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Identification of two poorly prognosed ovarian carcinoma subtypes associated with CHEK2 germ-line mutation and non-CHEK2 somatic mutation gene signatures.

    PubMed

    Ow, Ghim Siong; Ivshina, Anna V; Fuentes, Gloria; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC), a major histologic type of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), is a poorly-characterized, heterogeneous and lethal disease where somatic mutations of TP53 are common and inherited loss-of-function mutations in BRCA1/2 predispose to cancer in 9.5-13% of EOC patients. However, the overall burden of disease due to either inherited or sporadic mutations is not known. We performed bioinformatics analyses of mutational and clinical data of 334 HG-SOC tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas to identify novel tumor-driving mutations, survival-significant patient subgroups and tumor subtypes potentially driven by either hereditary or sporadic factors. We identified a sub-cluster of high-frequency mutations in 22 patients and 58 genes associated with DNA damage repair, apoptosis and cell cycle. Mutations of CHEK2, observed with the highest intensity, were associated with poor therapy response and overall survival (OS) of these patients (P = 8.00e-05), possibly due to detrimental effect of mutations at the nuclear localization signal. A 21-gene mutational prognostic signature significantly stratifies patients into relatively low or high-risk subgroups with 5-y OS of 37% or 6%, respectively (P = 7.31e-08). Further analysis of these genes and high-risk subgroup revealed 2 distinct classes of tumors characterized by either germline mutations of genes such as CHEK2, RPS6KA2 and MLL4, or somatic mutations of other genes in the signature. Our results could provide improvement in prediction and clinical management of HG-SOC, facilitate our understanding of this complex disease, guide the design of targeted therapeutics and improve screening efforts to identify women at high-risk of hereditary ovarian cancers distinct from those associated with BRCA1/2 mutations.

  6. Identification of two poorly prognosed ovarian carcinoma subtypes associated with CHEK2 germ-line mutation and non-CHEK2 somatic mutation gene signatures

    PubMed Central

    Ow, Ghim Siong; Ivshina, Anna V; Fuentes, Gloria; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC), a major histologic type of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), is a poorly-characterized, heterogeneous and lethal disease where somatic mutations of TP53 are common and inherited loss-of-function mutations in BRCA1/2 predispose to cancer in 9.5–13% of EOC patients. However, the overall burden of disease due to either inherited or sporadic mutations is not known.     We performed bioinformatics analyses of mutational and clinical data of 334 HG-SOC tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas to identify novel tumor-driving mutations, survival-significant patient subgroups and tumor subtypes potentially driven by either hereditary or sporadic factors. We identified a sub-cluster of high-frequency mutations in 22 patients and 58 genes associated with DNA damage repair, apoptosis and cell cycle. Mutations of CHEK2, observed with the highest intensity, were associated with poor therapy response and overall survival (OS) of these patients (P = 8.00e-05), possibly due to detrimental effect of mutations at the nuclear localization signal. A 21-gene mutational prognostic signature significantly stratifies patients into relatively low or high-risk subgroups with 5-y OS of 37% or 6%, respectively (P = 7.31e-08). Further analysis of these genes and high-risk subgroup revealed 2 distinct classes of tumors characterized by either germline mutations of genes such as CHEK2, RPS6KA2 and MLL4, or somatic mutations of other genes in the signature. Our results could provide improvement in prediction and clinical management of HG-SOC, facilitate our understanding of this complex disease, guide the design of targeted therapeutics and improve screening efforts to identify women at high-risk of hereditary ovarian cancers distinct from those associated with BRCA1/2 mutations. PMID:24879340

  7. Vaccine Therapy and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Breast or Stage II-IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-28

    Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  8. A phase II study of sunitinib in patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinoma: an NCIC Clinical Trials Group Study.

    PubMed

    Biagi, J J; Oza, A M; Chalchal, H I; Grimshaw, R; Ellard, S L; Lee, U; Hirte, H; Sederias, J; Ivy, S P; Eisenhauer, E A

    2011-02-01

    Sunitinib is a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We conducted a two-stage phase II study to evaluate the objective response rate of oral sunitinib in recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Eligibility required measurable disease and one or two prior chemotherapies, at least one platinum based. Platinum-sensitive or -resistant disease was allowed. Initial dose schedule was sunitinib 50 mg daily, 4 of 6 weeks. Observation of fluid accumulations during off-treatment periods resulted in adoption of continuous 37.5 mg daily dosing in the second stage of accrual. Of 30 eligible patients, most had serous histology (67%), were platinum sensitive (73%) and had two prior chemotherapies (60%). One partial response (3.3%) and three CA125 responses (10%) were observed, all in platinum-sensitive patients using intermittent dosing. Sixteen (53%) had stable disease. Five had >30% decrease in measurable disease. Overall median progression-free survival was 4.1 months. Common adverse events included fatigue, gastrointestinal symptoms, hand-foot syndrome and hypertension. No gastrointestinal perforation occurred. Single-agent sunitinib has modest activity in recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer, but only at the 50 mg intermittent dose schedule, suggesting that dose and schedule may be vital considerations in further evaluation of sunitinib in this cancer setting.

