Science.gov

Sample records for a2780cisr cell line

  1. CLO: The cell line ontology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO consortium, new cell line cells, upper level alignment with the Cell Ontology (CL) and the Ontology for Biomedical Investigation, and logical extensions. Construction and content Collaboration among the CLO, CL, and OBI has established consensus definitions of cell line-specific terms such as ‘cell line’, ‘cell line cell’, ‘cell line culturing’, and ‘mortal’ vs. ‘immortal cell line cell’. A cell line is a genetically stable cultured cell population that contains individual cell line cells. The hierarchical structure of the CLO is built based on the hierarchy of the in vivo cell types defined in CL and tissue types (from which cell line cells are derived) defined in the UBERON cross-species anatomy ontology. The new hierarchical structure makes it easier to browse, query, and perform automated classification. We have recently added classes representing more than 2,000 cell line cells from the RIKEN BRC Cell Bank to CLO. Overall, the CLO now contains ~38,000 classes of specific cell line cells derived from over 200 in vivo cell types from various organisms. Utility and discussion The CLO has been applied to different biomedical research studies. Example case studies include annotation and analysis of EBI ArrayExpress data, bioassays, and host-vaccine/pathogen interaction. CLO’s utility goes beyond a catalogue of cell line types. The alignment of the CLO with related ontologies combined with the use of ontological reasoners will support sophisticated inferencing to advance translational informatics development. PMID:25852852

  2. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes.

  3. GENETICS OF HUMAN CELL LINES

    PubMed Central

    Djordjevic, B.; Szybalski, Waclaw

    1960-01-01

    The human cell line D98S can be cultivated indefinitely in the presence of up to 3 x 10–5 M 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUDR), without loss of cell viability. During this time, BUDR is incorporated into both strands of the DNA molecules, replacing up to 45 per cent of the thymidine and thereby rendering the cells highly sensitive to UV light and to x-rays. Cells grown for a limited period of time in the presence of 5-iododeoxyuridine (IUDR) become UV-sensitized, while prolonged cultivation with IUDR results in the loss of cell viability. The properties of the BUDR label permitted the demonstration that: (a) human DNA replicates in a "semiconservative" manner; (b) the degree of radiosensitization of BUDR-treated cells depends on whether the DNA has been substituted in one strand only ("unifilarly") or in both strands ("bifilarly"); (c) functional human DNA is produced during partial inhibition of protein synthesis. The potential applicability of this new rational principle of radiosensitization to the radiotherapy of neoplastic diseases is discussed. PMID:13723177

  4. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  5. Cell line: 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    2014-11-20

    2014 marks Cell's 40th anniversary, and over the year we have looked back at how discoveries of the last four decades have molded our understanding of biology. The final decade of the Cell Line features a selection of the exceptional scientific work-both landmark papers and essential reviews. Select entries can be read as an "Annotated Classic," which includes the original paper and accompanying reflections of a leading scientist, considering the work from our current vantage point. Our last installment includes a harbinger of the interplay between microbiota and mammalian hosts in 2004, revolutionary papers in 2006 and 2007 unlocking cellular reprogramming, the discovery of beige adipocytes in 2012, and the first example of CRISPR-based genome editing in a nonhuman primate in 2014. In addition to landmark publications, there were innovative developments at the journal in this decade, with the complete redesign of the print journal and the creation of Leading Edge in late 2005 and the restructuring of the online display of the article in 2010. Keeping pace with the changing nature of biological research, over the decade Cell added new article types, introduced guidelines for the organization of supplementary material, and expanded the journal's web-based content to bring editors' and authors' excitement and perspective on individual papers to the readership. An interactive version of the timeline, with links to the papers, full author lists, and Annotated Classics, is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2014.11.004.

  6. Generating mammalian stable cell lines by electroporation.

    PubMed

    A Longo, Patti; Kavran, Jennifer M; Kim, Min-Sung; Leahy, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Expression of functional, recombinant mammalian proteins often requires expression in mammalian cells (see Single Cell Cloning of a Stable Mammalian Cell Line). If the expressed protein needs to be made frequently, it can be best to generate a stable cell line instead of performing repeated transient transfections into mammalian cells. Here, we describe a method to generate stable cell lines via electroporation followed by selection steps. This protocol will be limited to the CHO dhfr-Urlaub et al. (1983) and LEC1 cell lines, which in our experience perform the best with this method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface receptors on human haematopoietic cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, C; Sundström, C; Nilsson, K; Wigzell, H

    1976-01-01

    The expression of complement receptors, of Fc receptors, of SRBC receptors and of S-Ig was investigated on human haematopoietic cell lines of proved malignant derivation. According to their origin and to a panel of phenotypic markers these lines have been classified into lymphoma lines, myeloma lines and leukemia lines. Results were compared with those obtained on non-malignant EBV carrying lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL). Among the lymphoid cell lines the LCL showed a pattern of B-lymphocyte surface markers, i.e. surface immunoglobulins, C3 receptors but low density of Fc receptors. The non-Burkitt lymphoma lines bore in varying degree these B-lymphocyte markers. The lines U-698 M and DG-75 were exceptional in having only surface immunoglobulin. The Burkitt lymphoma lines had all B-lymphocyte markers. The myeloma lines differed from the lymphoid lines in lacking C3 and Fc receptors and showed only trace amounts of surface immunoglobulins. In contrast to lymphoid and myeloma lines, the leukaemia lines were completely lacking surface immunoglobulins, but showed C3 and Fc receptors in variable densities. On line, the ALL derived line MOLT-3 showed the capacity to spontaneous rosette formation with SRBC. The findings that LCL presented a homogeneous pattern of B-lymphocyte surface markers may be of value in order to discriminate between these lines and lines derived from haematopoietic malignancies other than Burkitt lymphomas. PMID:963908

  8. LINE-1 Cultured Cell Retrotransposition Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Huira C.; Larson, Peter A.; Moldovan, John B.; Richardson, Sandra R.; Liu, Ying; Moran, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition assay has facilitated the discovery and characterization of active (i.e., retrotransposition-competent) LINE-1 sequences from mammalian genomes. In this assay, an engineered LINE-1 containing a retrotransposition reporter cassette is transiently transfected into a cultured cell line. Expression of the reporter cassette, which occurs only after a successful round of retrotransposition, allows the detection and quantification of the LINE-1 retrotransposition efficiency. This assay has yielded insight into the mechanism of LINE-1 retrotransposition. It also has provided a greater understanding of how the cell regulates LINE-1 retrotransposition and how LINE-1 retrotransposition impacts the structure of mammalian genomes. Below, we provide a brief introduction to LINE-1 biology and then detail how the LINE-1 retrotransposition assay is performed in cultured mammalian cells. PMID:26895052

  9. History of leukemia-lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Hans G; Macleod, Roderick A F

    2010-08-01

    We outline the near 50-year history of leukemia-lymphoma (LL) cell lines - a key model system in biomedicine. Due to the detailed documentation of their oncogenomic and transcriptional alterations via recent advances in molecular medicine, LL cell lines may be fitted to parent tumors with a degree of precision unattainable in other cancers. We have surveyed the corpus of published LL cell lines and found 637 examples that meet minimum standards of authentication and characterization. Alarmingly, the rate of establishment of new LL cell lines has plummeted over the last decade. Although the main hematopoietic developmental cell types are represented by cell lines, some LL categories stubbornly resist establishment in vitro. The advent of engineering techniques for immortalizing primary human cells that maintain differentiation means the time is ripe for renewed search for in vitro models from un(der)represented hematologic entities. Given their manifold applications in biomedicine, there is little doubt that LL-derived cell lines will continue to play a vital part well into the next half-century as well. © 2010 The Authors. Human Cell © 2010 Japan Human Cell Society.

  10. Standards for Cell Line Authentication and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth D.; Plant, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    Different genomic technologies have been applied to cell line authentication, but only one method (short tandem repeat [STR] profiling) has been the subject of a comprehensive and definitive standard (ASN-0002). Here we discuss the power of this document and why standards such as this are so critical for establishing the consensus technical criteria and practices that can enable progress in the fields of research that use cell lines. We also examine other methods that could be used for authentication and discuss how a combination of methods could be used in a holistic fashion to assess various critical aspects of the quality of cell lines. PMID:27300367

  11. BHD Tumor Cell Line and Renal Cell Carcinoma Line | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the National Cancer Institute  have developed a novel renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line designated UOK257, which was derived from the surgical kidney tissue of a patient with hereditary Birt-Hogg-Dube''''(BHD) syndrome and companion cell line UOK257-2 in which FLCN expression has been restored by lentivirus infection. The NCI Urologic Oncology Branch seeks parties interested in licensing or collaborative research to co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize kidney cancer tumor cell lines.

  12. Chandipura virus growth kinetics in vertebrate cell lines, insect cell lines & embryonated eggs.

    PubMed

    Jadi, R S; Sudeep, A B; Kumar, Satyendra; Arankalle, V A; Mishra, A C

    2010-08-01

    Since not much information on Chandipura virus is available, an attempt was made to study the growth kinetics of the virus in certain vertebrate, invertebrate cell lines and embryonated chicken eggs. Comparative study of Chandipura virus (CHPV) growth kinetics in three vertebrate cell lines [Vero E6, Rhabdo myosarcoma (RD), Porcine stable kidney (PS) cell lines], two insect cell lines [Aedes aegypti (AA) and Phlebotomus papatasi (PP-9) cell lines] and embryonated pathogen free chicken eggs was conducted, by tissue culture infective dose 50 per cent (TCID(50)) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). All the cell lines and embryonated egg supported the growth of CHPV and yielded high virus titre. The vertebrate cell lines showed distinct cytopathic effect (CPE) within 4-6 h post infection (PI), while no CPE was observed in insect cell lines. PP-9 cell line was the most sensitive system to CHPV as viral antigen could be detected at 1 h PI by IFA. Our results demonstrated that all the systems were susceptible to CHPV and achieved high yield of virus. However, the PP-9 cell line had an edge over the others due to its high sensitivity to the virus which might be useful for detection and isolation of the virus during epidemics.

  13. Variability of human pluripotent stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Daniel; Vallier, Ludovic

    2017-10-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells derived from embryos (human Embryonic Stem Cells or hESCs) or generated by direct reprogramming of somatic cells (human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells or hiPSCs) can proliferate almost indefinitely in vitro while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into a broad diversity of cell types. These two properties (self-renewal and pluripotency) confers human pluripotent stem cells a unique interest for clinical applications since they could allow the production of infinite quantities of cells for disease modelling, drug screening and cell based therapy. However, recent studies have clearly established that human pluripotent stem cell lines can display variable capacity to differentiate into specific lineages. Consequently, the development of universal protocols of differentiation which could work efficiently with any human pluripotent cell line is complicated substantially. As a consequence, each protocol needs to be adapted to every cell line thereby limiting large scale applications and precluding personalised therapies. Here, we summarise our knowledge concerning the origin of this variability and describe potential solutions currently available to bypass this major challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell lines authentication and mycoplasma detection as minimun quality control of cell lines in biobanking.

    PubMed

    Corral-Vázquez, C; Aguilar-Quesada, R; Catalina, P; Lucena-Aguilar, G; Ligero, G; Miranda, B; Carrillo-Ávila, J A

    2017-06-01

    Establishment of continuous cell lines from human normal and tumor tissues is an extended and useful methodology for molecular characterization of cancer pathophysiology and drug development in research laboratories. The exchange of these cell lines between different labs is a common practice that can compromise assays reliability due to contamination with microorganism such as mycoplasma or cells from different flasks that compromise experiment reproducibility and reliability. Great proportions of cell lines are contaminated with mycoplasma and/or are replaced by cells derived for a different origin during processing or distribution process. The scientific community has underestimated this problem and thousand of research experiment has been done with cell lines that are incorrectly identified and wrong scientific conclusions have been published. Regular contamination and authentication tests are necessary in order to avoid negative consequences of widespread misidentified and contaminated cell lines. Cell banks generate, store and distribute cell lines for research, being mandatory a consistent and continuous quality program. Methods implementation for guaranteeing both, the absence of mycoplasma and authentication in the supplied cell lines, has been performed in the Andalusian Health System Biobank. Specifically, precise results were obtained using real time PCR detection for mycoplasma and 10 STRs identification by capillary electrophoresis for cell line authentication. Advantages and disadvantages of these protocols are discussed.

  15. Prostaglandin Actions in Established Insect Cell Lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids that serve as biochemical signals that mediate a wide range of physiological functions in animal cells. For example, PGs influence protein expression in establish insect cell lines ...

  16. Refractory lining for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contcat with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  17. Cell Line Data Base: structure and recent improvements towards molecular authentication of human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Paolo; Manniello, Assunta; Aresu, Ottavia; Armento, Massimiliano; Cesaro, Michela; Parodi, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB) is a well-known reference information source on human and animal cell lines including information on more than 6000 cell lines. Main biological features are coded according to controlled vocabularies derived from international lists and taxonomies. HyperCLDB (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/hypercldb/) is a hypertext version of CLDB that improves data accessibility by also allowing information retrieval through web spiders. Access to HyperCLDB is provided through indexes of biological characteristics and navigation in the hypertext is granted by many internal links. HyperCLDB also includes links to external resources. Recently, an interest was raised for a reference nomenclature for cell lines and CLDB was seen as an authoritative system. Furthermore, to overcome the cell line misidentification problem, molecular authentication methods, such as fingerprinting, single-locus short tandem repeat (STR) profile and single nucleotide polymorphisms validation, were proposed. Since this data is distributed, a reference portal on authentication of human cell lines is needed. We present here the architecture and contents of CLDB, its recent enhancements and perspectives. We also present a new related database, the Cell Line Integrated Molecular Authentication (CLIMA) database (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/clima/), that allows to link authentication data to actual cell lines. PMID:18927105

  18. Cell Line Data Base: structure and recent improvements towards molecular authentication of human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Romano, Paolo; Manniello, Assunta; Aresu, Ottavia; Armento, Massimiliano; Cesaro, Michela; Parodi, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB) is a well-known reference information source on human and animal cell lines including information on more than 6000 cell lines. Main biological features are coded according to controlled vocabularies derived from international lists and taxonomies. HyperCLDB (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/hypercldb/) is a hypertext version of CLDB that improves data accessibility by also allowing information retrieval through web spiders. Access to HyperCLDB is provided through indexes of biological characteristics and navigation in the hypertext is granted by many internal links. HyperCLDB also includes links to external resources. Recently, an interest was raised for a reference nomenclature for cell lines and CLDB was seen as an authoritative system. Furthermore, to overcome the cell line misidentification problem, molecular authentication methods, such as fingerprinting, single-locus short tandem repeat (STR) profile and single nucleotide polymorphisms validation, were proposed. Since this data is distributed, a reference portal on authentication of human cell lines is needed. We present here the architecture and contents of CLDB, its recent enhancements and perspectives. We also present a new related database, the Cell Line Integrated Molecular Authentication (CLIMA) database (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/clima/), that allows to link authentication data to actual cell lines.

  19. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Barkla, D H; Whitehead, R H; Foster, H; Tutton, P J

    1988-09-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting from the apical surface. The microvilli are attached by a core of long microfilaments passing deep into the apical cytoplasm. Between the microvilli are parallel arrays of vesicles (caveoli) containing flocculent material. Two different but not mutually exclusive explanations for the presence of tuft cells are proposed. The first explanation is that tuft cells came from the resected tumour and have survived by mitotic division during subsequent passages. The second explanation suggests that tuft cells are the progeny of undifferentiated tumour cells. Descriptions of tuft cells in colon carcinomas are uncommon and possible reasons for this are presented. The morphology of tuft cells is consistent with that of a highly differentiated cell specialised for absorption, and these new models provide an opportunity to further investigate the structure and function of tuft cells.

  20. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, D. H.; Whitehead, R. H.; Foster, H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting from the apical surface. The microvilli are attached by a core of long microfilaments passing deep into the apical cytoplasm. Between the microvilli are parallel arrays of vesicles (caveoli) containing flocculent material. Two different but not mutually exclusive explanations for the presence of tuft cells are proposed. The first explanation is that tuft cells came from the resected tumour and have survived by mitotic division during subsequent passages. The second explanation suggests that tuft cells are the progeny of undifferentiated tumour cells. Descriptions of tuft cells in colon carcinomas are uncommon and possible reasons for this are presented. The morphology of tuft cells is consistent with that of a highly differentiated cell specialised for absorption, and these new models provide an opportunity to further investigate the structure and function of tuft cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:3414781

  1. Peptidomic analysis of human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Julia S.; Sironi, Juan; Castro, Leandro M.; Ferro, Emer S.; Fricker, Lloyd D.

    2011-01-01

    Peptides have been proposed to function in intracellular signaling within the cytosol. Although cytosolic peptides are considered to be highly unstable, a large number of peptides have been detected in mouse brain and other biological samples. In the present study, we evaluated the peptidome of three diverse cell lines: SH-SY5Y, MCF7, and HEK293 cells. A comparison of the peptidomes revealed considerable overlap in the identity of the peptides found in each cell line. The majority of the observed peptides are not derived from the most abundant or least stable proteins in the cell, and approximately half of the cellular peptides correspond to the N- or C- termini of the precursor proteins. Cleavage site analysis revealed a preference for hydrophobic residues in the P1 position. Quantitative peptidomic analysis indicated that the levels of most cellular peptides are not altered in response to elevated intracellular calcium, suggesting that calpain is not responsible for their production. The similarity of the peptidomes of the three cell lines and the lack of correlation with the predicted cellular degradome implies the selective formation or retention of these peptides, consistent with the hypothesis that they are functional in the cells. PMID:21204522

  2. Radiation sensitivity of Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.H.; Ramsay, J.R.; Birrell, G.W.

    1995-07-30

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT)more » assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after {gamma} irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to {gamma} irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  3. 77 FR 5489 - Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...-01] Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology... cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All data and corresponding... cell lines accepted on the NIST Applied Genetics Group Web site at http://www.nist.gov/mml/biochemical...

  4. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Felthaus, O.; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg; Ettl, T.

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simplemore » method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.« less

  5. A universal mammalian vaccine cell line substrate.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jackelyn; Todd, Kyle V; Bakre, Abhijeet; Orr-Burks, Nichole; Jones, Les; Wu, Weilin; Tripp, Ralph A

    2017-01-01

    Using genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens for poliovirus, influenza A virus and rotavirus, we validated the top 6 gene hits PV, RV or IAV to search for host genes that when knocked-down (KD) enhanced virus permissiveness and replication over wild type Vero cells or HEp-2 cells. The enhanced virus replication was tested for 12 viruses and ranged from 2-fold to >1000-fold. There were variations in virus-specific replication (strain differences) across the cell lines examined. Some host genes (CNTD2, COQ9, GCGR, NDUFA9, NEU2, PYCR1, SEC16G, SVOPL, ZFYVE9, and ZNF205) showed that KD resulted in enhanced virus replication. These findings advance platform-enabling vaccine technology, the creation of diagnostic cells substrates, and are informative about the host mechanisms that affect virus replication in mammalian cells.

  6. CellLineNavigator: a workbench for cancer cell line analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, Markus; Itzel, Timo; Maass, Thorsten; Hildebrandt, Andreas; Galle, Peter R.; Teufel, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The CellLineNavigator database, freely available at http://www.medicalgenomics.org/celllinenavigator, is a web-based workbench for large scale comparisons of a large collection of diverse cell lines. It aims to support experimental design in the fields of genomics, systems biology and translational biomedical research. Currently, this compendium holds genome wide expression profiles of 317 different cancer cell lines, categorized into 57 different pathological states and 28 individual tissues. To enlarge the scope of CellLineNavigator, the database was furthermore closely linked to commonly used bioinformatics databases and knowledge repositories. To ensure easy data access and search ability, a simple data and an intuitive querying interface were implemented. It allows the user to explore and filter gene expression, focusing on pathological or physiological conditions. For a more complex search, the advanced query interface may be used to query for (i) differentially expressed genes; (ii) pathological or physiological conditions; or (iii) gene names or functional attributes, such as Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes pathway maps. These queries may also be combined. Finally, CellLineNavigator allows additional advanced analysis of differentially regulated genes by a direct link to the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) Bioinformatics Resources. PMID:23118487

  7. Effects of Cabazitaxel in Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Kosuke; Tomoda, Masashi; Ohno, Yuta; Hayashi, Hideki; Fujita, Yasunori; Kawakami, Kyojiro; Kameyama, Koji; Kato, Taku; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Itoh, Yoshinori; Ito, Masafumi; Deguchi, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Advanced renal cell carcinoma is treated with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors or tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The effects of these drugs are, however, limited and novel treatment strategies are required. Clear-cell type renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is chemo-resistant, in part, due to expression of multidrug resistance proteins such as p-glycoprotein. Cabazitaxel, a tubulin-binding taxane drug used for castration-resistant prostate cancer, has less affinity for p-glycoprotein compared to docetaxel. In the current study, the effects of docetaxel and cabazitaxel on ccRCC cells were investigated. The expression of p-glycoprotein was evaluated in the ccRCC cell lines, Caki-1, KMRC-1 and OS-RC-2 by western blotting. Cells were treated with cabazitaxel or docetaxel, and growth kinetics and tubulin polymerization were determined by the WST-1 assay and cell-based tubulin polymerization assay, respectively. Intracellular drug concentrations were measured by chromatography. AKT activation after treatment was examined by western blotting. All ccRCC cell lines expressed p-glycoprotein. Cabazitaxel inhibited cell growth and induced tubulin polymerization more potently than docetaxel. The intracellular concentration of cabazitaxel was much higher than docetaxel in all cell lines. Both docetaxel and cabazitaxel inhibit AKT phosphorylation at 5 min among three cells. Cabazitaxel inhibits growth of ccRCC cells expressing p-glycoprotein and could thus be possibly used for advanced ccRCC patients in combination with targeted-therapy enhancing their effects. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. EXAFS studies of prostate cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Lekki, J.; Kisiel, A.; Steininger, R.; Goettlicher, J.

    2013-04-01

    Sulphur plays a vital role in every human organism. It is known, that sulphur-bearing compounds, such as for example cysteine and glutathione, play critical roles in development and progression of many diseases. Any alteration in sulphur's biochemistry could become a precursor of serious pathological conditions. One of such condition is prostate cancer, the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in the western world and the second leading cause of cancer related death in men. The purpose of presented studies was to examine what changes occur in the nearest chemical environment of sulphur in prostate cancer cell lines in comparison to healthy cells. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used, followed by theoretical calculations. The results of preliminary analysis is presented.

  9. Development of a new canine osteosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Séguin, B; Zwerdling, T; McCallan, J L; DeCock, H E V; Dewe, L L; Naydan, D K; Young, A E; Bannasch, D L; Foreman, O; Kent, M S

    2006-12-01

    Establishing a canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cell line can be useful to develop in vivo and in vitro models of OSA. The goal of this study was to develop, characterize and authenticate a new canine OSA cell line and a clone. A cell line and a clone were developed with standard cell culture techniques from a naturally occurring OSA in a dog. The clonal cell line induced a tumour after injection in RAG 1-deficient mouse. Histology was consistent with OSA. The original tumour from the dog and the tumour induced in the mouse were both reactive with vimentin and osteonectin (ON). The parent cell line and clonal cell line were reactive with ON, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase. Loss of heterozygosity was found in the same three microsatellite markers in the parent and clonal cell lines, and the tumour tissue grown in the mouse.

  10. The Cellosaurus, a Cell-Line Knowledge Resource

    PubMed Central

    Bairoch, Amos

    2018-01-01

    The Cellosaurus is a knowledge resource on cell lines. It aims to describe all cell lines used in biomedical research. Its scope encompasses both vertebrates and invertebrates. Currently, information for >100,000 cell lines is provided. For each cell line, it provides a wealth of information, cross-references, and literature citations. The Cellosaurus is available on the ExPASy server (https://web.expasy.org/cellosaurus/) and can be downloaded in a variety of formats. Among its many uses, the Cellosaurus is a key resource to help researchers identify potentially contaminated/misidentified cell lines, thus contributing to improving the quality of research in the life sciences. PMID:29805321

  11. Replication of Heliothis virescens ascovirus in insect cell lines.

    PubMed

    Asgari, S

    2006-09-01

    Ascoviruses (AVs) infect larvae of various insect pests belonging to the family Noctuidae. The result of AV infection in the hosts is cleavage of infected cells into vesicles, a unique feature of AV infection. Since insect cell lines facilitate the study of virus life cycles, attempts were made to analyze Heliothis virescens AV (HvAV3e) infection in several cell lines and compare cell pathology to larval infection. In this study, replication and cytopathological effects of HvAV3e on four different cell lines were investigated. HvAV3e replication was confirmed in three noctuid cell lines from Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Helicoverpa zea (BCIRL-Hz-AM1 and FB33). However, the virus did not replicate in the non-noctuid insect cell line from Pieris rapae (Pieridae). Despite replication of the virus in the three permissive cell lines, the cytopathological effects of the virus were significantly different from that of larval infection.

  12. Analysis of renal cancer cell lines from two major resources enables genomics-guided cell line selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Rileen; Winer, Andrew G.; Chevinsky, Michael; Jakubowski, Christopher; Chen, Ying-Bei; Dong, Yiyu; Tickoo, Satish K.; Reuter, Victor E.; Russo, Paul; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Sander, Chris; Hsieh, James J.; Hakimi, A. Ari

    2017-05-01

    The utility of cancer cell lines is affected by the similarity to endogenous tumour cells. Here we compare genomic data from 65 kidney-derived cell lines from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and the COSMIC Cell Lines Project to three renal cancer subtypes from The Cancer Genome Atlas: clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC, also known as kidney renal clear cell carcinoma), papillary (pRCC, also known as kidney papillary) and chromophobe (chRCC, also known as kidney chromophobe) renal cell carcinoma. Clustering copy number alterations shows that most cell lines resemble ccRCC, a few (including some often used as models of ccRCC) resemble pRCC, and none resemble chRCC. Human ccRCC tumours clustering with cell lines display clinical and genomic features of more aggressive disease, suggesting that cell lines best represent aggressive tumours. We stratify mutations and copy number alterations for important kidney cancer genes by the consistency between databases, and classify cell lines into established gene expression-based indolent and aggressive subtypes. Our results could aid investigators in analysing appropriate renal cancer cell lines.

  13. Characterization of a Merkel Cell Polyomavirus-Positive Merkel Cell Carcinoma Cell Line CVG-1.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Celestino; Amako, Yutaka; Harold, Alexis; Toptan, Tuna; Chang, Yuan; Shuda, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) plays a causal role in ∼80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC). MCV is clonally integrated into the MCC tumor genome, which results in persistent expression of large T (LT) and small T (sT) antigen oncoproteins encoded by the early locus. In MCV-positive MCC tumors, LT is truncated by premature stop codons or deletions that lead to loss of the C-terminal origin binding (OBD) and helicase domains important for replication. The N-terminal Rb binding domain remains intact. MCV-positive cell lines derived from MCC explants have been valuable tools to study the molecular mechanism of MCV-induced Merkel cell carcinogenesis. Although all cell lines have integrated MCV and express truncated LT antigens, the molecular sizes of the LT proteins differ between cell lines. The copy number of integrated viral genome also varies across cell lines, leading to significantly different levels of viral protein expression. Nevertheless, these cell lines share phenotypic similarities in cell morphology, growth characteristics, and neuroendocrine marker expression. Several low-passage MCV-positive MCC cell lines have been established since the identification of MCV. We describe a new MCV-positive MCV cell line, CVG-1, with features distinct from previously reported cell lines. CVG-1 tumor cells grow in more discohesive clusters in loose round cell suspension, and individual cells show dramatic size heterogeneity. It is the first cell line to encode an MCV sT polymorphism resulting in a unique leucine (L) to proline (P) substitution mutation at amino acid 144. CVG-1 possesses a LT truncation pattern near identical to that of MKL-1 cells differing by the last two C-terminal amino acids and also shows an LT protein expression level similar to MKL-1. Viral T antigen knockdown reveals that, like other MCV-positive MCC cell lines, CVG-1 requires T antigen expression for cell proliferation.

  14. [Establishment of Z-HL16C cell line.].

    PubMed

    Chen, J P; Li, J; Zhao, S L; Tian, J Y; Ye, F

    2006-09-01

    To establish and study the nature and the application of Z-HL16C cell line. The cell line was continuously passed, frozen stored and recovered. Its application was expanded and the cell type was identified. The cell line had an epithelial-cell-like shape, the size appeared uniform, the cell boundary was distinct. It has been continuously passed, frozen stored and recovered for ten years. Its recovery rate was about 90%. It has been proved to be sensitive to the tested viruses which were enteroviruses (Polio, Cox, Echo), influenza viruses, parainfluenzaviruses, adenoviruses, measles virus. This cell line has been identified as a cancerization cell. The cell line Z-HL16C has been stably established, it has a broad spectrum in sensitivity for culturing viruses.

  15. Establishment and characterization of Macaca fascicularis lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Manning, C H; Heise, E R

    1992-01-01

    A panel of cynomolgus macaque lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) was established by transforming peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with Herpesvirus papio (HVP), and selected lines were examined by flow cytometry. Results indicate that HVP-transformed macaque LCL are phenotypically heterogeneous and resemble human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed LCL in the abundant expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules. At least some lines are of B cell origin.

  16. Continuous human cell lines and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, Martha R.

    1989-01-01

    Substantially genetically stable continuous human cell lines derived from normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and processes for making and using the same. In a preferred embodiment, the cell lines are derived by treating normal human mammary epithelial tissue with a chemical carcinogen such as benzo[a]pyrene. The novel cell lines serve as useful substrates for elucidating the potential effects of a number of toxins, carcinogens and mutagens as well as of the addition of exogenous genetic material. The autogenic parent cells from which the cell lines are derived serve as convenient control samples for testing. The cell lines are not neoplastically transformed, although they have acquired several properties which distinguish them from their normal progenitors.

  17. Continuous human cell lines and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1985-07-01

    Substantially genetically stable continuous human cell lines derived from normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and processes for making and using the same. In a preferred embodiment, the cell lines are derived by treating normal human mammary epithelial tissue with a chemical carcinogen such as benzo(a)pyrene. The novel cell lines serve as useful substrates for elucidating the potential effects of a number of toxins, carcinogens and mutagens as well as of the addition of exogenous genetic material. The autogenic parent cells from which the cell lines are derived serve as convenient control samples for testing. The cell lines are not neoplastically transformed, although they have acquired several properties which distinguish them from their normal progenitors. 2 tabs.

  18. Derivation and characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived exocrine pancreatic cell line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The establishment and initial characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic cell line, PICM-31, and a colony-cloned derivative cell line, PICM-31A, is described. The cell lines were propagated for several months at split ratios of 1:3 or 1:5 at each passage on STO feeder cells af...

  19. Feeder-cell-independent culture of the pig-embryonic-stem-cell-derived exocrine pancreatic cell line, PICM-31

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The adaptation to feeder-independent growth of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic cell line is described. The parental PICM-31 cell line, previously characterized as an exocrine pancreas cell line, was colony-cloned two times in succession resulting in the subclonal cell line, PICM-31A1. P...

  20. Peroxisomal abnormalities in the immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line.

    PubMed

    Klouwer, Femke C C; Koster, Janet; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Waterham, Hans R

    2017-04-01

    The immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line is increasingly used for studies related to liver metabolism, including hepatic glucose, lipid, lipoprotein and triglyceride metabolism, and the effect of therapeutic interventions. To determine whether the IHH cell line is a good model to investigate hepatic peroxisomal metabolism, we measured several peroxisomal parameters in IHH cells and, for comparison, HepG2 cells and primary skin fibroblasts. This revealed a marked plasmalogen deficiency and a deficient fatty acid α-oxidation in the IHH cells, due to a defect of PEX7, a cytosolic receptor protein required for peroxisomal import of a subset of peroxisomal proteins. These abnormalities have consequences for the lipid homeostasis of these cells and thus should be taken into account for the interpretation of data previously generated by using this cell line and when considering using this cell line for future research.

  1. Authentication of the R06E Fruit Bat Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Ingo; Munster, Vincent J.; Sandig, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Fruit bats and insectivorous bats are believed to provide a natural reservoir for a wide variety of infectious diseases. Several lines of evidence, including the successful isolation of infectious viruses, indicate that Marburg virus and Ravn virus have found a major reservoir in colonies of the Egyptian rousette (Rousettus aegyptiacus). To facilitate molecular studies on virus-reservoir host interactions and isolation of viruses from environmental samples, we established cell lines from primary cells of this animal. The cell lines were given to several laboratories until we realized that a contamination with Vero cells in one of the cultures had occurred. Here we describe a general diagnostic procedure for identification of cross-species contamination with the focus on Vero and Rousettus cell lines, and summarize newly discovered properties of the cell lines that may pertain to pathogen discovery. PMID:22754654

  2. Authentication of the R06E fruit bat cell line.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Ingo; Munster, Vincent J; Sandig, Volker

    2012-05-01

    Fruit bats and insectivorous bats are believed to provide a natural reservoir for a wide variety of infectious diseases. Several lines of evidence, including the successful isolation of infectious viruses, indicate that Marburg virus and Ravn virus have found a major reservoir in colonies of the Egyptian rousette (Rousettus aegyptiacus). To facilitate molecular studies on virus-reservoir host interactions and isolation of viruses from environmental samples, we established cell lines from primary cells of this animal. The cell lines were given to several laboratories until we realized that a contamination with Vero cells in one of the cultures had occurred. Here we describe a general diagnostic procedure for identification of cross-species contamination with the focus on Vero and Rousettus cell lines, and summarize newly discovered properties of the cell lines that may pertain to pathogen discovery.

  3. Human Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell Lines for Rhabdomyosarcoma Research: Utility and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Hinson, Ashley R. P.; Jones, Rosanne; Crose, Lisa E. S.; Belyea, Brian C.; Barr, Frederic G.; Linardic, Corinne M.

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence. Despite intergroup clinical trials conducted in Europe and North America, outcomes for high risk patients with this disease have not significantly improved in the last several decades, and survival of metastatic or relapsed disease remains extremely poor. Accrual into new clinical trials is slow and difficult, so in vitro cell-line research and in vivo xenograft models present an attractive alternative for preclinical research for this cancer type. Currently, 30 commonly used human RMS cell lines exist, with differing origins, karyotypes, histologies, and methods of validation. Selecting an appropriate cell line for RMS research has important implications for outcomes. There are also potential pitfalls in using certain cell lines including contamination with murine stromal cells, cross-contamination between cell lines, discordance between the cell line and its associated original tumor, imposter cell lines, and nomenclature errors that result in the circulation of two or more presumed unique cell lines that are actually from the same origin. These pitfalls can be avoided by testing for species-specific isoenzymes, microarray analysis, assays for subtype-specific fusion products, and short tandem repeat analysis. PMID:23882450

  4. Authentication of M14 melanoma cell line proves misidentification of MDA‐MB‐435 breast cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Korch, Christopher; Hall, Erin M.; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Ewing, Margaret; Faries, Mark; Varella‐Garcia, Marileila; Robinson, Steven; Storts, Douglas; Turner, Jacqueline A.; Wang, Ying; Burnett, Edward C.; Healy, Lyn; Kniss, Douglas; Neve, Richard M.; Nims, Raymond W.; Reid, Yvonne A.; Robinson, William A.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of analytical approaches have indicated that melanoma cell line UCLA‐SO‐M14 (M14) and breast carcinoma cell line MDA‐MB‐435 originate from a common donor. This indicates that at some point in the past, one of these cell lines became misidentified, meaning that it ceased to correspond to the reported donor and instead became falsely identified (through cross‐contamination or other means) as a cell line from a different donor. Initial studies concluded that MDA‐MB‐435 was the misidentified cell line and M14 was the authentic cell line, although contradictory evidence has been published, resulting in further confusion. To address this question, we obtained early samples of the melanoma cell line (M14), a lymphoblastoid cell line from the same donor (ML14), and donor serum preserved at the originator's institution. M14 samples were cryopreserved in December 1975, before MDA‐MB‐435 cells were established in culture. Through a series of molecular characterizations, including short tandem repeat (STR) profiling and cytogenetic analysis, we demonstrated that later samples of M14 and MDA‐MB‐435 correspond to samples of M14 frozen in 1975, to the lymphoblastoid cell line ML14, and to the melanoma donor's STR profile, sex and blood type. This work demonstrates conclusively that M14 is the authentic cell line and MDA‐MB‐435 is misidentified. With clear provenance information and authentication testing of early samples, it is possible to resolve debates regarding the origins of problematic cell lines that are widely used in cancer research. PMID:28940260

  5. Molecular characterization of immortalized normal and dysplastic oral cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Christopher T D; Towle, Rebecca; Saini, Rajan; Garnis, Cathie

    2015-05-01

    Cell lines have been developed for modeling cancer and cancer progression. The molecular background of these cell lines is often unknown to those using them to model disease behaviors. As molecular alterations are the ultimate drivers of cell phenotypes, having an understanding of the molecular make-up of these systems is critical for understanding the disease biology modeled. Six immortalized normal, one immortalized dysplasia, one self-immortalized dysplasia, and two primary normal cell lines derived from oral tissues were analyzed for DNA copy number changes and changes in both mRNA and miRNA expression using SMRT-v.2 genome-wide tiling comparative genomic hybridization arrays, Agilent Whole Genome 4x44k expression arrays, and Exiqon V2.M-RT-PCR microRNA Human panels. DNA copy number alterations were detected in both normal and dysplastic immortalized cell lines-as well as in the single non-immortalized dysplastic cell line. These lines were found to have changes in expression of genes related to cell cycle control as well as alterations in miRNAs that are deregulated in clinical oral squamous cell carcinoma tissues. Immortal lines-whether normal or dysplastic-had increased disruption in expression relative to primary lines. All data are available as a public resource. Molecular profiling experiments have identified DNA, mRNA, and miRNA alterations for a panel of normal and dysplastic oral tissue cell lines. These data are a valuable resource to those modeling diseases of the oral mucosa, and give insight into the selection of model cell lines and the interpretation of data from those lines. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. GREG cells, a dysferlin-deficient myogenic mouse cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Glen W.; Mekhedov, Elena; Blank, Paul S.

    2012-01-15

    The dysferlinopathies (e.g. LGMD2b, Myoshi myopathy) are progressive, adult-onset muscle wasting syndromes caused by mutations in the gene coding for dysferlin. Dysferlin is a large ({approx} 200 kDa) membrane-anchored protein, required for maintenance of plasmalemmal integrity in muscle fibers. To facilitate analysis of dysferlin function in muscle cells, we have established a dysferlin-deficient myogenic cell line (GREG cells) from the A/J mouse, a genetic model for dysferlinopathy. GREG cells have no detectable dysferlin expression, but proliferate normally in growth medium and fuse into functional myotubes in differentiation medium. GREG myotubes exhibit deficiencies in plasma membrane repair, as measured by lasermore » wounding in the presence of FM1-43 dye. Under the wounding conditions used, the majority ({approx} 66%) of GREG myotubes lack membrane repair capacity, while no membrane repair deficiency was observed in dysferlin-normal C2C12 myotubes, assayed under the same conditions. We discuss the possibility that the observed heterogeneity in membrane resealing represents genetic compensation for dysferlin deficiency.« less

  7. Trichloroethylene toxicity in a human hepatoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Thevenin, E.; McMillian, J.

    1994-12-31

    The experiments conducted in this study were designed to determine the usefullness of hepatocyte cultures and a human hepatoma cell line as model systems for assessing human susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma due to exposure to trichloroethylene. The results from these studies will then be analyzed to determine if human cell lines can be used to conduct future experiments of this nature.

  8. Pharmacogenomic agreement between two cancer cell line data sets.

    PubMed

    2015-12-03

    Large cancer cell line collections broadly capture the genomic diversity of human cancers and provide valuable insight into anti-cancer drug response. Here we show substantial agreement and biological consilience between drug sensitivity measurements and their associated genomic predictors from two publicly available large-scale pharmacogenomics resources: The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer databases.

  9. The transcriptional diversity of 25 Drosophila cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Cherbas, Lucy; Willingham, Aarron; Zhang, Dayu

    2010-12-22

    Drosophila melanogaster cell lines are important resources for cell biologists. In this article, we catalog the expression of exons, genes, and unannotated transcriptional signals for 25 lines. Unannotated transcription is substantial (typically 19% of euchromatic signal). Conservatively, we identify 1405 novel transcribed regions; 684 of these appear to be new exons of neighboring, often distant, genes. Sixty-four percent of genes are expressed detectably in at least one line, but only 21% are detected in all lines. Each cell line expresses, on average, 5885 genes, including a common set of 3109. Expression levels vary over several orders of magnitude. Major signalingmore » pathways are well represented: most differentiation pathways are ‘‘off’’ and survival/growth pathways ‘‘on.’’ Roughly 50% of the genes expressed by each line are not part of the common set, and these show considerable individuality. Thirty-one percent are expressed at a higher level in at least one cell line than in any single developmental stage, suggesting that each line is enriched for genes characteristic of small sets of cells. Most remarkable is that imaginal disc-derived lines can generally be assigned, on the basis of expression, to small territories within developing discs. These mappings reveal unexpected stability of even fine-grained spatial determination. No two cell lines show identical transcription factor expression. We conclude that each line has retained features of an individual founder cell superimposed on a common ‘‘cell line‘‘ gene expression pattern. We report the transcriptional profiles of 25 Drosophila melanogaster cell lines, principally by whole-genome tiling microarray analysis of total RNA, carried out as part of the modENCODE project. The data produced in this study add to our knowledge of the cell lines and of the Drosophila transcriptome in several ways. We summarize the expression of previously annotated genes in each of the 25 lines

  10. Comparison of steroid receptors from the androgen responsive DDT1 cell line and the nonresponsive HVP cell line.

    PubMed

    Norris, J S; Kohler, P O

    1978-01-01

    Two hamster cell lines have been isolated from androgen target tissue. The DDT1 cells derived from ductus deferens tissue exhibit a growth response to androgens, while the HVP cells derived from ventral prostate are androgen unresponsive. Both cell lines contain androgen receptors, that are similar when compared by kinetic methods, sedimentation velocity, chromatographic procedures or nuclear translocation ability. The forms of the high salt extracted nuclear receptors are indistinguishable chromatographically. Therefore, we postulate that the lesion preventing androgen induced growth in the HVP cell line is subseqent to nuclear translocation of the steroid receptor complex.

  11. Identification of a novel rhabdovirus in Spodoptera frugiperda cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hailun; Galvin, Teresa A; Glasner, Dustin R; Shaheduzzaman, Syed; Khan, Arifa S

    2014-06-01

    The Sf9 cell line, derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, is used as a cell substrate for biological products, and no viruses have been reported in this cell line after extensive testing. We used degenerate PCR assays and massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to identify a novel RNA virus belonging to the order Mononegavirales in Sf9 cells. Sequence analysis of the assembled virus genome showed the presence of five open reading frames (ORFs) corresponding to the genes for the N, P, M, G, and L proteins in other rhabdoviruses and an unknown ORF of 111 amino acids located between the G- and L-protein genes. BLAST searches indicated that the S. frugiperda rhabdovirus (Sf-rhabdovirus) was related in a limited region of the L-protein gene to Taastrup virus, a newly discovered member of the Mononegavirales from a leafhopper (Hemiptera), and also to plant rhabdoviruses, particularly in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences in the L-protein gene indicated that Sf-rhabdovirus is a novel virus that branched with Taastrup virus. Rhabdovirus morphology was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of filtered supernatant samples from Sf9 cells. Infectivity studies indicated potential transient infection by Sf-rhabdovirus in other insect cell lines, but there was no evidence of entry or virus replication in human cell lines. Sf-rhabdovirus sequences were also found in the Sf21 parental cell line of Sf9 cells but not in other insect cell lines, such as BT1-TN-5B1-4 (Tn5; High Five) cells and Schneider's Drosophila line 2 [D.Mel.(2); SL2] cells, indicating a species-specific infection. The results indicate that conventional methods may be complemented by state-of-the-art technologies with extensive bioinformatics analysis for identification of novel viruses. The Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cell line is used as a cell substrate for the development and manufacture of biological products. Extensive testing has not previously identified any viruses in this cell

  12. Identification of a Novel Rhabdovirus in Spodoptera frugiperda Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hailun; Galvin, Teresa A.; Glasner, Dustin R.; Shaheduzzaman, Syed

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Sf9 cell line, derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, is used as a cell substrate for biological products, and no viruses have been reported in this cell line after extensive testing. We used degenerate PCR assays and massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to identify a novel RNA virus belonging to the order Mononegavirales in Sf9 cells. Sequence analysis of the assembled virus genome showed the presence of five open reading frames (ORFs) corresponding to the genes for the N, P, M, G, and L proteins in other rhabdoviruses and an unknown ORF of 111 amino acids located between the G- and L-protein genes. BLAST searches indicated that the S. frugiperda rhabdovirus (Sf-rhabdovirus) was related in a limited region of the L-protein gene to Taastrup virus, a newly discovered member of the Mononegavirales from a leafhopper (Hemiptera), and also to plant rhabdoviruses, particularly in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences in the L-protein gene indicated that Sf-rhabdovirus is a novel virus that branched with Taastrup virus. Rhabdovirus morphology was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of filtered supernatant samples from Sf9 cells. Infectivity studies indicated potential transient infection by Sf-rhabdovirus in other insect cell lines, but there was no evidence of entry or virus replication in human cell lines. Sf-rhabdovirus sequences were also found in the Sf21 parental cell line of Sf9 cells but not in other insect cell lines, such as BT1-TN-5B1-4 (Tn5; High Five) cells and Schneider's Drosophila line 2 [D.Mel.(2); SL2] cells, indicating a species-specific infection. The results indicate that conventional methods may be complemented by state-of-the-art technologies with extensive bioinformatics analysis for identification of novel viruses. IMPORTANCE The Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cell line is used as a cell substrate for the development and manufacture of biological products. Extensive testing has not previously identified any

  13. Polymer encapsulated dopaminergic cell lines as "alternative neural grafts".

    PubMed

    Jaeger, C B; Greene, L A; Tresco, P A; Winn, S R; Aebischer, P

    1990-01-01

    Our preliminary findings (Jaeger et al., 1988; Aebischer et al., 1989; Tresco et al., 1989) and the studies in progress show that encapsulated dopaminergic cell lines survive enclosure within a semi-permeable membrane. The encapsulated cells remained viable for extended time periods when maintained in vitro. Moreover, encapsulated PC12 and T28 cells have the potential to survive following their implantation into the forebrain of rats. Cell lines are essentially "immortal" because they continue to divide indefinitely. This property allows perpetual "self-renewal" of a given cell population. However, the capacity of continuous uncontrolled cell division may also lead to tumor formation. This in fact is the case for unencapsulated PC12 cell implants placed into the brain of young Sprague Dawley rats (Jaeger, 1985). Cell line encapsulation has the potential to prevent tumor growth (Jaeger et al., 1988). Survival for 6 months in vitro suggests that encapsulation does not preclude long-term maintenance of an homogeneous cell line like PC12 cells. The presence of mitotic figures in the capsules further supports the likelihood of propagation and self renewal of the encapsulated population. Another significant property of cell lines is that they consist of a single, genetically homogeneous cell type. They do not require specific synaptic interactions for their survival. In the case of PC12 and T28 lines, the cells synthesize and release neurotransmitters. Our data show that PC12 and T28 cells continue to release dopamine spontaneously and to express specific transmitters and enzymes following encapsulation. Thus, cell lines such as these may constitute relatively simple "neural implants" exerting their function via humoral release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Recombinant protein production from stable mammalian cell lines and pools.

    PubMed

    Hacker, David L; Balasubramanian, Sowmya

    2016-06-01

    We highlight recent developments for the production of recombinant proteins from suspension-adapted mammalian cell lines. We discuss the generation of stable cell lines using transposons and lentivirus vectors (non-targeted transgene integration) and site-specific recombinases (targeted transgene integration). Each of these methods results in the generation of cell lines with protein yields that are generally superior to those achievable through classical plasmid transfection that depends on the integration of the transfected DNA by non-homologous DNA end-joining. This is the main reason why these techniques can also be used for the generation of stable cell pools, heterogenous populations of recombinant cells generated by gene delivery and genetic selection without resorting to single cell cloning. This allows the time line from gene transfer to protein production to be reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of three new serous epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Véronique; Zietarska, Magdalena; Portelance, Lise; Lafontaine, Julie; Madore, Jason; Puiffe, Marie-Line; Arcand, Suzanna L; Shen, Zhen; Hébert, Josée; Tonin, Patricia N; Provencher, Diane M; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background Cell lines constitute a powerful model to study cancer, and here we describe three new epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines derived from poorly differentiated serous solid tumors (TOV-1946, and TOV-2223G), as well as the matched ascites for one case (OV-1946). Methods In addition to growth parameters, the cell lines were characterized for anchorage independent growth, migration and invasion potential, ability to form spheroids and xenografts in SCID mice. Results While all cell lines were capable of anchorage independent growth, only the TOV-1946 and OV-1946 cell lines were able to form spheroid and produce tumors. Profiling of keratins, p53 and Her2 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses. Somatic TP53 mutations were found in all cell lines, with TOV-1946 and OV-1946 harboring the same mutation, and none harbored the commonly observed somatic mutations in BRAF, KRAS or germline BRCA1/2 mutations found to recur in the French Canadian population. Conventional cytogenetics and spectral karyotype (SKY) analyses revealed complex karyotypes often observed in ovarian disease. Conclusion This is the first report of the establishment of matched EOC cell lines derived from both solid tumor and ascites of the same patient. PMID:18507860

  16. Characterization of endogenous calcium responses in neuronal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J

    2010-03-15

    An increasing number of putative therapeutic targets have been identified in recent years for the treatment of neuronal pathophysiologies including pain, epilepsy, stroke and schizophrenia. Many of these targets signal through calcium (Ca(2+)), either by directly facilitating Ca(2+) influx through an ion channel, or through activation of G proteins that couple to intracellular Ca(2+) stores or voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Immortalized neuronal cell lines are widely used models to study neuropharmacology. However, systematic pharmacological characterization of the receptors and ion channels expressed in these cell lines is lacking. In this study, we systematically assessed endogenous Ca(2+) signaling in response to addition of agonists at potential therapeutic targets in a range of cell lines of neuronal origin (ND7/23, SH-SY5Y, 50B11, F11 and Neuro2A cells) as well as HEK293 cells, a cell line commonly used for over-expression of receptors and ion channels. This study revealed a remarkable diversity of endogenous Ca(2+) responses in these cell lines, with one or more cell lines responding to addition of trypsin, bradykinin, ATP, nicotine, acetylcholine, histamine and neurotensin. Subtype specificity of these responses was inferred from agonist potency and the effect of receptor subtype specific antagonist. Surprisingly, HEK293 and SH-SY5Y cells responded to the largest number of agonists with potential roles in neuronal signaling. These findings have implications for the heterologous expression of neuronal receptors and ion channels in these cell lines, and highlight the potential of neuron-derived cell lines for the study of a range of endogenously expressed receptors and ion channels that signal through Ca(2+). Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antiproliferative effect of isopentenylated coumarins on several cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Ogawa, K; Sugiura, M; Yano, M; Yoshizawa, Y; Ito, C; Furukawa, H

    2001-01-01

    33 coumarins, mainly the simple isopentenylated coumarins and derived pyrano- and furanocoumarins, were examined for their antiproliferative activity towards several cancer and normal human cell lines. The pyrano- and furanocoumarins showed strong activity against the cancer cell lines, whereas they had weak antiproliferative activity against the normal human cell lines. The decreasing rank order of potency was osthenone (10), clausarin (25), clausenidin (26), dentatin (24), nordentatin (23), imperatorin (29), seselin (27), xanthyletin (21), suberosin (17), phebalosin (8) and osthol (12). The structure-activity relationship established from the results revealed that the 1,1-dimethylallyl and isopentenyl groups have an important role for antiproliferative activity.

  18. Generation of stable PDX derived cell lines using conditional reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Borodovsky, Alexandra; McQuiston, Travis J; Stetson, Daniel; Ahmed, Ambar; Whitston, David; Zhang, Jingwen; Grondine, Michael; Lawson, Deborah; Challberg, Sharon S; Zinda, Michael; Pollok, Brian A; Dougherty, Brian A; D'Cruz, Celina M

    2017-12-06

    Efforts to develop effective cancer therapeutics have been hindered by a lack of clinically predictive preclinical models which recapitulate this complex disease. Patient derived xenograft (PDX) models have emerged as valuable tools for translational research but have several practical limitations including lack of sustained growth in vitro. In this study, we utilized Conditional Reprogramming (CR) cell technology- a novel cell culture system facilitating the generation of stable cultures from patient biopsies- to establish PDX-derived cell lines which maintain the characteristics of the parental PDX tumor. Human lung and ovarian PDX tumors were successfully propagated using CR technology to create stable explant cell lines (CR-PDX). These CR-PDX cell lines maintained parental driver mutations and allele frequency without clonal drift. Purified CR-PDX cell lines were amenable to high throughput chemosensitivity screening and in vitro genetic knockdown studies. Additionally, re-implanted CR-PDX cells proliferated to form tumors that retained the growth kinetics, histology, and drug responses of the parental PDX tumor. CR technology can be used to generate and expand stable cell lines from PDX tumors without compromising fundamental biological properties of the model. It offers the ability to expand PDX cells in vitro for subsequent 2D screening assays as well as for use in vivo to reduce variability, animal usage and study costs. The methods and data detailed here provide a platform to generate physiologically relevant and predictive preclinical models to enhance drug discovery efforts.

  19. Characteristics of cell lines established from human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, J G; Oie, H K; Sugarbaker, P H; Henslee, J G; Chen, T R; Johnson, B E; Gazdar, A

    1987-12-15

    We have characterized 14 human colorectal carcinoma cell lines established from primary and metastatic sites by us during the years 1982 to 1985. Five lines were established in fully defined ACL-4 medium and 9 in serum supplemented R10 medium. However, after establishment, cultures could be grown interchangeably in either medium. The lines grew as floating cell aggregates in ACL-4 medium, while most demonstrated substrate adherence in R10 medium. The lines had relatively long doubling times and low cloning efficiencies. Twelve were tumorigenic in athymic nude mice when injected s.c., and two grew i.p. as well. Based on culture, xenograft, and ultrastructural morphologies, the 14 lines could be subtyped as follows: 4 were well differentiated; 5 were moderately differentiated; 4 were poorly differentiated; and 1 was a mucinous carcinoma. Membrane associated antigens characteristic for gastrointestinal cells (carcinoembryonic antigen, CA 19-9, and TAG-72 antigens) were expressed by 50-71% of the lines. Lines expressing carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 19-9 actively secreted these antigens into the supernatant fluids while TAG-72 antigen was not secreted. Surprisingly, 5 of 7 of the original tumor samples tested and 13 of 14 cultured lines expressed L-dopa decarboxylase activity, which is a characteristic enzyme marker of neuroendocrine cells and tumors. In addition, one poorly differentiated cell line contained dense core granules, characteristic of endocrine secretion. Preliminary cytogenetic analyses indicated that 9 of 11 lines examined contained double minute chromosomes. In addition, 3 of the 9 lines with double minutes also had homogeneously staining regions. These findings indicate a high incidence of amplification of one or more as yet unidentified genes.

  20. Phenotypes and Karyotypes of Human Malignant Mesothelioma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Relan, Vandana; Morrison, Leanne; Parsonson, Kylie; Clarke, Belinda E.; Duhig, Edwina E.; Windsor, Morgan N.; Matar, Kevin S.; Naidoo, Rishendran; Passmore, Linda; McCaul, Elizabeth; Courtney, Deborah; Yang, Ian A.; Fong, Kwun M.; Bowman, Rayleen V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumour of serosal surfaces most commonly pleura. Characterised cell lines represent a valuable tool to study the biology of mesothelioma. The aim of this study was to develop and biologically characterise six malignant mesothelioma cell lines to evaluate their potential as models of human malignant mesothelioma. Methods Five lines were initiated from pleural biopsies, and one from pleural effusion of patients with histologically proven malignant mesothelioma. Mesothelial origin was assessed by standard morphology, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and immunocytochemistry. Growth characteristics were assayed using population doubling times. Spectral karyotyping was performed to assess chromosomal abnormalities. Authentication of donor specific derivation was undertaken by DNA fingerprinting using a panel of SNPs. Results Most of cell lines exhibited spindle cell shape, with some retaining stellate shapes. At passage 2 to 6 all lines stained positively for calretinin and cytokeratin 19, and demonstrated capacity for anchorage-independent growth. At passage 4 to 16, doubling times ranged from 30–72 hours, and on spectral karyotyping all lines exhibited numerical chromosomal abnormalities ranging from 41 to 113. Monosomy of chromosomes 8, 14, 22 or 17 was observed in three lines. One line displayed four different karyotypes at passage 8, but only one karyotype at passage 42, and another displayed polyploidy at passage 40 which was not present at early passages. At passages 5–17, TEM showed characteristic features of mesothelioma ultrastructure in all lines including microvilli and tight intercellular junctions. Conclusion These six cell lines exhibit varying cell morphology, a range of doubling times, and show diverse passage-dependent structural chromosomal changes observed in malignant tumours. However they retain characteristic immunocytochemical protein expression profiles of mesothelioma during

  1. Ontological representation, integration, and analysis of LINCS cell line cells and their cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Ong, Edison; Xie, Jiangan; Ni, Zhaohui; Liu, Qingping; Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Lin, Yu; Cooper, Daniel; Terryn, Raymond; Stathias, Vasileios; Chung, Caty; Schürer, Stephan; He, Yongqun

    2017-12-21

    Aiming to understand cellular responses to different perturbations, the NIH Common Fund Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) program involves many institutes and laboratories working on over a thousand cell lines. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is selected as the default ontology for LINCS cell line representation and integration. CLO has consistently represented all 1097 LINCS cell lines and included information extracted from the LINCS Data Portal and ChEMBL. Using MCF 10A cell line cells as an example, we demonstrated how to ontologically model LINCS cellular signatures such as their non-tumorigenic epithelial cell type, three-dimensional growth, latrunculin-A-induced actin depolymerization and apoptosis, and cell line transfection. A CLO subset view of LINCS cell lines, named LINCS-CLOview, was generated to support systematic LINCS cell line analysis and queries. In summary, LINCS cell lines are currently associated with 43 cell types, 131 tissues and organs, and 121 cancer types. The LINCS-CLO view information can be queried using SPARQL scripts. CLO was used to support ontological representation, integration, and analysis of over a thousand LINCS cell line cells and their cellular responses.

  2. Establishment of cell lines from adult T-cell leukemia cells dependent on negatively charged polymers.

    PubMed

    Kagami, Yoshitoyo; Uchiyama, Susumu; Kato, Harumi; Okada, Yasutaka; Seto, Masao; Kinoshita, Tomohiro

    2017-07-05

    Growing adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells in vitro is difficult. Here, we examined the effects of static electricity in the culture medium on the proliferation of ATLL cells. Six out of 10 ATLL cells did not proliferate in vitro and thus had to be cultured in a medium containing negatively charged polymers. In the presence of poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) or chondroitin sulfate (CDR), cell lines (HKOX3-PGA, HKOX3-CDR) were established from the same single ATLL case using interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and feeder cells expressing OX40L (OX40L + HK). Dextran sulfate inhibited growth in both HKOX3 cell lines. Both PGA and OX40L + HK were indispensable for HKOX3-PGA growth, but HKOX3-CDR could proliferate in the presence of CDR or OX40L + HK alone. Thus, the specific action of each negatively charged polymer promoted the growth of specific ATLL cells in vitro.

  3. Reliable in vitro studies require appropriate ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in women and the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancies. Of the 75% women diagnosed with locally advanced or disseminated disease, only 30% will survive five years following treatment. This poor prognosis is due to the following reasons: limited understanding of the tumor origin, unclear initiating events and early developmental stages of ovarian cancer, lack of reliable ovarian cancer-specific biomarkers, and drug resistance in advanced cases. In the past, in vitro studies using cell line models have been an invaluable tool for basic, discovery-driven cancer research. However, numerous issues including misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines have hindered research efforts. In this study we examined all ovarian cancer cell lines available from cell banks. Hereby, we identified inconsistencies in the reporting, difficulties in the identification of cell origin or clinical data of the donor patients, restricted ethnic and histological type representation, and a lack of tubal and peritoneal cancer cell lines. We recommend that all cell lines should be distributed via official cell banks only with strict guidelines regarding the minimal available information required to improve the quality of ovarian cancer research in future. PMID:24936210

  4. Phytochelatin accumulation and cadmium tolerance in selected tomato cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S C; Goldsbrough, P B

    1991-09-01

    Four cell lines of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv VFNT-Cherry, were selected for their ability to grow in the presence of up to 6 millimolar CdCl(2). The intracellular Cd concentration in these cells was at least 2.3 times higher than in the medium. Growth in media containing higher concentrations of Cd was accompanied by increased production of Cd-binding phytochelatins and a trend toward accumulation of higher molecular weight phytochelatins. At least 90% of the Cd in the most tolerant cells was associated with Cd-phytochelatin complexes. Cell lines maintained an increased tolerance of Cd in the absence of continuous selection pressure.

  5. Cytotoxic effects of treosulfan on prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Feyerabend, Susan; Feil, Gerhard; Krug, Jutta; Kassen, Annette; Stenzl, Arnulf

    2007-01-01

    Despite various therapeutical options in metastatic prostate cancer, the lack of a curative approach motivates further investigations. Treosulfan is an alkylating agent that has proven its indication in the treatment of e.g. ovarian carcinoma. This study focused on the objective of evaluating the effect of in vitro intoxication of human prostate carcinoma cell lines with treosulfan. Human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, DU145 and PC3 were treated with treosulfan concentrations from 0.5-500 microM for up to six days. Analysis of cell viability was performed using colorimetric WST-1 assay. Control data were obtained from identical cell lines cultivated without treosulfan. Incubation with treosulfan inhibited cell viability and led to cell death in all cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After one day, viability of LNCaP, DU145 and PC3 cells was constantly reduced with a dose rate of at least 10 microM (p < 0.001), 10 microM (p < 0.0001) and 100 microM (p < 0.0001) treosulfan, respectively. Minimum dose rates leading to death of nearly all LNCaP, DU145 and PC3 cells were 250 microM, 100 microM and 200 microM treosulfan, respectively. The results demonstrate a sensitivity of prostate carcinoma cells to the cytotoxic activity of treosulfan. Therefore, treosulfan might be a promising compound for novel treatment protocols for prostate cancer.

