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Sample records for a2780-cp70 human ovarian

  1. Tangeretin sensitizes cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells through downregulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Arafa, El-Shaimaa A; Zhu, Qianzheng; Barakat, Bassant M; Wani, Gulzar; Zhao, Qun; El-Mahdy, Mohamed A; Wani, Altaf A

    2009-12-01

    Combination of innocuous dietary components with anticancer drugs is an emerging new strategy for cancer chemotherapy to increase antitumor responses. Tangeretin is a citrus flavonoid known to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Here, we show an enhanced response of A2780/CP70 and 2008/C13 cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells to various combination treatments of cisplatin and tangeretin. Pretreatment of cells with tangeretin before cisplatin treatment synergistically inhibited cancer cell proliferation. This combination was effective in activating apoptosis via caspase cascade as well as arresting cell cycle at G(2)-M phase. Moreover, phospho-Akt and its downstream substrates, e.g., NF-kappaB, phospho-GSK-3beta, and phospho-BAD, were downregulated upon tangeretin-cisplatin treatment. The tangeretin-cisplatin-induced apoptosis in A2780/CP70 cells was increased by phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibition and siRNA-mediated Akt silencing, but reduced by overexpression of constitutively activated Akt and GSK-3beta inhibition. The overall results indicated that tangeretin exposure preconditions cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells for a conventional response to low-dose cisplatin-induced cell death occurring through downregulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Thus, effectiveness of tangeretin combinations, as a promising modality in the treatment of resistant cancers, warrants systematic clinical studies.

  2. Metformin attenuates ovarian cancer cell growth in an AMP-kinase dispensable manner

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, R; Giri, S; Hartmann, LC; Shridhar, V

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Metformin, the most widely used drug for type 2 diabetes activates 59 adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates cellular energy metabolism. Here, we report that ovarian cell lines VOSE, A2780, CP70, C200, OV202, OVCAR3, SKOV3ip, PE01 and PE04 predominantly express -α1, -β1, -γ1 and -γ2 isoforms of AMPK subunits. Our studies show that metformin treatment (1) significantly inhibited proliferation of diverse chemo-responsive and -resistant ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, CP70, C200, OV202, OVCAR3, SKVO3ip, PE01 and PE04), (2) caused cell cycle arrest accompanied by decreased cyclin D1 and increased p21 protein expression, (3) activated AMPK in various ovarian cancer cell lines as evident from increased phosphorylation of AMPKα and its downstream substrate; acetyl co-carboxylase (ACC) and enhanced β-oxidation of fatty acid and (4) attenuated mTOR-S6RP phosphorylation, inhibited protein translational and lipid biosynthetic pathways, thus implicating metformin as a growth inhibitor of ovarian cancer cells. We also show that metformin-mediated effect on AMPK is dependent on liver kinase B1 (LKB1) as it failed to activate AMPK-ACC pathway and cell cycle arrest in LKB1 null mouse embryo fibroblasts (mefs). This observation was further supported by using siRNA approach to down-regulate LKB1 in ovarian cancer cells. In contrast, met formin inhibited cell proliferation in both wild-type and AMPKα1/2 null mefs as well as in AMPK silenced ovarian cancer cells. Collectively, these results provide evidence on the role of metformin as an anti-proliferative therapeutic that can act through both AMPK-dependent as well as AMPK-independent pathways. PMID:19874425

  3. Cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Raffaella; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Bracone, Graziella; Orrico, Catia; Di Tommaso, Barbara; Venturoli, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    New and often aggressive treatment schemes allow the successful healing of many young patients with cancer, but the price the young women have to pay is high: many of them lose ovarian function and fertility. Due to the improved long-term survival of adolescents and young women with malignancies undergoing gonadotoxic chemotherapy, preservation of future fertility has been the focus of recent ubiquitarian interest. A feasible solution is the cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Ovarian tissue, after thawing, can be used in three different ways: 1. grafted into its normal site (orthotopic); 2. grafted into a site other than its normal position (heterotopic), necessitating recourse to in vitro fertilization (IVF); 3. grown and in vitro matured in order to obtain metaphase II oocytes for an IVF program. It is believed that protein supplementation, in cryopreservation solution, is essential for improving ovarian tissue cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrastructural appearance of human ovarian tissue cryopreserved in 1.5 M 1,2 propanediol (PROH), 0.2 M sucrose using different protein sources: fetal calf serum (FCS), plasmanate or syntetic serum substitute (SSS). Fresh and frozen/thawed ovarian tissues were compared by transmission electron microscope (TEM), to evaluate the appearance of stromal and follicle cells as affected by different protein sources. Our data indicate that FCS is a better protein support for ovarian tissue cryopreservation when compared to SSS or Plasmanate. In addition the follicles are more resistant to the cryopreservation with respect to stroma.

  4. Photoacoustic characterization of human ovarian tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Andres; Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Sanders, Mary M.; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2010-02-01

    Ovarian cancer has a five-year survival rate of only 30%, which represents the highest mortality of all gynecologic cancers. The reason for that is that the current imaging techniques are not capable of detecting ovarian cancer early. Therefore, new imaging techniques, like photoacoustic imaging, that can provide functional and molecular contrasts are needed for improving the specificity of ovarian cancer detection and characterization. Using a coregistered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system we have studied thirty-one human ovaries ex vivo, including normal and diseased. In order to compare the photoacoustic imaging results from all the ovaries, a new parameter using the RF data has been derived. The preliminary results show higher optical absorption for abnormal and malignant ovaries than for normal postmenopausal ones. To estimate the quantitative optical absorption properties of the ovaries, additional ultrasound-guided diffuse optical tomography images have been acquired. Good agreement between the two techniques has been observed. These results demonstrate the potential of a co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  5. Aurora-A Oncogene in Human Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0021 TITLE: Aurora-A Oncogene in Human Ovarian... in Human Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0021 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Jin Q. Cheng, M.D...is frequently altered in human ovarian cancer (1). Overexpressing Aurora-A induces centrosome amplification and G2/M cell cycle progression

  6. Vitrification and xenografting of human ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Christiani Andrade; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; David, Anu; Jaeger, Jonathan; Vanacker, Julie; Camboni, Alessandra; Donnez, Jacques; Van Langendonckt, Anne

    2012-11-01

    To assess the efficiency of two vitrification protocols to cryopreserve human preantral follicles with the use of a xenografting model. Pilot study. Gynecology research unit in a university hospital. Ovarian biopsies were obtained from seven women aged 30-41 years. Ovarian tissue fragments were subjected to one of three cryopreservation protocols (slow freezing, vitrification protocol 1, and vitrification protocol 2) and xenografted for 1 week to nude mice. The number of morphologically normal follicles after cryopreservation and grafting and fibrotic surface area were determined by histologic analysis. Apoptosis was assessed by the TUNEL method. Morphometric analysis of TUNEL-positive surface area also was performed. Follicle proliferation was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. After xenografting, a difference was observed between the cryopreservation procedures applied. According to TUNEL analysis, both vitrification protocols showed better preservation of preantral follicles than the conventional freezing method. Moreover, histologic evaluation showed a significantly higher proportion of primordial follicles in vitrified (protocol 2)-warmed ovarian tissue than in frozen-thawed tissue. The proportion of growing follicles and fibrotic surface area was similar in all groups. Vitrification procedures appeared to preserve not only the morphology and survival of preantral follicles after 1 week of xenografting, but also their ability to resume folliculogenesis. In addition, vitrification protocol 2 had a positive impact on the quiescent state of primordial follicles after xenografting. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Monoclonal antibody against human ovarian tumor-associated antigens.

    PubMed

    Poels, L G; Peters, D; van Megen, Y; Vooijs, G P; Verheyen, R N; Willemen, A; van Niekerk, C C; Jap, P H; Mungyer, G; Kenemans, P

    1986-05-01

    Mouse monoclonal antibodies (OV-TL 3) were raised against human ovarian tumor-associated antigens for diagnostic purposes. A cloned hybridoma cell line was obtained by fusion of murine myeloma cells with spleen lymphocytes from BALB/c mice immunized with a tumor cell suspension prepared from an ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. The antibodies were initially screened for their ability to bind on frozen sections of human ovarian carcinoma tissue and a negative reaction on gastric carcinoma tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. The reactivity of the selected OV-TL 3 clone (IgG1 subclass) was studied on normal and neoplastic tissues as well as on a cell line derived from the original tumor cell suspension used for immunization. OV-TL 3 antibodies stained frozen sections of human ovarian carcinomas of the following histological types: serous, mucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell. No reaction was found with breast cancers or other nongynecological tumors. No differences in staining pattern were observed between primary and metastatic ovarian carcinomas. OV-TL 3 antibodies brightly stained ovarian carcinoma cell clusters in ascitic fluids and left unstained mesothelial cells and peripheral blood cells. The OV-TL 3-defined antigen also remained strongly expressed on a cell line derived from the endometrioid ovarian carcinoma originally used for generation of OV-TL 3 clone. Reactivity was weak and irregular in a few ovarian cysts, while traces of fluorescence were sometimes detected in epithelial cells lining the female genital tract. In only 3 specimens of 15 endometrium carcinomas was weak focal reactivity with OV-TL 3 antibodies observed. The results of the immunofluorescence study were confirmed by the more sensitive avidin-biotin method and by 125I-labeled OV-TL 3 antibodies. Thus OV-TL 3 recognizes a common antigen for most ovarian carcinomas and may be a useful tool for rapid diagnosis of ovarian carcinomas.

  8. An Introduction to The Royan Human Ovarian Tissue Bank.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Naeimeh Sadat; Ebrahimi, Bita; Fathi, Rouhollah; Khodaverdi, Sepideh; Mehdizadeh Kashi, Abolfazl; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh

    2016-01-01

    From December 2000 until 2010, the researchers at Royan Institute conducted a wide range of investigations on ovarian tissue cryopreservation with the intent to provide fertility pres- ervation to cancer patients that were considered to be candidates for these services. In 2010, Royan Institute established the Royan Human Ovarian Tissue Bank as a subgroup of the Embryology Department. Since its inception, approximately 180 patients between the ages of 747 years have undergone consultations. Ovarian samples were cryopreserved from 47 patients (age: 7-35 years) diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma (n=9); breast carcinoma (n=7), Ewing's sarcoma (n=7), opposite side ovarian tumor (n=7), endometrial adenocarci- noma (n=4), malignant colon tumors (n=3), as well as Hodgkin's lymphoma, major thalas- semia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=1-2 patients for each disease). Additionally, two patients requested ovarian tissue transplantation after completion of their treatments.

  9. Niv versus dropping vitrification in cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z; Li, S W; Zhang, Y Y; Wang, Y; Li, L L; Fan, W

    2014-01-01

    The containers for vitrification of tissues include cryovials, copper grids, Pasteur pipettes, the solid-surface method and etc. Recently the acupuncture needle was used to achieve better result in vitrification of human ovarian tissue. To determine if the needle immersed vitrification method (NIV) is a promising approach to vitrify the human ovarian tissue. Human ovarian biopsies from five patients were vitrified using NIV and Dropping vitrification. After 14 days of in vitro culture, the incidence of apoptotic primordial follicles from fresh and vitrified groups was assessed by TUNEL assay. 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) were detected in the media after culturing of vitrified and fresh ovarian tissues. The incidence of apoptotic primordial follicles was significantly higher in the dropping vitrification group than in the NIV group (P < 0.05). E2 and P4 concentrations were significantly higher in NIV groups than in Dropping vitrification group (P < 0.05). NIV was an appropriate method to vitrify ovarian tissue by improving the growth potential of frozen-warmed ovarian tissue in vitro culture.

  10. Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Harvey Rodrick Grenville

    2014-01-01

    Three young women who developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination presented to a general practitioner in rural New South Wales, Australia. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline. Vaccinations had been administered in different regions of the state of New South Wales and the 3 girls lived in different towns in that state. Each had been prescribed the oral contraceptive pill to treat menstrual cycle abnormalities prior to investigation and diagnosis. Vaccine research does not present an ovary histology report of tested rats but does present a testicular histology report. Enduring ovarian capacity and duration of function following vaccination is unresearched in preclinical studies, clinical and postlicensure studies. Postmarketing surveillance does not accurately represent diagnoses in adverse event notifications and can neither represent unnotified cases nor compare incident statistics with vaccine course administration rates. The potential significance of a case series of adolescents with idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency following HPV vaccination presenting to a general practice warrants further research. Preservation of reproductive health is a primary concern in the recipient target group. Since this group includes all prepubertal and pubertal young women, demonstration of ongoing, uncompromised safety for the ovary is urgently required. This matter needs to be resolved for the purposes of population health and public vaccine confidence. PMID:26425627

  11. Telomerase Activity in Human Ovarian Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counter, Christopher M.; Hirte, Hal W.; Bacchetti, Silvia; Harley, Calvin B.

    1994-04-01

    Telomeres fulfill the dual function of protecting eukaryotic chromosomes from illegitimate recombination and degradation and may aid in chromosome attachment to the nuclear membrane. We have previously shown that telomerase, the enzyme which synthesizes telomeric DNA, is not detected in normal somatic cells and that telomeres shorten with replicative age. In cells immortalized in vitro, activation of telomerase apparently stabilizes telomere length, preventing a critical destabilization of chromosomes, and cell proliferation continues even when telomeres are short. In vivo, telomeres of most tumors are shorter than telomeres of control tissues, suggesting an analogous role for the enzyme. To assess the relevance of telomerase and telomere stability in the development and progression of tumors, we have measured enzyme activity and telomere length in metastatic cells of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We report that extremely short telomeres are maintained in these cells and that tumor cells, but not isogenic nonmalignant cells, express telomerase. Our findings suggest that progression of malignancy is ultimately dependent upon activation of telomerase and that telomerase inhibitors may be effective antitumor drugs.

  12. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis and sensitizes human ovarian cancer cells to carboplatin therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Mian; Zhang, Ruiwen; Wang, Hui

    2009-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of artemisinin (ARS) and its derivatives on human ovarian cancer cells, to evaluate their potential as novel chemotherapeutic agents used alone or in combination with a conventional cancer chemotherapeutic agent, and to investigate their underlying mechanisms of action. Human ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and OVCAR-3), and immortalized non-tumourigenic human ovarian surface epithelial cells (IOSE144), were exposed to four ARS compounds for cytotoxicity testing. The in vitro and in vivo antitumour effects and possible underlying mechanisms of action of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the most effective compound, were further determined in ovarian cancer cells. ARS compounds exerted potent cytotoxicity to human ovarian carcinoma cells, with minimal effects on non-tumourigenic ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. DHA inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth when administered alone or in combination with carboplatin, presumably through the death receptor- and, mitochondrion-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. These effects were also observed in in vivo ovarian A2780 and OVCAR-3 xenograft tumour models. In conclusion, ARS derivatives, particularly DHA, exhibit significant anticancer activity against ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, with minimal toxicity to non-tumourigenic human OSE cells, indicating that they may be promising therapeutic agents for ovarian cancer, either used alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy.

  13. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis and sensitizes human ovarian cancer cells to carboplatin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Li, Mian; Zhang, Ruiwen; Wang, Hui

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of artemisinin (ARS) and its derivatives on human ovarian cancer cells, to evaluate their potential as novel chemotherapeutic agents used alone or in combination with a conventional cancer chemotherapeutic agent, and to investigate their underlying mechanisms of action. Human ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and OVCAR-3), and immortalized non-tumourigenic human ovarian surface epithelial cells (IOSE144), were exposed to four ARS compounds for cytotoxicity testing. The in vitro and in vivo antitumour effects and possible underlying mechanisms of action of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the most effective compound, were further determined in ovarian cancer cells. ARS compounds exerted potent cytotoxicity to human ovarian carcinoma cells, with minimal effects on non-tumourigenic ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. DHA inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth when administered alone or in combination with carboplatin, presumably through the death receptor- and, mitochondrion-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. These effects were also observed in in vivo ovarian A2780 and OVCAR-3 xenograft tumour models. In conclusion, ARS derivatives, particularly DHA, exhibit significant anticancer activity against ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, with minimal toxicity to non-tumourigenic human OSE cells, indicating that they may be promising therapeutic agents for ovarian cancer, either used alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy. PMID:18466355

  14. Successful slush nitrogen vitrification of human ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Talevi, Riccardo; Barbato, Vincenza; Fiorentino, Ilaria; Braun, Sabrina; De Stefano, Cristofaro; Ferraro, Raffaele; Sudhakaran, Sam; Gualtieri, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    To study whether slush nitrogen vitrification improves the preservation of human ovarian tissue. Control vs. treatment study. University research laboratory. Ovarian biopsies collected from nine women (aged 14-35 years) during laparoscopic surgery for benign gynecologic conditions. None. Ovarian cortical strips of 2 × 5 × 1 mm were vitrified with liquid or slush nitrogen. Fresh and vitrified cortical strips were analyzed for cryodamage and viability under light, confocal, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with liquid nitrogen, vitrification with slush nitrogen preserves [1] follicle quality (grade 1 follicles: fresh control, 50%; liquid nitrogen, 27%; slush nitrogen, 48%); [2] granulosa cell ultrastructure (intact cells: fresh control, 92%; liquid nitrogen, 45%; slush nitrogen, 73%), stromal cell ultrastructure (intact cells: fresh control, 59.8%; liquid nitrogen, 24%; slush nitrogen, 48.7%), and DNA integrity (TUNEL-positive cells: fresh control, 0.5%; liquid nitrogen, 2.3%; slush nitrogen, 0.4%); and [3] oocyte, granulosa, and stromal cell viability (oocyte: fresh control, 90%; liquid nitrogen, 63%; slush nitrogen, 87%; granulosa cells: fresh control, 93%; liquid nitrogen, 53%; slush nitrogen, 81%; stromal cells: fresh control, 63%; liquid nitrogen, 30%; slush nitrogen, 52%). The histology, ultrastructure, and viability of follicles and stromal cells are better preserved after vitrification with slush nitrogen compared with liquid nitrogen. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Lida P.; Bonnema, Garret T.; Schmidt, Kathy; Winkler, Amy M.; Korde, Vrushali; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Davis, John R.; Brewer, Molly A.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the US largely due to late detection secondary to unreliable symptomology and screening tools without adequate resolution. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a recently emerging imaging modality with promise in ovarian cancer diagnostics, providing non-destructive subsurface imaging at imaging depths up to 2 mm with near-histological grade resolution (10–20 μm). In this study, we developed the first ever laparoscopic OCT (LOCT) device, evaluated the safety and feasibility of LOCT, and characterized the microstructural features of human ovaries in vivo. Methods A custom LOCT device was fabricated specifically for laparoscopic imaging of the ovaries in patients undergoing oophorectomy. OCT images were compared with histopathology to identify preliminary architectural imaging features of normal and pathologic ovarian tissue. Results Thirty ovaries in 17 primarily peri or post-menopausal women were successfully imaged with LOCT: 16 normal, 5 endometriosis, 3 serous cystadenoma, and 4 adenocarcinoma. Preliminary imaging features developed for each category reveal qualitative differences in the homogeneous character of normal post-menopausal ovary, the ability to image small subsurface inclusion cysts, and distinguishable features for endometriosis, cystadenoma, and adenocarcinoma. Conclusions We present the development and successful implementation of the first laparoscopic OCT probe. Comparison of OCT images and corresponding histopathology allowed for the description of preliminary microstructural features for normal ovary, endometriosis, and benign and malignant surface epithelial neoplasms. These results support the potential of OCT both as a diagnostic tool and imaging modality for further evaluation of ovarian cancer pathogenesis. PMID:19481241

  16. Immune cells in the normal ovary and spontaneous ovarian tumors in the laying hen (Gallus domesticus) model of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradaric, Michael J; Penumatsa, Krishna; Barua, Animesh; Edassery, Seby L; Yu, Yi; Abramowicz, Jacques S; Bahr, Janice M; Luborsky, Judith L

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous ovarian cancer in chickens resembles human tumors both histologically and biochemically. The goal was to determine if there are differences in lymphocyte content between normal ovaries and ovarian tumors in chickens as a basis for further studies to understand the role of immunity in human ovarian cancer progression. Hens were selected using grey scale and color Doppler ultrasound to determine if they had normal or tumor morphology. Cells were isolated from ovaries (n = 6 hens) and lymphocyte numbers were determined by flow cytometry using antibodies to avian CD4 and CD8 T and B (Bu1a) cells. Ovarian sections from another set of hens (n = 26) were assessed to verify tumor type and stage and to count CD4, CD8 and Bu1a immunostained cells by morphometric analysis. T and B cells were more numerous in ovarian tumors than in normal ovaries by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. There were less CD4+ cells than CD8+ and Bu1a+ cells in normal ovaries or ovarian tumors. CD8+ cells were the dominant T cell sub-type in both ovarian stroma and in ovarian follicles compared to CD4+ cells. Bu1a+ cells were consistently found in the stroma of normal ovaries and ovarian tumors but were not associated with follicles. The number of immune cells was highest in late stage serous tumors compared to endometrioid and mucinous tumors. The results suggest that similar to human ovarian cancer there are comparatively more immune cells in chicken ovarian tumors than in normal ovaries, and the highest immune cell content occurs in serous tumors. Thus, this study establishes a foundation for further study of tumor immune responses in a spontaneous model of ovarian cancer which will facilitate studies of the role of immunity in early ovarian cancer progression and use of the hen in pre-clinical vaccine trials.

  17. Immune Cells in the Normal Ovary and Spontaneous Ovarian Tumors in the Laying Hen (Gallus domesticus) Model of Human Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradaric, Michael J.; Penumatsa, Krishna; Barua, Animesh; Edassery, Seby L.; Yu, Yi; Abramowicz, Jacques S.; Bahr, Janice M.; Luborsky, Judith L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Spontaneous ovarian cancer in chickens resembles human tumors both histologically and biochemically. The goal was to determine if there are differences in lymphocyte content between normal ovaries and ovarian tumors in chickens as a basis for further studies to understand the role of immunity in human ovarian cancer progression. Methods Hens were selected using grey scale and color Doppler ultrasound to determine if they had normal or tumor morphology. Cells were isolated from ovaries (n = 6 hens) and lymphocyte numbers were determined by flow cytometry using antibodies to avian CD4 and CD8 T and B (Bu1a) cells. Ovarian sections from another set of hens (n = 26) were assessed to verify tumor type and stage and to count CD4, CD8 and Bu1a immunostained cells by morphometric analysis. Results T and B cells were more numerous in ovarian tumors than in normal ovaries by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. There were less CD4+ cells than CD8+ and Bu1a+ cells in normal ovaries or ovarian tumors. CD8+ cells were the dominant T cell sub-type in both ovarian stroma and in ovarian follicles compared to CD4+ cells. Bu1a+ cells were consistently found in the stroma of normal ovaries and ovarian tumors but were not associated with follicles. The number of immune cells was highest in late stage serous tumors compared to endometrioid and mucinous tumors. Conclusions The results suggest that similar to human ovarian cancer there are comparatively more immune cells in chicken ovarian tumors than in normal ovaries, and the highest immune cell content occurs in serous tumors. Thus, this study establishes a foundation for further study of tumor immune responses in a spontaneous model of ovarian cancer which will facilitate studies of the role of immunity in early ovarian cancer progression and use of the hen in pre-clinical vaccine trials. PMID:24040191

  18. Induction of ovarian function by using short-term human menopausal gonadotrophin in patients with ovarian failure following cytotoxic chemotherapy for haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, R; Mills, W; Katz, M; McGarrigle, H H; Goldstone, A H

    1993-07-01

    Currently no treatment has proved successful in inducing ovarian steroidogenic and/or gametogenic recovery in patients with haematological malignancies treated by cytotoxic chemotherapy once biochemical failure becomes manifest i.e., when FSH levels exceed 40 IU/L. This paper reports two such cases with classical biochemical ovarian failure in which ovarian function was induced by brief stimulation with Human Menopausal Gonadotrophin (HMG).

  19. Enhancement of Neoangiogenesis and Follicle Survival by Sphingosine-1-Phosphate in Human Ovarian Tissue Xenotransplants

    PubMed Central

    Oktay, Kutluk

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian transplantation is one of the key approaches to restoring fertility in women who became menopausal as a result of cancer treatments. A major limitation of human ovarian transplants is massive follicular loss during revascularization. Here we investigated whether sphingosine-1-phosphate or its receptor agonists could enhance neoangiogenesis and follicle survival in ovarian transplants in a xenograft model. Human ovarian tissue xenografts in severe-combined-immunodeficient mice were treated with sphingosine-1-phosphate, its analogs, or vehicle for 1–10 days. We found that sphingosine-1-phosphate treatment increased vascular density in ovarian transplants significantly whereas FTY720 and SEW2871 had the opposite effect. In addition, sphingosine-1-phosphate accelerated the angiogenic process compared to vehicle-treated controls. Furthermore, sphingosine-1-phosphate treatment was associated with a significant proliferation of ovarian stromal cell as well as reduced necrosis and tissue hypoxia compared to the vehicle-treated controls. This resulted in a significantly lower percentage of apoptotic follicles in sphingosine-1-phosphate-treated transplants. We conclude that while sphingosine-1-phosphate promotes neoangiogenesis in ovarian transplants and reduces ischemic reperfusion injury, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonists appear to functionally antagonize this process. Sphingosine-1-phosphate holds great promise to clinically enhance the survival and longevity of human autologous ovarian transplants. PMID:21559342

  20. Variation in ovarian follicle density during human fetal development.

    PubMed

    Geber, Selmo; Megale, Rodrigo; Vale, Fabiene; Lanna, Ana Maria Arruda; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2012-09-01

    To obtain a precise estimate of ovarian follicle density and variation in the number of follicles at several gestational ages during human fetal development. Twelve necropsied ovaries from 9 fetuses (gestational age: 24 to 36 weeks) and 3 neonates (who died within the first hours of life) were studied. Ovaries were fixed with 4 % formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Serial, 7 mm thick sections of the ovaries were cut and evaluated at every 50 cuts. Follicles were counted in 10 regions (each measuring 625 μm(2)) of the ovarian cortex and the number of follicles per mm³ was calculated. The number of follicles per 0.25 mm² ranged from 10.9 (± 4.8) in a neonate to 34.7 (± 10.6) also in a neonate. Among fetuses, follicle density was lowest at 36 weeks of gestation (11.1 ± 6.2) and highest at 26 weeks (32 ± 8.9). The total number of follicles ranged from 500,000 at the age of 22 weeks to > 1,000,000 at the age of 39 weeks. Our results show a peak in the number of follicles during intrauterine life at approximately 26 weeks, followed by a rapid reduction in this number before birth, providing a step forward towards the understanding of primordial follicular assembly in humans and, ultimately, the identification of the determinants of reproductive capacity.

  1. A draft map of the human ovarian proteome for tissue engineering and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Ouni, Emna; Vertommen, Didier; Chiti, Maria Costanza; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Amorim, Christiani Andrade

    2018-02-23

    Fertility preservation research in women today is increasingly taking advantage of bioengineering techniques to develop new biomimetic materials and solutions to safeguard ovarian cell function and microenvironment in vitro and in vivo. However, available data on the human ovary are limited and fundamental differences between animal models and humans are hampering researchers in their quest for more extensive knowledge of human ovarian physiology and key reproductive proteins that need to be preserved. We therefore turned to multi-dimensional label-free mass spectrometry to analyze human ovarian cortex, as it is a high-throughput and conclusive technique providing information on the proteomic composition of complex tissues like the ovary. In-depth proteomic profiling through two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, western blot, histological and immunohistochemical analyses, and data mining helped us to confidently identify 1,508 proteins. Moreover, our method allowed us to chart the most complete representation so far of the ovarian matrisome, defined as the ensemble of extracellular matrix proteins and associated factors, including more than 80 proteins. In conclusion, this study will provide a better understanding of ovarian proteomics, with a detailed characterization of the ovarian follicle microenvironment, in order to enable bioengineers to create biomimetic scaffolds for transplantation and three-dimensional in vitro culture. By publishing our proteomic data, we also hope to contribute to accelerating biomedical research into ovarian health and disease in general. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. PTN Signaling: Components and Mechanistic Insights in Human Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Geetika; Kwon, Youngjoo; Burkhalter, Rebecca J; Pathak, Harsh B.; Madan, Rashna; McHugh, Sarah; Atay, Safinur; Murthy, Smruthi; Tawfik, Ossama W.; Godwin, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular vulnerabilities represent promising candidates for the development of targeted therapies that hold the promise to overcome the challenges encountered with non-targeted chemotherapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Through a synthetic lethality screen, we previously identified pleiotrophin (PTN) as a molecular vulnerability in ovarian cancer and showed that siRNA mediated PTN knockdown induced apoptotic cell death in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells. Although it is well known that PTN elicits its pro-tumorigenic effects through its receptor, protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor Z1 (PTPRZ1), little is known about the potential importance of this pathway in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. In this study we show that PTN is expressed, produced, and secreted in a panel of EOC cell lines. PTN levels in serous ovarian tumor tissues are on average 3.5-fold higher relative to normal tissue and PTN is detectable in serum samples of patients with EOC. PTPRZ1 is also expressed and produced by EOC cells and is found to be up-regulated in serous ovarian tumor tissue relative to normal ovarian surface epithelial tissue (p<0.05). Gene silencing of PTPRZ1 in EOC cell lines using siRNA mediated knockdown shows that PTPRZ1 is essential for viability and results in significant apoptosis with no effect on the cell cycle phase distribution. In order to determine how PTN mediates survival, we silenced the gene using siRNA mediated knockdown and performed expression profiling of 36 survival-related genes. Through computational mapping of the differentially expressed genes, members of the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) family were found to be likely effectors of PTN signaling in EOC cells. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that PTN and its signaling components may be of significance in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer and provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of MAPK inhibitors in PTN and/or PTPRZ1 expressing ovarian

  3. Human steroidogenesis: implications for controlled ovarian stimulation with exogenous gonadotropins.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego

    2014-12-28

    In the menstrual cycle, the mid-cycle surge of gonadotropins (both luteinising hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) signals the initiation of the periovulatory interval, during which the follicle augments progesterone production and begins to luteinise, ultimately leading to the rupture of the follicle wall and the release of an oocyte. The administration of gonadotropins in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) leads to supraphysiological steroid concentrations of a very different profile compared with those seen during natural cycles. It has been suggested that these high steroid concentrations cause alterations in endometrial development, affecting oocyte viability in assisted reproductive technology. Furthermore, it has been proposed that elevated progesterone levels have a negative effect on the reproductive outcome of COS. This may arise from an asynchrony between embryo stage and endometrium status at the window of implantation. The regulation of progesterone production by the developing follicles during COS is a complicated interplay of hormonal systems involving the theca and granulosa cells, and the effect of the actions of both LH and FSH. The present paper reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis. Based on current evidence, it is not clear whether the high levels of progesterone produced during COS have detrimental effects on fertility.

  4. In vitro culture thawed human ovarian tissue: NIV versus slow freezing method.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhun; Wang, Yan; Li, Ling-Ling; Li, Shang-wei

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the needle immersed vitrification method (NIV) can improve the growth potential of thawed ovarian tissue in vitro culture. Human ovarian cortical tissues were cryopreserved using NIV and slow freezing method. After 14 days of culture, the preservation outcomes of NIV and slow freezing groups were analyzed histologically using light microscope and apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay. The result showed that the percentage of morphologically abnormal primordial follicles was lower in NIV group than in slow freezing group (P < 0.05). The incidence of TUNEL-positive primordial follicles was lower in NIV group than in slow freezing group (P < 0.05). The study showed that cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue with NIV was effective in improving the growth potential of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue in vitro culture.

  5. Pycnogenol reduces talc-induced neoplastic transformation in human ovarian cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Buz'Zard, Amber R; Lau, Benjamin H S

    2007-06-01

    Talc and poor diet have been suggested to increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer; which can be reduced by a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Talc is ubiquitous despite concern about its safety, role as a possible carcinogen and known ability to cause irritation and inflammation. It was recently shown that Pycnogenol (Pyc; a proprietary mixture of water-soluble bioflavonoids extracted from French maritime pine bark) was selectively toxic to established malignant ovarian germ cells. This study investigated talc-induced carcinogenesis and Pyc-induced chemoprevention. Normal human epithelial and granulosa ovarian cell lines and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were treated with talc, or pretreated with Pyc then talc. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and neoplastic transformation by soft agar assay were measured. Talc increased proliferation, induced neoplastic transformation and increased ROS generation time-dependently in the ovarian cells and dose-dependently in the PMN. Pretreatment with Pyc inhibited the talc-induced increase in proliferation, decreased the number of transformed colonies and decreased the ROS generation in the ovarian cells. The data suggest that talc may contribute to ovarian neoplastic transformation and Pyc reduced the talc-induced transformation. Taken together, Pyc may prove to be a potent chemopreventative agent against ovarian carcinogenesis. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Simultaneous multiplane imaging of human ovarian cancer by volume holographic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Orsinger, Gabriel V.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Gordon, Michael; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; de Leon, Erich E.; Brownlee, Johnathan W.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Barton, Jennifer K.; Kostuk, Raymond K.; Romanowski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecologic cancer, a fact which is attributable to poor early detection and survival once the disease has reached advanced stages. Intraoperative laparoscopic volume holographic imaging has the potential to provide simultaneous visualization of surface and subsurface structures in ovarian tissues for improved assessment of developing ovarian cancer. In this ex vivo ovarian tissue study, we assembled a benchtop volume holographic imaging system (VHIS) to characterize the microarchitecture of 78 normal and 40 abnormal tissue specimens derived from ovarian, fallopian tube, uterine, and peritoneal tissues, collected from 26 patients aged 22 to 73 undergoing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, or abdominal cytoreductive surgery. All tissues were successfully imaged with the VHIS in both reflectance- and fluorescence-modes revealing morphological features which can be used to distinguish between normal, benign abnormalities, and cancerous tissues. We present the development and successful application of VHIS for imaging human ovarian tissue. Comparison of VHIS images with corresponding histopathology allowed for qualitatively distinguishing microstructural features unique to the studied tissue type and disease state. These results motivate the development of a laparoscopic VHIS for evaluating the surface and subsurface morphological alterations in ovarian cancer pathogenesis. PMID:24676382

  7. Mechanisms of Cables 1 gene inactivation in human ovarian cancer development.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hideo; Friel, Anne M; Wood, Antony W; Guo, Lankai; Ilic, Ana; Seiden, Michael V; Chung, Daniel C; Lynch, Maureen P; Serikawa, Takehiro; Munro, Elizabeth; Oliva, Esther; Orsulic, Sandra; Kirley, Sandra D; Foster, Rosemary; Zukerberg, Lawrence R; Rueda, Bo R

    2008-02-01

    Cables 1, a cyclin-dependent kinase binding protein, is primarily involved in cell cycle regulation. Loss of nuclear Cables 1 expression is observed in human colon, lung and endometrial cancers. We previously reported that loss of nuclear Cables 1 expression was also observed with high frequency in a limited sample set of human ovarian carcinomas, although the mechanisms underlying loss of nuclear Cables 1 expression remained unknown. Our present objective was to examine Cables 1 expression in ovarian cancer in greater detail, and determine the predominant mechanisms of Cables 1 loss. We assessed potential genetic and epigenetic modifications of the Cables 1 locus through analyses of mutation, polymorphisms, loss of heterozygosity and DNA methylation. We observed a marked loss of nuclear Cables 1 expression in serous and endometrioid ovarian carcinomas that correlated with decreased Cables 1 mRNA levels. Although we detected no Cables 1 mutations, there was evidence of LOH at the Cables 1 locus and epigenetic modification of the Cables 1 promoter region in a subset of ovarian carcinomas and established cancer cell lines. From a functional perspective, over-expression of Cables 1 induced apoptosis, whereas, knockdown of Cables 1 negated this effect. Together these findings suggest that multiple mechanisms underlie the loss of Cables 1 expression in ovarian cancer cells, supporting the hypothesis that Cables 1 is a tumor suppressor in human ovarian cancer.

  8. Generation of monoclonal antibodies reacting with human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tagliabue, E; Mènard, S; Della Torre, G; Barbanti, P; Mariani-Costantini, R; Porro, G; Colnaghi, M I

    1985-01-01

    Fusion of the murine myeloma line P3-X63-Ag8-U1 with spleen cells from a mouse immunized with a membrane preparations (CM) of a mucinous ovarian cystoadenocarcinoma yielded two monoclonal antibodies, MOv1 and MOv2, which reacted by solid-phase radioimmunoassay with immunizing tumor CM but were unreactive with normal kidney CM as well as with plasma proteins and peripheral blood cells from the immunizing carcinoma patient. MOv1 and MOv2 were further tested by solid-phase radioimunoassay on a panel of different CM from fresh surgical specimens of ovarian and nonovarian carcinomas, benign ovarian tumors, normal ovary and kidney tissues, and on various tumor cell lines. In addition, the antibodies were characterized by immunofluorescence on live cells from cell lines and surgical specimens, and on frozen sections of benign and malignant ovarian tumors, of nonovarian tumors, and of normal tissues. The results obtained indicate that MOv1 and MOv2 recognize two different epitopes on molecules present on malignant and benign ovarian mucinous tumors and colonic glands. In addition, the antigen recognized by MOv2 was also detected in carcinmas of lung, colon, stomach, and breast; in gastrointestinal glands; and in the glandular lumina of normal lactating breast.

  9. Oridonin Suppresses Proliferation of Human Ovarian Cancer Cells via Blockage of mTOR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Xia, Rong; Chen, Sun-Xiao; Qin, Qin; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Rong-Rong; Deng, An-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Oridonin, an ent-kaurane diterpenoid compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens, has shown various pharmacological and physiological effects such as anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of oridonin on human ovarian cancer cell lines has not been determined. In this study, we demonstrated that oridonin inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed oridonin inhibited tumor growth of ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3) in vivo. We then assessed mechanisms and found that oridonin specifically abrogated the phosphorylation/activation of mTOR signaling. In summary, our results indicate that oridonin is a potential inhibitor of ovarian cancer by blocking the mTOR signaling pathway.

  10. Laparoscopic optical coherence tomographic imaging of human ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Bonnema, Garret T.; Schmidt, Kathy; Hatch, Kenneth; Brewer, Molly; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2008-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States. If diagnosed at an early stage, the 5-year survival rate is 94%, but drops to 68% for regional disease and 29% for distant metastasis; only 19% of all cases are diagnosed at the early, localized stage. Optical coherence tomography is a recently emerging non-destructive imaging technology, achieving high axial resolutions (10-20 microns) at imaging depths up to 2 mm. Previously, we studied OCT imaging in normal and diseased human ovary ex vivo to determine the features OCT is capable of resolving. Changes in collagen were suggested with several of the images that correlated with changes in collagen seen in malignancy. Areas of necrosis and blood vessels were also visualized using OCT, indicative of an underlying tissue abnormality. We recently developed a custom side-firing laparoscopic OCT (LOCT) probe fabricated specifically for in vivo laparoscopic imaging. The LOCT probe consists of a 38 mm diameter handpiece terminated in an 280 mm long, 4.6 mm diameter tip for insertion into the laparoscopic trocar and is capable of obtaining up to 9.5 mm image lengths at 10 micron axial resolution. In this study, we utilize the LOCT probe to image one or both ovaries of 20 patients undergoing laparotomy or transabdominal endoscopy and oophorectomy to determine if OCT is capable of identifying and/or differentiating normal and neoplastic ovary. To date, we have laparoscopically imaged the ovaries of ten patients successfully with no known complications.

  11. Laparoscopic optical coherence tomographic imaging of human ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Bonnema, Garret T.; Schmidt, Kathy; Korde, Vrushali; Winkler, Amy M.; Hatch, Kenneth; Brewer, Molly; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2009-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women. If diagnosed at early stages, 5-year survival rate is 94%, but drops to 68% for regional disease and 29% for distant metastasis; only 19% of cases are diagnosed at early, localized stages. Optical coherence tomography is a recently emerging non-destructive imaging technology, achieving high axial resolutions (10-20 µm) at imaging depths up to 2 mm. Previously, we studied OCT in normal and diseased human ovary ex vivo. Changes in collagen were suggested with several images that correlated with changes in collagen seen in malignancy. Areas of necrosis and blood vessels were also visualized using OCT, indicative of an underlying tissue abnormality. We recently developed a custom side-firing laparoscopic OCT (LOCT) probe fabricated for in vivo imaging. The LOCT probe, consisting of a 38 mm diameter handpiece terminated in a 280 mm long, 4.6 mm diameter tip for insertion into the laparoscopic trocar, is capable of obtaining up to 9.5 mm image lengths at 10 µm axial resolution. In this pilot study, we utilize the LOCT probe to image one or both ovaries of 17 patients undergoing laparotomy or transabdominal endoscopy and oophorectomy to determine if OCT is capable of differentiating normal and neoplastic ovary. We have laparoscopically imaged the ovaries of seventeen patients with no known complications. Initial data evaluation reveals qualitative distinguishability between the features of undiseased post-menopausal ovary and the cystic, non-homogenous appearance of neoplastic ovary such as serous cystadenoma and endometroid adenocarcinoma.

  12. Progress in understanding human ovarian folliculogenesis and its implications in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong Zi; Yang, Wan; Li, Yu; He, Zuanyu

    2013-02-01

    To highlight recent progress in understanding the pattern of follicular wave emergence of human menstrual cycle, providing a brief overview of the new options for human ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval by making full use of follicular physiological waves of the patients either with normal or abnormal ovarian reserve. Literature review and editorial commentary. There has been increasing evidence to suggest that multiple (two or three) antral follicular waves are recruited during human menstrual cycle. The treatment regimens designed based on the theory of follicular waves, to promote increased success with assisted reproduction technology (ART) and fertility preservation have been reported. These new options for human ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval by making full use of follicular waves of the patients either with normal or abnormal ovarian reserve lead to new thinking about the standard protocols in ART and challenge the traditional theory that a single wave of antral follicles grows only during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The understanding of human ovarian folliculogenesis may have profound implications in ART and fertility preservation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal regimens in ART based on the theory of follicular waves and to identify non-invasive markers for predicting the outcome and the potential utilities of follicles obtained from anovulatory follicular waves in ART.

  13. Age-related decline in ovarian follicle stocks differ between chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Christina T; Coxworth, James E; Hawkes, Kristen

    2015-02-01

    Similarity in oldest parturitions in humans and great apes suggests that we maintain ancestral rates of ovarian aging. Consistent with that hypothesis, previous counts of primordial follicles in postmortem ovarian sections from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) showed follicle stock decline at the same rate that human stocks decline across the same ages. Here, we correct that finding with a chimpanzee sample more than three times larger than the previous one, which also allows comparison into older ages. Analyses show depletion rates similar until about age 35, but after 35, the human counts continue to fall with age, while the change is much less steep in chimpanzees. This difference implicates likely effects on ovarian dynamics from other physiological systems that are senescing at different rates, and, potentially, different perimenopausal experience for chimpanzees and humans.

  14. Histologic and ultrastructural evaluation of fresh and frozen-thawed human ovarian xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Nisolle, M; Casanas-Roux, F; Qu, J; Motta, P; Donnez, J

    2000-07-01

    To compare histologic and ultrastructural characteristics of fresh and frozen-thawed human ovarian cortical tissue grafted into nude mice. Experimental prospective study. An academic research environment. Ovarian biopsy specimens were obtained from 13 women undergoing laparoscopy for tubal ligation or infertility. Forty nude mice. A minilaparotomy was performed to place fresh and frozen-thawed ovarian grafts subcutaneously (sc) or intraperitoneally (ip). Removal of the ovarian grafts was performed at 24 days. [1] the follicular population, [2] fibrosis, [3] vascularization of the grafted tissue, and [4] ultrastructural evaluation. A greater fibrosis relative surface area was noted in frozen-thawed transplanted tissue than in fresh transplants. Regardless of this fibrosis, a similar follicular density was observed in fresh and frozen-thawed ovarian tissue 24 days after transplantation. Active angiogenesis was proved by both immunohistochemical study of the vascular endothelial growth factor and morphometric study of the vascular network. Normal ultrastructural characteristics were noted in frozen-thawed ovarian biopsies. Angiogenesis allows implantation of the graft even if it has been cryopreserved and thawed similarly to implantation of fresh tissue. The greater fibrosis observed in grafts after cryopreservation and implantation does not seem to affect the primordial and primary ovocyte population and their ultrastructural characteristics, but further studies must be conducted to prove that after cryopreservation and transplantation, ovocytes may achieve full maturation and fertilization.

  15. Epigenetics changes caused by the fusion of human embryonic stem cell and ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    He, Ke; Qu, Hu; Xu, Li-Nan; Gao, Jun; Cheng, Fu-Yi; Xiang, Peng; Zhou, Can-Quan

    2016-10-01

    To observe the effect of gene expression and tumorigenicity in hybrid cells of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo using a mouse model, and to determine its feasibility in reprogramming tumour cells growth and apoptosis, for a potential exploration of the role of hESCs and tumour cells fusion in the management of ovarian cancer. Stable transgenic hESCs (H1) and ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3 were established before fusion, and cell fusion system was established to analyse the related indicators. PTEN expression in HO-H1 cells was higher than those in the parental stem cells and lower than those in parental tumour cells; the growth of OV-H1 (RFP+GFP) hybrid cells with double fluorescence expressions were obviously slower than that of human embryonic stem cells and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. The apoptosis signal of the OV-H1 hybrid cells was significantly higher than that of the hESCs and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. In vivo results showed that compared with 7 days, 28 days and 35 days after inoculation of OV-H1 hybrid cells; also, apoptotic cell detection indicated that much stronger apoptotic signal was found in OV-H1 hybrid cells inoculated mouse. The hESCs can inhibit the growth of OVCAR-3 cells in vitro by suppressing p53 and PTEN expression to suppress the growth of tumour that may be achieved by inducing apoptosis of OVCAR-3 cells. The change of epigenetics after fusion of ovarian cancer cells and hESCs may become a novel direction for treatment of ovarian cancer. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand inhibits proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Dai, Cai-Feng; Patankar, Manish S.; Song, Jia-Sheng; Zheng, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor mediates many biological processes. Herein, we investigated if 2-(1′H-indole-3′-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE, an endogenous AhR ligand) regulated proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells via AhR. We found that AhR was widely present in many histotypes of ovarian cancer tissues. ITE suppressed OVCAR-3 cell proliferation and SKOV-3 cell migration in vitro, which were blocked by AhR knockdown. ITE also suppressed OVCAR-3 cell growth in mice. These data suggest that the ITE might potentially be used for therapeutic intervention for at least a subset of human ovarian cancer. PMID:23851185

  17. An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand inhibits proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Li, Yan; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Dai, Cai-Feng; Patankar, Manish S; Song, Jia-Sheng; Zheng, Jing

    2013-10-28

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor mediates many biological processes. Herein, we investigated if 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE, an endogenous AhR ligand) regulated proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells via AhR. We found that AhR was widely present in many histotypes of ovarian cancer tissues. ITE suppressed OVCAR-3 cell proliferation and SKOV-3 cell migration in vitro, which were blocked by AhR knockdown. ITE also suppressed OVCAR-3 cell growth in mice. These data suggest that the ITE might potentially be used for therapeutic intervention for at least a subset of human ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterizing optical properties and spatial heterogeneity of human ovarian tissue using spatial frequency domain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, Sreyankar; Mostafa, Atahar; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2016-10-01

    A spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) system was developed for characterizing ex vivo human ovarian tissue using wide-field absorption and scattering properties and their spatial heterogeneities. Based on the observed differences between absorption and scattering images of different ovarian tissue groups, six parameters were quantitatively extracted. These are the mean absorption and scattering, spatial heterogeneities of both absorption and scattering maps measured by a standard deviation, and a fitting error of a Gaussian model fitted to normalized mean Radon transform of the absorption and scattering maps. A logistic regression model was used for classification of malignant and normal ovarian tissues. A sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 100%, and area under the curve of 0.98 were obtained using six parameters extracted from the SFDI images. The preliminary results demonstrate the diagnostic potential of the SFDI method for quantitative characterization of wide-field optical properties and the spatial distribution heterogeneity of human ovarian tissue. SFDI could be an extremely robust and valuable tool for evaluation of the ovary and detection of neoplastic changes of ovarian cancer.

  19. Integrated proteogenomic characterization of human high grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bai; McDermott, Jason E; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Chen, Li; Ray, Debjit; Sun, Shisheng; Yang, Feng; Chen, Lijun; Wang, Jing; Shah, Punit; Cha, Seong Won; Aiyetan, Paul; Woo, Sunghee; Tian, Yuan; Gritsenko, Marina A; Clauss, Therese R; Choi, Caitlin; Monroe, Matthew E; Thomas, Stefani; Nie, Song; Wu, Chaochao; Moore, Ronald J; Yu, Kun-Hsing; Tabb, David L; Fenyö, David; Bafna, Vineet; Wang, Yue; Rodriguez, Henry; Boja, Emily S; Hiltke, Tara; Rivers, Robert C; Sokoll, Lori; Zhu, Heng; Shih, Ie-Ming; Cope, Leslie; Pandey, Akhilesh; Zhang, Bing; Snyder, Michael P; Levine, Douglas A; Smith, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY To provide a detailed analysis of the molecular components and underlying mechanisms associated with ovarian cancer, we performed a comprehensive mass spectrometry-based proteomic characterization of 174 ovarian tumors previously analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), of which 169 were high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC). Integrating our proteomic measurements with the genomic data yielded a number of insights into disease such as how different copy number alternations influence the proteome, the proteins associated with chromosomal instability, the sets of signaling pathways that diverse genome rearrangements converge on, as well as the ones most associated with short overall survival. Specific protein acetylations associated with homologous recombination deficiency suggest a potential means for stratifying patients for therapy. In addition to providing a valuable resource, these findings provide a view of how the somatic genome drives the cancer proteome and associations between protein and post-translational modification levels and clinical outcomes in HGSC. PMID:27372738

  20. Presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its messenger ribonucleic acid in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ohno, T; Imai, A; Furui, T; Takahashi, K; Tamaya, T

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid and the presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in human ovarian carcinoma known to have gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites and to be affected by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog. Human ovarian carcinomas surgically removed and human ovarian carcinoma cell lines were examined. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was determined by a radioimmunoassay and a bioassay. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using oligonucleotide primers synthesized according to the published human gonadotropin-releasing hormone sequence. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was shown to be present in extracts of ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma sample (0.8 +/- 0.12 pg/mg of protein) and ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line SK-OV3 (0.92 +/- 0.17 pg/mg of protein) but not in the normal ovary and placenta. Two of two extract samples from individual cases evoked dose-dependent phosphoinositide breakdown in rat granulosa cells similar to that caused by authentic gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid was detected in two of two mucinous cystadenocarcinoma specimens, one of one serous cystadenocarcinoma, and SK-OV3 cells but not in the dysgerminoma, mucinous cystadenoma, and normal ovary and placenta. The demonstration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its messenger ribonucleic acid raises the possibility that gonadotropin-releasing hormone may play an autocrine regulatory role in the growth of ovarian carcinoma.

  1. Expression pattern of RAGE and IGF-1 in the human fetal ovary and ovarian serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poljicanin, Ana; Filipovic, Natalija; Vukusic Pusic, Tanja; Soljic, Violeta; Caric, Ana; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Vukojevic, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The expression pattern of RAGE and IGF-1 proteins in different ovarian cell lineages was histologically analyzed in six fetal, nine adult human ovaries, and nine serous ovarian carcinomas (OSC) using immunohistochemical methods. Mild expression of IGF-1 in ovarian surface epithelium (Ose) and oocytes in the 15-week human ovaries increased to moderate or strong in the stromal cells, oocytes and follicular cells in week 22. Occasional mild RAGE expression was observed in Ose during week 15, while strong expression characterized primordial follicles in week 22. In the reproductive human ovary, IGF-1 was mildly to moderately expressed in all ovarian cell lineages except in theca cells of the tertiary follicle where IGF-1 was negative. RAGE was strongly positive in the granulosa cells and some theca cells of the tertiary follicle, while negative to mildly positive in all cells of the secondary follicle. In the postmenopausal human ovary IGF-1 and RAGE were mildly expressed in Ose and stroma. In OSC, cells were strongly positive to IGF-1 and RAGE, except for some negative stromal cells. Different levels of IGF-1 and RAGE co-expression characterized fetal ovarian cells during development. In reproductive ovaries, IGF-1 and RAGE were co-localized in the granulosa and theca interna cells of tertiary follicles, while in postmenopausal ovaries and OSC, IGF-1 and RAGE were co-localized in Ose and OSC cells respectively. Our results indicate that intracellular levels of IGF-1 and RAGE protein might regulate the final destiny of the ovarian cell populations prior and during folliculogenesis, possibly controlling the metastatic potential of OSC as well. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. Long non-coding RNA NNT-AS1 contributes to cell proliferation, metastasis and apoptosis in human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yaqing; Shi, Junyu; Xu, Yun

    2018-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is a markedly heterogeneous malignancy characterized by various histological subtypes. Molecular biomarkers have been indicated to serve significant functions in the early diagnosis and treatment of early-stage ovarian cancer. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer remains unclear. The present study aimed to identify a novel long non-coding RNA in patients with ovarian cancer. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase-antisense 1 (NNT-AS1) was markedly downregulated in patients with ovarian cancer and in cultured human ovarian cancer cells. Knockdown of NNT-AS1 in the human ovarian cancer cell lines HO-8910 and SK-OV-3 promoted colony formation and arrested the cell cycle at G 0 /G 1 phase. Furthermore, Transwell demonstrated that the downregulation of NNT-AS1 increased cell migration and invasion by ~60 and 70%, respectively, in HO-8910 and SK-OV-3 cells. Furthermore, cell apoptosis was inhibited by the transfection of siNNT-AS1 in the two cell lines, whereas the relative activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were decreased. These results indicated a protective function of NNT-AS1 in human ovarian cancer, providing novel insights into the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer in clinical settings.

  3. Ovarian Autoantibodies Predict Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    2000. 48(10): 541- 549. 10 7. Barua, A., et al., Anti-ovarian and anti-tumor antibodies in women with ovarian cancer. Am J Reprod Immunol, 2007 . 57...Med 2007 . 26: 909-919. 9. Barua, A., et al., Prevalence of anti-tumor antibodies in the laying hen model of human ovarian cancer. International... 2007 ; 25:4159– 4161. 6. Bosse K, Rhiem K, Wappenschmidt B, et al. Screening for ovarian cancer by transvaginal ultrasound and serum CA125 measurement in

  4. A novel fibrin-based artificial ovary prototype resembling human ovarian tissue in terms of architecture and rigidity.

    PubMed

    Chiti, Maria Costanza; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Mortiaux, Lucie; Zhuge, Flanco; Ouni, Emna; Shahri, Parinaz Asiabi Kohneh; Van Ruymbeke, Evelyne; Champagne, Sophie-Demoustier; Donnez, Jacques; Amorim, Christiani Andrade

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to optimize fibrin matrix composition in order to mimic human ovarian tissue architecture for human ovarian follicle encapsulation and grafting. Ultrastructure of fresh human ovarian cortex in age-related women (n = 3) and different fibrin formulations (F12.5/T1, F30/T50, F50/T50, F75/T75), rheology of fibrin matrices and histology of isolated and encapsulated human ovarian follicles in these matrices. Fresh human ovarian cortex showed a highly fibrous and structurally inhomogeneous architecture in three age-related patients, but the mean ± SD of fiber thickness (61.3 to 72.4 nm) was comparable between patients. When the fiber thickness of four different fibrin formulations was compared with human ovarian cortex, F50/T50 and F75/T75 showed similar fiber diameters to native tissue, while F12.5/T1 was significantly different (p value < 0.01). In addition, increased concentrations of fibrin exhibited enhanced storage modulus with F50/T50, resembling physiological ovarian rigidity. Excluding F12.5/T1 from further analysis, only three remaining fibrin matrices (F30/T50, F50/T50, F75/T75) were histologically investigated. For this, frozen-thawed fragments of human ovarian tissue collected from 22 patients were used to isolate ovarian follicles and encapsulate them in the three fibrin formulations. All three yielded similar follicle recovery and loss rates soon after encapsulation. Therefore, based on fiber thickness, porosity, and rigidity, we selected F50/T50 as the fibrin formulation that best mimics native tissue. Of all the different fibrin matrix concentrations tested, F50/T50 emerged as the combination of choice in terms of ultrastructure and rigidity, most closely resembling human ovarian cortex.

  5. The effect of Setarud (IMODTM) on angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissue to nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Hormozi, Maryam; Talebi, Saeed; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Kamali, Koorosh; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Soltangoraee, Haleh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the promising methods in fertility preservation among women with cancer is cryopreservation of ovarian cortex but there are many drawbacks such as apoptosis and considerable reduction of follicular density in the transplanted ovary. One solution to reduce ischemic damage is enhancing angiogenesis after transplantation of ovarian cortex tissue. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Setarud, on angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissue. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, twenty four nude mice were implanted subcutaneously, with human ovarian tissues, from four women. The mice were randomly divided into two groups (n=12): the experimental group was treated with Setarud, while control group received only vehicle. Each group was divided into three subgroups (n=4) based on the graft recovery days post transplantation (PT). The transplanted fragments were removed on days 2, 7, and 30 PT and the expression of Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, and Vascular endothelial growth factor at both gene and protein levels and vascular density were studied in the grafted ovarian tissues. Results: On the 2nd and 7th day PT, the level of Angiopoietin-1 gene expression in case group was significantly lower than that in control group, while the opposite results were obtained for Angiopoietin-2 and Vascular endothelial growth factor. These results were also confirmed at the protein level. The density of vessels in Setarud group elevated significantly on day 7 PT compared to pre-treatment state. Conclusion: Our results showed that administration of Setarud may stimulates angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissues, although further researches are needed before a clear judgment is made. PMID:26644788

  6. Ionizing Radiation Enhances Adenoviral Vector Expressing mda-7/IL-24-mediated Apoptosis in Human Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    EMDAD, LUNI; SARKAR, DEVANAND; LEBEDEVA, IRINA V.; SU, ZAO-ZHONG; GUPTA, PANKAJ; MAHASRESHTI, PARAMESHWAR J.; DENT, PAUL; CURIEL, DAVID T.; FISHER, PAUL B.

    2007-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death in women. Current interventional approaches, including debulking surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation have proven minimally effective in preventing the recurrence and/or mortality associated with this malignancy. Subtraction hybridization applied to terminally differentiating human melanoma cells identified melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), whose unique properties include the ability to selectively induce growth suppression, apoptosis, and radiosensitization in diverse cancer cells, without causing any harmful effects in normal cells. Previously, it has been shown that adenovirus-mediated mda-7/IL-24 therapy (Ad.mda-7) induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells, however, the apoptosis induction was relatively low. We now document that apoptosis can be enhanced by treating ovarian cancer cells with ionizing radiation (IR) in combination with Ad.mda-7. Additionally, we demonstrate that mda-7/IL-24 gene delivery, under the control of a minimal promoter region of progression elevated gene-3 (PEG-3), which functions selectively in diverse cancer cells with minimal activity in normal cells, displays a selective radiosensitization effect in ovarian cancer cells. The present studies support the use of IR in combination with mda-7/IL-24 as a means of augmenting the therapeutic benefit of this gene in ovarian cancer, particularly in the context of tumors displaying resistance to radiation therapy. PMID:16646087

  7. Mangiferin induces apoptosis in human ovarian adenocarcinoma OVCAR3 cells via the regulation of Notch3

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Bingyu; Wang, Hailian; Liu, Yilong; Qi, Ping; Lei, Tiantian; Sun, Minghan; Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the world. Our previous studies showed that mangiferin, purified from plant source, possessed anti-neoplasm effect on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. This study aimed to determine the apoptosis-inducing effect of mangiferin on human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR3 cells. By in vitro studies, we found mangiferin significantly inhibited viability of OVCAR3 cells, and remarkably increased the sensitivity of OVCAR3 cells to cisplatin. In addition, the activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis was observed in mangiferin treated ovarian cancer cells. Importantly, we observed an obviously downregulated Notch expression after mangiferin treatment, indicating the crucial role of Notch in mangiferin mediated apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression of Notch3 abrogated the apoptosis-inducing efficacy of mangiferin, further demonstrating that mangiferin induced apoptosis via Notch pathway. Furthermore, OVCAR3 cell xenograft models revealed that mangiferin treatment inhibited tumor growth and expanded survival of tumor xenograft mice. Based on these results, we concluded that mangiferin could significantly inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis in OVCAR3 cells. Our study also suggested the anti-neoplasm effect of mangiferin might be via the regulation of Notch3. Taken together, by targeting cell apoptosis pathways and enhancing the response to cisplatin treatment, mangiferin may represent a potential new drug for the treatment of human ovarian cancer. PMID:28714011

  8. Mangiferin induces apoptosis in human ovarian adenocarcinoma OVCAR3 cells via the regulation of Notch3.

    PubMed

    Zou, Bingyu; Wang, Hailian; Liu, Yilong; Qi, Ping; Lei, Tiantian; Sun, Minghan; Wang, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the world. Our previous studies showed that mangiferin, purified from plant source, possessed anti-neoplasm effect on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. This study aimed to determine the apoptosis-inducing effect of mangiferin on human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR3 cells. By in vitro studies, we found mangiferin significantly inhibited viability of OVCAR3 cells, and remarkably increased the sensitivity of OVCAR3 cells to cisplatin. In addition, the activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis was observed in mangiferin treated ovarian cancer cells. Importantly, we observed an obviously downregulated Notch expression after mangiferin treatment, indicating the crucial role of Notch in mangiferin mediated apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression of Notch3 abrogated the apoptosis-inducing efficacy of mangiferin, further demonstrating that mangiferin induced apoptosis via Notch pathway. Furthermore, OVCAR3 cell xenograft models revealed that mangiferin treatment inhibited tumor growth and expanded survival of tumor xenograft mice. Based on these results, we concluded that mangiferin could significantly inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis in OVCAR3 cells. Our study also suggested the anti-neoplasm effect of mangiferin might be via the regulation of Notch3. Taken together, by targeting cell apoptosis pathways and enhancing the response to cisplatin treatment, mangiferin may represent a potential new drug for the treatment of human ovarian cancer.

  9. [Establishment and characterization of a cell line derived from human ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wan, Q; Xu, D; Li, Z

    2001-07-01

    To establish a cell line of human ovarian cancer, and study its characterization. The cell line was established by the cultivation of subsides walls, and kept by freezing. The morphology was observed by microscope and electromicroscope. The authors studied its growth and propagation, the agglutination test of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the chromosome analysis, heterotransplanting, immuno-histochemistry staining, the analysis of hormone, the pollution examination and the test of sensitivity to virus etc. A new human ovarian carcinoma cell line, designated ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma 685 (OMC685), was established from mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. This cell line had subcultured to 91 generations, and some had been frozen for 8 years and revived, still grew well. This cell line possessed the feature of glandular epithelium cancer cell. The cells grew exuberantly, and the agglutinating test of PHA was positive. Karyotype was subtriploid with distortion. Heterotransplantations, alcian blue periobic acid-schiff (AbPAS), mucicarmine, alcian blue stainings, estradiol (E2) and progesterone were all positive. Without being polluted, it was sensitive to polivirus-I, adenovirus 7 and measles virus. OMC685 is a distinct human ovarian tumous cell line.

  10. Overexpression of Notch3 and pS6 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Human Ovarian Epithelial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoxia; Yun, Rongna; Yu, Xiaolin; Hu, Hui; Huang, Genhua; Tan, Buzhen; Chen, Tingtao

    2016-01-01

    Notch3 and pS6 play important roles in tumor angiogenesis. To assess the expression of Notch3 and pS6 in Chinese ovarian epithelial cancer patients, a ten-year follow-up study was performed in ovarian epithelial cancer tissues from 120 specimens of human ovarian epithelial cancer, 30 specimens from benign ovarian tumors, and 30 samples from healthy ovaries by immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the expression of Notch3 and pS6 was higher in ovarian epithelial cancer than in normal ovary tissues and in benign ovarian tumor tissues (p < 0.01). In tumor tissues, Notch3 expression and pS6 expression were negatively associated with age (p > 0.05) but positively associated with clinical stage, pathological grading, histologic type, lymph node metastasis, and ascites (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). A follow-up survey of 64 patients with ovarian epithelial cancer showed that patients with high Notch3 and pS6 expression had a shorter survival time (p < 0.01), in which the clinical stage (p < 0.05) and Notch3 expression (p < 0.01) played important roles. In conclusion, Notch3 and pS6 are significantly related to ovarian epithelial cancer development and prognosis, and their combination represents a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in ovarian tumor angiogenesis.

  11. Biological Function of Ribosomal Protein L10 on Cell Behavior in Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jimin; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhou, Daibing; Zhang, Jinguo; Lin, Qunbo; Guan, Wencai; Zhang, Jihong; Ren, Weimin; Xu, Guoxiong

    2018-01-01

    Ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10) is one of large ribosomal proteins and plays a role in Wilms' tumor and premature ovarian failure. However, the function of RPL10 in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression level and function of RPL10 in EOC. RPL10 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The association RPL10 expression with clinical features was analyzed. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches were applied in cellular assays, including cell viability, migration, invasion, and apoptosis. Our study demonstrated for the first time that RPL10 was upregulated in human EOC compared with normal ovarian tissues. Knockdown of RPL10 inhibited cell viability, migration, and invasion, and increased cell apoptosis. On the contrary, upregulation of RPL10 increased cell viability, migration, invasion, and decreased cell apoptosis. Furthermore, miR-143-3p regulated RPL10 expression. Our data indicate that RPL10 is a potential tissue biomarker of patients with EOC and may be a therapeutic target of ovarian cancer. PMID:29556332

  12. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts express pro-inflammatory factors in human breast and ovarian tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Erez, Neta, E-mail: netaerez@post.tau.ac.il; Glanz, Sarah; Raz, Yael

    Highlights: •CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express pro-inflammatory factors. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors correlates with tumor invasiveness. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors is associated with NF-κb activation in CAFs. -- Abstract: Inflammation has been established in recent years as a hallmark of cancer. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion. We previously demonstrated that CAFs also mediate tumor-enhancing inflammation in a mouse model of skin carcinoma. Breast and ovarian carcinomas are amongst the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in women and cancer-related inflammation is linked with both these tumor types. However, themore » role of CAFs in mediating inflammation in these malignancies remains obscure. Here we show that CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express high levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, COX-2 and CXCL1, previously identified to be part of a CAF pro-inflammatory gene signature. Moreover, we show that both pro-inflammatory signaling by CAFs and leukocyte infiltration of tumors are enhanced in invasive ductal carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma in situ. The pro-inflammatory genes expressed by CAFs are known NF-κB targets and we show that NF-κB is up-regulated in breast and ovarian CAFs. Our data imply that CAFs mediate tumor-promoting inflammation in human breast and ovarian tumors and thus may be an attractive target for stromal-directed therapeutics.« less

  13. Distribution volumes of macromolecules in human ovarian and endometrial cancers--effects of extracellular matrix structure.

    PubMed

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Oveland, Eystein; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B; Tenstad, Olav; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM), notably collagen and glucosaminoglycans, will restrict part of the space available for soluble macromolecules simply because the molecules cannot occupy the same space. This phenomenon may influence macromolecular drug uptake. To study the influence of steric and charge effects of the ECM on the distribution volumes of macromolecules in human healthy and malignant gynecologic tissues we used as probes 15 abundant plasma proteins quantified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The available distribution volume (VA) of albumin was increased in ovarian carcinoma compared with healthy ovarian tissue. Furthermore, VA of plasma proteins between 40 and 190 kDa decreased with size for endometrial carcinoma and healthy ovarian tissue, but was independent of molecular weight for the ovarian carcinomas. An effect of charge on distribution volume was only found in healthy ovaries, which had lower hydration and high collagen content, indicating that a condensed interstitium increases the influence of negative charges. A number of earlier suggested biomarker candidates were detected in increased amounts in malignant tissue, e.g., stathmin and spindlin-1, showing that interstitial fluid, even when unfractionated, can be a valuable source for tissue-specific proteins. We demonstrate that the distribution of abundant plasma proteins in the interstitium can be elucidated by mass spectrometry methods and depends markedly on hydration and ECM structure. Our data can be used in modeling of drug uptake, and give indications on ECM components to be targeted to increase the uptake of macromolecular substances. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Acetaminophen Enhances Cisplatin- and Paclitaxel-mediated Cytotoxicity to SKOV3 Human Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y. Jeffrey; Neuwelt, Alexander J.; Muldoon, Leslie L.; Neuwelt, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is commonly treated with cisplatin/paclitaxel but many tumors become resistant. Acetaminophen reduced glutathione and enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in treating hepatic cancer. The objective of this study was to examine if acetaminophen enhances the cytotoxicity of cisplatin/paclitaxel in ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods SKOV3 human ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro and a subcutaneous tumor nude rat model were used and treated with cisplatin/paclitaxel with or without acetaminophen. Results In vitro, acetaminophen enhanced apoptosis induced by cisplatin and paclitaxel with similar effects on glutathione, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential but different effects on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) translocation. In vivo, acetaminophen was uniformly distributed in tissue and significantly reduced hepatic glutathione. Acetaminophen enhanced cisplatin chemotherapeutic effect by reducing tumor recurrence Conclusion Our results suggest that acetaminophen as a chemoenhancing adjuvant could improve the efficacy of cisplatin and paclitaxel in treating patients with ovarian carcinoma and other tumor types. PMID:23749887

  15. Milder is better? advantages and disadvantages of "mild" ovarian stimulation for human in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, several steps have been made aiming at rendering human IVF more successful on one side, more tolerable on the other side. The "mild" ovarian stimulation approach, in which a lower-than-average dose of exogenous gonadotropins is given and gonadotropin treatment is started from day 2 to 7 of the cycle, represents a significant step toward a more patient's friendly IVF. However, a clear view of its virtues and defects is still lacking, because only a few prospective randomized trials comparing "mild" vs. conventional stimulation exist, and they do not consider some important aspects, such as, e.g., thawing cycles. This review gives a complete panorama of the "mild" stimulation philosophy, showing its advantages vs. conventional ovarian stimulation, but also discussing its disadvantages. Both patients with a normal ovarian responsiveness to exogenous gonadotropins and women with a poor ovarian reserve are considered. Overall, we conclude that the level of evidence supporting the use of "mild" stimulation protocols is still rather poor, and further, properly powered prospective studies about "mild" treatment regimens are required. PMID:21324155

  16. Short-term transplantation of isolated human ovarian follicles and cortical tissue into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Martinez-Madrid, Belen; Gadisseux, Elodie; Guiot, Yves; Yuan, Wu Yuan; Torre, Antoine; Camboni, Alessandra; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Donnez, Jacques

    2007-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate follicular survival and growth after short-term transplantation of fresh isolated human follicles and ovarian cortical tissue to nude mice. Ovarian biopsies were obtained from nine women undergoing laparoscopy. Twelve nude mice were xenografted with an ovarian cortical fragment in the right ovarian bursa, and a clot containing isolated follicles in the left, for a period of 7 days. One ungrafted fragment was used as a control. Histological sections were analyzed to determine follicle number and stage. The proliferative status of follicular cells was assessed by Ki-67 immunostaining. A total of 659 follicles was analyzed by histology and 545 follicles by immunohistochemistry. The percentage of primordial follicles was found to be markedly reduced 1 week post-grafting when compared with ungrafted tissue, while the percentage of primary follicles had significantly increased. Only 8% of follicles showed Ki-67-positive granulosa cells before grafting, whereas 1 week after grafting, 71% of follicles in fragments and 67% of isolated follicles were Ki-67-positive (P<0.001). Moreover, the histological aspect of isolated follicle grafts was similar to that of grafted fragments: follicles were surrounded by vimentin-positive stroma-like tissue of human origin, as confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization with human-specific probes. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that isolated human follicles are able to survive and grow after xenografting. This study also shows massive in vivo follicular activation after transplantation of grafted fragments and isolated follicles. One week after grafting, well-structured stroma-like tissue of human origin was observed around the isolated follicles. The potential origin of this stroma is discussed.