  9. Analysis of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer or fallopian tube carcinoma retreated with cisplatin after the development of a carboplatin allergy.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Don S; Sabbatini, Paul J; Aghajanian, Carol; Hensley, Martee L; Spriggs, David R

    2002-03-01

    We report the outcome of seven patients treated for recurrent ovarian cancer with cisplatin after an allergic reaction to carboplatin. One case is presented in which a heavily pretreated patient suffered a severe anaphylactic reaction, which was refractory to standard resuscitative measures and resulted in her death. Six further patients who received cisplatin after documentation of an allergic reaction to carboplatin (CBDCA) for the treatment of recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer between 1993 and 2000 were identified from the MSKCC database. Electronic medical records were reviewed for relevant treatment and outcome data. Five of six of these patients were successfully treated without further allergic reactions. One patient with platinum-refractory disease had an allergic reaction to carboplatin and subsequently to cisplatin. Few patients with a carboplatin allergy are subsequently treated with cisplatin at our center. One patient suffered a serious hypersensitivity reaction following retreatment and died. Based on this limited experience, cross allergy can exist although the true incidence is not known. Routine retreatment of carboplatin-allergic patients with cisplatin in the relapsed setting cannot be recommended without careful consideration of potential risks and benefits.

  10. Targeting Aurora Kinase with MK-0457 Inhibits Ovarian Cancer Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yvonne G.; Immaneni, Anand; Merritt, William M.; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Kim, SeungWook; Shahzad, Mian M.K.; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Lu, Chunhua; Kamat, Aparna A.; Han, Liz Y.; Spannuth, WhitneyA.; Nick, Alpa M.; Landen, Charles N.; Wong, Kwong K.; Gray, Michael J.; Coleman, Robert L.; Bodurka, Diane C.; Brinkley, William R.; Sood, Anil K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The Aurora kinase family plays pivotal roles in mitotic integrity and cell cycle.We sought to determine the effects of inhibiting Aurora kinase on ovarian cancer growth in an orthotopic mouse model using a small molecule pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor, MK-0457. Experimental Design We examined cell cycle regulatory effects and ascertained the therapeutic efficacy of Aurora kinase inhibition both alone and combined with docetaxel using both in vitro and in vivo ovarian cancer models. Results In vitro cytotoxicity assays with HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1 cells revealed >10-fold greater docetaxel cytotoxicity in combination with MK-0457. After in vivo dose kinetics were determined using phospho-histone H3 status, therapy experiments with the chemosensitive HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1as well as the chemoresistant HeyA8-MDR and A2780-CP20 models showed that Aurora kinase inhibition alone significantly reduced tumor burden compared with controls (P values < 0.01). Combination treatment with docetaxel resulted in significantly improved reduction in tumor growth beyond that afforded by docetaxel alone (P ≤ 0.03). Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry revealed that MK-0457 alone and in combination with docetaxel significantly reduced cellular proliferation (P values < 0.001). Compared with controls, treatment with MK-0457 alone and in combination with docetaxel also significantly increased tumor cell apoptosis by ∼3-fold (P < 0.01). Remarkably, compared with docetaxel monotherapy, MK-0457 combined with docetaxel resulted in significantly increased tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions Aurora kinase inhibition significantly reduces tumor burden and cell proliferation and increases tumor cell apoptosis in this preclinical orthotopic model of ovarian cancer. The role of Aurora kinase inhibition in ovarian cancer merits further investigation in clinical trials. PMID:18765535

  11. Assessing Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Solid Tumors: A Practical Review for Pathologists and Proposal for a Standardized Method from the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group: Part 2: TILs in Melanoma, Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinomas, Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Mesothelioma, Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck, Genitourinary Carcinomas, and Primary Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Shona; Salgado, Roberto; Gevaert, Thomas; Russell, Prudence A; John, Tom; Thapa, Bibhusal; Christie, Michael; van de Vijver, Koen; Estrada, M V; Gonzalez-Ericsson, Paula I; Sanders, Melinda; Solomon, Benjamin; Solinas, Cinzia; Van den Eynden, Gert G G M; Allory, Yves; Preusser, Matthias; Hainfellner, Johannes; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Vingiani, Andrea; Demaria, Sandra; Symmans, Fraser; Nuciforo, Paolo; Comerma, Laura; Thompson, E A; Lakhani, Sunil; Kim, Seong-Rim; Schnitt, Stuart; Colpaert, Cecile; Sotiriou, Christos; Scherer, Stefan J; Ignatiadis, Michail; Badve, Sunil; Pierce, Robert H; Viale, Giuseppe; Sirtaine, Nicolas; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Sugie, Tomohagu; Fineberg, Susan; Paik, Soonmyung; Srinivasan, Ashok; Richardson, Andrea; Wang, Yihong; Chmielik, Ewa; Brock, Jane; Johnson, Douglas B; Balko, Justin; Wienert, Stephan; Bossuyt, Veerle; Michiels, Stefan; Ternes, Nils; Burchardi, Nicole; Luen, Stephen J; Savas, Peter; Klauschen, Frederick; Watson, Peter H; Nelson, Brad H; Criscitiello, Carmen; O'Toole, Sandra; Larsimont, Denis; de Wind, Roland; Curigliano, Giuseppe; André, Fabrice; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; van de Vijver, Mark; Rojo, Federico; Floris, Giuseppe; Bedri, Shahinaz; Sparano, Joseph; Rimm, David; Nielsen, Torsten; Kos, Zuzana; Hewitt, Stephen; Singh, Baljit; Farshid, Gelareh; Loibl, Sibylle; Allison, Kimberly H; Tung, Nadine; Adams, Sylvia; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Horlings, Hugo M; Gandhi, Leena; Moreira, Andre; Hirsch, Fred; Dieci, Maria V; Urbanowicz, Maria; Brcic, Iva; Korski, Konstanty; Gaire, Fabien; Koeppen, Hartmut; Lo, Amy; Giltnane, Jennifer; Rebelatto, Marlon C; Steele, Keith E; Zha, Jiping; Emancipator, Kenneth; Juco, Jonathan W; Denkert, Carsten; Reis-Filho, Jorge; Loi, Sherene; Fox, Stephen B