  6. Picking Cell Lines for High-Throughput Transcriptomic Toxicity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    High throughput, whole genome transcriptomic profiling is a promising approach to comprehensively evaluate chemicals for potential biological effects. To be useful for in vitro toxicity screening, gene expression must be quantified in a set of representative cell types that captures the diversity of potential responses across chemicals. The ideal dataset to select these cell types would consist of hundreds of cell types treated with thousands of chemicals, but does not yet exist. However, basal gene expression data may be useful as a surrogate for representing the relevant biological space necessary for cell type selection. The goal of this study was to identify a small (< 20) number of cell types that capture a large, quantifiable fraction of basal gene expression diversity. Three publicly available collections of Affymetrix U133+2.0 cellular gene expression data were used: 1) 59 cell lines from the NCI60 set; 2) 303 primary cell types from the Mabbott et al (2013) expression atlas; and 3) 1036 cell lines from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. The data were RMA normalized, log-transformed, and the probe sets mapped to HUGO gene identifiers. The results showed that <20 cell lines capture only a small fraction of the total diversity in basal gene expression when evaluated using either the entire set of 20960 HUGO genes or a subset of druggable genes likely to be chemical targets. The fraction of the total gene expression variation explained was consistent when

  7. Establishment and characterization of a novel osteosarcoma cell line: CHOS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunlu; Feng, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yukun; Jiang, Hongyan; Cai, Xianyi; Yan, Xinxin; Huang, Zengfa; Mo, Fengbo; Yang, Wen; Yang, Cao; Yang, Shuhua; Liu, Xianzhe

    2016-12-01

    Osteosarcoma has a well-recognized bimodal distribution, with the first peak in adolescence and another in the elderly age-group. The elderly patients have different clinical features and a poorer prognosis as compared to adolescents. To better understand the biological features of osteosarcoma in the elderly population, we established a new human osteosarcoma cell line from a 58-year-old man with primary chondroblastic osteosarcoma. After 6 months of continuous culture in vitro for over 50 passages, an immortalized cell line CHOS was established. The cell line was well-characterized by cytogenetic, biomarker, functional, and histological analyses. The CHOS cells exhibited a spindle-shaped morphology and a doubling time of 36 h. Cytogenetic analysis of CHOS cells revealed the loss of chromosome Y and the gain of chromosome 12. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and/or immunofluorescence revealed the expression of chondroblastic, mesenchymal and tumor metastasis markers in the CHOS cells. Compared with the osteosarcoma cell line, the CHOS cells were found to be more sensitive to cisplatin and doxorubicin, but were resistant to methotrexate. The cell line was highly tumorigenic and maintained the histological characteristics and invasive nature of the original tumor. Furthermore, on immunohistochemical analysis, the xenografts and metastases were found to co-express collagen II, aggrecan, vimentin and S100A4 that resembled the original tumor cells. Our results indicate, the potential of CHOS cell line to serve as a useful tool for further studies on the molecular biology of osteosarcoma, especially in the elderly patients. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2116-2125, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Drug/Cell-line Browser: interactive canvas visualization of cancer drug/cell-line viability assay datasets.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qiaonan; Wang, Zichen; Fernandez, Nicolas F; Rouillard, Andrew D; Tan, Christopher M; Benes, Cyril H; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2014-11-15

    Recently, several high profile studies collected cell viability data from panels of cancer cell lines treated with many drugs applied at different concentrations. Such drug sensitivity data for cancer cell lines provide suggestive treatments for different types and subtypes of cancer. Visualization of these datasets can reveal patterns that may not be obvious by examining the data without such efforts. Here we introduce Drug/Cell-line Browser (DCB), an online interactive HTML5 data visualization tool for interacting with three of the recently published datasets of cancer cell lines/drug-viability studies. DCB uses clustering and canvas visualization of the drugs and the cell lines, as well as a bar graph that summarizes drug effectiveness for the tissue of origin or the cancer subtypes for single or multiple drugs. DCB can help in understanding drug response patterns and prioritizing drug/cancer cell line interactions by tissue of origin or cancer subtype. DCB is an open source Web-based tool that is freely available at: http://www.maayanlab.net/LINCS/DCB CONTACT: avi.maayan@mssm.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Three-dimensional cultured glioma cell lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Marley, Garry M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Three-dimensional glioma spheroids were produced in vitro with size and histological differentiation previously unattained. The spheroids were grown in liquid media suspension in a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Rotating Wall Bioreactor without using support matrices such as microcarrier beads. Spheroid volumes of greater than 3.5 cu mm and diameters of 2.5 mm were achieved with a viable external layer or rim of proliferating cells, a transitional layer beneath the external layer with histological differentiation, and a degenerative central region with a hypoxic necrotic core. Cell debris was evident in the degenerative central region. The necrotics centers of some of the spheroids had hyaline droplets. Granular bodies were detected predominantly in the necrotic center.

  10. Cell Line Modeling to Study Biomarker Panel in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    NickKholgh, Bita; Fang, Xiaolan; Winters, Shira M.; Raina, Anvi; Pandya, Komal S.; Gyabaah, Kenneth; Fino, Nora; Balaji, K.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND African–American men with prostate cancer (PCa) present with higher-grade and -stage tumors compared to Caucasians. While the disparity may result from multiple factors, a biological basis is often strongly suspected. Currently, few well-characterized experimental model systems are available to study the biological basis of racial disparity in PCa. We report a validated in vitro cell line model system that could be used for the purpose. METHODS We assembled a PCa cell line model that included currently available African–American PCa cell lines and LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and C4-2 (castration-resistant) Caucasian PCa cells. The utility of the cell lines in studying the biological basis of variance in a malignant phenotype was explored using a multiplex biomarker panel consisting of proteins that have been proven to play a role in the progression of PCa. The panel expression was evaluated by Western blot and RT-PCR in cell lines and validated in human PCa tissues by RT-PCR. As proof-of-principle to demonstrate the utility of our model in functional studies, we performed MTS viability assays and molecular studies. RESULTS The dysregulation of the multiplex biomarker panel in primary African–American cell line (E006AA) was similar to metastatic Caucasian cell lines, which would suggest that the cell line model could be used to study an inherent aggressive phenotype in African–American men with PCa. We had previously demonstrated that Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is a novel kinase that is down regulated in advanced prostate cancer. We established the functional relevance by over expressing PKD1, which resulted in decreased proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in PCa cells. Moreover, we established the feasibility of studying the expression of the multiplex biomarker panel in archived human PCa tissue from African–Americans and Caucasians as a prelude to future translational studies. CONCLUSION We have characterized a novel in

  11. MOLECULAR AND CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF LUNG TUMOR CELL LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have measured the levels of amplification of oncogenes and tumor marker genes or other genes of interest in nine human lung tumor cell lines in comparison to normal human bronchial epithelial cells or normal blood lymphocytes to test the hypothesis that aberrant amplification ...

  12. Guidelines for the use of cell lines in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, R J; Capes-Davis, A; Davis, J M; Downward, J; Freshney, R I; Knezevic, I; Lovell-Badge, R; Masters, J R W; Meredith, J; Stacey, G N; Thraves, P; Vias, M

    2014-01-01

    Cell-line misidentification and contamination with microorganisms, such as mycoplasma, together with instability, both genetic and phenotypic, are among the problems that continue to affect cell culture. Many of these problems are avoidable with the necessary foresight, and these Guidelines have been prepared to provide those new to the field and others engaged in teaching and instruction with the information necessary to increase their awareness of the problems and to enable them to deal with them effectively. The Guidelines cover areas such as development, acquisition, authentication, cryopreservation, transfer of cell lines between laboratories, microbial contamination, characterisation, instability and misidentification. Advice is also given on complying with current legal and ethical requirements when deriving cell lines from human and animal tissues, the selection and maintenance of equipment and how to deal with problems that may arise. PMID:25117809

  13. Guidelines for the use of cell lines in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, R J; Capes-Davis, A; Davis, J M; Downward, J; Freshney, R I; Knezevic, I; Lovell-Badge, R; Masters, J R W; Meredith, J; Stacey, G N; Thraves, P; Vias, M

    2014-09-09

    Cell-line misidentification and contamination with microorganisms, such as mycoplasma, together with instability, both genetic and phenotypic, are among the problems that continue to affect cell culture. Many of these problems are avoidable with the necessary foresight, and these Guidelines have been prepared to provide those new to the field and others engaged in teaching and instruction with the information necessary to increase their awareness of the problems and to enable them to deal with them effectively. The Guidelines cover areas such as development, acquisition, authentication, cryopreservation, transfer of cell lines between laboratories, microbial contamination, characterisation, instability and misidentification. Advice is also given on complying with current legal and ethical requirements when deriving cell lines from human and animal tissues, the selection and maintenance of equipment and how to deal with problems that may arise.

  14. Characterization of newly established bovine intestinal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Hondo, Tetsuya; Kanaya, Takashi; Tanaka, Sachi; Takakura, Ikuro; Itani, Wataru; Rose, Michael T; Kitazawa, Haruki; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Aso, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    Membranous epithelial cells (M cells) of the follicle-associated epithelium in Peyer's patches have a high capacity for transcytosis of several viruses and microorganisms. Here, we report that we have successfully established a bovine intestinal epithelial cell line (BIE cells) and developed an in vitro M cell model. BIE cells have a cobblestone morphology and microvilli-like structures, and strongly express cell-to-cell junctional proteins and cytokeratin, which is a specific intermediate filament protein of epithelial cells. After co-culture with murine intestinal lymphocytes or treatment with supernatant from bovine PBMC cultured with IL-2, BIE cells acquired the ability of transcytosis. Therefore, BIE cells have typical characteristics of bovine intestinal epithelial cells and also have the ability to differentiate into an M cell like linage. In addition, our results indicate that contact between immune cells and epithelial cells may not be absolutely required for the differentiation of M cells. We think that BIE cells will be useful for studying the transport mechanisms of various pathogens and also the evaluation of drug delivery via M cells.

  15. Establishment, Immortalisation and Characterisation of Pteropid Bat Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Crameri, Gary; Todd, Shawn; Grimley, Samantha; McEachern, Jennifer A.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Smith, Craig; Tachedjian, Mary; De Jong, Carol; Virtue, Elena R.; Yu, Meng; Bulach, Dieter; Liu, Jun-Ping; Michalski, Wojtek P.; Middleton, Deborah; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2009-01-01

    Background Bats are the suspected natural reservoir hosts for a number of new and emerging zoonotic viruses including Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus. Since the discovery of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese horseshoe bats, attempts to isolate a SL-CoV from bats have failed and attempts to isolate other bat-borne viruses in various mammalian cell lines have been similarly unsuccessful. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help with these investigations and as tools to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions. Methodology/Findings Black flying foxes (Pteropus alecto) were captured from the wild and transported live to the laboratory for primary cell culture preparation using a variety of different methods and culture media. Primary cells were successfully cultured from 20 different organs. Cell immortalisation can occur spontaneously, however we used a retroviral system to immortalise cells via the transfer and stable production of the Simian virus 40 Large T antigen and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Initial infection experiments with both cloned and uncloned cell lines using Hendra and Nipah viruses demonstrated varying degrees of infection efficiency between the different cell lines, although it was possible to infect cells in all tissue types. Conclusions/Significance The approaches developed and optimised in this study should be applicable to bats of other species. We are in the process of generating further cell lines from a number of different bat species using the methodology established in this study. PMID:20011515

  16. Sensory hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Lush, Mark E; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-10-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling, and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. SENSORY HAIR CELL REGENERATION IN THE ZEBRAFISH LATERAL LINE

    PubMed Central

    Lush, Mark E.; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. PMID:25045019

  18. Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1989-06-01

    The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

  19. Casein gene expression in mouse mammary epithelial cell lines: Dependence upon extracellular matrix and cell type

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, D.; Oborn, C.J.; Li, M.L.

    1987-09-01

    The COMMA-D mammary cell line exhibits mammary-specific functional differentiation under appropriate conditions in cell culture. The cytologically heterogeneous COMMA-D parental line and the clonal lines DB-1, TA-5, and FA-1 derived from the COMMA-D parent were examined for similar properties of functional differentiation. In monolayer cell culture, the cell lines DB-1, TA-5, FA-1, and MA-4 were examined for expression of mammary-specific and epithelial-specific proteins by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The clonal cell lines were relatively homogeneous in their respective staining properties and seemed to represent three subpopulations found in the heterogeneous parental COMMA-D lines. None of the four clonal lines appearedmore » to represent myoepithelial cells. The cell lines were examined for expression of {beta}-casein mRNA in the presence or absence of prolactin. The inducibility of {beta}-casein in the COMMA-D cell line was further enhanced by a reconstituted basement membrane preparation enriched in laminin, collagen IV, and proteoglycans. These results support the hypothesis that the functional response of inducible mammary cell populations is a result of interaction among hormones, multiple extracellular matrix components, and specific cell types.« less

  20. Effects of curcumin on stem-like cells in human esophageal squamous carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Almanaa, Taghreed N; Geusz, Michael E; Jamasbi, Roudabeh J

    2012-10-24

    Many cancers contain cell subpopulations that display characteristics of stem cells. Because these cancer stem cells (CSCs) appear to provide resistance to chemo-radiation therapy, development of therapeutic agents that target CSCs is essential. Curcumin is a phytochemical agent that is currently used in clinical trials to test its effectiveness against cancer. However, the effect of curcumin on CSCs is not well established. The current study evaluated curcumin-induced cell death in six cancer cell lines derived from human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Moreover, these cell lines and the ones established from cells that survived curcumin treatments were characterized. Cell loss was assayed after TE-1, TE-8, KY-5, KY-10, YES-1, and YES-2 cells were exposed to 20-80 μM curcumin for 30 hrs. Cell lines surviving 40 or 60 μM curcumin were established from these six original lines. The stem cell markers aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1A1) and CD44 as well as NF-κB were used to compare CSC-like subpopulations within and among the original lines as well as the curcumin-surviving lines. YES-2 was tested for tumorsphere-forming capabilities. Finally, the surviving lines were treated with 40 and 60 μM curcumin to determine whether their sensitivity was different from the original lines. The cell loss after curcumin treatment increased in a dose-dependent manner in all cell lines. The percentage of cells remaining after 60 μM curcumin treatment varied from 10.9% to 36.3% across the six lines. The cell lines were heterogeneous with respect to ALDH1A1, NF-κB and CD44 expression. KY-5 and YES-1 were the least sensitive and had the highest number of stem-like cells whereas TE-1 had the lowest. The curcumin-surviving lines showed a significant loss in the high staining ALDH1A1 and CD44 cell populations. Tumorspheres formed from YES-2 but were small and rare in the YES-2 surviving line. The curcumin-surviving lines showed a small but significant decrease in sensitivity

  1. Distinct metabolic responses of an ovarian cancer stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Kathleen A; Wang, Lijuan; McDonald, John F; Styczynski, Mark P

    2014-12-18

    Cancer metabolism is emerging as an important focus area in cancer research. However, the in vitro cell culture conditions under which much cellular metabolism research is performed differ drastically from in vivo tumor conditions, which are characterized by variations in the levels of oxygen, nutrients like glucose, and other molecules like chemotherapeutics. Moreover, it is important to know how the diverse cell types in a tumor, including cancer stem cells that are believed to be a major cause of cancer recurrence, respond to these variations. Here, in vitro environmental perturbations designed to mimic different aspects of the in vivo environment were used to characterize how an ovarian cancer cell line and its derived, isogenic cancer stem cells metabolically respond to environmental cues. Mass spectrometry was used to profile metabolite levels in response to in vitro environmental perturbations. Docetaxel, the chemotherapeutic used for this experiment, caused significant metabolic changes in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism in ovarian cancer cells, but had virtually no metabolic effect on isogenic ovarian cancer stem cells. Glucose deprivation, hypoxia, and the combination thereof altered ovarian cancer cell and cancer stem cell metabolism to varying extents for the two cell types. Hypoxia had a much larger effect on ovarian cancer cell metabolism, while glucose deprivation had a greater effect on ovarian cancer stem cell metabolism. Core metabolites and pathways affected by these perturbations were identified, along with pathways that were unique to cell types or perturbations. The metabolic responses of an ovarian cancer cell line and its derived isogenic cancer stem cells differ greatly under most conditions, suggesting that these two cell types may behave quite differently in an in vivo tumor microenvironment. While cancer metabolism and cancer stem cells are each promising potential therapeutic targets, such varied behaviors in vivo would need to

  2. Antiproliferative activity of flavonoids on several cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    1999-05-01

    Twenty-seven Citrus flavonoids were examined for their antiproliferative activities against several tumor and normal human cell lines. As a result, 7 flavonoids were judged to be active against the tumor cell lines, while they had weak antiproliferative activity against the normal human cell lines. The rank order of potency was luteolin, natsudaidain, quercetin, tangeretin, eriodictyol, nobiletin, and 3,3',4',5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone. The structure-activity relationship established from comparison among these flavones and flavanones showed that the ortho-catechol moiety in ring B and a C2-C3 double bond were important for the antiproliferative activity. As to polymethoxylated flavones, C-3 hydroxyl and C-8 methoxyl groups were essential for high activity.

  3. Generation and Characterization of JCV Permissive Hybrid Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sariyer, Ilker K.; Safak, Mahmut; Gordon, Jennifer; Khalili, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a human neurotropic polyomavirus whose replication in the central nervous system induces the fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCV particles have been detected primarily in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes of the brains of patients with PML and in the laboratory its propagation is limited to primary cultures of human fetal glial cells. In this short communication, the development of a new cell culture system is described through the fusion of primary human fetal astrocytes with the human glioblastoma cell line, U-87MG. The new hybrid cell line obtained from this fusion has the capacity to support efficiently expression of JCV and replication of viral DNA in vitro up to 16 passages. This cell line can serve as a reliable culture system to study the biology of JCV host cell interaction, determine the mechanisms involved in cell type specific replication of JCV, and provide a convenient cell culture system for high throughput screening of anti-viral agents. PMID:19442856

  4. Graphene Oxide Nanoribbons Induce Autophagic Vacuoles in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Emanuela; Mardente, Stefania; Morgante, Emanuela; Tafani, Marco; Lococo, Emanuela; Fico, Flavia; Valentini, Federica; Zicari, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Since graphene nanoparticles are attracting increasing interest in relation to medical applications, it is important to understand their potential effects on humans. In the present study, we prepared graphene oxide (GO) nanoribbons by oxidative unzipping of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and analyzed their toxicity in two human neuroblastoma cell lines. Neuroblastoma is the most common solid neoplasia in children. The hallmark of these tumors is the high number of different clinical variables, ranging from highly metastatic, rapid progression and resistance to therapy to spontaneous regression or change into benign ganglioneuromas. Patients with neuroblastoma are grouped into different risk groups that are characterized by different prognosis and different clinical behavior. Relapse and mortality in high risk patients is very high in spite of new advances in chemotherapy. Cell lines, obtained from neuroblastomas have different genotypic and phenotypic features. The cell lines SK-N-BE(2) and SH-SY5Y have different genetic mutations and tumorigenicity. Cells were exposed to low doses of GO for different times in order to investigate whether GO was a good vehicle for biological molecules delivering individualized therapy. Cytotoxicity in both cell lines was studied by measuring cellular oxidative stress (ROS), mitochondria membrane potential, expression of lysosomial proteins and cell growth. GO uptake and cytoplasmic distribution of particles were studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for up to 72 h. The results show that GO at low concentrations increased ROS production and induced autophagy in both neuroblastoma cell lines within a few hours of exposure, events that, however, are not followed by growth arrest or death. For this reason, we suggest that the GO nanoparticle can be used for therapeutic delivery to the brain tissue with minimal effects on healthy cells. PMID:27916824

  5. Anticancer effects of resveratrol in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Carlson, A; Alderete, K S; Grant, M K O; Seelig, D M; Sharkey, L C; Zordoky, B N M

    2018-06-01

    Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a highly malignant tumour with aggressive biological behaviour. HSAs are more common in dogs than other domestic animals. The median survival time of dogs with HSA remains short, even with chemotherapy and surgery. Therefore, there is a critical need to improve the adjuvant chemotherapeutic regimens to improve clinical outcomes in dogs with HSA. Resveratrol has been shown to possess strong anti-proliferative and/or pro-apoptotic properties in human cancer cell lines. Nevertheless, the potential anticancer effects of resveratrol have not been reported in canine HSAs. The objective of this study is to determine the growth inhibitory effects of resveratrol in HSA cells when used alone or in combination with doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. Frog and DD-1 canine HSA cell lines were treated with varying concentrations of resveratrol with and without doxorubicin. Cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. The expression of apoptotic proteins, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were assessed by western blotting. Similar to human cancer cell lines, resveratrol markedly inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in both HSA cell lines. Mechanistically, resveratrol activated p38 MAPK, but did not affect the AMPK or the ERK1/2 pathways. Additional experiments showed that resveratrol augmented the growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effects of doxorubicin in both HSA cell lines. These findings suggest that resveratrol has pro-apoptotic effects in canine HSA cells; therefore, its use as a potential adjunct therapy in canine HSA patients warrants further investigation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Isolation of Oct4-Expressing Extraembryonic Endoderm Precursor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Debeb, Bisrat G.; Galat, Vasiliy; Epple-Farmer, Jessica; Iannaccone, Steve; Woodward, Wendy A.; Bader, Michael; Iannaccone, Philip; Binas, Bert

    2009-01-01

    Background The extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn) defines the yolk sac, a set of membranes that provide essential support for mammalian embryos. Recent findings suggest that the committed ExEn precursor is present already in the embryonic Inner Cell Mass (ICM) as a group of cells that intermingles with the closely related epiblast precursor. All ICM cells contain Oct4, a key transcription factor that is first expressed at the morula stage. In vitro, the epiblast precursor is most closely represented by the well-characterized embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that maintain the expression of Oct4, but analogous ExEn precursor cell lines are not known and it is unclear if they would express Oct4. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the isolation and characterization of permanently proliferating Oct4-expressing rat cell lines (“XEN-P cell lines”), which closely resemble the ExEn precursor. We isolated the XEN-P cell lines from blastocysts and characterized them by plating and gene expression assays as well as by injection into embryos. Like ES cells, the XEN-P cells express Oct4 and SSEA1 at high levels and their growth is stimulated by leukemia inhibitory factor, but instead of the epiblast determinant Nanog, they express the ExEn determinants Gata6 and Gata4. Further, they lack markers characteristic of the more differentiated primitive/visceral and parietal ExEn stages, but exclusively differentiate into these stages in vitro and contribute to them in vivo. Conclusions/Significance Our findings (i) suggest strongly that the ExEn precursor is a self-renewable entity, (ii) indicate that active Oct4 gene expression (transcription plus translation) is part of its molecular identity, and (iii) provide an in vitro model of early ExEn differentiation. PMID:19784378

  7. Epigenetic repression of HOXB cluster in oral cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Destro, Maria Fernanda de Souza Setubal; Duarte, Carina Magalhães Esteves; Nunes, Fabio Daumas

    2014-08-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a fundamental transcriptional control mechanism in carcinogenesis. The expression of homeobox genes is usually controlled by an epigenetic mechanism, such as the methylation of CpG islands in the promoter region. The aim of this study was to describe the differential methylation pattern of HOX genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and transcript status in a group of hypermethylated and hypomethylated genes. Quantitative analysis of DNA methylation was performed on two OSCC cell lines (SCC4 and SCC9) using a method denominated Human Homeobox Genes EpiTect Methyl qPCR Arrays, which allowed fast, precise methylation detection of 24 HOX specific genes without bisulfite conversion. Methylation greater than 50% was detected in HOXA11, HOXA6, HOXA7, HOXA9, HOXB1, HOXB2, HOXB3, HOXB4, HOXB5, HOXB6, HOXC8 and HOXD10. Both cell lines demonstrated similar hypermethylation status for eight HOX genes. A similar pattern of promoter hypermethylation and hypomethylation was demonstrated for the HOXB cluster and HOXA cluster, respectively. Moreover, the hypermethylation profile of the HOXB cluster, especially HOXB4, was correlated with decreased transcript expression, which was restored following treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. The homeobox methylation profile in OSCC cell lines is consistent with an epigenetic biomarker. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mouse DRG Cell Line with Properties of Nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Doran, Ciara; Chetrit, Jonathan; Holley, Matthew C; Grundy, David; Nassar, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cell lines from DRG neurons aid drug discovery because they can be used for early stage, high-throughput screens for drugs targeting pain pathways, with minimal dependence on animals. We have established a conditionally immortal DRG cell line from the Immortomouse. Using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and calcium microfluorimetry, we demonstrate that the cell line MED17.11 expresses markers of cells committed to the sensory neuron lineage. Within a few hours under differentiating conditions, MED17.11 cells extend processes and following seven days of differentiation, express markers of more mature DRG neurons, such as NaV1.7 and Piezo2. However, at least at this time-point, the nociceptive marker NaV1.8 is not expressed, but the cells respond to compounds known to excite nociceptors, including the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, the purinergic receptor agonist ATP and the voltage gated sodium channel agonist, veratridine. Robust calcium transients are observed in the presence of the inflammatory mediators bradykinin, histamine and norepinephrine. MED17.11 cells have the potential to replace or reduce the use of primary DRG culture in sensory, pain and developmental research by providing a simple model to study acute nociception, neurite outgrowth and the developmental specification of DRG neurons.

  9. The antiproliferative effect of coumarins on several cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Ogawa, K; Sugiura, M; Yano, M; Yoshizawa, Y

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-one coumarins were examined for their antiproliferative activity towards several cancer cell lines, namely lung carcinoma (A549), melanin pigment producing mouse melanoma (B16 melanoma 4A5), human T-cell leukemia (CCRF-HSB-2), and human gastric cancer, lymph node metastasized (TGBC11TKB). The structure-activity relationship established from the results revealed that the 6,7-dihydroxy moiety had an important role for their antiproliferative activity. Analysis of cell cycle distribution indicated that esculetin-treated cells accumulated in the G1 (at 400 microM) or in S phase (at 100 microM).

  10. Selection of Phage Display Peptides Targeting Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Progenitor Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Bignone, Paola A; Krupa, Rachel A; West, Michael D; Larocca, David

    2016-01-01

    The ability of human pluripotent stem cells (hPS) to both self-renew and differentiate into virtually any cell type makes them a promising source of cells for cell-based regenerative therapies. However, stem cell identity, purity, and scalability remain formidable challenges that need to be overcome for translation of pluripotent stem cell research into clinical applications. Directed differentiation from hPS cells is inefficient and residual contamination with pluripotent cells that have the potential to form tumors remains problematic. The derivation of scalable (self-renewing) embryonic progenitor stem cell lines offers a solution because they are well defined and clonally pure. Clonally pure progenitor stem cell lines also provide a means for identifying cell surface targeting reagents that are useful for identification, tracking, and repeated derivation of the corresponding progenitor stem cell types from additional hPS cell sources. Such stem cell targeting reagents can then be applied to the manufacture of genetically diverse banks of human embryonic progenitor cell lines for drug screening, disease modeling, and cell therapy. Here we present methods to identify human embryonic progenitor stem cell targeting peptides by selection of phage display libraries on clonal embryonic progenitor cell lines and demonstrate their use for targeting quantum dots (Qdots) for stem cell labeling.

  11. UOK 268 Cell Line for Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute’s Urologic Oncology Branch seeks parties to co-develop the UOK 262 immortalized cell line as research tool to study aggressive hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC)-associated recurring kidney cancer.

  12. Volatile metabolomic signature of human breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Catarina L.; Perestrelo, Rosa; Silva, Pedro; Tomás, Helena; Câmara, José S.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) remains the most prevalent oncologic pathology in women, causing huge psychological, economic and social impacts on our society. Currently, the available diagnostic tools have limited sensitivity and specificity. Metabolome analysis has emerged as a powerful tool for obtaining information about the biological processes that occur in organisms, and is a useful platform for discovering new biomarkers or make disease diagnosis using different biofluids. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the headspace of cultured BC cells and normal human mammary epithelial cells, were collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC–MS), thus defining a volatile metabolomic signature. 2-Pentanone, 2-heptanone, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, ethyl acetate, ethyl propanoate and 2-methyl butanoate were detected only in cultured BC cell lines. Multivariate statistical methods were used to verify the volatomic differences between BC cell lines and normal cells in order to find a set of specific VOCs that could be associated with BC, providing comprehensive insight into VOCs as potential cancer biomarkers. The establishment of the volatile fingerprint of BC cell lines presents a powerful approach to find endogenous VOCs that could be used to improve the BC diagnostic tools and explore the associated metabolomic pathways. PMID:28256598

  13. DIVERSITY OF ARSENIC METABOLISM IN CULTURED HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diversity of arsenic metabolism in cultured human cancer cell lines.

    Arsenic has been known to cause a variety of malignancies in human. Pentavalent As (As 5+) is reduced to trivalent As (As3+) which is further methylated by arsenic methyltransferase(s) to monomethylarson...

  14. METHYLATION OF ARSENITE BY SOME MAMMALIAN CELL LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    THIS ABSTRACT WAS SUBMITTED ELECTRONICALLY;. SPACE CONSTRAINTS WERE SEVERE)

    Methylation of Arsenite by Some Mammalian Cell Lines.

    Methylation of arsenite is thought to play an important role in the carcinogenicity of arsenic.
    Aim 1: Determine if there is diffe...

  15. DIFFERENCES IN ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLISM BY HUMAN MYELOMONCYTIC CELL LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The production of arachidonic acid metabolites by the HL60, ML3, and U937 human phagocyte cell lines were determined after incubation with interferongamma (IFNg; 500 U/ml) or vehicle for 4 days. ells were prelabeled with tritiated arachidonic acid for 4 hours, and media supernata...

  16. AAVS1-Targeted Plasmid Integration in AAV Producer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuxia; Frederick, Amy; Martin, John M; Scaria, Abraham; Cheng, Seng H; Armentano, Donna; Wadsworth, Samuel C; Vincent, Karen A

    2017-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) producer cell lines are created via transfection of HeLaS3 cells with a single plasmid containing three components (the vector sequence, the AAV rep and cap genes, and a selectable marker gene). As this plasmid contains both the cis (Rep binding sites) and trans (Rep protein encoded by the rep gene) elements required for site-specific integration, it was predicted that plasmid integration might occur within the AAVS1 locus on human chromosome 19 (chr19). The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration in AAVS1 might be correlated with vector yield. Plasmid integration sites within several independent cell lines were assessed via Southern, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and PCR analyses. In the Southern analyses, the presence of fragments detected by both rep- and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that for several mid- and high-producing lines, plasmid DNA had integrated into the AAVS1 locus. Analysis with puroR and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that integration in AAVS1 was a more widespread phenomenon. High-producing AAV2-secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) lines (masterwell 82 [MW82] and MW278) were evaluated via FISH using probes specific for the plasmid, AAVS1, and a chr19 marker. FISH analysis detected two plasmid integration sites in MW278 (neither in AAVS1), while a total of three sites were identified in MW82 (two in AAVS1). An inverse PCR assay confirmed integration within AAVS1 for several mid- and high-producing lines. In summary, the FISH, Southern, and PCR data provide evidence of site-specific integration of the plasmid within AAVS1 in several AAV producer cell lines. The data also suggest that integration in AAVS1 is a general phenomenon that is not necessarily restricted to high producers. The results also suggest that plasmid integration within the AAVS1 locus is not an absolute requirement for a high vector yield.

  17. Glycosylation potential of human prostate cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yin; Chachadi, Vishwanath B.; Cheng, Pi-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Altered glycosylation is a universal feature of cancer cells and altered glycans can help cancer cells escape immune surveillance, facilitate tumor invasion, and increase malignancy. The goal of this study was to identify specific glycoenzymes, which could distinguish prostate cancer cells from normal prostatic cells. We investigated enzymatic activities and gene expression levels of key glycosyl- and sulfotransferases responsible for the assembly of O- and N-glycans in several prostatic cells. These cells included immortalized RWPE-1 cells derived from normal prostatic tissues, and prostate cancer cells derived from metastasis in bone (PC-3), brain (DU145), lymph node (LNCaP), and vertebra (VCaP). We found that all cells were capable of synthesizing complex N-glycans and O-glycans with the core 1 structure, and each cell line had characteristic bio-synthetic pathways to modify these structures. The in vitro measured activities corresponded well to the mRNA levels of glycosyltransferases and sulfotransferases. Lectin and antibody binding to whole cells supported these results, which form the basis for the development of tumor cell-specific targeting strategies. PMID:22843320

  18. Characterization of the camel skin cell line Dubca.

    PubMed

    Klopries, M; Wernery, U; Kaaden, O R

    1995-01-01

    A skin fibroblast cell culture was established from a 2-month-old dromedary foetus. The cells were transformed by infection with SV40 and cloned in soft agar. The established cell line is now designated Dubca cells (Dubai camel) and has been in permanent culture for 95 passages. The cell culture was examined morphologically, chromosome preparations made and DNA fingerprinting performed by hybridization with the oligonucleotide probe (GTG)5. SV40 large T antigen was detected by western blotting. The viral host range was determined by infection with viruses of different families. Camelpox virus (CaPV) bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and border disease virus (BDV) could be propagated in these cells.

  19. Effects of cholera toxin on human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Barkla, D H; Whitehead, R H; Hayward, I P

    1992-10-01

    This study reports on changes in morphology and membrane transport in 5 human colon carcinoma cell lines treated with cholera toxin (CT). Three of the cell lines that grew as monolayers (LIM 1215, LIM 1899, LIM 2099) and 1 that grew as floating clumps (LIM 2408) did not show morphological changes after CT treatment. However, cell line LIM 1863 that grows as floating "crypt-like" organoids showed rapid and distinctive changes in morphology and membrane transport after CT treatment. At 1 and 6 hrs after CT treatment, light and transmission electron microscopy revealed rapid dilatation of the central lumen of organoids and the appearance of 2 populations of apical vesicular inclusions. The first population was unusual in being non-membrane bound and limited by fuzzy filamentous material. The second population was membrane bound. Scanning electron microscopy at 1-6 hr after CT treatment showed swelling and loss of surface microvilli on some, but not all, cells. At 24 hr after CT treatment the majority of organoids showed evidence of fluid accumulation and small apical vesicles coalesced to form large single vacuoles that obliterated normal cell morphology. By 48 hr, continued swelling produced extreme attenuation of the plasma membrane with cells taking on an "endothelial cell-like" appearance. The response to CT was dose-dependent. Uptake studies using 86Rubidium and blocking studies using ouabain and amiloride indicated that CT is acting on the Na+/K+ ATPase membrane pump to cause the increased fluid uptake by LIM 1863 cells. This study is the first to report specific morphological changes in intestine-derived cells in response to CT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines.

    PubMed

    Silva, Dulcelena Ferreira; Vidal, Flávia Castello Branco; Santos, Debora; Costa, Maria Célia Pires; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; do Desterro Soares Brandão Nascimento, Maria; de Moura, Roberto Soares

    2014-05-29

    Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malignant cell lines. Cell lines derived from breast and colorectal adenocarcinomas were treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of bark, seed, and total açaí fruit hydroalcoholic extracts for 24 and 48 h. After treatment, cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and cell morphological features were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The type of cell death was also evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett's or Tukey's post hoc tests, as appropriate. We observed that of all the cell lines tested, MCF-7 was the only line that responded to açaí treatment. The extracts caused significant reduction (p<0.01) in cell viability and altered cell morphological features by inducing the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, increased expression of LC3BII, a protein marker of autophagosome formation, was observed by western blotting. Caspase Glo™ assays and morphologic observations by DAPI nuclear staining and transmission electron microscopy did not indicate any apoptotic events. The present study demonstrated that açaí possesses antitumorigenic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Further studies are needed to identify the compound (s) responsible for this cytotoxic activity and the molecular target in the cell. This discovery of the anticancer potential of açaí may help in the

  1. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malignant cell lines. Methods Cell lines derived from breast and colorectal adenocarcinomas were treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of bark, seed, and total açaí fruit hydroalcoholic extracts for 24 and 48 h. After treatment, cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and cell morphological features were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The type of cell death was also evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s or Tukey’s post hoc tests, as appropriate. Results We observed that of all the cell lines tested, MCF-7 was the only line that responded to açaí treatment. The extracts caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in cell viability and altered cell morphological features by inducing the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, increased expression of LC3BII, a protein marker of autophagosome formation, was observed by western blotting. Caspase Glo™ assays and morphologic observations by DAPI nuclear staining and transmission electron microscopy did not indicate any apoptotic events. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that açaí possesses antitumorigenic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Further studies are needed to identify the compound (s) responsible for this cytotoxic activity and the molecular target in the cell. This discovery of the

  2. Optimized Sleeping Beauty transposons rapidly generate stable transgenic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kowarz, Eric; Löscher, Denise; Marschalek, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Stable gene expression in mammalian cells is a prerequisite for many in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, either the integration of plasmids into mammalian genomes or the use of retro-/lentiviral systems have intrinsic limitations. The use of transposable elements, e.g. the Sleeping Beauty system (SB), circumvents most of these drawbacks (integration sites, size limitations) and allows the quick generation of stable cell lines. The integration process of SB is catalyzed by a transposase and the handling of this gene transfer system is easy, fast and safe. Here, we report our improvements made to the existing SB vector system and present two new vector types for robust constitutive or inducible expression of any gene of interest. Both types are available in 16 variants with different selection marker (puromycin, hygromycin, blasticidin, neomycin) and fluorescent protein expression (GFP, RFP, BFP) to fit most experimental requirements. With this system it is possible to generate cell lines from stable transfected cells quickly and reliably in a medium-throughput setting (three to five days). Cell lines robustly express any gene-of-interest, either constitutively or tightly regulated by doxycycline. This allows many laboratory experiments to speed up generation of data in a rapid and robust manner. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Isolation, Characterization, and Establishment of Spontaneously Immortalized Cell Line HRPE-2S With Stem Cell Properties.

    PubMed

    Shams Najafabadi, Hoda; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ranaei Pirmardan, Ehsan; Masoumi, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium is a monolayer of highly specialized pigmented cells located between the neural retina and the Bruch's membrane of the choroid. RPE cells play a crucial role in the maintenance and function of the underlying photoreceptors. This study introduces a spontaneously arising human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, HRPE-2S, which was isolated from primary RPE cell culture of 2 days old male donor. We characterized morphology and functional properties of the new cell line. The immortalized cell line was maintained in culture for more than 70 passages and 240 divisions. The average doubling time of the cells was approximately 22 h and got freezed at 26th passage. The cell line expressed RPE-specific markers RPE65 and cell junction protein ZO1 as an epithelial cell marker. It also expressed CHX10, PAX6, Nestin, SOX2 as stem and retinal progenitor cell markers. Ki67 as a marker of cell proliferation was expressed in all HRPE-2S cells. It represented typical epithelial cobblestone morphology and did not phenotypically change through several passages. Stem cell-like aggregations (neurospheres) were observed in SEM microscopy. The cells represented high mitotic index. They could be viable under hypoxic conditions and serum deprivation. According to functional studies, the cell line exhibited stem cell-like behaviors with particular emphasis on its self-renewal capacity. LDH isoenzymes expression pattern confirmed the same cellular source for both of the HRPE-2S cells and primary RPE cells. Characteristics of HRPE-2S cells promise it as an in vitro model for RPE stem cell-based researches. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2626-2640, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. CD40 expression in Wehi-164 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Padideh; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Soheili, Zahra Soheila; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    CD40-CD154 interaction is an important process for cellular and humoral immunity regulation and can be effective in the body’s defense against tumors. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of CD40 in Wehi-164 cell line. CD40 expressions on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm were assessed by flow cytometry and intracellular staining assay, respectively. Also, the mRNA expression was identified by real time-PCR. The obtained results showed the high mRNA and cytoplasmic protein expression of CD40 but no surface expression. These results suggest that the Wehi-164 cell line down regulates expression of CD40 on the surface for evasion of immune system. PMID:20496113

  5. CD40 expression in Wehi-164 cell line.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad Hossein; Ebadi, Padideh; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Soheili, Zahra Soheila; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2010-07-01

    CD40-CD154 interaction is an important process for cellular and humoral immunity regulation and can be effective in the body's defense against tumors. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of CD40 in Wehi-164 cell line. CD40 expressions on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm were assessed by flow cytometry and intracellular staining assay, respectively. Also, the mRNA expression was identified by real time-PCR. The obtained results showed the high mRNA and cytoplasmic protein expression of CD40 but no surface expression. These results suggest that the Wehi-164 cell line down regulates expression of CD40 on the surface for evasion of immune system.

  6. Derivation of Human Skin Fibroblast Lines for Feeder Cells of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Unger, Christian; Felldin, Ulrika; Rodin, Sergey; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Dilber, Sirac; Hovatta, Outi

    2016-02-03

    After the first derivations of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines on fetal mouse feeder cell layers, the idea of using human cells instead of mouse cells as feeder cells soon arose. Mouse cells bear a risk of microbial contamination, and nonhuman immunogenic proteins are absorbed from the feeders to hESCs. Human skin fibroblasts can be effectively used as feeder cells for hESCs. The same primary cell line, which can be safely used for up to 15 passages after stock preparations, can be expanded and used for large numbers of hESC derivations and cultures. These cells are relatively easy to handle and maintain. No animal facilities or animal work is needed. Here, we describe the derivation, culture, and cryopreservation procedures for research-grade human skin fibroblast lines. We also describe how to make feeder layers for hESCs using these fibroblasts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Radiation sensitivities of 31 human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Sadayuki; Michikawa, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Ken-ichi; Sagara, Masashi; Watanabe, Koji; Shimada, Yutaka; Inazawa, Johji; Imai, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the radiosensitivities of 31 human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines with a colony-formation assay. A large variation in radiosensitivity existed among 31 cell lines. Such a large variation may partly explain the poor result of radiotherapy for this cancer. One cell line (KYSE190) demonstrated an unusual radiosensitivity. Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene in these cells had five missense mutations, and ATM protein was truncated or degraded. Inability to phosphorylate Chk2 in the irradiated KYSE190 cells suggests that the ATM protein in these cells had lost its function. The dysfunctional ATM protein may be a main cause of unusual radiosensitivity of KYSE190 cells. Because the donor of these cells was not diagnosed with ataxia telangiectasia, mutations in ATM gene might have occurred during the initiation and progression of cancer. Radiosensitive cancer developed in non-hereditary diseased patients must be a good target for radiotherapy. PMID:16045545

  8. Subcloning of three osteoblastic cell lines with distinct differentiation phenotypes from the mouse osteoblastic cell line KS-4.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Ishii, H; Shimoda, K; Sampath, T K; Katagiri, T; Wada, M; Osawa, T; Suda, T

    1996-11-01

    Three distinct osteoblastic cell lines (KS418, KS460, and KS483) were subcloned from the mouse osteoblastic KS-4 cells, which possessed the abilities not only to differentiate into mature osteoblasts, but also to support osteoclast differentiation in coculture with spleen cells. The order of the magnitude of the basal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was KS483 > KS418 > KS460. KS483 cells were also more differentiated than KS418 and KS460 in terms of ALP activity and osteocalcin production, when cultured in growth medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. In long-term culture, KS418 and KS483 apparently differentiated into mature osteoblasts and formed calcified nodules without addition of beta-glycerophosphate. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that calcification occurring in the nodules was initiated in the matrix vesicles as observed in bone formation in vivo. Nodule formation and mineral deposition occurred simultaneously in the presence of beta-glycerophosphate, but the former always preceded the latter without addition of beta-glycerophosphate. In contrast, KS460 cells did not show time-dependent increases of ALP activity, type I collagen expression and osteocalcin production, which were induced by treatment with recombinant osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1). The three cell lines similarly supported osteoclast differentiation in coculture with spleen cells in response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. These results indicate that the three cell lines subcloned from the original KS-4 cells represent phenotypically distinct osteoblasts during osteoblast differentiation, but are equipped similarly with the capacity to support osteoclast differentiation. The subcloned cells of the KS-4 series may provide useful systems in which to study osteoblast differentiation and function.

  9. Carbon nanoparticles for gene transfection in eukaryotic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zanin, H; Hollanda, L M; Ceragioli, H J; Ferreira, M S; Machado, D; Lancellotti, M; Catharino, R R; Baranauskas, V; Lobo, A O

    2014-06-01

    For the first time, oxygen terminated cellulose carbon nanoparticles (CCN) was synthesised and applied in gene transfection of pIRES plasmid. The CCN was prepared from catalytic of polyaniline by chemical vapour deposition techniques. This plasmid contains one gene that encodes the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in eukaryotic cells, making them fluorescent. This new nanomaterial and pIRES plasmid formed π-stacking when dispersed in water by magnetic stirring. The frequencies shift in zeta potential confirmed the plasmid strongly connects to the nanomaterial. In vitro tests found that this conjugation was phagocytised by NG97, NIH-3T3 and A549 cell lines making them fluorescent, which was visualised by fluorescent microscopy. Before the transfection test, we studied CCN in cell viability. Both MTT and Neutral Red uptake tests were carried out using NG97, NIH-3T3 and A549 cell lines. Further, we use metabolomics to verify if small amounts of nanomaterial would be enough to cause some cellular damage in NG97 cells. We showed two mechanisms of action by CCN-DNA complex, producing an exogenous protein by the transfected cell and metabolomic changes that contributed by better understanding of glioblastoma, being the major finding of this work. Our results suggested that this nanomaterial has great potential as a gene carrier agent in non-viral based therapy, with low cytotoxicity, good transfection efficiency, and low cell damage in small amounts of nanomaterials in metabolomic tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation and Growth of Prostate Stem Cells and Establishing Cancer Cell Lines from Human Prostate Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    contaminating rat UGSE cells ; and regions of host mouse glands were either from circulating pluripotent stem cells or local epithelial cells which were...CONTRACT NUMBER Isolation and Growth of Prostate Stem Cells and Establishing Cancer Cell Lines from Human Prostate Tumors 5b. GRANT NUMBER 81WXH...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The objective of this proposal was to isolate, grow, and characterize normal prostate stem cells and establish new prostate

  11. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) reduces cell number in canine histiocytic sarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Mona; Saeki, Kohei; Maeda, Shingo; Tamahara, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-10-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) is initially reported to protect macrophages from apoptosis. In this study, we determined the effect of AIM on the macrophage-derived tumor, histiocytic sarcoma cell lines (HS) of dogs. Five HS and five other tumor cell lines were used. When recombinant canine AIM was applied to non-serum culture media, cell numbers of all the HS and two of other tumor cell lines decreased dose-dependently. The DNA fragmentation, TUNEL staining and flow cytometry tests revealed that AIM induced both of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the HS. Although AIM is known as an apoptosis inhibitor, these results suggest that a high dose of AIM could have an opposite function in HS and some tumor cell lines.

  12. THP-1 cell line: an in vitro cell model for immune modulation approach.

    PubMed

    Chanput, Wasaporn; Mes, Jurriaan J; Wichers, Harry J

    2014-11-01

    THP-1 is a human leukemia monocytic cell line, which has been extensively used to study monocyte/macrophage functions, mechanisms, signaling pathways, and nutrient and drug transport. This cell line has become a common model to estimate modulation of monocyte and macrophage activities. This review attempts to summarize and discuss recent publications related to the THP-1 cell model. An overview on the biological similarities and dissimilarities between the THP-1 cell line and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) derived-monocytes and macrophages, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the use of THP-1 cell line, is included. The review summarizes different published co-cultivation studies of THP-1 cells with other cell types, for instance, intestinal cells, adipocytes, T-lymphocytes, platelets, and vascular smooth muscle cells, which can be an option to study cell-cell interaction in vitro and can be an approach to better mimic in vivo conditions. Macrophage polarization is a relatively new topic which gains interest for which the THP-1 cell line also may be relevant. Besides that an overview of newly released commercial THP-1 engineered-reporter cells and THP-1 inflammasome test-cells is also given. Evaluation of recent papers leads to the conclusion that the THP-1 cell line has unique characteristics as a model to investigate/estimate immune-modulating effects of compounds in both activated and resting conditions of the cells. Although the THP-1 response can hint to potential responses that might occur ex vivo or in vivo, these should be, however, validated by in vivo studies to draw more definite conclusions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. An immortalized microglial cell line (Mocha) derived from rat cochlea.

    PubMed

    Seigel, G M; Manohar, S; Bai, Y Y; Ding, D; Salvi, R

    2017-12-01

    Microglia are glial-immune cells that are essential for the function and survival of the central nervous system. Microglia not only protect neural tissues from immunological insults, but also play a critical role in neural development and repair. However, little is known about the biology of microglia in the cochlea, the auditory portion of the inner ear. In this study, we detected TMEM119+, CD11b+, CD45+ and Iba1+ populations of cells in the rat cochlea, particularly in Rosenthal's canal, inner sulcus and stria vascularis. Next, we isolated and enriched the population of CD11b+ cells from the cochlea and immortalized these cells with the 12S E1A gene of adenovirus in a replication-incompetent retroviral vector to derive a novel microglial cell line, designated Mocha (microglia of the cochlea). The resulting Mocha cells express a number of markers consistent with microglia and respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation by upregulation of genes (Cox2, ICAM-1, Il6r, Ccl2, Il13Ra and Il15Ra) as well as releasing cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-12, IL-13 and RANTES). As evidence of microglial function, Mocha cells phagocytose fluorescent beads at 37°C, but not at 4°C. The expression pattern of microglial markers in Mocha cells suggests that immortalization leads to a more primitive phenotype, a common phenomenon in immortalized cell lines. In summary, Mocha cells display key characteristics of microglia and are now available as a useful model system for the study of cochlear microglial behavior, both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular Genetic Analysis of an Endotoxin Nonresponder Mutant Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Schromm, Andra B.; Lien, Egil; Henneke, Philipp; Chow, Jesse C.; Yoshimura, Atsutoshi; Heine, Holger; Latz, Eicke; Monks, Brian G.; Schwartz, David A.; Miyake, Kensuke; Golenbock, Douglas T.

    2001-01-01

    Somatic cell mutagenesis is a powerful tool for characterizing receptor systems. We reported previously two complementation groups of mutant cell lines derived from CD14-transfected Chinese hamster ovary–K1 fibroblasts defective in responses to bacterial endotoxin. Both classes of mutants expressed a normal gene product for Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, and fully responded to stimulation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interleukin (IL)-1β. We identified the lesion in one of the complementation groups in the gene for MD-2, a putative TLR4 coreceptor. The nonresponder phenotype of this mutant was reversed by transfection with MD-2. Cloning of MD-2 from the nonresponder cell line revealed a point mutation in a highly conserved region resulting in a C95Y amino acid exchange. Both forms of MD-2 colocalized with TLR4 on the cell surface after transfection, but only the wild-type cDNA reverted the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) nonresponder phenotype. Furthermore, soluble MD-2, but not soluble MD-2C95Y, functioned to enable LPS responses in cells that expressed TLR4. Thus, MD-2 is a required component of the LPS signaling complex and can function as a soluble receptor for cells that do not otherwise express it. We hypothesize that MD-2 conformationally affects the extracellular domain of TLR4, perhaps resulting in a change in affinity for LPS or functioning as a portion of the true ligand for TLR4. PMID:11435474

  15. A549 Cells: Lung Carcinoma Cell Line for Adenovirus | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the National Cancer Institute have developed a cell line designated A549 that was derived from explanted cultures of human lung cancer tissue. The A549 cell line has been tested under the guidance of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) so, under current Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), these cells may be suitable for use in manufacturing constructs for use in clinical trials. The National Cancer Institute seeks parties to non-exclusively license this research material.

  16. Lessons From the First Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Cell Cycle Control in Rodent Insulinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Cozar-Castellano, Irene; Harb, George; Selk, Karen; Takane, Karen; Vasavada, Rupangi; Sicari, Brian; Law, Brian; Zhang, Pili; Scott, Donald K.; Fiaschi-Taesch, Nathalie; Stewart, Andrew F.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Rodent insulinoma cell lines may serve as a model for designing continuously replicating human β-cell lines and provide clues as to the central cell cycle regulatory molecules in the β-cell. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We performed a comprehensive G1/S proteome analysis on the four most widely studied rodent insulinoma cell lines and defined their flow cytometric profiles and growth characteristics. RESULTS—1) Despite their common T-antigen–derived origins, MIN6 and BTC3 cells display markedly different G1/S expression profiles; 2) despite their common radiation origins, RINm5F and INS1 cells display striking differences in cell cycle protein profiles; 3) phosphorylation of pRb is absent in INS1 and RINm5F cells; 4) cyclin D2 is absent in RINm5F and BTC3 cells and therefore apparently dispensable for their proliferation; 5) every cell cycle inhibitor is upregulated, presumably in a futile attempt to halt proliferation; 6) among the G1/S proteome members, seven are pro-proliferation molecules: cyclin-dependent kinase-1, -2, -4, and -6 and cyclins A, E, and D3; and 7) overexpression of the combination of these seven converts arrested proliferation rates in primary rat β-cells to those in insulinoma cells. Unfortunately, this therapeutic overexpression appears to mildly attenuate β-cell differentiation and function. CONCLUSIONS—These studies underscore the importance of characterizing the cell cycle at the protein level in rodent insulinoma cell lines. They also emphasize the hazards of interpreting data from rodent insulinoma cell lines as modeling normal cell cycle progression. Most importantly, they provide seven candidate targets for inducing proliferation in human β-cells. PMID:18650366

  17. Host cell reactivation of gamma-irradiated adenovirus 5 in human cell lines of varying radiosensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Eady, J. J.; Peacock, J. H.; McMillan, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    DNA repair processes play an important role in the determination of radiation response in both normal and tumour cells. We have investigated one aspect of DNA repair in a number of human cell lines of varying radiosensitivity using the adenovirus 5 host cell reactivation assay (HCR). In this technique, gamma-irradiated virions are used to infect cells and the ability of the cellular repair systems to process this damage is assayed by a convenient immunoperoxidase method recognising viral structural antigen expression on the cell membrane 48 h after infection. Reduced HCR was exhibited by radioresistant HeLa cells and by a radiosensitive neuroblastoma cell line, HX142. In contrast, an ataxia telangiectasia cell line, AT5 BIVA, did not show reduced HCR. On the basis of these results we can make no general conclusions about the relevance of HCR to cellular radiosensitivity. We have extended these studies to determine whether our cell lines exhibited enhanced viral reactivation (ER) following a small priming dose of gamma-radiation given to the cells before viral infection. No evidence for this phenomenon was found either in normal or tumour cell lines. PMID:1637659

  18. Derivation of novel genetically diverse human embryonic stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Stefanova, Valentina T; Grifo, James A; Hansis, Christoph

    2012-06-10

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to revolutionize many biomedical fields ranging from basic research to disease modeling, regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and toxicity testing. A multitude of hESC lines have been derived worldwide since the first 5 lines by Thomson et al. 13 years ago, but many of these are poorly characterized, unavailable, or do not represent desired traits, thus making them unsuitable for application purposes. In order to provide the scientific community with better options, we have derived 12 new hESC lines at New York University from discarded genetically normal and abnormal embryos using the latest techniques. We examined the genetic status of the NYUES lines in detail as well as their molecular and cellular features and DNA fingerprinting profile. Furthermore, we differentiated our hESCs into the tissues most affected by a specific condition or into clinically desired cell types. To our knowledge, a number of characteristics of our hESCs have not been previously reported, for example, mutation for alpha thalassemia X-linked mental retardation syndrome, linkage to conditions with a genetic component such as asthma or poor sperm morphology, and novel combinations of ethnic backgrounds. Importantly, all of our undifferentiated euploid female lines tested to date did not show X chromosome inactivation, believed to result in superior potency. We continue to derive new hESC lines and add them to the NIH registry and other registries. This should facilitate the use of our hESCs and lead to advancements for patient-benefitting applications.

  19. Characteristics of bovine inner cell mass-derived cell lines and their fate in chimeric conceptuses.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Tadashi; Ohkoshi, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Koji; Matsuyama, Shuichi; Akagi, Satoshi; Kaneda, Masahiro; Ikeda, Mitsumi; Hosoe, Misa; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Tokunaga, Tomoyuki

    2013-08-01

    Bovine embryonic stem (ES) cells have the potential to provide significant benefits in a range of agricultural and biomedical applications. Here, we employed a combination of conventional methods using glycogen synthase kinase 3 and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors to establish ES cell lines from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) bovine embryos. Five male cell lines were established from IVF embryos, and two female and three male cell lines from SCNT blastocysts; we named these lines bovine ES cell-like cells (bESLCs). The lines exhibited dome-shaped colonies, stained positively for alkaline phosphatase, and expressed pluripotent stem cell markers such as POU5F1, SOX2, and SSEA-1. The expression levels of these markers, especially for NANOG, varied among the cell lines. A DNA methylation assay showed the POU5F1 promoter region was hypomethylated compared to fibroblast cells. An in vitro differentiation assay showed that endoderm and ectoderm marker genes, but not mesoderm markers, were upregulated in differentiating bESLCs. To examine bESLCs in later embryonic stages, we created 22 chimeric blastocysts with a male bESLC line carrying a GFP marker gene and transferred these to a recipient cow. Four chimeric embryos were subsequently retrieved on Day 13 and retransferred to two recipient cows. One living fetus was obtained at Day 62. GFP signals were not identified in fetal cells by fluorescence microscopy; however, genomic PCR analysis detected the GFP gene in major organs. Clusters of GFP-positive cells were observed in amniotic membranes, suggesting that bESLCs can be categorized as a novel type of ICM-derived cells that can potentially differentiate into epiblast and hypoblast lineages.

  20. Antitumoral effect of vanadium compounds in malignant melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rozzo, Carla; Sanna, Daniele; Garribba, Eugenio; Serra, Maria; Cantara, Alessio; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Pisano, Marina

    2017-09-01

    In this study we evaluated the anticancer activity against malignant melanoma (MM) of four different vanadium species: the inorganic anion vanadate(V) (indicated with VN), and three oxidovanadium(IV) complexes, [V IV O(dhp) 2 ] where dhp - is the anion 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS2), [V IV O(mpp) 2 ] where mpp - is 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS3), and [V IV O(ppp) 2 ] where ppp - is 1-phenyl-2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS4). The antitumor effects of these compounds were studied against two different MM cell lines (A375 and CN-mel) and a fibroblast cell line (BJ) as normal control. All tested V compounds exert antiproliferative activity on MM cells in a dose dependent manner (IC 50 ranges from 2.4μM up to 14μM) being A375 the most sensitive cell line. VN and VS2 were the two most active compounds against A375 (IC 50 of 4.7 and 2.6μM, respectively), causing apoptosis and cell cycle block. The experimental data indicate that the cell cycle arrest occurs at different phases for the two V species analyzed (G2 checkpoint for VN and G0/G1 for VS2), showing the importance of the chemical form in determining their mechanism of action. These results add more insights into the landscape of vanadium versatility in biological systems and into its role as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pseudoislet of hybrid cellular spheroids from commercial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jo, Y H; Nam, B M; Kim, B Y; Nemeno, J G; Lee, S; Yeo, J E; Yang, W; Park, S H; Kim, Y S; Lee, J I

    2013-10-01

    Investigators conducting diabetes-related research have focused on islet transplantation as a radical therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pancreatic islet isolation, an essential process, is a very demanding work because of the proteolytic enzymes, species, treatment time, and individual difference. Replacement of primary isolated pancreatic islets must be carried out continuously for various in vitro tests, making primary isolated islets a useful tool for cell transplantation research. Hence, we sought to develop pseudoislets from commercial pancreas-derived cell lines. In this study, we used RIN-5F and RIN-m cells, which secrete insulin, somatostatin, or glucagon. To manufacture hybrid cellular spheroids, the cells were cultured under hanging drop plate and nonadhesive plate methods. We observed that hybrid cellular pseudoislets exhibited an oval shape, with sizes ranging from 590 to 1200 μm. Their morphology was similar to naïve islets. Cell line pseudoislets secreted and expressed insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry analyses. Thus, the current artificially manufactured biomimetic pseudoislets resembled pancreatic islets of the endocrine system, appearing as cellular aggregates that secreted insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Enhanced immunoisolation techniques may lead to the development of new islet sources for pancreatic transplantation through this pseudoislet strategy. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human squamous cell carcinoma from skin: establishment and characterization of a new cell line (HSC-5).

    PubMed

    Hozumi, Y; Kondo, S; Shimoura, T; Aso, K

    1990-03-01

    A new cell line, designated as HSC-5 and derived from human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), has been established in vitro and maintained proliferative in continuous tissue culture for over two years. The cells grow in a monolayer in vitro and have anaplastic epithelioid features. The doubling time was about 35 hr at the 30th passage. Chromosome analysis showed hypotetraploidy with a modal number of 76. A trial of transplantation of the cultured cells into nude mice was not successful. Analysis of cytokeratins from HSC-5 by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed polypeptides No. 5, 8, 13, 18 and 19. The cell line is available to other investigators.