  17. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.

    The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate thatmore » the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle.« less

  18. Clofibric acid, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligand, inhibits growth of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Xin, Bing; Shigeto, Tatsuhiko; Umemoto, Mika; Kasai-Sakamoto, Akiko; Futagami, Masayuki; Tsuchida, Shigeki; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Mizunuma, Hideki

    2007-04-01

    Recent reports have shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha ligands reduce growth of some types of malignant tumors and prevent carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of clofibric acid (CA), a ligand for PPARalpha on growth of ovarian malignancy, in in vivo and in vitro experiments using OVCAR-3 and DISS cells derived from human ovarian cancer and aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of its antitumor effect. CA treatment significantly suppressed the growth of OVCAR-3 tumors xenotransplanted s.c. and significantly prolonged the survival of mice with malignant ascites derived from DISS cells as compared with control. CA also dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation of cultured cell lines. CA treatment increased the expression of carbonyl reductase (CR), which promotes the conversion of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) to PGF(2alpha), in implanted OVCAR-3 tumors as well as cultured cells. CA treatment decreased PGE(2) level as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) amount in both of OVCAR-3-tumor and DISS-derived ascites. Reduced microvessel density and induced apoptosis were found in solid OVCAR-3 tumors treated by CA. Transfection of CR expression vector into mouse ovarian cancer cells showed significant reduction of PGE(2) level as well as VEGF expression. These results indicate that CA produces potent antitumor effects against ovarian cancer in conjunction with a reduction of angiogenesis and induction of apoptosis. We conclude that CA could be an effective agent in ovarian cancer and should be tested alone and in combination with other anticancer drugs.

  19. Role of human epididymis protein 4 in chemoresistance and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungho; Choi, Seowon; Lee, Yookyung; Chung, Donghae; Hong, Suntaek; Park, Nohhyun

    2017-01-01

    Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a novel biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer. This study was designed to evaluate the role of HE4 in chemo-response against anti-cancer drugs and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. HE4-depleted cells and HE4-overexpressing cells were generated. The effect of HE4 gene silencing and overexpression was examined using a cell viability assay after exposure to chemotherapeutic agents and the signaling pathway. We studied the expression of HE4 in ovarian cancer tissue and the prognostic significance. Cytoplasmic staining was graded for intensity and percentage of positive cells. The grades were multiplied to determine an H-score. Knockdown of HE4 in OVCAR-3 cells resulted in reduction in cell growth and increased sensitivity to paclitaxel and cisplatin compared to control cells. This effect originated from the decreased activation of cell-growth-related signaling, such as AKT and Erk mediated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), while overexpression of HE4 resulted in enhanced cell growth and suppressed the anti-tumorigenic activity of paclitaxel. Activation of AKT and Erk pathways was enhanced in HE4-overexpressing cells compared to control cells. Based on the results of multivariate analysis, the risk of death was significantly higher in patients with an H-score > 4. HE4 induces chemoresistance against anti-cancer drugs and activates the AKT and Erk pathways to enhance tumor survival. HE4 expression in ovarian cancer tissue is associated with a worse prognosis for epithelial ovarian cancer patients. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Clinically applied procedures for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation result in different levels of efficacy and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Bastings, Lobke; Westphal, Johan R; Beerendonk, Catharina C M; Bekkers, Ruud L M; Zusterzeel, Petra L M; Hendriks, Jan C M; Braat, Didi D M; Peek, Ronald

    2016-12-01

    Different protocols are being used worldwide for the cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue for fertility preservation purposes. The efficiency and efficacy of the majority of these protocols has not been extensively evaluated, possibly resulting in sub-optimally cryopreserved ovarian tissue. To address the impact of this issue, we assessed the effects of two clinically successful human ovarian tissue slow-freezing cryopreservation procedures on the quality of the cryopreserved tissue. To differentiate between cryopreservation ( C ) versus thawing ( T ) related effects, four combinations of these two (A and B) very different cryopreservation/thawing protocols (A C A T , A C B T , B C A T , B C B T ) were studied. Before and after cryopreservation and thawing, the percentage of living and morphologically normal follicles, as well as the overall tissue viability, was assessed. Our experiments revealed that the choice of the cryopreservation protocol noticeably affected the overall tissue viability and percentage of living follicles, with a higher viability after protocol B C when compared to A C . No statistically significant differences in tissue viability were observed between the two thawing protocols, but thawing protocol B T required considerably more human effort and materials than thawing protocol A T . Tissue morphology was best retained using the B C A T combination. Our results indicate that extensive and systematical evaluation of clinically used protocols is warranted.

  1. Human single follicle growth in vitro from cryopreserved ovarian tissue after slow freezing or vitrification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-ren; Yan, Jie; Lu, Cui-ling; Xia, Xi; Yin, Tai-lang; Zhi, Xu; Zhu, Xiao-hui; Ding, Ting; Hu, Wei-hong; Guo, Hong-yan; Li, Rong; Yan, Li-ying; Qiao, Jie

    2016-04-01

    What is the effect of human ovarian tissue cryopreservation on single follicular development in vitro? Vitrification had a greater negative effect on growth and gene expression of human ovarian follicles when compared with fresh follicles. For human ovarian cortex cryopreservation, the conventional option is slow freezing while more recently vitrification has been demonstrated to maintain good quality and function of ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissues were collected from 11 patients. For every patient, the ovarian cortex was divided into three samples: Fresh, slow-rate freezing (Slow) and vitrification (Vit). Tissue histology was performed and follicles were isolated for single-cell mRNA analysis and in vitro culture (IVC) in 1% alginate for 8 days. Follicle morphology was assessed with hematoxylin-eosin analysis. Follicles were individually embedded in alginate (1% w/v) and cultured in vitro for 8 days. Follicle survival and growth were assessed by microscopy. Follicle viability was observed after Calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer-I (Ca-AM/EthD-I) staining. Expression of genes, including GDF9 (growth differentiation factor 9), BMP15 (bone morphogenetic protein 15) and ZP3 (zona pellucida glycoprotein 3) in oocytes and AMH (anti-Mullerian hormone), FSHR (FSH receptor), CYP11A (cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450) and STAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) in GCs, was evaluated by single-cell mRNA analysis. A total of 129 follicles were separated from ovarian cortex (Fresh n = 44; Slow n = 40; Vit n = 45). The percentage of damaged oocytes and granulosa cells was significantly higher in both the Slow and Vit groups, as compared with Fresh control (P< 0.05). The growth of follicles in vitro was significantly delayed in the Vit group compared with the Fresh group (P< 0.05). Both slow freezing (P< 0.05) and vitrification (P< 0.05) down-regulated the mRNA levels of ZP3 and CYP11A compared with Fresh group, while there was no significant difference

  2. Monoclonal antibody DS6 detects a tumor-associated sialoglycotope expressed on human serous ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kearse, K P; Smith, N L; Semer, D A; Eagles, L; Finley, J L; Kazmierczak, S; Kovacs, C J; Rodriguez, A A; Kellogg-Wennerberg, A E

    2000-12-15

    A newly developed murine monoclonal antibody, DS6, immunohistochemically reacts with an antigen, CA6, that is expressed by human serous ovarian carcinomas but not by normal ovarian surface epithelium or mesothelium. CA6 has a limited distribution in normal adult tissues and is most characteristically detected in fallopian tube epithelium, inner urothelium and type 2 pneumocytes. Pre-treatment of tissue sections with either periodic acid or neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae abolishes immunoreactivity with DS6, indicating that CA6 is a neuraminidase-sensitive and periodic acid-sensitive sialic acid glycoconjugate ("sialoglycotope"). SDS-PAGE of OVCAR5 cell lysates has revealed that the CA6 epitope is expressed on an 80 kDa non-disulfide-linked glycoprotein containing N-linked oligosaccharides. Two-dimensional non-equilibrium pH gradient gel electrophoresis indicates an isoelectric point of approximately 6.2 to 6.5. Comparison of the immunohistochemical distribution of CA6 in human serous ovarian adenocarcinomas has revealed similarities to that of CA125; however, distinct differences and some complementarity of antigen expression were revealed by double-label, 2-color immunohistochemical studies. The DS6-detected CA6 antigen appears to be distinct from other well-characterized tumor-associated antigens, including MUC1, CA125 and the histo-blood group-related antigens sLea, sLex and sTn. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Cobalt nanoparticles for biomedical applications: Facile synthesis, physiochemical characterization, cytotoxicity behavior and biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, S. M.; Bhor, R. D.; Pai, K. R.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Ghosh, Kartik; Kolekar, Y. D.; Ramana, C. V.

    2017-08-01

    Cobalt (Co) nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by a simple, one step hydrothermal method with the capping of oleic acid. Intrinsic structural, physiochemical and magnetic properties of Co NPs were investigated and demonstrated their applicability in biomedicine. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and infrared (IR) spectroscopic studies confirm the single phase Co NPs with a high structural quality. The IR data revealed the capping of oleic acid via monodentate interaction. Small angle scattering studies suggest the existence of sticky hard sphere type of interaction among the Co NPs because of magnetic interaction which is further evidenced by electron microscopy imaging analyses. The Co NPs exhibit a ferromagnetic character over a wide range of temperature (20-300 K). The temperature dependence of magnetic parameters namely, saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization, coercivity and reduced remanent magnetization were determined and correlated with structure of Co NPs. The Cytotoxicity studies demonstrate that these Co NPs exhibit the mild anti-proliferative character against the cancer cells (cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer (A2780/CP70)) and safe nature towards the normal cells. Haemolytic behavior of human red blood cells (RBC) revealed (<5%) haemolysis signifying the compatibility of Co NPs with human RBC which is an essential feature in vivo biomedical applications without creating any harmful effects in the human blood stream.

  4. Amplification and overexpression of aurora kinase A (AURKA) in immortalized human ovarian epithelial (HOSE) cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, C M; Man, C; Jin, Y; Jin, C; Guan, X Y; Wang, Q; Wan, T S K; Cheung, A L M; Tsao, S W

    2005-07-01

    Immortalization is an early and essential step of human carcinogenesis. Amplification of chromosome 20q has been shown to be a common event in immortalized cells and cancers. We have previously reported that gain and amplification of chromosome 20q is a non-random and common event in immortalized human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells. The chromosome 20q harbors genes including TGIF2 (20q11.2-q12), AIB1 (20q12), PTPN1 (20q13.1), ZNF217 (20q13.2), and AURKA (20q13.2-q13.3), which were previously reported to be amplified and overexpressed in ovarian cancers. Some of these genes may be involved in immortalization of HOSE cells and represent crucial premalignant changes in ovarian surface epithelium. Investigation of the involvement of these genes was examined in four pairs of pre-crisis (preimmortalized) and post-crisis (immortalized) HOSE cells. Overexpression of AURKA (Aurora kinase A), also known as BTAK and STK15, by both real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) and Western blotting was detected in all the four immortalized HOSE cells examined while overexpression of AIB1 and ZNF217 was observed in two of four immortalized HOSE cells examined. Overexpression of TGIF2 and PTPN1 was not significant in our immortalized HOSE cell systems. The degree of overexpression of AURKA was shown to be closely associated with the amplification of chromosome 20q in immortalized HOSE cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with labeled P1 artificial clone (PAC) confirmed the amplification of the chromosomal region (20q13.2-13.3) where AURKA resides. DNA amplification of AURKA was also confirmed using semi-quantitative PCR. Our study showed that amplification and overexpression of AURKA is a common and significant event during immortalization of HOSE cells and may represent an important premalignant change in ovarian carcinogenesis. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Ovulatory Induction of SCG2 in Human, Nonhuman Primate, and Rodent Granulosa Cells Stimulates Ovarian Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Patrick R; Duffy, Diane M; Rosewell, Katherine L; Brännström, Mats; Akin, James W; Curry, Thomas E

    2018-06-01

    The luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is essential for ovulation, but the intrafollicular factors induced by LH that mediate ovulatory processes (e.g., angiogenesis) are poorly understood, especially in women. The role of secretogranin II (SCG2) and its cleaved bioactive peptide, secretoneurin (SN), were investigated as potential mediators of ovulation by testing the hypothesis that SCG2/SN is induced in granulosa cells by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), via a downstream LH receptor signaling mechanism, and stimulates ovarian angiogenesis. Humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents were treated with hCG in vivo resulting in a significant increase in the messenger RNA and protein levels of SCG2 in granulosa cells collected early during the periovulatory period and just prior to ovulation (humans: 12 to 34 hours; monkeys: 12 to 36 hours; rodents: 4 to 12 hours post-hCG). This induction by hCG was recapitulated in an in vitro culture system utilizing granulosa-lutein cells from in vitro fertilization patients. Using this system, inhibition of downstream LH receptor signaling pathways revealed that the initial induction of SCG2 is regulated, in part, by epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. Further, human ovarian microvascular endothelial cells were treated with SN (1 to 100 ng/mL) and subjected to angiogenesis assays. SN significantly increased endothelial cell migration and new sprout formation, suggesting induction of ovarian angiogenesis. These results establish that SCG2 is increased in granulosa cells across species during the periovulatory period and that SN may mediate ovulatory angiogenesis in the human ovary. These findings provide insight into the regulation of human ovulation and fertility.

  6. Human cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation for the treatment of premature ovarian failure in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Jianhong; Jin, Zhijun; Liu, Xiaojun; Hu, Dian; Wang, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the potential of human cord blood mononuclear cell (HCMNC) transplantation as a treatment for premature ovarian failure (POF) in a nude mouse model. Methods: Female nude mice were randomly divided into three groups; a normal control group (n = 35), a POF group (POF plus vehicle, n = 35) and a POF plus cell transplantation group (HCMNCs were implanted into the ovaries, n = 35). HCMNCs were isolated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation and labeled with BrdU. Four weeks after transplantation, the nude mice were sacrificed to determine serum levels of E2, FSH and LH as indicators of ovarian function, and the ovaries were examined both histologically and immunochemically. Results: The transplanted HCMNCs survived in the transplantation group and were detected by BrdU. In the transplantation group, serum levels of E2 significantly increased while serum levels of FSH and LH significantly decreased compared to the POF control group. Additionally, the transplantation group had a recovery in follicle number. Conclusion: HCMNCs can be successfully transplanted into the ovaries of nude mice and can improve ovarian function in POF. PMID:26064319

  7. Toward in-vivo photoacoustic imaging of human ovarian tissue for cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Andres; Kumavor, Patrick; Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Sanders, Mary M.; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2011-03-01

    Currently, most of the cancers in the ovary are detected when they have already metastasized to other parts of the body. As a result, ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecological cancers with a 5-year survival rate of 30% or less [1]. The reason is the lack of reliable symptoms as well as the lack of efficacious screening techniques [2,3]. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve the current diagnostic techniques. We have investigated the potential role of co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging in ovarian cancer detection. In an effort to bring this technique closer to clinical application, we have developed a co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic transvaginal probe. A fiber coupling assembly has been developed to deliver the light from around the transducer for reflection geometry imaging. Co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images of swine ovaries through vagina wall muscle and human ovaries using the aforementioned probe, demonstrate the potential of photoacoustic imaging to non-invasively detect ovarian cancer in vivo.

  8. Cryopreservation and xenografting of human ovarian fragments: medulla decreases the phosphatidylserine translocation rate.

    PubMed

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Todorov, Plamen; Isachenko, Evgenia; Rahimi, Gohar; Hanstein, Bettina; Salama, Mahmoud; Mallmann, Peter; Tchorbanov, Andrey; Hardiman, Paul; Getreu, Natalie; Merzenich, Markus

    2016-11-10

    Phosphatidylserine is the phospholipid component which plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, specifically in regards to necrosis and apoptosis. When a cell affected by some negative factors, phosphatidylserine is no longer restricted to the intracellular side of membrane and can be translocated to the extracellular surface of the cell. Cryopreservation can induce translocation of phosphatidylserine in response to hypoxia, increasing intracellular Ca 2+ , osmotic disruption of cellular membranes, generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. As such the aim of this study was to test the level of phosphatidylserine translocation in frozen human medulla-contained and medulla-free ovarian tissue fragments. Ovarian fragments from twelve patients were divided into small pieces of two types, medulla-free cortex (Group 1, n = 42, 1.5-3.0 × 1.5-3.0 × 0.5-0.8 mm) and cortex with medulla (Group 2, n = 42, 1.5-3.0 × 1.5-3.0 × 1.5-2.0 mm), pre-cooled after operative removal to 5 °C for 24 h and then conventionally frozen with 6 % dimethyl sulfoxide, 6 % ethylene glycol and 0.15 M sucrose in standard 5-ml cryo-vials. After thawing at +100 °C and step-wise removal of cryoprotectants in 0.5 M sucrose, ovarian pieces were xenografted to SCID mice for 45 days. The efficacy of tissues cryopreservation, taking into account the presence or absence of medulla, was evaluated by the development of follicles (histology with hematoxylin-eosin) and through the intensity of translocation of phosphatidylserine (FACS with FITC-Annexin V and Propidium Iodide). For Groups 1 and 2, the mean densities of follicles per 1 mm 3 were 9.8, and 9.0, respectively. In these groups, 90 and 90 % preantral follicles appeared morphologically normal. However, FACS analysis showed a significantly decreased intensity of translocation of phosphatidylserine (FITC-Annexin V positive) after cryopreservation of tissue with medulla (Group 2, 59.6 %), in

  9. Human Leukocyte Antigen-Presented Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor is a Surface Biomarker and Potential Therapeutic Target for Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Andrea M; Kaabinejadian, Saghar; McMurtrey, Curtis P; Bardet, Wilfried; Jackson, Ken W; Zuna, Rosemary E; Husain, Sanam; Adams, Gregory P; MacDonald, Glen; Dillon, Rachelle L.; Ames, Harold; Buchli, Rico; Hawkins, Oriana E; Weidanz, Jon A; Hildebrand, William H

    2015-01-01

    T cells recognize cancer cells via human leukocyte antigen (HLA)/peptide complexes and, when disease overtakes these immune mechanisms, immunotherapy can exogenously target these same HLA/peptide surface markers. We previously identified an HLA-A2-presented peptide derived from macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and generated antibody RL21A against this HLA-A2/MIF complex. The objective of the current study was to assess the potential for targeting the HLA-A2/MIF complex in ovarian cancer. First, MIF peptide FLSELTQQL was eluted from the HLA-A2 of the human cancerous ovarian cell lines SKOV3, A2780, OV90, and FHIOSE118hi and detected by mass spectrometry. By flow cytometry, RL21A was shown to specifically stain these four cell lines in the context of HLA-A2. Next, partially matched HLA-A*02:01+ ovarian cancer (n=27) and normal fallopian tube (n=24) tissues were stained with RL21A by immunohistochemistry to assess differential HLA-A2/MIF complex expression. Ovarian tumor tissues revealed significantly increased RL21A staining compared to normal fallopian tube epithelium (p<0.0001), with minimal staining of normal stroma and blood vessels (p<0.0001 and p<0.001 compared to tumor cells) suggesting a therapeutic window. We then demonstrated the anti-cancer activity of toxin-bound RL21A via the dose-dependent killing of ovarian cancer cells. In summary, MIF-derived peptide FLSELTQQL is HLA-A2-presented and recognized by RL21A on ovarian cancer cell lines and patient tumor tissues, and targeting of this HLA-A2/MIF complex with toxin-bound RL21A can induce ovarian cancer cell death. These results suggest that the HLA-A2/MIF complex should be further explored as a cell-surface target for ovarian cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26719579

  10. Gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Shima, K.; Kitayama, S.; Nakano, R.

    Gonadotropin binding sites were localized by autoradiography after incubation of human ovarian sections with /sup 125/I-labeled gonadotropins. The binding sites for /sup 125/I-labeled human follicle-stimulating hormone (/sup 125/I-hFSH) were identified in the granulosa cells and in the newly formed corpora lutea. The /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (/sup 125/I-hLH) binding to the thecal cells increased during follicular maturation, and a dramatic increase was preferentially observed in the granulosa cells of the large preovulatory follicle. In the corpora lutea, the binding of /sup 125/I-hLH increased from the early luteal phase and decreased toward the late luteal phase. The changes in 3more » beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the corpora lutea corresponded to the /sup 125/I-hLH binding. Thus, the changes in gonadotropin binding sites in the follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle may help in some important way to regulate human ovarian function.« less

  11. The opioid growth factor (OGF) and low dose naltrexone (LDN) suppress human ovarian cancer progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Renee N; McLaughlin, Patricia J; Zagon, Ian S

    2011-08-01

    The opioid growth factor (OGF) and its receptor, OGFr, serve as a tonically active inhibitory axis regulating cell proliferation in normal cells and a variety of cancers, including human ovarian cancer. Blockade of OGF and OGFr with the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (NTX) upregulates expression of OGF and OGFr. Administration of a low dosage of NTX (LDN) blocks endogenous opioids from opioid receptors for a short period of time (4-6 h) each day, providing a window of 18-20 h for the upregulated opioids and receptors to interact. The present study investigated the repercussions of upregulating the OGF-OGFr axis by treatment with OGF or LDN on human ovarian tumorigenesis in vivo. Female nude mice were transplanted intraperitoneally with SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer cells and treated on a daily basis with OGF (10 mg/kg), LDN (0.1 mg/kg), or an equivalent volume of vehicle (saline). Tumor burden, as well as DNA synthesis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis was assessed in tumor tissue following 40 days of treatment. OGF and LDN markedly reduced ovarian tumor burden (tumor nodule number and weight). The mechanism of action was targeted to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis; no changes in cell survival were noted. This study shows that a native opioid pathway can suppress human ovarian cancer in a xenograft model, and provides novel non-toxic therapies for the treatment of this lethal neoplasia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. BRCA1/2 genetic background-based therapeutic tailoring of human ovarian cancer: hope or reality?

    PubMed Central

    Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Ventura, Monica; Baudi, Francesco; Cucinotto, Iole; Arbitrio, Mariamena; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian epithelial tumors are an hallmark of hereditary cancer syndromes which are related to the germ-line inheritance of cancer predisposing mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Although these genes have been associated with multiple different physiologic functions, they share an important role in DNA repair mechanisms and therefore in the whole genomic integrity control. These findings have risen a variety of issues in terms of treatment and prevention of breast and ovarian tumors arising in this context. Enhanced sensitivity to platinum-based anticancer drugs has been related to BRCA1/2 functional loss. Retrospective studies disclosed differential chemosensitivity profiles of BRCA1/2-related as compared to "sporadic" ovarian cancer and led to the identification of a "BRCA-ness" phenotype of ovarian cancer, which includes inherited BRCA1/2 germ-line mutations, a serous high grade histology highly sensitive to platinum derivatives. Molecularly-based tailored treatments of human tumors are an emerging issue in the "era" of molecular targeted drugs and molecular profiling technologies. We will critically discuss if the genetic background of ovarian cancer can indeed represent a determinant issue for decision making in the treatment selection and how the provocative preclinical findings might be translated in the therapeutic scenario. The presently available preclinical and clinical evidence clearly indicates that genetic background has an emerging role in treatment individualization for ovarian cancer patients. PMID:19825178

  13. Silencing expression of UO-44 (CUZD1) using small interfering RNA sensitizes human ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Leong, C T C; Ong, C K; Tay, S K; Huynh, H

    2007-02-08

    Ovarian cancer is currently the second leading cause of gynecological malignancy and cisplatin or cisplatin-based regimens have been the standard of care for the treatment of advance epithelial ovarian cancers. However, the efficacy of cisplatin treatment is often limited by the development of drug resistance either through the inhibition of apoptotic genes or activation of antiapoptotic genes. We have previously reported the overexpression of human UO-44 (HuUO-44) in ovarian cancers and the HuUO-44 antisera markedly inhibited NIH-OVCAR3 ovarian cancer cell attachment and proliferation (Oncogene 23: 5707-5718, 2004). In the present study, we observed through the cancer cell line profiling array that the expression of HuUO-44 was suppressed in the ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3) after treatment with several chemotherapeutic drugs. Similarly, this suppression in HuUO-44 expression was also correlated to the cisplatin sensitivity in two other ovarian cancer cell lines NIH-OVCAR3 and OV-90 in a dose-dependent manner. To elucidate the function of HuUO-44 in cisplatin chemoresistance in ovarian cancer cell, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were employed to mediate HuUO-44 silencing in ovarian cancer cell line, NIH-OVCAR3. HuUO-44 RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in the inhibition of cell growth and proliferation. Importantly, HuUO-44 RNAi significantly increased sensitivity of NIH-OVCAR3 to cytotoxic stress induced by cisplatin (P<0.01). Strikingly, we have also demonstrated that overexpression of HuUO-44 significantly conferred cisplatin resistance in NIH-OVCAR3 cells (P<0.05). Taken together, UO-44 is involved in conferring cisplatin resistance; the described HuUO-44-specific siRNA oligonucleotides that can potently silence HuUO-44 gene expression may prove to be valuable pretreatment targets for antitumor therapy or other pathological conditions that involves aberrant HuUO-44 expression.

  14. Potentiation by Tumor Necrosis Factor of Mitoxantrone Cytotoxicity to Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Silvio; Billi, Giovanna; Oliva, Cristina; Venturing, Marco; Noviello, Elvira; Conte, PierFranco

    1992-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (rHuTNF) (from 0.01 to 10000 U/ml) was assayed on six human ovarian cancer cell lines and one human cervical carcinoma cell line using a crystal violet assay. rHuTNF was cytotoxic to four cell lines (A2780, A2774, SW626, PAD, while 3 cell lines (IGROV1, SKOV3, Mel80) were marginally sensitive to its activity. However, under the same experimental conditions rHuTNF markedly enhanced the cytotoxicity of mitoxantrone, a chemotherapeutic drug targeted at DNA topoisomerase II, in six cell lines. The potentiation of mitoxantrone cytotoxicity was not caused by increased drug accumulation after rHuTNF treatment. No significant increase in cytotoxicity to Me180 cell line was seen when rHuTNF was added to mitoxantrone. PMID:1517145

  15. Human ovarian cancer stem/progenitor cells are stimulated by doxorubicin but inhibited by Mullerian inhibiting substance

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles, Katia; Benedict, Leo Andrew; Dombkowski, David; Pepin, David; Preffer, Frederic I.; Teixeira, Jose; Tanwar, Pradeep Singh; Young, Robert H.; MacLaughlin, David T.; Donahoe, Patricia K.; Wei, Xiaolong

    2012-01-01

    Women with late-stage ovarian cancer usually develop chemotherapeutic-resistant recurrence. It has been theorized that a rare cancer stem cell, which is responsible for the growth and maintenance of the tumor, is also resistant to conventional chemotherapeutics. We have isolated from multiple ovarian cancer cell lines an ovarian cancer stem cell-enriched population marked by CD44, CD24, and Epcam (3+) and by negative selection for Ecadherin (Ecad−) that comprises less than 1% of cancer cells and has increased colony formation and shorter tumor-free intervals in vivo after limiting dilution. Surprisingly, these cells are not only resistant to chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin, but also are stimulated by it, as evidenced by the significantly increased number of colonies in treated 3+Ecad− cells. Similarly, proliferation of the 3+Ecad− cells in monolayer increased with treatment, by either doxorubicin or cisplatin, compared with the unseparated or cancer stem cell-depleted 3−Ecad+ cells. However, these cells are sensitive to Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), which decreased colony formation. MIS inhibits ovarian cancer cells by inducing G1 arrest of the 3+Ecad− subpopulation through the induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. 3+Ecad− cells selectively expressed LIN28, which colocalized by immunofluorescence with the 3+ cancer stem cell markers in the human ovarian carcinoma cell line, OVCAR-5, and is also highly expressed in transgenic murine models of ovarian cancer and in other human ovarian cancer cell lines. These results suggest that chemotherapeutics may be stimulative to cancer stem cells and that selective inhibition of these cells by treating with MIS or targeting LIN28 should be considered in the development of therapeutics. PMID:22308459

  16. Human ovarian cancer stem/progenitor cells are stimulated by doxorubicin but inhibited by Mullerian inhibiting substance.

    PubMed

    Meirelles, Katia; Benedict, Leo Andrew; Dombkowski, David; Pepin, David; Preffer, Frederic I; Teixeira, Jose; Tanwar, Pradeep Singh; Young, Robert H; MacLaughlin, David T; Donahoe, Patricia K; Wei, Xiaolong

    2012-02-14

    Women with late-stage ovarian cancer usually develop chemotherapeutic-resistant recurrence. It has been theorized that a rare cancer stem cell, which is responsible for the growth and maintenance of the tumor, is also resistant to conventional chemotherapeutics. We have isolated from multiple ovarian cancer cell lines an ovarian cancer stem cell-enriched population marked by CD44, CD24, and Epcam (3+) and by negative selection for Ecadherin (Ecad-) that comprises less than 1% of cancer cells and has increased colony formation and shorter tumor-free intervals in vivo after limiting dilution. Surprisingly, these cells are not only resistant to chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin, but also are stimulated by it, as evidenced by the significantly increased number of colonies in treated 3+Ecad- cells. Similarly, proliferation of the 3+Ecad- cells in monolayer increased with treatment, by either doxorubicin or cisplatin, compared with the unseparated or cancer stem cell-depleted 3-Ecad+ cells. However, these cells are sensitive to Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), which decreased colony formation. MIS inhibits ovarian cancer cells by inducing G1 arrest of the 3+Ecad- subpopulation through the induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. 3+Ecad- cells selectively expressed LIN28, which colocalized by immunofluorescence with the 3+ cancer stem cell markers in the human ovarian carcinoma cell line, OVCAR-5, and is also highly expressed in transgenic murine models of ovarian cancer and in other human ovarian cancer cell lines. These results suggest that chemotherapeutics may be stimulative to cancer stem cells and that selective inhibition of these cells by treating with MIS or targeting LIN28 should be considered in the development of therapeutics.

  17. Combined panel of serum human tissue kallikreins and CA-125 for the detection of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Koh, Stephen Chee Liang; Huak, Chan Yiong; Lutan, Delfi; Marpuang, Johny; Ketut, Suwiyoga; Budiana, Nyoma Gede; Saleh, Agustria Zainu; Aziz, Mohamad Farid; Winarto, Hariyono; Pradjatmo, Heru; Hoan, Nguyen Khac Han; Thanh, Pham Viet; Choolani, Mahesh

    2012-07-01

    To determine the predictive accuracy of the combined panels of serum human tissue kallikreins (hKs) and CA-125 for the detection of epithelial ovarian cancer. Serum specimens collected from 5 Indonesian centers and 1 Vietnamese center were analyzed for CA-125, hK6, and hK10 levels. A total of 375 specimens from patients presenting with ovarian tumors, which include 156 benign cysts, 172 epithelial ovarian cancers (stage I/II, n=72; stage III/IV, n=100), 36 germ cell tumors and 11 borderline tumors, were included in the study analysis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to determine the cutoffs for age, CA-125, hK6, and hK10. Sensitivity, specificity, negative, and positive predictive values were determined for various combinations of the biomarkers. The levels of hK6 and hK10 were significantly elevated in ovarian cancer cases compared to benign cysts. Combination of 3 markers, age/CA-125/hk6 or CA-125/hk6/hk10, showed improved specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (100%) for prediction of ovarian cancer, when compared to the performance of single markers having 80-92% specificity and 74-87% positive predictive value. Four-marker combination, age/CA-125/hK6/hK10 also showed 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value, although it demonstrated low sensitivity (11.9%) and negative predictive value (52.8%). The combination of human tissue kallikreins and CA-125 showed potential for improving prediction of epithelial ovarian cancer in patients presenting with ovarian tumors.

  18. Cyclic AMP-dependent modification of gonad-selective TAF(II)105 in a human ovarian granulosa cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yimin; Lu, Yunzhe; Hu, Yanfen; Li, Rong

    2005-11-01

    In response to gonadotropins, the elevated level of intracellular-cyclic AMP (cAMP) in ovarian granulosa cells triggers an ordered activation of multiple ovarian genes, which in turn promotes various ovarian functions including folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Identification and characterization of transcription factors that control ovarian gene expression are pivotal to the understanding of the molecular basis of the tissue-specific gene regulation programs. The recent discovery of the mouse TATA binding protein (TBP)-associated factor 105 (TAF(II)105) as a gonad-selective transcriptional co-activator strongly suggests that general transcription factors such as TFIID may play a key role in regulating tissue-specific gene expression. Here we show that the human TAF(II)105 protein is preferentially expressed in ovarian granulosa cells. We also identified a novel TAF(II)105 mRNA isoform that results from alternative exon inclusion and is predicted to encode a dominant negative mutant of TAF(II)105. Following stimulation by the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin, TAF(II)105 in granulosa cells undergoes rapid and transient phosphorylation that is dependent upon protein kinase A (PKA). Thus, our work suggests that pre-mRNA processing and post-translational modification represent two important regulatory steps for the gonad-specific functions of human TAF(II)105. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Gene therapy of ovarian cancer using IL-21-secreting human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have the ability to migrate into tumors and therefore have been considered as an alternative source of mesenchymal progenitors for the therapy of malignant diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate effect of hUCMSCs as vehicles for a constant source of transgenic interleukin-21 (IL-21) on ovarian cancer in vivo. Methods The hUCMSCs were engineered to express IL-21 via lentiviral vector- designated ‘hUCMSCs-LV-IL-21’, and then were transplanted into SKOV3 ovarian cancer xenograft-bearing nude mice. The therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms of this procedure on ovarian cancer was evaluated. Results The isolated hUCMSCs were induced to differentiate efficiently into osteoblast and adipocyte lineages in vitro. The expressed IL-21 in the supernatant from hUCMSCs-LV-IL-21 obviously stimulated splenocyte’s proliferation. The hUCMSCs-LV-IL-21 significantly reduced SKOV3 ovarian cancer burden in mice indicated by tumor sizes compared with control mice. The expressed IL-21 not only regulated the levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α in the mouse serum but also increased the expression of NKG2D and MIC A molecules in the tumor tissues. The down regulation of β-catenin and cyclin-D1 in the tumor tissues may refer to the inhibition of SKOV3 ovarian cancer growth in mice. In addition, hUCMSCs did not form gross or histological teratomas up to 60 days posttransplantation in murine lung, liver, stomach and spleen. Conclusion These results clearly indicate a safety and usability of hUCMSCs-LV- IL-21 in ovarian cancer gene therapy, suggesting the strategy may be a promising new method for clinical treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:24444073

  20. The effect of Setarud (IMOD(TM)) on angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissue to nude mice.

    PubMed

    Hormozi, Maryam; Talebi, Saeed; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Kamali, Koorosh; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Soltangoraee, Haleh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    One of the promising methods in fertility preservation among women with cancer is cryopreservation of ovarian cortex but there are many drawbacks such as apoptosis and considerable reduction of follicular density in the transplanted ovary. One solution to reduce ischemic damage is enhancing angiogenesis after transplantation of ovarian cortex tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Setarud, on angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissue. In this case control study, twenty four nude mice were implanted subcutaneously, with human ovarian tissues, from four women. The mice were randomly divided into two groups (n=12): the experimental group was treated with Setarud, while control group received only vehicle. Each group was divided into three subgroups (n=4) based on the graft recovery days post transplantation (PT). The transplanted fragments were removed on days 2, 7, and 30 PT and the expression of Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, and Vascular endothelial growth factor at both gene and protein levels and vascular density were studied in the grafted ovarian tissues. On the 2(nd) and 7(th) day PT, the level of Angiopoietin-1 gene expression in case group was significantly lower than that in control group, while the opposite results were obtained for Angiopoietin-2 and Vascular endothelial growth factor. These results were also confirmed at the protein level. The density of vessels in Setarud group elevated significantly on day 7 PT compared to pre-treatment state. Our results showed that administration of Setarud may stimulates angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissues, although further researches are needed before a clear judgment is made.

  1. Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes the development of human ovarian early follicles during growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-ren; Yan, Li-ying; Yan, Jie; Lu, Cui-ling; Xia, Xi; Yin, Tai-lang; Zhu, Xiao-hui; Gao, Jiang-man; Ding, Ting; Hu, Wei-hong; Guo, Hong-yan; Li, Rong; Qiao, Jie

    2014-03-01

    What is the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the growth of individual early human follicles in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system in vitro? The addition of 200 ng bFGF/ml improves human early follicle growth, survival and viability during growth in vitro. It has been demonstrated that bFGF enhances primordial follicle development in human ovarian tissue culture. However, the growth and survival of individual early follicles in encapsulated 3D culture have not been reported. The maturation in vitro of human ovarian follicles was investigated. Ovarian tissue (n= 11) was obtained from 11 women during laparoscopic surgery for gynecological disease, after obtaining written informed consent. One hundred and fifty-four early follicles were isolated by enzymic digestion and mechanical disruption. They were individually encapsulated into alginate (1% w/v) and randomly assigned to be cultured with 0, 100, 200 or 300 ng bFGF/ml for 8 days. Individual follicles were cultured in minimum essential medium α (αMEM) supplemented with bFGF. Follicle survival and growth were assessed by microscopy. Follicle viability was evaluated under confocal laser scanning microscope following Calcein-AM and Ethidium homodimer-I (Ca-AM/EthD-I) staining. After 8 days in culture, all 154 follicles had increased in size. The diameter and survival rate of the follicles and the percentage with good viability were significantly higher in the group cultured with 200 ng bFGF/ml than in the group without bFGF (P < 0.05). The percentage of follicles in the pre-antral stage was significantly higher in the 200 ng bFGF/ml group than in the group without bFGF (P < 0.05), while the percentages of primordial and primary follicles were significantly lower (P < 0.05). The study focuses on the effect of bFGF on the development of individual human early follicles in 3D culture in vitro and has limited ability to reveal the specific effect of bFGF at each different stage. The findings

  2. Origin of estradiol fatty acid esters in human ovarian follicular fluid.

    PubMed

    Pahuja, S L; Kim, A H; Lee, G; Hochberg, R B

    1995-03-01

    The estradiol fatty acid esters are the most potent of the naturally occurring steroidal estrogens. These esters are present predominantly in fat, where they are sequestered until they are hydrolyzed by esterases. Thus they act as a preformed reservoir of estradiol. We have previously shown that ovarian follicular fluid from patients undergoing gonadotropin stimulation contains very high amounts of estradiol fatty acid esters (approximately 10(-7) M). The source of these esters is unknown. They can be formed by esterification of estradiol in the follicular fluid by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), or in the ovary by an acyl coenzyme A:acyltransferase. In order to determine which of these enzymatic processes is the source of the estradiol esters in the follicular fluid, we incubated [3H]estradiol with follicular fluid and cells isolated from human ovarian follicular fluid and characterized the fatty acid composition of the [3H]estradiol esters biosynthesized in each. In addition, we characterized the endogenous estradiol fatty acid esters in the follicular fluid and compared them to the biosynthetic esters. The fatty acid composition of the endogenous esters was different than those synthesized by the cellular acyl coenzyme A:acyltransferase, and the same as the esters synthesized by LCAT, demonstrating that the esters are produced in situ in the follicular fluid. Although the role of these estradiol esters in the ovary is not known, given their remarkable estrogenic potency it is highly probable that they have an important physiological role.

  3. Multiple anticancer activities of EF24, a novel curcumin analog, on human ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xin; Sidell, Neil; Mancini, Alessandra; Huang, Ruo-Pan; Shenming Wang; Horowitz, Ira R; Liotta, Dennis C; Taylor, Robert N; Wieser, Friedrich

    2010-10-01

    Curcumin, a component of turmeric, has been reported to exhibit potential antitumor activities. This study assessed the effects of a novel synthetic curcumin analog, EF24, on proliferation, apoptosis, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulation in platinum-sensitive (IGROV1) and platinum-resistant (SK-OV-3) human ovarian cancer cells. EF24 time- and dose-dependently suppressed the growth of both cell lines and synergized with cisplatin to induce apoptosis. Although treatment with EF24 had no significant effect on VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression,VEGF protein secretion into conditioned media was dose-dependently reduced with EF24 demonstrating ∼8-fold greater potency than curcumin (P < .05). EF24 significantly inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced VEGF expression, as did the phenolic antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ). EF24 upregulated cellular antioxidant responses as observed by the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent gene transcription. Given its high potency, EF24 is an excellent lead candidate for further development as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in preclinical models of ovarian cancer.

  4. Premature ovarian failure 3 years after menarche in a 16-year-old girl following human papillomavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Little, Deirdre Therese; Ward, Harvey Rodrick Grenville

    2012-09-30

    Premature ovarian failure in a well adolescent is a rare event. Its occurrence raises important questions about causation, which may signal other systemic concerns. This patient presented with amenorrhoea after identifying a change from her regular cycle to irregular and scant periods following vaccinations against human papillomavirus. She declined the oral contraceptives initially prescribed for amenorrhoea. The diagnostic tasks were to determine the reason for her secondary amenorrhoea and then to investigate for possible causes of the premature ovarian failure identified. Although the cause is unknown in 90% of cases, the remaining chief identifiable causes of this condition were excluded. Premature ovarian failure was then notified as a possible adverse event following this vaccination. The young woman was counselled regarding preservation of bone density, reproductive implications and relevant follow-up. This event could hold potential implications for population health and prompts further inquiry.

  5. Synergistic efficacy in human ovarian cancer cells by histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA and proteasome inhibitor PS-341.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yong; Hu, Yi; Wu, Peng; Wang, Beibei; Tian, Yuan; Xia, Xi; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Tong; Jiang, Xuefeng; Ma, Quanfu; Xu, Gang; Wang, Shixuan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Meng, Li

    2011-05-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors and proteasome inhibitor are all emerging as new classes of anticancer agents. We chose TSA and PS-341 to identify whether they have a synergistic efficacy on human ovarian cancer cells. After incubated with 500 nM TSA or/and 40 nM PS-341, we found that combined groups resulted in a striking increase of apoptosis and G2/M blocking rates, no matter in A2780, cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cell line OV2008 or its resistant variant C13*. This demonstrated that TSA interacted synergistically with PS-341, which raised the possibility that combined the two drugs may represent a novel strategy in ovarian cancer.

  6. PPAR{gamma} ligands induce growth inhibition and apoptosis through p63 and p73 in human ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soyeon; Innovative Research Institute for Cell Therapy, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul; Lee, Jae-Jung

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{gamma} ligands increased the rate of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in ovarian cancer cells. {yields} PPAR{gamma} ligands induced p63 and p73 expression, but not p53. {yields} p63 and p73 leads to an increase in p21 expression and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells with treatment PPAR{gamma} ligands. {yields} These findings suggest that PPAR{gamma} ligands suppressed growth of ovarian cancer cells through upregulation of p63 and p73. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonists, including thiazolidinediones (TZDs), can induce anti-proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in various cancer cell types. This study investigated the mechanism of the anticancer effectmore » of TZDs on human ovarian cancer. Six human ovarian cancer cell lines (NIH:OVCAR3, SKOV3, SNU-251, SNU-8, SNU-840, and 2774) were treated with the TZD, which induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Additionally, these cell lines exhibited various expression levels of PPAR{gamma} protein as revealed by Western blotting. Flow cytometry showed that the cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase, as demonstrated by the appearance of a sub-G1 peak. This observation was corroborated by the finding of increased levels of Bax, p21, PARP, and cleaved caspase 3 in TGZ-treated cells. Interestingly, when we determined the effect of p53-induced growth inhibition in these three human ovarian cancer cells, we found that they either lacked p53 or contained a mutant form of p53. Furthermore, TGZ induced the expression of endogenous or exogenous p63 and p73 proteins and p63- or p73-directed short hairpin (si) RNAs inhibited the ability of TGZ to regulate expression of p21 in these cells. Thus, our results suggest that PPAR{gamma} ligands can induce growth suppression of ovarian cancer cells and mediate p63 and p73 expression, leading to enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis. The tumor suppressive effects of PPAR

  7. Quercetin induces the apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma cells by upregulating the expression of microRNA-145.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junbo; Gong, Jian; Ding, Chun; Chen, Guiqin

    2015-08-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most malignant types of cancer of the female human reproductive track, posing a severe threat to the health of the female population. Numerous previous studies have demonstrated that microRNA (miR)-145 is downregulated in ovarian cancer, and that quercetin can inhibit the growth of cancer cells via regulating the expression of miRs. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of quercetin on the expression of miR-145 in SKOV-3 and A2780 human ovarian cancer cell lines. The results revealed that the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 in the SKOV-3 and A2780 cells were significantly increased following treatment to induce overexpression of miR-145 compared with treatment with quercetin alone (P<0.01). However, the expression of cleaved caspase-3 in the anti-miR-145 (miR-145 inhibitor) group of cells was markedly decreased compared with that in the miR-145 overexpression group (P<0.01). Taken together, the results suggested that treatment with quercetin induced the apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma cells through activation of the extrinsic death receptor mediated and intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

  8. Human ovarian cancer xenografts in nude mice: chemotherapy trials with paclitaxel, cisplatin, vinorelbine and titanocene dichloride.

    PubMed

    Villena-Heinsen, C; Friedrich, M; Ertan, A K; Farnhammer, C; Schmidt, W

    1998-07-01

    The new cytostatics titanocene dichloride and vinorelbine were compared to cisplatin and paclitaxel using a human ovarian cancer xenografts model. Biopsy material from a native human ovarian carcinoma was expanded and transplanted into 96 nude mice. The animals were divided into six treatment groups: cisplatin 3 x 4 mg/kg, paclitaxel 5 x 26 mg/kg, vinorelbine 1 x 20 mg/kg, titanocene dichloride 3 x 30 mg/kg, titanocene dichloride 3 x 40 mg/kg and a control group treated with 0.9% saline. Each experiment was repeated with eight mice in each treatment group. Treatment groups were evaluated in terms of average daily increase in tumor volume and average daily body weight increase of nude mice based on slopes of least-square regressions performed on individual animals. The slope factors alpha and beta of the body weight (alpha) and tumor volume changes (beta) within each group during the course of an experiment were calculated. Both a statistically significant decrease (p<0.05) in the body weight of the experimental animals (cisplatin: alpha = -0.5163, vinorelbine: alpha = -0.6598, paclitaxel: alpha = -0.6746, titanocene dichloride 3 x 30 mg/kg: alpha = -0.6259, titanocene dichloride 3 x 40 mg/kg: alpha = -0.7758) and a significant reduction (p<0.05) of the increase in tumor volume (cisplatin: beta = 12.049, vinorelbine: beta = 0.504, paclitaxel: beta = -1.636, titanocene dichloride 3 x 30 mg/kg: beta = 6.212, titanocene dichloride 3 x 40 mg/kg: beta= -0.685) was shown in all treated groups compared to the control group (alpha = -0.1398; beta = 23.056). No significant weight changes were observed between the individually treated groups. A statistically significant reduction of the tumor growth occured under paclitaxel (beta = -1.636), vinorelbine (beta = 0.504) and titanocene dichloride medication 3 x 40 mg/kg (beta = -0.685), as compared to the group treated with cisplatin (beta = 12.049). We found titanocene dichloride to be as effective as paclitaxel and more

  9. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce apoptosis and autophagy in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ding-Ping; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Zhang, Guo-Liang; Huang, Yi-Fan; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2017-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are frequently used in industrial products such as paint, surface coating, and cosmetics, and recently, they have been explored in biologic and biomedical applications. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ZnO NPs on cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and autophagy in human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3). ZnO NPs with a crystalline size of 20 nm were characterized with various analytical techniques, including ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and autophagy were examined using a series of cellular assays. Exposure of cells to ZnO NPs resulted in a dose-dependent loss of cell viability, and the characteristic apoptotic features such as rounding and loss of adherence, enhanced reactive oxygen species generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were observed in the ZnO NP-treated cells. Furthermore, the cells treated with ZnO NPs showed significant double-strand DNA breaks, which are gained evidences from significant number of γ-H 2 AX and Rad51 expressed cells. ZnO NP-treated cells showed upregulation of p53 and LC3, indicating that ZnO NPs are able to upregulate apoptosis and autophagy. Finally, the Western blot analysis revealed upregulation of Bax, caspase-9, Rad51, γ-H 2 AX, p53, and LC3 and downregulation of Bcl-2. The study findings demonstrated that the ZnO NPs are able to induce significant cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and autophagy in human ovarian cells through reactive oxygen species generation and oxidative stress. Therefore, this study suggests that ZnO NPs are suitable and inherent anticancer agents due to their several favorable characteristic features including favorable band gap, electrostatic charge, surface chemistry, and potentiation of redox cycling cascades.

  10. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce apoptosis and autophagy in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-Liang; Huang, Yi-Fan; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2017-01-01

    Background Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are frequently used in industrial products such as paint, surface coating, and cosmetics, and recently, they have been explored in biologic and biomedical applications. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ZnO NPs on cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and autophagy in human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3). Methods ZnO NPs with a crystalline size of 20 nm were characterized with various analytical techniques, including ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and autophagy were examined using a series of cellular assays. Results Exposure of cells to ZnO NPs resulted in a dose-dependent loss of cell viability, and the characteristic apoptotic features such as rounding and loss of adherence, enhanced reactive oxygen species generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were observed in the ZnO NP-treated cells. Furthermore, the cells treated with ZnO NPs showed significant double-strand DNA breaks, which are gained evidences from significant number of γ-H2AX and Rad51 expressed cells. ZnO NP-treated cells showed upregulation of p53 and LC3, indicating that ZnO NPs are able to upregulate apoptosis and autophagy. Finally, the Western blot analysis revealed upregulation of Bax, caspase-9, Rad51, γ-H2AX, p53, and LC3 and downregulation of Bcl-2. Conclusion The study findings demonstrated that the ZnO NPs are able to induce significant cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and autophagy in human ovarian cells through reactive oxygen species generation and oxidative stress. Therefore, this study suggests that ZnO NPs are suitable and inherent anticancer agents due to their several favorable characteristic features including favorable band gap, electrostatic charge, surface chemistry, and potentiation of redox cycling cascades. PMID:28919752

  11. Comparison of In Vitro- and Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM)-Culture Systems for Cryopreserved Medulla-Contained Human Ovarian Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Mallmann, Peter; Petrunkina, Anna M.; Rahimi, Gohar; Nawroth, Frank; Hancke, Katharina; Felberbaum, Ricardo; Genze, Felicitas; Damjanoski, Ilija; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2012-01-01

    At present, there are three ways to determine effectively the quality of the cryopreservation procedure using ovarian tissue before the re-implantation treatment: evaluation of follicles after post-thawing xenotransplantation to SCID mouse, in-vitro culture in a large volume of culture medium under constant agitation and culture on embryonic chorio-allantoic membrane within a hen's eggs. The aim of this study was to compare the two methods, culture in vitro and culture on embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of cryopreserved human ovarian medulla-contained and medulla-free cortex. Ovarian fragments were divided into small pieces (1.5–2.0×1.0–1.2×0.8–1.5) of two types, cortex with medulla and medulla-free cortex, frozen, thawed and randomly divided into the following four groups. Group 1: medulla-free cortex cultured in vitro for 8 days in large volume of medium with mechanical agitation, Group 2: medulla-containing cortex cultured in vitro, Group 3: medulla-free cortex cultured in CAM-system for 5 days, Group 4: medulla-containing cortex cultured in CAM-system. The efficacy of the tissue culture was evaluated by the development of follicles and by intensiveness of angiogenesis in the tissue (von Willebrand factor and Desmin). For Group 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively 85%, 85%, 87% and 84% of the follicles were morphologically normal (P>0.1). The immunohistochemical analysis showed that angiogenesis detected by von Willebrand factor was lower in groups 1 and 3 (medulla-free cortex). Neo-vascularisation (by Desmin) was observed only in ovarian tissue of Group 4 (medulla-contained cortex after CAM-culture). It appears that the presence of medulla in ovarian pieces is beneficial for post-thaw development of cryopreserved human ovarian tissue. For medical practice it is recommended for evaluation of post-warming ovarian tissue to use the CAM-system as a valuable alternative to xenotransplantation and for cryopreservation of these tissues to prepare ovarian

  12. The incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Razi, Saeid; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Aziznejhad, Hojjat; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and mortality estimates of ovarian cancer based on human development are essential for planning by policy makers. This study is aimed at investigating the standardised incidence rates (SIR) and standardised mortality rates (SMR) of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asian countries. Methods This study was an ecologic study in Asia for assessment of the correlation between SIR, age standardised rates (ASR), and HDI and their details, including life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and gross national income (GNI) per capita. We used the correlation bivariate method for assessment of the correlation between ASR and HDI, and its details. Statistical significance was assumed if P < 0.05. All reported P-values were two-sided. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 15.0, SPSS Inc.). Results The highest SIR of ovarian cancer was observed in Singapore, Kazakhstan, and Brunei respectively. Indonesia, Brunei, and Afghanistan had the highest SMR. There was a positive correlation between the HDI and SIR (r = 0.143, p = 0.006). Correlation between SMR of ovarian cancer and HDI was not significant (r = 0.005, p = 052.0). Conclusion According to the findings of this study, between the HDI and SIR, there was a positive correlation, but there was no correlation between the SMR and HDI. PMID:27110284

  13. The incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index in Asia.

    PubMed

    Razi, Saeid; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Aziznejhad, Hojjat; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and mortality estimates of ovarian cancer based on human development are essential for planning by policy makers. This study is aimed at investigating the standardised incidence rates (SIR) and standardised mortality rates (SMR) of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asian countries. This study was an ecologic study in Asia for assessment of the correlation between SIR, age standardised rates (ASR), and HDI and their details, including life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and gross national income (GNI) per capita. We used the correlation bivariate method for assessment of the correlation between ASR and HDI, and its details. Statistical significance was assumed if P < 0.05. All reported P-values were two-sided. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 15.0, SPSS Inc.). The highest SIR of ovarian cancer was observed in Singapore, Kazakhstan, and Brunei respectively. Indonesia, Brunei, and Afghanistan had the highest SMR. There was a positive correlation between the HDI and SIR (r = 0.143, p = 0.006). Correlation between SMR of ovarian cancer and HDI was not significant (r = 0.005, p = 052.0). According to the findings of this study, between the HDI and SIR, there was a positive correlation, but there was no correlation between the SMR and HDI.

  14. Cleistopholine isolated from Enicosanthellum pulchrum exhibits apoptogenic properties in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Noraziah; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Mohan, Syam; Dehghan, Firouzeh; Karimian, Hamed; Rahman, Mashitoh Abdul; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Hashim, Najihah Mohd

    2016-04-15

    Cleistopholine is a natural alkaloid present in plants with numerous biological activities. However, cleistopholine has yet to be isolated using modern techniques and the mechanism by which this alkaloid induces apoptosis in cancer cells remains to be elucidated. This study aims to isolate cleistopholine from the roots of Enicosanthellum pulchrum by using preparative-HPLC technique and explore the mechanism by which this alkaloid induces apoptosis in human ovarian cancer (CAOV-3) cells in vitro from 24 to 72 h. This compound may be developed as an anticancer agent that induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Cytotoxicity was assessed via the cell viability assay and changes in cell morphology were observed via the acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) assay. The involvement of apoptotic pathways was evaluated through caspase analysis and multiple cytotoxicity assays. Meanwhile, early and late apoptotic events via the Annexin V-FITC and DNA laddering assays, respectively. The mechanism of apoptosis was explored at the molecular level by evaluating the expression of specific genes and proteins. In addition, the proliferation of CAOV-3-cells treated with cleistopholine was analysed using the cell cycle arrest assay. The IC50 of cleistopholine (61.4 µM) was comparable with that of the positive control cisplatin (62.8 µM) at 24 h of treatment. Apoptos is was evidenced by cell membrane blebbing, chromatin compression and formation of apoptotic bodies. The initial phase of apoptosis was detected at 24 h by the increase in Annexin V-FITC binding to cell membranes. A DNA ladder was formed at 48 h, indicating DNA fragmentation in the final phase of apoptosis. The mitochondria participated in the process by stimulating the intrinsic pathway via caspase 9 with a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and an increase in cytochrome c release. Cell death was further validated through the mRNA and protein overexpression of Bax, caspase 3 and caspase 9 in the

  15. A Unique Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Antagonist Suppresses Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vardhana, Pratibhasri A.; Julius, Martin A.; Pollak, Susan V.; Lustbader, Evan G.; Trousdale, Rhonda K.; Lustbader, Joyce W.

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a complication of in vitro fertilization associated with physiological changes after hCG administration to induce final oocyte maturation. It presents as widespread increases in vascular permeability and, in rare cases, results in cycle cancellation, multi-organ dysfunction, and pregnancy termination. These physiological changes are due primarily to activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system in response to exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). An hCG antagonist (hCG-Ant) could attenuate these effects by competitively binding to the LH/CG receptor, thereby blocking LH activity in vivo. We expressed a form of hCG that lacks three of its four N-linked glycosylation sites and tested its efficacy as an antagonist. The hCG-Ant binds the LH receptor with an affinity similar to native hCG and inhibits cAMP response in vitro. In a rat model for ovarian stimulation, hCG-Ant dramatically reduces ovulation and steroid hormone production. In a well-established rat OHSS model, vascular permeability and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression are dramatically reduced after hCG-Ant treatment. Finally, hCG-Ant does not appear to alter blastocyst development when given after hCG in mice. These studies demonstrate that removing specific glycosylation sites on native hCG can produce an hCG-Ant that is capable of binding without activating the LH receptor and blocking the actions of hCG. Thus hCG-Ant will be investigated as a potential therapy for OHSS. PMID:19443574

  16. Insulin has a biphasic effect on the ability of human chorionic gonadotropin to induce ovarian cysts in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bogovich, K; Clemons, J; Poretsky, L

    1999-08-01

    Hyperinsulinemia enhances the ability of subovulatory doses of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce ovarian follicular cysts in the rat. To determine the relative contribution of these hormones to the development of ovarian cysts, adult female rats were treated with either (1) vehicle alone (controls), (2) a high-fat diet (HFD) to control for the effects of weight gain, (3) 1.5 to 6 IU hCG twice daily plus 6 U insulin (Ins)/d, or (4) 1.5 to 9 U Ins/d plus 3 IU hCG twice daily. On day 23 of the in vivo treatments, all groups that received at least 6 U Ins/d displayed increased body weight compared with control and HFD rats (P < or = .05). No control rats and only one HFD rat displayed ovarian cysts on this day. Plasma estrone (E1) and androstenedione (A4) were elevated in HFD rats with noncystic follicles compared with control rats (P < or = .05). Between 64% and 80% of rats on 6 U Ins/d plus twice-daily injections of 1.5 to 6 IU hCG displayed ovarian cysts on day 23. Plasma estradiol (E2) concentrations for these treatment groups were similar to those of control rats. Of the hormonally treated animals, only those that had ovarian cysts in response to twice-daily injections of 4.5 or 6 IU hCG plus 6 U Ins/d displayed elevated plasma A4 and/or testosterone compared with controls. In contrast, plasma E1 concentrations were elevated on day 23 for animals bearing ovarian cysts in response to increasing doses of hCG plus the fixed dose of 6 U Ins/d. Between 70% and 80% of rats treated twice daily with 3 IU hCG plus a daily dose of 1.5 to 6 U Ins displayed ovarian cysts on day 23. In marked contrast, only 25% of rats treated with this dose of hCG plus 9 U Ins/d developed cystic follicles. Of the plasma steroids tested, only E1 and A4 were elevated in these treatment groups compared with controls. However, these increases in plasma steroid concentrations did not correlate with the dose of insulin. We conclude from these data that, although the mechanisms remain to

  17. Studies of the HER-2/neu proto-oncogene in human breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Slamon, D J; Godolphin, W; Jones, L A; Holt, J A; Wong, S G; Keith, D E; Levin, W J; Stuart, S G; Udove, J; Ullrich, A

    1989-05-12

    Carcinoma of the breast and ovary account for one-third of all cancers occurring in women and together are responsible for approximately one-quarter of cancer-related deaths in females. The HER-2/neu proto-oncogene is amplified in 25 to 30 percent of human primary breast cancers and this alteration is associated with disease behavior. In this report, several similarities were found in the biology of HER-2/neu in breast and ovarian cancer, including a similar incidence of amplification, a direct correlation between amplification and over-expression, evidence of tumors in which overexpression occurs without amplification, and the association between gene alteration and clinical outcome. A comprehensive study of the gene and its products (RNA and protein) was simultaneously performed on a large number of both tumor types. This analysis identified several potential shortcomings of the various methods used to evaluate HER-2/neu in these diseases (Southern, Northern, and Western blots, and immunohistochemistry) and provided information regarding considerations that should be addressed when studying a gene or gene product in human tissue. The data presented further support the concept that the HER-2/neu gene may be involved in the pathogenesis of some human cancers.

  18. Ovarian adipocytokines are associated with early in vitro human embryo development independent of the action of ovarian insulin.

    PubMed

    Li, Liyun; Ferin, Michel; Sauer, Mark V; Lobo, Roger A

    2012-12-01

    We aimed to characterize the association between levels of serum and follicular fluid (FF) adipocytokines, reflected by the leptin to adiponectin ratio (L:A ratio), and oocyte quality and in vitro embryo development in women undergoing assisted reproduction. We also aimed to assess whether follicular hormonal pathways mediate this interaction. We prospectively collected FF from up to four individual preovulatory follicles (n = 76) and fasting sera from women (n = 31) without endocrinopathies undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) at a university-based center for assisted reproduction. Leptin, total adiponectin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and ovarian steriods were measured using enzyme immunoassay. Oocyte maturity, fertilization, and embryo development were assessed. FF leptin was similar to serum levels while FF adiponectin was lower. FF leptin (27.10 ± 4.05 ng/mL) and the L:A ratio (11.48E-3 ± 2.57E-3) were related to FF insulin (R (2) = 0.370 and 0.419, p < 0.001) but not to ovarian steroids or IGF-1, whereas FF adiponectin ( 4.22 ± 0.52 ug/mL) correlated only with leptin (R (2) = -0.138, p = 0.001). Oocytes from a high FF L:A ratio environment were 81 % (RR 1.81 [95%CI 0.97-3.37]) more likely to undergo successful cleavage and 117 % (RR 2.17 [95 % CI 1.06-4.44]) more likely to obtain viable cleavage morphology compared to a low FF L:A ratio environment, even when adjusted for FF insulin, an independent predictor of cleavage. Certain adipocytokines, particularly the L:A ratio in the FF of the preovulatory follicle, are related to successful in vitro embryo development. This action may be independent of FF insulin.

  19. Optical Biomarkers of Serous and Mucinous Human Ovarian Tumor Assessed with Nonlinear Optics Microscopies

    PubMed Central

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B.; de Thomaz, Andre A.; Baratti, Mariana O.; Almeida, Diogo B.; Andrade, L. A. L. A.; Bottcher-Luiz, Fátima; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy techniques have potential to improve the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer. In this study we showed that multimodal NLO microscopies, including two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), third-harmonic generation (THG) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with ovarian cancer progression. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained strong TPEF + SHG + THG signals from fixed samples stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) and robust FLIM signal from fixed unstained samples. Particularly, we imaged 34 ovarian biopsies from different patients (median age, 49 years) including 5 normal ovarian tissue, 18 serous tumors and 11 mucinous tumors with the multimodal NLO platform developed in our laboratory. We have been able to distinguish adenomas, borderline, and adenocarcinomas specimens. Using a complete set of scoring methods we found significant differences in the content, distribution and organization of collagen fibrils in the stroma as well as in the morphology and fluorescence lifetime from epithelial ovarian cells. Conclusions/Significance NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns for serous and mucinous ovarian tumors. The results provide a basis to interpret future NLO images of ovarian tissue and lay the foundation for future in vivo optical evaluation of premature ovarian lesions. PMID:23056557

  20. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  1. Apoptotic Cell Death Induced by Resveratrol Is Partially Mediated by the Autophagy Pathway in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Fangfang; Qin, Zhaoyang; Li, Fang; Zhang, Huilin; Fang, Zhenghui; Hao, Enkui

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5’ –trihydroxystilbene) is an active compound in food, such as red grapes, peanuts, and berries. Resveratrol exhibits an anticancer effect on various human cancer cells. However, the mechanism of resveratrol-induced anti-cancer effect at the molecular level remains to be elucidated. In this study, the mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effect of resveratrol in human ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3 and Caov-3) was investigated using various molecular biology techniques, such as flow cytometry, western blotting, and RNA interference, with a major focus on the potential role of autophagy in resveratrol-induced apoptotic cell death. We demonstrated that resveratrol induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which triggers autophagy and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Resveratrol induced ATG5 expression and promoted LC3 cleavage. The apoptotic cell death induced by resveratrol was attenuated by both pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy. The autophagy inhibitor chloroquine, which functions at the late stage of autophagy, significantly reduced resveratrol-induced cell death and caspase 3 activity in human ovarian cancer cells. We also demonstrated that targeting ATG5 by siRNA also suppressed resveratrol-induced apoptotic cell death. Thus, we concluded that a common pathway between autophagy and apoptosis exists in resveratrol-induced cell death in OVCAR-3 human ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26067645

  2. Should we isolate human preantral follicles before or after cryopreservation of ovarian tissue?

    PubMed

    Vanacker, Julie; Luyckx, Valérie; Amorim, Christiani; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Donnez, Jacques; Camboni, Alessandra

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the survival and growth potential of human preantral follicles isolated before and after cryopreservation. Pilot study. Gynecology research unit in a university hospital. Six women aged 27 to 32 years. Six ovarian biopsy samples were cut into two equal parts, half subjected to slow-freezing followed by follicle isolation (cryo-iso group) and alginate-matrigel embedding, and half immediately processed for follicle isolation and alginate-matrigel embedding followed by slow-freezing (iso-cryo group) or used as fresh controls (fresh group). Follicle number, viability, diameter, and morphology. After 1,134 preantral follicles had been isolated from fresh biopsy samples and 1,132 from frozen specimens, the three groups were compared before and after 7 days of in vitro culture (IVC) in alginate-matrigel beads. No statistically significant differences in viability were found between the three groups before or after IVC, but follicle diameter increased in all three groups after IVC. Morphology analysis revealed well-preserved follicles in both the iso-cryo and cryo-iso groups after IVC. Human preantral follicles can be successfully cryopreserved before or after isolation without impairing their ability to survive and grow in vitro. This could lead to development of new protocols for follicle cryopreservation, IVC, and grafting in clinical and research settings for fertility preservation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inovium Ovarian Rejuvenation Trials

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-18

    Perimenopausal Disorder; Menopause; Menopause, Premature; Menopause Related Conditions; Menopause Premature Symptomatic; Menopause Premature Asymptomatic; Premature Ovarian Failure; Premature Ovarian Failure, Familial; Premature Ovarian Failure 2A; Premature Ovarian Failure 3; Premature Ovarian Failure 4; Premature Ovarian Failure 1; Premature Ovarian Failure 5; Premature Ovarian Failure 6; Premature Ovarian Failure 7; Premature Ovarian Failure 9; Premature Ovarian Failure 8; Infertility; Infertility, Female; Infertility Unexplained

  4. Complexity of expression of the intermediate filaments of six new human ovarian carcinoma cell lines: new expression of cytokeratin 20.

    PubMed

    Yanagibashi, T; Gorai, I; Nakazawa, T; Miyagi, E; Hirahara, F; Kitamura, H; Minaguchi, H

    1997-01-01

    Six permanent human ovarian carcinoma cell lines (OVISE, OVTOKO, OVMANA and OVSAYO from clear cell adenocarcinoma, and OVSAHO and OVKATE from serous papillary adenocarcinoma) were established from solid tumours. The cell lines have been in culture for 5-8 years, the passage number varying from 62 to 246. Immunohistochemical analysis has shown that five of the six cell lines express at least six cytokeratin (CK) polypeptides. OVISE and OVSAYO expressed CKs 6, 7, 8, 18, 19 and 15 and/or 16. OVTOKO was positive for CKs 7, 8, 18, 19 and 15 and/or 16. OVSAHO expressed CKs 6, 7, 8, 14, 18, 19 and 15 and/or 16. OVMANA expressed CKs 6, 7, 8, 18, 19, 20 and 15 and/or 16. OVKATE expressed CKs 6, 7, 8, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 15 and/or 16. The expression of CK7, additional expression of vimentin, and clinical and histopathological findings enabled us to confirm that six cell lines had been established from primary ovarian cancers. Two of the six cell lines were positive for CK20, although CK20 was not expressed in the original tumours. The heterotransplanted tumours produced by CK20-positive cells also expressed CK20. This is the first report of ovarian carcinoma cell lines that express CK20 irrespective of their histological type. CK20 has been found in all colon carcinoma cell lines, but only in the mucinous type of ovarian tumours. These new ovarian carcinoma cell lines will therefore provide a relevant experimental system for elucidating the regulatory control mechanisms of intermediate filament expression.