    2017-11-01

    Assessment of the immune response to tumors is growing in importance as the prognostic implications of this response are increasingly recognized, and as immunotherapies are evaluated and implemented in different tumor types. However, many different approaches can be used to assess and describe the immune response, which limits efforts at implementation as a routine clinical biomarker. In part 1 of this review, we have proposed a standardized methodology to assess tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in solid tumors, based on the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group guidelines for invasive breast carcinoma. In part 2 of this review, we discuss the available evidence for the prognostic and predictive value of TILs in common solid tumors, including carcinomas of the lung, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, gynecologic system, and head and neck, as well as primary brain tumors, mesothelioma and melanoma. The particularities and different emphases in TIL assessment in different tumor types are discussed. The standardized methodology we propose can be adapted to different tumor types and may be used as a standard against which other approaches can be compared. Standardization of TIL assessment will help clinicians, researchers and pathologists to conclusively evaluate the utility of this simple biomarker in the current era of immunotherapy.

  12. Phase II Evaluation of Pemetrexed in the Treatment of Recurrent or Persistent Platinum-Resistant Ovarian or Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma: A Study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David S.; Blessing, John A.; Krasner, Carolyn N.; Mannel, Robert S.; Hanjani, Parviz; Pearl, Michael L.; Waggoner, Steven E.; Boardman, Cecelia H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the antitumor activity of pemetrexed in patients with persistent or recurrent platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian or primary peritoneal cancer and to determine the nature and degree of toxicities. Patients and Methods A phase II trial was conducted by the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Patients must have had cancer that had progressed on platinum-based primary chemotherapy or recurred within 6 months. Pemetrexed at a dose of 900 mg/m2 was to be administered as an intravenous infusion over 10 minutes every 21 days. Dose delay and adjustment was permitted for toxicity. Treatment was continued until disease progression or unacceptable adverse effects. Results From July 6, 2004, to August 23, 2006, 51 patients were entered. A total of 259 cycles (median, four; range one to 19 cycles) of pemetrexed were administered, with 40% of patients receiving six or more cycles. Overall, the treatment was well tolerated. More serious toxicities (grade 3 and 4) included neutropenia in 42%, leukopenia in 25%, anemia in 15%, and constitutional in 15% of patients. No treatment-related deaths were reported. One patient (2%) had a complete and nine patients (19%) had partial responses, with a median duration response of 8.4 months. Seventeen patients (35%) had stable disease for a median of 4.1 months. Eighteen patients (38%) had increasing disease. Three patients (6%) were not assessable. Median progression-free survival was 2.9 months, and overall survival was 11.4 months. Conclusion Pemetrexed has sufficient activity in the treatment of recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer at the dose and schedule tested to warrant further investigation. PMID:19332726

  13. Effect of Prophylactic Extended-Infusion Carboplatin on Incidence of Hypersensitivity Reactions in Patients with Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Amy L; Link, Nicholas A; Richardson, Carolyn M; Rose, Peter G

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether extended-infusion carboplatin, initiated at approximately the eighth cumulative carboplatin cycle and prior to development of carboplatin hypersensitivity, reduces the incidence of carboplatin hypersensitivity reactions in patients with ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer. Retrospective chart review. Large integrated health system. A total of 326 patients with ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who received at least eight cumulative cycles of carboplatin between January 2007 and September 2014 were included. Of these, 161 patients received all doses of carboplatin infused over 30 or 60 minutes (standard-infusion group [total of 1317 carboplatin cycles]), and 165 patients received the 3-hour extended infusion of carboplatin administered at approximately the eighth cumulative cycle and prior to development of a hypersensitivity reaction (extended-infusion group [total of 1527 carboplatin cycles]). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups, except significantly more patients in the extended-infusion group received triple premedication therapy prior to infusion (p<0.001). Hypersensitivity reactions occurred in 64 patients (40%) who received standard-infusion carboplatin and 40 patients (24.2%) who received extended-infusion carboplatin (p=0.0027). The median cycle of hypersensitivity reaction development did not differ significantly between the groups: 9 cycles in patients who received standard-infusion versus 11 cycles in patients who received extended-infusion carboplatin (p=0.06). Through regression analysis, the premedication regimen received prior to carboplatin infusion was the only variable significantly associated with hypersensitivity reactions (odds ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.36-0.97, p=0.038). Patients who received extended-infusion carboplatin experienced a lower incidence of hypersensitivity reactions than patients who received standard-infusion carboplatin, which may be attributed