  3. Alkylphosphocholines and curcumin induce programmed cell death in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yosifov, Deyan Y; Kaloyanov, Kaloyan A; Guenova, Margarita L; Prisadashka, Kamelia; Balabanova, Maria B; Berger, Martin R; Konstantinov, Spiro M

    2014-01-01

    While most patients with early-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) have a very good prognosis, the survival of patients with extensive tumour stage and visceral involvement remains extremely poor and necessitates the development of more effective treatment modalities. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of two alkylphosphocholines (APCs, miltefosine and erufosine) and the polyphenolic compound curcumin on 5 human CTCL cell lines (Hut-78, HH, MJ, My-La CD4+ and My-La CD8+). All tested drugs showed considerable cytotoxic activity, as determined by the MTT dye reduction assay. The IC50 values of both APCs ranged from the low micromolar level (Hut-78 cells) to 60-80μM (HH cells). The IC50 values of curcumin ranged from 12 to 24μM. All tested drugs induced apoptosis, as ascertained by morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and activation of caspase cascades. Miltefosine and erufosine induced dephosphorylation of Akt in My-La CD8+ cells and phosphorylation of JNK in Hut-78 and My-La CD8+ cells. APCs increased the level of the autophagic marker LC3B in Hut-78 and MJ cells. Results from co-treatment with autophagy modulators suggested that the cytotoxicity of APCs in CTCL cells is mediated, at least in part, by induction of autophagy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomarkers in Tumorigenesis Using Cancer Cell Lines: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    K, Lizbeth Raju; Augustine, Dominic; Rao, Roopa S; SV, Sowmya; Haragannavar, Vanishri C; Nambiar, Shwetha; Prasad, Kavitha; Awan, Kamran Habib; Patil, Shankargouda

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite many research advancements in the field, the genetic changes regulating the transformation of normal oral cells into malignant cells have not been fully elucidated. Several studies have evaluated carcinogenesis at the molecular level. Cancer cell lines are commonly used in biomedical research because they provide an unlimited source of cells and represent various stages of initiation and progression of carcinogenesis in vitro. Aims: The objective of the study was to review original research articles using cancer cell lines as a tool to understand carcinogenesis and to identify the genes involved in tumor development. Additionally, we also examined the application of the genes as predictive biomarkers. Methods and Materials: Several databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Ebsco, and Science Direct, were searched from 1985 to December 2016 using various combinations of the following key words: “mouth neoplasm”, “cell lines”, and “tumorigenesis”. Original experimental studies published in English were included. We excluded letters to the editor, historic reviews, and unpublished data from the analysis. Results: There were 17 studies (in vitro) included in the analysis. There were 14 genes and 4 miRNAs involved in malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes into cancer cells. The most commonly studied genes were p53, cyclin D1, and hTERT. Conclusion: Additional reviews and studies are needed to identify a panel of genes specific to various potentially malignant disorders and to aid in the early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) because tumorigenesis involves the mutation of multiple genes. Furthermore, improving advanced cost-effective diagnostic methods may benefit the public health sector. PMID:28950674

  5. Establishment and Characterization of Immortalized Minipig Neural Stem Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung S.; Yoon, Seung-Bin; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sun-Uk; Cha, Young Joo; Lee, Daniel; Kim, Seung U.; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Hong J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of minipigs in biomedical research, there has been relatively little research concerning minipig-derived adult stem cells as a promising research tool that could be used to develop stem cell-based therapies. We first generated immortalized neural stem cells (iNSCs) from primary minipig olfactory bulb cells (pmpOBCs) and defined the characteristics of the cell line. Primary neural cells were prepared from minipig neonate olfactory bulbs and immortalized by infection with retrovirus carrying the v-myc gene. The minipig iNSCs (mpiNSCs) had normal karyotypes and expressed NSC-specific markers, including nestin, vimentin, Musashi1, and SOX2, suggesting a similarity to human NSCs. On the basis of the global gene expression profiles from the microarray analysis, neurogenesis-associated transcript levels were predominantly altered in mpiNSCs compared with pmpOBCs. These findings increase our understanding of minipig stem cells and contribute to the utility of mpiNSCs as resources for immortalized stem cell experiments. PMID:27524466

  6. Innervation regulates synaptic ribbons in lateral line mechanosensory hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Remy; Cunningham, Dale E.; Hailey, Dale W.; Prendergast, Andrew; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Failure to form proper synapses in mechanosensory hair cells, the sensory cells responsible for hearing and balance, leads to deafness and balance disorders. Ribbons are electron-dense structures that tether synaptic vesicles to the presynaptic zone of mechanosensory hair cells where they are juxtaposed with the post-synaptic endings of afferent fibers. They are initially formed throughout the cytoplasm, and, as cells mature, ribbons translocate to the basolateral membrane of hair cells to form functional synapses. We have examined the effect of post-synaptic elements on ribbon formation and maintenance in the zebrafish lateral line system by observing mutants that lack hair cell innervation, wild-type larvae whose nerves have been transected and ribbons in regenerating hair cells. Our results demonstrate that innervation is not required for initial ribbon formation but suggest that it is crucial for regulating the number, size and localization of ribbons in maturing hair cells, and for ribbon maintenance at the mature synapse. PMID:27103160

  7. Innervation regulates synaptic ribbons in lateral line mechanosensory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Suli, Arminda; Pujol, Remy; Cunningham, Dale E; Hailey, Dale W; Prendergast, Andrew; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2016-06-01

    Failure to form proper synapses in mechanosensory hair cells, the sensory cells responsible for hearing and balance, leads to deafness and balance disorders. Ribbons are electron-dense structures that tether synaptic vesicles to the presynaptic zone of mechanosensory hair cells where they are juxtaposed with the post-synaptic endings of afferent fibers. They are initially formed throughout the cytoplasm, and, as cells mature, ribbons translocate to the basolateral membrane of hair cells to form functional synapses. We have examined the effect of post-synaptic elements on ribbon formation and maintenance in the zebrafish lateral line system by observing mutants that lack hair cell innervation, wild-type larvae whose nerves have been transected and ribbons in regenerating hair cells. Our results demonstrate that innervation is not required for initial ribbon formation but suggest that it is crucial for regulating the number, size and localization of ribbons in maturing hair cells, and for ribbon maintenance at the mature synapse. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Establishment and Characterization of Immortalized Minipig Neural Stem Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung S; Yoon, Seung-Bin; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sun-Uk; Cha, Young Joo; Lee, Daniel; Kim, Seung U; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Hong J

    2017-02-16

    Despite the increasing importance of minipigs in biomedical research, there has been relatively little research concerning minipig-derived adult stem cells as a promising research tool that could be used to develop stem cell-based therapies. We first generated immortalized neural stem cells (iNSCs) from primary minipig olfactory bulb cells (pmpOBCs) and defined the characteristics of the cell line. Primary neural cells were prepared from minipig neonate olfactory bulbs and immortalized by infection with retrovirus carrying the v-myc gene. The minipig iNSCs (mpiNSCs) had normal karyotypes and expressed NSC-specific markers, including nestin, vimentin, Musashi1, and SOX2, suggesting a similarity to human NSCs. On the basis of the global gene expression profiles from the microarray analysis, neurogenesis-associated transcript levels were predominantly altered in mpiNSCs compared with pmpOBCs. These findings increase our understanding of minipig stem cells and contribute to the utility of mpiNSCs as resources for immortalized stem cell experiments.

  9. Characterization of stem-like cells in a new astroblastoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Coban, Esra Aydemir; Kasikci, Ezgi; Karatas, Omer Faruk

    Cell lines established from tumors are the most commonly used models in cancer research, and their use in recent years has enabled a greater understanding of the biology of cancer and the means to develop effective treatment strategies. Astroblastomas are uncommon neuroepithelial tumors of glial origin, predominantly affecting young people, mainly teenagers and children, predominantly females. To date, only a single study has reported that astroblastomas contain a large number of neural stem-like cells, which had only a partial proliferation capacity and differentiation. Our objective was to establish an astroblastoma cell line to investigate the presence of astroblastic cells andmore » cancer stem-like cells. The migratory and invasion abilities of the cells were quantified with invasion and migration assays and compared to a glioblastoma cell line. The presence of stem cells was detected with surface-marker analysis by using flow cytometry, and measuring the differentiation ability with a differentiation assay and the self-renewal capacity with a sphere-forming assay. These characteristics may determine whether this novel cell line is a model for astroblastomas that may have stem-cell characteristics. With this novel cell line, scientists can investigate the molecular pathways underlying astroblastomas and develop new therapeutic strategies for patients with these tumors. - Highlights: • An establishment of a novel astroblastoma cell line was proposed. • The presence of astroblastic cells and cancer stem-like cells was investigated. • The molecular pathways underlying astroblastomas may be investigated. • New therapeutic strategies for patients with astroblastoma may be developed.« less

  10. Colony, hanging drop, and methylcellulose three dimensional hypoxic growth optimization of renal cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Matak, Damian; Brodaczewska, Klaudia K; Lipiec, Monika; Szymanski, Łukasz; Szczylik, Cezary; Czarnecka, Anna M

    2017-08-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal of the common urologic malignancies, comprising 3% of all human neoplasms, and the incidence of kidney cancer is rising annually. We need new approaches to target tumor cells that are resistant to current therapies and that give rise to recurrence and treatment failure. In this study, we focused on low oxygen tension and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture incorporation to develop a new RCC growth model. We used the hanging drop and colony formation methods, which are common in 3D culture, as well as a unique methylcellulose (MC) method. For the experiments, we used human primary RCC cell lines, metastatic RCC cell lines, human kidney cancer stem cells, and human healthy epithelial cells. In the hanging drop assay, we verified the potential of various cell lines to create solid aggregates in hypoxic and normoxic conditions. With the semi-soft agar method, we also determined the ability of various cell lines to create colonies under different oxygen conditions. Different cell behavior observed in the MC method versus the hanging drop and colony formation assays suggests that these three assays may be useful to test various cell properties. However, MC seems to be a particularly valuable alternative for 3D cell culture, as its higher efficiency of aggregate formation and serum independency are of interest in different areas of cancer biology.

  11. Rapid micropatterning of cell lines and human pluripotent stem cells on elastomeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Paik, Isha; Scurr, David J; Morris, Bryan; Hall, Graham; Denning, Chris; Alexander, Morgan R; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Dixon, James E

    2012-10-01

    Tissue function during development and in regenerative medicine completely relies on correct cell organization and patterning at micro and macro scales. We describe a rapid method for patterning mammalian cells including human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) on elastomeric membranes such that micron-scale control of cell position can be achieved over centimeter-length scales. Our method employs surface engineering of hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes by plasma polymerization of allylamine. Deposition of plasma polymerized allylamine (ppAAm) using our methods may be spatially restricted using a micro-stencil leaving faithful hydrophilic ppAAm patterns. We employed airbrushing to create aerosols which deposit extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (such as fibronectin and Matrigel™) onto the same patterned ppAAm rich regions. Cell patterns were created with a variety of well characterized cell lines (e.g., NIH-3T3, C2C12, HL1, BJ6, HESC line HUES7, and HiPSC line IPS2). Individual and multiple cell line patterning were also achieved. Patterning remains faithful for several days and cells are viable and proliferate. To demonstrate the utility of our technique we have patterned cells in a variety of configurations. The ability to rapidly pattern cells at high resolution over macro scales should aid future tissue engineering efforts for regenerative medicine applications and in creating in vitro stem cell niches. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Snail regulates cell survival and inhibits cellular senescence in human metastatic prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Emadi Baygi, Modjtaba; Soheili, Zahra Soheila; Schmitz, Ingo; Sameie, Shahram; Schulz, Wolfgang A

    2010-12-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regarded as an important step in cancer metastasis. Snail, a master regulator of EMT, has been recently proposed to act additionally as a cell survival factor and inducer of motility. We have investigated the function of Snail (SNAI1) in prostate cancer cells by downregulating its expression via short (21-mer) interfering RNA (siRNA) and measuring the consequences on EMT markers, cell viability, death, cell cycle, senescence, attachment, and invasivity. Of eight carcinoma cell lines, the prostate carcinoma cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 showed the highest and moderate expression of SNAI1 mRNA, respectively, as measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Long-term knockdown of Snail induced a severe decline in cell numbers in LNCaP and PC-3 and caspase activity was accordingly enhanced in both cell lines. In addition, suppression of Snail expression induced senescence in LNCaP cells. SNAI1-siRNA-treated cells did not tolerate detachment from the extracellular matrix, probably due to downregulation of integrin α6. Expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin was also affected. Invasiveness of PC-3 cells was not significantly diminished by Snail knockdown. Our data suggest that Snail acts primarily as a survival factor and inhibitor of cellular senescence in prostate cancer cell lines. We therefore propose that Snail can act as early driver of prostate cancer progression.

  13. Modelling cell population growth with applications to cancer therapy in human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Basse, Britta; Baguley, Bruce C; Marshall, Elaine S; Wake, Graeme C; Wall, David J N

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the work undertaken to model a population of cells and the effects of cancer therapy. We began with a theoretical one compartment size structured cell population model and investigated its asymptotic steady size distributions (SSDs) (On a cell growth model for plankton, MMB JIMA 21 (2004) 49). However these size distributions are not similar to the DNA (size) distributions obtained experimentally via the flow cytometric analysis of human tumour cell lines (data obtained from the Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, New Zealand). In our one compartment model, size was a generic term, but in order to obtain realistic steady size distributions we chose size to be DNA content and devised a multi-compartment mathematical model for the cell division cycle where each compartment corresponds to a distinct phase of the cell cycle (J. Math. Biol. 47 (2003) 295). We then incorporated another compartment describing the possible induction of apoptosis (cell death) from mitosis phase (Modelling cell death in human tumour cell lines exposed to anticancer drug paclitaxel, J. Math. Biol. 2004, in press). This enabled us to compare our model to flow cytometric data of a melanoma cell line where the anticancer drug, paclitaxel, had been added. The model gives a dynamic picture of the effects of paclitaxel on the cell cycle. We hope to use the model to describe the effects of other cancer therapies on a number of different cell lines. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Discovery of HeLa Cell Contamination in HES Cells: Call for Cell Line Authentication in Reproductive Biology Research.

    PubMed

    Kniss, Douglas A; Summerfield, Taryn L

    2014-08-01

    Continuous cell lines are used frequently in reproductive biology research to study problems in early pregnancy events and parturition. It has been recognized for 50 years that many mammalian cell lines contain inter- or intraspecies contaminations with other cells. However, most investigators do not routinely test their culture systems for cross-contamination. The most frequent contributor to cross-contamination of cell lines is the HeLa cell isolated from an aggressive cervical adenocarcinoma. We report on the discovery of HeLa cell contamination of the human endometrial epithelial cell line HES isolated in our laboratory. Short tandem repeat analysis of 9 unique genetic loci demonstrated molecular identity between HES and HeLa cells. In addition, we verified that WISH cells, isolated originally from human amnion epithelium, were also contaminated with HeLa cells. Inasmuch as our laboratory did not culture HeLa cells at the time of HES cell derivations, the source of contamination was the WISH cell line. These data highlight the need for continued diligence in authenticating cell lines used in reproductive biology research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Isolation, immortalization, and characterization of a human breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties

    PubMed Central

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René; Nielsen, Helga Lind; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2002-01-01

    The epithelial compartment of the human breast comprises two distinct lineages: the luminal epithelial and the myoepithelial lineage. We have shown previously that a subset of the luminal epithelial cells could convert to myoepithelial cells in culture signifying the possible existence of a progenitor cell. We therefore set out to identify and isolate the putative precursor in the luminal epithelial compartment. Using cell surface markers and immunomagnetic sorting, we isolated two luminal epithelial cell populations from primary cultures of reduction mammoplasties. The major population coexpresses sialomucin (MUC+) and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA+) whereas the minor population has a suprabasal position and expresses epithelial specific antigen but no sialomucin (MUC−/ESA+). Two cell lines were further established by transduction of the E6/E7 genes from human papilloma virus type 16. Both cell lines maintained a luminal epithelial phenotype as evidenced by expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin-1 and occludin, and by generation of a high transepithelial electrical resistance on semipermeable filters. Whereas in clonal cultures, the MUC+/ESA+ epithelial cell line was luminal epithelial restricted in its differentiation repertoire, the suprabasal-derived MUC−/ESA+ epithelial cell line was able to generate itself as well as MUC+/ESA+ epithelial cells and Thy-1+/α-smooth muscle actin+ (ASMA+) myoepithelial cells. The MUC−/ESA+ epithelial cell line further differed from the MUC+/ESA+ epithelial cell line by the expression of keratin K19, a feature of a subpopulation of epithelial cells in terminal duct lobular units in vivo. Within a reconstituted basement membrane, the MUC+/ESA+ epithelial cell line formed acinus-like spheres. In contrast, the MUC−/ESA+ epithelial cell line formed elaborate branching structures resembling uncultured terminal duct lobular units both by morphology and marker expression. Similar structures were obtained by

  16. Establishment and characterization of feeder cell-dependent bovine fetal liver cell lines.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Neil C; Wang, Ling; Garrett, Wesley M; Caperna, Thomas J; Tang, Young

    2016-03-01

    The establishment and initial characterization of bovine fetal liver cell lines are described. Bovine fetal hepatocytes were cultured from the liver of a 34-d bovine fetus by physical disruption of the liver tissue. Released liver cells and clumps of cells were plated on STO (SIMS mouse strain, thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant) feeder layers and were cultured in a medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. After 2-3 wk, primary colonies of hepatocytes were observed by phase-contrast microscopic observation. Individual hepatocyte colonies were colony-cloned into independent bovine fetal liver (BFL) cell lines. Two cell lines, BFL-6 and BFL-9, grew the best of several isolates, and they were further characterized for growth potential and for hepatocyte morphology and function. The two cell lines were found to grow markedly better in the presence of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta inhibitor, SB431542 (1 μM). Their continuous culture also depended on a particular medium height-for T12.5 flasks, 3 ml total medium produced optimum growth. Higher or lower amounts of medium caused less cell growth or cessation of growth. The cell lines were propagated for over a year at split ratios of 1:2 or 1:3 at each passage until reaching senescence at approximately 30 passages. The cells were laterally polarized with well-developed canalicular spaces occurring between adjacent BFL cells. Treatment of the cultures with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-stimulating chemicals or peptides (e.g., forskolin or glucagon) caused physical expansion of the canaliculi between the cells within 15 min. The cells secreted a spectrum of serum proteins, were positive for the expression of several hepatocyte-specific genes, and converted ammonia to urea, although at a relatively low rate. The culture system provides an in vitro model of fetal bovine hepatocytes and is the first demonstration of the continuous culture of normal bovine hepatocytes as cell lines.

  17. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of... cell line used to prepare a biological product shall be tested as prescribed in this section. A cell...

  18. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of... cell line used to prepare a biological product shall be tested as prescribed in this section. A cell...

  19. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of... cell line used to prepare a biological product shall be tested as prescribed in this section. A cell...

  20. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of... cell line used to prepare a biological product shall be tested as prescribed in this section. A cell...

  1. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of... cell line used to prepare a biological product shall be tested as prescribed in this section. A cell...

  2. Establishment of a novel human medulloblastoma cell line characterized by highly aggressive stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia Benites Gonçalves da; Rodini, Carolina Oliveira; Kaid, Carolini; Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Pereira, Márcia Cristina Leite; Matushita, Hamilton; Costa, Silvia Souza da; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith

    2016-08-01

    Medulloblastoma is a highly aggressive brain tumor and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality related to childhood cancer. These tumors display differential ability to metastasize and respond to treatment, which reflects their high degree of heterogeneity at the genetic and molecular levels. Such heterogeneity of medulloblastoma brings an additional challenge to the understanding of its physiopathology and impacts the development of new therapeutic strategies. This translational effort has been the focus of most pre-clinical studies which invariably employ experimental models using human tumor cell lines. Nonetheless, compared to other cancers, relatively few cell lines of human medulloblastoma are available in central repositories, partly due to the rarity of these tumors and to the intrinsic difficulties in establishing continuous cell lines from pediatric brain tumors. Here, we report the establishment of a new human medulloblastoma cell line which, in comparison with the commonly used and well-established cell line Daoy, is characterized by enhanced proliferation and invasion capabilities, stem cell properties, increased chemoresistance, tumorigenicity in an orthotopic metastatic model, replication of original medulloblastoma behavior in vivo, strong chromosome structural instability and deregulation of genes involved in neural development. These features are advantageous for designing biologically relevant experimental models in clinically oriented studies, making this novel cell line, named USP-13-Med, instrumental for the study of medulloblastoma biology and treatment.

  3. Assessment of Cell Line Models of Primary Human Cells by Raman Spectral Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Robin J.; Kemp, Sarah J.; Goldstraw, Peter; Tetley, Teresa D.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Researchers have previously questioned the suitability of cell lines as models for primary cells. In this study, we used Raman microspectroscopy to characterize live A549 cells from a unique molecular biochemical perspective to shed light on their suitability as a model for primary human pulmonary alveolar type II (ATII) cells. We also investigated a recently developed transduced type I (TT1) cell line as a model for alveolar type I (ATI) cells. Single-cell Raman spectra provide unique biomolecular fingerprints that can be used to characterize cellular phenotypes. A multivariate statistical analysis of Raman spectra indicated that the spectra of A549 and TT1 cells are characterized by significantly lower phospholipid content compared to ATII and ATI spectra because their cytoplasm contains fewer surfactant lamellar bodies. Furthermore, we found that A549 spectra are statistically more similar to ATI spectra than to ATII spectra. The spectral variation permitted phenotypic classification of cells based on Raman spectral signatures with >99% accuracy. These results suggest that A549 cells are not a good model for ATII cells, but TT1 cells do provide a reasonable model for ATI cells. The findings have far-reaching implications for the assessment of cell lines as suitable primary cellular models in live cultures. PMID:20409492

  4. Paraptosis in human glioblastoma cell line induced by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Armas, Monika; Corona, Juan Carlos; Escobar, Maria Luisa; Torres, Leda; Ordóñez-Romero, Francisco; Hernández-Hernández, Abrahan; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco

    2018-09-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenol compound extracted from Curcuma longa plant, is a molecule with pleiotropic effects that suppresses transformation, proliferation and metastasis of malignant tumors. Curcumin can cause different kinds of cell death depending of its concentration on the exposed cell type. Here we show that exposure of the glioblastoma cell line A172 to curcumin at 50 μM, the IC50, causes morphological change characteristic of paraptosis cell-death. Vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and low membrane potential of the mitochondria were constantly found in the exposed cells. Furthermore, changes in expression of the ER Stress Response (ERSR) genes IRE1 and ATF6, and the microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-27a, miR-222, miR-449 was observed after exposure to curcumin. AKT-Insulin and p53-BCL2 networks were predicted being modulated by the affected miRNAs. Furthermore, AKT protein levels reduction was confirmed. Our data, strongly suggest that curcumin exerts its cell-death properties by affecting the integrity of the reticulum, leading to paraptosis in the glioblastoma cells. These data unveils the versatility of curcumin to control cancer progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypoxia induces adipogenic differentitation of myoblastic cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo; Kishimoto, Koshi N., E-mail: kishimoto@med.tohoku.ac.jp

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} C2C12 and G8 myogenic cell lines treated by hypoxia differentiate into adipocytes. {yields} The expression of C/EBP{beta}, {alpha} and PPAR{gamma} were increased under hypoxia. {yields} Myogenic differentiation of C2C12 was inhibited under hypoxia. -- Abstract: Muscle atrophy usually accompanies fat accumulation in the muscle. In such atrophic conditions as back muscles of kyphotic spine and the rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons, blood flow might be diminished. It is known that hypoxia causes trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow into adipocytes. However, it has not been elucidated yet if hypoxia turned myoblasts into adipocytes.more » We investigated adipogenesis in C2C12 and G8 murine myogenic cell line treated by hypoxia. Cells were also treated with the cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (MDI), which has been known to inhibit Wnt signaling and promote adipogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was seen in both hypoxia and MDI. Adipogenic marker gene expression was assessed in C2C12. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta}, {alpha} and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) {gamma} were increased by both hypoxia and MDI. The expression profile of Wnt10b was different between hypoxia and MDI. The mechanism for adipogenesis of myoblasts in hypoxia might be regulated by different mechanism than the modification of Wnt signaling.« less

  6. Bupivacaine induces apoptosis via ROS in the Schwann cell line.

    PubMed

    Park, C J; Park, S A; Yoon, T G; Lee, S J; Yum, K W; Kim, H J

    2005-09-01

    Local anesthetics have been generally accepted as being safe. However, recent clinical trials and basic studies have provided strong evidence for the neurotoxicity of local anesthetics, especially through apoptosis. We hypothesized that local anesthetics cause neural complications through Schwann cell apoptosis. Among local anesthetics tested on the Schwann cell line, RT4-D6P2T, bupivacaine significantly induced cell death, measured by the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, in a dose- (LD50 = 476 microM) and time-dependent manner. The bupivacaine-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was initiated within 5 hrs and preceded the activation of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) degradation, was suggested to trigger apoptosis, exhibited by Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining and DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, concomitant block of ROS by anti-oxidants significantly inhibited bupivacaine-induced apoptosis. Among the local anesthetics for peripheral neural blocks, bupivacaine induced apoptosis in the Schwann cell line, which may be associated with ROS production.

  7. Morphological study of the TK cholangiocarcinoma cell line with three-dimensional cell culture.

    PubMed

    Akiyoshi, Kohei; Kamada, Minori; Akiyama, Nobutake; Suzuki, Masafumi; Watanabe, Michiko; Fujioka, Kouki; Ikeda, Keiichi; Mizuno, Shuichi; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2014-04-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is an intractable carcinoma originating from the bile duct epithelium. To gain an understanding of the cell biology of cholangiocarcinoma, in vitro cell culture is valuable. However, well‑characterized cell lines are limited. In the present study, the morphology of the TK cholangiocarcinoma cell line was analyzed by three‑dimensional culture. Dispersed TK cells were injected into a gelatin mesh scaffold and cultivated for 3‑20 days. The morphology of the TK cells was investigated by phase‑contrast microscopy, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TK cells were observed to proliferate three-dimensionally in the scaffold. The cells exhibited a globoid structure and attached to the scaffold. The SEM observation demonstrated typical microvilli and plicae on the surface of the structure. Light microscopy and TEM confirmed intercellular and cell‑to‑scaffold attachment in the three‑dimensional mesh. The culture also exhibited the formation of a duct-like structure covered by structured microvilli. In conclusion, three‑dimensional culture of TK cells demonstrated the morphological characteristics of cholangiocarcinoma in vitro. Production of high levels of carbohydrate antigen (CA)19‑9, CA50 and carcinoembryonic antigen was previously confirmed in the TK cell line. As a characteristic morphology was demonstrated in the present study, the TK cholangiocarcinoma cell line may be useful as an experimental model for further study of cholangiocarcinoma.

  8. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer Cell Lines by Interrupting Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ha; Park, Jong-Jae; Lee, Beom Jae; Joo, Moon Kyung; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Sang Woo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that has antioxidant, antitumoral, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this in vitro study, we investigated the mechanism of anticancer effects of astaxanthin in gastric carcinoma cell lines. Methods The human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines AGS, KATO-III, MKN-45, and SNU-1 were treated with various concentrations of astaxanthin. A cell viability test, cell cycle analysis, and immunoblotting were performed. Results The viability of each cancer cell line was suppressed by astaxanthin in a dose-dependent manner with significantly decreased proliferation in KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase but reduced the proportion of S phase KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was decreased in an inverse dose-dependent correlation with astaxanthin concentration, and the expression of p27kip-1 increased the KATO-III and SNU-1 cell lines in an astaxanthin dose-dependent manner. Conclusions Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation by interrupting cell cycle progression in KATO-III and SNU-1 gastric cancer cells. This may be caused by the inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK and the enhanced expression of p27kip-1. PMID:26470770

  9. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer Cell Lines by Interrupting Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ha; Park, Jong-Jae; Lee, Beom Jae; Joo, Moon Kyung; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Sang Woo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2016-05-23

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that has antioxidant, antitumoral, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this in vitro study, we investigated the mechanism of anticancer effects of astaxanthin in gastric carcinoma cell lines. The human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines AGS, KATO-III, MKN-45, and SNU-1 were treated with various concentrations of astaxanthin. A cell viability test, cell cycle analysis, and immunoblotting were performed. The viability of each cancer cell line was suppressed by astaxanthin in a dose-dependent manner with significantly decreased proliferation in KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase but reduced the proportion of S phase KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was decreased in an inverse dose-dependent correlation with astaxanthin concentration, and the expression of p27(kip-1) increased the KATO-III and SNU-1 cell lines in an astaxanthin dose-dependent manner. Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation by interrupting cell cycle progression in KATO-III and SNU-1 gastric cancer cells. This may be caused by the inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK and the enhanced expression of p27(kip-1).

  10. Generation of an immortalized mouse embryonic palatal mesenchyme cell line

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Palatogenesis is a complex morphogenetic process, disruptions in which result in highly prevalent birth defects in humans. In recent decades, the use of model systems such as genetically-modified mice, mouse palatal organ cultures and primary mouse embryonic palatal mesenchyme (MEPM) cultures has provided significant insight into the molecular and cellular defects underlying cleft palate. However, drawbacks in each of these systems have prevented high-throughput, large-scale studies of palatogenesis in vitro. Here, we report the generation of an immortalized MEPM cell line that maintains the morphology, migration ability, transcript expression and responsiveness to exogenous growth factors of primary MEPM cells, with increased proliferative potential over primary cultures. The immortalization method described in this study will facilitate the generation of palatal mesenchyme cells with an unlimited capacity for expansion from a single genetically-modified mouse embryo and enable mechanistic studies of palatogenesis that have not been possible using primary culture. PMID:28582446

  11. Alu expression in human cell lines and their retrotranspositional potential.

    PubMed

    Oler, Andrew J; Traina-Dorge, Stephen; Derbes, Rebecca S; Canella, Donatella; Cairns, Brad R; Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2012-06-20

    The vast majority of the 1.1 million Alu elements are retrotranspositionally inactive, where only a few loci referred to as 'source elements' can generate new Alu insertions. The first step in identifying the active Alu sources is to determine the loci transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III). Previous genome-wide analyses from normal and transformed cell lines identified multiple Alu loci occupied by pol III factors, making them candidate source elements. Analysis of the data from these genome-wide studies determined that the majority of pol III-bound Alus belonged to the older subfamilies Alu S and Alu J, which varied between cell lines from 62.5% to 98.7% of the identified loci. The pol III-bound Alus were further scored for estimated retrotransposition potential (ERP) based on the absence or presence of selected sequence features associated with Alu retrotransposition capability. Our analyses indicate that most of the pol III-bound Alu loci candidates identified lack the sequence characteristics important for retrotransposition. These data suggest that Alu expression likely varies by cell type, growth conditions and transformation state. This variation could extend to where the same cell lines in different laboratories present different Alu expression patterns. The vast majority of Alu loci potentially transcribed by RNA pol III lack important sequence features for retrotransposition and the majority of potentially active Alu loci in the genome (scored high ERP) belong to young Alu subfamilies. Our observations suggest that in an in vivo scenario, the contribution of Alu activity on somatic genetic damage may significantly vary between individuals and tissues.

  12. Telomere dynamics in an immortal human cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Murnane, J P; Sabatier, L; Marder, B A; Morgan, W F

    1994-01-01

    The integration of transfected plasmid DNA at the telomere of chromosome 13 in an immortalized simian virus 40-transformed human cell line provided the first opportunity to study polymorphism in the number of telomeric repeat sequences on the end of a single chromosome. Three subclones of this cell line were selected for analysis: one with a long telomere on chromosome 13, one with a short telomere, and one with such extreme polymorphism that no distinct band was discernible. Further subcloning demonstrated that telomere polymorphism resulted from both gradual changes and rapid changes that sometimes involved many kilobases. The gradual changes were due to the shortening of telomeres at a rate similar to that reported for telomeres of somatic cells without telomerase, eventually resulting in the loss of nearly all of the telomere. However, telomeres were not generally lost completely, as shown by the absence of polymorphism in the subtelomeric plasmid sequences. Instead, telomeres that were less than a few hundred base pairs in length showed a rapid, highly heterogeneous increase in size. Rapid changes in telomere length also occurred on longer telomeres. The frequency of this type of change in telomere length varied among the subclones and correlated with chromosome fusion. Therefore, the rapid changes in telomere length appeared occasionally to result in the complete loss of telomeric repeat sequences. Rapid changes in telomere length have been associated with telomere loss and chromosome instability in yeast and could be responsible for the high rate of chromosome fusion observed in many human tumor cell lines. Images PMID:7957062

  13. Spontaneous lung metastasis formation of human Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines transplanted into scid mice.

    PubMed

    Knips, Jill; Czech-Sioli, Manja; Spohn, Michael; Heiland, Max; Moll, Ingrid; Grundhoff, Adam; Schumacher, Udo; Fischer, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer entity that frequently leads to rapid death due to its high propensity to metastasize. The etiology of most MCC cases is linked to Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), a virus which is monoclonally integrated in up to 95% of tumors. While there are presently no animal models to study the role of authentic MCPyV infection on transformation, tumorigenesis or metastasis formation, xenograft mouse models employing engrafted MCC-derived cell lines (MCCL) represent a promising approach to study certain aspects of MCC pathogenesis. Here, the two MCPyV-positive MCC cell lines WaGa and MKL-1 were subcutaneously engrafted in scid mice. Engraftment of both MCC cell lines resulted in the appearance of circulating tumor cells and metastasis formation, with WaGa-engrafted mice showing a significantly shorter survival time as well as increased numbers of spontaneous lung metastases compared to MKL-1 mice. Interestingly, explanted tumors compared to parental cell lines exhibit an upregulation of MCPyV sT-Antigen expression in all tumors, with WaGa tumors showing significantly higher sT-Antigen expression than MKL-1 tumors. RNA-Seq analysis of explanted tumors and parental cell lines furthermore revealed that in the more aggressive WaGa tumors, genes involved in inflammatory response, growth factor activity and Wnt signalling pathway are significantly upregulated, suggesting that sT-Antigen is the driver of the observed differences in metastasis formation. © 2017 UICC.

  14. Transcriptional consequences of XPA disruption in human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Manandhar, Mandira; Lowery, Megan G.; Boulware, Karen S.; Lin, Kevin H.; Lu, Yue; Wood, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammalian cells requires the xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein (XPA) as a core factor. Remarkably, XPA and other NER proteins have been detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation at some active promoters, and NER deficiency is reported to influence the activated transcription of selected genes. However, the global influence of XPA on transcription in human cells has not been determined. We analyzed the human transcriptome by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). We first confirmed that XPA is confined to the cell nucleus even in the absence of external DNA damage, in contrast to previous reports that XPA is normally resident in the cytoplasm and is imported following DNA damage. We then analyzed four genetically matched human cell line pairs deficient or proficient in XPA. Of the ∼14,000 genes transcribed in each cell line, 325 genes (2%) had a significant XPA-dependent directional change in gene expression that was common to all four pairs (with a false discovery rate of 0.05). These genes were enriched in pathways for the maintenance of mitochondria. Only 27 common genes were different by more than 1.5-fold. The most significant hits were AKR1C1 and AKR1C2, involved in steroid hormone metabolism. AKR1C2 protein was lower in all of the immortalized XPA-deficient cells. Retinoic acid treatment led to modest XPA-dependent activation of some genes with transcription-related functions. We conclude that XPA status does not globally influence human gene transcription. However, XPA significantly influences expression of a small subset of genes important for mitochondrial functions and steroid hormone metabolism. The results may help explain defects in neurological function and sterility in individuals with xeroderma pigmentosum. PMID:28704716

  15. Improving the efficiency of CHO cell line generation using glutamine synthetase gene knockout cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lianchun; Kadura, Ibrahim; Krebs, Lara E; Hatfield, Christopher C; Shaw, Margaret M; Frye, Christopher C

    2012-04-01

    Although Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, with their unique characteristics, have become a major workhorse for the manufacture of therapeutic recombinant proteins, one of the major challenges in CHO cell line generation (CLG) is how to efficiently identify those rare, high-producing clones among a large population of low- and non-productive clones. It is not unusual that several hundred individual clones need to be screened for the identification of a commercial clonal cell line with acceptable productivity and growth profile making the cell line appropriate for commercial application. This inefficiency makes the process of CLG both time consuming and laborious. Currently, there are two main CHO expression systems, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-based methotrexate (MTX) selection and glutamine synthetase (GS)-based methionine sulfoximine (MSX) selection, that have been in wide industrial use. Since selection of recombinant cell lines in the GS-CHO system is based on the balance between the expression of the GS gene introduced by the expression plasmid and the addition of the GS inhibitor, L-MSX, the expression of GS from the endogenous GS gene in parental CHOK1SV cells will likely interfere with the selection process. To study endogenous GS expression's potential impact on selection efficiency, GS-knockout CHOK1SV cell lines were generated using the zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology designed to specifically target the endogenous CHO GS gene. The high efficiency (∼2%) of bi-allelic modification on the CHO GS gene supports the unique advantages of the ZFN technology, especially in CHO cells. GS enzyme function disruption was confirmed by the observation of glutamine-dependent growth of all GS-knockout cell lines. Full evaluation of the GS-knockout cell lines in a standard industrial cell culture process was performed. Bulk culture productivity improved two- to three-fold through the use of GS-knockout cells as parent cells. The selection stringency was

  16. Identification of tumor-initiating cells derived from two canine rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    KISHIMOTO, Takuya Evan; YASHIMA, Shoko; NAKAHIRA, Rei; ONOZAWA, Eri; AZAKAMI, Daigo; UJIKE, Makoto; OCHIAI, Kazuhiko; ISHIWATA, Toshiyuki; TAKAHASHI, Kimimasa; MICHISHITA, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are a small subpopulation of cells that have the capacity to self-renew, differentiate and initiate tumors. These cells may function in tumor initiation, aggression and recurrence. Whether spheres derived from canine rhabdomyosarcoma cells have stem cell-like properties is unclear. We induced sphere formation in the canine rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, CMS-C and CMS-J, and characterized the spheres in vitro and in vivo. Sphere-forming cells were more resistant to vincristine, mitoxantrone and doxorubicin than adherent cells. Xenograft transplantation demonstrated that 1 × 103 sphere-forming cells derived from CMS-C were sufficient for tumor formation. The sphere assay showed that the sphere-forming cells were present in these tumors. These results suggest that the spheres derived from canine rhabdomyosarcoma cells may possess characteristics of TICs. This study provides the foundation for elucidating the contribution of TICs to rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis. PMID:28529244

  17. Identification of tumor-initiating cells derived from two canine rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Takuya Evan; Yashima, Shoko; Nakahira, Rei; Onozawa, Eri; Azakami, Daigo; Ujike, Makoto; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Michishita, Masaki

    2017-07-07

    Cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are a small subpopulation of cells that have the capacity to self-renew, differentiate and initiate tumors. These cells may function in tumor initiation, aggression and recurrence. Whether spheres derived from canine rhabdomyosarcoma cells have stem cell-like properties is unclear. We induced sphere formation in the canine rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, CMS-C and CMS-J, and characterized the spheres in vitro and in vivo. Sphere-forming cells were more resistant to vincristine, mitoxantrone and doxorubicin than adherent cells. Xenograft transplantation demonstrated that 1 × 10 3 sphere-forming cells derived from CMS-C were sufficient for tumor formation. The sphere assay showed that the sphere-forming cells were present in these tumors. These results suggest that the spheres derived from canine rhabdomyosarcoma cells may possess characteristics of TICs. This study provides the foundation for elucidating the contribution of TICs to rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis.

  18. Functional somatostatin receptors on a rat pancreatic acinar cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Viguerie, N.; Tahiri-Jouti, N.; Esteve, J.P.

    1988-07-01

    Somatostatin receptors from a rat pancreatic acinar cell line, AR4-2J, were characterized biochemically, structurally, and functionally. Binding of {sup 125}I-(Tyr{sup 11})Somatostatin to AR4-2J cells was saturable, exhibiting a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a maximal binding capacity of 258 {plus minus} 20 fmol/10{sup 6} cells. Somatostatin receptor structure was analyzed by covalently cross-linking {sup 125}I-(Tyr{sup 11})somatostatin to its plasma membrane receptors. Gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of cross-linked proteins revealed a peptide containing the somatostatin receptor. Somatostatin inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) formation in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of somatostatin that caused half-maximal inhibitionmore » of cAMP formation was close to the receptor affinity for somatostatin. Pertussis toxin pretreatment of AR4-2J cells prevented somatostatin inhibition of VIP-stimulated cAMP formation as well as somatostatin binding. The authors conclude that AR4-2J cells exhibit functional somatostatin receptors that retain both specificity and affinity of the pancreatic acinar cell somatostatin receptors and act via the pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein N{sub i} to inhibit adenylate cyclase.« less

  19. Differentiation of a murine intestinal epithelial cell line (MIE) toward the M cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Takashi; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Takakura, Ikuro; Itani, Wataru; Watanabe, Kouichi; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Rose, Michael T; McConochie, Huw R; Okano, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Aso, Hisashi

    2008-08-01

    M cells are a kind of intestinal epithelial cell in the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches. These cells can transport antigens and microorganisms into underlying lymphoid tissues. Despite the important role of M cells in mucosal immune responses, the origin and mechanisms of differentiation as well as cell death of M cells remain unclear. To clarify the mechanism of M cell differentiation, we established a novel murine intestinal epithelial cell line (MIE) from the C57BL/6 mouse. MIE cells grow rapidly and have a cobblestone morphology, which is a typical feature of intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, they express cytokeratin, villin, cell-cell junctional proteins, and alkaline phosphatase activity and can form microvilli. Their expression of Musashi-1 antigen indicates that they may be close to intestinal stem cells or transit-amplifying cells. MIE cells are able to differentiate into the M cell lineage following coculture with intestinal lymphocytes, but not with Peyer's patch lymphocytes (PPL). However, PPL costimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 MAbs caused MIE cells to display typical features of M cells, such as transcytosis activity, the disorganization of microvilli, and the expression of M cell markers. This transcytosis activity of MIE cells was not induced by T cells isolated from PPL costimulated with the same MAbs and was reduced by the depletion of the T cell population from PPL. A mixture of T cells treated with MAbs and B cells both from PPL led MIE cells to differentiate into M cells. We report here that MIE cells have the potential ability to differentiate into M cells and that this differentiation required activated T cells and B cells.

  20. Reference Maps of Human ES and iPS Cell Variation Enable High-Throughput Characterization of Pluripotent Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Christoph; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Verstappen, Griet; Gu, Hongcang; Boulting, Gabriella; Smith, Zachary D.; Ziller, Michael; Croft, Gist F.; Amoroso, Mackenzie W.; Oakley, Derek H.; Gnirke, Andreas; Eggan, Kevin; Meissner, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The developmental potential of human pluripotent stem cells suggests that they can produce disease-relevant cell types for biomedical research. However, substantial variation has been reported among pluripotent cell lines, which could affect their utility and clinical safety. Such cell-line-specific differences must be better understood before one can confidently use embryonic stem (ES) or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in translational research. Toward this goal we have established genome-wide reference maps of DNA methylation and gene expression for 20 previously derived human ES lines and 12 human iPS cell lines, and we have measured the in vitro differentiation propensity of these cell lines. This resource enabled us to assess the epigenetic and transcriptional similarity of ES and iPS cells and to predict the differentiation efficiency of individual cell lines. The combination of assays yields a scorecard for quick and comprehensive characterization of pluripotent cell lines. PMID:21295703

  1. Establishment of immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines able to produce enucleated red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Ryo; Suda, Noriko; Sudo, Kazuhiro; Miharada, Kenichi; Hiroyama, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Kenzaburo; Nakamura, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is a standard and indispensable therapy in current clinical practice. In vitro production of RBCs offers a potential means to overcome a shortage of transfusable RBCs in some clinical situations and also to provide a source of cells free from possible infection or contamination by microorganisms. Thus, in vitro production of RBCs may become a standard procedure in the future. We previously reported the successful establishment of immortalized mouse erythroid progenitor cell lines that were able to produce mature RBCs very efficiently. Here, we have developed a reliable protocol for establishing immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines that are able to produce enucleated RBCs. These immortalized cell lines produce functional hemoglobin and express erythroid-specific markers, and these markers are upregulated following induction of differentiation in vitro. Most importantly, these immortalized cell lines all produce enucleated RBCs after induction of differentiation in vitro, although the efficiency of producing enucleated RBCs remains to be improved further. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the feasibility of using immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines as an ex vivo source for production of enucleated RBCs.

  2. Establishment of immortalized murine mesothelial cells and a novel mesothelioma cell line.

    PubMed

    Blum, Walter; Pecze, László; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Worthmüller-Rodriguez, Janine; Wu, Licun; Vrugt, Bart; de Perrot, Marc; Schwaller, Beat

    2015-08-01

    Mesothelial cells are susceptible to asbestos fiber-induced cytotoxicity and on longer time scales to transformation; the resulting mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm that is considered as incurable at the present time Zucali et al. (Cancer Treatment Reviews 37:543-558, 2011). Only few murine cell culture models of immortalized mesothelial cells and mesothelioma cell lines exist to date. We generated SV40-immortalized cell lines derived from wild-type (WT) and neurofibromatosis 2 (merlin) heterozygote (Nf2+/-) mice, both on a commonly used genetic background, C57Bl/6J. All immortalized mesothelial clones consistently grow in DMEM supplemented with fetal bovine serum. Cells can be passaged for more than 40 times without any signs of morphological changes or a decrease in proliferation rate. The tumor suppressor gene NF2 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human mesothelioma, but its detailed function is still unknown. Thus, these genotypically distinct cell lines likely relevant for malignant mesothelioma formation are expected to serve as useful in vitro models, in particular to compare with in vivo studies in mice of the same genotype. Furthermore, we generated a novel murine mesothelioma cell line RN5 originating from an Nf2+/- mouse subjected to repeated crocidolite exposure. RN5 cells are highly tumorigenic.

  3. Establishment and characterization of three immortal bovine muscular epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xun; Lee, Joong-Seob; Kwak, Sungwook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Jung, Ji-Eun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Xu, Chenxiong; Hong, Zhongshan; Li, Zhehu; Kim, Sun-Myung; Pian, Xumin; Lee, Dong-Hee; Yoon, Jong-Taek; You, Seungkwon; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Kim, Huunggee

    2006-02-28

    We have established three immortal bovine muscular epithelial (BME) cell lines, one spontaneously immortalized (BMES), the second SV40LT-mediated (BMEV) and the third hTERT-mediated (BMET). The morphology of the three immortal cell lines was similar to that of early passage primary BME cells. Each of the immortal cell lines made cytokeratin, a typical epithelial marker. BMET grew faster than the other immortal lines and the BME cells, in 10% FBS-DMEM medium, whereas neither the primary cells nor the three immortal cell lines grew in 0.5% FBS-DMEM. The primary BME cells and the immortal cell lines, with the exception of BMES, made increasing amounts of p53 protein when treated with doxorubicin, a DNA damaging agent. On the other hand, almost half of the cells in populations of the three immortal cell lines may lack p16(INK4a) regulatory function, compared to primary BME cells that were growth arrested by enforced expression of p16(INK4a). In soft-agar assays, the primary cells and immortal cell lines proved to be less transformed in phenotype than HeLa cells. The three immortal epithelial-type cell lines reported here are the first cell lines established from muscle tissue of bovine or other species.

  4. Incorrect strain information for mouse cell lines: sequential influence of misidentification on sublines.

    PubMed

    Uchio-Yamada, Kozue; Kasai, Fumio; Ozawa, Midori; Kohara, Arihiro

    2017-03-01

    Misidentification or cross-contamination of cell lines can cause serious issues. Human cell lines have been authenticated by short tandem repeat profiling; however, mouse cell lines have not been adequately assessed. In this study, mouse cell lines registered with the JCRB cell bank were examined by simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) analysis to identify their strains. Based on comparisons with 7 major inbred strains, our results revealed their strains in 80 of 90 cell lines. However, 12 of the 80 cell lines (15%) were found to differ from registered information. Of them, 4 cell lines originated from the same mouse, which had been generated through mating between two different inbred strains. The genotype of the mouse sample had not been examined after the backcross, leading to strain misidentification in those cell lines. Although 8 other cell lines had been established as sublines of a BALB/c cell line, their SSLP profiles are similar to a Swiss cell line. This affects differences in genotypes between inbred and outbred strains. Because the use of inbred samples and interbreeding between strains are not involved in human materials, our results suggest that the cause and influence of misidentification in mouse cell lines are different from those in human.

  5. Continuous hematopoietic cell lines as model systems for leukemia-lymphoma research.

    PubMed

    Drexler, H G; Matsuo, A Y; MacLeod, R A

    2000-11-01

    Along with other improvements, the advent of continuous human leukemia-lymphoma (LL) cell lines as a rich resource of abundant, accessible and manipulable living cells has contributed significantly to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hematopoietic tumors. The first LL cell lines, Burkitt's lymphoma-derived lines, were established in 1963. Since then, more than 1000 cell lines have been described, although not all of them in full detail. The major advantages of continuous cell lines is the unlimited supply and worldwide availability of identical cell material, and the infinite viable storability in liquid nitrogen. LL cell lines are characterized generally by monoclonal origin and differentiation arrest, sustained proliferation in vitro under preservation of most cellular features, and specific genetic alterations. The most practical classification of LL cell lines assigns them to one of the physiologically occurring cell lineages, based on their immunophenotype, genotype and functional features. Truly malignant cell lines must be discerned from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalized normal cells, using various distinguishing parameters. However, the picture is not quite so straightforward, as some types of LL cell lines are indeed EBV+, and some EBV+ normal cell lines carry also genetic aberrations and may mimic malignancy-associated features. Apart from EBV and human T-cell leukemia virus in some lines, the majority of wild-type LL cell lines are virus-negative. The efficiency of cell line establishment is rather low and the deliberate establishment of new LL cell lines remains by and large an unpredictable random process. Difficulties in establishing continuous cell lines may be caused by the inappropriate selection of nutrients and growth factors for these cells. Clearly, a generally suitable microenvironment for hematopoietic cells, either malignant or normal, cannot yet be created in vitro. The characterization and publication of new LL cell

  6. Novel antiproliferative flavonoids induce cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Haddad, A Q; Venkateswaran, V; Viswanathan, L; Teahan, S J; Fleshner, N E; Klotz, L H

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an inverse association between flavonoid intake and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. The East Asian diet is very high in flavonoids and, correspondingly, men in China and Japan have the lowest incidence of PCa worldwide. There are thousands of different naturally occurring and synthetic flavonoids. However, only a few have been studied in PCa. Our aim was to identify novel flavonoids with antiproliferative effect in PCa cell lines, as well as determine their effects on cell cycle. We have screened a representative subgroup of 26 flavonoids for antiproliferative effect on the human PCa (LNCaP and PC3), breast cancer (MCF-7), and normal prostate stromal cell lines (PrSC). Using a fluorescence-based cell proliferation assay (Cyquant), we have identified five flavonoids, including the novel compounds 2,2'-dihydroxychalcone and fisetin, with antiproliferative and cell cycle arresting properties in human PCa in vitro. Most of the flavonoids tested exerted antiproliferative effect at lower doses in the PCa cell lines compared to the non-PCa cells. Flow cytometry was used as a means to determine the effects on cell cycle. PC3 cells were arrested in G2/M phase by flavonoids. LNCaP cells demonstrated different cell cycle profiles. Further studies are warranted to determine the molecular mechanism of action of 2,2'-DHC and fisetin in PCa, and to establish their effectiveness in vivo.

  7. Leukemia-lymphoma cell lines as model systems for hematopoietic research.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Hans G; MacLeod, Roderick A F

    2003-01-01

    Continuous human leukemia-lymphoma (LL) cell lines comprise a rich self-renewing resource of accessible and manipulable living cells which has illuminated the pathophysiology of hematopoietic tumors as well as basic cell biology. The major key advantages of continuous cell lines are the unlimited supply and worldwide availability of identical cell material and their cryopreservation. LL cell lines are characterized generally by monoclonal origin and differentiation arrest, sustained proliferation in vitro with preservation of most cellular features, and specific genetic alterations. The most practical classification of LL cell lines assigns them to one of the physiologically occurring cell lineages, based on their immunophenotype, genotype and functional features. Truly malignant cell lines may be distinguished from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalized normal cells, using various operational and conceptual parameters. The characterization and publication of new LL cell lines provides important and informative core data which, by opening new avenues for investigation, have become ubiquitous powerful research tools that are available to every investigator by reference cell repositories. There is a need in the scientific community for clean and authenticated LL cell lines to which every scientist has access as offered by these institutionalized public cell line banks. A list of the most useful, robust and freely available reference cell lines is proposed in this review. Clearly, studies of LL cell lines have provided seminal insights into the biology of hematopoietic neoplasia.

  8. Two clonal cell lines of immortalized human corneal endothelial cells show either differentiated or precursor cell characteristics.

    PubMed

    Valtink, Monika; Gruschwitz, Rita; Funk, Richard H W; Engelmann, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Access to primary human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) is limited and donor-derived differences between cultures exacerbate the issue of data reproducibility, whereas cell lines can provide sufficient numbers of homogenous cells for multiple experiments. An immortalized HCEC population was adapted to serum-free culture medium and repeated cloning was performed. Clonally grown cells were propagated under serum-free conditions and growth curves were recorded. Cells were characterized immunocytochemically for junctional proteins, collagens, Na,K-ATPase and HCEC-specific 9.3.E-antigen. Ultrastructure was monitored by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Two clonal cell lines, HCEC-B4G12 and HCEC-H9C1, could be isolated and expanded, which differed morphologically: B4G12 cells were polygonal, strongly adherent and formed a strict monolayer, H9C1 cells were less adherent and formed floating spheres. The generation time of B4G12 cells was 62.26 +/- 14.5 h and that of H9C1 cells 44.05 +/- 5.05 h. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that B4G12 cells had a smooth cell surface, while H9C1 cells had numerous thin filopodia. Both cell lines expressed ZO-1 and occludin adequately, and little but well detectable amounts of connexin-43. Expression of HCEC-specific 9.3.E-antigen was found commensurately in both cell lines, while expression of Na,K-ATPase alpha1 was higher in H9C1 cells than in B4G12 cells. B4G12 cells expressed collagen IV abundantly and almost no collagen III, while H9C1 cells expressed both collagens at reasonable amounts. It is concluded that the clonal cell line B4G12 represents an ideal model of differentiated HCEC, while H9C1 may reflect features of developing or transitional HCEC. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Adventitious viruses in insect cell lines used for recombinant protein expression.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2018-04-01

    Insect cells are widely used for recombinant protein expression, typically as hosts for recombinant baculovirus vectors, but also for plasmid-mediated transient transfection or stable genetic transformation. Insect cells are used to express proteins for research, as well as to manufacture biologicals for human and veterinary medicine. Recently, several insect cell lines used for recombinant protein expression were found to be persistently infected with adventitious viruses. This has raised questions about how these infections might affect research performed using those cell lines. Furthermore, these findings raised serious concerns about the safety of biologicals produced using those cell lines. In response, new insect cell lines lacking adventitious viruses have been isolated for use as improved research tools and safer biological manufacturing platforms. Here, we review the scientific and patent literature on adventitious viruses found in insect cell lines, affected cell lines, and new virus-free cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Purification of Recombinant Ebola Virus Glycoprotein and VP40 from a Human Cell Line

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    from a human cell line. Plasmids coding for the expression of these proteins were transiently transfected into human embryonic kidney cells 293 and...protein expression. Expi293F cells were derived from the line of human embryonic kidney cells 293 (i.e., HEK293 cells), and they were grown in a

  11. Response of a mouse hybridoma cell line to heat shock, agitation, and sparging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passini, Cheryl A.; Goochee, Charles F.

    1989-01-01

    A mouse hybridoma cell line is used as a model system for studying the effect of environmental stress on attachment-independent mammalian cells. The full time course of recovery for a mouse hybridoma cell line from both a mild and intermediate heat shock is examined. The pattern of intracellular synthesis is compared for actively growing, log phase cells and nondividing, stationary phase cells.

  12. Establishment of an ASPL-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma cell line (S-TFE)

    PubMed Central

    Hirobe, Megumi; Masumori, Naoya; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2013-01-01

    Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma is a rare disease diagnosed in children and adolescents in the advanced stage with an aggressive clinical course. Various gene fusions including the transcription factor E3 (TFE3) gene located on chromosome X cause the tumor. We established an Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma cell line from a renal tumor in a 18-y-old Japanese female and named it “S-TFE.” The cell line and its xenograft demonstrated definite gene fusion including TFE3. They showed strong nuclear staining for TFE3 in immunohistochemistry, TFE3 gene rearrangement in dual-color, break-apart FISH analysis and ASPL-TFE3 type 1 fusion transcripts detected by RT-PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Although many renal cell carcinoma cell lines have been established and investigated, only a few cell lines are recognized as Xp11.2 translocation carcinoma. S-TFE will be useful to examine the characteristics and drug susceptibility of Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma. PMID:23760492

  13. Establishment of an ASPL-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma cell line (S-TFE).

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Megumi; Masumori, Naoya; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2013-06-01

    Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma is a rare disease diagnosed in children and adolescents in the advanced stage with an aggressive clinical course. Various gene fusions including the transcription factor E3 (TFE3) gene located on chromosome X cause the tumor. We established an Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma cell line from a renal tumor in a 18-y-old Japanese female and named it "S-TFE." The cell line and its xenograft demonstrated definite gene fusion including TFE3. They showed strong nuclear staining for TFE3 in immunohistochemistry, TFE3 gene rearrangement in dual-color, break-apart FISH analysis and ASPL-TFE3 type 1 fusion transcripts detected by RT-PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Although many renal cell carcinoma cell lines have been established and investigated, only a few cell lines are recognized as Xp11.2 translocation carcinoma. S-TFE will be useful to examine the characteristics and drug susceptibility of Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma.

  14. Finite cell lines of turkey sperm storage tubule cells: ultrastructure and protein analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cell lines of turkey sperm storage tubule (SST) epithelial cells were established. Turkey SSTs were dissected from freshly obtained uterovaginal junction (UVJ) tissue and placed in explants culture on various substrates and media. Primary cultures of SST epithelium only survived and grew from SST ex...

  15. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Qin, J-Z; Xin, H; Nickoloff, B J

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Immortal hepatic stellate cell lines: useful tools to study hepatic stellate cell biology and function?

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Jens; Gressner, Axel M; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Abstract At the cellular level, the activation and transdifferentiation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSC) into myofibroblasts is the key process involved in hepatic fibrogenesis that is associated with an increased and altered deposition of extracellular matrix components in the liver. The temporal sequence of molecular events associated with stellate cell activation turned out to be appropriately mimicked when HSC isolated from normal livers are cultured on uncoated plastic surface. Therefore, cultured primary cells isolated from rodents and human beings are common in vitro models in investigations addressing these issues of hepatic stellate biology and function. However, the limited supply, cost-effective isolation procedure and the ever growing need have resulted in efforts to establish immortalized stellate cell lines having the advantage of virtually unlimited access. They allow rapid screening for disease-associated factors and restrict the necessary number of animal experiments. From the first description of an immortal HSC line in 1986, a huge number of studies were conducted with these established cell lines. However, differences in morphology, growth characteristics and anomalies of chromosome number and structure make the applications of these models questionable. Here, we summarize the history and cellular characteristics of respective cell lines and discuss the differences of continuous HSC lines and their primary counterparts. PMID:17760834

  17. Immortal hepatic stellate cell lines: useful tools to study hepatic stellate cell biology and function?

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Jens; Gressner, Axel M; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    At the cellular level, the activation and transdifferentiation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSC) into myofibroblasts is the key process involved in hepatic fibrogenesis that is associated with an increased and altered deposition of extracellular matrix components in the liver. The temporal sequence of molecular events associated with stellate cell activation turned out to be appropriately mimicked when HSC isolated from normal livers are cultured on uncoated plastic surface. Therefore, cultured primary cells isolated from rodents and human beings are common in vitro models in investigations addressing these issues of hepatic stellate biology and function. However, the limited supply, cost-effective isolation procedure and the ever growing need have resulted in efforts to establish immortalized stellate cell lines having the advantage of virtually unlimited access. They allow rapid screening for disease-associated factors and restrict the necessary number of animal experiments. From the first description of an immortal HSC line in 1986, a huge number of studies were conducted with these established cell lines. However, differences in morphology, growth characteristics and anomalies of chromosome number and structure make the applications of these models questionable. Here, we summarize the history and cellular characteristics of respective cell lines and discuss the differences of continuous HSC lines and their primary counterparts.

  18. 76 FR 16609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National Institute of... by short tandem repeat (STR) profiling up to 1500 human cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All data and corresponding information will be posted in a publically...

  19. Effects of Notch2 and Notch3 on Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis of Trophoblast Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Xiu; Zhuang, Xu; Huang, Tao-Tao; Feng, Ran; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Notch2 and Notch3 on cell proliferation and apoptosis of two trophoblast cell lines, BeWo and JAR. Notch2 and Notch3 expression in BeWo and JAR cells was upregulated or downregulated using lentivirus-mediated overexpression or RNA interference. The effect of Notch2 and Notch3 on cell proliferation was assessed by the CCK-8 assay. The effect of Notch2 and Notch3 on the apoptosis of BeWo and JAR cells was evaluated by flow cytometry using the Annexin V-PE Apoptosis kit. Lentivirus-based overexpression vectors were constructed by cloning the full-length coding sequences of human Notch2 and Notch3 C-terminally tagged with GFP or GFP alone (control) into a lentivirus-based expression vector. Lentivirus-based gene silencing vectors were prepared by cloning small interfering sequences targeting human Notch2 and Notch3 and scrambled control RNA sequence into a lentivirus-based gene knockdown vector. The effect of Notch2 and Notch3 on cell proliferation was assessed by the CCK-8 assay. And the effect of Notch2 and Notch3 on the apoptosis of BeWo and JAR cells was evaluated by flow cytometry using the Annexin V PE Apoptosis kit. We found that the downregulation of Notch2 and Notch3 gene expression in BeWo and JAR cells resulted in an increase in cell proliferation, while upregulation of Notch3 and Notch2 expression led to a decrease in cell proliferation. Moreover, the overexpression of Notch3 and Notch2 in BeWo and JAR cells reduced apoptosis in these trophoblast cell lines, whereas apoptosis was increased in the cells in which the expression of Notch3 and Notch2 was downregulated. Notch2 and Notch3 inhibited both cell proliferation and cell apoptosis in BeWo and JAR trophoblast cell lines.