  5. Human melanomas and ovarian cancers overexpressing mechanical barrier molecule genes lack immune signatures and have increased patient mortality risk

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Elise P.; Bedognetti, Davide; Mauldin, Ileana S.; Deacon, Donna H.; Shea, Sofia M.; Obeid, Joseph M.; Coukos, George; Gajewski, Thomas F.; Marincola, Francesco M.; Slingluff, Craig L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have identified eight genes whose expression in human melanoma metastases and ovarian cancers is associated with a lack of Th1 immune signatures. They encode molecules with mechanical barrier function in the skin and other normal tissues and include filaggrin (FLG), tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2), and six desmosomal proteins (DST, DSC3, DSP, PPL, PKP3, and JUP). This association has been validated in an independent series of 114 melanoma metastases. In these, DST expression alone is sufficient to identify melanomas without immune signatures, while FLG and the other six putative barrier molecules are overexpressed in a different subset of melanomas lacking immune signatures. Similar associations have been identified in a set of 186 ovarian cancers. RNA-seq data from 471 melanomas and 307 ovarian cancers in the TCGA database further support these findings and also reveal that overexpression of barrier molecules is strongly associated with early patient mortality for melanoma (p = 0.0002) and for ovarian cancer (p < 0.01). Interestingly, this association persists for FLG for melanoma (p = 0.012) and ovarian cancer (p = 0.006), whereas DST overexpression is negatively associated with CD8+ gene expression, but not with patient survival. Thus, overexpression of FLG or DST identifies two distinct patient populations with low immune cell infiltration in these cancers, but with different prognostic implications for each. These data raise the possibility that molecules with mechanical barrier function in skin and other tissues may be used by cancer cells to protect them from immune cell infiltration and immune-mediated destruction. PMID:28123876

  6. Differential effects of rapalogues, dual kinase inhibitors on human ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    ROGERS-BROADWAY, KARLY-RAI; CHUDASAMA, DIMPLE; PADOS, GEORGE; TSOLAKIDIS, DIMITRIS; GOUMENOU, ANASTASIA; HALL, MARCIA; KARTERIS, EMMANOUIL

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynaecological malignancy and was diagnosed in over 7,000 women in 2011 in the UK. There are currently no reliable biomarkers available for use in a regular screening assay for ovarian cancer and due to characteristic late presentation (78% in stages III and IV) ovarian cancer has a low survival rate (35% after 10 years). The mTOR pathway is a central regulator of growth, proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis; providing balance between available resources such as amino acids and growth factors, and stresses such as hypoxia, to control cellular behaviour accordingly. Emerging data links mTOR with the aetiopathogenesis of ovarian cancer. We hypothesised that mTOR inhibitors could play a therapeutic role in ovarian cancer treatment. In this study we began by validating the expression of four main mTOR pathway components, mTOR, DEPTOR, rictor and raptor, at gene and protein level in in vitro models of endometrioid (MDAH-2774) and clear cell (SKOV3) ovarian cancer using qPCR and ImageStream technology. Using a wound healing assay we show that inhibition of the mTOR pathway using rapamycin, rapalogues, resveratrol and NVP BEZ-235 induces a cytostatic and not cytotoxic response up to 18 h in these cell lines. We extended these findings up to 72 h with a proliferation assay and show that the effects of inhibition of the mTOR pathway are primarily mediated by the dephosphorylation of p70S6 kinase. We show that mTOR inhibition does not involve alteration of mTOR pathway components or induce caspase 9 cleavage. Preclinical studies including ovarian tissue of ovarian cancer patients, unaffected controls and patients with unrelated gynaecological conditions show that DEPTOR is reliably upregulated in ovarian cancer. PMID:27211906

  7. The humanized anti-human AMHRII mAb 3C23K exerts an anti-tumor activity against human ovarian cancer through tumor-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bougherara, Houcine; Némati, Fariba; Nicolas, André; Massonnet, Gérald; Pugnière, Martine; Ngô, Charlotte; Le Frère-Belda, Marie-Aude; Leary, Alexandra; Alexandre, Jérôme; Meseure, Didier; Barret, Jean-Marc; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle; Pèlegrin, André; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Prost, Jean-François; Donnadieu, Emmanuel; Decaudin, Didier

    2017-11-21

    Müllerian inhibiting substance, also called anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of AMH type II receptor-positive tumor cells, such as human ovarian cancers (OCs). On this basis, a humanized glyco-engineered monoclonal antibody (3C23K) has been developed. The aim of this study was therefore to experimentally confirm the therapeutic potential of 3C23K in human OCs. We first determined by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and cytofluorometry analyses the expression of AMHRII in patient's tumors and found that a majority (60 to 80% depending on the detection technique) of OCs were positive for this marker. We then provided evidence that the tumor stroma of OC is enriched in tumor-associated macrophages and that these cells are responsible for 3C23K-induced killing of tumor cells through ADCP and ADCC mechanisms. In addition, we showed that 3C23K reduced macrophages induced-T cells immunosuppression. Finally, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of 3C23K alone and in combination with a carboplatin-paclitaxel chemotherapy in a panel of OC Patient-Derived Xenografts. In those experiments, we showed that 3C23K significantly increased the proportion and the quality of chemotherapy-based in vivo responses. Altogether, our data support the potential interest of AMHRII targeting in human ovarian cancers and the evaluation of 3C23K in further clinical trials.

  8. The humanized anti-human AMHRII mAb 3C23K exerts an anti-tumor activity against human ovarian cancer through tumor-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bougherara, Houcine; Némati, Fariba; Nicolas, André; Massonnet, Gérald; Pugnière, Martine; Ngô, Charlotte; Le Frère-Belda, Marie-Aude; Leary, Alexandra; Alexandre, Jérôme; Meseure, Didier; Barret, Jean-Marc; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle; Pèlegrin, André; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Prost, Jean-François; Donnadieu, Emmanuel; Decaudin, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Müllerian inhibiting substance, also called anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of AMH type II receptor-positive tumor cells, such as human ovarian cancers (OCs). On this basis, a humanized glyco-engineered monoclonal antibody (3C23K) has been developed. The aim of this study was therefore to experimentally confirm the therapeutic potential of 3C23K in human OCs. We first determined by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and cytofluorometry analyses the expression of AMHRII in patient’s tumors and found that a majority (60 to 80% depending on the detection technique) of OCs were positive for this marker. We then provided evidence that the tumor stroma of OC is enriched in tumor-associated macrophages and that these cells are responsible for 3C23K-induced killing of tumor cells through ADCP and ADCC mechanisms. In addition, we showed that 3C23K reduced macrophages induced-T cells immunosuppression. Finally, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of 3C23K alone and in combination with a carboplatin-paclitaxel chemotherapy in a panel of OC Patient-Derived Xenografts. In those experiments, we showed that 3C23K significantly increased the proportion and the quality of chemotherapy-based in vivo responses. Altogether, our data support the potential interest of AMHRII targeting in human ovarian cancers and the evaluation of 3C23K in further clinical trials. PMID:29245952

  9. Oxygen consumption rate of early pre-antral follicles from vitrified human ovarian cortical tissue

    PubMed Central

    ISHIKAWA, Takayuki; KYOYA, Toshihiko; NAKAMURA, Yusuke; SATO, Eimei; TOMIYAMA, Tatsuhiro; KYONO, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The study of human ovarian tissue transplantation and cryopreservation has advanced significantly. Autotransplantation of human pre-antral follicles isolated from cryopreserved cortical tissue is a promising option for the preservation of fertility in young cancer patients. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the effect of vitrification after low-temperature transportation of human pre-antral follicles by using the oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Cortical tissues from 9 ovaries of female-to-male transsexuals were vitrified after transportation (6 or 18 h). The follicles were enzymatically isolated from nonvitrified tissue (group I, 18 h of transportation), vitrified-warmed tissue (group II, 6 and 18 h of transportation) and vitrified-warmed tissue that had been incubated for 24 h (group III, 6 and 18 h of transportation). OCR measurement and the LIVE/DEAD viability assay were performed. Despite the ischemic condition, the isolated pre-antral follicles in group I consumed oxygen, and the mean OCRs increased with developmental stage. Neither the transportation time nor patient age seemed to affect the OCR in this group. Meanwhile, the mean OCR was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group II but was comparable to that of group I after 24 h of incubation. The integrity of vitrified-warmed primordial and primary follicles was clearly corroborated by the LIVE/DEAD viability assay. These results demonstrate that the OCR can be used to directly estimate the effect of vitrification on the viability of primordial and primary follicles and to select the viable primordial and primary follicles from vitrified-warmed follicles. PMID:25262776

  10. Epothilone B induces extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in human SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Aneta; Gajek, Arkadiusz; Marczak, Agnieszka

    2014-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying epothilone B (EpoB) induced apoptosis were investigated in SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer cells. The aim of this research was to compare EpoB's, which belongs to the new class of anticancer drugs, with paclitaxel's (PTX) ability to induce apoptosis. The mode of cell death was assessed colorimetrically, fluorimetrically and by immunoblot analyses through measuring DNA fragmentation, the level of intracellular calcium, the level of cytochrome c, TRAIL, the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and the activation of caspase-9, -8 and -3. EpoB leads to an increase of the cytosolic level of cytochrome c after 4 h of cell treatment. After 24 and 48 h of cell treatment the level of intracellular calcium also increased by about 21% and 24% respectively. Moreover, EpoB, similarly to PTX, promoted the expression of TRAIL in lymphocytes, although high TRAIL expression on tumor cells was detected only after adding EpoB to SKOV-3 cells. EpoB mediates caspases-8 and -3 activation, which is independent of the reduction in the amount of caspase-9. Epitope-specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies revealed characteristic apoptotic changes that included cleavage of the 116 kDa PARP polypeptide to 25 kDa fragments. The results of our study show that EpoB induces mainly the extrinsic pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing local stromal alterations in human ovarian cancer subtypes via second harmonic generation microscopy and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Kirby R.; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2017-11-01

    The collagen architecture in all human ovarian cancers is substantially remodeled, where these alterations are manifested in different fiber widths, fiber patterns, and fibril size and packing. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has differentiated normal tissues from high-grade serous (HGS) tumors with high accuracy; however, the classification between low-grade serous, endometrioid, and benign tumors was less successful. We postulate this is due to known higher genetic variation in these tissues relative to HGS tumors, which are genetically similar, and this results in more heterogeneous collagen remodeling in the respective matrix. Here, we examine fiber widths and SHG emission intensity and directionality locally within images (e.g., 10×10 microns) and show that normal tissues and HGS tumors are more uniform in fiber properties as well as in fibril size and packing than the other tissues. Moreover, these distributions are in good agreement with phase matching considerations relating SHG emission directionality and intensity. The findings show that in addition to average collagen assembly properties the intrinsic heterogeneity must also be considered as another aspect of characterization. These local analyses showed differences not shown in pure intensity-based image analyses and may provide further insight into disease etiology of the different tumor subtypes.

  12. Radiosensitivity of human ovarian carcinoma and melanoma cells to γ-rays and protons

    PubMed Central

    Keta, Otilija; Todorović, Danijela; Popović, Nataša; Korićanac, Lela; Cuttone, Giacomo; Petrović, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Proton radiation offers physical advantages over conventional radiation. Radiosensitivity of human 59M ovarian cancer and HTB140 melanoma cells was investigated after exposure to γ-rays and protons. Material and methods Irradiations were performed in the middle of a 62 MeV therapeutic proton spread out Bragg peak with doses ranging from 2 to 16 Gy. The mean energy of protons was 34.88 ±2.15 MeV, corresponding to the linear energy transfer of 4.7 ±0.2 keV/µm. Irradiations with γ-rays were performed using the same doses. Viability, proliferation and survival were assessed 7 days after both types of irradiation while analyses of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed 48 h after irradiation. Results Results showed that γ-rays and protons reduced the number of viable cells for both cell lines, with stronger inactivation achieved after irradiation with protons. Surviving fractions for 59M were 0.91 ±0.01 for γ-rays and 0.81 ±0.01 for protons, while those for HTB140 cells were 0.93 ±0.01 for γ-rays and 0.86 ±0.01 for protons. Relative biological effectiveness of protons, being 2.47 ±0.22 for 59M and 2.08 ±0.36 for HTB140, indicated that protons provoked better cell elimination than γ-rays. After proton irradiation proliferation capacity of the two cell lines was slightly higher as compared to γ-rays. Proliferation was higher for 59M than for HTB140 cells after both types of irradiation. Induction of apoptosis and G2 arrest detected after proton irradiation were more prominent in 59M cells. Conclusions The obtained results suggest that protons exert better antitumour effects on ovarian carcinoma and melanoma cells than γ-rays. The dissimilar response of these cells to radiation is related to their different features. PMID:25097591

  13. Higher Numbers of T-Bet+ Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Associate with Better Survival in Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Chen, Lujun; Xu, Bin; Xiong, Yuqi; Yang, Min; Rui, Xiaohui; Shi, Liangrong; Wu, Changping; Jiang, Jingting; Lu, Binfeng

    2017-01-01

    T-bet, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, is a key marker of type I immune response within the tumor microenvironment, and has been previously reported by us to serve as an important prognostic indicator for human gastric cancer patients and a potential biomarker for immunotherapy. In the present study, we aimed to assess the clinical significance and prognostic value of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in human epithelial ovarian cancer. The immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the infiltration density of T-bet+ lymphoid cells in human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues, and the flow cytometry analysis was used to further analyze the presence of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes subgroups in cancer tissues. Our immunohistochemistry analysis showed increased number of T-bet+ lymphoid cells in the human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues, and the flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated the presence of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes subgroups including CD4+ , CD8+ T cells and NK cells. In addition, we also observed a significant association of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes density in the tumor nest of cancer with not only serum CA125 levels but also with distant metastasis. However no association was observed with other characteristics like patients' age, pathological type, FIGO stage, tumor site and tumor size. Furthermore, the survival analysis showed that higher density of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes both in tumor nest and tumor stroma of cancer tissues was significantly associated with better patient survival. In addition, the density of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in tumor nest appeared to be an independent risk factor for predicting patients' postoperative prognoses. Our data indicated that the key transcription factor T-bet might play an important role in the type I immune cells mediated antitumor response, and the density of T-bet+ lymphocytes in human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues

  14. Phenformin has anti-tumorigenic effects in human ovarian cancer cells and in an orthotopic mouse model of serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Amanda L; Sun, Wenchuan; Kilgore, Joshua; Guo, Hui; Fang, Ziwei; Yin, Yajie; Jones, Hannah M; Gilliam, Timothy P; Zhou, Chunxiao; Bae-Jump, Victoria L

    2017-11-21

    Obesity and diabetes have been associated with increased risk and worse outcomes in ovarian cancer (OC). The biguanide metformin is used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and is also believed to have anti-tumorigenic benefits. Metformin is highly hydrophilic and requires organic cation transporters (OCTs) for entry into human cells. Phenformin, another biguanide, was taken off the market due to an increased risk of lactic acidosis over metformin. However, phenformin is not reliant on transporters for cell entry; and thus, may have increased potency as both an anti-diabetic and anti-tumorigenic agent than metformin. Thus, our goal was to evaluate the effect of phenformin on established OC cell lines, primary cultures of human OC cells and in an orthotopic mouse model of high grade serous OC. In three OC cell lines, phenformin significantly inhibited cellular proliferation, induced cell cycle G1 arrest and apoptosis, caused cellular stress, inhibited adhesion and invasion, and activation of AMPK and inhibition of the mTOR pathway. Phenformin also exerted anti-proliferative effects in seven primary cell cultures of human OC. Lastly, phenformin inhibited tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model of serous OC, coincident with decreased Ki-67 staining and phosphorylated-S6 expression and increased expression of caspase 3 and phosphorylated-AMPK. Our findings demonstrate that phenformin has anti-tumorigenic effects in OC as previously demonstrated by metformin but it is yet to be determined if it is superior to metformin for the potential treatment of this disease.

  15. Morphological, ultrastructural and functional imaging of frozen/thawed and vitrified/warmed human ovarian tissue retrieved from oncological patients.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, R; Vicenti, R; Macciocca, M; Martino, N A; Dell'Aquila, M E; Pasquinelli, G; Morselli-Labate, A M; Seracchioli, R; Paradisi, R

    2016-08-01

    Which is the best method for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation: slow freezing/rapid thawing (SF/RT) or vitrification/warming (V/W)? The conventional SF/RT protocol used in this study seems to better preserve the morpho-functional status of human cryopreserved ovarian tissue than the used open carrier V/W protocol. Cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue is generally performed using the SF/RT method. However, reduction in the follicular pool and stroma damage are often observed. An emerging alternative procedure is represented by V/W which seems to allow the maintenance of the morphological integrity of the stroma. This is a retrospective cohort study including six patients affected by oncological diseases and enrolled from January to December 2014. Ovarian tissue was laparoscopically harvested from the right and left ovaries and was cryopreserved using a routinary SF/RT protocol or a V/W method, involving tissue incubation in two solutions (containing propylene glycol, ethylene glycol and sucrose at different concentrations) and vitrification in an open system. For each patient, three pieces from each ovary were collected at the time of laparoscopy (fresh tissue) and after storage (SF/RT or V/W) and processed for light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to assess the morphological and ultrastructural features of follicles and stroma, and for laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), to determine the functional energetic/redox stroma status. The preservation status of SF/RT and V/W ovarian tissues was compared with that of fresh ones, as well as between them. By LM and TEM, SF/RT and V/W samples showed cryodamage of small entity. Interstitial oedema and increased stromal cell vacuolization and chromatin clumping were observed in SF/RT samples; in contrast, V/W samples showed oocyte nuclei with slightly thickened chromatin and irregular shapes. The functional imaging analysis by LSCM revealed that the mitochondrial activity and

  16. Autocatalytic caspase-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter suppresses human ovarian carcinoma growth in vitro and in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Yue; Xia, Zhijun; Shen, Keng; Zhai, Xingyue

    2013-05-01

    To construct recombinant adenoviruses AdHT-rev-casp3 and Ad-rev-casp3, which express autocatalysis caspase-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and cytomegalovirus promoter, respectively; and to investigate their antitumor effects on ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Cell viabilities were determined using the cell counting kit 8 and flow cytometry. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting assays were used to detect cellular apoptotic activities after treatments. Tumor growth and survival of mice bearing AO cells were studied. AdHT-rev-casp3 significantly suppressed the survival of AO cells in a dose-dependent modality with a viability rate of 60.45% ± 7.8% at an multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 70 and 42.18 ± 5.3% at an MOI of 100, which was somewhat lower than that of the AO cells treated with Ad-rev-casp3 (32.28% ± 5.3% and 21.84% ± 3.4%, respectively). In contrast, AdHT-rev-casp3 induced little human umbilical vein epithelial cell (HUVEC) death with a viability rate of 98.52% ± 6.9% at an MOI of 70, whereas Ad-rev-casp3 induced significant cell death in HUVEC with a viability rate of 27.14% ± 5.4%. Additionally, AdHT-rev-casp3 (MOI = 70) caused significant apoptosis in AO cells with an apoptotic rate of 25.97%, whereas it caused undetectable apoptosis in HUVECs with the rate of only 1.75%. Ad-rev-casp3 (MOI = 70) caused strong apoptosis in both AO and HUVECs, with the rate of 35.82% and 38.12%, respectively. AdHT-rev-casp3 caused markedly higher levels of active caspase-3, causing no detectable active caspase-3 expression in HUVECs. The tumor growth suppression rate of AdHT-rev-casp3 was 54.94%, significantly higher than that of phosphate-buffered saline at the end point of the study. AdHT-rev-casp3 significantly improved the survival of mice receiving intraperitoneal inoculation of AO cells with little liver damage, with the mean survival of 177 ± 12 days. AdHT-rev-casp3 causes effective apoptosis

  17. Frequent downregulation of miR-34 family in human ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Corney, David C; Hwang, Chang-Il; Matoso, Andres; Vogt, Markus; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Godwin, Andrew K; Kamat, Aparna A; Sood, Anil K; Ellenson, Lora H; Hermeking, Heiko; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2010-02-15

    The miR-34 family is directly transactivated by tumor suppressor p53, which is frequently mutated in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We hypothesized that miR-34 expression would be decreased in EOC and that reconstituted miR-34 expression might reduce cell proliferation and invasion of EOC cells. miR-34 expression was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization in a panel of 83 human EOC samples. Functional characterization of miR-34 was accomplished by reconstitution of miR-34 expression in EOC cells with synthetic pre-miR molecules followed by determining changes in proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. miR-34a expression is decreased in 100%, and miR-34b*/c in 72%, of EOC with p53 mutation, whereas miR-34a is also downregulated in 93% of tumors with wild-type p53. Furthermore, expression of miR-34b*/c is significantly reduced in stage IV tumors compared with stage III (P = 0.0171 and P = 0.0029, respectively). Additionally, we observed promoter methylation and copy number variations at mir-34. In situ hybridization showed that miR-34a expression is inversely correlated with MET immunohistochemical staining, consistent with translational inhibition by miR-34a. Finally, miR-34 reconstitution experiments in p53 mutant EOC cells resulted in reduced proliferation, motility, and invasion, the latter of which was dependent on MET expression. Our work suggests that miR-34 family plays an important role in EOC pathogenesis and reduced expression of miR-34b*/c may be particularly important for progression to the most advanced stages. Part of miR-34 effects on motility and invasion may be explained by regulation of MET, which is frequently overexpressed in EOC.

  18. Effect of a streptococcal preparation (OK432) on natural killer activity of tumour-associated lymphoid cells in human ovarian carcinoma and on lysis of fresh ovarian tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Colotta, F.; Rambaldi, A.; Colombo, N.; Tabacchi, L.; Introna, M.; Mantovani, A.

    1983-01-01

    The streptococcal preparation OK432 was studied for its effects on natural killer (NK) activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from normal donors and from ovarian cancer patients, and of tumour-associated lymphocytes (TAL) from peritoneal effusions. OK432 augmented NK activity against the susceptible K562 line and induced killing of the relatively resistant Raji line. Freshly isolated ovarian carcinoma cells were relatively resistant to killing by unstimulated PBL and TAL. OK432 induced significant, though low, levels of cytotoxicity against 51Cr-labelled ovarian carcinoma cells. Augmentation of killing of fresh tumour cells by OK432 was best observed in a 20 h assay and both autologous and allogeneic targets were lysed. PBL were separated on discontinuous Percoll gradients. Unstimulated and OK432-boosted activity were enriched in the lower density fractions where large granular lymphocytes (LGL) and activity against K562 were found. Thus, OK432 augments NK activity of PBL and TAL in human ovarian carcinomas and induces low, but significant, levels of killing of fresh tumour cells. Effector cells involved in killing of fresh ovarian tumours copurify with LGL on discontinuous gradients of Percoll. PMID:6626452

  19. Extracellular Vesicles Present in Human Ovarian Tumor Microenvironments Induce a Phosphatidylserine Dependent Arrest in the T Cell Signaling Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Raymond J.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy; Loyall, Jenni; Sacca, Anthony J.; Shenoy, Gautam N.; Peng, Peng; Iyer, Vandana; Fathallah, Anas M.; Berenson, Charles S.; Wallace, Paul K.; Tario, Joseph; Odunsi, Kunle; Bankert, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of immunosuppressive factors within human tumor microenvironments, and the ability to block these factors, would be expected to enhance patients’ anti-tumor immune responses. We previously established that an unidentified factor, or factors, present in ovarian tumor ascites fluids reversibly inhibited the activation of T cells by arresting the T cell signaling cascade. Ultracentrifugation of the tumor ascites fluid has now revealed a pellet that contains small extracellular vesicles (EV) with an average diameter of 80nm. The T cell arrest was determined to be causally linked to phosphatidylserine (PS) that is present on the outer leaflet of the vesicle bilayer, as a depletion of PS expressing EV or a blockade of PS with anti-PS antibody significantly inhibits the vesicle induced signaling arrest. The inhibitory EV were also isolated from solid tumor tissues. The presence of immune suppressive vesicles in the microenvironments of ovarian tumors and our ability to block their inhibition of T cell function represent a potential therapeutic target for patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:26112921

  20. Tectorigenin sensitizes paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells through downregulation of the Akt and NFκB pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yeong-In; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Park, Hee-Juhn; Kim, Tae Jin; Choi, Youn Seok; Shih, Ie-Ming; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2012-12-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) is currently used as the front-line chemotherapeutic agent for several cancers including ovarian carcinoma; however, the drug frequently induces drug resistance through multiple mechanisms. The new strategy of using natural compounds in combination therapies is highly attractive because those compounds may enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy. In this study, we found that tectorigenin, an isoflavonoid isolated from flower of Pueraria thunbergiana, enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of paclitaxel in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells (MPSC1(TR), A2780(TR) and SKOV3(TR)) as well as their naive counterparts. The combination of tectorigenin with paclitaxel resulted in a synergistic apoptosis compared with either agent alone through activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9. Treatment with tectorigenin inhibited the nuclear translocation of NFκB and the expression of NFκB-dependent genes such as FLIP, XIAP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and COX-2, which are known to be associated with chemoresistance. In addition, the tectorigenin-paclitaxel combination inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB and IKK and the activation of Akt in paclitaxel-resistant cancer cells. Moreover, tectorigenin-paclitaxel-induced cell growth inhibition was enhanced by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor LY294002 or overexpression of the dominant negative Akt (Akt-DN), but reduced by overexpression of constitutively activated Akt (Akt-Myr). Furthermore, we found that Akt-Myr, at least in part, reversed tectorigenin-paclitaxel-induced nuclear translocation of NFκB and the phosphorylation of IκB and IKK. These data suggest that tectorigenin could sensitize paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells through inactivation of the Akt/IKK/IκB/NFκB signaling pathway, and promise a new intervention to chemosensitize paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer.

  1. Photoactivated in Vitro Anticancer Activity of Rhenium(I) Tricarbonyl Complexes Bearing Water-Soluble Phosphines.

    PubMed

    Marker, Sierra C; MacMillan, Samantha N; Zipfel, Warren R; Li, Zhi; Ford, Peter C; Wilson, Justin J

    2018-02-05

    Fifteen water-soluble rhenium compounds of the general formula [Re(CO) 3 (NN)(PR 3 )] + , where NN is a diimine ligand and PR 3 is 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA), tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine (THP), or 1,4-diacetyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicylco[3.3.1]nonane (DAPTA), were synthesized and characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. The complexes bearing the THP and DAPTA ligands exhibit triplet-based luminescence in air-equilibrated aqueous solutions with quantum yields ranging from 3.4 to 11.5%. Furthermore, the THP and DAPTA complexes undergo photosubstitution of a CO ligand upon irradiation with 365 nm light with quantum yields ranging from 1.1 to 5.5% and sensitize the formation of 1 O 2 with quantum yields as high as 70%. In contrast, all of the complexes bearing the PTA ligand are nonemissive and do not undergo photosubstitution upon irradiation with 365 nm light. These compounds were evaluated as photoactivated anticancer agents in human cervical (HeLa), ovarian (A2780), and cisplatin-resistant ovarian (A2780CP70) cancer cell lines. All of the complexes bearing THP and DAPTA exhibited a cytotoxic response upon irradiation with minimal toxicity in the absence of light. Notably, the complex with DAPTA and 1,10-phenanthroline gave rise to an IC 50 value of 6 μM in HeLa cells upon irradiation, rendering it the most phototoxic compound in this library. The nature of the photoinduced cytotoxicity of this compound was explored in further detail. These data indicate that the phototoxic response may result from the release of both CO and the rhenium-containing photoproduct, as well as the production of 1 O 2 .

  2. Fatty acid synthase inhibition activates AMP-activated protein kinase in SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weibo; Han, Wan Fang; Landree, Leslie E; Thupari, Jagan N; Pinn, Michael L; Bililign, Tsion; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Vadlamudi, Aravinda; Medghalchi, Susan M; El Meskini, Rajaa; Ronnett, Gabriele V; Townsend, Craig A; Kuhajda, Francis P

    2007-04-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS), the enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of fatty acids, is highly expressed in ovarian cancers and most common human carcinomas. Inhibition of FAS and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) have been shown to be cytotoxic to human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we explore the cytotoxic mechanism of action of FAS inhibition and show that C93, a synthetic FAS inhibitor, increases the AMP/ATP ratio, activating AMPK in SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells, which leads to cytotoxicity. As a physiologic consequence of AMPK activation, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid synthesis, was phosphorylated and inhibited whereas glucose oxidation was increased. Despite these attempts to conserve energy, the AMP/ATP ratio increased with worsening cellular redox status. Pretreatment of SKOV3 cells with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, substantially rescued the cells from C93 cytotoxicity, indicating its dependence on AMPK activation. 5-(Tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid, an ACC inhibitor, did not activate AMPK despite inhibiting fatty acid synthesis pathway activity and was not significantly cytotoxic to SKOV3 cells. This indicates that substrate accumulation from FAS inhibition triggering AMPK activation, not end-product depletion of fatty acids, is likely responsible for AMPK activation. C93 also exhibited significant antitumor activity and apoptosis against SKOV3 xenografts in athymic mice without significant weight loss or cytotoxicity to proliferating cellular compartments such as bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, or skin. Thus, pharmacologic FAS inhibition selectively activates AMPK in ovarian cancer cells, inducing cytotoxicity while sparing most normal human tissues from the pleiotropic effects of AMPK activation.

  3. Hyperinsulinemia and human chorionic gonadotropin synergistically promote the growth of ovarian follicular cysts in rats.

    PubMed

    Poretsky, L; Clemons, J; Bogovich, K

    1992-08-01

    Tonically elevated serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and hyperinsulinemia are prominent features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) in women, but the relative roles of LH and insulin in the pathogenesis of PCO is still unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect(s) hyperinsulinemia might have on the induction of follicular cysts by LH/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the rat. Beginning on day 85 of age, adult female rats were given one of the following in vivo treatments: (1) vehicle alone; (2) a high-fat diet to control for the effects of weight-gain; (3) up to 6 U insulin per day; (4) 50 micrograms gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist (GnRHant) per day; (5) 1.5 IU hCG twice daily; (6) insulin + hCG; (7) insulin + GnRHant; (8) hCG + GnRHant; or (9) hCG + insulin + GnRHant. After 22 days of treatment, animals were killed on day 23, trunk blood was collected, and ovaries were excised for histological study. Regular cycles, assessed by vaginal smears, ceased after 10 days for most animals in treatment groups receiving hCG, but continued in all other treatment groups. All the animals in each hCG-treated group developed either unilateral or bilateral cystic ovaries, while no animals in the groups not receiving hCG developed follicular cysts. More animals from each group treated with both hCG and insulin possessed bilateral ovarian cysts than did rats treated with hCG alone: 80% and 60%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Phenformin has anti-tumorigenic effects in human ovarian cancer cells and in an orthotopic mouse model of serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Amanda L.; Sun, Wenchuan; Kilgore, Joshua; Guo, Hui; Fang, Ziwei; Yin, Yajie; Jones, Hannah M.; Gilliam, Timothy P.; Zhou, Chunxiao; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes have been associated with increased risk and worse outcomes in ovarian cancer (OC). The biguanide metformin is used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and is also believed to have anti-tumorigenic benefits. Metformin is highly hydrophilic and requires organic cation transporters (OCTs) for entry into human cells. Phenformin, another biguanide, was taken off the market due to an increased risk of lactic acidosis over metformin. However, phenformin is not reliant on transporters for cell entry; and thus, may have increased potency as both an anti-diabetic and anti-tumorigenic agent than metformin. Thus, our goal was to evaluate the effect of phenformin on established OC cell lines, primary cultures of human OC cells and in an orthotopic mouse model of high grade serous OC. In three OC cell lines, phenformin significantly inhibited cellular proliferation, induced cell cycle G1 arrest and apoptosis, caused cellular stress, inhibited adhesion and invasion, and activation of AMPK and inhibition of the mTOR pathway. Phenformin also exerted anti-proliferative effects in seven primary cell cultures of human OC. Lastly, phenformin inhibited tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model of serous OC, coincident with decreased Ki-67 staining and phosphorylated-S6 expression and increased expression of caspase 3 and phosphorylated-AMPK. Our findings demonstrate that phenformin has anti-tumorigenic effects in OC as previously demonstrated by metformin but it is yet to be determined if it is superior to metformin for the potential treatment of this disease. PMID:29245964

  5. Ovarian Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pregnancy can occur. Ovaries also make the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. When a woman goes through menopause, her ovaries stop making those hormones and releasing eggs. Problems with the ovaries include Ovarian cancer Ovarian ...

  6. Enhanced p53 gene transfer to human ovarian cancer cells using the cationic nonviral vector, DDC.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong-Kook; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Sung-Hee; Park, Jeong-Sook; Haider, Khawaja Hasnain; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2003-08-01

    Previously we have formulated a new cationic liposome, DDC, composed of dioleoyltrimethylamino propane (DOTAP), 1,2-dioeoyl-3-phosphophatidylethanolamine (DOPE), and cholesterol (Chol), and it efficiently delivered plasmid DNA into ovarian cancer cells. Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are the most common molecular genetic abnormalities to be described in ovarian cancer. However, there has been so far no report of nonviral vector-mediated p53 gene deliveries in ovarian cancer. In this study, wild-type p53 DNA was transfected into the ovarian cancer cells, using the DDC as a nonviral vector and the expression and activity of p53 gene were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. DDC liposomes were prepared by mixing DOTAP:DOPE:Chol in a 1:0.7:0.3 molar ratio using the extrusion method. Plasmid DNA (pp53-EGFP) and DDC complexes were transfected into ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR-3 cells) and gene expression was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. The cellular growth inhibition and apoptosis of DDC-mediated p53 transfection were assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay and annexin-V staining, respectively. The OVCAR-3 cells treated with DDC/pp53-EGFP complexes were inoculated into female balb/c nude mice and tumor growth was observed. The transfection of liposome-complexed p53 gene resulted in a high level of wild-type p53 mRNA and protein expressions in OVCAR-3 cells. In vitro cell growth assay showed growth inhibition of cancer cells transfected with DDC/pp53-EGFP complexes compared with the control cells. The reestablishment of wild-type p53 function in ovarian cancer cells restored the apoptotic pathway. Following the inoculation of DDC/pp53-EGFP complexes, the volumes of tumors in nude mice were significantly reduced more than 60% compared to the control group. The DDC-mediated p53 DNA delivery may have the potential for clinical application as nonviral vector-mediated ovarian cancer therapy due to its

  7. The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is expressed in normal human ovaries and is upregulated in ovarian endometriosis and pelvic inflammatory disease involving the ovary.

    PubMed

    Heublein, Sabine; Lenhard, Miriam; Vrekoussis, Thomas; Schoepfer, Jutta; Kuhn, Christina; Friese, Klaus; Makrigiannakis, Antonis; Mayr, Doris; Jeschke, Udo

    2012-11-01

    Estrogens play a crucial role in maintaining ovarian function. Deregulation of estrogen signals is associated with fertility-impairing disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is present in the human ovary. Additionally, we  analyzed the folliculogenesis and ovarian endometriosis in GPER expression. Seventy-nine patients (ovarian endometriosis, n = 26; ovarian pelvic inflammatory disease [PID], n = 10; normal ovaries/endometrium, n = 30/13) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Normal ovaries were also assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and double immunofluorescence. The most intense expression of GPER was noted in the ovarian surface epithelium. Theca cells and oocytes were also significantly positive. Expression of GPER was more frequent in mature follicles/oocytes than in primordial ones, implying that GPER could be a selector during folliculogenesis. Moreover, GPER was upregulated in ovarian endometriosis and PID. Overexpression of GPER in both inflammation and endometriosis affecting the ovary may prove useful in explaining/predicting the main endometriosis-related symptoms.

  8. Expression of Folliculogenesis-Related Genes in Vitrified Human Ovarian Tissue after Two Weeks In Vitro Culture.

    PubMed

    Shams Mofarahe, Zahra; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Ghorbanmehr, Nassim; Fesharaki, Mohammad Gholami

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of vitrification and in vitro culture of human ovarian tissue on the expression of oocytic and follicular cell-related genes. In this experimental study, ovarian tissue samples were obtained from eight transsexual women. Samples were cut into small fragments and were then assigned to vitrified and non-vitrified groups. In each group, some tissue fragments were divided into un-cultured and cultured (in α-MEM medium for 2 weeks) subgroups. The normality of follicles was assessed by morphological observation under a light microscope using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Expression levels of factor in the germ line alpha ( FIGLA ), KIT ligand ( KL ), growth differentiation factor 9 ( GDF-9 ) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor ( FSHR ) genes were quantified in both groups by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the beginning and the end of culture. The percentage of normal follicles was similar between non-cultured vitrified and non-vitrified groups (P>0.05), however, cultured tissues had significantly fewer normal follicles than non-cultured tissues in both vitrified and non-vitrified groups (P<0.05). In both cultured groups the rate of primary and secondary follicles was significantly higher than non-cultured tissues (P<0.05). The expression of all examined genes was not significantly altered in both non-cultured groups. Whiles, in comparison with cultured tissues non-cultured tissues, the expression of FIGLA gene was significantly decreased, KL gene was not changed, GDF-9 and FSHR genes was significantly increased (P<0.05). Human ovarian vitrification following in vitro culture has no impairing effects on follicle normality and development and expression of related-genes. However, in vitro culture condition has deleterious effects on normality of follicles.

  9. Metabolites from invasive pests inhibit mitochondrial complex II: A potential strategy for the treatment of human ovarian carcinoma?

    SciTech Connect

    Ferramosca, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.ferramosca@unisalento.it; Conte, Annalea; Guerra, Flora

    The red pigment caulerpin, a secondary metabolite from the marine invasive green algae Caulerpa cylindracea can be accumulated and transferred along the trophic chain, with detrimental consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Despite increasing research efforts to understand how caulerpin modifies fish physiology, little is known on the effects of algal metabolites on mammalian cells. Here we report for the first time the mitochondrial targeting activity of both caulerpin, and its closely related derivative caulerpinic acid, by using as experimental model rat liver mitochondria, a system in which bioenergetics mechanisms are not altered. Mitochondrial function was tested by polarographic andmore » spectrophotometric methods. Both compounds were found to selectively inhibit respiratory complex II activity, while complexes I, III, and IV remained functional. These results led us to hypothesize that both algal metabolites could be used as antitumor agents in cell lines with defects in mitochondrial complex I. Ovarian cancer cisplatin-resistant cells are a good example of cell lines with a defective complex I function on which these molecules seem to have a toxic effect on proliferation. This provided novel insight toward the potential use of metabolites from invasive Caulerpa species for the treatment of human ovarian carcinoma cisplatin-resistant cells. -- Highlights: •Novel insight toward the potential use of the algal metabolites for the treatment of human diseases. •Caulerpin and caulerpinic acid inhibit respiratory complex II activity. •Both algal metabolites could be used as antitumor agents in ovarian cancer cisplatin-resistant cells.« less

  10. Moderate Ovarian Stimulation Does Not Increase the Incidence of Human Embryo Chromosomal Abnormalities in in Vitro Fertilization Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Ernesto; Alamá, Pilar; Rubio, Carmen; Rodrigo, Lorena; Pellicer, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Context: A high chromosomal abnormalities rate has been observed in human embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments. The real incidence in natural cycles has been poorly studied, so whether this frequency may be induced by external factors, such as use of gonadotropins for ovarian stimulation, remains unknown. Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study in a University-affiliated private infertility clinic with a comparison between unstimulated and stimulated ovarian cycles in the same women. Preimplantation genetic screening by fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed in all viable d 3 embryos. Objective: The primary objective was to compare the incidence of embryo chromosomal abnormalities in an unstimulated cycle and in an ulterior moderate ovarian stimulated cycle. Secondary outcome measures were embryo quality, blastocyst rate of biopsied embryos, number of normal blastocysts per donor, type of chromosomal abnormalities, and clinical outcome. Results: One hundred eighty-five oocyte donors were initially recruited for the unstimulated cycle, and preimplantation genetic screening could be performed in 51 of them, showing 35.3% of embryo chromosomal abnormalities. Forty-six of them later completed a stimulated cycle. The sperm donor sample was the same for both cycles. The proportion of embryos displaying abnormalities in the unstimulated cycle was 34.8% (16 of 46), whereas it was 40.6% (123 of 303) in the stimulated cycle with risk difference = 5.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) = −20.6–9.0], and relative risk = 1.17 (95% CI = 0.77–1.77) (P = 0.45). When an intrasubject comparison was made, the abnormalities rate was 34.8% (95% CI = 20.5–49.1) in the unstimulated cycle and 38.2% (95% CI = 30.5–45.8) in the stimulated cycle [risk difference = 3.4 (95% CI = −17.9–11.2); P = 0.64]. No differences were observed for embryo quality and type of chromosomal abnormalities. Conclusions: Moderate ovarian stimulation in young

  11. Activin-A as an intraovarian modulator: actions, localization, and regulation of the intact dimer in human ovarian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovici, J; Spencer, S J; Doldi, N; Goldsmith, P C; Schwall, R; Jaffe, R B

    1992-01-01

    The actions, localization, and regulation of activin in the human ovary are unknown. Therefore, the aims of this study were (a) to define the effects of recombinant activin-A and its structural homologue, inhibin-A, on mitogenesis and steroidogenesis (progesterone secretion and aromatase activity) in human preovulatory follicular cells; (b) to localize the activin-A dimer in the human ovary by immunohistochemistry; and (c) to examine regulation of intracellular activin-A production in cultured human follicular cells. In addition to stimulating mitogenic activity, activin-A causes a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of basal and gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone secretion and aromatase activity in human luteinizing follicular cells on day 2 and day 4 of culture. Inhibin-A exerts no effects on mitogenesis, basal or gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone secretion and aromatase activity, and does not alter effects observed with activin-A alone. Immunostaining for dimeric activin-A occurs in granulosa and cumulus cells of human ovarian follicles and in granulosa-lutein cells of the human corpus luteum. cAMP, and to a lesser degree human chorionic gonadotropin and follicle-stimulating hormone, but not inhibin-A, activin-A, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, increased the immunostaining for activin-A in cultured granulosa cells. These results indicate that activin-A may function as an autocrine or paracrine regulator of follicular function in the human ovary. Images PMID:1569191

  12. Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells by suppressing VEGF expression and up-regulating the expression of connexin 43.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shuyan; Liu, Jingjing; Sun, Xiaofei; Wang, Ning

    2014-11-05

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum, Reishimax) is an herbal mushroom known to have inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for its anti-proliferative effects on the ovarian cancer have not been fully elucidated. Human ovarian cancer cells HO 8910 (HOCC) and human primary ovarian cells (HPOC) were treated with G. lucidum. Effects of G. lucidum treatment on cell proliferation were studied by MTT assay. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connexin 43 (Cx43) were measured by immunohistochemistry and real time polymerase chain reaction. To study the molecular mechanism of CX43 mediated anti-tumor activity, small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown Cx43 expression in HOCC. G. lucidum treatment resulted in reduced proliferation of HOCC. Inhibition of proliferation was accompanied by a decrease in VEGF expression and increase in Cx43 expression in the cancer cells. The extent of immune-reactivity of Cx43 or VEGF in cancer cells were correlated with the concentrations of G. lucidum used for treatment. Furthermore, knockdown of Cx43 expression in HOCC abrogated the effect of G. lucidum on cell proliferation without alteration of G. lucidum-induced attenuation of VEGF expression. G. lucidum inhibits ovarian cancer by down-regulating the expression of VEGF and up-regulating the downstream Cx43 expression. G. lucidum may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  13. Integrated Proteogenomic Characterization of Human High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Zhen; Payne, Samuel H; Zhang, Bai; McDermott, Jason E; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Chen, Li; Ray, Debjit; Sun, Shisheng; Yang, Feng; Chen, Lijun; Wang, Jing; Shah, Punit; Cha, Seong Won; Aiyetan, Paul; Woo, Sunghee; Tian, Yuan; Gritsenko, Marina A; Clauss, Therese R; Choi, Caitlin; Monroe, Matthew E; Thomas, Stefani; Nie, Song; Wu, Chaochao; Moore, Ronald J; Yu, Kun-Hsing; Tabb, David L; Fenyö, David; Bafna, Vineet; Wang, Yue; Rodriguez, Henry; Boja, Emily S; Hiltke, Tara; Rivers, Robert C; Sokoll, Lori; Zhu, Heng; Shih, Ie-Ming; Cope, Leslie; Pandey, Akhilesh; Zhang, Bing; Snyder, Michael P; Levine, Douglas A; Smith, Richard D; Chan, Daniel W; Rodland, Karin D

    2016-07-28

    To provide a detailed analysis of the molecular components and underlying mechanisms associated with ovarian cancer, we performed a comprehensive mass-spectrometry-based proteomic characterization of 174 ovarian tumors previously analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), of which 169 were high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs). Integrating our proteomic measurements with the genomic data yielded a number of insights into disease, such as how different copy-number alternations influence the proteome, the proteins associated with chromosomal instability, the sets of signaling pathways that diverse genome rearrangements converge on, and the ones most associated with short overall survival. Specific protein acetylations associated with homologous recombination deficiency suggest a potential means for stratifying patients for therapy. In addition to providing a valuable resource, these findings provide a view of how the somatic genome drives the cancer proteome and associations between protein and post-translational modification levels and clinical outcomes in HGSC. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel uPAg-KPI fusion protein inhibits the growth and invasion of human ovarian cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Ping; Xu, Tian-Min; Kan, Mu-Jie; Xiao, Ye-Chen; Cui, Man-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) acts by breaking down the basement membrane and is involved in cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These actions are mediated by binding to the uPA receptor (uPAR) via its growth factor domain (GFD). The present study evaluated the effects of uPAg-KPI, a fusion protein of uPA-GFD and a kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain that is present in the amyloid β-protein precursor. Using SKOV-3 cells, an ovarian cancer cell line, we examined cell viability, migration, invasion and also protein expression. Furthermore, we examined wound healing, and migration and invasion using a Transwell assay. Our data showed that uPAg-KPI treatment reduced the viability of ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in both a concentration and time-dependent manner by arresting tumor cells at G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. The IC50 of uPAg-KPI was 0.5 µg/µl after 48 h treatment. At this concentration, uPAg-KPI also inhibited tumor cell colony formation, wound closure, as well as cell migration and invasion capacity. At the protein level, western blot analysis demonstrated that uPAg-KPI exerted no significant effect on the expression of total extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/ERK2 and AKT, whereas it suppressed levels of phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 and AKT. Thus, we suggest that this novel uPAg-KPI fusion protein reduced cell viability, colony formation, wound healing and the invasive ability of human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in vitro by regulating ERK and AKT signaling. Further studies using other cell lines will confirm these findings.

  15. A novel uPAg-KPI fusion protein inhibits the growth and invasion of human ovarian cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LI-PING; XU, TIAN-MIN; KAN, MU-JIE; XIAO, YE-CHEN; CUI, MAN-HUA

    2016-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) acts by breaking down the basement membrane and is involved in cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These actions are mediated by binding to the uPA receptor (uPAR) via its growth factor domain (GFD). The present study evaluated the effects of uPAg-KPI, a fusion protein of uPA-GFD and a kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain that is present in the amyloid β-protein precursor. Using SKOV-3 cells, an ovarian cancer cell line, we examined cell viability, migration, invasion and also protein expression. Furthermore, we examined wound healing, and migration and invasion using a Transwell assay. Our data showed that uPAg-KPI treatment reduced the viability of ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in both a concentration and time-dependent manner by arresting tumor cells at G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. The IC50 of uPAg-KPI was 0.5 µg/µl after 48 h treatment. At this concentration, uPAg-KPI also inhibited tumor cell colony formation, wound closure, as well as cell migration and invasion capacity. At the protein level, western blot analysis demonstrated that uPAg-KPI exerted no significant effect on the expression of total extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/ERK2 and AKT, whereas it suppressed levels of phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 and AKT. Thus, we suggest that this novel uPAg-KPI fusion protein reduced cell viability, colony formation, wound healing and the invasive ability of human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in vitro by regulating ERK and AKT signaling. Further studies using other cell lines will confirm these findings. PMID:27035617

  16. Short Term Culture of Vitrified Human Ovarian Cortical Tissue to Assess the Cryopreservation Outcome: Molecular and Morphological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mehdi; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Jafarabadi, Mina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of human ovarian vitrification protocol followed with in vitro culture at the morphological and molecular levels. Ovarian tissues were obtained from 10 normal transsexual women and cut into small pieces and were divided into non-vitrified and vitrified groups and some of the tissues fragments in both groups were randomly cultured for two weeks. The morphological study using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining was done. The analysis of mean follicular density, 17-β estradiol (E2) and anti mullerian hormone (AMH), and real-time RT-PCR was down for the evaluation of expression of genes related to folliculogenesis. Data were compared by paired-samples and independent-samples T test. Values of p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The proportion of normal follicles did not show significant difference between vitrified and non-vitrified groups before and after culture but these rates and the mean follicle density significantly decreased in both cultured tissues (p<0.05). The expression of genes was similar in vitrified and non-vitrified groups but in cultured tissues the expression of GDF9 and FSHR genes increased and the expression of FIGLA and KIT-L genes decreased (p<0.05). An increase in E2 and AMH concentration was observed after 14 days of culture in both groups. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the follicular development and gene expression in vitrified ovarian tissue was not altered before and after in vitro culture, thus this method could be useful for fertility preservation; however, additional studies are needed to improve the culture condition.

  17. Cranberry Proanthocyanidins are Cytotoxic to Human Cancer Cells and Sensitize Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells to Paraplatin

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay P.; Singh, Rakesh K.; Kim, Kyu Kwang; Satyan, K. S.; Nussbaum, Roger; Torres, Monica; Brard, Laurent; Vorsa, Nicholi

    2010-01-01

    Polyphenolic extracts of the principal flavonoid classes present in cranberry were screened in vitro for cytotoxicity against solid tumor cells lines, identifying two fractions composed principally of proanthocyanidins (PACs) with potential anticancer activity. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of the proanthocyanidins (PACs) fractions indicated the presence of A-type PACs with 1–4 linkages containing between 2–8 epicatechin units with a maximum of 1 epigallocatechin unit. PACs exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against platinum-resistant human ovarian, neuroblastoma and prostate cancer cell lines (IC50 = 79–479 μg/mL) but were non-cytotoxic to lung fibroblast cells (IC50 > 1000 μg/ml). SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells treated with PACs exhibited classic apoptotic changes. PACs acted synergistically with paraplatin in SKOV-3 cells. Pretreatment of SKOV-3 cells with PACs (106 μg/ ml) resulted in a significant reduction of the paraplatin IC50 value. Similarly, in a BrdU incorporation assay, co-treatment of SKOV-3 cells with PACs and paraplatin revealed reduced cell proliferation at lower concentrations than with either individually. In SKOV-3 cell cultures co-treated with PAC-1 and paraplatin, an HPLC analysis indicated differential quantitative presence of various PAC oligomers such as DP-8, -9, -11 and -14 indicating either selective binding or uptake. Cranberry proanthocyanidins exhibit cell-line specific cytotoxicity, induce apoptotic markers and augment cytotoxicity of paraplatin in platinum-resistant SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. PMID:19172579

  18. Reversal to cisplatin sensitivity in recurrent human ovarian cancer cells by NCX-4016, a nitro derivative of aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Bratasz, Anna; Weir, Nathan M.; Parinandi, Narasimham L.; Zweier, Jay L.; Sridhar, Rajagopalan; Ignarro, Louis J.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2006-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a gynecological malignancy that is commonly treated by cytoreductive surgery followed by cisplatin treatment. However, the cisplatin treatment, although successful initially, is not effective in the treatment of the recurrent disease that invariably surfaces within a few months of the initial treatment. The refractory behavior is attributed to the increased levels of cellular thiols apparently caused by the cisplatin treatment. This observation prompted us to choose a cytotoxic drug whose activity is potentiated by cellular thiols with enhanced specificity toward the thiol-rich cisplatin-resistant cells. We used NCX-4016 [2-(acetyloxy)benzoic acid 3-(nitrooxymethyl)phenyl ester], a derivative of aspirin containing a nitro group that releases nitric oxide in a sustained fashion for several hours in cells and in vivo, and we studied its cytotoxic efficacy against human ovarian cancer cells (HOCCs). Cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant (CR) HOCCs were treated with 100 μM NCX-4016 for 6 h, and/or 0.5 μg/ml cisplatin for 1 h and assayed for clonogenecity. NCX-4016 significantly reduced the surviving fractions of cisplatin-sensitive (63 ± 6%) and CR (70 ± 10%) HOCCs. NCX-4016 also caused a 50% reduction in the levels of cellular glutathione in CR HOCCs. Treatment of cells with NCX-4016 followed by cisplatin showed a significantly greater extent of toxicity when compared with treatment of cells with NCX-4016 or cisplatin alone. In conclusion, this study showed that NCX-4016 is a potential inhibitor of the proliferation of CR HOCCs and thus might specifically kill cisplatin-refractory cancer cells in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. PMID:16497833

  19. Three new potential ovarian cancer biomarkers detected in human urine with equalizer bead technology.

    PubMed

    Petri, Anette Lykke; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Yip, Tai-Tung; Hogdall, Estrid; Fung, Eric T; Lundvall, Lene; Hogdall, Claus

    2009-01-01

    To examine whether urine can be used to measure specific ovarian cancer proteomic profiles and whether one peak alone or in combination with other peaks or CA125 has the sensitivity and specificity to discriminate between ovarian cancer pelvic mass and benign pelvic mass. A total of 209 women were admitted for surgery for pelvic mass at the Gynaecological Department at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen. Of the women, 156 had benign gynaecological tumors, 13 had borderline tumors and 40 had malignant epithelial ovarian cancer. The prospectively and preoperatively collected urine samples were aliquotted and frozen at -80 degrees until the time of analysis. The urine was fractionated using equalizer bead technology and then analyzed with surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Biomarkers were purified and identified using combinations of chromatographic techniques and tandem mass spectrometry. Benign and malignant ovarian cancer cases were compared; 21 significantly different peaks (p<0.001) were visualized using Mann-Whitney analysis, ranging in m/z values from 1,500 to 185,000. The three most significant peaks were purified and identified as fibrinogen alpha fragment (m/z=2570.21), collagen alpha 1 (III) fragment (m/z=2707.32) and fibrinogen beta NT fragment (m/z=4425.09). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC AUC) value for these three peaks in combination was 0.88, and their ROC AUC value in combination with CA125 was 0.96. This result supports the feasibility of using urine as a clinical diagnostic medium, and the ROC AUC value for the three most significant peaks in combination with or without CA125 demonstrates the enhanced prediction performance of combined marker analysis.

  20. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and Fallopian tube tissue for early stage cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini; Watson, Jennifer; Orsinger, Gabe; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Keenan, Molly; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth; Chambers, Setsuko; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    With early detection, five year survival rates for ovarian cancer are over 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests that perhaps over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease, high grade serous ovarian cancer, originates in the Fallopian tube. Cancer changes molecular concentrations of various endogenous fluorophores. Using specific excitation wavelengths and emissions bands on a Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) system, spatial and spectral data over a wide field of view can be collected from endogenous fluorophores. Wavelength specific reflectance images provide additional information to normalize for tissue geometry and blood absorption. Ratiometric combination of the images may create high contrast between neighboring normal and abnormal tissue. Twenty-six women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery consented the use of surgical discard tissue samples for MFI imaging. Forty-nine pieces of ovarian tissue and thirty-two pieces of Fallopian tube tissue were collected and imaged with excitation wavelengths between 280 nm and 550 nm. After imaging, each tissue sample was fixed, sectioned and HE stained for pathological evaluation. Comparison of mean intensity values between normal, benign, and cancerous tissue demonstrate a general trend of increased fluorescence of benign tissue and decreased fluorescence of cancerous tissue when compared to normal tissue. The predictive capabilities of the mean intensity measurements are tested using multinomial logistic regression and quadratic discriminant analysis. Adaption of the system for in vivo Fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible and is briefly described.

  1. Proteomic analysis of human follicular fluid in poor ovarian responders during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae Won; Kim, Seul Ki; Cho, Kyung-Cho; Kim, Min-Sik; Suh, Chang Suk; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    2017-03-01

    Poor ovarian response (POR) in controlled ovarian stimulation is often observed during in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer cycles and it is a major problem. A POR has been found to be related to several factors, including advanced age, high body mass index, and history of ovarian or pelvic surgery. However, it is difficult to predict POR, as there are no specific biomarkers known. In this study, we used quantitative proteomic analyses to investigate potential biomarkers that can predict poor response during in vitro fertilization based on follicular fluid samples. A total of 1079 proteins were identified using a high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometer coupled online to a nanoflow-LC system. It is notable that 65 upregulated and 66 downregulated proteins were found to be functionally enriched in poor responders. We also validated these differentially expressed proteins using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer for quantification of targeted proteins. Of the differentially expressed proteins, three proteins (pregnancy zone protein, renin, and sushi repeat-containing protein SRPX) were regarded as statistically significant (p < 0.05). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. 3D texture analysis for classification of second harmonic generation images of human ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Bruce; Campbell, Kirby R.; Tilbury, Karissa; Nadiarnykh, Oleg; Brewer, Molly A.; Patankar, Manish; Singh, Vikas; Eliceiri, Kevin. W.; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2016-10-01

    Remodeling of the collagen architecture in the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in ovarian cancer. To quantify these alterations we implemented a form of 3D texture analysis to delineate the fibrillar morphology observed in 3D Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy image data of normal (1) and high risk (2) ovarian stroma, benign ovarian tumors (3), low grade (4) and high grade (5) serous tumors, and endometrioid tumors (6). We developed a tailored set of 3D filters which extract textural features in the 3D image sets to build (or learn) statistical models of each tissue class. By applying k-nearest neighbor classification using these learned models, we achieved 83-91% accuracies for the six classes. The 3D method outperformed the analogous 2D classification on the same tissues, where we suggest this is due the increased information content. This classification based on ECM structural changes will complement conventional classification based on genetic profiles and can serve as an additional biomarker. Moreover, the texture analysis algorithm is quite general, as it does not rely on single morphological metrics such as fiber alignment, length, and width but their combined convolution with a customizable basis set.

  3. Genetics and biology of human ovarian teratomas. I. Cytogenetic analysis and mechanism of origin.

    PubMed Central

    Surti, U; Hoffner, L; Chakravarti, A; Ferrell, R E

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and two benign, mature ovarian teratomas and two immature, malignant teratomas were karyotyped and scored for centromeric heteromorphisms as part of an ongoing project to determine the chromosomal karyotype and the genetic origin of ovarian teratomas and to assess their utility for gene-centromere mapping. Karyotypic analysis of the benign cases revealed 95 46,XX teratomas and 7 chromosomally abnormal teratomas (47,XXX, 47,XX,+8 [two cases], 47,XX,+15, 48,XX,+7,+12 91,XXXX,-13 [mosaic], 47,XX,-15,+21,+mar). Our study reports on the first cases of tetraploidy and structural rearrangement in benign ovarian teratomas. The two immature cases had modal chromosome numbers of 78 and 49. Centromeric heteromorphisms that were heterozygous in the host were homozygous in 65.2% (n = 58) of the benign teratomas and heterozygous in the remaining 34.8% (n = 31). Chromosome 13 heteromorphisms were the most informative, with 72.7% heterozygosity in hosts. The cytogenetic data indicate that 65% of teratomas are derived from a single germ cell after meiosis I and failure of meiosis II (type II) or endoreduplication of a mature ovum (type III); 35% arise by failure of meiosis I (type I) or mitotic division of premeiotic germ cells (type IV). Images Figure 1 PMID:2220805

  4. Environmental pollutants, a possible etiology for premature ovarian insufficiency: a narrative review of animal and human data.

    PubMed

    Vabre, Pauline; Gatimel, Nicolas; Moreau, Jessika; Gayrard, Véronique; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Parinaud, Jean; Leandri, Roger D

    2017-04-07

    Because only 25% of cases of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) have a known etiology, the aim of this review was to summarize the associations and mechanisms of the impact of the environment on this pathology. Eligible studies were selected from an electronic literature search from the PUBMED database from January 2000 to February 2016 and associated references in published studies. Search terms included ovary, follicle, oocyte, endocrine disruptor, environmental exposure, occupational exposure, environmental contaminant, pesticide, polyaromatic hydrocarbon, polychlorinated biphenyl PCB, phenol, bisphenol, flame retardant, phthalate, dioxin, phytoestrogen, tobacco, smoke, cigarette, cosmetic, xenobiotic. The literature search was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We have included the human and animal studies corresponding to the terms and published in English. We have excluded articles that included results that did not concern ovarian pathology and those focused on ovarian cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis or precocious puberty. We have also excluded genetic, auto-immune or iatrogenic causes from our analysis. Finally, we have excluded animal data that does not concern mammals and studies based on results from in vitro culture. Data have been grouped according to the studied pollutants in order to synthetize their impact on follicular development and follicular atresia and the molecular pathways involved. Ninety-seven studies appeared to be eligible and were included in the present study, even though few directly address POI. Phthalates, bisphenol A, pesticides and tobacco were the most reported substances having a negative impact on ovarian function with an increased follicular depletion leading to an earlier age of menopause onset. These effects were found when exposure occured at different times throughout the lifetime from the prenatal to the adult period

  5. Gene therapy for human ovarian cancer cells using efficient expression of Fas gene combined with γδT cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiajing; Zeng, Dingyuan; He, Hongying; Tan, Guangping; Lan, Ying; Jiang, Fuyan; Sheng, Shuting

    2017-10-01

    Low tissue specificity and efficiency of exogenous gene expression are the two major obstacles in tumor‑targeted gene therapy. The Fas cell surface death receptor (Fas)/Fas ligand pathway is one of the primary pathways responsible for the regulation of cell apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to explore whether the regulation of tumor specific promoters and a two‑step transcriptional amplification system (TSTA) assured efficient, targeted expression of their downstream Fas gene in human ovarian cancer cells, and to assess the killing effect of γδT cells on these cells with high Fas expression. Three shuttle plasmids containing different control elements of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter and/or TSTA were constructed and packaged into adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vectors for the expression of exogenous Fas gene. The human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and a control human embryonic lung fibroblast cell line were transfected with Ad5‑hTERT‑Fas or Ad5‑hTERT‑TSTA‑Fas. Fas mRNA and protein expression were examined by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. γδT lymphocytes were isolated, cultured and mixed at different ratios with SKOV3 cells with Fas expression in order to assess the killing effect of γδT cells. hTERT promoter induced the specific expression of FAS gene in SKOV3 cells, and the TSTA strategy increased FAS expression by 14.2‑fold. The killing effect of γδT cells increased with the expression level of Fas and the effector‑target cell ratio. The killing rate for SKOV3 cells with high FAS expression was 72.5% at an effector‑target cell ratio of 40:1. The regulators of hTERT promoter and TSTA assure the efficient and targeted expression of their downstream Fas gene in SKOV3 cells. The killing effect of γδT cells for ovarian cancer cells with relatively high Fas expression was improved.

  6. [The efficacy of autocatalytic casapse-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter on human ovarian carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Song, Yue; Shen, Keng; Yu, Jing-rong

    2007-11-06

    To construct recombinant adenoviral vector expressing autocatalysis caspase-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (hTERTp), and investigate its antitumor effect on ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant adenovirus expressing autocatalytic caspase-3 (rev-csapase-3) driven by hTERTp, AdHT-rev-casp3, was constructed. Ad-rev-casp3 expressing rev-caspase-3 driven by cytomegalovirus promoter (CMVp) was used as a positive control. hTERT positive human ovarian cancer cells of the line AO and hTERT-negative human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and transfected with AdHT-rev-casp3, Ad-rev-casp3, or Ad-EGFG expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein as control group. Western blotting, Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8), flow cytometry, and TUNEL were used to detect the expression of p17, active subunit of caspase-3, and p85, a poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage fragment, and they were also used to measure the cell survival rate and apoptotic rate. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of active caspase-3 and its substrate PARP in the AO cells and HUVECs. Twenty nude BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously with AO cells to establish subcutaneous tumor models, when the tumor grew to the volume of 150 mm3 the rats were divided into 4 equal groups to undergo intra-tumor injection of AdHT-rev-casp3, Ad-rev-casp3, Ad-EGFG, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) respectively, the survival rate tumor inhibition rate was observed, 72 days later the mice were killed with their livers and tumors taken out, and Western blotting was used to detect the expression of active caspase-3. Another 40 mice underwent intraperitoneal injection of AO cells to establish intraperitoneal transplanted tumor models, 21 days later the rats were divided into 4 equal groups to be injected intraperitoneally with AdHT-rev-casp3, Ad-rev-casp3, Ad-EGFG, or PBS, the survival rate was observed, and the blood levels of alanine transaminase

  7. Potent Antitumor Effects of Combination Therapy With IFNs and Monocytes in Mouse Models of Established Human Ovarian and Melanoma Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Hideyuki; Miyake, Kotaro; Clark, Christopher R; Bekisz, Joseph; Finbloom, Joel; Husain, Syed R.; Baron, Samuel; Puri, Raj K.; Zoon, Kathryn C.

    2012-01-01

    Interferon-activated monocytes are known to exert cytocidal activity against tumor cells in vitro. Here, we have examined whether a combination of IFN-α2a and IFN-γ and human monocytes mediate significant antitumor effects against human ovarian and melanoma tumor xenografts in mouse models. OVCAR-3 tumors were treated i.t. with monocytes alone, IFN-α2a and IFN-γ alone or combination of all three on day 0, 15 or 30 post-tumor implantation. Mice receiving combination therapy beginning day 15 showed significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival including complete regression in 40% mice., Tumor volumes measured on day 80 in mice receiving combination therapy (206 mm3) were significantly smaller than those of mice receiving the IFNs alone (1041 mm3), monocytes alone (1111 mm3) or untreated controls (1728 mm3). Similarly, combination therapy with monocytes and IFNs of much larger tumor also inhibited OVCAR-3 tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry studies showed a large number of activated macrophages (CD31+/CD68+) infiltrating into OVCAR-3 tumors and higher densities of IL-12, IP10 and NOS2, markers of M1 (classical) macrophages in tumors treated with combination therapy compared to the controls. Interestingly, IFNs activated macrophages induced apoptosis of OVCAR-3 tumor cells as monocytes alone or IFNs alone did not mediate significant apoptosis. Similar antitumor activity was observed in the LOX melanoma mouse model, but not as profound as seen with the OVCAR-3 tumors. Administration of either mixture of monocytes and IFN-α2a or monocytes and IFN-γ did not inhibit Lox melanoma growth; however a significant inhibition was observed when tumors were treated with a mixture of monocytes, IFN-α2a and IFN-γ. These results indicate that monocytes and both IFN-α2a and IFN-γ may be required to mediate profound antitumor effect against human ovarian and melanoma tumors in mouse models. PMID:22159517

  8. Minireview: Human Ovarian Cancer: Biology, Current Management, and Paths to Personalizing Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    More than 90% of ovarian cancers have been thought to arise from epithelial cells that cover the ovarian surface or, more frequently, line subserosal cysts. Recent studies suggest that histologically similar cancers can arise from the fimbriae of Fallopian tubes and from deposits of endometriosis. Different histotypes are observed that resemble epithelial cells from the normal Fallopian tube (serous), endometrium (endometrioid), cervical glands (mucinous), and vaginal rests (clear cell) and that share expression of relevant HOX genes which drive normal gynecological differentiation. Two groups of epithelial ovarian cancers have been distinguished: type I low-grade cancers that present in early stage, grow slowly, and resist conventional chemotherapy but may respond to hormonal manipulation; and type II high-grade cancers that are generally diagnosed in advanced stage and grow aggressively but respond to chemotherapy. Type I cancers have wild-type p53 and BRCA1/2, but have frequent mutations of Ras and Raf as well as expression of IGFR and activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. Virtually all type II cancers have mutations of p53, and almost half have mutation or dysfunction of BRCA1/2, but other mutations are rare, and oncogenesis appears to be driven by amplification of several growth-regulatory genes that activate the Ras/MAPK and PI3K pathways. Cytoreductive surgery and combination chemotherapy with platinum compounds and taxanes have improved 5-yr survival, but less than 40% of all stages can be cured. Novel therapies are being developed that target high-grade serous cancer cells with PI3Kness or BRCAness as well as the tumor vasculature. Both in silico and animal models are needed that more closely resemble type I and type II cancers to facilitate the identification of novel targets and to predict response to combinations of new agents. PMID:22416079

  9. Erratum to: Psammoma bodies in two types of human ovarian tumours: a mineralogical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanlu; Wang, Changqiu; Li, Yan; Lu, Anhuai; Mei, Fang; Liu, Jianying; Du, Jingyun; Zhang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    Psammoma body (PB) is a common form of calcification in pathological diagnosis and closely relevant to tumours. This paper focuses on the mineralogical characteristics of PBs in ovarian serous cancer and teratoma by using polarization microscope (POM), environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), micro-area synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (μ-SRXRD) and fluorescence (μ-SRXRF). Both the PBs in tissues and separated from eight typical cases were investigated. POM and ESEM observation revealed the inside-out growth pattern of PBs. μ-SRXRD and micro-FT-IR results demonstrated the dominant mineral phase of PBs in ovarian serous cancer and teratoma was AB-type carbonate hydroxyapatite (Ca10[(PO4)6-x-y(CO3)x(HPO4)y][(OH)2-u(CO3)u] with 0 ≤ x,y,u ≤ 2). As observed by ESEM and TEM, the layer-rich PBs in teratoma were up to 70 μm and mainly consisted of 5 nm-wide, 5-12 nm-long columnar crystals; the PBs in ovarian serous cancer with a maximum diameter of 35 μm were composed of slightly longer columnar crystals and granulates with 20-100 nm in diameter. The selected area electron diffraction patterns showed dispersed polycrystalline diffraction rings with arching behavior of (002) diffraction, indicating the aggregated nanocrystals grew in the preferred orientation of (002) face. The EDX and μ-SRXRF results together indicated the existence of Na, Mg, Zn and Sr in PBs. These detailed mineralogical characteristics may help uncover the nature of the pathological PBs in ovary.