  14. The G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) is a gonadotropin receptor dependent positive prognosticator in ovarian carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Heublein, Sabine; Mayr, Doris; Vrekoussis, Thomas; Friese, Klaus; Hofmann, Simone S; Jeschke, Udo; Lenhard, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) were demonstrated to impact upon survival of patients suffering from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Though structure wise the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) is related to FSHR/LHCGR, its prognostic impact in EOC remains controversial. We recently found that FSHR negative patients represent a specific EOC subgroup that may behave differently in respect to both treatment response and prognosis. Hence, the current study aimed to analyze how GPER may interact with the FSHR/LHCGR system in EOC and whether the prognostic significance of GPER in EOC cases (n=151) may be dependent on the FSHR/LHCGR immunophenotype of the tumor. Ovarian cancer cell lines were used to study how FSH and LH regulate GPER and whether GPER activation differentially affects in vitro cell proliferation in presence/absence of activated FSHR/LHCGR. In EOC tissue, GPER correlated with FSHR/LHCGR and was related to prolonged overall survival only in FSHR/LHCGR negative patients. Although GPER was found to be specifically induced by LH/FSH, GPER agonists (4-Hydroxy-Tamoxifen, G1) reduced EOC cell proliferation only in case of LH/FSH unstimulated pathways. To the same direction, only patients characterized as LHCGR/FSHR negative seem to gain from GPER in terms of survival. Our combined tissue and in vitro results support thus the hypothesis that GPER activation could be of therapeutic benefit in LHCGR/FSHR negative EOC patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of GPER activation on a clinical scheme.

  15. The G-Protein Coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER/GPR30) is a Gonadotropin Receptor Dependent Positive Prognosticator in Ovarian Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Heublein, Sabine; Mayr, Doris; Vrekoussis, Thomas; Friese, Klaus; Hofmann, Simone S.

    2013-01-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) were demonstrated to impact upon survival of patients suffering from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Though structure wise the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) is related to FSHR/LHCGR, its prognostic impact in EOC remains controversial. We recently found that FSHR negative patients represent a specific EOC subgroup that may behave differently in respect to both treatment response and prognosis. Hence, the current study aimed to analyze how GPER may interact with the FSHR/LHCGR system in EOC and whether the prognostic significance of GPER in EOC cases (n = 151) may be dependent on the FSHR/LHCGR immunophenotype of the tumor. Ovarian cancer cell lines were used to study how FSH and LH regulate GPER and whether GPER activation differentially affects in vitro cell proliferation in presence/absence of activated FSHR/LHCGR. In EOC tissue, GPER correlated with FSHR/LHCGR and was related to prolonged overall survival only in FSHR/LHCGR negative patients. Although GPER was found to be specifically induced by LH/FSH, GPER agonists (4-Hydroxy-Tamoxifen, G1) reduced EOC cell proliferation only in case of LH/FSH unstimulated pathways. To the same direction, only patients characterized as LHCGR/FSHR negative seem to gain from GPER in terms of survival. Our combined tissue and in vitro results support thus the hypothesis that GPER activation could be of therapeutic benefit in LHCGR/FSHR negative EOC patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of GPER activation on a clinical scheme. PMID:23951246

  16. Safety and Effectiveness of Percutaneously Inserted Peritoneal Ports Compared to Surgically Inserted Ports in a Retrospective Study of 87 Patients with Ovarian Carcinoma over a 10-Year Period

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley-Cook, Joel, E-mail: jwoodleycook@gmail.com; Tarulli, Emidio; Tan, Kong T.

    PurposePlacement of peritoneal ports has become a favorable technique for direct chemotherapy infusion in treating peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer. We aim to outline an approach to the percutaneous insertion of peritoneal ports and to characterize success and complication rates compared to surgically inserted ports.Materials and MethodsRetrospective analysis was collected from 87 patients who had peritoneal port insertion (28 inserted surgically and 59 percutaneously) for treatment of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer from July 2004 to July 2014. Complications were classified according to the SIR Clinical Practice Guidelines as major or minor.ResultsTechnical success rates for surgically and percutaneously inserted portsmore » were 100 and 96.7 %, respectively (p = 0.44), with the two percutaneous failures successful at a later date. There were no major complications in either group. Minor complication rates for surgically versus percutaneously inserted ports were 46.4 versus 22.0 %, respectively (p = 0.02). The infection rate for surgically inserted versus percutaneously inserted ports was 14.3 and 0 %, respectively (p = 0.002). The relative risk of developing a complication from percutaneous peritoneal port insertion without ascites was 3.4 (p = 0.04). For percutaneously inserted ports, the mean in-room procedure time was 81 ± 1.3 min and mean fluoroscopy time was 5.0 ± 4.5 min.ConclusionPercutaneously inserted peritoneal ports are a safe alternative to surgically inserted ports, demonstrating similar technical success and lower complication rates.« less

  17. Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Folic Acid-Targeted Liposomes Co-Loaded with C6 Ceramide and Doxorubicin: In Vitro Evaluation on HeLa, A2780-ADR, and H69-AR Cells.