  20. Seven diverse human embryonic stem cell-derived chondrogenic clonal embryonic progenitor cell lines display site-specific cell fates.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Hal; Kidd, Jennifer; Murai, James T; Jiang, Jianjie; Rinon, Ariel; Erickson, Isaac E; Funk, Walter D; Wang, Qian; Chapman, Karen B; Vangsness, C Thomas; West, Michael D

    2013-03-01

    The transcriptomes of seven diverse clonal human embryonic progenitor cell lines with chondrogenic potential were compared with that of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The cell lines 4D20.8, 7PEND24, 7SMOO32, E15, MEL2, SK11 and SM30 were compared with MSCs using immunohistochemical methods, gene expression microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR. In the undifferentiated progenitor state, each line displayed unique combinations of site-specific markers, including AJAP1, ALDH1A2, BMP5, BARX1, HAND2, HOXB2, LHX1, LHX8, PITX1, TBX15 and ZIC2, but none of the lines expressed the MSC marker CD74. The lines showed diverse responses when differentiated in the presence of combinations of TGF-β3, BMP2, 4, 6 and 7 and GDF5, with the lines 4D20.8, SK11, SM30 and MEL2 showing osteogenic markers in some differentiation conditions. The line 7PEND24 showed evidence of regenerating articular cartilage and, in some conditions, markers of tendon differentiation. The scalability of site-specific clonal human embryonic stem cell-derived embryonic progenitor cell lines may provide novel models for the study of differentiation and methods for preparing purified and identified cells types for use in therapy.

  1. Cell lines derived from feline fibrosarcoma display unstable chromosomal aneuploidy and additionally centrosome number aberrations.

    PubMed

    von Erichsen, J; Hecht, W; Löhberg-Gruene, C; Reinacher, M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate clonality and presence of numerical chromosomal and centrosomal aberrations in 5 established feline fibrosarcoma cell lines and in a fetal dermal fibroblast cell line as a control. The clonality of all cell lines was examined using limited-dilution cloning. The number of chromosomes was counted in metaphase spreads. The immunocytochemical analysis of centrosome numbers was performed by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody that targets γ-tubulin, a well-characterized component of centrosomes. Monoclonal cell populations could be established from all cell lines. In all feline fibrosarcoma cell lines, the number of chromosomes deviated abnormally from the normal feline chromosome number of 2n = 38, ranging from 19 to 155 chromosomes per cell. Centrosome hyperamplification was observed in all 5 feline fibrosarcoma cell lines with a proportion of cells (5.7 to 15.2%) having more than 2 centrosomes. In the control cell line, only 0.6% of the cells had more than 2 centrosomes. In conclusion, the examinations revealed that centrosome hyperamplification occurs in feline fibrosarcoma cell lines. The feline fibrosarcoma cell lines possessed 10 to 25 times as many cells with centrosome hyperamplification as the control cell line. These observations suggest an association of numerical centrosome aberrations with karyotype instability by increasing the frequency of chromosome missegregation. The results of this study may be helpful for further characterization of feline fibrosarcomas and may contribute to the knowledge of cytogenetic factors that may be important for the pathogenesis of feline fibrosarcomas.

  2. Generation of genome-modified Drosophila cell lines using SwAP.

    PubMed

    Franz, Alexandra; Brunner, Erich; Basler, Konrad

    2017-10-02

    The ease of generating genetically modified animals and cell lines has been markedly increased by the recent development of the versatile CRISPR/Cas9 tool. However, while the isolation of isogenic cell populations is usually straightforward for mammalian cell lines, the generation of clonal Drosophila cell lines has remained a longstanding challenge, hampered by the difficulty of getting Drosophila cells to grow at low densities. Here, we describe a highly efficient workflow to generate clonal Cas9-engineered Drosophila cell lines using a combination of cell pools, limiting dilution in conditioned medium and PCR with allele-specific primers, enabling the efficient selection of a clonal cell line with a suitable mutation profile. We validate the protocol by documenting the isolation, selection and verification of eight independently Cas9-edited armadillo mutant Drosophila cell lines. Our method provides a powerful and simple workflow that improves the utility of Drosophila cells for genetic studies with CRISPR/Cas9.

  3. The use of human tumour cell lines in the discovery of new cancer chemotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Bruce C; Marshall, Elaine S

    2008-02-01

    Human tumour cell lines have played a major role in anticancer drug discovery, but cell lines may model only some aspects of tumour behaviour in cancer patients. Growing evidence supports a theory that stem cells with self-renewing properties sustain tumours. This review considers the extent to which a deeper understanding of the origin and properties of tumour cell lines might lead to new strategies for anticancer drug discovery. Recent literature on normal and tumour stem cells is reviewed and placed in the context of a discussion on the derivation and properties of tumour cell lines. Early-passage cell lines may model the more rapidly proliferating cells in human tumours and, thus, retain some of the properties of tumour stem cells. The effects of anticancer drugs on cell lines should be considered not only with regards to the induction of apoptosis, but also to the induction of senescence or other pathways that lead to host immune and inflammatory responses.

  4. Cloning of an osteoblastic cell line involved in the formation of osteoclast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Asano, K; Takahashi, N; Akatsu, T; Udagawa, N; Sasaki, T; Martin, T J; Suda, T

    1990-12-01

    Experiments have been carried out to determine the mechanisms involved in the formation of osteoclast-like cells from spleen cells in mice. Osteoclasts were defined as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells (TRACP-positive MNCs) in which specific calcitonin receptors were identified by autoradiography with labeled salmon calcitonin. Furthermore, cultures rich in these cells produced resorption pits when grown on dentine slices. Several clonal cell lines were obtained from fetal mouse calvariae and screened for their ability to induce TRACP-positive MNCs in response to 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1 alpha, 25(OH)2D3] in co-cultures with spleen cells. A cell line, KS-4, was identified with the greatest potency in inducing osteoclast-like cell formation in co-culture with spleen cells. The capacity of KS-4 cells to produce this effect was much greater than that of two bone marrow-derived stromal cell lines (MC3T3-G2/PA6 and ST2 cells), which we have previously shown to be effective in this system but to require treatment with dexamethasone in addition to 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D3 (Udagawa et al.: Endocrinology 125:1805-1813, 1989). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increased cAMP production in KS-4 cells, and PTH and interleukin-1 alpha also induced TRACP-positive MNCs in co-cultures with spleen cells. Contact between living KS-4 and spleen cells was necessary for osteoclast formation to take place, since this did not occur when the two populations were separated by a membrane filter, or when the KS-4 cells were killed by fixation. Separate cultures of either spleen cells or KS-4 cells formed no TRACP-positive MNCs. KS-4 cells synthesized predominantly type I collagen, formed bone nodules without added of beta-glycerophosphate in a long-term culture, and expressed increasing alkaline phosphatase activity after confluence in culture. These results indicate that the KS-4 cells have properties consistent with progression toward the osteoblast phenotype

  5. Utility of human embryonic kidney cell line HEK-293 for rapid isolation of fixed and street rabies viruses: comparison with Neuro-2a and BHK-21 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Sundaramoorthy, Subha; Ullas, Padinjaremattatthil Thankappan

    2010-12-01

    A confirmatory rabies diagnosis can be achieved by rapid virus isolation in cell culture using brain tissue from the suspect animal. Several cell lines have been used for this purpose and the murine neuroblastoma cell line Neuro-2a has been found to be the most sensitive. The human embryonic kidney cell line HEK-293 is known to express several neuronal proteins and is believed to be of neuronal origin. We hypothesized that this cell line could be susceptible to rabies virus, which is highly neurotropic. First we tested the sensitivity of HEK-293 cells to the laboratory strain, challenge virus standard (CVS). We then tested 120 brain samples from different animals and humans suspected to have died of rabies by fluorescent antibody test (FAT). Both FAT-positive and FAT-negative brains were tested for virus isolation using Neuro-2a, BHK-21, and HEK-293 cell lines and also by mouse inoculation. There was 100% correlation between FAT, virus isolation in Neuro-2a and HEK-293 cells, and mouse inoculation. However, the rate of virus isolation in the BHK-21 cell line was only 28% when compared to the other cell lines. The sensitivity of HEK-293 to CVS strain of virus was similar to that of Neuro-2a. We conclude that the HEK-293 cell line is as sensitive as the Neuro-2a cell line for the rapid isolation of rabies virus and may serve as an alternative cell line for rabies diagnosis and future research. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nucleotide composition analysis of tRNA from leukemia patient cell samples and human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Agris, P F

    1975-01-01

    A technique developed for analysis of less than microgram quantities of tRNA has been applied to the study of human leukemia. Leucocytes from peripheal blood and bone marrow samples of six, untreated leukemia patients and cells of five different established human cell lines were maintained for 18 hours in media containing (32P)-phosphate. Incorporation of radioactive phosphate into the cells from the patient samples was slightly less than that of the cell lines. Likewise, incorporation of (32P)-phosphate into the tRNA of the patient samples (approximately 5 x 106 DPM/mug tRNA) was also less then that incorporated into the tRNA of the cell lines. The major and minor nucleotide compositions of the unfractionated tRNA preparations from each patient sample and each cell line were determined and compared. Similarities and differences in the major and minor nucleotide compositions of the tRNA preparations are discussed with reference to types of leukemia and the importance of patient sample analysis versus analysis of cultured human cells. PMID:1057159

  7. Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres of two 4-cell stage embryos

    PubMed Central

    Geens, Mieke; Mateizel, Ileana; Sermon, Karen; De Rycke, Martine; Spits, Claudia; Cauffman, Greet; Devroey, Paul; Tournaye, Herman; Liebaers, Inge; Van de Velde, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recently, we demonstrated that single blastomeres of a 4-cell stage human embryo are able to develop into blastocysts with inner cell mass and trophectoderm. To further investigate potency at the 4-cell stage, we aimed to derive pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) from single blastomeres. METHODS Four 4-cell stage embryos were split on Day 2 of preimplantation development and the 16 blastomeres were individually cultured in sequential medium. On Day 3 or 4, the blastomere-derived embryos were plated on inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). RESULTS Ten out of sixteen blastomere-derived morulae attached to the MEFs, and two produced an outgrowth. They were mechanically passaged onto fresh MEFs as described for blastocyst ICM-derived hESC, and shown to express the typical stemness markers by immunocytochemistry and/or RT–PCR. In vivo pluripotency was confirmed by the presence of all three germ layers in the teratoma obtained after injection in immunodeficient mice. The first hESC line displays a mosaic normal/abnormal 46, XX, dup(7)(q33qter), del(18)(q23qter) karyotype. The second hESC line displays a normal 46, XY karyotype. CONCLUSION We report the successful derivation and characterization of two hESC lines from single blastomeres of four split 4-cell stage human embryos. These two hESC lines were derived from distinct embryos, proving that at least one of the 4-cell stage blastomeres is pluripotent. PMID:19633307

  8. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, J.-Z.; Xin, H.; Nickoloff, B.J., E-mail: bnickol@lumc.edu

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cellmore » killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.« less

  9. Canine corneal epithelial cells possess a sustained proliferative capacity and generate a spontaneously derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Morita, Maresuke; Fujita, Naoki; Abe, Momoko; Hayashimoto, Koji; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Nishimura, Ryohei; Tsuzuki, Keiko

    2018-06-01

    We have previously reported characteristics of canine corneal epithelial cells in vitro and found that canine corneal epithelial cells could maintain their proliferative capacity even after continuous culture without the use of feeder cells and growth promoting additives. The objective of this study was to elucidate proliferative characteristics of canine corneal epithelial cells independent of feeder cells and growth promoting additives, with the aim of developing a spontaneously derived corneal epithelial cell line. Canine and rabbit corneal epithelial cells were harvested from the limbus and cultured with, or without, feeder cells and growth promoting additives, and both were passaged continuously until growth arrest. Canine corneal epithelial cells could proliferate independently, and could be passaged more times than rabbit cells. A canine corneal epithelial cell line, cCEpi, which could be passaged more than 100 times without using feeder cells and growth promoting additives, was established. cCEpi cells maintained a cell morphology close to the primary culture and expressed p63, cytokeratin 15 (K15), and K3. Although changes in colony morphology, shortening of the population doubling time and a heteroploid karyotype were observed, cCEpi was not tumorigenic. Stratified cell sheets cultured from cCEpi were morphologically and immunohistologically similar to sheets cultivated from early passage cells. In conclusion, canine corneal epithelial cells can proliferate independent of feeder cells and growth promoting additives. cCEpi maintains properties similar to normal corneal epithelial cells and could be a useful source for studies in cellular biology and for developing novel therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and characterization of two cell lines PDF and PDH from Puntius denisonii (Day 1865).

    PubMed

    Lakra, Wazir S; Goswami, M; Yadav, Kamalendra; Gopalakrishnan, A; Patiyal, R S; Singh, M

    2011-02-01

    The Puntius denisonii colloquially and more popularly referred to as Miss Kerala is a subtropical fish belonging to the genus Puntius (Barb) and family Cyprinidae. Two cell lines PDF and PDH were developed from the caudal fin and heart of P. denisonii, respectively. The cell lines were optimally maintained at 26°C in Leibovitz-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. A diploid count of 50 chromosomes at passage 50 was observed in both the cell lines. The high growth potential of the cell lines was reflected from the cell doubling time of 28 and 30 h of PDF and PDH cell lines, respectively. The viability of the PDF and PDH cell lines was 70% and 76%, respectively, after 4 mo of storage in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The origin of the cell lines was confirmed by the amplification of 653 bp fragments of cytochrome oxidase subunit I of mitochondrial DNA genes.

  11. Lung Cancer Cell Lines as Tools for Biomedical Discovery and Research

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Luc; Lockwood, William W.; Lam, Wan L.; Minna, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer cell lines have made a substantial contribution to lung cancer translational research and biomedical discovery. A systematic approach to initiating and characterizing cell lines from small cell and non–small cell lung carcinomas has led to the current collection of more than 200 lung cancer cell lines, a number that exceeds those for other common epithelial cancers combined. The ready availability and widespread dissemination of the lines to investigators worldwide have resulted in more than 9000 citations, including multiple examples of important biomedical discoveries. The high (but not perfect) genomic similarities between lung cancer cell lines and the lung tumor type from which they were derived provide evidence of the relevance of their use. However, major problems including misidentification or cell line contamination remain. Ongoing studies and new approaches are expected to reveal the full potential of the lung cancer cell line panel. PMID:20679594

  12. Apigenin inhibited hypoxia induced stem cell marker expression in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ketkaew, Yuwaporn; Osathanon, Thanaphum; Pavasant, Prasit; Sooampon, Sireerat

    2017-02-01

    Cancer stem cells contribute to tumor recurrence, and a hypoxic environment is critical for maintaining cancer stem cells. Apigenin is a natural product with anticancer activity. However, the effect of apigenin on cancer stem cells remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of apigenin on cancer stem cell marker expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells under hypoxia. We used three head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines; HN-8, HN-30, and HSC-3. The mRNA expression of cancer stem cell markers was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Real-time PCR. The cytotoxic effect of apigenin was determined by MTT colorimetric assay. Flow cytometry was used to reveal the number of cells expressing cancer stem cell surface markers. HN-30 cells, a cancer cell line from the pharynx, showed the greatest response to hypoxia by increasing their expression of CD44, CD105, NANOG, OCT-4, REX-1, and VEGF. Apigenin significantly decreased HN-30 cell viability in dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, 40μM apigenin significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression of CD44, NANOG, and CD105. Consistent with these results, the hypoxia-induced increase in CD44 + cells, CD105 + cells, and STRO-1 + cells was significantly abolished by apigenin. Apigenin suppresses cancer stem cell marker expression and the number of cells expressing cell surface markers under hypoxia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Autologous regulatory T cells can suppress the proliferation of lymphoma cell line in vitro].

    PubMed

    Ying, Zhi-Tao; Guo, Jun; Ren, Jun; Kong, Yan; Yuan, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Xi-Juan; Zhang, Chen; Zheng, Wen; Song, Yu-Qin; Zhang, Yun-Tao; Zhu, Jun

    2009-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of regulatory T (Treg) cells on the T cell lymphoma EL4 cell line and to explore its mechanism. C57BL/6 Mouse Treg cells were isolated by MACS (magnetic cell sorting). The purity and the expression of Foxp3 were detected by flow cytometry. The suppressive effect of sorted Treg cells on EL4 cells was detected by MTT assay. The secretion of TGF-beta1 and IL-10 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells could be successfully isolated by MACS with the purity reaching 91.6% and the expression level of Foxp3 was 78.9%. The ratio of viable cells was more than 95%. Regulatory T cells could suppress the proliferation of EL4 cells effectively in the presence of antigen presenting cells (APCs). And the suppressive effect was most significant at 1:1 ratio. In addition, the suppression still existed without APCs. TGF-beta1 and IL-10 could not be detected by ELISA. It is concluded that the Treg cells can suppress T lymphoma cell in vitro. The suppressive effect of Treg cells works in dose-dependent manner, but not in cytokine-dependent manner. The mechanism of this suppression may take effect through cell-cell contact.

  14. Derivation and characterization of Chinese human embryonic stem cell line with high potential to differentiate into pancreatic and hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Cheng; Shen, Huan; Jiang, Wei; Song, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Cheng-Yan; Wei, Li-Hui

    2011-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have prospective uses in regenerative medicine and drug screening. Every human embryonic stem cell line has its own genetic background, which determines its specific ability for differentiation as well as susceptibility to drugs. It is necessary to compile many human embryonic stem cell lines with various backgrounds for future clinical use, especially in China due to its large population. This study contributes to isolating new Chinese human embryonic stem cell lines with clarified directly differentiation ability. Donated embryos that exceeded clinical use in our in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) center were collected to establish human embryonic stem cells lines with informed consent. The classic growth factors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and recombinant human leukaemia inhibitory factor (hLIF) for culturing embryonic stem cells were used to capture the stem cells from the plated embryos. Mechanical and enzymetic methods were used to propagate the newly established human embryonic stem cells line. The new cell line was checked for pluripotent characteristics with detecting the expression of stemness genes and observing spontaneous differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Finally similar step-wise protocols from definitive endoderm to target specific cells were used to check the cell line's ability to directly differentiate into pancreatic and hepatic cells. We generated a new Chinese human embryonic stem cells line, CH1. This cell line showed the same characteristics as other reported Chinese human embryonic stem cells lines: normal morphology, karyotype and pluripotency in vitro and in vivo. The CH1 cells could be directly differentiated towards pancreatic and hepatic cells with equal efficiency compared to the H1 cell line. This newly established Chinese cell line, CH1, which is pluripotent and has high potential to differentiate into pancreatic and hepatic cells, will provide a useful tool for embryo

  15. The Cancer-Related Transcription Factor Runx2 Modulates Cell Proliferation in Human Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Claudia M.J.; Vega, Oscar A.; Osorio, Mariana M.; Tapia, Julio C.; Antonelli, Marcelo; Stein, Gary S.; Van Wijnen, Andre J.; Galindo, Mario A.

    2013-01-01

    Runx2 regulates osteogenic differentiation and bone formation, but also suppresses pre-osteoblast proliferation by affecting cell cycle progression in the G1 phase. The growth suppressive potential of Runx2 is normally inactivated in part by protein destabilization, which permits cell cycle progression beyond the G1/S phase transition, and Runx2 is again up-regulated after mitosis. Runx2 expression also correlates with metastasis and poor chemotherapy response in osteosarcoma. Here we show that six human osteosarcoma cell lines (SaOS, MG63, U2OS, HOS, G292, and 143B) have different growth rates, which is consistent with differences in the lengths of the cell cycle. Runx2 protein levels are cell cycle-regulated with respect to the G1/S phase transition in U2OS, HOS, G292, and 143B cells. In contrast, Runx2 protein levels are constitutively expressed during the cell cycle in SaOS and MG63 cells. Forced expression of Runx2 suppresses growth in all cell lines indicating that accumulation of Runx2 in excess of its pre-established levels in a given cell type triggers one or more anti-proliferative pathways in osteosarcoma cells. Thus, regulatory mechanisms controlling Runx2 expression in osteosarcoma cells must balance Runx2 protein levels to promote its putative oncogenic functions, while avoiding suppression of bone tumor growth. PMID:22949168

  16. Different toxic effects of YTX in tumor K-562 and lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Araujo, Andrea; Sánchez, Jon A.; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Yessotoxin (YTX) modulates cellular phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In this regard, opposite effects had been described in the tumor model K-562 cell line and fresh human lymphocytes in terms of cell viability, cyclic adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production and protein expression after YTX treatment. Studies in depth of the pathways activated by YTX in K-562 cell line, have demonstrated the activation of two different cell death types, apoptosis, and autophagy after 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the key role of type 4A PDE (PDE4A) in both pathways activated by YTX was demonstrated. Therefore, taking into account the differences between cellular lines and fresh cells, a study of cell death pathways activated by YTX in a non-tumor cell line with mitotic activity, was performed. The cellular model used was the lymphoblastoid cell line that represents a non-tumor model with normal apoptotic and mitotic machinery. In this context, cell viability and cell proliferation, expression of proteins involved in cell death activated by YTX and mitochondrial mass, were studied after the incubation with the toxin. Opposite to the tumor model, no cell death activation was observed in lymphoblastoid cell line in the presence of YTX. In this sense, variations in apoptosis hallmarks were not detected in the lymphoblastoid cell line after YTX incubation, whereas this type I of programmed cell death was observed in K-562 cells. On the other hand, autophagy cell death was triggered in this cellular line, while other autophagic process is suggested in lymphoblastoid cells. These YTX effects are related to PDE4A in both cellular lines. In addition, while cell death is triggered in K-562 cells after YTX treatment, in lymphoblastoid cells the toxin stops cellular proliferation. These results point to YTX as a specific toxic compound of tumor cells, since in the non-tumor lymphoblastoid cell line, no cell death hallmarks are observed. PMID:26136685

  17. Assessment of citalopram and escitalopram on neuroblastoma cell lines: Cell toxicity and gene modulation

    PubMed Central

    Sakka, Laurent; Delétage, Nathalie; Chalus, Maryse; Aissouni, Youssef; Sylvain-Vidal, Valérie; Gobron, Stéphane; Coll, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are common antidepressants which cytotoxicity has been assessed in cancers notably colorectal carcinomas and glioma cell lines. We assessed and compared the cytotoxicity of 2 SSRI, citalopram and escitalopram, on neuroblastoma cell lines. The study was performed on 2 non-MYCN amplified cell lines (rat B104 and human SH-SY5Y) and 2 human MYCN amplified cell lines (IMR32 and Kelly). Citalopram and escitalopram showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity on all cell lines. Citalopram was more cytotoxic than escitalopram. IMR32 was the most sensitive cell line. The absence of toxicity on human primary Schwann cells demonstrated the safety of both molecules for myelin. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity were explored using gene-expression profiles and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Citalopram modulated 1 502 genes and escitalopram 1 164 genes with a fold change ≥ 2. 1 021 genes were modulated by both citalopram and escitalopram; 481 genes were regulated only by citalopram while 143 genes were regulated only by escitalopram. Citalopram modulated 69 pathways (KEGG) and escitalopram 42. Ten pathways were differently modulated by citalopram and escitalopram. Citalopram drastically decreased the expression of MYBL2, BIRC5 and BARD1 poor prognosis factors of neuroblastoma with fold-changes of -107 (p<2.26 10−7), -24.1 (p<5.6 10−9) and -17.7 (p<1.2 10−7). CCNE1, AURKA, IGF2, MYCN and ERBB2 were more moderately down-regulated by both molecules. Glioma markers E2F1, DAPK1 and CCND1 were down-regulated. Citalopram displayed more powerful action with broader and distinct spectrum of action than escitalopram. PMID:28467792

  18. Assessment of citalopram and escitalopram on neuroblastoma cell lines. Cell toxicity and gene modulation.

    PubMed

    Sakka, Laurent; Delétage, Nathalie; Chalus, Maryse; Aissouni, Youssef; Sylvain-Vidal, Valérie; Gobron, Stéphane; Coll, Guillaume

    2017-06-27

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are common antidepressants which cytotoxicity has been assessed in cancers notably colorectal carcinomas and glioma cell lines. We assessed and compared the cytotoxicity of 2 SSRI, citalopram and escitalopram, on neuroblastoma cell lines. The study was performed on 2 non-MYCN amplified cell lines (rat B104 and human SH-SY5Y) and 2 human MYCN amplified cell lines (IMR32 and Kelly). Citalopram and escitalopram showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity on all cell lines. Citalopram was more cytotoxic than escitalopram. IMR32 was the most sensitive cell line. The absence of toxicity on human primary Schwann cells demonstrated the safety of both molecules for myelin. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity were explored using gene-expression profiles and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Citalopram modulated 1 502 genes and escitalopram 1 164 genes with a fold change ≥ 2. 1 021 genes were modulated by both citalopram and escitalopram; 481 genes were regulated only by citalopram while 143 genes were regulated only by escitalopram. Citalopram modulated 69 pathways (KEGG) and escitalopram 42. Ten pathways were differently modulated by citalopram and escitalopram. Citalopram drastically decreased the expression of MYBL2, BIRC5 and BARD1 poor prognosis factors of neuroblastoma with fold-changes of -107 (p<2.26 10-7), -24.1 (p<5.6 10-9) and -17.7 (p<1.2 10-7). CCNE1, AURKA, IGF2, MYCN and ERBB2 were more moderately down-regulated by both molecules. Glioma markers E2F1, DAPK1 and CCND1 were down-regulated. Citalopram displayed more powerful action with broader and distinct spectrum of action than escitalopram.

  19. Electrophysiological characteristics of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are cell line-dependent.

    PubMed

    Hannes, Tobias; Wolff, Marie; Doss, Michael Xavier; Pfannkuche, Kurt; Haustein, Moritz; Müller-Ehmsen, Jochen; Sachinidis, Agapios; Hescheler, Jürgen; Khalil, Markus; Halbach, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology by differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) requires comparability of cardiac differentiation between different ESC lines. To investigate whether the outcome of cardiac differentiation is consistent between different ESC lines, we compared electrophysiological properties of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs) of different murine ESC lines. Two wild-type (D3 and R1) and two transgenic ESC lines (D3/aPIG44 and CGR8/AMPIGX-7) were differentiated under identical culture conditions. The transgenic cell lines expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and puromycin-N-acetyltransferase under control of the cardiac specific α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC) promoter. Action potentials (APs) were recorded using sharp electrodes and multielectrode arrays in beating clusters of ESC-CMs. Spontaneous AP frequency and AP duration (APD) as well as maximal upstroke velocity differed markedly between unpurified CMs of the four ESC lines. APD heterogeneity was negligible in D3/aPIG44, moderate in D3 and R1 and extensive in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Interspike intervals calculated from long-term recordings showed a high degree of variability within and between recordings in CGR8/AMPIGX-7, but not in D3/aPIG44. Purification of the αMHC+ population by puromycin treatment posed only minor changes to APD in D3/aPIG44, but significantly shortened APD in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Electrophysiological properties of ESC-CMs are strongly cell line-dependent and can be influenced by purification of cardiomyocytes by antibiotic selection. Thus, conclusions on cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology derived from single stem cell lines have to be interpreted carefully. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. [Quaternary ammonium cytotoxicity in a human conjunctival cell line].

    PubMed

    Debbasch, C; de Saint Jean, M; Pisella, P J; Rat, P; Warnet, J M; Baudouin, C

    1999-11-01

    Ophthalmic preparations can induce conjunctival toxicity, often caused by preservatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity of quaternary ammonium. Cytotoxicity tests were done on a continuous human conjunctival cell line using microplate cold light cytofluorimetry. Membrane integrity (neutral red test), DNA condensation (Hoechst 33342 test) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (dichlorofluorescein diacetate and hydroethidine tests) were evaluated on living cells treated with different concentrations of benzalkonium chloride, benzododecinium bromide and cetrimide (0.00001 to 0.01%) after 15 minutes of treatment or 15 minutes and 24 hours of cell recovery. All the compounds tested showed similar in vitro effects. Using the neutral red test, we observed a decrease in membrane integrity even at 0.005% and 0.01% (p < 0.001) and after a short time (15 minutes). A stimulation of ROS production (H2O2 and O2) was observed at 0.00001% and above (p < 0.001), associated with a chromatine condensation due to an apoptotic phenomenon. A necrotic phenomenon is suggested at high concentrations of quaternary ammonium preservatives whereas an apoptotic mechanism exists for lower concentrations. This toxicity observed in vitro can explain some of the ocular surface damage caused by long-term use of preserved eye-drops.

  1. Diverse Hormone Response Networks in 41 Independent Drosophila Cell Lines

    DOE PAGES

    Stoiber, Marcus; Celniker, Susan; Cherbas, Lucy; ...

    2016-01-15

    Steroid hormones induce cascades of gene activation and repression with transformative effects on cell fate . Steroid transduction plays a major role in the development and physiology of nearly all metazoan species, and in the progression of the most common forms of cancer. Despite the paramount importance of steroids in developmental and translational biology, a complete map of transcriptional response has not been developed for any hormone . In the case of 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) in Drosophila melanogaster, these trajectories range from apoptosis to immortalization. We mapped the ecdysone transduction network in a cohort of 41 cell lines, the largest suchmore » atlas yet assembled. We found that the early transcriptional response mirrors the distinctiveness of physiological origins: genes respond in restricted patterns, conditional on the expression levels of dozens of transcription factors. Only a small cohort of genes is constitutively modulated independent of initial cell state. Ecdysone-responsive genes tend to organize into directional same-stranded units, with consecutive genes induced from the same strand. Here, we identify half of the ecdysone receptor heterodimer as the primary rate-limiting step in the response, and find that initial receptor isoform levels modulate the activated cohort of target transcription factors. In conclusion, this atlas of steroid response reveals organizing principles of gene regulation by a model type II nuclear receptor and lays the foundation for comprehensive and predictive understanding of the ecdysone transduction network in the fruit fly.« less

  2. Recommendation of short tandem repeat profiling for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues.

    PubMed

    Barallon, Rita; Bauer, Steven R; Butler, John; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Elmore, Eugene; Furtado, Manohar; Kline, Margaret C; Kohara, Arihiro; Los, Georgyi V; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Masters, John R W; Nardone, Mark; Nardone, Roland M; Nims, Raymond W; Price, Paul J; Reid, Yvonne A; Shewale, Jaiprakash; Sykes, Gregory; Steuer, Anton F; Storts, Douglas R; Thomson, Jim; Taraporewala, Zenobia; Alston-Roberts, Christine; Kerrigan, Liz

    2010-10-01

    Cell misidentification and cross-contamination have plagued biomedical research for as long as cells have been employed as research tools. Examples of misidentified cell lines continue to surface to this day. Efforts to eradicate the problem by raising awareness of the issue and by asking scientists voluntarily to take appropriate actions have not been successful. Unambiguous cell authentication is an essential step in the scientific process and should be an inherent consideration during peer review of papers submitted for publication or during review of grants submitted for funding. In order to facilitate proper identity testing, accurate, reliable, inexpensive, and standardized methods for authentication of cells and cell lines must be made available. To this end, an international team of scientists is, at this time, preparing a consensus standard on the authentication of human cells using short tandem repeat (STR) profiling. This standard, which will be submitted for review and approval as an American National Standard by the American National Standards Institute, will provide investigators guidance on the use of STR profiling for authenticating human cell lines. Such guidance will include methodological detail on the preparation of the DNA sample, the appropriate numbers and types of loci to be evaluated, and the interpretation and quality control of the results. Associated with the standard itself will be the establishment and maintenance of a public STR profile database under the auspices of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The consensus standard is anticipated to be adopted by granting agencies and scientific journals as appropriate methodology for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues.

  3. Recommendation of short tandem repeat profiling for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues

    PubMed Central

    Barallon, Rita; Bauer, Steven R.; Butler, John; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Furtado, Manohar; Kline, Margaret C.; Kohara, Arihiro; Los, Georgyi V.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.; Masters, John R. W.; Nardone, Mark; Nardone, Roland M.; Nims, Raymond W.; Price, Paul J.; Reid, Yvonne A.; Shewale, Jaiprakash; Sykes, Gregory; Steuer, Anton F.; Storts, Douglas R.; Thomson, Jim; Taraporewala, Zenobia; Alston-Roberts, Christine; Kerrigan, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Cell misidentification and cross-contamination have plagued biomedical research for as long as cells have been employed as research tools. Examples of misidentified cell lines continue to surface to this day. Efforts to eradicate the problem by raising awareness of the issue and by asking scientists voluntarily to take appropriate actions have not been successful. Unambiguous cell authentication is an essential step in the scientific process and should be an inherent consideration during peer review of papers submitted for publication or during review of grants submitted for funding. In order to facilitate proper identity testing, accurate, reliable, inexpensive, and standardized methods for authentication of cells and cell lines must be made available. To this end, an international team of scientists is, at this time, preparing a consensus standard on the authentication of human cells using short tandem repeat (STR) profiling. This standard, which will be submitted for review and approval as an American National Standard by the American National Standards Institute, will provide investigators guidance on the use of STR profiling for authenticating human cell lines. Such guidance will include methodological detail on the preparation of the DNA sample, the appropriate numbers and types of loci to be evaluated, and the interpretation and quality control of the results. Associated with the standard itself will be the establishment and maintenance of a public STR profile database under the auspices of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The consensus standard is anticipated to be adopted by granting agencies and scientific journals as appropriate methodology for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues. PMID:20614197

  4. Analysis of differential protein expression in normal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.; Chubb, C.; Huberman, E.

    High resolution two dimensional get electrophoresis (2DE) and database analysis was used to establish protein expression patterns for cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells and thirteen breast cancer cell lines. The Human Breast Epithelial Cell database contains the 2DE protein patterns, including relative protein abundances, for each cell line, plus a composite pattern that contains all the common and specifically expressed proteins from all the cell lines. Significant differences in protein expression, both qualitative and quantitative, were observed not only between normal cells and tumor cells, but also among the tumor cell lines. Eight percent of the consistently detected proteinsmore » were found in significantly (P < 0.001) variable levels among the cell lines. Using a combination of immunostaining, comigration with purified protein, subcellular fractionation, and amino-terminal protein sequencing, we identified a subset of the differentially expressed proteins. These identified proteins include the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The cell lines can be classified into four distinct groups based on their intermediate filament protein profile. We also identified heat shock proteins; hsp27, hsp60, and hsp70 varied in abundance and in some cases in the relative phosphorylation levels among the cell lines. Finally, we identified IMP dehydrogenase in each of the cell lines, and found the levels of this enzyme in the tumor cell lines elevated 2- to 20-fold relative to the levels in normal cells.« less

  5. [Establishment of human embryonic stem cell lines and their therapeutic application].

    PubMed

    Suemori, Hirofumi

    2004-03-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines are pluripotent stem cell lines that can be propagated indefinitely in culture, retaining their potency to differentiate into every type of cell and tissue in the body. ES cell lines were first established from mouse blastocysts, and have been used for research in developmental biology. ES cells have been proven to be very valuable in the genetic modification of the mouse, especially in producing knockout mice. Since establishment of human ES cell lines was reported, their use in cell replacement therapies has been enthusiastically expected. There have been reports of the differentiation of several useful cell types from human ES cell lines, and clinical use of functional tissues and cells from human ES cells is anticipated. In Japan, there have also been many demands for the use of human ES cells in basic and pre-clinical research. We obtained governmental permission to establish human ES cell lines in April 2002 and started research using donated frozen embryos in January 2003. We successfully established three ES cell line from three blastocysts. These cell lines will be distributed at cost to researchers who have governmental permission to use human ES cells.

  6. [Building Mass Spectrometry Spectral Libraries of Human Cancer Cell Lines].

    PubMed

    Faktor, J; Bouchal, P

    Cancer research often focuses on protein quantification in model cancer cell lines and cancer tissues. SWATH (sequential windowed acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra), the state of the art method, enables the quantification of all proteins included in spectral library. Spectral library contains fragmentation patterns of each detectable protein in a sample. Thorough spectral library preparation will improve quantitation of low abundant proteins which usually play an important role in cancer. Our research is focused on the optimization of spectral library preparation aimed at maximizing the number of identified proteins in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. First, we optimized the sample preparation prior entering the mass spectrometer. We examined the effects of lysis buffer composition, peptide dissolution protocol and the material of sample vial on the number of proteins identified in spectral library. Next, we optimized mass spectrometry (MS) method for spectral library data acquisition. Our thorough optimized protocol for spectral library building enabled the identification of 1,653 proteins (FDR < 1%) in 1 µg of MCF-7 lysate. This work contributed to the enhancement of protein coverage in SWATH digital biobanks which enable quantification of arbitrary protein from physically unavailable samples. In future, high quality spectral libraries could play a key role in preparing of patient proteome digital fingerprints.Key words: biomarker - mass spectrometry - proteomics - digital biobanking - SWATH - protein quantificationThis work was supported by the project MEYS - NPS I - LO1413.The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study.The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 7. 5. 2016Accepted: 9. 6. 2016.

  7. Evaluating cell lines as tumour models by comparison of genomic profiles

    PubMed Central

    Domcke, Silvia; Sinha, Rileen; Levine, Douglas A.; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cell lines are frequently used as in vitro tumour models. Recent molecular profiles of hundreds of cell lines from The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and thousands of tumour samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas now allow a systematic genomic comparison of cell lines and tumours. Here we analyse a panel of 47 ovarian cancer cell lines and identify those that have the highest genetic similarity to ovarian tumours. Our comparison of copy-number changes, mutations and mRNA expression profiles reveals pronounced differences in molecular profiles between commonly used ovarian cancer cell lines and high-grade serous ovarian cancer tumour samples. We identify several rarely used cell lines that more closely resemble cognate tumour profiles than commonly used cell lines, and we propose these lines as the most suitable models of ovarian cancer. Our results indicate that the gap between cell lines and tumours can be bridged by genomically informed choices of cell line models for all tumour types. PMID:23839242

  8. Enhancement of Radiation Response in Osteosarcoma and Rhabomyosarcoma Cell Lines by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Blattmann, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.blattmann@med.uni-heidelberg.d; Oertel, Susanne; Ehemann, Volker

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) can enhance the sensitivity of cells to photon radiation treatment (XRT) by altering numerous molecular pathways. We investigated the effect of pan-HDACIs such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on radiation response in two osteosarcoma (OS) and two rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis were examined in OS (KHOS-24OS, SAOS2) and RMS (A-204, RD) cell lines treated with HDACI and HDACI plus XRT, respectively. Protein expression was investigated via immunoblot analysis, and cell cycle analysis and measurement of apoptosis were performed using flow cytometry. Results: SAHA induced anmore » inhibition of cell proliferation and clonogenic survival in OS and RMS cell lines and led to a significant radiosensitization of all tumor cell lines. Other HDACI such as M344 and valproate showed similar effects as investigated in one OS cell line. Furthermore, SAHA significantly increased radiation-induced apoptosis in the OS cell lines, whereas in the RMS cell lines radiation-induced apoptosis was insignificant with and without SAHA. In all investigated sarcoma cell lines, SAHA attenuated radiation-induced DNA repair protein expression (Rad51, Ku80). Conclusion: Our results show that HDACIs enhance radiation action in OS and RMS cell lines. Inhibition of DNA repair, as well as increased apoptosis induction after exposure to HDACIs, can be mechanisms of radiosensitization by HDACIs.« less

  9. In vitro culture of human osteosarcoma cell lines: a comparison of functional characteristics for cell lines cultured in medium without and with fetal calf serum.

    PubMed

    Bruserud, Oystein; Tronstad, Karl Johan; Berge, Rolf

    2005-06-01

    Experimental in vitro models including well-characterised cell lines can be used to identify possible new therapeutic targets for the treatment of osteosarcoma. Culture media including inactivated serum is often recommended for in vitro culture of osteosarcoma cells, but the serum component then represents a nonstandardised parameter including a wide range of unidentified mediators. To improve the standardisation we have investigated whether serum-free culture media can be used in experimental in vitro studies of osteosarcoma cell lines. The seven osteosarcoma cell lines Cal72, SJSA-1, Saos-2, SK-ES-1, U2OS, 143.98.2, and KHOS-32IH were cultured in vitro in various serum-free media and media supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS). Although proliferation often was relatively low in serum-free media (X-vivo 10, X-vivo 15, X-vivo 20, Stem Span SFEM), some cell lines (Cal72, KHOS-32IH, Saos-2) showed proliferation comparable with the recommended FCS-containing media even when using serum-free conditions. The optimal serum-free medium then varied between cell lines. We also compared 6 different FCS-containing media (including Stem Span with 10% FCS) and the optimal FCS-containing medium varied between cell lines. However, all cell lines proliferated well in Stem Span with FCS, and this medium was regarded as optimal for four of the lines. FCS could not be replaced by fatty acids or low density lipoprotein when testing the Stem Span medium. The release of a wide range of soluble mediators showed only minor differences when using serum-free and FCS-containing media (including Stem Span with and without FCS), and serum-free Stem Span could also be used for in vitro studies of mitogen-stimulated T cell activation in the presence of accessory osteosarcoma cells. The use of Stem Span with 10% FCS allowed the release of a wide range of chemokines by osteosarcoma cell lines (Cal72, SJSA-1), and the chemokine release profile was very similar to the

  10. Oxytocin stimulates cell proliferation in vaginal cell line Vk2E6E7.

    PubMed

    Kallak, Theodora K; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin

    2017-03-01

    Objective During and after menopause, the symptoms of vaginal atrophy cause great discomfort and necessitate effective treatment options. Currently, vaginally applied oxytocin is being investigated as a treatment for the symptoms of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. To clarify the mechanisms behind oxytocins effects on vaginal atrophy, the present study investigated the effects of oxytocin on cell proliferation in the cells of the Vk2E6E7 line, a non-tumour vaginal cell line. The study also compared the effects of oxytocin with those of estradiol (E2). Study design The effects of both oxytocin and E2 on the proliferation of Vk2E6E7 cells were investigated using Cell Proliferation ELISA BrdU Colorimetric Assay. The expression of both oxytocin and oxytocin receptor was studied in Vk2E6E7 cells using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescent staining. Main outcome measures Cell proliferation and gene expression. Results Oxytocin increased cell proliferation both time dependently and dose dependently. This differed from the effect pattern observed in cells treated with E2. In addition, in oxytocin-treated cells, the oxytocin receptor was found to be co-localized with caveolin-1, indicating pro-proliferative signalling within the cell. Conclusions Oxytocin stimulates cell proliferation and the co-localization of oxytocin receptor with caveolin-1 in oxytocin-treated cells, supporting the role of oxytocin signalling in cell proliferation. In addition, these findings suggest that increased cell proliferation is one mechanism by which local vaginal oxytocin treatment increases vaginal thickness and relieves vaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.

  11. Malignant hematopoietic cell lines: in vitro models for the study of natural killer cell leukemia-lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Drexler, H G; Matsuo, Y

    2000-05-01

    Malignancies involving natural killer (NK) cells are rare disorders. The complexity of NK cell-involving disorders has only recently been appreciated. Modern classifications discern immature (precursor) from mature NK cell leukemias-lymphomas. Continuous NK leukemia-lymphoma cell lines represent important model systems to study these neoplasms. While there are a number of putative NK cell lines which are, however, either not characterized, not immortalized, non-malignant, non-NK, or plain false cell lines, six bona fide malignant NK cell lines have been established and are sufficiently well characterized: HANK1, KHYG-1, NK-92, NKL, NK-YS and YT. Except for YT which was derived from a not further defined acute lymphoblastic lymphoma, these cell lines were established from patients with various NK cell malignancies. Five of the six cell lines are constitutively interleukin-2-dependent. Their immunoprofile is remarkably similar: CD1-, CD2+, surface CD3 (but cytoplasmic CD3epsilon+), CD4-, CD5-, CD7+, CD8-, CD16-, CD56+, CD57-, TCRalphabeta-, TCRgammadelta-, negative for B cell and myelomonocytic markers. The immunoglobulin heavy chain and T cell receptor genes are all in germline configuration. All six lines show complex chromosomal alterations, with both numerical and structural aberrations, attesting to their malignant and monoclonal nature. Functionally, these cells which contain azurophilic granules in their cytoplasm are nearly universally positive in NK activity assays. Three of five cell lines are Epstein-Barr virus-positive (type II latency). The composite data on these six cell lines allow for the operational definition of a typical malignant NK cell line profile. NK leukemia-lymphoma cell lines will prove invaluable for studies of normal and malignant NK cell biology.

  12. Slug/SNAI2 regulates cell proliferation and invasiveness of metastatic prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Emadi Baygi, Modjtaba; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Essmann, Frank; Deezagi, Abdolkhaleg; Engers, Rainer; Goering, Wolfgang; Schulz, Wolfgang A

    2010-08-01

    Many metastatic cancers recapitulate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) resulting in enhanced cell motility and invasiveness. The EMT is regulated by several transcription factors, including the zinc finger protein SNAI2, also named Slug, which appears to exert additional functions during development and cancer progression. We have studied the function of SNAI2 in prostate cancer cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed strong SNAI2 expression particularly in the PC-3 and PC3-16 prostate carcinoma cell lines. Knockdown of SNAI2 by specific siRNA induced changes in EMT markers and inhibited invasion of both cell lines into a matrigel matrix. SNAI2 siRNA-treated cells did not tolerate detachment from the culture plates, likely at least in part due to downregulation of integrin alpha6beta4. SNAI2 knockdown disturbed the microtubular and actin cytoskeletons, especially severely in PC-3 cells, resulting in grossly enlarged, flattened, and sometimes multinuclear cells. Knockdown also decreased cell proliferation, with a prominent G0/G1 arrest in PC3-16. Together, our data imply that SNAI2 exerts strong effects on the cytoskeleton and adhesion of those prostate cancer cells that express it and is necessary for their proliferation and invasiveness.

  13. Extracting cancer cell line electrochemical parameters at the single cell level using a microfabricated device.

    PubMed

    Alqabandi, Jassim A; Abdel-Motal, Ussama M; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal

    2009-02-01

    Cancer cells have distinctive electrochemical properties. This work sheds light on the system design aspects and key challenges that should be considered when experimentally analyzing and extracting the electrical characteristics of a tumor cell line. In this study, we developed a cellularbased functional microfabricated device using lithography technology. This device was used to investigate the electrochemical parameters of cultured cancer cells at the single-cell level. Using impedance spectroscopy analyses, we determined the average specific capacitance and resistance of the membrane of the cancer cell line B16-F10 to be 1.154 +/- 0.29 microF/cm(2), and 3.9 +/- 1.15 KOmega.cm(2) (mean +/- SEM, n =14 cells), respectively. The consistency of our findings via different trails manifests the legitimacy of our experimental procedure. Furthermore, the data were compared with a proposed constructed analytical-circuit model. The results of this work may greatly assist researchers in defining an optimal procedure while extracting electrical properties of cancer cells. Detecting electrical signals at the single cell level could lead to the development of novel approaches for analysis of malignant cells in human tissues and biopsies.

  14. Metallothionein turnover in mammalian cell lines: implications in drug resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Monia, B.P.; Butt, T.R.; Ecker, D.J.

    1986-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MT) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to participate in metal detoxification. A wide variety of cells in culture have been shown to accumulate MT in response to metal administration. These metal-induced increases in MT levels result from an increased rate of MT gene transcription, MT mRNA accumulation, and MT synthesis. Turnover of Cd-, Zn- and Au-induced MT was studied in a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line which was resistant to Cd and the Au-containing drug Auranofin (AF). Cd, Zn and Au were potent inducers of MT mRNA and accumulated approximately equal amounts of mRNA under themore » conditions employed in this study. Pulse-chase studies utilizing (/sup 35/S)cysteine revealed that the half-life of Au-, Zn- and Cd-induced MT was 0.75, 10 and 24 hrs. respectively. The reported differences in the tertiary structure of Au-MT from that of Cd-MT lead us to propose that the differences in half-lives observed reflect differences in subceptibility to intracellular proteolysis, which in turn, may effect the ability of MT to confer resistance to various metals.« less

  15. Macrophage cell lines derived from major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Two bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell lines, C2D and C2Dt, were isolated from major histocompatibility class II negative knock-out mice. The C2D cell line was stabilized by continuous culture in colony-stimulating factor-1 and the C2Dt cell line was transformed with SV40 virus large T antigen. These cells exhibited phenotypic properties of macrophages including morphology and expression of Mac 1 and Mac 2 cell surface molecules. These cells also had comparable growth to the bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line B6MP102. These new cell lines were not spontaneously cytotoxic and were only capable of modest killing of F5b tumor cells when stimulated with LPS and interferon-gamma, but not when stimulated with LPS alone or with staphylococcal exotoxin. C2D and C2Dt cells phagocytosed labeled Staphylococcus aureus similarly to B6MP102 cells but less well than C2D peritoneal macrophages. These cell lines secreted interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor or nitric oxide in response to LPS or staphlococcal enterotoxins A or B C2D(t) cells were tumorigenic in C2D and C57BL/6J mice but C2D cells were not. These data suggest that macrophage cell lines can be established from bone marrow cells of major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice.

  16. Imiquimod activates p53-dependent apoptosis in a human basal cell carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi-Wei; Chang, Shu-Hao; Mu, Szu-Wei; Jiang, Hsin-Yi; Wang, Sin-Ting; Kao, Jun-Kai; Huang, Jau-Ling; Wu, Chun-Ying; Chen, Yi-Ju; Shieh, Jeng-Jer

    2016-03-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 controls DNA repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy and numerous other cellular processes. Imiquimod (IMQ), a synthetic toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 ligand for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC), eliminates cancer cells by activating cell-mediated immunity and directly inducing apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells. To evaluate the role of p53 in IMQ-induced cell death in skin cancer cells. The expression, phosphorylation and subcellular localization of p53 were detected by real-time PCR, luciferase reporter assay, cycloheximide chase analysis, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Using BCC/KMC1 cell line as a model, the upstream signaling of p53 activation was dissected by over-expression of TLR7/8, the addition of ROS scavenger, ATM/ATR inhibitors and pan-caspase inhibitor. The role of p53 in IMQ-induced apoptosis and autophagy was assessed by genetically silencing p53 and evaluated by a DNA content assay, immunoblotting, LC3 puncta detection and acridine orange staining. IMQ induced p53 mRNA expression and protein accumulation, increased Ser15 phosphorylation, promoted nuclear translocation and up-regulated its target genes in skin cancer cells in a TLR7/8-independent manner. In BCC/KMC1 cells, the induction of p53 by IMQ was achieved through increased ROS production to stimulate the ATM/ATR-Chk1/Chk2 axis but was not mediated by inducing DNA damage. The pharmacological inhibition of ATM/ATR significantly suppressed IMQ-induced p53 activation and apoptosis. Silencing of p53 significantly decreased the IMQ-induced caspase cascade activation and apoptosis but enhanced autophagy. Mutant p53 skin cancer cell lines were more resistant to IMQ-induced apoptosis than wildtype p53 skin cancer cell lines. IMQ induced ROS production to stimulate ATM/ATR pathways and contributed to p53-dependent apoptosis in a skin basal cell carcinoma cell line BCC/KMC1. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology

  17. Human renal cell carcinoma: establishment and characterization of two new cell lines.

    PubMed

    Naito, S; Kanamori, T; Hisano, S; Tanaka, K; Momose, S; Kamata, N

    1982-11-01

    Characterization studies have been carried out on 2 cell lines (KPK 1 and KPK 13) established from human renal adenocarcinoma. KPK 1 and KPK 13 have been passaged 178 times in vitro for about 6 years and 7 months and 78 times for about 3 years an 2 months, respectively. Although morphologic differences exist between the 2 lines, each has an epithelial morphology and exhibits multilayering. Doubling time of KPK 1 and KPK 13 cells was 29 hours and 51 hours, respectively. Both KPK 1 and KPK 13 induced tumors at the site of subcutaneous injection, closely resembling the original tumor from which they were derived. Chromosome number of both cell lines was 100 per cent aneuploid and the presence of Y chromosomes was confirmed by G banding in KPK 13 cells. KPK 1 was found to have high thromboplastic and high fibrinolytic activities, whereas KPK 13 was shown to have comparatively low thromboplastic and no detectable fibrinolytic activities. These activities were detected in the serum free supernatant fraction from KPK 1 cells but were not detected in that from KPK 13 cells.

  18. Uveal Melanoma Cell Lines: Where do they come from? (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    PubMed

    Jager, Martine J; Magner, J Antonio Bermudez; Ksander, Bruce R; Dubovy, Sander R

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether some of the most often used uveal melanoma cell lines resemble their original tumor. Analysis of the literature, patient charts, histopathology, mutations, chromosome status, HLA type, and expression of melanocyte markers on cell lines and their primary tumors. We examined five cell lines and the primary tumors from which they were derived. Four of the five examined primary tumors were unusual: one occupied the orbit, two were recurrences after prior irradiation, and one developed in an eye with a nevus of Ota. One cell line did not contain the GNA11 mutation, but it was present in the primary tumor. Three of the primary tumors had monosomy 3 (two of these lacked BAP1 expression); however, all five cell lines showed disomy 3 and BAP1 expression. All of the cell lines had gain of 8q. Two cell lines lacked expression of melanocyte markers, although these were present in the corresponding primary tumor. All cell lines could be traced back to their original uveal melanoma. Four of the five primary tumors were unusual. Cell lines often differed from their primary tumor in chromosome status and melanocyte markers. However, their specific chromosome aberrations and capacity to continue proliferation characterize them as uveal melanoma cell lines.

  19. Uveal Melanoma Cell Lines: Where do they come from? (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Martine J.; Magner, J. Antonio Bermudez; Ksander, Bruce R.; Dubovy, Sander R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether some of the most often used uveal melanoma cell lines resemble their original tumor. Methods Analysis of the literature, patient charts, histopathology, mutations, chromosome status, HLA type, and expression of melanocyte markers on cell lines and their primary tumors. We examined five cell lines and the primary tumors from which they were derived. Results Four of the five examined primary tumors were unusual: one occupied the orbit, two were recurrences after prior irradiation, and one developed in an eye with a nevus of Ota. One cell line did not contain the GNA11 mutation, but it was present in the primary tumor. Three of the primary tumors had monosomy 3 (two of these lacked BAP1 expression); however, all five cell lines showed disomy 3 and BAP1 expression. All of the cell lines had gain of 8q. Two cell lines lacked expression of melanocyte markers, although these were present in the corresponding primary tumor. Conclusions All cell lines could be traced back to their original uveal melanoma. Four of the five primary tumors were unusual. Cell lines often differed from their primary tumor in chromosome status and melanocyte markers. However, their specific chromosome aberrations and capacity to continue proliferation characterize them as uveal melanoma cell lines. PMID:28018010

  20. A comparative genomic hybridization approach to study gene copy number variations among Chinese hamster cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, Nandita; Bandyopadhyay, Arpan; Fu, Hsu-Yuan; Johnson, Kathryn C; Springer, Nathan M; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2017-08-01

    Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are aneuploid in nature. The genome of recombinant protein producing CHO cell lines continuously undergoes changes in its structure and organization. We analyzed nine cell lines, including parental cell lines, using a comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array focused on gene-containing regions. The comparison of CGH with copy-number estimates from sequencing data showed good correlation. Hierarchical clustering of the gene copy number variation data from CGH data revealed the lineage relationships between the cell lines. On analyzing the clones of a clonal population, some regions with altered genomic copy number status were identified indicating genomic changes during passaging. A CGH array is thus an effective tool in quantifying genomic alterations in industrial cell lines and can provide insights into the changes in the genomic structure during cell line derivation and long term culture. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1903-1908. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Acrylamide affects proliferation and differentiation of the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Attoff, K; Kertika, D; Lundqvist, J; Oredsson, S; Forsby, A

    2016-09-01

    Acrylamide is a well-known neurotoxic compound and people get exposed to the compound by food consumption and environmental pollutants. Since acrylamide crosses the placenta barrier, the fetus is also being exposed resulting in a risk for developmental neurotoxicity. In this study, the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y were used to study proliferation and differentiation as alerting indicators for developmental neurotoxicity. For both cell lines, acrylamide reduced the number of viable cells by reducing proliferation and inducing cell death in undifferentiated cells. Acrylamide concentrations starting at 10fM attenuated the differentiation process in SH-SY5Y cells by sustaining cell proliferation and neurite outgrowth was reduced at concentrations from 10pM. Acrylamide significantly reduced the number of neurons starting at 1μM and altered the ratio between the different phenotypes in differentiating C17.2 cell cultures. Ten micromolar of acrylamide also reduced the expression of the neuronal and astrocyte biomarkers. Although the neurotoxic concentrations in the femtomolar range seem to be specific for the SH-SY5Y cell line, the fact that micromolar concentrations of acrylamide seem to attenuate the differentiation process in both cell lines raises the interest to further investigations on the possible developmental neurotoxicity of acrylamide. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  3. HIV integration sites in latently infected cell lines: evidence of ongoing replication.

    PubMed

    Symons, Jori; Chopra, Abha; Malatinkova, Eva; De Spiegelaere, Ward; Leary, Shay; Cooper, Don; Abana, Chike O; Rhodes, Ajantha; Rezaei, Simin D; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Mallal, Simon; Lewin, Sharon R; Cameron, Paul U

    2017-01-13

    Assessing the location and frequency of HIV integration sites in latently infected cells can potentially inform our understanding of how HIV persists during combination antiretroviral therapy. We developed a novel high throughput sequencing method to evaluate HIV integration sites in latently infected cell lines to determine whether there was virus replication or clonal expansion in these cell lines observed as multiple integration events at the same position. We modified a previously reported method using random DNA shearing and PCR to allow for high throughput robotic processing to identify the site and frequency of HIV integration in latently infected cell lines. Latently infected cell lines infected with intact virus demonstrated multiple distinct HIV integration sites (28 different sites in U1, 110 in ACH-2 and 117 in J1.1 per 150,000 cells). In contrast, cell lines infected with replication-incompetent viruses (J-Lat cells) demonstrated single integration sites. Following in vitro passaging of the ACH-2 cell line, we observed a significant increase in the frequency of unique HIV integration sites and there were multiple mutations and large deletions in the proviral DNA. When the ACH-2 cell line was cultured with the integrase inhibitor raltegravir, there was a significant decrease in the number of unique HIV integration sites and a transient increase in the frequency of 2-LTR circles consistent with virus replication in these cells. Cell lines latently infected with intact HIV demonstrated multiple unique HIV integration sites indicating that these cell lines are not clonal and in the ACH-2 cell line there was evidence of low level virus replication. These findings have implications for the use of latently infected cell lines as models of HIV latency and for the use of these cells as standards.

  4. Second-line treatment for metastatic clear cell renal cell cancer: experts' consensus algorithms.

    PubMed

    Rothermundt, C; von Rappard, J; Eisen, T; Escudier, B; Grünwald, V; Larkin, J; McDermott, D; Oldenburg, J; Porta, C; Rini, B; Schmidinger, M; Sternberg, C N; Putora, P M

    2017-04-01

    Second-line systemic treatment options for metastatic clear cell renal cell cancer (mccRCC) are diverse and treatment strategies are variable among experts. Our aim was to investigate the approach for the second-line treatment after first-line therapy with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Recently two phase III trials have demonstrated a potential role for nivolumab (NIV) and cabozantinib (CAB) in this setting. We aimed to estimate the impact of these trials on clinical decision making. Eleven international experts were asked to provide their treatment strategies for second-line systemic therapy for mccRCC in the current setting and once NIV and CAB will be approved and available. The treatment strategies were analyzed with the objective consensus approach. The analysis of the decision trees revealed everolimus (EVE), axitinib (AXI), NIV and TKI switch (sTKI) as therapeutic options after first-line TKI therapy in the current situation and mostly NIV and CAB in the future setting. The most commonly used criteria for treatment decisions were duration of response, TKI tolerance and zugzwang a composite of several related criteria. In contrast to the first-line setting, recommendations for second-line systemic treatment of mccRCC among experts were not as heterogeneous. The agents mostly used after disease progression on a first-line TKI included: EVE, AXI, NIV and sTKI. In the future setting of NIV and CAB availability, NIV was the most commonly chosen drug, whereas several experts identified situations where CAB would be preferred.

  5. Derivation and Osmotolerance Characterization of Three Immortalized Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gardell, Alison M.; Qin, Qin; Rice, Robert H.; Li, Johnathan; Kültz, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Fish cell cultures are becoming more widely used models for investigating molecular mechanisms of physiological response to environmental challenge. In this study, we derived two immortalized Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) cell lines from brain (OmB) and lip epithelium (OmL), and compared them to a previously immortalized bulbus arteriosus (TmB) cell line. The OmB and OmL cell lines were generated without or with Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor/3T3 feeder layer supplementation. Although both approaches were successful, ROCK inhibitor/feeder layer supplementation was found to offer the advantages of selecting for epithelial-like cell type and decreasing time to immortalization. After immortalization (≥ passage 5), we characterized the proteomes of the newly derived cell lines (OmB and OmL) using LCMS and identified several unique cell markers for each line. Subsequently, osmotolerance for each of the three cell lines following acute exposure to elevated sodium chloride was evaluated. The acute maximum osmotolerance of these tilapia cell lines (>700 mOsm/kg) was markedly higher than that of any other known vertebrate cell line, but was significantly higher in the epithelial-like OmL cell line. To validate the physiological relevance of these tilapia cell lines, we quantified the effects of acute hyperosmotic challenge (450 mOsm/kg and 700 mOsm/kg) on the transcriptional regulation of two enzymes involved in biosynthesis of the compatible organic osmolyte, myo-inositol. Both enzymes were found to be robustly upregulated in all three tilapia cell lines. Therefore, the newly established tilapia cells lines represent valuable tools for studying molecular mechanisms involved in the osmotic stress response of euryhaline fish. PMID:24797371

  6. [Expression of Chemokine receptor CXCR6 and its significance in breast cancer cell lines].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao; Chen, Nian-yong

    2014-05-01

    To detect the expression of Chemokine receptor CXCR6 in invasive breast cancer cell lines and normal mammary epithelial cell line, and assess the relationship between CXCR6 expression and malignant behavior of breast cancer cells. Expression level of CXCR6 in different invasive breast cancer cell lines (SK-BR-3, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) and normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A)was detected by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time-PCR) and Western blot. Lentivirus was employed to interfere CXCR6 expression in MDA-MB-231. MTT assay and transwell chamber were used to study proliferative and invasive ability of those cells respectively. Vascular enothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was detected to study the role of CXCR6 in angiogenesis. At both mRNA level and protein level, normal mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A showed the weakest CXCR6 expression. The breast cancer cell lines expressed CXCR6 in different levels, the expression level of CXCR6 in highly invasive cell line MDA-MB-231 was significantly higher than that in two low-invasive cell lines SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 (P < 0.05). Silencing CXCR6 gene by Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference in MDA-MB-231 inhibited its proliferation ability, invasion ability and angiogenesis ability in vitro (P < 0.05). Different invasive breast cancer cell lines express CXCR6 at different levels, positively correlated with its invasive ability.