  10. Psammoma bodies in two types of human ovarian tumours: a mineralogical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanlu, Meng; Changqiu, Wang; Yan, Li; Anhuai, Lu; Fang, Mei; Jianying, Liu; Jingyun, Du; Yan, Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Psammoma body (PB) is a common form of calcification in pathological diagnosis and closely relevant to tumours. This paper focuses on the mineralogical characteristics of PBs in ovarian serous cancer and teratoma by using polarization microscope (POM), environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), micro-area synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (μ-SRXRD) and fluorescence (μ-SRXRF). Both the PBs in tissues and separated from eight typical cases were investigated. POM and ESEM observation revealed the inside-out growth pattern of PBs. μ-SRXRD and micro-FT-IR results demonstrated the dominant mineral phase of PBs in ovarian serous cancer and teratoma was AB-type carbonate hydroxyapatite (Ca10[(PO4)6-x-y(CO3)x(HPO4 2-)y][(OH)2-u(CO3)u] with 0 ≤ x,y,u ≤ 2). As observed by ESEM and TEM, the layer-rich PBs in teratoma were up to 70 μm and mainly consisted of 5 nm-wide, 5-12 nm-long columnar crystals; the PBs in ovarian serous cancer with a maximum diameter of 35 μm were composed of slightly longer columnar crystals and granulates with 20-100 nm in diameter. The selected area electron diffraction patterns showed dispersed polycrystalline diffraction rings with arching behavior of (002) diffraction, indicating the aggregated nanocrystals grew in the preferred orientation of (002) face. The EDX and μ-SRXRF results together indicated the existence of Na, Mg, Zn and Sr in PBs. These detailed mineralogical characteristics may help uncover the nature of the pathological PBs in ovary.

  11. Integrated Proteogenomic Characterization of Human High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Zhen

    Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the developed world, despite recent advances in genomic information and treatment. To better understand this disease, define an integrated proteogenomic landscape, and identify factors associated with homologous repair deficiency (HRD) and overall survival, we performed a comprehensive proteomic characterization of ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) previously characterized by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We observed that messenger RNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict abundance for 10,030 proteins across 174 tumors. Clustering of tumors based on protein abundance identified five subtypes, two of which correlated robustly with mesenchymal and proliferative subtypes,more » while tumors characterized as immunoreactive or differentiated at the transcript level were intermixed at the protein level. At the genome level, HGSC is characterized by a complex landscape of somatic copy number alterations (CNA), which individually do not correlate significantly with survival. Correlation of CNAs with protein abundances identified loci with significant trans regulatory effects mapping to pathways associated with proliferation, cell motility/invasion, and immune regulation, three known hallmarks of cancer. Using the trans regulated proteins we also created models significantly correlated with patient survival by multivariate analysis. Integrating protein abundance with specific post-translational modification data identified subnetworks correlated with HRD status; specifically, acetylation of Lys12 and Lys16 on histone H4 was associated with HRD status. Using quantitative phosphoproteomics data covering 4,420 proteins as reflective of pathway activity, we identified the PDGFR and VEGFR signaling pathways as significantly up-regulated in patients with short overall survival, independent of PDGFR and VEGFR protein levels, potentially informing the use of anti-angiogenic therapies

  12. Novel methods of treating ovarian infertility in older and POF women, testicular infertility, and other human functional diseases.

    PubMed

    Bukovsky, Antonin

    2015-02-25

    In vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies are facing with growing demands of older women to conceive. Although ovarian stem cells (OSCs) of older women are capable of producing in vitro fresh oocyte-like cells (OLCs), such cells cannot respond to IVM and IVF due to the lack of granulosa cells required for their maturation. Follicular renewal is also dependent on support of circulating blood mononuclear cells. They induce intermediary stages of meiosis (metaphase I chromosomal duplication and crossover, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis) in newly emerging ovarian germ cells, as for the first time demonstrated here, induce formation of granulosa cells, and stimulate follicular growth and development. A pretreatment of OSC culture with mononuclear cells collected from blood of a young healthy fertile woman may cause differentiation of bipotential OSCs into both developing germ and granulosa cells. A small blood volume replacement may enable treatment of ovarian infertility in vivo. The transferred mononuclear cells may temporarily rejuvenate virtually all tissues, including improvement of the function of endocrine tissues. Formation of new follicles and their development may be sufficient for IVM and IVF. The novel proposed in vitro approaches may be used as a second possibility. Infertility of human males affects almost a half of the infertility cases worldwide. Small blood volume replacement from young healthy fertile men may also be easy approach for the improvement of sperm quality in older or other affected men. In addition, body rejuvenation by small blood volume replacement from young healthy individuals of the same sex could represent a decline of in vitro methodology in favor of in vivo treatment for human functional diseases. Here we propose for the first time that blood mononuclear cells are essential for rejuvenation of those tissues, where immune system components participate in an appropriate division and differentiation

  13. The influence of nanotexturing of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) films upon human ovarian cancer cell attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaşayan, Gökçen; Xue, Xuan; Collier, Pamela; Clarke, Philip; Alexander, Morgan R.; Marlow, Maria

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we have produced nanotextured poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films by using polystyrene (PS) particles as a template to make a polydimethylsiloxane mould against which PLGA is solvent cast. Biocompatible, biodegradable and nanotextured PLGA films were prepared with PS particles of diameter of 57, 99, 210, and 280 nm that produced domes of the same dimension in the PLGA surface. The effect of the particulate monolayer templating method was investigated to enable preparation of the films with uniformly ordered surface nanodomes. Cell attachment of a human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR3) alone and co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated on flat and topographically nano-patterned surfaces. Cell numbers were observed to increase on the nanotextured surfaces compared to non-textured surfaces both with OVCAR3 cultures and OVCAR3-MSC co-cultures at 24 and 48 h time points.

  14. Stably Fluorescent Cell Line of Human Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Cells SK-OV-3ip-red.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, E V; Shulga, A A; Chumakov, S P; Khodarovich, Yu M; Woo, Eui-Jeon; Deev, S M

    2017-11-01

    Stable red fluorescing line of human ovarian epithelial cancer cells SK-OV-3ip-red was generated expressing gene coding for protein TurboFP635 (Katushka) fluorescing in the far-red spectrum region with excitation and emission peaks at 588 and 635 nm, respectively. Fluorescence of SK-OV-3ip-red line remained high during long-term cell culturing and after cryogenic freezing. The obtained cell line SK-OV-3ip-red can serve a basis for a model of a scattered tumor with numerous/extended metastases and used both for testing anticancer drugs inhibiting metastasis growth and for non-invasive monitoring of the growth dynamics with high precision.

  15. Oxygen consumption is a quality marker for human oocyte competence conditioned by ovarian stimulation regimens.

    PubMed

    Tejera, Aberto; Herrero, Javier; de Los Santos, M J; Garrido, Nicolás; Ramsing, Niels; Meseguer, Marcos

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of different ovarian stimulation protocols on oocyte respiration and to investigate the relationship between oocyte oxygen consumption and reproductive outcome. Prospective observational cohort study. Infertility clinic in a university hospital. A total of 349 oocytes from 56 IVF treatment cycles in our oocyte donation program. None. Average oocyte oxygen consumption rate in fmol/s. We correlated oxygen consumption values with ovarian stimulation features, fertilization, embryo quality on days 2 and 3, and implantation. Differences in the measured oxygen consumption rates were found depending on which type of gonadotropins were used in the stimulation protocol. Higher consumption rates were found for oocytes that underwent normal fertilization compared with rates from nonfertilized or abnormal oocytes (odds ratio = 1.340; 95% confidence intervals = 1.037-1.732). Furthermore, higher oxygen consumption was observed for those oocytes which generated embryos that implanted compared with those that did not implant (6.21 ± 0.849 fmol/s vs. 5.23 ± 0.345 fmol/s. Measurement of oxygen consumption rates for individual oocytes before fertilization provides a noninvasive marker of oocyte quality and hence a quantitative assessment of the reproductive potential for the oocyte. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation of Small SSEA-4-Positive Putative Stem Cells from the Ovarian Surface Epithelium of Adult Human Ovaries by Two Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Virant-Klun, Irma; Skutella, Thomas; Hren, Matjaz; Gruden, Kristina; Cvjeticanin, Branko; Vogler, Andrej; Sinkovec, Jasna

    2013-01-01

    The adult ovarian surface epithelium has already been proposed as a source of stem cells and germinal cells in the literature, therefore it has been termed the “germinal epithelium”. At present more studies have confirmed the presence of stem cells expressing markers of pluripotency in adult mammalian ovaries, including humans. The aim of this study was to isolate a population of stem cells, based on the expression of pluripotency-related stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4) from adult human ovarian surface epithelium by two different methods: magnetic-activated cell sorting and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Both methods made it possible to isolate a similar, relatively homogenous population of small, SSEA-4-positive cells with diameters of up to 4 μm from the suspension of cells retrieved by brushing of the ovarian cortex biopsies in reproductive-age and postmenopausal women and in women with premature ovarian failure. The immunocytochemistry and genetic analyses revealed that these small cells—putative stem cells—expressed some primordial germ cell and pluripotency-related markers and might be related to the in vitro development of oocyte-like cells expressing some oocyte-specific transcription factors in the presence of donated follicular fluid with substances important for oocyte growth and development. The stemness of these cells needs to be further researched. PMID:23509763

  17. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Knowledge is an initiative that supports the Gynecologic Cancer Education and Awareness Act of 2005, or Johanna’s Law, which was unanimously passed by the U.S. House and Senate in December of 2006, and ... and symptoms of ovarian cancer? Ovarian cancer may cause one or more of ...

  18. Long-Time Cooling before Cryopreservation Decreased Translocation of Phosphatidylserine (Ptd-L-Ser) in Human Ovarian Tissue

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To translocation (externalization) of phosphatidylserine lead at least the five negative effects observed during cells cryopreservation: hypoxia, increasing of intracellular Ca2+, osmotic disruption of cellular membranes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to test the intensiveness of the phosphatidylserine translocation immediately after thawing and after 45 d xenografting of human ovarian tissue, which was either frozen just after operative removal from patient or cooled before cryopreservation to 5°C for 24 h and then frozen. Materials and Methods Ovarian fragments from twelve patients were divided into small pieces in form of cortex with medulla, and randomly divided into the following four groups. Pieces of Group 1 (n=30) were frozen immediately after operation, thawed and just after thawing their quality was analyzed. Group 2 pieces (n=30) after operation were cooled to 5°C for 24 h, then frozen after 24 h pre-cooling to 5°C, thawed and just after thawing their quality was analyzed. Group 3 pieces (n=30) were frozen immediately after operation without pre-cooling, thawed, transplanted to SCID mice and then, after 45 d of culture their quality was analyzed. Group 4 pieces (n=30) were frozen after 24 h pre-cooling to 5°C, thawed, transplanted to SCID mice and then, after 45 d their quality was analyzed. The effectiveness of the pre-freezing cooling of tissuewas evaluated by the development of follicles (histology) and by intensiveness of translocation of phosphatidylserine (FACS with FITC-Annexin V and Propidium Iodide). Results For groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 the mean densities of follicles per 1 mm3 was 19.0, 20.2, 12.9, and 12.2, respectively (P1-2, 3-4 >0.1). For these groups, 99%, 98%, 88% and 90% preantral follicles, respectively were morphologically normal (P1-2, 3-4 >0.1). The FACS analysis showed significantly decreased intensiveness of translocation of phosphatidylserine after pre

  19. Long-Time Cooling before Cryopreservation Decreased Translocation of Phosphatidylserine (Ptd-L-Ser) in Human Ovarian Tissue.

    PubMed

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Todorov, Plamen; Isachenko, Evgenia; Rahimi, Gohar; Tchorbanov, Andrey; Mihaylova, Nikolina; Manoylov, Iliyan; Mallmann, Peter; Merzenich, Markus

    2015-01-01

    To translocation (externalization) of phosphatidylserine lead at least the five negative effects observed during cells cryopreservation: hypoxia, increasing of intracellular Ca2+, osmotic disruption of cellular membranes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to test the intensiveness of the phosphatidylserine translocation immediately after thawing and after 45 d xenografting of human ovarian tissue, which was either frozen just after operative removal from patient or cooled before cryopreservation to 5°C for 24 h and then frozen. Ovarian fragments from twelve patients were divided into small pieces in form of cortex with medulla, and randomly divided into the following four groups. Pieces of Group 1 (n=30) were frozen immediately after operation, thawed and just after thawing their quality was analyzed. Group 2 pieces (n=30) after operation were cooled to 5°C for 24 h, then frozen after 24 h pre-cooling to 5°C, thawed and just after thawing their quality was analyzed. Group 3 pieces (n=30) were frozen immediately after operation without pre-cooling, thawed, transplanted to SCID mice and then, after 45 d of culture their quality was analyzed. Group 4 pieces (n=30) were frozen after 24 h pre-cooling to 5°C, thawed, transplanted to SCID mice and then, after 45 d their quality was analyzed. The effectiveness of the pre-freezing cooling of tissuewas evaluated by the development of follicles (histology) and by intensiveness of translocation of phosphatidylserine (FACS with FITC-Annexin V and Propidium Iodide). For groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 the mean densities of follicles per 1 mm3 was 19.0, 20.2, 12.9, and 12.2, respectively (P1-2, 3-4 >0.1). For these groups, 99%, 98%, 88% and 90% preantral follicles, respectively were morphologically normal (P1-2, 3-4 >0.1). The FACS analysis showed significantly decreased intensiveness of translocation of phosphatidylserine after pre-cooling of frozen tissue (46.3% and 33.6% in

  20. Nuclear microanalysis of platinum and trace elements in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, P.; Ortega, R.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.; Bénard, J.; Moretto, Ph.

    1995-09-01

    Macro-and Micro-PIXE analysis were applied to study the mechanisms of cellular resistance to cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent, widely used nowadays for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Two cultured cell lines, a cisplatin-sensitive and a resistant one, were compared for their trace elements content and platinum accumulation following in vitro exposure to the drug. Bulk analysis revealed significant differences in copper and iron content between the two lines. Subsequent individual cell microanalysis permitted us to characterize the response of the different morphological cell types of the resistant line. This study showed that the metabolism of some trace metals in cisplatin-resistant cells could be affected but the exact relationship with the resistant phenotype remains to be determined. From a technical point of view, this experiment demonstrated that an accurate measurement of trace elements could be derived from nuclear microprobe analysis of individual cell.

  1. Induction of apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells by new anticancer compounds, epothilone A and B.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Aneta; Marczak, Agnieszka; Gajek, Arkadiusz; Szwed, Marzena; Śliwińska, Agnieszka; Drzewoski, Józef; Jóźwiak, Zofia

    2013-02-01

    Epothilones are a new group of compounds with action mechanisms similar to taxanes. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of epothilone A (Epo A) and epothilone B (Epo B) on ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 with those of paclitaxel (PTX), a classic taxane. We evaluate glycoprotein P (P-gp) activity in the ovarian cancer cell line. Apoptotic and necrotic cell levels were measured by double staining with Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide (PI) as well as Annexin V staining. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in cells exposed to Epo A, Epo B and PTX were studied using specific fluorescence probes, DCFH(2)-DA (2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) and JC-1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine). The cytotoxic activity of the drugs was determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test. All probes were analyzed in both the presence and absence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The results obtained demonstrated that the antiproliferative capacity of Epo A and Epo B in SKOV-3 cell line (measured as IC(50) after 72 h continuous treatment) was six and five times greater than that of PTX's respectively. Epothilones induced timecourse-dependent apoptosis and necrosis. Apoptotic and necrotic events were partially blocked by NAC, indicating ROS played a substantial role in epothilone-induced apoptosis. Cell death was also associated with a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, which was more pronounced after treatment with epothilones as compared to paclitaxel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ovarian Expression and Regulation of the Stromelysins During the Periovulatory Period in the Human and the Rat1

    PubMed Central

    McCord, Lauren A.; Li, Feixue; Rosewell, Katherine L.; Brännström, Mats; Curry, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are postulated to facilitate follicular rupture. In the present study, expression of the stromelysins (MMP3, MMP10, MMP11) was analyzed in the periovulatory human and rat ovary. Human granulosa and theca cells were collected from the dominant follicle at various times after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Intact rat ovaries, granulosa cells, and residual tissue (tissue remaining after granulosa cell collection) were isolated from equine CG (eCG)-hCG-primed animals. Mmp10 mRNA was highly induced in human granulosa and theca cells and intact rat ovaries, granulosa cells, and residual tissue. Localization of MMP10 to granulosa and theca cells in both human and rat ovarian follicles was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Mmp3 mRNA was unchanged in human cells and rat granulosa cells, but increased in intact rat ovaries and residual tissue. Mmp11 mRNA decreased following hCG treatment in human granulosa and theca cells as well as rat granulosa cells. Regulation of Mmp10 in cultured rat granulosa cells revealed that the EGF inhibitor AG1478 and the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 suppressed the induction of Mmp10 mRNA, whereas the prostaglandin inhibitor NS398 had no effect. Studies on the Mmp10 promoter demonstrated that forskolin plus PMA stimulated promoter activity, which was dependent upon a proximal AP1 site. In conclusion, there are divergent patterns of stromelysin expression associated with ovulation, with a marked induction of Mmp10 mRNA and a decrease in Mmp11 mRNA, yet a species-dependent pattern on Mmp3 mRNA expression. The induction of Mmp10 expression suggests an important role for this MMP in the follicular changes associated with ovulation and subsequent luteinization. PMID:22116802

  3. Ovarian expression and regulation of the stromelysins during the periovulatory period in the human and the rat.

    PubMed

    McCord, Lauren A; Li, Feixue; Rosewell, Katherine L; Brännström, Mats; Curry, Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are postulated to facilitate follicular rupture. In the present study, expression of the stromelysins (MMP3, MMP10, MMP11) was analyzed in the periovulatory human and rat ovary. Human granulosa and theca cells were collected from the dominant follicle at various times after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Intact rat ovaries, granulosa cells, and residual tissue (tissue remaining after granulosa cell collection) were isolated from equine CG (eCG)-hCG-primed animals. Mmp10 mRNA was highly induced in human granulosa and theca cells and intact rat ovaries, granulosa cells, and residual tissue. Localization of MMP10 to granulosa and theca cells in both human and rat ovarian follicles was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Mmp3 mRNA was unchanged in human cells and rat granulosa cells, but increased in intact rat ovaries and residual tissue. Mmp11 mRNA decreased following hCG treatment in human granulosa and theca cells as well as rat granulosa cells. Regulation of Mmp10 in cultured rat granulosa cells revealed that the EGF inhibitor AG1478 and the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 suppressed the induction of Mmp10 mRNA, whereas the prostaglandin inhibitor NS398 had no effect. Studies on the Mmp10 promoter demonstrated that forskolin plus PMA stimulated promoter activity, which was dependent upon a proximal AP1 site. In conclusion, there are divergent patterns of stromelysin expression associated with ovulation, with a marked induction of Mmp10 mRNA and a decrease in Mmp11 mRNA, yet a species-dependent pattern on Mmp3 mRNA expression. The induction of Mmp10 expression suggests an important role for this MMP in the follicular changes associated with ovulation and subsequent luteinization.

  4. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic characterization of immortalized human ovarian surface epithelial cell lines: consistent loss of chromosome 13 and amplification of chromosome 20.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuesheng; Zhang, Hao; Tsao, Sai Wah; Jin, Charlotte; Lv, Mei; Strömbeck, Bodil; Wiegant, Joop; Wan, Thomas Shek Kong; Yuen, Po Wing; Kwong, Yok-Lam

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the genetic events involved in immortalization of ovarian epithelial cells, which might be important steps in ovarian carcinogenesis. The genetic profiles of five human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell lines immortalized by retroviral transfection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 genes were thoroughly characterized by chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), at various passages pre- and post-crisis. In pre-crisis, most cells had simple, non-clonal karyotypic changes. Telomere association was the commonest aberration, suggesting that tolermase dysfunction might be an important genetic event leading to cellular crisis. After immortalization post-crisis, however, the karyotypic patterns were non-random. Loss of genetic materials was a characteristic feature. The commonest numerical aberrations were -13, -14, -16, -17, -18, and +5. Among them, loss of chromosome 13 was common change observed in all lines. The only recurrent structural aberration was homogeneously staining regions (hsr) observed in three lines. FISH and combined binary ratio labeling (COBRA)-FISH showed in two cases that the hsrs were derived from chromosome 20. Clonal evolution was observed in four of the lines. In one line, hsr was the only change shared by all subclones, suggesting that it might be a primary event in cell immortalization. The results of the present study suggested that loss of chromosome 13 and the amplification of chromosome 20 might be early genetic events involved in ovarian cell immortalization, and might be useful targets for the study of genomic aberrations in ovarian carcinogenesis.

  5. Effects of vitrification cryopreservation on follicular morphology and stress relaxation behaviors of human ovarian tissues: sucrose versus trehalose as the non-permeable protective agent.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ting; Zhao, Gang; Han, Dan; Zhu, Kaixuan; Chen, Dawei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wei, Zhaolian; Cao, Yunxia; Zhou, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Is sucrose more effective than trehalose in human ovarian tissue cryopreservation? The effect of sucrose as a cryoprotective agent (CPA) was not significantly different from that of trehalose in human ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Sugars have the ability to keep the cell membrane intact and can decrease the toxicity of CPAs. Sucrose is the most commonly used non-permeable CPA, while trehalose is rarely used in human ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Although various methods are utilized to evaluate the efficiency of human ovarian tissue cryopreservation, few studies have evaluated the effect of cryopreservation from the viewpoint of biomechanics. A total of 15 ovarian tissue samples were collected from 15 patients (20-41 years old) with benign ovarian tumors or malignancies, and each was dissected into six slices. Two slices were taken as the fresh control group. The remaining four slices were vitrified using different vitrification protocols. After warming, samples in each group were either fixed for histological evaluation or destined for stress relaxation test. The CPA solutions for the control and vitrified groups were composed of EDS and EDT (E, ethylene glycol; D, dimethylsulphoxide; S, sucrose; T, trehalose). The stress relaxation experiments were carried out at room temperature using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Ovarian tissue samples were assessed for both their morphology and viscoelasticity. Stress relaxation data (SRD) were calculated as a percentage, representing the ability to maintain the initial stress after stretching. The percentage of morphologically normal follicles was compared between groups, which was represented by morphologic preservation ratio. The morphologic preservation ratio of the primordial follicles in the fresh control group (87.58%) was higher than that in group S (72.33%) (P = 0.000) and group T (79.56%) (P = 0.002). Although not statistically significant, compared with the S group, vitrification with T suggested a trend

  6. Human fallopian tube epithelium co-culture with murine ovarian follicles reveals crosstalk in the reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Xu, Yuanming; Rashedi, Alexandra S; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Kim, J Julie; Woodruff, Teresa K; Burdette, Joanna E

    2016-11-01

    Do interactions between human fallopian tube epithelium and murine follicles occur during an artificial reproductive cycle in a co-culture system in vitro? In a co-culture system, human fallopian tissues responded to the menstrual cycle mimetic by changes in morphology and levels of secreted factors, and increasing murine corpus luteum progesterone secretion. The entire fallopian tube epithelium, including ciliated and secretory cells, can be regulated in the reproductive cycle. Currently, there are no in vitro culture models that can monitor fallopian tissues in real time in response to factors produced by the ovary. In addition, there are no reports on the impact of fallopian tissue on ovarian function during the menstrual cycle. Human fallopian tissue (n = 24) was obtained by routine hysterectomies from women (aged 26-50 years, mean age = 43.6) who had not undergone exogenous hormonal treatment for at least 3 months prior to surgery. CD1 female mice were used for ovarian follicle isolation. The human fallopian epithelium layers were either co-cultured with five murine multilayer secondary follicles (150-180 μm follicles, encapsulated in one alginate gel bead) for 15 days or received stepwise steroid hormone additions for 13 days. The fallopian tissue morphology and cilia beating rate, as measured by an Andor Spinning Disk Confocal, were investigated. Oviduct-specific glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1), human insulin-like growth factor 1 (hIGF1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and interleukin 8 (IL8) as biological functional markers were measured either by ELISA or western blot to indicate dynamic changes in the fallopian epithelium during the reproductive cycle generated by mouse follicles or by stepwise steroid hormone induction. Three or four patients in each experiment were recruited for replicates. Data were presented as mean ± SD and further analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test. The cultured fallopian tube

  7. Survival of human pre-antral follicles after cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, follicular isolation and in vitro culture in a calcium alginate matrix.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Christiani A; Van Langendonckt, Anne; David, Anu; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Donnez, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is a promising technique to safeguard fertility in cancer patients. However, in some types of cancer, there is a risk of transmitting malignant cells present in the cryopreserved tissue. To avoid such a risk, pre-antral follicles could be isolated from ovarian tissue and grown in vitro. On the basis of this assumption, the aim of our study was to investigate in vitro survival and growth of pre-antral follicles after cryopreservation of ovarian tissue and follicular isolation, followed by encapsulation in alginate beads. Ovarian biopsies from four patients were frozen and thawed. Pre-antral follicles were then isolated and embedded in an alginate matrix before in vitro culture for 7 days. Small pre-antral follicles (42.98 +/- 9.06 microm) from frozen-thawed tissue can survive and develop after enzymatic isolation and in vitro culture. A total of 159 follicles were incubated in a three-dimensional system (alginate hydrogel) and, after 7 days, all of them showed an increase in size (final size 56.73 +/- 13.10 microm). The survival rate of the follicles was 90% (oocyte and all granulosa cells viable). Our preliminary results indicate that alginate hydrogels may be a suitable system for in vitro culture of isolated human pre-antral follicles. However, more studies are required to establish whether follicular morphology and functionality can be maintained using this matrix.

  8. 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid potentiates Hsp90 inhibition-induced apoptosis in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells via activation of death receptor and mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae Chon; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Wonyong; Lee, Chung Soo

    2012-11-01

    The Hsp90 inhibition has been shown to induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. The licorice compounds may enhance the anti-cancer drug effect. However, effect of the licorice compounds on the Hsp90 inhibition-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells has not been studied. To assess the ability of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid to promote apoptosis, we examined whether 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid potentiated the Hsp90 inhibitor-induced apoptosis in the human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3. Radicicol and geldanamycin induced a decrease in Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin protein levels, an increase in Bax levels, the mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspases (-8, -9, and -3), cleavage of PARP-1, and an increase in the tumor suppressor p53 levels. 18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid enhanced Hsp90 inhibitor-induced apoptosis-related protein activation, nuclear damage, and cell death. The results suggest that 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid may potentiate the Hsp90 inhibition-induced apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cell lines via the activation of the caspase-8- and Bid-dependent pathways and the mitochondria-mediated cell death pathway, leading to activation of caspases. Combination of Hsp90 inhibitors and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid may confer a benefit in the treatment of epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma.

  9. The effect of human chorionic gonadotrophin contained in human menopausal gonadotropin on the clinical outcomes during progestin-primed ovarian stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yonglun; Ai, Ai; Cai, Renfei; Wang, Yun; Hong, Qingging; Hui, Tian; Lyu, Qifeng; Chen, Qiuju; Kuang, Yanping

    2017-01-01

    Progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) protocol has recently been demonstrated to be an novel regimen for preventing premature LH surges during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in combination with frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET). Our prospective controlled study was to explore the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) contained in human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) on the clinical outcomes in normalovulatory women undergoing COH with PPOS. A total of 180 patients were allocated into three groups according to the gonadotropin (Gn) used: group A (human menopausal gonadotropin, hMG-A), group B (hMG-B) or group C (follicle stimulating hormone, FSH). The primary outcome measured was the number of oocytes retrieved. The number of oocytes retrieved in group A B C was 10.72±5.78 11.33±5.19and13.38±8.97, respectively, with no statistic significance (p>0.05). Other embryological indicators were also similar (p>0.05). The concentration of serum and urinary β-hCG on the trigger day in group A and B were not associated with embryo results (p>0.05). There was no significant differences in the clinical pregnancy rate (41.67% vs. 51.56% vs. 39.51%, p>0.05) and implantation rate (31.58%vs. 34.75%vs.25.33%) after FET among the three groups. Thus the clinical characteristics were not affected by the hCG contained in hMG in normalovulatory women treated with PPOS. PMID:29152085

  10. Human fallopian tube epithelium co-culture with murine ovarian follicles reveals crosstalk in the reproductive cycle

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Xu, Yuanming; Rashedi, Alexandra S.; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Kim, J. Julie; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Burdette, Joanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Study question Do interactions between human fallopian tube epithelium and murine follicles occur during an artificial reproductive cycle in a co-culture system in vitro? Summary answer In a co-culture system, human fallopian tissues responded to the menstrual cycle mimetic by changes in morphology and levels of secreted factors, and increasing murine corpus luteum progesterone secretion. What is known already The entire fallopian tube epithelium, including ciliated and secretory cells, can be regulated in the reproductive cycle. Currently, there are no in vitro culture models that can monitor fallopian tissues in real time in response to factors produced by the ovary. In addition, there are no reports on the impact of fallopian tissue on ovarian function during the menstrual cycle. Study design, samples/materials, methods Human fallopian tissue (n = 24) was obtained by routine hysterectomies from women (aged 26–50 years, mean age = 43.6) who had not undergone exogenous hormonal treatment for at least 3 months prior to surgery. CD1 female mice were used for ovarian follicle isolation. The human fallopian epithelium layers were either co-cultured with five murine multilayer secondary follicles (150–180 μm follicles, encapsulated in one alginate gel bead) for 15 days or received stepwise steroid hormone additions for 13 days. The fallopian tissue morphology and cilia beating rate, as measured by an Andor Spinning Disk Confocal, were investigated. Oviduct-specific glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1), human insulin-like growth factor 1 (hIGF1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and interleukin 8 (IL8) as biological functional markers were measured either by ELISA or western blot to indicate dynamic changes in the fallopian epithelium during the reproductive cycle generated by mouse follicles or by stepwise steroid hormone induction. Three or four patients in each experiment were recruited for replicates. Data were presented as mean ± SD and further analyzed

  11. Oncolytic virotherapy for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shoudong; Tong, Jessica; Rahman, Masmudur M; Shepherd, Trevor G; McFadden, Grant

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, more than 20 viruses with selective tropism for tumor cells have been developed as oncolytic viruses (OVs) for treatments of a variety of malignancies. Of these viruses, eleven have been tested in human ovarian cancer models in preclinical studies. So far, nine phase I or II clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using four different types of OVs in patients with recurrent ovarian cancers. In this article, we summarize the different OVs that are being assessed as therapeutics for ovarian cancer. We also present an overview of recent advances in identification of key genetic or immune-response pathways involved in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, which provides a better understanding of the tumor specificities and oncolytic properties of OVs. In addition, we discuss how next-generation OVs could be genetically modified or integrated into multimodality regimens to improve clinical outcomes based on recent advances in ovarian cancer biology. PMID:25977900

  12. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... mature in the ovaries, are released in monthly cycles during the childbearing years. Many women have ovarian ... cysts develop as a result of your menstrual cycle (functional cysts). Other types of cysts are much ...

  13. Ovarian cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to get pregnant and you often get functional cysts, you can prevent them by taking hormone drugs (such as birth control pills). These medicines prevent follicles from growing. Alternative Names Physiologic ovarian ...

  14. Human umbilical blood mononuclear cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells serve as interleukin-21 gene delivery vehicles for epithelial ovarian cancer therapy in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weihua; Wang, Jing; He, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Hongyi; Yu, Fangliu; Jiang, Longwei; Chen, Dengyu; Chen, Junsong; Dou, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer causes more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system, and its overall cure rate remains low. The present study investigated human umbilical blood mononuclear cell (UBMC)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UBMC-MSCs) as interleukin-21 (IL-21) gene delivery vehicles for ovarian cancer therapy in nude mice. MSCs were isolated from UBMCs and the expanded cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Cultured UBMCs were differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes using appropriate media and then the UBMC-MSCs were transfected with recombinant pIRES2-IL-21-enhancement green fluorescent protein. UBMC-MSCs expressing IL-21 were named as UBMC-MSC-IL-21. Mice with A2780 ovarian cancer were treated with UBMC-MSC-IL-21 intravenously, and the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by the tumor volume and mouse survival. To address the mechanism of UBMC-MSC-IL-21 against ovarian cancer, the expression of IL-21, natural killer glucoprotein 2 domain and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related molecules A/B were detected in UBMC-MSC-IL-21 and in the tumor sites. Interferon-γ-secreting splenocyte numbers and natural killer cytotoxicity were significantly increased in the UBMC-MSC-IL-21-treated mice as compared with the UBMC-MSCs or the UBMC-MSC-mock plasmid-treated mice. Most notably, tumor growth was delayed and survival was prolonged in ovarian-cancer-bearing mice treated with UBMC-MSC-IL-21. Our data provide important evidence that UBMC-MSCs can serve as vehicles for IL-21 gene delivery and inhibit the established tumor. Copyright © 2011 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Survival and growth of human preantral follicles after cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, follicle isolation and short-term xenografting.

    PubMed

    Paulini, Fernanda; Vilela, Janice M V; Chiti, Maria Costanza; Donnez, Jacques; Jadoul, Pascale; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Amorim, Christiani A

    2016-09-01

    In women, chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be harmful to the ovaries, causing loss of endocrine and reproductive functions. When gonadotoxic treatment cannot be delayed, ovarian tissue cryobanking is the only way of preserving fertility. This technique, however, is not advisable for patients with certain types of cancer, because of the risk of reintroducing malignant cells present in the cryopreserved tissue. Our objective is therefore to develop a transplantable artificial ovary. To this end, cryopreserved human preantral follicles were isolated and embedded in fibrin formulations prepared with 50 mg/ml fibrinogen and 10 IU/ml thrombin supplemented or not with 3% hyaluronic acid, and respectively xenografted to specially created right and left peritoneal pockets in eight nude mice. On days 0 and 7, the animals were killed and the matrices retrieved. On day 7, no difference was observed in the recovery rate of follicles embedded in fibrin alone (23.4%) or fibrin-hyaluronic acid (20.5%). Ki67 staining confirmed growth of the grafted follicles and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling assay revealed 100% of the follicles to be viable in both groups on day 7. In conclusion, fibrin seems to be a promising material for creation of an artificial ovary, supporting follicle survival and development. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Density-dependent induction of apoptosis by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, C; Jozan, S; Mazars, P; Côme, M G; Moisand, A; Valette, A

    1995-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 inhibited proliferation of a human ovarian carcinoma cell line (NIH-OVCAR-3). The inhibition of NIH-OVCAR-3 cell proliferation was accompanied by a decrease in clonogenic potential, evidenced by the reduced ability of TGF-beta 1-treated NIH-OVCAR-3 cells to form colonies on a plastic substratum. This rapid decrease of clonogenic potential, which was detected 6 h after addition of TGF-beta 1 was dose-dependent (IC50 = 4 pM). Fluorescence microscopy of DAPI-stained cells supported by electron-microscopic examination showed that TGF-beta 1 induced chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. In addition, oligonucleosomal-sized fragments were detected in the TGF-beta 1-treated cells. These features indicated that TGF-beta 1 induced NIH-OVCAR-3 cell death by an apoptosis-like mechanism. This TGF-beta 1 apoptotic effect was subject to modulation by cell density. It was observed that an increase in cell density (up to 20 x 10(3) cells/cm2) protected NIH-OVCAR-3 cells against apoptosis induced by TGF-beta 1. Conditioned medium from high-density cultures of NIH-OVCAR-3 cells did not inhibit apoptosis induced by TGF-beta 1 on NIH-OVCAR-3 cells cultured at low density, suggesting that the protective effect of cell density was not related to the cell secretion of a soluble survival factor.

  17. Inhibitory effect of luteolin on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells by suppression of aromatase (CYP19).

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan-feng; Yang, Li-juan; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Guo-lin

    2012-08-29

    Inhibition of aromatase, the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, is an important strategy in the treatment of breast cancer. Several dietary flavonoids show aromatase inhibitory activity, but their tissue specificity and mechanism remain unclear. This study found that the dietary flavonoid luteolin potently inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in KGN cells derived from human ovarian granulosa cells, the major source of estrogens in premenopausal women. Luteolin decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression in KGN cells. Luteolin also promoted aromatase protein degradation and inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in aromatase-expressing HEK293A cells, but had no effect on recombinant expressed aromatase. Estrogen biosynthesis in KGN cells was inhibited with differing potencies by extracts of onion and bird chili and by four other dietary flavonoids: kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and isorhamnetin. The present study suggests that luteolin inhibits estrogen biosynthesis by decreasing aromatase expression and destabilizing aromatase protein, and it warrants further investigation as a potential treatment for estrogen-dependent cancers.

  18. Identification of multiple novel protein biomarkers shed by human serous ovarian tumors into the blood of immunocompromised mice and verified in patient sera.

    PubMed

    Beer, Lynn A; Wang, Huan; Tang, Hsin-Yao; Cao, Zhijun; Chang-Wong, Tony; Tanyi, Janos L; Zhang, Rugang; Liu, Qin; Speicher, David W

    2013-01-01

    The most cancer-specific biomarkers in blood are likely to be proteins shed directly by the tumor rather than less specific inflammatory or other host responses. The use of xenograft mouse models together with in-depth proteome analysis for identification of human proteins in the mouse blood is an under-utilized strategy that can clearly identify proteins shed by the tumor. In the current study, 268 human proteins shed into mouse blood from human OVCAR-3 serous tumors were identified based upon human vs. mouse species differences using a four-dimensional plasma proteome fractionation strategy. A multi-step prioritization and verification strategy was subsequently developed to efficiently select some of the most promising biomarkers from this large number of candidates. A key step was parallel analysis of human proteins detected in the tumor supernatant, because substantially greater sequence coverage for many of the human proteins initially detected in the xenograft mouse plasma confirmed assignments as tumor-derived human proteins. Verification of candidate biomarkers in patient sera was facilitated by in-depth, label-free quantitative comparisons of serum pools from patients with ovarian cancer and benign ovarian tumors. The only proteins that advanced to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assay development were those that exhibited increases in ovarian cancer patients compared with benign tumor controls. MRM assays were facilely developed for all 11 novel biomarker candidates selected by this process and analysis of larger pools of patient sera suggested that all 11 proteins are promising candidate biomarkers that should be further evaluated on individual patient blood samples.

  19. Identification of Multiple Novel Protein Biomarkers Shed by Human Serous Ovarian Tumors into the Blood of Immunocompromised Mice and Verified in Patient Sera

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Lynn A.; Wang, Huan; Tang, Hsin-Yao; Cao, Zhijun; Chang-Wong, Tony; Tanyi, Janos L.; Zhang, Rugang; Liu, Qin; Speicher, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The most cancer-specific biomarkers in blood are likely to be proteins shed directly by the tumor rather than less specific inflammatory or other host responses. The use of xenograft mouse models together with in-depth proteome analysis for identification of human proteins in the mouse blood is an under-utilized strategy that can clearly identify proteins shed by the tumor. In the current study, 268 human proteins shed into mouse blood from human OVCAR-3 serous tumors were identified based upon human vs. mouse species differences using a four-dimensional plasma proteome fractionation strategy. A multi-step prioritization and verification strategy was subsequently developed to efficiently select some of the most promising biomarkers from this large number of candidates. A key step was parallel analysis of human proteins detected in the tumor supernatant, because substantially greater sequence coverage for many of the human proteins initially detected in the xenograft mouse plasma confirmed assignments as tumor-derived human proteins. Verification of candidate biomarkers in patient sera was facilitated by in-depth, label-free quantitative comparisons of serum pools from patients with ovarian cancer and benign ovarian tumors. The only proteins that advanced to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assay development were those that exhibited increases in ovarian cancer patients compared with benign tumor controls. MRM assays were facilely developed for all 11 novel biomarker candidates selected by this process and analysis of larger pools of patient sera suggested that all 11 proteins are promising candidate biomarkers that should be further evaluated on individual patient blood samples. PMID:23544127

  20. Intraperitoneal administration of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R inhibits disseminated human ovarian cancer and extends survival in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Ming; Yano, Shuya; Uehara, Fuminari; Yamamoto, Mako; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Toneri, Makoto; Bouvet, Michael; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal disseminated cancer is highly treatment resistant. We here report the efficacy of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R in a nude mouse model of disseminated human ovarian cancer. The mouse model was established by intraperitoneal injection of the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3-GFP. Seven days after implantation, mice were treated with S. typhimurium A1-R via intravenous (i.v.) or i.p. administration at the same dose, 5×107 CFU, once per week. Both i.v. and i.p. treatments effected prolonged survival compared with the untreated control group (P=0.025 and P<0.001, respectively). However, i.p. treatment was less toxic than i.v. treatment. Tumor-specific targeting of S. typhimurium A1-R was confirmed with bacterial culture from tumors and various organs and tumor or organ colony formation after i.v. or i.p. injection. Selective tumor targeting was most effective with i.p. administration. The results of the present study show S. typhimurium A1-R has promising clinical potential for disseminated ovarian cancer, especially via i.p. administration. PMID:25957417

  1. Relationship Between 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Responses to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Markers of Ovarian Follicle Morphology in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Kevin H.; Chuan, Sandy S.; Cook-Andersen, Heidi; Su, H. Irene; Duleba, A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) responses to gonadotropin stimulation although individual variability is substantial, as reflected by exaggerated as well as normal responses. The relationship between 17-OHP responses to gonadotropin stimulation and markers of ovarian function has not been assessed. Objective: To determine whether 17-OHP responses are associated with antral follicle count (AFC), anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), or inhibin B (Inh B) levels in PCOS and normal women. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Research center at an academic medical center. Participants: Women with PCOS (n = 18) and normal controls (n = 18). Interventions: Blood samples were obtained before and 24 hours after administration of 25 μg recombinant-human chorionic gonadotropin. Ovarian imaging was conducted with three-dimensional pelvic ultrasound. Main Outcome Measures: Basal and stimulated levels of 17-OHP, androgens, estrogen, AMH, Inh B, and AFC. Results: In women with PCOS, 17-OHP responses were heterogeneous and inversely correlated with AMH and Inh B levels, but not AFC. In a subgroup of PCOS women with exaggerated 17-OHP responses, AMH levels were equivalent to that of normal women. In PCOS women with normal 17-OHP responses, AMH levels were markedly elevated. Conclusion: Based on heterogeneous 17-OHP responses to human chorionic gonadotropin in women with PCOS, AMH levels are inversely linked to ovarian androgen production while positively correlated with AFC. These findings suggest that in PCOS, AMH production may reflect redistribution of the follicle population or regulation by intraovarian mechanisms. PMID:25313914

  2. The presence of centrioles and centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells suggests human parthenotes developed in vitro can differentiate into mature cells without a sperm centriole

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Bo Yon, E-mail: boyonlee@gmail.com; Shim, Sang Woo; Kim, Young Sun

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sperm centriole is the progenitor of centrosomes in all somatic cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Centrioles and centrosomes exist in parthenogenetic ovarian teratoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Without a sperm centriole, parthenogenetic oocytes produce centrioles and centrosomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parthenogenetic human oocytes can develop and differentiate into mature cells. -- Abstract: In most animals, somatic cell centrosomes are inherited from the centriole of the fertilizing spermatozoa. The oocyte centriole degenerates during oogenesis, and completely disappears in metaphase II. Therefore, the embryos generated by in vitro parthenogenesis are supposed to develop without any centrioles. Exceptional acentriolar and/or acentrosomal developments are possible in mice andmore » in some experimental cells; however, in most animals, the full developmental potential of parthenogenetic cells in vitro and the fate of their centrioles/centrosomes are not clearly understood. To predict the future of in vitro human parthenogenesis, we explored the centrioles/centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells by immunofluorescent staining and transmission electron microscopy. We confirmed the presence of centrioles and centrosomes in these well-known parthenogenetic ovarian tumor cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that, even without a sperm centriole, parthenotes that develop from activated oocytes can produce their own centrioles/centrosomes, and can even develop into the well-differentiated mature tissue.« less

  3. Curcumin Induces G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis in Cisplatin-Resistant Human Ovarian Cancer Cells by Modulating Akt and p38 MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Nathan M.; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Kutala, Vijay Kumar; Tong, Liyue; Vishwanath, Shilpa; Rajaram, Murugesan; Tridandapani, Susheela; Anant, Shrikant; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, a major active component of turmeric, is known to induce apoptosis in several types of cancer cells, but little is known about its activity in chemoresistant cells. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer properties of curcumin in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells in vitro. The results indicated that curcumin inhibited the proliferation of both cisplatin-resistant (CR) and sensitive (CS) human ovarian cancer cells almost equally. Enhanced superoxide generation was observed in both CR and CS cells treated with curcumin. Curcumin induced G2/M phase cell-cycle arrest in CR cells by enhancing the p53 phosphorylation and apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3 followed by PARP degradation. Curcumin also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt while the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was enhanced. In summary, our results showed that curcumin inhibits the proliferation of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells through the induction of superoxide generation, G2/M arrest, and apoptosis. PMID:17218783

  4. Two-step transplantation with adipose tissue-derived stem cells increases follicle survival by enhancing vascularization in xenografted frozen-thawed human ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Manavella, D D; Cacciottola, L; Pommé, S; Desmet, C M; Jordan, B F; Donnez, J; Amorim, C A; Dolmans, M M

    2018-06-01

    Do adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) enhance vascularization and follicle survival in xenografted ovarian tissue using a two-step transplantation approach? Higher rates of oxygenation and vascularization of ovarian tissue, as well as increased follicle survival rates, were detected in the early post-grafting period. ASCs have multilineage differentiation potential, proangiogenic properties and enhance vascularization in a peritoneal grafting site. Some studies suggest that using ASCs may improve ovarian tissue quality by enhancing graft angiogenesis. A total of 15 severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were intraperitoneally grafted with frozen-thawed human ovarian tissue (OT) from five different patients. A peritoneal transplantation site had been previously prepared in a first step using either empty fibrin (Fi+OT group [n = 5]) or ASC-loaded fibrin (Fi/ASCs+OT group [n = 5]) for 14 days prior to grafting. Five mice underwent the standard one-step transplantation procedure and served as controls (OT group). Lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) crystals were inserted into all grafted human ovarian tissue before transplantation. Levels of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in grafts were monitored in vivo by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry on Days 3 and 7. Samples for histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were collected after euthanizing the mice on Day 7 following EPR. One piece of ovarian tissue per patient was fixed for analysis to serve as non-grafted controls. Prospective experimental study conducted at the Gynecology Research Unit, Université Catholique de Louvain. All materials were used to perform pO2 measurements (EPR oximetry), histological (haematoxylin and eosin staining), immunohistochemistry (anti-mouse and human double CD34 and anti-human Ki-67) and TUNEL analyses. A significant increase in pO2 was observed in all groups between Days 3 and 7 (P < 0.001). A significantly higher pO2 level was observed in the Fi/ASCs+OT group

  5. Models of ovarian cancer metastasis: Murine models

    PubMed Central

    Šale, Sanja; Orsulic, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Mice have mainly been used in ovarian cancer research as immunodeficient hosts for cell lines derived from the primary tumors and ascites of ovarian cancer patients. These xenograft models have provided a valuable system for pre-clinical trials, however, the genetic complexity of human tumors has precluded the understanding of key events that drive metastatic dissemination. Recently developed immunocompetent, genetically defined mouse models of epithelial ovarian cancer represent significant improvements in the modeling of metastatic disease. PMID:19337569

  6. Clinical value of combining transvaginal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with serum human epididymisprotein-4 and the resistance index for early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wu; Ying, Wang; Qichao, Zheng; Ping, Li; Jie, Tang

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To increase accuracy of the detection and differential diagnosis of the early epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with transvaginal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (TVCEUS) combining serum human epididymisprotein 4 (HE4), and resistance index (RI). Methods: This retrospectively case-control study of 230 patients with ovarian tumors were reviewed at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China between June 2008 and September 2015. Before the operation of 110 cases with EOC (Group A) and 120 cases of patients with benign ovarian tumor (Group B), we observe and calculate both Groups’ tumor vascular contrast-enhanced ultrasonography morphology scores (U), time-intensity curve (TIC) of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, HE4, and RI. Results were compared with the histopathological analysis results. Results: The ultrasonography morphology scores, peak intensity (PI) enhancement rate (ER) with the parameters of the TIC and HE4 are higher in Group A compared with patients in Group B and the RI was lower than Group B. The detection rates for all indexes in the benign and malignant groups and their comparisons to the histopathological results were determined. The detection rate differences for HE4 (p=0.001), RI (p=0.001), U (p=0.001), PI (p=0.001), and ER (p=0.001) were all statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: The high clinical value through combined TVCEUS, HE4, and RI detection can increase the sensitivity of the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the early EOC. PMID:28578437

  7. Human Monocytes in the Presence of Interferons Alpha2a and Gamma Are Potent Killers of Serous Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines in Combination with Paclitaxel and Carboplatin

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Chase L.; Zoon, Kathryn C.

    2015-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) play an important role in immune surveillance of tumors; however, their efficacy in the treatment of malignancies has been limited. Monocytes are mononuclear phagocytes that are critical to the generation of an innate immune response to tumors. The authors and others have shown that treatment of tumor cell lines in vitro and in vivo with human monocytes primed with type I and type II IFNs results in killing. We now expand on this work, in an extended panel of ovarian cancer cell lines. In this study, we hypothesized that there would be variable sensitivity amongst cell lines to the killing properties of monocytes and IFNs. To this end, we explored the interactions of IFN primed monocytes in conjunction with the standard of therapy for ovarian cancer, taxane, and platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Using 6 ovarian cancer cell lines, we demonstrated that there is variation from cell line to cell line in the ability of IFN-α2a and IFN-γ primed monocytes to synergistically kill target tumor cells, and further, there is an additive killing effect when target cells are treated with both IFN primed monocytes and chemotherapy. PMID:25068849

  8. Study of the therapeutic effect of 188Re labeled folate targeting albumin nanoparticle coupled with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum cisplatin on human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiusha; Chen, Daozhen

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the treatment efficiency of 188Re labeled folate targeting albumin nanoparticles with cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum Cisplatin (188Re-folate-CDDP/HAS MNP) on human ovarian cancer. SKOV3 cells or tumor-bearing mice were divided into different groups and treated as follow: (A) negative control; (B) chemotherapy; (C) radiotherapy; (D) hyperthermia; (E) chemotherapy and radiotherapy; (F) chemotherapy and hyperthermia; (G) radiotherapy and hyperthermia; (H) chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hyperthermia. Treatment of B to H inhibited proliferation of SKOV3 cells, with the greatest inhibition being observed in group H (P<0.05). Obvious apoptotic hypodiploid peak appeared beside G1 phase in groups of B to H. The apoptotic rates of SKOV3 cells in groups of A to H were 0.08%, 7.56%, 8.64%, 17.14%, 21.64%, 23.77%, 33.94% and 57.16%, respectively. Our findings in vivo study showed that the mass of tumor in each group of B to H was significantly lower than that in the negative control (p <0.05). In addition, compared with each group of B to G, group H showed highest inhibition of tumor growth (p<0.05). In conclusion, the combination of magnetic induced hyperthermia, chemotherapy and targeted radionuclide of radiation exposure can effectively inhibit the growth of ovarian cancer, which indicates a potential applications in ovarian cancer treatment.

  9. Activation of antioxidant pathways in ras-mediated oncogenic transformation of human surface ovarian epithelial cells revealed by functional proteomics and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Young, Travis W; Mei, Fang C; Yang, Gong; Thompson-Lanza, Jennifer A; Liu, Jinsong; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2004-07-01

    Cellular transformation is a complex process involving genetic alterations associated with multiple signaling pathways. Development of a transformation model using defined genetic elements has provided an opportunity to elucidate the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in the initiation and development of ovarian cancer. To study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Ras-mediated oncogenic transformation of ovarian epithelial cells, we used a proteomic approach involving two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to profile two ovarian epithelial cell lines, one immortalized with SV40 T/t antigens and the human catalytic subunit of telomerase and the other transformed with an additional oncogenic ras(V12) allele. Of approximately 2200 observed protein spots, we have identified >30 protein targets that showed significant changes between the immortalized and transformed cell lines using peptide mass fingerprinting. Among these identified targets, one most notable group of proteins altered significantly consists of enzymes involved in cellular redox balance. Detailed analysis of these protein targets suggests that activation of Ras-signaling pathways increases the threshold of reactive oxidative species (ROS) tolerance by up-regulating the overall antioxidant capacity of cells, especially in mitochondria. This enhanced antioxidant capacity protects the transformed cells from high levels of ROS associated with the uncontrolled growth potential of tumor cells. It is conceivable that an enhanced antioxidation capability may constitute a common mechanism for tumor cells to evade apoptosis induced by oxidative stresses at high ROS levels.

  10. Ovarian tumor antigens.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, M; Barlow, J J

    1978-09-01

    Evidence has been reported for at least two common tumor-associated antigens, or antigenic determinants, in human cystadenocarcinomas of the ovary that are apparently absent in tissues of normal reproductive organs. These antigenic determinants are immunologically distinct from carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-fetoprotein, ferritins and histocompatibility antigens. One of these two ovarian cystadenocarcinoma-associated antigens (OCAA) is not detectable in any ovarian carcinomas except serous or mucinous types, other gynecologic or nongynecologic malignancies thus far tested, while the second antigen is present in about 90% of all gynecologic tumors and occasionally in breast and colon tumors. OCAA has been purified and partially characterized. It is a high molecular weight glycoprotein which carries the unique ovarian tumor-specific antigenic determinant along with some normal cross-reacting determinants. High levels of this glycoprotein antigen have been detected in the sera of ovarian cancer patients with advanced disease by the radioimmunoassay inhibition technique. The serial determination of circulating OCAA appeared to correlate with tumor volume as well as the clinical status of the patients.

  11. Suppression of SIK1 by miR-141 in human ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Long; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Liu, Nai-Fu

    2016-06-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the sixth most common cancer in women worldwide, is the most commonly fatal gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. One of the main reasons for this is that relatively little was known about the molecular events responsible for the development of this highly aggressive disease. In the present study, we demonstrated that salt‑inducible kinase 1 (SIK1; which is also known as MSK/SIK/SNF1LK) was downregulated in ovarian cancer tissue samples. Using HEY ovarian cancer cells, we noted that SIK1 overexpression inhibited proliferation as well as cancer stem cell-associated traits. Silencing SIK1 promoted the proliferation of the EG ovarian cancer cell line. We performed an analysis of potential microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) target sites using three commonly used prediction algorithms: miRanda, TargetScan and PicTar. All three algorithms predicted that miR-141 targets the 3'UTR of SIK1. Subsequent experiments not only confirmed this prediction, but also showed that miR-141 was associated with the progression of this disease. Finally, we found that miR-141 promoted proliferation of EG cells, whereas silencing miR-141 restored SIK1 expression and inhibited the proliferation of the HEY cells. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of ovarian cancer not only enables us to further understand the pathogenesis and progression of the disease, but also provides new targets for effective therapies.

  12. Immunotherapy in a human ovarian cancer xenograft model with two bispecific monoclonal antibodies: OV-TL 3/CD3 and OC/TR.

    PubMed

    van Ravenswaay Claasen, H H; Eggermont, A M; Nooyen, Y A; Warnaar, S O; Fieuren, G J

    1994-02-01

    The bispecific antibodies (bs-mAbs) OV-TL 3/CD3 and OC/TR (MOv18/CD3) efficiently mediate ovarian tumor cell lysis by cytotoxic T cells and activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in vitro. OV-TL 3/CD3 and OC/TR are reactive with tumor-associated antigens on ovarian carcinoma cells (OA3 and CA-MOv18, respectively), and CD3 on activated PBL, bridging both cells and simultaneously inducing activation of the effector cells. In a comparative study we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of OV-TL 3/CD3 and OC/TR by targeting activated PBL with the bs-mAbs against intraperitoneally growing NIH:OVCAR-3 human ovarian carcinoma cells. As they have good tumor localization characteristics, HPLC-purified bispecific F(ab')2 fragments were used to target highly active PHA and IL-2-stimulated PBL effector cells. The efficacy of OV-TL 3/CD3 was compared to OC/TR with respect to tumor-associated antigen (TAA) binding on NIH:OVCAR-3 ascites cells and NIH:OVCAR-3 tumor cell lysis in vitro. In this report we show that ip ovarian cancer-bearing nude mice treated with IL-2 and activated PBL coated with bispecific F(ab')2 had a significantly longer survival than the untreated mice. No significant difference in survival was found between the OC/TR or OV-TL 3/CD3 bispecific antibody, although MOv18 expression was higher on NIH:OVCAR-3 ascites cells and PBL targeted with OC/TR induced slightly higher tumor cell lysis in vitro. Thus, the therapeutic efficacy of these bs-mAbs in vivo could not be predicted by TAA expression or bs-mAb-mediated tumor cell lysis in vitro.

  13. Combined Gene Therapy Using AdsVEGFR2 and AdsTie2 With Chemotherapy Reduces the Growth of Human Ovarian Cancer and Formation of Ascites in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, Laura; Sallinen, Hanna; Karvonen, Anni; Valkonen, Elina; Laakso, Hanne; Liimatainen, Timo; Hytönen, Elisa; Hämäläinen, Kirsi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Anttila, Maarit; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2017-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is highly dependent on tumor microvessels and angiogenesis regulated by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGFRs) and angiopoietins (Ang) and their Tie receptors. We studied the efficacy of adenoviral (Ad) gene therapy with soluble VEGFR2 and Tie2 combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin for the treatment of ovarian cancer. An intraperitoneal human ovarian cancer xenograft model in nude mice (n = 44) was used in this study. Gene therapy was given intravenously when the presence of sizable tumors was confirmed in magnetic resonance imaging. The study groups were as follows: AdCMV as a control (group I), AdCMV with chemotherapy (group II), AdsVEGFR2 and AdsTie2 (group III), and AdsVEGFR2 and AdsTie2 with chemotherapy (group IV). Antitumor effectiveness was assessed by overall tumor growth, ascites, immunohistochemistry, microvessel density, and sequential magnetic resonance imaging analyses. AdsVEGFR2 and AdsTie2 gene therapy (group III) significantly reduced tumor weights as compared with group II (P = 0.007). Accumulation of ascites was significantly reduced when the mice were treated with AdsVEGFR2 and AdsTie2 gene therapy or with combined gene therapy and chemotherapy as compared with controls (P = 0.029 and P = 0.010, respectively). Vascular endothelial growth factor and Ang2 levels in ascites fluid were elevated after the gene therapy. Combined inhibition of VEGF/VEGFR2 and Ang/Tie2 pathways provided efficient therapy for ovarian cancer in mice. In addition, antiangiogenic gene therapy has potential as a treatment for the accumulation of ascites.

  14. Isolation and characterization of an IGROV-1 human ovarian cancer cell line made resistant to Ecteinascidin-743 (ET-743)

    PubMed Central

    Erba, E; Bergamaschi, D; Bassano, L; Ronzoni, S; Liberti, G Di; Muradore, I; Vignati, S; Faircloth, G; Jimeno, J; D'Incalci, M

    2000-01-01

    By exposing Igrov-1 human ovarian cancer cells to increasing concentrations of Ecteinascidin-743 (ET-743), either for a short or prolonged time, we obtained sublines resistant to ET-743 which overexpress Pgp. The most resistant clone (Igrov-1/25 ET) was evaluated for biological and pharmacological characterizations. The increased Pgp levels of Igrov-1/25 ET were not due to amplification of the mdr-1 gene but to increased mRNA levels. No increase in other multidrug resistance-related proteins such as MRP or LRP was observed in Igrov-1/25 ET. The IC50values of ET-743 against Igrov-1/25 ET was approximately 50 times higher than the parental cell line. Resistance was not reversed while maintaining the cell line in drug-free medium for at least 24 months. Igrov-1/25 ET was cross-resistant to Doxorubicin and VP16 while it was equally sensitive to L-PAM, MNNG, CPT and only marginally less sensitive to Cis-DDP and Oxaliplatin compared to the parental cell line. Igrov-1/25 ET exposed to Doxorubicin retained this drug much less, mainly because of a more efficient drug efflux. The cyclosporine analogue SDZ PSC-833 reversed the resistance of Igrov-1/25 ET to ET-743, without any enhancement of the drug activity against the parental Igrov-1 cell line. Igrov-1/25 ET exhibits typical features of cell lines overexpressing the mdr-1 gene and can be a potentially useful tool in selecting ET-743 non-cross-resistant analogues as well as to investigate methods to counteract resistance to this drug. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10817511

  15. Loss of heterozygosity at 7q22 and mutation analysis of the CDP gene in human epithelial ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Neville, P J; Thomas, N; Campbell, I G

    2001-02-01

    Many tumor types including that of the ovary show loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome arm 7q, which suggests the existence of at least one tumor suppressor gene (TSG) on this chromosome arm. We have studied the region surrounding the putative tumor suppressor gene CUTL1 at 7q22 in 127 epithelial ovarian tumors. LOH was found across 7q22 in 31% of malignant and 14% of benign ovarian tumors. In 16% of the tumors the LOH appeared to be centered on the CUTL1 gene. This gene has been implicated previously as a TSG in both uterine leiomyomas and breast carcinoma. However, mutation analysis of the CUTL1 gene in 47 tumors with 7q22 LOH failed to identify any somatic alterations in the coding regions. This finding suggests that CUTL1 may not be the target of the 7q22 LOH in ovarian cancers.

  16. Activins and activin antagonists in the human ovary and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Reader, Karen L; Gold, Elspeth

    2015-11-05

    Activins are members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily that play an important role in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation in many organs including the ovary. It is essential that activin signalling be tightly regulated as imbalances can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation and cancer. This review describes the expression and function of the activins and their known antagonists in both normal and cancerous human ovaries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Therapeutic effect of targeted Fas-expressing adenoviruses method combining γδ T cells in a mouse model of human ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dingyuan; Lin, Jiajing; He, Hongying; Tan, Guangping; Lan, Ying; Jiang, Fuyan; Sheng, Shuting

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect and safety of targeted use of Fas-expressing adenoviruses combined with γδ T cell-mediated killing to treat human ovarian cancer xenografts in BALB/c mice. Shuttle plasmids containing control elements of human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and two-step transcriptional amplification system were constructed and packaged into adenovirus-5 vectors to generate expression of an exogenous Fas gene. A mouse xenograft model of human ovarian carcinoma was constructed. A total of 35 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups, which were injected with PBS, γδ T cells, Fas-expressing adenoviruses, taxol, or Fas-expressing adenovirus and γδ T cells. The weight and volume of tumors in mice in each group was monitored. Tissue sections of the various tissues of mice in the Fas-expressing adenovirus and γδ T cells group was compared with those in the PBS group to evaluate the safety of Fas-expressing adenovirus and γδ T cells in the treatment of human ovarian cancer xenograft tumors. The results of the present study indicated that mice in all treatment groups were alive at the end of the treatment course. Tumor weight and volume was the highest in the PBS group, followed successively by the adenovirus group, the γδ T cell group, the adenovirus and γδ T cell group, and the taxol group. The weight and volume inhibition rate in adenovirus and γδ T cell group were significantly higher compared with in the PBS group (P<0.05). Pathological observation of tissue samples revealed that none of vital organs in the adenovirus and γδ T cell group developed any evident morphological changes during treatment, when compared with healthy controls. In conclusion, the combined therapy with Fas-expressing adenoviruses and γδ T cells is efficient and safe for the treatment of mouse human ovarian carcinoma xenografts.

  18. [Expression of Jagged1 mRNA in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and effect of RNA interference of Jagged1 on growth of xenograft in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Liu, G Y; Gao, Z H; Li, L; Song, T T; Sheng, X G

    2016-06-25

    To investigate the expression of Jagged1 in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and the effect of Jagged1 on growth of xenograft in nude mice. (1) Forty-eight cases of ovarian cancer and 30 cases of patients with benign epithelial ovarian tumor in the Henan Province Xinxiang Central Hospital during Feb. 2011 to Mar. 2014 were enrolled in this study. The mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1 and the downstream target genes Hes1, Hey1 were analyzed by using realtime PCR method. (2) The ovarian cancer xenograft models in nude mice were constructed by injecting SKOV3 cells in axillary subcutaneouswere. The nude mice were randomly divided into Jagged1 interference group, blank plasmid group and control group. Each group had 10 mice. They were transfected with pcDNA3.1(+)-siRNA-Jagged1, blank plasmid pDC3.1 and phosphate buffer, respectively. The tumor volumes and tumor masses were measured 14 days after transfection and the inhibition rate was calculated. The relative mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in xenograft tissues after transfection in each group was detected by using realtime PCR technique and the relative protein expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in xenograft tissues was detected by utilizing western blot method. (1) The relative mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in ovarian cancer tissues were higher than benign ovarian tumor tissues, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). (2) The tumor volume was (491± 68) mm(3) and tumor mass was (2.6±0.4) g in Jagged1 interference group, which were significantly lower than that in the blank plasmid group [(842±88) mm(3) and (4.4±0.8) g, respectively] and that in the control group [(851±90) mm(3) and (4.5±0.9) g, respectively; P<0.05], the tumor inhibition rate was 42.2% in Jagged1 interference group, which was significantly higher than that in the blank plasmid group and that in the control group (2.2% and 0, respectively), the differences were

  19. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with human breast or ovarian carcinoma: In vivo applications

    SciTech Connect

    Thor, A.D.; Edgerton, S.M.

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) are unique and useful bioprobes that allow in vivo targeting of membrane-associated or circulating antigens. Most of the clinical trials to date have used low dosages of radiolabeled MoAb given in a single dose. Newer studies have included antibody fragments, repeated injections, intraperitoneal (IP) administration, and other labels such as 90Y. Clinical MoAb trials are often arduous, expensive, and time-consuming to perform. Before human use, animal studies and extensive MoAb characterization are required. The production of pharmaceutical grade, radiolabeled MoAb is technically difficult and costly. Clinical trials require administrative and patient consent as well as extensive writtenmore » protocols. These studies necessitate interdepartmental and intradepartmental cooperation and coordination. Furthermore, the use of in vivo radiolabeled probes impacts many levels of health care providers from janitorial, nursing, and technical staff to laboratories and physicians. Simple blood tests or disposal of body excretions may concern nursing or technical staff with the possibility of radiation exposure. The responsibility for study design, personnel involvement, and prospective use in patients without a definitive cancer diagnosis ultimately rests with the physician. While many issues have been addressed, additional clinical trials, consideration of safety issues, and standardization between institutions will be necessary before the use of radiolabeled MoAb for diagnosis, management, or therapy of human tumors becomes routine. Continued cooperation and funding should ensure its achievement. 136 references.« less

  20. Cytotoxic effect of Alpinia scabra (Blume) Náves extracts on human breast and ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpinia scabra, locally known as 'Lengkuas raya’, is an aromatic, perennial and rhizomatous herb from the family Zingiberaceae. It is a wild species which grows largely on mountains at moderate elevations in Peninsular Malaysia, but it can also survive in the lowlands like in the states of Terengganu and Northern Johor. The present study reports the cytotoxic potential of A. scabra extracts from different parts of the plant. Methods The experimental approach in the present study was based on a bioassay-guided fractionation. The crude methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform and water) from different parts of A. scabra (leaves, rhizomes, roots and pseudo stems) were prepared prior to the cytotoxicity evaluation against human ovarian (SKOV-3) and hormone-dependent breast (MCF7) carcinoma cells. The identified cytotoxic extracts were then subjected to chemical investigations in order to identify the active ingredients. A normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) was used to determine the specificity for cancerous cells. The cytotoxic extracts and fractions were also subjected to morphological assessment, DNA fragmentation analysis and DAPI nuclear staining. Results The leaf (hexane and chloroform) and rhizome (chloroform) extracts showed high inhibitory effect against the tested cells. Ten fractions (LC1-LC10) were yielded after purification of the leaf chloroform extract. Fraction LC4 which showed excellent cytotoxic activity was further purified and resulted in 17 sub-fractions (VLC1-VLC17). Sub-fraction VLC9 showed excellent cytotoxicity against MCF7 and SKOV-3 cells but not toxic against normal MRC-5 cells. Meanwhile, eighteen fractions (RC1-RC18) were obtained after purification of the rhizome chloroform extract, of which fraction RC5 showed cytotoxicity against SKOV-3 cells with high selectivity index. There were marked morphological changes when observed using phase-contrast inverted microscope, DAPI nuclear staining and also DNA

  1. Photodynamic action of LED-activated pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.; Xu, C. S.; Xia, X. S.; Yu, H. P.; Bai, D. Q.; He, Y.; Leung, A. W. N.

    2009-04-01

    Cisplatin-resistance is a major obstacle for the successful therapy to ovarian cancer, and exploring novel approach to deactivate cisplatin-resistant ovarian cells will improve the clinical outcomes. Our present study showed that there was no dark cytotoxicity of MPPa in the COC1/DDP cells at the dose of 0.25 - 4 μM, and LED-activated MPPa resulted in drug dose- and light-dependent cytotoxicity. Apoptotic rate 6 h after LED-activated MPPa (2 μM) increased to 16.71% under the light energy of 1 J/cm2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that MPPa mainly localized in the intracellular membrane system, namely the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and mitochondria in the COC1/DDP cells. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was collapsed when COC1/DDP cells were exposed to 2 μM MPPa for 20 h and then 1 J/cm2 irradiation of LED source. These data demonstrated that LED-activated MPPa significantly deactivated cisplatin-resistant ovarian cell line COC1/DDP cells and enhanced apoptosis and decreased ΔΨm, which suggests LED is an efficient light source for PDT and LED-activated MPPa can be developed as new modality for treating cisplatin-resistant ovarian.

  2. Creation of a Human Secretome: A Novel Composite Library of Human Secreted Proteins: Validation Using Ovarian Cancer Gene Expression Data and a Virtual Secretome Array.

    PubMed

    Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Wang, Victoria; Wei, Wei; Waldron, Levi; Drapkin, Ronny; Gillette, Michael; Skates, Steven; Birrer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    To generate a comprehensive "Secretome" of proteins potentially found in the blood and derive a virtual Affymetrix array. To validate the utility of this database for the discovery of novel serum-based biomarkers using ovarian cancer transcriptomic data. The secretome was constructed by aggregating the data from databases of known secreted proteins, transmembrane or membrane proteins, signal peptides, G-protein coupled receptors, or proteins existing in the extracellular region, and the virtual array was generated by mapping them to Affymetrix probeset identifiers. Whole-genome microarray data from ovarian cancer, normal ovarian surface epithelium, and fallopian tube epithelium were used to identify transcripts upregulated in ovarian cancer. We established the secretome from eight public databases and a virtual array consisting of 16,521 Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 probesets. Using ovarian cancer transcriptomic data, we identified candidate blood-based biomarkers for ovarian cancer and performed bioinformatic validation by demonstrating rediscovery of known biomarkers including CA125 and HE4. Two novel top biomarkers (FGF18 and GPR172A) were validated in serum samples from an independent patient cohort. We present the secretome, comprising the most comprehensive resource available for protein products that are potentially found in the blood. The associated virtual array can be used to translate gene-expression data into cancer biomarker discovery. A list of blood-based biomarkers for ovarian cancer detection is reported and includes CA125 and HE4. FGF18 and GPR172A were identified and validated by ELISA as being differentially expressed in the serum of ovarian cancer patients compared with controls. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Rethinking Ovarian Cancer: Recommendations for Improving Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Sebastian; Coward, Jermaine I.; Bast Jr., Robert C.; Berchuck, Andy; Berek, Jonathan S.; Brenton, James D.; Coukos, George; Crum, Christopher C.; Drapkin, Ronny; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Friedlander, Michael; Gabra, Hani; Kaye, Stan B.; Lord, Chris J.; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A.; McNeish, Iain A.; Menon, Usha; Mills, Gordon B.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Oza, Amit M.; Sood, Anil K.; Stronach, Euan A.; Walczak, Henning; Bowtell, David D.; Balkwill, Frances R.