    PubMed

    Sriraman, Shravan Kumar; Pan, Jiayi; Sarisozen, Can; Luther, Ed; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    Current research in cancer therapy is beginning to shift toward the use of combinational drug treatment regimens. However, the efficient delivery of drug combinations is governed by a number of complex factors in the clinical setting. Therefore, the ability to synchronize the pharmacokinetics of the individual therapeutic agents present in combination not only to allow for simultaneous tumor accumulation but also to allow for a synergistic relationship at the intracellular level could prove to be advantageous. In this work, we report the development of a novel folic acid-targeted liposomal formulation simultaneously co-loaded with C6 ceramide and doxorubicin [FA-(C6+Dox)-LP]. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP was able to significantly reduce the IC50 of Dox when compared to that after the treatment with the doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (Dox-LP) as well as the untargeted drug co-loaded (C6+Dox)-LP on HeLa, A2780-ADR, and H69-AR cells. The analysis of the cell cycle distribution showed that while the C6 liposomes (C6-LP) did not cause cell cycle arrest, all the Dox-containing liposomes mediated cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells in the G2 phase at Dox concentrations of 0.3 and 1 μM and in the S phase at the higher concentrations. It was also found that this arrest in the S phase precedes the progression of the cells to apoptosis. The targeted FA-(C6+Dox)-LP were able to significantly enhance the induction of apoptotic events in HeLa cell monolayers as compared to the other treatment groups. Next, using time-lapse phase holographic imaging microscopy, it was found that upon treatment with the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP, the HeLa cells underwent rapid progression to apoptosis after 21 h as evidenced by a drastic drop in the average area of the cells after loss of cell membrane integrity. Finally, upon evaluation in a HeLa spheroid cell model, treatment with the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP showed significantly higher levels of cell death compared to those with C6-LP and

  18. Diet and Physical Activity Change or Usual Care in Improving Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Previously Treated Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-14

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer AJCC V6 and v7; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  19. Thalidomide distinctly affected TNF-α, IL-6 and MMP secretion by an ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3) and primary ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Piura, Benjamin; Medina, Liat; Rabinovich, Alex; Dyomin, Victor; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Thalidomide inhibits TNF-α production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thalidomide on TNF-α, IL-6 and MMP secretion in epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells. SKOV-3 cells and primary epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of thalidomide. Cell proliferation was examined by MTT proliferation assay. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were determined in the supernatants of the cell cultures by ELISA, and MMP activity was examined by gelatin zymography. Thalidomide did not significantly affect the proliferation and growth of SKOV-3 cells. However, it decreased significantly the capacity of SKOV-3 cells and primary epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells to secrete TNF-α. Thalidomide also significantly decreased the capacity of SKOV-3 cells, but not primary epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells, to secrete MMP-9 and MMP-2. However, thalidomide did not affect IL-6 secretion in SKOV-3 cells or primary epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells. Our study suggests that thalidomide distinctly affected TNF-α, IL-6 and MMPs secretion by an ovarian carcinoma cell line (SKOV-3) and primary ovarian cancer cells. This might suggest a different susceptibility of these two types of cells to thalidomide, and/or that the mechanisms of secretion of the factors examined are differently regulated in these cells. Our results may deepen our understanding the mechanism/s of action of thalidomide in ovarian carcinoma cells. The results might have important implications in future therapeutic strategies that will incorporate thalidomide and other cytokine inhibitors in the treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

  20. Selective suppression of autocatalytic caspase-3 driven by two-step transcriptional amplified human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter on ovarian carcinoma growth in vitro and in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Yue; Xin, Xing; Xia, Zhijun; Zhai, Xingyue; Shen, Keng