  7. CD133 Is Not Suitable Marker for Isolating Melanoma Stem Cells from D10 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Rajabi Fomeshi, Motahareh; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Firouzi, Javad; Khosravani, Pardis

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is the most hazardous malignancy of skin cancer with a high mortality rate. It has been reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for malignancy in most of cancers including melanoma. The aim of this study is to compare two common methods for melanoma stem cell enriching; isolating based on the CD133 cell surface marker and spheroid cell culture. In this experimental study, melanoma stem cells were enriched by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) based on the CD133 protein expression and spheroid culture of D10 melanoma cell line,. To determine stemness features, the mRNA expression analysis of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN, OCT4-A and -B genes as well as colony and spheroid formation assays were utilized in unsorted CD133(+), CD133(-) and spheroid cells. Significant differences of the two experimental groups were compared using student's t tests and a two-tailed value of P<0.05 was statistically considered as a significant threshold. Our results demonstrated that spheroid cells had more colony and spheroid forming ability, rather than CD133(+) cells and the other groups. Moreover, melanospheres expressed higher mRNA expression level of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN and OCT4-A com- pared to other groups (P<0.05). Although CD133(+) derived melanoma cells represented stemness fea- tures, our findings demonstrated that spheroid culture could be more effective meth- od to enrich melanoma stem cells.

  8. CD133 Is Not Suitable Marker for Isolating Melanoma Stem Cells from D10 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi Fomeshi, Motahareh; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Firouzi, Javad; Khosravani, Pardis

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cutaneous melanoma is the most hazardous malignancy of skin cancer with a high mortality rate. It has been reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for malignancy in most of cancers including melanoma. The aim of this study is to compare two common methods for melanoma stem cell enriching; isolating based on the CD133 cell surface marker and spheroid cell culture. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, melanoma stem cells were enriched by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) based on the CD133 protein expression and spheroid culture of D10 melanoma cell line,. To determine stemness features, the mRNA expression analysis of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN, OCT4-A and -B genes as well as colony and spheroid formation assays were utilized in unsorted CD133+, CD133- and spheroid cells. Significant differences of the two experimental groups were compared using student’s t tests and a two-tailed value of P<0.05 was statistically considered as a significant threshold. Results Our results demonstrated that spheroid cells had more colony and spheroid forming ability, rather than CD133+ cells and the other groups. Moreover, melanospheres expressed higher mRNA expression level of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN and OCT4-A com- pared to other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Although CD133+ derived melanoma cells represented stemness fea- tures, our findings demonstrated that spheroid culture could be more effective meth- od to enrich melanoma stem cells. PMID:27054115

  9. Properties of resistant cells generated from lung cancer cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Gargi; Lian, Xiaojun; Kron, Stephen J; Palecek, Sean P

    2012-03-20

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling plays an important role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and therapeutics targeted against EGFR have been effective in treating a subset of patients bearing somatic EFGR mutations. However, the cancer eventually progresses during treatment with EGFR inhibitors, even in the patients who respond to these drugs initially. Recent studies have identified that the acquisition of resistance in approximately 50% of cases is due to generation of a secondary mutation (T790M) in the EGFR kinase domain. In about 20% of the cases, resistance is associated with the amplification of MET kinase. In the remaining 30-40% of the cases, the mechanism underpinning the therapeutic resistance is unknown. An erlotinib resistant subline (H1650-ER1) was generated upon continuous exposure of NSCLC cell line NCI-H1650 to erlotinib. Cancer stem cell like traits including expression of stem cell markers, enhanced ability to self-renew and differentiate, and increased tumorigenicity in vitro were assessed in erlotinib resistant H1650-ER1 cells. The erlotinib resistant subline contained a population of cells with properties similar to cancer stem cells. These cells were found to be less sensitive towards erlotinib treatment as measured by cell proliferation and generation of tumor spheres in the presence of erlotinib. Our findings suggest that in cases of NSCLC accompanied by mutant EGFR, treatment targeting inhibition of EGFR kinase activity in differentiated cancer cells may generate a population of cancer cells with stem cell properties.

  10. Retrovirus-mediated conditional immortalization and analysis of established cell lines of osteoclast precursor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, Shigehisa; Suzuki, Jun; Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871

    2006-11-10

    Osteoclast precursor cells (OPCs) have previously been established from bone marrow cells of SV40 temperature-sensitive T antigen-expressing transgenic mice. Here, we use retrovirus-mediated gene transfer to conditionally immortalize OPCs by expressing temperature-sensitive large T antigen (tsLT) from wild type bone marrow cells. The immortalized OPCs proliferated at the permissive temperature of 33.5 deg. C, but stopped growing at the non-permissive temperature of 39 deg. C. In the presence of receptor activator of NF{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), the OPCs differentiated into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells and formed multinucleate osteoclasts at 33.5 deg. C. From these OPCs, we cloned two types ofmore » cell lines. Both differentiated into TRAP-positive cells, but one formed multinucleate osteoclasts while the other remained unfused in the presence of RANKL. These results indicate that the established cell lines are useful for analyzing mechanisms of differentiation, particularly multinucleate osteoclast formation. Retrovirus-mediated conditional immortalization should be a useful method to immortalize OPCs from primary bone marrow cells.« less

  11. In vitro characterization of CD133lo cancer stem cells in Retinoblastoma Y79 cell line.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rohini M; Balla, Murali Ms; Khan, Imran; Kalathur, Ravi Kiran Reddy; Kondaiah, Paturu; Vemuganti, Geeta K

    2017-11-21

    Retinoblastoma (Rb), the most common childhood intraocular malignant tumor, is reported to have cancer stem cells (CSCs) similar to other tumors. Our previous investigation in primary tumors identified the small sized cells with low CD133 (Prominin-1) and high CD44 (Hyaluronic acid receptor) expression to be putative Rb CSCs using flow cytometry (FSC lo /SSC lo /CD133 lo /CD44 hi ). With this preliminary data, we have now utilized a comprehensive approach of in vitro characterization of Y79 Rb cell line following CSC enrichment using CD133 surface marker and subsequent validation to confirm the functional properties of CSCs. The cultured Rb Y79 cells were evaluated for surface markers by flow cytometry and CD133 sorted cells (CD133 lo /CD133 hi ) were compared for CSC characteristics by size/percentage, cell cycle assay, colony formation assay, differentiation, Matrigel transwell invasion assay, cytotoxicity assay, gene expression using microarray and validation by semi-quantitative PCR. Rb Y79 cell line shared the profile (CD133, CD90, CXCR4 and ABCB1) of primary tumors except for CD44 expression. The CD133 lo cells (16.1 ± 0.2%) were FSC lo /SSC lo , predominantly within the G0/G1 phase, formed larger and higher number of colonies with ability to differentiate to CD133 hi cells, exhibited increased invasive potential in a matrigel transwell assay (p < 0.05) and were resistant to Carboplatin treatment (p < 0.001) as compared to CD133 hi cells. The CD133 lo cells showed higher expression of several embryonic stem cell genes (HOXB2, HOXA9, SALL1, NANOG, OCT4, LEFTY), stem cells/progenitor genes (MSI2, BMI1, PROX1, ABCB1, ABCB5, ABCG2), and metastasis related gene- MACC1, when compared to the CD133 hi cells. This study validates the observation from our earlier primary tumor study that CSC properties in Rb Y79 cell line are endowed within the CD133 lo population, evident by their characteristics- i.e. small sized, dormant in nature, increased colony forming

  12. FogBank: a single cell segmentation across multiple cell lines and image modalities.

    PubMed

    Chalfoun, Joe; Majurski, Michael; Dima, Alden; Stuelten, Christina; Peskin, Adele; Brady, Mary

    2014-12-30

    Many cell lines currently used in medical research, such as cancer cells or stem cells, grow in confluent sheets or colonies. The biology of individual cells provide valuable information, thus the separation of touching cells in these microscopy images is critical for counting, identification and measurement of individual cells. Over-segmentation of single cells continues to be a major problem for methods based on morphological watershed due to the high level of noise in microscopy cell images. There is a need for a new segmentation method that is robust over a wide variety of biological images and can accurately separate individual cells even in challenging datasets such as confluent sheets or colonies. We present a new automated segmentation method called FogBank that accurately separates cells when confluent and touching each other. This technique is successfully applied to phase contrast, bright field, fluorescence microscopy and binary images. The method is based on morphological watershed principles with two new features to improve accuracy and minimize over-segmentation. First, FogBank uses histogram binning to quantize pixel intensities which minimizes the image noise that causes over-segmentation. Second, FogBank uses a geodesic distance mask derived from raw images to detect the shapes of individual cells, in contrast to the more linear cell edges that other watershed-like algorithms produce. We evaluated the segmentation accuracy against manually segmented datasets using two metrics. FogBank achieved segmentation accuracy on the order of 0.75 (1 being a perfect match). We compared our method with other available segmentation techniques in term of achieved performance over the reference data sets. FogBank outperformed all related algorithms. The accuracy has also been visually verified on data sets with 14 cell lines across 3 imaging modalities leading to 876 segmentation evaluation images. FogBank produces single cell segmentation from confluent cell

  13. Nuclear Motility in Glioma Cells Reveals a Cell-Line Dependent Role of Various Cytoskeletal Components

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Alexa; Horvath, Peter; Rothballer, Andrea; Kutay, Ulrike; Csucs, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear migration is a general term for the movement of the nucleus towards a specific site in the cell. These movements are involved in a number of fundamental biological processes, such as fertilization, cell division, and embryonic development. Despite of its importance, the mechanism of nuclear migration is still poorly understood in mammalian cells. In order to shed light on the mechanical processes underlying nuclear movements, we adapted a micro-patterning based assay. C6 rat and U87 human glioma cells seeded on fibronectin patterns - thereby forced into a bipolar morphology - displayed oscillatory movements of the nucleus or the whole cell, respectively. We found that both the actomyosin system and microtubules are involved in the nuclear/cellular movements of both cell lines, but their contributions are cell-/migration-type specific. Dynein activity was necessary for nuclear migration of C6 cells but active myosin-II was dispensable. On the other hand, coupled nuclear and cellular movements of U87 cells were driven by actomyosin contraction. We explain these cell-line dependent effects by the intrinsic differences in the overall mechanical tension due to the various cytoskeletal elements inside the cell. Our observations showed that the movements of the nucleus and the centrosome are strongly correlated and display large variation, indicating a tight but flexible coupling between them. The data also indicate that the forces responsible for nuclear movements are not acting directly via the centrosome. Based on our observations, we propose a new model for nuclear oscillations in C6 cells in which dynein and microtubule dynamics are the main drivers of nuclear movements. This mechanism is similar to the meiotic nuclear oscillations of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and may be evolutionary conserved. PMID:24691067

  14. Prediction of epigenetically regulated genes in breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Loss, Leandro A; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Durinck, Steffen

    Methylation of CpG islands within the DNA promoter regions is one mechanism that leads to aberrant gene expression in cancer. In particular, the abnormal methylation of CpG islands may silence associated genes. Therefore, using high-throughput microarrays to measure CpG island methylation will lead to better understanding of tumor pathobiology and progression, while revealing potentially new biomarkers. We have examined a recently developed high-throughput technology for measuring genome-wide methylation patterns called mTACL. Here, we propose a computational pipeline for integrating gene expression and CpG island methylation profles to identify epigenetically regulated genes for a panel of 45 breast cancer cell lines,more » which is widely used in the Integrative Cancer Biology Program (ICBP). The pipeline (i) reduces the dimensionality of the methylation data, (ii) associates the reduced methylation data with gene expression data, and (iii) ranks methylation-expression associations according to their epigenetic regulation. Dimensionality reduction is performed in two steps: (i) methylation sites are grouped across the genome to identify regions of interest, and (ii) methylation profles are clustered within each region. Associations between the clustered methylation and the gene expression data sets generate candidate matches within a fxed neighborhood around each gene. Finally, the methylation-expression associations are ranked through a logistic regression, and their significance is quantified through permutation analysis. Our two-step dimensionality reduction compressed 90% of the original data, reducing 137,688 methylation sites to 14,505 clusters. Methylation-expression associations produced 18,312 correspondences, which were used to further analyze epigenetic regulation. Logistic regression was used to identify 58 genes from these correspondences that showed a statistically signifcant negative correlation between methylation profles and gene expression in

  15. Unit-length line-1 transcripts in human teratocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Skowronski, J; Fanning, T G; Singer, M F

    1988-01-01

    We have characterized the approximately 6.5-kilobase cytoplasmic poly(A)+ Line-1 (L1) RNA present in a human teratocarcinoma cell line, NTera2D1, by primer extension and by analysis of cloned cDNAs. The bulk of the RNA begins (5' end) at the residue previously identified as the 5' terminus of the longest known primate genomic L1 elements, presumed to represent "unit" length. Several of the cDNA clones are close to 6 kilobase pairs, that is, close to full length. The partial sequences of 18 cDNA clones and full sequence of one (5,975 base pairs) indicate that many different genomic L1 elements contribute transcripts to the 6.5-kilobase cytoplasmic poly(A)+ RNA in NTera2D1 cells because no 2 of the 19 cDNAs analyzed had identical sequences. The transcribed elements appear to represent a subset of the total genomic L1s, a subset that has a characteristic consensus sequence in the 3' noncoding region and a high degree of sequence conservation throughout. Two open reading frames (ORFs) of 1,122 (ORF1) and 3,852 (ORF2) bases, flanked by about 800 and 200 bases of sequence at the 5' and 3' ends, respectively, can be identified in the cDNAs. Both ORFs are in the same frame, and they are separated by 33 bases bracketed by two conserved in-frame stop codons. ORF 2 is interrupted by at least one randomly positioned stop codon in the majority of the cDNAs. The data support proposals suggesting that the human L1 family includes one or more functional genes as well as an extraordinarily large number of pseudogenes whose ORFs are broken by stop codons. The cDNA structures suggest that both genes and pseudogenes are transcribed. At least one of the cDNAs (cD11), which was sequenced in its entirety, could, in principle, represent an mRNA for production of the ORF1 polypeptide. The similarity of mammalian L1s to several recently described invertebrate movable elements defines a new widely distributed class of elements which we term class II retrotransposons. Images PMID:2454389

  16. Prediction of epigenetically regulated genes in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Loss, Leandro A; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Durinck, Steffen; Nautiyal, Shivani; Flaucher, Diane; Carlton, Victoria E H; Moorhead, Martin; Lu, Yontao; Gray, Joe W; Faham, Malek; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-06-04

    Methylation of CpG islands within the DNA promoter regions is one mechanism that leads to aberrant gene expression in cancer. In particular, the abnormal methylation of CpG islands may silence associated genes. Therefore, using high-throughput microarrays to measure CpG island methylation will lead to better understanding of tumor pathobiology and progression, while revealing potentially new biomarkers. We have examined a recently developed high-throughput technology for measuring genome-wide methylation patterns called mTACL. Here, we propose a computational pipeline for integrating gene expression and CpG island methylation profiles to identify epigenetically regulated genes for a panel of 45 breast cancer cell lines, which is widely used in the Integrative Cancer Biology Program (ICBP). The pipeline (i) reduces the dimensionality of the methylation data, (ii) associates the reduced methylation data with gene expression data, and (iii) ranks methylation-expression associations according to their epigenetic regulation. Dimensionality reduction is performed in two steps: (i) methylation sites are grouped across the genome to identify regions of interest, and (ii) methylation profiles are clustered within each region. Associations between the clustered methylation and the gene expression data sets generate candidate matches within a fixed neighborhood around each gene. Finally, the methylation-expression associations are ranked through a logistic regression, and their significance is quantified through permutation analysis. Our two-step dimensionality reduction compressed 90% of the original data, reducing 137,688 methylation sites to 14,505 clusters. Methylation-expression associations produced 18,312 correspondences, which were used to further analyze epigenetic regulation. Logistic regression was used to identify 58 genes from these correspondences that showed a statistically significant negative correlation between methylation profiles and gene expression in the

  17. The ultrastructure of imaginal disc cells in primary cultures and during cell aggregation in continuous cell lines.

    PubMed

    Peel, D J; Johnson, S A; Milner, M J

    1990-01-01

    We have examined the ultrastructure of cellular vesicles in primary cultures of wing imaginal disc cells of Drosophila melanogaster. These cells maintain the apico-basal polarity characteristic of epithelial cells. The apical surfaces secrete extracellular material into the lumen of the vesicle from plasma membrane plaques at the tip of microvilli. During the course of one passage, cells from the established cell lines grow to confluence and then aggregate into discrete condensations joined by aligned bridges of cells. Cells in these aggregates are tightly packed, and there appears to be a loss of the epithelial polarity characteristic of the vesicle cells. Elongated cell extensions containing numerous microtubules are found in aggregates, and we suggest that these may be epithelial feet involved in the aggregation process. Virus particles are commonly found both within the nucleus and the cytoplasm of cells in the aggregates.

  18. Genomic instability of osteosarcoma cell lines in culture: impact on the prediction of metastasis relevant genes.

    PubMed

    Muff, Roman; Rath, Prisni; Ram Kumar, Ram Mohan; Husmann, Knut; Born, Walter; Baudis, Michael; Fuchs, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare but highly malignant cancer of the bone. As a consequence, the number of established cell lines used for experimental in vitro and in vivo osteosarcoma research is limited and the value of these cell lines relies on their stability during culture. Here we investigated the stability in gene expression by microarray analysis and array genomic hybridization of three low metastatic cell lines and derivatives thereof with increased metastatic potential using cells of different passages. The osteosarcoma cell lines showed altered gene expression during in vitro culture, and it was more pronounced in two metastatic cell lines compared to the respective parental cells. Chromosomal instability contributed in part to the altered gene expression in SAOS and LM5 cells with low and high metastatic potential. To identify metastasis-relevant genes in a background of passage-dependent altered gene expression, genes involved in "Pathways in cancer" that were consistently regulated under all passage comparisons were evaluated. Genes belonging to "Hedgehog signaling pathway" and "Wnt signaling pathway" were significantly up-regulated, and IHH, WNT10B and TCF7 were found up-regulated in all three metastatic compared to the parental cell lines. Considerable instability during culture in terms of gene expression and chromosomal aberrations was observed in osteosarcoma cell lines. The use of cells from different passages and a search for genes consistently regulated in early and late passages allows the analysis of metastasis-relevant genes despite the observed instability in gene expression in osteosarcoma cell lines during culture.

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of Fotemustine analogues on human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Winum, Jean Yves; Bouissière, Jean Luc; Passagne, Isabelle; Evrard, Alexandre; Montero, Véronique; Cuq, Pierre; Montero, Jean Louis

    2003-03-01

    Two new analogues of Fotemustine have been synthesized and tested on two melanoma cell lines. Compounds 4 and 8 proved to be more potent than the reference compound on A375 cell line which express the MGMT enzyme involved in the chemoresistance of tumoral cells.

  20. [Effects of ezrin silencing on pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1].

    PubMed

    Meng, Yun-xiao; Yu, Shuang-ni; Lu, Zhao-hui; Chen, Jie

    2012-12-01

    To explore the effects of ezrin silencing on pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1. Pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1 was transfected with ezrin silencing plasmid. The proliferation and the cell cycle status were determined by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Cellular membrane protrusions/microvilli formation were visualized by scanning election microscopy. Colony formation assay was used to determine the cell anchor-independent growth ability in vitro. Trans-filter migration and invasion assays were performed with 8 µm pore inserts in a 24-well BioCoat chamber with/without Matrigel. Ezrin silencing decreased cellular protrusions/microvilli formation, anchorage-independent growth, cell migration and invasion, but had no effects on cell proliferation in vitro and cell cycle, in pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1. Ezrin expression affects the cellular protrusions/microvilli formation, anchorage-independent growth, cell migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1.

  1. Micro-RNA expression in cisplatin resistant germ cell tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We compared microRNA expression patterns in three cisplatin resistant sublines derived from paternal cisplatin sensitive germ cell tumor cell lines in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of cisplatin resistance. Methods Three cisplatin resistant sublines (NTERA-2-R, NCCIT-R, 2102EP-R) showing 2.7-11.3-fold increase in drug resistance after intermittent exposure to increasing doses of cisplatin were compared to their parental counterparts, three well established relatively cisplatin sensitive germ cell tumor cell lines (NTERA-2, NCCIT, 2102EP). Cells were cultured and total RNA was isolated from all 6 cell lines in three independent experiments. RNA was converted into cDNA and quantitative RT-PCR was run using 384 well low density arrays covering almost all (738) known microRNA species of human origin. Results Altogether 72 of 738 (9.8%) microRNAs appeared differentially expressed between sensitive and resistant cell line pairs (NTERA-2R/NTERA-2 = 43, NCCIT-R/NCCIT = 53, 2102EP-R/2102EP = 15) of which 46.7-95.3% were up-regulated (NTERA-2R/NTERA-2 = 95.3%, NCCIT-R/NCCIT = 62.3%, 2102EP-R/2102EP = 46.7%). The number of genes showing differential expression in more than one of the cell line pairs was 34 between NTERA-2R/NTERA-2 (79%) and NCCIT-R/NCCIT (64%), and 3 and 4, respectively, between these two cell lines and 2102EP-R/2102EP (about 27%). Only the has-miR-10b involved in breast cancer invasion and metastasis and has-miR-512-3p appeared to be up-regulated (2-3-fold) in all three cell lines. The hsa-miR-371-373 cluster (counteracting cellular senescence and linked with differentiation potency), as well as hsa-miR-520c/-520h (inhibiting the tumor suppressor p21) were 3.9-16.3 fold up-regulated in two of the three cisplatin resistant cell lines. Several new micro-RNA species missing an annotation towards cisplatin resistance could be identified. These were hsa-miR-512-3p/-515/-517/-518/-525 (up to 8.1-fold up-regulated) and hsa-miR-99a

  2. 6-shogaol induces apoptosis and enhances radiosensitivity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kotowski, Ulana; Kadletz, Lorenz; Schneider, Sven; Foki, Elisabeth; Schmid, Rainer; Seemann, Rudolf; Thurnher, Dietmar; Heiduschka, Gregor

    2018-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is used for a wide array of conditions in traditional medicine in Asia, but little is known about the effect on head and neck cancer. In this study, the effect of two major pharmacologically active compounds of ginger, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol, were studied on head and neck cancer cell lines. Furthermore, experiments in combination with established treatment methods for head and neck cancer were performed. Proliferation assays showed a dose-dependent reduction of cell viability. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the induction of apoptosis. Western blot analysis indicated that the antiapoptotic protein survivin was suppressed after treatment. Although a combination of 6-shogaol with cisplatin exhibited no synergistic effect, the combination with irradiation showed a synergistic reduction of clonogenic survival. In conclusion, ginger compounds have many noteworthy effects on head and neck cancer cell lines. In particular, the enhancement of radiosensitivity is remarkable. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Development of apoptosis-resistant dihydrofolate reductase-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suk Kyoo; Lee, Gyun Min

    2003-06-30

    Apoptosis-resistant dihydrofolate reductase-deficient CHO cell line (dhfr(-) CHO-bcl2) was developed by introduction of the bcl-2 gene into the dhfr(-) CHO cell line (DUKX-B11, ATCC CRL-9096) and subsequent selection of clones stably overexpressing Bcl-2 in the absence of selection pressure. When the dhfr(-) CHO-bcl2 cell line was used as a host cell line for development of a recombinant CHO (rCHO) cell line expressing a humanized antibody, it displayed stable expression of the bcl-2 gene during rCHO cell line development and no detrimental effect of Bcl-2 overexpression on specific antibody productivity. Taken together, the results obtained demonstrate that the use of an apoptosis-resistant dhfr(-) CHO cell line as the host cell line saves the effort of establishing an apoptosis-resistant rCHO cell line and expedites the development process of apoptosis-resistant rCHO cells producing therapeutic proteins. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 82: 872-876, 2003.

  4. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zhen F.; Gai, Hui; Huang, You Z.

    2006-11-01

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and contained a high level of alkaline phosphate activity. In addition, rbES cells expressed the pluripotent marker Oct-4, as well as EBAF2, FGF4, TDGF1, but not antigens recognized by antibodies against SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-10 and TRA-1-81. All 3 types of ESmore » cells formed embryoid bodies and generated teratoma that contained tissue types of all three germ layers. rbES cells exhibited a high cloning efficiency, were genetically modified readily and were used as nuclear donors to generate a viable rabbit through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In combination with genetic engineering, the ES cell technology should facilitate the creation of new rabbit lines.« less

  5. Metabolic characterization of invaded cells of the pancreatic cancer cell line, PANC-1.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Mayumi; Imadome, Kaori; Imai, Takashi

    2017-05-01

    We previously reported that about 0.4% of cells in the cultured human pancreatic cancer cell line, PANC-1, can invade matrigel during the transwell invasion assay, suggesting that these invaded PANC-1 cells may have specific characteristics to keep their invasive potential. To identify the metabolic characterization specific in the invaded PANC-1 cells, metabolome analysis of the invaded PANC-1 compared with the whole cultured PANC-1 was performed using CE-TOFMS, and concentrations of 110 metabolites were measured. In contrast to the whole cultured cells, the invaded PANC-1 was characterized as a population with reduced levels of amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates, and decreased and increased intermediates in glycolysis and nucleic acid metabolism. In particular, the ratio of both adenosine and guanosine energy charge was reduced in the invaded cells, revealing that the consumption of ATP and GTP was high in the invaded cells, and thus suggesting that ATP- or GTP-generating pathways are stimulated. In addition, the GSH/GSSG ratio was low in the invaded cells, but these cells had a higher surviving fraction after exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Thus, the invaded cells were the population resistant to oxidative stress. Furthermore, reduction in intracellular GSH content inhibited PANC-1 invasiveness, indicated that GSH has an important role in PANC-1 invasiveness. Overall, we propose the invaded cells have several unique metabolic profiles. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Potentiation by Tumor Necrosis Factor of Mitoxantrone Cytotoxicity to Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Silvio; Billi, Giovanna; Oliva, Cristina; Venturing, Marco; Noviello, Elvira; Conte, PierFranco

    1992-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (rHuTNF) (from 0.01 to 10000 U/ml) was assayed on six human ovarian cancer cell lines and one human cervical carcinoma cell line using a crystal violet assay. rHuTNF was cytotoxic to four cell lines (A2780, A2774, SW626, PAD, while 3 cell lines (IGROV1, SKOV3, Mel80) were marginally sensitive to its activity. However, under the same experimental conditions rHuTNF markedly enhanced the cytotoxicity of mitoxantrone, a chemotherapeutic drug targeted at DNA topoisomerase II, in six cell lines. The potentiation of mitoxantrone cytotoxicity was not caused by increased drug accumulation after rHuTNF treatment. No significant increase in cytotoxicity to Me180 cell line was seen when rHuTNF was added to mitoxantrone. PMID:1517145

  7. Frequent mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene in human leukemia T-cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, J; Haas, M

    1990-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines were studied for alterations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Southern blot analysis of 10 leukemic T-cell lines revealed no gross genomic deletions or rearrangements. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of p53 mRNA indicated that all 10 lines produced p53 mRNA of normal size. By direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified cDNA, we detected 11 missense and nonsense point mutations in 5 of the 10 leukemic T-cell lines studied. The mutations are primarily located in the evolutionarily highly conserved regions of the p53 gene. One of the five cell lines in which a mutation was detected possesses a homozygous point mutation in both p53 alleles, while the other four cell lines harbor from two to four different point mutations. An allelic study of two of the lines (CEM, A3/Kawa) shows that the two missense mutations found in each line are located on separate alleles, thus both alleles of the p53 gene may have been functionally inactivated by two different point mutations. Since cultured leukemic T-cell lines represent a late, fully tumorigenic stage of leukemic T cells, mutation of both (or more) alleles of the p53 gene may reflect the selection of cells possessing an increasingly tumorigenic phenotype, whether the selection took place in vivo or in vitro. Previously, we have shown that the HSB-2 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line had lost both alleles of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. Taken together, our data show that at least 6 of 10 leukemic T-cell lines examined may have lost the normal function of a known tumor suppressor gene, suggesting that this class of genes serves a critical role in the generation of fully tumorigenic leukemic T cells. Images PMID:2144611

  8. Enrichment and characterization of cancer stem cells from a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changhong; Setrerrahmane, Sarra; Xu, Hanmei

    2015-10-01

    Tumor cells from the same origin comprise different cell populations. Among them, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have higher tumorigenicity. It is necessary to enrich CSCs to determine an effective way to suppress and eliminate them. In the present study, using the non-adhesive culture system, tumor spheres were successfully generated from human A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line within 2 weeks. Compared to A549 adherent cells, sphere cells had a higher self-renewal ability and increased resistance to cytotoxic drugs. Sphere cells were more invasive and expressed stem cell markers including octamer‑binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and sex-determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) at high levels. CD133, a disputed marker of lung CSCs, was also upregulated. Tumor sphere cells showed higher tumorigenic ability in vivo, indicating that more CSCs were enriched in the sphere cells. More blood vessels were formed in the tumor generated by sphere cells suggesting the interaction between CSCs and blood vessel. A reliable model of enriching CSCs from the human A549 NSCLC cell line was established that was simple and cost-effective compared to other methods.

  9. Subclones in B-lymphoma cell lines: isogenic models for the study of gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Quentmeier, Hilmar; Pommerenke, Claudia; Ammerpohl, Ole; Geffers, Robert; Hauer, Vivien; MacLeod, Roderick AF; Nagel, Stefan; Romani, Julia; Rosati, Emanuela; Rosén, Anders; Uphoff, Cord C; Zaborski, Margarete; Drexler, Hans G

    2016-01-01

    Genetic heterogeneity though common in tumors has been rarely documented in cell lines. To examine how often B-lymphoma cell lines are comprised of subclones, we performed immunoglobulin (IG) heavy chain hypermutation analysis. Revealing that subclones are not rare in B-cell lymphoma cell lines, 6/49 IG hypermutated cell lines (12%) consisted of subclones with individual IG mutations. Subclones were also identified in 2/284 leukemia/lymphoma cell lines exhibiting bimodal CD marker expression. We successfully isolated 10 subclones from four cell lines (HG3, SU-DHL-5, TMD-8, U-2932). Whole exome sequencing was performed to molecularly characterize these subclones. We describe in detail the clonal structure of cell line HG3, derived from chronic lymphocytic leukemia. HG3 consists of three subclones each bearing clone-specific aberrations, gene expression and DNA methylation patterns. While donor patient leukemic cells were CD5+, two of three HG3 subclones had independently lost this marker. CD5 on HG3 cells was regulated by epigenetic/transcriptional mechanisms rather than by alternative splicing as reported hitherto. In conclusion, we show that the presence of subclones in cell lines carrying individual mutations and characterized by sets of differentially expressed genes is not uncommon. We show also that these subclones can be useful isogenic models for regulatory and functional studies. PMID:27566572

  10. Understanding pathogenetic aspects and clinical presentation of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) through its derived cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Antonino; Cesarman, Ethel; Gloghini, Annunziata; Drexler, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a very rare subgroup of B-cell lymphomas presenting as pleural, peritoneal and pericardial neoplastic effusions in the absence of a solid tumor mass or recognizable nodal involvement. There is strong evidence that Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a causal agent of PEL. PEL tumor cells are latently infected by KSHV with consistent expression of several viral proteins and microRNAs that can affect cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. The most relevant data on pathogenesis and biology of KSHV have been provided by studies on PEL derived cell lines. Fourteen continuous cell lines have been established from the malignant effusions of patients with AIDS-and non-AIDS-associated PEL. These KSHV+ EBV+/− cell lines are wellcharacterized, authenticated and mostly available from public biological ressource centers. The PEL cell lines display unique features and are clearly distinct from other lymphoma cell lines. PEL cell lines represent an indispensable tool for the understanding of KSHV biology and its impact on the clinical manifestation of PEL. Studies on PEL cell lines have shown that a number of viral genes, expressed during latency or lytic life cycle, have effects on cell binding, proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammation. Also PEL cell lines are important model systems for the study of the pathology of PEL including the lack of invasive or destructive growth patterns and the peculiar propensity of PEL to involve body cavity surfaces. PMID:20051807

  11. Establishment and characterization of the NCC-SS1-C1 synovial sarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Kito, Fusako; Oyama, Rieko; Takai, Yoko; Sakumoto, Marimu; Shiozawa, Kumiko; Qiao, Zhiwei; Uehara, Takenori; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kawai, Akira; Kondo, Tadashi

    2018-04-01

    Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive mesenchymal malignancy characterized by unique gene fusions. Tissue culture cells are essential tools for further understanding tumorigenesis and anti-cancer drug development; however, only a limited number of well-characterized synovial sarcoma cell lines exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to establish a patient-derived synovial sarcoma cell line. We established a synovial sarcoma cell line from tumor tissue isolated from a 72-year-old female patient. Prepared cells were analyzed for the presence of gene fusions by fluorescence in situ hybridization, RT-PCR, and karyotyping. In addition, the resulting cell line was characterized by viability, short tandem repeat, colony and spheroid formation, and invasion analyses. Differences in gene enrichment between the primary tumor and cell line were examined by mass spectrometric protein expression profiling and KEGG pathway analysis. Our analyses revealed that the primary tumor and NCC-SS1-C1 cell line harbored the SS18-SSX1 fusion gene typical of synovial sarcoma and similar proteomics profiles. In vitro analyses also confirmed that the established cell line harbored invasive, colony-forming, and spheroid-forming potentials. Moreover, drug screening with chemotherapeutic agents and tyrosine kinase inhibitors revealed that doxorubicin, a subset of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and several molecular targeting drugs markedly decreased NCC-SS1-C1 cell viability. Results from the present study support that the NCC-SS1-C1 cell line will be an effective tool for sarcoma research.

  12. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 microm diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line.

    PubMed

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Behnan Sahin, M; Cressman, Erik N K; Steer, Clifford J

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 microm in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of prostate cancer cell lines and primary cells using low temperature plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Deborah; Hirst, Adam; Frame, Fiona F.; Maitland, Norman J.

    2014-10-01

    The mechanisms of cell death after plasma treatment of both benign and cancerous prostate epithelial cells are investigated. Prostate cancer tissue was obtained with patient consent from targeted needle core biopsies following radical prostatectomy. Primary cells were cultured from cancer tissue and plated onto a chamber slide at a density of 10,000 cells per well in 200 microliter of stem cell media (SCM). The treated sample was previously identified as Gleason grade 7 cancer through tissue histo-pathology. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet configuration, with helium as a carrier gas, and 0.3% O2 admixture was used for treating the cells. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) produced by the plasma are believed to be the main mediators of the plasma-cell interaction and response. We found the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced inside the cells increased with plasma exposure. Exposure to the plasma for >3 minutes showed high levels of DNA damage compared to untreated and hydrogen peroxide controls. Cell viability and cellular recovery are also investigated and will be presented. All findings were common to both cell lines, suggesting the potential of LTP therapy for both benign and malignant disease.

  14. Downstream targets of HOXB4 in a cell line model of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han M; Zhang, Hui; Schulz, Vincent; Tuck, David P; Forget, Bernard G

    2010-08-05

    Enforced expression of the homeobox transcription factor HOXB4 has been shown to enhance hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and expansion ex vivo and in vivo. To investigate the downstream targets of HOXB4 in hematopoietic progenitor cells, HOXB4 was constitutively overexpressed in the primitive hematopoietic progenitor cell line EML. Two genome-wide analytical techniques were used: RNA expression profiling using microarrays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip. RNA expression profiling revealed that 465 gene transcripts were differentially expressed in KLS (c-Kit(+), Lin(-), Sca-1(+))-EML cells that overexpressed HOXB4 (KLS-EML-HOXB4) compared with control KLS-EML cells that were transduced with vector alone. In particular, erythroid-specific gene transcripts were observed to be highly down-regulated in KLS-EML-HOXB4 cells. ChIP-chip analysis revealed that the promoter region for 1910 genes, such as CD34, Sox4, and B220, were occupied by HOXB4 in KLS-EML-HOXB4 cells. Side-by-side comparison of the ChIP-chip and RNA expression profiling datasets provided correlative information and identified Gp49a and Laptm4b as candidate "stemness-related" genes. Both genes were highly ranked in both dataset lists and have been previously shown to be preferentially expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and down-regulated in mature hematopoietic cells, thus making them attractive candidates for future functional studies in hematopoietic cells.

  15. Screening for chemicals that affect hair cell death and survival in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Ou, Henry; Simon, Julian A; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2012-06-01

    The zebrafish lateral line is an efficient model system for the evaluation of chemicals that protect and damage hair cells. Located on the surface of the body, lateral line hair cells are accessible for manipulation and visualization. The zebrafish lateral line system allows rapid screens of large chemical libraries, as well as subsequent thorough evaluation of interesting compounds. In this review, we focus on the results of our previous screens and the evolving methodology of our screens for chemicals that protect hair cells, and chemicals that damage hair cells using the zebrafish lateral line. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic heterogeneity of RPMI-8402, a T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line

    PubMed Central

    STOCZYNSKA-FIDELUS, EWELINA; PIASKOWSKI, SYLWESTER; PAWLOWSKA, ROZA; SZYBKA, MALGORZATA; PECIAK, JOANNA; HULAS-BIGOSZEWSKA, KRYSTYNA; WINIECKA-KLIMEK, MARTA; RIESKE, PIOTR

    2016-01-01

    Thorough examination of genetic heterogeneity of cell lines is uncommon. In order to address this issue, the present study analyzed the genetic heterogeneity of RPMI-8402, a T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell line. For this purpose, traditional techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry were used, in addition to more advanced techniques, including cell sorting, Sanger sequencing and massive parallel sequencing. The results indicated that the RPMI-8402 cell line consists of several genetically different cell subpopulations. Furthermore, massive parallel sequencing of RPMI-8402 provided insight into the evolution of T-ALL carcinogenesis, since this cell line exhibited the genetic heterogeneity typical of T-ALL. Therefore, the use of cell lines for drug testing in future studies may aid the progress of anticancer drug research. PMID:26870252

  17. Infection studies of nontarget mammalian cell lines with Bombyx mori macula-like virus.

    PubMed

    Innami, Katsuhisa; Aizawa, Takahiro; Tsukui, Toshihiro; Katsuma, Susumu; Imanishi, Shigeo; Kawasaki, Hideki; Iwanaga, Masashi

    2016-03-01

    Bombyx mori-derived cell lines are generally used for Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV)-based baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). However, almost all of the B. mori-derived cell lines are persistently infected with Bombyx mori macula-like virus (BmMLV). In this study, nontarget mammalian cell lines were exposed to BmMLV, and their susceptibility was investigated. Real-time PCR showed that viral RNA in virus-inoculated nine mammalian cell lines decreased sharply at 7 days postinfection. Also, there was no significant effect on cell viability of mammalian cells after inoculation with BmMLV. These findings indicate that mammalian cell lines used in this study are not permissive to BmMLV, and BmMLV contamination might not affect the safety aspect of BmNPV-based BEVS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biocompatible and label-free separation of cancer cells from cell culture lines from white blood cells in ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wujun; Cheng, Rui; Lim, So Hyun; Miller, Joshua R; Zhang, Weizhong; Tang, Wei; Xie, Jin; Mao, Leidong

    2017-06-27

    This paper reports a biocompatible and label-free cell separation method using ferrofluids that can separate a variety of low-concentration cancer cells from cell culture lines (∼100 cancer cells per mL) from undiluted white blood cells, with a throughput of 1.2 mL h -1 and an average separation efficiency of 82.2%. The separation is based on the size difference of the cancer cells and white blood cells, and is conducted in a custom-made biocompatible ferrofluid that retains not only excellent short-term viabilities but also normal proliferations of 7 commonly used cancer cell lines. A microfluidic device is designed and optimized specifically to shorten the time of live cells' exposure to ferrofluids from hours to seconds, by eliminating time-consuming off-chip sample preparation and extraction steps and integrating them on-chip to achieve a one-step process. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, a ferrofluid with 0.26% volume fraction was used in this microfluidic device to separate spiked cancer cells from cell lines at a concentration of ∼100 cells per mL from white blood cells with a throughput of 1.2 mL h -1 . The separation efficiencies were 80 ± 3%, 81 ± 5%, 82 ± 5%, 82 ± 4%, and 86 ± 6% for A549 lung cancer, H1299 lung cancer, MCF-7 breast cancer, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, respectively. The separated cancer cells' purity was between 25.3% and 28.8%. In addition, the separated cancer cells from this strategy showed an average short-term viability of 94.4 ± 1.3%, and these separated cells were cultured and demonstrated normal proliferation to confluence even after the separation process. Owing to its excellent biocompatibility and label-free operation and its ability to recover low concentrations of cancer cells from white blood cells, this method could lead to a promising tool for rare cell separation.

  19. Establishment and characterization of fetal fibroblast cell lines for generating human lysozyme transgenic goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Luo, Yan; Zheng, Liming; Liu, Qingqing; Yang, Zhongcai; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to qualify goat fetal fibroblast (GFF) cell lines for genetic modification and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce human lysozyme (hLYZ) transgenic goats. Nine GFF cell lines were established from different fetuses, and the proliferative lifespan and chromosomal stability were analyzed. The results suggested that cell lines with a longer lifespan had stable chromosomes compared with those of cells lines with a shorter lifespan. According to the proliferative lifespan, we divided GFF cell lines into two groups: cell lines with a long lifespan (GFF1/2/7/8/9; group L) and cell lines with a short lifespan (GFF3/4/5/6; group S). Next, a hLYZ expression vector was introduced into these cell lines by electroporation. The efficiencies of colony formation, expansion in culture, and the quality of transgenic clonal cell lines were significant higher in group L than those in group S. The mean fusion rate and blastocyst rate in group L were higher than those in group S (80.3 ± 1.7 vs. 65.1 ± 4.2 % and 19.5 ± 0.6 vs. 15.1 ± 1.1 %, respectively, P < 0.05). After transferring cloned embryos into the oviducts of recipient goats, three live kids were born. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed integration of the transgene in cloned goats. In conclusion, the lifespan of GFF cell lines has a major effect on the efficiency to produce transgenic cloned goats. Therefore, the proliferative lifespan of primary cells may be used as a criterion to characterize the quality of cell lines for genetic modification and SCNT.

  20. Characterization of resistance to rhabdovirus and retrovirus infection in a human myeloid cell line.

    PubMed

    Boso, Guney; Somia, Nikunj V

    2015-01-01

    Viruses interact with various permissive and restrictive factors in host cells throughout their replication cycle. Cell lines that are non-permissive to viral infection have been particularly useful in discovering host cell proteins involved in viral life cycles. Here we describe the characterization of a human myeloid leukemia cell line, KG-1, that is resistant to infection by retroviruses and a Rhabdovirus. We show that KG-1 cells are resistant to infection by Vesicular Stomatits Virus as well as VSV Glycoprotein (VSVG) pseudotyped retroviruses due to a defect in binding. Moreover our results indicate that entry by xenotropic retroviral envelope glycoprotein RD114 is impaired in KG-1 cells. Finally we characterize a post- entry block in the early phase of the retroviral life cycle in KG-1 cells that renders the cell line refractory to infection. This cell line will have utility in discovering proteins involved in infection by VSV and HIV-1.

  1. [Establishment of fibroblast cell line and its biological characteristics in Matou goat].

    PubMed

    Li, Tianda; Liu, Chousheng; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Liping; Sun, Xiuzhu; Zhao, Junjin; Meng, Fei; Luo, Guihe; Zhu, Jinqing

    2008-12-01

    Taking Matou goat ear margin as the study material, we succeeded in established a fibroblast cell line by the method of explant culture directly. Observations on morphology, dynamic growth, determination of viability, analysis of karyotype, test of microorganism and other characteristics were detected. Results showed: Population Doubling Time (PDT) of cells was approximately 36 h; Cell viability was 96.7% after thawing; The status of cell After passage was constant; Analysis of chromosomal karyotyps indicated that diploid (2n=60) account for 98% in the cell line. Every index in the cell line met all the standard quality controls of ATCC in USA. The established of Matou goat ear fibroblast cell line has not only important genetic resources preserved at the cell level, but also valuable material for genome, postgenome and somatic cell nuclear transfer research.

  2. Effects of HRAS oncogene on cell cycle progression in a cervical cancer-derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Alarcón, Emilio; Centeno, Federico; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Garrido, Efraín

    2005-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most prevalent factor in anogenital cancers. However, epidemiological surveys and molecular data indicate that viral presence is not enough to induce cervical cancer, suggesting that cellular factors could play a key role. One of the most important genes involved in cancer development is the RAS oncogene, and activating mutations in this gene have been associated with HPV infection and cervical neoplasia. Thus, we determined the effect of HRAS oncogene expression on cell proliferation in a cell line immortalized by E6 and E7 oncogenes. HPV positive human cervical carcinoma-derived cell lines (HeLa), previously transfected with the HRAS oncogene or the empty vector, were used. We first determined the proliferation rate and cell cycle profile of these cells by using flow cytometry and BrdU incorporation assays. In order to determine the signaling pathway regulated by HRAS and implicated in the alteration of proliferation of these cells, we used specific chemical inhibitors to inactivate the Raf and PI3K pathways. We observed that HeLa cells stably transfected with oncogenic HRAS progressed faster than control cells on the cell cycle by reducing their G1 phase. Additionally, HRAS overexpression accelerated the G1/S transition. Specific chemical inhibitors for PI3K and MEK activities indicated that both PI3K/AKT and RAF/MEK/ERK pathways are involved in the HRAS oncogene-induced reduction of the G1 phase. Our results suggest that the HRAS oncogene could play an important role in the development of cervical cancer, in addition to the presence of HPV, by reducing the G1 phase and accelerating the G1/S transition of infected cells.

  3. A negative genetic interaction map in isogenic cancer cell lines reveals cancer cell vulnerabilities

    PubMed Central

    Vizeacoumar, Franco J; Arnold, Roland; Vizeacoumar, Frederick S; Chandrashekhar, Megha; Buzina, Alla; Young, Jordan T F; Kwan, Julian H M; Sayad, Azin; Mero, Patricia; Lawo, Steffen; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Brown, Kevin R; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Mak, Anthony B; Fedyshyn, Yaroslav; Wang, Yadong; Brito, Glauber C; Kasimer, Dahlia; Makhnevych, Taras; Ketela, Troy; Datti, Alessandro; Babu, Mohan; Emili, Andrew; Pelletier, Laurence; Wrana, Jeff; Wainberg, Zev; Kim, Philip M; Rottapel, Robert; O'Brien, Catherine A; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles; Moffat, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Improved efforts are necessary to define the functional product of cancer mutations currently being revealed through large-scale sequencing efforts. Using genome-scale pooled shRNA screening technology, we mapped negative genetic interactions across a set of isogenic cancer cell lines and confirmed hundreds of these interactions in orthogonal co-culture competition assays to generate a high-confidence genetic interaction network of differentially essential or differential essentiality (DiE) genes. The network uncovered examples of conserved genetic interactions, densely connected functional modules derived from comparative genomics with model systems data, functions for uncharacterized genes in the human genome and targetable vulnerabilities. Finally, we demonstrate a general applicability of DiE gene signatures in determining genetic dependencies of other non-isogenic cancer cell lines. For example, the PTEN−/− DiE genes reveal a signature that can preferentially classify PTEN-dependent genotypes across a series of non-isogenic cell lines derived from the breast, pancreas and ovarian cancers. Our reference network suggests that many cancer vulnerabilities remain to be discovered through systematic derivation of a network of differentially essential genes in an isogenic cancer cell model. PMID:24104479

  4. FTIR characterization of animal lung cells: normal and precancerous modified e10 cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezell, D. M.; Pereira, T. M.; Mennecier, G.; Bachmann, L.; Govone, A. B.; Dagli, M. L. Z.

    2012-06-01

    The chemical carcinogens from tobacco are related to over 90% of lung cancers around the world. The risk of death of this kind of cancer is high because the diagnosis usually is made only in advanced stages. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new diagnostic methods for detecting the lung cancer in earlier stages. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) can offer high sensibility and accuracy to detect the minimal chemical changes into the biological sample. The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences on infrared spectra between normal lung cells and precancerous lung cells transformed by NNK. Non-cancerous lung cell line e10 (ATCC) and NNK-transformed e10 cell lines were maintained in complete culture medium (1:1 mixture of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and Ham's F12 [DMEM/Ham's F12], supplemented with 100 ng/ml cholera enterotoxin, 10 lg/ml insulin, 0.5 lg/ml. hydrocortisol, 20 ng/ml epidermal growth factor, and 5% horse serum. The cultures were maintained in alcohol 70%. The infrared spectra were acquired on ATR-FTIR Nicolet 6700 spectrophotometer at 4 cm-1 resolution, 30 scans, in the 1800-900 cm-1 spectral range. Each sample had 3 spectra recorded, 30 infrared spectra were obtained from each cell line. The second derivate of spectra indicates that there are displacement in 1646 cm-1 (amine I) and 1255 cm-1(DNA), allowing the possibility to differentiate the two king of cells, with accuracy of 89,9%. These preliminary results indicate that ATR-FTIR is useful to differentiate normal e10 lung cells from precancerous e10 transformed by NNK.

  5. Low-dose non-targeted radiation effects in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hanu, Christine; Wong, Raimond; Sur, Ranjan K; Hayward, Joseph E; Seymour, Colin; Mothersill, Carmel

    2017-02-01

    To investigate non-targeted radiation effects in esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines (OE19 and OE33) using human keratinocyte and colorectal cancer cell reporters following γ-ray exposure. Both clonogenic assays and ratiometric calcium endpoints were used to check for the occurrence of bystander signals in reporter cells. We report data suggesting that γ-irradiation increases cell killing over the expected linear quadratic (LQ) model levels in the OE19 cell line exposed to doses below 1 Gy, i.e. which may be suggestive to be a low hyper-radiosensitive (HRS) response to direct irradiation. Both EAC cell lines (OE19 and OE33) have the ability to produce bystander signals when irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) is placed onto human keratinocyte reporters, but do not seem to be capable of responding to bystander signals when placed on their autologous reporters. Further work with human keratinocyte reporter models showed statistically significant intracellular calcium fluxes following exposure of the reporters to ICCM harvested from both EAC cell lines exposed to 0.5 Gy. These experiments suggest that the OE19 and OE33 cell lines produce bystander signals in human keratinocyte reporter cells. However, the radiosensitivity of the EAC cell lines used in this study cannot be enhanced by the bystander response since both cell lines could not respond to bystander signals.

  6. Susceptibility to cytotoxic T cell lysis of cancer stem cells derived from cervical and head and neck tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tian; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Qian, Xu; Sangvatanakul, Voramon; Chen, Chao; Kube, Tina; Zhang, Guoyou; Albers, Andreas E

    2013-01-01

    To explore cancer stem cell susceptibility to a host's cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response. We compared the susceptibility of putative CSC generated from cancer cell lines to immunologic recognition and killing by alloantigen-specific CD8(+) CTL. CSC-enriched spheroid culture-derived cells (SDC) exhibited higher expression of ALDH, ICAM1 and of stem/progenitor cell markers on all 3 tumor cell lines investigated and lower MHC class I on the cervical cancer cell line as compared to their monolayer-derived cells (MDC). The expression of ICAM1 and MHCI was upregulated by IFN-γ treatment. CSC populations were less sensitive to MHC class I-restricted alloantigen-specific CD8(+) CTL lysis as compared to matched MDC. IFN-γ pretreatment resulted in over-proportionally enhanced lysis of SDC. Finally, the subset of ALDH(high) expressing SDC presented more sensitivity toward CD8(+) CTL killing than the ALDH(low) SDC. Tumor therapy resistance has been attributed to cancer stem cells (CSC). We show in vitro susceptibility of CSC to CTL-mediated lysis. Immunotherapy targeting of ALDH(+) CSC may therefore be a promising approach. Our results and method may be helpful for the development and optimization of adjuvants, as here exemplified for INF-γ, for CSC-targeted vaccines, independent of the availability of CSC-specific antigens.

  7. Tumourigenic canine osteosarcoma cell lines associated with frizzled-6 up-regulation and enhanced side population cell frequency.

    PubMed

    de Sá Rodrigues, L C; Holmes, K E; Thompson, V; Newton, M A; Stein, T J

    2017-03-01

    An increased serum alkaline phosphatase concentration is known to be associated with a negative prognosis in canine and human osteosarcoma. To expand upon previous studies regarding the biological relevance of increased serum alkaline phosphatase as a negative prognostic factor, xenogeneic heterotopic transplants were performed using six canine primary osteosarcoma cell lines generated from patients with differing serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations (three normal and three increased). Three of the six cell lines were capable of generating tumours and tumour formation was independent of the serum alkaline phosphatase status of the cell line. Microarray analysis identified 379 genes as being differentially expressed between the tumourigenic and non-tumourigenic cell lines. Frizzled-6 was upregulated to the greatest extent (7.78-fold) in tumourigenic cell lines compared with non-tumourigenic cell lines. Frizzled-6, a co-receptor for Wnt ligands has been associated with enhanced tumour-initiating cells and poor prognosis for other tumours. The increased expression of frizzled-6 was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and Western blot analysis. Additionally, the tumourigenic cell lines also had an increase in the percentage of side population cells compared with non-tumourigenic cell lines (5.89% versus 1.58%, respectively). There were no differences in tumourigenicity, frizzled-6 or percentage of side population cells noted between osteosarcoma cell lines generated from patients of differing serum alkaline phosphatase concentration. However, to our knowledge this is the first study to identified frizzled-6 as a possible marker of osteosarcoma cell populations with enhanced tumourigenicity and side population cells. Future work will focus on defining the role of frizzled-6 in osteosarcoma tumourigenesis and tumour-initiating cells. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Radiobiological characteristics of cancer stem cells from esophageal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Lin; Yu, Jing-Ping; Sun, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Su-Ping

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the cancer stem cell population in esophageal cancer cell lines KYSE-150 and TE-1 and identify whether the resulting stem-like spheroid cells display cancer stem cells and radiation resistance characteristics. METHODS: A serum-free medium (SFM) suspension was used to culture esophageal cancer stem cell lines and enrich the esophageal stem-like spheres. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect stem cell gene expression in the spheroid cells. Radiosensitivity of stem-like spheres and parental cells were evaluated by clonogenic assays. Furthermore, different cells after different doses of irradiation were tested to evaluate the change in sphere formation, cell cycle and CD44+CD271+ expression of tumor stem-like spheroid cells using flow cytometry before and after irradiation. RESULTS: The cells were observed to generate an increased number of spheres in SFM with increasing cell passage. Radiation increased the rate of generation of stem-like spheres in both types of cells. The average survival fraction (SF2) of the cultured KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 stem-like spheres after 2 Gy of radiation was 0.81 ± 0.03 vs 0.87 ± 0.01 (P < 0.05), while the average SF2 of KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 parental cells was 0.69 ± 0.04 vs 0.80 ± 0.03, P < 0.05. In the esophageal parental cells, irradiation dose-dependently induced G2 arrest. Stem-like esophageal spheres were resistant to irradiation-induced G2 arrest without significant changes in the percentage population of irradiated stem-like cells. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for KYSE150 parental cells was 1.08% ± 0.03% vs 1.29% ± 0.07% vs 1.11% ± 0.09%, respectively; the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for TE1 parental cells was 1.16% ± 0.11% vs 0.97% ± 0.08% vs 1.45% ± 0.35%, respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for KYSE-150 stem

  9. Radiobiological characteristics of cancer stem cells from esophageal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Lin; Yu, Jing-Ping; Sun, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Su-Ping

    2014-12-28

    To study the cancer stem cell population in esophageal cancer cell lines KYSE-150 and TE-1 and identify whether the resulting stem-like spheroid cells display cancer stem cells and radiation resistance characteristics. A serum-free medium (SFM) suspension was used to culture esophageal cancer stem cell lines and enrich the esophageal stem-like spheres. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect stem cell gene expression in the spheroid cells. Radiosensitivity of stem-like spheres and parental cells were evaluated by clonogenic assays. Furthermore, different cells after different doses of irradiation were tested to evaluate the change in sphere formation, cell cycle and CD44(+)CD271(+) expression of tumor stem-like spheroid cells using flow cytometry before and after irradiation. The cells were observed to generate an increased number of spheres in SFM with increasing cell passage. Radiation increased the rate of generation of stem-like spheres in both types of cells. The average survival fraction (SF2) of the cultured KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 stem-like spheres after 2 Gy of radiation was 0.81 ± 0.03 vs 0.87 ± 0.01 (P < 0.05), while the average SF2 of KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 parental cells was 0.69 ± 0.04 vs 0.80 ± 0.03, P < 0.05. In the esophageal parental cells, irradiation dose-dependently induced G2 arrest. Stem-like esophageal spheres were resistant to irradiation-induced G2 arrest without significant changes in the percentage population of irradiated stem-like cells. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44(+)CD271(+) cell percentage for KYSE150 parental cells was 1.08% ± 0.03% vs 1.29% ± 0.07% vs 1.11% ± 0.09%, respectively; the CD44(+)CD271(+) cell percentage for TE1 parental cells was 1.16% ± 0.11% vs 0.97% ± 0.08% vs 1.45% ± 0.35%, respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44(+)CD271(+) cell percentage for KYSE-150 stem-like spheres was

  10. Establishment and characterization of five immortalized human scalp dermal papilla cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kwack, Mi Hee; Yang, Jung Min; Won, Gong Hee; Kim, Moon Kyu; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan

    2018-02-05

    Dermal papilla (DP) regulates the growth and cycling of hair follicles. Cultured DP cells are useful for the study of their role in relation to hair growth and regeneration. However, cultivation of human DP cells is tedious and difficult. In addition, cultured DP cells possess a relatively short replicative life span, requiring immortalized human DP cell lines. We previously established an immortalized human DP cell line, SV40T-hTERT-DPC, by introducing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene into the transformed cell line, SV40T-DPC. In this study, we co-transfected the simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40T-Ag) and hTERT into DP cells from scalp hair follicles from a male with androgenetic alopecia and established five immortalized DP cell lines and named KNU-101, KNU-102, KNU-103, KNU-201 and KNU-202. We then evaluated tumorigenicity, expression of DP markers, responses to androgen, Wnt3a and BMP4, and expression of DP signature genes. These cell lines displayed early passage morphology and maintained responses to androgen, Wnt and BMP. Furthermore, these cell lines expressed DP markers and DP signature genes. KNU cell lines established in this study are potentially useful sources for hair research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and characterization of a cell line WAF from freshwater shark Wallago attu.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Akhilesh; Goswami, Mukunda; Yadav, Kamalendra; Sharma, Bhagwati S

    2014-02-01

    A new epithelial cell line, WAF was developed from caudal fin of freshwater shark, Wallago attu. The cell line was optimally maintained at 28 °C in Leibovitz-15 (L-15) medium supplemented with 20 % fetal bovine serum. The cell line was characterized by various cytogenetic and molecular markers. The cytogenetic analysis revealed a diploid count of 86 chromosomes at different passages. The origin of the cell lines was confirmed by the amplification of 547 and 654 bp sequences of 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I genes of mitochondrial DNA, respectively. WAF cells were characterized for their growth characteristics at different temperature and serum concentration. Epithelial morphology of the cell line was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. Further cell plating efficiency, transfection efficiency and viability of cryopreserved WAF cells was also determined. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of cadmium salts on WAF cells by MTT, NR and comet assay illustrated the utility of this cell line as an in vitro model for aquatic toxicological studies. The cell line will be further useful for studying oxidative stress markers against aquatic pollutants.