    2012-01-01

    There have been major advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of the human malignancies collectively referred to as ovarian cancer. At a recent Helene Harris Memorial Trust meeting, an international group of researchers considered actions that should be taken to improve the outcome for women with ovarian cancer. Nine major recommendations are outlined in this Perspective. PMID:21941283

  4. Resistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel does not affect the sensitivity of human ovarian cancer cells to antiprogestin-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gamarra-Luques, Carlos D; Hapon, Maria B; Goyeneche, Alicia A; Telleria, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    Antiprogestin compounds have been shown to be effective in blocking the growth of ovarian cancer cells of different genetic backgrounds. Herein we studied the anti-ovarian cancer effect of a series of antiprogestins sharing the chemical backbone of the most characterized antiprogestin, mifepristone, but with unique modifications in position C-17 of the steroid ring. We assessed the effect of mifepristone-like antiprogestins on the growth of ovarian cancer cells sensitive to the standard combination therapy cisplatin-paclitaxel or made double-resistant upon six cycles of pulse-selection with the drugs used at clinically relevant concentrations and exposure times. IGROV-1 and SKOV-3 cells were pulsed with 20 μM cisplatin for 1 h followed by 100 nM paclitaxel for 3 h once a week for six weeks. The cells that did not die and repopulate the culture after the chemotherapies were termed Platinum-Taxane-EScape cells (PTES). Parental cells were compared against their PTES derivatives in their responses to further platinum-taxane treatments. Moreover, both ovarian cancer cells and their PTES siblings were exposed to escalating doses of the various antiprogestin derivatives. We assessed cell growth, viability and sub-G1 DNA content using microcapillary cytometry. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(cip1) and p27(kip1) and cleavage of downstream caspase-3 substrate PARP were used to assess whether cell fate, as a consequence of treatment, was limited to cytostasis or progressed to lethality. Cells subjected to six pulse-selection cycles of cisplatin-paclitaxel gave rise to sibling derivatives that displayed ~2-7 fold reduction in their sensitivities to further chemotherapy. However, regardless of the sensitivity the cells developed to the combination cisplatin-paclitaxel, they displayed similar sensitivity to the antiprogestins, which blocked their growth in a dose-related manner, with lower concentrations causing cytostasis, and higher concentrations causing lethality

  5. Resistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel does not affect the sensitivity of human ovarian cancer cells to antiprogestin-induced cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiprogestin compounds have been shown to be effective in blocking the growth of ovarian cancer cells of different genetic backgrounds. Herein we studied the anti-ovarian cancer effect of a series of antiprogestins sharing the chemical backbone of the most characterized antiprogestin, mifepristone, but with unique modifications in position C-17 of the steroid ring. We assessed the effect of mifepristone-like antiprogestins on the growth of ovarian cancer cells sensitive to the standard combination therapy cisplatin-paclitaxel or made double-resistant upon six cycles of pulse-selection with the drugs used at clinically relevant concentrations and exposure times. Methods IGROV-1 and SKOV-3 cells were pulsed with 20 μM cisplatin for 1 h followed by 100 nM paclitaxel for 3 h once a week for six weeks. The cells that did not die and repopulate the culture after the chemotherapies were termed Platinum-Taxane-EScape cells (PTES). Parental cells were compared against their PTES derivatives in their responses to further platinum-taxane treatments. Moreover, both ovarian cancer cells and their PTES siblings were exposed to escalating doses of the various antiprogestin derivatives. We assessed cell growth, viability and sub-G1 DNA content using microcapillary cytometry. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21cip1 and p27kip1 and cleavage of downstream caspase-3 substrate PARP were used to assess whether cell fate, as a consequence of treatment, was limited to cytostasis or progressed to lethality. Results Cells subjected to six pulse-selection cycles of cisplatin-paclitaxel gave rise to sibling derivatives that displayed ~2-7 fold reduction in their sensitivities to further chemotherapy. However, regardless of the sensitivity the cells developed to the combination cisplatin-paclitaxel, they displayed similar sensitivity to the antiprogestins, which blocked their growth in a dose-related manner, with lower concentrations causing cytostasis, and higher

  6. Effect of cryopreservation and transplantation on the expression of kit ligand and anti-Mullerian hormone in human ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    David, Anu; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Gilliaux, Sébastien; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Donnez, Jacques; Amorim, Christiani A

    2012-04-01

    Although cryopreservation and transplantation of ovarian tissue represent a promising alternative to safeguard fertility in cancer patients, low recovery rates of oocytes aspirated from antral follicles and a significant number of empty follicles have been observed in women with transplanted frozen-thawed ovarian tissue. In order to understand how freezing and/or grafting may affect follicular development, the follicular expression of kit ligand (KL) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), two key factors activating and inhibiting follicle growth, were assessed after long-term grafting in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Ovarian biopsies from eight patients were used for fresh and frozen-thawed tissue xenografting in 13 SCID mice for a period of 28 weeks, including 2 weeks of gonadotrophin stimulation. KL, AMH and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining were quantified before and after grafting in the two treatment groups (fresh and frozen-thawed grafted ovarian tissue). Lower expression of KL was found in primordial and primary follicles after grafting of both fresh and frozen-thawed tissue. Consistent expression of AMH was found in most growing follicles at a similar rate in both graft types. In fresh and frozen-thawed grafts, 13-14% of primordial follicles were PCNA-positive, indicating a similar maintenance of quiescent follicles despite follicle activation. Grafting and/or gonadotrophin stimulation appear to affect the follicular expression of KL, which may alter oocyte quality. AMH expression in growing follicles after ovarian tissue transplantation may be one of the factors contributing to the preservation of resting follicles in 28-week-old grafts.

  7. The role of reactive oxygen species in WP 631-induced death of human ovarian cancer cells: a comparison with the effect of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Aneta; Gajek, Arkadiusz; Szwed, Marzena; Jóźwiak, Zofia; Marczak, Agnieszka

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of WP 631, a new anthracycline analog, in weakly doxorubicin-resistant SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. We studied the time-course of apoptotic and necrotic events: the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential in human ovarian cancer cells exposed to WP 631 in the presence and absence of an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The effect of WP 631 was compared with the activity of doxorubicin (DOX), the best known first-generation anthracycline. Cytotoxic activity was determined by the MTT assay. The morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis and necrosis in drug-treated cells were analyzed by double staining with Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide (PI) using fluorescence microscopy. The production of reactive oxygen species and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were studied using specific fluorescence probes: DCFH2-DA and JC-1, respectively. The experiments showed that WP 631 was three times more cytotoxic than DOX in the tested cell line. It was found that the new anthracycline analog induced mainly apoptosis and, marginally, necrosis. Apoptotic cell death was associated with morphological changes and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. In comparison to DOX, the novel bisanthracycline induced a significantly higher level of ROS and a greater drop in the membrane potential. The results provide direct evidence that the novel anthracycline WP 631 is considerably more cytotoxic to human SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells than doxorubicin. The drug can produce ROS, which are immediately involved in the induction of apoptotic cell death. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-profiling for biomarker discovery applied to human polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Fernanda B; Ferreira, Christina R; Sobreira, Tiago Jose P; Yannell, Karen E; Jarmusch, Alan K; Cedenho, Agnaldo P; Lo Turco, Edson G; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-09-15

    We describe multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-profiling, which provides accelerated discovery of discriminating molecular features, and its application to human polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis. The discovery phase of the MRM-profiling seeks molecular features based on some prior knowledge of the chemical functional groups likely to be present in the sample. It does this through use of a limited number of pre-chosen and chemically specific neutral loss and/or precursor ion MS/MS scans. The output of the discovery phase is a set of precursor/product transitions. In the screening phase these MRM transitions are used to interrogate multiple samples (hence the name MRM-profiling). MRM-profiling was applied to follicular fluid samples of 22 controls and 29 clinically diagnosed PCOS patients. Representative samples were delivered by flow injection to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer set to perform a number of pre-chosen and chemically specific neutral loss and/or precursor ion MS/MS scans. The output of this discovery phase was a set of 1012 precursor/product transitions. In the screening phase each individual sample was interrogated for these MRM transitions. Principal component analysis (PCA) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used for statistical analysis. To evaluate the method's performance, half the samples were used to build a classification model (testing set) and half were blinded (validation set). Twenty transitions were used for the classification of the blind samples, most of them (N = 19) showed lower abundances in the PCOS group and corresponded to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids. Agreement of 73% with clinical diagnosis was found when classifying the 26 blind samples. MRM-profiling is a supervised method characterized by its simplicity, speed and the absence of chromatographic separation. It can be used to rapidly isolate discriminating molecules in healthy/disease conditions by

  9. Human chorionic gonadotrophin in early gestation induces growth of estrogenic ovarian follicles and improves primiparous sow fertility during summer.

    PubMed

    Seyfang, Jemma; Langendijk, P; Chen, T Y; Bouwman, E; Kirkwood, R N

    2016-09-01

    Reduced summer farrowing rates may be due to inadequate corpora luteal (CL) support. Porcine CL become dependent on LH from 12 d of pregnancy and the embryonic estrogen signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) is initiated at about 11-12 d after insemination. We hypothesised that injection of the LH analogue human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) would induce growth of estrogenic follicles and, by mimicking the signal for MRP and stimulating progesterone secretion, increase primiparous sow fertility. In Experiment 1, during a 28 d lactation 53 mixed parity sows were full-fed either throughout lactation (n=16) or until 18 d and then feed restricted during the last 10 d of lactation (n=36). At 12 d after mating restrict-fed sows were injected with 1000IU hCG (n=17) or were not injected (n=19); the full-fed sows acted as non-treated positive controls. Transrectal ovarian ultrasound exams were performed on days 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28; blood samples were obtained on days 12, 14, and 15 for estradiol and progesterone assay. For Experiment 2, during the summer months primiparous sows received 1000IU hCG 12 d after mating (n=28) or were non-injected controls (n=27). Pregnancy status was determined at 28 d and sows allowed to go to term to determine farrowing rates and litter sizes. In Experiment 1, injection of hCG increased (P<0.001) follicle diameter and serum concentrations of estradiol (P<0.01) and progesterone (P<0.05). There were no effects of lactation feeding level on wean-estrus interval, farrowing rate or subsequent litter size. In Experiment 2, hCG injection was associated with a higher pregnancy rate (P<0.05) and farrowing rate (P<0.08). There was no effect on litter size. These data confirm that hCG stimulates growth of estrogenic follicles and CL function, and improves primiparous sow fertility during the summer months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation of circular RNA abundance with proliferation--exemplified with colorectal and ovarian cancer, idiopathic lung fibrosis, and normal human tissues.

    PubMed

    Bachmayr-Heyda, Anna; Reiner, Agnes T; Auer, Katharina; Sukhbaatar, Nyamdelger; Aust, Stefanie; Bachleitner-Hofmann, Thomas; Mesteri, Ildiko; Grunt, Thomas W; Zeillinger, Robert; Pils, Dietmar

    2015-01-27

    Circular RNAs are a recently (re-)discovered abundant RNA species with presumed function as miRNA sponges, thus part of the competing endogenous RNA network. We analysed the expression of circular and linear RNAs and proliferation in matched normal colon mucosa and tumour tissues. We predicted >1,800 circular RNAs and proved the existence of five randomly chosen examples using RT-qPCR. Interestingly, the ratio of circular to linear RNA isoforms was always lower in tumour compared to normal colon samples and even lower in colorectal cancer cell lines. Furthermore, this ratio correlated negatively with the proliferation index. The correlation of global circular RNA abundance (the circRNA index) and proliferation was validated in a non-cancerous proliferative disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, ovarian cancer cells compared to cultured normal ovarian epithelial cells, and 13 normal human tissues. We are the first to report a global reduction of circular RNA abundance in colorectal cancer cell lines and cancer compared to normal tissues and discovered a negative correlation of global circular RNA abundance and proliferation. This negative correlation seems to be a general principle in human tissues as validated with three different settings. Finally, we present a simple model how circular RNAs could accumulate in non-proliferating cells.

  11. Correlation of circular RNA abundance with proliferation – exemplified with colorectal and ovarian cancer, idiopathic lung fibrosis, and normal human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bachmayr-Heyda, Anna; Reiner, Agnes T.; Auer, Katharina; Sukhbaatar, Nyamdelger; Aust, Stefanie; Bachleitner-Hofmann, Thomas; Mesteri, Ildiko; Grunt, Thomas W.; Zeillinger, Robert; Pils, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Circular RNAs are a recently (re-)discovered abundant RNA species with presumed function as miRNA sponges, thus part of the competing endogenous RNA network. We analysed the expression of circular and linear RNAs and proliferation in matched normal colon mucosa and tumour tissues. We predicted >1,800 circular RNAs and proved the existence of five randomly chosen examples using RT-qPCR. Interestingly, the ratio of circular to linear RNA isoforms was always lower in tumour compared to normal colon samples and even lower in colorectal cancer cell lines. Furthermore, this ratio correlated negatively with the proliferation index. The correlation of global circular RNA abundance (the circRNA index) and proliferation was validated in a non-cancerous proliferative disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, ovarian cancer cells compared to cultured normal ovarian epithelial cells, and 13 normal human tissues. We are the first to report a global reduction of circular RNA abundance in colorectal cancer cell lines and cancer compared to normal tissues and discovered a negative correlation of global circular RNA abundance and proliferation. This negative correlation seems to be a general principle in human tissues as validated with three different settings. Finally, we present a simple model how circular RNAs could accumulate in non-proliferating cells. PMID:25624062

  12. Decreased LRIG1 in Human Ovarian Cancer Cell SKOV3 Upregulates MRP-1 and Contributes to the Chemoresistance of VP16.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Yao, Jun; Yin, Jiangpin; Wei, Xuan

    2016-05-01

    The leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) are used as tumor suppressors in clinical applications. Although the LRIG has been identified to manipulate the cell proliferation via various oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases in diverse cancers, its role in multidrug resistance needs to be further elucidated, especially in human ovarian cancer. We herein established that the etoposide (VP16)-resistant SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cell clones (SKOV3/VP16 cells) and mRNA expression of LRIG1 were significantly reduced by the treatment of VP16 in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, downregulated LRIG1 in SKOV3 could enhance the colony formation and resist the inhibition of proliferation by VP16, leading to the elevated expression of Bcl-2 and decreased apoptosis of SKOV3. Interestingly, our results uncovered that the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) was upregulated for the chemoresistance of VP16. To overcome the chemoresistance of SKOV3, SKOV3/VP16 was ectopically expressed of LRIG1. We found that the inhibition of VP16 on colony formation and proliferation was remarkably enhanced with increased apoptosis in SKOV3/VP16. Furthermore, the expression of MRP-1 and Bcl-2 was also inhibited, suggesting that the LRIG1could negatively control MRP-1 and the apoptosis to improve the sensitivity of VP16-related chemotherapy.

  13. Ovarian membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases: induction of MMP14 and MMP16 during the periovulatory period in the rat, macaque, and human.

    PubMed

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Jacot, Terry A; Al-Alem, Linah F; Rosewell, Katherine L; Duffy, Diane M; Brännström, Mats; Curry, Thomas E

    2014-08-01

    An intrafollicular increase in proteolytic activity drives ovulatory events. Surprisingly, the periovulatory expression profile of the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs), unique proteases anchored to the cell surface, has not been extensively examined. Expression profiles of the MT-MMPs were investigated in ovarian tissue from well-characterized rat and macaque periovulatory models and naturally cycling women across the periovulatory period. Among the six known MT-MMPs, mRNA expression of Mmp14, Mmp16, and Mmp25 was increased after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration in rats. In human granulosa cells, mRNA expression of MMP14 and MMP16 increased following hCG treatment. In contrast, mRNA levels of MMP16 and MMP25 in human theca cells were unchanged before ovulation but declined by the postovulatory stage. In macaque granulosa cells, hCG increased mRNA for MMP16 but not MMP14. Immunoblotting showed that protein levels of MMP14 and MMP16 in rats increased, similar to their mRNA expression. In macaque granulosa cells, only the active form of the MMP14 protein increased after hCG, unlike its mRNA or the proprotein. By immunohistochemistry, both MMP14 and MMP16 localized to the different ovarian cell types in rats and humans. Treatment with hCG resulted in intense immunoreactivity of MMP14 and MMP16 proteins in the granulosa and theca cells. The present study shows that MMP14 and MMP16 are increased by hCG administration in the ovulating follicle, demonstrating that these MMPs are conserved among rats, macaques, and humans. These findings suggest that MT-MMPs could have an important role in promoting ovulation and remodeling of the ovulated follicle into the corpus luteum. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  14. Ovarian Membrane-Type Matrix Metalloproteinases: Induction of MMP14 and MMP16 During the Periovulatory Period in the Rat, Macaque, and Human1

    PubMed Central

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Jacot, Terry A.; Al-Alem, Linah F.; Rosewell, Katherine L.; Duffy, Diane M.; Brännström, Mats; Curry, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT An intrafollicular increase in proteolytic activity drives ovulatory events. Surprisingly, the periovulatory expression profile of the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs), unique proteases anchored to the cell surface, has not been extensively examined. Expression profiles of the MT-MMPs were investigated in ovarian tissue from well-characterized rat and macaque periovulatory models and naturally cycling women across the periovulatory period. Among the six known MT-MMPs, mRNA expression of Mmp14, Mmp16, and Mmp25 was increased after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration in rats. In human granulosa cells, mRNA expression of MMP14 and MMP16 increased following hCG treatment. In contrast, mRNA levels of MMP16 and MMP25 in human theca cells were unchanged before ovulation but declined by the postovulatory stage. In macaque granulosa cells, hCG increased mRNA for MMP16 but not MMP14. Immunoblotting showed that protein levels of MMP14 and MMP16 in rats increased, similar to their mRNA expression. In macaque granulosa cells, only the active form of the MMP14 protein increased after hCG, unlike its mRNA or the proprotein. By immunohistochemistry, both MMP14 and MMP16 localized to the different ovarian cell types in rats and humans. Treatment with hCG resulted in intense immunoreactivity of MMP14 and MMP16 proteins in the granulosa and theca cells. The present study shows that MMP14 and MMP16 are increased by hCG administration in the ovulating follicle, demonstrating that these MMPs are conserved among rats, macaques, and humans. These findings suggest that MT-MMPs could have an important role in promoting ovulation and remodeling of the ovulated follicle into the corpus luteum. PMID:24920038

  15. Modeling Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Mice by Alteration of Expression of the BRCA1 and/p53 Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    20% (9/42 mice). Only one ovarian neoplasm was identified and that was hilar cell tumor of the ovary. Two animals had large masses over the front...4) Hilar cell tumor of ovary 2 (1/46) 5 (1/21) 0 (0/42) 0 (0/36) 0 (0/4) Lymphoma 0 (0/46) 5 (1/21) 0 (0/42) 6 (2/36) 25 (1/4) Unclassified tumor

  16. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    PubMed

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    central action of estrogens to increase the satiating potency of the gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin. Another mechanism involves a decrease in the preference for sweet foods during the follicular phase. Genetic defects in brain α-melanocycte-stimulating hormone-melanocortin receptor (melanocortin 4 receptor, MC4R) signaling lead to a syndrome of overeating and obesity that is particularly pronounced in women and in female animals. The syndrome appears around puberty in mice with genetic deletions of MC4R, suggesting a role of ovarian hormones. Emerging functional brain-imaging data indicates that fluctuations in ovarian hormones affect eating by influencing striatal dopaminergic processing of flavor hedonics and lateral prefrontal cortex processing of cognitive inhibitory controls of eating. There is a dearth of research on the neuroendocrine control of eating after menopause. There is also comparatively little research on the effects of ovarian hormones on EE, although changes in ovarian hormone levels during the menstrual cycle do affect resting EE. The markedly greater obesity burden in women makes understanding the diverse effects of ovarian hormones on eating, EE and body adiposity urgent research challenges. A variety of research modalities can be used to investigate these effects in women, and most of the mechanisms reviewed are accessible in animal models. Therefore, human and translational research on the roles of ovarian hormones in women's obesity and its causes should be intensified to gain further mechanistic insights that may ultimately be translated into novel anti-obesity therapies and thereby improve women's health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Tetramethoxychalcone, a chalcone derivative, suppresses proliferation, blocks cell cycle progression, and induces apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zihao; Liu, Mingming; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Yang, Gong

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antitumor functions of a synthetic chalcone derivative 4,3',4',5'- tetramethoxychalcone (TMOC) in ovarian cancer cells. We found that TMOC inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of cisplatin sensitive cell line A2780 and resistant cell line A2780/CDDP, as well as ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Treatment of A2780 cells with TMOC resulted in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4, and the up-regulation of p16, p21 and p27 proteins. We demonstrated that TMOC might induce cell apoptosis through suppressing Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but enhancing the expression of Bax and the cleavage of PARP-1. Treatment of TMOC also reduced the invasion and migration of A2780 cells. Finally, we found that TMOC inhibited the constitutive activation of STAT3 signaling pathway and induced the expression of the tumor suppressor PTEN regardless of the p53 status in cell lines. These data suggest that TMOC may be developed as a potential chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including ovarian cancer.

  18. Tetramethoxychalcone, a Chalcone Derivative, Suppresses Proliferation, Blocks Cell Cycle Progression, and Induces Apoptosis of Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Yang, Gong

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antitumor functions of a synthetic chalcone derivative 4,3′,4′,5′- tetramethoxychalcone (TMOC) in ovarian cancer cells. We found that TMOC inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of cisplatin sensitive cell line A2780 and resistant cell line A2780/CDDP, as well as ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Treatment of A2780 cells with TMOC resulted in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4, and the up-regulation of p16, p21 and p27 proteins. We demonstrated that TMOC might induce cell apoptosis through suppressing Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but enhancing the expression of Bax and the cleavage of PARP-1. Treatment of TMOC also reduced the invasion and migration of A2780 cells. Finally, we found that TMOC inhibited the constitutive activation of STAT3 signaling pathway and induced the expression of the tumor suppressor PTEN regardless of the p53 status in cell lines. These data suggest that TMOC may be developed as a potential chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including ovarian cancer. PMID:25180593

  19. [Construction of autocatalytic caspase-3 driven by amplified human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and its enhanced efficacy of inducing apoptosis in human ovarian carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Song, Yue; Shen, Keng; He, Chun-Xia

    2007-09-01

    To construct recombinant adenoviral vector expressing autocatalysis caspase-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter amplified by two-step transcription amplification (hTERTp-TSTA), and investigate its antitumor effect in ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant adenoviruses expressing autocatalytic caspase-3 (rev-caspase-3) driven by hTERTp-TSTA were prepared, which were named as AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3. AdHT-rev-casp3, Ad-rev-casp3 and AdHTVP2G5-EGEP, which express rev-caspase-3 driven by hTERTp, cytomegalovirus promoter (CMVp) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), respectively, were used as controls. Western blot, cell counting kit (CCK-8), flow cytometry (FCM) and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) were used to detect the expression of p17, active subunit of caspase-3, and p85, and to measure cell survival rates, apoptotic rates and cell cycle distribution in ovarian cell line AO and normal human umbilical vein endothelial cell line HUVEC, following treatments of AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3. subcutaneous tumor models and abdominally spread tumor models of human ovarian carcinoma using AO cells in BALB/c nude mice were established. Following treatments of AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3, western blot was used to detect the expression of active caspase-3 in abdominally spread tumors and liver tissues, respectively, and the mouse survival rates and the volume of tumor nodules were measured, and the serum level of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were analyzed to monitor liver damages and HE staining was used to detect the histopathological changes of various organs. The levels of p17 expression in AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3-treated AO cells were significantly higher than that in Ad-rev-casp3 or AdHT-rev-casp3 treated AO cells, while no expression was observed in AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3-treated HUVEC. There was strong cell killing of AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 of hTERT positive AO cells, but not of the hTERT-negative HUVEC cells

  20. Comparison of Expression Profiles in Ovarian Epithelium In Vivo and Ovarian Cancer Identifies Novel Candidate Genes Involved in Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Catherine; Gava, Natalie; Kennedy, Catherine; Balleine, Rosemary L.; Sharma, Raghwa; Wain, Gerard; Brand, Alison; Hogg, Russell; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; George, Joshy; Birrer, Michael J.; Clarke, Christine L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Bowtell, David D. L.; Harnett, Paul R.; deFazio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Molecular events leading to epithelial ovarian cancer are poorly understood but ovulatory hormones and a high number of life-time ovulations with concomitant proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation, increases risk. We identified genes that are regulated during the estrous cycle in murine ovarian surface epithelium and analysed these profiles to identify genes dysregulated in human ovarian cancer, using publically available datasets. We identified 338 genes that are regulated in murine ovarian surface epithelium during the estrous cycle and dysregulated in ovarian cancer. Six of seven candidates selected for immunohistochemical validation were expressed in serous ovarian cancer, inclusion cysts, ovarian surface epithelium and in fallopian tube epithelium. Most were overexpressed in ovarian cancer compared with ovarian surface epithelium and/or inclusion cysts (EpCAM, EZH2, BIRC5) although BIRC5 and EZH2 were expressed as highly in fallopian tube epithelium as in ovarian cancer. We prioritised the 338 genes for those likely to be important for ovarian cancer development by in silico analyses of copy number aberration and mutation using publically available datasets and identified genes with established roles in ovarian cancer as well as novel genes for which we have evidence for involvement in ovarian cancer. Chromosome segregation emerged as an important process in which genes from our list of 338 were over-represented including two (BUB1, NCAPD2) for which there is evidence of amplification and mutation. NUAK2, upregulated in ovarian surface epithelium in proestrus and predicted to have a driver mutation in ovarian cancer, was examined in a larger cohort of serous ovarian cancer where patients with lower NUAK2 expression had shorter overall survival. In conclusion, defining genes that are activated in normal epithelium in the course of ovulation that are also dysregulated in cancer has identified a number of pathways and novel candidate genes that may contribute

  1. Serum and peritoneal fluid concentrations of soluble human leukocyte antigen, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 10 in patients with selected ovarian pathologies.

    PubMed

    Sipak-Szmigiel, Olimpia; Włodarski, Piotr; Ronin-Walknowska, Elżbieta; Niedzielski, Andrzej; Karakiewicz, Beata; Słuczanowska-Głąbowska, Sylwia; Laszczyńska, Maria; Malinowski, Witold

    2017-04-04

    Although immune system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of both endometriosis and ovarian cancer, its function is different. Therefore, we hypothesized, that selected immune parameters can serve as diagnostic markers of these two conditions. The aim of this study was to compare serum and peritoneal fluid concentrations of sHLA-G, IL-10 and TNF-alpha in women with selected ovarian pathologies: benign serous cysts, endometrioma and malignant tumors. Clinical significance of using them for diagnostic purposes in women with serous ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and ovarian cancer, which in the future may improve the early diagnosis of ovarian diseases. The study included women treated surgically for benign serous ovarian cysts, ovarian endometrioma and serous ovarian adenocarcinomas. Peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid samples were obtained intraoperatively. Patients with benign serous cysts, endometrioma and ovarian malignancies did not differ significantly in terms of their serum and peritoneal fluid concentrations of sHLA-G. Ovarian cancer patients presented with significantly higher median serum concentrations of IL-10 and TNF-alpha than other study subjects. Median concentrations of IL-10 and TNF-alpha in peritoneal fluid turned out to be the highest in ovarian cancer patients, followed by women with endometrioma and subjects with benign serous cysts. All these intergroup differences were statistically significant. Irrespective of the group, median concentrations of sHLA-G, IL-10 and TNF-alpha in peritoneal fluid were higher than serum levels of these markers. Elevated serum and peritoneal fluid concentrations of IL-10 and TNF-alpha distinguish ovarian malignancies and endometriomas from benign serous ovarian cysts. In contrast to endometriosis, ovarian malignancies are characterized by elevated peritoneal fluid concentrations of IL-10 and TNF-alpha, elevated serum concentrations of IL-10 and low serum levels of TNF-alpha. Serum and peritoneal fluid

  2. The non-preventive effects of human menopausal gonadotropins on ovarian tissues in Nandrolone decanoate-treated female rats: A histochemical and ultra-structural study.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Fakhroddin; Bordbar, Hossein; Talaei Khozani, Tahereh; Dehghani, Farzaneh; Mirkhani, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    The follicular growth and development may be affected by abused drugs. Nandrolone decanoate (ND) as an anabolic androgenic steroid can damage the morphological and functional features of the ovary and may lead to reproductive failure. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of synchronized and non-synchronized administration of Human Menopausal Gonadotropins (hMG) with ND on ovarian tissue and level of sex hormones in the adult female rat. Forty adult female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into eight groups. The five experimental groups received 3 and/or 10 mg/kg of ND synchronized and non-synchronized with 10 IU of hMG and hMG alone. The two shams and control groups received solvents of ND and hMG. The animals' serum levels of Follicle-stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone, progesterone and estrogen and the weight, volume and dimensions of the ovaries were measured. The ovaries were prepared for apoptosis assessment and morphological study. The ovarian volume and sex hormones in the experimental groups were decreased, but ovarian weight and dimensions didn't change. The rate of apoptosis was increased in the experimental groups as follows; a low and high dose of ND synchronized with hMG 48.80±18.70 and 65.20±14.20 respectively vs. Sham 1, 33.20±17.80, a low and high dose of ND non-synchronized with hMD 55.80±17.20 and 75.20±14.30 respectively vs. Sham 2, 31.60±32.40 groups, p˂0.01. Follicular and stromal cells were damaged in the experimental groups except for the hMG group. Administration of ND decreased the serum level of Luteinizing hormone, Follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone and estrogen and damaged ovarian tissue irreversibly and irreparably and hMG cannot prevent the destruction of the follicles in the adult female rats. This can be a serious warning to women who abuse ND.

  3. Effect of Procyanidin-rich Extract from Natural Cocoa Powder on Cellular Viability, Cell Cycle Progression, and Chemoresistance in Human Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Taparia, Shruti; Khanna, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the last 400 years, cocoa and chocolate have been described as having potential medicinal value, being consumed as a beverage or eaten as food. Concentration–dependant, antiproliferation, and cytotoxic effects of some of their polyphenolic constituents have been demonstrated against various cancers. Such an effect remains to be demonstrated in ovarian cancer Objective: To investigate the effect of cocoa procyanidins against ovarian cancer in vitro using OAW42 and OVCAR3 cell lines. Materials and Methods: Cocoa procyanidins were extracted and enriched from non alkalized cocoa powder. The polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity were determined. Effect on cell viability was determined after the treatment with ≤1000 μg/mL cocoa procyanidin-rich extract on OAW42 and OVCAR3 and normal human dermal fibroblasts. Similarly, chemosensitization effect was determined by pretreating cancer cell lines with extract followed by doxorubicin hydrochloride treatment. The effect of treatment on cell cycle and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression was determined using flow cytometry. Results: The cocoa extract showed high polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Treatment with extract caused cytotoxicity and chemosensitization in OAW42 and OVCAR3 cell lines. Normal dermal fibroblasts showed an increase in cell viability post treatment with extract. Treatment with extract affected the cell cycle and an increasing percentage of cells in hypodiploid sub-G1/G0 phase was observed. Treatment of OVCAR3 with the extract caused reduction of P-gp expression. Conclusion: Cocoa procyanidins were found to be selectively cytotoxic against epithelial ovarian cancer, interfered with the normal cell cycle and sensitized cells to subsequent chemotherapeutic treatment. Chemosensitization was found to be associated with P-gp reduction in OVCAR3 cells. SUMMARY Among the naturally occurring flavonoids, procyanidins have been shown to be effective against cancersNon alkalized

  4. The presence of centrioles and centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells suggests human parthenotes developed in vitro can differentiate into mature cells without a sperm centriole.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Yon; Shim, Sang Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Seung Bo

    2011-11-18

    In most animals, somatic cell centrosomes are inherited from the centriole of the fertilizing spermatozoa. The oocyte centriole degenerates during oogenesis, and completely disappears in metaphase II. Therefore, the embryos generated by in vitro parthenogenesis are supposed to develop without any centrioles. Exceptional acentriolar and/or acentrosomal developments are possible in mice and in some experimental cells; however, in most animals, the full developmental potential of parthenogenetic cells in vitro and the fate of their centrioles/centrosomes are not clearly understood. To predict the future of in vitro human parthenogenesis, we explored the centrioles/centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells by immunofluorescent staining and transmission electron microscopy. We confirmed the presence of centrioles and centrosomes in these well-known parthenogenetic ovarian tumor cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that, even without a sperm centriole, parthenotes that develop from activated oocytes can produce their own centrioles/centrosomes, and can even develop into the well-differentiated mature tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microscopic aspects of autoschizic cell death in human ovarian carcinoma (2774) cells following vitamin C, vitamin K3 or vitamin C:K3 treatment.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Jamison, James M; Arnold, David; Taper, Henryk S; Von Gruenigen, Vivian E; Summers, Jack L

    2003-08-01

    Human ovarian carcinoma cells (MDAH 2774) were treated with sodium ascorbate (VC), menadione (VK3), or with a VC:VK3 combination for 1 h and then studied using light microscopy (LM) and scanning (SEM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy. Plasma membrane damage (blisters and blebs, hairy aspect) results from vitamin C (VC) treatment, while cytoskeletal damage and self-morsellation are caused by vitamin K3 (VK3) treatment. VC:VK3-treated cells exhibit exacerbated injuries characteristic of both VC and VK3 treatment as well as a significant decrease in cell diameters from 20-35 microm for control cells to 7-12 microm for VC:VK3 treatment. Moreover, after a 1-h exposure to the vitamin combination, autoschizis (43%), apoptosis (3%), and oncosis (1.9%) are observed at the percentages indicated. All cellular changes associated with autoschizis observed with SEM were confirmed by LM and TEM observations and are consistent with cell death by autoschizis: decrease in cell size, cytoplasmic self-excisions, degradation of the nucleus and nucleolus without formation of apoptotic bodies and, ultimately, karyorrhexis and karyolysis. These results also suggest that the vitamin combination may find clinical use in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  6. Microscopic Aspects of Autoschizic Cell Death in Human Ovarian Carcinoma (2774) Cells Following Vitamin C, Vitamin K3 or Vitamin C:K3 Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Jamison, James M.; Arnold, David; Taper, Henryk S.; von Gruenigen, Vivian E.; Summers, Jack L.

    2003-08-01

    Human ovarian carcinoma cells (MDAH 2774) were treated with sodium ascorbate (VC), menadione (VK3), or with a VC:VK3 combination for 1 h and then studied using light microscopy (LM) and scanning (SEM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy. Plasma membrane damage (blisters and blebs, hairy aspect) results from vitamin C (VC) treatment, while cytoskeletal damage and self-morsellation are caused by vitamin K3 (VK3) treatment. VC:VK3-treated cells exhibit exacerbated injuries characteristic of both VC and VK3 treatment as well as a significant decrease in cell diameters from 20 35 [mu]m for control cells to 7 12 [mu]m for VC:VK3 treatment. Moreover, after a 1-h exposure to the vitamin combination, autoschizis (43%), apoptosis (3%), and oncosis (1.9%) are observed at the percentages indicated. All cellular changes associated with autoschizis observed with SEM were confirmed by LM and TEM observations and are consistent with cell death by autoschizis: decrease in cell size, cytoplasmic self-excisions, degradation of the nucleus and nucleolus without formation of apoptotic bodies and, ultimately, karyorrhexis and karyolysis. These results also suggest that the vitamin combination may find clinical use in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  7. Exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells protect against cisplatin-induced ovarian granulosa cell stress and apoptosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Li, Dong; Song, Kun; Wei, Jianlu; Yao, Shu; Li, Zhao; Su, Xuantao; Ju, Xiuli; Chao, Lan; Deng, Xiaohui; Kong, Beihua; Li, Li

    2017-05-31

    Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (huMSCs) can treat primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) related to ovarian granulosa cell (OGC) apoptosis caused by cisplatin chemotherapy. Exosomes are a class of membranous vesicles with diameters of 30-200 nm that are constitutively released by eukaryotic cells. Exosomes mediate local cell-to-cell communication by transferring microRNAs and proteins. In the present study, we demonstrated the effects of exosomes derived from huMSCs (huMSC-EXOs) on a cisplatin-induced OGC model in vitro and discussed the preliminary mechanisms involved in these effects. We successfully extracted huMSC-EXOs from huMSC culture supernatant and observed the effective uptake of exosomes by cells with fluorescent staining. Using flow cytometry (with annexin-V/PI labelling), we found that huMSC-EXOs increased the number of living cells. Western blotting showed that the expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were upregulated, whilst the expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP were downregulated to protect OGCs. These results suggest that huMSC-EXOs can be used to prevent and treat chemotherapy-induced OGC apoptosis in vitro. Therefore, this work provides insight and further evidence of stem cell function and indicates that huMSC-EXOs protect OGCs from cisplatin-induced injury in vitro.

  8. Ovarian hormones and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N.; Asarian, Lori

    2017-01-01

    that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a central action of estrogens to increase the satiating potency of the gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin. Another mechanism involves a decrease in the preference for sweet foods during the follicular phase. Genetic defects in brain α-melanocycte-stimulating hormone–melanocortin receptor (melanocortin 4 receptor, MC4R) signaling lead to a syndrome of overeating and obesity that is particularly pronounced in women and in female animals. The syndrome appears around puberty in mice with genetic deletions of MC4R, suggesting a role of ovarian hormones. Emerging functional brain-imaging data indicates that fluctuations in ovarian hormones affect eating by influencing striatal dopaminergic processing of flavor hedonics and lateral prefrontal cortex processing of cognitive inhibitory controls of eating. There is a dearth of research on the neuroendocrine control of eating after menopause. There is also comparatively little research on the effects of ovarian hormones on EE, although changes in ovarian hormone levels during the menstrual cycle do affect resting EE. WIDER IMPLICATIONS The markedly greater obesity burden in women makes understanding the diverse effects of ovarian hormones on eating, EE and body adiposity urgent research challenges. A variety of research modalities can be used to investigate these effects in women, and most of the mechanisms reviewed are accessible in animal models. Therefore, human and translational research on the roles of ovarian hormones in women's obesity and its causes should be intensified to gain further mechanistic insights that may ultimately be translated into novel anti-obesity therapies and thereby improve women's health. PMID:28333235

  9. Disease Heterogeneity and Immune Biomarkers in Preclinical Mouse Models of Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    with either endometriosis , ovarian cancer or endometriosis progressing to ovarian cancer. Aim 3. To validate in human specimens the disease...biomarkers identified (in aim 2) in mice with endometriosis and ovarian tumors. BODY We present below our progress (year 1) according to the tasks and... endometriosis , ovarian cancer or endometriosis progressing to ovarian cancer. The work on this aim has been initiated. We have already validated the in vivo

  10. Reduced expression of HSP27 following HAD-B treatment is associated with Her2 downregulation in NIH:OVCAR-3 human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuo Chu; Heo, Kyun; Ambade, Nitin; Kim, Min Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yoo, Byong Chul; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2015-09-01

    The Korean traditional medicine, HangAmDan (HAD), was developed in 1996 for use as an antitumor agent, and has since been modified to HAD‑B (an altered form of HAD), in order to potentiate its therapeutic effects. In the present study, the effect of HAD‑B on the proliferation and invasion of NIH:OVCAR‑3 and SKOV‑3 human ovarian cancer cell lines was investigated. In addition, the expression of major signal transduction molecules and changes in the proteome in these cells were measured. HAD‑B treatment effectively induced a reduction in the levels of cell proliferation in serum‑free conditioned media. However, unaltered levels of PARP and caspase‑3 indicated that HAD‑B does not reduce proliferation by inducing apoptotic cell death. Fluorescence‑activated cell sorting analysis revealed no significant change in apoptosis following HAD-B treatment. Invasion assay results indicated a reduced rate of invasion following HAD‑B treatment. HAD‑B also influenced the expression of major signal transduction molecules; the phosphorylation of mTOR and AKT was reduced, while that of ERK was increased. Alterations in the proteomes of the two cell lines were investigated following HAD‑B treatment. Among the 9 proteins with differential expression, heat‑shock protein β‑1 (HSP27) was downregulated in NIH:OVCAR‑3 cells treated with HAD‑B. The reduced expression of HSP27 was associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) downregulation in these cells. In conclusion, the results of the current proteome assessment suggest that HAD‑B has the potential to suppress the proliferation and invasion of human ovarian cancer cells. HAD‑B treatment of NIH:OVCAR‑3 cells suppressed HSP27 expression and was also associated with Her2 downregulation.

  11. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of the Bithionol - cisplatin combination in a panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ayyagari, Vijayalakshmi N; Hsieh, Tsung-Han Jeff; Diaz-Sylvester, Paula L; Brard, Laurent

    2017-01-13

    Combination drug therapy appears a promising approach to overcome drug resistance and reduce drug-related toxicities in ovarian cancer treatments. In this in vitro study, we evaluated the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in combination with Bithionol (BT) against a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines with special focus on cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant cell lines. The primary objectives of this study are to determine the nature of the interactions between BT and cisplatin and to understand the mechanism(s) of action of BT-cisplatin combination. The cytotoxic effects of drugs either alone or in combination were evaluated using presto-blue assay. Cellular reactive oxygen species were measured by flow cytometry. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to investigate changes in levels of cleaved PARP, XIAP, bcl-2, bcl-xL, p21 and p27. Luminescent and colorimetric assays were used to test caspases 3/7 and ATX activity. The efficacy of the BT-cisplatin combination depends upon the cell type and concentrations of cisplatin and BT. In cisplatin-sensitive cell lines, BT and cisplatin were mostly antagonistic except when used at low concentrations, where synergy was observed. In contrast, in cisplatin-resistant cells, BT-cisplatin combination treatment displayed synergistic effects at most of the drug ratios/concentrations. Our results further revealed that the synergistic interaction was linked to increased reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis. Enhanced apoptosis was correlated with loss of pro-survival factors (XIAP, bcl-2, bcl-xL), expression of pro-apoptotic markers (caspases 3/7, PARP cleavage) and enhanced cell cycle regulators p21 and p27. In cisplatin-resistant cell lines, BT potentiated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity at most drug ratios via enhanced ROS generation and modulation of key regulators of apoptosis. Low doses of BT and cisplatin enhanced efficiency of cisplatin treatment in all the ovarian cancer cell lines tested. Our results suggest

  12. Upregulation of MiR-205 transcriptionally suppresses SMAD4 and PTEN and contributes to human ovarian cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juanni; Hu, Kuan; Gong, Guanghui; Zhu, Ding; Wang, Yixuan; Liu, Hailing; Wu, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as critical regulators of gene expression and their deregulation is associated with the development and progression of various cancers. This study aimed to investigate the biological role and mechanism of miR-205 in ovarian cancer (OC). MiR-205 was upregulated in OC tissues and cells in comparison to the controls. Meanwhile, overexpression of miR-205 was significantly associated with poor overall survival of OC patients. Functional study indicated that ectopic expression of miR-205 significantly promoted cell proliferation, migration, invasion and chemoresistance of OC cells. SMAD4 and PTEN were identified as direct targets of miR-205 using luciferase reporter assays, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and western blot. Most interestingly, in vivo studies indicated that miR-205 markedly promoted the growth and metastasis of tumors and the expression of miR-205 was also found to be inversely correlated with that of SMAD4 and PTEN in nude mice. Overall, we suggest that miR-205 functions as an oncogenic miRNA by directly binding to SMAD4 and PTEN, providing a novel target for the molecular treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:28145479

  13. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P < 0.05) and higher than in middle and remote paraneoplastic tissue (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes in middle and proximal paraneoplastic tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  14. Monitoring of integrin-mediated adhesion of human ovarian cancer cells to model protein surfaces by quartz crystal resonators: evaluation in the impedance analysis mode.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Thielemann, Christiane; Reuning, Ute; Johannsmann, Diethelm

    2005-01-15

    The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used to monitor specific, integrin-mediated adhesion of human ovarian cancer cells to distinct extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins immobilized on gold-coated quartz crystal resonators. The QCM was operated in the impedance analysis mode, where frequency shift as well as bandwidth are accessible on a broad range of overtones. The increase in bandwidth caused by covering the quartz resonator with cells was reproducible and largely independent of overtone order, whereas the frequency shift displayed some variability. Thus the bandwidth proved to be the more robust parameter for sensing cell adhesive events. The bandwidth increased in proportion to the number of seeded cells to the quartz crystal as long as the number was below 150,000 cells/ml. Comparing the resonance parameters on different harmonics, one finds that viscoelastic modeling with homogeneous layer systems cannot reproduce the results: lateral heterogeneity has to be taken into account. The differences in adhesive strength of human ovarian cancer cells towards selected ECM proteins monitored by QCM was in good agreement with data obtained by conventional cell adhesion assays. Strong cell adhesion was observed to the ECM proteins vitronectin (VN) and fibronectin (FN), while only weak attachment occurred on laminin. In order to prove specific, integrin alphavbeta3-mediated cell adhesion to its ligands FN and VN, the cyclic integrin alphavbeta3-directed peptide c(RGDfV) was used as competitor and significantly reversed cell adhesion. Since integrin interaction with ECM proteins is dependent on the presence of bivalent cations, cell detachment was also seen after treatment of cell monolayers with the chelator ethylene-dinitro-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). The QCM technique is a reliable method to monitor cell adsorption to ECM-pretreated surfaces in real time. It may be an alternative tool for screening specific and selective antagonists of integrin/ECM interaction.

  15. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-03-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in benign ovarian epithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  16. First pregnancies, live birth, and in vitro fertilization outcomes after transplantation of frozen-banked ovarian tissue with a human extracellular matrix scaffold using robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Kutluk; Bedoschi, Giuliano; Pacheco, Fernanda; Turan, Volkan; Emirdar, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is an experimental fertility preservation method and the transplantation techniques are still evolving. We attempted to improve the technique with the utility of a human decellularized extracellular tissue matrix (ECTM) scaffold, robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery, and perioperative pharmacological support. We prospectively studied 2 subjects with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (patient A) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (patient B) who underwent ovarian tissue cryopreservation at the age of 23 years, before receiving preconditioning chemotherapy for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Both experienced ovarian failure postchemotherapy and we transplanted ovarian cortical tissues to the contralateral menopausal ovary 7 and 12 years later, using a human ECTM scaffold and robotic assistance. The ECTM scaffold tissue compatibility was shown in preclinical studies. Patients also received estrogen supplementation and baby aspirin preoperatively to aid in the revascularization process. Ovarian follicle development was observed approximately 10 (patient A) and 8 (patient B) weeks after ovarian tissue transplantation. Following 8 and 7 cycles of in vitro fertilization, 9 and 10 day-3 embryos were cryopreserved (patients A and B, respectively). While the baseline follicle-stimulating hormone (range 3.6-15.4 mIU/mL) levels near normalized by 7 months and remained steady postovarian transplantation in patient A, patient B showed improved but elevated follicle-stimulating hormone levels throughout (range 21-31 mIU/mL). Highest follicle yield was achieved 14 (8 follicles; patient A) and 11 (6 follicles; patient B) months postintervention. Patient A experienced a chemical pregnancy after the third frozen embryo transfer attempt. She then conceived following her first fresh in vitro fertilization embryo transfer and the pregnancy is currently ongoing. Patient B conceived after the first frozen embryo transfer attempt and delivered a

  17. Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Ovarian Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Eric; Larsen, Ginger; Manikkam, Mohan; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Savenkova, Marina I.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    The actions of environmental toxicants and relevant mixtures in promoting the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of ovarian disease was investigated with the use of a fungicide, a pesticide mixture, a plastic mixture, dioxin and a hydrocarbon mixture. After transient exposure of an F0 gestating female rat during embryonic gonadal sex determination, the F1 and F3 generation progeny adult onset ovarian disease was assessed. Transgenerational disease phenotypes observed included an increase in cysts resembling human polycystic ovarian disease (PCO) and a decrease in the ovarian primordial follicle pool size resembling primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The F3 generation granulosa cells were isolated and found to have a transgenerational effect on the transcriptome and epigenome (differential DNA methylation). Epigenetic biomarkers for environmental exposure and associated gene networks were identified. Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of ovarian disease states was induced by all the different classes of environmental compounds, suggesting a role of environmental epigenetics in ovarian disease etiology. PMID:22570695

  18. The O-methylated isoflavone, formononetin, inhibits human ovarian cancer cell proliferation by sub G0/G1 cell phase arrest through PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 inactivation.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunwoo; Bazer, Fuller W; Lim, Whasun; Song, Gwonhwa

    2018-05-15

    Formononetin is an isoflavone that is extracted from red clovers or soy. It has anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-tumor effects against cells in various diseases. Several cohort studies have indicated that phytoestrogen intake, including formononetin, could reduce the risk of various carcinogenesis. In fact, many case-control studies have indicated the potential value of flavonoids as drug supplements in the treatment of many cancer patients. However, the toxic effects and the anti-cancer mechanism of formononetin in ovarian cancer are unknown. We investigated the toxicological mechanism of formononetin in ES2 and OV90 ovarian cancer cells. Formononetin suppressed cell proliferation through sub G0/G1 phase arrest and increased apoptosis in both cell lines. Furthermore, it induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species in ES2 and OV90 cells. The formononetin-mediated regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis involved decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, P90RSK, AKT, P70S6K, and S6 proteins, and increased phosphorylation of P38 protein in ES2 and OV90 cells. Co-treatment of formononetin with pharmacological inhibitors (LY294002 or U0126) revealed additional anti-proliferative effects on the two human ovarian cancer cell types. Conclusively, the results indicate the potential value of formononetin as an anti-cancer agent in human ovarian cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Right-sided lateralisation of ovarian cancer and right bias asymmetry for involved pelvic lymph nodes by ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dane, Senol; Borekci, Bunyamin; Kadanali, Sedat

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if there is a possible lateralisation for ovarian cancers, to re-examine left-right asymmetry in pelvic lymph nodes distribution in patients with ovarian cancer, and to investigate if pelvic lymph node involvement by metastatic invasion of ovarian cancer cells is ipsilateral or contralateral. There was right-sided lateralisation for ovarian cancer. The numbers of external iliac and hypogastric+obturator lymph nodes were higher on the right side in patients with ovarian cancer on the right side; but they were about equal for right and left sides in patients with ovarian cancer in their left side. The numbers of external iliac and hypogastric+obturator lymph nodes involved by metastatic cancer cells were higher on the right side in patients with ovarian cancer on the both right and left sides. This case may result from the stronger cell-mediated immune activity in the left sides of humans.

  20. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Be Brave (:60) Ovarian cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms— Vaginal ...

  1. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... BRCA2 genes Never having had children Infertility Endometriosis Lynch Syndrome What screening tests are available for ovarian cancer? ... It also may be recommended for women with Lynch syndrome. This operation reduces the risk of ovarian cancer. ...

  2. Survival and growth of isolated pre-antral follicles from human ovarian medulla tissue during long-term 3D culture.

    PubMed

    Yin, H; Kristensen, S G; Jiang, H; Rasmussen, A; Andersen, C Yding

    2016-07-01

    Can human pre-antral follicles isolated enzymatically from surplus medulla tissue survive and grow in vitro during long-term 3D culture? Secondary human follicles can develop to small antral follicles and remain hormonally active in an alginate-encapsulation culture system for more than 30 days. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation followed by transplantation is a promising fertility preservation approach for cancer patients. However, transplantation of cryopreserved tissue to patients may carry the risk of re-implanting malignant cells. Grafting of follicles enzymatically isolated from ovarian tissue or developing a method for follicular culture and maturation in vitro may provide fertility to such patients without the risk of reintroducing the malignancy. However, the growth of pre-antral follicles isolated by enzymatic digestion from medulla tissue during long-term culture has received only little attention. Two to ten human pre-antral follicles were encapsulated together within an alginate bead and cultured with or without ovarian interstitial tissue for either 7 days or >30 days. Follicles were cultured in either 20% oxygen or 5% oxygen or encapsulated in a lower concentration of alginate together with a lower concentration of FSH in high oxygen. A total of 395 pre-antral follicles from 16 cancer patients, aged 9-37 years, were co-cultured for either 7 days or >30 days. A proportion of follicle (64) were removed from culture on Day 7 and assessed for viability using confocal fluorescence microscopy following calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer-1 staining or histology. The remaining follicles (331) were continued in culture for >30 days then assessed for survival and growth. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and estradiol levels were quantified in the medium. An optimized protocol for isolation of intact healthy pre-antral follicles from ovarian medulla was developed. After 7 days of culture, secondary follicles had a significantly higher survival rates compared with

  3. The CD47 “don’t eat me signal” is highly expressed in human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brightwell, RM; Grzankowski, KS; Lele, S; Eng, K; Arshad, M; Chen, H; Odunsi, K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The CD47 “don’t eat me” signal allows tumor immune evasion. We tested the association of CD47 expression with outcomes in EOC. Methods CD47 expression was examined within the TCGA database for ovarian carcinoma. For validation, IHC was performed on a TMA consisting of specimens from 265 patients with EOC. The medical records of the patients were also retrospectively reviewed to correlate demographic and survival data. Results CD47 was amplified in 15/316 (5%) ovarian serous cancers in TCGA. In the validation cohort, the majority of patients had stage III/IV disease (208/265, 78.4%). CD47 expression was seen in 210/265 (79.2%). Patients were categorized into CD47hi (129/265; 48.7%) versus CD47lo (136/265; 51.3%). Patients with CD47lo tumors were more likely to have a complete response to adjuvant therapy than CD47hi (65% vs 50%, p= 0.026). Although there was a trend towards an increase in median OS (37.64 vs 45.26 mos, p=0.92) in the CD47lo group compared with CD47hi, the difference was not significant. Conclusions CD47 is expressed at high frequency in EOC. Patients with CD47lo EOC had a better treatment response to standard therapy, and trended towards improved OS. This demonstrates that while CD47 may be an immunologic shield that may be considered for targeted therapies, it is likely that it operates in concert with other mechanisms of immune evasion. Future studies to evaluate CD47 expression with other known mechanisms of immune escape in the tumor microenvironment may help further define its role. PMID:27569584

  4. Novel Nano-Therapeutic Approach Actively Targets Human Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells after Xenograft into Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Abou-ElNaga, Amoura; Mutawa, Ghada; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M; Abd-ElGhaffar, Hassan; Allam, Ahmed A; Ajarem, Jamaan; Mousa, Shaker A

    2017-04-12

    The power of tumorigenesis, chemo-resistance and metastasis in malignant ovarian tumors resides in a tiny population of cancer cells known as ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs). Developing nano-therapeutic targeting of OCSCs is considered a great challenge. The potential use of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) was investigated as a drug delivery system for paclitaxel (PTX) against OCSCs in vitro and in vivo. PTX-loaded PLGA NPs were prepared by an emulsion solvent evaporation method, supported by incorporation of folic acid (FA) as the ligand. NPs were characterized for size, surface morphology, drug loading, and encapsulation efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity of PTX-loaded FA/PLGA NPs was tested against OCSCs with MTT assay. In vivo anti-tumoral efficiency and active targeting potential of prepared NPs against tumors in nude mice were investigated. In vitro results revealed that IC 50 of PTX was significantly reduced after loading on PLGA NPs. On the other hand, in vivo results showed that PLGA NPs enhanced the tumor suppression efficiency of PTX. Investigation with real time quantitative PCR analysis revealed the limiting expression of chemo-resistant genes ( ABCG2 and MDR1 ) after applying PLGA NPs as a drug delivery system for PTX. Histopathological examination of tumors showed the effective biological influence of PTX-loaded FA/PLGA NPs through the appearance of reactive lymphoid follicles. Targeting potential of PTX was activated by FA/PLGA NPs through significant preservation of body weight ( p < 0.0001) and minimizing the systemic toxicity in healthy tissues. Immunohistochemical investigation revealed a high expression of apoptotic markers in tumor tissue, supporting the targeting effect of FA/PLGA NPs. A drug delivery system based on FA/PLGA NPs can enhance PTX's in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo targeting potential against OCSCs.

  5. MUC4 mucin-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition: a novel mechanism for metastasis of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, M P; Lakshmanan, I; Jain, M; Das, S; Chakraborty, S; Dey, P; Batra, S K

    2010-10-21

    The acquisition of invasiveness in ovarian cancer (OC) is accompanied by the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The MUC4 mucin is overexpressed in ovarian tumors and has a role in the invasiveness of OC cells. The present study was aimed at evaluating the potential involvement of MUC4 in the metastasis of OC cells by inducing EMT. Ectopic overexpression of MUC4 in OC cells (SKOV3-MUC4) resulted in morphological alterations along with a decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin (CK)-18) and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin) compared with the control cells (SKOV3-vector). Also, pro-EMT transcription factors TWIST1, TWIST2 and SNAIL showed an upregulation in SKOV3-MUC4 cells. We further investigated the pathways upstream of N-cadherin, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), MKK7, JNK1/2 and c-Jun, which were also activated in the SKOV3-MUC4 cells compared with SKOV3-vector cells. Inhibition of phospho-FAK (pFAK) and pJNK1/2 decreased N-cadherin expression in the MUC4-overexpressing cells, which further led to a significant decrease in cellular motility. Knockdown of N-cadherin decreased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), AKT and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and inhibited the motility in the SKOV3-MUC4 cells. Upon in vivo tumorigenesis and metastasis analysis, the SKOV3-MUC4 cells produced significantly larger tumors and demonstrated a higher incidence of metastasis to distance organs (peritoneal wall, colon, intestine, stomach, lymph nodes, liver and diaphragm). Taken together, our study reveals a novel role for MUC4 in inducing EMT through the upregulation of N-cadherin and promoting metastasis of OC cells.

  6. The Aminosteroid Derivative RM-133 Shows In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Activity in Human Ovarian and Pancreatic Cancers.

    PubMed

    Kenmogne, Lucie Carolle; Ayan, Diana; Roy, Jenny; Maltais, René; Poirier, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian and pancreatic cancers are two of the most aggressive and lethal cancers, whose management faces only limited therapeutic options. Typically, these tumors spread insidiously accompanied first with atypical symptoms, and usually shift to a drug resistance phenotype with the current pharmaceutical armamentarium. Thus, the development of new drugs acting via a different mechanism of action represents a clear priority. Herein, we are reporting for the first time that the aminosteroid derivative RM-133, developed in our laboratory, displays promising activity on two models of aggressive cancers, namely ovarian (OVCAR-3) and pancreatic (PANC-1) cancers. The IC50 value of RM-133 was 0.8 μM and 0.3 μM for OVCAR-3 and PANC-1 cell lines in culture, respectively. Based on pharmacokinetic studies on RM-133 using 11 different vehicles, we selected two main vehicles: aqueous 0.4% methylcellulose:ethanol (92:8) and sunflower oil:ethanol (92:8) for in vivo studies. Using subcutaneous injection of RM-133 with the methylcellulose-based vehicle, growth of PANC-1 tumors xenografted to nude mice was inhibited by 63%. Quite interestingly, RM-133 injected subcutaneously with the methylcellulose-based or sunflower-based vehicles reduced OVCAR-3 xenograft growth by 122% and 100%, respectively. After the end of RM-133 treatment using the methylcellulose-based vehicle, OVCAR-3 tumor growth inhibition was maintained for ≥ 1 week. RM-133 was also well tolerated in the whole animal, no apparent sign of toxicity having been detected in the xenograft studies.

  7. The Aminosteroid Derivative RM-133 Shows In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Activity in Human Ovarian and Pancreatic Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kenmogne, Lucie Carolle; Ayan, Diana; Roy, Jenny; Maltais, René; Poirier, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian and pancreatic cancers are two of the most aggressive and lethal cancers, whose management faces only limited therapeutic options. Typically, these tumors spread insidiously accompanied first with atypical symptoms, and usually shift to a drug resistance phenotype with the current pharmaceutical armamentarium. Thus, the development of new drugs acting via a different mechanism of action represents a clear priority. Herein, we are reporting for the first time that the aminosteroid derivative RM-133, developed in our laboratory, displays promising activity on two models of aggressive cancers, namely ovarian (OVCAR-3) and pancreatic (PANC-1) cancers. The IC50 value of RM-133 was 0.8 μM and 0.3 μM for OVCAR-3 and PANC-1 cell lines in culture, respectively. Based on pharmacokinetic studies on RM-133 using 11 different vehicles, we selected two main vehicles: aqueous 0.4% methylcellulose:ethanol (92:8) and sunflower oil:ethanol (92:8) for in vivo studies. Using subcutaneous injection of RM-133 with the methylcellulose-based vehicle, growth of PANC-1 tumors xenografted to nude mice was inhibited by 63%. Quite interestingly, RM-133 injected subcutaneously with the methylcellulose-based or sunflower-based vehicles reduced OVCAR-3 xenograft growth by 122% and 100%, respectively. After the end of RM-133 treatment using the methylcellulose-based vehicle, OVCAR-3 tumor growth inhibition was maintained for ≥ 1 week. RM-133 was also well tolerated in the whole animal, no apparent sign of toxicity having been detected in the xenograft studies. PMID:26660672

  8. Chemosensitivity testing of human tumors using a microplate adenosine triphosphate luminescence assay: clinical correlation for cisplatin resistance of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, P E; Cree, I A; Kurbacher, C M; Hartmann, D M; Linder, D; Harel, G; Gleiberman, I; Caruso, P A; Ricks, S H; Untch, M

    1995-11-15

    An ATP luminescence assay (TCA 100) was used to measure chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity and resistance of dissociated tumor cells cultured for 6 days in serum-free medium and 96-well polypropylene microplates. Studies were performed with surgical, needle biopsy, pleural, or ascitic fluid specimens using 10,000-20,000 cells/well. ATP measurements were used to determine tumor growth inhibition. Single agent and drug combinations were evaluated using the area under the curve and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) results for a series of test drug concentrations. The ATP luminometry method had high sensitivity, linearity, and precision for measuring the activity of single agents and drug combinations. Assay reproducibility was high with intraassay and interassay coefficients of variation of 10-15% for percentage of tumor growth inhibition, 5-10% for area under curve, and 15-20% for IC50 results. Good correlation (r = 0.93) between the area under the curve, and IC50 results was observed. Cytological studies with 124 specimens demonstrated selective growth of malignant cells in the serum-free culture system. Studies with malignant and benign specimens also showed selective growth of malignant cells in the serum-free medium used for assay. The assay had a success rate of 87% based on criteria for specimen histopathology, magnitude of cell growth, and dose-response drug activity. Cisplatin results for ovarian carcinoma are presented for 81 specimens from 70 untreated patients and 33 specimens from 30 refractory patients. A model for interpretation of these results based on the correlation of clinical response with the area under the curve and IC50 results indicates that the assay has > 90% accuracy for cisplatin resistance of ovarian carcinoma. Additional studies are in progress to evaluate the clinical efficacy of this assay.

  9. Effect of sex and ovarian hormones on carotid baroreflex resetting and function during dynamic exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Areum; Deo, Shekhar H.; Fisher, James P.

    2012-01-01

    To date, no studies have examined whether there are either sex- or ovarian hormone-related alterations in arterial baroreflex resetting and function during dynamic exercise. Thus we studied 16 young men and 18 young women at rest and during leg cycling at 50% heart rate (HR) reserve. In addition, 10 women were studied at three different phases of the menstrual cycle. Five-second pulses of neck pressure (NP) and neck suction (NS) from +40 to −80 Torr were applied to determine full carotid baroreflex (CBR) stimulus response curves. An upward and rightward resetting of the CBR function curve was observed during exercise in all groups with a similar magnitude of CBR resetting for mean arterial pressure (MAP) and HR between sexes (P > 0.05) and at different phases of the menstrual cycle (P > 0.05). For CBR control of MAP, women exhibited augmented pressor responses to NP at rest and exercise during mid-luteal compared with early and late follicular phases. For CBR control of HR, there was a greater bradycardic response to NS in women across all menstrual cycle phases with the operating point (OP) located further away from centering point (CP) on the CBR-HR curve during rest (OP-CP; in mmHg: −13 ± 3 women vs. −3 ± 3 men; P < 0.05) and exercise (in mmHg: −31 ± 2 women vs. −15 ± 3 men; P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that sex and fluctuations in ovarian hormones do not influence exercise resetting of the baroreflex. However, women exhibited greater CBR control of HR during exercise, specifically against acute hypertension, an effect that was present throughout the menstrual cycle. PMID:22267388

  10. Live birth after ovarian tissue transplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. M.; Yeoman, R. R.; Battaglia, D. E.; Stouffer, R. L.; Zelinski-Wooten, M. B.; Fanton, J. W.; Wolf, D. P.

    2004-03-01

    Radiation and high-dose chemotherapy may render women with cancer prematurely sterile, a side-effect that would be avoided if ovarian tissue that had been removed before treatment could be made to function afterwards. Live offspring have been produced from transplanted ovarian tissue in mice and sheep but not in monkeys or humans, although sex steroid hormones are still secreted. Here we describe the successful transplantation of fresh ovarian tissue to a different site in a monkey, which has led to the birth of a healthy female after oocyte production, fertilization and transfer to a surrogate mother. The ectopically grafted tissue functions without surgical connection to major blood vessels and sets the stage for the transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in humans.

  11. Ovarian response to recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone in luteinizing hormone-depleted women: examination of the two cell, two gonadotropin theory.

    PubMed

    Ben-Chetrit, A; Gotlieb, L; Wong, P Y; Casper, R F

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the relative contribution of FSH to ovarian estrogen production. Nonrandomized, prospective study. University of Toronto teaching hospital reproductive biology unit. Five women who had been treated with depot GnRH agonist with hormonal add-back for 4 to 48 months and who were confirmed to be gonadotropin depleted by both bioassay and RIA. Subjects received 75 IU SC recombinant human FSH daily for 7 days followed by 150 IU daily for 7 days and 225 IU daily for the third week. Serum steroid determination and vaginal sonography for follicle size and endometrial thickness were performed serially and follicular fluid hormone levels were measured in two subjects. Bioactive LH and FSH activity were less than the detection limit of the assay (0.1 mIU/mL; conversion factor to SI units, 1.00 for LH and FSH) before recombinant FSH treatment in all five women. In all subjects, at least one preovulatory follicle developed by the end of two to three weeks. Endometrial thickness increased to between 7 and 9 mm in four women. Mean serum E2 in the five subjects increased from 17 pg/mL (range: 5 to 33 pg/mL; conversion factor to SI unit, 3.671) at baseline to 230 pg/mL (range: 37 to 489 pg/mL) at the end of the study. Follicular fluid E2 concentrations ranged from 44,296 to 69,367 pg/mL in the four follicles aspirated. Our results indicate that LH is not necessary for ovarian E2 production. We speculate that the granulosa cells, in the absence of detectable LH bioactivity, can use circulating adrenal androgens or constitutive or FSH-stimulated thecal androgens, to produce intrafollicular E2.

  12. A Retrospective Study of Letrozole Treatment Prior to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization at Risk of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yilu; Yang, Tanchu; Hao, Cuifang; Zhao, Junzhao

    2018-06-20

    BACKGROUND Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are given letrozole before a trigger injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to lower estrogen (E2) levels, but can experience ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral letrozole, prior to administration of hCG, on the outcome of IVF and development of OHSS. MATERIAL AND METHODS Retrospective clinical review included 181 cases of women with PCOS who underwent IVF cycles with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer (ET) (IVF/ICSI-ET). The day before the use of hCG, cases were divided into a letrozole-treated group (N=78) and a non-letrozole group (N=103). An oral dose of 2.5 mg qd of letrozole was given when the peak level of E2 was ≥4000 pg/ml during ovarian stimulation and ceased before the day of egg retrieval. RESULTS The letrozole-treated group had a significant increase in the number of retrieved oocytes, viable embryos, and fresh ET rate (P>0.05); peak levels of E2, and E2 levels on the day of the egg retrieval, were significantly higher, and the fertilization rate was significantly lower (P<0.001). No significant differences were found in the rates of pregnancy, abortion, or ectopic pregnancy between the two groups (P>0.05). The incidence OHSS was lower in the letrozole-treated group, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS Women with PCOS who underwent IVF, oral treatment with letrozole a day prior to treatment with hCG lowered E2 levels, but did not significantly reduce the incidence of OHSS.