    2014-07-01

    The objective of our study was to construct recombinant adenovirus (rAd) AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3, which expresses autocatalytic caspase-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (hTERTp) with a two-step transcription amplification (TSTA) system and investigate its antitumor effects on ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescent detection was used to detect EGFP expression in various cells. Cell viabilities were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometry. RT-PCR and immunoblotting assays were used to detect cellular apoptotic activities. Tumor growth and survival of tumor-bearing mice were studied. The hTERTp-TSTA system showed the strongest activity in hTERT-positive cancer cells when compared with hTERTp and cytomeglovirus promoter (CMVp). In contrast, it showed no activity in hTERT‑negative HUVECs. AdHTVP2G5‑rev-casp3 markedly suppressed the survival of AO cells in a dose-dependent modality with a viability rate of 17.8 ± 3.5% at an MOI of 70, which was significantly lower than that by AdHT-rev-casp3 and Ad-rev-casp3 (rAds which express rev-caspase-3 driven by hTERTp and CMVp, respectively). In contrast, AdHTVP2G5‑rev-casp3 induced little HUVEC death with a viability rate of 92.7 ± 5.2% at the same MOI. Additionally, AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 (MOI=70) caused significant apoptosis in AO cells with an apoptotic rate of 42%. The tumor growth suppression rate of AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 was 81.52%, significantly higher than that of AdHT-rev-casp3 (54.94%) or Ad-rev-casp3 (21.35%). AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 significantly improved the survival of tumor-bearing mice with little liver damage, with a mean survival of 258 ± 28 days. These results showed that AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 caused effective apoptosis with significant tumor selectivity, strongly suppressed tumor growth and improved mouse survival with little liver toxicity. It can be a potent therapeutic agent for tumor targeted treatment of ovarian cancer.

  1. Role of Fallopian Tubes in the Development of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Camila; Iniesta, Maria D; Patrono, Maria Guadalupe; Lu, Karen H; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2017-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy and the fifth cause of cancer death in women in the United States. The most common and lethal histologic subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer is high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), which generally presents at an advanced stage. HGSC may be associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Historically, HGSC was believed to originate from the ovarian epithelial cells. However, more recent evidence supports the idea that most ovarian cancers originate in the fallopian tube epithelium in both high-risk women and in the general population. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas may ultimately evolve into ovarian or peritoneal cancer. As a result, prophylactic salpingectomy with conservation of the ovaries has become an increasingly more common practice for premenopausal women undergoing risk-reducing surgery. Because the fallopian tube is now recognized as the most common potential site of origin of ovarian carcinoma, there is ongoing research to explore molecular and genetic factors that may be critical in the development of this disease. Further research is needed to identify novel opportunities for early detection and screening of ovarian cancer with the ultimate goal of increasing overall survival. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Chemotherapy in epithelial ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Tazi, Y; Pautier, P; Leary, A; Lhomme, C

    2013-10-01

    Chemotherapy is fundamental in the management of epithelial ovarian carcinomas both for early and advanced stages (rarely surgical treatment alone) and in almost every step of the disease. The reference schema combines carboplatin and paclitaxel intravenously. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy also proved its efficacy after complete surgery for advanced disease and should be reserved to trained teams due to its technical constraints and toxicity issues. Modalities of treatment in relapsed and progressive disease depend mainly on the free interval between this diagnosis and the last dose of platinum. Bevacizumab has proven its effectiveness in prolonging progression-free survival in 1st line setting in association with chemotherapy followed by maintenance and in case of relapse or progression both fore platinum sensitive or resistant disease. Finally, a better understanding of ovarian cancer biology will allow us to consider new molecular-targeted agents guided by the specific characteristics of each patient and each tumor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Leukocyte Antigen-Presented Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor is a Surface Biomarker and Potential Therapeutic Target for Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Andrea M; Kaabinejadian, Saghar; McMurtrey, Curtis P; Bardet, Wilfried; Jackson, Ken W; Zuna, Rosemary E; Husain, Sanam; Adams, Gregory P; MacDonald, Glen; Dillon, Rachelle L.; Ames, Harold; Buchli, Rico; Hawkins, Oriana E; Weidanz, Jon A; Hildebrand, William H

    2015-01-01

    T cells recognize cancer cells via human leukocyte antigen (HLA)/peptide complexes and, when disease overtakes these immune mechanisms, immunotherapy can exogenously target these same HLA/peptide surface markers. We previously identified an HLA-A2-presented peptide derived from macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and generated antibody RL21A against this HLA-A2/MIF complex. The objective of the current study was to assess the potential for targeting the HLA-A2/MIF complex in ovarian cancer. First, MIF peptide FLSELTQQL was eluted from the HLA-A2 of the human cancerous ovarian cell lines SKOV3, A2780, OV90, and FHIOSE118hi and detected by mass spectrometry. By flow cytometry, RL21A was shown to specifically stain these four cell lines in the context of HLA-A2. Next, partially matched HLA-A*02:01+ ovarian cancer (n=27) and normal fallopian tube (n=24) tissues were stained with RL21A by immunohistochemistry to assess differential HLA-A2/MIF complex expression. Ovarian tumor tissues revealed significantly increased RL21A staining compared to normal fallopian tube epithelium (p<0.0001), with minimal staining of normal stroma and blood vessels (p<0.0001 and p<0.001 compared to tumor cells) suggesting a therapeutic window. We then demonstrated the anti-cancer activity of toxin-bound RL21A via the dose-dependent killing of ovarian cancer cells. In summary, MIF-derived peptide FLSELTQQL is HLA-A2-presented and recognized by RL21A on ovarian cancer cell lines and patient tumor tissues, and targeting of this HLA-A2/MIF complex with toxin-bound RL21A can induce ovarian cancer cell death. These results suggest that the HLA-A2/MIF complex should be further explored as a cell-surface target for ovarian cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26719579