  12. Immortalized Human Schwann Cell Lines Derived From Tumors of Schwannomatosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, Kimberly Laskie; Donaldson, Katelyn; Blakeley, Jaishri; Belzberg, Allan; Hoke, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomatosis, a rare form of neurofibromatosis, is characterized predominantly by multiple, often painful, schwannomas throughout the peripheral nervous system. The current standard of care for schwannomatosis is surgical resection. A major obstacle to schwannomatosis research is the lack of robust tumor cell lines. There is a great need for mechanistic and drug discovery studies of schwannomatosis, yet appropriate tools are not currently available. Schwannomatosis tumors are difficult to grow in culture as they survive only a few passages before senescence. Our lab has extensive experience in establishing primary and immortalized human Schwann cell cultures from normal tissue that retain their phenotypes after immortalization. Therefore we took on the challenge of creating immortalized human Schwann cell lines derived from tumors from schwannomatosis patients. We have established and fully characterized 2 schwannomatosis cell lines from 2 separate patients using SV40 virus large T antigen. One patient reported pain and the other did not. The schwannomatosis cell lines were stained with S100B antibodies to confirm Schwann cell identity. The schwannomatosis cells also expressed the Schwann cell markers, p75NTR, S100B, and NGF after multiple passages. Cell morphology was retained following multiple passaging and freeze/ thaw cycles. Gene expression microarray analysis was used to compare the cell lines with their respective parent tumors. No differences in key genes were detected, with the exception that several cell cycle regulators were upregulated in the schwannomatosis cell lines when compared to their parent tumors. This upregulation was apparently a product of cell culturing, as the schwannomatosis cells exhibited the same expression pattern of cell cycle regulatory genes as normal primary human Schwann cells. Cell growth was also similar between normal primary and immortalized tumor cells in culture. Accurate cell lines derived directly from human tumors

  13. Immortalized Human Schwann Cell Lines Derived From Tumors of Schwannomatosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, Kimberly Laskie; Donaldson, Katelyn; Blakeley, Jaishri; Belzberg, Allan; Hoke, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomatosis, a rare form of neurofibromatosis, is characterized predominantly by multiple, often painful, schwannomas throughout the peripheral nervous system. The current standard of care for schwannomatosis is surgical resection. A major obstacle to schwannomatosis research is the lack of robust tumor cell lines. There is a great need for mechanistic and drug discovery studies of schwannomatosis, yet appropriate tools are not currently available. Schwannomatosis tumors are difficult to grow in culture as they survive only a few passages before senescence. Our lab has extensive experience in establishing primary and immortalized human Schwann cell cultures from normal tissue that retain their phenotypes after immortalization. Therefore we took on the challenge of creating immortalized human Schwann cell lines derived from tumors from schwannomatosis patients. We have established and fully characterized 2 schwannomatosis cell lines from 2 separate patients using SV40 virus large T antigen. One patient reported pain and the other did not. The schwannomatosis cell lines were stained with S100B antibodies to confirm Schwann cell identity. The schwannomatosis cells also expressed the Schwann cell markers, p75NTR, S100B, and NGF after multiple passages. Cell morphology was retained following multiple passaging and freeze/ thaw cycles. Gene expression microarray analysis was used to compare the cell lines with their respective parent tumors. No differences in key genes were detected, with the exception that several cell cycle regulators were upregulated in the schwannomatosis cell lines when compared to their parent tumors. This upregulation was apparently a product of cell culturing, as the schwannomatosis cells exhibited the same expression pattern of cell cycle regulatory genes as normal primary human Schwann cells. Cell growth was also similar between normal primary and immortalized tumor cells in culture. Accurate cell lines derived directly from human tumors

  14. Escherichia coli STb toxin induces apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Syed, H Claudia; Dubreuil, J Daniel

    2012-09-01

    A previous study conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that cells having internalized Escherichia coli STb toxin display apoptotic-like morphology. We therefore investigated if STb could induce programmed cell death in both a human and an animal intestinal epithelial cell lines. HRT-18 (Human Colon Tumor) and IEC-18 (Rat Ileum Epithelial Cells) cell lines were used. As STb is frequently tested in a rat model, the IEC-18 cell line was most relevant to our work. The cell lines were treated with various amounts of purified STb (nanomole range) for a period of 24 h after which cells were harvested and examined for apoptotic characteristics. Caspase-9, the initiator of mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis, and caspase-3, an effector of caspase-9, were both activated following STb intoxication of HRT-18 and IEC-18 cells whereas caspase-8, the initiator caspase of the extrinsic pathway, was not activated. For both cell lines, agarose gel electrophoresis of the cell DNA content reveals laddering of DNA, resulting from DNA fragmentation, a characteristic of apoptosis. Hoechst 33342-stained DNA of STb-treated cell lines, observed using fluorescence microscopy, revealed condensation and fragmentation of the nuclei. Apoptotic indexes calculated from fragmented nuclei of Hoechst 33342-stained DNA for HRT-18 and IEC-18 cells showed an STb dose-dependent response. Overall, these data indicate that STb toxin induces a mitochondrion-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-05-01

    To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted.

  16. Copy number abnormality of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines based on their genetic subtypes.

    PubMed

    Tomoyasu, Chihiro; Imamura, Toshihiko; Tomii, Toshihiro; Yano, Mio; Asai, Daisuke; Goto, Hiroaki; Shimada, Akira; Sanada, Masashi; Iwamoto, Shotaro; Takita, Junko; Minegishi, Masayoshi; Inukai, Takeshi; Sugita, Kanji; Hosoi, Hajime

    2018-05-21

    In this study, we performed genetic analysis of 83 B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell lines. First, we performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis to identify copy number abnormalities (CNAs) in eight genes associated with B-ALL according to genetic subtype. In Ph + B-ALL cell lines, the frequencies of IKZF1, CDKN2A/2B, BTG1, and PAX5 deletion were significantly higher than those in Ph - B-ALL cell lines. The frequency of CDKN2A/2B deletion in KMT2A rearranged cell lines was significantly lower than that in non-KMT2A rearranged cell lines. These findings suggest that CNAs are correlated with genetic subtype in B-ALL cell lines. In addition, we determined that three B-other ALL cell lines had IKZF1 deletions (YCUB-5, KOPN49, and KOPN75); we therefore performed comprehensive genetic analysis of these cell lines. YCUB-5, KOPN49, and KOPN75 had P2RY8-CRLF2, IgH-CRLF2, and PAX5-ETV6 fusions, respectively. Moreover, targeted capture sequencing revealed that YCUB-5 had JAK2 R683I and KRAS G12D, and KOPN49 had JAK2 R683G and KRAS G13D mutations. These data may contribute to progress in the field of leukemia research.

  17. Efficient production of a gene mutant cell line through integrating TALENs and high-throughput cell cloning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changhong; Fan, Yu; Li, Juan; Wang, Gancheng; Zhang, Hanshuo; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff

    2015-02-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are becoming powerful DNA-targeting tools in a variety of mammalian cells and model organisms. However, generating a stable cell line with specific gene mutations in a simple and rapid manner remains a challenging task. Here, we report a new method to efficiently produce monoclonal cells using integrated TALE nuclease technology and a series of high-throughput cell cloning approaches. Following this method, we obtained three mTOR mutant 293T cell lines within 2 months, which included one homozygous mutant line. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  18. Cationic Phosphorus Dendrimer Enhances Photodynamic Activity of Rose Bengal against Basal Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Dabrzalska, Monika; Janaszewska, Anna; Zablocka, Maria; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    In the last couple of decades, photodynamic therapy emerged as a useful tool in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. However, it still meets limitations due to unfavorable properties of photosensitizers such as poor solubility or lack of selectivity. Dendrimers, polymers widely studied in biomedical field, may play a role as photosensitizer carriers and improve the efficacy of photodynamic treatment. Here, we describe the evaluation of an electrostatic complex of cationic phosphorus dendrimer and rose bengal in such aspects as singlet oxygen production, cellular uptake, and phototoxicity against three basal cell carcinoma cell lines. Rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex in molar ratio 5:1 was compared to free rose bengal. Obtained results showed that the singlet oxygen production in aqueous medium was significantly higher for the complex than for free rose bengal. The cellular uptake of the complex was 2-7-fold higher compared to a free photosensitizer. Importantly, rose bengal, rose bengal-dendrimer complex, and dendrimer itself showed no dark toxicity against all three cell lines. Moreover, we observed that phototoxicity of the complex was remarkably enhanced presumably due to high cellular uptake. On the basis of the obtained results, we conclude that rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex has a potential in photodynamic treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  19. Electronic cigarettes induce DNA strand breaks and cell death independently of nicotine in cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vicky; Rahimy, Mehran; Korrapati, Avinaash; Xuan, Yinan; Zou, Angela E; Krishnan, Aswini R; Tsui, Tzuhan; Aguilera, Joseph A; Advani, Sunil; Crotty Alexander, Laura E; Brumund, Kevin T; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Ongkeko, Weg M

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of short- and long-term e-cigarette vapor exposure on a panel of normal epithelial and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. HaCaT, UMSCC10B, and HN30 were treated with nicotine-containing and nicotine-free vapor extract from two popular e-cigarette brands for periods ranging from 48 h to 8 weeks. Cytotoxicity was assessed using Annexin V flow cytometric analysis, trypan blue exclusion, and clonogenic assays. Genotoxicity in the form of DNA strand breaks was quantified using the neutral comet assay and γ-H2AX immunostaining. E-cigarette-exposed cells showed significantly reduced cell viability and clonogenic survival, along with increased rates of apoptosis and necrosis, regardless of e-cigarette vapor nicotine content. They also exhibited significantly increased comet tail length and accumulation of γ-H2AX foci, demonstrating increased DNA strand breaks. E-cigarette vapor, both with and without nicotine, is cytotoxic to epithelial cell lines and is a DNA strand break-inducing agent. Further assessment of the potential carcinogenic effects of e-cigarette vapor is urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electronic cigarettes induce DNA strand breaks and cell death independently of nicotine in cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Vicky; Rahimy, Mehran; Korrapati, Avinaash; Xuan, Yinan; Zou, Angela E.; Krishnan, Aswini R.; Tsui, Tzuhan; Aguilera, Joseph A.; Advani, Sunil; Crotty Alexander, Laura E.; Brumund, Kevin T.; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of short- and long-term e-cigarette vapor exposure on a panel of normal epithelial and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. Materials and Methods HaCaT, UMSCC10B, and HN30 were treated with nicotine-containing and nicotine-free vapor extract from two popular e-cigarette brands for periods ranging from 48 hours to 8 weeks. Cytotoxicity was assessed using Annexin V flow cytometric analysis, trypan blue exclusion, and clonogenic assays. Genotoxicity in the form of DNA strand breaks was quantified using the neutral comet assay and γ-H2AX immunostaining. Results E-cigarette-exposed cells showed significantly reduced cell viability and clonogenic survival, along with increased rates of apoptosis and necrosis, regardless of e-cigarette vapor nicotine content. They also exhibited significantly increased comet tail length and accumulation of γ-H2AX foci, demonstrating increased DNA strand breaks. Conclusion E-cigarette vapor, both with and without nicotine, is cytotoxic to epithelial cell lines and is a DNA strand break-inducing agent. Further assessment of the potential carcinogenic effects of e-cigarette vapor is urgently needed. PMID:26547127

  1. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation : Third Results Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    SunLine Transit Agency provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California. SunLine has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. This report describes operations at SunLine for a prototype f...

  2. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California. SunLine has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technol...

  3. Generation and characteristics of human Sertoli cell line immortalized by overexpression of human telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Liping; Yuan, Qingqing; Sun, Min; Niu, Minghui; Wang, Hong; Fu, Hongyong; Zhou, Fan; Yao, Chencheng; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Zheng; He, Zuping

    2017-01-01

    Sertoli cells are required for normal spermatogenesis and they can be reprogrammed to other types of functional cells. However, the number of primary Sertoli cells is rare and human Sertoli cell line is unavailable. In this study, we have for the first time reported a stable human Sertoli cell line, namely hS1 cells, by overexpression of human telomerase. The hS1 cells expressed a number of hallmarks for human Sertoli cells, including SOX9, WT1, GDNF, SCF, BMP4, BMP6, GATA4, and VIM, and they were negative for 3β-HSD, SMA, and VASA. Higher levels of AR and FSHR were observed in hS1 cells compared to primary human Sertoli cells. Microarray analysis showed that 70.4% of global gene profiles of hS1 cells were similar to primary human Sertoli cells. Proliferation assay demonstrated that hS1 cells proliferated rapidly and they could be passaged for more than 30 times in 6 months. Neither Y chromosome microdeletion nor tumorgenesis was detected in this cell line and 90% normal karyotypes existed in hS1 cells. Collectively, we have established the first human Sertoli cell line with phenotype of primary human Sertoli cells, an unlimited proliferation potential and high safety, which could offer sufficient human Sertoli cells for basic research as well as reproductive and regenerative medicine. PMID:28152522

  4. Autophagy Protects Against Aminochrome-Induced Cell Death in Substantia Nigra-Derived Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Irmgard; Muñoz, Patricia; Huenchuguala, Sandro; Couve, Eduardo; Sanders, Laurie H.; Greenamyre, John Timothy; Caviedes, Pablo; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Aminochrome, the precursor of neuromelanin, has been proposed to be involved in the neurodegeneration neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease. We aimed to study the mechanism of aminochrome-dependent cell death in a cell line derived from rat substantia nigra. We found that aminochrome (50μM), in the presence of NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.2 (DT)-diaphorase inhibitor dicoumarol (DIC) (100μM), induces significant cell death (62 ± 3%; p < 0.01), increase in caspase-3 activation (p < 0.001), release of cytochrome C, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (p < 0.01), damage of mitochondrial DNA, damage of mitochondria determined with transmission electron microscopy, a dramatic morphological change characterized as cell shrinkage, and significant increase in number of autophagic vacuoles. To determine the role of autophagy on aminochrome-induced cell death, we incubated the cells in the presence of vinblastine and rapamycin. Interestingly, 10μM vinblastine induces a 5.9-fold (p < 0.001) and twofold (p < 0.01) significant increase in cell death when the cells were incubated with 30μM aminochrome in the absence and presence of DIC, respectively, whereas 10μM rapamycin preincubated 24 h before addition of 50μM aminochrome in the absence and the presence of 100μM DIC induces a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in cell death. In conclusion, autophagy seems to be an important protective mechanism against two different aminochrome-induced cell deaths that initially showed apoptotic features. The cell death induced by aminochrome when DT-diaphorase is inhibited requires activation of mitochondrial pathway, whereas the cell death induced by aminochrome alone requires inhibition of autophagy-dependent degrading of damaged organelles and recycling through lysosomes. PMID:21427056

  5. Cell and molecular biology of SAE, a cell line from the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias.

    PubMed

    Parton, Angela; Forest, David; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Dowell, Lori; Bayne, Christopher; Barnes, David

    2007-02-01

    Cartilaginous fish, primarily sharks, rays and skates (elasmobranchs), appeared 450 million years ago. They are the most primitive vertebrates, exhibiting jaws and teeth, adaptive immunity, a pressurized circulatory system, thymus, spleen, and a liver comparable to that of humans. The most used elasmobranch in biomedical research is the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. Comparative genomic analysis of the dogfish shark, the little skate (Leucoraja erincea), and other elasmobranchs have yielded insights into conserved functional domains of genes associated with human liver function, multidrug resistance, cystic fibrosis, and other biomedically relevant processes. While genomic information from these animals is informative in an evolutionary framework, experimental verification of functions of genomic sequences depends heavily on cell culture approaches. We have derived the first multipassage, continuously proliferating cell line of a cartilaginous fish. The line was initiated from embryos of the spiny dogfish shark. The cells were maintained in a medium modified for fish species and supplemented with cell type-specific hormones, other proteins and sera, and plated on a collagen substrate. SAE cells have been cultured continuously for three years. These cells can be transfected by plasmids and have been cryopreserved. Expressed Sequence Tags generated from a normalized SAE cDNA library included a number of markers for cartilage and muscle, as well as proteins influencing tissue differentiation and development, suggesting that SAE cells may be of mesenchymal stem cell origin. Examination of SAE EST sequences also revealed a cartilaginous fish-specific repetitive sequence that may be evidence of an ancient mobile genetic element that most likely was introduced into the cartilaginous fish lineage after divergence from the lineage leading to teleosts.

  6. Comparative study of the photodynamic effect in tumor and nontumor animal cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoykova, Elena V.; Alexandrova, R.; Shurulinkov, Stanislav; Sabotinov, O.; Minchev, Georgi

    2004-09-01

    In this study we evaluate the cytotoxicity of two photosensitisers with absorption peaks in the green and red part of the spectrum on animal cell lines. The cytotoxicity assessment was performed for a tumor cell line LSCC-SF-Mc29, obtained from a transplantable chicken hepatoma induced by the myelocytomatosis virus Mc29, a tumor line LSR-SF-SR, obtained from a transplantable sarcoma in rat induced by Rous sarcoma virus strain Schmidt-Ruppin and for normal mouse and bovine cell lines. Up to now the effect of the photodynamic therapy on virus-induced cancers has not been clarified. The cells were treated with 5,10,15,20 - tetra (4-sulfophenyl) porphyrin with main absorption peak at 519 nm and a dye activated with a red light. The cells were seeded in 96-well plates at 2 x 104 cells/well. The cells were exposed to irradiation from a pulsed CuBr vapor laser at 510.6 nm and 578.2 nm and exposure rate 50 mW/cm2, from an Ar-ion laser at 514 nm and 1 mW/cm2 and to 655 nm-irradiation from a semiconductor laser at 10 mW/cm2. The biological activity of the tested compounds was measured by the neutral red uptake cytotoxicity test. The light dose-response curves and light exposures that ensure 50% drop in the treated cells viability in comparison with the cells grown in non-modified medium were obtained for each cell line. The cytotoxic effect of both photosensitisers is most distinguished for the tumor line LSCC-SF-Mc29. The 2-4 times higher viability of the normal cell lines in comparison with the tumor lines is established. The bovine cell lines are more vulnerable than the mouse lines.

  7. Cell shape can be uncoupled from formononetin induction in a novel cell line from Callerya speciosa.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fei; Jiang, Xue-Fei; Cong, Han-Qing; Sun, Hua-Peng; Li, Li; Nick, Peter

    2018-04-01

    It is the first time that formononetin produced by cell culture and its accumulation was shown to be triggered by specific stress signalling linked jasmonate pathway. Callerya speciosa, an endangered traditional Chinese medicine plant, is intensively used in traditional folk medicine. To develop sustainable alternatives for the overexploitation of natural resources, a suspension cell line was created from C. speciosa. Ingredients of C. speciosa, for instance the isoflavone formononetin, are formed during a peculiar swelling response of the root, which is considered as a quality trait for commercial application. A cell strain with elongated cells was obtained by using synthetic cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and synthetic auxin picloram. Both, picloram and 6-BA, promote cell division, whereas picloram was shown to be crucial for the maintenance of axial cell expansion. We addressed the question, whether the loss of axiality observed in the maturating root is necessary and sufficient for the accumulation of formononetin. While we were able to mimic a loss of axiality for cell expansion, either by specific combinations of 6-BA and picloram, or by treatment with the anti-microtubular compound oryzalin, formononetin was not detectable. However, formononetin could be induced by the stress hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA), as well as by the bacterial elicitor flagellin peptide (flg22), but not by a necrosis inducing protein. Combined the fact that none of these treatments induced the loss of axiality, we conclude that formononetin accumulates in response to basal defence and unrelated with cell swelling.

  8. Amphiregulin mediates self-renewal in an immortal mammary epithelial cell line with stem cell characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Brian W., E-mail: brbooth@clemson.edu; Institute for Biological Interfaces of Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634; Boulanger, Corinne A.

    2010-02-01

    Amphiregulin (AREG), a ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor, is required for mammary gland ductal morphogenesis and mediates estrogen actions in vivo, emerging as an essential growth factor during mammary gland growth and differentiation. The COMMA-D {beta}-geo (CD{beta}geo) mouse mammary cell line displays characteristics of normal mammary progenitor cells including the ability to regenerate a mammary gland when transplanted into the cleared fat pad of a juvenile mouse, nuclear label retention, and the capacity to form anchorage-independent mammospheres. We demonstrate that AREG is essential for formation of floating mammospheres by CD{beta}geo cells and that the mitogen activated protein kinase signalingmore » pathway is involved in AREG-mediated mammosphere formation. Addition of exogenous AREG promotes mammosphere formation in cells where AREG expression is knocked down by siRNA and mammosphere formation by AREG{sup -/-} mammary epithelial cells. AREG knockdown inhibits mammosphere formation by duct-limited mammary progenitor cells but not lobule-limited mammary progenitor cells. These data demonstrate AREG mediates the function of a subset of mammary progenitor cells in vitro.« less

  9. Amphiregulin mediates self-renewal in an immortal mammary epithelial cell line with stem cell characteristics.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brian W; Boulanger, Corinne A; Anderson, Lisa H; Jimenez-Rojo, Lucia; Brisken, Cathrin; Smith, Gilbert H

    2010-02-01

    Amphiregulin (AREG), a ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor, is required for mammary gland ductal morphogenesis and mediates estrogen actions in vivo, emerging as an essential growth factor during mammary gland growth and differentiation. The COMMA-D beta-geo (CDbetageo) mouse mammary cell line displays characteristics of normal mammary progenitor cells including the ability to regenerate a mammary gland when transplanted into the cleared fat pad of a juvenile mouse, nuclear label retention, and the capacity to form anchorage-independent mammospheres. We demonstrate that AREG is essential for formation of floating mammospheres by CDbetageo cells and that the mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway is involved in AREG-mediated mammosphere formation. Addition of exogenous AREG promotes mammosphere formation in cells where AREG expression is knocked down by siRNA and mammosphere formation by AREG(-/-) mammary epithelial cells. AREG knockdown inhibits mammosphere formation by duct-limited mammary progenitor cells but not lobule-limited mammary progenitor cells. These data demonstrate AREG mediates the function of a subset of mammary progenitor cells in vitro. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytotoxicity of arctigenin and matairesinol against the T-cell lymphoma cell line CCRF-CEM.

    PubMed

    Su, Shan; Cheng, Xinlai; Wink, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Arctigenin and matairesinol possess a diversity of bioactivities. Here we investigated the cytotoxicity of arctigenin and matairesinol against a T-cell lymphoma cell line CCRF-CEM and the underlying mechanisms that have not been explored before. The cytotoxic activity was investigated using MTT assay. The cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were determined by flow cytometric analysis. The apoptosis induction was assessed using Annexin V/Propidium Iodide assay. The gene quantification analysis was measured through real-time polymerase chain reaction. Arctigenin and matairesinol exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against CCRF-CEM cells after 72 h treatment with IC50 values of 1.21 ± 0.15 μm and 4.27 ± 0.41 μm, respectively. In addition, both lignans arrest CCRF-CEM cells in the S phase. Furthermore, they could induce apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, the lignans differentially regulated the expression of several key genes involved in apoptosis pathways, including Bax, Bad and caspase-9. Moreover, both lignans could increase ROS levels in CCRF-CEM cells. Our study provides an insight into the potential of arctigenin and matairesinol as good candidates for the development of novel agents against T-cell lymphoma. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Production Process for Stem Cell Based Therapeutic Implants: Expansion of the Production Cell Line and Cultivation of Encapsulated Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C.; Pohl, S.; Poertner, R.; Pino-Grace, Pablo; Freimark, D.; Wallrapp, C.; Geigle, P.; Czermak, P.

    Cell based therapy promises the treatment of many diseases like diabetes mellitus, Parkinson disease or stroke. Microencapsulation of the cells protects them against host-vs-graft reactions and thus enables the usage of allogenic cell lines for the manufacturing of cell therapeutic implants. The production process of such implants consists mainly of the three steps expansion of the cells, encapsulation of the cells, and cultivation of the encapsulated cells in order to increase their vitality and thus quality. This chapter deals with the development of fixed-bed bioreactor-based cultivation procedures used in the first and third step of production. The bioreactor system for the expansion of the stem cell line (hMSC-TERT) is based on non-porous glass spheres, which support cell growth and harvesting with high yield and vitality. The cultivation process for the spherical cell based implants leads to an increase of vitality and additionally enables the application of a medium-based differentiation protocol.

  12. [Artemisinin inhibits proliferation of gallbladder cancer cell lines through triggering cell cycle arrest and apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Jia, J G; Zhang, L G; Guo, C X; Wang, Y G; Chen, B L; Wang, Y M; Qian, J

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of artemisinin on proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of gallbladder cancer cells. Gallbladder carcinoma cell lines(GBC-SD and NOZ)were cultured in vitro. The effects of artemisinin in different concentration on proliferation of the two cell lines in vitro were examined using MTT assay. The cell cycle distribution of GBC-SD and NOZ cells 24 h after treatments with artemisinin(20 μmol/L) were examined using flow cytometry. The apoptosis of GBC-SD and NOZ cells 24 h after treatments with artemisinin (20 μmol/L) were examined using Annexin V/PI staining.The expressions of p-ERK1/2, CDK4, cyclin D1, p16, cytochrome C and caspase-3 were examined by Western blot assay. t-test and one way ANOVA were used to evaluate the differences between two groups and more than two groups, respectively. The cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by artemisinin, the IC50 of artemisinin against GBC-SD and NOZ cells were 14.05 μmol/L and 12.42 μmol/L, respectively.Artemisinin induced cycle arrest, and G1 population of GBC-SD and NOZ cells increased to 74.60% and 78.86%. Cell apoptosis and apoptotic population of GBC-SD and NOZ cells were increased to 15.67% and 16.51% after dealt with artemisinin, respectively. In addition, expression of p16 was increased, and expressions of p-ERK1/2, CDK4 and cyclin D1 were down-regulated by artemisinin(all P<0.05). Cytochrome C was released from mitochondria to cytoplasm leading to the activation of caspase-3 and PARP after dealt with artemisinin(P<0.05). The inhibition effect of artemisinin on the proliferation gallbladder cancer cells is accompanied by down-regulation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway, G1 phase arrest and triggering caspase-3-mediate apoptosis.

  13. Culture of human cell lines by a pathogen-inactivated human platelet lysate.

    PubMed

    Fazzina, R; Iudicone, P; Mariotti, A; Fioravanti, D; Procoli, A; Cicchetti, E; Scambia, G; Bonanno, G; Pierelli, L

    2016-08-01

    Alternatives to the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) have been investigated to ensure xeno-free growth condition. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of human platelet lysate (PL) as a substitute of FBS for the in vitro culture of some human cell lines. PL was obtained by pools of pathogen inactivated human donor platelet (PLT) concentrates. Human leukemia cell lines (KG-1, K562, JURKAT, HL-60) and epithelial tumor cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7) were cultured with either FBS or PL. Changes in cell proliferation, viability, morphology, surface markers and cell cycle were evaluated for each cell line. Functional characteristics were analysed by drug sensitivity test and cytotoxicity assay. Our results demonstrated that PL can support growth and expansion of all cell lines, although the cells cultured in presence of PL experienced a less massive proliferation compared to those grown with FBS. We found a comparable percentage of viable specific marker-expressing cells in both conditions, confirming lineage fidelity in all cultures. Functionality assays showed that cells in both FBS- and PL-supported cultures maintained their normal responsiveness to adriamycin and NK cell-mediated lysis. Our findings indicate that PL is a feasible serum substitute for supporting growth and propagation of haematopoietic and epithelial cell lines with many advantages from a perspective of process standardization, ethicality and product safety.

  14. Establishment and culture optimization of a new type of pituitary immortalized cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Kokubu, Yuko; Asashima, Makoto; Life Science Center of TARA, The University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken 305-8577

    The pituitary gland is a center of the endocrine system that controls homeostasis in an organism by secreting various hormones. The glandular anterior pituitary consists of five different cell types, each expressing specific hormones. However, their regulation and the appropriate conditions for their in vitro culture are not well defined. Here, we report the immortalization of mouse pituitary cells by introducing TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes. The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed a thyrotroph-specific thyroid stimulating hormone beta (Tshb). After optimization of the culture conditions, these immortalized cells proliferated and maintained morphological characteristics similar to those of primary pituitary cells undermore » sphere culture conditions in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with N2, B27, basic FGF, and EGF. These cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators and induced the expression of Tshb mRNA. Moreover, transplantation of the immortalized cell line into subcutaneous regions and kidney capsules of mice further increased Tshb expression. These results suggest that immortalization of pituitary cells with TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes is a useful method for generating proliferating cells for the in vitro analysis of pituitary regulatory mechanisms. - Highlights: • Mouse pituitary cell lines were immortalized by introducing TERT, E6, and E7. • The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed thyroid stimulating hormone beta. • The cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators, and induced Tshb.« less

  15. The avian cell line AGE1.CR.pIX characterized by metabolic flux analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In human vaccine manufacturing some pathogens such as Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara, measles, mumps virus as well as influenza viruses are still produced on primary material derived from embryonated chicken eggs. Processes depending on primary cell culture, however, are difficult to adapt to modern vaccine production. Therefore, we derived previously a continuous suspension cell line, AGE1.CR.pIX, from muscovy duck and established chemically-defined media for virus propagation. Results To better understand vaccine production processes, we developed a stoichiometric model of the central metabolism of AGE1.CR.pIX cells and applied flux variability and metabolic flux analysis. Results were compared to literature dealing with mammalian and insect cell culture metabolism focusing on the question whether cultured avian cells differ in metabolism. Qualitatively, the observed flux distribution of this avian cell line was similar to distributions found for mammalian cell lines (e.g. CHO, MDCK cells). In particular, glucose was catabolized inefficiently and glycolysis and TCA cycle seem to be only weakly connected. Conclusions A distinguishing feature of the avian cell line is that glutaminolysis plays only a minor role in energy generation and production of precursors, resulting in low extracellular ammonia concentrations. This metabolic flux study is the first for a continuous avian cell line. It provides a basis for further metabolic analyses to exploit the biotechnological potential of avian and vertebrate cell lines and to develop specific optimized cell culture processes, e.g. vaccine production processes. PMID:25077436

  16. The avian cell line AGE1.CR.pIX characterized by metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Verena; Hädicke, Oliver; Genzel, Yvonne; Jordan, Ingo; Büntemeyer, Heino; Klamt, Steffen; Reichl, Udo

    2014-07-30

    In human vaccine manufacturing some pathogens such as Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara, measles, mumps virus as well as influenza viruses are still produced on primary material derived from embryonated chicken eggs. Processes depending on primary cell culture, however, are difficult to adapt to modern vaccine production. Therefore, we derived previously a continuous suspension cell line, AGE1.CR.pIX, from muscovy duck and established chemically-defined media for virus propagation. To better understand vaccine production processes, we developed a stoichiometric model of the central metabolism of AGE1.CR.pIX cells and applied flux variability and metabolic flux analysis. Results were compared to literature dealing with mammalian and insect cell culture metabolism focusing on the question whether cultured avian cells differ in metabolism. Qualitatively, the observed flux distribution of this avian cell line was similar to distributions found for mammalian cell lines (e.g. CHO, MDCK cells). In particular, glucose was catabolized inefficiently and glycolysis and TCA cycle seem to be only weakly connected. A distinguishing feature of the avian cell line is that glutaminolysis plays only a minor role in energy generation and production of precursors, resulting in low extracellular ammonia concentrations. This metabolic flux study is the first for a continuous avian cell line. It provides a basis for further metabolic analyses to exploit the biotechnological potential of avian and vertebrate cell lines and to develop specific optimized cell culture processes, e.g. vaccine production processes.

  17. MS-HRM assay identifies high levels of epigenetic heterogeneity in human immortalized cell lines.

    PubMed

    Putnik, Milica; Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Pournara, Angeliki; Vahter, Marie; Wallberg, Annika E

    2015-04-15

    Immortalized cell lines are widely used in genetic and epigenetic studies, from exploration of basic molecular pathways to evaluation of disease-specific cellular properties. They are also used in biotechnology, e.g., in drug toxicity tests and vaccine production. Cellular and genetic uniformity is the main feature of immortalized cell lines and it has been particularly advantageous in functional genomic research, which has in recent years been expanded to include epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation. Using the MS-HRM technique, we demonstrated heterogeneity in locus-specific methylation patterns in different cell cultures of four human cell lines: HEK293, HEK293T, LCL and DU145. Our results show that some human immortalized cell lines consist of cells that differ in the methylation status of specific loci, i.e., that they are epigenetically heterogeneous. We show that even two cultures of the same cell line obtained from different laboratories can differ in the methylation status of the specific loci. The results indicated that epigenetic uniformity of the cell lines cannot be assumed in experiments which utilize cell cultures and that the methylation status of the specific loci in the immortalized cell lines should be re-characterized and carefully profiled before epigenetic studies are performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Single-cell lineage tracking analysis reveals that an established cell line comprises putative cancer stem cells and their heterogeneous progeny

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Sachiko; Rancourt, Ann; Sato, Yukiko; Satoh, Masahiko S.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cell culture has been used in many biological studies on the assumption that a cell line comprises putatively homogeneous clonal cells, thereby sharing similar phenotypic features. This fundamental assumption has not yet been fully tested; therefore, we developed a method for the chronological analysis of individual HeLa cells. The analysis was performed by live cell imaging, tracking of every single cell recorded on imaging videos, and determining the fates of individual cells. We found that cell fate varied significantly, indicating that, in contrast to the assumption, the HeLa cell line is composed of highly heterogeneous cells. Furthermore, our results reveal that only a limited number of cells are immortal and renew themselves, giving rise to the remaining cells. These cells have reduced reproductive ability, creating a functionally heterogeneous cell population. Hence, the HeLa cell line is maintained by the limited number of immortal cells, which could be putative cancer stem cells. PMID:27003384

  19. Cholecystokinin regulates the invasiveness of human pancreatic cancer cell lines via protein kinase C pathway.

    PubMed

    Hirata, M; Tsuchida, A; Iwao, T; Sasaki, T; Matsubara, K; Yamamoto, S; Morinaka, K; Kawasaki, Y; Fujimoto, Y; Inoue, H; Kariya, K; Kajiyama, G

    1999-06-01

    We have previously reported that cholecystokinin (CCK) plays an important role in the invasiveness and the production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in two human pancreatic cancer cell lines. In this study we investigated the pathway of the invasiveness associated with MMP-9 of those lines regulated by CCK. Two human pancreatic cancer cell lines were treated with CCK-8 alone, CCK-8 and staurosporine, or CCK-8 and indomethacine. The invasiveness and the production of MMP-9 were decreased with staurosporine but not indomethacine. These results suggest that CCK may regulate the invasiveness and the production of MMP-9 via protein kinase C in human pancreatic cancer cell lines.

  20. Establishment of an immortal chicken embryo liver-derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongyoon; Foster, Douglas N; Bottje, Walter G; Jang, Hyeon-Min; Chandra, Yohanna G; Gentles, Lauren E; Kong, Byung-Whi

    2013-06-01

    A continuously growing immortal cell substrate can be used for virus propagation, diagnostic purposes, and vaccine production. The aim of this study was to develop an immortal chicken cell line for efficient propagation of avian infectious viruses. From the various chicken embryo cells that were tested for life span extension, an immortalized chicken embryo liver (CEL) cell line, named CEL-im, was derived spontaneously without either oncogenic viruses or carcinogenic chemical treatment. Currently, CEL-im cells are growing 0.8 to 1.1 population doublings per day and have reached 120 passages. The CEL-im cell line is permissive for poultry infectious viruses, including avian metapneumovirus (AMPV), Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. The CEL-im cells produced high AMPV titer (>10(5) pfu/mL), whereas very low titers (~10 pfu/mL) for MDV-1 and infectious laryngotracheitis virus were produced. To identify genetic alterations in the immortal CEL-im cell line, telomerase activity and mRNA expression for major cell cycle regulatory genes were determined during the immortalizing process. The CEL-im cell line has negative telomerase activity, and when compared with the primary passage 2 CEL cell counterpart, mRNA expression of tumor suppressor protein p53, mouse double minute 2 (Mdm2), cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 (p21(WAF)), and CDK inhibitor p16 (p16(INK4)) were downregulated in the CEL-im cell line, whereas retinoblastoma (Rb), transcription factor E2F, member 1 (E2F-1), and alternative reading frame of p16(INK4) (ARF) were upregulated. These results are similar to genetic alterations found previously in immortal chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell lines that showed efficient propagation of MDV-1. Therefore, this newly established CEL-im cell line can serve as an alternative cell substrate for the propagation of poultry viruses, such as AMPV.

  1. DNA profiling analysis of endometrial and ovarian cell lines reveals misidentification, redundancy and contamination.

    PubMed

    Korch, Christopher; Spillman, Monique A; Jackson, Twila A; Jacobsen, Britta M; Murphy, Susan K; Lessey, Bruce A; Jordan, V Craig; Bradford, Andrew P

    2012-10-01

    Cell lines derived from human ovarian and endometrial cancers, and their immortalized non-malignant counterparts, are critical tools to investigate and characterize molecular mechanisms underlying gynecologic tumorigenesis, and facilitate development of novel therapeutics. To determine the extent of misidentification, contamination and redundancy, with evident consequences for the validity of research based upon these models, we undertook a systematic analysis and cataloging of endometrial and ovarian cell lines. Profiling of cell lines by analysis of DNA microsatellite short tandem repeats (STR), p53 nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellite instability was performed. Fifty-one ovarian cancer lines were profiled with ten found to be redundant and five (A2008, OV2008, C13, SK-OV-4 and SK-OV-6) identified as cervical cancer cells. Ten endometrial cell lines were analyzed, with RL-92, HEC-1A, HEC-1B, HEC-50, KLE, and AN3CA all exhibiting unique, uncontaminated STR profiles. Multiple variants of Ishikawa and ECC-1 endometrial cancer cell lines were genotyped and analyzed by sequencing of mutations in the p53 gene. The profile of ECC-1 cells did not match the EnCa-101 tumor, from which it was reportedly derived, and all ECC-1 isolates were genotyped as Ishikawa cells, MCF-7 breast cancer cells, or a combination thereof. Two normal, immortalized endometrial epithelial cell lines, HES cells and the hTERT-EEC line, were identified as HeLa cervical carcinoma and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, respectively. Results demonstrate significant misidentification, duplication, and loss of integrity of endometrial and ovarian cancer cell lines. Authentication by STR DNA profiling is a simple and economical method to verify and validate studies undertaken with these models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Establishment and characterization of two new cell lines from the mosquito Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Keita; Isawa, Haruhiko; Kuwata, Ryusei; Tajima, Shigeru; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Sawabe, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sasaki, Toshinori

    2015-08-01

    Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) is a medically important mosquito and a model species for immunology research. We successfully established two cell lines from the neonate larvae of A. subalbatus using two different media. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an established Armigeres mosquito cell line. The cell lines, designated as Ar-3 and Ar-13, consist of adherent and diploid cells with compact colonies. Both these cell lines grow slowly after passage at a split ratio of 1:5 and a population doubling time of 2.7 and 3.0 d, respectively. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was used to confirm that these lines correspond to the species of origin and are clearly distinct from seven other insect cell lines. Furthermore, reverse-transcription PCR was used to demonstrate that the Ar-3 cell line is susceptible to the Japanese encephalitis virus and two insect flaviviruses associated with Culex and Aedes mosquitoes but relatively insensitive to dengue virus. These data indicate that the newly established cell lines are cellular models of A. subalbatus as well as beneficial tools for the propagation of viruses associated with the Armigeres mosquito.

  3. Development of Fibroblast Cell Lines From the Cow Used to Sequence the Bovine Genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two cell lines, designated MARC.BGCF.2 and MARC.BGCF.1-3, were initiated from skin biopsies obtained from the Hereford cow whose DNA was used in sequencing the bovine genome. These cell lines were submitted to American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA) and will be made publicly avai...

  4. [The characters and specific features of new human embryonic stem cells lines].

    PubMed

    Krylova, T A; Kol'tsova, A M; Zenin, V V; Gordeeva, O F; Musorina, A S; Goriachaia, T S; Shlykova, S A; Kamenetskaia, Iu K; Pinaev, G P; Polianskaia, G G

    2009-01-01

    Four continuous human embryonic stem cell lines (SC1, SC2, SC3 and SC4), derived from the blastocysts has been described. The cell lines were cultivated on mitotically inactivated human feeder cells. The cell lines SC1 and SC2 have passed through 150 population doublings and the cell lines SC3 and SC4 -- near 120 populations doublings, which exceeds Hayflick limit sufficiently. These cell lines maintain high activity of alkaline phosphatase, expression of transcription factor OCT-4 and cell surface antigens (SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81), confirming their ESC status and human specificity. Immunofluorescent detection of antigens, characteristic of ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm confirms the ability of these cells to retain their pluripotency under in vitro condition. PCR analysis revealed expression of six genes specific for pluripotent cells (OCT-4, NANOG, DPPA3/STELLA, TDGF/CRIPTO and LEFTYA). Correlation between the level of proliferative activity and the character of DNA-bound fluorescent staining was found. Fluorescent dyes, Hoechst 33342 and PI, produced diffuse staining of the nuclei in slowly proliferating cells of the SC1 and SC2 lines. In contrast, in actively proliferating cells of the SC3 and SC4 lines, the clear staining of the nuclei was observed. Upon changing the cultivation condition, proliferative activity of SC3 and SC4 lines decreased and became similar to that of SC1 and SC2 lines. The character of the fluorescent staining of all these lines was also shown to be similar. These results show that quality of the fluorescent staining with Hoechst 33342 and PI reflects the level of proliferation. Possible causes and mechanisms of this feature of human ESC are discussed.

  5. Human cell lines for biopharmaceutical manufacturing: history, status, and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Jennifer; Euwart, Don; Mei, Baisong; Estes, Scott; Kshirsagar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Biotherapeutic proteins represent a mainstay of treatment for a multitude of conditions, for example, autoimmune disorders, hematologic disorders, hormonal dysregulation, cancers, infectious diseases and genetic disorders. The technologies behind their production have changed substantially since biotherapeutic proteins were first approved in the 1980s. Although most biotherapeutic proteins developed to date have been produced using the mammalian Chinese hamster ovary and murine myeloma (NS0, Sp2/0) cell lines, there has been a recent shift toward the use of human cell lines. One of the most important advantages of using human cell lines for protein production is the greater likelihood that the resulting recombinant protein will bear post-translational modifications (PTMs) that are consistent with those seen on endogenous human proteins. Although other mammalian cell lines can produce PTMs similar to human cells, they also produce non-human PTMs, such as galactose-α1,3-galactose and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, which are potentially immunogenic. In addition, human cell lines are grown easily in a serum-free suspension culture, reproduce rapidly and have efficient protein production. A possible disadvantage of using human cell lines is the potential for human-specific viral contamination, although this risk can be mitigated with multiple viral inactivation or clearance steps. In addition, while human cell lines are currently widely used for biopharmaceutical research, vaccine production and production of some licensed protein therapeutics, there is a relative paucity of clinical experience with human cell lines because they have only recently begun to be used for the manufacture of proteins (compared with other types of cell lines). With additional research investment, human cell lines may be further optimized for routine commercial production of a broader range of biotherapeutic proteins. PMID:26383226

  6. Establishment of an agamid cell line and isolation of adenoviruses from central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Ball, Inna; Hoferer, Marc; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-03-01

    A cell line was established from whole 6-8-week-old central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) embryos. Cells were mid-sized and showed an elongated and polymorphic form. The cell line grew in a monolayer and has been serially passaged for 17 passages at time of publication. This cell line has been used with samples from adenovirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive bearded dragons, and 2 virus isolates have been obtained so far. The isolates show a clear cytopathic effect in inoculated cells. Both virus isolates have been serially passaged on this cell line, and have been identified by PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene and show 100% nucleotide identity to the corresponding region of an agamid adenovirus. Electron microscopic examination of supernatant from infected cells demonstrated the presence of nonenveloped particles, with a diameter of approximately 80 nm in both virus isolates.

  7. T-cell differentiation of multipotent hematopoietic cell line EML in the OP9-DL1 coculture system.

    PubMed

    Kutlesa, Snjezana; Zayas, Jennifer; Valle, Alexandra; Levy, Robert B; Jurecic, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Multipotent hematopoietic cell line EML can differentiate into myeloid, erythroid, megakaryocytic, and B-lymphoid lineages, but it remained unknown whether EML cells have T-cell developmental potential as well. The goal of this study was to determine whether the coculture with OP9 stromal cells expressing Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (OP9-DL1) could induce differentiation of EML cells into T-cell lineage. EML cells were cocultured with control OP9 or OP9-DL1 stromal cells in the presence of cytokines (stem cell factor, interleukin-7, and Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand). Their T-cell lineage differentiation was assessed through flow cytometry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction expression analysis of cell surface markers and genes characterizing and associated with specific stages of T-cell development. The phenotypic, molecular, and functional analysis has revealed that in EML/OP9-DL1 cocultures with cytokines, but not in control EML/OP9 cocultures, EML cell line undergoes T-cell lineage commitment and differentiation. In OP9-DL1 cocultures, EML cell line has differentiated into cells that 1) resembled double-negative, double-positive, and single-positive stages of T-cell development; 2) initiated expression of GATA-3, Pre-Talpha, RAG-1, and T-cell receptor-Vbeta genes; and 3) produced interferon-gamma in response to T-cell receptor stimulation. These results support the notion that EML cell line has the capacity for T-cell differentiation. Remarkably, induction of T-lineage gene expression and differentiation of EML cells into distinct stages of T-cell development were very similar to previously described T-cell differentiation of adult hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors in OP9-DL1 cocultures. Thus, EML/OP9-DL1 coculture could be a useful experimental system to study the role of particular genes in T-cell lineage specification, commitment, and differentiation.

  8. Generation of cloned mice and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines from urine-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Eiji; Torikai, Kohei; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Ohinata, Yasuhide; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2016-04-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer provides the opportunity to preserve endangered mammalian species. However, there are risks associated with the collection of donor cells from the body such as accidental injury to or death of the animal. Here, we report the production of cloned mice from urine-derived cells collected noninvasively. Most of the urine-derived cells survived and were available as donors for nuclear transfer without any pretreatment. After nuclear transfer, 38-77% of the reconstructed embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst, in which the cell numbers in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm were similar to those of controls. Male and female cloned mice were delivered from cloned embryos transferred to recipient females, and these cloned animals grew to adulthood and delivered pups naturally when mated with each other. The results suggest that these cloned mice had normal fertility. In additional experiments, 26 nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines were established from 108 cloned blastocysts derived from four mouse strains including inbreds and F1 hybrids with relatively high success rates. Thus, cells derived from urine, which can be collected noninvasively, may be used in the rescue of endangered mammalian species by using nuclear transfer without causing injury to the animal.

  9. Generation of cloned mice and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines from urine-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Eiji; Torikai, Kohei; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Ohinata, Yasuhide; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer provides the opportunity to preserve endangered mammalian species. However, there are risks associated with the collection of donor cells from the body such as accidental injury to or death of the animal. Here, we report the production of cloned mice from urine-derived cells collected noninvasively. Most of the urine-derived cells survived and were available as donors for nuclear transfer without any pretreatment. After nuclear transfer, 38–77% of the reconstructed embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst, in which the cell numbers in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm were similar to those of controls. Male and female cloned mice were delivered from cloned embryos transferred to recipient females, and these cloned animals grew to adulthood and delivered pups naturally when mated with each other. The results suggest that these cloned mice had normal fertility. In additional experiments, 26 nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines were established from 108 cloned blastocysts derived from four mouse strains including inbreds and F1 hybrids with relatively high success rates. Thus, cells derived from urine, which can be collected noninvasively, may be used in the rescue of endangered mammalian species by using nuclear transfer without causing injury to the animal. PMID:27033801

  10. An Atypical Acidophil Cell Line Tumor Showing Focal Differentiation Toward Both Growth Hormone and Prolactin Cells.

    PubMed

    Naritaka, Heiji; Kameya, Toru; Sato, Yuichi; Furuhata, Shigeru; Okui, Junichi; Kamiguchi, Yuji; Otani, Mitsuhiro; Toya, Shigeo

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of giant pituitary adenoma in a child. Computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a suprasellar extension tumor mass with hydrocephalus. There was no clinical evidence of acromegaly, gigantism, and other hormonal symptoms. Endocrinologic studies showed within normal value of serum growth hormone (GH: 4.2 ng/mL) and slightly increased levels of prolactin (PRL: 78 ng/mL) and other pituitary hormone values were within normal range. On suppression test by bromocryptin, both GH and PRL levels were reduced. Histopathological findings revealed that the tumor consisted of predominantly chromophobic and partly eosinophilic adenoma cells. Immunohistochemical staining detected GH and PRL in a small number of distinctly different adenoma cells, respectively. Nonradioactive in situ hybridization (ISH) also showed GH and PRL mRNA expression in identical immunopositive cells. Electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated adenoma cells with moderate or small numbers of two types of dense granules and without fibrous body which are characteristic of sparsely granulated GH-cell adenomas. The adenoma does not fit into any classification but may be an atypical acidophil cell line tumor showing focal differentiation toward both GH and PRL cells.

  11. Generation and characterization of two immortalized human osteoblastic cell lines useful for epigenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Campo, Flor M; May, Tobias; Zauers, Jeannette; Sañudo, Carolina; Delgado-Calle, Jesús; Arozamena, Jana; Berciano, María T; Lafarga, Miguel; Riancho, José A

    2017-03-01

    Different model systems using osteoblastic cell lines have been developed to help understand the process of bone formation. Here, we report the establishment of two human osteoblastic cell lines obtained from primary cultures upon transduction of immortalizing genes. The resulting cell lines had no major differences to their parental lines in their gene expression profiles. Similar to primary osteoblastic cells, osteocalcin transcription increased following 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 treatment and the immortalized cells formed a mineralized matrix, as detected by Alizarin Red staining. Moreover, these human cell lines responded by upregulating ALPL gene expression after treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AzadC), as shown before for primary osteoblasts. We further demonstrate that these cell lines can differentiate in vivo, using a hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate composite as a scaffold, to produce bone matrix. More importantly, we show that these cells respond to demethylating treatment, as shown by the increase in SOST mRNA levels, the gene encoding sclerostin, upon treatment of the recipient mice with AzadC. This also confirms, in vivo, the role of DNA methylation in the regulation of SOST expression previously shown in vitro. Altogether our results show that these immortalized cell lines constitute a particularly useful model system to obtain further insight into bone homeostasis, and particularly into the epigenetic mechanisms regulating sclerostin production.

  12. Hematopoietic Cancer Cell Lines Can Support Replication of Sabin Poliovirus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    van Eikenhorst, Gerco; de Gruijl, Tanja D.; van der Pol, Leo A.; Bakker, Wilfried A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Viral vaccines can be produced in adherent or in suspension cells. The objective of this work was to screen human suspension cell lines for the capacity to support viral replication. As the first step, it was investigated whether poliovirus can replicate in such cell lines. Sabin poliovirus type 1 was serially passaged on five human cell lines, HL60, K562, KG1, THP-1, and U937. Sabin type 1 was capable of efficiently replicating in three cell lines (K562, KG1, and U937), yielding high viral titers after replication. Expression of CD155, the poliovirus receptor, did not explain susceptibility to replication, since all cell lines expressed CD155. Furthermore, we showed that passaged virus replicated more efficiently than parental virus in KG1 cells, yielding higher virus titers in the supernatant early after infection. Infection of cell lines at an MOI of 0.01 resulted in high viral titers in the supernatant at day 4. Infection of K562 with passaged Sabin type 1 in a bioreactor system yielded high viral titers in the supernatant. Altogether, these data suggest that K562, KG1, and U937 cell lines are useful for propagation of poliovirus. PMID:25815312

  13. Establishment and characterization of a new human acinar cell carcinoma cell line, Faraz-ICR, from pancreas.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Marzieh; Hosseini, Ahmad; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Ghaderi, Abbas

    Basic research in the field of acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) as a rare neoplasm of the pancreas is dependent on the availability of pragmatic model such as new pancreatic cancer cell lines. Thus, establishment and characterization of new pancreatic cancer cell lines from ACC origin are deemed important. Faraz-ICR cell line was derived from a 58-years old woman with pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma by the collagenase digestion protocol. We characterized the cell line by examining its morphology and cytostructural and functional profile. Faraz-ICR has a doubling time of 35 hours and grows in soft agar with a colony-forming efficiency of 25%. The cell had nearly normal pattern of chromosomes in karyotype analysis and Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) array analysis. Evaluation of cells by flowcytometry showed that Faraz-ICR is negative for EpCAM and mesenchymal markers in different passages, and has epithelial nature. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that cells were strongly positive for vimentin, desmin, ezrin, S100, nestin and they were negative for pan-cytokeratins, chromogranin and alpha smooth muscle actin. We were able to establish a new pancreatic carcinoma cell line with partial aspects of Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and aggressiveness. This cell line might be suitable for studying various anticancer drugs and protein profile aiming to see any possible tumor associated marker for ACC. Copyright © 2017 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular characterization of breast cancer cell lines through multiple omic approaches.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shari E; Mellor, Paul; Ward, Alison K; Kendall, Stephanie; McDonald, Megan; Vizeacoumar, Frederick S; Vizeacoumar, Franco J; Napper, Scott; Anderson, Deborah H

    2017-06-05

    Breast cancer cell lines are frequently used as model systems to study the cellular properties and biology of breast cancer. Our objective was to characterize a large, commonly employed panel of breast cancer cell lines obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 30-4500 K) to enable researchers to make more informed decisions in selecting cell lines for specific studies. Information about these cell lines was obtained from a wide variety of sources. In addition, new information about cellular pathways that are activated within each cell line was generated. We determined key protein expression data using immunoblot analyses. In addition, two analyses on serum-starved cells were carried out to identify cellular proteins and pathways that are activated in these cells. These analyses were performed using a commercial PathScan array and a novel and more extensive phosphopeptide-based kinome analysis that queries 1290 phosphorylation events in major signaling pathways. Data about this panel of breast cancer cell lines was also accessed from several online sources, compiled and summarized for the following areas: molecular classification, mRNA expression, mutational status of key proteins and other possible cancer-associated mutations, and the tumorigenic and metastatic capacity in mouse xenograft models of breast cancer. The cell lines that were characterized included 10 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, 12 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified and 18 triple negative breast cancer cell lines, in addition to 4 non-tumorigenic breast cell lines. Within each subtype, there was significant genetic heterogeneity that could impact both the selection of model cell lines and the interpretation of the results obtained. To capture the net activation of key signaling pathways as a result of these mutational combinations, profiled pathway activation status was examined. This provided further clarity for which cell lines were particularly deregulated

  15. Developing global regression models for metabolite concentration prediction regardless of cell line.

    PubMed

    André, Silvère; Lagresle, Sylvain; Da Sliva, Anthony; Heimendinger, Pierre; Hannas, Zahia; Calvosa, Éric; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2017-11-01

    Following the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), drug manufacturers are encouraged to develop innovative techniques in order to monitor and understand their processes in a better way. Within this framework, it has been demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy coupled with chemometric tools allow to predict critical parameters of mammalian cell cultures in-line and in real time. However, the development of robust and predictive regression models clearly requires many batches in order to take into account inter-batch variability and enhance models accuracy. Nevertheless, this heavy procedure has to be repeated for every new line of cell culture involving many resources. This is why we propose in this paper to develop global regression models taking into account different cell lines. Such models are finally transferred to any culture of the cells involved. This article first demonstrates the feasibility of developing regression models, not only for mammalian cell lines (CHO and HeLa cell cultures), but also for insect cell lines (Sf9 cell cultures). Then global regression models are generated, based on CHO cells, HeLa cells, and Sf9 cells. Finally, these models are evaluated considering a fourth cell line(HEK cells). In addition to suitable predictions of glucose and lactate concentration of HEK cell cultures, we expose that by adding a single HEK-cell culture to the calibration set, the predictive ability of the regression models are substantially increased. In this way, we demonstrate that using global models, it is not necessary to consider many cultures of a new cell line in order to obtain accurate models. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2550-2559. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cell lines derived from the squash bug, Anasa tristis (Coreidae: Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph A; Li, Yao-Fa; Lincoln, Tamra Reall; Stanley, David

    2017-05-01

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis, is a pest of cucurbits that exerts direct damage on crops and is a vector of plant pathogens. We established cell lines from this insect to serve as tools for basic biology, including virology and immunology, as well as applied studies, such as insecticide development programs. We initiated 15 cell cultures, using nine media or combinations of media. The media yielding the best results were a modification of Kimura's medium and a combination of two commercially available cell culture media (EX-CELL 420 and L15). We designated the two cell lines as BCIRL-AtE-CLG11 and BCIRL-AtE-CLG15. From the AtE-CLG15 line, we isolated two sub-lines, A and B. Of these, the most consistently replicating line was AtE-CLG15A. We determined the doubling time of this line (190 h) and its mean cell diameter (14.5 ± 0.7 μm). We characterized the AtE-CLG15A line using DAF-PCR. The BCIRL-AtE-CLG15A cell line is now available for researchers world-wide.

  17. Lung cancer cell lines: Useless artifacts or invaluable tools for medical science?

    PubMed Central

    Gazdar, Adi F.; Gao, Boning; Minna, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple cell lines (estimated at 300–400) have been established from human small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). These cell lines have been widely dispersed to and used by the scientific community worldwide, with over 8000 citations resulting from their study. However, there remains considerable skepticism on the part of the scientific community as to the validity of research resulting from their use. These questions center around the genomic instability of cultured cells, lack of differentiation of cultured cells and absence of stromal–vascular–inflammatory cell compartments. In this report we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use of cell lines, address the issues of instability and lack of differentiation. Perhaps the most important finding is that every important, recurrent genetic and epigenetic change including gene mutations, deletions, amplifications, translocations and methylation-induced gene silencing found in tumors has been identified in cell lines and vice versa. These “driver mutations” represented in cell lines offer opportunities for biological characterization and application to translational research. Another potential shortcoming of cell lines is the difficulty of studying multistage pathogenesis in vitro.To overcome this problem, we have developed cultures from central and peripheral airways that serve as models for the multistage pathogenesis of tumors arising in these two very different compartments. Finally the issue of cell line contamination must be addressed and safeguarded against. A full understanding of the advantages and shortcomings of cell lines is required for the investigator to derive the maximum benefit from their use. PMID:20079948

  18. Withaferin A suppresses the growth of myelodysplasia and leukemia cell lines by inhibiting cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shuichiro; Tsujioka, Takayuki; Suemori, Shin-Ichiro; Kida, Jun-Ichiro; Kondo, Toshinori; Tohyama, Yumi; Tohyama, Kaoru

    2016-09-01

    Treatment outcomes for acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) remain unsatisfactory despite progress in various types of chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Therefore, there is a need for the development of new treatment options. We investigated the growth-suppressive effects of withaferin A (WA), a natural plant steroidal lactone, on myelodysplasia and leukemia cell lines. WA exhibited growth-suppressive effects on the cell lines, MDS-L, HL-60, THP-1, Jurkat and Ramos, and induction of cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase at relatively low doses. Evaluation by annexin V/PI also confirmed the induction of partial apoptosis. Gene expression profiling and subsequent gene set enrichment analysis revealed increased expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1). HMOX1 is known to induce autophagy during anticancer chemotherapy and is considered to be involved in the treatment resistance. Our study indicated increased HMOX1 protein levels and simultaneous increases in the autophagy-related protein LC3A/B in MDS-L cells treated with WA, suggesting increased autophagy. Combined use of WA with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, enhanced early apoptosis and growth suppression. Together with the knowledge that WA had no apparent suppressive effect on the growth of human normal bone marrow CD34-positive cells in the short-term culture, this drug may have a potential for a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of leukemia or MDS. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. Molecular and functional characterization of choline transporter in the human trophoblastic cell line JEG-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yara, M; Iwao, B; Hara, N; Yamanaka, T; Uchino, H; Inazu, M

    2015-06-01

    Choline is essential for the synthesis of the major membrane phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC), the methyl donor betaine and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), which is involved in several vital biological functions that play key roles in fetal development. In this study, we examined the molecular and functional characteristics of choline uptake in the human trophoblastic cell line JEG-3. We examined [(3)H]choline uptake in the human trophoblastic cell line JEG-3. The expression of CTL1 and CTL2 was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemistry. We demonstrated that JEG-3 cells take up [(3)H] choline by a saturable process that is mediated by a Na(+)-independent and pH-dependent transport system. The cells have two different [(3)H] choline transport systems, high- and low-affinity, with Km values of 28.4 ± 5.0 μM and 210.6 ± 55.1 μM, respectively. Cationic compounds and hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) inhibited choline uptake. Choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and CTL2 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in JEG-3 cells and were localized to the plasma membrane. The present results suggest that choline is mainly transported via a high-affinity choline transport system (CTL1) and a low-affinity choline transport system (CTL2) in human trophoblastic JEG-3 cells. These transporters play an important role in the growth of the fetus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Heterogeneity in cancer cells: variation in drug response in different primary and secondary colorectal cancer cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Arul, Melanie; Roslani, April Camilla; Cheah, Swee Hung

    2017-05-01

    Tumor heterogeneity may give rise to differential responses to chemotherapy drugs. Therefore, unraveling tumor heterogeneity has an implication for biomarker discovery and cancer therapeutics. To test this phenomenon, we investigated the differential responses of three secondary colorectal cancer cell lines of different origins (HCT116, HT29, and SW620 cells) and four novel primary cell lines obtained from different colorectal cancer patients to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin (L-OHP) and explored the differences in gene expression among the primary cell lines in response to exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Cells were exposed to different doses of 5-FU and L-OHP separately or in combinations of equitoxic drug or equimolar drug ratios (median effect of Chou-Talalay principle). Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay and the respective IC 50 values were determined. Changes in gene expression in primary cell lines after exposure to the same drug doses were compared using real-time PCR array. The sensitivities (IC 50 ) of different cell lines, both secondary and primary, to 5-FU and L-OHP were significantly different, whether in monotherapy or combined treatment. Primary cell lines needed higher doses to reach IC 50 . There were variations in gene expression among the primary cell lines of different chemosensitivities to the challenge of the same combined dose of 5-FU and L-OHP. The results confirm the heterogeneous nature of colorectal cancer cells from different patient tumors. Studies using primary cancer cells established from patient's tumors rather than secondary cell lines will more closely reflect the actual character of the disease.