  13. Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin combined with clomiphene on Serum E2, FSH, LH and PRL levels in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yonggang, Huang; Xiaosheng, Lu; Zhaoxia, Huang; Yilu, Chen; Jiqiang, Lv; Huina, Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin combined with clomiphene on serum E 2 , FSH, LH and PRL levels in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome were analyzed. 90 patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome treated from January 2015 to March 2016 were randomly and evenly divided into control group and observation group. Patients in the control group were only treated with clomiphene. On the basis of the treatment in control group, human chorionic gonadotropin was added in the treatment of observation group. The changes of E 2 , FSH, LH, PRL levels were compared between two groups before and after the treatment. Clinical curative effects of patients in the two groups was evaluated. Adverse reactions during treatment in two groups were observed and recorded. The incidence of adverse reactions was calculated. Serum E 2 , FSH, LH and PRL levels in the two groups decreased significantly after treatment compared with that before treatment. The difference is statistical significant ( P  < 0.05). After the treatment, E 2 , FSH, LH and PRL levels in the observation group were lower than that in the control group and the difference is statistical significant ( P  < 0.05). Total effective rate was 64.44% in the control group and 93.33% in the observation group. There were statistically significant difference in clinical curative effects in the two groups ( P  < 0.05). Different degrees of adverse reactions were found in both groups during treatment, such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, liver dysfunction. There were 2 cases of nausea, 2 cases of vomiting, 3 cases of anorexia and 1 case of liver dysfunction from the 45 patients in control group. The total incidence of adverse reactions was 17.78% (8/45). There were 1 case of nausea, 1 case of vomiting, 1 case of anorexia and no liver dysfunction from the 45 patients in observation group. The total incidence of adverse reactions was 6.67% (3/45). The total incidence of adverse reactions in the observation group was

  14. Targeting Ovarian Cancer with Porphysome Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    ORGANIZATION: University Health Network Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 2C4 REPORT DATE : October 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army...THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) October 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting...non-targeted Porphysomes for the detection of orthotopic ovarian lesions. Methods : Two ovarian tumour xenograft models are established with human SK

  15. Ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, A G; Reimer, D; Sopper, S; Boesch, M; Martowicz, A; Roessler, J; Wiedemair, A M; Rumpold, H; Untergasser, G; Concin, N; Hofstetter, G; Muller-Holzner, E; Fiegl, H; Marth, C; Wolf, D; Pesta, M; Hatina, J

    2012-01-01

    Because of its semi-solid character in dissemination and growth, advanced ovarian cancer with its hundreds of peritoneal tumor nodules and plaques appears to be an excellent in vivo model for studying the cancer stem cell hypothesis. The most important obstacle, however, is to adequately define and isolate these tumor-initiating cells endowed with the properties of anoikis-resistance and unlimited self-renewal. Until now, no universal single marker or marker constellation has been found to faithfully isolate (ovarian) cancer stem cells. As these multipotent cells are known to possess highly elaborated efflux systems for cytotoxic agents, these pump systems have been exploited to outline putative stem cells as a side-population (SP) via dye exclusion analysis. Furthermore, the cells in question have been isolated via flow cytometry on the basis of cell surface markers thought to be characteristic for stem cells.In the Vienna variant of the ovarian cancer cell line A2780 a proof-of-principle model with both a stable SP and a stable ALDH1A1+ cell population was established. Double staining clearly revealed that both cell fractions were not identical. Of note, A2780V cells were negative for expression of surface markers CD44 and CD117 (c-kit). When cultured on monolayers of healthy human mesothelial cells, green-fluorescence-protein (GFP)-transfected SP of A2780V exhibited spheroid-formation, whereas non-side-population (NSP) developed a spare monolayer growing over the healthy mesothelium. Furthermore, A2780V SP was found to be partially resistant to platinum. However, this resistance could not be explained by over-expression of the "excision repair cross-complementation group 1" (ERCC1) gene, which is essentially involved in the repair of platinated DNA damage. ERCC1 was, nonetheless, over-expressed in A2780V cells grown as spheres under stem cell-selective conditions as compared to adherent monolayers cultured under differentiating conditions. The same was true for

  16. CYP1B1, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in the Etiology of Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Using an Avian Model of Ovarian Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information...ovarian cancer in Women and Hens”. First AACR International Conference on Molecular Diagnostics in Cancer Therapeutic Development, Sep 12-15, 2006...associated with ovarian cancer in humans and hens“ Presented at the 1st International Aegean conference on Ovarian Cancer, June 2006,Crete, Greece 4

  17. Pigment epithelium derived factor inhibits the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanmei; Che, Xuan; Zhu, Libo; Zhao, Mengdan; Fu, Guofang; Huang, Xiufeng; Xu, Hong; Hu, Fuqiang; Zhang, Xinmei

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for the formation and development of endometriosis. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) is a natural inhibitor of angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated a reduction of PEDF in the peritoneal fluid, serum and endometriotic lesions from women with endometriosis compared with women without endometriosis. Here, we aim to investigate the inhibitory effect of PEDF on human endometriotic cells in vivo and in vitro. We found that PEDF markedly inhibited the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro by up-regulating PEDF expression and down-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Moreover, apoptotic index was significantly increased in endometriotic lesions in vivo and endometriotic stromal cells in vitro when treated with PEDF. In mice treated with PEDF, decreased microvessel density labeled by Von Willebrand factor but not by α-Smooth Muscle Actin was observed in endometriotic lesions. And it showed no increase in PEDF expression of the ovary and uterus tissues. These findings suggest that PEDF gene therapy may be a new treatment for endometriosis.

  18. Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor Inhibits the Growth of Human Endometrial Implants in Nude Mice and of Ovarian Endometriotic Stromal Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanmei; Che, Xuan; Zhu, Libo; Zhao, Mengdan; Fu, Guofang; Huang, Xiufeng; Xu, Hong; Hu, Fuqiang; Zhang, Xinmei

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for the formation and development of endometriosis. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) is a natural inhibitor of angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated a reduction of PEDF in the peritoneal fluid, serum and endometriotic lesions from women with endometriosis compared with women without endometriosis. Here, we aim to investigate the inhibitory effect of PEDF on human endometriotic cells in vivo and in vitro. We found that PEDF markedly inhibited the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro by up-regulating PEDF expression and down-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Moreover, apoptotic index was significantly increased in endometriotic lesions in vivo and endometriotic stromal cells in vitro when treated with PEDF. In mice treated with PEDF, decreased microvessel density labeled by Von Willebrand factor but not by α-Smooth Muscle Actin was observed in endometriotic lesions. And it showed no increase in PEDF expression of the ovary and uterus tissues. These findings suggest that PEDF gene therapy may be a new treatment for endometriosis. PMID:23028859

  19. Myricetin induces apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress and DNA double-strand breaks in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    XU, YE; XIE, QI; WU, SHAOHUA; YI, DAN; YU, YANG; LIU, SHIBING; LI, SONGYAN; LI, ZHIXIN

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying myricetin-induced cancer cell apoptosis remain to be elucidated. Certain previous studies have shown that myricetin induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Apoptosis, however, can also be induced by other classical pathways, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The aim of the present study was to assess whether these two apoptotic pathways are involved in myricetin-induced cell death in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. The results revealed that treatment with myricetin inhibited viability of SKOV3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Myricetin induced nuclear chromatin condensation and fragmentation, and also upregulated the protein levels of active caspase 3 in a time-dependent manner. In addition, myricetin upregulated ER stress-associated proteins, glucose-regulated protein-78 and C/EBP homologous protein in SKOV3 cells. Phosphorylation of H2AX, a marker of DNA DSBs, was revealed to be upregulated in myricetin-treated cells. The data indicated that myricetin induces DNA DSBs and ER stress, which leads to apoptosis in SKOV3 cells. PMID:26782830

  20. Predictive and therapeutic markers in ovarian cancer

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Guan, Yinghui; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Fridlyand, Jane; Mills, Gordon B.

    2013-03-26

    Cancer markers may be developed to detect diseases characterized by increased expression of apoptosis-suppressing genes, such as aggressive cancers. Genes in the human chromosomal regions, 8q24, 11q13, 20q11-q13, were found to be amplified indicating in vivo drug resistance in diseases such as ovarian cancer. Diagnosis and assessment of amplification levels certain genes shown to be amplified, including PVT1, can be useful in prediction of poor outcome of patient's response and drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates. Certain genes were found to be high priority therapeutic targets by the identification of recurrent aberrations involving genome sequence, copy number and/or gene expression are associated with reduced survival duration in certain diseases and cancers, specifically ovarian cancer. Therapeutics to inhibit amplification and inhibitors of one of these genes, PVT1, target drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates is described.

  1. Development of a Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elizabeth R.; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xiang-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progression remain to be defined. Suitable mouse models should complement the analysis of human tumor tissues and may provide clues to these questions currently perplexing ovarian cancer biology. A potentially useful model is the germ cell-deficient Wv (white spotting variant) mutant mouse line, which may be used to study the impact of menopausal physiology on the increased risk of ovarian cancer. The Wv mice harbor a point mutation in c-Kit that reduces the receptor tyrosine kinase activity to about 1–5% (it is not a null mutation). Homozygous Wv mutant females have a reduced ovarian germ cell reservoir at birth and the follicles are rapidly depleted upon reaching reproductive maturity, but other biological phenotypes are minimal and the mice have a normal life span. The loss of ovarian function precipitates changes in hormonal and metabolic activity that model features of menopause in humans. As a consequence of follicle depletion, the Wv ovaries develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis that mark human ovarian aging. Ongoing work will test the possibility of converting the benign epithelial tubular adenomas into neoplastic tumors by addition of an oncogenic mutation, such as of Tp53, to model the genotype and biology of serous ovarian cancer. Model based on the Wv mice may have the potential to gain biological and etiological insights into ovarian cancer development and prevention. PMID:24616881

  2. Modeling Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Mice by Alteration of Expression of the BRCA1 and/or p53 Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    injection developed neoplasms with a frequency of ~20% (9/42 mice). Only one ovarian neoplasm was identified and that was hilar cell tumor of the ovary. In...neoplasms were identified; one ovarian leiomyosarcoma (excision of both Brca1 and p53 alleles was confirmed by PCR amplification) and one ovarian hilar ...0 (0/42) 0 (0/41) 0 (0/18) Hilar cell tumor of ovary 2 (1/46) 3 (1/39) 0 (0/42) 0 (0/41) 0 (0/18) Lymphoma 0 (0/46) 3 (1/39) 0 (0/42) 5 (2/41) 6 (1

  3. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Stage III Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-08

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. Epidemiology of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Sellers, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer represents the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the world, and causes more deaths per year than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. Despite the high incidence and mortality rates, the etiology of this disease is poorly understood. Established risk factors for ovarian cancer include age and having a family history of the disease, while protective factors include increasing parity, oral contraceptive use, and oophorectomy. Lactation, incomplete pregnancies, and surgeries such as hysterectomy and tubal ligation may confer a weak protective effect against ovarian cancer. Infertility may contribute to ovarian cancer risk among nulliparous women. Other possible risk factors for ovarian cancer include postmenopausal hormone-replacement therapy and lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Many of the causes of ovarian cancer are yet to be identified. Additional research is needed to better understand the etiology of this deadly disease.

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Demonstration of Human-Ovarian-Cancer Necrosis through a Water-Soluble and Near-Infrared-Absorbing Chlorin.

    PubMed

    Marydasan, Betsy; Madhuri, Bollapalli; Cherukommu, Shirisha; Jose, Jedy; Viji, Mambattakkara; Karunakaran, Suneesh C; Chandrashekar, Tavarekere K; Rao, Kunchala Sridhar; Rao, Ch Mohan; Ramaiah, Danaboyina

    2018-06-14

    With the objective of developing efficient sensitizers for therapeutic applications, we synthesized a water-soluble 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)chlorin (TDC) and investigated its in vitro and in vivo biological efficacy, comparing it with the commercially available sensitizers. TDC showed high water solubility (6-fold) when compared with that of Foscan and exhibited excellent triplet-excited-state (84%) and singlet-oxygen (80%) yields. In vitro photobiological investigations in human-ovarian-cancer cell lines SKOV-3 showed high photocytotoxicity, negligible dark toxicity, rapid cellular uptake, and specific localization of TDC in neoplastic cells as assessed by flow-cytometric cell-cycle and propidium iodide staining analysis. The photodynamic effects of TDC include confirmed reactive-oxygen-species-induced mitochondrial damage leading to necrosis in SKOV-3 cell lines. The in vivo photodynamic activity in nude-mouse models demonstrated abrogation of tumor growth without any detectable pathology in the skin, liver, spleen, or kidney, thereby demonstrating TDC application as an efficient and safe photosensitizer.

  6. A novel mechanism of vascular endothelial growth factor, leptin and transforming growth factor-beta2 sequestration in a subpopulation of human ovarian follicle cells.

    PubMed

    Antczak, M; Van Blerkom, J; Clark, A

    1997-10-01

    This study describes the occurrence of a highly specialized subpopulation of granulosa and cumulus oophorus cells that accumulate and sequester specific growth factors by a novel mechanism. These cells are characterized by multiple balloon-like processes tethered to the cell by means of a slender stalk of plasma membrane. Time-lapse analyses demonstrate that these tethered structures (TS) form in minutes and frequently detach from the cell with the bulbous portion remaining motile on the cell surface. Serial section reconstruction of transmission electron microscopic images shows a specific and stable intracellular organization in which an apparent secretory compartment composed of densely packed vacuoles, vesicles, and cisternae is separated by a thick filamentous network from a nuclear compartment containing mitochondria, polyribosomes, lipid inclusions, and rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum. Immunofluorescent analysis performed during the formation of these structures showed a progressive accumulation of vascular endothelial growth factor, leptin, and transforming growth factor-beta2 in the bulbous region. TS were identified in newly aspirated masses of granulosa and cumulus oophorus, and their production persists for months in culture. Observations of TS-forming cells made over several days of culture indicates that their production is episodic and factor release from these cells may be pulsatile. The findings suggest that a novel method of growth factor storage and release by an apparent apocrine-like mechanism occurs in the human ovarian follicle. The results are discussed with respect to possible roles in pre- and post-ovulatory follicular development.

  7. Selective suppression of autocatalytic caspase-3 driven by two-step transcriptional amplified human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter on ovarian carcinoma growth in vitro and in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Yue; Xin, Xing; Xia, Zhijun; Zhai, Xingyue; Shen, Keng

    2014-07-01

    The objective of our study was to construct recombinant adenovirus (rAd) AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3, which expresses autocatalytic caspase-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (hTERTp) with a two-step transcription amplification (TSTA) system and investigate its antitumor effects on ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescent detection was used to detect EGFP expression in various cells. Cell viabilities were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometry. RT-PCR and immunoblotting assays were used to detect cellular apoptotic activities. Tumor growth and survival of tumor-bearing mice were studied. The hTERTp-TSTA system showed the strongest activity in hTERT-positive cancer cells when compared with hTERTp and cytomeglovirus promoter (CMVp). In contrast, it showed no activity in hTERT‑negative HUVECs. AdHTVP2G5‑rev-casp3 markedly suppressed the survival of AO cells in a dose-dependent modality with a viability rate of 17.8 ± 3.5% at an MOI of 70, which was significantly lower than that by AdHT-rev-casp3 and Ad-rev-casp3 (rAds which express rev-caspase-3 driven by hTERTp and CMVp, respectively). In contrast, AdHTVP2G5‑rev-casp3 induced little HUVEC death with a viability rate of 92.7 ± 5.2% at the same MOI. Additionally, AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 (MOI=70) caused significant apoptosis in AO cells with an apoptotic rate of 42%. The tumor growth suppression rate of AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 was 81.52%, significantly higher than that of AdHT-rev-casp3 (54.94%) or Ad-rev-casp3 (21.35%). AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 significantly improved the survival of tumor-bearing mice with little liver damage, with a mean survival of 258 ± 28 days. These results showed that AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 caused effective apoptosis with significant tumor selectivity, strongly suppressed tumor growth and improved mouse survival with little liver toxicity. It can be a potent therapeutic agent for tumor targeted treatment of ovarian cancer.

  8. Androstenedione response to recombinant human FSH is the most valid predictor of the number of selected follicles in polycystic ovarian syndrome: (a case-control study).

    PubMed

    Ozyurek, Eser Sefik; Yoldemir, Tevfik; Artar, Gokhan

    2017-05-12

    We aimed to test the hypothesis that the correlation of the changes in the blood Androstenedione (A 4 ) levels to the number of selected follicles during ovulation induction with low-dose recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH) is as strong as the correlation to changes in the blood Estradiol (E 2 ) levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective Case-control study conducted from October 2014 to January 2016. 61 non-PCOS control (Group I) and 46 PCOS (Group II) patients treated with the chronic low-dose step up protocosl with rhFSH. A 4 , E 2 , progesterone blood levels and follicular growth were monitored.. Univariate and hierarchical multivariable analysis were performed for age, BMI, HOMA-IR, A 4 and E 2 (with the number of selected follicles as the dependent variable in both groups). ROC analysis was performed to define threshold values for the significant determinants of the number of selected follicles to predict cyle cancellations due to excessive ovarian response. The control group (Group I) was comprised of 61 cycles from a group of primary infertile non-PCOS patients, and the study group (Group II) of 46 cycles of PCOS patients. The analysis revealed that the strongest independent predictor of the total number of selected follicles in Group I was the E 2 (AUC) (B = 0.0006[0.0003-0.001]; P < 0.001); whereas for Group II, it was the A 4 (AUC) (B = 0.114[0.04-0.25]; P = 0.01). Optimum thresholds for the A 4 related parameters were defined to predict excessive response within Group II were 88.7%, 3.1 ng/mL and 5.4 ng*days for the percentage increase in A 4 , the maximum A 4 value and area under the curve values for A 4 , respectively. A 4 response to low-dose rhFSH in PCOS has a stronger association with the number of follicles selected than the E 2 reponse. A 4 response preceding the E 2 response is essential for progressive follicle development. Monitoring A 4 rather than E 2 may be more preemptive to define the initial

  9. Does Breast or Ovarian Cancer Run in Your Family?

    MedlinePlus

    ... receptors, progesterone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2.) Cancer in both breasts Breast cancer in a male relative Ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer Pancreatic cancer or high grade prostate cancer Breast, ovarian, pancreatic, or high grade prostate ...

  10. SMIFH2-mediated mDia formin functional inhibition potentiates chemotherapeutic targeting of human ovarian cancer spheroids.

    PubMed

    Ziske, Megan A; Pettee, Krista M; Khaing, MaNada; Rubinic, Kaitlin; Eisenmann, Kathryn M

    2016-03-25

    Due to a lack of effective screening or prevention protocol for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), there is a critical unmet need to develop therapeutic interventions for EOC treatment. EOC metastasis is unique. Initial dissemination is not primarily hematogenous, yet is facilitated through shedding of primary tumor cells into the peritoneal fluid and accumulating ascites. Increasingly, isolated patient spheroids point to a clinical role for spheroids in EOC metastasis. EOC spheroids are highly invasive structures that disseminate upon peritoneal mesothelium, and visceral tissues including liver and omentum. Selection for this subset of chemoresistant EOC cells could influence disease progression and/or recurrence. Thus, targeting spheroid integrity/structure may improve the chemotherapeutic responsiveness of EOC. We discovered a critical role for mammalian Diaphanous (mDia)-related formin-2 in maintaining EOC spheroid structure. Both mDia2 and the related mDia1 regulate F-actin networks critical to maintain cell-cell contacts and the integrity of multi-cellular epithelial sheets. We investigated if mDia2 functional inhibition via a small molecule inhibitor SMIFH2 combined with chemotherapeutics, such as taxol and cisplatin, inhibits the viability of EOC monolayers and clinically relevant spheroids. SMIFH2-mediated mDia formin inhibition significantly reduced both ES2 and Skov3 EOC monolayer viability while spheroid viability was minimally impacted only at the highest concentrations. Combining either cisplatin or taxol with SMIFH2 did not significantly enhance the effects of either drug alone in ES2 monolayers, while Skov3 monolayers treated with taxol or cisplatin and SMIFH2 showed significant additive inhibition of viability. ES2 spheroids were highly responsive with clear additive anti-viability effects with dual taxol or cisplatin when combined with SMIFH2 treatments. While combined taxol with SMIFH2 in spheroids showed an additive effect relative to single

  11. Preservation of human ovarian follicles within tissue frozen by vitrification in a xeno-free closed system using only ethylene glycol as a permeating cryoprotectant.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Mona; Hultenby, Kjell; Niklasson, Boel; Lundqvist, Monalill; Hovatta, Outi

    2013-07-01

    To study the preservation of follicles within ovarian tissue vitrified using only one or a combination of three permeating cryoprotectants. Experimental study. University hospital. Ovarian tissue was donated by consenting women undergoing elective cesarean section. Ovarian tissue was vitrified in closed sealed vials using either a combination of dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,2-propanediol, and ethylene glycol (EG), or only EG as permeating cryoprotectants. Ovarian tissue was vitrified with the use of two vitrification methods. Tissue from the same donor was used for comparison of two different solutions. The morphology of the follicles was evaluated after vitrification, warming, and culture by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Apoptosis was assessed by immunohistochemistry for active caspase-3 in fresh and vitrified tissue. Light and electron microscopic analysis showed equally well preserved morphology of oocytes, granulosa cells, and ovarian stroma when either of the vitrification solutions was used. No apoptosis was observed in primordial and primary follicles. Using only EG as a permeating cryoprotectant in a closed tube gives as good ultrastructural preservation of ovarian follicles as a more complicated system using several cryoprotectants. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of one- and two-photon activated photodynamic therapy with pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester in human cervical, lung and ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ting; Wilson, Brian C; Lu, Qing-Bin

    2014-03-05

    Two-photon activated photodynamic therapy (2-γ PDT) has the potential of treating deeper tumors and/or improving tumor targeting. Here, we evaluated the one- and two-photon activated PDT efficacy of pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester (MPPa), a second-generation photosensitizer derived from chlorophyll a. We show that MPPa, when activated by femtosecond (fs) laser pulses at 674 nm, has high one-photon (1-γ) PDT efficacy against cisplatin-sensitive human cervical (HeLa) and cisplatin-resistant human lung (A549) and ovarian (NIH:OVCAR-3) cancer cells. At a low light dose of 0.06 J cm(-2), the IC50 (the MPPa concentration required to kill 50% of the cells) was determined to be 5.3 ± 0.3, 3.4 ± 0.3 and 3.6 ± 0.4 μM for HeLa, A549 and NIH:OVCAR-3 cells, respectively. More significantly, we also show that MPPa can be effectively activated by an 800 nm, 120 fs laser through 2-γ excitation; at a light dose causing no measurable photocytotoxicity in the absence of photosensitizer, the corresponding IC50 values were measured to be 4.1 ± 0.3, 9.6 ± 1.0 and 1.6 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. These results indicate that MPPa is a potent photosensitizer for both 1- and 2-γ activated PDT with potential applications for difficult-to-treat tumors by conventional therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dihydroartemisinin is an inhibitor of ovarian cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Ge, Chun-min; Meng, Qing-hui; Cao, Jian-ping; Tong, Jian; Fan, Sai-jun

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the anticancer activity of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of antimalaria drug artemisinin in a panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines. Cell growth was determined by the MTT viability assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle progression were evaluated by a DNA fragmentation gel electro-phoresis, flow cytometry assay, and TUNEL assay; protein and mRNA expression were analyzed by Western blotting and RT-PCR assay. Artemisinin and its derivatives, including artesunate, arteether, artemether, arteannuin, and DHA, exhibit anticancer growth activities in human ovarian cancer cells. Among them, DHA is the most effective in inhibiting cell growth. Ovarian cancer cell lines are more sensitive (5-10-fold) to DHA treatment compared to normal ovarian cell lines. DHA at micromolar dose levels exhibits a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cell lines. Furthermore, DHA induced apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by a decrease of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 and an increase of Bax and Bad. The promising results show for the first time that DHA inhibits the growth of human ovarian cancer cells. The selective inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth, apoptosis induction, and G2 arrest provide in vitro evidence for further studies of DHA as a possible anticancer drug in the clinical treatment of ovarian cancer.

  14. The fabrication of magnetic particle-based chemiluminescence immunoassay for human epididymis protein-4 detection in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yangyang; Qiu, Ruiyun; Foda, Mohamed F; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Tao; Li, Jinshan

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic particles have a significant influence on the immunoassay detection and cancer therapy. Herein, the chemiluminescence immunoassay combined with the magnetic particles (MPCLIA) was presented for the clinical determination and analysis of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in the human serum. Under the optimized experiment conditions, the secure MPCLIA method can detect HE4 in the broader range of 0-1000 pmol/L, with a lower detection limit of 1.35 pmol/L. The satisfactory recovery rate of the method in the serum ranged from 83.62% to 105.10%, which was well within the requirement of clinical analysis. Moreover, the results showed the good correlation with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with the correlation coefficient of 0.9589. This proposed method has been successfully applied to the clinical determination of HE4 in the human serum.

  15. Polycystic ovarian disease: animal models.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, D K

    1988-12-01

    The reproductive systems of human beings and other vertebrates are grossly similar. In the ovary particularly, the biochemical and physiologic processes are identical not only in the formation of germ cells, the development of primordial follicles and their subsequent growth to Graafian follicles, and eventual ovulation but also in anatomic structure. In a noncarcinogenic human ovary, hypersecretion of androgen causes PCOD. Such hypersecretion may result from a nonpulsatile, constant elevated level of circulating LH or a disturbance in the action of neurotransmitters in the hypothalamus. In studying the pathophysiology of PCOD in humans, one must be aware of the limitations for manipulating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Although the rat is a polytocous rodent, the female has a regular ovarian cyclicity of 4 or 5 days, with distinct proestrus, estrus, and diestrus phases. Inasmuch as PCOD can be experimentally produced in the rat, that species is a good model for studying the pathophysiology of human PCOD. These PCOD models and their validity have been described: (1) estradiol-valerate, (2) DHA, (3) constant-light (LL), and (4) neonatally androgenized. Among these, the LL model is noninvasive and seems superior to the others for study of the pathophysiology of PCOD. The production of the polycystic ovarian condition in the rat by the injection of estrogens or androgens in neonate animals, or estradiol or DHA in adult rats, or the administration of antigonadotropins to these animals all cause a sudden appearance of the persistent estrus state by disturbing the metabolic and physiologic processes, whereas exposure of the adult rat to LL causes polycystic ovaries gradually, similar to what is seen in human idiopathic PCOD. After about 50 days of LL, the rat becomes anovulatory and the ovaries contain thickened tunica albuginea and many atretic follicles, and the tertiary follicles are considerably distended and cystic. The granulosa and theca cells appear normal

  16. Role of GPER on proliferation, migration and invasion in ligand-independent manner in human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Jiang, Xueli; Zhao, Ying; Wen, Haixia; Liu, Guoyi

    2015-12-01

    G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is identified as a critical estrogen receptor, in addition to the classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ. In ERα-negative ovarian cancer cells, our previous studies have found that estrogen stimulated cell proliferation and metastasis via GPER. However, the ligand-independent function of GPER in ovarian cancer cells is still not clear. Herein, we describe that GPER has a co-expression with ERα and ERβ, which are first determined in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line. In the absence of estrogen, GPER depletion by specific siRNA inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells. Whereas abrogation of ERα or ERβ by specific antagonist MPP and PHTPP has the opposite effects for stimulation of cell growth. Markedly, GPER knockdown attenuates MPP or PHTPP-induced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, GPER modulates protein expression of the cell cycle critical components, c-fos and cyclin D1 and factors for cancer cell invasion and metastasis, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. These findings establish that GPER ligand-independently stimulates the proliferation, migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells. Knockdown of GPER attenuates the progression of ovarian cancer that caused by functional loss of ERα or ERβ. Targeting GPER provides new aspect as a potential therapeutic strategy in ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Novel biomolecule lycopene-reduced graphene oxide-silver nanoparticle enhances apoptotic potential of trichostatin A in human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Huang, Feng-Hua; Zhang, Guo-Liang; Bai, Ding-Ping; Massimo, De Felici; Huang, Yi-Fan; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently, there has been much interest in the field of nanomedicine to improve prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Combination therapy seems to be most effective when two different molecules that work by different mechanisms are combined at low dose, thereby decreasing the possibility of drug resistance and occurrence of unbearable side effects. Based on this consideration, the study was designed to investigate the combination effect of reduced graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles (rGO-AgNPs) and trichostatin A (TSA) in human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3). Methods The rGO-AgNPs were synthesized using a biomolecule called lycopene, and the resultant product was characterized by various analytical techniques. The combination effect of rGO-Ag and TSA was investigated in SKOV3 cells using various cellular assays such as cell viability, cytotoxicity, and immunofluorescence analysis. Results AgNPs were uniformly distributed on the surface of graphene sheet with an average size between 10 and 50 nm. rGO-Ag and TSA were found to inhibit cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The combination of rGO-Ag and TSA at low concentration showed a significant effect on cell viability, and increased cytotoxicity by increasing the level of malondialdehyde and decreasing the level of glutathione, and also causing mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the combination of rGO-Ag and TSA had a more pronounced effect on DNA fragmentation and double-strand breaks, and eventually induced apoptosis. Conclusion This study is the first to report that the combination of rGO-Ag and TSA can cause potential cytotoxicity and also induce significantly greater cell death compared to either rGO-Ag alone or TSA alone in SKOV3 cells by various mechanisms including reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and DNA damage. Therefore, this combination chemotherapy could be possibly used in advanced cancers that are not suitable for radiation therapy or surgical treatment

  18. Development of a recombinant human ovarian (BG1) cell line containing estrogen receptor α and β for improved detection of estrogenic/antiestrogenic chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Jennifer C.; Bassal, Arzoo; He, Guochun; Denison, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals are found in environmental and biological samples, commercial and consumer products, food, and numerous other sources. Given their ubiquitous nature and potential for adverse effects, there is a critical need for rapidly detecting these chemicals. We developed an estrogen-responsive recombinant human ovarian (BG1Luc4E2) cell line recently accepted by the USEPA and OECD as a bioanalytical method to detect estrogen receptor (ER) agonists/antagonists. Unfortunately, these cells appear to contain only one of the two known ER isoforms, ERα but not ERβ, and the differential ligand selectivity of these ERs indicates that the currently accepted screening method only detects a subset of total estrogenic chemicals. To improve the estrogen screening bioassay, BG1Luc4E2 cells were stably transfected with an ERβ expression plasmid and positive clones identified using ERβ-selective ligands (genistein and Br-ERβ-041). A highly responsive clone (BG1LucERβc9) was identified that exhibited greater sensitivity and responsiveness to ERβ-selective ligands than BG1Luc4E2 cells and qRT-PCR confirmed the presence of ERβ expression in these cells. Screening of pesticides and industrial chemicals identified chemicals that preferentially stimulated ERβ-dependent reporter gene expression. Together, these results not only demonstrate the utility of this dual ER recombinant cell line for detecting a broader range of estrogenic chemicals than the current BG1Luc4E2 cell line, but screening with both cell lines allows identification of ERα and ERβ-selective chemicals. PMID:26139245

  19. Development of a recombinant human ovarian (BG1) cell line containing estrogen receptor α and β for improved detection of estrogenic/antiestrogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Jennifer C; Bassal, Arzoo; He, Guochun; Denison, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals are found in environmental and biological samples, commercial and consumer products, food, and numerous other sources. Given their ubiquitous nature and potential for adverse effects, a critical need exists for rapidly detecting these chemicals. The authors developed an estrogen-responsive recombinant human ovarian (BG1Luc4E2) cell line recently accepted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as a bioanalytical method to detect estrogen receptor (ER) agonists/antagonists. Unfortunately, these cells appear to contain only 1 of the 2 known ER isoforms, ERα but not ERβ, and the differential ligand selectivity of these ERs indicates that the currently accepted screening method only detects a subset of total estrogenic chemicals. To improve the estrogen screening bioassay, BG1Luc4E2 cells were stably transfected with an ERβ expression plasmid and positive clones identified using ERβ-selective ligands (genistein and Br-ERβ-041). A highly responsive clone (BG1LucERβc9) was identified that exhibited greater sensitivity and responsiveness to ERβ-selective ligands than BG1Luc4E2 cells, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of ERβ expression in these cells. Screening of pesticides and industrial chemicals identified chemicals that preferentially stimulated ERβ-dependent reporter gene expression. Together, these results not only demonstrate the utility of this dual-ER recombinant cell line for detecting a broader range of estrogenic chemicals than the current BG1Luc4E2 cell line, but screening with both cell lines allows identification of ERα- and ERβ-selective chemicals. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin1 inhibits autophagy and promotes apoptosis induced by S1 in human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoning; Su, Jing; Xia, Meihui; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Ye; Ma, Chunhui; Ma, Liwei; Kang, Jingsong; Yu, Huimei; Zhang, Zhichao; Sun, Liankun

    2016-02-01

    S1, a novel BH3 mimetic, can induce apoptosis dependent on Bax/Bak through inhibition of Bcl-2 in various tumors. S1 also induces autophagy through interrupting the interaction of Bcl-2 and Beclin1. Our results showed that S1 induces apoptosis in human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Autophagy precedes apoptosis, in SKOV3 cells treated with S1 (6 μmol/L), autophagy reached the maximum peak at 12 h after treatment and decreased to 24 h. In SKOV3 cells treated with different concentrations of S1 for 24 h, the highest level of autophagy was observed with 5 μmol/L and decreased to 10 μmol/L. Autophagy inhibitors 3-MA and CQ enhanced apoptosis induced by S1 in SKOV3 cells. However, overactivation of caspases in apoptosis induced by S1 may inhibit the autophagy-inducing function of Beclin1. Because the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD recovered the autophagy-inducing function of Beclin1 through reduction of activated caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin1. Furthermore, the Beclin1 cleavage products could further increase apoptosis induced by S1 in SKOV3 cells. This indicates that apoptosis induced by high doses and long exposure of S1 causes the overactivation of caspases and subsequent cleavage of Beclin1, and inhibits the protection of autophagy. Moreover, the cleaved product of Beclin1 further promotes apoptosis induced by S1 in SKOV3 cells. Our results suggest this may be a molecular mechanism for enhancing the sensitivity of cancer cells to apoptosis induced by small molecular compound targeting Bcl-2.

  1. Myricetin inhibits proliferation of cisplatin-resistant cancer cells through a p53-dependent apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, HAIZHI; CHEN, ALLEN Y.; YE, XINGQIAN; LI, BINGYUN; ROJANASAKUL, YON; RANKIN, GARY O.; CHEN, YI CHARLIE

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used drug for cancer treatment by crosslinking DNA, leading to apoptosis of cancer cells, resistance to cisplatin treatment often occurs, leading to relapse. Therefore, there is a need for the development of more effective treatment strategies that can overcome chemoresistance. Myricetin is a flavonoid from fruits and vegetables, showing anticancer activity in various cancer cells. In this study, we found myricetin exhibited greater cytotoxicity than cisplatin in two cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR-3 and A2780/CP70, and it was less cytotoxic to the normal ovarian cell line IOSE-364. Myricetin selectively induced apoptosis in both cisplatin-resistant cancer cell lines, but did not induce apoptosis in the normal ovarian cell line. It induced both Bcl-2 family-dependent intrinsic and DR5 dependent extrinsic apoptosis in OVCAR-3 cells. P53, a multifunctional tumor suppressor, regulated apoptosis in OVCAR-3 cells through a Bcl-2 family protein-dependent pathway. Myricetin did not induce cell cycle arrest in either ovarian cancer cell line. Because of its potency and selectivity against cisplatin-resistant cancer cells, myricetin could potentially be used to overcome cancer chemoresistance against platinum-based therapy. PMID:26315556

  2. The prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Shannon; Shmorgun, Doron; Claman, Paul

    2014-11-01

    To review the clinical aspects of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and provide recommendations on its prevention. Preventative measures, early recognition, and prompt systematic supportive care will help avoid poor outcomes. Establish guidelines to assist in the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, early recognition of the condition when it occurs, and provision of appropriate supportive measures in the correct setting. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from 2011 to 2013 using appropriate controlled vocabulary ([OHSS] ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and: agonist IVF, antagonist IVF, metformin, HCG, gonadotropin, coasting, freeze all, agonist trigger, progesterone) and key words (ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, ovarian stimulation, gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin, prevention). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English. There were no date restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to February 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. The particular follicle-stimulating hormone formulation used for ovarian stimulation does not affect the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. (I) 2. Coasting may reduce the incidence of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. (III) 3. Coasting for longer than 3 days reduces in vitro fertilization pregnancy rates. (II-2) 4. The use of either luteinizing hormone or human

  3. Epithelial Membrane Protein-2 is a Novel Therapeutic Target in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Maoyong; Maresh, Erin L.; Soslow, Robert A.; Alavi, Mohammad; Mah, Vei; Zhou, Qin; Iasonos, Alexia; Goodglick, Lee; Gordon, Lynn K.; Braun, Jonathan; Wadehra, Madhuri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The tetraspan protein epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2) has been shown to regulate the surface display and signaling from select integrin pairs, and it was recently identified as a prognostic biomarker in human endometrial cancer. In this study, we assessed the role of EMP2 in human ovarian cancer. Experimental Design We examined the expression of EMP2 within a population of women with ovarian cancer using tissue microarray assay technology. We evaluated the efficacy of EMP2-directed antibody therapy using a fully human recombinant bivalent antibody fragment (diabody) in vitro and ovarian cancer xenograft models in vivo. Results EMP2 was found to be highly expressed in over 70% of serous and endometrioid ovarian tumors compared to non-malignant ovarian epithelium using a human ovarian cancer tissue microarray. Using anti-EMP2 diabody, we evaluated the in vitro response of 9 human ovarian cancer cell lines with detectable EMP2 expression. Treatment of human ovarian cancer cell lines with anti-EMP2 diabodies induced cell death and retarded cell growth, and these response rates correlated with cellular EMP2 expression. We next assessed the effects of anti-EMP2 diabodies in mice bearing xenografts from the ovarian endometrioid carcinoma cell line OVCAR5. Anti-EMP2 diabodies significantly suppressed tumor growth and induced cell death in OVCAR5 xenografts. Conclusions These findings indicate that EMP2 is expressed in the majority of ovarian tumors and it may be a feasible target in vivo. PMID:20670949

  4. Expression profile of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase and activation of telomerase in human ovarian surface epithelial cells undergoing immortalization.

    PubMed

    Litaker, J R; Pan, J; Cheung, Y; Zhang, D K; Liu, Y; Wong, S C; Wan, T S; Tsao, S W

    1998-11-01

    Senescence is a specific physiological stage of cells characterized by long population doubling time. It accounts for the inability of normal somatic cells to undergo indefinite cell division. As the number of population doublings increase, cell cycle regulatory mechanisms come into play and signal cells to exit the cell cycle and become senescent. Senescence has been implicated in the aging process and may function as a tumor suppressor mechanism in human cells. The ability to measure the degree of cellular senescence is important in understanding the biological processes regulating cell aging and immortalization. Senescent cells exhibit an enzyme termed senescence-associated histochemical staining. Cells immortalized by viral oncogenes often enter a stage of crisis at the early phase of immortalization. The cells at crisis have a long population doubling time. Cells at the crisis stage resemble senescent cells and the expression of SA- beta-Gal may be used to monitor the process of immortalization. In this study the expression profile of SA-beta-Gal was examined in human ovarian surface epithelial cells (HOSE 6-3) undergoing immortalization by the human papilloma viral oncogene E6 and E7 (HPV E6 and E7). Our results showed a low percentage (12.0%) of HOSE 6-3 cells expressing SA-beta-Gal activity at the pre-crisis stage. The percentage of HOSE 6-3 cells expressing SA-beta-Gal activity was highest (39.2%) at the crisis stage. When HOSE 6-3 cells achieved immortalized status there was a sharp decrease in cells (1. 3%) expressing SA-beta-Gal activity. In addition, an inverse relationship between the expression of SA-beta-Gal activity and telomerase activity was noted in cells undergoing immortalization. The results confirm that the SA-beta-Gal enzyme is a good marker for monitoring the population of cells undergoing senescence at different stages of immortalization and that telomerase activation is a characteristic feature of post-crisis cells.

  5. PKC signaling is involved in the regulation of progranulin (acrogranin/PC-cell-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) protein expression in human ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Cueto, Laura; Arechavaleta-Velasco, Fabian; Diaz-Arizaga, Adriana; Dominguez-Lopez, Pablo; Robles-Flores, Martha

    2012-07-01

    Overexpression of progranulin (also named acrogranin, PC-cell-derived growth factor, or granulin-epithelin precursor) is associated with ovarian cancer, specifically with cell proliferation, malignancy, chemoresistance, and shortened overall survival. The objective of the current study is to identify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of progranulin expression in ovarian cancer cell lines. We studied the relation of protein kinase C (PKC), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase A, P38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Akt pathways on the modulation of progranulin expression levels in NIH-OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cell lines. The different pathways were examined using pharmacological inhibitors (calphostin C, LY294002, H89, SB203580, PD98059, and Akt Inhibitor), and mRNA and protein progranulin expression were analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot techniques, respectively. Inhibition of PKC signal transduction pathway by calphostin C decreased in a dose-dependent manner protein but not mRNA levels of progranulin in both ovarian cancer cell lines. LY294002 but not wortmannin, which are phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors, also diminished the expression of progranulin in both cell lines. In addition, LY294002 treatment produced a significant reduction in cell viability. Inhibition of protein kinase A, P38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Akt did not affect progranulin protein expression. These results suggest that the PKC signaling is involved in the regulation of progranulin protein expression in 2 different ovarian cancer cell lines. Inhibiting these intracellular signal transduction pathways may provide a future therapeutic target for hindering the cellular proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer produced by progranulin.

  6. 76 FR 55209 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... and Prevention and the Department of Health and Human Services have started a campaign to educate... their battle. In the memory of all the brave women who have lost their lives to ovarian cancer, and in...

  7. MV-NIS Infected Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-31

    Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  8. Polyglutamate Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-07

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  9. A mild ovarian stimulation strategy in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF: a multicenter randomized non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Youssef, M A; van Wely, M; Al-Inany, H; Madani, T; Jahangiri, N; Khodabakhshi, S; Alhalabi, M; Akhondi, M; Ansaripour, S; Tokhmechy, R; Zarandi, L; Rizk, A; El-Mohamedy, M; Shaeer, E; Khattab, M; Mochtar, M H; van der Veen, F

    2017-01-01

    ovarian stimulation versus 13.6% (27/199) for conventional ovarian stimulation leading to a risk ratio of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.57-1.57), representing an absolute difference of -0.7% (95% CI: -7.4 to 5.9). This 95% CI does not extend below the predefined threshold of 10% for inferiority. The duration of ovarian stimulation was significantly lower in the mild ovarian stimulation strategy than in the conventional ovarian stimulation strategy (mean difference -1.2 days, 95% CI: -1.88 to -0.62). Also, a significantly lower amount of gonadotropins was used in the mild simulation strategy, with a mean difference of 3135 IU (95% CI: -3331 to -2940). A limitation of our study was the lack of data concerning the cryopreservation of surplus embryos, so we are not informed on cumulative pregnancy rates. Another limitation is that we were not able to follow up on the ongoing pregnancies in all centers, so we are not informed on live birth rates. The results are directly applicable in daily clinical practice and may lead to considerable cost savings as high dosages of gonadotropins are not necessary in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF. A health economic analysis of our data planned to test the hypothesis that mild ovarian stimulation strategy is more cost-effective than the conventional ovarian stimulation strategy is underway. This study was supported by NUFFIC scholarship (the Netherlands) and STDF short-term fellowship (Egypt). NTR2788 (Trialregister.nl). 01 March 2011. May 2011. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Ovarian tissue characterization using bulk optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, B.; Xu, Y.; Zhu, Q.

    2013-03-01

    Ovarian cancer, the deadliest of all gynecologic cancers, is not often found in its early stages due to few symptoms and no reliable screening test. Optical imaging has a great potential to improve the ovarian cancer detection and diagnosis. In this study we have characterized the bulk optical properties of 26 ex-vivo human ovaries using a Diffuse Optical Tomography system. The quantitative values indicated that, in the postmenopausal group, malignant ovaries showed significantly lower scattering coefficient than normal ones. The scattering parameter is largely related to the collagen content that has shown a strong correlation with the cancer development.

  11. Membrane lipid layers vs. polarized water dominated by fixed ions: a comparative study of the effects of three macrocyclic ionophores on the K+ permeability of frog skeletal muscle, frog ovarian eggs, and human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ling, G N; Ochsenfeld, M M

    1986-01-01

    The effects of 10(-7) M valinomycin, nonactin, and monactin on human erythrocytes, frog sartorius muscle, and frog ovarian oocytes in the presence of varying external K+ concentration were studied. The results showed essentially a consistent but relatively modest increase of the K+ permeability constant in cm/sec with all three antibiotics on human erythrocytes. No change in response to any one of the antibiotics was observed in frog muscles or in frog ovarian eggs. These results and reports of similar failure to demonstrate ionophore-mediated increase of K+ permeability in squid axon and inner membrane of the liver mitochondria led to the conclusion that lipid membrane barrier to ionic traffic may be significant in the human erythrocytes but even here one must regard the evidence as tentative. In contrast, for the majority of other cell types studied, the data indicate the primary, if not exclusive route of ion traffic, is via the nonlipid component of the cell membrane. The evidence that these nonlipid paths are the fixed charge-polarized water layer complex and that they cover much of the cell surface of many types of living cells was discussed.

  12. Antimetastatic effects of cordycepin mediated by the inhibition of mitochondrial activity and estrogen-related receptor α in human ovarian carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chia-Woei; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2017-01-01

    Cordycepin (3′-deoxyadenosine) is a compound for antitumor, which has been found to exert antiangiogenic, antimetastatic, and antiproliferative effects, as well as inducing apoptosis. However, the association between cancer metastasis and mitochondrial activity in cordycepin-treated ovarian carcinoma cells remains unclear. The 50 and 100 μM of cordycepin inhibits mitochondrial fusion and induces mitochondrial fission, respectively. These suggested that cordycepin showed the down-regulation of mitochondrial function and limitation of energy production. Because of activation of mitochondria and generation of energy are needed in cancer cell migration/invasion. After 24 h treatment, cordycepin suppresses epithelial–mesenchymal transition and migration in ovarian carcinoma cells through inhibiting estrogen-related receptor (ERR)-α. The ERRα is a co-transcription factor for gene expressions associated with mitochondrial fusion. Our results indicate that cordycepin suppresses metastasis and migration of ovarian carcinoma cells via inhibiting mitochondrial activity in non-toxic concentrations, and cordycepin has potential benefits in ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:27966445

  13. Gallic acid sensitizes paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cells through an increase in reactive oxygen species and subsequent downregulation of ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carranza, Jessica Nayelli; Díaz, J Fernando; Redondo-Horcajo, Mariano; Barasoain, Isabel; Alvarez, Laura; Lastres, Pedro; Romero-Estrada, Antonio; Aller, Patricio; González-Maya, Leticia

    2018-06-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is currently used as a front-line chemotherapeutic agent for several types of cancer, including ovarian carcinoma; however, PTX-resistance frequently arises through multiple mechanisms. The development of new strategies using natural compounds and PTX in combination has been the aim of several prior studies, in order to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy. In this study, we found the following: (i) gallic acid (GA), a phenolic compound, potentiated the capacity of PTX to decrease proliferation and to cause G2/M cycle arrest in the PTX-resistant A2780AD ovarian cancer cell line; (ii) GA exerted a pro-oxidant action by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and co-treatment with the antioxidant agent N‑acetyl-L‑cysteine (NAC) prevented GA+PTX-induced cell proliferation inhibition and G2/M phase arrest; (iii) PTX stimulated ERK phosphorylation/activation, and co-treatment with the MEK/ERK inhibitor PD98049 potentiated the proliferation inhibition and G2/M phase arrest; (iv) and finally, GA abrogated the PTX-induced stimulation of ERK phosphorylation, a response that was prevented by co-treatment with NAC. Taken together, these results indicate that GA sensitizes PTX-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells via the ROS‑mediated inactivation of ERK, and suggest that GA could represent a useful co-adjuvant to PTX in ovarian carcinoma treatment.

  14. Follicle Depletion Provides a Permissive Environment for Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Cai, Kathy Qi; Smith, Elizabeth R.; Yeasky, Toni M.; Moore, Robert; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Hamilton, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We modeled the etiology of postmenopausal biology on ovarian cancer risk using germ cell-deficient white-spotting variant (Wv) mice, incorporating oncogenic mutations. Ovarian cancer incidence is highest in peri- and postmenopausal women, and epidemiological studies have established the impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk. Menopause as a result of ovarian follicle depletion is thought to contribute to higher cancer risk. As a consequence of follicle depletion, female Wv mice develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis frequently found in postmenopausal human ovaries. Lineage tracing using MISR2-Cre indicated that the tubular adenomas that developed in Wv mice were largely derived from the MISR2 lineage, which marked only a fraction of ovarian surface and oviduct epithelial cells in wild-type tissues. Deletion of p27, either heterozygous or homozygous, was able to convert the benign tubular adenomas into more proliferative tumors. Restricted deletion of p53 in Wv/Wv mice by either intrabursal injection of adenoviral Cre or inclusion of the MISR2-Cre transgene also resulted in augmented tumor growth. This finding suggests that follicle depletion provides a permissive ovarian environment for oncogenic transformation of epithelial cells, presenting a mechanism for the increased ovarian cancer risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:27354067

  15. Differential roles of MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 in insulin or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling pathways for progesterone production in human ovarian cells.

    PubMed

    Seto-Young, D; Avtanski, D; Varadinova, M; Park, A; Suwandhi, P; Leiser, A; Parikh, G; Poretsky, L

    2011-06-01

    Insulin and insulin like-growth factor-I (IGF-I) participate in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis. In insulin resistant states ovaries remain sensitive to insulin because insulin can activate alternative signaling pathways, such as phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3 kinase) and mitogen-activated protein-kinase (MAPK) pathways, as well as insulin receptors and type 1 IGF receptors. We investigated the roles of MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 in insulin and IGF-I signaling pathways for progesterone production in human ovarian cells. Human ovarian cells were cultured in tissue culture medium in the presence of varying concentrations of insulin or IGF-I, with or without PD98059, a specific MAPK-Erk1/2 inhibitor, with or without SB203580, a specific MAPK-p38 inhibitor or with or without a specific PI-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. PD98059 alone stimulated progesterone production in a dose-dependent manner by up to 65% (p<0.001). Similarly, LY294002 alone stimulated progesterone production by 13-18% (p<0.005). However, when used together, PD98059 and LY294002 inhibited progesterone production by 17-20% (p<0.001). SB203580 alone inhibited progesterone production by 20-30% (p<0.001). Insulin or IGF-I alone stimulated progesterone production by 40-60% (p<0.001). In insulin studies, PD98059 had no significant effect on progesterone synthesis while SB203580 abolished insulin-induced progesterone production. Either PD98059 or SB203580 abolished IGF-I-induced progesterone production. Both MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 participate in IGF-I-induced signaling pathways for progesterone production, while insulin-induced progesterone production requires MAPK-p38, but not MAPK-Erk1/2. These studies provide further evidence for divergence of insulin and IGF-I signaling pathways for human ovarian cell steroidogenesis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Genetically engineered mouse models for epithelial ovarian cancer: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Howell, Viive M

    2014-03-01

    The development of preclinical spontaneous genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) requires an understanding of the genetic basis of the human disease. Such robust models have proven invaluable for increasing understanding of human malignancies as well as identifying new biomarkers and testing new therapies for these diseases. While GEMMs have been reported for ovarian cancer, the majority have proven disappointing overall in their recapitulation of paired genetic and histological features especially for serous ovarian epithelial cancer. This review describes GEMMs for ovarian cancer, in particular, high grade serous ovarian cancer and assesses these in light of recent changes in our understanding of the human malignancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of PELP1 in EGFR-ER Signaling Crosstalk in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    IHC studies using human ovarian cancer tissue arrays (n=123) showed that PELP1/MNAR is 2 to 3 fold over expressed in 60% of ovarian tumors To...cancers, however little is known about PELP1 role in ovarian cancer progression. Analysis of human genome databases and SAGE data suggested...PELP1/MNAR can facilitate ER nonge- nomic signaling via Src kinase, PI3K, and STAT3 in the cytosol. PELP1/MNAR regulates meiosis via its interactions

  18. Targeting aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) with cyclic-imide peptidomimetics derivative CIP-13F inhibits the growth of human ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shu-Xiang; Qu, Xian-Jun; Gao, Zu-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Fan; Zhao, Cui-Rong; Xu, Wen-Fang; Li, Qian-Bin; Han, Jin-Xiang

    2010-06-28

    Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) is an essential peptidase involved in the process of tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. Inhibition of APN/CD13 may be an effective strategy for cancer treatment. CIP-13F is a cyclic-imide peptidomimetics compound designed to fit the active pockets S1 and S'1 of APN/CD13 that act in tumor proliferation. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CIP-13F as a candidate compound for cancer treatment. The experiments were performed on the human ovarian carcinoma (OVCA) ES-2 and HRA cell lines, which have high and low levels of APN/CD13 respectively. CIP-13F significantly blocked APN/CD13 activity on the surface of ES-2 cells as measured by quantitating the enzymatic cleavage of the substrate l-leucine-p-nitroanilide. CIP-13F effectively inhibited ES-2 cell growth and migration without significant cytotoxic effect. In contrast, CIP-13F did not significantly inhibit HRA cell growth, indicating that CIP-13F may inhibit ES-2 cell growth via suppression of APN/CD13. The suppression of APN/CD13 was also observed by using the assays of flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. Further, the inhibitory effects of CIP-13F on APN/CD13 and on ES-2 proliferation were supported by the induction of ES-2 apoptosis. CIP-13F-treated ES-2 cells resulted apoptotic characteristics, such as induction of externalization of phosphatidylserine and DNA laddering fragment. The activation of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) was also enhanced. The inhibitory effects of CIP-13F on APN/CD13 expression and on ES-2 proliferation were confirmed in mice bearing ES-2 xenografts. CIP-13F delayed the growth of ES-2 xenografts in mice after 2 weeks of vena caudalis injection. These results suggest that CIP-13F has a high inhibitory effect on the growth of OVCA cells via decreasing the activity and expression of APN/CD13. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ovarian ageing: the role of mitochondria in oocytes and follicles.

    PubMed

    May-Panloup, Pascale; Boucret, Lisa; Chao de la Barca, Juan-Manuel; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Ferré-L'Hotellier, Véronique; Morinière, Catherine; Descamps, Philippe; Procaccio, Vincent; Reynier, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    There is a great inter-individual variability of ovarian ageing, and almost 20% of patients consulting for infertility show signs of premature ovarian ageing. This feature, taken together with delayed childbearing in modern society, leads to the emergence of age-related ovarian dysfunction concomitantly with the desire for pregnancy. Assisted reproductive technology is frequently inefficacious in cases of ovarian ageing, thus raising the economic, medical and societal costs of the procedures. Ovarian ageing is characterized by quantitative and qualitative alteration of the ovarian oocyte reserve. Mitochondria play a central role in follicular atresia and could be the main target of the ooplasmic factors determining oocyte quality adversely affected by ageing. Indeed, the oocyte is the richest cell of the body in mitochondria and depends largely on these organelles to acquire competence for fertilization and early embryonic development. Moreover, the oocyte ensures the uniparental transmission and stability of the mitochondrial genome across the generations. This review focuses on the role played by mitochondria in ovarian ageing and on the possible consequences over the generations. PubMed was used to search the MEDLINE database for peer-reviewed original articles and reviews concerning mitochondria and ovarian ageing, in animal and human species. Searches were performed using keywords belonging to three groups: 'mitochondria' or 'mitochondrial DNA'; 'ovarian reserve', 'oocyte', 'ovary' or 'cumulus cells'; and 'ageing' or 'ovarian ageing'. These keywords were combined with other search phrases relevant to the topic. References from these articles were used to obtain additional articles. There is a close relationship, in mammalian models and humans, between mitochondria and the decline of oocyte quality with ageing. Qualitatively, ageing-related mitochondrial (mt) DNA instability, which leads to the accumulation of mtDNA mutations in the oocyte, plays a key role in

  20. Polycystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Raj, S G; Talbert, L M

    1984-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) was first described as a single disease by Stein and Leventhal in 1935, but now has been separated into several distinct entities, comprising a symptom complex. The most frequent presenting symptoms associated with PCOD are obesity, hirsutism, amenorrhea or anovulation, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, irregular menses, and infertility. The common finding of hirsutism in PCOD patients is a reflection of the hyperandrogenism resulting from elevation of all the androgens, including testosterone, androstenediol, dehydroepiandrostrone sulfate (DHEA-S), and androstenedione. Some patients with all the clinical features of PCOD can be shown, through appropriate testing, to have an attenuated form of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels are usually low or in the normal range, and serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are usually elevated in patients with PCOD, resulting in an altered LH/FSH ratio. Treatment for PCOD must be based on the needs and desires of the individual patient, and on the pathophysiology of the patient's particular abnormalities. When pregnancy is desired, ovulation induction with clomiphene is indicated. Clomiphene is a weak estrogen that induces a transient rise in serum LH and FSH, followed by a gonadotropic pattern similar to normal cycles. A 72% ovulation rate and a 41.8% conception rate have been reported after treatment with clomiphene. In patients who do not respond to clomiphene, or clomiphene with added human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) can be used to induce ovulation, but the patient should be closely monitored for multiple ovulation, multiple pregnancy, or hyperstimulation syndrome. For patients not interested in conception, regular menstrual cyclicity can be restored and hyperandrogenism reduced with oral contraceptives (OCs).

  1. Stages of Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Symptoms, Tests, Prognosis, & Stages Treatment of Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Prevention of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, & Primary Peritoneal ...

  2. Human umbilical cord stem cell conditioned medium versus serum-free culture medium in the treatment of cryopreserved human ovarian tissues in in-vitro culture: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yingxian; Shi, Xiaohan; Xie, Yidong; Xie, Xiaochuan; Wang, Yan; Li, Shangwei

    2017-06-24

    To reduce young female fertility loss, the in-vitro culture of cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissues (OCTs) is considered an effective approach without delaying treatment and undergoing stimulation medicine. However, ischemic damage and follicular loss during the in-vitro culture of OCTs are major technical challenges. Human umbilical cord stem cells (HUMSCs) and their conditioned medium (HUMSC-CM) have been considered to be potential resources for regeneration medicine because they secrete cytokines and enhance cell survival and function. The aim of this study was to determine whether HUMSC-CM improves the development of frozen-thawed in-vitro cultured ovarian tissues compared with a serum-free culture medium (SF-CM). The thawed OCTs (n = 68) were cultivated in HUMSC-CM and SF-CM in vitro for 8 days, and the ovarian tissues were processed and analyzed by a classical histological evaluation. The microvessel density (MVD) and apotosis detection during in-vitro culture of OCTs were also performed. A significant difference in the rate of morphologically normal primordial follicles in the HUMSC-CM group was observed compared to that in the SF-CM group (group C) from days 2 to 4 (day 2: group B 58.0 ± 2.45% vs group C 32.0 ± 5.83%, p = 0.002; day 3: group B 55.5 ± 4.20% vs group C 21.0 ± 9.80%, p = 0.048; day 4: group B 52.0 ± 4.08% vs group C 21.5 ± 8.19%, p = 0.019). The microvessel density (MVD) detection showed a time-dependent increase and peaked on day 4. There was a significant difference between groups B (49.33 ± 0.58) and C (24.33 ± 3.79) (p = 0.036). The percentage of apoptotic follicles in group B was lower than that in group C on day 1 (13.75 ± 2.50% vs 27.0 ± 10.10%, p = 0.003), day 5 (11.75 ± 1.50% vs 51.0 ± 10.5%, p = 0.019) and day 7 (15.0 ± 5.10% vs 46.5 ± 21.75%, p = 0.018). These data have provided the first experimental evidence of the effect of

  3. Lycopene Protects Against Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer Formation in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Kazim; Yenice, Engin; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Mizrak, Cengizhan; Ozercan, Ibrahim H.; Sahin, Nurhan; Yilmaz, Bahiddin; Bilir, Birdal; Ozpolat, Bulent

    2018-01-01

    Background Dietary intake of lycopene has been associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against ovarian carcinogenesis. Lycopene’s molecular mechanisms of action in ovarian cancer have not been fully understood. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of lycopene on the ovarian cancer formation using the laying hen model, a biologically relevant animal model of spontaneous ovarian carcinogenesis due to high incidence rates similar to humans. Methods In this study, a total of 150 laying hens at age of 102 weeks were randomized into groups of 50: a control group (0 mg of lycopene per kg of diet) and two treatment groups (200 mg or 400 mg of lycopene per kg of diet, or ~26 and 52 mg/d/hen, respectively). At the end of 12 months, blood, ovarian tissues and tumors were collected. Results We observed that lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the overall ovarian tumor incidence (P < 0.01) as well as the number and the size of the tumors (P < 0.004 and P < 0.005, respectively). Lycopene also significantly decreased the rate of adenocarcinoma, including serous and mucinous subtypes (P < 0.006). Moreover, we also found that the serum level of oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde was significantly lower in lycopene-fed hens compared to control birds (P < 0.001). Molecular analysis of the ovarian tumors revealed that lycopene reduced the expression of NF-κB while increasing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 and its major target protein, heme oxygenase 1. In addition, lycopene supplementation decreased the expression of STAT3 by inducing the protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 expression in the ovarian tissues. Conclusions Taken together, our findings strongly support the potential of lycopene in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:29629346

  4. Lycopene Protects Against Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer Formation in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Yenice, Engin; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Mizrak, Cengizhan; Ozercan, Ibrahim H; Sahin, Nurhan; Yilmaz, Bahiddin; Bilir, Birdal; Ozpolat, Bulent; Kucuk, Omer

    2018-03-01

    Dietary intake of lycopene has been associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against ovarian carcinogenesis. Lycopene's molecular mechanisms of action in ovarian cancer have not been fully understood. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of lycopene on the ovarian cancer formation using the laying hen model, a biologically relevant animal model of spontaneous ovarian carcinogenesis due to high incidence rates similar to humans. In this study, a total of 150 laying hens at age of 102 weeks were randomized into groups of 50: a control group (0 mg of lycopene per kg of diet) and two treatment groups (200 mg or 400 mg of lycopene per kg of diet, or ~26 and 52 mg/d/hen, respectively). At the end of 12 months, blood, ovarian tissues and tumors were collected. We observed that lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the overall ovarian tumor incidence ( P < 0.01) as well as the number and the size of the tumors ( P < 0.004 and P < 0.005, respectively). Lycopene also significantly decreased the rate of adenocarcinoma, including serous and mucinous subtypes ( P < 0.006). Moreover, we also found that the serum level of oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde was significantly lower in lycopene-fed hens compared to control birds ( P < 0.001). Molecular analysis of the ovarian tumors revealed that lycopene reduced the expression of NF-κB while increasing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 and its major target protein, heme oxygenase 1. In addition, lycopene supplementation decreased the expression of STAT3 by inducing the protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 expression in the ovarian tissues. Taken together, our findings strongly support the potential of lycopene in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  5. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tube, & Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening Research Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment Option Overview ... types of treatment for patients with ovarian germ cell tumors. Different types of treatment are available for ...

  6. Immunotherapy in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Odunsi, K

    2017-11-01

    Immunological destruction of tumors is a multistep, coordinated process that can be modulated or targeted at several critical points to elicit tumor rejection. These steps in the cancer immunity cycle include: (i) generation of sufficient numbers of effector T cells with high avidity recognition of tumor antigens in vivo; (ii) trafficking and infiltration into the tumor; (iii) overcoming inhibitory networks in the tumor microenvironment; (iv) direct recognition of tumor antigens and generation of an effector anti-tumor response; and (v) persistence of the anti-tumor T cells. In an effort to understand whether the immune system plays a role in controlling ovarian cancer, our group and others demonstrated that the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is associated with improved clinical outcome in ovarian cancer patients. Recently, we hypothesized that the quality of infiltrating T cells could also be a critical determinant of outcome in ovarian cancer patients. In the past decade, several immune-based interventions have gained regulatory approval in many solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. These interventions include immune checkpoint blockade, cancer vaccines, and adoptive cell therapy. There are currently no approved immune therapies for ovarian cancer. Immunotherapy in ovarian cancer will have to consider the immune suppressive networks within the ovarian tumor microenvironment; therefore, a major direction is to develop biomarkers that would predict responsiveness to different types of immunotherapies, and allow for treatment selection based on the results. Moreover, such biomarkers would allow rational combination of immunotherapies, while minimizing toxicities. In this review, the current understanding of the host immune response in ovarian cancer patients will be briefly reviewed, progress in immune therapies, and future directions for exploiting immune based strategies for long lasting durable cure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford

  7. Aurora kinase inhibitor AZD1152 has an additional effect of platinum on a sequential application at the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yaxi; Weimer, Jörg; Fredrik, Regina; Adam-Klages, Sabine; Sebens, Susanne; Caliebe, Amke; Hilpert, Felix; Eckmann-Scholz, Christel; Arnold, Norbert; Schem, Christian

    2013-07-01

    The treatment of ovarian tumors is carried out with platinum medicine which can lead to incompatibilities or resistances. Thus, it is of great interest to check new medicine suitability for its application. AZD1152 is an Aurora kinase inhibitor predominantly works against Aurora kinase B involved in the chromosome segregation. Cells become polyploidy and reduce the proliferation by this impairment. To investigate whether AZD1152, may play a role in the treatment of ovarian carcinoma we serving it to the cisplatinum-resistant cell line SKOV3 alone and in combination with platinum. We look at the proliferation, the ploidy, the phases of cell cycle and the apoptosis activity of the cells. We could show that the combination of both medicines in the preclinical experiment produces a working advantage.

  8. Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Phase III Trial Evaluating Pertuzumab Combined With Chemotherapy for Low Tumor Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 3 mRNA-Expressing Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer (PENELOPE).

    PubMed

    Kurzeder, Christian; Bover, Isabel; Marmé, Frederik; Rau, Joern; Pautier, Patricia; Colombo, Nicoletta; Lorusso, Domenica; Ottevanger, Petronella; Bjurberg, Maria; Marth, Christian; Barretina-Ginesta, Pilar; Vergote, Ignace; Floquet, Anne; Del Campo, Josep M; Mahner, Sven; Bastière-Truchot, Lydie; Martin, Nicolas; Oestergaard, Mikkel Z; Kiermaier, Astrid; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Polleis, Sandra; du Bois, Andreas; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio

    2016-07-20

    The AGO-OVAR 2.29/ENGOT-ov14/PENELOPE prospectively randomized phase III trial evaluated the addition of pertuzumab to chemotherapy in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian carcinoma with low tumor human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) mRNA expression. We report the results of the primary efficacy analysis. Eligible patients had ovarian carcinoma that progressed during or within 6 months of completing four or more platinum cycles, centrally tested low tumor HER3 mRNA expression (concentration ratio ≤ 2.81 by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on cobas z480 [Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Pleasanton, CA]), and no more than two prior lines of chemotherapy. After investigators' selection of the chemotherapy backbone (single-agent topotecan, weekly paclitaxel, or gemcitabine), patients were randomly assigned to also receive either placebo or pertuzumab (840-mg loading dose followed by 420 mg every 3 weeks). Stratification factors were selected chemotherapy, prior antiangiogenic therapy, and platinum-free interval. The primary end point was independent review committee-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Additional end points included overall survival, investigator-assessed PFS, objective response rate, safety, patient-reported outcomes, and translational research. Overall, 156 patients were randomly assigned. Adding pertuzumab to chemotherapy did not significantly improve independent review committee-assessed PFS for the primary analysis (stratified hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.11; P = .14; median PFS, 4.3 months for pertuzumab plus chemotherapy v 2.6 months for placebo plus chemotherapy). Sensitivity analyses and secondary efficacy end point results were consistent with the primary analysis. The effect on PFS favoring pertuzumab was more pronounced in the gemcitabine and paclitaxel cohorts. No new safety signals were seen. Although the primary objective was not met, subgroup analyses showed trends in PFS favoring

  9. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Li, Tao; Huang, Bangxing; Cheng, Henghui; Ding, Hui; Dong, Weihong; Xiao, Man; Liu, Ling; Wang, Zehua

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M) were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD), an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP) and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  10. NSAID-activated gene 1 mediates pro-inflammatory signaling activation and paclitaxel chemoresistance in type I human epithelial ovarian cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyung; Park, Seong-Hwan; Do, Kee Hun; Kim, Juil; Choi, Kyung Un; Moon, Yuseok

    2016-11-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Chronic endogenous sterile pro-inflammatory responses are strongly linked to EOC progression and chemoresistance to anti-cancer therapeutics. In the present study, the activity of epithelial NF-κB, a key pro-inflammatory transcription factor, was enhanced with the progress of EOC. This result was mechanistically linked with an increased expression of NSAID-Activated Gene 1 (NAG-1) in MyD88-positive type I EOC stem-like cells, compared with that in MyD88-negative type II EOC cells. Elevated NAG-1 as a potent biomarker of poor prognosis in the ovarian cancer was positively associated with the levels of NF-κB activation, chemokines and stemness markers in type I EOC cells. In terms of signal transduction, NAG-1-activated SMAD-linked and non-canonical TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK-1)-activated pathways contributed to NF-κB activation and the subsequent induction of some chemokines and cancer stemness markers. In addition to effects on NF-κB-dependent gene regulation, NAG-1 was involved in expression of EGF receptor and subsequent activation of EGF receptor-linked signaling. The present study also provided evidences for links between NAG-1-linked signaling and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer cells. NAG-1 and pro-inflammatory NF-κB were positively associated with resistance to paclitaxel in MyD88-positive type I EOC cells. Mechanistically, this chemoresistance occurred due to enhanced activation of the SMAD-4- and non-SMAD-TAK-1-linked pathways. All of the present data suggested NAG-1 protein as a crucial mediator of EOC progression and resistance to the standard first-line chemotherapy against EOC, particularly in MyD88-positive ovarian cancer stem-like cells.

  11. Folic Acid Targeting for Efficient Isolation and Detection of Ovarian Cancer CTCs from Human Whole Blood Based on Two-Step Binding Strategy.

    PubMed

    Nie, Liju; Li, Fulai; Huang, Xiaolin; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Wang, Yongqiang Andrew; Xiong, Yonghua; Fu, Fen; Xu, Hengyi

    2018-04-25

    Studies regarding circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have great significance for cancer prognosis, treatment monitoring, and metastasis diagnosis. However, due to their extremely low concentration in peripheral blood, isolation and enrichment of CTCs are the key steps for early detection. To this end, targeting the folic acid receptors (FRs) on the CTC surface for capture with folic acid (FA) using bovine serum albumin (BSA)-tether for multibiotin enhancement in combination with streptavidin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs-SA) was developed for ovarian cancer CTC isolation. The streptavidin-biotin-system-mediated two-step binding strategy was shown to capture CTCs from whole blood efficiently without the need for a pretreatment process. The optimized parameters for this system exhibited an average capture efficiency of 80%, which was 25% higher than that of FA-decorated magnetic nanoparticles based on the one-step CTC separation method. Moreover, the isolated cells remained highly viable and were cultured directly without detachment from the MNPs-SA-biotin-CTC complex. Furthermore, when the system was applied for the isolation and detection of CTCs in ovarian cancer patients' peripheral blood samples, it exhibited an 80% correlation with clinical diagnostic criteria. The results indicated that FA targeting, in combination with BSA-based multibiotin enhancement magnetic nanoparticle separation, is a promising tool for CTC enrichment and detection of early-stage ovarian cancer.