  4. Effects of silibinin on growth and invasive properties of human ovarian carcinoma cells through suppression of heregulin/HER3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Momeny, Majid; Ghasemi, Reza; Valenti, Giovanni; Miranda, Mariska; Zekri, Ali; Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh; Javadikooshesh, Sepehr; Yaghmaie, Marjan; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Ghaffari, Seyed H

    2016-03-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most fatal gynecological malignancy due to its high proliferative and invasive capacities. A heregulin (HRG)/HER3 autocrine loop increases proliferative and metastatic properties of EOC cells, suggesting that modulators of this signaling pathway may prove effective to trammel growth and motility of these cells. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor silibinin on proliferative and invasive characteristics of EOC cell lines OVCAR8 and SKOV3 through suppression of the HRG/HER3 pathway. To achieve this, the effects of silibinin on proliferation, DNA synthesis, clonogenicity, cell cycle progression, cathepsin B enzymatic activity, and migration and invasion were explored in vitro. Silibinin suppressed proliferation, DNA synthesis, and clonogenic abilities of OVCAR8 and SKOV3 cells through inhibition of the autocrine HRG/HER3 circuit. Silibinin-mediated attenuation of the HER3 signaling disabled the HER3/AKT/survivin axis and thereby, induced G1/S cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, silibinin reduced invasive potentials of the EOC cells through quelling the HRG/HER3 pathway and suppression of cathepsin B activity. Altogether, these results suggest that silibinin is a potential anti-cancer drug to inhibit proliferative and invasive characteristics of the EOC cells that exhibit an autocrine HRG/HER3 pathway.

  5. Blockade of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in chemoresistant ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Momeny, Majid; Yousefi, Hassan; Eyvani, Haniyeh; Moghaddaskho, Farima; Salehi, Ali; Esmaeili, Fatemeh; Alishahi, Zivar; Barghi, Farinaz; Vaezijoze, Somaye; Shamsaiegahkani, Sahar; Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh; Sankanian, Ghazaleh; Sabourinejad, Zahra; Hamzehlou, Sepideh; Bashash, Davood; Aboutorabi, Elaheh S; Ghaffari, Parisa; Dehpour, Ahmad R; Tavangar, Seyyed M; Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Javad; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Ghaffari, Seyed H

    2018-06-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has exhibited marginal improvement in survival rate, despite advances in surgical debulking and chemotherapy regimens. Although the majority of EOC patients achieve a clinical remission after induction therapy, over 80% relapse and succumb to chemoresistant disease. In this regard, it is of paramount importance to elucidate molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways which promote therapy resistance in EOC in order to devise novel and more effective treatment strategies. In this study, we showed that activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is significantly higher in therapy-resistant EOC cells compared to chemosensitive counterparts, which was positively associated with resistance to cisplatin, carboplatin, paclitaxel and erlotinib. Bay 11-7082, a highly selective NF-κB inhibitor, reduced cell proliferation, clonogenicity and anoikis resistance in the therapy-resistant EOC cells and induced apoptotic cell death. Moreover, Bay 11-7082 decreased the expression of pro-survival, inflammatory and metastatic genes and synergistically increased anti-proliferative efficacy of cisplatin, carboplatin, paclitaxel and erlotinib. Altogether, these findings suggest that NF-κB is an attractive therapeutic target in EOC to be exploited in translational oncology and Bay 11-7082 is a potential anti-cancer drug to overcome chemoresistance and inhibit proliferation of the EOC cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. UCHL1 Is a Putative Tumor Suppressor in Ovarian Cancer Cells and Contributes to Cisplatin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chengmeng; Yu, Wei; Lou, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Fan; Han, Xu; Zhao, Na; Lin, Biaoyang

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1) catalyzes the hydrolysis of COOH-terminal ubiquityl esters and amides. It has been reported as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor in cancers. However, UCHL1's role in ovarian cancer is still unclear. Therefore, we conducted an analysis to understand the role of UCHL1 in ovarian cancer. Firstly, we detected UCHL1 promoter methylation status in 7 ovarian cancer cell lines. 4 of them with UCHL1 silencing showed heavy promoter methylation while the other 3 with relative high UCHL1 expression showed little promoter methylation. Then we reduced UCHL1 expression in ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and IGROV1 and found that inhibition of UCHL1 promoted cell proliferation by increasing cells in S phases of cell cycle. Knockdown of UCHL1 also reduced cell apoptosis and contributed to cisplatin resistance. Furthermore, the expression level of UCHL1 in several ovarian cancer cell lines correlated negatively with their cisplatin resistance levels. Microarray data revealed that UCHL1 related genes are enriched in apoptosis and cell death gene ontology (GO) terms. Several apoptosis related genes were increased after UCHL1 knockdown, including apoptosis regulator BCL2, BCL11A, AEN and XIAP. Furthermore, we identified up-regulation of Bcl-2 and pAKT as well as down-regulation of Bax in UCHL1 knockdown cells, while no significant alteration of p53 and AKT1 was found. This study provides a new and promising strategy to overcome cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer via UCHL1 mediated pathways. PMID:24155778