  1. Adhesion of Epstein–Barr virus-positive natural killer cell lines to cultured endothelial cells stimulated with inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, H; Watabe, D; Shimizu, N; Sawai, T

    2008-01-01

    Chronic active Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV) is characterized by chronic recurrent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms. Approximately one-fourth of CAEBV patients develop vascular lesions with infiltration of EBV-positive lymphoid cells. Furthermore, EBV-positive natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphomas often exhibit angiocentric or angiodestructive lesions. These suggest an affinity of EBV-positive NK/T cells to vascular components. In this study, we evaluated the expression of adhesion molecules and cytokines in EBV-positive NK lymphoma cell lines, SNK1 and SNK6, and examined the role of cytokines in the interaction between NK cell lines and endothelial cells. SNKs expressed intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) at much higher levels than those in EBV-negative T cell lines. SNKs produced the larger amount of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which caused increased expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in cultured human endothelial cells, than that from EBV-negative T cell lines. Furthermore, SNKs exhibited increased adhesion to cultured endothelial cells stimulated with TNF-α or interleukin (IL)-1β, and the pretreatment of cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells with anti-VCAM-1-antibodies reduced cell adhesion. These indicate that the up-regulated expression of VCAM-1 on cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells would be important for the adhesion of EBV-positive NK cells and might initiate the vascular lesions. PMID:18190605

  2. Prodigiosin activates endoplasmic reticulum stress cell death pathway in human breast carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Mu-Yun; Shen, Yuh-Chiang; National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan

    Prodigiosin is a bacterial tripyrrole pigment with potent cytotoxicity against diverse human cancer cell lines. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is initiated by accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen and may induce cell death when irremediable. In this study, the role of ER stress in prodigiosin-induced cytotoxicity was elucidated for the first time. Comparable to the ER stress inducer thapsigargin, prodigiosin up-regulated signature ER stress markers GRP78 and CHOP in addition to activating the IRE1, PERK and ATF6 branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in multiple human breast carcinoma cell lines, confirming prodigiosin as an ERmore » stress inducer. Prodigiosin transcriptionally up-regulated CHOP, as evidenced by its promoting effect on the CHOP promoter activity. Of note, knockdown of CHOP effectively lowered prodigiosin's capacity to evoke PARP cleavage, reduce cell viability and suppress colony formation, highlighting an essential role of CHOP in prodigiosin-induced cytotoxic ER stress response. In addition, prodigiosin down-regulated BCL2 in a CHOP-dependent manner. Importantly, restoration of BCL2 expression blocked prodigiosin-induced PARP cleavage and greatly enhanced the survival of prodigiosin-treated cells, suggesting that CHOP-dependent BCL2 suppression mediates prodigiosin-elicited cell death. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK by SP600125 or dominant-negative blockade of PERK-mediated eIF2α phosphorylation impaired prodigiosin-induced CHOP up-regulation and PARP cleavage. Collectively, these results identified ER stress-mediated cell death as a mode-of-action of prodigiosin's tumoricidal effect. Mechanistically, prodigiosin engages the IRE1–JNK and PERK–eIF2α branches of the UPR signaling to up-regulate CHOP, which in turn mediates BCL2 suppression to induce cell death. Highlights: ► Prodigiosin is a bacterial tripyrrole pigment with potent anticancer effect. ► Prodigiosin is herein identified

  3. Global gene expression analyses of hematopoietic stem cell-like cell lines with inducible Lhx2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Karin; Wirta, Valtteri; Dahl, Lina; Bruce, Sara; Lundeberg, Joakim; Carlsson, Leif; Williams, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Background Expression of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 in murine hematopoietic cells allows for the generation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-like cell lines. To address the molecular basis of Lhx2 function, we generated HSC-like cell lines where Lhx2 expression is regulated by a tet-on system and hence dependent on the presence of doxycyclin (dox). These cell lines efficiently down-regulate Lhx2 expression upon dox withdrawal leading to a rapid differentiation into various myeloid cell types. Results Global gene expression of these cell lines cultured in dox was compared to different time points after dox withdrawal using microarray technology. We identified 267 differentially expressed genes. The majority of the genes overlapping with HSC-specific databases were those down-regulated after turning off Lhx2 expression and a majority of the genes overlapping with those defined as late progenitor-specific genes were the up-regulated genes, suggesting that these cell lines represent a relevant model system for normal HSCs also at the level of global gene expression. Moreover, in situ hybridisations of several genes down-regulated after dox withdrawal showed overlapping expression patterns with Lhx2 in various tissues during embryonic development. Conclusion Global gene expression analysis of HSC-like cell lines with inducible Lhx2 expression has identified genes putatively linked to self-renewal / differentiation of HSCs, and function of Lhx2 in organ development and stem / progenitor cells of non-hematopoietic origin. PMID:16600034

  4. Characterization of the Murine Myeloid Precursor Cell Line MuMac-E8

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, Stephan; Riemschneider, Sina; Kohlschmidt, Janine; Hilger, Nadja; Fueldner, Christiane; Knauer, Jens; Sack, Ulrich; Emmrich, Frank; Lehmann, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Starting point for the present work was the assumption that the cell line MuMac-E8 represents a murine cell population with stem cell properties. Preliminary studies already pointed to the expression of stem-cell associated markers and a self-regenerative potential of the cells. The cell line MuMac-E8 should be examined for their differential stage within stem cell hierarchy. MuMac-E8 cells were derived from a chimeric mouse model of arthritis. It could be shown that MuMac-E8 cells express mRNA of some genes associated with pluripotent stem cells (Nanog, Nucleostemin), of genes for hematopoietic markers (EPCR, Sca-1, CD11b, CD45), for the mesenchymal marker CD105 and of genes for the neural markers Pax-6 and Ezrin. In methylcellulose and May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, hematopoietic colonies were obtained but the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice could not be rescued. Osteogenic differentiation was not detectable. Thus, it became evident that MuMac-E8 represents not a stem cell line. However, MuMac-E8 cells expressed several myeloid surface markers (i.e. CD11b, F4/80, CD14, CD64), showed phagocytosis and is capable of producing nitric oxide. Thus, this cell line seems to be arrested an advanced stage of myeloid differentiation. Adherence data measured by impedance-based real-time cell analysis together with cell morphology data suggested that MuMac-E8 represents a new macrophage precursor cell line exhibiting weak adherence. This cell line is suitable as an in-vitro model for testing of macrophage functions. Moreover, it might be also useful for differentiation or reprogramming studies. PMID:25546418

  5. Dietary polyphenols influence antimetabolite agents: methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine and 5-fluorouracil in leukemia cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Mahbub, Amani; Le Maitre, Christine; Haywood-Small, Sarah; Cross, Neil; Jordan-Mahy, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols have been previously shown to sensitize leukemia cell lines to topoisomerase inhibitors. Here, we assess the effects of five polyphenols when used alone and in combination with antimetabolites: methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine and 5-fluorouracil; in lymphoid and myeloid leukemia cells lines, and non-tumor control cells. The effects of combined treatments were investigated on ATP and glutathione levels, cell-cycle progression, DNA damage and apoptosis. Polyphenols antagonized methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in most leukemia cell lines. This was associated with reduced DNA damage and increased glutathione levels, greater than that seen following individual treatments alone. In contrast, 5-fluorouracil when combined with quercetin, apigenin and rhein caused synergistic decrease in ATP levels, induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in some leukemia cell lines. However, antagonistic effects were observed when 5-fluorouracil was combined with rhein and cis-stilbene in myeloid cell lines. The effects were dependant on polyphenol type and chemotherapy agent investigated, and cell type treated. Interestingly treatment of non-tumor control cells with polyphenols protected cells from antimetabolite treatments. This suggests that polyphenols modulate the action of antimetabolite agents; more importantly they antagonized methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine actions, thus suggesting the requirement of polyphenol-exclusion during their use. PMID:29285220

  6. Synergistic Effect of Curcumin in Combination with Anticancer Agents in Human Retinoblastoma Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Seethalakshmi; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a phenolic compound obtained from the rhizome of the herb Curcuma longa, is known to have anti-proliferative and anti-tumor properties. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effect of curcumin alone and in combination with individual drugs like carboplatin, etoposide, or vincristine in a human retinoblastoma (RB) cancer cell line. A drug-drug interaction was analyzed using the median effect/isobologram method and combination index values were used to characterize the interaction as synergistic or additive. We also performed the apoptosis and cell-cycle kinetics study with single drugs in combination with curcumin in a human RB cell lines (Y79 and Weri-Rb1). Curcumin caused concentration-dependent decrease in cell proliferation, cell kinetics, and also induced apoptosis in both the RB cell lines. When combination of curcumin with individual drugs like carboplatin or etoposide or vincristine was treated on to RB cells, both cell viability and cell cycling were reduced and increased apoptosis was noted, in comparison with single drug treatment. These effects were significant in both the cell lines, indicating the ability of curcumin to increase the sensitivity of RB cells to chemotherapy drugs. Our in vitro findings showed that the combination of curcumin with single drug treatment showed marked synergistic inhibitory effect against RB cell lines. These results suggest that curcumin can be used as a modulator which may have a potential therapeutic value for the treatment of RB cancer patients.

  7. Endogenous APOBEC3B Restricts LINE-1 Retrotransposition in Transformed Cells and Human Embryonic Stem Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Wissing, Silke; Montano, Mauricio; Garcia-Perez, Jose Luis; Moran, John V.; Greene, Warner C.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminase enzymes act as host defense mechanisms limiting both infections by exogenous retroviruses and mobilization of endogenous retrotransposons. Previous studies revealed that the overexpression of some A3 proteins could restrict engineered human Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition in HeLa cells. However, whether endogenous A3 proteins play a role in restricting L1 retrotransposition remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that HeLa cells express endogenous A3B and A3C, whereas human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) express A3B, A3C, A3DE, A3F, and A3G. To study the relative contribution of endogenous A3 proteins in restricting L1 retrotransposition, we first generated small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to suppress endogenous A3 mRNA expression, and then assessed L1 mobility using a cell-based L1 retrotransposition assay. We demonstrate that in both HeLa and hESCs, shRNA-based knockdown of A3B promotes a ∼2–3.7-fold increase in the retrotransposition efficiency of an engineered human L1. Knockdown of the other A3s produced no significant increase in L1 activity. Thus, A3B appears to restrict engineered L1 retrotransposition in a broad range of cell types, including pluripotent cells. PMID:21878639

  8. Amino acids exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in human monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Shunji; Ichiyama, Takashi; Sonaka, Ichiro; Ohsaki, Ayami; Hirano, Reiji; Haneda, Yasuhiro; Fukano, Reiji; Hara, Masami; Furukawa, Susumu

    2011-11-01

    The elemental diet is one of the effective therapies for inflammatory bowel disease. However, the mechanism remains unclear, and there have never been reports about the inhibitory effects of amino acids in human monocytes/macrophages. We investigated the inhibitory effects of amino acids on cytokine production or expression of adhesion molecules that are involved in inflammatory diseases, in human monocytes/macrophages. We examined the inhibitory effects of cysteine, histidine or glycine on the induction of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54) and production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Cysteine, histidine and glycine significantly reduced the activation of NF-κB in THP-1 cells stimulated with TNF-α. In addition, cysteine and histidine significantly inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 and production of IL-8 in THP-1 cells and PBMCs. Our results suggest that cysteine and histidine exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 cells, and may be responsible for the efficacy of treatment in inflammatory bowel diseases.

  9. Cinnamic acid derivatives induce cell cycle arrest in carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sova, Matej; Žižak, Željko; Stanković, Jelena A Antic; Prijatelj, Matevž; Turk, Samo; Juranić, Zorica D; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena; Gobec, Stanislav

    2013-08-01

    Cinnamic acid derivatives can be found in plant material, and they possess a remarkable variety of biological effects. In the present study, we have investigated the cytotoxic effects of representative cinnamic acid esters and amides. The cytotoxicity was determined by MTT test on human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), myelogenous leukemia (K562), malignant melanoma (Fem-x), and estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer (MCF-7) cells, versus peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) without or with the addition of the plant lectin phytohemaglutinin (PHA). The compounds tested showed significant cytotoxicity (IC50s between 42 and 166 µM) and furthermore selectivity of these cytotoxic effects on the malignant cell lines versus the PBMCs was also seen, especially when electron-withdrawing groups, such as a cyano group (compound 5), were present on the aromatic rings of the alcohol or amine parts of the cinnamic acid derivatives. The additional study on cell cycle phase distribution indicated that novel cinnamic acid derivatives inhibit cell growth by induction of cell death. Thus, cinnamic acids derivatives represent important lead compounds for further development of antineoplastic agents.

  10. Endogenous APOBEC3B restricts LINE-1 retrotransposition in transformed cells and human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wissing, Silke; Montano, Mauricio; Garcia-Perez, Jose Luis; Moran, John V; Greene, Warner C

    2011-10-21

    Members of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminase enzymes act as host defense mechanisms limiting both infections by exogenous retroviruses and mobilization of endogenous retrotransposons. Previous studies revealed that the overexpression of some A3 proteins could restrict engineered human Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition in HeLa cells. However, whether endogenous A3 proteins play a role in restricting L1 retrotransposition remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that HeLa cells express endogenous A3B and A3C, whereas human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) express A3B, A3C, A3DE, A3F, and A3G. To study the relative contribution of endogenous A3 proteins in restricting L1 retrotransposition, we first generated small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to suppress endogenous A3 mRNA expression, and then assessed L1 mobility using a cell-based L1 retrotransposition assay. We demonstrate that in both HeLa and hESCs, shRNA-based knockdown of A3B promotes a ∼2-3.7-fold increase in the retrotransposition efficiency of an engineered human L1. Knockdown of the other A3s produced no significant increase in L1 activity. Thus, A3B appears to restrict engineered L1 retrotransposition in a broad range of cell types, including pluripotent cells.

  11. Establishment and characterization of 13 cell lines from a green turtle (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Y.; Nerurkar, V.R.; Aguirre, A.A.; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, G.H.; Yanagihara, R.

    1999-01-01

    Thirteen cell lines were established and characterized from brain, kidney, lung, spleen, heart, liver, gall bladder, urinary bladder, pancreas, testis, skin, and periorbital and tumor tissues of an immature male green turtle (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomas. Cell lines were optimally maintained at 30A? C in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Propagation of the turtle cell lines was serum dependent, and plating efficiencies ranged from 13 to 37%. The cell lines, which have been subcultivated more than 20 times, had a doubling time of approximately 30 to 36 h. When tested for their sensitivity to several fish viruses, most of the cell lines were susceptible to a rhabdovirus, spring viremia carp virus, but refractory to channel catfish virus (a herpesvirus), infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (a birnavirus), and two other fish rhabdoviruses, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus. During in vitro subcultivation, tumor-like cell aggregates appeared in cell lines derived from lungs, testis, and periorbital and tumor tissues, and small, naked intranuclear virus particles were detected by thin-section electron microscopy. These cell lines are currently being used in attempts to isolate the putative etiologic virus of green turtle fibropapilloma.

  12. Normal neutrophil differentiation and secondary granule gene expression in the EML and MPRO cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lawson, N D; Krause, D S; Berliner, N

    1998-11-01

    The EML and MPRO cell lines express a dominant negative retinoic acid receptor alpha that causes a block at specific stages of myelopoiesis. The EML cell line is multipotent and gives rise to erythroid, lymphoid, and myeloid lineages depending on the presence of appropriate cytokines. The MPRO cell line is promyelocytic and undergoes neutrophilic differentiation when induced with all-trans retinoic acid in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Previous studies have shown that both of these cell lines undergo morphological differentiation into neutrophils. In this study, we show that unlike other models of neutrophil differentiation such as NB4 and HL60, both EML and MPRO cell lines undergo complete, normal granulocytic differentiation programs. Similar to HL60, MPRO and EML induce expression of CD11b/CD18 and also exhibit downregulation of CD34 on differentiation. In contrast to HL60 and NB4, EML and MPRO cell lines coordinately upregulate secondary granule transcripts for lactoferrin and neutrophil gelatinase. Furthermore, we have confirmed previous observations that serum can induce a low level of differentiation in MPRO cells and that it is possible to grow these cells in serum-free medium, thereby eliminating this effect. Based on these studies, it appears that these lines can serve as a model for normal retinoic acid-induced neutrophil differentiation and provide insight into the role of the retinoic acid-responsive pathway in normal and leukemic myelopoiesis.

  13. [Effects of icotinib hydrochloride on the proliferation and apoptosis of human lung cancer cell lines].

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Han, Xiao-hong; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Jian-fei; Shi, Yuan-kai

    2012-09-25

    To explore the effects of icotinib on the proliferation and apoptosis of various lung cancer cell lines. Human lung cancer cell lines HCC827, H1650, H1975, A549 and human epidermal cancer cell line A431 were treated in vitro with icotinib or gefitinib at a concentration gradient of 0 - 40 µmol/L. Their proliferation effects were analyzed by the thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay and the apoptotic effects detected by flow cytometer. The downstream signaling proteins were detected by Western blot. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of icotinib for A431 and HCC827 cell lines were (0.04 ± 0.02) and (0.15 ± 0.06) µmol/L respectively. No significant differences existed between the inhibitions of gefitinib and icotinib on A431, HCC827, H1650, H1975 and A549 cell lines (all P > 0.05). Compared with H1650, H1975 and A549 cell lines, icotinib significantly inhibited A431 (P = 0.009, 0.005 and 0.000) and HCC827 (P = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.000) cell lines. And it lowered the expressions of p-AKT, p-ERK and survivin protein expression through the inhibited activity of p-EGFR protein. Icotinib can arrest the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells with EGFR mutation or over-expression by inhibiting the signal pathways of AKT-ERK and survivin.

  14. Establishment and characterization of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell lines with different metastatic potential from Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaojie; He, Songqin; Han, Yifang; Yu, Yongwei; Xiao, Jianru; Xu, Danfeng; Wang, Guoping; Du, Yan; Chang, Wenjun; Yin, Jianhua; Su, Tong; Hou, Jianguo; Cao, Guangwen

    2013-02-26

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cell lines with distinct metastatic potential are essential to study the mechanism of ccRCC metastasis. However, none of them originated from Chinese. Primary cell cultures were performed using a primary tumor of a 49-year-old male ccRCC patient and a metastatic tumor of a 62-year-old male patient who had received nephrectomy to excise primary ccRCC 10 years ago. Cell growth, microstructure, cytogenetics, cytometry, expression of metastasis-associated molecules, tumorigenesis and metastasis were subsequently characterized. Two successive cell lines named NRCC from the primary ccRCC and MRCC from the metastatic ccRCC were established, respectively. Compared to NRCC, MRCC exhibited stronger anchorage-independent growth and invasion potentials and contained more glycogen granules in the cytoplasm. Gains of chromosomes and some translocations were the major chromosomal aberrations in both cell strains. CD24 expression was more frequent in MRCC than in NRCC and the same was true for CD56. The transcriptional levels of TNFα, IL-6, VEGF, HIF2α, MMP2, and RhoC were significantly higher in MRCC than in NRCC. Cytosolic IκBα protein was more degraded in MRCC than in NRCC following TNFα treatment. Both cell lines had strong tumorigenicity in athymic nude mice. However, MRCC had strong potential in generating metastasis to lung and hemorrhagic ascites than NRCC following orthotopic transplantations. Cancer cells isolated from metastatic ccRCC have more malignant and metastatic potential than those from the primary tumor from the patients who shared the similar race background. Establishment of MRCC and NRCC may provide suitable models with which to investigate molecular mechanisms of ccRCC metastasis.

  15. Development of a Stable Cell Line, Overexpressing Human T-cell Immunoglobulin Mucin 1

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mina; Kazemi, Tohid; Ganjalikhani-hakemi, Mazdak; Majidi, Jafar; khanahmad, Hossein; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Homayouni, Vida; Kohpayeh, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent researches have demonstrated that human T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (TIM-1) glycoprotein plays important roles in regulation of autoimmune and allergic diseases, as well as in tumor immunity and response to viral infections. Therefore, targeting TIM-1 could be a potential therapeutic approach against such diseases. Objectives In this study, we aimed to express TIM-1 protein on Human Embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cell line in order to have an available source of the TIM-1 antigen. Materials and Methods The cDNA was synthesized after RNA extraction from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and TIM-1 cDNA was amplified by PCR with specific primers. The PCR product was cloned in pcDNA™3.1/Hygro (+) and transformed in Escherichia coli TOP 10 F’. After cloning, authenticity of DNA sequence was checked and expressed in HEK 293T cells. Finally, expression of TIM-1 was analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Results The result of DNA sequencing demonstrated correctness of TIM-1 DNA sequence. The flow cytometry results indicated that TIM-1 was expressed in about 90% of transfected HEK 293T cells. The real-time PCR analysis showed TIM-1 mRNA expression increased 195-fold in transfected cells compared with un-transfected cells. Conclusions Findings of present study demonstrated the successful cloning and expression of TIM-1 on HEK 293T cells. These cells could be used as an immunogenic source for production of specific monoclonal antibodies, nanobodies and aptamers against human TIM-1. PMID:28959306

  16. Notch-1 regulates pulmonary neuroendocrine cell differentiation in cell lines and in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lin; Aster, Jon C; Sklar, Jeffrey; Sunday, Mary E

    2007-02-01

    The notch gene family encodes transmembrane receptors that regulate cell differentiation by interacting with surface ligands on adjacent cells. Previously, we demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) induces neuroendocrine (NE) cell differentiation in H82, but not H526, undifferentiated small cell lung carcinoma lines. We now test the hypothesis that TNF mediates NE cell differentiation in part by altering Notch gene expression. First, using RT-PCR, we determined that TNF treatment of H82, but not H526, transiently decreases notch-1 mRNA in parallel with induction of gene expression for the NE-specific marker DOPA decarboxylase (DDC). Second, we treated H82 and H526 with notch-1 antisense vs. sense oligodeoxynucleotides. Using quantitative RT-PCR and Western analyses we demonstrate that DDC mRNA and protein are increased in H82 by notch-1 antisense, whereas notch-1 mRNA and activated Notch-1 protein are decreased. mRNA for Hes1, a transcription factor downstream from activated Notch, is also decreased by Notch-1 antisense in H82 but not H526. After 7 days of Notch-1 antisense treatment, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) immunoreactivity is induced in H82 but not H526. Third, we generated transgenic mice bearing notch-1 driven by the neural/NE-specific calcitonin promoter, which express activated Notch-1 in developing lung epithelium. Newborn NotchCal mouse lungs have high levels of hes1 mRNA, reflecting increased activated Notch, compared with wild-type. NotchCal lungs have decreased CGRP-positive NE cells, decreased protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5)-positive NE cells, and decreased gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), CGRP, and DDC mRNA levels compared with normal littermates. Cumulatively, these observations provide further support for a role for Notch-1 signaling in regulating pulmonary NE cell differentiation.

  17. Establishment and characterization of outer root sheath (ORS) cell line from Jining grey goat.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhifeng; Hu, Yanxia; Wang, Hui; Zeng, Yongqing; Dong, Bin; Zhu, Houshun; Dong, Zhongdian; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2012-03-01

    A new line of outer root sheath (ORS) cells was established from hair follicles of Jining grey goat by using a mechanical separation combined with enzyme digestion. Cell morphology is described at different phases. The chromosome analysis of ORS cells, identification of the ORS cells and morphological reversion test were detected at the 4th and 40th passages. The ORS cells were healthy and the growth characteristics were stable with a population doubling time of 52 h. Chromosome analysis showed that >58% of cells were diploid. Test for ORS cell line CK19 expression was positive. This newly established ORS cell line not only lays the foundation for further studying on the growth, regeneration, development law of goat hair follicle but also provides a mirror for the research of human hair in medical field.

  18. Functional characterization of cell hybrids generated by induced fusion of primary porcine mesenchymal stem cells with an immortal murine cell line.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Q; Ringe, J; Reichmann, E; Migotti, R; Sittinger, M; da S Meirelles, L; Nardi, N B; Magnusson, P; Islam, K

    2006-10-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) integrate into various organs and contribute to the regeneration of diverse tissues. However, the mechanistic basis of the plasticity of MSC is not fully understood. The change of cell fate has been suggested to occur through cell fusion. We have generated hybrid cell lines by polyethylene-glycol-mediated cell fusion of primary porcine MSC with the immortal murine fibroblast cell line F7, a derivative of the GM05267 cell line. The hybrid cell lines display fibroblastic morphology and proliferate like immortal cells. They contain tetraploid to hexaploid porcine chromosomes accompanied by hypo-diploid murine chromosomes. Interestingly, many hybrid cell lines also express high levels of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, which is considered to be a marker of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. All tested hybrid cell lines retain osteogenic differentiation, a few of them also retain adipogenic potential, but none retain chondrogenic differentiation. Conditioned media from hybrid cells enhance the proliferation of both early-passage and late-passage porcine MSC, indicating that the hybrid cells secrete diffusible growth stimulatory factors. Murine F7 cells thus have the unique property of generating immortal cell hybrids containing unusually high numbers of chromosomes derived from normal cells. These hybrid cells can be employed in various studies to improve our understanding of regenerative biology. This is the first report, to our knowledge, describing the generation of experimentally induced cell hybrids by using normal primary MSC.

  19. Performance characteristics of qualified cell lines for isolation and propagation of influenza viruses for vaccine manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Donis, Ruben O; Davis, C Todd; Foust, Angie; Hossain, M Jaber; Johnson, Adam; Klimov, Alexander; Loughlin, Rosette; Xu, Xiyan; Tsai, Theodore; Blayer, Simone; Trusheim, Heidi; Colegate, Tony; Fox, John; Taylor, Beverly; Hussain, Althaf; Barr, Ian; Baas, Chantal; Louwerens, Jaap; Geuns, Ed; Lee, Min-Shi; Venhuizen, Odewijk; Neumeier, Elisabeth; Ziegler, Thedi

    2014-11-12

    Cell culture is now available as a method for the production of influenza vaccines in addition to eggs. In accordance with currently accepted practice, viruses recommended as candidates for vaccine manufacture are isolated and propagated exclusively in hens' eggs prior to distribution to manufacturers. Candidate vaccine viruses isolated in cell culture are not available to support vaccine manufacturing in mammalian cell bioreactors so egg-derived viruses have to be used. Recently influenza A (H3N2) viruses have been difficult to isolate directly in eggs. As mitigation against this difficulty, and the possibility of no suitable egg-isolated candidate viruses being available, it is proposed to consider using mammalian cell lines for primary isolation of influenza viruses as candidates for vaccine production in egg and cell platforms. To investigate this possibility, we tested the antigenic stability of viruses isolated and propagated in cell lines qualified for influenza vaccine manufacture and subsequently investigated antigen yields of such viruses in these cell lines at pilot-scale. Twenty influenza A and B-positive, original clinical specimens were inoculated in three MDCK cell lines. The antigenicity of recovered viruses was tested by hemagglutination inhibition using ferret sera against contemporary vaccine viruses and the amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase were determined. MDCK cell lines proved to be highly sensitive for virus isolation. Compared to the virus sequenced from the original specimen, viruses passaged three times in the MDCK lines showed up to 2 amino acid changes in the hemagglutinin. Antigenic stability was also established by hemagglutination inhibition titers comparable to those of the corresponding reference virus. Viruses isolated in any of the three MDCK lines grew reasonably well but variably in three MDCK cells and in VERO cells at pilot-scale. These results indicate that influenza viruses isolated in vaccine

  20. Performance characteristics of qualified cell lines for isolation and propagation of influenza viruses for vaccine manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Donis, Ruben O.; Chen, i-Mei; Davis, C Todd; Foust, Angie; Hossain, M. Jaber; Johnson, Adam; Klimov, Alexander; Loughlin, Rosette; Xu, Xiyan; Tsai, Theodore; Blayer, Simone; Trusheim, Heidi; Colegate, Tony; Fox, John; Taylor, Beverly; Hussain, Althaf; Barr, Ian; Baas, Chantal; Louwerens, Jaap; Geuns, Ed; Lee, Min-Shi; Venhuizen, odewijk; Neumeier, Elisabeth; Ziegler, Thedi

    2018-01-01

    Cell culture is now available as a method for the production of influenza vaccines in addition to eggs. In accordance with currently accepted practice, viruses recommended as candidates for vaccine manufacture are isolated and propagated exclusively in hens' eggs prior to distribution to manufacturers. Candidate vaccine viruses isolated in cell culture are not available to support vaccine manufacturing in mammalian cell bioreactors so egg-derived viruses have to be used. Recently influenza A (H3N2) viruses have been difficult to isolate directly in eggs. As mitigation against this difficulty, and the possibility of no suitable egg-isolated candidate viruses being available, it is proposed to consider using mammalian cell lines for primary isolation of influenza viruses as candidates for vaccine production in egg and cell platforms. To investigate this possibility, we tested the antigenic stability of viruses isolated and propagated in cell lines qualified for influenza vaccine manufacture and subsequently investigated antigen yields of such viruses in these cell lines at pilot-scale. Twenty influenza A and B-positive, original clinical specimens were inoculated in three MDCK cell lines. The antigenicity of recovered viruses was tested by hemagglutination inhibition using ferret sera against contemporary vaccine viruses and the amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase were determined. MDCK cell lines proved to be highly sensitive for virus isolation. Compared to the virus sequenced from the original specimen, viruses passaged three times in the MDCK lines showed up to 2 amino acid changes in the hemagglutinin. Antigenic stability was also established by hemagglutination inhibition titers comparable to those of the corresponding reference virus. Viruses isolated in any of the three MDCK lines grew reasonably well but variably in three MDCK cells and in VERO cells at pilot-scale. These results indicate that influenza viruses isolated in vaccine

  1. SU-C-204-04: Irradiation of Human Cell Lines Using Various Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y; McMahon, S; Kaminuma, T

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate and quantify the biological effects of ion radiation using several human cell lines. We aim to answer the question of whether carbon ion the most ideal ion species for heavy ion radiotherapy. Methods: The cells were irradiated at different positions along the pristine Bragg peak of several ions with different atomic number. The biological effectiveness was evaluated using the clonogenic cell survival assay. Irradiation of three human lung cancer cell lines and a fibroblast cell line were undertaken using the charged particle beam at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhavenmore » National Lab. Four mono-energetic ion beams (carbon, oxygen, helium and lithium) were used to irradiate the cells. Water or media-filled T25 flasks were lined up along the beam line so that the cell-containing surfaces of the flasks were placed at a specific depth along the pristine Bragg curve. Four depths along the curve, representing entrance point, rising peak, peak and distal fall off, were selected to determine biological effectiveness. Gaf-chromic films were placed between the flasks to monitor the irradiation as soon as it was finished. Results: For all ion radiations, the maximum cell killing effect occurs at either peak or distal fall off, depending on the cell lines. For instance, for the fibroblast cell line AGO1522, RBEs of 1.4, 1.2, 1.4 and 1.9 were observed at the Bragg peak for Helium, Lithium, Carbon and Oxygen ions. Comparing positions, RBEs of 0.9, 1.2, 1.4 and 1.8 were observed for carbon irradiation of AGO-1522 cells positions corresponding to entrance, rising peak, peak and distal fall off. Conclusion: RBE values differ with position in the Bragg peak, ion species and cell line. Ions other than carbon may prove more effective in certain irradiation conditions and may contribute to optimized heavy ion therapy.« less

  2. [Establishment and characterization of a new carcinoma cell line from uterine cervix of Uyghur women].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Aerziguli, Tursun; Guzalnur, Abliz

    2012-04-01

    To establish a uterine cervical carcinoma cell line of Uyghur ethnical background and to evaluate the related biological characteristics for future biomedical investigations of diseases in the Uyghur population. Poorly-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma specimens of Uyghur patients were obtained and cultured in vitro by enzymatic digestion method, followed by continuous passaging to reach a stable growth determined by cell viability and growth curve. Morphological study, cell cycling and chromosomal analysis were performed. Tumorigenesis study was conducted by inoculation of nude mice. Biomarker (CK17, CD44, Ki-67, CK14 and vimentin) expression was detected by immunofluorescence and immunocytochemical techniques. A cervical carcinoma cell line was successfully established and maintained for 12 months through 70 passages. The cell line had a stable growth with a population doubling time of 51.9 h. Flask method and double agar-agar assay showed that the cell line had colony-forming rates of 32.5% and 15.6%, respectively. Ultrastructural evaluation demonstrated numerous cell surface protrusions or microvilli, a large number of rod-shape structures in cytoplasm, typical desmosomes and nuclear atypia. Chromosomal analysis revealed human karyotype with the number of chromosomes per cell varying from 32 - 97 with a majority of 54 - 86 (60.3%). Xenogeneic tumors formed in nude mice showed histological structures identical to those of the primary tumor. The cells had high expression of CK17, CD44, Ki-67 and vimentin but no CK14 expression. A cervical carcinoma cell line from a female Uyghur patient is successfully established. The cell line has the characteristics of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma, and it is stable with maintaining the characteristic biological and morphological features in vitro for more than 12 months, therefore, qualified as a stable cell line for further biomedical research.

  3. Genetic load makes cancer cells more sensitive to common drugs: evidence from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Ana B; Korolev, Kirill S

    2017-05-16

    Genetic alterations initiate tumors and enable the evolution of drug resistance. The pro-cancer view of mutations is however incomplete, and several studies show that mutational load can reduce tumor fitness. Given its negative effect, genetic load should make tumors more sensitive to anticancer drugs. Here, we test this hypothesis across all major types of cancer from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, which provides genetic and expression data of 496 cell lines together with their response to 24 common anticancer drugs. We found that the efficacy of 9 out of 24 drugs showed significant association with genetic load in a pan-cancer analysis. The associations for some tissue-drug combinations were remarkably strong, with genetic load explaining up to 83% of the variance in the drug response. Overall, the role of genetic load depended on both the drug and the tissue type with 10 tissues being particularly vulnerable to genetic load. We also identified changes in gene expression associated with increased genetic load, which included cell-cycle checkpoints, DNA damage and apoptosis. Our results show that genetic load is an important component of tumor fitness and can predict drug sensitivity. Beyond being a biomarker, genetic load might be a new, unexplored vulnerability of cancer.

  4. Cell death at the intestinal epithelial front line.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Maria Eugenia; Grabinger, Thomas; Brunner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The intestinal epithelium represents the largest epithelial surface in our body. This single-cell-layer epithelium mediates important functions in the absorption of nutrients and in the maintenance of barrier function, preventing luminal microorganisms from invading the body. Due to its constant regeneration the intestinal epithelium is a tissue not only with very high proliferation rates but also with very prominent physiological and pathophysiological cell death induction. The normal physiological differentiation and maturation of intestinal epithelial cells leads to their shedding and apoptotic cell death within a few days, without disturbing the epithelial barrier integrity. In contrast excessive intestinal epithelial cell death induced by irradiation, drugs and inflammation severely impairs the vital functions of this tissue. In this review we discuss cell death processes in the intestinal epithelium in health and disease, with special emphasis on cell death triggered by the tumour necrosis factor receptor family. © 2015 FEBS.

  5. Reliable generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Robert; Ornelas, Loren; Yeager, Nicole; Mandefro, Berhan; Sahabian, Anais; Lenaeus, Lindsay; Targan, Stephan R; Svendsen, Clive N; Sareen, Dhruv

    2014-12-01

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for many applications, including disease modeling to elucidate mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis, drug screening, and ultimately regenerative medicine therapies. A frequently used starting source of cells for reprogramming has been dermal fibroblasts isolated from skin biopsies. However, numerous repositories containing lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) generated from a wide array of patients also exist in abundance. To date, this rich bioresource has been severely underused for iPSC generation. We first attempted to create iPSCs from LCLs using two existing methods but were unsuccessful. Here we report a new and more reliable method for LCL reprogramming using episomal plasmids expressing pluripotency factors and p53 shRNA in combination with small molecules. The LCL-derived iPSCs (LCL-iPSCs) exhibited identical characteristics to fibroblast-derived iPSCs (fib-iPSCs), wherein they retained their genotype, exhibited a normal pluripotency profile, and readily differentiated into all three germ-layer cell types. As expected, they also maintained rearrangement of the heavy chain immunoglobulin locus. Importantly, we also show efficient iPSC generation from LCLs of patients with spinal muscular atrophy and inflammatory bowel disease. These LCL-iPSCs retained the disease mutation and could differentiate into neurons, spinal motor neurons, and intestinal organoids, all of which were virtually indistinguishable from differentiated cells derived from fib-iPSCs. This method for reliably deriving iPSCs from patient LCLs paves the way for using invaluable worldwide LCL repositories to generate new human iPSC lines, thus providing an enormous bioresource for disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine applications. ©AlphaMed Press.

  6. Development and characterization of a cell line TTCF from endangered mahseer Tor tor (Ham.).

    PubMed

    Yadav, K; Lakra, W S; Sharma, J; Goswami, M; Singh, Akhilesh

    2012-08-01

    Tor tor is an important game and food fish of India with a distribution throughout Asia from the trans-Himalayan region to the Mekong River basin to Malaysia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia. A new cell line named TTCF was developed from the caudal fin of T. tor for the first time. The cell line was optimally maintained at 28°C in Leibovitz-15 (L-15) medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The propagation of TTCF cells showed a high plating efficiency of 63.00%. The cytogenetic analysis revealed a diploid count of 100 chromosomes at passage 15, 30, 45 and 60 passages. The viability of the TTCF cell line was found to be 72% after 6 months of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The origin of the cell lines was confirmed by the amplification of 578- and 655-bp sequences of 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) respectively. TTCF cells were successfully transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter plasmids. Further, immunocytochemistry studies confirm its fibroblastic morphology of cells. Genotoxicity assessment of H₂O₂ in TTCF cell line revealed the utility of TTCF cell line as in vitro model for aquatic toxicological studies.

  7. Donor Dependent Variations in Hematopoietic Differentiation among Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Féraud, Olivier; Valogne, Yannick; Melkus, Michael W.; Zhang, Yanyan; Oudrhiri, Noufissa; Haddad, Rima; Daury, Aurélie; Rocher, Corinne; Larbi, Aniya; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Divers, Dominique; Gobbo, Emilie; Brunet de la Grange, Philippe; Louache, Fawzia; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Mitjavila-Garcia, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoiesis generated from human embryonic stem cells (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are unprecedented resources for cell therapy. We compared hematopoietic differentiation potentials from ES and iPS cell lines originated from various donors and derived them using integrative and non-integrative vectors. Significant differences in differentiation toward hematopoietic lineage were observed among ES and iPS. The ability of engraftment of iPS or ES-derived cells in NOG mice varied among the lines with low levels of chimerism. iPS generated from ES cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) reproduce a similar hematopoietic outcome compared to their parental ES cell line. We were not able to identify any specific hematopoietic transcription factors that allow to distinguish between good versus poor hematopoiesis in undifferentiated ES or iPS cell lines. There is a relatively unpredictable variation in hematopoietic differentiation between ES and iPS cell lines that could not be predicted based on phenotype or gene expression of the undifferentiated cells. These results demonstrate the influence of genetic background in variation of hematopoietic potential rather than the reprogramming process. PMID:26938212

  8. Exogenous ACE2 Expression Allows Refractory Cell Lines To Support Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Mossel, Eric C.; Huang, Cheng; Narayanan, Krishna; Makino, Shinji; Tesh, Robert B.; Peters, C. J.

    2005-01-01

    Of 30 cell lines and primary cells examined, productive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (Urbani strain) (SARS-CoV) infection after low-multiplicity inoculation was detected in only six: three African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines (Vero, Vero E6, and MA104), a human colon epithelial line (CaCo-2), a porcine kidney epithelial line [PK(15)], and mink lung epithelial cells (Mv 1 Lu). SARS-CoV produced a lytic infection in Vero, Vero E6, and MA104 cells, but there was no visible cytopathic effect in Caco-2, Mv 1 Lu, or PK(15) cells. Multistep growth kinetics were identical in Vero E6 and MA104 cells, with maximum titer reached 24 h postinoculation (hpi). Virus titer was maximal 96 hpi in CaCo-2 cells, and virus was continually produced from infected CaCo-2 cells for at least 6 weeks after infection. CaCo-2 was the only human cell type of 13 tested that supported efficient SARS-CoV replication. Expression of the SARS-CoV receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), resulted in SARS-CoV replication in all refractory cell lines examined. Titers achieved were variable and dependent upon the method of ACE2 expression. PMID:15731278

  9. In Vitro Study of Influence of Au Nanoparticles on HT29 and SPEV Cell Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovich, Elena; Volkova, Nataliia; Yakymchuk, Elena; Perepelitsyna, Olena; Sydorenko, Michail; Goltsev, Anatoliy

    2017-08-01

    Cell culture models are excellent tools for potential toxicity of nanoparticles and fundamental investigations in cancer research. Thus, information about AuNP potential toxicity and effects on human health is necessary for the use of nanomaterials in clinical settings. The aim of our research is to examine the effects of AuNPs on the epithelial origin cell lines: continuous and oncogenic. Embryonic porcine kidney epithelial inoculated (SPEV) cell line and colorectal carcinoma cell line (HT29) were used. In the test cultures, the cell proliferation, necrosis/apoptosis, and multicellular spheroids generation were evaluated. We demonstrated that AuNP concentrations of 6-12 μg/ml reduced the proliferation of SPEV and HT29 cells and increased the cell number at early and late stages of apoptosis and necrosis. It was shown that small concentrations of AuNPs (1-3 μg/ml) stimulate multicellular spheroid formation by HT29 and SPEV cells. However, higher AuNP concentrations (6-12 μg/ml) had both cytotoxic and anti-cohesive effects on cell in suspension. The large sensitiveness to the action of AuNPs was shown by the line of HT29 (6 μg/ml) as compared to the SPEV cells (12 μg/ml). This experimental study of the effect of AuNPs on SPEV and HT29 cell lines will justify their further application in AuNP-mediated anticancer treatment.

  10. Calcium signaling properties of a thyrotroph cell line, mouse TαT1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Melanija; Bargi-Souza, Paula; Leiva-Salcedo, Elias; Nunes, Maria Tereza; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-12-01

    TαT1 cells are mouse thyrotroph cell line frequently used for studies on thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit gene expression and other cellular functions. Here we have characterized calcium-signaling pathways in TαT1 cells, an issue not previously addressed in these cells and incompletely described in native thyrotrophs. TαT1 cells are excitable and fire action potentials spontaneously and in response to application of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), the native hypothalamic agonist for thyrotrophs. Spontaneous electrical activity is coupled to small amplitude fluctuations in intracellular calcium, whereas TRH stimulates both calcium mobilization from intracellular pools and calcium influx. Non-receptor-mediated depletion of intracellular pool also leads to a prominent facilitation of calcium influx. Both receptor and non-receptor stimulated calcium influx is substantially attenuated but not completely abolished by inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels, suggesting that depletion of intracellular calcium pool in these cells provides a signal for both voltage-independent and -dependent calcium influx, the latter by facilitating the pacemaking activity. These cells also express purinergic P2Y1 receptors and their activation by extracellular ATP mimics TRH action on calcium mobilization and influx. The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine prolongs duration of TRH-induced calcium spikes during 30-min exposure. These data indicate that TαT1 cells are capable of responding to natively feed-forward TRH signaling and intrapituitary ATP signaling with acute calcium mobilization and sustained calcium influx. Amplification of TRH-induced calcium signaling by triiodothyronine further suggests the existence of a pathway for positive feedback effects of thyroid hormones probably in a non-genomic manner. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Newly established human retinoblastoma cell lines exhibit an "immortalized" but not an invasive phenotype in vitro.

    PubMed

    Griegel, S; Hong, C; Frötschl, R; Hülser, D F; Greger, V; Horsthemke, B; Rajewsky, M F

    1990-07-15

    Retinoblastoma (RB), an intraocular childhood tumor occurring in a hereditary (mostly bilateral) or non-hereditary (unilateral) form, is associated with the inactivation of both alleles of a putative tumor suppressor gene (RB-I) located on chromosome 13q14. Both the process of RB development and the biological characteristics of RB cells are as yet poorly understood. We have established 7 new RBL lines (RBL13, RBL14, RBL18 and RBL30, derived from unilateral RB; and RBL7, RBL15 and RBL20, derived from bilateral RB). Southern blot analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in DNA samples from 6 cell lines revealed loss of constitutional heterozygosity at one or several polymorphic loci on chromosome 13 in 4 cases. Gross deletions involving the RB-I locus and amplification of the N-myc gene were not detected in any of the RBL lines. The phenotypic properties of the RBL lines were analyzed in comparison with cells from the original RB tumors, with 4 RB lines established by others (RB383, RB355, RB247C3 and Y79) and with the adenovirus-EIA-transformed human retinoblast line HER-Xhol-CC2. It was found that RB tumors consist of phenotypically heterogeneous cell subpopulations with varying nutrient requirements and differentiation potential in vitro. All cell lines showed the typical characteristics of established ("immortalized") cells. In some cases, cells from original RB tumors or cell lines were able to form colonies when cell aggregates of 2-10 cells were suspended in semi-solid agar medium; however, anchorage-independent colonies never developed from single cells. Cell lines RBL13, RBL18, RB247C3, RB355, RB383 and Y79 were tested for invasion into embryonic chick heart fragments in vitro and found to be non-invasive. None of the RBL or RB lines were tumorigenic in nu/nu (T-) mice. Y79 cells (propagated in culture for many years) exhibited properties distinctly different from those of the other cell lines, and thus cannot be considered phenotypically

  12. Fucoidan Does Not Exert Anti-Tumorigenic Effects on Uveal Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dithmer, Michaela; Kirsch, Anna-Maria; Richert, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Sabine; Wang, Fanlu; Schmidt, Harald; Coupland, Sarah E.; Roider, Johann; Klettner, Alexa

    2017-01-01

    Background. The polysaccharide fucoidan is widely investigated as an anti-cancer agent. Here, we tested the effect of fucoidan on uveal melanoma cell lines. Methods. The effect of 100 µM fucoidan was investigated on five cell lines (92.1, Mel270 OMM1, OMM2.3, OMM2.5) and of 1 µg/mL–1 mg/mL fucoidan in two cell lines (OMM1, OMM2.3). Cell proliferation and viability were investigated with a WST-1 assay, migration in a wound healing (scratch) assay. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) was measured in ELISA. Angiogenesis was evaluated in co-cultures with endothelial cells. Cell toxicity was induced by hydrogen-peroxide. Protein expression (Akt, ERK1/2, Bcl-2, Bax) was investigated in Western blot. Results. Fucoidan increased proliferation in two and reduced it in one cell line. Migration was reduced in three cell lines. The effect of fucoidan on VEGF was cell type and concentration dependent. In endothelial co-culture with 92.1, fucoidan significantly increased tubular structures. Moreover, fucoidan significantly protected all tested uveal melanoma cell lines from hydrogen-peroxide induced cell death. Under oxidative stress, fucoidan did not alter the expression of Bcl-2, Bax or ERK1/2, while inducing Akt expression in 92.1 cells but not in any other cell line. Conclusion. Fucoidan did not show anti-tumorigenic effects but displayed protective and pro-angiogenic properties, rendering fucoidan unsuitable as a potential new drug for the treatment of uveal melanoma. PMID:28640204

  13. In vitro synergistic antitumor efficacy of sequentially combined chemotherapy/icotinib in non‑small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min-Cong; Liang, Xuan; Liu, Zhi-Yan; Cui, Jie; Liu, Ying; Jing, Li; Jiang, Li-Li; Ma, Jie-Qun; Han, Li-Li; Guo, Qian-Qian; Yang, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Nan, Ke-Jun; Yao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The concurrent administration of chemotherapy and epidermal growth factor receptor‑tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR‑TKIs) has previously produced a negative interaction and failed to confer a survival benefit to non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients compared with first‑line cytotoxic chemotherapy. The present study aimed to investigate the optimal schedule of the combined treatment of cisplatin/paclitaxel and icotinib in NSCLC cell lines and clarify the underlying mechanisms. HCC827, H1975, H1299 and A549 human NSCLC cell lines with wild‑type and mutant EGFR genes were used as in vitro models to define the differential effects of various schedules of cisplatin/paclitaxel with icotinib treatments on cell growth, proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and EGFR signaling pathway. Sequence‑dependent antiproliferative effects differed among the four NSCLC cell lines, and were not associated with EGFR mutation, constitutive expression levels of EGFR or downstream signaling molecules. The antiproliferative effect of cisplatin plus paclitaxel followed by icotinib was superior to that of cisplatin or paclitaxel followed by icotinib in the HCC827, H1975, H1299 and A549 cell lines, and induced more cell apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest. Cisplatin and paclitaxel significantly increased the expression of EGFR phosphorylation in the HCC827 cell line. However, only paclitaxel increased the expression of EGFR phosphorylation in the H1975 cell line. Cisplatin/paclitaxel followed by icotinib influenced the expression of p‑EGFR and p‑AKT, although the expression of p‑ERK1/2 remained unchanged. The results suggest that the optimal schedule of the combined treatment of cisplatin/paclitaxel and icotinib differed among the NSCLC cell lines. The results also provide molecular evidence to support clinical treatment strategies for NSCLC patients.

  14. Paris Saponin I Sensitizes Gastric Cancer Cell Lines to Cisplatin via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuichuan; Du, Leiwen; Jiang, Hao; Zhu, Xinhai; Li, Jinhui; Xu, Ji

    2016-10-18

    BACKGROUND Dose-related toxicity is the major restriction of cisplatin and cisplatin-combination chemotherapy, and is a challenge for advanced gastric cancer treatment. We explored the possibility of using Paris saponin I as an agent to sensitize gastric cancer cells to cisplatin, and examined the underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Growth inhibition was detected by MTT assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis were detected using flow cytometry and Annexin V/PI staining. The P21waf1/cip1, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 protein expression were detected using Western blot analysis. RESULTS The results revealed that PSI sensitized gastric cancer cells to cisplatin, with low toxicity. The IC50 value of cisplatin in SGC-7901 cell lines was decreased when combined with PSI. PSI promoted cisplatin-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in a cisplatin concentration-dependent manner. Bcl-2 protein expression decreased, but Bax, caspase-3, and P21waf1/cip1 protein expression increased with PSI treatment. CONCLUSIONS The underlying mechanism of Paris saponin I may be related to targeting the apoptosis pathway and cell cycle blocking, which suggests that PSI is a potential therapeutic sensitizer for cisplatin in treating gastric cancer.

  15. Relationship between DNA ploidy level and tumor sociology behavior in 12 nervous cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, R.; Camby, I.; Salmon, I.

    1995-06-01

    Cell population sociology was studied in two medulloblastomas and 10 astrocytic human tumor cell lines by means of the characterization of the structure of neoplastic cell colonies growing on histological slides. This was carried out via digital cell image analysis of Feulgen-stained nuclei, to which the Delaunay triangulation and Voronoi paving mathematical techniques were applied. Such assessments were compared to the DNA ploidy level (assessed by means of DNA histogram typing). The results show that the cell colony architecture characteristics differed markedly according to whether the cell lines were euploid (diploid or tetraploid) or aneuploid (hyperdiploid, triploid, hypertriploid, or polymorphic).more » In fact, the cell colonies from the euploid cell nuclei populations were larger and more dense than those from the aneuploid ones. Furthermore, for an identical period of culture, the cell lines from high-grade malignant astrocytic tumors (glioblastomas) exhibited cell colonies that were larger and more dense than those in cell lines from low-grade astrocytic tumors (astrocytomas). In each of these two groups, the diploid cell nuclei populations exhibited cell colonies larger and more dense than the nondiploid colonies. The present methodology is now being applied in vivo to histological sections of surgically removed human brain tumors in order to distinguish between high-risk clinical subgroups and medium-risk subgroups in clearly circumscribed histopathological groups. 38 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  16. Cell line name recognition in support of the identification of synthetic lethality in cancer from text

    PubMed Central

    Kaewphan, Suwisa; Van Landeghem, Sofie; Ohta, Tomoko; Van de Peer, Yves; Ginter, Filip; Pyysalo, Sampo

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The recognition and normalization of cell line names in text is an important task in biomedical text mining research, facilitating for instance the identification of synthetically lethal genes from the literature. While several tools have previously been developed to address cell line recognition, it is unclear whether available systems can perform sufficiently well in realistic and broad-coverage applications such as extracting synthetically lethal genes from the cancer literature. In this study, we revisit the cell line name recognition task, evaluating both available systems and newly introduced methods on various resources to obtain a reliable tagger not tied to any specific subdomain. In support of this task, we introduce two text collections manually annotated for cell line names: the broad-coverage corpus Gellus and CLL, a focused target domain corpus. Results: We find that the best performance is achieved using NERsuite, a machine learning system based on Conditional Random Fields, trained on the Gellus corpus and supported with a dictionary of cell line names. The system achieves an F-score of 88.46% on the test set of Gellus and 85.98% on the independently annotated CLL corpus. It was further applied at large scale to 24 302 102 unannotated articles, resulting in the identification of 5 181 342 cell line mentions, normalized to 11 755 unique cell line database identifiers. Availability and implementation: The manually annotated datasets, the cell line dictionary, derived corpora, NERsuite models and the results of the large-scale run on unannotated texts are available under open licenses at http://turkunlp.github.io/Cell-line-recognition/. Contact: sukaew@utu.fi PMID:26428294

  17. Mapping the cellular and molecular heterogeneity of normal and malignant breast tissues and cultured cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Normal and neoplastic breast tissues are comprised of heterogeneous populations of epithelial cells exhibiting various degrees of maturation and differentiation. While cultured cell lines have been derived from both normal and malignant tissues, it remains unclear to what extent they retain similar levels of differentiation and heterogeneity as that found within breast tissues. Methods We used 12 reduction mammoplasty tissues, 15 primary breast cancer tissues, and 20 human breast epithelial cell lines (16 cancer lines, 4 normal lines) to perform flow cytometry for CD44, CD24, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and CD49f expression, as well as immunohistochemistry, and in vivo tumor xenograft formation studies to extensively analyze the molecular and cellular characteristics of breast epithelial cell lineages. Results Human breast tissues contain four distinguishable epithelial differentiation states (two luminal phenotypes and two basal phenotypes) that differ on the basis of CD24, EpCAM and CD49f expression. Primary human breast cancer tissues also contain these four cellular states, but in altered proportions compared to normal tissues. In contrast, cultured cancer cell lines are enriched for rare basal and mesenchymal epithelial phenotypes, which are normally present in small numbers within human tissues. Similarly, cultured normal human mammary epithelial cell lines are enriched for rare basal and mesenchymal phenotypes that represent a minor fraction of cells within reduction mammoplasty tissues. Furthermore, although normal human mammary epithelial cell lines exhibit features of bi-potent progenitor cells they are unable to differentiate into mature luminal breast epithelial cells under standard culture conditions. Conclusions As a group breast cancer cell lines represent the heterogeneity of human breast tumors, but individually they exhibit increased lineage-restricted profiles that fall short of truly representing the intratumoral

  18. Cancer-initiating cells derived from established cervical cell lines exhibit stem-cell markers and increased radioresistance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are proposed to be responsible for the generation of metastasis and resistance to therapy. Accumulating evidences indicates CICs are found among different human cancers and cell lines derived from them. Few studies address the characteristics of CICs in cervical cancer. We identify biological features of CICs from four of the best-know human cell lines from uterine cervix tumors. (HeLa, SiHa, Ca Ski, C-4 I). Methods Cells were cultured as spheres under stem-cell conditions. Flow cytometry was used to detect expression of CD34, CD49f and CD133 antigens and Hoechst 33342 staining to identify side population (SP). Magnetic and fluorescence-activated cell sorting was applied to enrich and purify populations used to evaluate tumorigenicity in nude mice. cDNA microarray analysis and in vitro radioresistance assay were carried out under standard conditions. Results CICs, enriched as spheroids, were capable to generate reproducible tumor phenotypes in nu-nu mice and serial propagation. Injection of 1 × 103 dissociated spheroid cells induced tumors in the majority of animals, whereas injection of 1 × 105 monolayer cells remained nontumorigenic. Sphere-derived CICs expressed CD49f surface marker. Gene profiling analysis of HeLa and SiHa spheroid cells showed up-regulation of CICs markers characteristic of the female reproductive system. Importantly, epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) transition-associated markers were found highly expressed in spheroid cells. More importantly, gene expression analysis indicated that genes required for radioresistance were also up-regulated, including components of the double-strand break (DSB) DNA repair machinery and the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dose-dependent radiation assay indicated indeed that CICs-enriched populations exhibit an increased resistance to ionizing radiation (IR). Conclusions We characterized a self-renewing subpopulation of CICs found among four well known human

  19. Organ-specific isogenic metastatic breast cancer cell lines exhibit distinct Raman spectral signatures and metabolomes

    PubMed Central

    Winnard, Paul T.; Zhang, Chi; Vesuna, Farhad; Kang, Jeon Woong; Garry, Jonah; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Barman, Ishan; Raman, Venu

    2017-01-01

    Molecular characterization of organ-specific metastatic lesions, which distinguish them from the primary tumor, will provide a better understanding of tissue specific adaptations that regulate metastatic progression. Using an orthotopic xenograft model, we have isolated isogenic metastatic human breast cancer cell lines directly from organ explants that are phenotypically distinct from the primary tumor cell line. Label-free Raman spectroscopy was used and informative spectral bands were ascertained as differentiators of organ-specific metastases as opposed to the presence of a single universal marker. Decision algorithms derived from the Raman spectra unambiguously identified these isogenic cell lines as unique biological entities – a finding reinforced through metabolomic analyses that indicated tissue of origin metabolite distinctions between the cell lines. Notably, complementarity of the metabolomics and Raman datasets was found. Our findings provide evidence that metastatic spread generates tissue-specific adaptations at the molecular level within cancer cells, which can be differentiated with Raman spectroscopy. PMID:28145887

  20. Organ-specific isogenic metastatic breast cancer cell lines exhibit distinct Raman spectral signatures and metabolomes.

    PubMed

    Winnard, Paul T; Zhang, Chi; Vesuna, Farhad; Kang, Jeon Woong; Garry, Jonah; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Barman, Ishan; Raman, Venu

    2017-03-21

    Molecular characterization of organ-specific metastatic lesions, which distinguish them from the primary tumor, will provide a better understanding of tissue specific adaptations that regulate metastatic progression. Using an orthotopic xenograft model, we have isolated isogenic metastatic human breast cancer cell lines directly from organ explants that are phenotypically distinct from the primary tumor cell line. Label-free Raman spectroscopy was used and informative spectral bands were ascertained as differentiators of organ-specific metastases as opposed to the presence of a single universal marker. Decision algorithms derived from the Raman spectra unambiguously identified these isogenic cell lines as unique biological entities - a finding reinforced through metabolomic analyses that indicated tissue of origin metabolite distinctions between the cell lines. Notably, complementarity of the metabolomics and Raman datasets was found. Our findings provide evidence that metastatic spread generates tissue-specific adaptations at the molecular level within cancer cells, which can be differentiated with Raman spectroscopy.

  1. [Characterization of a human cell line from an anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Gioanni, J; Zanghellini, E; Mazeau, C; Zhang, D; Courdi, A; Farges, M; Lambert, J C; Duplay, H; Schneider, M

    1991-11-01

    A new cell line derived from a thyroid anaplastic carcinoma, CAL 62, has been established in culture. This line is constituted by highly tumorigenic cells. Their epithelial phenotype is stable in culture. Immunochemical staining for human thyroglobulin is negative. Cytogenetic analysis showed a gain of chromosome 20, the translocation i (14q), and breakpoints of centrometric chromatine. These results are similar to those previously reported by other investigators. CAL 62 radiosensibility has been studied. The survival curve of the in vitro irradiated cells has been adjusted with a linear-quadratic model. This cell line is thus showed to be radioresistant. Cell line CAL 62 constitutes an appropriate model for in vitro studies of thyroid anaplastic carcinoma.

  2. Immortalized human hepatic cell lines for in vitro testing and research purposes

    PubMed Central

    Ramboer, Eva; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Summary The ubiquitous shortage of primary human hepatocytes has urged the scientific community to search for alternative cell sources, such as immortalized hepatic cell lines. Over the years, several human hepatic cell lines have been produced, whether or not using a combination of viral oncogenes and human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Conditional approaches for hepatocyte immortalization have also been established and allow generation of growth-controlled cell lines. A variety of immortalized human hepatocytes have already proven useful as tools for liver-based in vitro testing and fundamental research purposes. The present chapter describes currently applied immortalization strategies and provides an overview of the actually available immortalized human hepatic cell lines and their in vitro applications. PMID:26272134

  3. Immortalized Human Hepatic Cell Lines for In Vitro Testing and Research Purposes.

    PubMed

    Ramboer, Eva; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous shortage of primary human hepatocytes has urged the scientific community to search for alternative cell sources, such as immortalized hepatic cell lines. Over the years, several human hepatic cell lines have been produced, whether or not using a combination of viral oncogenes and human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Conditional approaches for hepatocyte immortalization have also been established and allow generation of growth-controlled cell lines. A variety of immortalized human hepatocytes have already proven useful as tools for liver-based in vitro testing and fundamental research purposes. The present chapter describes currently applied immortalization strategies and provides an overview of the actually available immortalized human hepatic cell lines and their in vitro applications.

  4. A Human Tissue Culture Cell Line from a Transitional Cell Tumour of the Urinary Bladder: Growth, Chromosome Pattern and Ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Carolyn C.; Franks, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    Cell cultures were made from 18 human bladder tumours. Three cell lines were maintained for seven transfer generations, but all had a “fibroblastic” morphology and a normal diploid karyotype. A fourth line has been maintained for over 80 transfer generations. This was derived from a well differentiated papillary tumour of bladder. Morphologically the light and electron microscopic structure of the cells resembled that of bladder tumours. The cells formed tumour nodules, with a similar structure, when transplanted into hamster cheek pouches. There is a stem line chromosome number of 48. Karyotypes of 60% of the stem line cells had one extra chromosome in Group C and one in Group D. ImagesFig. 11Figs. 12-15Fig. 16Fig. 17Figs. 1-4Fig. 18Figs. 5-8Figs. 9-10 PMID:5503601

  5. Cell cycle-related metabolism and mitochondrial dynamics in a replication-competent pancreatic beta-cell line.

    PubMed

    Montemurro, Chiara; Vadrevu, Suryakiran; Gurlo, Tatyana; Butler, Alexandra E; Vongbunyong, Kenny E; Petcherski, Anton; Shirihai, Orian S; Satin, Leslie S; Braas, Daniel; Butler, Peter C; Tudzarova, Slavica

    2017-01-01

    Cell replication is a fundamental attribute of growth and repair in multicellular organisms. Pancreatic beta-cells in adults rarely enter cell cycle, hindering the capacity for regeneration in diabetes. Efforts to drive beta-cells into cell cycle have so far largely focused on regulatory molecules such as cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Investigations in cancer biology have uncovered that adaptive changes in metabolism, the mitochondrial network, and cellular Ca 2+ are critical for permitting cells to progress through the cell cycle. Here, we investigated these parameters in the replication-competent beta-cell line INS 832/13. Cell cycle synchronization of this line permitted evaluation of cell metabolism, mitochondrial network, and cellular Ca 2+ compartmentalization at key cell cycle stages. The mitochondrial network is interconnected and filamentous at G1/S but fragments during the S and G2/M phases, presumably to permit sorting to daughter cells. Pyruvate anaplerosis peaks at G1/S, consistent with generation of biomass for daughter cells, whereas mitochondrial Ca 2+ and respiration increase during S and G2/M, consistent with increased energy requirements for DNA and lipid synthesis. This synchronization approach may be of value to investigators performing live cell imaging of Ca 2+ or mitochondrial dynamics commonly undertaken in INS cell lines because without synchrony widely disparate data from cell to cell would be expected depending on position within cell cycle. Our findings also offer insight into why replicating beta-cells are relatively nonfunctional secreting insulin in response to glucose. They also provide guidance on metabolic requirements of beta-cells for the transition through the cell cycle that may complement the efforts currently restricted to manipulating cell cycle to drive beta-cells through cell cycle.