  12. Ovarian Stem Cell Nests in Reproduction and Ovarian Aging.

    PubMed

    Ye, Haifeng; Zheng, Tuochen; Li, Wei; Li, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xinxin; Huang, Yaoqi; Hu, Chuan; Li, Jia; Huang, Jian; Liu, Zhengyv; Zheng, Liping; Zheng, Yuehui

    2017-01-01

    The fixed primordial follicles pool theory, which monopolized reproductive medicine for more than one hundred years, has been broken by the discovery, successful isolation and establishment of ovarian stem cells. It has brought more hope than ever of increasing the size of primordial follicle pool, improving ovarian function and delaying ovarian consenescence. Traditional view holds that stem cell aging contributes to the senility of body and organs. However, in the process of ovarian aging, the main factor leading to the decline of the reproductive function is the aging and degradation of ovarian stem cell nests, rather than the senescence of ovarian germ cells themselves. Recent studies have found that the immune system and circulatory system are involved in the formation of ovarian germline stem cell niches, as well as regulating the proliferation and differentiation of ovarian germline stem cells through cellular and hormonal signals. Therefore, we can improve ovarian function and delay ovarian aging by improving the immune system and circulatory system, which will provide an updated program for the treatment of premature ovarian failure (POF) and infertility. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The latest animal models of ovarian cancer for novel drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Magnotti, Elizabeth; Marasco, Wayne A

    2018-03-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease classified into five subtypes, each with a different molecular profile. Most cases of ovarian cancer are diagnosed after metastasis of the primary tumor and are resistant to traditional platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Mouse models of ovarian cancer have been utilized to discern ovarian cancer tumorigenesis and the tumor's response to therapeutics. Areas covered: The authors provide a review of mouse models currently employed to understand ovarian cancer. This article focuses on advances in the development of orthotopic and patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) mouse models of ovarian cancer and discusses current humanized mouse models of ovarian cancer. Expert opinion: The authors suggest that humanized mouse models of ovarian cancer will provide new insight into the role of the human immune system in combating and augmenting ovarian cancer and aid in the development of novel therapeutics. Development of humanized mouse models will take advantage of the NSG and NSG-SGM3 strains of mice as well as new strains that are actively being derived.

  14. Vitrification as an alternative means of cryopreserving ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Christiani A; Curaba, Mara; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Donnez, Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Because of the simplicity of vitrification, many authors have investigated it as an alternative to slow freezing for cryopreserving ovarian tissue. In the last decade, numerous studies have evaluated vitrification of ovarian tissue from both humans and animals.Different vitrification solutions and protocols, mostly adapted from embryo and oocyte vitrification, have been applied. The results have been discrepant from species to species and even within the same species, but lately they appear to indicate that vitrification can achieve similar or even superior results to conventional freezing. Despite the encouraging results obtained with vitrification of ovarian tissue from humans and different animal species, it is necessary to understand how vitrification solutions and protocols can affect ovarian tissue, notably preantral follicles. In addition, it is important to bear in mind that the utilization of different approaches to assess tissue functionality and oocyte quality is essential in order to validate the promising results already obtained with vitrification procedures. This review summarizes the principles of vitrification, discusses the advantages of vitrification protocols for ovarian tissue cryopreservation and describes different studies conducted on the vitrification of ovarian tissue in humans and animal species. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The anti-tumor efficacy of 3C23K, a glyco-engineered humanized anti-MISRII antibody, in an ovarian cancer model is mainly mediated by engagement of immune effector cells

    PubMed Central

    Estupina, Pauline; Fontayne, Alexandre; Barret, Jean-Marc; Kersual, Nathalie; Dubreuil, Olivier; Le Blay, Marion; Pichard, Alexandre; Jarlier, Marta; Pugnière, Martine; Chauvin, Maëva; Chardès, Thierry; Pouget, Jean-Pierre; Deshayes, Emmanuel; Rossignol, Alexis; Abache, Toufik; de Romeuf, Christophe; Terrier, Aurélie; Verhaeghe, Lucie; Gaucher, Christine; Prost, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in women with gynecological cancers and despite recent advances, new and more efficient therapies are crucially needed. Müllerian Inhibiting Substance type II Receptor (MISRII, also named AMHRII) is expressed in most ovarian cancer subtypes and is a novel potential target for ovarian cancer immunotherapy. We previously developed and tested 12G4, the first murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) against human MISRII. Here, we report the humanization, affinity maturation and glyco-engineering steps of 12G4 to generate the Fc-optimized 3C23K MAb, and the evaluation of its in vivo anti-tumor activity. The epitopes of 3C23K and 12G4 were strictly identical and 3C23K affinity for MISRII was enhanced by a factor of about 14 (KD = 5.5 × 10−11 M vs 7.9 × 10−10 M), while the use of the EMABling® platform allowed the production of a low-fucosylated 3C23K antibody with a 30-fold KD improvement of its affinity to FcγRIIIa. In COV434-MISRII tumor-bearing mice, 3C23K reduced tumor growth more efficiently than 12G4 and its combination with carboplatin was more efficient than each monotherapy with a mean tumor size of 500, 1100 and 100 mm3 at the end of treatment with 3C23K (10 mg/kg, Q3-4D12), carboplatin (60 mg/kg, Q7D4) and 3C23K+carboplatin, respectively. Conversely, 3C23K-FcKO, a 3C23K form without affinity for the FcγRIIIa receptor, did not display any anti-tumor effect in vivo. These results strongly suggested that 3C23K mechanisms of action are mainly Fc-related. In vitro, antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis (ADCP) were induced by 3C23K, as demonstrated with human effector cells. Using human NK cells, 50% of the maximal lysis was obtained with a 46-fold lower concentration of low-fucosylated 3C23K (2.9 ng/ml) than of 3C23K expressed in CHO cells (133.35 ng/ml). As 3C23K induced strong ADCC with human PBMC but almost none with murine PBMC, antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis (ADCP

  16. Three-photon imaging of ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Rice, Photini; Hatch, Kenneth; Kieu, Khanh

    2016-02-01

    Optical imaging methods have the potential to detect ovarian cancer at an early, curable stage. Optical imaging has the disadvantage that high resolution techniques require access to the tissue of interest, but miniature endoscopes that traverse the natural orifice of the reproductive tract, or access the ovaries and fallopian tubes through a small incision in the vagina wall, can provide a minimally-invasive solution. We have imaged both rodent and human ovaries and fallopian tubes with a variety of endoscope-compatible modalities. The recent development of fiber-coupled femtosecond lasers will enable endoscopic multiphoton microscopy (MPM). We demonstrated two- and three-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF, 3PEF), and second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy (SHG, THG) in human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue. A study was undertaken to understand the mechanisms of contrast in these images. Six patients (normal, cystadenoma, and ovarian adenocarcinoma) provided ovarian and fallopian tube biopsies. The tissue was imaged with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography, multiphoton microscopy, and frozen for histological sectioning. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Sudan black. Approximately 1 μm resolution images were obtained with an excitation source at 1550 nm. 2PEF signal was absent. SHG signal was mainly from collagen. 3PEF and THG signal came from a variety of sources, including a strong signal from fatty connective tissue and red blood cells. Adenocarcinoma was characterized by loss of SHG signal, whereas cystic abnormalities showed strong SHG. There was limited overlap of two- and three- photon signals, suggesting that three-photon imaging can provide additional information for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  17. The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A2 induces neoplastic properties and mediates tumorigenic effects of ZNF217 in precursor cells of human ovarian carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yu; Wong, Nicholas; Guan, Yinghui

    2008-04-25

    Ovarian epithelial carcinomas (OEC) frequently exhibit amplifications at the 20q13 locus which is the site of several oncogenes, including the eukaryotic elongation factor EEF1A2 and the transcription factor ZNF217. We reported previously that overexpressed ZNF217 induces neoplastic characteristics in precursor cells of OEC. Unexpectedly, ZNF217, which is a transcriptional repressor, enhanced expression of eEF1A2. In this study, array comparative genomic hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism and Affymetrix analysis of ZNF217-overexpressing cell lines confirmed consistently increased expression of eEF1A2 but not of other oncogenes, and revealed early changes in EEF1A2 gene copy numbers and increased expression at crisis during immortalization. We definedmore » the influence of eEF1A2 overexpression on immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells, and investigated interrelationships between effects of ZNF217 and eEF1A2 on cellular phenotypes. Lentivirally induced eEF1A2 overexpression caused delayed crisis, apoptosis resistance and increases in serum-independence, saturation densities, and anchorage independence. siRNA to eEF1A2 reversed apoptosis resistance and reduced anchorage independence in eEF1A2-overexpressing lines. Remarkably, siRNA to eEF1A2 was equally efficient in inhibiting both anchorage independence and resistance to apoptosis conferred by ZNF217 overexpression. Our data define neoplastic properties that are caused by eEF1A2 in nontumorigenic ovarian cancer precursor cells, and suggest that eEF1A2 plays a role in mediating ZNF217-induced neoplastic progression.« less

  18. Hepatocyte growth factor secreted by ovarian cancer cells stimulates peritoneal implantation via the mesothelial-mesenchymal transition of the peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Michihiko; Ono, Yoshihiro J; Kanemura, Masanori; Tanaka, Tomohito; Hayashi, Masami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2015-11-01

    A current working model for the metastatic process of ovarian carcinoma suggests that cancer cells are shed from the ovarian tumor into the peritoneal cavity and attach to the layer of mesothelial cells that line the inner surface of the peritoneum, and several studies suggest that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plays an important role in the dissemination of ovarian cancer. Our objectives were to evaluate the HGF expression of ovarian cancer using clinical data and assess the effect of HGF secreted from human ovarian cancer cells to human mesothelial cells. HGF expression was immunohistochemically evaluated in 165 epithelial ovarian cancer patients arranged as tissue microarrays. HGF expression in four ovarian cancer cell lines was evaluated by using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of ovarian cancer cell derived HGF to the human mesothelial cells was assessed by using morphologic analysis, Western blotting and cell invasion assay. The effect of HGF on ovarian cancer metastasis was assessed by using in vivo experimental model. The clinical data showed a significantly high correlation between the HGF expression and the cancer stage. The in vivo and in vitro experimental models revealed that HGF secreted by ovarian cancer cells induces the mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stimulates the invasion of mesothelial cells. Furthermore, manipulating the HGF activity affected the degree of dissemination and ascite formation. We demonstrated that HGF secreted by ovarian cancer cells plays an important role in cancer peritoneal implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Denileukin Diftitox Used in Treating Patients With Advanced Refractory Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, or Epithelial Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-01

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  20. Increased expression of Nlp, a potential oncogene in ovarian cancer, and its implication in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Danni; Qu, Hongyan; Fu, Ming; Zhao, Xuelian; Liu, Rong; Sui, Lihua; Zhan, Qimin

    2008-08-01

    Nlp (Ninein-like protein), a novel centrosome protein involved in microtubule nucleation, has been studied extensively in our laboratory, and its overexpression has been found in some human tumors. To understand the role of Nlp in human ovarian cancer development, we studied the correlation of Nlp expression with clinicopathological parameters and survival in epithelial ovarian cancer, and the impact of Nlp overexpression on ovarian cancer cells. Nlp expression in normal, borderline, benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between Nlp expression and tumor grade, FIGO stage and histological type was also evaluated. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assayed after stable transfection of pEGFP-C3-Nlp or empty vector in human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3. Nlp was positive in 1 of 10 (10%) normal ovarian tissues, 5 of 34 (14.7%) benign tumors, 9 of 26 (34.6%) borderline tumors and 73 of 131 (56.0%) ovarian tumors. Nlp immunoreactivity intensity significantly correlated with tumor grade, but not with FIGO stage or histological type. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that Nlp overexpression was marginally associated with decreased overall survival. Overexpression of Nlp enhanced proliferation and inhibited apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in the SKOV3 cell line. Overexpression of Nlp in ovarian tumors raises the possibility that Nlp may play a role in ovarian carcinogenesis.

  1. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Assisted Reproductive Technology Read more Ovarian Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is ...

  2. Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    cycle," Endocrinology 123, 2896-905 (1988). 31 31. A. G. Hendrickx , W. R. Dukelow, "Reproductive Biology," Chap. 9 in Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical...100 units/ml penicillin , 2 mM L-glutamine, and 100 to explore the effect of 4-HPR on normal ovarian epithelial [ig/ml streptomycin. Six different NOE

  3. Induction of a menopausal state alters the growth and histology of ovarian tumors in a mouse model of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Laviolette, Laura A; Ethier, Jean-François; Senterman, Mary K; Devine, Patrick J; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

    2011-05-01

    Ovarian cancer is often diagnosed in women after menopause when the levels of the serum gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are increased because of the depletion of growing follicles within the ovary. The ability of FSH and LH to modulate the disease has not been well studied owing to a lack of physiologically relevant models of ovarian cancer. In this study, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) was used to deplete ovarian follicles and increase the levels of circulating FSH and LH in the tgCAG-LS-TAg mouse model of ovarian cancer. VCD-induced follicle depletion was performed either before or after induction of the oncogene SV40 large and small T-antigens in the ovarian surface epithelial cells of tgCAG-LS-TAg mice, which was mediated by the intrabursal delivery of an adenovirus expressing Cre recombinase (AdCre). tgCAG-LS-TAg mice injected with AdCre developed undifferentiated ovarian tumors with mixed epithelial and stromal components and some features of sex cord stromal tumors. Treatment with VCD before or after AdCre injection yielded tumors of similar histology, but with the unique appearance of Sertoli cell nests. In mice treated with VCD before the induction of tumorigenesis, the ovarian tumors tended to grow more slowly. The human ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and OVCAR3 responded similarly to increased levels of gonadotropins in a second model of menopause, growing more slowly in ovariectomized mice compared with cycling controls. These results suggest that follicle depletion and increased gonadotropin levels can alter the histology and the rate of growth of ovarian tumors.

  4. Ovarian cancer statistics, 2018.

    PubMed

    Torre, Lindsey A; Trabert, Britton; DeSantis, Carol E; Miller, Kimberly D; Samimi, Goli; Runowicz, Carolyn D; Gaudet, Mia M; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L

    2018-05-29

    In 2018, there will be approximately 22,240 new cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed and 14,070 ovarian cancer deaths in the United States. Herein, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of ovarian cancer occurrence based on incidence data from nationwide population-based cancer registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. The status of early detection strategies is also reviewed. In the United States, the overall ovarian cancer incidence rate declined from 1985 (16.6 per 100,000) to 2014 (11.8 per 100,000) by 29% and the mortality rate declined between 1976 (10.0 per 100,000) and 2015 (6.7 per 100,000) by 33%. Ovarian cancer encompasses a heterogenous group of malignancies that vary in etiology, molecular biology, and numerous other characteristics. Ninety percent of ovarian cancers are epithelial, the most common being serous carcinoma, for which incidence is highest in non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) (5.2 per 100,000) and lowest in non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (APIs) (3.4 per 100,000). Notably, however, APIs have the highest incidence of endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas, which occur at younger ages and help explain comparable epithelial cancer incidence for APIs and NHWs younger than 55 years. Most serous carcinomas are diagnosed at stage III (51%) or IV (29%), for which the 5-year cause-specific survival for patients diagnosed during 2007 through 2013 was 42% and 26%, respectively. For all stages of epithelial cancer combined, 5-year survival is highest in APIs (57%) and lowest in NHBs (35%), who have the lowest survival for almost every stage of diagnosis across cancer subtypes. Moreover, survival has plateaued in NHBs for decades despite increasing in NHWs, from 40% for cases diagnosed during 1992 through 1994 to 47% during 2007 through 2013. Progress in reducing ovarian cancer incidence and mortality can be accelerated by reducing racial disparities and furthering knowledge of etiology and

  5. Two natural products, trans-phytol and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol, inhibit the biosynthesis of estrogen in human ovarian granulosa cells by aromatase (CYP19)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jiajia; Yuan, Yun; School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang

    2014-08-15

    Aromatase is the only enzyme in vertebrates to catalyze the biosynthesis of estrogens. Although inhibitors of aromatase have been developed for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer, the whole-body inhibition of aromatase causes severe adverse effects. Thus, tissue-selective aromatase inhibitors are important for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In this study, 63 natural products with diverse structures were examined for their effects on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells. Two compounds—trans-phytol (SA-20) and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol (SA-48)—were found to potently inhibit estrogen biosynthesis (IC{sub 50}: 1 μM and 0.5 μM, respectively). Both compounds decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression levelsmore » in KGN cells, but had no effect on the aromatase catalytic activity in aromatase-overexpressing HEK293A cells and recombinant expressed aromatase. The two compounds decreased the expression of aromatase promoter I.3/II. Neither compound affected intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, but they inhibited the phosphorylation or protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The effects of these two compounds on extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway were examined. Inhibition of p38 MAPK could be the mechanism underpinning the actions of these compounds. Our results suggests that natural products structurally similar to SA-20 and SA-48 may be a new source of tissue-selective aromatase modulators, and that p38 MAPK is important in the basal control of aromatase in ovarian granulosa cells. SA-20 and SA-48 warrant further investigation as new pharmaceutical tools for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. - Highlights: • Two natural products inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells.

  6. Fertility rescue and ovarian follicle growth promotion by bone marrow stem cell infusion.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Sonia; Buigues, Anna; Díaz-García, César; Romeu, Mónica; Martínez, Susana; Gómez-Seguí, Inés; Simón, Carlos; Hsueh, Aaron J; Pellicer, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    To assess if infusion of human bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) could promote follicle development in patients with impaired ovarian functions. Experimental design. University research laboratories. Immunodeficient NOD/SCID female mice. Human BMDSCs were injected into mice with chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage and into immunodeficient mice xenografted with human cortex from poor-responder patients (PRs). Follicle development, ovulation, and offspring. Apoptosis, proliferation, and vascularization were evaluated in mouse and human ovarian stroma. Fertility rescue and spontaneous pregnancies were achieved in mice ovaries mimicking PRs and ovarian insufficiency, induced by chemotherapy, after BMDSC infusion. Furthermore, BMDSC treatment resulted in production of higher numbers of preovulatory follicles, metaphase II oocytes, 2-cell embryos, and healthy pups. Stem cells promoted ovarian vascularization and cell proliferation, along with reduced apoptosis. In xenografted human ovarian tissues from PRs, infusion of BMDSCs and their CD133+ fraction led to their engraftment close to follicles, resulting in promotion of follicular growth, increases in E 2 secretion, and enhanced local vascularization. Our results raised the possibility that promoting ovarian angiogenesis by BMDSC infusion could be an alternative approach to improve follicular development in women with impaired ovarian function. NCT02240342. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative analysis of cell-free DNA in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xuefeng; He, Yan; Ji, Min; Chen, Xiaofang; Qi, Jing; Shi, Wei; Hao, Tianbo; Ju, Shaoqing

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) levels and clinicopathological characteristics of patients with ovarian cancer using a branched DNA (bDNA) technique, and to determine the value of quantitative cf-DNA detection in assisting with the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Serum specimens were collected from 36 patients with ovarian cancer on days 1, 3 and 7 following surgery, and additional serum samples were also collected from 22 benign ovarian tumor cases, and 19 healthy, non-cancerous ovaries. bDNA techniques were used to detect serum cf-DNA concentrations. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. The cf-DNA levels were significantly increased in the ovarian cancer group compared with those of the benign ovarian tumor group and healthy ovarian group (P<0.01). Furthermore, cf-DNA levels were significantly increased in stage III and IV ovarian cancer compared with those of stages I and II (P<0.01). In addition, cf-DNA levels were significantly increased on the first day post-surgery (P<0.01), and subsequently demonstrated a gradual decrease. In the ovarian cancer group, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of cf-DNA and the sensitivity were 0.917 and 88.9%, respectively, which was higher than those of cancer antigen 125 (0.724, 75%) and human epididymis protein 4 (0.743, 80.6%). There was a correlation between the levels of serum cf-DNA and the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer in the patients evaluated. bDNA techniques possessed higher sensitivity and specificity than other methods for the detection of serum cf-DNA in patients exhibiting ovarian cancer, and bDNA techniques are more useful for detecting cf-DNA than other factors. Thus, the present study demonstrated the potential value for the use of bDNA as an adjuvant diagnostic method for ovarian cancer.

  8. Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Relation to Benign Ovarian Conditions and Ovarian Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rossing, Mary Anne; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Noel S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Some forms of ovarian neoplasms may be preventable through the removal of precursor lesions. We assessed risk associated with a prior diagnosis of, and ovarian surgery following, ovarian cysts and endometriosis, with a focus on characterizing risk among tumor subgroups. Methods Information was collected during in-person interviews with 812 women with ovarian cancer diagnosed in western Washington State from 2002–2005 and 1,313 population-based controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The risk of a borderline mucinous ovarian tumor associated with a history of an ovarian cyst was increased (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.8) but did not vary notably according to receipt of subsequent ovarian surgery. While risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer was slightly increased among women with a cyst who had no subsequent ovarian surgery, it was reduced when a cyst diagnosis was followed by surgery (OR= 0.6, 95% CI 0.4–0.9). This reduction in risk was most evident for serous invasive tumors. Women with a history of endometriosis had a three-fold increased risk of endometrioid and clear cell invasive tumors, with a lesser risk increase among women who underwent subsequent ovarian surgery. Conclusions Our results suggest differences in the relation of ovarian cysts and endometriosis with risk of specific subtypes of ovarian cancer, as well as the possibility that ovarian surgery in women with these conditions may lower the risk of invasive disease. PMID:18704718

  9. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775 in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-04

    Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Intermittent Ovarian Torsion in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Young, Randall; Cork, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian torsion during pregnancy is a fairly uncommon complication with a high patient morbidity and fetal mortality if not immediately treated. Ovarian torsion should be considered a clinical diagnosis, and a high level of clinical suspicion is needed by the practitioner to ensure that this diagnosis is not missed. We present an unusual case of intermittent ovarian torsion discussing both the presentation and the operative and post-operative management. PMID:29849404

  11. Towards prevention of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2018-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death of all gynaecological cancers. To date, there is no reliable, specific screening procedure for detecting ovarian cancer. The risk factors of ovarian cancer include modifiable and non-modifiable factors. The main goal of the ovarian cancer prevention program is to significantly reduce the risk of development of ovarian cancer and other cancers such as breast and/or peritoneal cancer. The application of non-surgical preventive approaches such as oral contraceptives, parity and breastfeeding has been shown to be highly protective against ovarian cancer development. Targeting inflammation has been also reported to be associated with a protective trend against ovarian cancer and can be achieved through either non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or lifestyle modifications or both. Lifestyle modification that includes regular exercise, healthy diet supplemented with anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory elements reduces the risk of the disease even further. Surgical protective approaches include; tubal ligation, hysterectomy and prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and the former is the most effective approach to protect against ovarian cancer. A better understanding of the risk factors of ovarian cancer and the current approaches to prevent it may increase the awareness and help to decrease the incidence of ovarian cancer, increase the five-year survival rate and decrease the mortality rate significantly in the general population especially among those at high risk for ovarian cancer. This review is an attempt to outline a potential program of ovarian cancer prevention and the potential challenges. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Combination Efficacy of Astragalus membranaceus and Curcuma wenyujin at Different Stages of Tumor Progression in an Imageable Orthotopic Nude Mouse Model of Metastatic Human Ovarian Cancer Expressing Red Fluorescent Protein.

    PubMed

    Yin, Gang; Tang, Decai; Dai, Jianguo; Liu, Min; Wu, Mianhua; Sun, Y U; Yang, Zhijian; Hoffman, Robert M; Li, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Guo, Xiuxia

    2015-06-01

    The present study determined the efficacy of extracts of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Curcuma wenyujin (CW), a traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture, at different tumor stages of an orthotopic nude mouse model of human ovarian cancer expressing red fluorescent protein. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with cisplatinum (CDDP), AM, CW, or a combination of AM and CW in each of three tumor stages, using the same regimen. Group 1 received saline as negative control. Group 2 received CDDP i.p. as positive control with a dose of 2 mg/kg, every three days. Group 3 received AM daily via oral gavage, at a dose of 9120 mg/kg. Group 4 received CW daily via oral gavage, at a dose of 4560 mg/kg. Groups 5, 6 and 7 received combinations of AM and CW daily via oral gavage at low (AM, 2280 mg/kg; CW, 1140 mg/kg), medium (AM, 4560 mg/kg; CW 2280 mg/kg), and high (AM, 9120 mg/kg; CW, 4560 mg/kg) doses. The expression of angiogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2), and by polymerase chain reaction for MMP-2, FGF-2 and Bcl-2. CDDP, AM, and its combination with CW-induced significant growth inhibition of Stage I tumors. Strong efficacy of the combination of AM and CW at high dose was observed. Monotherapy with CDDP, AM, CW, and the combination treatments did not significantly inhibit Stage II and III tumors. The expression of MMP-2, VEGF, FGF-2, and Cox-2 was significantly reduced in Stage I tumors treated with AM, CW, and their combination, suggesting a possible role of these angiogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the observed efficacy of the agents tested. This study is the first report on the efficacy of anticancer agents at different stages of ovarian cancer in an orthotopic mouse model. As the tumor progressed, it became treatment

  13. Monepantel induces autophagy in human ovarian cancer cells through disruption of the mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Farnaz; Pourgholami, Mohammad H; Mekkawy, Ahmed H; Rufener, Lucien; Morris, David L

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that the novel anthelmintic drug monepantel (MPL) inhibits growth, proliferation and colony formation, arrests the cell cycle and induces cleavage of PARP-1 in ovarian cancer cell lines. Here we report on the mechanism behind the anticancer properties of MPL. The cytotoxic effect of MPL on ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3 and A2780) was investigated employing a panel of tests used for the detection of apoptosis and autophagy. Apoptosis and autophagy were defined by caspase activity, DNA-laddering, Annexin-V and acridine orange (AO) staining. Autophagy markers such as LC3B, SQSTM1/p62 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway related proteins were assessed by western blotting and ELISA techniques. MPL did not activate caspases 3 or 8, nor did it alter the percentage of Annexin V positive stained cells. Failure to cause DNA laddering and the inability of z-VAD-fmk to block the MPL antiproliferative effects led to the ruling out of apoptosis as the mechanism behind MPL-induced cell death. On the other hand, accumulation of acidic vacuoles with distinct chromatin morphology and an increase in punctuate localization of green fluorescent protein-LC3B, and MPL-induced changes in the expression of SQSTM1/p62 were all indicative of MPL-induced autophagy. Consistent with this, we found inhibition of mTOR phosphorylation leading to suppression of the mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway. Our findings provide the first evidence to show that MPL triggers autophagy through the deactivation of mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway. PMID:25232497

  14. Association of Ovarian Tumor β2-Adrenergic Receptor Status with Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors and Survival.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianyi; Tworoger, Shelley S; Hecht, Jonathan L; Rice, Megan S; Sood, Anil K; Kubzansky, Laura D; Poole, Elizabeth M

    2016-12-01

    The β 2 -adrenergic signaling pathway mediates the effects of chronic stress on ovarian cancer progression in mouse models. The relevance of this pathway to human ovarian cancer remains unknown. We assessed tumor expression of β 2 -adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) using tissue microarrays in 237 ovarian cancer cases from the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII). Competing risks Cox regression was used to evaluate whether associations of reproductive, hormonal, and psychosocial factors with ovarian cancer risk differed by ADRB2. We also examined the association between tumor ADRB2 expression and ovarian cancer survival. Forty-five (19%) cases were positive for ADRB2 staining. High levels of anxiety symptoms were positively associated with ADRB2-positive tumors (HR, 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-5.84) but not with ADRB2-negative tumors (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.81-1.66; P heterogeneity = 0.07). We observed similar results for depression. No associations were observed for job strain, caregiving stress, or widowhood for either positive or negative ADRB2 status. Lifetime ovulatory years were more strongly associated with ADRB2-positive tumors (HR per 5 years, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.15-2.21) compared with ADRB2-negative tumors (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.96-1.27; P heterogeneity = 0.04). Significant heterogeneity by ADRB2 was also observed for parity (P heterogeneity = 0.01), oral contraceptive use (P heterogeneity = 0.03), and age at menopause (P heterogeneity = 0.04). Tumor expression of ADRB2 was not associated with ovarian cancer mortality (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.69-1.59). Several stress- and ovulation-related factors were differentially associated with ovarian tumors responsive to β 2 -adrenergic signaling. Replication in larger studies is warranted to confirm the role of β 2 -adrenergic signaling in ovarian cancer etiology. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(12); 1587-94. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Plasma and ovarian tissue sphingolipids profiling in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Paweł; Bodnar, Lubomir; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Świderska, Magdalena; Chabowski, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    The role of lipids in carcinogenesis through induction of abnormal cell lines in the human body is currently undisputable. Based on the literature, bioactive sphingolipids play an essential role in the development and progression of cancer and are involved in the metastatic process. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of selected sphingolipids in patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC, FIGO III/IV, high grade ovarian cancer). Seventy-four patients with ovarian cancer were enrolled. Plasma concentrations of C16-Cer, C18:1-Cer and C18-Cer were assessed by LC/MS/MS. The content of tissue sphingolipids was measured using a UHPLC/MS/MS. Plasma concentration of 3 ceramides: C16-Cer, C18:1-Cer and C18-Cer was significantly elevated in women with advanced ovarian cancer compared to control group (P=0.031; 0.022; 0.020; respectively). There were increases in concentration of 5 ceramides: C16-Cer, C18:1-Cer, C18-Cer, C24:1-Cer, C24-Cer (P=0.025; 0.049; 0.032; 0.005; 0.013, respectively) and S1P (P=0.004) in ovarian tissue of women with advanced ovarian cancer compared to healthy individuals. Importantly, significantly higher risk of ovarian cancer when the plasma concentration of C16-Cer>311.88ng/100μl (AUC: 0.76, P=0.0261); C18:1-Cer>4.75ng/100μl (AUC: 0.77, P=0.0160) and C18-Cer>100.76ng/100μl (AUC:0.77, P=0.0136) was noticed. Bioactive sphingolipids play an essential role in the development and progression of cancer and they also take part in the process of metastasizing. This study suggests that some sphingolipids can be used as potential biomarkers of advanced ovarian cancer and that they can play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Coffee and caffeine intake and the risk of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lueth, Natalie A.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Robien, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory data suggests that caffeine or some components of coffee may cause DNA mutations and inhibit tumor suppressor mechanisms, leading to neoplastic growth. However, coffee consumption has not been clearly implicated in the etiology of human post-menopausal ovarian cancer. This study evaluated the relationship of coffee and caffeine intake with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in a prospective cohort study of 29,060 postmenopausal women. The participants completed a mailed questionnaire that assessed diet and health history and were followed for ovarian cancer incidence from 1986 to 2004. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios were calculated for four exposure variables: caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, total coffee and total caffeine to assess whether or not coffee or caffeine influences the risk of ovarian cancer. An increased risk was observed in the multivariate model for women who reported drinking five or more cups/day of caffeinated coffee compared to women who reported drinking none (HR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.10-2.95). Decaffeinated coffee, total coffee and caffeine were not statistically significantly associated with ovarian cancer incidence. Our results suggest that a component of coffee other than caffeine, or in combination with caffeine, may be associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women who drink five or more cups of coffee a day. PMID:18704717

  17. Successful vitrification and autografting of baboon (Papio anubis) ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Christiani A; Jacobs, Sophie; Devireddy, Ram V; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Vanacker, Julie; Jaeger, Jonathan; Luyckx, Valérie; Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine

    2013-08-01

    Can a vitrification protocol using an ethylene glycol/dimethyl sulphoxide-based solution and a cryopin successfully cryopreserve baboon ovarian tissue? Our results show that baboon ovarian tissue can be successfully cryopreserved with our vitrification protocol. Non-human primates have already been used as an animal model to test vitrification protocols for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Ovarian biopsies from five adult baboons were vitrified, warmed and autografted for 5 months. After grafting, follicle survival, growth and function and also the quality of stromal tissue were assessed histologically and by immunohistochemistry. The influence of the vitrification procedure on the cooling rate was evaluated by a computer model. After vitrification, warming and long-term grafting, follicles were able to grow and maintain their function, as illustrated by Ki67, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) immunostaining. Corpora lutea were also observed, evidencing successful ovulation in all the animals. Stromal tissue quality did not appear to be negatively affected by our cryopreservation procedure, as demonstrated by vascularization and proportions of fibrotic areas, which were similar to those found in fresh ungrafted ovarian tissue. Despite our promising findings, before applying this technique in a clinical setting, we need to validate it by achieving pregnancies. In addition to encouraging results obtained with our vitrification procedure for non-human ovarian tissue, this study also showed, for the first time, expression of AMH and GDF-9 in ovarian follicles. This study was supported by grants from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (grant Télévie No. 7.4507.10, grant 3.4.590.08 awarded to Marie-Madeleine Dolmans), Fonds Spéciaux de Recherche, Fondation St Luc, Foundation Against Cancer, and Department of Mechanical Engineering at Louisiana State University (support to Ram Devireddy), and

  18. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triptorelin inhibits estradiol-induced serum response element (SRE) activation and c-fos expression in human endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gründker, Carsten; Günthert, Andreas R; Hellriegel, Martin; Emons, Günter

    2004-11-01

    The majority of human endometrial (>80%), ovarian (>80%) and breast (>50%) cancers express GnRH receptors. Their spontaneous and epidermal growth-factor-induced proliferation is dose- and time-dependently reduced by treatment with GnRH and its agonists. In this study, we demonstrate that the GnRH agonist triptorelin inhibits estradiol (E2)-induced cancer cell proliferation. The proliferation of quiescent estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha)-/ER beta-positive, but not of ER alpha-negative/ER beta-positive endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer cell lines, was significantly stimulated (P<0.001) (ANOVA) after treatment with E2 (10(-8) M). This effect was time- and dose-dependently antagonized by simultaneous treatment with triptorelin. The inhibitory effect was maximal at 10(-5) M concentration of triptorelin (P<0.001). In addition, we could show that, in ER alpha-/ER beta-positive cell lines, E2 induces activation of serum response element (SRE) and expression of the immediate early-response gene c-fos. These effects were blocked by triptorelin (P<0.001). E2-induced activation of estrogen-response element (ERE) was not affected by triptorelin. The transcriptional activation of SRE by E2 is due to ER alpha activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. This pathway is impeded by GnRH, resulting in a reduction of E2-induced SRE activation and, in consequence, a reduction of E2-induced c-fos expression. This causes downregulation of E2-induced cancer cell proliferation.

  19. Ovarian and oocyte cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Lornage, Jacqueline; Salle, Bruno

    2007-08-01

    The present article is an update on progress in the two available techniques of oocyte and ovarian cryopreservation: slow cooling/rapid thawing and vitrification. A new line of research has opened in recent years: freezing the whole ovary with its vascular pedicle, so as to enable vascular grafts limiting ischemia-related follicle reserve loss. The technique of mature oocyte vitrification has advanced significantly, with improved oocyte physiology, increased safety, and higher clinical pregnancy rates. The number of studies on whole ovary freezing has grown, and there has been a large-mammal (sheep) live birth by orthotopic graft with vascular anastomosis of a cryopreserved ovary. Ovarian and oocyte cryopreservation is essential to conserving the fertility of young women. Results of mature oocyte freezing techniques have improved significantly over the past few years, but remain poorer than those with embryo freezing. Mature oocyte vitrification is progressing well, but requires safety validation in view of the high cryoprotectant concentrations used. Ovarian cortex fragment freezing is widely used in patients, with two live births after orthotopic graft, worldwide. The problem of rapid graft exhaustion has led to a focus on whole ovary cryopreservation which has resulted in one live birth in a ewe.

  20. Intravital Microscopy in Evaluating Patients With Primary Peritoneal, Fallopian Tube, or Stage IA-IV Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-20

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  1. Ovulation and extra-ovarian origin of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang-Hartwich, Yang; Gurrea-Soteras, Marta; Sumi, Natalia; Joo, Won Duk; Holmberg, Jennie C.; Craveiro, Vinicius; Alvero, Ayesha B.; Mor, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The mortality rate of ovarian cancer remains high due to late diagnosis and recurrence. A fundamental step toward improving detection and treatment of this lethal disease is to understand its origin. A growing number of studies have revealed that ovarian cancer can develop from multiple extra-ovarian origins, including fallopian tube, gastrointestinal tract, cervix and endometriosis. However, the mechanism leading to their ovarian localization is not understood. We utilized in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models to recapitulate the process of extra-ovarian malignant cells migrating to the ovaries and forming tumors. We provided experimental evidence to support that ovulation, by disrupting the ovarian surface epithelium and releasing chemokines/cytokines, promotes the migration and adhesion of malignant cells to the ovary. We identified the granulosa cell-secreted SDF-1 as a main chemoattractant that recruits malignant cells towards the ovary. Our findings revealed a potential molecular mechanism of how the extra-ovarian cells can be attracted by the ovary, migrate to and form tumors in the ovary. Our data also supports the association between increased ovulation and the risk of ovarian cancer. Understanding this association will lead us to the development of more specific markers for early detection and better prevention strategies. PMID:25135607

  2. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    PubMed

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduced ovarian glyoxalase-I activity by dietary glycotoxins and androgen excess: a causative link to polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kandaraki, Eleni; Chatzigeorgiou, Antonis; Piperi, Christina; Palioura, Eleni; Palimeri, Sotiria; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Koutsilieris, Michael; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2012-10-24

    Glyoxalase detoxification system composed of glyoxalase (GLO)-I and GLO-II is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the protection against cellular damage because of cytotoxic metabolites such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Recently, ovarian tissue has emerged as a new target of excessive AGE deposition and has been associated with either a high AGE diet in experimental animals or hyperandrogenic disorders such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in humans. This study was designed to investigate the impact of dietary AGEs and androgens in rat ovarian GLO-I activity of normal nonandrogenized (NAN, group A, n = 18) and androgenized prepubertal (AN) rats (group B, n = 29). Both groups were further randomly assigned, either to a high-AGE (HA) or low-AGE (LA) diet for 3 months. The activity of ovarian GLO-I was significantly reduced in normal NAN animals fed an HA diet compared with an LA diet (p = 0.006). Furthermore, GLO-I activity was markedly reduced in AN animals compared with NAN (p ≤ 0.001) when fed with the corresponding diet type. In addition, ovarian GLO-I activity was positively correlated with the body weight gain (r(s) = 0.533, p < 0.001), estradiol (r(s) = 0.326, p = 0.033) and progesterone levels (r(s) = 0.500, p < 0.001). A negative correlation was observed between GLO-I activity and AGE expression in the ovarian granulosa cell layer of all groups with marginal statistical significance (r(s) = -0.263, p = 0.07). The present data demonstrate that ovarian GLO-I activity may be regulated by dietary composition and androgen levels. Modification of ovarian GLO-I activity, observed for the first time in this androgenized prepubertal rat model, may present a contributing factor to the reproductive dysfunction characterizing PCOS.

  4. Expanded metabolomics approach to profiling endogenous carbohydrates in the serum of ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Li, Li; Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yan; Gu, Xue; Yan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We applied hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to the quantitative analysis of serum from 58 women, including ovarian cancer patients, ovarian benign tumor patients, and healthy controls. All of these ovarian cancer and ovarian benign tumor patients have elevated cancer antigen 125, which makes them clinically difficult to differentiate the malignant from the benign. All of the 16 endogenous carbohydrates were quantitatively detected in the human sera, of which, eight endogenous carbohydrates were significantly different (P-value < 0.05) between the ovarian cancer and healthy control. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, arabitol was the most potentially specific biomarker for discriminating ovarian cancer from healthy control, having an area under the curve of 0.911. A panel of metabolite markers composed of maltose, maltotriose, raffinose, and mannitol was selected, which was able to discriminate the ovarian cancer from the benign ovarian tumor counterparts, with an area under concentration-time curve value of 0.832. Endogenous carbohydrates in the expanded metabolomics approach after the global metabolic profiling are characterized and are potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Dietary aspirin decreases the stage of ovarian cancer in the hen.

    PubMed

    Urick, M E; Giles, J R; Johnson, P A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of dietary aspirin treatment on ovarian cancer incidence and progression in the hen as a model for the human disease. Hens were fed a standard layer diet (control) or the same diet containing 0.1% aspirin for 1 year. Liver prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. Incidence and stage of ovarian cancer were determined through necropsy and immunohistochemical analysis of ovarian sections for each hen. Aspirin treatment decreased liver PGE(2) in treated hens as compared to control hens. Treatment with aspirin did not decrease ovarian cancer incidence. Significantly more control hens developed late stage ovarian cancer than early stage, while the same was not true for aspirin-treated hens. Hens that developed ovarian cancer, even early ovarian cancer, produced significantly fewer eggs in the year prior to diagnosis than hens without ovarian cancer. Aspirin treatment may inhibit the progression of ovarian cancer in the hen and egg production may be used to identify hens with early stages of the disease.

  6. IL-15 super-agonist (ALT-803) enhances natural killer (NK) cell function against ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Felices, M.; Chu, S.; Kodal, B.; Bendzick, L.; Ryan, C.; Lenvik, A.J.; Boylan, K.L.M.; Wong, H.C.; Skubitz, A.P.N.; Miller, J.S.; Geller, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Natural killer (NK) cells represent a powerful immunotherapeutic target as they lyse tumors directly, do not require differentiation, and can elicit potent inflammatory responses. The objective of these studies was to use an IL-15 super-agonist complex, ALT-803 (Altor BioScience Corporation), to enhance the function of both normal and ovarian cancer patient derived NK cells by increasing cytotoxicity and cytokine production. Methods NK cell function from normal donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and ovarian cancer patient ascites was assessed using flow cytometry and chromium release assays +/− ALT-803 stimulation. To evaluate the ability of ALT-803 to enhance NK cell function in vivo against ovarian cancer, we used a MA148-luc ovarian cancer NOD scid gamma (NSG) xenogeneic mouse model with transferred human NK cells. Results ALT-803 potently enhanced functionality of NK cells against all ovarian cancer cell lines with significant increases seen in CD107a, IFNγ and TNFα expression depending on target cell line. Function was also rescued in NK cells derived from ovarian cancer patient ascites. Finally, only animals treated with intraperitoneal ALT-803 displayed an NK dependent significant decrease in tumor. Conclusions ALT-803 enhances NK cell cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo and is able to rescue functionality of NK cells derived from ovarian cancer patient ascites. These findings suggest that ALT-803 has the potential to enhance NK-cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:28236454

  7. Role of PELP1 in EGFR-ER Signaling Crosstalk in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    known about PELP1 role in ovarian cancer progression. Analysis of human genome databases and SAGE data suggested deregulation of PELP1 expression in ...Tulane University, New Orleans, LA Introduction PELP1 down regulation reduces tumorigenic potential in vivo PELP1 expression is deregulated in human ...decreases the tumorigenic potential of OVCAR3 cancer cells in nude mice model IHC studies using human ovarian cancer tissue array (n=123) showed that PELP1

  8. A6 in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-27

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  9. Epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Webb, Penelope M; Jordan, Susan J

    2017-05-01

    Globally, ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women and the eighth most common cause of cancer death, with five-year survival rates below 45%. Although age-standardised rates are stable or falling in most high-income countries, they are rising in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, with increasing life-expectancy, the number of cases diagnosed each year is increasing. To control ovarian cancer we need to understand the causes. This will allow better prediction of those at greatest risk for whom screening might be appropriate, while identification of potentially modifable causes provides an opportunity for intervention to reduce rates. In this paper we will summarise the current state of knowledge regarding the known and possible causes of epithelial ovarian cancer and discuss some of the main theories of ovarian carcinogenesis. We will also briefly review the relationship between lifestyle and survival after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Parkin gene alterations in ovarian carcinoma from northern Indian population.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Syed Jafar; Ali, Asgar; Rizvi, M Moshahid Alam

    2011-09-01

    Parkin, a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 6q25-27, has been identified as a target for mutation in many human malignancies like breast, ovaries, cervical and lungs etc. After a preliminary report on the loss of heterozygosity and altered Parkin expression in breast and ovarian tumors, we aimed to study loss of heterozygosity in the Parkin gene associated microsatellite markers and its expression in human ovarian cancer patients from Indian population. We examined 102 paired normal and ovarian cancer samples for allelic loss in Parkin gene locus using Parkin gene associated microsatellite markers through loss of heterozygosity and changes in its expression through semiquantitative RT-PCR. Loss of heterozygosity identified common region of loss in Parkin locus with highest frequency for the intragenic marker D6S1599 (53%) whereas, 49 of 102 (48%) specimens showed decreased or no expression of Parkin in ovarian tumors. The study revealed that presence of loss of heterozygosity was significantly higher in both the intragenic markers (D6S1599 and D6S305) as compared with the locus of flanking region (D6S1008) with their p value 0.000001 and 0.00008, respectively. It also revealed that Parkin inactivation is probably a combination of loss of heterozygosity coupled with downregulation of Parkin gene through an alternative means like epigenetic mechanism. These data strongly supports the previous study and argue that Parkin is a tumor suppressor gene whose inactivation may play an important role in ovarian carcinoma.

  11. Accidental ovarian autograft after a laparoscopic surgery: case report.

    PubMed

    Marconi, G; Quintana, R; Rueda-Leverone, N G; Vighi, S

    1997-08-01

    To report an autograft of ovarian tissue in the incision of the surgical trocar during laparoscopic surgery and to assess the potentiality of grafting of ovarian parenchyma in nonpelvic tissue in humans. A case report. Instituto de Fertilidad y Ginecología de Buenos Aires (IFER), Buenos Aires, Argentina. Infertile patient undergoing surgery due to an endometriotic cyst of the left ovary. Laparoscopic cystectomy. Accidental retention of a portion of the capsule and adjacent ovarian tissue of the endometrioma in SC cellular tissue. Months after surgery, a SC tumor was formed under the surgical incision. It was subsequently excised. Observation of tumor growth during menstrual cycles and ovulation induction; anatomopathologic study of the tissue after its extirpation. The tumor grew spontaneously in the periovulatory period and during treatments of ovulation induction. The anatomopathologic report of the tumor, removed 15 months after the first surgery, revealed functioning ovarian tissue with vessels of neoformation. This is the first description of autografted ovarian tissue in humans. We describe that the ovary can maintain its ovulatory function even in the absence of its pedicel. Also, we suggest that extirpation of surgical material through the incision of the trocar is not recommended, as the possibility of "sowing" or of autografts may occur.

  12. Effects of silibinin on growth and invasive properties of human ovarian carcinoma cells through suppression of heregulin/HER3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Momeny, Majid; Ghasemi, Reza; Valenti, Giovanni; Miranda, Mariska; Zekri, Ali; Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh; Javadikooshesh, Sepehr; Yaghmaie, Marjan; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Ghaffari, Seyed H

    2016-03-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most fatal gynecological malignancy due to its high proliferative and invasive capacities. A heregulin (HRG)/HER3 autocrine loop increases proliferative and metastatic properties of EOC cells, suggesting that modulators of this signaling pathway may prove effective to trammel growth and motility of these cells. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor silibinin on proliferative and invasive characteristics of EOC cell lines OVCAR8 and SKOV3 through suppression of the HRG/HER3 pathway. To achieve this, the effects of silibinin on proliferation, DNA synthesis, clonogenicity, cell cycle progression, cathepsin B enzymatic activity, and migration and invasion were explored in vitro. Silibinin suppressed proliferation, DNA synthesis, and clonogenic abilities of OVCAR8 and SKOV3 cells through inhibition of the autocrine HRG/HER3 circuit. Silibinin-mediated attenuation of the HER3 signaling disabled the HER3/AKT/survivin axis and thereby, induced G1/S cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, silibinin reduced invasive potentials of the EOC cells through quelling the HRG/HER3 pathway and suppression of cathepsin B activity. Altogether, these results suggest that silibinin is a potential anti-cancer drug to inhibit proliferative and invasive characteristics of the EOC cells that exhibit an autocrine HRG/HER3 pathway.

  13. Lipidomic Components Alterations of Human Follicular Fluid Reveal the Relevance of Improving Clinical Outcomes in Women Using Progestin-Primed Ovarian Stimulation Compared to Short-Term Protocol.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaowei; Kuang, Yanping; Zhou, Lixia; Yu, Baofeng; Chen, Qiuju; Fu, Yonglun; Yan, Zheng; Guo, Haiyan; Lyu, Qifeng; Xie, Jun; Chai, Weiran

    2018-05-21

    BACKGROUND Increasing the success rate of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) is a duty of clinicians that has made many seek a variety of protocols. This study was undertaken to use a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to define the alterations of follicular fluid (FF) lipid metabolites in patients undergoing progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) compared with short-term protocol, revealing potential correlations between the differentially expressed lipids and ameliorative clinical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety-three infertile women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment with PPOS (n=62) or a short-term protocol (n=31) were prospectively enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. FF samples were obtained from dominant follicles at the time of oocyte retrieval. Lipid metabolism profiles were analyzed using LC-MS. RESULTS Twelve lipids were found to be higher in patients treated with the PPOS protocol than in those receiving the short-term protocol, including triacylglycerols (TAG-34: 1+NH4, TAG-58: 0+NH4, TAG-64: 3+NH4, and TAG-64: 8+NH4), diacylglycerol DAG-38: 6+NH4, phosphatidylglycerols (PG-26: 0, PG-30: 2, and PG-40: 5), phosphatidylethanolamine PE-32: 2, lysophosphatidylethanolamine LPE-14: 1, lysophosphatidylinositol LPI-12: 0, and lysophosphatidylcholine LPC-16: 0. CONCLUSIONS Our data demonstrate that the PPOS protocol increases the levels of 12 lipids in FF, which reveals a strong association between the differentially elevated lipids and better IVF/ICSI outcomes.

  14. Somatostatin receptors in differentiated ovarian tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reubi, J.C.; Horisberger, U.; Klijn, J.G.

    1991-05-01

    The presence of somatostatin receptors was investigated in 57 primary human ovarian tumors using in vitro receptor autoradiography with three different somatostatin radioligands, {sup 125}I-(Tyr11)-somatostatin-14, {sup 125}I-(Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25)-somatostatin-28, or {sup 125}I-(Tyr3)-SMS 201-995. Three cases, all belonging to epithelial tumors, were receptor positive; specifically 1 of 42 adenocarcinomas, 1 of 3 borderline malignancies, and 1 of 2 cystadenomas. Four other epithelial tumors (3 fibroadenomas, 1 Brenner tumor), 4 sex cord-stromal tumors (2 fibrothecomas, 2 granulosa cell tumors), and 2 germ cell tumors (1 dysgerminoma, 1 teratoma) were receptor negative. In the positive cases, the somatostatin receptors were localized on epithelialmore » cells exclusively, were of high affinity (KD = 4.6 nmol/l (nanomolar)), and specific for somatostatin analogs. These receptors bound somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 radioligands with a higher affinity than the octapeptide (Tyr3)-SMS 201-995. Healthy ovarian tissue had no somatostatin receptors. A subpopulation of relatively well-differentiated ovarian tumors, therefore, was identified pathobiochemically on the basis of its somatostatin receptor content. This small group of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors may be a target for in vivo diagnostic imaging with somatostatin ligands.« less

  15. Development of the ovarian follicular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R J; Lavranos, T C; van Wezel, I L; Irving-Rodgers, H F

    1999-05-25

    A lot is known about the endocrine control of the development of ovarian follicles, but a key question now facing researchers is which molecular and cellular processes take part in control of follicular growth and development. The growth and development of ovarian follicles occurs postnatally and throughout adult life. In this review, we focus on the follicular epithelium (membrana granulosa) and its basal lamina. We discuss a model of how granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells and then enter different lineages before differentiation. The structure of the epithelium at the antral stage of development is presented, and the effects that follicle growth has on the behavior of the granulosa cells are discussed. Finally, we discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition. This would be expected if the behavior of the granulosa cells changes, or if the permeability of the basal lamina changes. It will be evident that the follicular epithelium has similarities to other epithelia in the body, but that it is more dynamic, as gross changes occur during the course of follicle development. This basic information will be important for the development of future reproductive technologies in both humans and animals, and possibly for understanding polycystic ovarian syndrome in women.

  16. Ultrasonography of ovarian hyperandrogenemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmina, Svetlana A.; Zharkin, Nikolay A.

    2001-05-01

    The method of ultrasonography is high informative and widely used in diagnostics of ovarian hyperandrogenaemia. The majority of authors consider that a hyperplasia of a stroma is the main pathognomonic marker of polycystic ovaries (PCO). Still recently swell of a stroma was valued visually, that had subjective nature. We offer for the first time a way of diagnostics of stromal hyperplasia grounded on measurement of a volume of a stroma and ovary with ultrasound method, calculation of the ratio of a volume of the ovary to a volume of a stroma for every patient.

  17. Recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) plus recombinant luteinizing hormone versus r-hFSH alone for ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technology: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehert, Philippe; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Venetis, Christos A; Schertz, Joan; Saunders, Helen; Arriagada, Pablo; Copt, Samuel; Tarlatzis, Basil

    2014-02-20

    The potential benefit of adding recombinant human luteinizing hormone (r-hLH) to recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) during ovarian stimulation is a subject of debate, although there is evidence that it may benefit certain subpopulations, e.g. poor responders. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were performed. Three databases (MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL) were searched (from 1990 to 2011). Prospective, parallel-, comparative-group randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in women aged 18-45 years undergoing in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection or both, treated with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues and r-hFSH plus r-hLH or r-hFSH alone were included. The co-primary endpoints were number of oocytes retrieved and clinical pregnancy rate. Analyses were conducted for the overall population and for prospectively identified patient subgroups, including patients with poor ovarian response (POR). In total, 40 RCTs (6443 patients) were included in the analysis. Data on the number of oocytes retrieved were reported in 41 studies and imputed in two studies. Therefore, data were available from 43 studies (r-hFSH plus r-hLH, n=3113; r-hFSH, n=3228) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (all randomly allocated patients, including imputed data). Overall, no significant difference in the number of oocytes retrieved was found between the r-hFSH plus r-hLH and r-hFSH groups (weighted mean difference -0.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.41 to 0.34). However, in poor responders, significantly more oocytes were retrieved with r-hFSH plus r-hLH versus r-hFSH alone (n=1077; weighted mean difference +0.75 oocytes; 95% CI 0.14-1.36). Significantly higher clinical pregnancy rates were observed with r-hFSH plus r-hLH versus r-hFSH alone in the overall population analysed in this review (risk ratio [RR] 1.09; 95% CI 1.01-1.18) and in poor responders (n=1179; RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.01-1.67; ITT population); the observed difference was more

  18. Fertility drugs and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2017-06-20

    The aetiology of ovarian cancer is multifactorial with both endogenous and exogenous risk factors playing an important role. The exact pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is still not well understood, despite the number of hypotheses published. Due to an increase in the number of women using fertility drugs, much attention has been focused on the long-term health effects of such drugs. Although fertility drugs facilitate the ovulation process, it is however associated with a significant increase in hormone concentrations, placing exposed women at increased risk of gynaecological cancer. Many clinical and epidemiological studies have examined the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer risk. Results from these studies have been contradictory, as some studies have reported an increased risk of ovarian cancer while others reported no increased risk. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that women who used fertility drugs and did not conceive had a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer, compared to women who used fertility drugs and conceived and delivered successfully. This review discusses the effect of fertility drugs on the risk of developing ovarian cancer, providing details on four possible scenarios associated with fertility treatment. In addition, the limitations of previous studies and their impact on our understanding of the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer also have been highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. A Molecularly Targeted Theranostic Probe for Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenxue; Bardhan, Rizia; Bartels, Marc; Perez-Torres, Carlos; Pautler, Robia G.; Halas, Naomi J.; Joshi, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family has been implicated in ovarian cancer because of its participation in signaling pathway regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. Currently, effective diagnostic and therapeutic schemes are lacking for treating ovarian cancer and consequently ovarian cancer has a high mortality rate. While HER2 receptor expression does not usually affect the survival rates of ovarian cancer to the same extent as in breast cancer, it can be employed as a docking site for directed nanotherapies in cases with de novo or acquired chemotherapy resistance. In this study, we have exploited a novel gold nanoshell-based complex (nanocomplex) for targeting, dual modal imaging, and photothermal therapy of HER2 overexpressing and drug resistant ovarian cancer OVCAR3 cells in vitro. The nanocomplexes are engineered to simultaneously provide contrast as fluorescence optical imaging probe and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agent. Both immunofluorescence staining and MRI successfully demonstrate that nanocomplex-anti-HER2 conjugates specifically bind to OVCAR3 cells as opposed to the control, MDA-MB-231 cells, which have low HER2 expression. In addition, nanocomplexes targeted to OVCAR3 cells, when irradiated with near infrared (NIR) laser result in selective destruction of cancer cells through photothermal ablation. We also demonstrate that NIR light therapy and the nanocomplexes by themselves are non-cytotoxic in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a successful integration of dual modal bioimaging with photothermal cancer therapy for treatment of ovarian cancer. Based on their efficacy in vitro, these nanocomplexes are highly promising for image guided photo-thermal therapy of ovarian cancer as well as other HER2 overexpressing cancers. PMID:20371708

  20. Emblica officinalis extract downregulates pro-angiogenic molecules via upregulation of cellular and exosomal miR-375 in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    De, Alok; Powers, Benjamin; De, Archana; Zhou, Jianping; Sharma, Siddarth; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Bansal, Ajay; Sharma, Ramratan; Sharma, Mukut

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is highly resistant to current treatment strategies based on a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We have recently demonstrated the anti-neoplastic effect of Amla extract (Emblica officinalis, AE) on OC cells in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that AE attenuates growth of OC through microRNA (miR)-regulated mechanism(s). The inhibitory effect of AE on proliferation, migration and invasiveness (P≤0.001) of SKOV3 cells and >90% attenuation of tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model suggested multiple targets. RT-qPCR analysis of microRNAs associated with OC showed a >2,000-fold increase in the expression of miR-375 in AE-treated SKOV3 cells that was blocked by an exogenous miR-375 inhibitor (P≤0.001). AE also decreased the gene and protein expression of IGF1R, a target of miR-375 (P≤0.001), and SNAIL1 (P≤0.002), an EMT-associated transcription factor that represses E-cadherin expression (P≤0.003). AE increased E-cadherin expression (P≤0.001). Treatment of SKOV3 cells with AE resulted in increased miR-375 in exosomes in the medium (P≤0.01). Finally, AE significantly decreased the expression of IGF1R and SNAIL1 proteins during attenuation of SKOV3-derived xenograft tumor. Together, these results show that AE modulates cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment via activation of miR-375 and by targeting IGF1R and SNAIL1 in OC cells. PMID:27129171

  1. Liriodenine, an aporphine alkaloid from Enicosanthellum pulchrum, inhibits proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial signaling pathway and blocking cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Noraziah; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Rahman, Mashitoh Abd; Hassan, Zalila; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant from Malaysia and belongs to the Annonaceae family. This plant is rich in isoquinoline alkaloids. In the present study, liriodenine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, was examined as a potential anticancer agent, particularly in ovarian cancer. Liriodenine was isolated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability was performed to determine the cytotoxicity, whilst the detection of morphological changes was carried out by acridine orange/propidium iodide assay. Initial and late apoptosis was examined by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and DNA laddering assays, respectively. The involvement of pathways was detected via caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 analyses. Confirmation of pathways was further performed in mitochondria using a cytotoxicity 3 assay. Apoptosis was confirmed at the protein level, including Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin, while interruption of the cell cycle was used for final validation of apoptosis. The result showed that liriodenine inhibits proliferation of CAOV-3 cells at 37.3 μM after 24 hours of exposure. Changes in cell morphology were detected by the presence of cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Early apoptosis was observed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate bound to the cell membrane as early as 24 hours. Liriodenine activated the intrinsic pathway by induction of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Involvement of the intrinsic pathway in the mitochondria could be seen, with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability and cytochrome c release, whereas the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. DNA fragmentation occurred at 72 hours upon exposure to liriodenine. The presence of DNA fragmentation indicates the CAOV-3 cells undergo late apoptosis or final stage of apoptosis. Confirmation of apoptosis at the protein level showed overexpression of Bax and suppression of Bcl-2 and survivin. Liriodenine inhibits progression

  2. Liriodenine, an aporphine alkaloid from Enicosanthellum pulchrum, inhibits proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial signaling pathway and blocking cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Noraziah; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Rahman, Mashitoh Abd; Hassan, Zalila; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant from Malaysia and belongs to the Annonaceae family. This plant is rich in isoquinoline alkaloids. In the present study, liriodenine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, was examined as a potential anticancer agent, particularly in ovarian cancer. Liriodenine was isolated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability was performed to determine the cytotoxicity, whilst the detection of morphological changes was carried out by acridine orange/propidium iodide assay. Initial and late apoptosis was examined by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and DNA laddering assays, respectively. The involvement of pathways was detected via caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 analyses. Confirmation of pathways was further performed in mitochondria using a cytotoxicity 3 assay. Apoptosis was confirmed at the protein level, including Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin, while interruption of the cell cycle was used for final validation of apoptosis. The result showed that liriodenine inhibits proliferation of CAOV-3 cells at 37.3 μM after 24 hours of exposure. Changes in cell morphology were detected by the presence of cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Early apoptosis was observed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate bound to the cell membrane as early as 24 hours. Liriodenine activated the intrinsic pathway by induction of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Involvement of the intrinsic pathway in the mitochondria could be seen, with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability and cytochrome c release, whereas the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. DNA fragmentation occurred at 72 hours upon exposure to liriodenine. The presence of DNA fragmentation indicates the CAOV-3 cells undergo late apoptosis or final stage of apoptosis. Confirmation of apoptosis at the protein level showed overexpression of Bax and suppression of Bcl-2 and survivin. Liriodenine inhibits progression

  3. MALAT1 affects ovarian cancer cell behavior and patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qunbo; Guan, Wencai; Ren, Weimin; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhang, Jinguo; Xu, Guoxiong

    2018-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most lethal malignancies of the female reproductive organs. Increasing evidence has revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in tumorigenesis. Metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is an lncRNA and plays a role in various types of tumors. However, the function of MALAT1 on cellular behavior in EOC remains unclear. The current study explored the expression of MALAT1 in ovarian cancer tissues and in EOC cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of MALAT1 was higher in human ovarian malignant tumor tissues and EOC cells than in normal ovarian tissues and non-tumorous human ovarian surface epithelial cells, respectively. By analyzing the online database Kaplan-Meier Plotter, MALAT1 was identified to be correlated with the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with ovarian cancer. Furthermore, knockdown of MALAT1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreased EOC cell viability, migration, and invasion. Finally, dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that MALAT1 interacted with miR-143-3p, a miRNA that plays a role in EOC as demonstrated in our previous study. Inhibition of MALAT1 resulted in an increase of miR-143-3p expression, leading to a decrease of CMPK protein expression. In conclusion, our results indicated that MALAT1 was overexpressed in EOC. Silencing of MALAT1 decreased EOC cell viability and inhibited EOC cell migration and invasion. These data revealed that MALAT1 may serve as a new therapeutic target of human EOC. PMID:29693187

  4. Cell of Origin: Exploring an Alternative Contributor to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    previously shown that DDX4 is expressed in ovarian carcinomas and its expression is associated with age and the serous histophenotype. Thus, we analyzed...oncogenic alleles of human TP53, AKT1, KRAS, and PIK3CA were constructed and initially validated in both a human endometrial cancer cell line and mouse...AKT1, KRAS, or PIK3CA were successfully constructed. 9. The viral constructs were initially validated in a human endometrial cancer cell line and

  5. The effect of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha on ovarian function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Erin J.; Sibley, Kelly; Miller, Aleisha N.; Lane, Elizabeth A.; Fishwick, John; Nash, Deborah M.; Herath, Shan; England, Gary CW; Dobson, Hilary; Sheldon, I. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Problem Pelvic inflammatory disease and metritis are important causes of infertility in humans and domestic animals. Uterine infection with Escherichia coli in cattle is associated with reduced ovarian follicle growth and decreased estradiol secretion. We hypothesized that this effect could be mediated by the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Method of study In vitro, bovine ovarian theca and granulosa cells were treated with LPS or TNFα and steroid secretion measured. In vivo, the effect of LPS or TNFα intrauterine infusion was determined by ovarian ultrasonography and measurement of hormones in cattle. Results LPS reduced granulosa cell estradiol secretion, whilst TNFα decreased theca and granulosa cell androstenedione and estradiol production, respectively. In vivo, fewer animals ovulated following intrauterine infusion with LPS or TNFα. Conclusion LPS and TNFα suppress ovarian cell function, supporting the concept that pelvic inflammatory disease and metritis are detrimental for bovine ovarian health. PMID:19238751

  6. Ovarian Tumor Cells Studied Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In August 2001, principal investigator Jeanne Becker sent human ovarian tumor cells to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the STS-105 mission. The tumor cells were cultured in microgravity for a 14 day growth period and were analyzed for changes in the rate of cell growth and synthesis of associated proteins. In addition, they were evaluated for the expression of several proteins that are the products of oncogenes, which cause the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. This photo, which was taken by astronaut Frank Culbertson who conducted the experiment for Dr. Becker, shows two cell culture bags containing LN1 ovarian carcinoma cell cultures.

  7. Role of PELP1 in EGFR-ER Signaling Crosstalk in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    expression of genes involved in metastasis using a focused microarray approach. We have used Human Tumor Metastasis Microarray (Oligo GE array from...ovarian cancer progression. Analysis of human genome databases and SAGE data suggested deregulation of PELP1 expression in ovarian cancer cells...PI3K, and STAT3 in the cytosol. PELP1/MNAR regulates meiosis via its interactions with heterotimeric Gbc protein, androgen receptor (AR), and by

  8. Ovarian size and response to laparoscopic ovarian electro-cauterization in polycystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Alborzi, S; Khodaee, R; Parsanejad, M E

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate endocrine and ovulatory changes in polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) in relation to patients' ovarian size. Three hundred and seventy-one women with clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOD underwent laparoscopic ovarian cauterization [type I or typical with ovarian volume >8 cm(3) or cross-sectional area >10 cm(2) (n=211), type II with normal size ovary (n=160)]. Serum levels of LH, FSH, DHEAS, PRL, and T before and 10 days after ovarian cautery, spontaneous and induced ovulation and pregnancy rates were compared. Both groups responded to therapy in a similar manner, with a marked decrease in LH, FSH, DHEAS and T levels, with ovulation rates in type I 90.99%, type II 88.75% and pregnancy rates, 73.45% and 71.25%, respectively, with no statistical differences. Hormonal changes, ovulation and pregnancy rates were similar in the two types of PCOD, therefore it can be concluded that ovarian size is not a prognostic factor for response of PCOD patients to laparoscopic ovarian electro-cauterization.

  9. Downregulation of LRRC8A protects human ovarian and alveolar carcinoma cells against Cisplatin-induced expression of p53, MDM2, p21Waf1/Cip1, and Caspase-9/-3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Nielsen, Dorthe; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    The leucine-rich repeat containing 8A (LRRC8A) protein is an essential component of the volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC), and using pharmacological anion channel inhibitors (NS3728, DIDS) and LRRC8A siRNA we have investigated its role in development of Cisplatin resistance in human ovarian (A2780) and alveolar (A549) carcinoma cells. In Cisplatin-sensitive cells Cisplatin treatment increases p53-protein level as well as downstream signaling, e.g., expression of p21Waf1/Cip1, Bax, Noxa, MDM2, and activation of Caspase-9/-3. In contrast, Cisplatin-resistant cells do not enter apoptosis, i.e., their p53 and downstream signaling are reduced and caspase activity unaltered following Cisplatin exposure. Reduced LRRC8A expression and VSOAC activity are previously shown to correlate with Cisplatin resistance, and here we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition and transient knockdown of LRRC8A reduce the protein level of p53, MDM2, and p21Waf1/Cip1 as well as Caspase-9/-3 activation in Cisplatin-sensitive cells. Cisplatin resistance is accompanied by reduction in total LRRC8A expression (A2780) or LRRC8A expression in the plasma membrane (A549). Activation of Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis by TNFα-exposure or hyperosmotic cell shrinkage is almost unaffected by pharmacological anion channel inhibition. Our data indicate 1) that expression/activity of LRRC8A is essential for Cisplatin-induced increase in p53 protein level and its downstream signaling, i.e., Caspase-9/-3 activation, expression of p21Waf1/Cip1 and MDM2; and 2) that downregulation of LRRC8A-dependent osmolyte transporters contributes to acquirement of Cisplatin resistance in ovarian and lung carcinoma cells. Activation of LRRC8A-containing channels is upstream to apoptotic volume decrease as hypertonic cell shrinkage induces apoptosis independent of the presence of LRRC8A. PMID:26984736

  10. Synthetic PEG Hydrogel for Engineering the Environment of Ovarian Follicles.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Uziel; Zhou, Hong; Shikanov, Ariella

    2018-01-01

    The functional unit within the ovary is the ovarian follicle, which is also a morphological unit composed of three basic cell types: the oocyte, granulosa, and theca cells. Similar to human ovarian follicles, mouse follicles can be isolated from their ovarian environment and cultured in vitro to study folliculogenesis, or follicle development for days or weeks. Over the course of the last decade, follicle culture in a three-dimensional (3D) environment exponentially improved the outcomes of in vitro folliculogenesis. Follicle culture in 3D environments preserves follicle architecture and promotes the cross talk between cells in the follicle. Hydrogels, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), have been used for various physiological systems for regenerative purposes because they provide a 3D environment similar to soft tissues, allow diffusion of nutrients, and can be readily modified to present biological signals, including cell adhesion ligands and proteolytic degradation facilitated by enzymes secreted by the encapsulated cells. This chapter outlines the application of PEG hydrogels to the follicle culture, including the procedures to isolate, encapsulate, and culture mouse ovarian follicles. The tunable properties of PEG hydrogels support co-encapsulation of ovarian follicles with somatic cells, which further promote follicle survival and growth in vitro through paracrine and juxtacrine interactions.

  11. Dihydroartiminisin inhibits the growth and metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Buchu; Hu, Ke; Li, Shu; Zhu, Jing; Gu, Liying; Shen, Haoran; Hambly, Brett D; Bao, Shisan; Di, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Dihydroartiminisin (DHA), the active component of a Chinese herb (Artemisia annua), has been utilised as an anti-malarial drug since ancient China. DHA has also been shown to inhibit proliferation of cancer in vitro. However, the capacity of DHA to inhibit the development of ovarian cancer is still unclear. The adhesion, invasion, and migration of human ovarian cancer cell line (HO8910PM) was determined following DHA treatment in vitro, using Matrigel coated plate, transwell membrane chamber, and wound healing models, respectively. A mouse ovarian cancer model was established by orthotopic inoculation of HO8910PM cell line in nude mice. The growth and metastasis in vivo was determined 8 weeks post-implantation in response to DHA treatment. The expression of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (pFAK) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) was evaluated using Western blotting. The expression of Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and infiltration of macrophages were determined, using immunohistochemistry. DHA inhibits ovarian cancer cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, consistent with decreased expression of pFAK and MMP-2, but not MMP-9. DHA inhibited metastasis significantly in vivo, associated with reduced vWF expression and macrophage infiltration. In conclusion, DHA inhibits the development of ovarian cancer, in part via down-regulating pFAK, MMP-2, vWF and macrophage infiltration.