  7. JNK-1 Inhibition Leads to Antitumor Activity in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vivas-Mejia, Pablo; Benito, Juliana Maria; Fernandez, Ariel; Han, Hee-Dong; Mangala, Lingegowda; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Chavez-Reyes, Arturo; Lin, Yvonne G.; Nick, Alpa M.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Kim, Hye Sun; Claret, Francois-Xavier; Bornmann, William; Hennessy, Bryan TJ.; Sanguino, Angela; Peng, Zhengong; Sood, Anil K.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the functional, clinical and biological significance of JNK-1 in ovarian carcinoma. Experimental Design Analysis of the impact of JNK on 116 epithelial ovarian cancers was conducted. The role of JNK in vitro and in experimental models of ovarian cancer was assessed. We studied the role of WBZ_4, a novel JNK inhibitor redesigned from imatinib based on targeting wrapping defects, in cell lines and in experimental models of ovarian cancer. Results We found a significant association of pJNK with progression free survival in the 116 epithelial ovarian cancers obtained at primary debulking therapy. WBZ_4 led to cell growth inhibition and increased apoptosis in a dose dependent fashion in four ovarian cancer cell lines. In vivo, while imatinib had no effect on tumor growth, WBZ_4 inhibited tumor growth in orthotopic murine models of ovarian cancer. The anti-tumor effect was further increased in combination with docetaxel. Silencing of JNK-1 with systemically administered siRNA led to significantly reduced tumor weights as compared to non-silencing siRNA controls, indicating that indeed the antitumor effects observed were due to JNK-1 inhibition. Conclusions These studies identify JNK-1 as an attractive therapeutic target in ovarian carcinoma and that the re-designed WBZ_4 compound should be considered for further clinical development. PMID:20028751

  8. The nerve growth factor alters calreticulin translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface and its signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vera, Carolina Andrea; Oróstica, Lorena; Gabler, Fernando; Ferreira, Arturo; Selman, Alberto; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen Aurora

    2017-04-01

    Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer among women worldwide, causing approximately 120,000 deaths every year. Immunotherapy, designed to boost the body's natural defenses against cancer, appears to be a promising option against ovarian cancer. Calreticulin (CRT) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident chaperone that, translocated to the cell membrane after ER stress, allows cancer cells to be recognized by the immune system. The nerve growth factor (NGF) is a pro-angiogenic molecule overexpressed in this cancer. In the present study, we aimed to determine weather NGF has an effect in CRT translocation induced by cytotoxic and ER stress. We treated A2780 ovarian cancer cells with NGF, thapsigargin (Tg), an ER stress inducer and mitoxantrone (Mtx), a chemotherapeutic drug; CRT subcellular localization was analyzed by immunofluorescence followed by confocal microscopy. In order to determine NGF effect on Mtx and Tg-induced CRT translocation from the ER to the cell membrane, cells were preincubated with NGF prior to Mtx or Tg treatment and CRT translocation to the cell surface was determined by flow cytometry. In addition, by western blot analyses, we evaluated proteins associated with the CRT translocation pathway, both in A2780 cells and human ovarian samples. We also measured NGF effect on cell apoptosis induced by Mtx. Our results indicate that Mtx and Tg, but not NGF, induce CRT translocation to the cell membrane. NGF, however, inhibited CRT translocation induced by Mtx, while it had no effect on Tg-induced CRT exposure. NGF also diminished cell death induced by Mtx. NGF effect on CRT translocation could have consequences in immunotherapy, potentially lessening the effectiveness of this type of treatment.

  9. Metformin, at concentrations corresponding to the treatment of diabetes, potentiates the cytotoxic effects of carboplatin in cultures of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Erices, Rafaela; Bravo, Maria Loreto; Gonzalez, Pamela; Oliva, Bárbara; Racordon, Dusan; Garrido, Marcelo; Ibañez, Carolina; Kato, Sumie; Brañes, Jorge; Pizarro, Javier; Barriga, Maria Isabel; Barra, Alejandro; Bravo, Erasmo; Alonso, Catalina; Bustamente, Eva; Cuello, Mauricio A; Owen, Gareth I

    2013-12-01

    The use of the type 2 diabetics drug metformin has been correlated with enhanced progression-free survival in ovarian cancer. The literature has speculated that this enhancement is due to the high concentration of metformin directly causing cancer cell death. However, this explanation does not fit with clinical data reporting that the women exposed to constant micromolar concentrations of metformin, as present in the treatment of diabetes, respond better to chemotherapy. Herein, our aim was to examine whether micromolar concentrations of metformin alone could bring about cancer cell death and whether micromolar metformin could increase the cytotoxic effect of commonly used chemotherapies in A2780 and SKOV3 cell lines and primary cultured cancer cells isolated from the peritoneal fluid of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Our results in cell lines demonstrate that no significant loss of viability or change in cell cycle was observed with micromolar metformin alone; however, we observed cytotoxicity with micromolar metformin in combination with chemotherapy at concentrations where the chemotherapy alone produced no loss in viability. We demonstrate that previous exposure and maintenance of metformin in conjunction with carboplatin produces