  6. Stem/progenitor cell-like properties of desmoglein 3dim cells in primary and immortalized keratinocyte lines.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hong; Yuan, Ming; Simpson, Cathy; Allen, Kirsty; Gavins, Felicity N E; Ikram, Mohammed S; Basu, Subham; Baksh, Nuzhat; O'Toole, Edel A; Hart, Ian R

    2007-05-01

    We showed previously that primary keratinocytes selected for low desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) expression levels exhibited increased colony-forming efficiency and heightened proliferative potential relative to cells with higher Dsg3 expression levels, characteristics consistent with a more "stem/progenitor cell-like" phenotype. Here, we have confirmed that Dsg3(dim) cells derived from cultured primary human adult keratinocytes have comparability with alpha(6)(bri)/CD71(dim) stem cells in terms of colony-forming efficiency. Moreover, these Dsg3(dim) cells exhibit increased reconstituting ability in in vitro organotypic culture on de-epidermalized dermis (DED); they are small, actively cycling cells, and they express elevated levels of various p63 isoforms. In parallel, using the two immortalized keratinocyte cell lines HaCaT and NTERT, we obtained essentially similar though occasionally different findings. Thus, reduced colony-forming efficiency by Dsg3(bri) cells consistently was observed in both cell lines even though the cell cycle profile and levels of p63 isoforms in the bri and dim populations differed between these two cell lines. Dsg3(dim) cells from both immortalized lines produced thicker and better ordered hierarchical structural organization of reconstituted epidermis relative to Dsg3(bri) and sorted control cells. Dsg3(dim) HaCaT cells also show sebocyte-like differentiation in the basal compartment of skin reconstituted after a 4-week organotypic culture. No differences in percentages of side population cells (also a putative marker of stem cells) were detected between Dsg3(dim) and Dsg3(bri) populations. Taken together our data indicate that Dsg3(dim) populations from primary human adult keratinocytes and long-term established keratinocyte lines possess certain stem/progenitor cell-like properties, although the side population characteristic is not one of these features. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  7. The establishment and characterization of immortal hepatocyte cell lines from a mouse liver injury model.

    PubMed

    Risal, Prabodh; Cho, Baik Hwan; Sylvester, Karl G; Kim, Jae-Chun; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Jeong, Yeon Jun

    2011-09-01

    Hepatocytes are an important research tool used for numerous applications. However, a short life span and a limited capacity to replicate in vitro limit the usefulness of primary hepatocyte cultures. We have hypothesized that in vivo priming of hepatocyte could make them more susceptible to growth factors in the medium for continuous proliferation in vitro. Here, a novel approach used to establish hepatocyte cell lines that included hepatocyte priming in vivo prior to culture with a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine diet was attempted. The cell line grew in a monolayer while maintaining a granular cytoplasm and a round nucleus. Electron microscopy displayed hepatocyte-like features including mitochondria, glycogen granules, and the presence of bile canaliculi. This cell line expressed many mature hepatocyte-specific genes including albumin, alpha1-antitrypsin, glucose 6-phosphatase, and tyrosine aminotransferase. Functional characteristic of hepatocytes like the ability to store glycogen, lipid, and synthesis of urea is well demonstrated by this cell line. These cells demonstrated anchorage dependent growth properties in soft agar and did not form tumors after transplantation into nude mice. This cell line can be sustained in culture for more than 100 passages (>1.5 years) without undergoing noticeable morphological changes or transformation. This novel method resulted in the establishment of an immortal, non-transformed hepatocyte cell line with functional characteristics that may aid research of cell metabolism, toxicology, and hepatocyte transplantation.

  8. Unsuccessful derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines from pairs of human blastomeres.

    PubMed

    Fong, Chui-Yee; Richards, Mark; Bongso, Ariff

    2006-08-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) that differentiate into all three primordial germ layers have been established. Differentiation of these cells into desirable lineages offers hope for future transplantation therapies. Currently, hESC lines are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocysts, leading to destruction of the embryo, and thus the process is ethically controversial. Successful attempts at deriving hESC lines from blastomeres without destruction of the ensuing embryo have not been reported. One or two blastomeres are routinely biopsied from 8-cell embryos for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. In this study it was therefore attempted to derive hESC lines from paired blastomeres. Of 66 pairs of 8-cell stage blastomeres, four pairs produced two morula and two blastocyst-like structures. When plated on mitomycin-C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts, one morula and one blastocyst-like structure separately produced small colonies containing hESC-like cells with prominent nucleoli and high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios. When these colonies were detached and plated onto fresh feeders, there was no further colony formation or ensuing hESC lines. The results showed that it might not be possible to derive hESC lines directly from paired blastomeres. A minimum number of blastomeres in close contact with one another may be required to successfully generate an hESC line as blastomeres, like ICM and hESC cells, may be 'social' cells.

  9. Involvement of overexpressed wild-type BRAF in the growth of malignant melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tanami, Hideaki; Imoto, Issei; Hirasawa, Akira; Yuki, Yasuhiro; Sonoda, Itaru; Inoue, Jun; Yasui, Kohichiro; Misawa-Furihata, Akiko; Kawakami, Yutaka; Inazawa, Johji

    2004-11-18

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) using 40 cell lines derived from malignant melanomas (MMs) revealed frequent amplification at 7q33-q34 containing BRAF gene, which often is mutated in MM. We found this gene to be amplified to a remarkable degree in the MM cell lines that exhibited high-level gains at 7q33-q34 in CGH. Among 40 cell lines, the eight lines that revealed neither BRAF nor NRAS mutations showed even higher levels of BRAF mRNA expression than the 32 mutated lines, although DNA amplification at 7q33-q34 was not detected in every lines overexpressing BRAF. MM cells that carried wild-type BRAF and NRAS showed constitutive overexpression of B-Raf protein and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), even after serum starvation. Not only downregulation of the endogenously overexpressed wild-type B-Raf by antisense oligonucleotide but also a treatment with an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK, MEK) reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2 and cell growth, whereas the exogenously expressed wild-type B-Raf promoted cell growth in MM cells. Our results provide the evidence that overexpression of wild-type B-Raf, in part but not always as a result of gene amplification, is one of the mechanisms underlying constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway that stimulates growth of MM cells.

  10. [Establishment and characterization of a cell line derived from human ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wan, Q; Xu, D; Li, Z

    2001-07-01

    To establish a cell line of human ovarian cancer, and study its characterization. The cell line was established by the cultivation of subsides walls, and kept by freezing. The morphology was observed by microscope and electromicroscope. The authors studied its growth and propagation, the agglutination test of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the chromosome analysis, heterotransplanting, immuno-histochemistry staining, the analysis of hormone, the pollution examination and the test of sensitivity to virus etc. A new human ovarian carcinoma cell line, designated ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma 685 (OMC685), was established from mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. This cell line had subcultured to 91 generations, and some had been frozen for 8 years and revived, still grew well. This cell line possessed the feature of glandular epithelium cancer cell. The cells grew exuberantly, and the agglutinating test of PHA was positive. Karyotype was subtriploid with distortion. Heterotransplantations, alcian blue periobic acid-schiff (AbPAS), mucicarmine, alcian blue stainings, estradiol (E2) and progesterone were all positive. Without being polluted, it was sensitive to polivirus-I, adenovirus 7 and measles virus. OMC685 is a distinct human ovarian tumous cell line.

  11. Characterization of Human Cancer Cell Lines by Reverse-phase Protein Arrays* | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer cell lines are major model systems for mechanistic investigation and drug development. However, protein expression data linked to high-quality DNA, RNA, and drug-screening data have not been available across a large number of cancer cell lines. Using reverse-phase protein arrays, we measured expression levels of ∼230 key cancer-related proteins in >650 independent cell lines, many of which have publically available genomic, transcriptomic, and drug-screening data.

  12. Antigen-specific T-cell lines transfer protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Riedlinger, J; Grencis, R K; Wakelin, D

    1986-01-01

    T-cell lines specific for infective muscle larvae antigens of the intestinal nematode Trichinella spiralis have been generated in vitro. These antigen-specific T-cell lines express the L3T4+ Ly2- phenotype and secrete the lymphokines IL-2, IL-3 and gamma-IFN. They are stable in culture for up to 15 weeks and are protective when adoptively transferred into naive recipients. As few as 2 x 10(5) T. spiralis-specific tract. In addition, intestinal mastocytosis and peripheral blood eosinophilia were accelerated after adoptive transfer of T. spiralis-specific T-cell lines. PMID:2423438

  13. The antiproliferative effect of acridone alkaloids on several cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M; Takemura, Y; Ju-ichi, M; Ito, C; Furukawa, H

    1999-04-01

    Fifteen acridone alkaloids were examined for their antiproliferative activity toward monolayers and suspension of several types of cancer and normal human cell lines. As a result, atalaphyllidine (9), 5-hydroxy-N-methylseverifoline (11), atalaphyllinine (12), and des-N-methylnoracronycine (13) showed potent antiproliferative activity against tumor cell lines, whereas they have weak cytotoxicity on normal human cell lines. The structure-activity relationship established from the results revealed that a secondary amine, hydroxyl groups at C-1 and C-5, and a prenyl group at C-2 played an important role for antiproliferative activities of the tetracyclic acridones.

  14. Flow Line, Durafill VS, and Dycal toxicity to dental pulp cells: effects of growth factors

    PubMed Central

    Furey, Alyssa; Hjelmhaug, Julie; Lobner, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The objective was to determine the effects of growth factor treatment on dental pulp cell sensitivity to toxicity of two composite restoration materials, Flow Line and Durafill VS, and a calcium hydroxide pulp capping material, Dycal. Methods Toxicity of the dental materials to cultures of primary dental pulp cells was determined by the MTT metabolism assay. The ability of six different growth factors to influence the toxicity was tested. Results A 24 hour exposure to either Flow Line or Durafill VS caused approximately 40% cell death, while Dycal exposure caused approximately 80% cell death. The toxicity of Flow Line and Durafill VS was mediated by oxidative stress. Four of the growth factors tested (BMP-2, BMP-7, EGF, and TGF-β) decreased the basal MTT values while making the cells resistant to Flow Line and Durafill VS toxicity, except BMP-2 which made the cells more sensitive to Flow Line. Treatment with FGF-2 caused no change in basal MTT metabolism, prevented the toxicity of Durafill VS, but increased the toxicity of Flow Line. Treatment with IGF-I increased basal MTT metabolism and made the cells resistant to Flow Line and Durafill VS toxicity. None of the growth factors made the cells resistant to Dycal toxicity. Conclusions The results indicate that growth factors can be used to alter the sensitivity of dental pulp cells to commonly used restoration materials. The growth factors BMP-7, EGF, TGF-β, and IGF-I provided the best profile of effects, making the cells resistant to both Flow Line and Durafill VS toxicity. PMID:20630288

  15. In vitro effects of Apixaban on 5 different cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Guasti, Luigina; Moretto, Paola; Vigetti, Davide; Ageno, Walter; Dentali, Francesco; Maresca, Andrea M.; Campiotti, Leonardo; Grandi, Anna M.; Passi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Background Cancer is associated with hypercoagulability. However, several data suggest that anticoagulant drugs may have an effect on tumor development and progression mediated by both coagulation dependent processes and non-coagulation dependent processes. Therefore, we investigated the in vitro effects of Apixaban on cell proliferation, mortality, cell migration, gene expression and matrix metalloproteinase in 5 different cancer cell lines. Methods The following cancer cell lines, and 2 normal fibroblast cultures (lung and dermal fibroblasts), were studied: OVCAR3 (ovarian cancer), MDA MB 231 (breast cancer), CaCO-2 (colon cancer), LNCaP (prostate cancer) and U937 (histiocytic lymphoma). Proliferation and cell mortality were assessed in control cells and Apixaban treated cultures (dose from 0.1 to 5 μg/ml, 0 to 96-h). Necrosis/Apoptosis (fluorescence microscopy), cell migration (24-h after scratch test), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and mRNA expression (RT PCR) of p16, p21, p53 and HAS were also assessed. Results High-dose (5 μg/ml) Apixaban incubation was associated with a significantly reduced proliferation in 3 cancer cell lines (OVCAR3, CaCO-2 and LNCaP) and with increased cancer cell mortality in all, except LNCaP, cancer lines. Apoptosis seems to account for the increased mortality. The migration capacity seems to be impaired after high-dose Apixaban incubation in OVCAR3 and CaCO-2 cells. Data on mRNA expression suggest a consistent increase in tumor suppression gene p16 in all cell lines. Conclusions Our data suggest that high-dose Apixaban may be able to interfere with cancer cell in vitro, reducing proliferation and increasing cancer cell mortality through apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. PMID:29023465

  16. Characterization of immortalized human mammary epithelial cell line HMEC 2.6.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pooja S; Modur, Vishnu; Cheng, JiMing; Robinson, Kathy; Rao, Krishna

    2017-10-01

    Primary human mammary epithelial cells have a limited life span which makes it difficult to study them in vitro for most purposes. To overcome this problem, we have developed a cell line that was immortalized using defined genetic elements, and we have characterized this immortalized non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cell line to establish it as a potential model system. human mammary epithelial cells were obtained from a healthy individual undergoing reduction mammoplasty at SIU School of Medicine. The cells were transduced with CDK4R24C followed by transduction with human telomerase reverse transcriptase. Post all manipulation, the cells displayed a normal cell cycle phase distribution and were near diploid in nature, which was confirmed by flow cytometry and karyotyping. In vitro studies showed that the cells were anchorage dependent and were non-invasive in nature. The cell line expressed basal epithelial markers such as cytokeratin 7, CD10, and p63 and was negative for the expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor. Upon G-band karyotyping, the cell line displayed the presence of a few cytogenic abnormalities, including trisomy 20 and trisomy 7, which are also commonly present in other immortalized mammary cell lines. Furthermore, the benign nature of these cells was confirmed by multiple in vitro and in vivo experiments. Therefore, we think that this cell line could serve as a good model to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the development and progression of breast cancer and to also assess the effect of novel therapeutics on human mammary epithelial cells.

  17. Metabolic Response to NAD Depletion across Cell Lines Is Highly Variable.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yang; Kwong, Mandy; Daemen, Anneleen; Belvin, Marcia; Liang, Xiaorong; Hatzivassiliou, Georgia; O'Brien, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a cofactor involved in a wide range of cellular metabolic processes and is a key metabolite required for tumor growth. NAMPT, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, which converts nicotinamide (NAM) to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the immediate precursor of NAD, is an attractive therapeutic target as inhibition of NAMPT reduces cellular NAD levels and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. However, there is limited understanding of the metabolic response to NAD depletion across cancer cell lines and whether all cell lines respond in a uniform manner. To explore this we selected two non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines that are sensitive to the NAMPT inhibitor GNE-617 (A549, NCI-H1334), one that shows intermediate sensitivity (NCI-H441), and one that is insensitive (LC-KJ). Even though NAD was reduced in all cell lines there was surprising heterogeneity in their metabolic response. Both sensitive cell lines reduced glycolysis and levels of di- and tri-nucleotides and modestly increased oxidative phosphorylation, but they differed in their ability to combat oxidative stress. H1334 cells activated the stress kinase AMPK, whereas A549 cells were unable to activate AMPK as they contain a mutation in LKB1, which prevents activation of AMPK. However, A549 cells increased utilization of the Pentose Phosphate pathway (PPP) and had lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels than H1334 cells, indicating that A549 cells are better able to modulate an increase in oxidative stress. Inherent resistance of LC-KJ cells is associated with higher baseline levels of NADPH and a delayed reduction of NAD upon NAMPT inhibition. Our data reveals that cell lines show heterogeneous response to NAD depletion and that the underlying molecular and genetic framework in cells can influence the metabolic response to NAMPT inhibition.

  18. [Intergration and epression of porcine endogenous retrovinus in the immortal cell line of Banna Minipig Inberd Line-Mesenhymal Stem Cells].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Li; Li, Shrng-Fu; Bu, Hong; Li, You-Ping; Cheng, Jing-Qui; Lu, Yan-Rong; Long, Dan

    2005-11-01

    To detect the integration and expression of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) in the immortal cell line of Banna Minipig Inbred Line-Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMI-MSCs). DNA and total RNA of the immortal cell line of BMI-MSCs were extracted and PCR, RT-PCR were performed to detect PERV-gag, pol and env gene, and the type of PERV was also detected. PERV-gag, pol and env gene were all detected in the primary culture and immortal cell line (passage 150 and passage 180) of BMI-MSCs, and the type of PERV was PERV-A, B. Functional expression of PERV-gag and pol mRNA was also detected. In this laboratory, PERV was not lost during the proceeding of pig inbred and since has been in long-term culture of pig cells in vitro. PERV has integrated into the genome of its natural host, and virus mRNA can effectively express. So it is very essential to evaluate the possibility of xenozoonoses in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  19. Lymphocystis virus: isolation and propagation in centrarchid fish cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wolf, K; Gravell, M; Malsberger, R G

    1966-02-25

    A virus from fish with lymphocystis disease was isolated in fish cell cultures. Eleven serial transfers were made and the pathognomonic lymphocystis cells were produced in vitro in each transfer. Fish inoculated with 6th- and 9th-passage material developed the disease, and virus was reisolated front them.

  20. Comparative proteomics analysis of oral cancer cell lines: identification of cancer associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A limiting factor in performing proteomics analysis on cancerous cells is the difficulty in obtaining sufficient amounts of starting material. Cell lines can be used as a simplified model system for studying changes that accompany tumorigenesis. This study used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to compare the whole cell proteome of oral cancer cell lines vs normal cells in an attempt to identify cancer associated proteins. Results Three primary cell cultures of normal cells with a limited lifespan without hTERT immortalization have been successfully established. 2DE was used to compare the whole cell proteome of these cells with that of three oral cancer cell lines. Twenty four protein spots were found to have changed in abundance. MALDI TOF/TOF was then used to determine the identity of these proteins. Identified proteins were classified into seven functional categories – structural proteins, enzymes, regulatory proteins, chaperones and others. IPA core analysis predicted that 18 proteins were related to cancer with involvements in hyperplasia, metastasis, invasion, growth and tumorigenesis. The mRNA expressions of two proteins – 14-3-3 protein sigma and Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 – were found to correlate with the corresponding proteins’ abundance. Conclusions The outcome of this analysis demonstrated that a comparative study of whole cell proteome of cancer versus normal cell lines can be used to identify cancer associated proteins. PMID:24422745

  1. Laser light prevents apoptosis in Cho K-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Carnevalli, Célia M M; Soares, Cristina Pacheco; Zângaro, Renato Amaro; Pinheiro, Antonio L B; Silva, Newton Soares

    2003-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the mitochondria, nucleus, and cytoskeleton of CHO K-1 cells by the use of specific fluorescent probes. The use of LLLT has been recommended by several authors for acceleration of the healing process. The literature on the effects of LLLT in this process is highly contradictory because of difficulties in identifying its effects on cells. CHO K-1 cells were cultivated using MEM containing 5% FBS and were irradiated or not with a semiconductor laser (lambda = 830 nm; phi approximately 0.8 mm; 10 mW; 2 J/cm2). The cells were incubated with specific fluorescent probes--0.1 microM for 30 min with 5,5', 6,6'-tetrachloro-1, 1',3,3'-tetraethyl-benzimidazol-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) for the mitochondria; 5 mM for 5 min of 4',6'-diamidino, 2'-phenylindole (DAPI)for the nucleus, and 0.1 M of 1:100 PHEM of rhodamine-phalloidin during 1 h for the cytoskeleton--and were analyzed by epifluorescence. Positive biomodulatory effects were observed on irradiated cells compared to their controls as seen on JC-1, DAPI, and rhodamine-phalloidin labeling. Irradiated cells showed an increased level of cellular division, as evidenced by analyzing the intermediary filaments of the cytoskeleton and the chromosomes. Another important observation was that cells maintained under the condition of nutritional deficiency had both membrane and genetic material that was more preserved in comparison to the controls, in which the presence of an apoptotic nucleus could be observed in some cells. The results of the present study demonstrate that LLLT, in addition to providing positive biomodulation, acts in the re-establishment of cellular homeostasis when the cells are maintained under the condition of nutritional stress; it also prevents apoptosis in CHO K-1 cells.

  2. Population differences in the rate of proliferation of international HapMap cell lines.

    PubMed

    Stark, Amy L; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Tong; O'Donnell, Peter H; Beiswanger, Christine M; Huang, R Stephanie; Cox, Nancy J; Dolan, M Eileen

    2010-12-10

    The International HapMap Project is a resource for researchers containing genotype, sequencing, and expression information for EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from populations across the world. The expansion of the HapMap beyond the four initial populations of Phase 2, referred to as Phase 3, has increased the sample number and ethnic diversity available for investigation. However, differences in the rate of cellular proliferation between the populations can serve as confounders in phenotype-genotype studies using these cell lines. Within the Phase 2 populations, the JPT and CHB cell lines grow faster (p < 0.0001) than the CEU or YRI cell lines. Phase 3 YRI cell lines grow significantly slower than Phase 2 YRI lines (p < 0.0001), with no widespread genetic differences based on common SNPs. In addition, we found significant growth differences between the cell lines in the Phase 2 ASN populations and the Han Chinese from the Denver metropolitan area panel in Phase 3 (p < 0.0001). Therefore, studies that separate HapMap panels into discovery and replication sets must take this into consideration. Copyright © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of leukemia inhibitory factor and forskolin on establishment of rat embryonic stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Masumi; Goto, Teppei; Tamura, Chihiro; Sanbo, Makoto; Hara, Hiromasa; Hochi, Shinichi

    2014-03-07

    This study was designed to investigate whether supplementation of 2i medium with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and/or forskolin would support establishment of germline-competent rat embryonic stem (ES) cell lines. Due to the higher likelihood of outgrowth rates, supplementation of forskolin with or without LIF contributed to the higher establishment efficiency of ES cell lines in the WDB strain. Germline transmission competency of the chimeric rats was not influenced by the profile of ES cell lines until their establishment. When the LIF/forskolin-supplemented 2i medium was used, the rat strain used as the blastocyst donor, such as the WI strain, was a possible factor negatively influencing the establishment efficiency of ES cell lines. Once ES cell lines were established, all lines were found to be germline-competent by a progeny test in chimeric rats. In conclusion, both LIF and forskolin are not essential but can play a beneficial role in the establishment of "genuine" rat ES cell lines.

  4. Physical View on the Interactions Between Cancer Cells and the Endothelial Cell Lining During Cancer Cell Transmigration and Invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia T.

    There exist many reviews on the biological and biochemical interactions of cancer cells and endothelial cells during the transmigration and tissue invasion of cancer cells. For the malignant progression of cancer, the ability to metastasize is a prerequisite. In particular, this means that certain cancer cells possess the property to migrate through the endothelial lining into blood or lymph vessels, and are possibly able to transmigrate through the endothelial lining into the connective tissue and follow up their invasion path in the targeted tissue. On the molecular and biochemical level the transmigration and invasion steps are well-defined, but these signal transduction pathways are not yet clear and less understood in regards to the biophysical aspects of these processes. To functionally characterize the malignant transformation of neoplasms and subsequently reveal the underlying pathway(s) and cellular properties, which help cancer cells to facilitate cancer progression, the biomechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment come into focus in the physics-of-cancer driven view on the metastasis process of cancers. Hallmarks for cancer progression have been proposed, but they still lack the inclusion of specific biomechanical properties of cancer cells and interacting surrounding endothelial cells of blood or lymph vessels. As a cancer cell is embedded in a special environment, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix also cannot be neglected. Therefore, in this review it is proposed that a novel hallmark of cancer that is still elusive in classical tumor biological reviews should be included, dealing with the aspect of physics in cancer disease such as the natural selection of an aggressive (highly invasive) subtype of cancer cells displaying a certain adhesion or chemokine receptor on their cell surface. Today, the physical aspects can be analyzed by using state-of-the-art biophysical methods. Thus, this review will present

  5. Physical View on the Interactions Between Cancer Cells and the Endothelial Cell Lining During Cancer Cell Transmigration and Invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia T.

    2015-10-01

    There exist many reviews on the biological and biochemical interactions of cancer cells and endothelial cells during the transmigration and tissue invasion of cancer cells. For the malignant progression of cancer, the ability to metastasize is a prerequisite. In particular, this means that certain cancer cells possess the property to migrate through the endothelial lining into blood or lymph vessels, and are possibly able to transmigrate through the endothelial lining into the connective tissue and follow up their invasion path in the targeted tissue. On the molecular and biochemical level the transmigration and invasion steps are well-defined, but these signal transduction pathways are not yet clear and less understood in regards to the biophysical aspects of these processes. To functionally characterize the malignant transformation of neoplasms and subsequently reveal the underlying pathway(s) and cellular properties, which help cancer cells to facilitate cancer progression, the biomechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment come into focus in the physics-of-cancer driven view on the metastasis process of cancers. Hallmarks for cancer progression have been proposed, but they still lack the inclusion of specific biomechanical properties of cancer cells and interacting surrounding endothelial cells of blood or lymph vessels. As a cancer cell is embedded in a special environment, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix also cannot be neglected. Therefore, in this review it is proposed that a novel hallmark of cancer that is still elusive in classical tumor biological reviews should be included, dealing with the aspect of physics in cancer disease such as the natural selection of an aggressive (highly invasive) subtype of cancer cells displaying a certain adhesion or chemokine receptor on their cell surface. Today, the physical aspects can be analyzed by using state-of-the-art biophysical methods. Thus, this review will present

  6. Three dimensional culture of the murine osteoblastic cell line OCT-1 on collagen coated microcarriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, P.; Hellweg, C. E.; Kirchner, S.; Baumstark-Khan, C.

    2005-08-01

    During long-term space missions, astronauts suffer from the loss of minerals especially from weightbearing bones due to prolonged sojourn under microgravity. Bone loss during space flight is about 1-2% per month. Bone is continually being remodelled under the influence of three types of highly specialized cells. Osteoblasts, the bone forming cells, osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells and finally osteocytes preserve the homeostasis of bone formation and resorption. In vitro 3- dimensional cell culture of osteoblastic cell lines on microcarrier beads might be a better model to evaluate changes in bone cell morphology, function and differentiation under influence of spaceflight related factors than the conventional 2-D monolayer culture technique. Furthermore, it allows production of a greater amount of cells compared to the monolayer culture. Aim of this study is to examine the effects of culturing the immortalized murine osteoblastic cell line OCT-1 in a 3- dimensional environment on cell morphology and proliferation rate.

  7. Establishment of two new cell lines derived from human breast carcinomas with HER-2/neu amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, P.; Leibovitz, A.; Dalton, W.; Villar, H.; Kute, T.; Davis, J.; Nagle, R.; Trent, J.

    1991-01-01

    Two human cell lines (UACC-812 and 893), both containing significant amplification of the HER-2/neu gene, were established from biopsy specimens of breast carcinomas. One patient had Stage II breast carcinoma; the other had metastatic disease. Characterisation of these lines has revealed that both are highly aneuploid containing multiple clonal chromosome alterations, have doubling times near 100 h, and are oestrogen and progesterone receptor negative. Electron microscopy demonstrates that both lines contain numerous microvilli, cytoplasmic filaments, multivesicular bodies, and desmosomes. Immunoblot analysis for P-glycoprotein using the monoclonal antibody C219 was negative for both patient cell lines. These relatively rare cell lines may represent a useful model to investigate human breast carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1674877

  8. Synergistic Cytotoxicity of Bendamustine and the BTK Inhibitor in a Mantle Cell Lymphoma Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Kazumi; Tokunaga, Takashi; Iida, Hiroatsu; Nagai, Hirokazu

    2015-12-01

    Bendamustine is effective in B-cell malignancies, including mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), alone and in combination with other agents. This study investigated the combination effect of bendamustine and the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor PCI-32765 on MCL cell death and the underlying mechanisms. Cytotoxicity was examined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MIT) assay. Apoptosis was assessed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and protein expression was analyzed by western blotting. When combined with bendamustine, PCI-32765 showed a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of the MCL cell line Jeko-1. Cleavage of caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase was increased, indicating enhanced apoptosis induction. In addition, this combination decreased the protein expression of cyclin D1. Phosphorylated v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT) (Ser473) was also down-regulated, suggesting a suppression of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway. Combination treatment with bendamustine and a BTK inhibitor may be effective in MCL therapy. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation and characterization of conditionally immortalized mouse glomerular endothelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rops, Angelique L; van der Vlag, Johan; Jacobs, Cor W; Dijkman, Henry B; Lensen, Joost F; Wijnhoven, Tessa J; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Berden, Jo H

    2004-12-01

    The culture and establishment of glomerular cell lines has proven to be an important tool for the understanding of glomerular cell functions in glomerular physiology and pathology. Especially, the recent establishment of a conditionally immortalized visceral epithelial cell line has greatly boosted the research on podocyte biology. Glomeruli were isolated from H-2Kb-tsA58 transgenic mice that contain a gene encoding a temperature-sensitive variant of the SV40 large tumor antigen, facilitating proliferative growth at 33 degrees C and differentiation at 37 degrees C. Glomerular endothelial cells were isolated from glomerular outgrowth by magnetic beads loaded with CD31, CD105, GSL I-B4, and ULEX. Clonal cell lines were characterized by immunofluorescence staining with antibodies/lectins specific for markers of endothelial cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells. Putative glomerular endothelial cell lines were analyzed for (1) cytokine-induced expression of adhesion molecules; (2) tube formation on Matrigel coating; and (3) the presence of fenestrae. As judged by immunostaining for Wilms tumor-1, smooth muscle actin (SMA), podocalyxin, and von Willebrand factor (vWF), we obtained putative endothelial, podocyte and mesangial cell lines. The mouse glomerular endothelial cell clone #1 (mGEnC-1) was positive for vWF, podocalyxin, CD31, CD105, VE-cadherin, GSL I-B4, and ULEX, internalized acetylated-low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and showed increased expression of adhesion molecules after activation with proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, mGEnC-1 formed tubes and contained nondiaphragmed fenestrae. The mGEnC-1 represents a conditionally immortalized cell line with various characteristics of differentiated glomerular endothelial cells when cultured at 37 degrees C. Most important, mGEnC-1 contains nondiaphragmed fenestrae, which is a unique feature of glomerular endothelial cells.

  10. RUNX3 confers sensitivity to pheophorbide a-photodynamic therapy in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sook; Bae, Jung Yoon; Son, Hwa-Kyung; Lee, Doo Young; Park, Gyeongju; You, Hyun; Ko, Hyojin; Kim, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jin

    2015-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with photosensitizer is one of the promising modalities for cancer treatment. For clinical use of PDT, screening process should be preceded to enhance sensitivity to PDT. Thus, we investigated a molecular biomarker to determine the sensitivity to pheophorbide a (Pa)-PDT in immortalized human oral keratinocytes (IHOK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines. Two IHOK and several OSCC cell lines were used. After Pa-PDT, cell viability was reduced by more than 50%, and reactive oxygen species were generated in IHOK and OSCC cell lines. Additionally, apoptosis occurred in PDT-treated cells. IHOK(S) and IHOK(P), the two IHOK cell lines derived from the same source, showed a difference in cytotoxicity after Pa-PDT. To explain this difference in cytotoxicity, we looked at the expression of Wnt signaling-related genes in these two cell lines, for the morphology of IHOK(S) which was spindle like and elongated and distinct from IHOK(P) and the parent cell. Among the relevant genes, runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), an apoptosis-related gene, was selected as a potential marker that confers sensitivity to PDT. We found that the cytotoxicity by Pa-PDT was proportional to RUNX3 expression in OSCC cell lines. Additionally, knockdown of RUNX3 expression reduced cytotoxicity by Pa-PDT, suggesting that RUNX3 might be a biomarker to determine sensitivity to Pa-PDT. This was the first study to find a new target molecule that enhances Pa-PDT effects in IHOK and OSCC cell lines. Hence, the development of a PDT-dependent biomarker could provide a novel approach to improve the effects of PDT on oral precancerous and cancerous lesions.

  11. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated generation of stable chondrocyte cell lines with targeted gene knockouts; analysis of an aggrecan knockout cell line.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maozhou; Zhang, Liang; Stevens, Jeff; Gibson, Gary

    2014-12-01

    The Swarm rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cell lines derived from a spontaneous neoplasm in a rat spine several decades ago have provided excellent models of chondrosarcoma tumor development. In addition the robust chondrocyte phenotype (expression of a large panel of genes identical to that seen in normal rat cartilage) and the ability to generate cell clones have facilitated their extensive use in the identification of chondrocyte proteins and genes. The clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) technology employing the RNA-guided nuclease Cas9 has rapidly dominated the genome engineering field as a unique and powerful gene editing tool. We have generated a stable RCS cell line (RCS Cas9) expressing the nuclease Cas9 that enables the editing of any target gene or non-coding RNA by simple transfection with a guide RNA. As proof of principle, stable cell lines with targeted ablation of aggrecan expression (Acan KO) were generated and characterized. The studies show that stable chondrocyte cell lines with targeted genome editing can be quickly generated from RCS Cas9 cells using this system. The Acan KO cell lines also provided a tool for characterizing the response of chondrocytes to aggrecan loss and the role of aggrecan in chondrosarcoma development. Loss of aggrecan expression while not affecting the chondrocyte phenotype resulted in a much firmer attachment of cells to their substrate in culture. Large changes in the expression of several genes were observed in response to the absence of the proteoglycan matrix, including those for several small leucine rich proteoglycans (SLRPs), transcription factors and membrane transporters. Acan KO cells failed to form a substantial chondrosarcoma when injected subcutaneously in nude mice consistent with previous suggestions that the glycosaminoglycan-rich matrix surrounding the chondrosarcoma protects it from destruction by the host immune system. The studies provide new understanding of aggrecan

  12. Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon and Oxalis corniculata on Hep2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, H; Mansoor, Q; Batool, R; Farooqi, A A; Mahmood, T; Ismail, M

    2016-04-30

    Bioactive chemicals isolated from plants have attracted considerable attention over the years and overwhelmingly increasing laboratory findings are emphasizing on tumor suppressing properties of these natural agents in genetically and chemically induced animal carcinogenesis models. We studied in vitro anticancer activity of organic extracts of Cynodon dactylon and Oxalis corniculata on Hep2 cell line and it was compared with normal human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) by using MTT assay. Real Time PCR was conducted for p53 and PTEN genes in treated cancer cell line. DNA fragmentation assay was also carried out to note DNA damaging effects of the extracts. The minimally effective concentration of ethanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon and methanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata that was nontoxic to HCEC but toxic to Hep2 was recorded (IC50) at a concentration of 0.042mg/ml (49.48 % cell death) and 0.048mg/ml (47.93% cell death) respectively, which was comparable to the positive control. Our results indicated dose dependent increase in cell death. P53 and PTEN did not show significant increase in treated cell line. Moreover, DNA damaging effects were also not detected in treated cancer cell line. Anticancer activity of these plants on the cancer cell line showed the presence of anticancer components which should be characterized to be used as anticancer therapy.

  13. Development and characterization of two cell lines from gills of Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gjessing, Mona C.; Aamelfot, Maria; Batts, William N.; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Dale, Ole B.; Thoen, Even; Weli, Simon C.; Winton, James R.

    2018-01-01

    Gill disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., causes big losses in the salmon farming industry. Until now, tools to cultivate microorganisms causing gill disease and models to study the gill responses have been lacking. Here we describe the establishment and characterization of two cell lines from the gills of Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon gill cell ASG-10 consisted of cells staining for cytokeratin and e-cadherin and with desmosomes as seen by transmission electron microscopy suggesting the cells to be of epithelial origin. These structures were not seen in ASG-13. The cell lines have been maintained for almost 30 passages and both cell lines are fully susceptible to infection by infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), Atlantic salmon reovirus TS (TSRV) and Pacific salmon paramyxovirus (PSPV). While infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) did not cause visible CPE, immunofluorescent staining revealed a sub-fraction of cells in both the ASG-10 and ASG-13 lines may be permissive to infection. ASG-10 is able to proliferate and migrate to close scratches in the monolayer within seven days in vitro contrary to ASG-13, which does not appear to do have the same proliferative and migratory ability. These cell lines will be useful in studies of gill diseases in Atlantic salmon and may represent an important contribution for alternatives to experimental animals and studies of epithelial–mesenchymal cell biology.

  14. The neuroendocrine phenotype, genomic profile and therapeutic sensitivity of GEPNET cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Hofving, Tobias; Arvidsson, Yvonne; Almobarak, Bilal; Inge, Linda; Pfragner, Roswitha; Persson, Marta; Stenman, Göran; Kristiansson, Erik; Johanson, Viktor; Nilsson, Ola

    2018-01-01

    Experimental models of neuroendocrine tumour disease are scarce, and no comprehensive characterisation of existing gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (GEPNET) cell lines has been reported. In this study, we aimed to define the molecular characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity of these cell lines. We therefore performed immunophenotyping, copy number profiling, whole-exome sequencing and a large-scale inhibitor screening of seven GEPNET cell lines. Four cell lines, GOT1, P-STS, BON-1 and QGP-1, displayed a neuroendocrine phenotype while three others, KRJ-I, L-STS and H-STS, did not. Instead, these three cell lines were identified as lymphoblastoid. Characterisation of remaining authentic GEPNET cell lines by copy number profiling showed that GOT1, among other chromosomal alterations, harboured losses on chromosome 18 encompassing the SMAD4 gene, while P-STS had a loss on 11q. BON-1 had a homozygous loss of CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and QGP-1 harboured amplifications of MDM2 and HMGA2. Whole-exome sequencing revealed both disease-characteristic mutations (e.g. ATRX mutation in QGP-1) and, for patient tumours, rare genetic events (e.g. TP53 mutation in P-STS, BON-1 and QGP-1). A large-scale inhibitor screening showed that cell lines from pancreatic NETs to a greater extent, when compared to small intestinal NETs, were sensitive to inhibitors of MEK. Similarly, neuroendocrine NET cells originating from the small intestine were considerably more sensitive to a group of HDAC inhibitors. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive characterisation of GEPNET cell lines, demonstrate their relevance as neuroendocrine tumour models and explore their therapeutic sensitivity to a broad range of inhibitors. PMID:29444910

  15. Establishment of stable cell line for inducing KAP1 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Cheng, Jingliang; Wei, Chunli; Zhang, Lianmei; Fu, Junjiang

    2015-06-01

    Generation of the stable cell lines is a highly efficient tool in functional studies of certain genes or proteins, where the particular genes or proteins are inducibly expressed. The KRAB-associated protein-1 (KAP1) is an important transcription regulatory protein, which is investigated in several molecular biological studies. In this study, we have aimed to generate a stable cell line for inducing KAP1 expression. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA5/FRT/TO-KAP1 was constructed at first, which was then transfected into Flp-In™T-REx™-HEK293 cells to establish an inducible pcDNA5/FRT/TO-KAP1-HEK293 cell line. The Western blot analysis showed that the protein level of KAP1 is over-expressed in the established stable cell line by doxycycline induction, both dose and time dependently. Thus we have successfully established stable pcDNA5/FRT/TO-KAP1-HEK293 cell line, which can express KAP1 inducibly. This inducible cell line might be very useful for KAP1 functional studies.

  16. Immortalized endothelial cell lines for in vitro blood-brain barrier models: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nurul Adhwa; Rasil, Alifah Nur'ain Haji Mat; Meyding-Lamade, Uta; Craemer, Eva Maria; Diah, Suwarni; Tuah, Ani Afiqah; Muharram, Siti Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Endothelial cells play the most important role in construction of the blood-brain barrier. Many studies have opted to use commercially available, easily transfected or immortalized endothelial cell lines as in vitro blood-brain barrier models. Numerous endothelial cell lines are available, but we do not currently have strong evidence for which cell lines are optimal for establishment of such models. This review aimed to investigate the application of immortalized endothelial cell lines as in vitro blood-brain barrier models. The databases used for this review were PubMed, OVID MEDLINE, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink. A narrative systematic review was conducted and identified 155 studies. As a result, 36 immortalized endothelial cell lines of human, mouse, rat, porcine and bovine origins were found for the establishment of in vitro blood-brain barrier and brain endothelium models. This review provides a summary of immortalized endothelial cell lines as a guideline for future studies and improvements in the establishment of in vitro blood-brain barrier models. It is important to establish a good and reproducible model that has the potential for multiple applications, in particular a model of such a complex compartment such as the blood-brain barrier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and characterization of two new cell lines from milkfish (Chanos chanos) and grouper (Epinephelus coioides) for virus isolation.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, V; Ishaq Ahmed, V P; Shukla, Ravi; Bhonde, R R; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2007-01-01

    Two new cell lines, SIMH and SIGE, were derived from the heart of milkfish (Chanos chanos), a euryhaline teleost, and from the eye of grouper (Epinephelus coioides), respectively. These cell lines were maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The SIMH cell line was subcultured more than 50 times over a period of 210 days and SIGE cell line has been subcultured 100 times over a period of 1 1/2 years. The SIMH cell line consists predominantly of fibroblastic-like cells. The SIGE cell line consists predominantly of epithelial cells. Both the cell lines were able to grow at temperatures between 25 and 32 degrees C with an optimum temperature of 28 degrees C. The growth rate of these cells increased as the proportion of FBS increased from 2% to 20% at 28 degrees C with optimum growth at the concentrations of 15% or 20% FBS. Seven marine fish viruses were tested to determine the susceptibility of these cell lines. The SIGE cell line was found to be susceptible to nodavirus, MABV NC-1 and Y6, and the infection was confirmed by cytopathic effect (CPE) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. When these cells were transfected with pEGFP-N1 vector DNA, significant fluorescent signals were observed, suggesting that these cell lines can be a useful tool for transgenic and genetic manipulation studies. Further, these cell lines are characterized by immunocytochemistry using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CFLSM).

  18. An endogenous 55 kDa TNF receptor mediates cell death in a neural cell line.

    PubMed

    Sipe, K J; Srisawasdi, D; Dantzer, R; Kelley, K W; Weyhenmeyer, J A

    1996-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is associated with developmental and injury-related events in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we have examined the role of TNF on neurons using the clonal murine neuroblastoma line, N1E-115 (N1E). N1E cells represent a well-defined model for studying neuronal development since they can be maintained as either undifferentiated, mitotically active neuroblasts or as differentiated, mature neurons. Northern and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that both undifferentiated and differentiated N1Es express transcripts for the 55 kDa TNF receptor (TNFR), but not the 75 kDa TNFR. The biological activity of the expressed TNF receptor was demonstrated by a dose dependent cytotoxicity to either recombinant murine or human TNF when the cells were incubated with the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D. The lack of the 75 kDa receptor mRNA expression and the dose dependent response to rHuTNF, an agonist specific for the murine 55 kDa receptor, suggest that the TNF induced cytotoxicity is mediated through the 55 kDa receptor in both the undifferentiated and differentiated N1Es. Light microscopic observations, flow cytometric analysis of hypodiploid DNA, and electrophoretic analysis of nucleosomal DNA fragmentation of N1Es treated with actinomycin D and TNF revealed features characteristic of both necrotic and apoptotic cell death. These findings demonstrate that blast and mature N1E cells express the 55 kDa TNF receptor which is responsible for inducing both necrotic and apoptotic death in these cells. The observation that actinomycin D renders N1E cells susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of TNF indicates that a sensitization step, such as removal of an endogenous protective factor or viral-mediated inhibition of transcription, may be necessary for TNF cytotoxicity in neurons.

  19. Establishment of two new scirrhous gastric cancer cell lines: analysis of factors associated with disseminated metastasis.

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro, M.; Chung, Y. S.; Nishimura, S.; Inoue, T.; Sowa, M.

    1995-01-01

    Determination of the differences between cell lines which are derived from a primary tumour and a disseminated metastatic lesion from the same patient may aid in elucidating the factors associated with disseminated metastases. We report on the establishment and characterisation of two new scirrhous gastric cancer cell lines, designated OCUM-2M and OCUM-2D, derived from a 49-year-old female. OCUM-2M was derived from a primary gastric tumour, and OCUM-2D was derived from a sample of disseminated metastasis. The two cell lines were derived from the same patient. We investigated biological differences between the two cell lines to study mechanisms involved in disseminated metastasis. The growth activity of OCUM-2D cells as determined by doubling time and tumorigenicity was greater than that of OCUM-2M cells. The level of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in OCUM-2D cells was about twice that of OCUM-2M cells and the growth of OCUM-2D cells was stimulated more by epidermal growth factor (EGF) than that of OCUM-2M cells. The invasive activity of OCUM-2D cells was higher than that of OCUM-2M cells and was increased after addition of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). An increase in the number of attached and spreading cells was found following the addition of 10 ng ml-1 TGF-beta 1. These findings suggest that high growth and invasive activity may play an important role in disseminated metastasis and that EGF and TGF-beta 1, which affect the growth and invasive activity of OCUM-2D cells, might be factors associated with metastasis in scirrhous gastric carcinoma. The two cell lines OCUM-2M and OCUM-2D should be beneficial for analysing mechanisms of tumour progression. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 10 PMID:7577468

  20. Intracellular distribution of Photofrin in malignant and normal endothelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Saczko, J; Mazurkiewicz, M; Chwiłkowska, A; Kulbacka, J; Kramer, G; Ługowski, M; Snietura, M; Banaś, T

    2007-01-01

    Compared to current treatments including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, PDT offers the advantage of an effective and selective method of destroying diseased tissues without damaging surrounding healthy tissues. One of the aspects of antitumour effectiveness of PDT is related to the distribution of photosensitizing drugs. The localization of photosensitizers in cytoplasmic organelles during PDT plays a major role in the cell destruction; therefore, intracellular localization of Ph in malignant and normal cells was investigated. The cell lines used throughout the study were: human malignant A549, MCF-7, Me45 and normal endothelial cell line HUV-EC-C. After incubation with Ph cells were examined using fluorescence and confocal microscopy to visualize the photosensitizer accumulation. For cytoplasm and mitochondria identification, cells were stained with CellTracker Green and MitoTracker Green, respectively. Distribution of Ph was different in malignant and normal cells and dependent on the incubation time. The maximal concentration of Ph in two malignant cell lines (A549 and MCF-7) was observed after 4 hours of incubation, and the most intensive signal was observed around the nuclear envelope. Intracellular distribution of Ph in the Me45 cell line showed that the fluorescence emitted by Ph overlaid that from MitoTracker. This indicates preferential accumulation of the sensitizer in mitochondria. Our results based on the mitochondrial localization support the idea that PDT can contribute to elimination of malignant cells by inducing apoptosis, which is of physiological significance.

  1. Establishment of an immortal turkey turbinate cell line suitable for avian metapneumovirus propagation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Foster, Linda K; Foster, Douglas N

    2007-07-01

    Until recently, there has not been a homologous avian cellular substrate which could continuously produce high titer avian metapneumovirus (AMPV); development of such a cell line should provide an excellent model system for studying AMPV infection. We have established a non-tumorigenic immortal turkey turbinate cell line (TT-1) to propagate sufficiently high AMPV titers. Currently, immortal TT-1 cells are growing continuously at 1.2-1.4 population doublings per day and are at passage 160. Kinetic analysis suggests that AMPV can infect and replicate more rapidly in TT-1 compared to Vero cells, although both cell types undergo apoptosis upon infection. The non-tumorigenic, reverse transcriptase negative TT-1 cell line can serve as an excellent homologous cellular substrate for virus propagation.

  2. A Novel Inhibitor Of Topoisomerase I is Selectively Toxic For A Subset of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    SW044248, identified through a screen for chemicals that are selectively toxic for NSCLC cell lines, was found to rapidly inhibit macromolecular synthesis in sensitive, but not in insensitive cells. SW044248 killed approximately 15% of a panel of 74 NSCLC cell lines and was non-toxic to immortalized human bronchial cell lines.

  3. Influence of LOX/COX inhibitors on cell differentiation induced by all-trans retinoic acid in neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Redova, Martina; Chlapek, Petr; Loja, Tomas; Zitterbart, Karel; Hermanova, Marketa; Sterba, Jaroslav; Veselska, Renata

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the possible modulation by LOX/ COX inhibitors of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced cell differentiation in two established neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2). Caffeic acid, as an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, and celecoxib, as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, were chosen for this study. The effects of the combined treatment with ATRA and LOX/COX inhibitors on neuroblastoma cells were studied using cell morphology assessment, detection of differentiation markers by immunoblotting, measurement of proliferation activity, and cell cycle analysis and apoptosis detection by flow cytometry. The results clearly demonstrated the potential of caffeic acid to enhance ATRA-induced cell differentiation, especially in the SK-N-BE(2) cell line, whereas application of celecoxib alone or with ATRA led predominantly to cytotoxic effects in both cell lines. Moreover, the higher sensitivity of the SK-N-BE(2) cell line to combined treatment with ATRA and LOX/COX inhibitors suggests that cancer stem cells are a main target for this therapeutic approach. Nevertheless, further detailed study of the phenomenon of enhanced cell differentiation by expression profiling is needed.

  4. Characterization of an immortalized human vaginal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Rajan, N; Pruden, D L; Kaznari, H; Cao, Q; Anderson, B E; Duncan, J L; Schaeffer, A J

    2000-02-01

    Adherence of type 1 piliated Escherichia coli to vaginal mucosa plays a major role in the pathogenesis of ascending urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women. Progress in understanding the mechanism of adherence to the vaginal surface could be enhanced by the utilization of well-characterized vaginal epithelial cells. The objective of this study was to immortalize vaginal epithelial cells and study their bacterial adherence properties. Primary vaginal cells were obtained from a normal post-menopausal woman, immortalized by infection with E6/E7 genes from human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) and cultured in serum free keratinocyte growth factor medium. Positive immunostaining with a pool of antibodies to cytokeratins 1, 5, 10 and 14 (K1, K5, K10 and K14) and to K13 confirmed the epithelial origin of these cells. The immortalized cells showed binding of type 1 piliated E. coli in a pili specific and mannose sensitive manner. This model system should facilitate studies on the interaction of pathogens with vaginal mucosal cells, an essential step in the progression of ascending UTIs in women.

  5. In vitro Development of Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy Drug-Resistant Cancer Cell Lines: A Practical Guide with Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Martina; Eustace, Alex J.; Busschots, Steven; Breen, Laura; Crown, John; Clynes, Martin; O’Donovan, Norma; Stordal, Britta

    2014-01-01

    The development of a drug-resistant cell line can take from 3 to 18 months. However, little is published on the methodology of this development process. This article will discuss key decisions to be made prior to starting resistant cell line development; the choice of parent cell line, dose of selecting agent, treatment interval, and optimizing the dose of drug for the parent cell line. Clinically relevant drug-resistant cell lines are developed by mimicking the conditions cancer patients experience during chemotherapy and cell lines display between two- and eight-fold resistance compared to their parental cell line. Doses of drug administered are low, and a pulsed treatment strategy is often used where the cells recover in drug-free media. High-level laboratory models are developed with the aim of understanding potential mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapy agents. Doses of drug are higher and escalated over time. It is common to have difficulty developing stable clinically relevant drug-resistant cell lines. A comparative selection strategy of multiple cell lines or multiple chemotherapeutic agents mitigates this risk and gives insight into which agents or type of cell line develops resistance easily. Successful selection strategies from our research are presented. Pulsed-selection produced platinum or taxane-resistant large cell lung cancer (H1299 and H460) and temozolomide-resistant melanoma (Malme-3M and HT144) cell lines. Continuous selection produced a lapatinib-resistant breast cancer cell line (HCC1954). Techniques for maintaining drug-resistant cell lines are outlined including; maintaining cells with chemotherapy, pulse treating with chemotherapy, or returning to master drug-resistant stocks. The heterogeneity of drug-resistant models produced from the same parent cell line with the same chemotherapy agent is explored with reference to P-glycoprotein. Heterogeneity in drug-resistant cell lines reflects the heterogeneity that can occur in clinical

  6. Data on the number and frequency of scientific literature citations for established medulloblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, D P; Walker, D A; Coyle, B; Grabowska, A M

    2016-12-01

    This article collates information about the number of scientific articles mentioning each of the established medulloblastoma cell lines, derived through a systematic search of Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar in 2016. The data for each cell line have been presented as raw number of citations, percentage share of the total citations for each search engine and as an average percentage between the three search engines. In order to correct for the time since each cell line has been in use, the raw citation data have also been divided by the number of years since the derivation of each cell line. This is a supporting article for a review of in vitro models of medulloblastoma published in "in vitro models of medulloblastoma: choosing the right tool for the job" (D.P. Ivanov, D.A. Walker, B. Coyle, A.M. Grabowska, 2016) [1].

  7. Monoclonal antibodies to human glycophorin A and cell lines for the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, Martin; Bigbee, William L.; Jensen, Ronald H.; Fong, Stella S. N.; Langlois, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Cloned mouse hybridoma cell lines have been established which continuously produce antibodies that are highly specific to and exhibit high affinity for glycophorin A.sup.N and differentiate between the M and N forms of human glycophorin A.

  8. Establishment of optimized MDCK cell lines for reliable efflux transport studies.

    PubMed

    Gartzke, Dominik; Fricker, Gert

    2014-04-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with human MDR1 gene (MDCK-MDR1) encoding for P-glycoprotein (hPgp, ABCB1) are widely used for transport studies to identify drug candidates as substrates of this efflux protein. Therefore, it is necessary to rely on constant and comparable expression levels of Pgp to avoid false negative or positive results. We generated a cell line with homogenously high and stable expression of hPgp through sorting single clones from a MDCK-MDR1 cell pool using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To obtain control cell lines for evaluation of cross-interactions with endogenous canine Pgp (cPgp) wild-type cells were sorted with a low expression pattern of cPgp in comparison with the MDCK-MDR1. Expression of other transporters was also characterized in both cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Pgp function was investigated applying the Calcein-AM assay as well as bidirectional transport assays using (3) H-Digoxin, (3) H-Vinblastine, and (3) H-Quinidine as substrates. Generated MDCK-MDR1 cell lines showed high expression of hPgp. Control MDCK-WT cells were optimized in showing a comparable expression level of cPgp in comparison with MDCK-MDR1 cell lines. Generated cell lines showed higher and more selective Pgp transport compared with parental cells. Therefore, they provide a significant improvement in the performance of efflux studies yielding more reliable results. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. Evaluation of procoagulant tissue factor expression in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Witter, Lauren E; Gruber, Erika J; Lean, Fabian Z X; Stokol, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate expression of procoagulant tissue factor (TF) by canine hemangiosarcoma cells in vitro. SAMPLES 4 canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines (SB-HSA [mouse-passaged cutaneous tumor], Emma [primary metastatic brain tumor], and Frog and Dal-1 [primary splenic tumors]) and 1 nonneoplastic canine endothelial cell line (CnAoEC). PROCEDURES TF mRNA and TF antigen expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Thrombin generation was measured in canine plasma and in coagulation factor-replete or specific coagulation factor-deficient human plasma by calibrated automated thrombography. Corn trypsin inhibitor and annexin V were used to examine contributions of contact activation and membrane-bound phosphatidylserine, respectively, to thrombin generation. RESULTS All cell lines expressed TF mRNA and antigen, with significantly greater expression of both products in SB-HSA and Emma cells than in CnAoEC. A greater percentage of SB-HSA cells expressed TF antigen, compared with other hemangiosarcoma cell lines. All hemangiosarcoma cell lines generated significantly more thrombin than did CnAoEC in canine or factor-replete human plasma. Thrombin generation induced by SB-HSA cells was significantly lower in factor VII-deficient plasma than in factor-replete plasma and was abolished in factor X-deficient plasma; residual thrombin generation in factor VII-deficient plasma was abolished by incubation of cells with annexin V. Thrombin generation by SB-HSA cells was unaffected by the addition of corn trypsin inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Hemangiosarcoma cell lines expressed procoagulant TF in vitro. Further research is needed to determine whether TF can be used as a biomarker for hemostatic dysfunction in dogs with hemangiosarcoma.

  10. Evaluation of procoagulant tissue factor expression in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Lauren E.; Gruber, Erika J.; Lean, Fabian Z. X.; Stokol, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate expression of procoagulant tissue factor (TF) by canine hemangiosarcoma cells in vitro. SAMPLES 4 canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines (SB-HSA [mouse-passaged cutaneous tumor], Emma [primary metastatic brain tumor], and Frog and Dal-1 [primary splenic tumors]) and 1 nonneoplastic canine endothelial cell line (CnAoEC). PROCEDURES TF mRNA and TF antigen expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Thrombin generation was measured in canine plasma and in coagulation factor–replete or specific coagulation factor–deficient human plasma by calibrated automated thrombography. Corn trypsin inhibitor and annexin V were used to examine contributions of contact activation and membrane-bound phosphatidylserine, respectively, to thrombin generation. RESULTS All cell lines expressed TF mRNA and antigen, with significantly greater expression of both products in SB-HSA and Emma cells than in CnAoEC. A greater percentage of SB-HSA cells expressed TF antigen, compared with other hemangiosarcoma cell lines. All hemangiosarcoma cell lines generated significantly more thrombin than did CnAoEC in canine or factor-replete human plasma. Thrombin generation induced by SB-HSA cells was significantly lower in factor VII-deficient plasma than in factor-replete plasma and was abolished in factor X–deficient plasma; residual thrombin generation in FVII-deficient plasma was abolished by incubation of cells with annexin V. Thrombin generation by SB-HSA cells was unaffected by the addition of corn trypsin inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Hemangiosarcoma cell lines expressed procoagulant TF in vitro. Further research is needed to determine whether TF can be used as a biomarker for hemostatic dysfunction in dogs with hemangiosarcoma. PMID:28029283

  11. Targeting ceramide metabolic pathway induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Vethakanraj, Helen Shiphrah; Babu, Thabraz Ahmed; Sudarsanan, Ganesh Babu

    2015-08-28

    The sphingolipid ceramide is a pro apoptotic molecule of ceramide metabolic pathway and is hydrolyzed to proliferative metabolite, sphingosine 1 phosphate by the action of acid ceramidase. Being upregulated in the tumors of breast, acid ceramidase acts as a potential target for breast cancer therapy. We aimed at targeting this enzyme with a small molecule acid ceramidase inhibitor, Ceranib 2 in human breast cancer cell lines MCF 7 and MDA MB 231. Ceranib 2 effectively inhibited the growth of both the cell lines in dose and time dependant manner. Morphological apoptotic hallmarks such as chromatin condensation, fragmented chromatin were observedmore » in AO/EtBr staining. Moreover, ladder pattern of fragmented DNA observed in DNA gel electrophoresis proved the apoptotic activity of Ceranib 2 in breast cancer cell lines. The apoptotic events were associated with significant increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bad, Bax and Bid) and down regulation of anti-apoptotic gene (Bcl 2). Interestingly, increase in sub G1 population of cell cycle phase analysis and elevated Annexin V positive cells after Ceranib 2 treatment substantiated its apoptotic activity in MCF 7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines. Thus, we report Ceranib 2 as a potent therapeutic agent against both ER{sup +} and ER{sup −} breast cancer cell lines. - Highlights: • Acid Ceramidase inhibitor, Ceranib 2 induced apoptosis in Breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines). • Apoptosis is mediated by DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest. • Ceranib 2 upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and down regulated anti-apoptotic gene expression. • More potent compared to the standard drug Tamoxifen.« less

  12. DNA excision repair in cell extracts from human cell lines exhibiting hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hansson, J.; Keyse, S.M.; Lindahl, T.

    Whole cell extracts from human lymphoid cell lines can perform in vitro DNA repair synthesis in plasmids damaged by agents including UV or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP). Extracts from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells are defective in repair synthesis. We have now studied in vitro DNA repair synthesis using extracts from lymphoblastoid cell lines representing four human hereditary syndromes with increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Extracts of cell lines from individuals with the sunlight-sensitive disorders dysplastic nevus syndrome or Cockayne's syndrome (complementation groups A and B) showed normal DNA repair synthesis in plasmids with UV photoproducts. This is consistent with in vivo measurementsmore » of the overall DNA repair capacity in such cell lines. A number of extracts were prepared from two cell lines representing the variant form of XP (XP-V). Half of the extracts prepared showed normal levels of in vitro DNA repair synthesis in plasmids containing UV lesions, but the remainder of the extracts from the same cell lines showed deficient repair synthesis, suggesting the possibility of an unusually labile excision repair protein in XP-V. Fanconi's anemia (FA) cells show cellular hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents including cis-DDP. Extracts from cell lines belonging to two different complementation groups of FA showed normal DNA repair synthesis in plasmids containing cis-DDP or UV adducts. Thus, there does not appear to be an overall excision repair defect in FA, but the data do not exclude a defect in the repair of interstrand DNA cross-links.« less