  12. The effect of celecoxib on tumor growth in ovarian cancer cells and a genetically engineered mouse model of serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Suri, Anuj; Sheng, Xiugui; Schuler, Kevin M; Zhong, Yan; Han, Xiaoyun; Jones, Hannah M; Gehrig, Paola A; Zhou, Chunxiao; Bae-Jump, Victoria L

    2016-06-28

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, on (1) proliferation and apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cell lines and primary cultures of ovarian cancer cells, and (2) inhibition of tumor growth in a genetically engineered mouse model of serous ovarian cancer under obese and non-obese conditions. Celecoxib inhibited cell proliferation in three ovarian cancer cell lines and five primary cultures of human ovarian cancer after 72 hours of exposure. Treatment with celecoxib resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of cellular adhesion and invasion and reduction of expression of hTERT mRNA and COX-2 protein in all of the ovarian cancer cell lines. In the KpB mice fed a high fat diet (obese) and treated with celecoxib, tumor weight decreased by 66% when compared with control animals. Among KpB mice fed a low fat diet (non-obese), tumor weight decreased by 46% after treatment with celecoxib. In the ovarian tumors from obese and non-obese KpB mice, treatment with celecoxib as compared to control resulted in decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis and reduced COX-2 and MMP9 protein expression, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Celecoxib strongly decreased the serum level of VEGF and blood vessel density in the tumors from the KpB ovarian cancer mouse model under obese and non-obese conditions. This work suggests that celecoxib may be a novel chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer prevention and treatment and be potentially beneficial in both obese and non-obese women.

  13. The effect of celecoxib on tumor growth in ovarian cancer cells and a genetically engineered mouse model of serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Anuj; Sheng, Xiugui; Schuler, Kevin M.; Zhong, Yan; Han, Xiaoyun; Jones, Hannah M.; Gehrig, Paola A.; Zhou, Chunxiao; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, on (1) proliferation and apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cell lines and primary cultures of ovarian cancer cells, and (2) inhibition of tumor growth in a genetically engineered mouse model of serous ovarian cancer under obese and non-obese conditions. Celecoxib inhibited cell proliferation in three ovarian cancer cell lines and five primary cultures of human ovarian cancer after 72 hours of exposure. Treatment with celecoxib resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of cellular adhesion and invasion and reduction of expression of hTERT mRNA and COX-2 protein in all of the ovarian cancer cell lines. In the KpB mice fed a high fat diet (obese) and treated with celecoxib, tumor weight decreased by 66% when compared with control animals. Among KpB mice fed a low fat diet (non-obese), tumor weight decreased by 46% after treatment with celecoxib. In the ovarian tumors from obese and non-obese KpB mice, treatment with celecoxib as compared to control resulted in decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis and reduced COX-2 and MMP9 protein expression, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Celecoxib strongly decreased the serum level of VEGF and blood vessel density in the tumors from the KpB ovarian cancer mouse model under obese and non-obese conditions. This work suggests that celecoxib may be a novel chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer prevention and treatment and be potentially beneficial in both obese and non-obese women. PMID:27074576

  14. Connective tissue growth factor as a novel therapeutic target in high grade serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Moran-Jones, Kim; Gloss, Brian S; Murali, Rajmohan; Chang, David K; Colvin, Emily K; Jones, Marc D; Yuen, Samuel; Howell, Viive M; Brown, Laura M; Wong, Carol W; Spong, Suzanne M; Scarlett, Christopher J; Hacker, Neville F; Ghosh, Sue; Mok, Samuel C; Birrer, Michael J; Samimi, Goli

    2015-12-29

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among women with gynecologic cancer. We examined molecular profiles of fibroblasts from normal ovary and high-grade serous ovarian tumors to identify novel therapeutic targets involved in tumor progression. We identified 2,300 genes that are significantly differentially expressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts. Fibroblast expression of one of these genes, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CTGF protein expression in ovarian tumor fibroblasts significantly correlated with gene expression levels. CTGF is a secreted component of the tumor microenvironment and is being pursued as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. We examined its effect in in vitro and ex vivo ovarian cancer models, and examined associations between CTGF expression and clinico-pathologic characteristics in patients. CTGF promotes migration and peritoneal adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. These effects are abrogated by FG-3019, a human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, currently under clinical investigation as a therapeutic agent. Immunohistochemical analyses of high-grade serous ovarian tumors reveal that the highest level of tumor stromal CTGF expression was correlated with the poorest prognosis. Our findings identify CTGF as a promoter of peritoneal adhesion, likely to mediate metastasis, and a potential therapeutic target in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. These results warrant further studies into the therapeutic efficacy of FG-3019 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

  15. Connective tissue growth factor as a novel therapeutic target in high grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moran-Jones, Kim; Gloss, Brian S.; Murali, Rajmohan; Chang, David K.; Colvin, Emily K.; Jones, Marc D.; Yuen, Samuel; Howell, Viive M.; Brown, Laura M.; Wong, Carol W.; Spong, Suzanne M.; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Hacker, Neville F.; Ghosh, Sue; Mok, Samuel C.; Birrer, Michael J.; Samimi, Goli

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among women with gynecologic cancer. We examined molecular profiles of fibroblasts from normal ovary and high-grade serous ovarian tumors to identify novel therapeutic targets involved in tumor progression. We identified 2,300 genes that are significantly differentially expressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts. Fibroblast expression of one of these genes, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CTGF protein expression in ovarian tumor fibroblasts significantly correlated with gene expression levels. CTGF is a secreted component of the tumor microenvironment and is being pursued as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. We examined its effect in in vitro and ex vivo ovarian cancer models, and examined associations between CTGF expression and clinico-pathologic characteristics in patients. CTGF promotes migration and peritoneal adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. These effects are abrogated by FG-3019, a human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, currently under clinical investigation as a therapeutic agent. Immunohistochemical analyses of high-grade serous ovarian tumors reveal that the highest level of tumor stromal CTGF expression was correlated with the poorest prognosis. Our findings identify CTGF as a promoter of peritoneal adhesion, likely to mediate metastasis, and a potential therapeutic target in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. These results warrant further studies into the therapeutic efficacy of FG-3019 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. PMID:26575166

  16. CD25 identifies a subset of CD4⁺FoxP3⁻ TIL that are exhausted yet prognostically favorable in human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    deLeeuw, Ronald J; Kroeger, David R; Kost, Sara E; Chang, Pheh-Ping; Webb, John R; Nelson, Brad H

    2015-03-01

    CD25, the alpha subunit of the IL2 receptor, is a canonical marker of regulatory T cells (Treg) and hence has been implicated in immune suppression in cancer. However, CD25 is also required for optimal expansion and activity of effector T cells in peripheral tissues. Thus, we hypothesized that CD25, in addition to demarcating Tregs, might identify effector T cells in cancer. To investigate this possibility, we used multiparameter flow cytometry and IHC to analyze tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in primary high-grade serous carcinomas, the most common and fatal subtype of ovarian cancer. CD25 was expressed primarily by CD4⁺ TIL, with negligible expression by CD8⁺ TIL. In addition to conventional CD25⁺FoxP3⁺ Tregs, we identified a subset of CD25⁺FoxP3⁻ T cells that comprised up to 13% of CD4⁺ TIL. In tumors with CD8⁺ TIL, CD25⁺FoxP3⁻ T cells showed a strong positive association with patient survival (HR, 0.56; P = 0.02), which exceeded the negative effect of Tregs (HR, 1.55; P = 0.09). Among CD4⁺ TIL subsets, CD25⁺FoxP3⁻ cells expressed the highest levels of PD-1. Moreover, after in vitro stimulation, they failed to produce common T-helper cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα, IL2, IL4, IL10, or IL17A), suggesting that they were functionally exhausted. In contrast, the more abundant CD25⁻FoxP3⁻ subset of CD4⁺ TIL expressed low levels of PD-1 and produced T-helper 1 cytokines, yet conferred no prognostic benefit. Thus, CD25 identifies a subset of CD4⁺FoxP3⁻ TIL that, despite being exhausted at diagnosis, have a strong, positive association with patient survival and warrant consideration as effector T cells for immunotherapy. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Foxl2 function in ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Uhlenhaut, Nina Henriette; Treier, Mathias

    2006-07-01

    Foxl2 is a forkhead transcription factor essential for proper reproductive function in females. Human patients carrying mutations in the FOXL2 gene display blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES), an autosomal dominant disease associated with eyelid defects and premature ovarian failure in females. Recently, animal models for BPES have been developed that in combination with a catalogue of human FOXL2 mutations provide further insight into its molecular function. Mice homozygous mutant for Foxl2 display craniofacial malformations and female infertility. The analysis of the murine phenotype has revealed that Foxl2 is required for granulosa cell function. These ovarian somatic cells surround and nourish the oocyte and play an important role in follicle formation and activation. Mutations upstream of FOXL2 in humans, not affecting the coding sequence itself, have also been shown to cause BPES, which points to the existence of a distant regulatory element necessary for proper gene expression. The same regulatory sequences may be deleted in the goat polled intersex syndrome (PIS), in which FoxL2 expression is severely reduced. Sequence comparison of FoxL2 from several vertebrate species has shown that it is a highly conserved gene involved in ovary development. Thus, the detailed understanding of Foxl2 function and regulation and the identification of its transcriptional targets may open new avenues for the treatment of female infertility in the future.

  18. Functional Significance of VEGFR-2 on Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spannuth, Whitney A.; Nick, Alpa M.; Jennings, Nicholas B.; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Danes, Christopher G.; Lin, Yvonne G.; Merritt, William M.; Thaker, Premal H.; Kamat, Aparna A.; Han, Liz Y.; Tonra, James R.; Coleman, Robert L.; Ellis, Lee M.; Sood, Anil K.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) has recently been discovered on ovarian cancer cells, but its functional significance is unknown and is the focus of the current study. By protein analysis, A2780-par and HeyA8 ovarian cancer cell lines expressed VEGFR-1 and HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1 expressed VEGFR-2. By in situ hybridization (ISH), 85% of human ovarian cancer specimens showed moderate to high VEGFR-2 expression while only 15% showed moderate to high VEGFR-1 expression. By immunofluorescence, little or no VEGFR-2 was detected in normal ovarian surface epithelial cells, whereas expression was detected in 75% of invasive ovarian cancer specimens. To differentiate between the effects of tumor versus host expression of VEGFR, nude mice were injected with SKOV3ip1 cells and treated with either human VEGFR-2 specific antibody (1121B), murine VEGFR-2 specific antibody (DC101), or the combination. Treatment with 1121B reduced SKOV3ip1 cell migration by 68% (p < 0.01) and invasion by 72% (p < 0.01), but exposure to VEGFR-1 antibody had no effect. Treatment with 1121B effectively blocked VEGF-induced phosphorylation of p130Cas. In vivo, treatment with either DC101 or 1121B significantly reduced tumor growth alone and in combination in the SKOV3ip1 and A2774 models. Decreased tumor burden after treatment with DC101 or 1121B correlated with increased tumor cell apoptosis, decreased proliferative index, and decreased microvessel density. These effects were significantly greater in the combination group (p<0.001). We show functionally active VEGFR-2 is present on most ovarian cancer cells. The observed anti-tumor activity of VEGF-targeted therapies may be mediated by both anti-angiogenic and direct anti-tumor effects. PMID:19058181

  19. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Veliparib, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-24

    Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  20. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    samples from many countries. To account for population stratification, the genotyping data in combination with HapMap data (CEU, Yoruban, Han Chinese...Cambridge, we evaluated associations with both breast and ovarian cancer using a retrospective likelihood model. This accounts for the age extremes of...carriers we used a competing risk analysis that accounted for the effects on breast and ovarian cancer in parallel. In this competing risk analysis

  1. Avelumab (anti-PD-L1) in platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer: JAVELIN Ovarian 200 Phase III study design.

    PubMed

    Pujade-Lauraine, Eric; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Dychter, Samuel S; Devgan, Geeta; Monk, Bradley J

    2018-03-27

    Avelumab is a human anti-PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor with clinical activity in multiple solid tumors. Here, we describe the rationale and design for JAVELIN Ovarian 200 (NCT02580058), the first randomized Phase III trial to evaluate the role of checkpoint inhibition in women with ovarian cancer. This three-arm trial is comparing avelumab administered alone or in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin alone in patients with platinum-resistant/refractory recurrent ovarian, fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer. Eligible patients are not preselected based on PD-L1 expression and may have received up to three prior lines of chemotherapy for platinum-sensitive disease, but none for resistant disease. Overall survival and progression-free survival are primary end points, and secondary end points include biomarker evaluations and pharmacokinetics.

  2. Polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khurshid A; Stas, Sameer; Kurukulasuriya, L Romayne

    2006-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common reproductive endocrinopathy of women during their childbearing years. A significant degree of controversy exists regarding the etiology of this syndrome, but there is a growing consensus that the key features include insulin resistance, androgen excess, and abnormal gonadotropin dynamics. Familial and genetic factors cause predisposition to PCOS. Insulin resistance and adiposity put women with PCOS at a higher risk for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Even though the adverse health consequences associated with PCOS are substantial, most women are not aware of these risks. Early recognition and treatment of metabolic sequelae should be the main focus of clinicians. Lifestyle modifications, mainly a balanced diet, weight loss, and regular exercise, are of utmost importance. On the pharmacologic front, various therapies including metformin, thiazolidinediones, and others appear to be very promising in the management of cardiometabolic aspects of PCOS.

  3. Polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem; Chauhan, Phulrenu; Parmar, Girish

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a "multispeciality" disorder suspected in patients with irregular menses and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism, irregular menses, infertility, and alopecia. Recently, PCOS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Patients may develop obesity, insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, hypertension, non-alcoholic liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Good clinical examination with hematological and radiological investigations is required for clinical evaluation. Management is a combined effort involving a dermatologist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, and nutritionist. Morbidity in addition includes a low "self image" and poor quality of life. Long term medications and lifestyle changes are essential for a successful outcome. This article focuses on understanding the normal and abnormal endocrine functions involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Proper diagnosis and management of the patient is discussed.

  4. Misstaging of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    McGowan, L; Lesher, L P; Norris, H J; Barnett, M

    1985-04-01

    The thoroughness of intraoperative evaluation of the extent of disease in 291 women with primary ovarian cancer was investigated. Notable differences among physician specialties but not types of hospitals where initial surgery was performed were observed. A review of medical record documentation revealed that 97% of the cases operated on by gynecologic oncologists had complete staging evaluations performed intraoperatively, but only 52 and 35% of cases operated on by obstetricians/gynecologists and general surgeons, respectfully, were adequately evaluated. Roughly one-half of the cases diagnosed in community hospitals and in hospitals with teaching affiliations were found to be completely studied, and 66% of those operated on in university hospitals received complete intraoperative evaluations.

  5. [Association between obesity and ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Valladares, Macarena; Corsini, Gino; Romero, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. Epidemiological evidences associate ovarian cancer with obesity. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common type of ovarian cancer and accounts for a high rate of mortality. The association between ovarian cancer and obesity could be explained by molecular factors secreted by adipose tissue such as leptin. In EOC, leptin increases cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. Additionally, adipose tissue synthesizes endogenous estrogens, which increase cell proliferation of epithelial ovarian cells. Also, obesity associated hyperinsulinism could increase ovarian estrogen secretion.

  6. Everolimus and Letrozole in Treating Patients With Recurrent Hormone Receptor Positive Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-05

    Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Symptoms, Tests, Prognosis, & Stages Treatment of Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Prevention of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, & Primary Peritoneal ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Symptoms, Tests, Prognosis, & Stages Treatment of Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Prevention of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, & Primary Peritoneal ...

  9. Survivorship Care Planning in Improving Quality of Life in Survivors of Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-27

    Cancer Survivor; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  10. [Peripubertal ovarian cyst torsion as an early complication of undiagnosed polycystic ovarian syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ságodi, László; Schmidt, Ildikó; Vámosi, Ildikó; Barkai, László

    2013-01-20

    The aim of the authors is to present two cases which raise the possibility of an association between polycystic ovarian syndrome/hyperandrogenism and ovarian cyst torsion in peripubertal girls. Androgen excess may cause more frequently ovarian cyst formation in premenarcheal or young adolescents with undiagnosed polycystic ovarian syndrome than in adults. The authors recommend that polycystic ovarian syndrome as well as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia should be considered in peripubertal adolescents with ovarian cyst torsion. In case polycystic ovarian syndrome is confirmed, adequate management according to age and pubertal development of the patients should be commenced.

  11. Expression and Functional Pathway Analysis of Nuclear Receptor NR2F2 in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Loomans, Holli A.; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Ghosh-Choudhury, Triparna; Coffey, Donna; Xiao, Weimin; Liu, Zhandong; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh

    2013-01-01

    Context: Recent evidence implicates the orphan nuclear receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 2 (NR2F2; chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II) as both a master regulator of angiogenesis and an oncogene in prostate and other human cancers. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether NR2F2 plays a role in ovarian cancer and dissect its potential mechanisms of action. Design, Setting, and Patients: We examined NR2F2 expression in healthy ovary and ovarian cancers using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. NR2F2 expression was targeted in established ovarian cancer cell lines to assess the impact of dysregulated NR2F2 expression in the epithelial compartment of ovarian cancers. Results: Our results indicate that NR2F2 is robustly expressed in the stroma of healthy ovary with little or no expression in epithelia lining the ovarian surface, clefts, or crypts. This pattern of NR2F2 expression was markedly disrupted in ovarian cancers, in which decreased levels of stromal expression and ectopic epithelial expression were frequently observed. Ovarian cancers with the most disrupted patterns of NR2F2 were associated with significantly shorter disease-free interval by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Targeting NR2F2 expression in established ovarian cancer cell lines enhanced apoptosis and increased proliferation. In addition, we found that NR2F2 regulates the expression of NEK2, RAI14, and multiple other genes involved in the cell cycle, suggesting potential pathways by which dysregulated expression of NR2F2 impacts ovarian cancer. Conclusions: These results uncover novel roles for NR2F2 in ovarian cancer and point to a unique scenario in which a single nuclear receptor plays potentially distinct roles in the stromal and epithelial compartments of the same tissue. PMID:23690307

  12. Prediction of polycystic ovarian syndrome based on ultrasound findings and clinical parameters.

    PubMed

    Moschos, Elysia; Twickler, Diane M

    2015-03-01

    To determine the accuracy of sonographic-diagnosed polycystic ovaries and clinical parameters in predicting polycystic ovarian syndrome. Medical records and ultrasounds of 151 women with sonographically diagnosed polycystic ovaries were reviewed. Sonographic criteria for polycystic ovaries were based on 2003 Rotterdam European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine guidelines: at least one ovary with 12 or more follicles measuring 2-9 mm and/or increased ovarian volume >10 cm(3) . Clinical variables of age, gravidity, ethnicity, body mass index, and sonographic indication were collected. One hundred thirty-five patients had final outcomes (presence/absence of polycystic ovarian syndrome). Polycystic ovarian syndrome was diagnosed if a patient had at least one other of the following two criteria: oligo/chronic anovulation and/or clinical/biochemical hyperandrogenism. A logistic regression model was constructed using stepwise selection to identify variables significantly associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome (p < .05). The validity of the model was assessed using receiver operating characteristics and Hosmer-Lemeshow χ(2) analyses. One hundred twenty-eight patients met official sonographic criteria for polycystic ovaries and 115 (89.8%) had polycystic ovarian syndrome (p = .009). Lower gravidity, abnormal bleeding, and body mass index >33 were significant in predicting polycystic ovarian syndrome (receiver operating characteristics curve, c = 0.86). Pain decreased the likelihood of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Polycystic ovaries on ultrasound were sensitive in predicting polycystic ovarian syndrome. Ultrasound, combined with clinical parameters, can be used to generate a predictive index for polycystic ovarian syndrome. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tube, & Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening Research Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment Option Overview ... types of treatment for patients with ovarian germ cell tumors. Different types of treatment are available for ...

  14. Sucrose Non-Fermenting Related Kinase Expression in Ovarian Cancer and Correlation with Clinical Features.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Elizabeth E; Cossette, Stephanie M; Kumar, Suresh N; Eastwood, Daniel; Ramchandran, Ramani; Bishop, Erin

    2017-08-09

    Sucrose non-fermenting related kinase (SNRK) is a serine/threonine kinase known to regulate cellular metabolism and adipocyte inflammation. Since alterations in adipocyte metabolism play a role in ovarian cancer metastasis, we investigated the expression of SNRK in benign and malignant human ovarian tissue using immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The number of SNRK positive (+) nuclei is increased in malignant tissue compared to benign tissue (21.03% versus 14.90%, p < .0431). The most strongly stained malignant SNRK+ nuclei were stage 1 compared to stage 2-4 disease. Differential expression of SNRK in early versus late stage disease suggests specific roles for SNRK in ovarian cancer metastasis.

  15. DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0194 TITLE: DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0194 5c. PROGRAM...determine the copy number gain and loss for early stage high grade ovarian cancers through IlluminaHumanOmniExpress-FFPE BeadChip system • Subtask 1 DNA

  16. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesitymore » has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.« less

  17. Changes in keratin 8/18 expression in human granulosa cell lineage are associated to cell death/survival events: potential implications for the maintenance of the ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Gaytan, F; Morales, C; Roa, J; Tena-Sempere, M

    2018-04-01

    Is keratin 8/18 (K8/K18) expression linked to cell death/survival events in the human granulosa cell lineage? A close association exists between changes in K8/K18 expression and cell death/survival events along the human granulosa cell lineage lifespan. In addition to their structural and mechanical functions, K8/K18 play essential roles regulating cell death, survival and differentiation in several non-gonadal epithelial tissues. Transfection of the granulosa-like tumor KGN cells with siRNA to interfere KRT8 and KRT18 expression increases FAS-mediated apoptosis, while an inverse association between K8/K18 expression and cell death has been found in the bovine antral follicles and corpus luteum. Yet, only fragmentary and inconclusive information exists regarding K8/K18 expression in the human ovary. Expression of K8/K18 was assessed by immunohistochemistry at different stages of the granulosa cell lineage, from flattened granulosa cells in primordial follicles to fully luteinized granulosa-lutein cells in the corpus luteum (including corpus luteum of pregnancy). Immunohistochemical detection of K8/K18 was conducted in 40 archival ovarian samples from women aged 17-39 years. K8/K18 expression was analyzed at the different stages of follicle development and corpus luteum lifespan. The proportions of primordial follicles showing all K8/K18-positive, all K8/K18 negative, or a mixture of K8/K18 negative and positive granulosa cells were quantified in 18 ovaries, divided into three age groups: ≤ 25 years (N = 6), 26-30 (N = 6) and 31-36 (N = 6) years. A total number of 1793 primordial, 750 transitional and 140 primary follicles were scored. A close association was found between changes in K8/K18 expression and cell death/cell survival events in the human granulosa cell lineage. Large secondary and early antral follicles (most of them undergoing atresia) and regressing corpora lutea displayed low/absent K8/K18 expression. Conversely, early growing and some large antral

  18. ATP11B mediates platinum resistance in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Smith, Myrthala; Halder, J.B.; Meltzer, Paul S.; Gonda, Tamas A.; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Lu, Chunhua; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Kang, Yu; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Vivas-Mejia, Pablo E.; Zand, Behrouz; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Wang, Hua; Langley, Robert R.; Jennings, Nicholas B.; Ivan, Cristina; Coffin, Jeremy E.; Armaiz, Guillermo N.; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Kim, Sang Bae; Halleck, Margaret S.; Hendrix, Mary J.C.; Bornman, William; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Lee, Ju-Seog; Siddik, Zahid H.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    Platinum compounds display clinical activity against a wide variety of solid tumors; however, resistance to these agents is a major limitation in cancer therapy. Reduced platinum uptake and increased platinum export are examples of resistance mechanisms that limit the extent of DNA damage. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of the role of ATP11B, a P-type ATPase membrane protein, in cisplatin resistance. We found that ATP11B expression was correlated with higher tumor grade in human ovarian cancer samples and with cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancer cell lines. ATP11B gene silencing restored the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines to cisplatin in vitro. Combined therapy of cisplatin and ATP11B-targeted siRNA significantly decreased cancer growth in mice bearing ovarian tumors derived from cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant cells. In vitro mechanistic studies on cellular platinum content and cisplatin efflux kinetics indicated that ATP11B enhances the export of cisplatin from cells. The colocalization of ATP11B with fluorescent cisplatin and with vesicular trafficking proteins, such as syntaxin-6 (STX6) and vesicular-associated membrane protein 4 (VAMP4), strongly suggests that ATP11B contributes to secretory vesicular transport of cisplatin from Golgi to plasma membrane. In conclusion, inhibition of ATP11B expression could serve as a therapeutic strategy to overcome cisplatin resistance. PMID:23585472

  19. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    potent apoptotic effect on ovarian epithelial cells, the use of levonorgestrel in chemoprevention of ovarian cancer is being explored in chickens and women...A chemoprevention trial is ongoing in chickens and we will begin a trial to determine whether levonorgestrel induces apoptosis in the ovarian epithelium of women undergoing oophorectomy.

  20. Global ovarian cancer health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chornokur, Ganna; Amankwah, Ernest K.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to broadly review the scientific literature and summarize the most up-to-date findings on ovarian cancer health disparities worldwide and in the United States (U.S.). Methods The present literature on disparities in ovarian cancer was reviewed. Original research and relevant review articles were included. Results Ovarian cancer health disparities exist worldwide and in the U.S. Ovarian cancer disproportionately affect African American women at all stages of the disease, from presentation through treatment, and ultimately increased mortality and decreased survival, compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased mortality is likely to be explained by unequal access to care and non-standard treatment regimens frequently administered to African American women, but may also be attributed to genetic susceptibility, acquired co-morbid conditions and increased frequency of modifiable risk factors, albeit to substantially lesser extent. Unequal access to care is, in turn, largely a consequence of lower socioeconomic status and lack of private health insurance coverage among the African American population. Conclusions Our findings suggest the need for policy changes aimed at facilitating equal access to quality medical care. At the same time, further research is necessary to fully resolve racial disparities in ovarian cancer. PMID:23266352

  1. Contrast-Enhanced Sonography Depicts Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer at Early Stages in a Preclinical Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Animesh; Bitterman, Pincas; Bahr, Janice M.; Basu, Sanjib; Sheiner, Eyal; Bradaric, Michael J.; Hales, Dale B.; Luborsky, Judith L.; Abramowicz, Jacques S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to examine the feasibility of using laying hens, a preclinical model of human spontaneous ovarian cancer, in determining the kinetics of an ultrasound contrast agent indicative of ovarian tumor-associated neoangiogenesis in early-stage ovarian cancer. Methods Three-year-old White Leghorn laying hens with decreased ovarian function were scanned before and after intravenous injection of a human serum albumin–perflutren contrast agent at a dose of 5 µL/kg body weight. Gray scale morphologic characteristics, Doppler indices, the arrival time, peak intensity, and wash-out of the contrast agent were recorded and archived on still images and video clips. Hens were euthanized thereafter; sonographic predictions were compared at gross examination; and ovarian tissues were collected. Archived clips were analyzed to determine contrast parameters and Doppler intensities of vessels. A time-intensity curve per hen was drawn, and the area under the curve was derived. Tumor types and the density of ovarian microvessels were determined by histologic examination and immunohistochemistry and compared to sonographic predictions. Results The contrast agent significantly (P < .05) enhanced the visualization of microvessels, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Contrast parameters, including the time of wash-out and area under the curve, were significantly different (P < .05) between ovaries of normal hens and hens with ovarian cancer and correctly detected cancer at earlier stages than the time of peak intensity. Conclusions The laying hen may be a useful animal model for determining ovarian tumor-associated vascular kinetics diagnostic of early-stage ovarian cancer using a contrast agent. This model may also be useful for testing the efficacy of different contrast agents in a preclinical setting. PMID:21357555

  2. Anti-tumor and Anti-angiogenic Effects of Aspirin-PC in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Lichtenberger, Lenard M.; Taylor, Morgan; Bottsford-Miller, Justin N.; Haemmerle, Monika; Wagner, Michael J.; Lyons, Yasmin; Pradeep, Sunila; Hu, Wei; Previs, Rebecca A.; Hansen, Jean M.; Fang, Dexing; Dorniak, Piotr L.; Filant, Justyna; Dial, Elizabeth J.; Shen, Fangrong; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Sood, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of a novel and safer (for gastrointestinal tract) aspirin (aspirin-PC) in preclinical models of ovarian cancer, in vitro dose-response studies were performed to compare the growth-inhibitory effect of aspirin-PC vs. aspirin on 3 human (A2780, SKOV3ip1, HeyA8), and a mouse (ID8) ovarian cancer cell line over an 8-day culture period. In the in vivo studies, the aspirin test drugs were studied alone and in the presence of a VEGF-A inhibitor (bevacizumab or B20), due to an emerging role for platelets in tumor growth following anti-angiogenic therapy, and we examined their underlying mechanisms. Aspirin-PC was more potent (vs. aspirin) in blocking the growth of both human and mouse ovarian cancer cells in monolayer culture. Using in vivo model systems of ovarian cancer, we found that aspirin-PC significantly reduced ovarian cancer growth by 50–90% (depending on the ovarian cell line/density). The efficacy was further enhanced in combination with Bevacizumab or B20. The growth-inhibitory effect on ovarian tumor mass and number of tumor nodules was evident, but less pronounced for aspirin and the VEGF inhibitors alone. There was no detectable gastrointestinal toxicity. Both aspirin and aspirin-PC also inhibited cell proliferation, angiogenesis and increased apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. In conclusion, PC-associated aspirin markedly inhibits the growth of ovarian cancer cells, which exceeds that of the parent drug, in both cell culture and in mouse model systems. We also found that both aspirin-PC and aspirin have robust anti-neoplastic action in the presence of VEGF blocking drugs. PMID:27638860

  3. Ovarian reserve after treatment with alkylating agents during childhood.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Teinturier, Cécile; Allodji, Rodrigue Sétchéou; Svetlova, Ekaterina; Frey, Marie-Alix; Oberlin, Odile; Millischer, Anne-Elodie; Epelboin, Sylvie; Decanter, Christine; Pacquement, Helene; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Sudour-Bonnange, Helene; Baruchel, André; Lahlou, Najiba; De Vathaire, Florent

    2015-06-01

    impossible to dissociate their individual impacts on ovarian reserve. The number of controls is small, but ovarian volume and AMH levels in survivors were compared with published normal values and results were unchanged. Early detection and follow-up of compromised ovarian function after cancer therapy should help physicians to counsel young survivors about their fertility window. However, longitudinal follow-up is required to determine the rate of progression from low ovarian reserve to premature ovarian failure. La Ligue contre le Cancer (grant no., PRAYN7497). The authors have no competing interests to disclose. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. TLR8 Agonist VTX-2337 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride or Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  5. Paradoxical expression of AHCYL1 affecting ovarian carcinogenesis between chickens and women.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooyoung; Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Yong Beom; Kim, Min A; Lim, Whasun; Kim, Jinyoung; Jang, Hyun-Jun; Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Kidong; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Yong Sang; Han, Jae Yong; Song, Gwonhwa

    2012-07-01

    We investigated S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase-like protein 1 (AHCYL1) gene expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) using the chicken, which is the most relevant animal model. Ovarian cancer was detected in 10 of 136 laying hens (7.4%). Results of the present study indicated that AHCYL1 mRNA and protein are most abundant in the glandular epithelium of adenocarcinoma of cancerous, but not normal, ovaries of hens. In addition, bisulfite sequencing to examine methylation patterns in the promoter region of the AHCYL1 gene revealed that 30-38% of the three CpG sites were demethylated in ovarian cancer cells as compared with normal ovarian cells. Furthermore, in human ovarian cancer cells such as OVCAR-3, AHCYL1 protein was predominantly in the nucleus and had a similar expression pattern to that in chicken ovarian cancer cells. Thereafter, we examined the prognostic value of AHCYL1 expression in patients with EOC using multivariate linear logistic regression and Cox's proportional hazard analyses. In 109 human patients with EOC, 14 (12.8%), 41 (37.6%) and 54 (49.6%) patients showed weak, moderate and strong expression of AHCYL1 protein, respectively. However, intermediate or high expression of AHCYL1 protein was a favorable factor for overall responses (adjusted odds ratio, 7.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-38.39), and for progression-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.07-0.55). From these results, we conclude that AHCYL1 expression is associated with ovarian carcinogenesis as an oncogene in chickens, whereas it plays the role of tumor suppressor in human EOC, suggesting a paradoxical function of AHCYL1 in ovarian carcinogenesis.

  6. Comparing long term impact on ovarian reserve between laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy and open laprotomy for ovarian endometrioma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the long term impact on ovarian reserve between laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy with bipolar electrocoagulation and laparotomic cystectomy with suturing for ovarian endometrotic cyst. Patient and method(s) 121 patients with benign ovarian endometroitic cysts were randomised to either laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy using bipolar electrocoagulation (61 patients) or laparotomic ovarian cystectomy using sutures (60 patients). Serum follicle-stimulating hormone, Antimullerian hormon, Basal antral follicle Count, mean ovarian diameter, and ovarian stromal blood flow velocity were measured at 6, 12 and 18 months after surgery and compared in both groups. Result(s) A statistically significant increase of serum FSH was found in the laproscopic bipolar group at 6-, 12 and 18-month postoperativly compared to open laparotomy suture group. Also, a statistically significant decrease of the mean AMH value occurred in laproscopic bipolar group at 6-, 12 and 18-month follow- up compared to open laparotomy suture group. Basal antral follicle number, mean ovarian diameter and peak systolic velocity were significantly decreased during the 6-, 12,18 -month follow-up in laproscopic bipolar group compared to open laparotomy suture group. Conclusion(s) After laproscopic ovarian cystecomy for endometrioma all pareameter of ovarian reseve are significantly decreased on long term follow up as compared to open laprotomy. PMID:24180348

  7. Conditionally immortal ovarian cell lines for investigating the influence of ovarian stroma on the estrogen sensitivity and tumorigenicity of ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Saunders, Beatriz O; Haller, Edward; Livingston, Sandra; Nicosia, Santo V; Bai, Wenlong

    2003-01-01

    The tendency of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) to undergo metaplastic and morphogenetic changes during the life cycle, at variance with the adjacent peritoneal mesothelial cells, suggests that its biology may be regulated by underlying ovarian stromal cues. However, little is known about the role that the ovarian stroma plays in the pathobiology of the OSE, largely because of the lack of a suitable in vitro model. Here, we describe the establishment and characterization of conditionally immortalized ovarian stromal and surface epithelial cell lines from H-2K(b)-tsA58 transgenic mice that carry the thermolabile mutant of SV-40 large T antigen under the control of an interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-inducible promoter. These cells express functional T antigens, grow continuously under permissive conditions at 33 degrees C in the presence of IFN-gamma, and stop dividing when the activity and expression of the tumor antigen is suppressed by restrictive conditions without IFN-gamma at 39 degrees C. Morphological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analyses show that conditionally immortal OSE cells form cobblestone-like monolayers, express cytokeratin and vimentin, contain several microvilli, and develop tight junctions, whereas stromal cells are spindle-like, express vimentin but not cytokeratin, and contain rare microvilli, thus exhibiting epithelial and stromal phenotypes, respectively. At variance with the reported behavior of rat epithelial cells, conditionally immortal mouse epithelial cells are not spontaneously transformed after continuous culture in vitro. More importantly, conditioned media from stromal cells cultured under permissive conditions increase the specific activity of the endogenous estrogen receptor in BG-1 human ovarian epithelial cancer cells and promote these cells' anchorage-independent growth, suggesting the paracrine influence of a stromal factor. In addition, stromal cells cultured under restrictive conditions retain this growth

  8. Ovarian Failure and the Menopause

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Donald C.

    1965-01-01

    Long-term replacement therapy for ovarian deficiency or failure, including the menopause, has been widely debated. In the past, treatment, if indicated, was reassurance, sedation, and occasionally short-term estrogen therapy. Today, because of recent advances in steroid synthesis, the consequences of ovarian deficiency may be preventable. Ovarian function and failure are discussed, the apparent physiological renaissance of nine patients documented, and the methods of treatment detailed. Thirty-three patients, who took part in this program during the past two years, have continued treatment with enthusiasm, without major problems in management, and have shown evidence of improved physical and emotional well-being. Further unbiased long-term research, possibly using modern computer technique, is needed to decide between traditional and replacement therapy for the menopause. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:14289145

  9. Diagnostic tool for early detection of ovarian cancers using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieber, Chad A.; Molpus, Kelly; Brader, Kevin; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2000-05-01

    With an overall survival rate of about 35 percent, ovarian cancer claims more than 13,000 women in the US each year. It is estimated that roughly 1 in 70 women will develop ovarian cancer. Current screening techniques are challenged due to cost-effectiveness, variable false-positive results, and the asymptomatic nature of the early stages of ovarian cancer. The predominant screening method for ovarian cancers is transvaginal sonography (TVS). TVS is fairly accomplished at ovarian cancer detection, however it is inefficient in distinguishing between benign and malignant masses. Accurate diagnosis of the ovarian tumor relies on exploratory laparotomy, thus increasing the cost and hazard of false- positive screening methods. Raman spectroscopy has been sued successfully as a diagnostic tool in several organ systems in vitro. These studies have shown that Raman spectroscopy can be used to provide diagnosis of subtle changes in tissue pathology with high accuracy. Based on this success, we have developed a Raman spectroscopic system for application in the ovary. Using this system, the Raman signatures of normal and various types of non-normal human ovarian tissues were characterized in vitro. Raman spectra are being analyzed, and empirical as well as multivariate discriminatory algorithms developed. Based on the result of this study, a strategy for in vivo trials will be planned.

  10. Photoacoustic characterization of ovarian tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Andres; Gamelin, John; Guo, Puyun; Yan, Shikui; Sanders, Mary; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2009-02-01

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecologic cancers with a five-year survival rate of only 30%. Because current imaging techniques (ultrasound, CT, MRI, PET) are not capable of detecting ovarian cancer early, most diagnoses occur in later stages (III/IV). Thus many women are not correctly diagnosed until the cancer becomes widely metastatic. On the other hand, while the majority of women with a detectable ultrasound abnormality do not harbor a cancer, they all undergo unnecessary oophorectomy. Hence, new imaging techniques that can provide functional and molecular contrasts are needed for improving the specificity of ovarian cancer detection and characterization. One such technique is photoacoustic imaging, which has great potential to reveal early tumor angiogenesis through intrinsic optical absorption contrast from hemoglobin or extrinsic contrast from conjugated agents binding to appropriate molecular receptors. To better understand the cancer disease process of ovarian tissue using photoacoustic imaging, it is necessary to first characterize the properties of normal ovarian tissue. We have imaged ex-vivo ovarian tissue using a 3D co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system. The system is capable of volumetric imaging by means of electronic focusing. Detecting and visualizing small features from multiple viewing angles is possible without the need for any mechanical movement. The results show strong optical absorption from vasculature, especially highly vascularized corpora lutea, and low absorption from follicles. We will present correlation of photoacoustic images from animals with histology. Potential application of this technology would be the noninvasive imaging of the ovaries for screening or diagnostic purposes.

  11. Focused glycomic analysis of the N-linked glycan biosynthetic pathway in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Karen L.; Nairn, Alison V.; Hall, Erica M.; Horton, Marc B.; McDonald, John F.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Dinulescu, Daniela M.; Pierce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the deadliest female reproductive tract malignancy in Western countries. Less than 25% of cases are diagnosed when the cancer is confined, however, pointing to the critical need for early diagnostics for ovarian cancer. Identifying the changes that occur in the glycome of ovarian cancer cells may provide an avenue to develop a new generation of potential biomarkers for early detection of this disease. We performed a glycotranscriptomic analysis of endometrioid ovarian carcinoma using human tissue, as well as a newly developed mouse model that mimics this disease. Our results show that the N-linked glycans expressed in both non-diseased mouse and human ovarian tissues are similar; moreover, malignant changes in the expression of N-linked glycans in both mouse and human endometrioid ovarian carcinoma are qualitatively similar. Lectin reactivity was used as a means for rapid validation of glycan structural changes in the carcinomas that were predicted by the glycotranscriptome analysis. Among several changes in glycan expression noted, the increase of bisected N-linked glycans and the transcripts of the enzyme responsible for its biosynthesis, GnT-III, was the most significant. This study provides evidence that glycotranscriptome analysis can be an important tool in identifying potential cancer biomarkers. PMID:18690643

  12. Polycystic ovarian syndrome management options.

    PubMed

    Bates, G Wright; Propst, Anthony M

    2012-12-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder of androgen excess and ovarian dysfunction. Hirsutism and elevated free testosterone levels are the most consistent signs of the androgen excess. Irregular, infrequent, or absent menses and infertility are symptoms of ovulatory dysfunction. Obesity is also a feature of this syndrome and contributes to associated metabolic abnormalities. Lifestyle modification should be the first treatment and is effective in reducing the signs and symptoms. The ovulatory infertility associated with PCOS can be overcome in most cases with oral (clomiphene citrate or letrozole) or injectable (gonadotropins) agents. Surgical intervention is reserved for cases resistant to medical management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Germline mutations of BRCA1 gene exon 11 are not associated with platinum response neither with survival advantage in patients with primary ovarian cancer: understanding the clinical importance of one of the biggest human exons. A study of the Tumor Bank Ovarian Cancer (TOC) Consortium.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Desislava; Ruscito, Ilary; Olek, Sven; Richter, Rolf; Hellwag, Alexander; Türbachova, Ivana; Woopen, Hannah; Baron, Udo; Braicu, Elena Ioana; Sehouli, Jalid

    2016-09-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 gene have been reported in up to 20 % of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Distinct clinical characteristics have been attributed to this special EOC population. We hypothesized that mutations in different BRCA1 gene exons may differently affect the clinical course of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze, in a large cohort of primary EOCs, the clinical impact of mutations in BRCA1 gene exon 11, the largest exon of the gene sequence encoding the 60 % of BRCA1 protein. Two hundred sixty-three primary EOC patients, treated between 2000 and 2008 at Charité University Hospital of Berlin, were included. Patients' blood samples were obtained from the Tumor Ovarian Cancer (TOC) Network ( www.toc-network.de ). Direct sequencing of BRCA1 gene exon 11 was performed for each patient to detect mutations. Based on their BRCA1 exon 11 mutational status, patients were compared regarding clinico-pathological variables and survival. Mutations in BRCA1 exon 11 were found in 18 out of 263 patients (6.8 %). Further 10/263 (3.8 %) cases showed variants of uncertain significance (VUS). All exon 11 BRCA1-positive tumors (100 %) were Type 2 ovarian carcinomas (p = 0.05). Age at diagnosis was significantly younger in Type 2 exon 11 mutated patients (p = 0.01). On multivariate analysis, BRCA1 exon 11 mutational status was not found to be an independent predictive factor for optimal cytoreduction, platinum response, or survival. Mutations in BRCA1 gene exon 11 seem to predispose women to exclusively develop a Type 2 ovarian cancer at younger age. Exon 11 BRCA1-mutated EOC patients showed distinct clinico-pathological features but similar clinical outcome with respect to sporadic EOC patients.

  14. Primary Human Uterine Leiomyoma Cell Culture Quality Control: Some Properties of Myometrial Cells Cultured under Serum Deprivation Conditions in the Presence of Ovarian Steroids.

    PubMed

    Bonazza, Camila; Andrade, Sheila Siqueira; Sumikawa, Joana Tomomi; Batista, Fabrício Pereira; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Girão, Manoel J B C; Oliva, Maria Luiza V; Castro, Rodrigo Aquino

    2016-01-01

    Cell culture is considered the standard media used in research to emulate the in vivo cell environment. Crucial in vivo experiments cannot be conducted in humans and depend on in vitro methodologies such as cell culture systems. However, some procedures involving the quality control of cells in culture have been gradually neglected by failing to acknowledge that primary cells and cell lines change over time in culture. Thus, we report methods based on our experience for monitoring primary cell culture of human myometrial cells derived from uterine leiomyoma. We standardized the best procedure of tissue dissociation required for the study of multiple genetic marker systems that include species-specific antigens, expression of myofibroblast or myoblast markers, growth curve, serum deprivation, starvation by cell cycle synchronization, culture on collagen coated plates, and 17 β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) effects. The results showed that primary myometrial cells from patients with uterine leiomyoma displayed myoblast phenotypes before and after in vitro cultivation, and leiomyoma cells differentiated into mature myocyte cells under the appropriate differentiation-inducing conditions (serum deprivation). These cells grew well on collagen coated plates and responded to E2 and P4, which may drive myometrial and leiomyoma cells to proliferate and adhere into a focal adhesion complex involvement in a paracrine manner. The establishment of these techniques as routine procedures will improve the understanding of the myometrial physiology and pathogenesis of myometrium-derived diseases such as leiomyoma. Mimicking the in vivo environment of fibrotic conditions can prevent false results and enhance results that are based on cell culture integrity.

  15. Primary Human Uterine Leiomyoma Cell Culture Quality Control: Some Properties of Myometrial Cells Cultured under Serum Deprivation Conditions in the Presence of Ovarian Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Sumikawa, Joana Tomomi; Batista, Fabrício Pereira; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J.; Girão, Manoel J. B. C.; Oliva, Maria Luiza V.

    2016-01-01

    Cell culture is considered the standard media used in research to emulate the in vivo cell environment. Crucial in vivo experiments cannot be conducted in humans and depend on in vitro methodologies such as cell culture systems. However, some procedures involving the quality control of cells in culture have been gradually neglected by failing to acknowledge that primary cells and cell lines change over time in culture. Thus, we report methods based on our experience for monitoring primary cell culture of human myometrial cells derived from uterine leiomyoma. We standardized the best procedure of tissue dissociation required for the study of multiple genetic marker systems that include species-specific antigens, expression of myofibroblast or myoblast markers, growth curve, serum deprivation, starvation by cell cycle synchronization, culture on collagen coated plates, and 17 β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) effects. The results showed that primary myometrial cells from patients with uterine leiomyoma displayed myoblast phenotypes before and after in vitro cultivation, and leiomyoma cells differentiated into mature myocyte cells under the appropriate differentiation-inducing conditions (serum deprivation). These cells grew well on collagen coated plates and responded to E2 and P4, which may drive myometrial and leiomyoma cells to proliferate and adhere into a focal adhesion complex involvement in a paracrine manner. The establishment of these techniques as routine procedures will improve the understanding of the myometrial physiology and pathogenesis of myometrium-derived diseases such as leiomyoma. Mimicking the in vivo environment of fibrotic conditions can prevent false results and enhance results that are based on cell culture integrity. PMID:27391384

  16. Ovarian Expression, Localization, and Function of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) During the Periovulatory Period of the Human Menstrual Cycle1

    PubMed Central

    Rosewell, Katherine L.; Li, Feixue; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Akin, James W.; Brännström, Mats; Curry, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ovulation involves reorganization of the extracellular matrix of the follicle. This study examines the expression, localization, and potential function of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) during ovulation in women. The dominant follicle of the menstrual cycle was collected at specified times throughout the ovulatory process: pre-, early, late, and postovulatory. For quantitative studies, the follicle was bisected; granulosa and theca cells were separated and collected. For immunohistochemistry (IHC), the intact follicle was embedded and TIMP3 was localized. Additionally, granulosa cells were collected from women undergoing in vitro fertilization and treated with increasing concentrations of recombinant TIMP3, and cell viability was assessed. Real-time PCR for TIMP3 mRNA revealed an increase in TIMP3 mRNA expression in granulosa cells from the early to the late ovulatory stage. Thecal TIMP3 mRNA expression was constitutive across the periovulatory period. TIMP3 protein was localized by IHC to the granulosa and theca cell layers in pre-, early, and late ovulatory follicles as well as to the vascular bed. The staining was most intense in the granulosa and theca cells in the late ovulatory group. Treatment of human granulosa-lutein cells with exogenous recombinant TIMP3 for 24 h decreased cell viability by 60%. Using human follicles collected throughout the periovulatory period of the menstrual cycle, we have demonstrated that TIMP3 mRNA expression increases and that TIMP3 protein is in the appropriate cellular layers to regulate proteolytic remodeling as the follicle progresses toward ovulation. In addition, we have shown that elevated levels of TIMP3 lead to decreased cell viability. PMID:24048576

  17. Ovarian expression, localization, and function of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) during the periovulatory period of the human menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Katherine L; Li, Feixue; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Akin, James W; Brännström, Mats; Curry, Thomas E

    2013-11-01

    Ovulation involves reorganization of the extracellular matrix of the follicle. This study examines the expression, localization, and potential function of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) during ovulation in women. The dominant follicle of the menstrual cycle was collected at specified times throughout the ovulatory process: pre-, early, late, and postovulatory. For quantitative studies, the follicle was bisected; granulosa and theca cells were separated and collected. For immunohistochemistry (IHC), the intact follicle was embedded and TIMP3 was localized. Additionally, granulosa cells were collected from women undergoing in vitro fertilization and treated with increasing concentrations of recombinant TIMP3, and cell viability was assessed. Real-time PCR for TIMP3 mRNA revealed an increase in TIMP3 mRNA expression in granulosa cells from the early to the late ovulatory stage. Thecal TIMP3 mRNA expression was constitutive across the periovulatory period. TIMP3 protein was localized by IHC to the granulosa and theca cell layers in pre-, early, and late ovulatory follicles as well as to the vascular bed. The staining was most intense in the granulosa and theca cells in the late ovulatory group. Treatment of human granulosa-lutein cells with exogenous recombinant TIMP3 for 24 h decreased cell viability by 60%. Using human follicles collected throughout the periovulatory period of the menstrual cycle, we have demonstrated that TIMP3 mRNA expression increases and that TIMP3 protein is in the appropriate cellular layers to regulate proteolytic remodeling as the follicle progresses toward ovulation. In addition, we have shown that elevated levels of TIMP3 lead to decreased cell viability.

  18. In Vitro Culture of Ovarian Follicles from Peromyscus

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoming; Toth, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The ovarian follicle is the fundamental functional tissue unit of mammalian ovary. Each ovarian follicle contains one single oocyte. Isolation and in vitro culture of ovarian follicles to obtain fertilizable oocytes have been regarded as a promising strategy for women to combat infertility. The follicles from Peromyscus are considered as a better model than that from inbred mice for studying follicle culture. This is because Peromyscus mice are outbred (as with humans) with an increased life span. In this article, we reviewed studies on this subject conducted using Peromyscus follicles. These studies show that the conventional 2D micro-drop and 3D hanging-drop approaches established for in vitro culture of early preantral follicles from inbred mice are not directly applicable for cultivating the follicles from Peromyscus However, the efficiency could be significantly improved by culturing multiple early preantral follicles in one hanging drop of Peromyscus ovarian cell-conditioned medium. It is further revealed that the mechanical heterogeneity in the extracellular matrix of ovary is crucial for developing early preantral follicles to the antral stage and for the subsequent ovulation to release cumulus-oocyte complex. These findings may provide valuable guidance for furthering the technology of in vitro follicle culture to restore fertility in the clinic. PMID:27397871

  19. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients With Stage III-IV Pancreatic or Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-18

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  20. Guanylyl Cyclase C Is a Specific Marker for Differentiating Primary and Metastatic Ovarian Mucinous Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ciocca, Vincenzo; Bombonati, Alessandro; Palazzo, Juan P.; Schulz, Stephanie; Waldman, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Distinguishing primary ovarian mucinous neoplasms from metastatic mucinous adenocarcinomas with ovarian involvement can be difficult, especially when characteristic gross and microscopic features are not present. CK7/CK20 expression appears to be more useful for distinguishing metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas from the lower tract. The addition of CDX2 for distinguishing metastatic upper gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas from primary ovarian mucinous neoplasms offers little advantage over CK7/CK20 coordinate expression. Guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) is a brush border membrane receptor for the endogenous peptides guanylin and uroguanylin, and the homologous diarrheagenic bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins that is selectively expressed by epithelial cells from the duodenum to the rectum, but not by normal epithelia of the stomach or esophagus, or normal extramucosal cells in humans. We studied 50 ovarian tumors: 27 primary ovarian mucinous neoplasms (7 cystadenomas, 10 borderline tumors, and 10 cystadenocarcinomas) and 23 metastatic mucinous adenocarcinomas with ovarian involvement (13 colorectal adenocarcinomas, 4 gastric adenocarcinomas, 6 appendiceal mucinous tumors (4 adenocarcinomas, 1 with neuroendocrine features, and 2 appendiceal mucinous cystadenomas). For primary ovarian mucinous neoplasms, 25 of 27 were negative for GCC. Twelve of thirteen cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma (except for 1 neuroendocrine adenocarcinoma) were positive for GCC. Three of four appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinomas were positive for GCC in both the primary and metastatic tumors (except for 1 neuroendocrine adenocarcinoma). Two of two appendiceal mucinous cystadenomas were positive for GCC. Of four cases of gastric adenocarcinoma with ovarian involvement, only one (primary tumor) exhibited focal GCC staining. These findings suggest GCC may be a useful marker for differentiating primary and secondary ovarian mucinous neoplasms. PMID:19694825

  1. Stem Cell-Like Gene Expression in Ovarian Cancer Predicts Type II Subtype and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Schwede, Matthew; Spentzos, Dimitrios; Bentink, Stefan; Hofmann, Oliver; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Harrington, David; Quackenbush, John; Culhane, Aedín C.

    2013-01-01

    Although ovarian cancer is often initially chemotherapy-sensitive, the vast majority of tumors eventually relapse and patients die of increasingly aggressive disease. Cancer stem cells are believed to have properties that allow them to survive therapy and may drive recurrent tumor growth. Cancer stem cells or cancer-initiating cells are a rare cell population and difficult to isolate experimentally. Genes that are expressed by stem cells may characterize a subset of less differentiated tumors and aid in prognostic classification of ovarian cancer. The purpose of this study was the genomic identification and characterization of a subtype of ovarian cancer that has stem cell-like gene expression. Using human and mouse gene signatures of embryonic, adult, or cancer stem cells, we performed an unsupervised bipartition class discovery on expression profiles from 145 serous ovarian tumors to identify a stem-like and more differentiated subgroup. Subtypes were reproducible and were further characterized in four independent, heterogeneous ovarian cancer datasets. We identified a stem-like subtype characterized by a 51-gene signature, which is significantly enriched in tumors with properties of Type II ovarian cancer; high grade, serous tumors, and poor survival. Conversely, the differentiated tumors share properties with Type I, including lower grade and mixed histological subtypes. The stem cell-like signature was prognostic within high-stage serous ovarian cancer, classifying a small subset of high-stage tumors with better prognosis, in the differentiated subtype. In multivariate models that adjusted for common clinical factors (including grade, stage, age), the subtype classification was still a significant predictor of relapse. The prognostic stem-like gene signature yields new insights into prognostic differences in ovarian cancer, provides a genomic context for defining Type I/II subtypes, and potential gene targets which following further validation may be valuable

  2. Effect of estradiol on the expression of angiogenic factors in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Macarena; Plaza-Parrochia, Francisca; Lépez, Macarena; López, Daniela; Gabler, Fernando; Gayan, Patricio; Selman, Alberto; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    Ovarian cancer presents a high angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels) regulated by pro-angiogenic factors, mainly vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). An association between endogenous levels of estrogen and increased risk of developing ovarian cancer has been reported. Estrogen action is mediated by the binding to its specific receptors (ERα and ERβ), altered ERα/ERβ ratio may constitute a marker of ovarian carcinogenesis progression. To determine the effect of estradiol through ERα on the expression of NGF and VEGF in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Levels of phosphorylated estrogen receptor alpha (pERα) were evaluated in well, moderate and poorly differentiated EOC samples (EOC-I, EOC-II, EOC-III). Additionally, ovarian cancer explants were stimulated with NGF (0, 10 and 100 ng/ml) and ERα, ERβ and pERα levels were detected. Finally, human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) and epithelial ovarian cancer (A2780) cell lines were stimulated with estradiol, where NGF and VEGF protein levels were evaluated. In tissues, ERs were detected being pERα levels significantly increased in EOC-III samples compared with EOC-I (p<0.05). Additionally, ovarian explants treated with NGF increased pERα levels meanwhile total ERα and ERβ levels did not change. Cell lines stimulated with estradiol revealed an increase of NGF and VEGF protein levels (p<0.05). Estradiol has a positive effect on pro-angiogenic factors such as NGF and VEGF expression in EOC, probably through the activation of ERα; generating a positive loop induced by NGF increasing pERα levels in epithelial ovarian cells.

  3. Epithelial ovarian cancer: the molecular genetics of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Krzystyniak, J; Ceppi, L; Dizon, D S; Birrer, M J

    2016-04-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide, despite gains in diagnostics and treatments made over the last three decades. Existing markers of ovarian cancer possess very limited clinical relevance highlighting the emerging need for identification of novel prognostic biomarkers as well as better predictive factors that might allow the stratification of patients who could benefit from a more targeted approach. A summary of molecular genetics of EOC. Large-scale high-throughput genomic technologies appear to be powerful tools for investigations into the genetic abnormalities in ovarian tumors, including studies on dysregulated genes and aberrantly activated signaling pathways. Such technologies can complement well-established clinical histopathology analysis and tumor grading and will hope to result in better, more tailored treatments in the future. Genomic signatures obtained by gene expression profiling of EOC may be able to predict survival outcomes and other important clinical outcomes, such as the success of surgical treatment. Finally, genomic analyses may allow for the identification of novel predictive biomarkers for purposes of treatment planning. These data combined suggest a pathway to progress in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer and the promise of fulfilling the objective of providing personalized medicine to women with ovarian cancer. The understanding of basic molecular events in the tumorigenesis and chemoresistance of EOC together with discovery of potential biomarkers may be greatly enhanced through large-scale genomic studies. In order to maximize the impact of these technologies, however, extensive validation studies are required. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Quantification of photoacoustic microscopy images for ovarian cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianheng; Yang, Yi; Alqasemi, Umar; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, human ovarian tissues with malignant and benign features were imaged ex vivo by using an opticalresolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) system. Several features were quantitatively extracted from PAM images to describe photoacoustic signal distributions and fluctuations. 106 PAM images from 18 human ovaries were classified by applying those extracted features to a logistic prediction model. 57 images from 9 ovaries were used as a training set to train the logistic model, and 49 images from another 9 ovaries were used to test our prediction model. We assumed that if one image from one malignant ovary was classified as malignant, it is sufficient to classify this ovary as malignant. For the training set, we achieved 100% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity; for testing set, we achieved 100% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity. These preliminary results demonstrate that PAM could be extremely valuable in assisting and guiding surgeons for in vivo evaluation of ovarian tissue.

  5. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  6. Claudins Overexpression in Ovarian Cancer: Potential Targets for Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin (CPE) Based Diagnosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    English, Diana P.; Santin, Alessandro D.

    2013-01-01

    Claudins are a family of tight junction proteins regulating paracellular permeability and cell polarity with different patterns of expression in benign and malignant human tissues. There are approximately 27 members of the claudin family identified to date with varying cell and tissue-specific expression. Claudins-3, -4 and -7 represent the most highly differentially expressed claudins in ovarian cancer. While their exact role in ovarian tumors is still being elucidated, these proteins are thought to be critical for ovarian cancer cell invasion/dissemination and resistance to chemotherapy. Claudin-3 and claudin-4 are the natural receptors for the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), a potent cytolytic toxin. These surface proteins may therefore represent attractive targets for the detection and treatment of chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer and other aggressive solid tumors overexpressing claudin-3 and -4 using CPE-based theranostic agents. PMID:23685873

  7. Ovarian carcinoma ascites spheroids adhere to extracellular matrix components and mesothelial cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Kathryn M; Casey, Rachael C; Skubitz, Keith M; Pambuccian, Stephan E; Oegema, Theodore R; Skubitz, Amy P N

    2004-04-01

    Ovarian carcinoma cells form multicellular aggregates, or spheroids, in the peritoneal cavity of patients with advanced disease. The current paradigm that ascites spheroids are non-adhesive leaves their contribution to ovarian carcinoma dissemination undefined. Here, spheroids obtained from ovarian carcinoma patients' ascites were characterized for their ability to adhere to molecules encountered in the peritoneal cavity, with the goal of establishing their potential to contribute to ovarian cancer spread. Spheroids were recovered from the ascites fluid of 11 patients with stage III or stage IV ovarian carcinoma. Adhesion assays to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and human mesothelial cell monolayers were performed for each of the ascites spheroid samples. Subsequently, inhibition assays were performed to identify the cell receptors involved. Most ascites samples adhered moderately to fibronectin and type I collagen, with reduced adhesion to type IV collagen and laminin. Monoclonal antibodies against the beta1 integrin subunit partially inhibited this adhesion. Ascites spheroids also adhered to hyaluronan. Additionally, spheroids adhered to live, but not fixed, human mesothelial cell monolayers, and this adhesion was partially mediated by beta1 integrins. The cellular content of the ascites fluid has often been considered non-adhesive, but our findings are the first to suggest that patient-derived ascites spheroids can adhere to mesothelial extracellular matrix via beta1 integrins, indicating that spheroids should not be ignored in the dissemination of ovarian cancer.

  8. Targeting FOXM1 Improves Cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel and Cisplatinum in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, Gina L; Chen, Yi; Teng, Nelson N H

    2017-10-01

    Aberrantly activated FOXM1 (forkhead box protein M1) leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation and dysregulation of FOXM1 transcription network occurs in 84% of ovarian cancer cases. It was demonstrated that thiostrepton, a thiazole antibiotic, decreases FOXM1 expression. We aimed to determine if targeting the FOXM1 pathway with thiostrepton could improve the efficacy of paclitaxel and cisplatin in human ovarian cancer ascites cells ex vivo. Human ovarian cancer cell lines and patients' ascites cells were treated with paclitaxel, cisplatin, and thiostrepton or a combination for 48 hours, and cytotoxicity was assessed. Drug combination effects were determined by calculating the combination index values using the Chou and Talalay method. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine changes in FOXM1 expression and its downstream targets. Ovarian cancer cell lines and the patients' ascites cancer cells had an overexpression of FOXM1 expression levels. Targeting FOXM1 with thiostrepton decreased FOXM1 mRNA expression and its downstream targets such as CCNB1 and CDC25B, leading to cell death in both cell lines and patients' ascites cancer cells. Furthermore, addition of thiostrepton to paclitaxel and cisplatin showed synergistic effects in chemoresistant ovarian cancer patients' ascites cells ex vivo. Targeting FOXM1 may lead to novel therapeutics for chemoresistant epithelial ovarian cancer.

  9. Innovative T Cell-Targeted Therapy for Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    curative.23 In contrast, long term survivorship of patients following allogeneic TCRαβ-depleted hematopoietic stem -cell transplantation (HSCT) was...receptors and steroid receptors. Stem cells 1996; 14(6): 632-41. 40. Lai D, Wang F, Chen Y, Wang C, Liu S, Lu B et al. Human ovarian cancer stem ...leukemia stem cells and eliminate AML. Manuscript in preparation. 46. Zhang M, Maiti S, Bernatchez C, Huls H, Rabinovich B, Champlin RE, Vence LM, Hwu P

  10. Impact of the Ovarian Microenvironment on Serous Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Collagen is a well-established matrix utilized by serous cancer cells, of unknown origin, to seed metastatic sites, such as the mesothelium. An RNAseq...analysis will be performed between human TEC adhered to collagen matrix compared to tissue culture plastic and used to identify gene expression...changes responsible for adhesion on collagen . Ovarian conditioned medium (OCM) with and without H2O2 treatment will be added to normal and our series of

  11. Overcoming cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer cells by targeting HIF-1-regulated cancer metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Zhihong; Lu, Yang; Qiu, Songbo; Fan, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is currently one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs used for treating ovarian cancer; however, resistance to cisplatin is common. In this study, we explored an experimental strategy for overcoming cisplatin resistance of human ovarian cancer from the new perspective of cancer cell metabolism. By using two pairs of genetically matched cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines, we tested the hypothesis that downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which regulates metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis, is a promising strategy for overcoming cisplatin resistance of human ovarian cancer cells. We found that cisplatin downregulated the level of the regulatable α subunit of HIF-1, HIF-1α, in cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cells through enhancing HIF-1α degradation but did not downregulate HIF-1α in their cisplatin-resistant counterparts. Overexpression of a degradation-resistant HIF-1α (HIF-1α ΔODD) reduced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in cisplatin-sensitive cells, whereas genetic knockdown of HIF-1α or pharmacological promotion of HIF-1α degradation enhanced response to cisplatin in both cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. We further demonstrated that knockdown of HIF-1α improved the response of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin by redirecting the aerobic glycolysis in the resistant cancer cells towards mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to cell death through overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Our findings suggest that the HIF-1α-regulated cancer metabolism pathway could be a novel target for overcoming cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer. PMID:26801746

  12. Ovarian stimulation length, number of follicles higher than 17 mm and estradiol on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration are risk factors for multiple pregnancy in intrauterine insemination

    PubMed Central

    MELO, MARCO A.B.; SIMÓN, CARLOS; REMOHÍ, JOSÉ; PELLICER, ANTONIO; MESEGUER, MARCOS

    2007-01-01

    Aim:  The aim of the present study was to identify the risk factors, their prognostic value on multiple pregnancies (MP) prediction and their thresholds in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). Methods:  A case‐control study was carried out by identifying in our database all the pregnancies reached by donor and conjugal IUI (DIUI and CIUI, respectively), and compared cycle features, patients’ characteristics and sperm analysis results between women achieving single pregnancy (SP) versus MP. The number of gestational sacs, follicular sizes and estradiol levels on the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration day, COH length and semen parameters were obtained from each cycle and compared. Student's t‐tests for mean comparisons, receiver–operator curve (ROC) analysis to determine the predictive value of each parameter on MP achievement and multiple regression analysis to determine single parameter influence were carried out. Results:  Women with MP in IUI stimulated cycles reached the adequate size of the dominant follicle (17 mm) significantly earlier than those achieving SP. Also, the mean follicles number, and estradiol levels on the hCG day were higher in the CIUI and DIUI MP group. Nevertheless, only ROC curve analysis revealed good prognostic value for estradiol and follicles higher than 17 mm. Multiple regression analysis confirmed these results. No feature of the basic sperm analysis, either in the ejaculate or in the prepared sample, was different or predictive of MP. When using donor sperm, different thresholds of follicle number, stimulation length and estradiol in the prediction of MP were noted, in comparison with CIUI. Conclusions:  MP in stimulated IUI cycles are closely associated to stimulation length, number of developed follicles higher than 17 mm on the day of hCG administration and estradiol levels. Also, estradiol has a

  13. Functional role and prognostic significance of CD157 in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ortolan, Erika; Arisio, Riccardo; Morone, Simona; Bovino, Paola; Lo-Buono, Nicola; Nacci, Giulia; Parrotta, Rossella; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Rapa, Ida; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Ferrero, Enza; Volante, Marco; Funaro, Ada

    2010-08-04

    CD157, an ADP-ribosyl cyclase-related cell surface molecule, regulates leukocyte diapedesis during inflammation. Because CD157 is expressed in mesothelial cells and diapedesis resembles tumor cell migration, we investigated the role of CD157 in ovarian carcinoma. We assayed surgically obtained ovarian cancer and mesothelial cells and both native and engineered ovarian cancer cell lines for CD157 expression using flow cytometry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and for adhesion to extracellular matrices, migration, and invasion using cell-based assays. We investigated invasion of human peritoneal mesothelial cells by serous ovarian cancer cells with a three-dimensional coculture model. Experiments were performed with or without CD157-blocking antibodies. CD157 expression in tissue sections from ovarian cancer patients (n = 88) was examined by immunohistochemistry, quantified by histological score (H score), and categorized as at or above or below the median value of 60, and compared with clinical parameters. Statistical tests were two-sided. CD157 was expressed by ovarian cancer cells and mesothelium, and it potentiated the adhesion, migration, and invasion of serous ovarian cancer cells through different extracellular matrices. CD157-transfected ovarian cancer cells migrated twice as much as CD157-negative control cells (P = .001). Blockage of CD157 inhibited mesothelial invasion by serous ovarian cancer cells in a three-dimensional model. CD157 was expressed in 82 (93%) of the 88 epithelial ovarian cancer tissue specimens. In serous ovarian cancer, patients with CD157 H scores of 60 or greater had statistically significantly shorter disease-free survival and overall survival than patients with lower CD157 H scores (CD157 H score > or =60 vs <60: median disease-free survival = 18 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.92 to 30.07 vs unreached, P = .005; CD157 H score > or =60 vs <60: median overall survival = 45 months, 95% CI = 21

  14. Use of multiple imaging modalities to detect ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanter, Elizabeth; Walker, Ross; Marion, Sam; Hoyer, Patricia; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2005-04-01

    Ovarian cancer is not a common cancer-approximately 25,000 new cases in 2004-but it is the fifth leading cause of death from cancer in women (over 16,000 in 2004). Little is known about the precursors and early stages of ovarian cancer partially due to the lack of human samples at the early stages. A cohesive model that incorporates ovarian cancer induction into a menopausal rodent would be well suited for comprehensive studies of ovarian cancer. Non-destructive imaging would allow carcinogenesis to be followed. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) and Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) are minimally invasive optical modalities that allow both structural and biochemical changes to be noted. Rat ovaries were exposed to 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) for 20 days in order to destroy the primordial follicles. Plain sutures and sutures coated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) were implanted in the right ovary, in order to produce epithelial based ovarian cancers (a plain suture was inserted in the control). Rats were sacrificed at 4 weeks and ovaries were harvested and imaged with a combined OCT/LIF system and with the OCM. Histology was preformed on the harvested ovaries and any pathology determined. Two of the ovaries were visually abnormal; the OCT/LIF imaging confirmed these abnormalities. The normal ovary OCM and OCT images show the organized structure of the ovary, the follicles, bursa and corpus lutea are visible. The OCM images show the disorganized structure of one of the abnormal ovaries. Overall this pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of both the animal model and optical imaging.